Science.gov

Sample records for 100-f experimental animal

  1. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-54 Animal Farm Pastures, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-015

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2008-04-17

    The 100-F-54 waste site, part of the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit, is the soil associated with the former pastures for holding domestic farm animals used in experimental toxicology studies. Evaluation of historical information resulted in identification of the experimental animal farm pastures as having potential residual soil contamination due to excrement from experimental animals. The 100-F-54 animal farm pastures confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to No Action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  2. Animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  3. Cleanup Verification Package for the 100-F-20, Pacific Northwest Laboratory Parallel Pits

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Appel

    2007-01-22

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 100-F-20, Pacific Northwest Laboratory Parallel Pits waste site. This waste site consisted of two earthen trenches thought to have received both radioactive and nonradioactive material related to the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm.

  4. Is animal experimentation fundamental?

    PubMed

    d'Acampora, Armando José; Rossi, Lucas Félix; Ely, Jorge Bins; de Vasconcellos, Zulmar Acciolli

    2009-01-01

    The understanding about the utilization of experimental animals in scientific research and in teaching is many times a complex issue. Special attention needs to be paid to attain the understanding by the general public of the importance of animal experimentation in experimental research and in undergraduate medical teaching. Experimental teaching and research based on the availability of animals for experimentation is important and necessary for the personal and scientific development of the physician-to-be. The technological arsenal which intends to mimic experimentation animals and thus fully replace their use many times does not prove to be compatible with the reality of the living animal. The purpose of this paper is to discuss aspects concerning this topic, bringing up an issue which is complex and likely to arouse in-depth reflections.

  5. [Animal experimentation in Israel].

    PubMed

    Epstein, Yoram; Leshem, Micah

    2002-04-01

    In 1994 the Israeli parliament (Knesset) amended the Cruelty to Animals Act to regulate the use of experimental animals. Accordingly, animal experiments can only be carried out for the purposes of promoting health and medical science, reducing suffering, advancing scientific research, testing or production of materials and products (excluding cosmetics and cleaning products) and education. Animal experiments are only permitted if alternative methods are not possible. The National Board for Animal Experimentation was established to implement the law. Its members are drawn from government ministries, representatives of doctors, veterinarians, and industry organizations, animal rights groups, and academia. In order to carry out an animal experiment, the institution, researchers involved, and the specific experiment, all require approval by the Board. To date the Board has approved some 35 institutions, about half are public institutions (universities, hospitals and colleges) and the rest industrial firms in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. In 2000, 250,000 animals were used in research, 85% were rodents, 11% fowls, 1,000 other farm animals, 350 dogs and cats, and 39 monkeys. Academic institutions used 74% of the animals and industry the remainder. We also present summarized data on the use of animals in research in other countries.

  6. EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MAINTENANCE

    DOEpatents

    Finkel, M.P.

    1962-01-22

    A method of housing experimental animals such as mice in individual tube- like plastic enclosures is described. Contrary to experience, when this was tried with metal the mice did not become panicky. Group housing, with its attendant difficulties, may thus be dispensed with. (AEC)

  7. EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL WATERING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Finkel, M.P.

    1964-04-01

    A device for watering experimental animals confined in a battery of individual plastic enclosures is described. It consists of a rectangular plastic enclosure having a plurality of fluid-tight compartments, each with a drinking hole near the bottom and a filling hole on the top. The enclosure is immersed in water until filled, its drinking holes sealed with a strip of tape, and it is then placed in the battery. The tape sealing prevents the flow of water from the device, but permits animals to drink by licking the drinking holes. (AEC)

  8. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    PubMed

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals. PMID:24660572

  9. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    PubMed

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals.

  10. Animal Experimentation in High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansevin, Kystyna D.

    1970-01-01

    Recommends that teacher and student be provided with the broadest possible spectrum of meaningful and feasible experiments in which the comfort of the experimental animal is protected by the design of the experiment. (BR)

  11. [The ethics of animal experimentation].

    PubMed

    Goffi, Jean-Yves

    2013-01-01

    The paper starts with a short definition of animal experimentation, then three main approaches to the practice are considered: unconditional approval (as advocated by Claude Bernard), conditional and restricted approval (as advocated by Peter Singer) and strict prohibition (as advocated by Tom Regan and Gary Francione). It is argued that what is actually approved or condemned in animal experimentation is the value of the scientific enterprise.

  12. The ethics of animal experimentation.

    PubMed Central

    Lane-Petter, W.

    1976-01-01

    Animal experimentation arouses great emotion in many people, perhaps more especially in Britain, and this has increased as more sophisticated medical and non-medical animal experiments are demanded by modern research. The Cruelty to Animals Act of 1876 is the only legal regulation of experiments in animals, and many of its clauses are ambiguous. So in 1963 a committee of enquiry - the Littlewood Committee - was set up. Dr Lane-Petter examines the emotional and factual background to the enquiry, and discusses in an ethical context the usefulness and positive advantages of animal experiments compared with those of possible substitutes and in some detail three of the questions left unanswered by the Littlewood Committee. PMID:966259

  13. Animal husbandry and experimental design.

    PubMed

    Nevalainen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    If the scientist needs to contact the animal facility after any study to inquire about husbandry details, this represents a lost opportunity, which can ultimately interfere with the study results and their interpretation. There is a clear tendency for authors to describe methodological procedures down to the smallest detail, but at the same time to provide minimal information on animals and their husbandry. Controlling all major variables as far as possible is the key issue when establishing an experimental design. The other common mechanism affecting study results is a change in the variation. Factors causing bias or variation changes are also detectable within husbandry. Our lives and the lives of animals are governed by cycles: the seasons, the reproductive cycle, the weekend-working days, the cage change/room sanitation cycle, and the diurnal rhythm. Some of these may be attributable to routine husbandry, and the rest are cycles, which may be affected by husbandry procedures. Other issues to be considered are consequences of in-house transport, restrictions caused by caging, randomization of cage location, the physical environment inside the cage, the acoustic environment audible to animals, olfactory environment, materials in the cage, cage complexity, feeding regimens, kinship, and humans. Laboratory animal husbandry issues are an integral but underappreciated part of investigators' experimental design, which if ignored can cause major interference with the results. All researchers should familiarize themselves with the current routine animal care of the facility serving them, including their capabilities for the monitoring of biological and physicochemical environment.

  14. Animal rights and animal experimentation. Implications for physicians.

    PubMed

    Gelpi, A P

    1991-09-01

    Practicing physicians are just becoming aware of the animal rights movement, which during the 1980s spawned numerous acts of violence against research facilities throughout the United States. The animal rightists are challenging physicians to show moral justification for the human exploitation of nature and the world of subhuman species. They have aroused public interest in animal welfare, sparked protective legislation for experimental animals, and indirectly encouraged the creation of committees to oversee the conduct of animal experimentation and the conditions of animal confinement. This controversy has necessitated a closer look at the questions of animal experimentation and animal rights against the backdrop of human experimentation and human rights. Physicians and specialists in animal care seek to alleviate suffering and anxiety, and, as moderates, they may be able to bring both sides of the animal rights controversy together in a spirit of mutual tolerance and in the common cause of promoting both human and animal welfare.

  15. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 116-F-16, PNL Outfall and the 100-F-43, PNL Outfall Spillway, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-046

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-09-14

    The 100-F-43 waste site is the portion of the former discharge spillway for the PNL Outfall formerly existing above the ordinary high water mark of the Columbia River. The spillway consisted of a concrete flume used to discharge waste effluents from the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  16. The '3Is' of animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    2012-05-29

    Animal experimentation in scientific research is a good thing: important, increasing and often irreplaceable. Careful experimental design and reporting are at least as important as attention to welfare in ensuring that the knowledge we gain justifies using live animals as experimental tools.

  17. [Alternatives to animal experimentation v.s. animal rights terrorism].

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Tsutomu Miki

    2008-05-01

    Systematic modern animal experimentation was established by Bernard Claude who wrote "An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine" in 1865. At this point, the public was already asking that the pain and distress of experimental animals be reduced. For this, scientists, William Russell and Rex Burch in 1959 proposed the principles of alternatives to animal experimentation, the "3Rs". Since that time, animal welfare advocates have promoted the 3Rs concept in biomedical research communities. However, cruel animal experiments have continued and there are reports of radical extremists showing their opposition by invasion, arson, theft and even bombing of institutions involved, resulting in killing of the animals. SHAC, one extremist group believed to be animal welfare activitists was recognized as a terrorist group after the 9.11 tragedy in USA and the government viewed their activities very seriously. In 2001, British animal extremists invaded Japanese universities and stole laboratory resources; one individual was arrested and sentenced to prison for three years; Japanese who assisted in the incident were arrested and one was sentenced for one year. In 2006, SHAC USA members were prosecuted and sentenced for up to 6 years for their terrorism activities including arson. We need to consider the background of these activities which are financially supported by animal welfare advocates. The way we, as scientists who conduct such experiments can respond is by promoting alternatives to this experimentation. In Japan, the animal welfare law was revised in 2005 stressing the importance of 3Rs in scientific activities with animals. The promotion of 3Rs should be strengthened in the pharmaceutical community.

  18. Animal Experimentation: Issues for the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zola, Judith C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examines the extent to which issues related to animal experimentation are in conflict and proposes choices that might least comprise them. These issues include animal well-being, human well-being, self-interest of science, scientific validity and responsibility, progress in biomedical and behavioral science, and the future quality of medical care.…

  19. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 116-F-16, PNL Outfall and the 100-F-43, PNL Outfall Spillway, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-039

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-09-14

    The 116-F-16 waste site is the former Pacific National Laboratories (PNL) Outfall, used to discharge waste effluents from the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  20. The rights of man and animal experimentation.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, J

    1990-01-01

    Since emotions give contradictory signals about animal experimentation in medical science, man's relationship to animals must be based upon reason. Thomas Aquinas argues that man is essentially different from animals because man's intellectual processes show evidence of an abstract mechanism not possessed by animals. Man's rights arise in association with this essential difference. The consequence is that only man possesses true rights by Aquinas's definition; animals have them only by analogy. However, cruelty to animals is illicit and they should be protected, principally not because they have rights, but because he who is cruel to animals is more likely to be cruel to his fellowman. If there is a need for animal experimentation in science for the good of man, this approach gives philosophical justification for experimentation, since man's well-being must come before that of animals because of his unique possession of rights. However, those experiments should be carried out in the kindest way possible, to promote kindness towards man. To see man as solely part of a biological continuum in competition for rights with those beings close to him biologically, detracts from man's dignity. PMID:2135948

  1. The rights of man and animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Martin, J

    1990-09-01

    Since emotions give contradictory signals about animal experimentation in medical science, man's relationship to animals must be based upon reason. Thomas Aquinas argues that man is essentially different from animals because man's intellectual processes show evidence of an abstract mechanism not possessed by animals. Man's rights arise in association with this essential difference. The consequence is that only man possesses true rights by Aquinas's definition; animals have them only by analogy. However, cruelty to animals is illicit and they should be protected, principally not because they have rights, but because he who is cruel to animals is more likely to be cruel to his fellowman. If there is a need for animal experimentation in science for the good of man, this approach gives philosophical justification for experimentation, since man's well-being must come before that of animals because of his unique possession of rights. However, those experiments should be carried out in the kindest way possible, to promote kindness towards man. To see man as solely part of a biological continuum in competition for rights with those beings close to him biologically, detracts from man's dignity.

  2. Fantastic animals as an experimental model to teach animal adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Guidetti, Roberto; Baraldi, Laura; Calzolai, Caterina; Pini, Lorenza; Veronesi, Paola; Pederzoli, Aurora

    2007-01-01

    Background Science curricula and teachers should emphasize evolution in a manner commensurate with its importance as a unifying concept in science. The concept of adaptation represents a first step to understand the results of natural selection. We settled an experimental project of alternative didactic to improve knowledge of organism adaptation. Students were involved and stimulated in learning processes by creative activities. To set adaptation in a historic frame, fossil records as evidence of past life and evolution were considered. Results The experimental project is schematized in nine phases: review of previous knowledge; lesson on fossils; lesson on fantastic animals; planning an imaginary world; creation of an imaginary animal; revision of the imaginary animals; adaptations of real animals; adaptations of fossil animals; and public exposition. A rubric to evaluate the student's performances is reported. The project involved professors and students of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia and of the "G. Marconi" Secondary School of First Degree (Modena, Italy). Conclusion The educational objectives of the project are in line with the National Indications of the Italian Ministry of Public Instruction: knowledge of the characteristics of living beings, the meanings of the term "adaptation", the meaning of fossils, the definition of ecosystem, and the particularity of the different biomes. At the end of the project, students will be able to grasp particular adaptations of real organisms and to deduce information about the environment in which the organism evolved. This project allows students to review previous knowledge and to form their personalities. PMID:17767729

  3. Public perceptions of animal experimentation across Europe.

    PubMed

    von Roten, Fabienne Crettaz

    2013-08-01

    The goal of this article is to map out public perceptions of animal experimentation in 28 European countries. Postulating cross-cultural differences, this study mixes country-level variables (from the Eurostat database) and individual-level variables (from Eurobarometer Science and Technology 2010). It is shown that experimentation on animals such as mice is generally accepted in European countries, but perceptions are divided on dogs and monkeys. Between 2005 and 2010, we observe globally a change of approval on dogs and monkeys, with a significant decrease in nine countries. Multilevel analysis results show differences at country level (related to a post-industrialism model) and at individual level (related to gender, age, education, proximity and perceptions of science and the environment). These results may have consequences for public perceptions of science and we call for more cross-cultural research on press coverage of animal research and on the level of public engagement of scientists doing animal research.

  4. Experimental Animal Models in Periodontology: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Struillou, Xavier; Boutigny, Hervé; Soueidan, Assem; Layrolle, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    In periodontal research, animal studies are complementary to in vitro experiments prior to testing new treatments. Animal models should make possible the validation of hypotheses and prove the safety and efficacy of new regenerating approaches using biomaterials, growth factors or stem cells. A review of the literature was carried out by using electronic databases (PubMed, ISI Web of Science). Numerous animal models in different species such as rats, hamsters, rabbits, ferrets, canines and primates have been used for modeling human periodontal diseases and treatments. However, both the anatomy and physiopathology of animals are different from those of humans, making difficult the evaluation of new therapies. Experimental models have been developed in order to reproduce major periodontal diseases (gingivitis, periodontitis), their pathogenesis and to investigate new surgical techniques. The aim of this review is to define the most pertinent animal models for periodontal research depending on the hypothesis and expected results. PMID:20556202

  5. [Humanitarian and academic aspects of animal experimentation].

    PubMed

    Fitko, R

    1993-01-01

    The author, while discussing the causes of increased demand for use of laboratory animals in biomedical research in the recent several decades, describes the origin of various social movements for the defense of the rights of animals in many countries. The paper lists the methods and ways of defending the animals' rights and numerous examples of appropriate resolutions and instructions of world institutions (UN, UNESCO, WHO), international and national bodies to regulate the animals' rights, protection and use for experimental and production purposes. The need for supervision of animal experiments, limitation of their use (only in indispensable and justified cases) and replacement with alternative methods for instance with cell, bacterial and fungal cultures, studies on species of a lower order, etc. is indicated. The author suggests that the number of laboratory animals in biomedical studies should be decreased emphasizing the need for appropriate organizational and administrative changes and use of animals with high sanitary and hygienic standards. The final part of the paper is devoted to nonspecific (environmental) anatomic and pathological changes found in the organs of laboratory animals. Based upon the proposed scoring system the author advocates a detailed description of these changes and comparison of the total pattern of changes with those in a matched control group.

  6. Animal experimentation ethics from an experimenter's point of view.

    PubMed

    Ehinger, B E

    1986-01-01

    The experimental biologist faces two kinds of ethical problems: practical and philosophical. The practical problems comprise increased costs of experimental animals, and the risk of being harassed or even raided by animal activists. There is also today a growing bureaucratic ethics overhead that has to be paid for, one way or another. The philosophical problems are the true ethical problems. Most laws and regulations emphasize that pain and agony should be minimized, but it is shown that this is neither always necessary nor always adequate. Scientists expect logical reasoning and opinions based on facts, but it is easy to find examples that the public opinion is quite illogical concerning pain and agony. For instance, you may under certain circumstances very well torture and kill animals just for pleasure. Our present legislation should be amended so as to concur better with current public views on how animals should be treated. The Swedish Committees on Animal Experimentation Ethics were intended to help scientists understand the demands of the public opinion. It is doubtful if they have been successful. The ethics of animal experimentation are perforce centered on the experimenter. He alone, at the final moment, makes the decision whether or not to use and, eventually, to kill the animal. When he kills, he obviously has a reason for doing so, and has decided that the purpose justifies the action. With the very large increase in the number of animal experiments in the last few decades, society has justifiably become increasingly concerned about the ethical considerations involved.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Macrophages and Uveitis in Experimental Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Mérida, Salvador; Palacios, Elena; Bosch-Morell, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Resident and infiltrated macrophages play relevant roles in uveitis as effectors of innate immunity and inductors of acquired immunity. They are major effectors of tissue damage in uveitis and are also considered to be potent antigen-presenting cells. In the last few years, experimental animal models of uveitis have enabled us to enhance our understanding of the leading role of macrophages in eye inflammation processes, including macrophage polarization in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis and the major role of Toll-like receptor 4 in endotoxin-induced uveitis. This improved knowledge should guide advantageous iterative research to establish mechanisms and possible therapeutic targets for human uveitis resolution. PMID:26078494

  8. Early modern experimentation on live animals.

    PubMed

    Bertoloni Meli, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    Starting from the works by Aselli (De lactibus sive lacteis venis, 1627) on the milky veins and Harvey (1628, translated in 1993) on the motion of the heart and the circulation of the blood, the practice of vivisection witnessed a resurgence in the early modern period. I discuss some of the most notable cases in the century spanning from Aselli's work to the investigations of fluid pressure in plants and animals by Stephen Hales (Vegetable Staticks, 1727). Key figures in my study include Johannes Walaeus, Jean Pecquet, Marcello Malpighi, Reinier de Graaf, Richard Lower, Anton Nuck, and Anton de Heide. Although vivisection dates from antiquity, early modern experimenters expanded the range of practices and epistemic motivations associated with it, displaying considerable technical skills and methodological awareness about the problems associated with the animals being alive and the issue of generalizing results to humans. Many practitioners expressed great discomfort at the suffering of the animals; however, many remained convinced that their investigations were not only indispensable from an epistemic standpoint but also had potential medical applications. Early modern vivisection experiments were both extensive and sophisticated and cannot be ignored in the literature of early modern experimentation or of experimentation on living organisms across time.

  9. Cholestasis: human disease and experimental animal models.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Garay, Emilio Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Cholestasis may result from a failure in bile secretion in hepatocytes or ductular cells, or from a blockade to the free bile flow. Human cholestasis may be induced by many drugs, being antibiotics the more common. Other types of cholestasis seen in humans are a group of familial cholestatic disorders, obstructive cholestasis, primary biliary cirrhosis, extrahepatic biliary atresia, primary sclerosing cholangitis, cholestasis of pregnancy, oral contraceptive-induced cholestasis, and sepsis-induced cholestasis. Experimental animal models allow the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms involved and their clinical correlates. The most common experimental models of intrahepatic cholestasis are estrogen-induced, endotoxin-induced and drug-induced cholestasis. A well known model of extrahepatic biliary obstruction is common bile duct ligation. Drug-induced cholestasis were described using different drugs. On this regard, alpha naphthylisothiocyanate treatment has been extensively used, permitting to describe not only cholestatic alterations but also compensatory mechanisms. Congenital defficiency of transport proteins also were studied in natural rat models of cholestasis. The experimental animal models allow to define down-regulated alterations of hepatocyte transport proteins, and up-regulated ones acting as compensatory mechanisms. In conclusion, animal model and transport protein studies are necessary for the progressive understanding of congenital and acquired human cholestasis, and regulatory mechanisms that operate on liver cells.

  10. Early modern experimentation on live animals.

    PubMed

    Bertoloni Meli, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    Starting from the works by Aselli (De lactibus sive lacteis venis, 1627) on the milky veins and Harvey (1628, translated in 1993) on the motion of the heart and the circulation of the blood, the practice of vivisection witnessed a resurgence in the early modern period. I discuss some of the most notable cases in the century spanning from Aselli's work to the investigations of fluid pressure in plants and animals by Stephen Hales (Vegetable Staticks, 1727). Key figures in my study include Johannes Walaeus, Jean Pecquet, Marcello Malpighi, Reinier de Graaf, Richard Lower, Anton Nuck, and Anton de Heide. Although vivisection dates from antiquity, early modern experimenters expanded the range of practices and epistemic motivations associated with it, displaying considerable technical skills and methodological awareness about the problems associated with the animals being alive and the issue of generalizing results to humans. Many practitioners expressed great discomfort at the suffering of the animals; however, many remained convinced that their investigations were not only indispensable from an epistemic standpoint but also had potential medical applications. Early modern vivisection experiments were both extensive and sophisticated and cannot be ignored in the literature of early modern experimentation or of experimentation on living organisms across time. PMID:22684270

  11. 100-F Target Analyte List Development for Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Ovink, R.

    2012-09-18

    This report documents the process used to identify source area target analytes in support of the 100-F Area remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) addendum to the Integrated 100 Area Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan (DOE/RL-2008-46, Rev. 0).

  12. Ethics and animal experimentation: what is debated?

    PubMed

    Paixão, R L; Schramm, F R

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to raise some points for an understanding of the contemporary debate over the ethics of using animals in scientific experiments. We present the various positions from scientific and moral perspectives establishing different ways of viewing animals, as well as several concepts like 'animal ethics', 'animal rights', and 'animal welfare'. The paper thus aims to analyze the importance and growth of this debate, while proposing to expand the academic approach to this theme in the field of health.

  13. The flaws and human harms of animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Aysha

    2015-10-01

    Nonhuman animal ("animal") experimentation is typically defended by arguments that it is reliable, that animals provide sufficiently good models of human biology and diseases to yield relevant information, and that, consequently, its use provides major human health benefits. I demonstrate that a growing body of scientific literature critically assessing the validity of animal experimentation generally (and animal modeling specifically) raises important concerns about its reliability and predictive value for human outcomes and for understanding human physiology. The unreliability of animal experimentation across a wide range of areas undermines scientific arguments in favor of the practice. Additionally, I show how animal experimentation often significantly harms humans through misleading safety studies, potential abandonment of effective therapeutics, and direction of resources away from more effective testing methods. The resulting evidence suggests that the collective harms and costs to humans from animal experimentation outweigh potential benefits and that resources would be better invested in developing human-based testing methods.

  14. The flaws and human harms of animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Aysha

    2015-10-01

    Nonhuman animal ("animal") experimentation is typically defended by arguments that it is reliable, that animals provide sufficiently good models of human biology and diseases to yield relevant information, and that, consequently, its use provides major human health benefits. I demonstrate that a growing body of scientific literature critically assessing the validity of animal experimentation generally (and animal modeling specifically) raises important concerns about its reliability and predictive value for human outcomes and for understanding human physiology. The unreliability of animal experimentation across a wide range of areas undermines scientific arguments in favor of the practice. Additionally, I show how animal experimentation often significantly harms humans through misleading safety studies, potential abandonment of effective therapeutics, and direction of resources away from more effective testing methods. The resulting evidence suggests that the collective harms and costs to humans from animal experimentation outweigh potential benefits and that resources would be better invested in developing human-based testing methods. PMID:26364776

  15. Vulnerable subjects? The case of nonhuman animals in experimentation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jane

    2013-12-01

    The concept of vulnerability is deployed in bioethics to, amongst other things, identify and remedy harms to participants in research, yet although nonhuman animals in experimentation seem intuitively to be vulnerable, this concept and its attendant protections are rarely applied to research animals. I want to argue, however, that this concept is applicable to nonhuman animals and that a new taxonomy of vulnerability developed in the context of human bioethics can be applied to research animals. This taxonomy does useful explanatory work, helping to pinpoint the limitations of the 3Rs/welfare approach currently adopted in the context of animal experimentation. On this account, the 3Rs/welfare approach fails to deliver for nonhuman animals in experimentation because it effectively addresses only one element of their vulnerability (inherent) and paradoxically through the institution of Animal Ethics Committees intended to protect experimental animals in fact generates new vulnerabilities that exacerbate their already precarious situation.

  16. Metabolic effects of hypergravity on experimental animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oyama, J.

    1982-01-01

    Several experiments concerned with the exposure of animals to acute or chronic centrifugation are described. The effects of hypergravity particularly discussed include the decreased growth rate and body weight, increased metabolic rate, skeletal deformation, and loss of body fat.

  17. Criticizing animal experimentation, at my peril.

    PubMed

    Eisenman, Stephen F

    2016-01-01

    Initiatives leading to even modest reduction in animal use at major U.S. universities are likely to continue to face strong opposition. At least, that's the conclusion the author draws from his efforts at Northwestern University. In fact, despite a growing body of evidence that animal-based research is flawed at best and misleading or un-scientific at worst its use is growing at Northwestern and elsewhere. Moreover, recent discoveries concerning animal consciousness and emotion have not led to notable improvements in the conditions in which AWA protected animals live at the Chicago vivarium. There, animals languish in featureless rooms or sterile cages without access to daylight and with little opportunity to express their natural behaviors and aptitudes. The writer's public exposure of these conditions led to a fierce backlash. Unless there is a significant change in laboratory and university culture, change will only come when the marketplace and funding agencies demand better and more reliable, non-animal models for the testing of drug toxicity and effectiveness.

  18. Criticizing animal experimentation, at my peril.

    PubMed

    Eisenman, Stephen F

    2016-01-01

    Initiatives leading to even modest reduction in animal use at major U.S. universities are likely to continue to face strong opposition. At least, that's the conclusion the author draws from his efforts at Northwestern University. In fact, despite a growing body of evidence that animal-based research is flawed at best and misleading or un-scientific at worst its use is growing at Northwestern and elsewhere. Moreover, recent discoveries concerning animal consciousness and emotion have not led to notable improvements in the conditions in which AWA protected animals live at the Chicago vivarium. There, animals languish in featureless rooms or sterile cages without access to daylight and with little opportunity to express their natural behaviors and aptitudes. The writer's public exposure of these conditions led to a fierce backlash. Unless there is a significant change in laboratory and university culture, change will only come when the marketplace and funding agencies demand better and more reliable, non-animal models for the testing of drug toxicity and effectiveness. PMID:26560136

  19. Alternatives to animal experimentation in basic research.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Franz P; Hartung, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to animal testing required by law to guarantee minimum safety standards for the licensing of drugs and chemicals, there are no regulations in basic research forcing scientists to perform animal tests. By (usually) free choice, questions are posed and hypotheses are examined which, in many cases, can only be answered by means of animal tests. Just as easily, different questions could be asked or different hypotheses could be examined which do not require animal tests. The only criterion for the choice of a topic is its relevance which cannot necessarily be judged in the short-term. Thus, it is up to the individual scientist to judge what is worth studying and therefore worth animal consumption. The educated mind will consider ethical aspects of this choice. However, on the other hand, this decision is largely influenced by questions of efficacy or (in a negative sense) by the obstacles posed to an animal consuming approach. Here, peer review and general attitude will strongly influence the methodology chosen. Availability and awareness of adequate in vitro techniques represent the prerequisites for the use of alternative methods. The least one can do in basic research is to avoid tests which cause severe suffering to animals, as is required in Switzerland and other European countries by binding ethical principles and guidelines. The increasing standard of approval and control procedures has improved the situation over the years. There are many examples of successful alternative methods in basic research. But, the application of such methods is in most cases limited to the laboratories in which they were developed, calling for technology transfer. Exceptions are procedures that are used worldwide, like the production of monoclonal antibodies, which instead of using the ascites mouse can also be performed in vitro with some good will. In these cases, commercialisation of the techniques has aided their spread within the scientific community. Sadly, many

  20. Animal Experimentation: Bringing Ethical Issues into Biology Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rooy, Wilhelmina

    2000-01-01

    There are many possibilities for the use of controversial issues such as animal experimentation in biology classrooms. Outlines a series of three lessons that asked senior biology students to consider the issue of animal experimentation from three perspectives. (Author/LM)

  1. Animal experimentation: a rational approach towards drug development.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Singh, P N; Mishra, B

    2000-06-01

    Man's observation of animals as objects of study undoubtedly began in prehistoric times. The first recorded attempt involving the use of live animals for research was by Ersistratis in Alexandria in 300 B.C. Animal investigation has clearly made possible the enormous advances in drug development in this century. A cursory review of any modern text book of pharmacology or medicine will attest the many drugs currently available to benefit mankind in the struggle to eradicate and control diseases. The main purpose of this article is to describe some of the experimental work on animals which contributed to the discovery and development of drugs benefiting human beings and other animal species. Since animal experimentation has occupied a focal position in all the research leading to useful drugs, one will appreciate that it will be necessary to limit the discussion to certain aspects of this broad and interesting topic. With this in mind, an attempt is made to relate briefly the nature of animal investigations which were instrumental in the development of major classes of drugs. Some attention has also been focused on legislation's on animal experimentation of some developed countries with emphasis on India and to views on animal experimentation. We hope this article will stimulate the minds of the scientists for a rational debate on the future of animal experimentation.

  2. Alternatives to animal experimentation: The regulatory background

    SciTech Connect

    Garthoff, Bernward . E-mail: bernward.garthoff@bayercropscience.com

    2005-09-01

    The framework, in which alternatives to animal experiments can be developed, standardized, respectively formally validated, has to be seen in a global context. The ever increasing demand of testing for hazard and risk assessment in health and environment, exemplified by the EU REACH program, subsequently triggers laboratory animal testing. This holds especially true, if no valid alternative methods agreed to by the regulatory authorities and the scientific community are available. At least for regulatory toxicity testing, the global frame and network are given by institutions such as OECD, ICH, and alike. However, due to the necessity of global consent of states, organizations, and stakeholders, the time gap between availability of a novel alternative test method and its final acceptance by authorities and implementation thereafter is widening. The lack of new technologies or opportunities for alternative method application such as, for example, the broad use of transgenic animals for refinement of existing tests, adds to the problem. The bare existence of certain in vivo tests increases also the gap between public demands for testing versus availability of alternative tests. Industries operating on a worldwide basis support the alternative test development in their respective area of research and operational business. However, a more coordinating approach such as that of the ecopa-organization (European Consensus Platform on Alternatives) is needed to exploit the existing possibilities within the current regulatory framework. This will speed up the process of acceptance and challenge the political worldto feel responsible for the sequels of their demanding more testing, that is, by funding alternative method development in academia and industry.

  3. Alternatives to animal experimentation: the regulatory background.

    PubMed

    Garthoff, Bernward

    2005-09-01

    The framework, in which alternatives to animal experiments can be developed, standardized, respectively formally validated, has to be seen in a global context. The ever increasing demand of testing for hazard and risk assessment in health and environment, exemplified by the EU REACH program, subsequently triggers laboratory animal testing. This holds especially true, if no valid alternative methods agreed to by the regulatory authorities and the scientific community are available. At least for regulatory toxicity testing, the global frame and network are given by institutions such as OECD, ICH, and alike. However, due to the necessity of global consent of states, organizations, and stakeholders, the time gap between availability of a novel alternative test method and its final acceptance by authorities and implementation thereafter is widening. The lack of new technologies or opportunities for alternative method application such as, for example, the broad use of transgenic animals for refinement of existing tests, adds to the problem. The bare existence of certain in vivo tests increases also the gap between public demands for testing versus availability of alternative tests. Industries operating on a worldwide basis support the alternative test development in their respective area of research and operational business. However, a more coordinating approach such as that of the ecopa-organization (European Consensus Platform on Alternatives) is needed to exploit the existing possibilities within the current regulatory framework. This will speed up the process of acceptance and challenge the political world to feel responsible for the sequels of their demanding more testing, that is, by funding alternative method development in academia and industry.

  4. Alternatives to animal experimentation: the regulatory background.

    PubMed

    Garthoff, Bernward

    2005-09-01

    The framework, in which alternatives to animal experiments can be developed, standardized, respectively formally validated, has to be seen in a global context. The ever increasing demand of testing for hazard and risk assessment in health and environment, exemplified by the EU REACH program, subsequently triggers laboratory animal testing. This holds especially true, if no valid alternative methods agreed to by the regulatory authorities and the scientific community are available. At least for regulatory toxicity testing, the global frame and network are given by institutions such as OECD, ICH, and alike. However, due to the necessity of global consent of states, organizations, and stakeholders, the time gap between availability of a novel alternative test method and its final acceptance by authorities and implementation thereafter is widening. The lack of new technologies or opportunities for alternative method application such as, for example, the broad use of transgenic animals for refinement of existing tests, adds to the problem. The bare existence of certain in vivo tests increases also the gap between public demands for testing versus availability of alternative tests. Industries operating on a worldwide basis support the alternative test development in their respective area of research and operational business. However, a more coordinating approach such as that of the ecopa-organization (European Consensus Platform on Alternatives) is needed to exploit the existing possibilities within the current regulatory framework. This will speed up the process of acceptance and challenge the political world to feel responsible for the sequels of their demanding more testing, that is, by funding alternative method development in academia and industry. PMID:15982684

  5. Experimental Diabetes Mellitus in Different Animal Models.

    PubMed

    Al-Awar, Amin; Kupai, Krisztina; Veszelka, Médea; Szűcs, Gergő; Attieh, Zouhair; Murlasits, Zsolt; Török, Szilvia; Pósa, Anikó; Varga, Csaba

    2016-01-01

    Animal models have historically played a critical role in the exploration and characterization of disease pathophysiology and target identification and in the evaluation of novel therapeutic agents and treatments in vivo. Diabetes mellitus disease, commonly known as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood glucose levels for a prolonged time. To avoid late complications of diabetes and related costs, primary prevention and early treatment are therefore necessary. Due to its chronic symptoms, new treatment strategies need to be developed, because of the limited effectiveness of the current therapies. We overviewed the pathophysiological features of diabetes in relation to its complications in type 1 and type 2 mice along with rat models, including Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats, BB rats, LEW 1AR1/-iddm rats, Goto-Kakizaki rats, chemically induced diabetic models, and Nonobese Diabetic mouse, and Akita mice model. The advantages and disadvantages that these models comprise were also addressed in this review. This paper briefly reviews the wide pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms associated with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, particularly focusing on the challenges associated with the evaluation and predictive validation of these models as ideal animal models for preclinical assessments and discovering new drugs and therapeutic agents for translational application in humans. PMID:27595114

  6. Experimental Diabetes Mellitus in Different Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Al-awar, Amin; Veszelka, Médea; Szűcs, Gergő; Attieh, Zouhair; Murlasits, Zsolt; Török, Szilvia; Pósa, Anikó; Varga, Csaba

    2016-01-01

    Animal models have historically played a critical role in the exploration and characterization of disease pathophysiology and target identification and in the evaluation of novel therapeutic agents and treatments in vivo. Diabetes mellitus disease, commonly known as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood glucose levels for a prolonged time. To avoid late complications of diabetes and related costs, primary prevention and early treatment are therefore necessary. Due to its chronic symptoms, new treatment strategies need to be developed, because of the limited effectiveness of the current therapies. We overviewed the pathophysiological features of diabetes in relation to its complications in type 1 and type 2 mice along with rat models, including Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats, BB rats, LEW 1AR1/-iddm rats, Goto-Kakizaki rats, chemically induced diabetic models, and Nonobese Diabetic mouse, and Akita mice model. The advantages and disadvantages that these models comprise were also addressed in this review. This paper briefly reviews the wide pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms associated with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, particularly focusing on the challenges associated with the evaluation and predictive validation of these models as ideal animal models for preclinical assessments and discovering new drugs and therapeutic agents for translational application in humans.

  7. Experimental Diabetes Mellitus in Different Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Al-awar, Amin; Veszelka, Médea; Szűcs, Gergő; Attieh, Zouhair; Murlasits, Zsolt; Török, Szilvia; Pósa, Anikó; Varga, Csaba

    2016-01-01

    Animal models have historically played a critical role in the exploration and characterization of disease pathophysiology and target identification and in the evaluation of novel therapeutic agents and treatments in vivo. Diabetes mellitus disease, commonly known as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood glucose levels for a prolonged time. To avoid late complications of diabetes and related costs, primary prevention and early treatment are therefore necessary. Due to its chronic symptoms, new treatment strategies need to be developed, because of the limited effectiveness of the current therapies. We overviewed the pathophysiological features of diabetes in relation to its complications in type 1 and type 2 mice along with rat models, including Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats, BB rats, LEW 1AR1/-iddm rats, Goto-Kakizaki rats, chemically induced diabetic models, and Nonobese Diabetic mouse, and Akita mice model. The advantages and disadvantages that these models comprise were also addressed in this review. This paper briefly reviews the wide pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms associated with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, particularly focusing on the challenges associated with the evaluation and predictive validation of these models as ideal animal models for preclinical assessments and discovering new drugs and therapeutic agents for translational application in humans. PMID:27595114

  8. Ethical issues in animal experimentation--view of the animal rightist.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, B

    1986-01-01

    The basic stand-point of the animal rightist is that other animals than man are living beings also capable of feeling pain and distress, pleasure and joy. The capacity for suffering we have in common with other animals. This is quite obvious from the biological point of view and, in point of fact, a prerequisite for a lot of animal experimentation, the results of which would be invalid if the likeness was false. There would be no need for ethics of any kind, if man was not sentient. However, since sentience is a characteristic of other animals as well as man, logically the ethics applied to mankind must be extended to encompass all animals. For the animal rightist it is apparent that not only man, but other animals, too, must be attributed an intrinsic value. Consequently, using animals in procedures to which they would not consent, if they were able to speak for themselves, and which are carried out solely because of the means of power man possesses and the other animals lack, and are used to exploit those who are less powerful, is not good ethics. It is the dirty reality of oppression, based on prejudice, which is of the same brand as racism or sexism, but was given its own name, symptomatically, only 15 years ago, namely speciesism. Power is the key to animal experimentation, on the industrial, university, legislative and individual level. There is a growing public concern about animals being used in experiments, which must be taken into account by animal experimenters, regulation authorities and politicians alike. The question of animal rights is a political issue with wide-reaching implications for man and other animals, if animal experiments were reduced, replaced or totally abolished. The great number of animal experiments do not benefit mankind, only various groups of people, who for different reasons have an interest in experiments on animals being carried out. Would there be a bigger benefit to society as a whole, including man, other animals and nature

  9. Refinement of experimental design and conduct in laboratory animal research.

    PubMed

    Bailoo, Jeremy D; Reichlin, Thomas S; Würbel, Hanno

    2014-01-01

    The scientific literature of laboratory animal research is replete with papers reporting poor reproducibility of results as well as failure to translate results to clinical trials in humans. This may stem in part from poor experimental design and conduct of animal experiments. Despite widespread recognition of these problems and implementation of guidelines to attenuate them, a review of the literature suggests that experimental design and conduct of laboratory animal research are still in need of refinement. This paper will review and discuss possible sources of biases, highlight advantages and limitations of strategies proposed to alleviate them, and provide a conceptual framework for improving the reproducibility of laboratory animal research.

  10. [The 1, 2, 3 of laboratory animal experimentation].

    PubMed

    Romero-Fernandez, Wilber; Batista-Castro, Zenia; De Lucca, Marisel; Ruano, Ana; García-Barceló, María; Rivera-Cervantes, Marta; García-Rodríguez, Julio; Sánchez-Mateos, Soledad

    2016-06-01

    The slow scientific development in Latin America in recent decades has delayed the incorporation of laboratory animal experimentation; however, this situation has started to change. Today, extraordinary scientific progress is evident, which has promoted the introduction and increased use of laboratory animals as an important tool for the advancement of biomedical sciences. In the aftermath of this boom, the need to provide the scientific community with training and guidance in all aspects related to animal experimentation has arisen. It is the responsibility of each country to regulate this practice, for both bioethical and legal reasons, to ensure consideration of the animals' rights and welfare. The following manuscript is the result of papers presented at the International Workshop on Laboratory Animal Testing held at the Technical University of Ambato, Ecuador; it contains information regarding the current state of affairs in laboratory animal testing and emphasizes critical aspects such as main species used, ethical and legal principles, and experimental and alternative designs for animal use. These works aim to ensure good practices that should define scientific work. This document will be relevant to both researchers who aim to newly incorporate animal testing into their research and those who seek to update their knowledge. PMID:27656930

  11. [The 1, 2, 3 of laboratory animal experimentation].

    PubMed

    Romero-Fernandez, Wilber; Batista-Castro, Zenia; De Lucca, Marisel; Ruano, Ana; García-Barceló, María; Rivera-Cervantes, Marta; García-Rodríguez, Julio; Sánchez-Mateos, Soledad

    2016-06-01

    The slow scientific development in Latin America in recent decades has delayed the incorporation of laboratory animal experimentation; however, this situation has started to change. Today, extraordinary scientific progress is evident, which has promoted the introduction and increased use of laboratory animals as an important tool for the advancement of biomedical sciences. In the aftermath of this boom, the need to provide the scientific community with training and guidance in all aspects related to animal experimentation has arisen. It is the responsibility of each country to regulate this practice, for both bioethical and legal reasons, to ensure consideration of the animals' rights and welfare. The following manuscript is the result of papers presented at the International Workshop on Laboratory Animal Testing held at the Technical University of Ambato, Ecuador; it contains information regarding the current state of affairs in laboratory animal testing and emphasizes critical aspects such as main species used, ethical and legal principles, and experimental and alternative designs for animal use. These works aim to ensure good practices that should define scientific work. This document will be relevant to both researchers who aim to newly incorporate animal testing into their research and those who seek to update their knowledge.

  12. [Reduction of animal experiments in experimental drug testing].

    PubMed

    Behrensdorf-Nicol, H; Krämer, B

    2014-10-01

    In order to ensure the quality of biomedical products, an experimental test for every single manufactured batch is required for many products. Especially in vaccine testing, animal experiments are traditionally used for this purpose. For example, efficacy is often determined via challenge experiments in laboratory animals. Safety tests of vaccine batches are also mostly performed using laboratory animals. However, many animal experiments have clear inherent disadvantages (low accuracy, questionable transferability to humans, unclear significance). Furthermore, for ethical reasons and animal welfare aspects animal experiments are also seen very critical by the public. Therefore, there is a strong trend towards replacing animal experiments with methods in which no animals are used ("replacement"). If a replacement is not possible, the required animal experiments should be improved in order to minimize the number of animals necessary ("reduction") and to reduce pain and suffering caused by the experiment to a minimum ("refinement"). This "3R concept" is meanwhile firmly established in legislature. In recent years many mandatory animal experiments have been replaced by alternative in vitro methods or improved according to the 3R principles; numerous alternative methods are currently under development. Nevertheless, the process from the development of a new method to its legal implementation takes a long time. Therefore, supplementary regulatory measures to facilitate validation and acceptance of new alternative methods could contribute to a faster and more consequent implementation of the 3R concept in the testing of biomedical products.

  13. Animal experimentation in forensic sciences: How far have we come?

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, C; Maderna, E; Rendinelli, A; Gibelli, D

    2015-09-01

    In the third millennium where ethical, ethological and cultural evolution seem to be leading more and more towards an inter-species society, the issue of animal experimentation is a moral dilemma. Speaking from a self-interested human perspective, avoiding all animal testing where human disease and therapy are concerned may be very difficult or even impossible; such testing may not be so easily justifiable when suffering-or killing-of non human animals is inflicted for forensic research. In order to verify how forensic scientists are evolving in this ethical issue, we undertook a systematic review of the current literature. We investigated the frequency of animal experimentation in forensic studies in the past 15 years and trends in publication in the main forensic science journals. Types of species, lesions inflicted, manner of sedation or anesthesia and euthanasia were examined in a total of 404 articles reviewed, among which 279 (69.1%) concerned studies involving animals sacrificed exclusively for the sake of the experiment. Killing still frequently includes painful methods such as blunt trauma, electrocution, mechanical asphyxia, hypothermia, and even exsanguination; of all these animals, apparently only 60.8% were anesthetized. The most recent call for a severe reduction if not a total halt to the use of animals in forensic sciences was made by Bernard Knight in 1992. In fact the principle of reduction and replacement, frequently respected in clinical research, must be considered the basis for forensic science research needing animals. PMID:26216717

  14. Animal experimentation in forensic sciences: How far have we come?

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, C; Maderna, E; Rendinelli, A; Gibelli, D

    2015-09-01

    In the third millennium where ethical, ethological and cultural evolution seem to be leading more and more towards an inter-species society, the issue of animal experimentation is a moral dilemma. Speaking from a self-interested human perspective, avoiding all animal testing where human disease and therapy are concerned may be very difficult or even impossible; such testing may not be so easily justifiable when suffering-or killing-of non human animals is inflicted for forensic research. In order to verify how forensic scientists are evolving in this ethical issue, we undertook a systematic review of the current literature. We investigated the frequency of animal experimentation in forensic studies in the past 15 years and trends in publication in the main forensic science journals. Types of species, lesions inflicted, manner of sedation or anesthesia and euthanasia were examined in a total of 404 articles reviewed, among which 279 (69.1%) concerned studies involving animals sacrificed exclusively for the sake of the experiment. Killing still frequently includes painful methods such as blunt trauma, electrocution, mechanical asphyxia, hypothermia, and even exsanguination; of all these animals, apparently only 60.8% were anesthetized. The most recent call for a severe reduction if not a total halt to the use of animals in forensic sciences was made by Bernard Knight in 1992. In fact the principle of reduction and replacement, frequently respected in clinical research, must be considered the basis for forensic science research needing animals.

  15. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-7, 100-F Miscellaneous Hardware Storage Vault

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Appel

    2006-11-02

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-7, 100-F Miscellaneous Hardware Storage Vault. The site consisted of an inactive solid waste storage vault used for temporary storage of slightly contaminated reactor parts that could be recovered and reused for the 100-F Area reactor operations.

  16. Historical issues concerning animal experimentation in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sechzer, Jeri A

    1981-01-01

    The use of animals for research and teaching has now become an issue of great concern in the United States. In contrast to the legislative systems in Britain, Scandinavia and many European countries, American scientists can pursue research projects with relative freedom. Recent activities in the United States may effect this practice and future animal experimentation may be subjected to restriction and control by legislation. Events leading to this possibility are similar in many ways to those in 19th century Britain prior to the passage of the Cruelty to Animals Act in 1876 (which licenses scientists, regulates experimentation and carries out inspections). Historically, it seemed that the immediate effect of the 1876 act was to decrease the number of scientists who could conduct experiments on live vertebrate animals in Great Britain and hence the number of experiments and animals. Yet, antivivisection activity in Britain did not decrease but continued toward its goal of abolishing all research with animals. By 1882, the medical scientific community established the Association for the Advancement of Medicine by Research which began to advise the Home Secretary on licensing scientists.... Although the first Humane Society in the United States was established in 1866, it was not until the end of the 19th century when scientific disciplines were necessary for the education of physicians that protests against the use of animals for experimentation became organized. Activities by American animal protection groups have increased since that time and have now culminated in proposed legislation which if passed would not only restrict the use of animals for research but would also interfere with the kinds of research that could be conducted. Legislation in Britain, Scandinavia and in many European countries appears to be efficient and effective because of the relatively small number of research institutions and scientists in those countries. Is legislation in the United

  17. A hyperbaric oxygen chamber for animal experimental purposes.

    PubMed

    Djasim, U M; Spiegelberg, L; Wolvius, E B; van der Wal, K G H

    2012-02-01

    Facilities for hyperbaric oxygen therapy that are suitable for animal experimental research are scarce. In this paper, the authors introduce a hyperbaric oxygen chamber that was developed specifically for animal experimental purposes. The hyperbaric oxygen chamber was designed to meet a number of criteria regarding safety and ease of use. The hyperbaric oxygen chamber conforms to 97/23/EC (Pressure Equipment Directive), Conformity Assessment Module G Product Group 1. It provides easy access, and can be run in manual mode, semi-automatic mode and full-automatic mode. Sensors for pressure level, oxygen level, temperature, humidity and carbon dioxide level allow full control. This state-of-the-art hyperbaric oxygen chamber for animal experimental purposes permits the investigation of the biological mechanisms through which hyperbaric oxygen therapy acts at a fundamental level.

  18. Early interactions between animal psychologists and animal activists and the founding of the APA Committee on Precautions in Animal Experimentation.

    PubMed

    Dewsbury, D A

    1990-03-01

    The current conflict between animal psychologists and animal rights activists often is presented as a recent and unique phenomenon. Although its scope may be unprecedented, the fundamental issues are longstanding. Early criticisms of animal psychologists are viewed in the context of the broader Victorian antivivisectionist movement and are seen as similar to those of the present time. Various attitudes toward animals and research were expressed by individuals such as Charles Darwin, George John Romanes, William James, and John Dewey. Media attacks on animal research were directed at psychologists such as G. Stanley Hall, John B. Watson, Ivan P. Pavlov, and Edward L. Thorndike. The American Psychological Association Committee on Precautions in Animal Experimentation was founded in 1925 at the instigation of Walter B. Cannon, with Robert M. Yerkes as the first chair.

  19. Early interactions between animal psychologists and animal activists and the founding of the APA Committee on Precautions in Animal Experimentation.

    PubMed

    Dewsbury, D A

    1990-03-01

    The current conflict between animal psychologists and animal rights activists often is presented as a recent and unique phenomenon. Although its scope may be unprecedented, the fundamental issues are longstanding. Early criticisms of animal psychologists are viewed in the context of the broader Victorian antivivisectionist movement and are seen as similar to those of the present time. Various attitudes toward animals and research were expressed by individuals such as Charles Darwin, George John Romanes, William James, and John Dewey. Media attacks on animal research were directed at psychologists such as G. Stanley Hall, John B. Watson, Ivan P. Pavlov, and Edward L. Thorndike. The American Psychological Association Committee on Precautions in Animal Experimentation was founded in 1925 at the instigation of Walter B. Cannon, with Robert M. Yerkes as the first chair. PMID:2178508

  20. Science and society: different bioethical approaches towards animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Brom, Frans W A

    2002-01-01

    respect their integrity. By weighing these prima facie duties, the moral problem of animal experimentation exists in finding which duty actually has to be considered as the decisive duty. It will be argued that these three views, even though they will all justify animal experimentation to some extent, will do so in practice under different conditions. Many current conflicts regarding the use of animals for research may be better understood in light of the conflict between the three bioethical perspectives provided by these views.

  1. Ethical and Animal Welfare Considerations in Relation to Species Selection for Animal Experimentation

    PubMed Central

    Webster, John

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary When making a choice of species for animal experimentation we must balance its suitability as a model for human medicine against the potential harms to the animals both from the procedures and the quality of their lifetime experience. The capacity to experience pain may be similar in mammals, birds and fish. The capacity to suffer from fear is governed more by sentience than cognitive ability, so it cannot be assumed that rodents or farm animals suffer less than dogs or primates. I suggest that it is unethical to base the choice of species for animal experimentation simply on the basis that it will cause less distress within society. Abstract Ethical principles governing the conduct of experiments with animals are reviewed, especially those relating to the choice of species. Legislation requires that the potential harm to animals arising from any procedure should be assessed in advance and justified in terms of its possible benefit to society. Potential harms may arise both from the procedures and the quality of the animals’ lifetime experience. The conventional approach to species selection is to use animals with the “lowest degree of neurophysiological sensitivity”. However; this concept should be applied with extreme caution in the light of new knowledge. The capacity to experience pain may be similar in mammals, birds and fish. The capacity to suffer from fear is governed more by sentience than cognitive ability, so it cannot be assumed that rodents or farm animals suffer less than dogs or primates. I suggest that it is unethical to base the choice of species for animal experimentation simply on the basis that it will cause less distress within society. A set of responsibilities is outlined for each category of moral agent. These include regulators, operators directly concerned with the conduct of scientific experiments and toxicology trials, veterinarians and animal care staff; and society at large. PMID:26479009

  2. The Animal Experimentation Controversy: Ethical Views of Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Villiers, Rian

    2012-01-01

    Vivisection (live animal experimentation) is a controversial issue for many people. The purpose of this case study is to examine the attitudes of prospective teachers toward vivisection in education and research, to determine if gender has an influence on these attitudes, and to discuss the implications of these attitudes with regard to teaching…

  3. Experimental animal studies of radon and cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Gies, R.A.; Smith, L.G.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1992-12-31

    Cigarette-smoking is a dominant cause of lung cancer and confounds risk assessment of exposure to radon decay products. Evidence in humans on the interaction between cigarette-smoking and exposure to radon decay products, although limited, indicates a possible synergy. Experimental animal data, in addition to showing synergy, also show a decrease or no change in risk with added cigarette-smoke exposures. This article reviews previous animal data developed at Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) on mixed exposures to radon and cigarette smoke, and highlights new initiation-promotion-initiation (IPI) studies at PNL that were designed within the framework of a two-mutation carcinogenesis model. Also presented are the PNL exposure system, experimental protocols, dosimetry, and biological data observed to date in IPI animals.

  4. Multivariate Analysis for Animal Selection in Experimental Research

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Renan Mercuri; de Campos, Dijon Henrique Salomé; Tomasi, Loreta Casquel; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos; Okoshi, Katashi; Padovani, Carlos Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Background Several researchers seek methods for the selection of homogeneous groups of animals in experimental studies, a fact justified because homogeneity is an indispensable prerequisite for casualization of treatments. The lack of robust methods that comply with statistical and biological principles is the reason why researchers use empirical or subjective methods, influencing their results. Objective To develop a multivariate statistical model for the selection of a homogeneous group of animals for experimental research and to elaborate a computational package to use it. Methods The set of echocardiographic data of 115 male Wistar rats with supravalvular aortic stenosis (AoS) was used as an example of model development. Initially, the data were standardized, and became dimensionless. Then, the variance matrix of the set was submitted to principal components analysis (PCA), aiming at reducing the parametric space and at retaining the relevant variability. That technique established a new Cartesian system into which the animals were allocated, and finally the confidence region (ellipsoid) was built for the profile of the animals’ homogeneous responses. The animals located inside the ellipsoid were considered as belonging to the homogeneous batch; those outside the ellipsoid were considered spurious. Results The PCA established eight descriptive axes that represented the accumulated variance of the data set in 88.71%. The allocation of the animals in the new system and the construction of the confidence region revealed six spurious animals as compared to the homogeneous batch of 109 animals. Conclusion The biometric criterion presented proved to be effective, because it considers the animal as a whole, analyzing jointly all parameters measured, in addition to having a small discard rate. PMID:25651342

  5. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-31, 144-F Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-033

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-08-24

    The 100-F-31 waste site is a former septic system that supported the inhalation laboratories, also referred to as the 144-F Particle Exposure Laboratory (132-F-2 waste site), which housed animals exposed to particulate material. The 100-F-31 waste site has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  6. Chemicals and cancer in humans: first evidence in experimental animals.

    PubMed Central

    Huff, J

    1993-01-01

    Certain human diseases have been traced to exposure to environmental and occupational chemicals. In many instances the first evidence of potential adverse effects came from experimental studies and were subsequently discovered in humans. Associations of human cancers, as a diverse group of diseases, and chemicals have been made since the middle 1700s. Since then, nearly 100 chemicals, mixtures of chemicals, or exposure circumstances are now recognized as being or strongly implicated as being carcinogenic to humans. Of the less than 1000 agents evaluated adequately for carcinogenicity in laboratory animals, a varying spectrum of data from studies on humans are available for only about 20-25%. So far, more than 60 agents are linked unequivocally as causing cancer in humans, and another 50 or so are strongly suspected of being carcinogenic to humans. Not all of these have been or can be evaluated in animals because some are industrial processes or "occupations," some are environmental and cultural risk factors, and some are mixtures of agents. For those that can be studied experimentally, the qualitative concordance between humans and animals approaches unity, and in every case there is at least one common organ site of cancer in both species. The evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals preceded that observed in humans for nearly 30 agents and is the subject of this paper. PMID:8354167

  7. [For active dermatocosmetics and free of unnecessary animal experimentation].

    PubMed

    Piérard, G E; Piérard-Franchimont, C

    1998-06-01

    At the dawn of this century, dermocosmetology is at cross-roads because new European regulations are changing its face. The proof of claims must be given and the entire composition of the product must be released. In addition, animal testing is about to be banned. Such new regulations incite to search for and validate predictive tests aiming at the objective evaluation of the activity and tolerance claimed by dermocosmetic products. Such tests must be an alternative to unnecessary animal experimentation. These aspects are scrutinized scientifically by the EEMCO experts in combination with the ECVAM and COLIPA organizations.

  8. [Origin of animal experimentation legislation in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Pocard, M

    1999-01-01

    The first legislation in the world, designed to protect animals used in research, was passed in England in 1876, and is still in force today. It is one of the strictest in Europe. At the same period, France had no such law, and was the country conducting the greatest amount of animal experimentation. Comparing, these two countries, in the middle of the 19th century, can account for this difference. The most important difference seems to be related to the theological question: are animals endowed with a soul? Saint Augustine, claimed, in the 4th century, perhaps because of an experiment with the centipede, that animals do not have a soul. In the 17th century, René Descartes, using a different philosophical system, reached a similar conclusion, in France. On the other hand, under the influence of Charles Darwin, England rejected the Roman Catholic conclusion, about the soul of animals. The industrial revolution, occurring earlier in England than in France, also changed the society, developing urban areas, where people were cut off from rural life and changing human relationships with animals. The industrial revolution enabled the development of the press, giving impetus to public opinion. These facts, combined with a caution of science, which was more developed in England than in France, brought about the first important "anti-doctor" campaign.

  9. Ethical and Animal Welfare Considerations in Relation to Species Selection for Animal Experimentation.

    PubMed

    Webster, John

    2014-12-03

    Ethical principles governing the conduct of experiments with animals are reviewed, especially those relating to the choice of species. Legislation requires that the potential harm to animals arising from any procedure should be assessed in advance and justified in terms of its possible benefit to society. Potential harms may arise both from the procedures and the quality of the animals' lifetime experience. The conventional approach to species selection is to use animals with the "lowest degree of neurophysiological sensitivity". However; this concept should be applied with extreme caution in the light of new knowledge. The capacity to experience pain may be similar in mammals, birds and fish. The capacity to suffer from fear is governed more by sentience than cognitive ability, so it cannot be assumed that rodents or farm animals suffer less than dogs or primates. I suggest that it is unethical to base the choice of species for animal experimentation simply on the basis that it will cause less distress within society. A set of responsibilities is outlined for each category of moral agent. These include regulators, operators directly concerned with the conduct of scientific experiments and toxicology trials, veterinarians and animal care staff; and society at large.

  10. A systematic review of animal models for experimental neuroma.

    PubMed

    Toia, Francesca; Giesen, Thomas; Giovanoli, Pietro; Calcagni, Maurizio

    2015-10-01

    Peripheral neuromas can result in an unbearable neuropathic pain and functional impairment. Their treatment is still challenging, and their optimal management is to be defined. Experimental research still plays a major role, but - although numerous neuroma models have been proposed on different animals - there is still no single model recognised as being the reference. Several models show advantages over the others in specific aspects of neuroma physiopathology, prevention or treatment, making it unlikely that a single model could be of reference. A reproducible and standardised model of peripheral neuroma would allow better comparison of results from different studies. We present a systematic review of the literature on experimental in vivo models, analysing advantages and disadvantages, specific features and indications, with the goal of providing suggestions to help their standardisation. Published models greatly differ in the animal and the nerve employed, the mechanisms of nerve injury and the evaluation methods. Specific experimental models exist for terminal neuromas and neuromas in continuity (NIC). The rat is the most widely employed animal, the rabbit being the second most popular model. NIC models are more actively researched, but it is more difficult to generate such studies in a reproducible manner. Nerve transection is considered the best method to cause terminal neuromas, whereas partial transection is the best method to cause NIC. Traditional histomorphology is the historical gold-standard evaluation method, but immunolabelling, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and proteomics are gaining increasing popularity. Computerised gait analysis is the gold standard for motor-recovery evaluation, whereas mechanical testing of allodynia and hyperalgesia reproducibly assesses sensory recovery. This review summarises current knowledge on experimental neuroma models, and it provides a useful tool for defining experimental protocols

  11. Towards ethically improved animal experimentation in the study of animal reproduction.

    PubMed

    Blache, D; Martin, G B; Maloney, S K

    2008-07-01

    The ethics of animal-based research is a continuing area of debate, but ethical research protocols do not prevent scientific progress. In this paper, we argue that our current knowledge of the factors that affect reproductive processes provides researchers with a solid foundation upon which they can conduct more ethical research and simultaneously produce data of higher quality. We support this argument by showing how a deep understanding of the genetics, nutrition and temperament of our experimental animals can improve compliance with two of the '3 Rs', reduction and refinement, simply by offering better control over the variance in our experimental model. The outcome is a better experimental design, on both ethical and scientific grounds.

  12. Experimental animal data and modeling of late somatic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1988-01-01

    This section is restricted to radiation-induced life shortening and cancer and mainly to studies with external radiation. The emphasis will be on the experimental data that are available and the experimental systems that could provide the type of data with which to either formulate or test models. Genetic effects which are of concern are not discussed in this section. Experimental animal radiation studies fall into those that establish general principles and those that demonstrate mechanisms. General principles include the influence of dose, radiation quality, dose rate, fractionation, protraction and such biological factors as age and gender. The influence of these factors are considered as general principles because they are independent, at least qualitatively, of the species studied. For example, if an increase in the LET of the radiation causes an increased effectiveness in cancer induction in a mouse a comparable increase in effectiveness can be expected in humans. Thus, models, whether empirical or mechanistic, formulated from experimental animal data should be generally applicable.

  13. Distribution of opiate alkaloids in brain tissue of experimental animals

    PubMed Central

    Pilija, Vladimir; Mimica-Dukic, Neda; Budakov, Branislav; Cvjeticanin, Stanko

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined regional distribution of opiate alkaloids from seized heroin in brain regions of experimental animals in order to select parts with the highest content of opiates. Their analysis should contribute to resolve causes of death due to heroin intake. The tests were performed at different time periods (5, 15, 45 and 120 min) after male and female Wistar rats were treated with seized heroin. Opiate alkaloids (codeine, morphine, acetylcodeine, 6-acetylmorphine and 3,6-diacetylmorphine) were quantitatively determined in brain regions known for their high concentration of µ-opiate receptors: cortex, brainstem, amygdala and basal ganglia, by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The highest content of opiate alkaloids in the brain tissue of female animals was found 15 min and in male animals 45 min after treatment. The highest content of opiates was determined in the basal ganglia of the animals of both genders, indicating that this part of brain tissue presents a reliable sample for identifying and assessing contents of opiates after heroin intake. PMID:23554560

  14. Immunotoxicology of arc welding fume: worker and experimental animal studies.

    PubMed

    Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C; Erdely, Aaron; Antonini, James M

    2012-01-01

    Arc welding processes generate complex aerosols composed of potentially hazardous metal fumes and gases. Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to welding aerosols daily. A health effect of welding that is of concern to the occupational health community is the development of immune system dysfunction. Increased severity, frequency, and duration of upper and lower respiratory tract infections have been reported among welders. Specifically, multiple studies have observed an excess mortality from pneumonia in welders and workers exposed to metal fumes. Although several welder cohort and experimental animal studies investigating the adverse effects of welding fume exposure on immune function have been performed, the potential mechanisms responsible for these effects are limited. The objective of this report was to review both human and animal studies that have examined the effect of welding fume pulmonary exposure on local and systemic immune responses. PMID:22734811

  15. Immunotoxicology of arc welding fume: worker and experimental animal studies.

    PubMed

    Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C; Erdely, Aaron; Antonini, James M

    2012-01-01

    Arc welding processes generate complex aerosols composed of potentially hazardous metal fumes and gases. Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to welding aerosols daily. A health effect of welding that is of concern to the occupational health community is the development of immune system dysfunction. Increased severity, frequency, and duration of upper and lower respiratory tract infections have been reported among welders. Specifically, multiple studies have observed an excess mortality from pneumonia in welders and workers exposed to metal fumes. Although several welder cohort and experimental animal studies investigating the adverse effects of welding fume exposure on immune function have been performed, the potential mechanisms responsible for these effects are limited. The objective of this report was to review both human and animal studies that have examined the effect of welding fume pulmonary exposure on local and systemic immune responses.

  16. Immunotoxicology of arc welding fume: Worker and experimental animal studies

    PubMed Central

    Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C.; Erdely, Aaron; Antonini, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Arc welding processes generate complex aerosols composed of potentially hazardous metal fumes and gases. Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to welding aerosols daily. A health effect of welding that is of concern to the occupational health community is the development of immune system dysfunction. Increased severity, frequency, and duration of upper and lower respiratory tract infections have been reported among welders. Specifically, multiple studies have observed an excess mortality from pneumonia in welders and workers exposed to metal fumes. Although several welder cohort and experimental animal studies investigating the adverse effects of welding fume exposure on immune function have been performed, the potential mechanisms responsible for these effects are limited. The objective of this report was to review both human and animal studies that have examined the effect of welding fume pulmonary exposure on local and systemic immune responses. PMID:22734811

  17. Rhabdomyosarcomas: an overview on the experimental animal models

    PubMed Central

    Zanola, Alessandra; Rossi, Stefania; Faggi, Fiorella; Monti, Eugenio; Fanzani, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS) are aggressive childhood soft-tissue malignancies deriving from mesenchymal progenitors that are committed to muscle-specific lineages. Despite the histopathological signatures associated with three main histological variants, termed embryonal, alveolar and pleomorphic, a plethora of genetic and molecular changes are recognized in RMS. Over the years, exposure to carcinogens or ionizing radiations and gene-targeting approaches in vivo have greatly contributed to disclose some of the mechanisms underlying RMS onset. In this review, we describe the principal distinct features associated with RMS variants and focus on the current available experimental animal models to point out the molecular determinants cooperating with RMS development and progression. PMID:22225829

  18. Immunology and Homeopathy. 3. Experimental Studies on Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Bellavite, Paolo; Ortolani, Riccardo; Conforti, Anita

    2006-01-01

    A search of the literature and the experiments carried out by the authors of this review show that there are a number of animal models where the effect of homeopathic dilutions or the principles of homeopathic medicine have been tested. The results relate to the immunostimulation by ultralow doses of antigens, the immunological models of the ‘simile’, the regulation of acute or chronic inflammatory processes and the use of homeopathic medicines in farming. The models utilized by different research groups are extremely etherogeneous and differ as the test medicines, the dilutions and the outcomes are concerned. Some experimental lines, particularly those utilizing mice models of immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory effects of homeopathic complex formulations, give support to a real effect of homeopathic high dilutions in animals, but often these data are of preliminary nature and have not been independently replicated. The evidence emerging from animal models is supporting the traditional ‘simile’ rule, according to which ultralow doses of compounds, that in high doses are pathogenic, may have paradoxically a protective or curative effect. Despite a few encouraging observational studies, the effectiveness of the homeopathic prevention or therapy of infections in veterinary medicine is not sufficiently supported by randomized and controlled trials. PMID:16786046

  19. 9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms. 103.2 Section 103.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND...

  20. 9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms. 103.2 Section 103.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND...

  1. 9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms. 103.2 Section 103.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND...

  2. 9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms. 103.2 Section 103.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND...

  3. Development of the optical biopsy system for small experimental animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hidetoshi; Hattori, Yusuke; Oshima, Yusuke; Komachi, Yuichi; Katagiri, Takashi; Asakura, Toru; Shimosegawa, Toru; Matsuura, Yuji; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Kanai, Gen'ichi; Ura, Nobuo; Masutani, Koji; Tashiro, Hideo

    2006-02-01

    Development of the optical biopsy system for experimental small animals is in progress. A prototype of the system which consists of a miniaturized gastro endoscope unit and Raman probes has been completed by now. The system is developed to study a gastric cancer rat model. The endoscope is 2.5 mm in diameter and is equipped an imaging bundle fiber, illumination fibers, a channel and a mechanism to angle the probe head. The head of the Raman probe comes out through the channel and it is possible to aim the probe to the target watching on the monitor. The endoscope was inserted into the anaesthetized healthy rat under the breathing support. It was successfully observed inside of the stomach of the living rat and measured Raman spectra. The spectrum of blood vessels contains the strong contribution from lipids. The present results demonstrate high potential of the system in the in vivo Raman study using the rat model.

  4. [Is replacement of animal experimentation in pharmacology a goal or a social constraint, utopia or reality?

    PubMed

    Hartung, Thomas; Wendel, Albrecht

    1998-01-01

    Animal experimentation in pharmacology is evaluated with respect to in vitro alternatives. Overall, the judgement comes clearly in favour of the alternative methods, needless to say in a field where most animal experimentation occurs. The authors conclude that the discipline considerably profits from switching to in vitro models, even though the complete replacement of animal experimentation is unrealistic.

  5. Cats on the Couch: The Experimental Production of Animal Neurosis.

    PubMed

    Winter, Alison

    2016-03-01

    Argument In the 1940s-50s, one of the most central questions in psychological research related to the nature of neurosis. In the final years of the Second World War and the following decade, neurosis became one of the most prominent psychiatric disorders, afflicting a high proportion of military casualties and veterans. The condition became central to the concerns of several psychological fields, from psychoanalysis to Pavlovian psychology. This paper reconstructs the efforts of Chicago psychiatrist Jules Masserman to study neurosis in the laboratory during the 1940s and 1950s. Masserman used Pavlovian techniques in a bid to subject this central psychoanalytic subject to disciplined scientific experimentation. More generally, his project was an effort to bolster the legitimacy of psychoanalysis as a human science by articulating a convergence of psychoanalytic categories across multiple species. Masserman sought to orchestrate a convergence of psychological knowledge between fields that were often taken to be irreconcilable. A central focus of this paper is the role of moving images in this project, not only as a means of recording experimental data but also as a rhetorical device. The paper argues that for Masserman film played an important role in enabling scientific observers (and then subsequent viewers) to see agency and emotion in the animals they observed. PMID:26903373

  6. Sub-100 fJ and sub-nanosecond thermally driven threshold switching in niobium oxide crosspoint nanodevices.

    PubMed

    Pickett, Matthew D; Williams, R Stanley

    2012-06-01

    We built and measured the dynamical current versus time behavior of nanoscale niobium oxide crosspoint devices which exhibited threshold switching (current-controlled negative differential resistance). The switching speeds of 110 × 110 nm(2) devices were found to be Δt(ON) = 700 ps and Δt(OFF) = 2:3 ns while the switching energies were of the order of 100 fJ. We derived a new dynamical model based on the Joule heating rate of a thermally driven insulator-to-metal phase transition that accurately reproduced the experimental results, and employed the model to estimate the switching time and energy scaling behavior of such devices down to the 10 nm scale. These results indicate that threshold switches could be of practical interest in hybrid CMOS nanoelectronic circuits.

  7. [Cytologic parameters of broncho-alveolar lavage state in experimental animals exposed to mechanical rubber aerosol].

    PubMed

    Zhumabekova, B K; Sraubayev, E N; Gazalieva, M A; Akhmetova, S B

    2015-01-01

    Cytologic studies covered broncho-alveolar lavage in animals exposed to mechanical rubber aerosol in subacute (2 months) and chronic (5 months) experiments. Under exposure to mechanical rubber aerosol the experimental animals developed disorders of lung protective mechanisms. Subacute dust inhalation in the experimental animals caused higher counts of neutrophils and degeneratively changed cells with increased functional activity of alveolar macrophages and neutrophils. Chronic dust inhalation in the experimental animals proved lower functional activity alveolar macrophages and neutrophils.

  8. Genetics of hypertension: From experimental animals to humans

    PubMed Central

    Delles, Christian; McBride, Martin W.; Graham, Delyth; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Dominiczak, Anna F.

    2010-01-01

    Essential hypertension affects 20 to 30% of the population worldwide and contributes significantly to cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Heridability of blood pressure is around 15 to 40% but there are also substantial environmental factors affecting blood pressure variability. It is assumed that blood pressure is under the control of a large number of genes each of which has only relatively mild effects. It has therefore been difficult to discover the genes that contribute to blood pressure variation using traditional approaches including candidate gene studies and linkage studies. Animal models of hypertension, particularly in the rat, have led to the discovery of quantitative trait loci harbouring one or several hypertension related genes, but translation of these findings into human essential hypertension remains challenging. Recent development of genotyping technology made large scale genome-wide association studies possible. This approach and the study of monogenic forms of hypertension has led to the discovery of novel and robust candidate genes for human essential hypertension, many of which require functional analysis in experimental models. PMID:20035862

  9. 9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... experimental biological products or live organisms. 103.2 Section 103.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND EVALUATION OF...

  10. Antistress activity of Argyreia speciosa roots in experimental animals

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nikunj B.; Galani, Varsha J.; Patel, Bharatkumar G.

    2011-01-01

    The antistress effect of a seven-day treatment (100 and 200 mg / kg, p.o.) of the hydroalcoholic extract of Argyreia speciosa root (ASE) was evaluated by using the swimming endurance test, acetic acid–induced writhing test, pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion test, anoxic tolerance test, cold-restraint, stress-induced gastric ulcers, aspirin-induced ulcers, and biochemical, and histopathological changes in the cold-restraint stress test. The immunomodulatory activity was also evaluated for the same doses, and treatment of ASE was done using the hemagglutination test. Both the doses of ASE showed antistress activity in all the tested models. The ASE-treated animals showed a decrease in immobility time and an increase in anoxic tolerance time in swimming endurance and the anoxic tolerance tests, respectively. The effect of glacial acetic acid and pentylenetetrazole were also reduced by decreasing the number of writhing responses and increasing the onset of convulsions, respectively. In the cold restrained stress and aspirin-induced gastric ulcer models, ASE showed a significant reduction in the ulcer index. Pretreatment with ASE significantly ameliorated the cold stress-induced variations in biochemical levels such as increased plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, total protein, and cortisol. ASE was also effective in preventing the pathological changes in the adrenal gland, due to cold restrained stress, in rats. In mice immunized with sheep red blood cells, the treatment groups subjected to restraint stress prevented the humoral immune response to the antigen. The immunostimulating activity of the ASE was indicated by an increase in the antibody titer in mice pre-immunized with sheep red blood cells and subjected to restraint stress. The findings of the present investigations indicate that the ASE has significant antistress activity, which may be due to the immunostimulating property and increased resistance, nonspecifically, against all experimental

  11. Element concentrations and cataract: an experimental animal model.

    PubMed

    Ciaralli, L; Giordano, R; Costantini, S; Sepe, A; Cruciani, F; Moramarco, A; Antonelli, B; Balacco-Gabrieli, C

    2001-04-01

    The determination of inorganic ions in cataractous human lenses has been the subject of several investigations; nevertheless, few studies have been concerned with trace element contents in lenses, and data are sometimes contradictory. An animal experimental model of induced cataract is here proposed with the aim of evaluating the changes of Ca, Na, K, Cu and Zn concentrations. The cataract was produced by an Nd:YAG Laser treatment of the right eye of sexteen male rabbits. The determination of the elements was performed by atomic absorption spectrometry (both flame and flameless methods) after an acid digestion of samples. Compared with the results obtained in left lenses used as a control (Ca 14.4+/-5.7 mg/kg d.w.; Na 1.3+/-0.5 g/kg d.w.; K 9.9+/-1.1 g/kg d.w.; Cu 0.24+/-0.09 mg/kg d.w.; Zn 24.8+/-2.3 mg/kg d.w.), the mean concentration values of opaque lenses showed some significant changes for Ca, Na, and Cu (Ca 123.7+/-106.6 mg/kg d.w.; Na 4.5+/-4.3 g/kg d.w; Cu 0.43+/-0.21 mg/kg d.w.). Potassium showed a tendency to decrease, and zinc to increase. Positive correlations were found between calcium and sodium both in controls (r=0.73, p<0.001) and in treated lenses (r= 0.87, p<0.0001). An inverse correlation between Ca and K confirmed the tendency of potassium to decrease.

  12. Proconvulsant potential of cyproheptadine in experimental animal models.

    PubMed

    Singh, Damanpreet; Goel, Rajesh Kumar

    2010-08-01

    In epileptic patients cyproheptadine is frequently prescribed as an appetite stimulant for the treatment of anorexia associated with anti-epileptic drugs and for the management of 'serotonin syndrome' in depressed epileptic patients. However, the study of serotonergic and histaminergic pathway shows that the decreased neurotransmission of serotonin and histamine in the brain reduces seizures threshold. Since, cyproheptadine interferes with these pathways via antagonizing subtypes of 5-HT(1/2) receptors and H(1) receptor, therefore the present study was undertaken to investigate its effect on seizures threshold, so as to substantiate its use in epileptics. In the present study convulsions were induced in mice by, maximum electroshock (MES), picrotoxin, and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). Cyproheptadine (4 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered per se and along with clinically used anti-epileptic drugs (phenytoin 25 mg/kg, i.p. and diazepam 5 mg/kg, i.p.) in different groups of mice, onset and extent of convulsions in these groups were compared with that of vehicle control and anti-epileptics per se treated groups. Percentage mortality in all groups was also determined. Results depicted a significant increase in duration of tonic hind limb extension in MES and decrease in latency to clonic convulsions induced by PTZ and picrotoxin in cyproheptadine treated groups (per se and along with anti-epileptics), as compared to vehicle control and anti-epileptics per se treated groups respectively. Percentage mortality was also increased with cyproheptadine treatment. Therefore it is concluded that cyproheptadine pretreatment reduces threshold, increases severity of seizures and decreases the efficacy of clinically used anti-epileptic drugs in experimental animal models of convulsions.

  13. Silibinin ameliorates LPS-induced memory deficits in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Ritu; Garabadu, Debapriya; Teja, Gangineni Ravi; Krishnamurthy, Sairam

    2014-12-01

    Neuroinflammation is considered as one of the predisposing factor in the etiology of several neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of silibinin (SIL) in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammatory model. The effect of SIL on memory function was also evaluated on normal rats without LPS administration. In the first experiment, male rats were divided into five groups. Except control group animals, all rats received bilateral intracerebroventricular injection of LPS (5 μg/5 μl) into lateral ventricles on the first day of the experimental schedule. Control rats received bilateral intracerebroventricular injection of artificial cerebrospinal fluid into lateral ventricles. SIL in doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. was administered 1h before LPS injection and continued for 7 days. On Day-7, SIL attenuated the LPS-induced long-term and working memory loss in elevated plus and Y-maze test respectively. Further, SIL dose-dependently attenuated LPS-induced decrease in acetylcholine level and increase in the acetylcholinestrase activity in hippocampus and pre-frontal cortex. SIL ameliorated LPS-induced decrease in the mitochondrial complex activity (I, IV and V) and integrity, increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase in both the brain regions. SIL attenuated amyloidogenesis in the hippocampus, while it decreased the LPS-induced increase in the level of NFκB in the pre-frontal cortex. In another study, SIL dose-dependently, enhanced memory functions in the normal rats, indicating its nootropic activity. Hence, SIL could be a potential candidate in the management of neuroinflammation-related memory disorders.

  14. Development of an improved animal model of experimental autoimmune myositis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Juan; Zhang, Hong-Ya; Feng, Guo-Dong; Feng, Dong-Yun; Jia, Hong-Ge

    2015-01-01

    Multiple animal models of experimental autoimmune myositis (EAM) have been developed. However, these models vary greatly in the severity of disease and reproducibility. The goal of this study was to test whether vaccination twice with increased dose of rat myosin and pertussis toxin (PT) could induce EAM with severer disease in mice. BALB/c mice were injected with 1 mg rat myosin in 50% complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) weekly for four times and one time of PT (EAM) or twice with 1.5 mg myosin in CFA and PT (M-EAM). In comparison with that in the CFA and PT injected controls, vaccination with rat myosin and injection PT significantly reduced the muscle strength and EMG duration, elevated serum creatine kinase levels, promoted inflammatory infiltration in the muscle tissues, leading to pathological changes in the muscle tissues, demonstrating to induce EAM. Interestingly, we found that vaccination twice with the high dose of myosin and PT prevented EAM-related gain in body weights and caused significantly less muscle strength in mice. More importantly, all of the mice receiving high dose of myosin and PT survived while 3 out of 16 mice with four times of low dose of myosin died. Finally, vaccination with high dose of myosin promoted CD4+ and CD8+ T cell infiltration in the muscle tissues and up-regulated MHC-I expression in the muscle tissues of mice. Hence, the new model of EAM is a time-saving, efficient and easily replicable tool for studying autoimmune myositis. PMID:26823763

  15. Secrets and lies: "selective openness" in the apparatus of animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Tora; Ideland, Malin

    2012-04-01

    Researchers and other (human) actors within the apparatus of animal experimentation find themselves in a tight corner. They rely on public acceptance to promote their legitimacy and to receive funding. At the same time, those working with animal experimentation take risks by going public, fearing that the public will misunderstand their work and animal rights activists may threaten them. The dilemma that emerges between openness and secrecy is fairly prevalent in scientific culture as a whole, but the apparatus of animal experimentation presents specific patterns of technologies of secrets. The aim of the paper is to describe and analyse the meanings of secrets and openness in contemporary animal experimentation. We suggest that these secrets--or "selective openness"--can be viewed as grease in the apparatus of animal experimentation, as a unifying ingredient that permits maintenance of status quo in human/animal relations and preserves existing institutional public/ science relations.

  16. Animal Structures and Functions, Science (Experimental): 5314.13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Barbara A.

    This unit of instruction was designed to introduce the student to the relationship between structure and function in the animal kingdom, with emphasis given to: (1) the evolution of physiological systems in the major animal phyla, (2) the complementarity of structure and function, and (3) the concept of homeostasis. The booklet lists the relevant…

  17. [A NEW APPROACH FOR FOOD PREFERENCE TESTING IN ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION].

    PubMed

    Albertin, S V

    2015-10-01

    An article describes the original method allowing to study a mechanism of food preference related to the sensory properties of foods in animals. The method gives a good possibility to select the role of visual and orosensory signaling in food preference as well as to model the processes of physiological and pathological food and drug dependence in animal experiments. The role of discrete food presentation in the formation of the current motivations and food preferences was discussed.

  18. [A NEW APPROACH FOR FOOD PREFERENCE TESTING IN ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION].

    PubMed

    Albertin, S V

    2015-10-01

    An article describes the original method allowing to study a mechanism of food preference related to the sensory properties of foods in animals. The method gives a good possibility to select the role of visual and orosensory signaling in food preference as well as to model the processes of physiological and pathological food and drug dependence in animal experiments. The role of discrete food presentation in the formation of the current motivations and food preferences was discussed. PMID:26827492

  19. Experimental infection of animals with influenzavirus types A and B.

    PubMed

    Paniker, C K; Nair, C M

    1972-01-01

    The knowledge that domestic cats were susceptible to infection with freshly isolated A/Hong Kong/68 influenzavirus led to studies on the susceptibility of some other animal species to this virus, as well as to studies on the ability of egg-passaged Hong Kong virus and an Asian virus to infect cats. The ability of a recent isolate of influenzavirus B to infect these animals was also studied. Macaca radiata monkeys could be infected with fresh isolates of A/Hong Kong virus by intranasal instillation or by contact with infected animals. They could also be infected with influenzavirus B by intranasal challenge, but contact transmission was not demonstrated. Mongrel dogs were found to be susceptible to A/Hong Kong/68 virus by intranasal instillation, but not to type B virus. Domestic cats could be infected with A/Hong Kong/68 virus passaged 6 times in eggs. They were also susceptible to infection with an established laboratory strain of Asian virus. Cats could be infected with influenzavirus B either by intranasal challenge or by contact with infected animals. In no case was clinical illness found following infection, but the infected animals shed virus from the throat and developed haemagglutination inhibiting antibodies.

  20. Experimental infection of animals with influenzavirus types A and B*

    PubMed Central

    Paniker, C. K. J.; Nair, C. M. G.

    1972-01-01

    The knowledge that domestic cats were susceptible to infection with freshly isolated A/Hong Kong/68 influenzavirus led to studies on the susceptibility of some other animal species to this virus, as well as to studies on the ability of egg-passaged Hong Kong virus and an Asian virus to infect cats. The ability of a recent isolate of influenzavirus B to infect these animals was also studied. Macaca radiata monkeys could be infected with fresh isolates of A/Hong Kong virus by intranasal instillation or by contact with infected animals. They could also be infected with influenzavirus B by intranasal challenge, but contact transmission was not demonstrated. Mongrel dogs were found to be susceptible to A/Hong Kong/68 virus by intranasal instillation, but not to type B virus. Domestic cats could be infected with A/Hong Kong/68 virus passaged 6 times in eggs. They were also susceptible to infection with an established laboratory strain of Asian virus. Cats could be infected with influenzavirus B either by intranasal challenge or by contact with infected animals. In no case was clinical illness found following infection, but the infected animals shed virus from the throat and developed haemagglutination inhibiting antibodies. PMID:4196340

  1. Lipid metabolism, adipocyte depot physiology and utilization of meat animals as experimental models for metabolic research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meat animals are unique as experimental models for both lipid metabolism and adipocyte studies because of their direct economic value for animal production. This paper discusses the principles that regulate adipogenesis in major meat animals (beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs), the definition of a...

  2. Animals from the Outside In, Science (Experimental): 5314.01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinman, David Z.

    Presented is an outline of a basic course (low level) in biology for students whose interest and background are very limited. The study and dissection of earthworm, crayfish, perch, and bird are included. A detailed study of the frog is undertaken as a representative of the animal kingdom. Performance objectives are presented, as well as a course…

  3. ATTEMPTS TO ESTABLISH EXPERIMENTAL CYCLOSPORA CAYETANENSIS INFECTION IN LABORATORY ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Attempts were made to develop an animal model for Cyclospora cayetanensis to identify a practical laboratory host for studying human cyclosporiasis. Oocysts collected from stool of infected humans in the United States, Haiti, Guatemala, Peru and Nepal were held in potassium dich...

  4. ATTEMPS TO ESTABLISH EXPERIMENTAL CYCLOSPORA CAYETANENSIS INFECTION IN LABORATORY ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Attemps were made to develop an animal model for Cyclospora cayetanensis to identify a practical laboratory host for studing human cyclosporiasis. Oocysts collected from stool of infected humans in the United States, Haiti, Guatemala, Peru, and Nepal were held in potassium dichro...

  5. Benzene dosimetry in experimental animals: relevance for risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Henderson, R F; Sabourin, P J; Medinsky, M A; Birnbaum, L S; Lucier, G L

    1992-01-01

    The findings of the studies summarized in this report provide some understanding of the possible role of dosimetry in the different response of the rats and mice to benzene in the long-term bioassay studies. The more sensitive species, the mice, definitely has a higher capacity to metabolize benzene and to metabolize it to more of the putative toxic metabolites than do rats. A major finding of these studies is that in three different animal species, from mice to monkeys, the metabolic pathways leading to production of the putative toxic metabolites appear to be low-capacity, high-affinity pathways that are saturated at relatively low-exposure concentrations. This does not prove, but suggests, that the same may be true in humans. If the total formation of the putative toxic metabolites is predictive of the toxicity of benzene, then the animal studies suggest that calculations of the risk associated with low dose exposures based on the results of animal studies conducted at high doses would underestimate the toxicity of benzene. The current report concerns only dosimetry. Another problem in assessing the risk to humans from benzene exposure is the fact that the animal models do not respond to benzene in the same way as humans. The major concern for humans exposed to benzene, based on epidemiology studies, is the risk of developing acute myelogenous leukemia (Rinksy, 1987). The cancers developed by the rodents on the long-term bioassay studies were at other sites (liver, lung, Zymbal's gland, lymph tissue, ovaries, and mammary gland). There is as yet no good animal model for benzene-induced leukemia. However, it has been suggested that benzene may also increase the incidence of Hodgkin's disease, malignant lymphoma, multiple myeloma and lung cancer in humans, although a statistical basis for this is lacking (Askoy, 1985). It is not unreasonable to assume that whatever form of cancer is induced, the induction is most likely through the reactive metabolites produced

  6. Hollow fiber-optic Raman probes for small experimental animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katagiri, Takashi; Hattori, Yusuke; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Matsuura, Yuji; Sato, Hidetoshi

    2007-02-01

    Two types of hollow fiber-optic probes are developed to measure the in vivo Raman spectra of small animals. One is the minimized probe which is end-sealed with the micro-ball lens. The measured spectra reflect the information of the sample's sub-surface. This probe is used for the measurement of the esophagus and the stomach via an endoscope. The other probe is a confocal Raman probe which consists of a single fiber and a lens system. It is integrated into the handheld microscope. A simple and small multimodal probe is realized because the hollow optical fiber requires no optical filters. The performance of each probe is examined and the effectiveness of these probes for in vivo Raman spectroscopy is shown by animal tests.

  7. Prediction of skin sensitizers using alternative methods to animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Henrik; Lindstedt, Malin

    2014-07-01

    Regulatory frameworks within the European Union demand that chemical substances are investigated for their ability to induce sensitization, an adverse health effect caused by the human immune system in response to chemical exposure. A recent ban on the use of animal tests within the cosmetics industry has led to an urgent need for alternative animal-free test methods that can be used for assessment of chemical sensitizers. To date, no such alternative assay has yet completed formal validation. However, a number of assays are in development and the understanding of the biological mechanisms of chemical sensitization has greatly increased during the last decade. In this MiniReview, we aim to summarize and give our view on the recent progress of method development for alternative assessment of chemical sensitizers. We propose that integrated testing strategies should comprise complementary assays, providing measurements of a wide range of mechanistic events, to perform well-educated risk assessments based on weight of evidence. PMID:24548737

  8. Prediction of skin sensitizers using alternative methods to animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Henrik; Lindstedt, Malin

    2014-07-01

    Regulatory frameworks within the European Union demand that chemical substances are investigated for their ability to induce sensitization, an adverse health effect caused by the human immune system in response to chemical exposure. A recent ban on the use of animal tests within the cosmetics industry has led to an urgent need for alternative animal-free test methods that can be used for assessment of chemical sensitizers. To date, no such alternative assay has yet completed formal validation. However, a number of assays are in development and the understanding of the biological mechanisms of chemical sensitization has greatly increased during the last decade. In this MiniReview, we aim to summarize and give our view on the recent progress of method development for alternative assessment of chemical sensitizers. We propose that integrated testing strategies should comprise complementary assays, providing measurements of a wide range of mechanistic events, to perform well-educated risk assessments based on weight of evidence.

  9. Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals 2012: another increase in experimentation - genetically-altered animals dominate again.

    PubMed

    Hudson-Shore, Michelle

    2013-09-01

    The Annual Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals Great Britain 2012 reveal that the level of animal experimentation in Great Britain continues to rise, with just over 4.1 million procedures being started in that year. Despite the previous year's indication that the dominance of the production and use of genetically-altered (GA, i.e. genetically-modified animals plus animals with harmful genetic defects) animal might be abating, it returned with a vengeance in 2012. Breeding increased from 43% to 48% of all procedures, and GA animals were involved in 59% of all the procedures. Indeed, if the breeding of these animals were removed from the statistics, the total number of procedures would actually decline by 2%. In order to honour their pledge to reduce animal use in science, the Coalition Government will have to address this issue. The general trends in the species used, and the numbers and types of procedures, are also reviewed. Finally, forthcoming changes to the statistics are discussed.

  10. Relevance of experimental animal studies to the human experience

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Animal experiments are being used to examine a number of physical and biological factors that influence risk estimations though not usually in coordination with epidemiologists. It is clear that the different mechanisms involved in different types of tumors are reflected in the diversity of dose-response relationships. The forms of the dose-response relationships are influenced by both the initial events and their expression. Evidence is accumulating that many initiated cells do not get expressed as overt cancers and host factors may play a major role in the expression of potential tumor cells. There is a need for information about the relationship of the natural incidence and susceptibility to radiation induction for more tumor types. Such experiments will help answer the question of which risk estimate models are appropriate for different tumor types and can be carried out on animals. Perhaps because of the importance of host factors risk estimates as a percentage of the natural incidence appear to be similar for human beings and mice for a small number of tumor types. The elucidation of the mechanisms involved in different tissues while a slow business remains an important role of animal experiments.

  11. Arachnoiditis from myelography and laminectomy in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Johansen, J G; Barthelemy, C R; Haughton, V M; Lipman, B T; Ho, K C

    1984-01-01

    Clinical reports have suggested that myelography and laminectomy may produce more arachnoiditis than myelography alone. The effect of experimental lumbar myelography and laminectomy on arachnoiditis in monkeys was studied. Arachnoiditis was as severe after myelography alone as after myelography and laminectomy. Minimal arachnoiditis was found myelographically and histologically after myelography with metrizamide 300 mg l/ml, and severe arachnoiditis was found after myelography with iophendylate whether or not laminectomy was performed. Laminectomy alone produced insignificant arachnoid changes. Experimental myelography preceding laminectomy did not increase the risk of arachnoiditis.

  12. Animal model experimentation using the expansile hydrogel intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Siepser, S B; Wieland, M

    1991-07-01

    To determine the biocompatibility of the expansile hydrogel intraocular lens, a two-year animal study was undertaken. After phacoemulsification, hydrogel expansile intraocular lenses were implanted in four Dutch-belted rabbit eyes. Slitlamp examinations revealed minimal anterior chamber reaction and lens synechias. Gross pathology and histology demonstrated hyperplastic residual cortex, but confirmed our clinical impression that the lenses were well tolerated. Electron diffraction energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis revealed deposition of aluminum, silicon, magnesium, and calcium, but there was no evidence of matrix penetration. PMID:1895227

  13. Muscle pain: animal and human experimental and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Marchettini, P

    1993-10-01

    The search for the identification of the sensory apparatus encoding muscle pain sensation in humans is recounted. Basic neurophysiologic animal studies, leading to a description of slowly conducting afferent from muscle and definition of high threshold polymodal muscle nociceptors, and pioneer psychophysic human studies together with recent microneurographic experiments in humans are described. The phenomena of muscle pain broad localization and distant referral are discussed, and clinical implications are extrapolated to interpret muscle pain as a localizing sign of mononeuropathy or radiculopathy. The identification of human muscle nociceptors has defined the scientific standard to test emerging clinical descriptions having muscle pain as a symptom.

  14. Experimental inoculation of plants and animals with Ebola virus.

    PubMed Central

    Swanepoel, R.; Leman, P. A.; Burt, F. J.; Zachariades, N. A.; Braack, L. E.; Ksiazek, T. G.; Rollin, P. E.; Zaki, S. R.; Peters, C. J.

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-three varieties of 24 species of plants and 19 species of vertebrates and invertebrates were experimentally inoculated with Ebola Zaire virus. Fruit and insectivorous bats supported replication and circulation of high titers of virus without necessarily becoming ill; deaths occurred only among bats that had not adapted to the diet fed in the laboratory. PMID:8969248

  15. Research perspectives for pre-screening alternatives to animal experimentation

    SciTech Connect

    Walum, Erik . E-mail: erik.walum@biovitrum.com; Hedander, Jan; Garberg, Per

    2005-09-01

    The MEIC study revealed a high predictivity of in vitro cytotoxicity data for human acute systemic toxicity. The idea, put forward by several authors, that compounds that show high cytotoxicity should not need further testing for confirmation but could be assumed toxic also in vivo provides a convenient concept for the selection of the most relevant compounds for further studies in large sets of chemicals, as in the REACH program. The automated techniques applied in high throughput screening (HTS) by the pharmaceutical and biotech industries to select hits in extensive compound collections represent an opportunity to significantly increase the capacity of cytotoxicity testing. Furthermore, it has been suggested that a combination of cytotoxicity data and some basic biokinetic information would greatly improve the accuracy in the extrapolation from in vitro to in vivo and thus make it possible to identify additional toxic compounds that might have escaped in the initial screen. Such information, which can be obtained in a medium throughput screening mode (MTS), includes biotransformation, absorption and some aspects of distribution. The measurement of the net flux of a compound over a cellular barrier, as the one formed in culture by human Caco-2 cells, gives useful, but limited, information on both gut absorption and blood-brain barrier penetration. The test procedures discussed here, as well as other supplementary in vitro tests, cannot always easily be described in terms of animal-based test replacements. In those instances, the necessary test validation cannot be carried out using animal reference data, and prediction models may have to be adapted to new ideas. Consequently, concepts of prospective validation to supplement the now well-established retrospective validation have to be developed.

  16. Neoplasms in domestic animals: a review of experimental and spontaneous carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Madewell, B. R.

    1981-01-01

    Clues to environmental and host factors in human oncogenesis are derived from clinical or epidemiologic studies; additional evidence is provided by animal experimentation. Induced tumors in animals are useful because of their reproducibility and predictability, allowing detailed study of specific carcinogens or carcinogenic influences. Spontaneously or naturally occurring tumors in domestic animals are of particular interest for comparative studies - these tumors occur in heterogenous outbred populations of animal closely sharing man's environment; their cause is generally unknown; many tumors occur in numbers suitable for detailed investigations; and tumors generally occur in aged animals, thus facilitating study of chronic processes associated with carcinogenesis in nature. PMID:7269640

  17. Experimental investigation of buried tritium in plant and animal tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S. B.; Workman, W. J. G.; Davis, P. A.

    2008-07-15

    Buried exchangeable tritium appears as part of organically bound tritium (OBT) in the traditional experimental determination of OBT. Since buried tritium quickly exchanges with hydrogen atoms in the body following ingestion, assuming that it is part of OBT rather than part of tritiated water (HTO) could result in a significant overestimate of the ingestion dose. This paper documents an experimental investigation into the existence, amount and significance of buried tritium in plant and fish samples. OBT concentrations in the samples were determined in the traditional way and also following denaturing with five chemical solutions that break down large molecules and expose buried tritium to exchange with free hydrogen atoms. A comparison of the OBT concentrations before and after denaturing, together with the concentration of HTO in the supernatant obtained after denaturing, suggests that buried OBT may exist but makes up less than 5% of the OBT concentration in plants and at most 20% of the OBT concentration in fish. The effects of rinse time and rinse water volumes were investigated to optimize the removal of exchangeable OBT from the samples. (authors)

  18. Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals 2014: A new format, and hopefully a new era of diminishing animal experimentation?

    PubMed

    Hudson-Shore, Michelle

    2016-03-01

    The Annual Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals Great Britain 2014 reports a welcome decline in animal experimentation in the UK. However, caution has to be exercised when interpreting these most recent figures, due to the significant changes made to satisfy the requirements of Directive 2010/63/EU as to what information is reported and how it is reported. Comparisons to the figures and trends reported in previous years is difficult, so this paper focuses on the specifics of the current report, providing information on overall animal use and highlighting specific issues associated with genetically-altered animals, fish and primates. There is a detailed discussion of the extent of the changes, commenting on the benefits and disadvantages of the new format, in areas such as severity of procedures, legislation and techniques of special interest. It also considers the consequences of the changes on the effective monitoring of laboratory animal use, the openness and transparency regarding the impacts of animal use, and the implementation of Three Rs initiatives. In addition, suggestions for further improvements to the new format are made to the Home Office. PMID:27031603

  19. Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals 2014: A new format, and hopefully a new era of diminishing animal experimentation?

    PubMed

    Hudson-Shore, Michelle

    2016-03-01

    The Annual Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals Great Britain 2014 reports a welcome decline in animal experimentation in the UK. However, caution has to be exercised when interpreting these most recent figures, due to the significant changes made to satisfy the requirements of Directive 2010/63/EU as to what information is reported and how it is reported. Comparisons to the figures and trends reported in previous years is difficult, so this paper focuses on the specifics of the current report, providing information on overall animal use and highlighting specific issues associated with genetically-altered animals, fish and primates. There is a detailed discussion of the extent of the changes, commenting on the benefits and disadvantages of the new format, in areas such as severity of procedures, legislation and techniques of special interest. It also considers the consequences of the changes on the effective monitoring of laboratory animal use, the openness and transparency regarding the impacts of animal use, and the implementation of Three Rs initiatives. In addition, suggestions for further improvements to the new format are made to the Home Office.

  20. Implant healing in experimental animal models of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Le, Nga N; Rose, Michael B; Levinson, Howard; Klitzman, Bruce

    2011-05-01

    influence wound healing and infection in diabetic patients, to review research concerning diabetes and biomedical implants and device infection, and to critically analyze which diabetic animal model might be advantageous for assessing internal healing adjacent to implanted devices.

  1. Experimental liver fibrosis research: update on animal models, legal issues and translational aspects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is defined as excessive extracellular matrix deposition and is based on complex interactions between matrix-producing hepatic stellate cells and an abundance of liver-resident and infiltrating cells. Investigation of these processes requires in vitro and in vivo experimental work in animals. However, the use of animals in translational research will be increasingly challenged, at least in countries of the European Union, because of the adoption of new animal welfare rules in 2013. These rules will create an urgent need for optimized standard operating procedures regarding animal experimentation and improved international communication in the liver fibrosis community. This review gives an update on current animal models, techniques and underlying pathomechanisms with the aim of fostering a critical discussion of the limitations and potential of up-to-date animal experimentation. We discuss potential complications in experimental liver fibrosis and provide examples of how the findings of studies in which these models are used can be translated to human disease and therapy. In this review, we want to motivate the international community to design more standardized animal models which might help to address the legally requested replacement, refinement and reduction of animals in fibrosis research. PMID:24274743

  2. Remaining Sites Verification Package for 100-F-38 Stained Soil Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-093

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Carlson

    2006-03-13

    The 100-F-38 Stained Soil site was an area of yellow stained soil that was discoverd while excavating a trench for the placement of electrical conduit. The 100-F-38 Stained Soil site meets the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations support future unrestricted land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario. The results also show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils and the contaminant concentrations remaining in the soil are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  3. Federal regulation of experimental animal use in the United States of America.

    PubMed

    Schwindaman, D

    1994-03-01

    The author outlines the regulation of animal experimentation in the United States of America (USA). Regulation in this field is at the developmental stage; issues are still being defined as public interest in animal welfare focuses on various aspects of animal science. Society continues to initiate regulations for animal experimentation in response to technological advances which were unknown when the first USA Federal legislation in this field (the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act) was signed in 1966. Under the sponsorship of animal welfare activists and, more recently, animal rights advocates, amendments to the 1966 law have increased the scope of Federal authority by extending both the number of species covered and the areas of care which are regulated. A greater awareness has evolved of the issues raised by animal experimentation, both among the general public and within the scientific communities. The importance of the Institutional Animal and Care Use Committees in research facilities is described, together with other factors which affect Federal legislation. Government regulatory philosophy is also changing towards a participatory relationship between regulators and public interest groups. Various affiliations to global and regional organisations have heightened national awareness with regard to the perceived exploitation of animal species. The author demonstrates clearly that the prevailing trend in the USA is towards expanded agreements which are jointly derived and implemented, and which will be instrumental in the search for resolutions. The author concludes that these resolutions will continue to revolve around the ethical need to respect the nature of animal species and the need for knowledge concerning both humans and animals which can help to extend and enhance the quality of life.

  4. Animal tales: observations of the emotions in American experimental psychology, 1890-1940.

    PubMed

    Rose, Anne C

    2012-01-01

    In nineteenth-century science, the emotions played a crucial role in explaining the social behavior of animals and human beings. Beginning in the 1890s, however, the first American psychologists, resolutely parsimonious in method, dismissed affective experience as intellectually imprecise. Yet in practice, feelings continued to influence at least one research setting: animal experiments. Laboratory reports, although focused on learning, became a repository of informal observations about the animals' temperaments and moods. When American psychologists began to reexamine the emotions between the world wars, they drew on this empirical legacy in animal studies. They also devised a conceptual approach to emotion consistent with their expectation of experimental precision.

  5. Animal experimentation: pro and con arguments using the theory of evolution.

    PubMed

    Nordgren, Anders

    2002-01-01

    The theory of evolution has been used in arguments regarding animal experimentation. Two such arguments are analyzed, one against and one in favor. Each argument stresses the relevance of the theory of evolution to normative ethics but attempts explicitly to avoid the so-called naturalistic fallacy. According to the argument against animal experimentation, the theory of evolution 'undermines' the idea of a special human dignity and supports 'moral individualism'. The latter view implies that if it is wrong to use humans in experiments, then it is also wrong to use animals, unless there are relevant differences between them that justify a difference in treatment. No such differences can be found with regard to animals which lead 'biographical lives'. The argument in favor of animal experimentation is based on evolutionary psychology. It states that humans, as all social animals, are speciesist by nature and stresses that this should be taken seriously in normative ethics. This does not mean that animal interests should not be considered, only that vital human interests may outweigh them. In order to assess the arguments, one has to take a stand on certain more basic issues: 'is' versus 'ought', impartiality versus special obligations, and feelings/intuitions versus reason. Given the author's own position with regard to these more basic considerations, the-evolutionary argument in favor of animal experimentation is judged to be more convincing than the one against but not decisive. It is also maintained that not all animal experiments are acceptable. Which animal experiments are acceptable and which are not has to be decided on a case-by-case basis. PMID:11954991

  6. Experimental evidence for inherent Lévy search behaviour in foraging animals

    PubMed Central

    Kölzsch, Andrea; Alzate, Adriana; Bartumeus, Frederic; de Jager, Monique; Weerman, Ellen J.; Hengeveld, Geerten M.; Naguib, Marc; Nolet, Bart A.; van de Koppel, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Recently, Lévy walks have been put forward as a new paradigm for animal search and many cases have been made for its presence in nature. However, it remains debated whether Lévy walks are an inherent behavioural strategy or emerge from the animal reacting to its habitat. Here, we demonstrate signatures of Lévy behaviour in the search movement of mud snails (Hydrobia ulvae) based on a novel, direct assessment of movement properties in an experimental set-up using different food distributions. Our experimental data uncovered clusters of small movement steps alternating with long moves independent of food encounter and landscape complexity. Moreover, size distributions of these clusters followed truncated power laws. These two findings are characteristic signatures of mechanisms underlying inherent Lévy-like movement. Thus, our study provides clear experimental evidence that such multi-scale movement is an inherent behaviour rather than resulting from the animal interacting with its environment. PMID:25904671

  7. Experimental evidence for inherent Lévy search behaviour in foraging animals.

    PubMed

    Kölzsch, Andrea; Alzate, Adriana; Bartumeus, Frederic; de Jager, Monique; Weerman, Ellen J; Hengeveld, Geerten M; Naguib, Marc; Nolet, Bart A; van de Koppel, Johan

    2015-05-22

    Recently, Lévy walks have been put forward as a new paradigm for animal search and many cases have been made for its presence in nature. However, it remains debated whether Lévy walks are an inherent behavioural strategy or emerge from the animal reacting to its habitat. Here, we demonstrate signatures of Lévy behaviour in the search movement of mud snails (Hydrobia ulvae) based on a novel, direct assessment of movement properties in an experimental set-up using different food distributions. Our experimental data uncovered clusters of small movement steps alternating with long moves independent of food encounter and landscape complexity. Moreover, size distributions of these clusters followed truncated power laws. These two findings are characteristic signatures of mechanisms underlying inherent Lévy-like movement. Thus, our study provides clear experimental evidence that such multi-scale movement is an inherent behaviour rather than resulting from the animal interacting with its environment.

  8. Experimental evidence for inherent Lévy search behaviour in foraging animals.

    PubMed

    Kölzsch, Andrea; Alzate, Adriana; Bartumeus, Frederic; de Jager, Monique; Weerman, Ellen J; Hengeveld, Geerten M; Naguib, Marc; Nolet, Bart A; van de Koppel, Johan

    2015-05-22

    Recently, Lévy walks have been put forward as a new paradigm for animal search and many cases have been made for its presence in nature. However, it remains debated whether Lévy walks are an inherent behavioural strategy or emerge from the animal reacting to its habitat. Here, we demonstrate signatures of Lévy behaviour in the search movement of mud snails (Hydrobia ulvae) based on a novel, direct assessment of movement properties in an experimental set-up using different food distributions. Our experimental data uncovered clusters of small movement steps alternating with long moves independent of food encounter and landscape complexity. Moreover, size distributions of these clusters followed truncated power laws. These two findings are characteristic signatures of mechanisms underlying inherent Lévy-like movement. Thus, our study provides clear experimental evidence that such multi-scale movement is an inherent behaviour rather than resulting from the animal interacting with its environment. PMID:25904671

  9. Selecting appropriate animal models and experimental designs for endocrine disruptor research and testing studies.

    PubMed

    Stokes, William S

    2004-01-01

    Evidence that chemicals in the environment may cause developmental and reproductive abnormalities in fish and wildlife by disrupting normal endocrine functions has increased concern about potential adverse human health effects from such chemicals. US laws have now been enacted that require the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop and validate a screening program to identify chemicals in food and water with potential endocrine-disrupting activity. EPA subsequently proposed an Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program that uses in vitro and in vivo test systems to identify chemicals that may adversely affect humans and ecologically important animal species. However, the endocrine system can be readily modulated by many experimental factors, including diet and the genetic background of the selected animal strain or stock. It is therefore desirable to minimize or avoid factors that cause or contribute to experimental variation in endocrine disruptor research and testing studies. Standard laboratory animal diets contain high and variable levels of phytoestrogens, which can modulate physiologic and behavioral responses similar to both endogenous estrogen as well as exogenous estrogenic chemicals. Other studies have determined that some commonly used outbred mice and rats are less responsive to estrogenic substances than certain inbred mouse and rat strains for various estrogen-sensitive endpoints. It is therefore critical to select appropriate biological models and diets for endocrine disruptor studies that provide optimal sensitivity and specificity to accomplish the research or testing objectives. An introduction is provided to 11 other papers in this issue that review these and other important laboratory animal experimental design considerations in greater detail, and that review laboratory animal and in vitro models currently being used or evaluated for endocrine disruptor research and testing. Selection of appropriate animal models and experimental design

  10. Alexander von Humboldt: galvanism, animal electricity, and self-experimentation part 2: the electric eel, animal electricity, and later years.

    PubMed

    Finger, Stanley; Piccolino, Marco; Stahnisch, Frank W

    2013-01-01

    After extensive experimentation during the 1790s, Alexander von Humboldt remained skeptical about "animal electricity" (and metallic electricity), writing instead about an ill-defined galvanic force. With his worldview and wishing to learn more, he studied electric eels in South America just as the new century began, again using his body as a scientific instrument in many of his experiments. As had been the case in the past and for many of the same reasons, some of his findings with the electric eel (and soon after, Italian torpedoes) seemed to argue against biological electricity. But he no longer used galvanic terminology when describing his electric fish experiments. The fact that he now wrote about animal electricity rather than a different "galvanic" force owed much to Alessandro Volta, who had come forth with his "pile" (battery) for multipling the physical and perceptable effects of otherwise weak electricity in 1800, while Humboldt was deep in South America. Humboldt probably read about and saw voltaic batteries in the United States in 1804, but the time he spent with Volta in 1805 was probably more significant in his conversion from a galvanic to an electrical framework for understanding nerve and muscle physiology. Although he did not continue his animal electricity research program after this time, Humboldt retained his worldview of a unified nature and continued to believe in intrinsic animal electricity. He also served as a patron to some of the most important figures in the new field of electrophysiology (e.g., Hermann Helmholtz and Emil du Bois-Reymond), helping to take the research that he had participated in to the next level.

  11. The relationship between fibrosis and cancer in experimental animals exposed to asbestos and other fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.M.G.; Cowie, H.A. )

    1990-08-01

    The association between occupational asbestos exposure and the development of both pulmonary fibrosis or asbestosis and pulmonary carcinomas is well documented. It has been suggested that the two pathological conditions are associated with asbestos-related carcinomas developing from areas of asbestosis and not occurring when exposure has been too low to produce this type of pulmonary scarring. Experimental inhalation studies so far published have not been designed to examine this association specifically, but many publications have reported that asbestos samples producing high levels of fibrosis in experimental animals are also very carcinogenic. Samples of asbestos or man-made fibers that produce little fibrosis also produce few tumors. These works are reviewed. In order to examine the association between fibrosis and tumor production in more detail, groups of animals with and without pulmonary tumors and with individual fibrosis measurements were assembled from a number of inhalation studies undertaken over a period of years at this Institute. It was found that animals with pulmonary tumors had almost double the amount of pulmonary fibrosis as animals of similar age that did not. In a few of the animals where tumors were found at an early stage of development, their origin from fibrotic areas could be confirmed, although in most cases where tumor deposits were widespread this was not possible. Experimental confirmation of the site of origin of most pulmonary tumors in asbestos-treated rats would require new studies with rats examined specifically at an age when early tumors would be expected.

  12. The relationship between fibrosis and cancer in experimental animals exposed to asbestos and other fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, J M; Cowie, H A

    1990-01-01

    The association between occupational asbestos exposure and the development of both pulmonary fibrosis or asbestosis and pulmonary carcinomas is well documented. It has been suggested that the two pathological conditions are associated with asbestos-related carcinomas developing from areas of asbestosis and not occurring when exposure has been too low to produce this type of pulmonary scarring. Experimental inhalation studies so far published have not been designed to examine this association specifically, but many publications have reported that asbestos samples producing high levels of fibrosis is experimental animals are also very carcinogenic. Samples of asbestos or man-made fibers that produce little fibrosis also produce few tumors. These works are reviewed. In order to examine the association between fibrosis and tumor production in more detail, groups of animals with and without pulmonary tumors and with individual fibrosis measurements were assembled from a number of inhalation studies undertaken over a period of years at this Institute. It was found that animals with pulmonary tumors had almost double the amount of pulmonary fibrosis as animals of similar age that did not. In a few of the animals where tumors were found at an early stage of development, their origin from fibrotic areas could be confirmed, although in most cases where tumor deposits were widespread this was not possible. Experimental confirmation of the site of origin of most pulmonary tumors in asbestos-treated rats would require new studies with rats examined specifically at an age when early tumors would be expected. PMID:2272327

  13. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-50 Stormwater Runoff Culvert, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-001

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2008-04-15

    The 100-F-50 waste site, part of the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit, is a steel stormwater runoff culvert that runs between two railroad grades in the south-central portion of the 100-F Area. The culvert exiting the west side of the railroad grade is mostly encased in concrete and surrounded by a concrete stormwater collection depression partially filled with soil and vegetation. The drain pipe exiting the east side of the railroad grade embankment is partially filled with soil and rocks. The 100-F-50 stormwater diversion culvert confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to no action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  14. Management of Ocular Diseases Using Lutein and Zeaxanthin: What Have We Learned from Experimental Animal Studies?

    PubMed

    Xue, Chunyan; Rosen, Richard; Jordan, Adrienne; Hu, Dan-Ning

    2015-01-01

    Zeaxanthin and lutein are two carotenoid pigments that concentrated in the retina, especially in the macula. The effects of lutein and zeaxanthin on the prevention and treatment of various eye diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and cataract, ischemic/hypoxia induced retinopathy, light damage of the retina, retinitis pigmentosa, retinal detachment, and uveitis, have been studied in different experimental animal models. In these animal models, lutein and zeaxanthin have been reported to have beneficial effects in protecting ocular tissues and cells (especially the retinal neurons) against damage caused by different etiological factors. The mechanisms responsible for these effects of lutein and zeaxanthin include prevention of phototoxic damage by absorption of blue light, reduction of oxidative stress through antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging, and their anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties. The results of these experimental animal studies may provide new preventive and therapeutic procedures for clinical management of various vision-threatening diseases. PMID:26617995

  15. Eating Frequency, Food Intake, and Weight: A Systematic Review of Human and Animal Experimental Studies

    PubMed Central

    Raynor, Hollie A.; Goff, Matthew R.; Poole, Seletha A.; Chen, Guoxun

    2015-01-01

    Eating frequently during the day, or “grazing,” has been proposed to assist with managing food intake and weight. This systematic review assessed the effect of greater eating frequency (EF) on intake and anthropometrics in human and animal experimental studies. Studies were identified through the PubMed electronic database. To be included, studies needed to be conducted in controlled settings or use methods that carefully monitored food intake, and measure food intake or anthropometrics. Studies using human or animal models of disease states (i.e., conditions influencing glucose or lipid metabolism), aside from being overweight or obese, were not included. The 25 reviewed studies (15 human and 10 animal studies) contained varying study designs, EF manipulations (1–24 eating occasions per day), lengths of experimentation (230 min to 28 weeks), and sample sizes (3–56 participants/animals per condition). Studies were organized into four categories for reporting results: (1) human studies conducted in laboratory/metabolic ward settings; (2) human studies conducted in field settings; (3) animal studies with experimental periods <1 month; and (4) animal studies with experimental periods >1 month. Out of the 13 studies reporting on consumption, 8 (61.5%) found no significant effect of EF. Seventeen studies reported on anthropometrics, with 11 studies (64.7%) finding no significant effect of EF. Future, adequately powered, studies should examine if other factors (i.e., disease states, physical activity, energy balance and weight status, long-term increased EF) influence the relationship between increased EF and intake and/or anthropometrics. PMID:26734613

  16. Eating Frequency, Food Intake, and Weight: A Systematic Review of Human and Animal Experimental Studies.

    PubMed

    Raynor, Hollie A; Goff, Matthew R; Poole, Seletha A; Chen, Guoxun

    2015-01-01

    Eating frequently during the day, or "grazing," has been proposed to assist with managing food intake and weight. This systematic review assessed the effect of greater eating frequency (EF) on intake and anthropometrics in human and animal experimental studies. Studies were identified through the PubMed electronic database. To be included, studies needed to be conducted in controlled settings or use methods that carefully monitored food intake, and measure food intake or anthropometrics. Studies using human or animal models of disease states (i.e., conditions influencing glucose or lipid metabolism), aside from being overweight or obese, were not included. The 25 reviewed studies (15 human and 10 animal studies) contained varying study designs, EF manipulations (1-24 eating occasions per day), lengths of experimentation (230 min to 28 weeks), and sample sizes (3-56 participants/animals per condition). Studies were organized into four categories for reporting results: (1) human studies conducted in laboratory/metabolic ward settings; (2) human studies conducted in field settings; (3) animal studies with experimental periods <1 month; and (4) animal studies with experimental periods >1 month. Out of the 13 studies reporting on consumption, 8 (61.5%) found no significant effect of EF. Seventeen studies reported on anthropometrics, with 11 studies (64.7%) finding no significant effect of EF. Future, adequately powered, studies should examine if other factors (i.e., disease states, physical activity, energy balance and weight status, long-term increased EF) influence the relationship between increased EF and intake and/or anthropometrics.

  17. Randomized block experimental designs can increase the power and reproducibility of laboratory animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Festing, Michael F W

    2014-01-01

    Randomized block experimental designs have been widely used in agricultural and industrial research for many decades. Usually they are more powerful, have higher external validity, are less subject to bias, and produce more reproducible results than the completely randomized designs typically used in research involving laboratory animals. Reproducibility can be further increased by using time as a blocking factor. These benefits can be achieved at no extra cost. A small experiment investigating the effect of an antioxidant on the activity of a liver enzyme in four inbred mouse strains, which had two replications (blocks) separated by a period of two months, illustrates this approach. The widespread failure to use these designs more widely in research involving laboratory animals has probably led to a substantial waste of animals, money, and scientific resources and slowed down the development of new treatments for human and animal diseases.

  18. The Change Detection Advantage for Animals: An Effect of Ancestral Priorities or Progeny of Experimental Design?

    PubMed

    Hagen, Thomas; Laeng, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    The "animate monitoring" hypothesis proposes that humans are evolutionarily predisposed to recruit attention toward animals. Support for this has repeatedly been obtained through the change detection paradigm where animals are detected faster than artifacts. The present study shows that the advantage for animals does not stand up to more rigorous experimental controls. Experiment 1 used artificially generated change detection scenes and counterbalanced identical target objects across two sets of scenes. Results showed that detection performance is determined more by the surrounding scene than semantic category. Experiment 2 used photographs from the original studies and replaced the target animals with artifacts in the exact same locations, such that the surrounding scene was kept constant while manipulating the target category. Results replicated the original studies when photos were not manipulated but agreed with the findings of our first experiment in that the advantage shifted to the artifacts when object categories replaced each other in the original scenes. A third experiment used inverted and blurred images so as to disrupt high-level perception but failed to erase the advantage for animals. Hence, the present set of results questions whether the supposed attentional advantage for animals can be supported by evidence from the change detection paradigm.

  19. The Change Detection Advantage for Animals: An Effect of Ancestral Priorities or Progeny of Experimental Design?

    PubMed Central

    Laeng, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The “animate monitoring” hypothesis proposes that humans are evolutionarily predisposed to recruit attention toward animals. Support for this has repeatedly been obtained through the change detection paradigm where animals are detected faster than artifacts. The present study shows that the advantage for animals does not stand up to more rigorous experimental controls. Experiment 1 used artificially generated change detection scenes and counterbalanced identical target objects across two sets of scenes. Results showed that detection performance is determined more by the surrounding scene than semantic category. Experiment 2 used photographs from the original studies and replaced the target animals with artifacts in the exact same locations, such that the surrounding scene was kept constant while manipulating the target category. Results replicated the original studies when photos were not manipulated but agreed with the findings of our first experiment in that the advantage shifted to the artifacts when object categories replaced each other in the original scenes. A third experiment used inverted and blurred images so as to disrupt high-level perception but failed to erase the advantage for animals. Hence, the present set of results questions whether the supposed attentional advantage for animals can be supported by evidence from the change detection paradigm. PMID:27433331

  20. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  1. In vivo screening of extracellular matrix components produced under multiple experimental conditions implanted in one animal.

    PubMed

    Higuera, Gustavo A; Hendriks, Jeanine A A; van Dalum, Joost; Wu, Ling; Schotel, Roka; Moreira-Teixeira, Liliana; van den Doel, Mirella; Leijten, Jeroen C H; Riesle, Jens; Karperien, Marcel; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2013-06-01

    Animal experiments help to progress and ensure safety of an increasing number of novel therapies, drug development and chemicals. Unfortunately, these also lead to major ethical concerns, costs and limited experimental capacity. We foresee a coercion of all these issues by implantation of well systems directly into vertebrate animals. Here, we used rapid prototyping to create wells with biomaterials to create a three-dimensional (3D) well-system that can be used in vitro and in vivo. First, the well sizes and numbers were adjusted for 3D cell culture and in vitro screening of molecules. Then, the functionality of the wells was evaluated in vivo under 36 conditions for tissue regeneration involving human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and bovine primary chondrocytes (bPCs) screened in one animal. Each biocompatible well was controlled to contain μl-size volumes of tissue, which led to tissue penetration from the host and tissue formation under implanted conditions. We quantified both physically and biologically the amounts of extracellular matrix (ECM) components found in each well. Using this new concept the co-culture of hMSCs and bPCs was identified as a positive hit for cartilage tissue repair, which was a comparable result using conventional methods. The in vivo screening of candidate conditions opens an entirely new range of experimental possibilities, which significantly abates experimental animal use and increases the pace of discovery of medical treatments.

  2. [Christian responsibility and experimental medicine. Experiments with and on humans, experiments on animals].

    PubMed

    Grosse, Heinrich W

    2002-01-01

    The Jewish-Christian convictions that man was created as the image of God founded the "ethics of unavailability" which contrast with the utilitarian "ethics of interests." As man s nature is imperfect according to biblical understanding, those responsible in the field of experimental medicine should counteract all tendencies in society which promote an utopian definition of health and an eugenic mentality (idea of the "perfection of mankind"). Consequently, scientists must reflect their own image of man and the effects of their actions on this image. The goals of experimental medicine must also be examined under the aspect of fairness: do they only benefit a minority in the rich industrial nations? As in research on humans, the ethical evaluation of animal experiments must consider the question of the underlying image of humanity and the responsibility of mankind connected to it. Because of changes in society's values, the validity of traditional anthropocentrism is increasingly questioned. However, this does not affect the view of the special position of man as the bearer of responsibility. Even though there are different biblical statements on the relationship between man and animal, the Christian maxim to minimise violence towards animals can be derived from them. In the case of animal experiments this means: experiments which cause the animals severe suffering must be avoided by waiving the potential gain of knowledge from them. In general: in an ethical discussion on medical experiments using humans or animals, the public must be informed completely and involved effectively. A moratorium must be possible before plans become facts. Thinking about ethical problems in the area of experimental medicine should not be separated from the far-reaching questions about changes in our lifestyle and consumer behaviour. PMID:12457205

  3. [Christian responsibility and experimental medicine. Experiments with and on humans, experiments on animals].

    PubMed

    Grosse, Heinrich W

    2002-01-01

    The Jewish-Christian convictions that man was created as the image of God founded the "ethics of unavailability" which contrast with the utilitarian "ethics of interests." As man s nature is imperfect according to biblical understanding, those responsible in the field of experimental medicine should counteract all tendencies in society which promote an utopian definition of health and an eugenic mentality (idea of the "perfection of mankind"). Consequently, scientists must reflect their own image of man and the effects of their actions on this image. The goals of experimental medicine must also be examined under the aspect of fairness: do they only benefit a minority in the rich industrial nations? As in research on humans, the ethical evaluation of animal experiments must consider the question of the underlying image of humanity and the responsibility of mankind connected to it. Because of changes in society's values, the validity of traditional anthropocentrism is increasingly questioned. However, this does not affect the view of the special position of man as the bearer of responsibility. Even though there are different biblical statements on the relationship between man and animal, the Christian maxim to minimise violence towards animals can be derived from them. In the case of animal experiments this means: experiments which cause the animals severe suffering must be avoided by waiving the potential gain of knowledge from them. In general: in an ethical discussion on medical experiments using humans or animals, the public must be informed completely and involved effectively. A moratorium must be possible before plans become facts. Thinking about ethical problems in the area of experimental medicine should not be separated from the far-reaching questions about changes in our lifestyle and consumer behaviour.

  4. D-Galactosamine Intoxication in Experimental Animals: Is it Only an Experimental Model of Acute Liver Failure?

    PubMed Central

    Saracyn, Marek; Zdanowski, Robert; Brytan, Marek; Kade, Grzegorz; Nowak, Zbigniew; Patera, Janusz; Dyrla, Przemysław; Gil, Jerzy; Wańkowicz, Zofia

    2015-01-01

    Background Short-term administration of Galactosamine to experimental animals causes liver damage and acute liver failure (ALF), as well as acute renal failure in some cases. The aim of our study was to describe kidney disorders that developed in the course of galactosamine-induced liver failure. Material/Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: a study group administered galactosamine intraperitoneally and a control group administered saline. Results All the animals in the study group developed liver damage and failure within 48 h, with significant increase of alanine (p<0.001), aspartate aminotransferases (p<0.0001), bilirubin (p<0.004), and ammonia (p<0.005) and decrease of albumin (p<0.001) concentrations. Acute renal failure was observed in all test animals, with a significant increase in creatinine (p<0.001) and urea (p<0.001) concentrations and a decrease in creatinine clearance (p<0.0012). Moreover, osmotic clearance (p<0.001), daily natriuresis (p<0.003), and fractional sodium excretion (p<0.016) decreased significantly in this group of animals. The ratio of urine osmolality to serum osmolality did not change. Histopathology of the liver revealed massive necrosis of hepatocytes, whereas renal histopathology showed no changes. Conclusions Acute renal failure that developed in the course of galactosamine-induced ALF was of a functional nature, with the kidneys retaining the ability to concentrate urine and retain sodium, and there were no renal changes in the histopathological examination. It seems that the experimental model of ALF induced by galactosamine can be viewed as a model of hepatorenal syndrome that occurs in the course of acute damage and liver failure. PMID:26009004

  5. Large animal models in experimental knee sports surgery: focus on clinical translation.

    PubMed

    Madry, Henning; Ochi, Mitsuo; Cucchiarini, Magali; Pape, Dietrich; Seil, Romain

    2015-12-01

    Large animal models play a crucial role in sports surgery of the knee, as they are critical for the exploration of new experimental strategies and the clinical translation of novel techniques. The purpose of this contribution is to provide critical aspects of relevant animal models in this field, with a focus on paediatric anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, high tibial osteotomy, and articular cartilage repair. Although there is no single large animal model strictly replicating the human knee joint, the sheep stifle joint shares strong similarities. Studies in large animal models of paediatric ACL reconstruction identified specific risk factors associated with the different surgical techniques. The sheep model of high tibial osteotomy is a powerful new tool to advance the understanding of the effect of axial alignment on the lower extremity on specific issues of the knee joint. Large animal models of both focal chondral and osteochondral defects and of osteoarthritis have brought new findings about the mechanisms of cartilage repair and treatment options. The clinical application of a magnetic device for targeted cell delivery serves as a suitable example of how data from such animal models are directly translated into in clinical cartilage repair. As novel insights from studies in these translational models will advance the basic science, close cooperation in this important field of clinical translation will improve current reconstructive surgical options and open novel avenues for regenerative therapies of musculoskeletal disorders. PMID:26914877

  6. ‘Wanted—standard guinea pigs’: standardisation and the experimental animal market in Britain ca. 1919–1947

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Robert G.W.

    2012-01-01

    In 1942 a coalition of twenty scientific societies formed the Conference on the Supply of Experimental Animals (CSEA) in an attempt to pressure the Medical Research Council to accept responsibility for the provision of standardised experimental animals in Britain. The practice of animal experimentation was subject to State regulation under the Cruelty to Animals Act of 1876, but no provision existed for the provision of animals for experimental use. Consequently, day-to-day laboratory work was reliant on a commercial small animal market which had emerged to sustain the hobby of animal fancying. This paper explores how difficulties encountered in experimental practice within the laboratory led to the problematisation of biomedical science’s reliance upon a commercial market for animals during the inter-war period. This is shown to have produced a crisis within animal reliant experimental science in the early 1940s which enabled the left-wing Association of Scientific Workers to cast science’s reliance on a free market as economically inefficient and a threat to the reliability of British research. It is argued that the development of standard experimental animals in Britain was, therefore, embedded within the wider cultural, societal, political and economic national context of the time. PMID:18761280

  7. Desferal (DFO) induced Ga-67 washout from normal tissue, tumor and abscess in experimental animals

    SciTech Connect

    Oster, Z.H.; Som, P.; Atkins, H.L.; Brill, A.B.

    1980-01-01

    In the experimental animal, desferal (DFO) given intravenously washes out Ga-67 from all tissues. This effect is not uniform: blood activity is reduced very markedly, while liver activity is less affected. Maximal effect of DFO occurs if given close to the Ga-67 injection. When the time interval between the two is increased, the absolute amount of Ga-67 excreted in the urine in excess of the spontaneous excretion is reduced. Administration of DFO does not effect Ga-67 gastrointestinal excretion. In three animal tumor models (EMT-6 sarcoma in Balb/c mice, spontaneous adenocarcinoma in mice, and spontaneous adenocarcinoma in the rabbit) and in sterile abscess-bearing rats, the administration of DFO 24 hrs after Ga-67-citrate improves significantly the target-to-nontarget ratio. Animals given 50 mg/kg DFO I.V. after Ga-67 citrate showed a significant reduction in the whole-body activity as seen in a one-week follow up.

  8. Music in film and animation: experimental semiotics applied to visual, sound and musical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, Roger A.

    2010-02-01

    The relationship of music to film has only recently received the attention of experimental psychologists and quantificational musicologists. This paper outlines theory, semiotical analysis, and experimental results using relations among variables of temporally organized visuals and music. 1. A comparison and contrast is developed among the ideas in semiotics and experimental research, including historical and recent developments. 2. Musicological Exploration: The resulting multidimensional structures of associative meanings, iconic meanings, and embodied meanings are applied to the analysis and interpretation of a range of film with music. 3. Experimental Verification: A series of experiments testing the perceptual fit of musical and visual patterns layered together in animations determined goodness of fit between all pattern combinations, results of which confirmed aspects of the theory. However, exceptions were found when the complexity of the stratified stimuli resulted in cognitive overload.

  9. Individual Subject Meta-Analysis of Parameters for Giardia duodenalis Shedding in Animal Experimental Models

    PubMed Central

    Adell, A. D.; Miller, W. A.; Harvey, D. J.; Van Wormer, E.; Wuertz, S.; Conrad, P. A.

    2014-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a zoonotic protozoan parasite with public health importance worldwide. While articles about animal model infectivity have been published for G. duodenalis, the studies have used diverse protocols and parameters to evaluate the infectivity of this protozoan parasite. Hence, the objectives of this study were to (1) conduct a meta-analysis of published literature for cyst shedding and diarrhea outcomes in animal models and (2) develop recommendations to help standardize experimental dose response studies. Results showed that, for the outcome of cyst shedding in faeces, the covariates of infective stage (cyst versus trophozoite), Giardia dose, and the interactions between doses and infective stage, as well as dose and species of experimental host, were all significant (P value ≤ 0.05). This study suggests inoculation of the experimental host with cysts rather than trophozoites and administration of higher doses of Giardia will most likely result in cyst shedding. Based on the results of this meta-analysis, the infective stage (cyst versus trophozoite), parasite dose, and the interactions between dose and infective stage, as well as dose and species of experimental host, should be considered when designing experimental dose response studies that will assist in the study of zoonotic neglected tropical diseases globally. PMID:24800229

  10. Individual subject meta-analysis of parameters for Giardia duodenalis shedding in animal experimental models.

    PubMed

    Adell, A D; Miller, W A; Harvey, D J; Van Wormer, E; Wuertz, S; Conrad, P A

    2014-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a zoonotic protozoan parasite with public health importance worldwide. While articles about animal model infectivity have been published for G. duodenalis, the studies have used diverse protocols and parameters to evaluate the infectivity of this protozoan parasite. Hence, the objectives of this study were to (1) conduct a meta-analysis of published literature for cyst shedding and diarrhea outcomes in animal models and (2) develop recommendations to help standardize experimental dose response studies. Results showed that, for the outcome of cyst shedding in faeces, the covariates of infective stage (cyst versus trophozoite), Giardia dose, and the interactions between doses and infective stage, as well as dose and species of experimental host, were all significant (P value ≤ 0.05). This study suggests inoculation of the experimental host with cysts rather than trophozoites and administration of higher doses of Giardia will most likely result in cyst shedding. Based on the results of this meta-analysis, the infective stage (cyst versus trophozoite), parasite dose, and the interactions between dose and infective stage, as well as dose and species of experimental host, should be considered when designing experimental dose response studies that will assist in the study of zoonotic neglected tropical diseases globally.

  11. The effect of selective photosuppression of sensitized pathogenic microflora: Part II. Experimental validation on animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masychev, Viktor I.; Risovannaya, Olga N.

    2005-03-01

    Results of in vivo experiments have shown the maximum effectiveness of combined use of photo sensitizer 0,1% gel Radachlorine simultaneously with continuous and super pulse low energy irradiation of the diode laser with energy density 400 J/cm2, and power 1W. Given parameters have lead to complete elimination of Streptococcus pyogenes from inflammation foci in oral cavity of experimental animals.

  12. Animal experimentation in Spacelab - Present and future U.S. plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, W. E.; Dant, C. C.

    1983-01-01

    Current development of life-sciences hardware and experiments for the fourth Spacelab mission in the Life Sciences Flight Experiments Program at NASA Ames is reviewed. The research-animal holding facility, the general-purpose work station, and the life sciences laboratory equipment are characterized, and the 14 Ames projects accepted for the mission are listed and discussed. Several hardware systems and experimental procedures will be verified on the Spacelab-3 mission scheduled for late 1984.

  13. A Knockout Experiment: Disciplinary Divides and Experimental Skill in Animal Behaviour Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Nicole C.

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1990s, a set of new techniques for manipulating mouse DNA allowed researchers to ‘knock out’ specific genes and observe the effects of removing them on a live mouse. In animal behaviour genetics, questions about how to deploy these techniques to study the molecular basis of behaviour became quite controversial, with a number of key methodological issues dissecting the interdisciplinary research field along disciplinary lines. This paper examines debates that took place during the 1990s between a predominately North American group of molecular biologists and animal behaviourists around how to design, conduct, and interpret behavioural knockout experiments. Drawing from and extending Harry Collins’s work on how research communities negotiate what counts as a ‘well-done experiment,’ I argue that the positions practitioners took on questions of experimental skill reflected not only the experimental traditions they were trained in but also their differing ontological and epistemological commitments. Different assumptions about the nature of gene action, eg., were tied to different positions in the knockout mouse debates on how to implement experimental controls. I conclude by showing that examining representations of skill in the context of a community’s knowledge commitments sheds light on some of the contradictory ways in which contemporary animal behaviour geneticists talk about their own laboratory work as a highly skilled endeavour that also could be mechanised, as easy to perform and yet difficult to perform well. PMID:26090739

  14. A Knockout Experiment: Disciplinary Divides and Experimental Skill in Animal Behaviour Genetics.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Nicole C

    2015-07-01

    In the early 1990s, a set of new techniques for manipulating mouse DNA allowed researchers to 'knock out' specific genes and observe the effects of removing them on a live mouse. In animal behaviour genetics, questions about how to deploy these techniques to study the molecular basis of behaviour became quite controversial, with a number of key methodological issues dissecting the interdisciplinary research field along disciplinary lines. This paper examines debates that took place during the 1990s between a predominately North American group of molecular biologists and animal behaviourists around how to design, conduct, and interpret behavioural knockout experiments. Drawing from and extending Harry Collins's work on how research communities negotiate what counts as a 'well-done experiment,' I argue that the positions practitioners took on questions of experimental skill reflected not only the experimental traditions they were trained in but also their differing ontological and epistemological commitments. Different assumptions about the nature of gene action, eg., were tied to different positions in the knockout mouse debates on how to implement experimental controls. I conclude by showing that examining representations of skill in the context of a community's knowledge commitments sheds light on some of the contradictory ways in which contemporary animal behaviour geneticists talk about their own laboratory work as a highly skilled endeavour that also could be mechanised, as easy to perform and yet difficult to perform well.

  15. Cadmium osteotoxicity in experimental animals: Mechanisms and relationship to human exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, Maryka H.

    2009-08-01

    Extensive epidemiological studies have recently demonstrated increased cadmium exposure correlating significantly with decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture incidence in humans at lower exposure levels than ever before evaluated. Studies in experimental animals have addressed whether very low concentrations of dietary cadmium can negatively impact the skeleton. This overview evaluates results in experimental animals regarding mechanisms of action on bone and the application of these results to humans. Results demonstrate that long-term dietary exposures in rats, at levels corresponding to environmental exposures in humans, result in increased skeletal fragility and decreased mineral density. Cadmium-induced demineralization begins soon after exposure, within 24 h of an oral dose to mice. In bone culture systems, cadmium at low concentrations acts directly on bone cells to cause both decreases in bone formation and increases in bone resorption, independent of its effects on kidney, intestine, or circulating hormone concentrations. Results from gene expression microarray and gene knock-out mouse models provide insight into mechanisms by which cadmium may affect bone. Application of the results to humans is considered with respect to cigarette smoke exposure pathways and direct vs. indirect effects of cadmium. Clearly, understanding the mechanism(s) by which cadmium causes bone loss in experimental animals will provide insight into its diverse effects in humans. Preventing bone loss is critical to maintaining an active, independent lifestyle, particularly among elderly persons. Identifying environmental factors such as cadmium that contribute to increased fractures in humans is an important undertaking and a first step to prevention.

  16. Progesterone treatment for experimental stroke: an individual animal meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Raymond; Renton, Cheryl; Gibson, Claire L; Murphy, Stephanie J; Kendall, David A; Bath, Philip M W

    2013-09-01

    Preclinical studies suggest progesterone is neuroprotective after cerebral ischemia. The gold standard for assessing intervention effects across studies within and between subgroups is to use meta-analysis based on individual animal data (IAD). Preclinical studies of progesterone in experimental stroke were identified from searches of electronic databases and reference lists. Corresponding authors of papers of interest were contacted to obtain IAD and, if unavailable, summary data were obtained from the publication. Data are given as standardized mean differences (SMDs, continuous data) or odds ratios (binary data), with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). In an unadjusted analysis of IAD and summary data, progesterone reduced standardized lesion volume (SMD -0.766, 95% CI -1.173 to -0.358, P<0.001). Publication bias was apparent on visual inspection of a Begg's funnel plot on lesion volume and statistically using Egger's test (P=0.001). Using individual animal data alone, progesterone was associated with an increase in death in adjusted analysis (odds ratio 2.64, 95% CI 1.17 to 5.97, P=0.020). Although progesterone significantly reduced lesion volume, it also appeared to increase the incidence of death after experimental stroke, particularly in young ovariectomized female animals. Experimental studies must report the effect of interactions on death and on modifiers, such as age and sex.

  17. The Effectiveness of Health Animations in Audiences With Different Health Literacy Levels: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    van Weert, Julia CM; Haven, Carola J; Smit, Edith G

    2015-01-01

    Background Processing Web-based health information can be difficult, especially for people with low health literacy. Presenting health information in an audiovisual format, such as animation, is expected to improve understanding among low health literate audiences. Objective The aim of this paper is to investigate what features of spoken health animations improve information recall and attitudes and whether there are differences between health literacy groups. Methods We conducted an online experiment among 231 participants aged 55 years or older with either low or high health literacy. A 2 (spoken vs written text) x 2 (illustration vs animation) design was used. Participants were randomly exposed to one of the four experimental messages, all providing the same information on colorectal cancer screening. Results The results showed that, among people with low health literacy, spoken messages about colorectal cancer screening improved recall (P=.03) and attitudes (P=.02) compared to written messages. Animations alone did not improve recall, but when combined with spoken text, they significantly improved recall in this group (P=.02). When exposed to spoken animations, people with low health literacy recalled the same amount of information as their high health literate counterparts (P=.12), whereas in all other conditions people with high health literacy recalled more information compared to low health literate individuals. For people with low health literacy, positive attitudes mediated the relationship between spoken text and the intention to have a colorectal cancer screening (b=.12; 95% CI 0.02-0.25). Conclusions We conclude that spoken animation is the best way to communicate complex health information to people with low health literacy. This format can even bridge the information processing gap between audiences with low and high health literacy as the recall differences between the two groups are eliminated. As animations do not negatively influence high health

  18. Impact of animal waste application on runoff water quality in field experimental plots.

    PubMed

    Hill, Dagne D; Owens, William E; Tchoounwou, Paul B

    2005-08-01

    Animal waste from dairy and poultry operations is an economical and commonly used fertilizer in the state of Louisiana. The application of animal waste to pasture lands not only is a source of fertilizer, but also allows for a convenient method of waste disposal. The disposal of animal wastes on land is a potential nonpoint source of water degradation. Water degradation and human health is a major concern when considering the disposal of large quantities of animal waste. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of animal waste application on biological (fecal coliform, Enterobacter spp. and Escherichia coli) and physical/chemical (temperature, pH, nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, phosphate, copper, zinc, and sulfate) characteristics of runoff water in experimental plots. The effects of the application of animal waste have been evaluated by utilizing experimental plots and simulated rainfall events. Samples of runoff water were collected and analyzed for fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms isolated from these samples were identified to the species level. Chemical analysis was performed following standard test protocols. An analysis of temperature, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, iron, copper, phosphate, potassium, sulfate, zinc and bacterial levels was performed following standard test protocols as presented in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater [1]. In the experimental plots, less time was required in the tilled broiler litter plots for the measured chemicals to decrease below the initial pre-treatment levels. A decrease of over 50% was noted between the first and second rainfall events for sulfate levels. This decrease was seen after only four simulated rainfall events in tilled broiler litter plots whereas broiler litter plots required eight simulated rainfall events to show this same type of reduction. A reverse trend was seen in the broiler litter plots and the tilled broiler plots for potassium. Bacteria numbers

  19. Impact of animal waste application on runoff water quality in field experimental plots.

    PubMed

    Hill, Dagne D; Owens, William E; Tchoounwou, Paul B

    2005-08-01

    Animal waste from dairy and poultry operations is an economical and commonly used fertilizer in the state of Louisiana. The application of animal waste to pasture lands not only is a source of fertilizer, but also allows for a convenient method of waste disposal. The disposal of animal wastes on land is a potential nonpoint source of water degradation. Water degradation and human health is a major concern when considering the disposal of large quantities of animal waste. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of animal waste application on biological (fecal coliform, Enterobacter spp. and Escherichia coli) and physical/chemical (temperature, pH, nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, phosphate, copper, zinc, and sulfate) characteristics of runoff water in experimental plots. The effects of the application of animal waste have been evaluated by utilizing experimental plots and simulated rainfall events. Samples of runoff water were collected and analyzed for fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms isolated from these samples were identified to the species level. Chemical analysis was performed following standard test protocols. An analysis of temperature, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, iron, copper, phosphate, potassium, sulfate, zinc and bacterial levels was performed following standard test protocols as presented in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater [1]. In the experimental plots, less time was required in the tilled broiler litter plots for the measured chemicals to decrease below the initial pre-treatment levels. A decrease of over 50% was noted between the first and second rainfall events for sulfate levels. This decrease was seen after only four simulated rainfall events in tilled broiler litter plots whereas broiler litter plots required eight simulated rainfall events to show this same type of reduction. A reverse trend was seen in the broiler litter plots and the tilled broiler plots for potassium. Bacteria numbers

  20. The Magnus-Rademaker Scientific Film Collection: Ethical Issues on Animal Experimentation (1908-1940).

    PubMed

    Koehler, Peter J; Lameris, Bregt

    2016-01-01

    The Magnus-Rademaker scientific film collection (1908-1940) deals with the physiology of body posture by the equilibrium of reflex musculature contractions for which experimental studies were carried out with animals (e.g., labyrinthectomies, cerebellectomies, and brain stem sections) as well as observations done on patients. The films were made for demonstrations at congresses as well as educational objectives and film stills were published in their books. The purpose of the present study is to position these films and their makers within the contemporary discourse on ethical issues and animal rights in the Netherlands and the earlier international debates. Following an introduction on animal rights and antivivisection movements, we describe what Magnus and Rademaker thought about these issues. Their publications did not provide much information in this respect, probably reflecting their adherence to implicit ethical codes that did not need explicit mentioning in publications. Newspaper articles, however, revealed interesting information. Unnecessary suffering of an animal never found mercy in Magnus' opinion. The use of cinematography was expanded to the reduction of animal experimentation in student education, at least in the case of Rademaker, who in the 1930s was involved in a governmental committee for the regulation of vivisection and cooperated with the antivivisection movement. This resulted not only in a propaganda film for the movement but also in films that demonstrate physiological experiments for students with the purpose to avert repetition and to improve the teaching of experiments. We were able to identify the pertinent films in the Magnus-Rademaker film collection. The production of vivisection films with this purpose appears to have been common, as is shown in news messages in European medical journals of the period. PMID:26684427

  1. The Magnus-Rademaker Scientific Film Collection: Ethical Issues on Animal Experimentation (1908-1940).

    PubMed

    Koehler, Peter J; Lameris, Bregt

    2016-01-01

    The Magnus-Rademaker scientific film collection (1908-1940) deals with the physiology of body posture by the equilibrium of reflex musculature contractions for which experimental studies were carried out with animals (e.g., labyrinthectomies, cerebellectomies, and brain stem sections) as well as observations done on patients. The films were made for demonstrations at congresses as well as educational objectives and film stills were published in their books. The purpose of the present study is to position these films and their makers within the contemporary discourse on ethical issues and animal rights in the Netherlands and the earlier international debates. Following an introduction on animal rights and antivivisection movements, we describe what Magnus and Rademaker thought about these issues. Their publications did not provide much information in this respect, probably reflecting their adherence to implicit ethical codes that did not need explicit mentioning in publications. Newspaper articles, however, revealed interesting information. Unnecessary suffering of an animal never found mercy in Magnus' opinion. The use of cinematography was expanded to the reduction of animal experimentation in student education, at least in the case of Rademaker, who in the 1930s was involved in a governmental committee for the regulation of vivisection and cooperated with the antivivisection movement. This resulted not only in a propaganda film for the movement but also in films that demonstrate physiological experiments for students with the purpose to avert repetition and to improve the teaching of experiments. We were able to identify the pertinent films in the Magnus-Rademaker film collection. The production of vivisection films with this purpose appears to have been common, as is shown in news messages in European medical journals of the period.

  2. [Change of blood antioxidant capacity of experimental animals during nutritional correction under oxidative stress].

    PubMed

    Basov, A A; Bykov, I M

    2013-01-01

    The effect of nutritional correction (a diet high in foods with antioxidant content) on blood parameters in laboratory animals with metabolic disorders associated with oxidative stress has been studied. In experimental models of laboratory animals (male rabbits weighing 3.5-4.0 kg, n = 40) with purulent septic diseases it has been demonstrated that the use of nutritive correction (replacement of 100 g of the cereal mixture through day on a mixture of cabbage 50 g, carrots 50 g, beet 25 g, apple 25 g, kiwi 10 g and garnet 10 g per 1 rabbit) is not inferior to its efficiency of glutathione use (2 g per day). The use of these antioxidants in laboratory animals significantly reduced the phenomenon of oxidative stress on the 5th day: blood antioxidant capacity significantly increased by 14.9 and 26.6%, and the area of the flash of luminol-dependent H2O2-induced chemiluminescence of blood plasma reduced by 44.2 and 48.6% in the experimental groups receiving respectively nutritive correction and glutathione. The low-molecula level of blood antioxidant capacity was restored and the balance of the activity of superoxide dismutase (decrease) and catalase (increase) was achieved on the 10th day of the experiment. These figures significantly (p < 0.05) differed from than in the group of animals receiving no antioxidant correction. The latter studied parameters of prooxidant-antioxidant system reached values comparable with those in intact animals (n = 10) only on the 30th day, confirming the advisability of appointing a complex antioxidant therapy.

  3. From experimental zoology to big data: Observation and integration in the study of animal development.

    PubMed

    Bolker, Jessica; Brauckmann, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    The founding of the Journal of Experimental Zoology in 1904 was inspired by a widespread turn toward experimental biology in the 19th century. The founding editors sought to promote experimental, laboratory-based approaches, particularly in developmental biology. This agenda raised key practical and epistemological questions about how and where to study development: Does the environment matter? How do we know that a cell or embryo isolated to facilitate observation reveals normal developmental processes? How can we integrate descriptive and experimental data? R.G. Harrison, the journal's first editor, grappled with these questions in justifying his use of cell culture to study neural patterning. Others confronted them in different contexts: for example, F.B. Sumner insisted on the primacy of fieldwork in his studies on adaptation, but also performed breeding experiments using wild-collected animals. The work of Harrison, Sumner, and other early contributors exemplified both the power of new techniques, and the meticulous explanation of practice and epistemology that was marshaled to promote experimental approaches. A century later, experimentation is widely viewed as the standard way to study development; yet at the same time, cutting-edge "big data" projects are essentially descriptive, closer to natural history than to the approaches championed by Harrison et al. Thus, the original questions about how and where we can best learn about development are still with us. Examining their history can inform current efforts to incorporate data from experiment and description, lab and field, and a broad range of organisms and disciplines, into an integrated understanding of animal development.

  4. From experimental zoology to big data: Observation and integration in the study of animal development.

    PubMed

    Bolker, Jessica; Brauckmann, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    The founding of the Journal of Experimental Zoology in 1904 was inspired by a widespread turn toward experimental biology in the 19th century. The founding editors sought to promote experimental, laboratory-based approaches, particularly in developmental biology. This agenda raised key practical and epistemological questions about how and where to study development: Does the environment matter? How do we know that a cell or embryo isolated to facilitate observation reveals normal developmental processes? How can we integrate descriptive and experimental data? R.G. Harrison, the journal's first editor, grappled with these questions in justifying his use of cell culture to study neural patterning. Others confronted them in different contexts: for example, F.B. Sumner insisted on the primacy of fieldwork in his studies on adaptation, but also performed breeding experiments using wild-collected animals. The work of Harrison, Sumner, and other early contributors exemplified both the power of new techniques, and the meticulous explanation of practice and epistemology that was marshaled to promote experimental approaches. A century later, experimentation is widely viewed as the standard way to study development; yet at the same time, cutting-edge "big data" projects are essentially descriptive, closer to natural history than to the approaches championed by Harrison et al. Thus, the original questions about how and where we can best learn about development are still with us. Examining their history can inform current efforts to incorporate data from experiment and description, lab and field, and a broad range of organisms and disciplines, into an integrated understanding of animal development. PMID:25757656

  5. Monkeypox disease transmission in an experimental setting: prairie dog animal model.

    PubMed

    Hutson, Christina L; Carroll, Darin S; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia; Weiss, Sonja; Clemmons, Cody; Hughes, Christine M; Salzer, Johanna S; Olson, Victoria A; Abel, Jason; Karem, Kevin L; Damon, Inger K

    2011-01-01

    Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is considered the most significant human public health threat in the genus Orthopoxvirus since the eradication of variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox). MPXV is a zoonotic agent endemic to forested areas of Central and Western Africa. In 2003, MPXV caused an outbreak in the United States due to the importation of infected African rodents, and subsequent sequential infection of North American prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) and humans. In previous studies, the prairie dog MPXV model has successfully shown to be very useful for understanding MPXV since the model emulates key characteristics of human monkeypox disease. In humans, percutaneous exposure to animals has been documented but the primary method of human-to-human MPXV transmission is postulated to be by respiratory route. Only a few animal model studies of MPXV transmission have been reported. Herein, we show that MPXV infected prairie dogs are able to transmit the virus to naive animals through multiple transmission routes. All secondarily exposed animals were infected with MPXV during the course of the study. Notably, animals secondarily exposed appeared to manifest more severe disease; however, the disease course was very similar to those of experimentally challenged animals including inappetence leading to weight loss, development of lesions, production of orthopoxvirus antibodies and shedding of similar levels or in some instances higher levels of MPXV from the oral cavity. Disease was transmitted via exposure to contaminated bedding, co-housing, or respiratory secretions/nasal mucous (we could not definitively say that transmission occurred via respiratory route exclusively). Future use of the model will allow us to evaluate infection control measures, vaccines and antiviral strategies to decrease disease transmission. PMID:22164263

  6. A new approach to reduce the number of animals used in experimental focal cerebral ischemia models.

    PubMed

    Burggraf, Dorothe; Martens, Helge K; Liebetrau, Martin; Vosko, Milan R; Dichgans, Martin; Hamann, Gerhard F

    2005-09-30

    We describe a novel experimental set-up that allows biochemical, immunohistochemical and morphometric recording of multiple parameters from a single rat brain. The whole brain was cut (coronal sectioning) in a volumetric manner, and 100 cryo-sections (10 microm) were collected from the region of infarction. By use of a scalpel to dissect the cryosection, crude brain material was obtained from the cortical and basal ganglia areas of ischemic and non-ischemic hemispheres. Material from four 10 microm thick sections of the same animal was pooled. About 30 microg protein lysate was extracted per four sections with various lysis buffers; this sufficed for one biochemical or enzymatic test called "micro-Western-blots" or "micro-zymographies". Scraping brain material from cryosections allows the detection of up to 25 parameters from adjacent brain sections of one single rat brain. Different analysis are possible, we have chosen, e.g. to compare factors affecting the basal lamina of cerebral microvessels like the content of the metalloproteinases-2/-9, their tissue inhibitors, the plasminogen activators, collagen type IV, parameters to test the blood-brain barrier: hemoglobin and the protein of the perfusion solution BSA and the infarction volume. On the basis of these parameters it was possible to compare the interactions of the complex processes in the ischemic brain in the same animal in adjacent sections. Thus, this method increases the validity of data comparisons and reduces significantly the number of animals needed in various experimental settings.

  7. Experimental study of the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on animals with soft tissue wounds.

    PubMed

    Detlavs, I; Dombrovska, L; Turauska, A; Shkirmante, B; Slutskii, L

    1996-02-01

    The effect of radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF) was studied on Wistar rats with excised full-thickness dermal wounds in the interscapular region. The wounded regions of experimental animals were subjected to EMF for 30 min daily during the first 5 days after wound infliction. Control animals received no treatment. We used RF EMF with (1) frequency 53.53 GHz without modulation; (2) frequency 42.19 GHz without modulation; (3) frequency 42.19 GHz, but with a frequency modulation band 200-MHz wide. On the 7th day the animals were terminated and the granulation-fibrous tissue (GFT) developed in the wounds was subjected to complex quantitative biochemical analysis. RF EMF without frequency modulation decreased the amounts of glycoprotein macromolecules, diminishing the inflammatory exudation. In striking contrast, under the influence of RF EMF with frequency modulation, hexoses and especially sialic acid concentrations were significantly elevated (P < 0.001). This indicated intensification of exudative phenomena. As a consequence of inflammation inhibition in the treatment without frequency modulation, the total collagen accumulation was lowered. However, when frequency was modulated, the inflammatory phenomena were intensified, and pronounced accumulation of collagenous proteins was noted. Thus, our experiments confirm the effects of non-thermal EMF on the reparative-proliferative processes of animals with soft tissue wounds.

  8. Comparison of clinical and experimental data from an animal model of pulmonary immunologic sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Karol, M H

    1991-06-01

    Isocyanates are highly reactive chemicals capable of causing a multitude of toxicologic effects including respiratory irritation, dermal irritation, contact sensitivity, and pulmonary hypersensitivity. In order to probe the mechanism(s) underlying these reactions, an animal model has been developed. The guinea pig model reproduces both the respiratory and immunologic effects of isocyanates that have been observed clinically. In experimental animals and in humans, isocyanates induce immunologic reactions with specific antibody formation, including IgE. This finding allows development of diagnostic reagents to assess isocyanate sensitivity. Further characterization of immunologic components in the model is expected to increase understanding of the mechanisms of this immunotoxic disease and develop strategies for treatment and prevention.

  9. Experimental animal models and inflammatory cellular changes in cerebral ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Tao; Chopp, Michael; Chen, Jieli

    2015-01-01

    Stroke, including cerebral ischemia, intracerebral hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage, is the leading cause of long-term disability and death worldwide. Animal models have greatly contributed to our understanding of the risk factors and the pathophysiology of stroke, as well as the development of therapeutic strategies for its treatment. Further development and investigation of experimental models, however, are needed to elucidate the pathogenesis of stroke and to enhance and expand novel therapeutic targets. In this article, we provide an overview of the characteristics of commonly-used animal models of stroke and focus on the inflammatory responses to cerebral stroke, which may provide insights into a framework for developing effective therapies for stroke in humans. PMID:26625873

  10. [Study of the effect of centrophenoxine on experimental animals poisoned with chlordiazepoxide].

    PubMed

    Mirchev, N

    1975-01-01

    The author administered per os chlordiazepoxide in a toxic dose of 600 mg/kg of body weight/LD50 of chloridazenoxide for rats was 680 mg/kg of body weight in 20 white male rats, weighing 150 gm. Two hours later, on the background of advanced intoxication, manifested by adynamia ataxia, lateral position, somnolence reaching stupor, the author administered in half of the animals (10) per os centrophenaxine in a dose of 50 mg/kg of body weight. The signs of intoxication disappeared for 24 hours after treatment with centrophenoxine. Three of the control animals died, but in the remaining rats the intoxication worsened, but then slowly disappeared till the end of the fifth day. The obtained experimental data supported the observations of the clinical practice on the favourable effect of centrophenoxine in the treatment of acute poisonings with chlordiazepoxide.

  11. Determination of phthalates in diet and bedding for experimental animals using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Fumio; Okumura, Masanao; Oka, Hisao; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Izumi, Shun-Ichiro; Makino, Tsunehisa

    2010-02-01

    We have developed a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method to measure five phthalates (dibutyl phthalate, butylbenzyl phthalate, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, diisooctyl phthalate, and diisononyl phthalate) in diets and beddings for experimental animals. The recoveries from diets and beddings spiked with five phthalates were 98.8%-148% with coefficients of variation of 0.4%-7.8% for diets and 94.7%-146% with coefficients of variation of 1.0%-5.0% for beddings. We analyzed commercial animal diets and beddings, and found that the levels of phthalates varied from sample to sample; the concentrations of five phthalates were 141-1,410 ng/g for diets and 20.5-7,560 ng/g for beddings.

  12. Strain preservation of experimental animals: vitrification of two-cell stage embryos for multiple mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Eto, Tomoo; Takahashi, Riichi; Kamisako, Tsutomu

    2015-04-01

    Strain preservation of experimental animals is crucial for experimental reproducibility. Maintaining complete animal strains, however, is costly and there is a risk for genetic mutations as well as complete loss due to disasters or illness. Therefore, the development of effective vitrification techniques for cryopreservation of multiple experimental animal strains is important. We examined whether a vitrification method using cryoprotectant solutions, P10 and PEPeS, is suitable for preservation of multiple inbred and outbred mouse strains. First, we investigated whether our vitrification method using cryoprotectant solutions was suitable for two-cell stage mouse embryos. In vitro development of embryos exposed to the cryoprotectant solutions was similar to that of fresh controls. Further, the survival rate of the vitrified embryos was extremely high (98.1%). Next, we collected and vitrified two-cell stage embryos of 14 mouse strains. The average number of embryos obtained from one female was 7.3-33.3. The survival rate of vitrified embryos ranged from 92.8% to 99.1%, with no significant differences among mouse strains. In vivo development did not differ significantly between fresh controls and vitrified embryos of each strain. For strain preservation using cryopreserved embryos, two offspring for inbred lines and one offspring for outbred lines must be produced from two-cell stage embryos collected from one female. The expected number of surviving fetuses obtained from embryos collected from one female of either the inbred or outbred strains ranged from 2.9 to 19.5. The findings of the present study indicated that this vitrification method is suitable for strain preservation of multiple mouse strains.

  13. Diet composition as a source of variation in experimental animal models of cancer cachexia

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Kaitlin; Guan, Chen; Jagoe, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background A variety of experimental animal models are used extensively to study mechanisms underlying cancer cachexia, and to identify potential treatments. The important potential confounding effect of dietary composition and intake used in many preclinical studies of cancer cachexia is frequently overlooked. Dietary designs applied in experimental studies should maximize the applicability to human cancer cachexia, meeting the essential requirements of the species used in the study, matched between treatment and control groups as well as also being generally similar to human consumption. Methods A literature review of scientific studies using animal models of cancer and cancer cachexia with dietary interventions was performed. Studies that investigated interventions using lipid sources were selected as the focus of discussion. Results The search revealed a number of nutrient intervention studies (n = 44), with the majority including n‐3 fatty acids (n = 16), mainly eicosapentaenoic acid and/or docosahexaenoic acid. A review of the literature revealed that the majority of studies do not provide information about dietary design; food intake or pair‐feeding is rarely reported. Further, there is a lack of standardization in dietary design, content, source, and overall composition in animal models of cancer cachexia. A model is proposed with the intent of guiding dietary design in preclinical studies to enable comparisons of dietary treatments within the same study, translation across different study designs, as well as application to human nutrient intakes. Conclusion The potential for experimental endpoints to be affected by variations in food intake, macronutrient content, and diet composition is likely. Diet content and composition should be reported, and food intake assessed. Minimum standards for diet definition in cachexia studies would improve reproducibility of pre‐clinical studies and aid the interpretation and translation of results

  14. Experimental Animal Models for Studies on the Mechanisms of Blast-Induced Neurotrauma

    PubMed Central

    Risling, Mårten; Davidsson, Johan

    2012-01-01

    and studies of human cases. However, in order for mathematical simulations to be completely useful, the predictions will most likely have to be validated by detailed data from animal experiments. Some aspects of BINT can conceivably be studied in vitro. However, factors such as systemic response, brain edema, inflammation, vasospasm, or changes in synaptic transmission and behavior must be evaluated in experimental animals. Against this background, it is necessary that such animal experiments are carefully developed imitations of actual components in the blast injury. This paper describes and discusses examples of different designs of experimental models relevant to BINT. PMID:22485104

  15. Experimental animal models for studies on the mechanisms of blast-induced neurotrauma.

    PubMed

    Risling, Mårten; Davidsson, Johan

    2012-01-01

    and studies of human cases. However, in order for mathematical simulations to be completely useful, the predictions will most likely have to be validated by detailed data from animal experiments. Some aspects of BINT can conceivably be studied in vitro. However, factors such as systemic response, brain edema, inflammation, vasospasm, or changes in synaptic transmission and behavior must be evaluated in experimental animals. Against this background, it is necessary that such animal experiments are carefully developed imitations of actual components in the blast injury. This paper describes and discusses examples of different designs of experimental models relevant to BINT. PMID:22485104

  16. Effects of exercise in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (an animal model of multiple sclerosis)

    PubMed Central

    Klaren, Rachel E.; Motl, Robert W.; Woods, Jeffrey A.; Miller, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Exercise training has improved many outcomes in “clinical” research involving persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), but there is limited understanding of the underlying “basic” pathophysiological mechanisms. The animal model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), seems ideal for examining the effects of exercise training on MS-disease pathophysiology. EAE is an autoimmune T-helper cell-mediated disease characterized by T-cell and monocyte infiltration and inflammation in the CNS. To that end, this paper briefly describes common models of EAE, reviews existing research on exercise and EAE, and then identifies future research directions for understanding the consequences of exercise training using EAE. PMID:24999244

  17. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-44:4, Discovery Pipeline in Silica Gel Pit, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-030

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2008-09-23

    The 100-F-44:4, Discovery Pipeline in Silica Gel Pit subsite is located in the 100-FR-1 Operable Unit of the Hanford Site, near the location of the former 110-F Gas Storage Tanks structure. The 100-F-44:4 subsite is a steel pipe discovered October 17, 2004, during trenching to locate the 118-F-4 Silica Gel Pit. Based on visual inspection and confirmatory investigation sampling data, the 100-F-44:4 subsite is a piece of non-hazardous electrical conduit debris. The 100-F-44:4 subsite supports unrestricted future use of shallow zone soil and is protective of groundwater and the Columbia River. No residual contamination exists within the deep zone. Therefore, no deep zone institutional controls are required.

  18. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-44:2, Discovery Pipeline Near 108-F Building, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-006

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2008-05-30

    The 100-F-44:2 waste site is a steel pipeline that was discovered in a junction box during confirmatory sampling of the 100-F-26:4 pipeline from December 2004 through January 2005. The 100-F-44:2 pipeline feeds into the 100-F-26:4 subsite vitrified clay pipe (VCP) process sewer pipeline from the 108-F Biology Laboratory at the junction box. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to No Action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  19. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-26:12, 1.8-m (72-in.) Main Process Sewer Pipeline, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-034

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2008-04-29

    The 100-F-26:12 waste site was an approximately 308-m-long, 1.8-m-diameter east-west-trending reinforced concrete pipe that joined the North Process Sewer Pipelines (100-F-26:1) and the South Process Pipelines (100-F-26:4) with the 1.8-m reactor cooling water effluent pipeline (100-F-19). In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  20. Bridging the Gap of Standardized Animals Models for Blast Neurotrauma: Methodology for Appropriate Experimental Testing.

    PubMed

    VandeVord, Pamela J; Leonardi, Alessandra Dal Cengio; Ritzel, David

    2016-01-01

    Recent military combat has heightened awareness to the complexity of blast-related traumatic brain injuries (bTBI). Experiments using animal, cadaver, or biofidelic physical models remain the primary measures to investigate injury biomechanics as well as validate computational simulations, medical diagnostics and therapies, or protection technologies. However, blast injury research has seen a range of irregular and inconsistent experimental methods for simulating blast insults generating results which may be misleading, cannot be cross-correlated between laboratories, or referenced to any standard for exposure. Both the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command and the National Institutes of Health have noted that there is a lack of standardized preclinical models of TBI. It is recommended that the blast injury research community converge on a consistent set of experimental procedures and reporting of blast test conditions. This chapter describes the blast conditions which can be recreated within a laboratory setting and methodology for testing in vivo models within the appropriate environment.

  1. A framework program for the teaching of alternative methods (replacement, reduction, refinement) to animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Daneshian, Mardas; Akbarsha, Mohammad A; Blaauboer, Bas; Caloni, Francesca; Cosson, Pierre; Curren, Rodger; Goldberg, Alan; Gruber, Franz; Ohl, Frauke; Pfaller, Walter; van der Valk, Jan; Vinardell, Pilar; Zurlo, Joanne; Hartung, Thomas; Leist, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Development of improved communication and education strategies is important to make alternatives to the use of animals, and the broad range of applications of the 3Rs concept better known and understood by different audiences. For this purpose, the Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing in Europe (CAAT-Europe) together with the Transatlantic Think Tank for Toxicology (t(4)) hosted a three-day workshop on "Teaching Alternative Methods to Animal Experimentation". A compilation of the recommendations by a group of international specialists in the field is summarized in this report. Initially, the workshop participants identified the different audience groups to be addressed and also the communication media that may be used. The main outcome of the workshop was a framework for a comprehensive educational program. The modular structure of the teaching program presented here allows adaptation to different audiences with their specific needs; different time schedules can be easily accommodated on this basis. The topics cover the 3Rs principle, basic research, toxicological applications, method development and validation, regulatory aspects, case studies and ethical aspects of 3Rs approaches. This expert consortium agreed to generating teaching materials covering all modules and providing them in an open access online repository.

  2. Ethical issues associated with the use of animal experimentation in behavioral neuroscience research.

    PubMed

    Ohl, Frauke; Meijboom, Franck

    2015-01-01

    This chapter briefly explores whether there are distinct characteristics in the field of Behavioral Neuroscience that demand specific ethical reflection. We argue that although the ethical issues in animal-based Behavioral Neuroscience are not necessarily distinct from those in other research disciplines using animal experimentation, this field of endeavor makes a number of specific, ethically relevant, questions more explicit and, as a result, may expose to discussion a series of ethical issues that have relevance beyond this field of science. We suggest that innovative research, by its very definition, demands out-of-the-box thinking. At the same time, standardization of animal models and test procedures for the sake of comparability across experiments inhibits the potential and willingness to leave well-established tracks of thinking, and leaves us wondering how open minded research is and whether it is the researcher's established perspective that drives the research rather than the research that drives the researcher's perspective. The chapter finishes by introducing subsequent chapters of this book volume on Ethical Issues in Behavioral Neuroscience.

  3. Influence of different types of electromagnetic fields on skin reparatory processes in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Matic, Milan; Lazetic, Bogosav; Poljacki, Mirjana; Djuran, Verica; Matic, Aleksandra; Gajinov, Zorica

    2009-05-01

    Wound healing is a very complex process, some phases of which have only recently been explained. Magnetic and electromagnetic fields can modulate this process in a non-thermal way. The aim of this research was to compare the influence of constant and pulsed electromagnetic fields and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on wound healing in experimental animals. The experiment was conducted on 120 laboratory rats divided into four groups of 30 animals each (constant electromagnetic field, pulsed electromagnetic field, LLLT and control group). It lasted for 21 days. Under the influence of the constant electromagnetic field the healing of the skin defect was accelerated in comparison with the control group. The difference was statistically significant in all the weeks of the experiment at the P < 0.01 level. Accelerated healing was also observed under the influence of the pulsed electromagnetic field (P < 0.05). In the group of animals exposed to LLLT, the healing of the skin defect was faster than in the control group. The statistical significance was at the P < 0.05 level. Different types of electromagnetic fields have a promoting effect on the wound healing process.

  4. Checklist for reporting and reviewing studies of experimental animal models of multiple sclerosis and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Amor, Sandra; Baker, David

    2012-07-01

    Animal models of neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases, have greatly contributed to our understanding of human disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS). These models play a key role in drug development and have led to novel therapeutic approaches to treat human diseases. Nevertheless, some studies showing efficacy of therapies in animal models have not translated well to the clinic. In part, this disparity can be explained by differences in the biology of animals and humans. Another contributing factor is the quality of execution and reporting of studies, which is the responsibility of the authors. However, the acceptance of these papers depends on the quality of refereeing and editorial proficiency. When reporting animal studies, it is recommended that manuscripts conform to the principals of the Animals in Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) guidelines (Kilkenny et al., 2010). This provides a list of 20 guidelines that should be employed in order to make papers consistent as well as transparent. However, conformation to the ARRIVE guidelines requires significantly more information than current publications often report. We have thus refined the ARRIVE guidelines, incorporated the 3Rs (Reduction, Refinement and Replacement) principals, and specifically adapted them to the reporting of animal models of multiple sclerosis (MS) and related disorders. As an example we have used experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the most widely used model of MS, since many EAE studies lack evidence of adoption of indicators of quality (Kilkenny et al., 2009; Baker and Amor, 2010; Vesterinen et al., 2010). The guide, reported here, is intended to act as a checklist to aid both authors and referees of manuscripts, just as the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) guidelines are a compulsory part of reporting clinical trials. Our aim is to improve the conclusions drawn from EAE studies and thus aid better translation to the clinical and

  5. Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals 2013: Experimentation continues to rise--the reliance on genetically-altered animals must be addressed.

    PubMed

    Hudson-Shore, Michelle

    2014-09-01

    The 2013 Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals reveal that the level of animal experimentation in Great Britain continues to rise, with 4.12 million procedures being conducted. The figures indicate that this is almost exclusively a result of the breeding and use of genetically-altered (GA) animals (i.e. genetically-modified animals, plus those with harmful genetic defects). The breeding of GA animals increased to over half (51%) of all the procedures, and GA animals were involved in 61% of all the procedures. Indeed, if these animals were removed from the statistics, the number of procedures would actually have declined by 4%. It is argued that the Coalition Government has failed to address this issue, and, as a consequence, will not be able to deliver its pledge to reduce animal use in science. Recent publications supporting the need to reassess the dominance of genetic alteration are also discussed, as well as the need to move away from the use of dogs as the default second species in safety testing. The general trends in the species used, and the numbers and types of procedures, are also reviewed. Finally, forthcoming changes to the statistics are discussed.

  6. They see a rat, we seek a cure for diseases: the current status of animal experimentation in medical practice.

    PubMed

    Kehinde, Elijah O

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this review article was to examine current and prospective developments in the scientific use of laboratory animals, and to find out whether or not there are still valid scientific benefits of and justification for animal experimentation. The PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched using the following key words: animal models, basic research, pharmaceutical research, toxicity testing, experimental surgery, surgical simulation, ethics, animal welfare, benign, malignant diseases. Important relevant reviews, original articles and references from 1970 to 2012 were reviewed for data on the use of experimental animals in the study of diseases. The use of laboratory animals in scientific research continues to generate intense public debate. Their use can be justified today in the following areas of research: basic scientific research, use of animals as models for human diseases, pharmaceutical research and development, toxicity testing and teaching of new surgical techniques. This is because there are inherent limitations in the use of alternatives such as in vitro studies, human clinical trials or computer simulation. However, there are problems of transferability of results obtained from animal research to humans. Efforts are on-going to find suitable alternatives to animal experimentation like cell and tissue culture and computer simulation. For the foreseeable future, it would appear that to enable scientists to have a more precise understanding of human disease, including its diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic intervention, there will still be enough grounds to advocate animal experimentation. However, efforts must continue to minimize or eliminate the need for animal testing in scientific research as soon as possible.

  7. "The Queen Has Been Dreadfully Shocked": Aspects of Teaching Experimental Physiology Using Animals in Britain, 1876-1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tansey, E. M.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the impact of legislation on animal experimentation that has been in effect since 1876 in Great Britain. Focuses on the impact of these laws on the teaching of practical physiology to undergraduate students. Contains 26 references. (DDR)

  8. Induction of a chronic myocardial infarction in the laboratory animal - experimental model

    PubMed Central

    POP, IONEL CIPRIAN; GRAD, NICOLAE-OVIDIU; PESTEAN, COSMIN; TAULESCU, MARIAN; MIRCEAN, MIRCEA; MIRONIUC, ION-AUREL

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Ischemic heart disease is a major public health problem in western countries. Appropriate animal experimental models of chronic myocardial infarction is an essential first step in order to investigate and develop new therapeutic interventions. Aim The aim of this study was to find an optimal place for a coronary artery ligation to induce an optimal chronic myocardial infarction and also a new heart approach that will not require oro-tracheal intubation. Material and methods To achieve these goals we used a group of rabbits and after induction of anesthesia and cardiac exposure by rib osteotomy (rib III, IV and V) at the costo-sternal junction level on the right side we performed three different left anterior descending artery (LAD) ligation at different distances (5, 10 and 15 mm) in relation to the apex. Thirty days after the acute myocardial infarction, we correlated laboratory investigations (serology, ECG, cardiac ultrasound) with histopathological findings. Results Heart approach achieved by rib osteotomy (rib III, IV and V) at the costo-sternal junction level on the right side, maintains the integrity of the ribcage, allowing it to take part in respiratory movements and the animal model does not need oro-tracheal intubation. Ligation of LAD at 15 mm from the apex was incompatible with life; ligation of LAD at 5 mm from the apex does not achieved transmural myocardial infarction and ligation of LAD at 10 mm from the apex achieved a transmural myocardial infarction of the left ventricle which also involved the distal part of the interventricular septum. Conclusion Ligation of LAD at 10 mm from the apex achieved a transmural myocardial infarction of the left ventricle, is in an easily accessible area from technical point of view, it is sufficiently expanded to induce hemodynamic effects that can be quantified with paraclinical examination and also it is compatible with the experimental animal life. If the heart is approached by rib III, IV and V

  9. Effects of dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor sitagliptin on immunological parameters of lymphocytes in intact animals and animals with experimental autoimmune process.

    PubMed

    Robinson, M V; Mel'nikova, E V; Trufakin, V A

    2014-11-01

    The effects of dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor sitagliptin on immunological parameters were studied in animals with experimental autoimmune process. The effects of the drug administered in preventive (before manifestation of autoimmune processes) and therapeutic (after manifestation of autoimmune process) modes were studied. PMID:25408522

  10. Review of experimental animal models of biliary acute pancreatitis and recent advances in basic research.

    PubMed

    Wan, Mei H; Huang, Wei; Latawiec, Diane; Jiang, Kun; Booth, David M; Elliott, Victoria; Mukherjee, Rajarshi; Xia, Qing

    2012-02-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a formidable disease, which, in severe forms, causes significant mortality. Biliary AP, or gallstone obstruction-associated AP, accounts for 30-50% of all clinical cases of AP. In biliary AP, pancreatic acinar cell (PAC) death (the initiating event in the disease) is believed to occur as acinar cells make contact with bile salts when bile refluxes into the pancreatic duct. Recent advances have unveiled an important receptor responsible for the major function of bile acids on acinar cells, namely, the cell surface G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 (Gpbar1), located in the apical pole of the PAC. High concentrations of bile acids induce cytosolic Ca(2+) overload and inhibit mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, resulting in cell injury to both PACs and pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. Various bile salts are employed to induce experimental AP, most commonly sodium taurocholate. Recent characterization of taurolithocholic acid 3-sulphate on PACs has led researchers to focus on this bile salt because of its potency in causing acinar cell injury at relatively low, sub-detergent concentrations, which strongly implicates action via the receptor Gpbar1. Improved surgical techniques have enabled the infusion of bile salts into the pancreatic duct to induce experimental biliary AP in mice, which allows the use of these transgenic animals as powerful tools. This review summarizes recent findings using transgenic mice in experimental biliary AP. PMID:22221567

  11. Good experimental design and statistics can save animals, but how can it be promoted?

    PubMed

    Festing, Michael F W

    2004-06-01

    Surveys of published papers show that there are many errors both in the design of the experiments and in the statistical analysis of the resulting data. This must result in a waste of animals and scientific resources, and it is surely unethical. Scientific quality might be improved, to some extent, by journal editors, but they are constrained by lack of statistical referees and inadequate statistical training of those referees that they do use. Other parties, such as welfare regulators, ethical review committees and individual scientists also have an interest in scientific quality, but they do not seem to be well placed to make the required changes. However, those who fund research would have the power to do something if they could be convinced that it is in their best interests to do so. More examples of the way in which better experimental design has led to improved experiments would be helpful in persuading these funding organisations to take further action. PMID:23577446

  12. Doppler radar device as a useful tool to quantify the liveliness of the experimental animal.

    PubMed

    Kropveld, D; Chamuleau, R A

    1993-07-01

    The Doppler radar device which is described here is shown to be a reliable and accurate device to quantify the liveliness of an experimental rat. During recording the animal did not seem to be disturbed in any way by the device. It could stay in its normal cage, move freely, walk around and eat and drink ad libitum. Measurement did not require extra light, sound or other stimuli. Interpretation of the data was easy. The computer which samples the Doppler radar output signal generates activity curves which were easily interpreted for different ranges of vitality, varying between high liveliness and apnoea or cardiac arrest. The apparatus is low priced, and simple to build and use.

  13. Vivisecting Major: a Victorian gentleman scientist defends animal experimentation, 1876-1885.

    PubMed

    Boddice, Rob

    2011-06-01

    Through an investigation of the public, professional, and private life of the Darwinian disciple George John Romanes, this essay seeks a better understanding of the scientific motivations for defending the practice of vivisection at the height of the controversy in late Victorian Britain. Setting aside a historiography that has tended to focus on the arguments of antivivisectionists, it reconstructs the viewpoint of the scientific community through an examination of Romanes's work to help orchestrate the defense of animal experimentation. By embedding his life in three complicatedly overlapping networks-the world of print, interpersonal communications among an increasingly professionalized body of scientific men, and the intimacies of private life-the essay uses Romanes as a lens with which to focus the physiological apprehension of the antivivisection movement. It is a story of reputation, self-interest, and affection.

  14. Modulation of diabetes-mellitus-induced male reproductive dysfunctions in experimental animal models with medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Gyan Chand; Jangir, Ram Niwas

    2014-01-01

    Today diabetes mellitus has emerged as a major healthcare problem throughout the world. It has recently broken the age barrier and has been diagnosed in younger people also. Sustained hyperglycemia is associated with many complications including male reproductive dysfunctions and infertility. Numerous medicinal plants have been used for the management of the diabetes mellitus in various traditional system of medicine and in folklore worldwide as they are a rich source of bioactive phytoconstituents, which lower blood glucose level and/or also act as antioxidants resulting in the amelioration of oxidative-stress-induced diabetic complications. The present review describes the ameliorative effects of medicinal plants or their products, especially on male reproductive dysfunctions, in experimental diabetic animal models. PMID:25125884

  15. Experimental infection of laboratory animals and sheep with Gongylonema pulchrum in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Noboru; Koneguchi, Tooru; Ikadai, Hiromi; Oyamada, Takashi

    2003-08-01

    Japanese White rabbits, Wistar rats, ddY mice, Suffolk sheep, and a domestic cat were each orally inoculated with 20-140 third-stage larvae (L3) of Gongylonema pulchrum, isolated from naturally infected dung beetles captured in Aomori Prefecture. Worm recovery rates were 40.0-72.0% in rabbits at 7, 14, and 19 weeks post-infection (PI) and 3.3-25.0% in rats at 19 weeks PI. Those in 2 sheep at 7 weeks PI showed 53.6% and 29.3%. No worms were recovered from the mice and the cat. In the susceptible animals, many worms were found in the esophagus, and a few were present in the pharyngeal mucosa, tongue, buccal mucosa, and cardiac portion of the stomach wall. No distinct morphological differences were observed in the worms from rabbits and sheep. These results indicate that rabbits are very suitable experimental definitive hosts for G. pulchrum.

  16. A new modified animal model of myosin-induced experimental autoimmune myositis enhanced by defibrase

    PubMed Central

    Wen-Jing, Luo; Hong-Hua, Li; Xiang-Hui, Lu; Jie-Xiao, Liu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We investigated the effect of defibrase (a proteolytic enzyme extraction of Agkistrodon halys venom) on experimental autoimmune myositis (EAM) in guinea pigs and explored the option of using a modified pig model of EAM to enhance the study of this disease. Material and methods Guinea pigs were divided into 3 groups: group A (control group) was immunized with complete Freund adjuvant (CFA), then received 6 injections of saline weekly; group B (EAM group) was immunized with partially purified rabbit myosin emulsified with CFA, then received an injection of saline; group C (EAM + defibrase group) was immunized with purified rabbit myosin emulsified with CFA, then received an injection of defibrase. The animals were observed for their general health condition and the body weight was measured daily. Plasma levels of fibrinogen and creatine kinase (CK) were determined. Muscle tissues were examined histologically. Results After immunizations for 6 weeks, incidence of EAM in groups A, B and C was 0 (0/7), 83.3% (10/12) and 100% (15/15), respectively. Guinea pigs with EAM presented angeitis symptoms of muscle weakness. Histological analysis revealed a significant difference. Muscles with EAM had scattered or diffuse inflammatory manifestations, which are also common pathological features of human idiopathic polymyositis (IPM). Defibrase-treated animals displayed extensive inflammation and fiber necrosis compared with the EAM group (histological score: 2.80 ±1.15 vs. 1.88 ±1.32, p < 0.05). Severity of inflammation of group B was mainly mild to moderate; 16.7% (2/12) of animals developed severe inflammation. Incidence of severe inflammation with a score up to 4 in group C was 40% (6/15). Conclusions Defibrase can exacerbate myosin-induced EAM; thus a new modified model was generated. PMID:26788090

  17. The Retrograde Ventriculosinusal Shunt in an Animal Experimental Model of Hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Fernando Campos Gomes; Becco, Rodrigo; Alho, Eduardo Joaquim Lopes; Poli-de-Figueiredo, Luiz Francisco; Souza, Podalyro Amaral de; Oliveira, Matheus Fernandes de; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen

    2016-01-01

    Currently, hydrocephalus treatment is performed mainly with ventriculoperitoneal shunting. This experimental study aims at assessing whether the experimental model of hydrocephalus in dogs is applicable to the laboratory study of the retrograde ventriculosinusal shunt (RVSS). Four mongrel dogs were assessed. After randomization, the animals were divided into two groups: an experimental group that underwent the induction of hydrocephalus/RVSS and a control group, for the measurement of the mean arterial pressure, intracranial pressure and pressure in the superior sagittal sinus (SSS). The controls presented a mean arterial pressure of 68 mm Hg (71 and 65), an intracranial pressure of 163 mm H2O (149.6 and 176.8) and a pressure at the SSS of 40 mm H2O (40 and 40). The kaolin injection into the cisterna magna at a concentration of 0.3 mg/ml was capable of inducing the clinical and radiological mechanism of hydrocephalus (intracranial pressure = 250 mm H2O, pressure at the SSS = 50 mm H2O). The caliber of the SSS was 2.5 ± 1.0 mm. The fact that the SSS caliber of the dog was the same size as the external diameter of the catheter used resulted in the complete obstruction of the SSS when the catheter was inserted. We believe we could design and perform an experimental model to test the RVSS. It is applicable and feasible. The model of hydrocephalus, the surgical apparatus and the scenario were adequate, but the shunt system needs to be proportionally made to the canine anatomy.

  18. Innovativeness as an emergent property: a new alignment of comparative and experimental research on animal innovation.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Andrea S

    2016-03-19

    Innovation and creativity are key defining features of human societies. As we face the global challenges of the twenty-first century, they are also facets upon which we must become increasingly reliant. But what makes Homo sapiens so innovative and where does our high innovation propensity come from? Comparative research on innovativeness in non-human animals allows us to peer back through evolutionary time and investigate the ecological factors that drove the evolution of innovativeness, whereas experimental research identifies and manipulates underpinning creative processes. In commenting on the present theme issue, I highlight the controversies that have typified this research field and show how a paradigmatic shift in our thinking about innovativeness will contribute to resolving these tensions. In the past decade, innovativeness has been considered by many as a trait, a direct product of cognition, and a direct target of selection. The evidence I review here suggests that innovativeness will be hereon viewed as one component, or even an emergent property of a larger array of traits, which have evolved to deal with environmental variation. I illustrate how research should capitalize on taxonomic diversity to unravel the full range of psychological processes that underpin innovativeness in non-human animals. PMID:26926287

  19. Evaluation of the biocompatibility of experimentally manufactured portland cement: An animal study

    PubMed Central

    Erten, Hülya; Baris, Emre; Türk, Serkan; Alaçam, Tayfun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of MTA and the experimentally manufactured portland cement (EMPC). Study design: Twenty one Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were allocated to testing of three groups. Group I and Group II included ProRoot MTA and the EMPC. The materials were mixed with distilled water and placed in polyethylene tubes. The tubes were implanted subcutaneously in the dorsal region of the animals. Group III served as control; the implanted polyethylene tubes remained empty. At 7, 14, and 28 days after the implantation, the animals were sacrificed and the implants were removed with the surrounding tissues. The specimens were prepared for histological examination to evaluate the inflammatory response. Results: No significant difference was found between tissue reactions against the tested materials (p>0.05). Also, control group showed similar results (p>0.05). Conclusions: Results suggest that the EMPC has the potential to be used in clinical conditions in which ProRoot MTA is indicated. MTA and the EMPC show comparable biocompatibility when evaluated in vivo. Although the results are supportive for the EMPC, more studies are required before the safe clinical use of the EMPC. Key words:Mineral trioxide aggregate, portland cement, subcutanous implantation. PMID:24596630

  20. Detection and quantification of Leishmania infantum in naturally and experimentally infected animal samples.

    PubMed

    Losada-Barragán, Monica; Cavalcanti, Amanda; Umaña-Pérez, Adriana; Porrozzi, Renato; Cuervo-Escobar, Sergio; Vallejo, Andrés Felipe; Sánchez-Gómez, Myriam; Cuervo, Patricia

    2016-08-15

    Leishmania infantum is one of the causative agents of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). VL is the most severe form of leishmaniasis and can be fatal if it is not properly treated. Although several PCR works are intended to detect L. infantum, in silico analysis of available primers and/or primer-probes reveals potential cross species amplification. Here, a TaqMan-based quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) assay was developed for specific detection and quantitation of L. infantum in tissue samples from experimentally or naturally infected animals, mice or dogs, respectively. For this assay, primers and probes were designed for the kinetoplast minicircle DNA of L. infantum. The qPCR assay achieved a detection limit of 0.01pg of parasite DNA, and allowed specific amplification of L. infantum in both asymptomatic and symptomatic naturally infected dogs with inter-assay variation coefficients between 0.05-0.11. There was no cross amplification with dog DNA or with L. braziliensis, L. donovani, L. major, L. tropica or Trypanosoma cruzi. In addition, our assay detected a significantly higher parasite load in symptomatic than in the asymptomatic animals (p<0.0001). We believe this approach will be a valuable tool for the specific detection of L. infantum in regions of sympatric transmission of VL-causing parasites.

  1. Application study of the optical biopsy system for small experimental animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hidetoshi; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Morita, Shin-ichi; Maruyama, Atsushi; Shimosegawa, Toru; Matsuura, Yuji; Kanai, Gen'ichi; Ura, Nobuo; Masutani, Koji; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2008-02-01

    An optical biopsy system for small experimental animals has been developed. The system includes endoscope probe, portable probe and two kinds of miniaturized Raman probes. The micro Raman probe (MRP) is made of optical fibers and the ball lens hollow optical fiber Raman probe (BHRP) is made of hollow fiber. The former has large focal depth and suitable to measure average spectra of subsurface tissue. The latter has rather small focal depth and it is possible to control focal length by selecting ball lens attached at the probe head. It is suitable to survey materials at the fixed depth in the tissue. The system is applied to study various small animal cancer models, such as esophagus and stomach rat models and subcutaneous mouse models of pancreatic cancers. In the studies of subcutaneous tumor model mouse, it is suggested that protein conformational changes occur in the tumor tissue within few minutes after euthanasia of the mouse. No more change is observed for the following ten minutes. Any alterations in the molecular level are not observed in normal skin, muscle tissues. Since the change completes in such a short time, it is suggested that this phenomenon caused by termination of blood circulation.

  2. Efficacy of oncolytic reovirus against human gastric cancer with peritoneal metastasis in experimental animal model.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Koji; Etoh, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Kosuke; Mitui, Marcelo Takahiro; Nishizono, Akira; Shiraishi, Norio; Kitano, Seigo

    2010-12-01

    The prognosis of gastric cancer patients with peritoneal dissemination is extremely poor, and the development of an effective treatment is necessary. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of oncolytic reovirus against peritoneal metastasis in human gastric cancer using an experimental animal model. Four human gastric cancer cell lines, including MKN45p, NUGC4, MKN7 and KatoIII, a normal NIH3T3 cell line as a control, and reovirus serotype 3, were used in this study. We evaluated the cytopathic effect of reovirus and the Ras activity in each gastric cancer cell line in vitro. To evaluate oncolytic efficacy in vivo, reovirus (1x10(8) PFU) was administered into the peritoneal cavity of nude mice on days 7, 8 and 9 after inoculation with MKN45p cells. Mean volume of ascites and the total number and weight of the peritoneal tumors were measured after sacrifice. After reovirus infection, cytopathic effect was observed in all four gastric cancer cell lines, but not in the control cells. Ras activation assay showed that Ras activity in all four gastric cancer cell lines increased to a higher level than that in the control cells. In the animal model experiments, mean volume of ascites and the total number and weight of the peritoneal tumors in the reovirus treatment group were significantly lower than those in the control group. In conclusions, intraperitoneal administration of reovirus could be useful as a new modality against peritoneal metastasis in gastric cancer. PMID:21042711

  3. Detection and quantification of Leishmania infantum in naturally and experimentally infected animal samples.

    PubMed

    Losada-Barragán, Monica; Cavalcanti, Amanda; Umaña-Pérez, Adriana; Porrozzi, Renato; Cuervo-Escobar, Sergio; Vallejo, Andrés Felipe; Sánchez-Gómez, Myriam; Cuervo, Patricia

    2016-08-15

    Leishmania infantum is one of the causative agents of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). VL is the most severe form of leishmaniasis and can be fatal if it is not properly treated. Although several PCR works are intended to detect L. infantum, in silico analysis of available primers and/or primer-probes reveals potential cross species amplification. Here, a TaqMan-based quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) assay was developed for specific detection and quantitation of L. infantum in tissue samples from experimentally or naturally infected animals, mice or dogs, respectively. For this assay, primers and probes were designed for the kinetoplast minicircle DNA of L. infantum. The qPCR assay achieved a detection limit of 0.01pg of parasite DNA, and allowed specific amplification of L. infantum in both asymptomatic and symptomatic naturally infected dogs with inter-assay variation coefficients between 0.05-0.11. There was no cross amplification with dog DNA or with L. braziliensis, L. donovani, L. major, L. tropica or Trypanosoma cruzi. In addition, our assay detected a significantly higher parasite load in symptomatic than in the asymptomatic animals (p<0.0001). We believe this approach will be a valuable tool for the specific detection of L. infantum in regions of sympatric transmission of VL-causing parasites. PMID:27514885

  4. A new mechanical device for circular compression anastomosis. Preliminary results of animal and clinical experimentation.

    PubMed Central

    Rosati, R; Rebuffat, C; Pezzuoli, G

    1988-01-01

    The authors report the preliminary results obtained in animal and clinical experimentation of a new mechanical device for circular anastomosis which they have developed. It is a gun that places an apparatus consisting of three polypropylene rings that, through the compression among them of the severed edges of the bowel, realize a sutureless anastomosis and are spontaneously evacuated. Fifty-eight colonic anastomoses were performed in dogs with this device; 23 stapled colonic anastomoses were also executed concurrently. Forty-four animals underwent a relaparotomy to remove the colonic specimen containing the anastomoses. Bursting pressure and the histologic features of the anastomoses were evaluated at different time intervals after operation. A good healing of all compression anastomoses was observed, thereby allowing them to initiate the experience in humans. Thirteen anastomoses (6 colorectal extraperitoneal, 1 colorectal intraperitoneal, 5 colocolonic, 1 ileorectal) were performed at the 1st Surgical Department, Milan University. One subclinical leakage (7.7%) spontaneously healed in a few days. No stenoses were observed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2., Fig. 4., Fig. 6. Fig. 3., Fig. 5., Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:3345111

  5. A comparison of proximal and distal high-frequency jet ventilation in an experimental animal model.

    PubMed

    Bandy, K P; Donn, S M; Nicks, J J; Naglie, R A

    1986-01-01

    High-frequency jet ventilation using either a proximal or a distal endotracheal injection site through a triple-lumen endotracheal tube was studied in 10 adult cats. The comparative effects on pulmonary gas exchange, tracheal pressure, heart rate, and blood pressure were examined for each injection site at both high (8-12 pounds per square inch [PSI] and low (5-8 PSI) jet-driving pressures in normal and lung-injured cats. Lung injury was created by modification of a surfactant washout technique previously demonstrated in rabbits. Alveolar ventilation (PaCO2) was found to be significantly better with distal than with proximal jet injection under all experimental conditions. At high jet-driving pressures, peak inspiratory pressure was higher in both normal (p = 0.03) and lung-injured cats (p = 0.002) with distal high-frequency jet ventilation. In addition, lung-injured animals were observed to have higher distal mean airway pressures at high jet-driving pressures (p less than 0.01). No differences in oxygenation were found in any circumstances. The results of this animal study suggest that distal high-frequency jet ventilation may be more effective in those situations in which improvement in alveolar ventilation is the major goal and that during proximal high-frequency jet ventilation airway pressures should be monitored as far distally as possible.

  6. Components of plastic: experimental studies in animals and relevance for human health

    PubMed Central

    Talsness, Chris E.; Andrade, Anderson J. M.; Kuriyama, Sergio N.; Taylor, Julia A.; vom Saal, Frederick S.

    2009-01-01

    Components used in plastics, such as phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), are detected in humans. In addition to their utility in plastics, an inadvertent characteristic of these chemicals is the ability to alter the endocrine system. Phthalates function as anti-androgens while the main action attributed to BPA is oestrogen-like activity. PBDE and TBBPA have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis while PBDEs also exhibit anti-androgen action. Experimental investigations in animals indicate a wide variety of effects associated with exposure to these compounds, causing concern regarding potential risk to human health. For example, the spectrum of effects following perinatal exposure of male rats to phthalates has remarkable similarities to the testicular dysgenesis syndrome in humans. Concentrations of BPA in the foetal mouse within the range of unconjugated BPA levels observed in human foetal blood have produced effects in animal experiments. Finally, thyroid hormones are essential for normal neurological development and reproductive function. Human body burdens of these chemicals are detected with high prevalence, and concentrations in young children, a group particularly sensitive to exogenous insults, are typically higher, indicating the need to decrease exposure to these compounds. PMID:19528057

  7. Detection of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and NADPH-diaphorase in experimentally induced hyperoxaluric animals.

    PubMed

    Pragasam, Viswanathan; Sakthivel, Ramasamy; Kalaiselvi, Periyandavan; Rajesh, Nachiappa Ganesh; Varalakshmi, Palaninathan

    2005-08-01

    Nitrosative stress plays a role in calcium oxalate stone formation, as nitrosated proteins have been identified in stone formers. Nitric oxide (NO(*)), the common precursor for reactive nitrogen species, is synthesized in the juxtaglomerular apparatus of the kidneys. The present study is aimed to determine the role of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in an experimental hyperoxaluric condition by histological and biochemical techniques. Hyperoxaluria was induced by 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water. L-arginine (L-arg) was supplemented at a dose of 1.25 g/kg body weight orally for 28 days. Nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), protein content in the urine and lipid peroxidation in the kidney were determined at the end of the experimental period. Histopathological examination of the rat kidneys was then carried out. NADPH-diaphorase and eNOS expression studies were carried out in control and hyperoxaluric rat kidneys using histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques. Significant amounts of NOx were present in the urine of hyperoxaluric animals when compared to control rats. Histopathological examinations revealed membrane injury, tubular dilatation and edema in the hyperoxaluric rats, whereas co-supplementation of L-arg to the hyperoxaluric rats significantly reduced these changes. The results of histochemical analysis for NADPH-diaphorase staining demonstrate the role of NOS in hyperoxaluric rats. Hyperoxaluric rats showed intense staining for NADPH-diaphorase when compared to control and L-arg co-supplemented hyperoxaluric rats. Immunohistochemical demonstration confirmed that eNOS expression was markedly increased in L-arg supplemented rats, when compared to EG treated rat kidney sections. Thus, from the present study, we conclude that supplementation of L-arg to the hyperoxaluric animals minimizes the cellular injury mediated by ethylene glycol, prevents oxidative/nitrosative damage to the membranes and reduces the incidence of calcium oxalate stone formation.

  8. Measuring reinforcement learning and motivation constructs in experimental animals: relevance to the negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Markou, Athina; Salamone, John D; Bussey, Timothy J; Mar, Adam C; Brunner, Daniela; Gilmour, Gary; Balsam, Peter

    2013-11-01

    The present review article summarizes and expands upon the discussions that were initiated during a meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS; http://cntrics.ucdavis.edu) meeting. A major goal of the CNTRICS meeting was to identify experimental procedures and measures that can be used in laboratory animals to assess psychological constructs that are related to the psychopathology of schizophrenia. The issues discussed in this review reflect the deliberations of the Motivation Working Group of the CNTRICS meeting, which included most of the authors of this article as well as additional participants. After receiving task nominations from the general research community, this working group was asked to identify experimental procedures in laboratory animals that can assess aspects of reinforcement learning and motivation that may be relevant for research on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, as well as other disorders characterized by deficits in reinforcement learning and motivation. The tasks described here that assess reinforcement learning are the Autoshaping Task, Probabilistic Reward Learning Tasks, and the Response Bias Probabilistic Reward Task. The tasks described here that assess motivation are Outcome Devaluation and Contingency Degradation Tasks and Effort-Based Tasks. In addition to describing such methods and procedures, the present article provides a working vocabulary for research and theory in this field, as well as an industry perspective about how such tasks may be used in drug discovery. It is hoped that this review can aid investigators who are conducting research in this complex area, promote translational studies by highlighting shared research goals and fostering a common vocabulary across basic and clinical fields, and facilitate the development of medications for the treatment of symptoms mediated by reinforcement learning and motivational deficits. PMID:23994273

  9. Measuring reinforcement learning and motivation constructs in experimental animals: relevance to the negative symptoms of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Markou, Athina; Salamone, John D.; Bussey, Timothy; Mar, Adam; Brunner, Daniela; Gilmour, Gary; Balsam, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The present review article summarizes and expands upon the discussions that were initiated during a meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS; http://cntrics.ucdavis.edu). A major goal of the CNTRICS meeting was to identify experimental procedures and measures that can be used in laboratory animals to assess psychological constructs that are related to the psychopathology of schizophrenia. The issues discussed in this review reflect the deliberations of the Motivation Working Group of the CNTRICS meeting, which included most of the authors of this article as well as additional participants. After receiving task nominations from the general research community, this working group was asked to identify experimental procedures in laboratory animals that can assess aspects of reinforcement learning and motivation that may be relevant for research on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, as well as other disorders characterized by deficits in reinforcement learning and motivation. The tasks described here that assess reinforcement learning are the Autoshaping Task, Probabilistic Reward Learning Tasks, and the Response Bias Probabilistic Reward Task. The tasks described here that assess motivation are Outcome Devaluation and Contingency Degradation Tasks and Effort-Based Tasks. In addition to describing such methods and procedures, the present article provides a working vocabulary for research and theory in this field, as well as an industry perspective about how such tasks may be used in drug discovery. It is hoped that this review can aid investigators who are conducting research in this complex area, promote translational studies by highlighting shared research goals and fostering a common vocabulary across basic and clinical fields, and facilitate the development of medications for the treatment of symptoms mediated by reinforcement learning and motivational deficits. PMID:23994273

  10. Measuring reinforcement learning and motivation constructs in experimental animals: relevance to the negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Markou, Athina; Salamone, John D; Bussey, Timothy J; Mar, Adam C; Brunner, Daniela; Gilmour, Gary; Balsam, Peter

    2013-11-01

    The present review article summarizes and expands upon the discussions that were initiated during a meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS; http://cntrics.ucdavis.edu) meeting. A major goal of the CNTRICS meeting was to identify experimental procedures and measures that can be used in laboratory animals to assess psychological constructs that are related to the psychopathology of schizophrenia. The issues discussed in this review reflect the deliberations of the Motivation Working Group of the CNTRICS meeting, which included most of the authors of this article as well as additional participants. After receiving task nominations from the general research community, this working group was asked to identify experimental procedures in laboratory animals that can assess aspects of reinforcement learning and motivation that may be relevant for research on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, as well as other disorders characterized by deficits in reinforcement learning and motivation. The tasks described here that assess reinforcement learning are the Autoshaping Task, Probabilistic Reward Learning Tasks, and the Response Bias Probabilistic Reward Task. The tasks described here that assess motivation are Outcome Devaluation and Contingency Degradation Tasks and Effort-Based Tasks. In addition to describing such methods and procedures, the present article provides a working vocabulary for research and theory in this field, as well as an industry perspective about how such tasks may be used in drug discovery. It is hoped that this review can aid investigators who are conducting research in this complex area, promote translational studies by highlighting shared research goals and fostering a common vocabulary across basic and clinical fields, and facilitate the development of medications for the treatment of symptoms mediated by reinforcement learning and motivational deficits.

  11. Constituting the human via the animal in eighteenth-century experimental neurophysiology: Albrecht von Haller's sensibility trials.

    PubMed

    Eichberg, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    This paper will address the use of animal models as a vital constituent of 'life science in the making' by focussing on the 'sensibility trials' conducted by the Swiss physiologist Albrecht von Haller (1708-1777). Haller was a pioneering figure in the early days of neurophysiological research, being not only influential for establishing animal experimentation as a viable method to gain knowledge about (human) neurological functions. He also tackled the question of sensibility as the most fundamental property of living bodies, which came to influence our conception of bodily feeling. In analysing some of his experiments on the nervous system, this paper addresses the following questions: what does sensibility or sensation signify in eighteenth-century physiology? How was it assessed or measured during experimentation? How were nervous functions 'read', i.e., how was the observable behaviour of an experimental animal interpreted? And finally: how did Haller address the differences between humans and animals in the context of his investigations?

  12. Bridging the Gap of Standardized Animals Models for Blast Neurotrauma: Methodology for Appropriate Experimental Testing.

    PubMed

    VandeVord, Pamela J; Leonardi, Alessandra Dal Cengio; Ritzel, David

    2016-01-01

    Recent military combat has heightened awareness to the complexity of blast-related traumatic brain injuries (bTBI). Experiments using animal, cadaver, or biofidelic physical models remain the primary measures to investigate injury biomechanics as well as validate computational simulations, medical diagnostics and therapies, or protection technologies. However, blast injury research has seen a range of irregular and inconsistent experimental methods for simulating blast insults generating results which may be misleading, cannot be cross-correlated between laboratories, or referenced to any standard for exposure. Both the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command and the National Institutes of Health have noted that there is a lack of standardized preclinical models of TBI. It is recommended that the blast injury research community converge on a consistent set of experimental procedures and reporting of blast test conditions. This chapter describes the blast conditions which can be recreated within a laboratory setting and methodology for testing in vivo models within the appropriate environment. PMID:27604715

  13. Enhancing search efficiency by means of a search filter for finding all studies on animal experimentation in PubMed.

    PubMed

    Hooijmans, Carlijn R; Tillema, Alice; Leenaars, Marlies; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

    2010-07-01

    Collecting and analysing all available literature before starting an animal experiment is important and it is indispensable when writing a systematic review (SR) of animal research. Writing such review prevents unnecessary duplication of animal studies and thus unnecessary animal use (Reduction). One of the factors currently impeding the production of 'high-quality' SRs in laboratory animal science is the fact that searching for all available literature concerning animal experimentation is rather difficult. In order to diminish these difficulties, we developed a search filter for PubMed to detect all publications concerning animal studies. This filter was compared with the method most frequently used, the PubMed Limit: Animals, and validated further by performing two PubMed topic searches. Our filter performs much better than the PubMed limit: it retrieves, on average, 7% more records. Other important advantages of our filter are that it also finds the most recent records and that it is easy to use. All in all, by using our search filter in PubMed, all available literature concerning animal studies on a specific topic can easily be found and assessed, which will help in increasing the scientific quality and thereby the ethical validity of animal experiments.

  14. Statistical methodology used in analyses of data from DOE experimental animal studies

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, E.S.; Griffith, W.C.; Carnes, B.A.

    1995-07-01

    This document describes many of the statistical approaches that are being used to analyze data from life-span animal studies conducted under the Department of Energy experimental radiobiology program. The methods, which are intended to be as informative as possible for assessing human health risks, account for time-related factors and competing risks, and are reasonably comparable to methods used for analyzing data from human epidemiologic studies of persons exposed to radiation. The methods described in this report model the hazard, or age-specific risk, as a function of dose and other factors such as dose rate, age at risk, and time since exposure. Both models in which the radiation risk is expressed relative to the baseline risk and models in which this risk is expressed in absolute terms are formulated. Both parametric and non-parametric models for baseline risks are considered, and several dose-response functions are suggested. Tumors in animals are not always the cause of death but instead may be found incidentally to death from other causes. This report gives detailed attention to the context of observation of tumors, and emphasizes an approach that makes use of information provided by the pathologist on whether tumors are fatal or incidental. Special cases are those in which all tumors are observed in a fatal context or in which all tumors are observed in an incidental context. Maximum likelihood theory provides the basis for fitting the suggested models and for making statistical inferences regarding parameters of these models. Approaches in which observations are grouped by intervals of time and possibly other factors are emphasized. This approach is based on iteratively reweighted least squares and uses Poisson weights for tumors considered to be fatal and binomial weights for tumors considered to be incidental.

  15. Effect and mechanism of total saponin of Dioscorea on animal experimental hyperuricemia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guang-Liang; Wei, Wei; Xu, Shu-Yun

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of Total Saponin of Dioscorea (TSD) on animal experimental hyperuricemia. Mouse and rat hyperuricemic models were made by orally administering yeast extract paste once a day (30 and 20 g/kg, respectively), for 7 days. Yeast would disturb normal purine metabolism by increasing xanthine oxidase (XOD) activity and generating large quantities of uric acid. This model is similar to human hyperuricemia, which is induced by high-protein diets, due to a purine and nucleic acid metabolic disturbance. Another mouse hyperuricemia model was generated by intraperitoneal injection once with uric acid 250 mg/kg or potassium oxonate 300 mg/kg. Potassium oxonate, a urate oxidase inhibitor, can raise the serum uric acid level by inhibiting the decomposition of uric acid. Likewise, injecting uric acid can also increase serum uric acid concentration. The concentration of uric acid in serum or urine was detected by the phosphotungstic acid method, and the activity of XOD was assayed by a test kit. The results showed that TSD (240, 120 and 60 mg/kg, ig) could significantly lower the level of serum uric acid in hyperuricemic mice. TSD (120 and 60 mg/kg, ig) could also lower the level of serum uric acid in hyperuricemic rats, reduce the activity of XOD in the serum and liver of hyperuricemic rats, and increase the level of urine uric acid concentration as well as 24-hour total uric acid excretion. In conclusion, TSD possesses a potent anti-hyperuricemic effect on hyperuricemic animals, and the mechanism may be relevant in accelerating the excretion and decreasing the production of uric acid.

  16. Antiepileptic and antipsychotic activities of standardized Śilājatu (Shilajit) in experimental animals

    PubMed Central

    Durg, Sharanbasappa; Veerapur, Veeresh P.; Thippeswamy, B. S.; Ahamed, Syed Mansoor

    2015-01-01

    Background: Śilājatu (Shilajit; SJ) is claimed in traditional Indian medical practice to be useful in the treatment of nervous disorders, epilepsy and as antistress. Aim: To investigate whether SJ possesses antiepileptic and antipsychotic activities in rodents. Materials and Methods: Isonicotinyl hydrazine (INH), pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), apomorphine, phenytoin, diazepam, haloperidol and other chemicals of analytical grade were procured from standard companies. The antiepileptic activity of SJ was assessed using maximal electro shock (MES)-induced seizures in rats, INH and PTZ-induced seizures in mice. The antipsychotic effect of SJ was evaluated using apomorphine-induced climbing and stereotyped behaviours respectively, in mice and rats. Settings and Designs: SJ (25 and 50 mg/kg, p.o.) was given orally once daily for 15 days in all the rodent models. On the test day, SJ was administered 1 h prior to electric shock or chemical inducers (INH/PTZ/apomorphine) in experimental animals; the animals were then observed for different phases of seizures and psychotic behaviours. In addition, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in the brain of rats and mice was estimated in seizure models. Statistical Analysis: The data were expressed as mean ± standard error of mean. Statistical comparisons were performed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post-test using Graph Pad Prism version 5.0, USA. A P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results and Conclusions: SJ pretreatment significantly inhibited the seizures induced by MES, INH and PTZ in a dose dependent manner. Further, SJ augmented brain GABA levels to normal, decreased by INH and PTZ in mice brain. SJ pretreatment also significantly inhibited the climbing and stereotyped behaviours induced by apomorphine. The present data seems to confirm the antiepileptic activity of SJ which may be because of enhancing the GABAergic system. The antipsychotic activity observed may be due to anti-dopaminergic and/or GABA

  17. A comparison of the anatomical structure of the pancreas in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Tsuchitani, Minoru; Sato, Junko; Kokoshima, Hiroko

    2016-07-01

    As basic knowledge for evaluation of pancreatic toxicity, anatomical structures were compared among experimental animal species, including rats, dogs, monkeys, and minipigs. In terms of gross anatomy, the pancreases of dogs, monkeys, and minipigs are compact and similar to that of humans. The rat pancreas is relatively compact at the splenic segment, but the duodenal segment is dispersed within the mesentery. In terms of histology, the islet of each animal is characterized by a topographic distribution pattern of α- versus β-cells. β-cells occupy the large central part of the rat islet, and α-cells are located in the periphery and occasionally exhibit cuffing. In dog islets, β-cells are distributed in all parts and α-cells are scattered in the center or periphery of the islet (at body and left lobe); whereas β-cells occupy all parts of the islet and no α-cells are present in the islet (at right lobe). Monkey islets show two distinct patterns, that is, α-cell-rich or β-cell-rich islets, and the former represent peripheral β-cells forming an irregular ring. Minipig islets show an irregular outline, and both α- and β-cells are present in all parts of the islet, intermingling with each other. According to morphometry, the endocrine tissue accounts for <2% of the pancreas roughly in rats and minipigs, and that of monkeys accounts for >7% of the pancreas (at tail). The endocrine tissue proportion tends to increase as the position changes from right to left in the pancreas in each species. PMID:27559239

  18. A comparison of the anatomical structure of the pancreas in experimental animals

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchitani, Minoru; Sato, Junko; Kokoshima, Hiroko

    2016-01-01

    As basic knowledge for evaluation of pancreatic toxicity, anatomical structures were compared among experimental animal species, including rats, dogs, monkeys, and minipigs. In terms of gross anatomy, the pancreases of dogs, monkeys, and minipigs are compact and similar to that of humans. The rat pancreas is relatively compact at the splenic segment, but the duodenal segment is dispersed within the mesentery. In terms of histology, the islet of each animal is characterized by a topographic distribution pattern of α- versus β-cells. β-cells occupy the large central part of the rat islet, and α-cells are located in the periphery and occasionally exhibit cuffing. In dog islets, β-cells are distributed in all parts and α-cells are scattered in the center or periphery of the islet (at body and left lobe); whereas β-cells occupy all parts of the islet and no α-cells are present in the islet (at right lobe). Monkey islets show two distinct patterns, that is, α-cell-rich or β-cell-rich islets, and the former represent peripheral β-cells forming an irregular ring. Minipig islets show an irregular outline, and both α- and β-cells are present in all parts of the islet, intermingling with each other. According to morphometry, the endocrine tissue accounts for <2% of the pancreas roughly in rats and minipigs, and that of monkeys accounts for >7% of the pancreas (at tail). The endocrine tissue proportion tends to increase as the position changes from right to left in the pancreas in each species. PMID:27559239

  19. 'I think it will eventually be done away with': Attitudes among healthcare professionals towards the current system of animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Dignon, Andrée

    2016-08-01

    This article describes a study of attitudes to the current system of animal experimentation (for the production of health interventions) among 52 UK healthcare professionals. These healthcare professionals participated in three separate focus groups (of 18, 17 and 17 participants) and were invited to respond to the question 'what is your opinion about the current system of animal testing?' The study focused specifically on their views of the current system (rather than their views of animal testing in general). The healthcare professionals were critical of the current system, particularly with regard to regulation, secrecy, validity, unnecessary suffering and welfare.

  20. Increased survival of experimentally evolved antimicrobial peptide-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an animal host.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Adam J; Purves, Joanne; Rolff, Jens

    2014-09-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been proposed as new class of antimicrobial drugs, following the increasing prevalence of bacteria resistant to antibiotics. Synthetic AMPs are functional analogues of highly evolutionarily conserved immune effectors in animals and plants, produced in response to microbial infection. Therefore, the proposed therapeutic use of AMPs bears the risk of 'arming the enemy': bacteria that evolve resistance to AMPs may be cross-resistant to immune effectors (AMPs) in their hosts. We used a panel of populations of Staphylococcus aureus that were experimentally selected for resistance to a suite of individual AMPs and antibiotics to investigate the 'arming the enemy' hypothesis. We tested whether the selected strains showed higher survival in an insect model (Tenebrio molitor) and cross-resistance against other antimicrobials in vitro. A population selected for resistance to the antimicrobial peptide iseganan showed increased in vivo survival, but was not more virulent. We suggest that increased survival of AMP-resistant bacteria almost certainly poses problems to immune-compromised hosts.

  1. Experimental strategies for the identification and characterization of adhesive proteins in animals: a review

    PubMed Central

    Hennebert, Elise; Maldonado, Barbara; Ladurner, Peter; Flammang, Patrick; Santos, Romana

    2015-01-01

    Adhesive secretions occur in both aquatic and terrestrial animals, in which they perform diverse functions. Biological adhesives can therefore be remarkably complex and involve a large range of components with different functions and interactions. However, being mainly protein based, biological adhesives can be characterized by classical molecular methods. This review compiles experimental strategies that were successfully used to identify, characterize and obtain the full-length sequence of adhesive proteins from nine biological models: echinoderms, barnacles, tubeworms, mussels, sticklebacks, slugs, velvet worms, spiders and ticks. A brief description and practical examples are given for a variety of tools used to study adhesive molecules at different levels from genes to secreted proteins. In most studies, proteins, extracted from secreted materials or from adhesive organs, are analysed for the presence of post-translational modifications and submitted to peptide sequencing. The peptide sequences are then used directly for a BLAST search in genomic or transcriptomic databases, or to design degenerate primers to perform RT-PCR, both allowing the recovery of the sequence of the cDNA coding for the investigated protein. These sequences can then be used for functional validation and recombinant production. In recent years, the dual proteomic and transcriptomic approach has emerged as the best way leading to the identification of novel adhesive proteins and retrieval of their complete sequences. PMID:25657842

  2. Accumulation and Toxicity of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Cells and Experimental Animals.

    PubMed

    Jarockyte, Greta; Daugelaite, Egle; Stasys, Marius; Statkute, Urte; Poderys, Vilius; Tseng, Ting-Chen; Hsu, Shan-Hui; Karabanovas, Vitalijus; Rotomskis, Ricardas

    2016-01-01

    The uptake and distribution of negatively charged superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe₃O₄) nanoparticles (SPIONs) in mouse embryonic fibroblasts NIH3T3, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal influenced by SPIONs injected into experimental animals, were visualized and investigated. Cellular uptake and distribution of the SPIONs in NIH3T3 after staining with Prussian Blue were investigated by a bright-field microscope equipped with digital color camera. SPIONs were localized in vesicles, mostly placed near the nucleus. Toxicity of SPION nanoparticles tested with cell viability assay (XTT) was estimated. The viability of NIH3T3 cells remains approximately 95% within 3-24 h of incubation, and only a slight decrease of viability was observed after 48 h of incubation. MRI studies on Wistar rats using a clinical 1.5 T MRI scanner were showing that SPIONs give a negative contrast in the MRI. The dynamic MRI measurements of the SPION clearance from the injection site shows that SPIONs slowly disappear from injection sites and only a low concentration of nanoparticles was completely eliminated within three weeks. No functionalized SPIONs accumulate in cells by endocytic mechanism, none accumulate in the nucleus, and none are toxic at a desirable concentration. Therefore, they could be used as a dual imaging agent: as contrast agents for MRI and for traditional optical biopsy by using Prussian Blue staining. PMID:27548152

  3. [Developmental programming of metabolic diseases--a review of studies on experimental animal models].

    PubMed

    Piotrowska, Iwona; Zgódka, Paulina; Milewska, Marta; Błaszczyk, Maciej; Grzelkowska-Kowalczyk, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Growth and development in utero is a complex and dynamic process that requires interaction between the mother organism and the fetus. The delivery of macro--and micronutrients, oxygen and endocrine signals has crucial importance for providing a high level of proliferation, growth and differentiation of cells, and a disruption in food intake not only has an influence on the growth of the fetus, but also has negative consequences for the offspring’s health in the future. Diseases that traditionally are linked to inappropriate life style of adults, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and arterial hypertension, can be "programmed" in the early stage of life and the disturbed growth of the fetus leads to the symptoms of the metabolic syndrome. The structural changes of some organs, such as the brain, pancreas and kidney, modifications of the signaling and metabolic pathways in skeletal muscles and in fatty tissue, epigenetic mechanisms and mitochondrial dysfunction are the basis of the metabolic disruptions. The programming of the metabolic disturbances is connected with the disruption in the intrauterine environment experienced in the early and late gestation period. It causes the changes in deposition of triglycerides, activation of the hormonal "stress axis" and disturbances in the offspring’s glucose tolerance. The present review summarizes experimental results that led to the identification of the above-mentioned links and it underlines the role of animal models in the studies of this important concept.

  4. Evaluation of Effect of Taxus baccata Leaves Extract on Bronchoconstriction and Bronchial Hyperreactivity in Experimental Animals

    PubMed Central

    Patel, PK; Patel, KV; Gandhi, TR

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the bronchodilating effect and bronchial hyperreactivity of alcoholic extract of Taxus baccata Linn. (AET) leaves in experimental animals. Bronchodilator activity of AET was studied on the histamine and acetylcholine aerosol induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs and bronchial hyperreactivity was studied on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in the egg albumin sensitized guinea pigs and by histopathological studies. In vitro mast cell stabilizing activity was studied using compound 48/80 as a degranulating agent. Treatment with AET (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o., for 7 days) showed significant protection against histamine and acetylcholine aerosol induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs. Significant decrease in the total leukocyte and differential leukocyte count in the BALF of the egg albumin sensitized guinea pigs was observed by administration of AET (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o., for 15 days). AET dose dependently protected the mast cell disruption induced by compound 48/80. These results suggest that AET not only has bronchodilating activity but also decreases bronchial hyperreactivity by decreasing the infiltration of inflammatory cells in the airway and inhibiting the release of histamine like mediators from the mast cell by stabilizing it. PMID:21607053

  5. Experimental animal model for analyzing immunobiological responses following vaccination with formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Akihito; Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2016-04-01

    Formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (FI-RSV) vaccine was developed in the 1960s. However, this vaccine does not prevent infection in RSV-naïve recipients and has the paradoxical effect of increasing the severity of RSV illness following natural infection, which has been a major obstacle to developing RSV vaccines. Several experimental animal models for determining the cause of the severe symptoms in FI-RSV recipients have been developed. In the present study, cotton rats immunized with FI-RSV were challenged with RSV and histopathological findings and recovery of infectious virus were studied. Copy numbers of mRNA of Th1 and Th2 cytokines were measured in lung tissues to gain better understanding of their immune responses. Infiltration of inflammatory cells and prominent interstitial pneumonitis were observed in the FI-RSV group, as was induction of mRNA of Th2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, IL-13 and RANTES. Rats immunized with recombinant measles virus expressing the RSV F protein (MVAIK/RSV/F) and those treated with anti-RSV mAb (palivizumab) showed very mild interstitial pneumonitis. Amounts of mRNA of IL-1β, IFN-γ and IL-4 were higher in the MVAIK/RSV/F group. Administration of palivizumab before RSV challenge decreased the severity of interstitial pneumonitis in the FI-RSV group. FI-RSV induced skewed Th2 responses, resulting in severe inflammatory responses. PMID:26865035

  6. Tetrathyridia of Mesocestoides lineatus in Chinese snakes and their adults recovered from experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Kim, Tong-Soo; Kong, Yoon; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Sohn, Woon-Mok

    2013-10-01

    Morphological characteristics of Mesocestoides lineatus tetrathyridia collected from Chinese snakes and their adults recovered from experimental animals were studied. The tetrathyridia were detected mainly in the mesentery of 2 snake species, Agkistrodon saxatilis (25%) and Elaphe schrenckii (20%). They were 1.73 by 1.02 mm in average size and had an invaginated scolex with 4 suckers. Adult tapeworms were recovered from 2 hamsters and 1 dog, which were orally infected with 5-10 larvae each. Adults from hamsters were about 32 cm long and those from a dog were about 58 cm long. The scolex was 0.56 mm in average width with 4 suckers of 0.17 by 0.15 mm in average size. Mature proglottids measured 0.29 by 0.91 mm (av.). Ovaries and vitellaria bilobed and located in the posterior portion of proglottids. The cirrus sac was oval-shaped and located median. Testes were follicular, distributed in both lateral fields of proglottids, and 41-52 in number per proglottid. Gravid proglottids were 1.84 by 1.39 mm (av.) with a characteristic paruterine organ. Eggs were 35 by 27 µm in average size with a hexacanth embryo. These morphological characteristics of adult worms were identical with those of M. lineatus reported previously. Therefore, it has been confirmed that the tetrathyridia detected in 2 species of Chinese snakes are the metacestodes of M. lineatus, and 2 snake species, A. saxatilis and E. schrenckii, play the role of intermediate hosts.

  7. Accumulation and Toxicity of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Cells and Experimental Animals

    PubMed Central

    Jarockyte, Greta; Daugelaite, Egle; Stasys, Marius; Statkute, Urte; Poderys, Vilius; Tseng, Ting-Chen; Hsu, Shan-Hui; Karabanovas, Vitalijus; Rotomskis, Ricardas

    2016-01-01

    The uptake and distribution of negatively charged superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (SPIONs) in mouse embryonic fibroblasts NIH3T3, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal influenced by SPIONs injected into experimental animals, were visualized and investigated. Cellular uptake and distribution of the SPIONs in NIH3T3 after staining with Prussian Blue were investigated by a bright-field microscope equipped with digital color camera. SPIONs were localized in vesicles, mostly placed near the nucleus. Toxicity of SPION nanoparticles tested with cell viability assay (XTT) was estimated. The viability of NIH3T3 cells remains approximately 95% within 3–24 h of incubation, and only a slight decrease of viability was observed after 48 h of incubation. MRI studies on Wistar rats using a clinical 1.5 T MRI scanner were showing that SPIONs give a negative contrast in the MRI. The dynamic MRI measurements of the SPION clearance from the injection site shows that SPIONs slowly disappear from injection sites and only a low concentration of nanoparticles was completely eliminated within three weeks. No functionalized SPIONs accumulate in cells by endocytic mechanism, none accumulate in the nucleus, and none are toxic at a desirable concentration. Therefore, they could be used as a dual imaging agent: as contrast agents for MRI and for traditional optical biopsy by using Prussian Blue staining. PMID:27548152

  8. Comparison of Immunoprotection of Leptospira Recombinant Proteins with conventional vaccine in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Parthiban, M; Kumar, S Senthil; Balachandran, C; Kumanan, K; Aarthi, K S; Nireesha, G

    2015-12-01

    Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira affecting humans and animals. Untreated leptospirosis may result in severe kidney damage, meningitis, liver failure, respiratory distress, and even death. Virulent leptospirosis can rapidly enter kidney fibroblasts and induce a programmed cell death. Thus, it is a challenge for immunologists to develop an effective and safe leptospirosis vaccine. Here, we compared the commercial canine leptospira vaccine and recombinant proteins (OmpL1 and LipL41) with and without adjuvant in terms of immune response and challenge studies in hamsters and immune response studies alone in experimental dogs. The outer membrane proteins viz., lipL41 and OmpL1 of leptospira interrogans serovars icterohaemorrhagiae were amplified. The primers were designed in such a way that amplified products of OmpL1 and lipL41 were ligated and cloned simultaneously into a single vector. The cloned products were expressed in E. coli BL21 cells. The immunoprotection studies were conducted for both recombinant proteins and commercial vaccine. The challenge experiment studies revealed that combination of both rLip41 and rOmpL1 and commercial vaccine gave 83% and 87% protection, respectively. Histopathological investigation revealed mild sub lethal changes were noticed in liver and kidney in commercially vaccinated group alone. The immune responses against recombinant leptospiral proteins were also demonstrated in dogs. PMID:26742322

  9. Proteome alterations in response to aristolochic acids in experimental animal model.

    PubMed

    Rucevic, Marijana; Rosenquist, Thomas; Breen, Lucas; Cao, Lulu; Clifton, James; Hixson, Douglas; Josic, Djuro

    2012-12-01

    Strong indications have been presented that dietary poisoning with aristolochic acids (AA) is responsible for Endemic Nephropathy (EN) and AA associated cancer of the upper urinary tract (UUTC). Our recent investigation showed drastic urinary proteome changes in AA treated mice. This study was designed to identify proteome changes associated with AA nephrotoxicity in experimental animal model. The DBA and C57BL mice, which differ in AA sensitivity, were exposed to AA for 4 days. The strategy for urinary, plasma and kidney tissue proteome study of AA exposed and control mice integrated gel-based and in-solution tryptic digestion combined with LC-ESI-MS/MS. To maximize proteome coverage, plasma fractionation scheme was developed and MS compatible sequential tissue extraction procedure was established. Proteomic analyses of urinary, plasma and kidney tissue tryptic digests resulted in identification of several cytoskeletal proteins, as well as proteins involved in kidney development and inflammatory response, that are differentially expressed in both AA exposed and control mice. These proteins are consistent with renal pathogenesis of endotoxicity and cancer. This proteomic strategy could be effectively translated for unbiased discovery of potential biomarkers for EN and associated UUTC in humans. At the same time, these results highlight the significance of AA exposure with EN. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Integrated omics.

  10. Anatomical features for the adequate choice of experimental animal models in biomedicine: I. Fishes.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Livia; Lossi, Laura; Merighi, Adalberto; de Girolamo, Paolo

    2016-05-01

    Fish constitute the oldest and most diverse class of vertebrates, and are widely used in basic research due to a number of advantages (e.g., rapid development ex-utero, large-scale genetic screening of human disease). They represent excellent experimental models for addressing studies on development, morphology, physiology and behavior function in other related species, as well as informative analysis of conservation and diversity. Although less complex, fish share many anatomical and physiological features with mammals, including humans, which make them an important complement to research in mammalian models. In this review we describe and compare the most relevant anatomical features of the most used teleostean species in research, to be taken into consideration when selecting an animal model: zebrafish (Danio rerio), medaka (Oryzias latypes), the turquoise killifish (Nothobranchius furzeri), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). Zebrafish and medaka are the mainstream models for genetic manipulability and studies on developmental biology; the turquoise killifish is an excellent model for aging research; goldfish has been largely employed for neuroendocrine studies. PMID:26925824

  11. High-Resolution Melting Curve Analysis for Identification of Pasteurellaceae Species in Experimental Animal Facilities.

    PubMed

    Miller, Manuel; Zorn, Julia; Brielmeier, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Pasteurellaceae are among the most prevalent bacterial pathogens isolated from mice housed in experimental animal facilities. Reliable detection and differentiation of Pasteurellaceae are essential for high-quality health monitoring. In this study, we combined a real-time PCR assay amplifying a variable region in the 16S rRNA sequence with high-resolution melting curve analysis (HRM) to identify and differentiate among the commonly isolated species Pasteurella pneumotropica biotypes "Jawetz" and "Heyl", Actinobacillus muris, and Haemophilus influenzaemurium. We used a set of six reference strains for assay development, with the melting profiles of these strains clearly distinguishable due to DNA sequence variations in the amplicon. For evaluation, we used real-time PCR/HRM to test 25 unknown Pasteurellaceae isolates obtained from an external diagnostic laboratory and found the results to be consistent with those of partial 16S rRNA sequencing. The real-time PCR/HRM method provides a sensitive, rapid, and closed-tube approach for Pasteurellaceae species identification for health monitoring of laboratory mice. PMID:26556281

  12. Experimental strategies for the identification and characterization of adhesive proteins in animals: a review.

    PubMed

    Hennebert, Elise; Maldonado, Barbara; Ladurner, Peter; Flammang, Patrick; Santos, Romana

    2015-02-01

    Adhesive secretions occur in both aquatic and terrestrial animals, in which they perform diverse functions. Biological adhesives can therefore be remarkably complex and involve a large range of components with different functions and interactions. However, being mainly protein based, biological adhesives can be characterized by classical molecular methods. This review compiles experimental strategies that were successfully used to identify, characterize and obtain the full-length sequence of adhesive proteins from nine biological models: echinoderms, barnacles, tubeworms, mussels, sticklebacks, slugs, velvet worms, spiders and ticks. A brief description and practical examples are given for a variety of tools used to study adhesive molecules at different levels from genes to secreted proteins. In most studies, proteins, extracted from secreted materials or from adhesive organs, are analysed for the presence of post-translational modifications and submitted to peptide sequencing. The peptide sequences are then used directly for a BLAST search in genomic or transcriptomic databases, or to design degenerate primers to perform RT-PCR, both allowing the recovery of the sequence of the cDNA coding for the investigated protein. These sequences can then be used for functional validation and recombinant production. In recent years, the dual proteomic and transcriptomic approach has emerged as the best way leading to the identification of novel adhesive proteins and retrieval of their complete sequences. PMID:25657842

  13. r-Sm14 - pRSETA efficacy in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Ramos, C R; Vilar, M M; Nascimento, A L; Ho, P L; Thaumaturgo, N; Edelenyi, R; Almeida, M; Dias, W O; Diogo, C M; Tendler, M

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies carried out with Sm14 in experimental vaccination against Schistosoma mansoni or Fasciola hepatica infections were performed with recombinant Sm14 (rSm14) produced in Escherichia coli by the pGEMEX system (Promega). The rSm14 was expressed as a 40 kDa fusion protein with the major bacteriophage T7 capsid protein. Vaccination experiments with this rSm14 in animal models resulted in consistent high protective activity against S. mansoni cercariae challenge and enabled rSm14 to be included among the vaccine antigens endorsed by the World Health Organization for phase I/II clinical trials. Since the preparation of pGEMEX based rSm14 is time consuming and results in low yield for large scale production, we have tested other E. coli expression systems which would be more suitable for scale up and downstream processing. We expressed two different 6XHis-tagged Sm14 fusion proteins in a T7 promoter based plasmids. The 6XHis-tag fusions allowed rapid purification of the recombinant proteins through a Ni+2-charged resin. The resulted recombinant 18 and 16 kDa proteins were recognized by anti-Sm14 antibodies and also by antiserum against adult S. mansoni soluble secreted/excreted proteins in Western-Blot. Both proteins were also protective against S. mansoni cercariae infection to the same extent as the rSm14 expressed by the pGEMEX system.

  14. Cardiovascular and organ responses and adaptation responses to hypogravity in an experimental animal model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biondi, R.; Capodicasa, E.; Tassi, C.; Mezzasomal, L.; Benedetti, C.; Valiani, M.; Marconi, P.; Rossi, R.

    1995-10-01

    The head-down suspension (i.e antiorthostatic hypokinesia) rat is used to simulate weightlessness. However, little is known about cardiovascular and organ adaptation responses which, over a long time, can become pathologically significant. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate regional changes in the hematology parameters, Endotheline-1 (ET-1) concentration and urinary excretion of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.30) (NAG) in an experimental antiorthostatic rat model. The data indicate significant variations in the plasma ET-1 level in time, in the superior and inferior cava vessel blood of animals maintained for 10 days in hypogravity with respect to controls. These changes do not seem to be due to hemoconcentration. The increase in urinary NAG was observed during the first 24h of experiment, indicating renal stress, probably due to adverse blood flow variations within the organ. We conclude that the plasma ET-1 level changes could be responsible, overall for the blood flow variations in the kidney and renal stress could be the consequence of extended antiorthostatic hypokinesia. The ET-1 behaviour and urinary NAG excretion in rats exposed to antiorthostatic hypokjnetic hydynamia offer possibilities for understanding if these changes might be reversible or when they become pathological. This could give some relevant information about the effects of prolonged hypogravity during the space voyage.

  15. Increased survival of experimentally evolved antimicrobial peptide-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an animal host.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Adam J; Purves, Joanne; Rolff, Jens

    2014-09-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been proposed as new class of antimicrobial drugs, following the increasing prevalence of bacteria resistant to antibiotics. Synthetic AMPs are functional analogues of highly evolutionarily conserved immune effectors in animals and plants, produced in response to microbial infection. Therefore, the proposed therapeutic use of AMPs bears the risk of 'arming the enemy': bacteria that evolve resistance to AMPs may be cross-resistant to immune effectors (AMPs) in their hosts. We used a panel of populations of Staphylococcus aureus that were experimentally selected for resistance to a suite of individual AMPs and antibiotics to investigate the 'arming the enemy' hypothesis. We tested whether the selected strains showed higher survival in an insect model (Tenebrio molitor) and cross-resistance against other antimicrobials in vitro. A population selected for resistance to the antimicrobial peptide iseganan showed increased in vivo survival, but was not more virulent. We suggest that increased survival of AMP-resistant bacteria almost certainly poses problems to immune-compromised hosts. PMID:25469169

  16. Anatomical features for the adequate choice of experimental animal models in biomedicine: I. Fishes.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Livia; Lossi, Laura; Merighi, Adalberto; de Girolamo, Paolo

    2016-05-01

    Fish constitute the oldest and most diverse class of vertebrates, and are widely used in basic research due to a number of advantages (e.g., rapid development ex-utero, large-scale genetic screening of human disease). They represent excellent experimental models for addressing studies on development, morphology, physiology and behavior function in other related species, as well as informative analysis of conservation and diversity. Although less complex, fish share many anatomical and physiological features with mammals, including humans, which make them an important complement to research in mammalian models. In this review we describe and compare the most relevant anatomical features of the most used teleostean species in research, to be taken into consideration when selecting an animal model: zebrafish (Danio rerio), medaka (Oryzias latypes), the turquoise killifish (Nothobranchius furzeri), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). Zebrafish and medaka are the mainstream models for genetic manipulability and studies on developmental biology; the turquoise killifish is an excellent model for aging research; goldfish has been largely employed for neuroendocrine studies.

  17. Safety of oxytetracycline (Terramycin TM-100F) administered in feed to hybrid striped bass, walleyes, and yellow perch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Wolf, J.C.; Schleis, S.M.; Gingerich, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (Terramycin TM-100F, a medicated premix containing oxytetracycline at 220 g/kg) is approved in the United States to control certain systemic bacterial diseases of salmon and catfish when fed at a rate of 55-82.5 mg per kilogram of bodyweight per day for 10 d. Although oxytetracycline may also control certain systemic bacterial infections in coolwater or scaled warmwater fish, no safety data for such species are available. Our objective was to determine the safety of oxytetracycline administered in feed at nominal doses of 0, 82.5, 248, or 413 mg??kg-1??d-1 to yellow perch Perca flavescens and hybrid striped bass (striped bass Morone saxatilis x white bass M. chrysops) for 10 d and to walleye Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum) for 20 d. Yellow perch and hybrid striped bass consumed 50% to 100% of the diet, whereas walleye feed consumption was occasionally less than 50% of the diet. Feed or fecal material was present in the gastrointestinal tract of all necropsied walleyes except for one control fish. The single growth effect was that hybrid striped bass offered a nominal dose of 413 mg??kg-1??d-1 were significantly smaller than untreated controls. Oxytetracycline-related histopathological findings were limited to walleyes and were of low severity. The histopathological findings included decreased hematopoietic-lymphopoietic (H&L) tissue in the anterior kidneys, diffuse hyperplasia of the gill filament epithelium, and a decreased prevalence of fish with eosinophilic droplets in their renal tubular epithelial cells. Although the incidence of decreased H&L tissue tended to increase in proportion to oxytetracycline dose, this finding was statistically significant only for fish that received a nominal dose of 413 mg??kg-1??d-1. Given the pathogenicity of the types of bacteria that are controlled by oxytetracycline treatment and the long history of its use in major aquaculture species, the relative risk of the minor oxytetracycline

  18. Asparagus racemosus attenuates anxiety-like behavior in experimental animal models.

    PubMed

    Garabadu, Debapriya; Krishnamurthy, Sairam

    2014-05-01

    Asparagus racemosus Linn. (AR) is used worldwide as a medicinal plant. In the present study, the anxiolytic activity of standardized methanolic extract of root of AR (MAR) was evaluated in open-field test (OFT), hole-board, and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests. Rats received oral pretreatment of MAR in the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg daily for 7 days and then were evaluated for the anxiolytic activity in different animal models. Both MAR (100 and 200 mg/kg) and diazepam (1 mg/kg, p.o.) increased the grooming behavior, number of central squares crossed, and time spent in the central area during OFT. Further, MAR (100 and 200 mg/kg) increased the head-dip and head-dip/sniffing behavior, and decreased sniffing activity in hole-board test. Furthermore, MAR (100 and 200 mg/kg) increased the percentage entries and time spent to open arm in EPM test paradigm. The anxiolytic activity in the experimental models was similar to that of diazepam. MAR (100 and 200 mg/kg) enhanced the level of amygdalar serotonin and norepinephrine. It also increased the expression of 5-HT2A receptors in the amygdala. In another set of experiment, flumazenil attenuated the anxiolytic effect of minimum effective dose of MAR (100 mg/kg) in OFT, hole-board, and EPM tests, indicating GABAA-mediated mechanism. Moreover, the anxiolytic dose of MAR did not show sedative-like effect in OFT and EPM tests compared to diazepam (6 mg/kg, p.o.). Thus, the anxiolytic response of MAR may involve GABA and serotonergic mechanisms. These preclinical data show that AR can be a potential agent for treatment of anxiety disorders.

  19. Pharmacological studies on the venomous spotted butterfish (Scatophagus argus Linn) sting extract on experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Muhuri, D; Karmakar, S; Dasgupta, S C; Nagchaudhuri, A K; Gomes, A

    2004-05-01

    A sting of the fish S. argus, a venomous edible spotted butterfish, produces tremendous local pain, severe swelling, rise of body temperature, throbbing sensation etc. To establish the pharmacological activities of S. argus sting extract, the present investigation, was carried out on experimental animals. The LD50 of extract was found to be 9.3 mg/kg (iv) in male albino mice. The extract showed loss of sensation, urination and salivation in mice. It potentiated pentobarbitone induced sleeping time in male albino mice and produced hypothermia. Extract produced a fall of cat and guinea pig blood pressure, which was completely abolished by mepyramine. It produced a transient reduction of respiratory rate in rat, but decreased respiratory amplitude in cat, which was abolished after vagotomy. On isolated toad heart, the extract increased both the amplitude and rate of contraction. On isolated guinea pig heart, the sting extract decreased both the rate and amplitude of contraction leading to cardiac arrest, but it had no effect on isolated guinea pig auricle. The extract produced a reversible blockade of electrically induced twitch response of isolated chick biventer cervices preparation, but it had no effect on the isolated rat phrenic nerve diaphragm preparation. It produced a slow contractile response on isolated guinea pig ileum, rat uterus and rat fundal strip preparations but produced slow relaxation on isolated rat duodenum preparation. The contractile response on isolated guinea pig ileum and rat fundal strip was antagonised by SC19220. It did not produce any significant cutaneous haemorrhage in mice and did not produce any haemolysis on saline washed erythrocytes. The sting extract significantly increased capillary permeability of guinea pig dorsal flank and produced oedema in mice hind paw. PMID:15233469

  20. Preliminary studies on local anesthetic and antipyretic activities of Spilanthes acmella Murr. in experimental animal models

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, A.; Devi, B.R.K.; Sanjebam, R.; Khumbong, S.; Thokchom, I.S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Spilanthes acmella Murr. (Family: Compositae) is a herb that grows throughout the tropics. It is used in the treatment of rheumatism, fever, sore throat, and hemorrhoids. A tincture of the flowers is used to relieve toothache. The leaves and flowers produce numbness of the tongue when eaten as salad. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the local anesthetic and antipyretic activities of S. acmella in experimental animal models. Materials and Methods: Aqueous extract of S. acmella Murr. (SAM) was tested for local anesthetic action by (i) intracutaneous wheal in guinea pigs and (ii) plexus anesthesia in frogs. In both the models, 2% xylocaine was used as the standard drug. The anti-pyretic activity was determined by yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. Aspirin 300 mg/kg was used as the standard drug. Result: The test drug in concentrations of 10% and 20% produced 70.36% and 87.02% anesthesia respectively by the intracutaneous wheal compared to 97.22% anesthetic effect produced by 2% xylocaine (P<0.001). The mean onset of anesthesia with the test drug was 5.33±0.57 min compared to 2.75±0.31 min (P<0.001) for the standard drug in the plexus anesthesia model. In the anti-pyretic model, ASA in doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg produced dose-dependent reduction in mean temperature at various hours of observation. Conclusion: The present study shows that SAM has significant local anesthetic and antipyretic activities. PMID:21206617

  1. Tetrathyridia of Mesocestoides lineatus in Chinese snakes and their adults recovered from experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Kim, Tong-Soo; Kong, Yoon; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Sohn, Woon-Mok

    2013-10-01

    Morphological characteristics of Mesocestoides lineatus tetrathyridia collected from Chinese snakes and their adults recovered from experimental animals were studied. The tetrathyridia were detected mainly in the mesentery of 2 snake species, Agkistrodon saxatilis (25%) and Elaphe schrenckii (20%). They were 1.73 by 1.02 mm in average size and had an invaginated scolex with 4 suckers. Adult tapeworms were recovered from 2 hamsters and 1 dog, which were orally infected with 5-10 larvae each. Adults from hamsters were about 32 cm long and those from a dog were about 58 cm long. The scolex was 0.56 mm in average width with 4 suckers of 0.17 by 0.15 mm in average size. Mature proglottids measured 0.29 by 0.91 mm (av.). Ovaries and vitellaria bilobed and located in the posterior portion of proglottids. The cirrus sac was oval-shaped and located median. Testes were follicular, distributed in both lateral fields of proglottids, and 41-52 in number per proglottid. Gravid proglottids were 1.84 by 1.39 mm (av.) with a characteristic paruterine organ. Eggs were 35 by 27 µm in average size with a hexacanth embryo. These morphological characteristics of adult worms were identical with those of M. lineatus reported previously. Therefore, it has been confirmed that the tetrathyridia detected in 2 species of Chinese snakes are the metacestodes of M. lineatus, and 2 snake species, A. saxatilis and E. schrenckii, play the role of intermediate hosts. PMID:24327778

  2. Methylglyoxal-induced neuroinflammatory response in in vitro astrocytic cultures and hippocampus of experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Chu, John M T; Lee, Dicky K M; Wong, Daniella P K; Wong, Gordon T C; Yue, Kevin K M

    2016-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and its diverse complications. Hyperglycemia is associated with inflammatory responses in different organs and diabetic patients have a higher risk of developing neurodegenerative disorders. Methylglyoxal is a reactive advanced glycation end product precursor that accumulates in diabetic patients. It induces various stress responses in the central nervous system and causes neuronal dysfunction. Astrocytes are actively involved in maintaining neuronal homeostasis and possibly play a role in protecting the brain against neurodegeneration. However it is not clear whether methylglyoxal exerts any adverse effects towards these astrocytes. In the present study we investigated the effects of methylglyoxal in astrocytic cultures and hippocampi of experimental animals. The cells from the astrocytic line DITNC1 were treated with methylglyoxal for 1 to 24 h. For the in vivo model, 3 months old C57BL/6 mice were treated with methylglyoxal solution for 6 weeks by intraperitoneal injection. Following the treatment, both astrocytes and hippocampi were harvested for MTT assay, Western blot and real time PCR analyses. We found that methylglyoxal induced astrogliosis in DITNC1 astrocytic cultures and C57BL/6 mice. Further, activation of the pro-inflammatory JNK signaling pathway and its downstream effectors c-Jun were observed. Furthermore, increased gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and astrocytic markers were observed from real time PCR analyses. In addition, inhibition of JNK activities resulted in down-regulation of TNF-α gene expression in methylglyoxal treated astrocytes. Our results suggest that methylglyoxal may contribute to the progression of diabetes related neurodegeneration through JNK pathway activation in astrocytes and the subsequent neuroinflammatory responses in the central nervous system. PMID:27250968

  3. Tetrathyridia of Mesocestoides lineatus in Chinese Snakes and Their Adults Recovered from Experimental Animals

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Kim, Tong-Soo; Kong, Yoon; Na, Byoung-Kuk

    2013-01-01

    Morphological characteristics of Mesocestoides lineatus tetrathyridia collected from Chinese snakes and their adults recovered from experimental animals were studied. The tetrathyridia were detected mainly in the mesentery of 2 snake species, Agkistrodon saxatilis (25%) and Elaphe schrenckii (20%). They were 1.73 by 1.02 mm in average size and had an invaginated scolex with 4 suckers. Adult tapeworms were recovered from 2 hamsters and 1 dog, which were orally infected with 5-10 larvae each. Adults from hamsters were about 32 cm long and those from a dog were about 58 cm long. The scolex was 0.56 mm in average width with 4 suckers of 0.17 by 0.15 mm in average size. Mature proglottids measured 0.29 by 0.91 mm (av.). Ovaries and vitellaria bilobed and located in the posterior portion of proglottids. The cirrus sac was oval-shaped and located median. Testes were follicular, distributed in both lateral fields of proglottids, and 41-52 in number per proglottid. Gravid proglottids were 1.84 by 1.39 mm (av.) with a characteristic paruterine organ. Eggs were 35 by 27 µm in average size with a hexacanth embryo. These morphological characteristics of adult worms were identical with those of M. lineatus reported previously. Therefore, it has been confirmed that the tetrathyridia detected in 2 species of Chinese snakes are the metacestodes of M. lineatus, and 2 snake species, A. saxatilis and E. schrenckii, play the role of intermediate hosts. PMID:24327778

  4. Effects of the introduction of in vitro assays on the use of experimental animals in pharmacological research.

    PubMed

    Verbost, Pieter M; van der Valk, Jan; Hendriksen, Coenraad F M

    2007-05-01

    The introduction of in vitro assays in pharmacological research has led to a reduction in the number of experimental animals used. But what has been the degree of this reduction, and when did it really start? This report describes the events in a medium-sized pharmaceutical company. Analysis of data collected over the last 12 years shows a five-fold reduction in the number of experimental animals used per compound synthesised. Compounds from compound libraries (large collections of randomly-synthesised molecules) that are being assessed for potential bioactivity in 'high-throughput screening' were not included in this analysis. Over the years, the (average) degree of discomfort for the animals in the experiments did not vary much; with variation generally observed from 1.5 to 2.0 (on a scale from 1-6). There was a peak in the discomfort score of experimental mice in 1997, which could be explained by the initiation of arthritis models that were subsequently refined, resulting in a lower degree of suffering. It might be concluded that the introduction of in vitro assays has indeed brought about a significant reduction in the number of experimental animals required to select a good compound (i.e. one that could progress to the preclinical toxicology phase). However, this development appears to have been neutralised by the low survival rate of new chemical entities in clinical studies, leading to a lower number of compounds per annum that actually reach the market place. Put in this 'productivity perspective', the number of experimental animals required to select a marketable drug has not much changed in the last decade.

  5. An Experimental Design for Examining Thermoregulatory Set Points in Ectothermic Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsbury, Bruce A.

    1999-01-01

    Provides a protocol for examining the mechanisms of animal thermoregulation in a straightforward but more sophisticated manner than using a thermal gradient. Describes a methodology for conducting operant conditioning to examine thermal set points for ectothermic animals. Contains 20 references. (WRM)

  6. Teaching Neurophysiology, Neuropharmacology, and Experimental Design Using Animal Models of Psychiatric and Neurological Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsink, Maarten C.; Dukers, Danny F.

    2009-01-01

    Animal models have been widely used for studying the physiology and pharmacology of psychiatric and neurological diseases. The concepts of face, construct, and predictive validity are used as indicators to estimate the extent to which the animal model mimics the disease. Currently, we used these three concepts to design a theoretical assignment to…

  7. Animal Science Technology. An Experimental Developmental Program. Volume II, Curriculum Course Outlines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brant, Herman G.

    This volume, the second of a two part evaluation report, is devoted exclusively to the presentation of detailed course outlines representing an Animal Science Technology curriculum. Arranged in 6 terms of study (2 academic years), outlines are included on such topics as: (1) Introductory Animal Science, (2) General Microbiology, (3) Zoonoses, (4)…

  8. [Acute diazepam poisoning in experimental animals and the effect of centrophenoxine on it].

    PubMed

    Mirchev, N

    1976-01-01

    The author carried out studies on 20 white rats (weight of 150 gm) and 40 white mice (weight of 20 gm), equal number of both sexes administering oraly respective doses of diazepam in a dose of 650 mg/body weight and 620 mg/body weight, having in mind the LD50 determined by him (730 mg/body weight for rats and 535 mg/body weight for mice). In this way he induced acute intoxication especially gravely manifested in mice. After two hours, when the rats were in a comatous state, he introduced oraly centrophenoxine in a dose of 50 mg/body weight in half of the animals, but the other animals remained as controls. Mice succumed to coma after two and a half hours. In half of them he administered oraly centrophenoxine in a boose of 50 mg/body weight, which dose was repeated after two hours, but the remaining animals remained as controls. All rats, treated with centrophenoxine, remained alive and recovered quickly from the intoxication while four of the control animals died, but in the remaining alive animals the recovery was very slow. Only four of the mice treated with centrophenoxine died, but in the remaining alive mice the signs of intoxication disappeared quickly. Twelve of the control animals died, but the remaining animals recovered very quickly. The obtained results corresponded to the favourable effect of centophenoxine, observed by us, in treatment of persons, intoxicated by diazepam.

  9. Would the elimination of the capacity to suffer solve ethical dilemmas in experimental animal research?

    PubMed

    Shriver, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The use of genetic engineering to enhance the welfare of laboratory animals can reduce the amount of suffering in current neuroscience research paradigms. In particular, for some forms of basic research, we can use welfare-enhanced animals to reduce harms to animals without sacrificing any of the scientific validity. In another group of experiments, we can use welfare-enhanced animals to dramatically reduce the number of unprotected animals enduring aversive procedures. Many of the objections to using welfare-enhanced animals for food production do not apply to their use in research, since genetic knockout techniques are already used routinely in research for human ends and since there is no risk for human health. Furthermore, examples of recent knockout experiments suggest that we already have, or are very close to having, the capacity to reduce suffering in laboratories via genetic engineering. If we are truly committed to balancing the advancement of science with the welfare of animals, this option should be further explored.

  10. Animal experimentation and ethics in India: the CPCSEA makes a difference.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Shiranee; Veeraraghavan, Prema; Ghosh, Sonya; Gandhi, Maneka

    2004-06-01

    The Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA) is a statutory body formed by the Act of the Indian Parliament under the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1960. Formed in 1964, it was revived in 1998, under the committed chairpersonship of Maneka Gandhi. In the last two years, the CPCSEA has bettered the life of the animals in laboratories across India. This committee is composed of members of the scientific community, regulatory authorities and animal activists. The CPCSEA functions with a brilliant network of volunteers who liaise with the laboratories. For the first time in India: over 665 laboratories are registered with the CPCSEA; Institutional Animal Ethics Committees (IAECs) are constituted in every laboratory, which are only empowered to approve research project proposals that use rats, mice, guinea-pigs or rabbits; every project that uses canines, ovines, bovines or non-human primates can only be conducted if approved by the panel of scientific experts constituted for this purpose; guidelines on laboratory animal care and practice have been formulated and enforced; a protocol for the production of immunobiologicals from equines has been formulated and ratified by the Supreme Court of India; the CPCSEA has been deliberating on alternatives and working out modalities to introduce alternatives in basic/regulatory research and education, in keeping with the international arena; the CPCSEA, to date, has rehabilitated and homed over 300 dogs, 150 equines, 200 non-human primates and several cattle, cats, birds, rabbits and mice; the CPCSEA proactively trains and guides scientific and non-scientific personnel on issues of alternatives and laboratory animal welfare; and the CPCSEA has fought legal issues on laboratory animal care and use and have had verdicts that favoured alternatives and animal welfare.

  11. Guidelines on the recognition of pain, distress and discomfort in experimental animals and an hypothesis for assessment.

    PubMed

    Morton, D B; Griffiths, P H

    1985-04-20

    Under the 1876 Cruelty to Animals Act it is necessary to recognise pain so that an assessment may be made to determine if it is 'an experiment calculated to give pain' and 'to prevent the animal feeling pain'. Under the conditions of the licence it is also necessary to recognise 'severe pain which is likely to endure' and 'suffering considerable pain'. In the White Paper May 1983 (Command 8883) it is stated that: 'in the application of controls the concept of pain should be applied in a wide sense' and 'the Home Secretary's practice has been to interpret the concept of pain to include disease, other disturbances of normal health, adverse change in physiology, discomfort and distress'. The draft European Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals used for Experimental and other Purposes, aims to control, subject to specific exceptions, any experimental or other scientific procedure which 'may cause pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm'. (The White Paper states that UK control will be stricter than the Council of Europe proposals.) Thus, there is a considerable onus on the experimenter to recognise pain (not to define it) and to alleviate it. It is intended that this article should be of help, not only to newcomers inexperienced in the recognition of pain, but also possibly to those relatively experienced workers who may be called upon to evaluate the pain involved in a new model or an individual animal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Directional left-sided asymmetry of adrenals in experimentally domesticated animals.

    PubMed

    Trut, L N; Prasolova, L A; Kharlamova, A V; Plyusnina, I Z

    2002-05-01

    Directional left-sided asymmetry of the adrenals was typical of black and silver foxes, American minks, and gray rats selected by their behavior. In domesticated, but to a greater extent, in aggressive animals, the weight of the left adrenal and the width of its medulla and cortex markedly surpassed the corresponding parameters of the right adrenal. In aggressive animals enlargement of the left adrenal cortex was associated with widening of the zona reticularis, while in domesticated animals with enlargement of the zona fasciculata. PMID:12420075

  13. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of the anticancer prodrug simmitecan in different experimental animals

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhe-yi; Li, Xiu-xue; Du, Fei-fei; Yang, Jun-ling; Niu, Wei; Xu, Fang; Wang, Feng-qing; Li, Chuan; Sun, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the pharmacokinetics and disposition of simmitecan (L-P) that was a water-soluble ester prodrug of chimmitecan (L-2-Z) with potent anti-tumor activities in different experimental animals, and to assess its drug-drug interaction potential. Methods: SD rats were injected with a single iv bolus doses of L-P (3.75, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg). The pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, excretion and metabolism of L-P and its active metabolite L-2-Z were studied through quantitative measurements and metabolite profiling with LC/MS. The binding of L-P and L-2-Z to rat plasma proteins was examined using an ultrafiltration method. Systemic exposures of beagle dogs to L-P as well as drug distribution in tumors of the nude mice xenograft model of human hepatic cancer SMMC-7721 cells were also examined. The metabolism of L-P by liver mcirosomal carboxylesterase in vitro was investigated in different species. The effects of L-P and L-2-Z on cytochrome P450 enzymes were examined using commercial screening kits. Results: The in vivo biotransformation of L-P to L-2-Z showed a significant species difference, with a mean elimination half-life t1/2 of approximately 1.4 h in rats and 1.9 h in dogs. The systemic exposure levels of L-P and L-2-Z were increased in a dose-dependent manner. In rats, approximately 66% of L-P and 79% of L-2-Z were bound to plasma proteins. In rats and the nude mice bearing human hepatic cancers, most organ tissues had significantly higher concentrations of L-P than the corresponding plasma levels. In the tumor tissues, the L-P levels were comparable to those of plasma, whereas the L-2-Z levels were lower than the L-P levels. In rats, L-P was eliminated mainly via biliary excretion, but metabolism played an important role in elimination of the intact L-P. Finally, L-P and L-2-Z exerted moderate inhibition on the activity of CYP3A4 in vitro. Conclusion: L-P and L-2-Z have relatively short elimination half-lives and L-P is mainly eliminated via

  14. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-46, 119-F Stack Sampling French Drain, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-021

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2008-08-08

    The 100-F-46 french drain consisted of a 1.5 to 3 m long, vertically buried, gravel-filled pipe that was approximately 1 m in diameter. Also included in this waste site was a 5 cm cast-iron pipeline that drained condensate from the 119-F Stack Sampling Building into the 100-F-46 french drain. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to No Action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  15. Experimental reversal of acute coronary thrombotic occlusion and myocardial injury in animals utilizing streptokinase.

    PubMed

    Lee, G; Giddens, J; Krieg, P; Dajee, A; Suzuki, M; Kozina, J A; Ikeda, R M; DeMaria, A N; Mason, D T

    1981-12-01

    Fresh autologous thrombus, 1.0 to 1.5 ml, was injected into the left anterior descending and/or left diagonal coronary arteries of 19 open-chest dogs to produce evolving acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Thrombotic obstruction was documented by coronary angiography. Multilead epicardial ECGs showed ST segment elevations of affected left ventricular (LV) areas within 2 minutes after thrombus injection, and LV segmental wall cyanosis with hypocontraction was observed within 10 minutes in the myocardial areas supplied by the thrombosed artery. Ten animals then received an initial dose of streptokinase (STK), 250,000 U (intravenous), followed by STK, 1000 to 3000 U/min (intracoronary), while nine control dogs untreated with STK received normal saline infusion. All but one STK-treated animal (all nine animals receiving intracoronary STK) had reestablishment of blood flow in the previously occluded vessels within 1 1/2 hours, disappearance of ventricular cyanosis, return of normal LV contractile function, and normalization of elevated ST segments within 1 hour after intracoronary STK therapy. In contrast, in the non-STK-treated control group, all animals had continued coronary obstruction, progressive ST elevations, and worsening LV cyanosis and hypocontraction until death or for more than 3 hours post thrombus; three control animals died of ventricular fibrillation (VF) within 1 hour of thrombus occlusion, three more died of VF within 2 hours post thrombus, and only three survived beyond 2 hours post thrombus. Postmortem examination of non-STK-treated animals revealed extensive residual coronary thrombus. All intracoronary STK-treated animals evidenced absence of residual coronary thrombus at postmortem examination. These data provide clinically relevant evidence that early intracoronary STK effects thrombolysis in AMI by reopening coronary vessels occluded by fresh thrombus, thereby protecting myocardium from further ischemia and necrosis, preserving LV function, and

  16. Extrapolation of the evidence on teratogenicity of chemicals between humans and experimental animals: chemicals other than drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Hemminki, K.; Vineis, P.

    1985-01-01

    Epidemiologic literature regarding the possible association between malformations and 23 exposures or occupations other than pharmaceutical products, was analysed. The qualitative level of scientific evidence was classified into four categories: high (ethanol, methylmercury, PCBs, laboratory work), limited (anesthetic gases, carbon monoxide), low (hexachlorophene, LSD, nitrous oxide, smelter work, tobacco), and inadequate (all other exposures). Human data for exposures belonging to categories high and limited were quantitatively compared to results of animal teratogenicity tests of the relevant chemicals. Ethanol, methylmercury, and PCBs have caused malformations in experimental animals, and the effective doses have ranged from 0.2 to 8.0 times the effective human doses. Ethanol and PCBs caused similar types of lesions in some animal species as have been observed in humans. 60 references.

  17. Silicate nephrotoxicity in the experimental animal: the missing factor in analgesic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Dobbie, J W; Smith, M J

    1982-01-01

    Three silicon-containing compounds (magnesium trisilicate BP, crushed quartz and crushed Arran granite) were added to the drinking water (250 mg/l) of three groups of male guinea pigs for four months. At autopsy all animals receiving magnesium trisilicate showed a focal tubulo-interstitial nephritis mainly affecting the distal nephron. Similar but less intense lesions were encountered in two animals receiving crushed quartz. No renal lesions were found in the control group or in animals receiving crushed Arran granite. The concentration of soluble silicates in drinking water, measured as elemental silicon (Si) by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) was determined for twenty-eight locations in different regions of Britain. Following ingestion of magnesium trisilicate, significant increases in urinary excretion of Si were demonstrated in two healthy adults using atomic absorption spectroscopy.

  18. A Shift From Cell Cultures to Creatures: In Vivo Imaging of Small Animals in Experimental Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Studwell, Anna J; Kotton, Darrell N

    2011-01-01

    Although the use of small animals for in vivo experimentation has been widespread, only recently has there been easy availability of techniques that allow noninvasive in vivo imaging of small animals. Because these techniques allow the same individual subject to be followed longitudinally throughout the duration of an experiment, their use is rapidly changing the way small animals are employed in the laboratory. In this review, we focus on six imaging modalities that are increasingly employed for small animal in vivo imaging: optical imaging (OI), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), single-photon emission tomography (SPECT), ultrasound (US), and positron-emission tomography (PET). Each modality allows for the noninvasive tracking of cells and cell products in vivo. In addition, multimodality imaging, combining two or more of these techniques, has also been increasingly employed to overcome the limitations of each independent technique. After reviewing these available imaging modalities, we detail their experimental application, exemplified by the emerging field of regenerative medicine, referring to publications whose conclusions would otherwise be difficult to support without the availability of in vivo imaging. PMID:21952170

  19. Biostimulation of wound healing by lasers: experimental approaches in animal models and in fibroblast cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Abergel, R.P.; Lyons, R.F.; Castel, J.C.; Dwyer, R.M.; Uitto, J.

    1987-02-01

    Recent evidence suggests that low-energy lasers, such as an He-Ne laser, might stimulate wound healing. In this review we are summarizing our recent observations indicating that low-energy lasers enhance collagen gene expression both in skin fibroblast cultures in vitro, as well as in animal models of wound healing in vivo.

  20. Experimental Campylobacter jejuni infection in the chicken: an animal model of axonal Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Li, C Y; Xue, P; Tian, W Q; Liu, R C; Yang, C

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop and characterise an animal model of paralytic neuropathy after Campylobacter jejuni infection. Campylobacter infection precedes development of many cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome and is particularly associated with cases having prominent axonal degeneration. Understanding the pathogenesis of Guillain-Barré syndrome after C jejuni infection has been slowed by the lack of animal models. METHODS: A spontaneous paralytic neuropathy is described that developed in chickens from the farms of four patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome. The production of paralytic neuropathy in chickens experimentally fed Campylobacter jejuni isolated from one of these patients is reported. The sciatic nerves of the spontaneously paralysed chickens were examined pathologically in teased fibres, in plastic embedded sections, and by electron microscopy. Two large groups of chickens were then fed cultures of a C jejuni (Penner type O:19) isolated from one of these patients. RESULTS: The chickens with spontaneous paralysis had pathologically noninflammatory neuropathy. Pathology in the sciatic nerves ranged from no detectable changes to severe Wallerian-like degeneration. In the experimentally inoculated groups, an average of 33% of the chickens became paralysed. The median time after inoculation to paralysis was 12 days. The lesions found in the first few days of paralysis included nodal lengthening and paranodal demyelination. In those animals that survived for several days after onset of weakness, the pathology was dominated by extensive Wallerian-like degeneration. Animals that survived for weeks with no clinically apparent neuropathy had paranodal remyelination in some teased nerve fibres, reflecting earlier paranodal demyelination. CONCLUSION: Experimental inoculation with C jejuni may provide a new model for understanding some forms of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Images PMID:8795599

  1. The trypanocidal effect of Cannabis sativa constituents in experimental animal trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Nok, A J; Ibrahim, S; Arowosafe, S; Longdet, I; Ambrose, A; Onyenekwe, P C; Whong, C Z

    1994-12-01

    The effect of Cannabis sativa on trypanosome-infected rats was examined. An aqueous extract of the seeds administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg/d cured animals infected with Trypanosome brucei brucei of blood stream parasites. Six fractions eluted from the crude extract by column chromatography were assessed for trypanocidal properties. Of these, only 2 fractions retained trypanocidal activity by curing mice infected with T brucei brucei.

  2. Behavioral toxicology of cognition: extrapolation from experimental animal models to humans: behavioral toxicology symposium overview.

    PubMed

    Paule, Merle G; Green, Leonard; Myerson, Joel; Alvarado, Maria; Bachevalier, Jocelyne; Schneider, Jay S; Schantz, Susan L

    2012-03-01

    A variety of behavioral instruments are available for assessing important aspects of cognition in both animals and humans and, in many cases, the same instruments can be used in both. While nonhuman primates are phylogenetically closest to humans, rodents, pigeons and other animals also offer behaviors worthy of note. Delay Discounting procedures are as useful as any in studies of impulsivity and may have utility in shedding light on processes associated with drug abuse. Specific memory tests such as Visual Paired Comparisons tasks (similar to the Fagan test of infant intelligence) can be modified to allow for assessment of different aspects of memory such as spatial memory. Use of these and other specific memory tasks can be used to directly monitor aspects of cognitive development in infant animals, particularly in nonhuman primates such as monkeys, and children and to draw inferences with respect to possible neuroanatomical substrates sub-serving their functions. Tasks for assessing working memory such as Variable Delayed Response (VDR), modified VDR and Spatial Working Memory tasks are now known to be affected in Parkinson's disease (PD). These and other cognitive function tasks are being used in a monkey model of PD to assess the ability of anti-Parkinson's disease therapies to ameliorate these cognitive deficits without diminishing their therapeutic effects on motor dysfunction. Similarly, in a rat model of the cognitive deficits associated with perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), clear parallels with children can be seen in at least two areas of executive function: cognitive flexibility and response inhibition. In the rat model, discrimination reversal tasks were utilized to assess cognitive flexibility, a function often assessed in humans using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task. Response inhibition was assessed using performance in a Differential Reinforcement of Low Response Rates (DRL) task. As the data continue to accumulate, it becomes

  3. [Does the use of miniplates for fracture treatment influence mandibular growth? An experimental animal study].

    PubMed

    Wangerin, K; Brahms, U

    1990-12-01

    The mandibles of 2-month-old rats were artificially fractured and then stabilised with miniplates. The experiments lasted until growth was concluded in the animals. We found an inhibition of mandibular growth due to both the trauma and the operation. The growth retardation due to fracture was increased by the operation. The growth inhibition was directly proportional to the severity of trauma and operation.

  4. Effect of the Zataria multiflora on Systemic Inflammation of Experimental Animals Model of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Gholami Mhtaj, Lilla

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Zataria multiflora (Z. multiflora) on systemic inflammation in guinea pigs model of COPD were examined. Control animals, COPD (induced by exposing animals to cigarette smoke), COPD + drinking water containing three concentrations of the extract of Z. multiflora, and COPD + dexamethasone were studied (n = 6 for each group). Serum levels of IL-8 and malondialdehyde (MDA), total blood WBC (P < 0.01 for all cases), and eosinophil counts (P < 0.05) were higher and weight changes (P < 0.05) were lower in the COPD group compared to controls. IL-8 level (P < 0.001) and weight changes (P < 0.01 to P < 0.001) in all treated groups with Z. multiflora and total WBC number and MDA level in treated groups with two higher concentrations of the extract and lymphocytes percentage (P < 0.05) in the highest concentration of Z. multiflora and dexamethasone (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001) were significantly improved compared to the COPD group. Results showed a preventive effect of hydroethanolic extract from Z. multiflora on all measured parameters in animals model of COPD which was comparable or even higher (in the highest concentration) compared to the effect of dexamethasone at the concentration used. PMID:25013803

  5. Awaken olfactory receptors of humans and experimental animals by coffee odourants to induce appetite.

    PubMed

    Dorri, Yaser; Sabeghi, Maryam; Kurien, Biji T

    2007-01-01

    Smell and its mechanism has been of interest to scientists for many years. Smell, not only provides a sensual pleasure of food and perfumes for humans but also reminds us of past memories, thoughts, locations and finally warns of dangers such as fire. One of the uses of coffee beans is on perfume counters, enabling people to distinguish between perfume fragrances. We hypothesize that coffee can be also used to refresh olfactory receptors after cooking, since people usually experience loss of appetite after cooking. We have experienced an increase in appetite, after cooking, by smelling coffee beans. This is probably due to the detachment of food odourants from olfactory receptors by the coffee odourant molecules. We also think that coffee smell could be used in animal research studies, to keep animals healthy by stimulating their appetite. In a recent study, 28 different odourants have been identified from coffee. One or more of these odourants may have strong binding affinity to olfactory receptors which results in detachment of other odourants from the receptors. The high vibration intensity from coffee odourant molecules may cause the detachment of food odourant from olfactory receptors. Another hypothesis might be the unique structure of these coffee odourants. Studies need to be done to investigate the effect of coffee smell on salivary flow and appetite in animals and humans.

  6. Magnetite-based Magnetoreception in Animals: 25+ Years of Theory & Experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschvink, J. L.; Walker, M. M.

    2005-12-01

    Living organisms ranging from bacteria through higher vertebrates rely on orientation, navigation, and homing to survive. Any sensory cue that enhances these behaviors will be subject to intense natural selection over geological time. Reproducible behavioral responses to earth-strength magnetic fields(1) have been documented in Bacteria, Protoctists, and in nearly every major group of animals, and are possibly also present in the Archaea. Several groups of animals, including birds and cetaceans, respond behaviorally to magnetic anomalies below 100 nT in magnitude, implying that their magnetoreception ability approaches the thermal noise limit. This approach to thermal noise is commonly observed in other sensory systems, including hearing, olfaction, and electroreception. The hypothesis of magnetite-based magnetoreception(2) is the only theory proposed so far that is capable of explaining all of the magnetic behavioral data. Tiny crystals of single-domain magnetite (or in some bacteria, greigite) rotate the cells of microorganisms passively like a simple compass needle. The initial detection of biogenic magnetite with rock magnetic techniques in birds and bees over 25 years ago has led progressively to the identification of a group of specialized cells in fish and birds which contain organized magnetite-containing structures. In these animals (and presumably all vertebrates) magnetic signals are transmitted to the brain via the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve(3, 4). Experiments with pulse-remagnetization, like those that convert North-seeking bacteria into South-seekers, have dramatic effects on animal behavior, confirming the role of magnetite in the sensory system. This is therefore a general mechanism for a highly sensitive magnetic sense, the origin of which probably dates to the ancestral metazoan, and perhaps earlier. The largest debate presently occurring in the field concerns the interpretation of magnetic compass responses that vary with intensity

  7. Individual subject meta-analysis of parameters for Cryptosporidium parvum shedding and diarrhoea in animal experimental models.

    PubMed

    Adell, A D; Miller, W A; Harvey, D J; Vanwormer, E; Wuertz, S; Conrad, P A

    2013-08-01

    Cryptosporidium is a zoonotic protozoan parasite with public health importance worldwide. The objectives of this study were to (1) conduct a meta-analysis of published literature for oocyst shedding and diarrhoea outcomes, and (2) develop recommendations for standardization of experimental dose-response studies. Results showed that for the outcome of oocyst shedding in faeces, the covariates 'experimental species', 'immunosuppression', 'oocyst dose' and 'oocyst dose' × 'age' were all significant (P≤0.05). This study suggests that exposing mice, piglets, or ruminants, and using immunosuppressed experimental hosts, is more likely to result in oocyst shedding. For the outcome of diarrhoea in experimentally infected animal species, the key covariates 'experimental species', 'age' and 'immunosuppression' were significant (P≤0.2). Therefore, based on the results of this meta-analysis, these variables should be carefully reported and considered when designing experimental dose-response studies. Additionally, detection of possible publication bias highlights the need to publish additional studies that convey statistically non-significant as well as significant results in the future.

  8. Efficacy of herbal coded Hepcon on drug induced hepatitis in experimental animals through histopathological and biochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Muhammad Saim; Mahmood, Zahid; Saeed, Aftab; Jamil, Amir; Usmanghani, Khan; Asif, Hafiz Muhammad; Sajjad-al-Hassan; Roohi, Mahira

    2013-09-01

    Drug-induced liver injury is the leading cause for more than 50 percent of cases of acute liver failure. This study was conducted on herbo-mineral formulation "Hepcon" to evaluate its hepatoprotective effects in drug induced hepatitis in experimental animals. The liver injury was introduced with over dosage of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). The herbo-mineral formulations "Hepcon" consist of Zingiber officinale, Piprum nigrum, Ammonium chloride and Arsenic trioxide (Hartal warqi). The aqueous extraction was administered to experimental animals. Thereafter their LFTs, IgG, and tissue pathology was studied. It was observed on the basis of biochemical and histopathological analysis that animals which were subjected to Hepcon became normal in 60 days whereas those as control group did not showed improvements and most of them died. It was concluded that the efficacy of Hepcon to treat liver injury caused by CCl4 and NSAIDs is very effective, and no side effects were noticed.

  9. TLR Agonist Augments Prophylactic Potential of Acid Inducible Antigen Rv3203 against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv in Experimental Animals

    PubMed Central

    Faisal, Syed Mohd; Azhar, Asim; Rauf, Mohd Ahmar; Gupta, Umesh Dutt; Gupta, Pushpa; Pal, Rahul; Zubair, Swaleha

    2016-01-01

    In general, the members of Lip gene family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis evoke strong immune response in the host. Keeping this fact into consideration, we investigated role of Rv3203, a cell wall associated protein with lipolytic activity, in imparting protection against experimental murine tuberculosis. The data of the present study suggested that archaeosome encapsulated Rv3203 induce strong lymphocyte proliferation, up-regulated Th-1 biased cytokines profile, increased expression of co-stimulatory markers on both antigen presenting cells and T lymphocytes. The immuno-prophylactic response was further modulated by exposure of the animals to zymosan, a TLR2/6 agonist, prior to immunization with archaeosome encapsulated Rv3203. Interestingly, pre-treatment of experimental animals with zymosan boosted strong immunological memory as compared to archaeosome encapsulated Rv3203 as well as BCG vaccine. We conclude that priming of immunized animal with TLR agonist followed by immunization with archaeosomes encapsulated Rv3203 offer substantial protection against tuberculosis infection and could be a potential subunit vaccine based prophylactic strategy. PMID:27023750

  10. Efficacy of herbal coded Hepcon on drug induced hepatitis in experimental animals through histopathological and biochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Muhammad Saim; Mahmood, Zahid; Saeed, Aftab; Jamil, Amir; Usmanghani, Khan; Asif, Hafiz Muhammad; Sajjad-al-Hassan; Roohi, Mahira

    2013-09-01

    Drug-induced liver injury is the leading cause for more than 50 percent of cases of acute liver failure. This study was conducted on herbo-mineral formulation "Hepcon" to evaluate its hepatoprotective effects in drug induced hepatitis in experimental animals. The liver injury was introduced with over dosage of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). The herbo-mineral formulations "Hepcon" consist of Zingiber officinale, Piprum nigrum, Ammonium chloride and Arsenic trioxide (Hartal warqi). The aqueous extraction was administered to experimental animals. Thereafter their LFTs, IgG, and tissue pathology was studied. It was observed on the basis of biochemical and histopathological analysis that animals which were subjected to Hepcon became normal in 60 days whereas those as control group did not showed improvements and most of them died. It was concluded that the efficacy of Hepcon to treat liver injury caused by CCl4 and NSAIDs is very effective, and no side effects were noticed. PMID:24035958

  11. TLR Agonist Augments Prophylactic Potential of Acid Inducible Antigen Rv3203 against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv in Experimental Animals.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Owais; Kaur, Jagdeep; Singh, Gurpreet; Faisal, Syed Mohd; Azhar, Asim; Rauf, Mohd Ahmar; Gupta, Umesh Dutt; Gupta, Pushpa; Pal, Rahul; Zubair, Swaleha

    2016-01-01

    In general, the members of Lip gene family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis evoke strong immune response in the host. Keeping this fact into consideration, we investigated role of Rv3203, a cell wall associated protein with lipolytic activity, in imparting protection against experimental murine tuberculosis. The data of the present study suggested that archaeosome encapsulated Rv3203 induce strong lymphocyte proliferation, up-regulated Th-1 biased cytokines profile, increased expression of co-stimulatory markers on both antigen presenting cells and T lymphocytes. The immuno-prophylactic response was further modulated by exposure of the animals to zymosan, a TLR2/6 agonist, prior to immunization with archaeosome encapsulated Rv3203. Interestingly, pre-treatment of experimental animals with zymosan boosted strong immunological memory as compared to archaeosome encapsulated Rv3203 as well as BCG vaccine. We conclude that priming of immunized animal with TLR agonist followed by immunization with archaeosomes encapsulated Rv3203 offer substantial protection against tuberculosis infection and could be a potential subunit vaccine based prophylactic strategy. PMID:27023750

  12. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 116-F-8, 1904-F Outfall Structure and the 100-F-42, 1904-F Spillway, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-045

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-09-26

    The 100-F-42 waste site is the portion of the former emergency overflow spillway for the 1904-F Outfall Structure formerly existing above the ordinary high water mark of the Columbia River. The spillway consisted of a concrete flume designed to discharge effluent from the 107-F Retention Basin in the event that flows could not be completely discharged via the river outfall pipelines. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  13. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-33, 146-F Aquatic Biology Fish Ponds, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-021

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-08-25

    The 100-F-33, 146-F Aquatice Biology Fish Ponds waste site was an area with six small rectangular ponds and one large circular pond used to conduct tests on fish using various mixtures of river and reactor effluent water. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification and applicable confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  14. Plasma and skeletal muscle amino acids following severe burn injury in patients and experimental animals.

    PubMed Central

    Stinnett, J D; Alexander, J W; Watanabe, C; MacMillan, B G; Fischer, J E; Morris, M J; Trocki, O; Miskell, P; Edwards, L; James, H

    1982-01-01

    This study describes and analyzes sequential changes in plasma and skeletal muscle free amino acids following severe burn injury. Plasma free amino acids were determined in children (n = 9) with burns averaging 60% total body surface area and were compared with laboratory beagles (n = 44) which received a flame burn totaling 30% of their body surface area. In addition, needle biopsy specimens were obtained from the semitendonosus muscle in the animals to determine free intracellular amino acids. In both patients and animals the amount of total free amino acids in plasma fell following burn, suggesting relative protein deficiency. This drop was primarily due to a 47% drop in nonessential amino acids. However, plasma phenylalanine was consistently higher than normal following burn, and was strongly associated with death and weight loss in both animals and patients, especially when analyzed as a ratio with tyrosine. This finding suggested excessive catabolism, hepatic dysfunction, or both. Plasma levels of several amino acids correlated significantly with weight loss. Alterations in muscle free amino acids generally were similar to plasma amino acids. Exceptions were muscle alanine and glycine which strongly correlated with weight loss. However, the determination of muscle free amino acid profiles did not yield clinically useful information not available from plasma profiles. Plasma levels of liver enzymes suggested progressive hepatic dysfunction. These studies show that the laboratory beagle is a good model for studying the metabolic alterations of amino acids that accompany burn injury, since they mimic humans in many parameters which appear to be most useful with respect to clinical evaluation. PMID:7055386

  15. Effect of space flights on plasma hormone levels in man and in experimental animal.

    PubMed

    Macho, L; Kvetnansky, R; Vigas, M; Nemeth, S; Popova, I; Tigranian, R A; Noskov, V B; Serova, L; Grigoriev, I A

    1991-01-01

    An important increase of plasma hormone levels like insulin, TSH and aldosterone was observed in human subjects after space flights, however in the changes of plasma content of ACTH, cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline the individual variations were observed in relation to number and duration of space flight. For evaluation of the effects of these changes in plasma hormone levels on metabolic processes also the experiments with small animals subjected to space flights on a board of biosatellite of Cosmos series were running. An elevation of plasma levels of corticosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline and insulin was found in rats after the space flights of duration from 7 to 20 days. It was demonstrated, that the increase of corticosterone in plasma is followed by the activation of enzymes involved in the amino acid metabolism in rat liver (tyrosine aminotransferase, tryptophanpyrolase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase). After a short recovery period (2 to 6 days) the plasma corticosterone concentration and also the activity of liver enzymes returned to control levels. The exposition of animals to stress stimuli during this revcovery period showed higher response of corticosterone levels in flight rats as compared to intact controls. The increase of plasma catecholamine levels was not followed by elevation of lipolysis in adipose tissue. This is due to lower response of adipose tissue to catecholamine because a decrease of the stimulation of lipolysis by noradrenaline was observed in animals after space flight. The increase of insulin was not followed by adequate decrease of glucose concentration suggesting a disturbances in glucose utilization similarly as in cosmonauts after a long-term space flight. These results showed that changes in plasma hormone levels, observed after space flight, affected the regulation of metabolic processes in tissues. PMID:11537112

  16. Effect of space flights on plasma hormone levels in man and in experimental animal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macho, L.; Kvetňanský, R.; Vigaš, M.; Németh, S.; Popova, I.; Tigranian, R. A.; Noskov, V. B.; Serova, L.; Grigoriev, I. A.

    An important increase of plasma hormone levels like insulin, TSH and aldosterone was observed in human subjects after space flights, however in the changes of plasma content of ACTH, cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline the individual variations were observed in relation to number and duration of space flight. For evaluation of the effects of these changes in plasma hormone levels on metabolic processes also the experiments with small animals subjected to space flights on a board of biosatellite of Cosmos series were running. An elevation of plasma levels of corticosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline and insulin was found in rats after the space flights of duration from 7 to 20 days. It was demonstrated, that the increase of corticosterone in plasma is followed by the activation of enzymes involved in the aminoacid metabolism in rat liver (tyrosine aminotransferase, tryptophanpyrolase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase). After a short recovery period (2 to 6 days) the plasma corticosterone concentration and also the activity of liver enzymes returned to control levels. The exposition of animals to stress stimuli during this recovery period showed higher response of corticosterone levels in flight rats as compared to intact controls. The increase of plasma catecholamine levels was not followed by elevation of lipolysis in adipose tissue. This is due to lower response of adipose tissue to catecholamine because a decrease of the stimulation of lipolysis by noradrenaline was observed in animals after space flight. The increase of insulin was not followed by adequate decrease of glucose concentration suggesting a disturbances in glucose utilization similarly as in cosmonauts after a long-term space flight. These results showed that changes in plasma hormone levels, observed after space flight, affected the regulation of metabolic processes in tissues.

  17. Spectroscopic characterization of bone tissue of experimental animals after glucocorticoid treatment and recovery period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitić, Žarko J.; Najman, Stevo J.; Cakić, Milorad D.; Ajduković, Zorica R.; Ignjatović, Nenad L.; Nikolić, Ružica S.; Nikolić, Goran M.; Stojanović, Sanja T.; Vukelić, Marija Đ.; Trajanović, Miroslav D.

    2014-09-01

    The influence of glucocorticoids on the composition and mineral/organic content of the mandible in tested animals after recovery and healing phase was investigated in this work. The results of FTIR analysis demonstrated that bone tissue composition was changed after glucocorticoid treatment. The increase of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus content and mineral part of bones was statistically significant in recovery phase and in treatment phase that included calcitonin and thymus extract. Some changes also happened in the organic part of the matrix, as indicated by intensity changes for already present IR bands and the appearance of new IR bands in the region 3500-1300 cm-1.

  18. Anorexia in human and experimental animal models: physiological aspects related to neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Mitsuhiro; Uezono, Yasuhito; Ueta, Yoichi

    2015-09-01

    Anorexia, a loss of appetite for food, can be caused by various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In this review, firstly, clinical aspects of anorexia nervosa are summarized in brief. Secondly, hypothalamic neuropeptides responsible for feeding regulation in each hypothalamic nucleus are discussed. Finally, three different types of anorexigenic animal models; dehydration-induced anorexia, cisplatin-induced anorexia and cancer anorexia-cachexia, are introduced. In conclusion, hypothalamic neuropeptides may give us novel insight to understand and find effective therapeutics strategy essential for various kinds of anorexia.

  19. Solving an Ethical Issue Involved in Experimentation with Animals in a Brazilian Teaching Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loureiro, Natalia I. V.; Viana, Henrique V.; Rodrigues, Carlos R.; Cabral, Lucio Mendes; Silva, Thais D. N.; Cardoso, Fernanda Serpa; Santos, Dilvani Oliveira; Castro, Helena C.

    2004-01-01

    Changes are occurring within Brazilian institutes of higher education; currently several universities are reviewing their course offerings and teaching approaches to determine if they meet the needs of today's undergraduate students. When changes are made to the curriculum of experimental courses, there should be an understood guarantee that all…

  20. The Development and the Use of Experimental Animal Models to Study the Underlying Mechanisms of CA Formation

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Tomohiro; Nishimura, Masaki

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral aneurysms (CAs) have a high prevalence and can cause a lethal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Currently, CAs can only be treated with invasive surgical procedures. To unravel the underlying mechanisms of CA formation and to develop new therapeutic drugs for CAs, animal models of CA have been established, modified, and analyzed. Experimental findings from these models have clarified some of the potential mechanisms of CA formation, especially the relationship between hemodynamic stress and chronic inflammation. Increased hemodynamic stress acting at the site of bifurcation of cerebral arteries triggers an inflammatory response mediated by various proinflammatory molecules in arterial walls, inducing pathological changes in the models similar to those observed in the walls of human CAs. Findings from animal studies have provided new insights into CA formation and may contribute to the development of new therapeutic drugs for CAs. PMID:21253583

  1. Evaluation of the effect of conventionally prepared swarna makshika bhasma on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Sudhaldev; Jha, C.B.

    2011-01-01

    Swarna makshika (chalcopyrite) bhasma (SMB) has been used for different therapeutic purposes since long in Ayurveda. The present study is conducted to evaluate the effect of conventionally prepared SMB on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals, for providing scientific data base for its logical use in clinical practice. The genuine SMB was prepared by following classical techniques of shodhana and marana most commonly used by different Ayurvedic drug manufacturers. Shodhana was done by roasting raw swarna makshika with lemon juice for three days and marana was performed by 11 putas. The experimental animals (rats) were divided into two groups. SMB mixed with diluted honey was administered orally in therapeutic dose to Group SMB and diluted honey only was administered to vehicle control Group, for 30 days. The blood samples were collected twice, after 15 days and after 30 days of drug administration and different biochemical investigations were done. Biochemical parameters were chosen based on references from Ayurvedic classics and contemporary medicine. It was observed that Hb% was found significantly increased and LDL and VLDL were found significantly decreased in Group SMB when compared with vehicle control group. This experimental data will help the clinician for the logical use of SMB in different disease conditions with findings like low Hb% and high LDL, VLDL levels. PMID:22253508

  2. Evaluation of the effect of conventionally prepared swarna makshika bhasma on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Sudhaldev; Jha, C B

    2011-10-01

    Swarna makshika (chalcopyrite) bhasma (SMB) has been used for different therapeutic purposes since long in Ayurveda. The present study is conducted to evaluate the effect of conventionally prepared SMB on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals, for providing scientific data base for its logical use in clinical practice. The genuine SMB was prepared by following classical techniques of shodhana and marana most commonly used by different Ayurvedic drug manufacturers. Shodhana was done by roasting raw swarna makshika with lemon juice for three days and marana was performed by 11 putas. The experimental animals (rats) were divided into two groups. SMB mixed with diluted honey was administered orally in therapeutic dose to Group SMB and diluted honey only was administered to vehicle control Group, for 30 days. The blood samples were collected twice, after 15 days and after 30 days of drug administration and different biochemical investigations were done. Biochemical parameters were chosen based on references from Ayurvedic classics and contemporary medicine. It was observed that Hb% was found significantly increased and LDL and VLDL were found significantly decreased in Group SMB when compared with vehicle control group. This experimental data will help the clinician for the logical use of SMB in different disease conditions with findings like low Hb% and high LDL, VLDL levels. PMID:22253508

  3. [Experimental justification of possible mechanisms of action of low intensity electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on animals' behavior].

    PubMed

    Pavlov, L N; Dubrovik, B V; Zhavoronkov, l P; Glushakova, V S

    2012-01-01

    Effects of EMR on the behavior of Wistar rats (196 males, 180-240 g of mass) under the conflict of opposed motivations: strong positive, drinking, motivation, and strong negative, pain, motivation were studied. The animals were exposed to low intensity EMR (40 microW/cm2) produced by two independent sources, 475 MHz (Albatross) with two orthogonal E vectors, and synchronization of rhythm modulation in the range of electroencephalography (EEG) frequency. The effect on behavior was observed during 10 min: 1) following the 5-minute exposure to EMR and 2) during the 10-minute exposure. Low intensity EMR of the above mentioned parameters and pulse modulation of 4, 8, 10 and 13 Hz was found to inhibit development of phobia to pain, increase the number of punishable contacts. It testifies to the existence of a weak anxiolytic effect which is similar to the effect of tranquilizers. If animals were exposed to EMR following administration of phenazepam, the radiation was shown to produce potentiation of the anxiolytic effect ofphenazepam. Effect of phenazepam is associated with activation ofbenzdiazipine receptors in the structure ofGABA-ergic receptor complex, which regulates neural membrane chloride channel conductance. We can suggest that anxiolytic and neurodepressive effects of EMR are realized to some extent at the level of ionophore and regulatory receptor complexes.

  4. Assortative mating among animals of captive and wild origin following experimental conservation releases.

    PubMed

    Slade, Brendan; Parrott, Marissa L; Paproth, Aleisha; Magrath, Michael J L; Gillespie, Graeme R; Jessop, Tim S

    2014-11-01

    Captive breeding is a high profile management tool used for conserving threatened species. However, the inevitable consequence of generations in captivity is broad scale and often-rapid phenotypic divergence between captive and wild individuals, through environmental differences and genetic processes. Although poorly understood, mate choice preference is one of the changes that may occur in captivity that could have important implications for the reintroduction success of captive-bred animals. We bred wild-caught house mice for three generations to examine mating patterns and reproductive outcomes when these animals were simultaneously released into multiple outdoor enclosures with wild conspecifics. At release, there were significant differences in phenotypic (e.g. body mass) and genetic measures (e.g. Gst and F) between captive-bred and wild adult mice. Furthermore, 83% of offspring produced post-release were of same source parentage, inferring pronounced assortative mating. Our findings suggest that captive breeding may affect mating preferences, with potentially adverse implications for the success of threatened species reintroduction programmes.

  5. Anticonvulsive activity of Albizzia lebbeck, Hibiscus rosa sinesis and Butea monosperma in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Kasture, V S; Chopde, C T; Deshmukh, V K

    2000-07-01

    The ethanolic extracts of leaves of Albizzia lebbeck and flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinesis and the petroleum ether extract of flowers of Butea monosperma exhibited anticonvulsant activity. The bioassay guided fractionation indicated that the anticonvulsant activity lies in the methanolic fraction of chloroform soluble part of ethanolic extract of the leaves of A. lebbeck, acetone soluble part of ethanolic extract of H. rosa sinesis flowers and acetone soluble part of petroleum ether extract of B. monosperma flowers. The fractions protected animals from maximum electro shock, electrical kindling and pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions in mice. The fractions also inhibited convulsions induced by lithium-pilocarpine and electrical kindling. However, they failed to protect animals from strychnine-induced convulsions. The fractions antagonised the behavioral effects of D-amphetamine and potentiated the pentobarbitone-induced sleep. The fractions raised brain contents of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and serotonin. These fractions were found to be anxiogenic and general depressant of central nervous system. PMID:10904147

  6. [Evaluation of the fibrogenic effect of coke dust on the lungs and internal organs of experimental animals].

    PubMed

    Zyłka-Włoszczyk, M; Ociepiński, M; Szaflarska-Stojko, E

    1991-01-01

    Based on the data collected by the Provincial Regional Administration Unit for Control of Epidemics and Hygiene in Katowice, dust concentration at the MAKOSZOWY Coking Plant in Zabrze at 18 work-places exceeded the TLV's. The purpose of this study was to determine changes within the respiratory systems of experimental animals exposed to intratracheal administration of MAKOSZOWY Coking Plant dust, sampled at the charging larry 3-4 operating stand and at the battery roof. After pulverization the dusts contained 98.1% and 99.6% respirable particles, and 6.5% and 6.0% of SiO2, respectively, determined with the Polezhajev method. They also contained aluminum and iron compounds. Hydroxyproline content in the lungs of the animals following the intratracheal administration of 50 mg of the dusts investigated 3-6 months after the experiment was determined. Determination of Hypro contend within the animals' lungs was pursued with the Stegemann method as modified by Hurych and Chvapil. The biochemical investigation results obtained were statistically analyzed with the t-Student's Test. Single intratracheal administration of dust from the battery roof work stand of the MAKOSZOWY Coking Plant caused within 6 months a statistically significant increase in the lung Hydroxyproline level in experimental animals (t = 13.10). An almost triole Hypro increase with respect to the control group was observed. No analogy between lung Hypro level increase (12.833 mg) and histological change was noted. Such a significant lung Hydroxyproline level increase could have been due to the SiO2 content of dust (6%), as well as to the presence of iron compounds in it (4.98%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. In vivo simultaneous cortical and intracortical monitoring of cerebral blood flow and mitochondrial redox state in experimental animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbiro-Michaely, E.; Zuckerman, T.; Zarchin, N.; Rinkevich, S.; Knoller, N.; Hadani, M.; Mayevsky, A.

    2003-07-01

    Monitoring of intra-mitochondrial NADH redox state is a common in-vivo technique in experimental animals and is rare in clinical studies. The combination of NADH monitoring with the Laser Doppler flowmetry for cerebral blood flow monitoring was described in various publications. Until now, very small effort was made to monitor NADH and CBF inside the cortex of experimental animals. The significance of this monitoring is in its application to experimental models of Parkinson"s disease or to clinical monitoring situations in the intensive care unit, when ICP is monitored. Here we compared the responses of the gerbil or rat brain to oxygen deficiency, monitored on the brain surface and in different depths. After the animals were anesthetized, the two common carotid arteries (gerbil) were isolated and prepared for following occlusion. The brain was exposed and two optical probes were located on its surface. Ischemia was induced by occluding the two carotid arteries, and anoxia was preformed by inhalation of pure N2. After recovery, one of the probes was inserted into the cortex (0.5-3mm) and a second ischemia or anoxia was preformed. The results showed that: 1. It is possible to monitor both CBF and NADH on the brain surface simultaneously with intracortical location. 2. The responses of the brain to ischemia or anoxia was smaller inside the cortex comparing to brain surface. 3. Negative correlation was found between CBF and NADH in both locations and models. In conclusion, this new model of simultaneously monitoring of CBF and NADH in different cerebral locations can shed light on various pathophysiological situations.

  8. [Comparative animal experimental study on the importance of the surface structure for the stability of extension implantations].

    PubMed

    Dördelmann, K; Tetsch, P; Ibing, G

    1977-04-01

    An animal experimental study was undertaken where the embedding of extension implants with a smooth or porous surface was histologically examined. Under extreme functional stress there occurs a mobility of the implants with the formation of a broad connective tissue zone, inflammatory reactions and ingrowth of epithelium, which is independent of the surface structure. Implants under less stress show a narrower connective tissue layer which narrows itself further if the surface is porous. The possible causes of this tissue reaction are discussed. PMID:266991

  9. Experimental Evolution as an Underutilized Tool for Studying Beneficial Animal-Microbe Interactions.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Kim L; Morran, Levi T; Gerardo, Nicole M

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms play a significant role in the evolution and functioning of the eukaryotes with which they interact. Much of our understanding of beneficial host-microbe interactions stems from studying already established associations; we often infer the genotypic and environmental conditions that led to the existing host-microbe relationships. However, several outstanding questions remain, including understanding how host and microbial (internal) traits, and ecological and evolutionary (external) processes, influence the origin of beneficial host-microbe associations. Experimental evolution has helped address a range of evolutionary and ecological questions across different model systems; however, it has been greatly underutilized as a tool to study beneficial host-microbe associations. In this review, we suggest ways in which experimental evolution can further our understanding of the proximate and ultimate mechanisms shaping mutualistic interactions between eukaryotic hosts and microbes. By tracking beneficial interactions under defined conditions or evolving novel associations among hosts and microbes with little prior evolutionary interaction, we can link specific genotypes to phenotypes that can be directly measured. Moreover, this approach will help address existing puzzles in beneficial symbiosis research: how symbioses evolve, how symbioses are maintained, and how both host and microbe influence their partner's evolutionary trajectories. By bridging theoretical predictions and empirical tests, experimental evolution provides us with another approach to test hypotheses regarding the evolution of beneficial host-microbe associations. PMID:27679620

  10. Experimental Evolution as an Underutilized Tool for Studying Beneficial Animal-Microbe Interactions.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Kim L; Morran, Levi T; Gerardo, Nicole M

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms play a significant role in the evolution and functioning of the eukaryotes with which they interact. Much of our understanding of beneficial host-microbe interactions stems from studying already established associations; we often infer the genotypic and environmental conditions that led to the existing host-microbe relationships. However, several outstanding questions remain, including understanding how host and microbial (internal) traits, and ecological and evolutionary (external) processes, influence the origin of beneficial host-microbe associations. Experimental evolution has helped address a range of evolutionary and ecological questions across different model systems; however, it has been greatly underutilized as a tool to study beneficial host-microbe associations. In this review, we suggest ways in which experimental evolution can further our understanding of the proximate and ultimate mechanisms shaping mutualistic interactions between eukaryotic hosts and microbes. By tracking beneficial interactions under defined conditions or evolving novel associations among hosts and microbes with little prior evolutionary interaction, we can link specific genotypes to phenotypes that can be directly measured. Moreover, this approach will help address existing puzzles in beneficial symbiosis research: how symbioses evolve, how symbioses are maintained, and how both host and microbe influence their partner's evolutionary trajectories. By bridging theoretical predictions and empirical tests, experimental evolution provides us with another approach to test hypotheses regarding the evolution of beneficial host-microbe associations.

  11. Development of topical treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major in experimental animals.

    PubMed Central

    El-On, J; Jacobs, G P; Witztum, E; Greenblatt, C L

    1984-01-01

    Topical treatment, with drug-containing ointments, of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major in BALB/c mice was studied. Twenty chemotherapeutic agents having potential or established antileishmanial activity were formulated in different ointment and cream bases. Only 15% paromomycin sulfate with 12% methylbenzethonium chloride, 12% benzethonium chloride, 12% cetalkonium chloride, or 12% dimethyl sulfoxide, all incorporated in white soft paraffin (United Kingdom patent application no. 2117237A), were completely effective. Topical treatment twice daily for 6 or more days caused total elimination of the parasites and healing of the lesion in all treated mice. All the other antileishmanial compounds, including sodium stibogluconate, pentamidine, amphotericin B, emetine hydrochloride, metronidazole, co-trimoxazole, allopurinol, and rifampin, either showed a slight effect on the parasites or were highly toxic to the animal host at the concentrations tested. Images PMID:6517557

  12. Genetic susceptibility to retinopathy of prematurity: the evidence from clinical and experimental animal studies.

    PubMed

    Holmström, Gerd; van Wijngaarden, Peter; Coster, Douglas J; Williams, Keryn A

    2007-12-01

    Despite advances in management and treatment, retinopathy of prematurity remains a major cause of childhood blindness. Evidence for a genetic basis for susceptibility to retinopathy of prematurity is examined, including the influences of sex, ethnicity, and ocular pigmentation. The role of polymorphisms is explored in the genes for vascular endothelial growth factor and insulin-like growth factor-1, and of mutations in the Norrie disease gene. Insights into the genetic basis of retinopathy of prematurity provided by the animal model of oxygen induced retinopathy are examined. Evidence for a genetic component for susceptibility to retinopathy of prematurity is strong, although the molecular identity of the gene or genes involved remains uncertain. PMID:18024814

  13. A Tractable Experimental Model for Study of Human and Animal Scabies

    PubMed Central

    Mounsey, Kate; Ho, Mei-Fong; Kelly, Andrew; Willis, Charlene; Pasay, Cielo; Kemp, David J.; McCarthy, James S.; Fischer, Katja

    2010-01-01

    Background Scabies is a parasitic skin infestation caused by the burrowing mite Sarcoptes scabiei. It is common worldwide and spreads rapidly under crowded conditions, such as those found in socially disadvantaged communities of Indigenous populations and in developing countries. Pruritic scabies lesions facilitate opportunistic bacterial infections, particularly Group A streptococci. Streptococcal infections cause significant sequelae and the increased community streptococcal burden has led to extreme levels of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in Australia's Indigenous communities. In addition, emerging resistance to currently available therapeutics emphasizes the need to identify potential targets for novel chemotherapeutic and/or immunological intervention. Scabies research has been severely limited by the availability of parasites, and scabies remains a truly neglected infectious disease. We report development of a tractable model for scabies in the pig, Sus domestica. Methodology/Principal Findings Over five years and involving ten independent cohorts, we have developed a protocol for continuous passage of Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis. To increase intensity and duration of infestation without generating animal welfare issues we have optimised an immunosuppression regimen utilising daily oral treatment with 0.2mg/kg dexamethasone. Only mild, controlled side effects are observed, and mange infection can be maintained indefinitely providing large mite numbers (>6000 mites/g skin) for molecular-based research on scabies. In pilot experiments we explore whether any adaptation of the mite population is reflected in genetic changes. Phylogenetic analysis was performed comparing sets of genetic data obtained from pig mites collected from naturally infected pigs with data from pig mites collected from the most recent cohort. Conclusions/Significance A reliable pig/scabies animal model will facilitate in vivo studies on host immune responses to scabies

  14. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 141-C Large Animal Barn and Biology Laboratory (Hog Barn), Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-027

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Carlson

    2006-05-24

    The 141-C waste site is a former large animal barn and biology laboratory within the 100-F Area experimental animal farm. Strontium-90, arsenic, and multiple polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected within residual demolition debris at concentrations exceeding cleanup criteria. The site has been remediated by removing approximately 900 bank cubic meters of soil and debris within the former building footprint to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  15. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and metabolic syndrome: insights from the high-fat diet experimental rabbit animal model.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Annamaria; Vignozzi, Linda; Maggi, Mario

    2016-06-01

    The etiology of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is complex and involves the interplay between environmental, lifestyle and genetic determinants. MetS in men can be associated with a biochemical pattern of partial hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). A similar pattern has been noted in both men and women with a variety of acute illnesses and chronic diseases, and there is ongoing debate regarding whether this phenomenon might adaptive (e.g. diverting resources from reproduction into survival), or maladaptive (e.g. anemia, sarcopenia, osteopenia and fatigue of androgen-deficiency amplify and widen the adverse consequences of the original disease-trigger). In women with hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA-HH secondary to chronic bioenergetic deficit from dietary restriction and/or intensive exercise), a genetic link to congenital HH (CHH) was recently established; women carrying monoallelic CHH gene mutations will typically not develop CHH, but are significantly more susceptible to HA. However, the male reproductive axis seems to be more resistant to similar environmental insults. In contrast, MetS-associated HH (mHH) is specifically a male phenomenon; the reproductive phenotype of females with MetS tending instead towards hyperandrogenism, rather than hypogonadism. The underlying pathogenic mechanisms responsible for mHH have not been clearly identified and, as yet, there has been no investigation of a potential role for CHH mutation carriage in its etiology. Over the decades, the use of either genetic- or diet-induced obesity and/or MetS animal models has greatly helped to illuminate the complex etiology of metabolic dysregulation, but the strong relationship between obesity/MetS and mHH in males has been largely neglected, with little or no information about the regulation of reproductive function by metabolic factors under conditions of bioenergetic excess. However, the pathogenic link between MetS and HH in males has been recently investigated in an animal model of high fat

  16. Cisplatin-Induced Non-Oliguric Acute Kidney Injury in a Pediatric Experimental Animal Model in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Lázaro, Alberto; González, Rafael; Urbano, Javier; López, Jorge; Solana, Maria José; Toledo, Blanca; del Castillo, Jimena; Tejedor, Alberto; López-Herce, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Objective To design an experimental pediatric animal model of acute kidney injury induced by cisplatin. Methods Prospective comparative observational animal study in two different phases. Acute kidney injury was induced using three different doses of cisplatin (2, 3 and 5 mg/kg). The development of nephrotoxicity was assessed 2 to 4 days after cisplatin administration by estimating biochemical parameters, diuresis and renal morphology. Analytical values and renal morphology were compared between 15 piglets treated with cisplatin 3 mg/kg and 15 control piglets in the second phase of the study. Results 41 piglets were studied. The dose of 3 mg/kg administered 48 hours before the experience induced a significant increase in serum creatinine and urea without an increase in potassium levels. Piglets treated with cisplatin 3 mg/kg had significantly higher values of creatinine, urea, phosphate and amylase, less diuresis and lower values of potassium, sodium and bicarbonate than control piglets. Histological findings showed evidence of a dose-dependent increase in renal damage. Conclusions a dose of 3 mg/kg of cisplatin induces a significant alteration in renal function 48 hours after its administration, so it can be used as a pediatric animal model of non-oliguric acute kidney injury. PMID:26871589

  17. Circuit models and experimental noise measurements of micropipette amplifiers for extracellular neural recordings from live animals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang Hao; Pun, Sio Hang; Mak, Peng Un; Vai, Mang I; Klug, Achim; Lei, Tim C

    2014-01-01

    Glass micropipettes are widely used to record neural activity from single neurons or clusters of neurons extracellularly in live animals. However, to date, there has been no comprehensive study of noise in extracellular recordings with glass micropipettes. The purpose of this work was to assess various noise sources that affect extracellular recordings and to create model systems in which novel micropipette neural amplifier designs can be tested. An equivalent circuit of the glass micropipette and the noise model of this circuit, which accurately describe the various noise sources involved in extracellular recordings, have been developed. Measurement schemes using dead brain tissue as well as extracellular recordings from neurons in the inferior colliculus, an auditory brain nucleus of an anesthetized gerbil, were used to characterize noise performance and amplification efficacy of the proposed micropipette neural amplifier. According to our model, the major noise sources which influence the signal to noise ratio are the intrinsic noise of the neural amplifier and the thermal noise from distributed pipette resistance. These two types of noise were calculated and measured and were shown to be the dominating sources of background noise for in vivo experiments.

  18. Superselective intra-arterial umbilical cord blood administration to BM in experimental animals

    PubMed Central

    Arnberg, F; Lundberg, J; Kenne, E; Jaff, N; Müller, P; Nava, S; Kaipe, H; Ringdén, O; Holmin, S

    2014-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) as a source of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation is limited by the low number of cells and delayed engraftment. UCB cells are infused i.v. for transplantation, although only a proportion of the cells reach the BM. We investigated whether UCB could be administered safely using superselective intra-arterial (i.a.) injection. We injected human UCB (5 × 106) into the aorta in rats, into the iliac artery in mice and into the femoral nutrient artery (FNA) in rabbits. We used angiography, immunohistochemistry, intravital microscopy and qPCR to assess safety end points and the distribution of injected cells. All animals showed normal behavior. No evidence of organ infarction was noted. UCB injected into the FNA of rabbits did not change the flow rates, measured by angiography. By qPCR, we found significantly higher fold-change values in the injected BM compared with i.v. injection (P=0.0087). Using intravital microscopy we visualized the mouse capillary bed during i.a. injection without cellular congestion. In summary, we show that i.a. infusion of UCB is safe and reaches an eightfold increase in engraftment in the BM compared with i.v. infusion. These studies lay the foundation for clinical trials. PMID:25198791

  19. Possible carcinogenic potential of dimethyl dimethoxy biphenyl dicarboxylate in experimental animals

    PubMed Central

    Botros, Sanaa Sabet; El-Lakkany, Naglaa Mohamed; Hammam, Olfat Ali; Sabra, Abdel-Naser Abdel-Aal; Taha, Alaa Awad

    2016-01-01

    Dimethyl dimethoxy biphenyl dicarboxylate (DDB) has been extensively used in the treatment of liver diseases accounting for 1–6% of the global disease burden. Cell replication, DNA synthesis, and proliferation, providing significant information about behavior of cells were examined in mice exposed to subchronic administration with DDB. Conventional liver functions specifically gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT), a marker expressing liver canceration was also investigated. Normal mice were allocated into two groups each of 10 mice. The 1st and 2nd groups were treated with DDB in a dose of 50 mg/kg/day, 5 days/week for 1 month and 3 months, respectively. Comparable groups of normal mice were left without treatment as controls. Compared to normal control group, animals receiving DDB for 3 months showed marked elevations of both alanine aminotransferase and γ-GT, significant inhibition in cytochrome P450, a significant increase in the mean ploidy and 4C with moderate to marked increase in S-phase populations and the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells. In conclusion, this is the first report on the potential relationship between the subchronic administration of DDB and the increase in the hepatocyte proliferation, cell replication and DNA synthesis that may raise an alarm regarding possible DDB insult on the biological behavior of cells. PMID:27144153

  20. Comparison of toxicities of acellular pertussis vaccine with whole cell pertussis vaccine in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Sato, Y; Sato, H

    1991-01-01

    There is no suitable animal model for pertussis encephalopathy in humans. In this study, we have compared the toxicity of acellular pertussis vaccine with whole cell pertussis vaccine in mice or guinea pigs. Two lots of acellular and two lots of whole cell vaccine produced in different countries were assayed in the test. 1. There was no statistical difference in mouse protective potency between these acellular or whole cell pertussis vaccines. 2. There were no differences in chemical ingredients between acellular and whole cell pertussis vaccines except for protein nitrogen content. The protein nitrogen content of whole cell vaccine was at least three times higher than that of the acellular product. 3. Anti-PT antibody productivity of the acellular vaccine was higher than that of the whole cell vaccine. 4. Anti-agglutinogen antibody productivity of the whole cell vaccine was higher than that of the acellular vaccine. 5. There was no pyrogenic activity with the acellular vaccine, but high pyrogenicity was seen with whole cell vaccine. 6. There was high body-weight decreasing toxicity in mice and guinea pigs by the whole cell vaccine. 7. The mice died when they received whole cell pertussis vaccine iv, but no deaths occurred in the mice which received acellular pertussis vaccine. PMID:1778317

  1. Lack of evidence for an antischistosomal activity of myrrh in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Botros, Sanaa; William, Samia; Ebeid, Fatma; Cioli, Donato; Katz, Naftale; Day, Tim A; Bennett, James L

    2004-08-01

    In a multicenter investigation of the potential antischistosomal activity of myrrh, a resin obtained from an African plant, different derivatives of the resin, including the commercial preparation Mirazid, were tested at different doses in mice and hamsters infected with Schistosoma mansoni. In mice infected with the Egyptian (CD) strain of S. mansoni, four of six groups treated with Mirazid did not show significant worm reduction, while the remaining groups showed significant but trivial reductions. In mice infected with the Puerto Rican (Mill Hill) strain of S. mansoni, a Mirazid solution was toxic for mice at high doses and produced modest or no worm reduction at lower doses. In hamsters and mice infected with Puerto Rican (NMRI) and Brazilian (LE) strains of S. mansoni and treated with the crude extract of myrrh in doses ranging from 180 to 10,000 mg/kg, no signs of antibilharzial activity were observed. Total tissue egg load and egg developmental stages were not affected by any of the treatment regimens. These results were in contrast to those obtained in praziquantel-treated animals in which 94% worm reduction and 100% egg reduction was observed. Based on the findings of this work, we cannot recommend the use of Mirazid in human cases of schistosomiasis. PMID:15306712

  2. Dose-response analyses of the carcinogenic effects of trichloroethylene in experimental animals.

    PubMed Central

    Rhomberg, L R

    2000-01-01

    In lifetime bioassays, trichloroethylene (TCE, CAS No. 79-01-6) causes liver tumors in mice following gavage, liver and lung tumors in mice following inhalation, and kidney tumors in rats following gavage or inhalation. Recently developed pharmacokinetic models provide estimates of internal, target-organ doses of the TCE metabolites thought responsible for these tumor responses. Dose-response analyses following recently proposed methods for carcinogen risk assessment from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) are conducted on the animal tumor data using the pharmacokinetic dosimeters to derive a series of alternative projections of the potential carcinogenic potency of TCE in humans exposed to low environmental concentrations. Although mechanistic considerations suggest action of possibly nonlinear processes, dose-response shapes in the observable range of tumor incidence evince little sign of such patterns. Results depend on which of several alternative pharmacokinetic analyses are used to define target-organ doses. Human potency projections under the U.S. EPA linear method based on mouse liver tumors and internal dosimetry equal or somewhat exceed calculations based on administered dose, and projections based on mouse liver tumors exceed those from mouse lung or rat kidney tumors. Estimates of the carcinogenic potency of the two primary oxidative metabolites of TCE--trichloroacetic acid and dichloroacetic acid, which are mouse liver carcinogens in their own right--are also made, but it is not clear whether the carcinogenic potency of TCE can be quantitatively ascribed to metabolic generation of these metabolites. PMID:10807564

  3. Hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity of Guduchi Satva in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rohit; Kumar, Vijay; Ashok, B K; Galib, R; Prajapati, Pradeep Kumar; Ravishankar, B

    2013-10-01

    Over the centuries, herbs have served as a major source of medicines for prevention and treatment of diseases including diabetes mellitus. These herbs are getting more importance around the globe and many studies have provided safety and efficacy of such herbal drugs in different condition. Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia [Willd.] Miers) is reported as highly potent Pramehahara (anti-diabetic) herb in Ayurveda and Guduchi Satva (GS) is popularly used to treat Paittika type of Prameha. In the present study, GS prepared from the stem of T. cordifolia was evaluated for hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity in 18 h fasted mice. GS was suspended in distilled water and administered to animals at the dose of 130 mg/kg that showed the marginal reduction in blood sugar level (BSL) at all the time intervals in normoglycemic mice. In anti-hyperglycemic activity, administration of GS prior to glucose over load failed to attenuate BSL at all-time interval in comparison to glucose control group. The study concludes that mild hypoglycemic insignificant anti-hyperglycemic activities of GS. PMID:24695802

  4. Development of an animal experimental model to study the effects of levonorgestrel on the human endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez Gonzalez, M.-L.; Galant, C.; Frankenne, F.; Nisolle, M.; Labied, S.; Foidart, J.-M.; Marbaix, E.; Béliard, A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study was designed to develop an animal model to test the response of endometrium to local progestin delivery. METHODS Proliferative human endometrium was subcutaneously grafted in two groups of SCID mice that received, 2 days before, a subcutaneous estradiol (E2) pellet and, for half of them, an additional implant of levonorgestrel (LNG). Mice were sacrificed 1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks after endometrial implantation and grafts were histologically analysed. Proliferation, steroid hormone receptors, blood vessels and stromal decidualization in both groups (E2 and LNG) were immunohistologically evaluated and compared with proliferative endometrium and endometrium from women with an LNG intrauterine device. RESULTS Grafts presented normal morphological endometrial characteristics. The expression of progesterone receptors was significantly decreased in glands and stroma of the LNG group as compared with the E2 group at all times. A significant decrease was also observed in the stromal expression of estrogen receptor-α in the LNG group. At 4 weeks, the mean cross-sectional area of vessels was significantly higher after LNG treatment. CONCLUSIONS These morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics are similar to those observed in women treated with local LNG. This mouse model might facilitate further investigations needed to understand the mechanisms responsible for the breakthrough bleeding frequently observed in progestin users. PMID:19095670

  5. Chemical cystitis developed in experimental animals model: Topical effect of intravesical ozone application to bladder

    PubMed Central

    Bayrak, Omer; Erturhan, Sakip; Seckiner, Ilker; Erbagci, Ahmet; Ustun, Abdulkerim; Karakok, Metin

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To demonstrate the effects of intravesical ozone treatment on inflammation and epithelial cell damage in chemical cystitis animal model. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 New Zealand rabbits were divided into six groups. Cystitis was conducted with transurethral intravesical hydrochloric acid instillation on the subjects in Groups IA, IB, IIA, and IIB. Then, Group IA-IB subjects were transurethrally administered intravesical ozone therapy twice a week, while Group IIA-IIB subjects were only given intravesical isotonic NaCl instillation. Group IIIA-IIIB subjects were administered intravesical isotonic NaCl instillation without conducting chemical cystitis in order to create the same stress. Treatment schemes of all groups were arranged in the same manner. Following a 3-week (early period) and 6-week (late period) therapy, the rabbits were sacrificed and histopathologic investigations were carried out in order to demonstrate changes in the urinary bladder. Results: In our study, we observed that the basal membrane and mucosal integrity were maintained, inflammatory cells were suppressed in Group IA-IB (Early and late period), which received ozone therapy. However, it was also observed that mucosal integrity was spoiled, numerous inflammatory cells were accumulated in Group IIA-IIB, which was administered isotonic NaCl. Conclusion: Due to its low cost and minimal side effects; ozone therapy could be a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of interstitial cystitis. PMID:24833822

  6. Effects of experimental sleep deprivation on anxiety-like behavior in animal research: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pires, Gabriel Natan; Bezerra, Andréia Gomes; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy

    2016-09-01

    Increased acute anxiety is a commonly reported behavioral consequence of sleep deprivation in humans. However, rodent studies conducted so far produced inconsistent results, failing to reproduce the same sleep deprivation induced-anxiety observed in clinical experiments. While some presented anxiogenesis as result of sleep deprivation, others reported anxiolysis. In face of such inconsistencies, this article explores the effects of experimental sleep deprivation on anxiety-like behavior in animal research through a systematic review and a series of meta-analyses. A total of 50 of articles met our inclusion criteria, 30 on mice, 19 on rats and one on Zebrafish. Our review shows that sleep deprivation induces a decrease in anxiety-like behavior in preclinical models, which is opposite to results observed in human settings. These results were corroborated in stratified analyses according to species, sleep deprivation method and anxiety measurement technique. In conclusion, the use of animal models for the evaluation of the relationship between sleep deprivation lacks translational applicability and new experimental tools are needed to properly evaluate sleep deprivation-induced anxiogenesis in rodents. PMID:27345144

  7. Effects of experimental sleep deprivation on anxiety-like behavior in animal research: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pires, Gabriel Natan; Bezerra, Andréia Gomes; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy

    2016-09-01

    Increased acute anxiety is a commonly reported behavioral consequence of sleep deprivation in humans. However, rodent studies conducted so far produced inconsistent results, failing to reproduce the same sleep deprivation induced-anxiety observed in clinical experiments. While some presented anxiogenesis as result of sleep deprivation, others reported anxiolysis. In face of such inconsistencies, this article explores the effects of experimental sleep deprivation on anxiety-like behavior in animal research through a systematic review and a series of meta-analyses. A total of 50 of articles met our inclusion criteria, 30 on mice, 19 on rats and one on Zebrafish. Our review shows that sleep deprivation induces a decrease in anxiety-like behavior in preclinical models, which is opposite to results observed in human settings. These results were corroborated in stratified analyses according to species, sleep deprivation method and anxiety measurement technique. In conclusion, the use of animal models for the evaluation of the relationship between sleep deprivation lacks translational applicability and new experimental tools are needed to properly evaluate sleep deprivation-induced anxiogenesis in rodents.

  8. Nutritional Status Driving Infection by Trypanosoma cruzi: Lessons from Experimental Animals

    PubMed Central

    Malafaia, Guilherme; Talvani, André

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the scientific knowledge about protein-energy and micronutrient malnutrition in the context of Chagas disease, especially in experimental models. The search of articles was conducted using the electronic databases of SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online), PubMed and MEDLINE published between 1960 and March 2010. It was possible to verify that nutritional deficiencies (protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrient malnutrition) exert a direct effect on the infection by T. cruzi. However, little is known about the immunological mechanisms involved in the relationship “nutritional deficiencies and infection by T. cruzi”. A hundred years after the discovery of Chagas disease many aspects of this illness still require clarification, including the effects of nutritional deficiencies on immune and pathological mechanisms of T. cruzi infection. PMID:21577255

  9. Experimental verification of an interpolation algorithm for improved estimates of animal position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schell, Chad; Jaffe, Jules S.

    2004-07-01

    This article presents experimental verification of an interpolation algorithm that was previously proposed in Jaffe [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105, 3168-3175 (1999)]. The goal of the algorithm is to improve estimates of both target position and target strength by minimizing a least-squares residual between noise-corrupted target measurement data and the output of a model of the sonar's amplitude response to a target at a set of known locations. Although this positional estimator was shown to be a maximum likelihood estimator, in principle, experimental verification was desired because of interest in understanding its true performance. Here, the accuracy of the algorithm is investigated by analyzing the correspondence between a target's true position and the algorithm's estimate. True target position was measured by precise translation of a small test target (bead) or from the analysis of images of fish from a coregistered optical imaging system. Results with the stationary spherical test bead in a high signal-to-noise environment indicate that a large increase in resolution is possible, while results with commercial aquarium fish indicate a smaller increase is obtainable. However, in both experiments the algorithm provides improved estimates of target position over those obtained by simply accepting the angular positions of the sonar beam with maximum output as target position. In addition, increased accuracy in target strength estimation is possible by considering the effects of the sonar beam patterns relative to the interpolated position. A benefit of the algorithm is that it can be applied ``ex post facto'' to existing data sets from commercial multibeam sonar systems when only the beam intensities have been stored after suitable calibration.

  10. Natural killer T cells in multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Van Kaer, Luc; Wu, Lan; Parekh, Vrajesh V

    2015-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease that causes demyelination of neurons in the central nervous system. Traditional therapies for MS have involved anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs with significant side effects that often only provide short-term relief. A more desirable outcome of immunotherapy would be to protect against disease before its clinical manifestation or to halt disease after its initiation. One attractive approach to accomplish this goal would be to restore tolerance by targeting immunoregulatory cell networks. Although much of the work in this area has focused on CD4(+) Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells, other studies have investigated natural killer T (NKT) cells, a subset of T cells that recognizes glycolipid antigens in the context of the CD1d glycoprotein. Studies with human MS patients have revealed alterations in the numbers and functions of NKT cells, which have been partially supported by studies with the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model of MS. Additional studies have shown that activation of NKT cells with synthetic lipid antigens can, at least under certain experimental conditions, protect mice against the development of MS-like disease. Although mechanisms of this protection remain to be fully investigated, current evidence suggests that it involves interactions with other immunoregulatory cell types such as regulatory T cells and immunosuppressive myeloid cells. These studies have provided a strong foundation for the rational design of NKT-cell-based immunotherapies for MS that induce tolerance while sparing overall immune function. Nevertheless, additional pre-clinical and clinical studies will be required to bring this goal to fruition.

  11. An animal experimental study of porous magnesium scaffold degradation and osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y J; Yang, Z Y; Tan, L L; Li, H; Zhang, Y Z

    2014-08-01

    Our objective was to observe the biodegradable and osteogenic properties of magnesium scaffolding under in vivo conditions. Twelve 6-month-old male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups. The chosen operation site was the femoral condyle on the right side. The experimental group was implanted with porous magnesium scaffolds, while the control group was implanted with hydroxyapatite scaffolds. X-ray and blood tests, which included serum magnesium, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine (CREA), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were performed serially at 1, 2, and 3 weeks, and 1, 2, and 3 months. All rabbits were killed 3 months postoperatively, and the heart, kidney, spleen, and liver were analyzed with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. The bone samples were subjected to microcomputed tomography scanning (micro-CT) and hard tissue biopsy. SPSS 13.0 (USA) was used for data analysis, and values of P<0.05 were considered to be significant. Bubbles appeared in the X-ray of the experimental group after 2 weeks, whereas there was no gas in the control group. There were no statistical differences for the serum magnesium concentrations, ALT, BUN, and CREA between the two groups (P>0.05). All HE-stained slices were normal, which suggested good biocompatibility of the scaffold. Micro-CT showed that magnesium scaffolds degraded mainly from the outside to inside, and new bone was ingrown following the degradation of magnesium scaffolds. The hydroxyapatite scaffold was not degraded and had fewer osteoblasts scattered on its surface. There was a significant difference in the new bone formation and scaffold bioabsorption between the two groups (9.29 ± 1.27 vs 1.40 ± 0.49 and 7.80 ± 0.50 vs 0.00 ± 0.00 mm3, respectively; P<0.05). The magnesium scaffold performed well in degradation and osteogenesis, and is a promising material for orthopedics.

  12. Experimental verification of an interpolation algorithm for improved estimates of animal position.

    PubMed

    Schell, Chad; Jaffe, Jules S

    2004-07-01

    This article presents experimental verification of an interpolation algorithm that was previously proposed in Jaffe [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105, 3168-3175 (1999)]. The goal of the algorithm is to improve estimates of both target position and target strength by minimizing a least-squares residual between noise-corrupted target measurement data and the output of a model of the sonar's amplitude response to a target at a set of known locations. Although this positional estimator was shown to be a maximum likelihood estimator, in principle, experimental verification was desired because of interest in understanding its true performance. Here, the accuracy of the algorithm is investigated by analyzing the correspondence between a target's true position and the algorithm's estimate. True target position was measured by precise translation of a small test target (bead) or from the analysis of images of fish from a coregistered optical imaging system. Results with the stationary spherical test bead in a high signal-to-noise environment indicate that a large increase in resolution is possible, while results with commercial aquarium fish indicate a smaller increase is obtainable. However, in both experiments the algorithm provides improved estimates of target position over those obtained by simply accepting the angular positions of the sonar beam with maximum output as target position. In addition, increased accuracy in target strength estimation is possible by considering the effects of the sonar beam patterns relative to the interpolated position. A benefit of the algorithm is that it can be applied "ex post facto" to existing data sets from commercial multibeam sonar systems when only the beam intensities have been stored after suitable calibration.

  13. An animal experimental study of porous magnesium scaffold degradation and osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Y.J.; Yang, Z.Y.; Tan, L.L.; Li, H.; Zhang, Y.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to observe the biodegradable and osteogenic properties of magnesium scaffolding under in vivo conditions. Twelve 6-month-old male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups. The chosen operation site was the femoral condyle on the right side. The experimental group was implanted with porous magnesium scaffolds, while the control group was implanted with hydroxyapatite scaffolds. X-ray and blood tests, which included serum magnesium, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine (CREA), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were performed serially at 1, 2, and 3 weeks, and 1, 2, and 3 months. All rabbits were killed 3 months postoperatively, and the heart, kidney, spleen, and liver were analyzed with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. The bone samples were subjected to microcomputed tomography scanning (micro-CT) and hard tissue biopsy. SPSS 13.0 (USA) was used for data analysis, and values of P<0.05 were considered to be significant. Bubbles appeared in the X-ray of the experimental group after 2 weeks, whereas there was no gas in the control group. There were no statistical differences for the serum magnesium concentrations, ALT, BUN, and CREA between the two groups (P>0.05). All HE-stained slices were normal, which suggested good biocompatibility of the scaffold. Micro-CT showed that magnesium scaffolds degraded mainly from the outside to inside, and new bone was ingrown following the degradation of magnesium scaffolds. The hydroxyapatite scaffold was not degraded and had fewer osteoblasts scattered on its surface. There was a significant difference in the new bone formation and scaffold bioabsorption between the two groups (9.29±1.27 vs 1.40±0.49 and 7.80±0.50 vs 0.00±0.00 mm3, respectively; P<0.05). The magnesium scaffold performed well in degradation and osteogenesis, and is a promising material for orthopedics. PMID:25098717

  14. Evaluation of Immunomodulatory Activity of the Alkaloid Fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus Gaertn on Experimental Animals.

    PubMed

    Bachhav, R S; Sambathkumar, R

    2016-01-01

    Trichopus zeylanicus Gaertn, (Trichopodaceae) is also known as "Arogyappacha" meaning the greener of health by tribal inhabitants (Kani tribes). This plant used as health tonic and rejuvenator. The whole plant material of Trichopus zeylanicus is defatted and successively extracted with methanol. The alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus was obtained from methanol extract. Up to the dose of 2000 mg/kg b.w. per orally alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus did not show any mortality or toxicity. Immunomodulatory activity of alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus Gaertn was evaluated using various in vivo models including neutrophil adhesion test, delayed type hypersensitivity reaction, and effect on hematological parameter like, total white blood cell's, red blood cell's and hemoglobin and cyclophosphamide induce immunosupression. Sheep red blood cells were used to immunized the animals. The percentage of neutrophils adhesion to the nylon fiber was dose dependently increased in alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus75, 150 and 300 mg/kg, p.o treated groups (50.57, 52.99 and 54.21%), respectively compared to control group. A dose dependent potentiating of delayed type hypersensitivity reaction induced by sheep red blood cells was also observed from the alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus. On chronic administration of alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg. p.o.) caused significant (P<0.001) increased in hematological parameter like, total white blood cell's, red blood cell's and hemoglobin. Alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus also prevented the myelosupression in mice treated cyclophosphamide (30 mg/kg, p.o.). The result of present investigation suggested that alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus stimulate defense system by modulating several immunological parameters. PMID:27168696

  15. Toxicological studies for some agricultural waste extracts on mosquito larvae and experimental animals

    PubMed Central

    El-Maghraby, Somia; Nawwar, Galal A; Bakr, Reda FA; Helmy, Nadia; Kamel, Omnia MHM

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate some agricultural waste extracts as insecticide and their effects on enzyme activities in liver and kidney of male mice. Methods The insecticidal activity of five tested compounds (one crude extract and 4 waste compounds) was bioassay against the 3rd instars of the Culex pipiens (Cx. pipiens) larvae in the laboratory. The LC50 values of eucalyptol, apricot kernel, Rice bran, corn, black liquor and white liquor are 91.45, 1 166.1, 1 203.3, 21 449.65, 4 025.78 and 6 343.18 ppm, respectively. Selection of the compounds for the subsequent studies was not only dependent on LC50 values but also on the persistence of these wastes products on large scale. Results White and black liquor did not produce any gross effect at 200 mg/Kg body weight. No apparent toxic symptoms were observed in tested animals during the whole period of the experiment which run out for 14 days. No statistically significance was observed in the enzyme cholinesterase activity, the activities of liver enzymes and kidney function in treated mice with black and white liquors. While, no and slight inhibition was observed after the 2 weeks of treatment period with deltamethrin and fenitrothion reached to about 24% in plasma cholinesterase enzyme activity. Significantly increase in the activities of liver enzymes and kidney function in treated mice with deltamethrin and fenitrothion. Conclusions Black liquor can be used efficiently to control Cx. pipiens larvae under laboratory condition. Environmental problem caused by rice straw can be solved by converting the waste material to beneficial natural selective insecticide. PMID:23569971

  16. Evaluation of Immunomodulatory Activity of the Alkaloid Fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus Gaertn on Experimental Animals

    PubMed Central

    Bachhav, R. S.; Sambathkumar, R.

    2016-01-01

    Trichopus zeylanicus Gaertn, (Trichopodaceae) is also known as “Arogyappacha” meaning the greener of health by tribal inhabitants (Kani tribes). This plant used as health tonic and rejuvenator. The whole plant material of Trichopus zeylanicus is defatted and successively extracted with methanol. The alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus was obtained from methanol extract. Up to the dose of 2000 mg/kg b.w. per orally alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus did not show any mortality or toxicity. Immunomodulatory activity of alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus Gaertn was evaluated using various in vivo models including neutrophil adhesion test, delayed type hypersensitivity reaction, and effect on hematological parameter like, total white blood cell's, red blood cell's and hemoglobin and cyclophosphamide induce immunosupression. Sheep red blood cells were used to immunized the animals. The percentage of neutrophils adhesion to the nylon fiber was dose dependently increased in alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus75, 150 and 300 mg/kg, p.o treated groups (50.57, 52.99 and 54.21%), respectively compared to control group. A dose dependent potentiating of delayed type hypersensitivity reaction induced by sheep red blood cells was also observed from the alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus. On chronic administration of alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg. p.o.) caused significant (P<0.001) increased in hematological parameter like, total white blood cell's, red blood cell's and hemoglobin. Alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus also prevented the myelosupression in mice treated cyclophosphamide (30 mg/kg, p.o.). The result of present investigation suggested that alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus stimulate defense system by modulating several immunological parameters. PMID:27168696

  17. Relationship of dietary iodide and drinking water disinfectants to thyroid function in experimental animals

    SciTech Connect

    Revis, N.W.; McCauley, P.; Holdsworth, G.

    1986-11-01

    The importance of dietary iodide on the reported hypothyroid effect of drinking water disinfectants on thyroid function was investigated. Previous studies have also showed differences in the relative sensitivity of pigeons and rabbits to chlorinated water. Pigeons and rabbits were exposed for 3 months to diets containing high (950 ppb) or low (300 ppb) levels of iodide and to drinking water containing two levels of chlorine. Results showed that the high-iodide diet prevented the hypothyroid effect observed in pigeons given the low-iodide diet and chlorinated drinking water. Similar trends were observed in rabbits exposed to the same treatment; however, significant hypothyroid effects were not observed in this animal model. The factor associated with the observed effect of dietary iodide on the chlorine-induced change in thyroid function is unknown, as is the relative sensitivity of rabbits and pigeons to the effect of chlorine. Several factors may explain the importance of dietary iodide and the relative sensitivity of these species. For example, the iodine formed by the known reaction of chlorine with iodide could result in a decrease in the plasma level of iodide because of the relative absorption rates of iodide and iodine in the intestinal tract, and the various types and concentrations of chloroorganics (metabolites) formed in the diet following the exposure of various dietary constituents to chlorine could affect the thyroid function. The former factor was investigated in the present studies. Results do not confirm a consistent, significant reduction in the plasma level of iodide in rabbits and pigeons exposed to chlorinated water and the low-iodide diet. The latter factor is being investigated.

  18. Stress as necessary component of realistic recovery in animal models of experimental stroke

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Frederick R; Jones, Kimberley A; Patience, Madeleine J; Zhao, Zidan; Nilsson, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade there has been a considerable effort directed toward reformulating the standard approach taken to preclinically model stroke and stroke recovery. The principal objective of this undertaking has been to improve the success with which preclinical findings can be translated. Although several advancements have already been introduced, one potentially critical feature that appears to have been overlooked is psychological stress. Stroke is well recognized to produce high levels of stress in patients, and ongoing exposure to stress is recognized to deleteriously interfere with recovery. The presence of high levels of stress (distress) in stroke patients is also relevant because nearly all clinically deployed neurorestorative interventions occur against this background. Somewhat perplexingly, however, we could find no preclinical stroke studies concerned with investigating the efficacy of putative neurorestorative compounds that did so in the presence of stress. The following article will make the case that failure to recognize or compensate for the effects of ongoing stress in standard preclinical experimental models of recovery is likely to result in overestimation of the effectiveness of pharmacological or behavioral neurorestorative interventions. PMID:24326386

  19. Prevention of chemically induced diabetes mellitus in experimental animals by virgin argan oil.

    PubMed

    Bellahcen, Said; Mekhfi, Hassane; Ziyyat, Abderrahim; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Hakkou, Abdelkader; Aziz, Mohammed; Bnouham, Mohamed

    2012-02-01

    The argan tree plays an important socioeconomic and ecologic role in South Morocco. Moreover, there is much evidence for the beneficial effects of virgin argan oil (VAO) on human health. Thus, this study investigated whether administering VAO to rats can prevent the development of diabetes. VAO extracted by a traditional method from the almonds of Argania spinosa (2 mL/kg) was administered orally (for 7 consecutive days) to rats before and during intraperitoneal alloxan administration (75 mg/kg for 5 consecutive days). An alloxan diabetic-induced untreated group and treated by table oil were used as control groups. Body mass, blood glucose and hepatic glycogen were evaluated. In the present study, subchronic treatment with VAO at a dose of 2 mL/kg, before the experimental induction of diabetes, prevented the body mass loss, induced a significant reduction of blood glucose and a significant increase of hepatic glycogen level (p < 0.001) compared with the untreated diabetic group. In conclusion, the present study shows that argan oil should be further investigated in a human study to clarify its possible role in reducing weight loss in diabetics, and even in inhibiting the development or progression of diabetes. This antidiabetic effect could be due to the richness of VAO in tocopherols, phenolic compounds and unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:21584872

  20. Prevention of chemically induced diabetes mellitus in experimental animals by virgin argan oil.

    PubMed

    Bellahcen, Said; Mekhfi, Hassane; Ziyyat, Abderrahim; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Hakkou, Abdelkader; Aziz, Mohammed; Bnouham, Mohamed

    2012-02-01

    The argan tree plays an important socioeconomic and ecologic role in South Morocco. Moreover, there is much evidence for the beneficial effects of virgin argan oil (VAO) on human health. Thus, this study investigated whether administering VAO to rats can prevent the development of diabetes. VAO extracted by a traditional method from the almonds of Argania spinosa (2 mL/kg) was administered orally (for 7 consecutive days) to rats before and during intraperitoneal alloxan administration (75 mg/kg for 5 consecutive days). An alloxan diabetic-induced untreated group and treated by table oil were used as control groups. Body mass, blood glucose and hepatic glycogen were evaluated. In the present study, subchronic treatment with VAO at a dose of 2 mL/kg, before the experimental induction of diabetes, prevented the body mass loss, induced a significant reduction of blood glucose and a significant increase of hepatic glycogen level (p < 0.001) compared with the untreated diabetic group. In conclusion, the present study shows that argan oil should be further investigated in a human study to clarify its possible role in reducing weight loss in diabetics, and even in inhibiting the development or progression of diabetes. This antidiabetic effect could be due to the richness of VAO in tocopherols, phenolic compounds and unsaturated fatty acids.

  1. The Nonstructural Proteins of Nipah Virus Play a Key Role in Pathogenicity in Experimentally Infected Animals

    PubMed Central

    Yoneda, Misako; Guillaume, Vanessa; Sato, Hiroki; Fujita, Kentaro; Georges-Courbot, Marie-Claude; Ikeda, Fusako; Omi, Mio; Muto-Terao, Yuri; Wild, T. Fabian; Kai, Chieko

    2010-01-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) P gene encodes P protein and three accessory proteins (V, C and W). It has been reported that all four P gene products have IFN antagonist activity when the proteins were transiently expressed. However, the role of those accessory proteins in natural infection with NiV remains unknown. We generated recombinant NiVs lacking V, C or W protein, rNiV(V−), rNiV(C−), and rNiV(W−), respectively, to analyze the functions of these proteins in infected cells and the implications in in vivo pathogenicity. All the recombinants grew well in cell culture, although the maximum titers of rNiV(V−) and rNiV(C−) were lower than the other recombinants. The rNiV(V−), rNiV(C−) and rNiV(W−) suppressed the IFN response as well as the parental rNiV, thereby indicating that the lack of each accessory protein does not significantly affect the inhibition of IFN signaling in infected cells. In experimentally infected golden hamsters, rNiV(V−) and rNiV(C−) but not the rNiV(W−) virus showed a significant reduction in virulence. These results suggest that V and C proteins play key roles in NiV pathogenicity, and the roles are independent of their IFN-antagonist activity. This is the first report that identifies the molecular determinants of NiV in pathogenicity in vivo. PMID:20856799

  2. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-26:13, 108-F Drain Pipelines, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-011

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-03

    The 100-F-26:13 waste site is the network of process sewer pipelines that received effluent from the 108-F Biological Laboratory and discharged it to the 188-F Ash Disposal Area (126-F-1 waste site). The pipelines included one 0.15-m (6-in.)-, two 0.2-m (8-in.)-, and one 0.31-m (12-in.)-diameter vitrified clay pipe segments encased in concrete. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  3. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-26:9, 1607-F2 Sanitary Sewer Pipelines, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-029

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2008-10-29

    The 100-F-26:9 underground pipeline subsite consists of the sanitary sewers servicing the 105-F, 108-F, 184-F, 185-F, and 190-F buildings, and the 1700-F administration and service buildings (1704-F, 1707-F, 1707-FA, 1713-F, 1717-F, 1719-F, and 1722-F). In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory and verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  4. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-52, 146-FR Radioecology and Aquatic Biology Laboratory Soil, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-022

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2008-06-27

    The 100-F-52 waste site consisted of the soil under and around the former 146-FR Radioecology and Aquatic Biology Laboratory. The laboratory was used for studies of the effects of pre-reactor and post-reactor process water on fish eggs, young fish, and other small river creatures of interest. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to No Action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  5. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 128-F-2, 100-F Burning Pit Waste Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-031

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2008-12-01

    The 128-F-2 waste site consisted of multiple burn and debris filled pits located directly east of the 107-F Retention Basin and approximately 30.5 m east of the northeast corner of the 100-F Area perimeter road that runs along the riverbank. The burn pits were used for incinerating nonradioactive, combustible materials from 1945 to 1965. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  6. Initial study of sediment antagonism and characteristics of silver nanoparticle-coated biliary stents in an experimental animal model

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yigeng; Xia, Mingfeng; Zhang, Shuai; Fu, Zhen; Wen, Qingbin; Liu, Feng; Xu, Zongzhen; Li, Tao; Tian, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Objective Plastic biliary stents used to relieve obstructive jaundice are frequently blocked by sediment, resulting in loss of drainage. We prepared stents coated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and compared their ability to resist sedimentation with Teflon stents in a beagle model of obstructive jaundice. Methods AgNP-coated Teflon biliary stents were prepared by chemical oxidation–reduction and evaluated in an obstructive jaundice model that was produced by ligation of common bile duct (CBD); animals were randomized to two equal groups for placement of AgNP-coated or Teflon control stents. Liver function and inflammatory index were found to be similar in the two groups, and the obstruction was relieved. Stents were removed 21 days after insertion and observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The AgNP coating was analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), and the composition of sediment was assayed by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Results Electron microscopy revealed a black, closely adherent AgNP stent coating, with thicknesses of 1.5–6 µm. Sediment thickness and density were greater on Teflon than on AgNP-coated stents. EDXA confirmed the stability and integrity of the AgNP coating before and after in vivo animal experimentation. FTIR spectroscopy identified stent sediment components including bilirubin, cholesterol, bile acid, protein, calcium, and other substances. Conclusion AgNP-coated biliary stents resisted sediment accumulation in this canine model of obstructive jaundice caused by ligation of the CBD. PMID:27217749

  7. Recruiting "Friends of Medical Progress": Evolving Tactics in the Defense of Animal Experimentation, 1910s and 1920s.

    PubMed

    Ross, Karen D

    2015-07-01

    In 1923, Thomas Barbour of Harvard announced the creation of a national lay organization, the Society of Friends of Medical Progress (FMP), to defend animal research in the United States against a resurgent antivivisection movement. After decades of successful behind-the-scenes lobbying and avoiding the public spotlight, medical scientists significantly altered their tactics and sought public engagement, at least by proxy. Although the authority of scientific medicine was rising, women's suffrage, the advent of the ballot initiative, and a growing alliance of antivivisectionists and other groups in opposition to allopathic medicine so altered the political landscape that medical scientists reconsidered formerly rejected ideas such partnering with laymen. Medical scientists, Walter B. Cannon and Simon Flexner chief among them, hoped that the FMP would relieve the scientists of a time-consuming burden and defend against government regulation of medical institutions without the charge of material self-interest. However, financial problems and the frequent conflicts that arose between the lay leadership and Flexner eventually undermined the FMP's value as a defender of animal experimentation and reveal the distrust of reformers like Flexner who did not believe that laymen could speak for scientific medicine.

  8. Recruiting "Friends of Medical Progress": Evolving Tactics in the Defense of Animal Experimentation, 1910s and 1920s.

    PubMed

    Ross, Karen D

    2015-07-01

    In 1923, Thomas Barbour of Harvard announced the creation of a national lay organization, the Society of Friends of Medical Progress (FMP), to defend animal research in the United States against a resurgent antivivisection movement. After decades of successful behind-the-scenes lobbying and avoiding the public spotlight, medical scientists significantly altered their tactics and sought public engagement, at least by proxy. Although the authority of scientific medicine was rising, women's suffrage, the advent of the ballot initiative, and a growing alliance of antivivisectionists and other groups in opposition to allopathic medicine so altered the political landscape that medical scientists reconsidered formerly rejected ideas such partnering with laymen. Medical scientists, Walter B. Cannon and Simon Flexner chief among them, hoped that the FMP would relieve the scientists of a time-consuming burden and defend against government regulation of medical institutions without the charge of material self-interest. However, financial problems and the frequent conflicts that arose between the lay leadership and Flexner eventually undermined the FMP's value as a defender of animal experimentation and reveal the distrust of reformers like Flexner who did not believe that laymen could speak for scientific medicine. PMID:24957068

  9. Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties of an aqueous extract of Dicranopteris linearis leaves in experimental animal models.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Ghani, Zuleen Delina Fasya Abdul; Nor, Raden Nur Suraya Raden Mohd; Gopalan, Hanan Kumar; Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan; Jais, Abdul Manan Mat; Somchit, Muhammad Nazrul; Kader, Arifah Abdul; Ripin, Johari

    2008-04-01

    This study was performed out to establish the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties of an aqueous extract of Dicranopteris linearis leaves in experimental animals. The antinociceptive activity was measured using the abdominal constriction, hot plate, and formalin tests. The anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities were measured using the carrageenan-induced paw edema and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia tests, respectively. The extract, obtained after 72 h soaking of the air-dried leaves in distilled water and then prepared in the doses of 13.2, 66.0, 132.0, and 660.0 mg/kg, was administered subcutaneously 30 min before subjecting the animals to the assays mentioned above. Generally, the extract, at all doses used, was found to have significant (P < 0.05) concentration-independent antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-pyretic activity. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of D. linearis has antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity, supporting previous claims of its traditional use by the Malays to treat various ailments, particularly fever. PMID:18404320

  10. Transfer of elements relevant to nuclear fuel cycle from soil to boreal plants and animals in experimental meso- and microcosms.

    PubMed

    Tuovinen, Tiina S; Kasurinen, Anne; Häikiö, Elina; Tervahauta, Arja; Makkonen, Sari; Holopainen, Toini; Juutilainen, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Uranium (U), cobalt (Co), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), thorium (Th) and zinc (Zn) occur naturally in soil but their radioactive isotopes can also be released into the environment during the nuclear fuel cycle. The transfer of these elements was studied in three different trophic levels in experimental mesocosms containing downy birch (Betula pubescens), narrow buckler fern (Dryopteris carthusiana) and Scandinavian small-reed (Calamagrostis purpurea ssp. Phragmitoides) as producers, snails (Arianta arbostorum) as herbivores, and earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) as decomposers. To determine more precisely whether the element uptake of snails is mainly via their food (birch leaves) or both via soil and food, a separate microcosm experiment was also performed. The element uptake of snails did not generally depend on the presence of soil, indicating that the main uptake route was food, except for U, where soil contact was important for uptake when soil U concentration was high. Transfer of elements from soil to plants was not linear, i.e. it was not correctly described by constant concentration ratios (CR) commonly applied in radioecological modeling. Similar nonlinear transfer was found for the invertebrate animals included in this study: elements other than U were taken up more efficiently when element concentration in soil or food was low. PMID:26363398

  11. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) for Eimeria tenella replication — Implications for experimental refinement and animal welfare

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, Matthew J.; Tomley, Fiona M.; Kaiser, Pete; Blake, Damer P.

    2015-01-01

    The Eimeria species are highly pathogenic parasites of chickens. Research aimed at reducing their impact is hindered by a lack of non-subjective, quantitative, tools to measure parasite replication in the host. The time-consuming, and often time-sensitive, nature of existing approaches precludes their use in large-scale genetic, epidemiological, and evolutionary analyses. We have used quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to accurately quantify Eimeria tenella in chicken tissue and shown this to be more efficient and sensitive than traditional methodologies. We tested four chicken-specific reference qPCR assays and found beta-actin (actb) to be optimal for sample normalisation. In an experimental setting, chickens were inoculated with 500, 1500, or 4500 E. tenella oocysts and parasite replication and the impact of infection measured by i) qPCR analysis of DNA extracted from caecal tissues collected at five and eight days post-infection (dpi), ii) faecal oocyst counts (FOCs) on samples taken from six to eight dpi, and iii) lesion scoring on caeca collected post-mortem at five and eight dpi. Quantitative real-time PCR test results indicated a significant dose-dependent increase in parasite numbers among study groups for samples collected five dpi (i.e., prior to gametogony) (R2 = 0.994) (p < 0.002) but not in those from day eight (after most oocyst shedding) (R2 = 0.006) (p > 0.379). A strong dose-dependent increase in parasite replication and severity of infection was also revealed by FOC (R2 = 0.997) and lesion scoring. Importantly, qPCR offers substantial improvements for animal welfare via improved statistical power and reduced group sizes in experimental studies. The described qPCR method overcomes subjective limitations of coproscopic quantification, allows reproducible medium- to high-throughput examination of tissues, faeces, and oocysts, and is a valuable tool for determining the impact of Eimeria infections in both experimental and field settings

  12. Significance of Rumex vesicarius as anticancer remedy against hepatocellular carcinoma: a proposal-based on experimental animal studies.

    PubMed

    Shahat, Abdelaaty A; Alsaid, Mansour S; Kotob, Soheir E; Ahmed, Hanaa H

    2015-01-01

    Rumex vesicarius is an edible herb distributed in Egypt and Saudi Arabia. The whole plant has significant value in folk medicine and it has been used to alleviate several diseases. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the major primary malignant tumor of the liver, is one of the most life-threatening human cancers. The goal of the current study was to explore the potent role of Rumex vesicarius extract against HCC induced in rats. Thirty adult male albino rats were divided into 3 groups: (I): Healthy animals received orally 0.9% normal saline and served as negative control group, (II): HCC group in which rats were orally administered N-nitrosodiethylamine NDEA, (III): HCC group treated orally with R. vesicarius extract in a dose of 400 mg/kg b.wt daily for two months. ALT and AST, ALP and γ-GT activities were estimated. CEA, AFP, AFU, GPC-3, Gp-73 and VEGF levels were quantified. Histopathological examination of liver tissue sections was also carried out. The results of the current study showed that the treatment of the HCC group with R. vesicarius extract reversed the significant increase in liver enzymes activity, CEA, AFP, AFU, glypican 3, golgi 73 and VEGF levels in serum as compared to HCC-untreated counterparts. In addition, the favorable impact of R. vesicarius treatment was evidenced by the marked improvement in the histopathological features of the liver of the treated group. In conclusion, the present experimental setting provided evidence for the significance of R. vesicarius as anticancer candidate with a promising anticancer potential against HCC. The powerful hepatoprotective properties, the potent antiangiogenic activity and the effective antiproliferative capacity are responsible for the anticancer effect of this plant. PMID:26028090

  13. Effects of creatine supplementation on learning, memory retrieval, and apoptosis in an experimental animal model of Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    AliMohammadi, Malek; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Zarindast, Mohammad-Reza; Aliaghaei, Abbas; Pishva, Hamideh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Alzheimer disease is the main cause of dementia in middle-aged and elderly people. Considering the improving effects of creatine supplementation on cognitive performance, this study aimed to determine the effects of creatine supplementation on learning, memory, and apoptosis in an experimental model of Alzheimer’s disease. Methods: Thirty-two male Wistar rats each weighing 250±50 grams were divided into four groups. The AdCr+ (Aβ injection, creatine supplementation) and AdCr- groups (Aβ injection, no creatine supplementation) were injected bilaterally with amyloid beta (Aβ) (0.2μg in each CA1 area), and the sham group was injected with normal saline in the same area. After the injection, the AdCr+ group received a diet of 2% creatine for six weeks. The control group underwent no surgical or dietary intervention. After six weeks the Morris Water Maze (MWM) test was administered, to measure learning and memory retrieval. After sacrificing the animals, TUNEL staining for an anti-apoptosis assay was performed for the sham, AdCr+, and AdCr- groups. All groups were compared by independent ttest using SPSS software. Results: Results of MWM show that rats in sham and control groups performed better than those in the AdCr- and AdCr+ groups. Compared to sham group, AdCr+ and AdCr- groups had more TUNEL positive neurons count. Results indicated no differences between the AdCr+ and AdCrgroups in learning, memory retrieval, and percentage of TUNEL positive neurons. Conclusion: After Aβ injection, creatine supplementation had no effect on learning, memory retrieval, or neuron apoptosis in male Wistar rats. PMID:26793664

  14. Significance of Rumex vesicarius as anticancer remedy against hepatocellular carcinoma: a proposal-based on experimental animal studies.

    PubMed

    Shahat, Abdelaaty A; Alsaid, Mansour S; Kotob, Soheir E; Ahmed, Hanaa H

    2015-01-01

    Rumex vesicarius is an edible herb distributed in Egypt and Saudi Arabia. The whole plant has significant value in folk medicine and it has been used to alleviate several diseases. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the major primary malignant tumor of the liver, is one of the most life-threatening human cancers. The goal of the current study was to explore the potent role of Rumex vesicarius extract against HCC induced in rats. Thirty adult male albino rats were divided into 3 groups: (I): Healthy animals received orally 0.9% normal saline and served as negative control group, (II): HCC group in which rats were orally administered N-nitrosodiethylamine NDEA, (III): HCC group treated orally with R. vesicarius extract in a dose of 400 mg/kg b.wt daily for two months. ALT and AST, ALP and γ-GT activities were estimated. CEA, AFP, AFU, GPC-3, Gp-73 and VEGF levels were quantified. Histopathological examination of liver tissue sections was also carried out. The results of the current study showed that the treatment of the HCC group with R. vesicarius extract reversed the significant increase in liver enzymes activity, CEA, AFP, AFU, glypican 3, golgi 73 and VEGF levels in serum as compared to HCC-untreated counterparts. In addition, the favorable impact of R. vesicarius treatment was evidenced by the marked improvement in the histopathological features of the liver of the treated group. In conclusion, the present experimental setting provided evidence for the significance of R. vesicarius as anticancer candidate with a promising anticancer potential against HCC. The powerful hepatoprotective properties, the potent antiangiogenic activity and the effective antiproliferative capacity are responsible for the anticancer effect of this plant.

  15. A Study of the Protective Effect of Triticum aestivum L. in an Experimental Animal Model of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Borah, Mukundam; Sarma, Phulen; Das, Swarnamoni

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Keeping in view the proven antioxidant activity of Triticum aestivum L., this study has been undertaken to explore the potential therapeutic benefit of this plant in the treatment of CFS. Objective: To study the protective effect of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Triticum aestivum (EETA) in an experimental mice model of CFS. Materials and Methods: Five groups of albino mice (20-25 g) were selected for the study, with five animals in each group. Group A served as the naïve control and Group B served as the stressed control. Groups C and D received EETA (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg b.w.). Group E received imipramine (20 mg/kg b.w.). Except for Group A, mice in each group were forced to swim 6 min each for 7 days to induce a state of chronic fatigue. Duration of immobility was measured on every alternate day. After 7 days, various behavioral tests (mirror chamber and elevated plus maize test for anxiety, open field test for locomotor activity) and biochemical estimations (malondialdehyde [MDA] and catalase activity) in mice brain were performed. Results: Forced swimming in the stressed group resulted in a significant increase in immobility period, decrease in locomotor activity and elevated anxiety level. The brain homogenate showed significantly increased MDA and decreased catalase levels. The extract-treated groups showed significantly (P < 0.05) improved locomotor activity, decreased anxiety level, elevated catalase levels and reduction of MDA. Conclusion: The study confirms the protective effects of EETA in CFS. PMID:25276064

  16. [Early and Delayed Effects of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on the Reproductive Function and Functional Status of the Offspring of Experimental Animals].

    PubMed

    Shibkova, D Z; Shilkova, T V; Ovchinnikova, A V

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our experimental research was to study the impact of radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF) on the reproductive function of male and female mice of CBA in 2 models of exposure, as well as on the morphofunctional state of progeny of irradiated animals. It was found that RF EMF under conditions of repeated short-term exposures (within 5 days for 10 minutes at PES 1.2 mW/cm2) affects the course of pregnancy in female mice, the number of litters, fertility and preservation of offspring, morphometric characteristics of the offspring of experimental animals at different models of irradiation (exposure of animals to RF EMF prior to mating and during pregnancy). PMID:26863782

  17. [Early and Delayed Effects of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on the Reproductive Function and Functional Status of the Offspring of Experimental Animals].

    PubMed

    Shibkova, D Z; Shilkova, T V; Ovchinnikova, A V

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our experimental research was to study the impact of radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF) on the reproductive function of male and female mice of CBA in 2 models of exposure, as well as on the morphofunctional state of progeny of irradiated animals. It was found that RF EMF under conditions of repeated short-term exposures (within 5 days for 10 minutes at PES 1.2 mW/cm2) affects the course of pregnancy in female mice, the number of litters, fertility and preservation of offspring, morphometric characteristics of the offspring of experimental animals at different models of irradiation (exposure of animals to RF EMF prior to mating and during pregnancy).

  18. Alexander von Humboldt: galvanism, animal electricity, and self-experimentation part 1: formative years, naturphilosophie, and galvanism.

    PubMed

    Finger, Stanley; Piccolino, Marco; Stahnisch, Frank W

    2013-01-01

    During the 1790s, Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859), who showed an early interest in many facets of natural philosophy and natural history, delved into the controversial subject of galvanism and animal electricity, hoping to shed light on the basic nature of the nerve force. He was motivated by his broad worldview, the experiments of Luigi Galvani, who favored animal electricity in more than a few specialized fishes, and the thinking of Alessandro Volta, who accepted specialized fish electricity but was not willing to generalize to other animals, thinking Galvani's frog experiments flawed by his use of metals. Differing from many German Naturphilosophen, who shunned "violent" experiments, the newest instruments, and detailed measurement, Humboldt conducted thousands of galvanic experiments on animals and animal parts, as well as many on his own body, some of which caused him great pain. He interpreted his results as supporting some but not all of the claims made by both Galvani and Volta. Notably, because of certain negative findings and phenomenological differences, he remained skeptical about the intrinsic animal force being qualitatively identical to true electricity. Hence, he referred to a "galvanic force," not animal electricity, in his letters and publications, a theoretical position he would abandon with Volta's help early in the new century.

  19. Alexander von Humboldt: galvanism, animal electricity, and self-experimentation part 1: formative years, naturphilosophie, and galvanism.

    PubMed

    Finger, Stanley; Piccolino, Marco; Stahnisch, Frank W

    2013-01-01

    During the 1790s, Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859), who showed an early interest in many facets of natural philosophy and natural history, delved into the controversial subject of galvanism and animal electricity, hoping to shed light on the basic nature of the nerve force. He was motivated by his broad worldview, the experiments of Luigi Galvani, who favored animal electricity in more than a few specialized fishes, and the thinking of Alessandro Volta, who accepted specialized fish electricity but was not willing to generalize to other animals, thinking Galvani's frog experiments flawed by his use of metals. Differing from many German Naturphilosophen, who shunned "violent" experiments, the newest instruments, and detailed measurement, Humboldt conducted thousands of galvanic experiments on animals and animal parts, as well as many on his own body, some of which caused him great pain. He interpreted his results as supporting some but not all of the claims made by both Galvani and Volta. Notably, because of certain negative findings and phenomenological differences, he remained skeptical about the intrinsic animal force being qualitatively identical to true electricity. Hence, he referred to a "galvanic force," not animal electricity, in his letters and publications, a theoretical position he would abandon with Volta's help early in the new century. PMID:23581538

  20. Anaesthesia and physiological monitoring during in vivo imaging of laboratory rodents: considerations on experimental outcomes and animal welfare

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of imaging technologies has dramatically increased the efficiency of preclinical studies, enabling a powerful, non-invasive and clinically translatable way for monitoring disease progression in real time and testing new therapies. The ability to image live animals is one of the most important advantages of these technologies. However, this also represents an important challenge as, in contrast to human studies, imaging of animals generally requires anaesthesia to restrain the animals and their gross motion. Anaesthetic agents have a profound effect on the physiology of the animal and may thereby confound the image data acquired. It is therefore necessary to select the appropriate anaesthetic regime and to implement suitable systems for monitoring anaesthetised animals during image acquisition. In addition, repeated anaesthesia required for longitudinal studies, the exposure of ionising radiations and the use of contrast agents and/or imaging biomarkers may also have consequences on the physiology of the animal and its response to anaesthesia, which need to be considered while monitoring the animals during imaging studies. We will review the anaesthesia protocols and monitoring systems commonly used during imaging of laboratory rodents. A variety of imaging modalities are used for imaging rodents, including magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, high frequency ultrasound and optical imaging techniques such as bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging. While all these modalities are implemented for non-invasive in vivo imaging, there are certain differences in terms of animal handling and preparation, how the monitoring systems are implemented and, importantly, how the imaging procedures themselves can affect mammalian physiology. The most important and critical adverse effects of anaesthetic agents are depression of respiration, cardiovascular system disruption and

  1. Using an Animal Group Vigilance Practical Session to Give Learners a "Heads-Up" to Problems in Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rands, Sean A.

    2011-01-01

    The design of experimental ecological fieldwork is difficult to teach to classes, particularly when protocols for data collection are normally carefully controlled by the class organiser. Normally, reinforcement of the some problems of experimental design such as the avoidance of pseudoreplication and appropriate sampling techniques does not occur…

  2. Animal learning.

    PubMed

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Pavlov and Thorndike pioneered the experimental study of animal learning and provided psychologists with powerful tools to unveil its underlying mechanisms. Today's research developments and theoretical analyses owe much to the pioneering work of these early investigators. Nevertheless, in the evolution of our knowledge about animal learning, some initial conceptions have been challenged and revised. We first review the original experimental procedures and findings of Pavlov and Thorndike. Next, we discuss critical research and consequent controversies which have greatly shaped animal learning theory. For example, although contiguity seemed to be the only condition that is necessary for learning, we now know that it is not sufficient; the conditioned stimulus (CS) also has to provide information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). Also, animals appear to learn different things about the same stimuli when circumstances vary. For instance, when faced with situations in which the meaning of a CS changes, as in the case of acquisition and later extinction, animals seem to preserve the original knowledge (CS-US) in addition to learning about the new conditions (CS-noUS). Finally, we discuss how parallels among Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and human causal judgment suggest that causal knowledge may lie at the root of both human and animal learning. All of these empirical findings and theoretical developments prove that animal learning is more complex and intricate than was once imagined. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  3. Animal learning.

    PubMed

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Pavlov and Thorndike pioneered the experimental study of animal learning and provided psychologists with powerful tools to unveil its underlying mechanisms. Today's research developments and theoretical analyses owe much to the pioneering work of these early investigators. Nevertheless, in the evolution of our knowledge about animal learning, some initial conceptions have been challenged and revised. We first review the original experimental procedures and findings of Pavlov and Thorndike. Next, we discuss critical research and consequent controversies which have greatly shaped animal learning theory. For example, although contiguity seemed to be the only condition that is necessary for learning, we now know that it is not sufficient; the conditioned stimulus (CS) also has to provide information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). Also, animals appear to learn different things about the same stimuli when circumstances vary. For instance, when faced with situations in which the meaning of a CS changes, as in the case of acquisition and later extinction, animals seem to preserve the original knowledge (CS-US) in addition to learning about the new conditions (CS-noUS). Finally, we discuss how parallels among Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and human causal judgment suggest that causal knowledge may lie at the root of both human and animal learning. All of these empirical findings and theoretical developments prove that animal learning is more complex and intricate than was once imagined. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26272842

  4. Anatomical features for an adequate choice of experimental animal model in biomedicine: II. Small laboratory rodents, rabbit, and pig.

    PubMed

    Lossi, Laura; D'Angelo, Livia; De Girolamo, Paolo; Merighi, Adalberto

    2016-03-01

    The anatomical features distinctive to each of the very large array of species used in today's biomedical research must be born in mind when considering the correct choice of animal model(s), particularly when translational research is concerned. In this paper we take into consideration and discuss the most important anatomical and histological features of the commonest species of laboratory rodents (rat, mouse, guinea pig, hamster, and gerbil), rabbit, and pig related to their importance for applied research.

  5. Antibody to a 39-kilodalton Borrelia burgdorferi antigen (P39) as a marker for infection in experimentally and naturally inoculated animals.

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, W J; Burgdorfer, W; Schrumpf, M E; Karstens, R H; Schwan, T G

    1991-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi expresses a conserved, species-specific 39-kDa protein (P39) that can stimulate antibodies during human infection. To confirm that anti-P39 antibodies are produced consistently in animals exposed to infectious spirochetes, white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus, and laboratory white mice, Mus musculus (strain BALB/c), were experimentally inoculated with either infectious or noninfectious B. burgdorferi and the antibody response to P39 was determined by immunoblot at 21 days postinoculation. All mice inoculated with approximately 10(7) infectious B. burgdorferi produced anti-P39 antibodies and were cultured positive for this spirochete. Mice inoculated with similar numbers of inactivated or viable noninfectious B. burgdorferi still producing P39 did not induce anti-P39 antibodies. By contrast, putative antiflagellin antibodies were detected in less than 18% of the infected animals, which supports the notion that antibody reactive with flagellin may not be reliable as a marker for B. burgdorferi exposure as was originally thought. Mice infected with B. burgdorferi following exposure to ticks (Ixodes dammini) produced anti-P39 antibodies no later than 7 days postinfection, indicating that P39 is an effective immunogen in natural infections. Notably, anti-P39 antibodies were the predominant B. burgdorferi reactive antibodies detected early in the infection. Our results indicate that anti-P39 antibodies are produced in response to an active infection and are therefore reliable markers for infection in experimentally and naturally inoculated animals. Images PMID:2007630

  6. Multiple reciprocal adaptations and rapid genetic change upon experimental coevolution of an animal host and its microbial parasite

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Rebecca D.; Makus, Carsten; Hasert, Barbara; Michiels, Nico K.; Schulenburg, Hinrich

    2010-01-01

    The coevolution between hosts and parasites is predicted to have complex evolutionary consequences for both antagonists, often within short time periods. To date, conclusive experimental support for the predictions is available mainly for microbial host systems, but for only a few multicellular host taxa. We here introduce a model system of experimental coevolution that consists of the multicellular nematode host Caenorhabditis elegans and the microbial parasite Bacillus thuringiensis. We demonstrate that 48 host generations of experimental coevolution under controlled laboratory conditions led to multiple changes in both parasite and host. These changes included increases in the traits of direct relevance to the interaction such as parasite virulence (i.e., host killing rate) and host resistance (i.e., the ability to survive pathogens). Importantly, our results provide evidence of reciprocal effects for several other central predictions of the coevolutionary dynamics, including (i) possible adaptation costs (i.e., reductions in traits related to the reproductive rate, measured in the absence of the antagonist), (ii) rapid genetic changes, and (iii) an overall increase in genetic diversity across time. Possible underlying mechanisms for the genetic effects were found to include increased rates of genetic exchange in the parasite and elevated mutation rates in the host. Taken together, our data provide comprehensive experimental evidence of the consequences of host–parasite coevolution, and thus emphasize the pace and complexity of reciprocal adaptations associated with these antagonistic interactions. PMID:20368449

  7. Animals' Use of Landmarks and Metric Information to Reorient: Effects of the Size of the Experimental Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sovrano, Valeria Anna; Bisazza, Angelo; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    Disoriented children could use geometric information in combination with landmark information to reorient themselves in large but not in small experimental spaces. We tested fish in the same task and found that they were able to conjoin geometric and non-geometric (landmark) information to reorient themselves in both the large and the small space…

  8. Effect of Autologous Platelet Rich Fibrin on the Healing of Experimental Articular Cartilage Defects of the Knee in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Davoud; Fakhrjou, Ashraf; Mirzazadeh Dizaji, Vahid; Khanzadeh Alishahi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    The effect of autologous platelet rich fibrin (PRF), a second generation platelet product, on the healing of experimental articular cartilage lesions was evaluated in an animal model. Full thickness cartilage lesions with a diameter of 6 mm and depth of 5 mm were created in the weight bearing area of femoral condyles of both hind limbs in 12 adult mixed breed dogs. Defects in the left hind limb of each dog were repaired by PRF implantation whereas those in the right hind limb were left empty. The animals were euthanized at 4, 16, and 24 weeks following surgery and the resultant repair tissue was investigated macroscopically and microscopically. The results of macroscopic and histological evaluations indicated that there were significant differences between the PRF treated and untreated defects. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the use of platelet rich fibrin as a source of autologous growth factors leads to improvement in articular cartilage repair. PMID:25028656

  9. A Novel Foam Contrast Agent Suitable for Fluoroscopic Interventional Procedure: Comparative Study of Physical Properties and Experimental Intervention in Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jin Ho; Park, Hong Suk; Seo, Soowon; Choo, In Wook; Do, Young Soo; Choo, Sung Wook; Shin, Sung Wook; Park, Kwang Bo; Cho, Sung Ki; Hyun, Dongho; Lim, Sooyoun

    2015-01-01

    In fluoroscopic contrast study for interventional procedure, liquid contrast agent may be diluted in body fluid, losing its contrast effect. We developed a novel contrast agent of “foam state” to maintain contrast effect for enough time and performed a comparative study of physical properties and its usefulness in experimental intervention in animal model. The mean size of microbubble of foam contrast was 13.8 ± 3.6 µm. The viscosity was 201.0 ± 0.624 cP (centipoise) and the specific gravity was 0.616. The foam decayed slowly and it had 97.5 minutes of half-life. In terms of the sustainability in a slow flow environment, foam contrast washed out much more slowly than a conventional contrast. In experimental colonic stent placement, foam contrast revealed significantly better results than conventional contrast in procedure time, total amount of contrast usage, and the number of injections (p < 0.05). Our foam contrast has high viscosity and low specific gravity and maintains foam state for a sufficient time. Foam contrast with these properties was useful in experimental intervention in animal model. We anticipate that foam contrast may be applied to various kinds of interventional procedures. PMID:26366422

  10. A Novel Foam Contrast Agent Suitable for Fluoroscopic Interventional Procedure: Comparative Study of Physical Properties and Experimental Intervention in Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jin Ho; Park, Hong Suk; Seo, Soowon; Choo, In Wook; Do, Young Soo; Choo, Sung Wook; Shin, Sung Wook; Park, Kwang Bo; Cho, Sung Ki; Hyun, Dongho; Lim, Sooyoun

    2015-01-01

    In fluoroscopic contrast study for interventional procedure, liquid contrast agent may be diluted in body fluid, losing its contrast effect. We developed a novel contrast agent of "foam state" to maintain contrast effect for enough time and performed a comparative study of physical properties and its usefulness in experimental intervention in animal model. The mean size of microbubble of foam contrast was 13.8 ± 3.6 µm. The viscosity was 201.0 ± 0.624 cP (centipoise) and the specific gravity was 0.616. The foam decayed slowly and it had 97.5 minutes of half-life. In terms of the sustainability in a slow flow environment, foam contrast washed out much more slowly than a conventional contrast. In experimental colonic stent placement, foam contrast revealed significantly better results than conventional contrast in procedure time, total amount of contrast usage, and the number of injections (p < 0.05). Our foam contrast has high viscosity and low specific gravity and maintains foam state for a sufficient time. Foam contrast with these properties was useful in experimental intervention in animal model. We anticipate that foam contrast may be applied to various kinds of interventional procedures. PMID:26366422

  11. Attenuation of acute and chronic restraint stress-induced perturbations in experimental animals by Zingiber officinale Roscoe.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, B V S; Sudhakar, M

    2010-02-01

    Ethanolic extract of rhizomes of Zingiber officinale was investigated on anoxia stress tolerance test in Swiss mice. The animals were also subjected to acute physical stress (swimming endurance test) to gauge the anti-stress potential of the extract. Further to evaluate the anti-stress activity of Z. officinale in chronic stress condition, fresh Wistar rats were subjected to cold restraint stress (4 degrees for 2 h) for 10 days. Stimulation of hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis in stressful condition alters plasma glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, BUN and corticosterone levels. There is also alteration in the blood cell counts. Pretreatment with the extract significantly ameliorated the stress-induced variations in these biochemical levels and blood cell counts in both acute and chronic stress models. The extract treated animals showed increase in swimming endurance time and increase in anoxia tolerance time in physical and anoxia stress models, respectively. Treatment groups also reverted back increase in liver, adrenal gland weights and atrophy of spleen caused by cold chronic stress and swimming endurance stress models. The results indicate that ethanolic extract of Z. officinale has significant adaptogenic activity against a variety of biochemical and physiological perturbations in different stress models. PMID:19909780

  12. Local Delivery System of Immune Modulating Drug for Unresectable Adenocarcinoma: In Vitro Experimental Study and In Vivo Animal Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Don Haeng; Kang, Sung-Gwon Jeong, Seok; Yoon, Chang Jin; Choi, Jung-Ah; Byun, Ju Nam; Park, Jae Hyung; Lee, Kyu Back

    2006-10-15

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a developed drug delivery system containing OK-432 through in vitro and animal study. An OK-432-impregnated polycarbonate/polyurethane stent membrane was used to develop a drug delivery system (DDS) enabling the locoregional release of OK-432. Polyethyleneglycol was used as a detergent and porosity generator. The stability of OK-432 in solvent, releasing kinetics of drug, and cytotoxicity of the DDS were evaluated. OK-432-impregnated DDS was implanted in mice in which a human adenocarcinoma cell line was injected and grown in their back. Flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for quantifying the amount of drug. OK-432 exposed to phosphate-buffered saline and OK-432 exposed to N,N-dimethylacetamide showed similar results on dot graphs and histograms. However, OK-432 exposed to tetrahydrofurane showed different dot graphs and histograms, which means that the antigenicity of the drug was changed. The release rate of OK-432 was maintained at a constant level for 6 weeks. The local delivery of OK-432 was found to have an antitumor effect on a human adenocarcinoma cell line in an animal study, but no effect on this cell line in in vitro cell culture. Histologic examination showed minimal inflammatory reaction in surrounding tissue. Our study shows that local treatment using this OK-432 release system is safe and effective in reducing adenocarcinoma in a mouse model.

  13. Assessment of anti-metastatic effects of anticoagulant and antiplatelet agents using animal models of experimental lung metastasis.

    PubMed

    Amirkhosravi, Ali; Mousa, Shaker A; Amaya, Mildred; Meyer, Todd; Davila, Monica; Robson, Theresa; Francis, John L

    2010-01-01

    It is well established that the blood coagulation system is activated in cancer. In addition, there is considerable evidence to suggest that clotting activation plays an important role in the biology of malignant tumors, including the process of blood-borne metastasis. For many years our laboratory has used experimental models of lung metastasis to study the events that follow the introduction of procoagulant-bearing tumor cells into circulating blood. This chapter focuses on the basic methods involved in assessing the anti-metastatic effects of anticoagulants and anti-platelet agents using rodent models of experimental metastasis. In addition, it summarizes our experience with these models, which collectively suggests that intravascular coagulation and platelet activation are a necessary prelude to lung tumor formation and that interruption of coagulation pathways or platelet aggregation may be an effective anti-metastatic strategy. PMID:20617422

  14. [Possibilities of intravenous use of helium-neon laser in the treatment of experimental tuberculosis of animals].

    PubMed

    Topol'nitskiĭ, V G; Maliev, B M; Gracheva, M P; Kruglova, E G

    1992-01-01

    The study presents experimental finding of 40 mongrel dogs whose intravascular blood was irradiated with laser as a supplement to the multimodality treatment of respiratory tuberculosis. Earlier disappearance of intoxication symptoms and reduced terms of destruction cavity decrease and closure, as roentgenologically evidenced, was achieved. The influence of this treatment on certain lipid peroxidation parameters, hemocoagulation, immunity status and bacteriostatic blood activity were found. There were no side effects during treatment. PMID:1409508

  15. Favorable results from the use of herbal and plant products in inflammatory bowel disease: evidence from experimental animal studies

    PubMed Central

    Triantafillidis, John K.; Triantafyllidi, Aikaterini; Vagianos, Constantinos; Papalois, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbal therapy for inflammatory bowel disease is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to review the available literature on the efficacy of herbal therapy in experimental colitis. All relevant studies published in Medline and Embase up to June 2015 have been reviewed. The results of bowel histology and serum parameters have been recorded. A satisfactory number of published experimental studies, and a quite large one of both herbal and plant products tested in different studies have been reported. The results showed that in the majority of the studies, herbal therapy reduced the inflammatory activity of experimental colitis and diminished the levels of many inflammatory indices, including serum cytokines and indices of oxidative stress. The most promising plant and herbal products were tormentil extracts, wormwoodherb, Aloe vera, germinated barley foodstuff, curcumin, Boswellia serrata, Panax notoginseng, Ixeris dentata, green tea, Cordia dichotoma, Plantago lanceolata, Iridoidglycosides, and mastic gum. Herbal therapies exert their therapeutic benefit via various mechanisms, including immune regulation, anti-oxidant activity, inhibition of leukotriene B4 and nuclear factor-κB, and antiplatelet activity. Large, double-blind clinical studies assessing these natural substances should be urgently conducted. PMID:27366027

  16. Favorable results from the use of herbal and plant products in inflammatory bowel disease: evidence from experimental animal studies.

    PubMed

    Triantafillidis, John K; Triantafyllidi, Aikaterini; Vagianos, Constantinos; Papalois, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbal therapy for inflammatory bowel disease is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to review the available literature on the efficacy of herbal therapy in experimental colitis. All relevant studies published in Medline and Embase up to June 2015 have been reviewed. The results of bowel histology and serum parameters have been recorded. A satisfactory number of published experimental studies, and a quite large one of both herbal and plant products tested in different studies have been reported. The results showed that in the majority of the studies, herbal therapy reduced the inflammatory activity of experimental colitis and diminished the levels of many inflammatory indices, including serum cytokines and indices of oxidative stress. The most promising plant and herbal products were tormentil extracts, wormwoodherb, Aloe vera, germinated barley foodstuff, curcumin, Boswellia serrata, Panax notoginseng, Ixeris dentata, green tea, Cordia dichotoma, Plantago lanceolata, Iridoidglycosides, and mastic gum. Herbal therapies exert their therapeutic benefit via various mechanisms, including immune regulation, anti-oxidant activity, inhibition of leukotriene B4 and nuclear factor-κB, and antiplatelet activity. Large, double-blind clinical studies assessing these natural substances should be urgently conducted. PMID:27366027

  17. Favorable results from the use of herbal and plant products in inflammatory bowel disease: evidence from experimental animal studies.

    PubMed

    Triantafillidis, John K; Triantafyllidi, Aikaterini; Vagianos, Constantinos; Papalois, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbal therapy for inflammatory bowel disease is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to review the available literature on the efficacy of herbal therapy in experimental colitis. All relevant studies published in Medline and Embase up to June 2015 have been reviewed. The results of bowel histology and serum parameters have been recorded. A satisfactory number of published experimental studies, and a quite large one of both herbal and plant products tested in different studies have been reported. The results showed that in the majority of the studies, herbal therapy reduced the inflammatory activity of experimental colitis and diminished the levels of many inflammatory indices, including serum cytokines and indices of oxidative stress. The most promising plant and herbal products were tormentil extracts, wormwoodherb, Aloe vera, germinated barley foodstuff, curcumin, Boswellia serrata, Panax notoginseng, Ixeris dentata, green tea, Cordia dichotoma, Plantago lanceolata, Iridoidglycosides, and mastic gum. Herbal therapies exert their therapeutic benefit via various mechanisms, including immune regulation, anti-oxidant activity, inhibition of leukotriene B4 and nuclear factor-κB, and antiplatelet activity. Large, double-blind clinical studies assessing these natural substances should be urgently conducted.

  18. [Optimization of a method of determination of endogenous ethanol in the blood and tissues of man and experimental animals].

    PubMed

    Shishkin, S N; Ostrovskiĭ, Iu M; Pron'ko, P S

    1988-01-01

    An improved procedure is described for estimation of endogenous ethanol in human and animal biological fluids using gas chromatographic analysis of equilibrated steam. Sensitivity of the procedure was as low as 0.05 mg/L and relative error--about 6%. Content of endogenous ethanol constituted from 0.08 mg/L to 1.30 mg/l (the mean value was 0.38 +/- 0.07 mg/L) in blood of healthy men which did not consume alcohol for a long time. In blood and tissues of white rats content of ethanol was equal to 0.06-1.32 mg/L and 0.07-3.12 mg/l, respectively.

  19. Implementation challenges for designing integrated in vitro testing strategies (ITS) aiming at reducing and replacing animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    De Wever, Bart; Fuchs, Horst W; Gaca, Marianna; Krul, Cyrille; Mikulowski, Stan; Poth, Albrecht; Roggen, Erwin L; Vilà, Maya R

    2012-04-01

    At the IVTIP (in vitro testing industrial platform) meeting of November 26th 2009 entitled 'Toxicology in the 21st century ('21C')--working our way towards a visionary reality' all delegates endorsed the emerging concept of the '21C' vision as the way forward to enable a thorough, reliable and systematic approach to future toxicity testing without the use of animals. One of the emerging concepts focused on integrating a defined number of tests modelling in vivo-relevant and well-characterised toxicity pathways representing mechanistic endpoints. At this meeting the importance of Integrated Testing Strategies (ITS) as tools towards reduction and eventually replacement of the animals currently used for hazard identification and risk assessment was recognised. A follow-up IVTIP Spring 2010 meeting entitled 'Integrated In Vitro Testing Strategies (ITS)--Implementation Challenges' was organised to address pending questions about ITS. This report is not a review of the ITS literature, but a summary of the discussions triggered by presented examples on how to develop and implement ITS. Contrasts between pharmaceutical and chemical industry, as well as a list of general but practical aspects to be considered while developing an ITS emerged from the discussions. In addition, current recommendations on the validation of ITS were discussed. In conclusion, the outcome of this workshop improved the understanding of the participants of some important factors that may impact the design of an ITS in function of its purpose (e.g., screening, or early decision making versus regulatory), the context in which they need to be applied (e.g., ICH guidelines, REACH) and the status and quality of the available tools. A set of recommendations of best practices was established and the importance of the applicability of the individual tests as well as the testing strategy itself was highlighted.

  20. Anacardium occidentale Linn. (Anacardiaceae) stem bark extract induces hypotensive and cardio-inhibitory effects in experimental animal models.

    PubMed

    Tchikaya, Francis Olivier; Bantsielé, Guy Bernard; Kouakou-Siransy, Gisèle; Datté, Jacques Yao; Yapo, Paul Angoue; Zirihi, Noel Guedé; Offoumou, Michel Atté

    2011-01-01

    Anacardium occidentale Linn. (Anacardiaceae) is a plant largely used in Africa for the treatment of different diseases. In Côte d'Ivoire it's commonly used for the treatment of hypertension. The present study was carried out in order to assess the effects of Anacardium occidentale extract (ANOE) on cardiovascular parameters in animal models. A mercury manometer kymograph of Ludwig was used to measure the blood pressure of normotensive rabbits in control conditions (normal physiological solution) and under the influence of ANOE. The contractile activity of an isolated rat heart was also measured in control conditions and under the influence of ANOE in different physiological media using a modified Langendhorff (1895) apparatus. The aqueous Anacardium occidentale (ANOE) bark extract applied intravenously in different doses (12, 40, 90, and 167 mg/kg b.w.), produced a significant dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure of previously normotensive rabbits (up to 89% vs control). Atropine (1 mg/ml) pre-treatment failed to reverse the hypotensive effects elicited by the extract. ANOE applied to isolated rat heart preparations in different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10 µg/ml) induced negative inotropic and chronotropic effects. Atropine pre-treatment of heart preparations (0.1 µg/ml) failed to reverse the negative effects induced by ANOE. The extract's action on heart contractile activity studied in modified culture media further confirmed its cardio-inhibitory effects. ANOE induced strong hypotensive and cardio-inhibitory effects in animal models. PMID:22654226

  1. Ear-Shaped Stable Auricular Cartilage Engineered from Extensively Expanded Chondrocytes in an Immunocompetent Experimental Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Pomerantseva, Irina; Bichara, David A; Tseng, Alan; Cronce, Michael J; Cervantes, Thomas M; Kimura, Anya M; Neville, Craig M; Roscioli, Nick; Vacanti, Joseph P; Randolph, Mark A; Sundback, Cathryn A

    2016-02-01

    Advancement of engineered ear in clinical practice is limited by several challenges. The complex, largely unsupported, three-dimensional auricular neocartilage structure is difficult to maintain. Neocartilage formation is challenging in an immunocompetent host due to active inflammatory and immunological responses. The large number of autologous chondrogenic cells required for engineering an adult human-sized ear presents an additional challenge because primary chondrocytes rapidly dedifferentiate during in vitro culture. The objective of this study was to engineer a stable, human ear-shaped cartilage in an immunocompetent animal model using expanded chondrocytes. The impact of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) supplementation on achieving clinically relevant expansion of primary sheep chondrocytes by in vitro culture was determined. Chondrocytes expanded in standard medium were either combined with cryopreserved, primary passage 0 chondrocytes at the time of scaffold seeding or used alone as control. Disk and human ear-shaped scaffolds were made from porous collagen; ear scaffolds had an embedded, supporting titanium wire framework. Autologous chondrocyte-seeded scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously in sheep after 2 weeks of in vitro incubation. The quality of the resulting neocartilage and its stability and retention of the original ear size and shape were evaluated at 6, 12, and 20 weeks postimplantation. Neocartilage produced from chondrocytes that were expanded in the presence of bFGF was superior, and its quality improved with increased implantation time. In addition to characteristic morphological cartilage features, its glycosaminoglycan content was high and marked elastin fiber formation was present. The overall shape of engineered ears was preserved at 20 weeks postimplantation, and the dimensional changes did not exceed 10%. The wire frame within the engineered ear was able to withstand mechanical forces during wound healing and neocartilage

  2. [Computed tomography following extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) of the kidneys. I: Correlation with acute histopathological findings in experimental animals].

    PubMed

    Schaub, T; Kunisch, M; Stadtbäumer, M; Störkel, S; el-Damanhoury, H; Hennes, H J; Schild, H; Thelen, M

    1991-03-01

    In an experimental study on pigs, 28 stone-free kidneys were treated with a second generation lithotripter. Histologically, acute bleeding was seen after ESWL in 23 (82%) of the 28 treated kidneys. CT studies before and after contrast were correct in 20/28 (74%) cases. It was shown that extracorporeal shock waves cause renal bleeding that is only partially detected by computed tomography. It can be concluded that the CT findings seen in a high percentage of renal stone patients after ESWL represent bleeding. The incidence of renal bleeding after ESWL and thus the possible risk of hypertension has obviously been underestimated so far in clinical studies.

  3. Influence of low-power laser radiation on carbohydrate metabolism and insulin-glycemic balance in experimental animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radelli, Jolanta; Cieslar, Grzegorz; Sieron, Aleksander; Grzybek, Henryk

    1996-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the dose-dependent influence of low-power laser radiation on carbohydrate metabolism in 70 male Wistar rats. The animals were primarily divided into 2 groups: B - irradiated group and C - control one in which sham - irradiation was made. The rats from B - group were irradiated daily for 10 minutes with semiconductive laser emitting the radiation of infrared wavelength 904 nm. Within both groups the animals were divided into subgroups (B I - B VII and CI - C VII) in which the dissections were made on 1st, 3rd, 6th, 9th, and 14th day of irradiation and on 5th and 8th day after the end of cycle of irradiation respectively. In all subgroups blood samples were collected to determine the glucose and insulin levels. Parts of the liver and pancreas were taken for histological examination in light microscope and in electron microscope. The lowest, statistically significant glycaemia was observed in the subgroup B V. Significant increase of glycaemia and significantly higher insulin concentration was found only in the subgroup B VI. The I/G ratio increased significantly in the subgroup B V. Lower intensity of paS reaction was presented in subgroups B I, B III, B V, B VI and B VII. The increased amount of paS-positive substances was observed in the I and II zone of liver acinus. Electron microscopic studies of hepatocytes showed: numerous glycogen conglomerations in subgroups B I, B II, B VI and B VII, the extension of RER in B II and B III, light vacuoles in B II, Golgi apparatus and biliary canaliculus expansion in B V and structural changes of several mitochondria - slight swelling or discontinuation of their outer membranes, electron microscopic findings in pancreas cells included: lower number of typical granules in beta and alpha cells as well as Golgi apparatus results it was concluded that the influence of low power laser radiation on carbohydrate metabolism in generally insignificant. It is observed only for higher doses of

  4. Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 and high-density lipoprotein metabolism: experimental animal models and clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Nicola; Corsini, Alberto; Macchi, Chiara; Magni, Paolo; Ruscica, Massimiliano

    2016-07-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) belongs to the proprotein convertase family. Several studies have demonstrated its involvement in the regulation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels by inducing the degradation of the LDL receptor (LDLR). However, experimental, epidemiologic, and pharmacologic data provide important evidence on the role of PCSK9 also on high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). In mice, PCSK9 regulates the HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels by the degradation of hepatic LDLR, thus inhibiting the uptake of apolipoprotein (Apo)E-containing HDLs. Several epidemiologic and genetic studies reported positive relationship between PCSK9 and HDL-C levels, likely by reducing the uptake of the ApoE-containing HDL particles. PCSK9 enhances also the degradation of LDLR's closest family members, ApoE receptor 2, very low-density lipoprotein receptor, and LDLR-related protein 1. This feature provides a molecular mechanism by which PCSK9 may affect HDL metabolism. Experimental studies demonstrated that PCSK9 directly interacts with HDL by modulating PCSK9 self-assembly and its binding to the LDLR. Finally, the inhibition of PCSK9 by means of monoclonal antibodies directed to PCSK9 (ie, evolocumab and alirocumab) determines an increase of HDL-C fraction by 7% and 4.2%, respectively. Thus, the understanding of the role of PCSK9 on HDL metabolism needs to be elucidated with a particular focus on the effect of PCSK9 on HDL-mediated reverse cholesterol transport. PMID:26548330

  5. Prevention of arthritis markers in experimental animal and inflammation signalling in macrophage by Karanjin isolated from Pongamia pinnata seed extract.

    PubMed

    Bose, Madhura; Chakraborty, Mousumi; Bhattacharya, Sourav; Mukherjee, Debarati; Mandal, Suvra; Mishra, Roshnara

    2014-08-01

    Karanjin, the furanoflavonoid reported to possess gastroprotective and anti-diabetic properties, was investigated against experimental arthritis and its molecular signalling in inflammation was explored in macrophages. Karanjin was isolated from hexane extract of Pongamia pinnata seeds and was evaluated on arthritis markers in adjuvant induced arthritis model (AIA) in two doses (per oral; 10 mg/kg/day and 20 mg/kg/day). Karanjin dose dependently reduced collagen and cartilage breakdown markers viz. urinary hydroxyproline and glucosamine, respectively, serum lysosomal enzymes responsible for articular cartilage damage, and major proinflammatory cytokine TNFα, secreted by macrophages involved in articular inflammation and destruction. Karanjin also prevented joint damage as evidenced from arthritis score, radiographic and histopathological analysis. To delineate the molecular target of Karanjin, in vitro study on LPS induced macrophages were performed at calibrated non toxic doses (4 µg/mL and 6 µg/mL). Karanjin reduced TNFα production and also showed potent inhibitory effect on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production which is generally induced by TNFα from activated macrophages. NF-κB, the key regulator of TNFα signalling during inflammation was significantly suppressed by Karanjin. Our study for the first time highlights the anti-inflammatory role of Karanjin in experimental arthritis model as well as on macrophage signalling, thereby depicting its probable mechanism of action. PMID:24399783

  6. Human and animal spongiform encephalopathies are the result of chronic autoimmune attack in the CNS: a novel medical theory supported by overwhelming experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Zhu, B T

    2005-04-01

    Spongiform encephalopathies, also called "prion diseases", are fatal degenerative diseases of the central nervous system which can occur in animals (such as the "mad cow disease" in cattle) and also in humans. This paper presents a novel medical theory concerning the pathogenic mechanisms for various human and animal spongiform encephalopathies. It is hypothesized that various forms of prion diseases are essentially autoimmune diseases, resulting from chronic autoimmune attack of the central nervous system. A key step in the pathogenic process leading towards the development of spongiform encephalopathies involves the production of specific autoimmune antibodies against the disease-causing prion protein (PrPsc) and possibly other immunogenic macromolecules present in the brain. As precisely explained in this paper, the autoimmune antibodies produced against PrPsc are responsible for the conversion of the normal cellular prion protein (PrPc) to PrPsc, for the accumulation of PrPsc in the brain and other peripheral tissues, and also for the initiation of an antibody-mediated chronic autoimmune attack of the central nervous system neurons, which would contribute to the development of characteristic pathological changes and clinical symptoms associated with spongiform encephalopathies. The validity and correctness of the proposed theory is supported by an overwhelming body of experimental observations that are scattered in the biomedical literature. In addition, the theory also offers practical new strategies for early diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of various human and animal prion diseases. PMID:15736062

  7. Neuroprotective and nootropic activity of Clitorea ternatea Linn.(Fabaceae) leaves on diabetes induced cognitive decline in experimental animals

    PubMed Central

    Talpate, Karuna A.; Bhosale, Uma A.; Zambare, Mandar R.; Somani, Rahul S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Ethanol extract of Clitorea ternatea (EECT) was evaluated in diabetes-induced cognitive decline rat model for its nootropic and neuroprotective activity. Materials and Methods: Effect on spatial working memory, spatial reference memory and spatial working-reference memory was evaluated by Y maze, Morris water maze and Radial arm maze respectively. Neuroprotective effects of EECT was studied by assaying acetylcholinesterase, lipid peroxide, superoxide dismutase (SOD), total nitric oxide (NO), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) levels in the brain of diabetic rats. Results: The EECT (200 and 400 mg/kg) was found to cause significant increase in spatial working memory (P < 0.05), spatial reference memory (P < 0.001) and spatial working-reference (P < 0.001) in retention trials on Y maze, Morris water maze and Radial arm maze respectively. Whereas significant decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity (P < 0.05), lipid peroxide (P < 0.001), total NO (P < 0.001) and significant increase in SOD, CAT and GSH levels was observed in animals treated with EECT (200 and 400 mg/kg) compared to diabetic control group. Conclusions: The present data indicates that Clitorea ternatea tenders protection against diabetes induced cognitive decline and merits the need for further studies to elucidate its mode of action. PMID:24459404

  8. The Directive 2010/63/EU on animal experimentation may skew the conclusions of pharmacological and behavioural studies.

    PubMed

    Macrì, Simone; Ceci, Chiara; Altabella, Luisa; Canese, Rossella; Laviola, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    All laboratory animals shall be provided some form of environmental enrichment (EE) in the nearest future (Directive 2010/63/EU). Displacing standard housing with EE entails the possibility that data obtained under traditional housing may be reconsidered. Specifically, while EE often contrasts the abnormalities of consolidated disease models, it also indirectly demonstrates that their validity depends on housing conditions. We mimicked a situation in which the consequences of a novel pharmacological compound were addressed before and after the adoption of the Directive. We sub-chronically exposed standard- or EE-reared adolescent CD1 mice (postnatal days 23-33) to the synthetic compound JWH-018, and evaluated its short- and long-term potential cannabinoid properties on: weight gain, locomotion, analgesia, motor coordination, body temperature, brain metabolism ((1)H MRI/MRS), anxiety- and depressive-related behaviours. While several parameters are modulated by JWH-018 independently of housing, other effects are environmentally mediated. The transition from standard housing to EE shall be carefully monitored.

  9. Critical windows of exposure for children's health: cancer in human epidemiological studies and neoplasms in experimental animal models.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, L M; Diwan, B A; Fear, N T; Roman, E

    2000-01-01

    In humans, cancer may be caused by genetics and environmental exposures; however, in the majority of instances the identification of the critical time window of exposure is problematic. The evidence for exposures occurring during the preconceptional period that have an association with childhood or adulthood cancers is equivocal. Agents definitely related to cancer in children, and adulthood if exposure occurs in utero, include: maternal exposure to ionizing radiation during pregnancy and childhood leukemia and certain other cancers, and maternal use of diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy and clear-cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina of their daughters. The list of environmental exposures that occur during the perinatal/postnatal period with potential to increase the risk of cancer is lengthening, but evidence available to date is inconsistent and inconclusive. In animal models, preconceptional carcinogenesis has been demonstrated for a variety of types of radiation and chemicals, with demonstrated sensitivity for all stages from fetal gonocytes to postmeiotic germ cells. Transplacental and neonatal carcinogenesis show marked ontogenetic stage specificity in some cases. Mechanistic factors include the number of cells at risk, the rate of cell division, the development of differentiated characteristics including the ability to activate and detoxify carcinogens, the presence of stem cells, and possibly others. Usefulness for human risk estimation would be strengthened by the study of these factors in more than one species, and by a focus on specific human risk issues. Images Figure 1 PMID:10852857

  10. The Directive 2010/63/EU on animal experimentation may skew the conclusions of pharmacological and behavioural studies

    PubMed Central

    Macrì, Simone; Ceci, Chiara; Altabella, Luisa; Canese, Rossella; Laviola, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    All laboratory animals shall be provided some form of environmental enrichment (EE) in the nearest future (Directive 2010/63/EU). Displacing standard housing with EE entails the possibility that data obtained under traditional housing may be reconsidered. Specifically, while EE often contrasts the abnormalities of consolidated disease models, it also indirectly demonstrates that their validity depends on housing conditions. We mimicked a situation in which the consequences of a novel pharmacological compound were addressed before and after the adoption of the Directive. We sub-chronically exposed standard- or EE-reared adolescent CD1 mice (postnatal days 23-33) to the synthetic compound JWH-018, and evaluated its short- and long-term potential cannabinoid properties on: weight gain, locomotion, analgesia, motor coordination, body temperature, brain metabolism (1H MRI/MRS), anxiety- and depressive-related behaviours. While several parameters are modulated by JWH-018 independently of housing, other effects are environmentally mediated. The transition from standard housing to EE shall be carefully monitored. PMID:23924859

  11. Monte Carlo simulations versus experimental measurements in a small animal PET system. A comparison in the NEMA NU 4-2008 framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popota, F. D.; Aguiar, P.; España, S.; Lois, C.; Udias, J. M.; Ros, D.; Pavia, J.; Gispert, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    In this work a comparison between experimental and simulated data using GATE and PeneloPET Monte Carlo simulation packages is presented. All simulated setups, as well as the experimental measurements, followed exactly the guidelines of the NEMA NU 4-2008 standards using the microPET R4 scanner. The comparison was focused on spatial resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction and counting rates performance. Both GATE and PeneloPET showed reasonable agreement for the spatial resolution when compared to experimental measurements, although they lead to slight underestimations for the points close to the edge. High accuracy was obtained between experiments and simulations of the system’s sensitivity and scatter fraction for an energy window of 350-650 keV, as well as for the counting rate simulations. The latter was the most complicated test to perform since each code demands different specifications for the characterization of the system’s dead time. Although simulated and experimental results were in excellent agreement for both simulation codes, PeneloPET demanded more information about the behavior of the real data acquisition system. To our knowledge, this constitutes the first validation of these Monte Carlo codes for the full NEMA NU 4-2008 standards for small animal PET imaging systems.

  12. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-36, 108-F Biological Laboratory, and for the 116-F-15, 108-F Radiation Crib, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-002

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-05-24

    The 100-F-36 waste site is the location of the former 108-F Biological Laboratory. The building was closed in 1973, decontaminated, decommissioned, and eventually demolished in 1999. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to No Action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  13. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-26:10, 1607-F3 Sanitary Sewer Pipelines (182-F, 183-F, and 151-F Sanitary Sewer Lines), Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-028

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-12-03

    The 100-F-26:10 waste site includes sanitary sewer lines that serviced the former 182-F, 183-F, and 151-F Buildings. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  14. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1) and the 100-F-26:8 (1607-F1) Sanitary Sewer Pipelines Waste Sites, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-004

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-14

    The 100-F-26:8 waste site consisted of the underground pipelines that conveyed sanitary waste water from the 1701-F Gatehouse, 1709-F Fire Station, and the 1720-F Administrative Office to the 1607-F1 septic tank. The site has been remediated and presently exists as an open excavation. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  15. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-26:15 Miscellaneous Pipelines Associated with the 132-F-6, 1608-F Waste Water Pumping Station, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-031

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-18

    The 100-F-26:15 waste site consisted of the remnant portions of underground process effluent and floor drain pipelines that originated at the 105-F Reactor. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  16. Acute, sub-chronic oral toxicity studies and evaluation of antiulcer activity of Sooktyn in experimental animals

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Phool; Sachan, Neetu; Kishore, Kamal; Ghosh, Ashoke Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Sooktyn (SKN), mineralo-herbal drug which is being used largely by the patients for its extremely good therapeutic value to treat the gastric ulcers. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity studies and antiulcer activity of SKN. Acute and sub-chronic toxicities were studied in male and female Wistar rats. A single acute SKN of 2 000 mg/kg was administered by oral gavage for acute toxicity. Sub-chronic doses were 400 and 800 mg/kg/day. The major toxicological end points examined included animal body weight and food intake, selected tissue weights, and detailed gross necropsy. In addition, we examined blood elements: hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count and MCH, MCHC and platelets as well as biochemical parameters: urea, sugar, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total proteins, and creatinine. Also, anti-ulcer activity was carried out by employing indomethacin, ethanol, pylorus ligation, and hypothermic-stress-induced ulcer models. LD50 may be greater than 2 000 mg/kg (orally) for SKN and there were no signs of toxicity on 28 days sub-chronic oral administration of 400 and 800 mg/kg of SKN in rats on the basis of blood elements and biochemical parameters. The ulcer indices decrease in all ulcer models with 66.62%, 61.24%, 80.18%, and 74.76% in indomethacin, ethanol, pylorus ligation, and hypothermic-stress-induced ulcer models, respectively. The results suggest that SKN has no signs of toxicity at 2 000 mg/kg body weight of rats orally; sub-chronically. The drug is safe and has antiulcer activity. PMID:22837960

  17. Evaluation of wound healing properties of bioactive aqueous fraction from Moringa oleifera Lam on experimentally induced diabetic animal model.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Abubakar Amali; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Cheah, Pike See; Abas, Farida; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer is a serious complication of diabetes, which affects a significant percentage (15%) of diabetics and up to 15%-24% of those affected may require amputation. Therefore, the economic burden of diabetic foot ulcers is enormous and is associated with high cost of treatment and prolongs hospitalization. The present study was conducted to evaluate antibacterial and in vivo wound healing activities of an aqueous fraction of Moringa oleifera on a diabetic condition. Antibacterial activity testing was carried out using agar well and tube dilution techniques. The in vivo study was conducted using six groups of animals that comprise of one normal and diabetic control group each, three treatment groups of 0.5%, 1%, and 2% w/w aqueous fraction, and a positive control group (1% w/w silver sulfadiazine). Rats were induced with diabetes using a combination of streptozotocin 65 and 150 mg/kg nicotinamide daily for 2 days, and excision wounds were created and treated with various doses (0.5%, 1%, and 2% w/w aqueous fraction) daily for 21 days. Biophysical, histological, and biochemical parameters were investigated. The results of the study revealed that aqueous fraction possessed antibacterial activity through inhibition of growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli organisms. The topical application of aqueous fraction revealed enhancement of wound healing under sustained hyperglycemic condition for the duration of the experiment. This enhancement was achieved through decreased wound size, improved wound contraction, and tissue regeneration, as well as downregulation of inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2, and upregulation of an angiogenic marker vascular endothelial growth factor in wound tissue treated with various doses of aqueous fraction of M. oleifera. The findings suggest that aqueous fraction of M. oleifera

  18. Evaluation of wound healing properties of bioactive aqueous fraction from Moringa oleifera Lam on experimentally induced diabetic animal model.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Abubakar Amali; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Cheah, Pike See; Abas, Farida; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer is a serious complication of diabetes, which affects a significant percentage (15%) of diabetics and up to 15%-24% of those affected may require amputation. Therefore, the economic burden of diabetic foot ulcers is enormous and is associated with high cost of treatment and prolongs hospitalization. The present study was conducted to evaluate antibacterial and in vivo wound healing activities of an aqueous fraction of Moringa oleifera on a diabetic condition. Antibacterial activity testing was carried out using agar well and tube dilution techniques. The in vivo study was conducted using six groups of animals that comprise of one normal and diabetic control group each, three treatment groups of 0.5%, 1%, and 2% w/w aqueous fraction, and a positive control group (1% w/w silver sulfadiazine). Rats were induced with diabetes using a combination of streptozotocin 65 and 150 mg/kg nicotinamide daily for 2 days, and excision wounds were created and treated with various doses (0.5%, 1%, and 2% w/w aqueous fraction) daily for 21 days. Biophysical, histological, and biochemical parameters were investigated. The results of the study revealed that aqueous fraction possessed antibacterial activity through inhibition of growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli organisms. The topical application of aqueous fraction revealed enhancement of wound healing under sustained hyperglycemic condition for the duration of the experiment. This enhancement was achieved through decreased wound size, improved wound contraction, and tissue regeneration, as well as downregulation of inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2, and upregulation of an angiogenic marker vascular endothelial growth factor in wound tissue treated with various doses of aqueous fraction of M. oleifera. The findings suggest that aqueous fraction of M. oleifera

  19. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Solanum Melongena Linn. in Experimental Animals

    PubMed Central

    Maniyar, Yasmeen A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Aqueous extract of leaves of Solanum melongena Linn was investigated for its anti-inflammatory activity. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity study according to OECD425 guidelines was done to find out the LD50 of test drug. Carrageenan induced paw oedema method in Wistar Albino rats were used in this study. Aspirin in the dose of 300mg/kg was used as the standard drug and three doses of aqueous extract of leaves of Solanum melongena L. (100mg/kg, 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg b.w.) was used as the test drug. The results were measured at 1st h, 3rd h, and 5th h after the carrageenan injection. Results: In acute oral toxicity study none of the animals died at the dose of 2000mg/kg. Aqueous extract of Solanum melongena Linn leaf in the dose of 200mg/kg showed significant anti-inflammatory activity (p <0.05) at 3rd hr and highly significant anti-inflammatory activity (p<0.001) at 5th hr; in the dose of 400 mg/kg, test drug showed p<0.01 at 3rd and p<0.001 at 5th hr and in the dose of 100mg/kg it showed significant (p<0.05) anti-inflammatory activity at 5th hr. In doses of 200mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of aqueous extract of S. melongena L showed the percentage of inhibition of 42.62% which is less than the standard drug aspirin which showed 64.5% inhibition. Conclusion: Aqueous extract of leaves of Solanum melongena Linn has anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:25738003

  20. Evaluation of wound healing properties of bioactive aqueous fraction from Moringa oleifera Lam on experimentally induced diabetic animal model

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Abubakar Amali; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Cheah, Pike See; Abas, Farida; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer is a serious complication of diabetes, which affects a significant percentage (15%) of diabetics and up to 15%–24% of those affected may require amputation. Therefore, the economic burden of diabetic foot ulcers is enormous and is associated with high cost of treatment and prolongs hospitalization. The present study was conducted to evaluate antibacterial and in vivo wound healing activities of an aqueous fraction of Moringa oleifera on a diabetic condition. Antibacterial activity testing was carried out using agar well and tube dilution techniques. The in vivo study was conducted using six groups of animals that comprise of one normal and diabetic control group each, three treatment groups of 0.5%, 1%, and 2% w/w aqueous fraction, and a positive control group (1% w/w silver sulfadiazine). Rats were induced with diabetes using a combination of streptozotocin 65 and 150 mg/kg nicotinamide daily for 2 days, and excision wounds were created and treated with various doses (0.5%, 1%, and 2% w/w aqueous fraction) daily for 21 days. Biophysical, histological, and biochemical parameters were investigated. The results of the study revealed that aqueous fraction possessed antibacterial activity through inhibition of growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli organisms. The topical application of aqueous fraction revealed enhancement of wound healing under sustained hyperglycemic condition for the duration of the experiment. This enhancement was achieved through decreased wound size, improved wound contraction, and tissue regeneration, as well as downregulation of inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2, and upregulation of an angiogenic marker vascular endothelial growth factor in wound tissue treated with various doses of aqueous fraction of M. oleifera. The findings suggest that aqueous fraction of M. oleifera

  1. Nutritional Impact of Dietary Plasma Proteins in Animals Undergoing Experimental Challenge and Implications for Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disorders: A Meta-analysis12

    PubMed Central

    Kuchibhatla, Ramana; Petschow, Bryon W; Odle, Jack; Weaver, Eric M

    2015-01-01

    Studies administering plasma protein isolates (PPIs) to experimentally challenged animals have reported improvements in growth, food intake, and overall condition when compared with animals fed control diets, due in part to improvements in gut barrier function, normalization of cytokine signals, and support of enteric immune function. These and early clinical studies suggest that nutritional therapy with PPIs may similarly assist in restoring homeostasis to gut barrier function in humans experiencing mild or more acute enteropathic symptomatology such as irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. This meta-analysis evaluated the ability of PPIs to promote weight gain and food intake in weanling animals, primarily piglets, after oral challenge with various enteric pathogens or bacterial toxins. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed were searched from 1980 through August 2012 for specified terms and keywords. Twenty-nine articles retrieved through this process were evaluated; 11 studies including 13 experiments were selected for inclusion in the analysis. The meta-analysis included descriptive analyses and methods for combining P values for the primary endpoint, average daily growth (ADG) at week 1, and secondary endpoints including ADG, average daily feed intake (ADFI), and gain to feed ratio (G:F) at weeks 1 and 2 and at the end of study. Primary and secondary endpoint analyses of growth (ADG, ADFI, and G:F) were significant (P < 0.01). The proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL) 1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor α were significantly lower in animals fed dietary PPIs. Additional research in patients experiencing symptoms of enteropathy will further characterize the benefits of PPIs in clinical populations. PMID:26374176

  2. Investigation of the impact of the common animal facility contaminant murine norovirus on experimental murine cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Doom, Carmen M; Turula, Holly M; Hill, Ann B

    2009-09-30

    Murine norovirus (MNV) is a recently discovered pathogen that has become a common contaminant of specific pathogen-free mouse colonies. MNV-1 induces a robust interferon-beta response and causes histopathology in some mouse strains, suggesting that it may impact other mouse models of infection. Despite many concerns about MNV-1 contamination, there is little information about its impact on immune responses to other infections. This study addresses whether MNV-1 infection has an effect on a model of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection. Exposure to MNV-1 resulted in a decreased CD8 T cell response to immunodominant MCMV epitopes in both BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. However, MNV-1 did not impact MCMV titers in either mouse strain, nor did it stimulate reactivation of latent MCMV. These data suggest that while MNV-1 has a mild impact on the immune response to MCMV, it is not likely to affect most experimental outcomes in immunocompetent mice in the MCMV model.

  3. Changes in Renal Function and Oxidative Status Associated with the Hypotensive Effects of Oleanolic Acid and Related Synthetic Derivatives in Experimental Animals

    PubMed Central

    Madlala, Hlengiwe Pretty; Van Heerden, Fanie Retief; Mubagwa, Kanigula; Musabayane, Cephas Tagumirwa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The triterpene oleanolic acid (OA) is known to possess antihypertensive actions. In the present study we to compared the effects of the triterpene on mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and kidney function following acute administration in normotensive animals with those of its related oleanane synthetic derivatives (brominated oleanolic acid, Br-OA and oleanolic acid methyl ester, Me-OA). We also used experimental models of hypertension to further explore the effects of sub-chronic oral OA treatment and evaluated influences on oxidative status. Methods OA was extracted from dried flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum using a previously validated protocol in our laboratory. Me-OA and Br-OA were synthesized according to a method described. Rats were supplemented with lithium chloride (12 mmol L-1) prior to experimentation in order to raise plasma lithium to allow measurements of lithium clearance and fractional excretion (FELi) as indices of proximal tubular Na+ handling. Anaesthetized animals were continuously infused via the right jugular with 0.077M NaCl. MAP was measured via a cannula inserted in the carotid artery, and urine was collected through a cannula inserted in the bladder. After a 3.5 h equilibration, MAP, urine flow, electrolyte excretion rates were determined for 4 h of 1 h control, 1.5 h treatment and 1.5 h recovery periods. OA, Me-OA and Br-OA were added to the infusate during the treatment period. We evaluated sub-chronic effects on MAP and kidney function in normotensive Wistar rats and in two animal models of hypertension, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS) rats, during 9-week administration of OA (p.o.). Tissue oxidative status was examined in these animals at the end of the study. Increasing evidence suggests that and renal function disturbances and oxidative stress play major roles in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Results Acute infusion OA and oleanane derivatives displayed qualitatively similar effects

  4. Effect of polychromatic visible light on proliferation of tumor cells under conditions in vitro and in vivo—after implantation to experimental animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyazev, N. A.; Samoilova, K. A.; Filatova, N. A.; Galaktionova, A. A.

    2009-06-01

    -irradiated animals. Moreover, there was recorded a decrease of incidence of the tumor development—by 16-24%, downregulation of the tumor growth rate—on average, by 40% and an increase of survival of the animals (by 20%). Thus, for the first time, an antitumor effect of polychromatic visible light has been shown at its application on the body surface of experimental animals.

  5. Animal mortality resulting from uniform exposures to photon radiations: Calculated LD/sub 50/s and a compilation of experimental data

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.D.; Morris, M.D.; Wells, S.M.; Young, R.W.

    1986-12-01

    Studies conducted during the 1950s and 1960s of radiation-induced mortality to diverse animal species under various exposure protocols were compiled into a mortality data base. Some 24 variables were extracted and recomputed from each of the published studies, which were collected from a variety of available sources, primarily journal articles. Two features of this compilation effort are (1) an attempt to give an estimate of the uniform dose received by the bone marrow in each treatment so that interspecies differences due to body size were minimized and (2) a recomputation of the LD/sub 50/ where sufficient experimental data are available. Exposure rates varied in magnitude from about 10/sup -2/ to 10/sup 3/ R/min. This report describes the data base, the sources of data, and the data-handling techniques; presents a bibliography of studies compiled; and tabulates data from each study. 103 refs., 44 tabs.

  6. The Synergistic Local Immunosuppressive Effects of Neural Stem Cells Expressing Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase (IDO) in an Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Eun; An, Jaeyeol; Lee, Kee-Hang; Kim, Sung Su; Song, Hye Jin; Pyeon, Heejang; Nam, Hyun; Kang, Kyeongjin; Joo, Kyeung Min

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases provoke robust immunological reactions in the central nervous system (CNS), which further deteriorate the neural tissue damage. We hypothesized that the expression levels of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme that has potent immune suppressive activities, in neural stem cells (NSCs) would have synergistic therapeutic effects against neurodegenerative diseases, since NSCs themselves have low IDO expression. In this study, the synergistic immune suppressive effects of rat fetal NSCs expressing IDO (rfNSCs-IDO) were validated by mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR) in vitro and an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) animal model in vivo. rfNSCs-IDO showed significantly more suppressive effects on T cell proliferation in the MLR compared to control rfNSCs (rfNSCs-Cont). Importantly, IDO inhibition using 1-methyl-DL-tryptophan (1-MT), an IDO inhibitor, reversed the synergistic effects, confirming IDO-specific effects in rfNSCs-IDO. In the EAE animal model, systemic rfNSCs-IDO injections resulted in significant local immune suppression in the cervical lymph nodes and CNS, evidenced by a reduction in the number of activated T lymphocytes and an increase in regulatory T cell numbers, which induced significantly fewer clinical symptoms and faster recovery. In contrast, rfNSCs-Cont failed to reduce symptoms in the EAE animal models, although they showed local immune suppression, which was significantly less than that in rfNSCs-IDO. Taken together, IDO expression in NSCs synergistically potentiates the immune suppression activities of NSCs and could be applicable for the development of therapeutic modalities against various neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. The Synergistic Local Immunosuppressive Effects of Neural Stem Cells Expressing Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase (IDO) in an Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Eun; An, Jaeyeol; Lee, Kee-Hang; Kim, Sung Su; Song, Hye Jin; Pyeon, Heejang; Nam, Hyun; Kang, Kyeongjin; Joo, Kyeung Min

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases provoke robust immunological reactions in the central nervous system (CNS), which further deteriorate the neural tissue damage. We hypothesized that the expression levels of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme that has potent immune suppressive activities, in neural stem cells (NSCs) would have synergistic therapeutic effects against neurodegenerative diseases, since NSCs themselves have low IDO expression. In this study, the synergistic immune suppressive effects of rat fetal NSCs expressing IDO (rfNSCs-IDO) were validated by mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR) in vitro and an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) animal model in vivo. rfNSCs-IDO showed significantly more suppressive effects on T cell proliferation in the MLR compared to control rfNSCs (rfNSCs-Cont). Importantly, IDO inhibition using 1-methyl-DL-tryptophan (1-MT), an IDO inhibitor, reversed the synergistic effects, confirming IDO-specific effects in rfNSCs-IDO. In the EAE animal model, systemic rfNSCs-IDO injections resulted in significant local immune suppression in the cervical lymph nodes and CNS, evidenced by a reduction in the number of activated T lymphocytes and an increase in regulatory T cell numbers, which induced significantly fewer clinical symptoms and faster recovery. In contrast, rfNSCs-Cont failed to reduce symptoms in the EAE animal models, although they showed local immune suppression, which was significantly less than that in rfNSCs-IDO. Taken together, IDO expression in NSCs synergistically potentiates the immune suppression activities of NSCs and could be applicable for the development of therapeutic modalities against various neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26636969

  8. Anti-Oxidative Effect of Myrtenal in Prevention and Treatment of Colon Cancer Induced by 1, 2-Dimethyl Hydrazine (DMH) in Experimental Animals

    PubMed Central

    Lokeshkumar, Booupathy; Sathishkumar, Venkatachalam; Nandakumar, Natarajan; Rengarajan, Thamaraiselvan; Madankumar, Arumugam; Balasubramanian, Maruthaiveeran Periyasamy

    2015-01-01

    Colon cancer is considered as the precarious forms of cancer in many developed countries, with few to no symptoms; the tumor is often diagnosed in the later stages of cancer. Monoterpenes are a major part of plant essential oils found largely in fruits, vegetables and herbs. The cellular and molecular activities show therapeutic progression that may reduce the risk of developing cancer by modulating the factors responsible for colon carcinogenesis. Colon cancer was induced with DMH with a dose of (20 mg/Kg/body weight) for 15 weeks by subcutaneous injection once in a week. Myrtenal treatment was started with (230 mg/Kg/body weight) by intragastric administration, one week prior to DMH induction and continued till the experimental period of 30 weeks. The Invivo results exhibit the elevated antioxidant and lipid peroxidation levels in DMH treated animals. The Histopathological analysis of colon tissues well supported the biochemical alterations and inevitably proves the protective role of Myrtenal. Treatment with myrtenal to cancer bearing animals resulted in a remarkable increase in the inherent antioxidants and excellent modulation in the morphological and physiological nature of the colon tissue. It is thus concluded that myrtenal exhibits excellent free radical scavenging activity and anticancer activity through the suppression of colon carcinoma in Wistar albino rats. PMID:26336588

  9. Cell-Based Approaches in Periodontal Regeneration: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Periodontal Defect Models in Animal Experimental Work.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiang-Zhen; Yang, Fang; Jansen, John A; de Vries, Rob B M; van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P

    2015-10-01

    Various cell types have been assessed for experimental periodontal tissue regeneration in a variety of animal models. Nonetheless, the efficacy of cell-based approaches for periodontal regeneration is still controversial. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to systematically review cell-based approaches for periodontal regeneration in animal studies including a meta-analysis to obtain more clarity on their efficacy. The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis revealed that cell-based approaches have a favorable effect on periodontal tissue regeneration, as displayed by the positive effect of cell-based approaches on new bone, cementum, and periodontal ligament (PDL) formation in periodontal defects. Moreover, subgroup analysis showed a favorable effect on PDL formation by PDL-derived cells, but not by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). However, meta-analysis did not show any statistically significant differences in effect between PDL-derived cells and BMSCs. These results provide important information for the implementation of cell-based approaches in clinical practice as a routine treatment for periodontal regeneration in the future.

  10. [Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-pyretic activities of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, etofenamate, in experimental animals].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, H; Motoyoshi, S; Imazu, C; Ishii, K; Yokoyama, Y; Seto, Y; Kadokawa, T; Shimizu, M

    1982-08-01

    Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-pyretic activities of orally administered etofenamate, the diethylene glycol ester of flufenamic acid, were investigated in experimental animals. Against acetic acid-induced vascular permeability in mice and ultra-violet light-induced erythema in guinea pigs, etofenamate produced a dose related inhibition at doses of 40--320 mg/kg and 5--20 mg/kg, respectively. In rats, felt-pellet-induced granuloma formation and adjuvant-induced arthritis were significantly inhibited by repeated administration of etofenamate at doses of 20 mg/kg/day for 5 days and 40 mg/kg/day for 21 days, respectively. Etofenamate showed an inhibitory activity on the squeak response caused by flexing and extending the silver nitrate-induced arthritic joint in rats; and it produced a dose related anti-writhing activity at doses of 50--300 mg/kg and 10--80 mg/kg in mice and rats, respectively, in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. Etofenamate showed a significant anti-pyretic activity at doses of 0.2 mg/kg or more. These potencies of etofenamate were 0.5 to 1.6 times those of flufenamic acid. In particular, the anti-erythema, anti-arthritis, and anti-pyretic activities of etofenamate were approximately equivalent to or superior to those of flufenamic acid. From these results, it was suggested that etofenamate given orally, like other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, showed anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-pyretic activities in experimental animals. PMID:6983482

  11. Animal Watching: Outdoors and In.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLure, John W.

    2001-01-01

    Describes using domesticated, wild, or feral animals to teach students about nature and animal behavior. Connections can be made with psychology, economics, genetics, history, art, and other disciplines. The study of animal behavior provides opportunities for harmless student experimentation. (SAH)

  12. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1) and the 100-F-26:8 (1607-F1) Sanitary Sewer Pipelines Waste Sites, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-130

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-14

    The 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1), consisted of a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipelines that received sanitary waste water from the 1701-F Gatehouse, 1709-F Fire Station, and the 1720-F Administrative Office via the 100-F-26:8 pipelines. The septic tank required remedial action based on confirmatory sampling. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  13. Abnormal expression and spatiotemporal change of Slit2 in neurons and astrocytes in temporal lobe epileptic foci: A study of epileptic patients and experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Fang, Min; Liu, Guang-Wei; Pan, Yu-Min; Shen, Lan; Li, Cheng-Shan; Xi, Zhi-Qin; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Liang; Chen, Dan; Wang, Xue-Feng

    2010-04-01

    Repellent guidance molecules provide targeting information to outgrowing axons along predetermined pathways during development. These molecules may also play a role in synaptic reorganization in the adult brain and thereby promote epileptogenesis. Our aim was to investigate the expression of Slit2, one of repellent guidance molecules, in temporal lobe epileptic foci from epileptic patients and experimental animals. Thirty-five temporal neocortex tissue samples from patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and fifteen histological normal temporal lobes from controls were selected. Fifty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into six groups, including five groups with epilepsy induced by lithium-pilocarpine administration and one control group. Temporal lobe tissue samples were taken from rats at 1, 7, 14, 30, and 60 days post-seizure and from controls. Expression of Slit2 was assessed by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Western blot analysis. Slit2 was mainly expressed in neurons in human controls and in both neurons and astrocytes in TLE patients. Slit2 expression was significantly higher in TLE patients as compared with the controls. Slit2-positive cells were mainly neurons in the rat temporal lobe tissues of the control group, the acute period group, and the latent period group, while the Slit2-positive cells were mainly astrocytes in chronic phase. Compared with controls, Slit2 expression in animals in the TLE group gradually decreased from days 1 to 14 post-seizure, but then increased over the levels seen in controls, to peak levels at days 30 and 60. These results suggest that Slit2 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of TLE.

  14. Animal Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  15. Targeting Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Lesions to a Predetermined Axonal Tract System Allows for Refined Behavioral Testing in an Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kerschensteiner, Martin; Stadelmann, Christine; Buddeberg, Bigna S.; Merkler, Doron; Bareyre, Florence M.; Anthony, Daniel C.; Linington, Christopher; Brück, Wolfgang; Schwab, Martin E.

    2004-01-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS) the structural damage to axons determines the persistent clinical deficit patients acquire during the course of the disease. It is therefore important to test therapeutic strategies that can prevent or reverse this structural damage. The conventional animal model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), typically shows disseminated inflammation in the central nervous system, which leads to a clinical deficit that cannot be directly attributed to a defined tract system. For this reason we have developed a localized EAE model, in which large inflammatory lesions are targeted to the dorsal columns of the spinal cord, an area including the corticospinal tract. These lesions show the pathological hallmarks of MS plaques and lead to reproducible and pronounced deficits in hindlimb locomotion. Because of the anatomical specificity of this technique we can now use highly sensitive behavioral tests that assess the functional integrity of specific axonal tracts. We show that these tests are predictive of the site and extent of a given lesion and are more sensitive for assessing the clinical course than the scales commonly used for disseminated EAE models. We believe that this targeted EAE model will become a helpful new tool for the evaluation of therapeutic approaches for MS that attempt to protect axons or support their repair. PMID:15039233

  16. Phenol-Explorer 2.0: a major update of the Phenol-Explorer database integrating data on polyphenol metabolism and pharmacokinetics in humans and experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, Joseph A; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Boto-Ordoñez, Maria; Knox, Craig; Llorach, Rafael; Eisner, Roman; Cruz, Joseph; Neveu, Vanessa; Wishart, David; Manach, Claudine; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina; Scalbert, Augustin

    2012-01-01

    Phenol-Explorer, launched in 2009, is the only comprehensive web-based database on the content in foods of polyphenols, a major class of food bioactives that receive considerable attention due to their role in the prevention of diseases. Polyphenols are rarely absorbed and excreted in their ingested forms, but extensively metabolized in the body, and until now, no database has allowed the recall of identities and concentrations of polyphenol metabolites in biofluids after the consumption of polyphenol-rich sources. Knowledge of these metabolites is essential in the planning of experiments whose aim is to elucidate the effects of polyphenols on health. Release 2.0 is the first major update of the database, allowing the rapid retrieval of data on the biotransformations and pharmacokinetics of dietary polyphenols. Data on 375 polyphenol metabolites identified in urine and plasma were collected from 236 peer-reviewed publications on polyphenol metabolism in humans and experimental animals and added to the database by means of an extended relational design. Pharmacokinetic parameters have been collected and can be retrieved in both tabular and graphical form. The web interface has been enhanced and now allows the filtering of information according to various criteria. Phenol-Explorer 2.0, which will be periodically updated, should prove to be an even more useful and capable resource for polyphenol scientists because bioactivities and health effects of polyphenols are dependent on the nature and concentrations of metabolites reaching the target tissues. The Phenol-Explorer database is publicly available and can be found online at http://www.phenol-explorer.eu. Database URL: http://www.phenol-explorer.eu.

  17. Tyrosinemia produced by 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-cyclohexane-1,3-dione (NTBC) in experimental animals and its relationship to corneal injury

    SciTech Connect

    Lock, Edward A. . E-mail: e.lock@ljmu.ac.uk; Gaskin, Peter; Ellis, Martin; Provan, William M.; Smith, Lewis L.

    2006-08-15

    2-(2-Nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-cyclohexane-1,3-dione (NTBC) is a potent inhibitor of rat liver 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) leading to tyrosinemia and corneal opacity. We examined the effect of NTBC on the extent of tyrosinemia and production of corneal lesions in the beagle dog, rabbit and rhesus monkey, as part of safety evaluation on this drug. A single oral dose of 10 mg NTBC/kg to beagle dogs or rabbits increased the concentration of tyrosine in plasma and aqueous humour of the eye, the tyrosinemia being both time- and dose-dependent. Hepatic HPPD was markedly inhibited with little effect on the activity of tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and homogentisic acid oxidase at the time of peak plasma tyrosine. Daily oral administration of NTBC to beagle dogs at 0.1, 0.5, 1.5 and 5 mg/kg/day produced corneal opacities with an incidence of 34% following 11 weeks of dosing, which reversed upon withdrawal of the drug. Tyrosine in plasma and aqueous humour was increased at all dose levels, 18 weeks after dosing. In contrast, daily oral administration of NTBC to rabbits for 6 weeks and rhesus monkeys for 12 weeks at 10 mg/kg/day produced no evidence of corneal opacities although tyrosine values were markedly increased. Our studies have shown that NTBC is a potent inhibitor of rabbit, beagle dog and by inference rhesus monkey liver HPPD producing a marked tyrosinemia in all species studied, while only beagle dogs show corneal lesions. The production of corneal lesions in experimental animals exposed to NTBC does not appear to be simply related to the concentration of tyrosine in ocular fluid, other as yet unidentified factors appear to be necessary to trigger tissue injury.

  18. Comparison at the sub-100 fW optical power level of calibrating a single-photon detector using a high-sensitive, low-noise silicon photodiode and the double attenuator technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porrovecchio, G.; Šmid, M.; López, M.; Hofer, H.; Rodiek, B.; Kück, S.

    2016-08-01

    A comparison down to sub-100-fW optical power level was carried out between a low-noise Silicon photodiode and a low optical flux measurement facility based on a double attenuator technique. The comparison was carried out via a silicon single-photon avalanche diode (Si-SPAD), which acted as transfer standard. The measurements were performed at a wavelength of 770 nm using an attenuated laser as a radiation source at optical power levels between approximately 86 fW and approximately 1325 fW, corresponding to approximately 330 000 photons s-1 and approximately 5.2  ×  106 photons s-1, respectively. The mean relative deviation of the detection efficiencies of the Si-SPAD, determined by the Si-photodiode and the low optical flux measurement facility, i.e. between two completely independent traceability routes, was  <  0.2%, thus well within the combined standard uncertainty of the two measurements. To our knowledge, this is the first comparison for the detection efficiency of a single photon detector using a direct optical flux measurement by a conventional Si-photodiode at such low power levels.

  19. Comparison at the sub-100 fW optical power level of calibrating a single-photon detector using a high-sensitive, low-noise silicon photodiode and the double attenuator technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porrovecchio, G.; Šmid, M.; López, M.; Hofer, H.; Rodiek, B.; Kück, S.

    2016-08-01

    A comparison down to sub-100-fW optical power level was carried out between a low-noise Silicon photodiode and a low optical flux measurement facility based on a double attenuator technique. The comparison was carried out via a silicon single-photon avalanche diode (Si-SPAD), which acted as transfer standard. The measurements were performed at a wavelength of 770 nm using an attenuated laser as a radiation source at optical power levels between approximately 86 fW and approximately 1325 fW, corresponding to approximately 330 000 photons s‑1 and approximately 5.2  ×  106 photons s‑1, respectively. The mean relative deviation of the detection efficiencies of the Si-SPAD, determined by the Si-photodiode and the low optical flux measurement facility, i.e. between two completely independent traceability routes, was  <  0.2%, thus well within the combined standard uncertainty of the two measurements. To our knowledge, this is the first comparison for the detection efficiency of a single photon detector using a direct optical flux measurement by a conventional Si-photodiode at such low power levels.

  20. Amazing Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Kuwari, Najat Saad

    2007-01-01

    "Animals" is a three-part lesson plan for young learners with a zoo animal theme. The first lesson is full of activities to describe animals, with Simon Says, guessing games, and learning stations. The second lesson is about desert animals, but other types of animals could be chosen depending on student interest. This lesson teaches…

  1. [Determination of deuterium concentration in foods and influence of water with modified isotopic composition on oxidation parameters and heavy hydrogen isotopes content in experimental animals].

    PubMed

    Basov, A A; Bykov, I M; Baryshev, M G; Dzhimak, S S; Bykov, M I

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the results of the study of the deuterium (D) content in food products as well as the influence of deuterium depleted water (DDW) on the concentration of heavy hydrogen isotopes in the blood and lyophilized tissues of rats. The most significant difference in the content of D was found between potato and pork fat, which indexes the standard delta notation (δ) D in promille, related to the international standard SMOW (Standard Mean Ocean of Water) amounted to -83,2 per thousand and -250,7 per thousand, respectively (p<0,05). Among the investigated samples of water deuterium concentration ranged from -75,5 per thousand (Narzan) to +72,1 per thousand (Kubai), that indicates the ability of some food products to increase the concentration of heavy hydrogen atoms in the body. The data obtained in the experimental modeling of the diet of male Wistar rats in the age of 5-6 mo (weight 235 ± 16 g) using DDW (δD = -743,2 per thousand) instead of drinking water (δD = -37,0 per thousand) with identical mineral composition showed that after 2 weeks significant (p <0,05) formation of isotopic (deuterium-protium, D/H) gradient in the body is possible. Changing the direction of isotopic D/H gradient in laboratory animals in comparison with its physiological indicators (72-127 per thousand, "plasma>tissue") is due to different rates ofisotopic exchange reactions in plasma and tissues (liver, kidney, heart), which can be explained by entering into the composition of a modified diet of organic substrates with more than DDW concentration D, which are involved in the construction of cellular structures and eventually lead to a redistribution of D and change direction of D/H gradient "plasma

  2. Recirculating cardiac delivery of AAV2/1SERCA2a improves myocardial function in an experimental model of heart failure in large animals.

    PubMed

    Byrne, M J; Power, J M; Preovolos, A; Mariani, J A; Hajjar, R J; Kaye, D M

    2008-12-01

    Abnormal excitation-contraction coupling is a key pathophysiologic component of heart failure (HF), and at a molecular level reduced expression of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA2a) is a major contributor. Previous studies in small animals have suggested that restoration of SERCA function is beneficial in HF. Despite this promise, the means by which this information might be translated into potential clinical application remains uncertain. Using a recently established cardiac-directed recirculating method of gene delivery, we administered adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2)/1SERCA2a to sheep with pacing-induced HF. We explored the effects of differing doses of AAV2/1SERCA2a (low 1 x 10(10) d.r.p.; medium 1 x 10(12) d.r.p. and high 1 x 10(13) d.r.p.) in conjunction with an intra-coronary delivery group (2.5 x 10(13) d.r.p.). At the end of the study, haemodynamic, echocardiographic, histopathologic and molecular biologic assessments were performed. Cardiac recirculation delivery of AAV2/1SERCA2a elicited a dose-dependent improvement in cardiac performance determined by left ventricular pressure analysis, (+d P/d t(max); low dose -220+/-70, P>0.05; medium dose 125+/-53, P<0.05; high dose 287+/-104, P<0.05) and echocardiographically (fractional shortening: low dose -3+/-2, P>0.05; medium dose 1+/-2, P>0.05; high dose 6.5+/-3.9, P<0.05). In addition to favourable haemodynamic effects, brain natriuretic peptide expression was reduced consistent with reversal of the HF molecular phenotype. In contrast, direct intra-coronary infusion did not elicit any effect on ventricular function. As such, AAV2/1SERCA2a elicits favourable functional and molecular actions when delivered in a mechanically targeted manner in an experimental model of HF. These observations lay a platform for potential clinical translation.

  3. Experimental animal models of myocardial damage in regenerative medicine studies involving adult bone marrow derived stem cells: ethical and methodological implications.

    PubMed

    Ciulla, Michele M; Acquistapace, Giulia; Toffetti, Laura; Magrini, Fabio; Paliotti, Roberta

    2009-06-01

    Cardiac performance after myocardial infarction is compromised by ventricular remodeling, which represents a major cause of late infarct-related chronic heart failure and death. In recent years, the scientists' interest has focused on the hypothesis that the administration of bone marrow progenitors, following myocardial infarction, could ameliorate left ventricular remodeling by continuing to differentiate along the haematopoietic lineage. This approach has been developed minding to the consolidated use of transfusions to restore lost or depleted blood components and, therefore, as an enriched dose of various progenitors, generally autologous, injected peripherally or directly in the infarcted area. Since the safety of this therapy was not yet established, for ethical reasons pioneering researchers involved in these studies used animal models as surrogate of the human biologic system. Herein this hypothesis of therapy resulted in an increased use of living animals and in the reappraisal of models of myocardial damage with limited discussion on the theoretical basis of animal models applied to cell-based therapies. Recently, the European Union and its commission for surveillance of laboratory animals advanced a new proposal to restrict the use of living animals. This review will focus on the history of models utilization in biomedicine, with particular attention to animal models, and delineate an operative comparison between the two best known models of myocardial injury, namely coronary ligation and cryodamage, in the perspective of adult stem cell research applied to cardiovascular regenerative medicine.

  4. The representative animal

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The anthropocentric approach to the study of animal behavior uses representative nonhuman animals to understand human behavior. This approach raises problems concerning the comparison of the behavior of two different species. The datum of behavior analysis is the behavior of humans and representative animal phenotypes. The behavioral phenotype is the product of the ontogeny and phylogeny of each species, and this requires that contributions of genotype as well as behavioral history to experimental performance be considered. Behavior analysis tends to favor the ontogenetic over the phylogenetic component, yet both components are responsible for the performance of each individual animal. This paper raises questions about the role of genotype variables in the use of representative animals to understand human behavior. Examples indicating the role of genotype in human behavior are also discussed. The final section of the paper deals with considerations of genotype in the design of animal experiments. PMID:22478186

  5. Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  6. Low-calorie sweetener use and energy balance: Results from experimental studies in animals, and large-scale prospective studies in humans.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Sharon P G

    2016-10-01

    For more than a decade, pioneering animal studies conducted by investigators at Purdue University have provided evidence to support a central thesis: that the uncoupling of sweet taste and caloric intake by low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) can disrupt an animal's ability to predict the metabolic consequences of sweet taste, and thereby impair the animal's ability to respond appropriately to sweet-tasting foods. These investigators' work has been replicated and extended internationally. There now exists a body of evidence, from a number of investigators, that animals chronically exposed to any of a range of LCSs - including saccharin, sucralose, acesulfame potassium, aspartame, or the combination of erythritol+aspartame - have exhibited one or more of the following conditions: increased food consumption, lower post-prandial thermogenesis, increased weight gain, greater percent body fat, decreased GLP-1 release during glucose tolerance testing, and significantly greater fasting glucose, glucose area under the curve during glucose tolerance testing, and hyperinsulinemia, compared with animals exposed to plain water or - in many cases - even to calorically-sweetened foods or liquids. Adverse impacts of LCS have appeared diminished in animals on dietary restriction, but were pronounced among males, animals genetically predisposed to obesity, and animals with diet-induced obesity. Impacts have been especially striking in animals on high-energy diets: diets high in fats and sugars, and diets which resemble a highly-processed 'Western' diet, including trans-fatty acids and monosodium glutamate. These studies have offered both support for, and biologically plausible mechanisms to explain, the results from a series of large-scale, long-term prospective observational studies conducted in humans, in which longitudinal increases in weight, abdominal adiposity, and incidence of overweight and obesity have been observed among study participants who reported using diet sodas and other

  7. Low-calorie sweetener use and energy balance: Results from experimental studies in animals, and large-scale prospective studies in humans.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Sharon P G

    2016-10-01

    For more than a decade, pioneering animal studies conducted by investigators at Purdue University have provided evidence to support a central thesis: that the uncoupling of sweet taste and caloric intake by low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) can disrupt an animal's ability to predict the metabolic consequences of sweet taste, and thereby impair the animal's ability to respond appropriately to sweet-tasting foods. These investigators' work has been replicated and extended internationally. There now exists a body of evidence, from a number of investigators, that animals chronically exposed to any of a range of LCSs - including saccharin, sucralose, acesulfame potassium, aspartame, or the combination of erythritol+aspartame - have exhibited one or more of the following conditions: increased food consumption, lower post-prandial thermogenesis, increased weight gain, greater percent body fat, decreased GLP-1 release during glucose tolerance testing, and significantly greater fasting glucose, glucose area under the curve during glucose tolerance testing, and hyperinsulinemia, compared with animals exposed to plain water or - in many cases - even to calorically-sweetened foods or liquids. Adverse impacts of LCS have appeared diminished in animals on dietary restriction, but were pronounced among males, animals genetically predisposed to obesity, and animals with diet-induced obesity. Impacts have been especially striking in animals on high-energy diets: diets high in fats and sugars, and diets which resemble a highly-processed 'Western' diet, including trans-fatty acids and monosodium glutamate. These studies have offered both support for, and biologically plausible mechanisms to explain, the results from a series of large-scale, long-term prospective observational studies conducted in humans, in which longitudinal increases in weight, abdominal adiposity, and incidence of overweight and obesity have been observed among study participants who reported using diet sodas and other

  8. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation

    This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  9. Transcription activator-like effector nucleases efficiently disrupt the target gene in Iberian ribbed newts (Pleurodeles waltl), an experimental model animal for regeneration.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Toshinori; Sakamoto, Kousuke; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Yokotani, Naoki; Inoue, Takeshi; Kawaguchi, Eri; Agata, Kiyokazu; Yamamoto, Takashi; Takeuchi, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Regeneration of a lost tissue in an animal is an important issue. Although regenerative studies have a history of research spanning more than a century, the gene functions underlying regulation of the regeneration are mostly unclear. Analysis of knockout animals is a very powerful tool with which to elucidate gene function. Recently, transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) have been developed as an effective technique for genome editing. This technique enables gene targeting in amphibians such as newts that were previously impossible. Here we show that newts microinjected with TALEN mRNAs designed for targeting the tyrosinase gene in single-cell stage embryos revealed an albino phenotype. Sequence analysis revealed that the tyrosinase genes were effectively disrupted in these albino newts. Moreover, precise genome alteration was achieved using TALENs and single strand oligodeoxyribonucleotides. Our results suggest that TALENs are powerful tools for genome editing for regenerative research in newts.

  10. Inoculation experimental animals with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis strains: an attempt to reestablish the dimorphic process and variation in pathogenicity as a function of time of preservation under mineral oil.

    PubMed

    Mendes da Silva, A M; Borba, C M; de Oliveira, P C

    1996-01-01

    In an attempt to reestablish the dimorphic process in strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in the transition phase (Y reversible M) and to reisolate them, five strains in the transitional phase due to the long time of preservation under mineral oil and two strains in the yeast-like phase were inoculated into male albino rats. The animals were then studied for the presence of paracoccidioidomycotic granulomata. Of the seven strains inoculated, five caused granulomatous nodules in several organs of the animals and only two of these five strains, which had been preserved for the shortest period of time (9 years) were reisolated in culture. Two strains were unable to provoke infection, with no lesions detected in any organ. It is assumed that the long period of time during which the strains were left under oil favored the alteration of celt wall contents, leading to differences in pathogenicity.

  11. Animal welfare and animal rights.

    PubMed

    Sumner, L W

    1988-05-01

    Animal liberationists tend to divide into two mutually antagonistic camps: animal welfarists, who share a utilitarian moral outlook, and animal rightists, who presuppose a structure of basic rights. However, the gap between these groups tends to be exaggerated by their allegiance to oversimplified versions of their favored moral frameworks. For their part, animal rightists should acknowledge that rights, however basic, are also defeasible by appeals to consequences. Contrariwise, animal welfarists should recognize that rights, however derivative, are capable of constraining appeals to consequences. If both sides move to more defensible theoretical positions, their remaining differences on that level may be compatible with a broad area of convergence on practical issues.

  12. Whole animal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Gurpreet Singh; Solorio, Luis; Broome, Ann-Marie; Salem, Nicolas; Kolthammer, Jeff; Shah, Tejas; Flask, Chris; Duerk, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Translational research plays a vital role in understanding the underlying pathophysiology of human diseases, and hence development of new diagnostic and therapeutic options for their management. After creating an animal disease model, pathophysiologic changes and effects of a therapeutic intervention on them are often evaluated on the animals using immunohistologic or imaging techniques. In contrast to the immunohistologic techniques, the imaging techniques are noninvasive and hence can be used to investigate the whole animal, oftentimes in a single exam which provides opportunities to perform longitudinal studies and dynamic imaging of the same subject, and hence minimizes the experimental variability, requirement for the number of animals, and the time to perform a given experiment. Whole animal imaging can be performed by a number of techniques including x-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, fluorescence imaging, and bioluminescence imaging, among others. Individual imaging techniques provide different kinds of information regarding the structure, metabolism, and physiology of the animal. Each technique has its own strengths and weaknesses, and none serves every purpose of image acquisition from all regions of an animal. In this review, a broad overview of basic principles, available contrast mechanisms, applications, challenges, and future prospects of many imaging techniques employed for whole animal imaging is provided. Our main goal is to briefly describe the current state of art to researchers and advanced students with a strong background in the field of animal research. PMID:20836038

  13. [Effect of biologically active substances of animal and plant origin on prooxidant-antioxidant balance in rats with experimental prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Belostotskaia, L I; Nikitchenko, Iu V; Gomon, O N; Chaĭka, L A; Bondar', V V; Dziuba, V N

    2006-01-01

    The effect of biologically active complexes of animal (prostatilen) and plant (permixon) origin on physiological indices of prostate and prooxidant-antioxidant balance in prostate and blood was studied in rats with the hyperprolactinemia-induced prostatic hyperplasia. It was shown that both prostatilen (1 mg of the total peptides per kg) and permixon (100 mg of Serenoa repens extract per kg) prevent increase in the prostate mass and volume, in the content of lipid hydroperoxides, and in the glutathione peroxidase activity in prostate. Prostatilen, in contrast to permixon, normalized the content of lipid hydroperoxides (increased under hyperplazia conditions) and increases glutathione peroxidase activity (reduced under hyperplazia conditions).

  14. MEDLI Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation of MEDLI, the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrument, which contains multiple sophisticated temperature sensors to measure atmospheric conditions and performance o...

  15. Animal therapy.

    PubMed

    Willis, D A

    1997-01-01

    This article explores the concept of animal therapy. The discussion includes a brief history of animal therapy, its importance, its relationship to rehabilitation, and its usefulness as a tool to influence adaptation, change, power, communication, advocacy, teaching, accountability, responsibility, and locus of control. This theoretical concept is important because of the joy and unconditional love animals can provide their owners. Relationships with animals can promote feelings of self-worth, help offset loneliness, reduce anxiety, provide contact, comfort, security, and the feeling of being needed. PMID:9110848

  16. Animal cytomegaloviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Staczek, J

    1990-01-01

    Cytomegaloviruses are agents that infect a variety of animals. Human cytomegalovirus is associated with infections that may be inapparent or may result in severe body malformation. More recently, human cytomegalovirus infections have been recognized as causing severe complications in immunosuppressed individuals. In other animals, cytomegaloviruses are often associated with infections having relatively mild sequelae. Many of these sequelae parallel symptoms associated with human cytomegalovirus infections. Recent advances in biotechnology have permitted the study of many of the animal cytomegaloviruses in vitro. Consequently, animal cytomegaloviruses can be used as model systems for studying the pathogenesis, immunobiology, and molecular biology of cytomegalovirus-host and cytomegalovirus-cell interactions. PMID:2170830

  17. Experimental Modification of Interpretation Bias about Animal Fear in Young Children: Effects on Cognition, Avoidance Behavior, Anxiety Vulnerability, and Physiological Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Kathryn J.; Field, Andy P.; Muris, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of experimentally modifying interpretation biases for children's cognitions, avoidance behavior, anxiety vulnerability, and physiological responding. Sixty-seven children (6-11 years) were randomly assigned to receive a positive or negative interpretation bias modification procedure to induce interpretation…

  18. Stress and putative endogenous ligands for benzodiazepine receptors: the importance of characteristics of the aversive situation and of differential emotionality in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Teruel, A; Escorihuela, R M; Tobeña, A; Driscoll, P

    1991-10-15

    The relationships between anxiety/stress, possible endogenous ligands for benzodiazepine receptors and the behavioral modification by drugs are discussed in this short review, including the specific characteristics of elements involved in those interactions, e.g. ones concerning the aversiveness of the stressful situation and the nature of the organism under investigation. These are important factors when considering aversive tasks, insofar as they may involve stressful conditions which differ in intensity and in the degree of control afforded the subject. These characteristics may well lead to differing functional effects on GABA-gated chloride channels or, in other words, to an incongruous balance between endogenous benzodiazepine receptor agonist and inverse agonist activity. This is not surprising, as it is well known that different forms of stressors often actually produce divergent behavioral, physiological and biochemical effects. This review also illustrates the necessity of taking into account the variable effects of stressors and/or drugs on animals differing in reactivity or emotionality, even in the case of 'non-selected' stocks. The implication is made that, by genetic and/or environmental manipulation of the emotional state of the animals used, it will be possible to obtain more clearly definable results in neuropharmacological and psychopharmacological studies.

  19. Kindergarten Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  20. Animal Detectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  1. How does airway exposure of aflatoxin B1 affect serum albumin adduct concentrations? Evidence based on epidemiological study and animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Mo, Xianwei; Lai, Hao; Yang, Yang; Xiao, Jun; He, Ke; Liu, Chao; Chen, Jiansi; Lin, Yuan

    2014-08-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) airway inhalation represents an additional route of exposure to this toxin. However, the association between AFB1 inhalation and serum AFB1 albumin adducts remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the association between airway exposure to AFB1 and serum AFB1 albumin adduct concentrations via an epidemiological study, as well as in an AFB1 airway exposure animal model. Our epidemiological study was conducted in a sugar factory in the Guangxi Autonomous Region of China. In order to examine fungal contamination, air samples were obtained in the workshop and areas outside the workshop, such as the office and nearby store. Dust samples were also collected from the bagasse warehouse and presser workshop, and were analyzed using an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Additionally, blood samples were collected from a total of 121 workshop workers, and a control group (n = 80) was comprised of workers who undertook administrative tasks or other work outside the workshop. The animal experiment was conducted in the laboratory animal center of Guangxi Medical University, where a total of 60 adult male rabbits were involved in this study. By intubation, AFB1 was administered in three groups of rabbits daily, at dose rates of 0.075, 0.05 and 0.025 mg/kg/day for a period of 7 days. Blood samples were collected on day 1, day 3, day 7 and day 21, and the measurements of the AFB1 albumin adducts in the serum were performed by a double antibody sandwich ELISA. The epidemiological study showed that serum albumin adducts were detected in 67 workshop workers (55.37%), and the values ranged 6.4 pg/mg albumin to 212 pg/mg albumin (mean value: 51 ± 4.62 pg/mg albumin). In contrast, serum albumin adducts were detected in only 7 control group participants, with the values ranging from 9 pg AFB1/mg albumin to 59 pg/mg albumin (mean value: 20 ± 13.72 pg/mg albumin). The animal experiment revealed that the rabbits had detectable

  2. Comparative analysis of gingival phenotype in animal and human experimental models using optical coherence tomography in a non-invasive approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mota, Cláudia C. B. O.; Fernandes, Luana O.; Melo, Luciana S. A.; Feitosa, Daniela S.; Cimões, Renata; Gomes, Anderson S. L.

    2015-06-01

    Imaging methods are widely used in diagnostic and among the diversity of modalities, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is nowadays commercially available and considered the most innovative technique used for imaging applications, in both medical and non-medical applications. In this study, we exploit the OCT technique in the oral cavity for identification and differentiation between free and attached gingiva, as well as determining the gingival phenotype, an important factor to determination of periodontal prognosis in patients. For the animal studies, five porcine jaws were analyzed using a Swept Source SS-OCT system operating at 1325nm and stereomicroscope, as gold pattern. The SSOCT at 1325nm was chosen due to the longer central wavelength, that allows to deeper penetration imaging, and the faster image acquisition, an essential factor for clinical setting. For the patient studies, a total of 30 males and female were examined using the SS-OCT at 1325nm and computer controlled periodontal probing. 2D and 3D images of tooth/gingiva interface were performed, and quantitative measurements of the gingival sulcus could be noninvasively obtained. Through the image analysis of the animals jaws, it was possible to quantify the free gingiva and the attached gingiva, the calculus deposition over teeth surface and also the subgingival calculus. For the patient's studies, we demonstrated that the gingival phenotype could be measured without the periodontal probe introduction at the gingival sulcus, confirming that OCT can be potentially useful in clinic for direct observation and quantification of gingival phenotype in a non-invasive approach.

  3. Bile acid retention after Roux-en-Y biliary reconstruction demonstrated by tauro-23-(75Se)selena-25-homocholic acid. An experimental animal study.

    PubMed

    Bolder, U; Bares, R; Arlt, G; Hojabri, K; Schumpelick, V

    1990-07-01

    In this study of 65 laboratory rats the influence of biliary Roux-en-Y anastomosis on the enterohepatic circulation was investigated. Three different types of Roux-en-Y limbs were studied and compared with sham-operated controls. To collect information about the influence of the length and motility of the Roux limb, 10-cm and 3-cm isoperistaltic Roux segments and 10-cm anisoperistaltic Roux limbs were investigated. 75SeHCAT, a tau-labelled synthetic bile acid, was used for assessment of enterohepatic circulation. Intestinal transit time was evaluated by measuring the decrease of whole-body counts of 51Cr-labelled ethylenediamintetraacetic acid (EDTA), an inert marker of intraluminal contents. 99mTc-labelled dimethyl-iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) was used to detect possible alterations of bile flow. 75SeHCAT results showed marked retention of bile acids in all Roux-en-Y animals compared with controls. Results of short and long Roux limbs did not differ significantly from each other (t1/2 10 cm, 59.8 h; 3 cm, 59.3 h; control, 42.6 h; p less than or equal to 0.001). The anisoperistaltic Roux limbs showed prolonged retention even when compared with isoperistaltic limbs (t1/2 98.6 h; p less than or equal to 0.001). 51Cr-EDTA results did not show significant differences between all groups. 99mTc-HIDA showed undelayed excretion in all animals but increase of radioactivity at the site of the Roux-en-Y enteroanastomosis, indicating marked stasis in the biliodigestive Roux limb. The results demonstrate the impact of biliary Roux-en-Y anastomosis on bile acid retention due to stasis in the defunctioning jejunal segment.

  4. Experimental infection with the Toxoplasma gondii ME-49 strain in the Brazilian BR-1 mini pig is a suitable animal model for human toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Farlen José Bebber; Souza, Diogo Benchimol de; Frazão-Teixeira, Edwards; Oliveira, Fábio Conceição de; Melo, João Cardoso de; Mariano, Carlos Magno Anselmo; Albernaz, Antonio Peixoto; Carvalho, Eulógio Carlos Queiróz de; Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues de; Souza, Wanderley de; DaMatta, Renato Augusto

    2015-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes toxoplasmosis, a worldwide disease. Experimentation with pigs is necessary for the development of new therapeutic approaches to human diseases. BR-1 mini pigs were intramuscularly infected with T. gondii with tachyzoites (RH strain) or orally infected with cysts (ME-49 strain). Haematology and serum biochemistry were analysed and buffy coat cells were inoculated in mice to determine tachyzoite circulation. No alterations were observed in erythrocyte and platelet values; however, band neutrophils increased seven days after infection with ME-49. Serology of the mice inoculated with pig blood leucocytes revealed circulating ME-49 or RH strain tachyzoites in the pigs' peripheral blood at two and seven or nine days post-infection. The tachyzoites were also directly observed in blood smears from the infected pigs outside and inside leucocytes for longer periods. Alanine-aminotransferase was high at days 21 and 32 in the RH infected pigs. After 90 days, the pigs were euthanised and their tissue samples were processed and inoculated into mice. The mice serology revealed the presence of parasites in the hearts, ileums and mesenteric lymph nodes of the pigs. Additionally, cysts in the mice were only observed after pig heart tissue inoculation. The infected pigs presented similar human outcomes with relatively low pathogenicity and the BR-1 mini pig model infected with ME-49 is suitable to monitor experimental toxoplasmosis.

  5. Marked Effects of Tachykinin in Myositis Both in the Experimental Side and Contralaterally: Studies on NK-1 Receptor Expressions in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yafeng; Stål, Per S.; Yu, Jiguo; Forsgren, Sture

    2013-01-01

    Muscle injury and inflammation (myositis) in a rabbit model of an unilateral muscle overuse were examined. It is unknown if the tachykinin system has a functional role in this situation. In this study, therefore, the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) expression patterns were evaluated. White blood cells, nerve fascicles, fine nerve fibers, and blood vessel walls in myositis areas showed NK-1R immunoreaction. NK-1R mRNA reactions were observable for white blood cells and blood vessel walls of these areas. NK-1R immunoreaction and NK-1R mRNA reactions were also seen for muscle fibers showing degenerative and regenerative features. There were almost no NK-1R immunoreactions in normal muscle tissue. Interestingly, marked NK-1R expressions were seen for myositis areas of both the experimental side and the contralateral nonexperimental side. EIA analyses showed that the concentration of substance P in the muscle tissue was clearly increased bilaterally at the experimental end stage, as compared to the situation for normal muscle tissue. These observations show that the tachykinin system is very much involved in the processes that occur in muscle injury/myositis. The effects can be related to proinflammatory effects and/or tissue repair. The fact that there are also marked NK-1R expressions contralaterally indicate that the tachykinin system has crossover effects. PMID:24049666

  6. Immediate and long-term effects in the hematopoietic system and the morphology of the respiratory system in experimental animals under chronic combined action of external gamma exposure and inhalation exposure.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatarkin, Sergey; Moukhamedieva, Lana; Aleksandr, Shafirkin; Barantseva, Maria; Ivanova, Svetlana

    The need to solve hygiene problems valuation of environmental factors in the implementation of the projected manned interplanetary missions, determined the relevance of studying the effect of external gamma-irradiation with inhalation of mixtures of chemicals on the parameters of major critical body systems: hematopoiesis and respiratory (morphological and morphometric parameters) in the short and long periods. The study conducted on 504 male mice F1 (CBA × C57BL6) under chronic fractional gamma-irradiation (within 10 weeks at a total dose 350sGr) and then under inhalation by mixtures of chemicals in low concentrations. Duration of the experiment (124 days) and 90 -day recovery period. Displaying adaptive reorganization in hematopoietic system, which was characterized by a tension of regulatory systems of animals and by a proliferation of bone marrow cells and by dynamic changes in amount of lymphoid cells in peripheral blood, elevated levels of the antioxidant activity of red blood cells, and morphological manifestations of "incomplete recovery " of the spleen, which are retained in the recovery period. Morphological changes in the respiratory organs of animals testified about immunogenesis activation and development of structural changes as a chronic inflammatory process. Increase of fibrous connective tissue in the walls of the trachea, bronchus and lung, against reduction of loose fibrous connective tissue (more pronounced in respiratory parts of the respiratory system) in experimental animals, which may indicate a reduction of the functional reserves of the body and increase the risk of adverse long-term effects.

  7. Ageing related down-regulation of myocardial connexin-43 and up-regulation of MMP-2 may predict propensity to atrial fibrillation in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Nagibin, V; Egan Benova, T; Viczenczova, C; Szeiffova Bacova, B; Dovinova, I; Barancik, M; Tribulova, N

    2016-09-19

    Mechanisms underlying atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common cardiac arrhythmia, particularly in aged population, are not fully elucidated. We have previously shown an increased propensity of old guinea pigs (GPs) heart to inducible AF when comparing to young animals. This study aimed to verify our hypothesis that susceptibility of aged heart to AF may be attributed to abnormalities in myocardial connexin-43 (Cx43) and extracellular matrix that affect cardiac electrical properties. Experiments were conducted on male and female 4-week-old and 24-week-old GPs. Atrial tissue was processed for analysis of Cx43 topology using immunohistochemistry, expression of Cx43 protein using immunobloting, and expression of mRNA of Cx43 and extracellular matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) using real time PCR. Immunohistochemistry revealed uniform Cx43 distribution predominantly on lateral sides of the cardiomyocytes of young male and female GP atria. In contrast, non-uniform distribution, mislocalization and reduced immunolabeling of Cx43 were detected in atria of old GPs. In parallel, the atrial tissue levels of Cx43 mRNA were significantly decreased, while mRNA expression of MMP-2 was significantly increased in old versus young GPs. The changes were more pronounced in old GPs males comparing to females. Findings indicate that age-related down-regulation of atrial Cx43 and up-regulation of MMP-2 as well as disordered Cx43 distribution can facilitate development of AF in old guinea pig hearts. PMID:27643943

  8. Wild Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and other resources focuses on wild animals. Includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, and professional resources, as well as a class activity. (LRW)

  9. Pulsar Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Pulsars are thought to emit relatively narrow radio beams, shown as green in this animation. If these beams don't sweep toward Earth, astronomers cannot detect the radio signals. Pulsar gamma-ray e...

  10. Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  11. Suzaku Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts the Suzaku spacecraft. Suzaku (originally known as Astro-E2) was launched July 10, 2005, and maintains a low-Earth orbit while it observes X-rays from the universe. The satel...

  12. [Dangerous animals].

    PubMed

    Koljonen, Virve; Söderlund, Tim; Mäkisalo, Heikki; Gissler, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Contacts between humans and animals inevitably involve encounters possibly resulting in the human being injured. During the period of 2000 to 2014 almost 90 people died in this kind of conflict in Finland. Of these deaths, one third were associated with horses. In addition, over the same period 85 people died in traffic accidents in which an animal was hit by a car. Accidents requiring hospitalization occurred for approx. 8 000 people. PMID:27522833

  13. Animal models of scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Bobyn, Justin D; Little, David G; Gray, Randolph; Schindeler, Aaron

    2015-04-01

    Multiple techniques designed to induce scoliotic deformity have been applied across many animal species. We have undertaken a review of the literature regarding experimental models of scoliosis in animals to discuss their utility in comprehending disease aetiology and treatment. Models of scoliosis in animals can be broadly divided into quadrupedal and bipedal experiments. Quadrupedal models, in the absence of axial gravitation force, depend upon development of a mechanical asymmetry along the spine to initiate a scoliotic deformity. Bipedal models more accurately mimic human posture and consequently are subject to similar forces due to gravity, which have been long appreciated to be a contributing factor to the development of scoliosis. Many effective models of scoliosis in smaller animals have not been successfully translated to primates and humans. Though these models may not clarify the aetiology of human scoliosis, by providing a reliable and reproducible deformity in the spine they are a useful means with which to test interventions designed to correct and prevent deformity.

  14. Platelet-Rich Plasma and Skeletal Muscle Healing: A Molecular Analysis of the Early Phases of the Regeneration Process in an Experimental Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Dimauro, Ivan; Grasso, Loredana; Fittipaldi, Simona; Fantini, Cristina; Mercatelli, Neri; Racca, Silvia; Geuna, Stefano; Di Gianfrancesco, Alessia; Caporossi, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has received increasing interest in applied medicine, being widely used in clinical practice with the aim of stimulating tissue healing. Despite the reported clinical success, there is still a lack of knowledge when considering the biological mechanisms at the base of the activity of PRP during the process of muscle healing. The aim of the present study was to verify whether the local delivery of PRP modulates specific molecular events involved in the early stages of the muscle regeneration process. The right flexor sublimis muscle of anesthetized Wistar rats was mechanically injured and either treated with PRP or received no treatment. At day 2 and 5 after surgery, the animals were sacrificed and the muscle samples evaluated at molecular levels. PRP treatment increased significantly the mRNA level of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, and TGF-β1. This phenomenon induced an increased expression at mRNA and/or protein levels of several myogenic regulatory factors such as MyoD1, Myf5 and Pax7, as well as the muscular isoform of insulin-like growth factor1 (IGF-1Eb). No effect was detected with respect to VEGF-A expression. In addition, PRP application modulated the expression of miR-133a together with its known target serum response factor (SRF); increased the phosphorylation of αB-cristallin, with a significant improvement in several apoptotic parameters (NF-κB-p65 and caspase 3), indexes of augmented cell survival. The results of the present study indicates that the effect of PRP in skeletal muscle injury repair is due both to the modulation of the molecular mediators of the inflammatory and myogenic pathways, and to the control of secondary pathways such as those regulated by myomiRNAs and heat shock proteins, which contribute to proper and effective tissue regeneration. PMID:25054279

  15. Animal Bioacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Neville H.

    Animals rely upon their acoustic and vibrational senses and abilities to detect the presence of both predators and prey and to communicate with members of the same species. This chapter surveys the physical bases of these abilities and their evolutionary optimization in insects, birds, and other land animals, and in a variety of aquatic animals other than cetaceans, which are treated in Chap. 20. While there are many individual variations, and some animals devote an immense fraction of their time and energy to acoustic communication, there are also many common features in their sound production and in the detection of sounds and vibrations. Excellent treatments of these matters from a biological viewpoint are given in several notable books [19.1,2] and collections of papers [19.3,4,5,6,7,8], together with other more specialized books to be mentioned in the following sections, but treatments from an acoustical viewpoint [19.9] are rare. The main difference between these two approaches is that biological books tend to concentrate on anatomical and physiological details and on behavioral outcomes, while acoustical books use simplified anatomical models and quantitative analysis to model vocalization frequency scaling in animals hearing sound production animal animal biological biological bioacoustics whole-system behavior. This latter is the approach to be adopted here.

  16. An experimental study of the biological effects of geomagnetic disturbances: The impact of a typical geomagnetic storm and its constituents on plants and animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, Viacheslav V.; Zotov, Oleg D.; Klain, Boris I.; Ushakova, Natalia V.; Kantserova, Nadezhda P.; Znobisheva, Anna V.; Izyumov, Yuri G.; Kuz'mina, Victoria V.; Morozov, Alexey A.; Lysenko, Liudmila A.; Nemova, Nina N.; Osipova, Elena A.

    2014-04-01

    Naturally occurring geomagnetic storms have been shown to correlate with changes in organisms' biological processes. Changes in the geomagnetic field during a geomagnetic storm are complex and contain both slow changes of the geomagnetic field with frequencies of up to 0.001 Hz, and various geomagnetic pulsations observed in general to be within the range of 0.001-5 Hz. Little is known about what frequency constituent of geomagnetic storms has the strongest effect on living organisms. This paper uses an experimental approach to demonstrate that organisms from different taxa principally respond to slow changes of the geomagnetic field corresponding with the main phase and the initial period of the recovery phase of a geomagnetic storm. Pc1 type pulsations, which are commonly regarded as biologically effective elements of geomagnetic disturbances, did not affect controlled parameters in our experiments. This paper may serve as a starting point for a thorough inquiry into the influence of slow fluctuations of the geomagnetic field on organisms.

  17. Efficacy of a combination product containing pyrantel, febantel and praziquantel (Drontal Plus Flavour, Bayer Animal Health) against experimental infection with the hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum in dogs.

    PubMed

    Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Satranarakun, Pakkawan; Traub, Rebecca J; Schaper, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Ancylostoma ceylanicum is a common hookworm of dogs, cats and humans in Asia. More recently, this hookworm was found to infect dogs in Australia. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of a combination product containing pyrantel, febantel and praziquantel (Drontal) Plus Flavour, Bayer) against A. ceylanicum in experimentally infected dogs. Twelve dogs were each subcutaneously injected with 300 infective third-stage larvae of A. ceylanicum. Pups were stratified by egg count and randomly allocated equally into control and treatment groups. The pups in the treatment group were treated orally at 20 days post-infection with a tablet containing pyrantel, febantel and praziquantel (Drontal Plus Flavour, Bayer) with the recommended dose of one tablet per 10 kg bodyweight. The dogs in the control group were not treated. Egg counts were performed daily until the end of the study period and compared for the treated and control groups. No eggs were detected in the treated group of pups within 3 days of treatment, and faecal samples from this group remained negative throughout the rest of the study resulting in a treatment efficacy (egg reduction) of 100% (p = 0.0011). The egg counts for the untreated group remained high for the rest of the study period. This trial demonstrated that a combination tablet containing pyrantel, febantel and praziquantel (Drontal Plus Flavour, Bayer) given at the manufacturer's recommended dose is effective against infection with A. ceylanicum in dogs. PMID:19911198

  18. Animal Identification

    PubMed Central

    Macpherson, J. W.; Penner, P.

    1967-01-01

    A number of branding tools of various metals and various sizes in combination with several wetting agents were cooled with liquid nitrogen and applied for different lengths of time to calves and mature cattle. White hair appeared in the shape of the brand on the animals in place of dark hair when the application was properly carried out. Best results can be obtained by using metal irons at least 25 millimeters thick and 14 millimeters wide with xylol as a wetting agent for ten seconds in young or thin skinned animals and up to twenty seconds in mature or thick skinned animals. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 5. PMID:4229181

  19. Animal Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleave, Janice

    2001-01-01

    Presents a set of hands-on, outdoor science experiments designed to teach elementary school students about animal adaptation. The experiments focus on: how color camouflage affects an insect population; how spiderlings find a home; and how chameleons camouflage themselves by changing color. (SM)

  20. Curriculum Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gose, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-five teachers with reputations for artistry in curriculum planning were interviewed about their "curriculum animation" plans or how they ensured their curriculum was brought to life. Their statements indicated that much of their planning is informal and intuitive, and that the criteria they use for their curriculum includes: (1) it is…

  1. Transgenic Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaenisch, Rudolf

    1988-01-01

    Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

  2. A laboratory animal science pioneer.

    PubMed

    Kostomitsopoulos, Nikolaos

    2014-11-01

    Nikolaos Kostomitsopoulos, DVM, PhD, is Head of Laboratory Animal Facilities and Designated Veterinarian, Center of Clinical, Experimental Surgery and Translational Research, Biomedical Research Foundation of the Academy of Athens, Athens, Greece. Dr. Kostomitsopoulos discusses his successes in implementing laboratory animal science legislation and fostering collaboration among scientists in Greece.

  3. Responsible conduct in animal research.

    PubMed

    Savla, Ushma

    2003-11-01

    Laboratory animals play a crucial role in biomedical research - indeed many advances now incorporated into human health care would have been impossible without them. Informed and well-trained scientists have the privilege, but not the automatic right, to use animals as experimental subjects. This privilege must not be abused.

  4. Coupler for surgery on small animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. E., Jr.; Swartz, P. F.

    1979-01-01

    Minicoupler simplifies exchange of fluids with organs of laboratory animals enabling one person to perform surgery on experimental animals such as rats and mice. Innovation eliminates obstructing hands and instruments from areas of surgery.

  5. Bone allograft and implant fixation tested under influence of bio-burden reduction, periosteal augmentation and topical antibiotics. Animal experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Barckman, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    Loosening of an artificial joint prosthesis is a painful and debilitating condition that can be treated only by re-operation. Re-operations accounted for approximately 15% of all hip replacement operations performed in Denmark between the year 1995 and 2010. The process of loosening is often accompanied by destructive inflammation and osteolysis, which leads to insufficient bone stock that often requires extensive bone grafting. Impacted morselized bone graft is a well-established method for improving the amount and quality of bone stock that ensures sufficient stability and anchorage of the revision implants. Among bone graft options, the autologous bone graft is considered the gold standard. It is naturally biocompatible, but its use in revision surgery is curtailed by its limited volume and by considerable donor site morbidity. Allograft bone is readily available and is the most commonly used graft material. However, it has been shown that the incorporation of allograft bone into the host bone is not always complete, and substantial fibrous tissue formation has been described. A reason for this may be that allograft bone is a foreign tissue, which, contrary to autogenic bone, may induce an immunogenic response that leads to increased fibrous tissue formation. Furthermore, the fresh-frozen allograft has minimal osteoinductive and no osteogenic capacity. The studies in this thesis have investigated ways of improving the incorporation of allograft bone by adding osteoinductive cells from the periosteum and reducing the immunogenic load of the allograft bone by rinsing. Furthermore, the impact of antibiotic protection of the bone graft has been evaluated. The same experimental implant model was used in all three studies. This model enables evaluation of early implant fixation and osseointegration of an uncemented implant surrounded by impacted morselized bone graft. Unloaded gap implants were inserted into the metaphysis of the proximal tibia (Study I) and distal

  6. Bone allograft and implant fixation tested under influence of bio-burden reduction, periosteal augmentation and topical antibiotics. Animal experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Barckman, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    Loosening of an artificial joint prosthesis is a painful and debilitating condition that can be treated only by re-operation. Re-operations accounted for approximately 15% of all hip replacement operations performed in Denmark between the year 1995 and 2010. The process of loosening is often accompanied by destructive inflammation and osteolysis, which leads to insufficient bone stock that often requires extensive bone grafting. Impacted morselized bone graft is a well-established method for improving the amount and quality of bone stock that ensures sufficient stability and anchorage of the revision implants. Among bone graft options, the autologous bone graft is considered the gold standard. It is naturally biocompatible, but its use in revision surgery is curtailed by its limited volume and by considerable donor site morbidity. Allograft bone is readily available and is the most commonly used graft material. However, it has been shown that the incorporation of allograft bone into the host bone is not always complete, and substantial fibrous tissue formation has been described. A reason for this may be that allograft bone is a foreign tissue, which, contrary to autogenic bone, may induce an immunogenic response that leads to increased fibrous tissue formation. Furthermore, the fresh-frozen allograft has minimal osteoinductive and no osteogenic capacity. The studies in this thesis have investigated ways of improving the incorporation of allograft bone by adding osteoinductive cells from the periosteum and reducing the immunogenic load of the allograft bone by rinsing. Furthermore, the impact of antibiotic protection of the bone graft has been evaluated. The same experimental implant model was used in all three studies. This model enables evaluation of early implant fixation and osseointegration of an uncemented implant surrounded by impacted morselized bone graft. Unloaded gap implants were inserted into the metaphysis of the proximal tibia (Study I) and distal

  7. Animal leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Ellis, William A

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a global disease of animals, which can have a major economic impact on livestock industries and is an important zoonosis. The current knowledge base is heavily biased towards the developed agricultural economies. The disease situation in the developing economies presents a major challenge as humans and animals frequently live in close association. The severity of disease varies with the infecting serovar and the affected species, but there are many common aspects across the species; for example, the acute phase of infection is mostly sub-clinical and the greatest economic losses arise from chronic infection causing reproductive wastage. The principles of, and tests for, diagnosis, treatment, control and surveillance are applicable across the species. PMID:25388134

  8. Robotic animation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretch, S. J.

    1982-08-01

    The effectiveness of the robotic systems Place and Animate at McDonnell Douglas is discussed. The systems are designed for CAD/CAM on a kinematic basis. Place allows creation, analysis, and editing of cell descriptions as part of the CAD process, and involves primitive cell configuring prior to eventual integration of the entire robot. Objects are displayed in wire frame form and movement receives an awkwardness rating automatically, indicating the percentage of the real-world joint limit that is being approached. The same program is employed in the Animate process, where verification and debugging of the robot programs proceeds. Clearances, motion limits, and correct responses to commands are checked, allowing decisions on production to be made before any robots are actually built.

  9. Anticipatory behavior in animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriyama, Tohru

    1999-03-01

    In the experiments of pill bugs (Armadillidium vulgare), some of them performed as if they had contained the models of themselves and the environment in view of computing their present state as a function of the prediction of the models. In a specific situation, they escaped from the experimental apparatus as if they had constituted spatial knowledge of it (open field surrounded by walls) in the process of exploratory behavior and used the knowledge. This species gets environmental information by tactile ability of antennae, not by visual one, and do not climb perpendicular walls in general condition. If they had not escaped in the experiment, they would have died of hunger or water deficit. In this paper I will present the result of this anticipatory behavior. I also discuss that the notion of anticipation, which is another name of autonomy, is inevitably introduced when one considers the process of understanding of animal behavior progressing without any common basis between animals and experimenters.

  10. Knowledge of the animal welfare act and animal welfare regulations influences attitudes toward animal research.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Mitchell M

    2015-01-01

    Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an individual's attitudes toward the use of animals in research. A survey was used to assess knowledge of animal research regulations and attitudes toward animal research from a sample of individuals recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing marketplace. Results from study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that respondents had little knowledge of various federal regulations that govern animal research activities. Data from study 2 revealed that exposure to elements of the AWA and AWR influenced participants' attitudes toward the use of animals in research. These results suggest that providing information to the general public about the AWA and AWR that protect laboratory animals from abuse and neglect may help alleviate concerns about using animals in research settings. PMID:25651094

  11. Knowledge of the Animal Welfare Act and Animal Welfare Regulations Influences Attitudes toward Animal Research

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an individual's attitudes toward the use of animals in research. A survey was used to assess knowledge of animal research regulations and attitudes toward animal research from a sample of individuals recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing marketplace. Results from study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that respondents had little knowledge of various federal regulations that govern animal research activities. Data from study 2 revealed that exposure to elements of the AWA and AWR influenced participants’ attitudes toward the use of animals in research. These results suggest that providing information to the general public about the AWA and AWR that protect laboratory animals from abuse and neglect may help alleviate concerns about using animals in research settings. PMID:25651094

  12. Knowledge of the animal welfare act and animal welfare regulations influences attitudes toward animal research.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Mitchell M

    2015-01-01

    Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an individual's attitudes toward the use of animals in research. A survey was used to assess knowledge of animal research regulations and attitudes toward animal research from a sample of individuals recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing marketplace. Results from study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that respondents had little knowledge of various federal regulations that govern animal research activities. Data from study 2 revealed that exposure to elements of the AWA and AWR influenced participants' attitudes toward the use of animals in research. These results suggest that providing information to the general public about the AWA and AWR that protect laboratory animals from abuse and neglect may help alleviate concerns about using animals in research settings.

  13. Animal models for osteoporosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. T.; Maran, A.; Lotinun, S.; Hefferan, T.; Evans, G. L.; Zhang, M.; Sibonga, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Animal models will continue to be important tools in the quest to understand the contribution of specific genes to establishment of peak bone mass and optimal bone architecture, as well as the genetic basis for a predisposition toward accelerated bone loss in the presence of co-morbidity factors such as estrogen deficiency. Existing animal models will continue to be useful for modeling changes in bone metabolism and architecture induced by well-defined local and systemic factors. However, there is a critical unfulfilled need to develop and validate better animal models to allow fruitful investigation of the interaction of the multitude of factors which precipitate senile osteoporosis. Well characterized and validated animal models that can be recommended for investigation of the etiology, prevention and treatment of several forms of osteoporosis have been listed in Table 1. Also listed are models which are provisionally recommended. These latter models have potential but are inadequately characterized, deviate significantly from the human response, require careful choice of strain or age, or are not practical for most investigators to adopt. It cannot be stressed strongly enough that the enormous potential of laboratory animals as models for osteoporosis can only be realized if great care is taken in the choice of an appropriate species, age, experimental design, and measurements. Poor choices will results in misinterpretation of results which ultimately can bring harm to patients who suffer from osteoporosis by delaying advancement of knowledge.

  14. Animal picobirnavirus.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Balasubramanian; Masachessi, Gisela; Mladenova, Zornitsa

    2014-01-01

    Picobirnavirus (PBV) is a small, non-enveloped, bisegmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus of vertebrate hosts. The name 'Picobirnavirus' derives from the prefix 'pico' (latin for 'small') in reference to the small virion size, plus the prefix 'bi' (latin for 'two') and the word 'RNA' to indicate the nature of the viral genome. The serendipitous discovery of PBV dates back to 1988 from Brazil, when human fecal samples collected during the acute gastroenteritis outbreaks were subjected for routine rotavirus surveillance by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and silver straining (S/S). The PAGE gels after silver staining showed a typical 'two RNA band' pattern, and it was identified as Picobirnavirus. Likewise, the feces of wild black-footed pigmy rice rats (Oryzomys nigripes) subjected for PAGE assay by the same research group in Brazil reported the presence of PBV (Pereira et al., J Gen Virol 69:2749-2754, 1988). PBVs have been detected in faeces of humans and wide range of animal species with or without diarrhoea, worldwide. The probable role of PBV as either a 'primary diarrhoeal agent' in 'immunocompetent children'; or a 'potential pathogen' in 'immunocompromised individuals' or an 'innocuous virus' in the intestine remains elusive and needs to be investigated despite the numerous reports of the presence of PBV in fecal samples of various species of domestic mammals, wild animals, birds and snakes; our current knowledge of their biology, etiology, pathogenicity or their transmission characteristics remains subtle. This review aims to analyse the veterinary and zoonotic aspects of animal Picobirnavirus infections since its discovery. PMID:25674589

  15. Animal behavior and animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Houpt, K A

    1991-04-15

    The value of behavioral techniques in assessing animal welfare, and in particular assessing the psychological well being of animals, is reviewed. Using cats and horses as examples, 3 behavioral methods are presented: (1) comparison of behavior patterns and time budgets; (2) choice tests; and (3) operant conditioning. The behaviors of intact and declawed cats were compared in order to determine if declawing led to behavioral problems or to a change in personality. Apparently it did not. The behavior of free ranging horses was compared with that of stabled horses. Using two-choice preference tests, the preference of horses for visual contact with other horses and the preference for bedding were determined. Horses show no significant preference for locations from which they can make visual contact with other horses, but they do prefer bedding, especially when lying down. Horses will perform an operant response in order to obtain light in a darkened barn or heat in an outside shed. These same techniques can be used to answer a variety of questions about an animal's motivation for a particular attribute of its environment. PMID:2061151

  16. EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL ANTIANDROGENS IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In mammals, the androgens testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) are critical for normal male reproductive development and function. In humans, drugs that act as androgen receptor (AR) agonists and antagonists or inhibit fetal steroidogenesis can cause pseudohermaphrodi...

  17. Animal papillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Rector, Annabel; Van Ranst, Marc

    2013-10-01

    We provide an overview of the host range, taxonomic classification and genomic diversity of animal papillomaviruses. The complete genomes of 112 non-human papillomavirus types, recovered from 54 different host species, are currently available in GenBank. The recent characterizations of reptilian papillomaviruses extend the host range of the Papillomaviridae to include all amniotes. Although the genetically diverse papillomaviruses have a highly conserved genomic lay-out, deviations from this prototypic genome organization are observed in several animal papillomaviruses, and only the core ORFs E1, E2, L2 and L1 are present in all characterized papillomavirus genomes. The discovery of papilloma-polyoma hybrids BPCV1 and BPCV2, containing a papillomaviral late region but an early region encoding typical polyomaviral nonstructural proteins, and the detection of recombination breakpoints between the early and late coding regions of cetacean papillomaviruses, could indicate that early and late gene cassettes of papillomaviruses are relatively independent entities that can be interchanged by recombination.

  18. ANIMAL COMMUNICATION.

    PubMed

    SEBEOK, T A

    1965-02-26

    Semiotics and ethology have converged in a new behavioral science, zoosemiotics. Those who are interested in the theoretical analysis of the complex problems of non-verbal behavior that arise where these two disciplines interact aim to treat comprehensively animal communication systems by the aid of representations that have proved illuminating in the study of sentences of human language. Students of zoosemiotics are concerned with codes and messages much as linguists are concerned with competence, or language, and performance, or speech. They thus face the twin tasks of constructing a model for the addresser to specify how a message is encoded and transformed into a signal carried by a variety of channels to the addressee; and of constructing a model for the addressee to specify the ways in which animals utilize their knowledge of their code to recognize the messages they receive. Finally, they assess the context of the communicative event in the hope of dissecting that which is relevant to the selection process from the rest of the background, a program for which there is as yet neither a procedural eliciting technique nor a satisfactory theoretical solution in sight.

  19. Experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    MacPherson, B; Pfeiffer, C J

    1976-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are complex, problematic diseases of unknown etiology in man, and appropriate experimental models would be useful in elucidating their pathogenesis and treatment. Although there have been numerous attempts to produce inflammatory ulcerative colonic disease in laboratory animals resembling those human disease forms, none has been entirely successful. Investigators have conducted experiments involving almost every etiological factor suggested for initiation of these diseases. The methods reviewed in this paper include production of experimental colitis by vascular impairment, and immunological methods such as bacterial infection, allergic reactions, direct and indirect hypersensitivity reactions, as well as autoimmune mechanisms. The results of carrageenan-induced colitis, irradiation, dietary, and drug-induced techniques are also discussed and the frequency and nature of spontaneous colonic lesions in animals is summarized.

  20. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  1. Science, Medicine, and Animals: Teacher's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Lisa C.

    2005-01-01

    "Science, Medicine, and Animals" explains the role that animals play in biomedical research and the ways in which scientists, governments, and citizens have tried to balance the experimental use of animals with a concern for all living creatures. An accompanying "Teacher's Guide" is available to help teachers of middle and high…

  2. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    PubMed

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint.

  3. Human vs animal rights. In defense of animal research.

    PubMed

    Loeb, J M; Hendee, W R; Smith, S J; Schwartz, M R

    1989-11-17

    For centuries, opposition has been directed against the use of animals for the benefit of humans. For more than four centuries in Europe, and for more than a century in the United States, this opposition has targeted scientific research that involves animals. More recent movements in support of animal rights have arisen in an attempt to impede, if not prohibit, the use of animals in scientific experimentation. These movements employ various means that range from information and media campaigns to destruction of property and threats against investigators. The latter efforts have resulted in the identification of more militant animal rights bands as terrorist groups. The American Medical Association has long been a defender of humane research that employs animals, and it is very concerned about the efforts of animal rights and welfare groups to interfere with research. Recently, the Association prepared a detailed analysis of the controversy over the use of animals in research, and the consequences for research and clinical medicine if the philosophy of animal rights activists were to prevail in society. This article is a condensation of the Association's analysis.

  4. Animating Brains

    PubMed Central

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title ‘Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience’. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of ‘soul catching’, the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain’s electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  5. Animals in biomedical space research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Robert W.

    The use of experimental animals has been a major component of biomedical research progress. Using animals in space presents special problems, but also provides special opportunities. Rat and squirrel monkeys experiments have been planned in concert with human experiments to help answer fundamental questions concerning the effect of weightlessness on mammalian function. For the most part, these experiments focus on identified changes noted in humans during space flight. Utilizing space laboratory facilities, manipulative experiments can be completed while animals are still in orbit. Other experiments are designed to study changes in gravity receptor structure and function and the effect of weightlessness on early vertebrate development. Following these preliminary animals experiments on Spacelab Shuttle flights, longer term programs of animal investigation will be conducted on Space Station.

  6. Animals in biomedical space research.

    PubMed

    Phillips, R W

    1988-01-01

    The use of experimental animals has been a major component of biomedical research progress. Using animals in space presents special problems, but also provides special opportunities. Rat and squirrel monkeys experiments have been planned in concert with human experiments to help answer fundamental questions concerning the effect of weightlessness on mammalian function. For the most part, these experiments focus on identified changes noted in humans during space flight. Utilizing space laboratory facilities, manipulative experiments can be completed while animals are still in orbit. Other experiments are designed to study changes in gravity receptor structure and function and the effect of weightlessness on early vertebrate development. Following these preliminary animals experiments on Spacelab Shuttle flights, longer term programs of animal investigation will be conducted on Space Station.

  7. Grassroots opposition to animal exploitation.

    PubMed

    Siegel, S

    1989-01-01

    The director of Trans-Species Unlimited (TSU) describes his radical organization's philosophy and controversial methods of working to end what its members view as the exploitation of animals. TSU advocates a grassroots approach to achieve its main goals, facilitating effective outreach, and acting directly at the local and national levels on issues such as animal experimentation. Siegel describes the objectives and stages of the animal rights movement, and defends his group's aggressive use of confrontational tactics and the potential use of civil disobedience to end "an evil without equal."

  8. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    H. M. Sulloway

    2008-10-02

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground located in the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit of the 100-F Area on the Hanford Site. The trenches received waste from the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm, including animal manure, animal carcasses, laboratory waste, plastic, cardboard, metal, and concrete debris as well as a railroad tank car.

  9. The fiery fight for animal rights.

    PubMed

    Jackson, C M

    1989-01-01

    The author, senior correspondent for People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), defends the use of civil disobedience by animal rights activists. Jackson explains what motivates protestors and describes forms of exploitation to which animal rightists object. She discusses the various modes of activism that range from lifestyle changes to burning research facilities and breaking into laboratories in order to film conditions and free experimental animals.

  10. [Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-pyretic activities of a new anti-inflammatory compound, 2-[4-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)phenyl] propionic acid (TA), in experimental animals].

    PubMed

    Higuchi, S; Amanuma, F; Okuyama, S; Shioiri, Y; Tanaka, N; Arai, I; Isobe, Y; Otomo, S; Aihara, H

    1987-05-01

    Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-pyretic activities of orally administered TA were investigated in experimental animals. Against acetic acid-induced vascular permeability in mice, carrageenin-induced hind paw edema in rats and ultra-violet ray-induced erythema in guinea pigs, TA produced a dose related inhibition at doses of 40-160 mg/kg, 10-40 mg/kg and 10-40 mg/kg, respectively. TA produced no inhibition against histamine-induced vascular permeability even at a dose of 200 mg/kg in rats. Cotton pellet-induced granuloma and adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats were significantly inhibited by repeated administration of TA at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 6 days and 25 mg/kg/day for 6 days, respectively. TA showed a dose related analgesic effect at a dose of 50-200 mg/kg in acetic acid writhing, Randall-Selitto and adjuvant arthritic pain methods. A high dose of TA was needed to produce an analgesic effect in the pressure method using mice. TA produced an anti-pyretic effect against the pyrexia induced by yeast in rats. On the other hand, TA showed no effect against normal body temperature in rats. These results suggest that anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-pyretic activities of TA are generally a little weaker than those of ibuprofen, and the mode of action of TA is similar to that of a typical acidic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug such as ibuprofen, indomethacin or phenylbutazone. The ulcerogenic activity of TA was about 2 and 4 times weaker than that of ibuprofen in rats and mice, respectively. TA showed a protective effect against gastric necrosis induced by HCl.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3497851

  11. [Autoimmune processes after long-term low-level exposure to electromagnetic fields (the results of an experiment). Part 2. General scheme and conditions of the experiment. Development of RF exposure conditions complying with experimental tasks. Animal's status during the long-term exposure].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ev, Iu G; Grigor'ev, O A; Merkulov, A V; Shafirkin, A V; Vorob'ev, A A

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the conditions for handling and exposure of experimental animals (Wistar rats) and methods used in the study of immunological effects of long-term low-level (500 microW/cm2) exposure to radiofrequency (2450 MHz) electromagnetic fields, performed under auspices of the World Health Organization.

  12. [Laboratory animals and official Mexican norms (NOM-062-ZOO-1999)].

    PubMed

    de Aluja, Aline S

    2002-01-01

    This article concerns animal experimentation and official Mexican norm Nom 0062-Zoo-1999 entitled Technical specifications for the production, care and use of laboratory animals. The history of animal experimentation is briefly resumed. During the nineteenth century, doubts arose as to the right to expose animals to experimental procedures that frequently cause pain and suffering. The first law which protected animals against cruelty was passed in Great Britain in 1876; subsequently, other nations approved similar legislation. During the second part of the twentieth century, opposition to animal experimentation grew. Other groups, mainly scientists and pharmaceutical concerns, defended the right to use animals in research. New knowledge concerning the neurophysiology, cognitive capacity, and the animal faculty to experience pain is briefly mentioned. Guidelines on care and use of animals used in research published in several countries are listed. Finally, the recently published Mexican legislation (Norm) referring to production, care and use of laboratory animals is discussed and its benefits are stressed.

  13. History of animal bioacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popper, Arthur N.; Dooling, Robert J.

    2002-11-01

    The earliest studies on animal bioacoustics dealt largely with descriptions of sounds. Only later did they address issues of detection, discrimination, and categorization of complex communication sounds. This literature grew substantially over the last century. Using the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America as an example, the number of papers that fall broadly within the realm of animal sound production, communication, and hearing rose from two in the partial first decade of the journal in the 1930's, to 20 in the 1970's, to 92 in the first 2 years of this millennium. During this time there has been a great increase in the diversity of species studied, the sophistication of the methods used, and the complexity of the questions addressed. As an example, the first papers in JASA focused on a guinea pig and a bird. In contrast, since the year 2000 studies are often highly comparative and include fish, birds, dolphins, dogs, ants, crickets, and snapping shrimp. This paper on the history of animal bioacoustics will consider trends in work over the decades and discuss the formative work of a number of investigators who have spurred the field by making critical theoretical and experimental observations.

  14. Programs in Animal Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Don R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Five topics relating to programs in animal agriculture are addressed: (1) the future of animal agriculture; (2) preparing teachers in animal agriculture; (3) how animal programs help young people; (4) a nontraditional animal agriculture program; and (5) developing competencies in animal agriculture. (LRA)

  15. Bias During the Evaluation of Animal Studies?

    PubMed

    Knight, Andrew

    2012-02-23

    My recent book entitled The Costs and Benefits of Animal Experiments seeks to answer a key question within animal ethics, namely: is animal experimentation ethically justifiable? Or, more precisely, is it justifiable within the utilitarian cost:benefit framework that fundamentally underpins most regulations governing animal experimentation? To answer this question I reviewed more than 500 scientific publications describing animal studies, animal welfare impacts, and alternative research, toxicity testing and educational methodologies. To minimise bias I focused primarily on large-scale systematic reviews that had examined the human clinical and toxicological utility of animal studies. Despite this, Dr. Susanne Prankel recently reviewed my book in this journal, essentially accusing me of bias. However, she failed to provide any substantive evidence to refute my conclusions, let alone evidence of similar weight to that on which they are based. Those conclusions are, in fact, firmly based on utilitarian ethical reasoning, informed by scientific evidence of considerable strength, and I believe they are robust.

  16. Physiology, propaganda, and pound animals: medical research and animal welfare in mid-twentieth century America.

    PubMed

    Parascandola, John

    2007-07-01

    In 1952, the University of Michigan physiologist Robert Gesell shocked his colleagues at the business meeting of the American Physiological Society by reading a prepared statement in which he claimed that some of the animal experimentation being carried out by scientists was inhumane. He especially attacked the National Society for Medical Research (NSMR), an organization that had been founded to defend animal experimentation. This incident was part of a broader struggle taking place at the time between scientists and animal welfare advocates with respect to what restrictions, if any, should be placed on animal research. A particularly controversial issue was whether or not pound animals should be made available to laboratories for research. Two of the prominent players in this controversy were the NSMR and the Animal Welfare Institute, founded and run by Gesell's daughter, Christine Stevens. This article focuses on the interaction between these two organizations within the broader context of the debate over animal experimentation in the mid-twentieth century.

  17. Attitudes toward animal research: revisiting.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Mitchell M

    2014-01-01

    Gallup and Beckstead's (1988) commentary in the American Psychologist reported an assessment of college student's attitudes toward animal research. Among many findings, one main conclusion reached by the authors was that the participants in their study were generally concerned about the welfare of animals used in research, but that they also appreciated and valued the need for animal experimentation. Given the declining support for animal research from the general population over the past few decades, the present study administered the same questionnaire to a contemporary sample of university students to determine whether any patterns would emerge in a current sample's responses to these items. While the results suggest that respondents still demonstrate significant concern for animal welfare, importantly, the present sample of participants showed significantly less agreement with items that stressed the importance and value of conducting animal research. Educating college students about the importance of animal research and its valuable contributions to science as an enduring component of instructional practice in neuroscience and other courses may be an important step toward reversing these trends.

  18. Global perspectives on animal welfare: Europe.

    PubMed

    Caporale, V; Alessandrini, B; Dalla Villa, P; Del Papa, S

    2005-08-01

    Effective implementation and enforcement of legislation is essential to ensure animal welfare. In the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) European Region the well-established body of national and European Union laws in existence is growing continuously. The growth is due to various factors, such as new technology in animal farming and experimentation, exploitation of wildlife, new understanding of animal needs, and increasing public awareness and concern. The latter, in particular, determines the need for new animal welfare legislation to regulate and discipline the 'use' of animals for different purposes, such as food production, companionship, work and leisure. This paper intends to provide an overview of the more relevant activities carried out by the Council of Europe and the European Union in the field of animal welfare. The authors identify eLearning as a tool to harmonise the interpretation and the implementation of animal welfare legislation. PMID:16358508

  19. The animal welfare act as applied to primate animal laboratories.

    PubMed

    Schwindaman, D F

    1983-01-01

    The Animal Welfare Act (Public Law 89-544, as amended) was passed by Congress to assure the humane care and treatment of certain warmblooded animals bought, sold, held, or transported for purposes of research, exhibition, or for use as pets. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is responsible for administering the minimum care and treatment requirements promulgated under the authorities of this law. This paper presents in some detail the requirements and responsibilities of users of nonhuman primates for research, testing, or experimentation.

  20. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    ... 08 Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (text version) Arabic Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) Chinese Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) French ...

  1. Animal Models of Head Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Cernak, Ibolja

    2005-01-01

    Summary: Animal models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are used to elucidate primary and secondary sequelae underlying human head injury in an effort to identify potential neuroprotective therapies for developing and adult brains. The choice of experimental model depends upon both the research goal and underlying objectives. The intrinsic ability to study injury-induced changes in behavior, physiology, metabolism, the blood/tissue interface, the blood brain barrier, and/or inflammatory- and immune-mediated responses, makes in vivo TBI models essential for neurotrauma research. Whereas human TBI is a highly complex multifactorial disorder, animal trauma models tend to replicate only single factors involved in the pathobiology of head injury using genetically well-defined inbred animals of a single sex. Although such an experimental approach is helpful to delineate key injury mechanisms, the simplicity and hence inability of animal models to reflect the complexity of clinical head injury may underlie the discrepancy between preclinical and clinical trials of neuroprotective therapeutics. Thus, a search continues for new animal models, which would more closely mimic the highly heterogeneous nature of human TBI, and address key factors in treatment optimization. PMID:16389305

  2. Spacecraft -- Capsule Separation (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Spacecraft -- Capsule Separation animation

    This animation shows the return capsule separating from the Stardust spacecraft.

  3. Code of Practice on Animals in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Provides guidelines prepared by the National Science Teachers Association for the use and care of invertebrate and vertebrate animals in the classroom. Suggestions are made for conducting experimental and observational studies. (CS)

  4. Human Behavior: Do Animals Have the Answer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Robert J.

    1974-01-01

    Results of psychological experiments usinganimals are presented. Use of the animal-human analogy to generalize these findings to humans is discussed. Ethological studies are interpreted in light of the total environment and situation involved. The completeness of the ethological model compared to the animal-experimental model is discussed. (LS)

  5. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading.

    PubMed

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-02-01

    Do non-human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non-human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading-whether scientifically aided or not-have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non-human animals should be accorded.

  6. Animals in Science Education--Ethics and Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley, G. R.

    1991-01-01

    Summarizes the animal rights argument that objects to the use or killing of animals for educational purposes. Reviews and evaluates alternative approaches that include the nonanimal options of videotaped experiments, self-experimentation, and computer simulations. (MDH)

  7. A pivotal year for lab animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Holden, C

    1986-04-11

    Developments in the U.S. during 1985 related to laboratory animal welfare are discussed. The enactment of amendments to the Animal Welfare Act of 1966 and revisions to the Public Health Service's animal care guidelines are described as major federal moves to tighten standards and to locate responsibility for proper animal care at the institutional level. These regulatory changes will have a significant economic impact on the cost of doing research, but are generally accepted by the scientific community as necessary. Although moderate animal welfare groups see signs of progress, there is a growing number of activists who see recent policy developments as only a step toward the real goal of total elimination of the use of animals in research. It is apparent that the combination of political pressure, financial stringency, and better experimental methodologies will result in a continued reduction in laboratory animal use.

  8. Physics for Animation Artists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-01-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

  9. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    PubMed Central

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

  10. Myocardial diseases of animals.

    PubMed Central

    Van Vleet, J. F.; Ferrans, V. J.

    1986-01-01

    In this review we have attempted a comprehensive compilation of the cardiac morphologic changes that occur in spontaneous and experimental myocardial diseases of animals. Our coverage addresses diseases of mammals and birds and includes these diseases found in both domesticated and wild animals. A similar review of the myocardial diseases in this broad range of animal species has not been attempted previously. We have summarized and illustrated the gross, microscopic, and ultrastructural alterations for these myocardial diseases; and, whenever possible, we have reviewed their biochemical pathogenesis. We have arranged the myocardial diseases for presentation and discussion according to an etiologic classification with seven categories. These include a group of idiopathic or primary cardiomyopathies recognized in man (hypertrophic, dilated, and restrictive types) and a large group of secondary cardiomyopathies with known causes, such as inherited tendency; nutritional deficiency; toxicity; physical injury and shock; endocrine disorders, and myocarditides of viral, bacterial, and protozoal causation. Considerable overlap exists between each of the etiologic groups in the spectrum of pathologic alterations seen in the myocardium. These include various degenerative changes, myocyte necrosis, and inflammatory lesions. However, some diseases show rather characteristic myocardial alterations such as vacuolar degeneration in anthracycline cardiotoxicity, myofibrillar lysis in furazolidone cardiotoxicity, calcification in calcinosis of mice, glycogen accumulation in the glycogenoses, lipofuscinosis in cattle, fatty degeneration in erucic acid cardiotoxicity, myofiber disarray in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and lymphocytic inflammation with inclusion bodies in canine parvoviral myocarditis. The myocardial diseases represent the largest group in the spectrum of spontaneous cardiac diseases of animals. Pericardial and endocardial diseases and congential cardiac diseases are

  11. Biocentric ethics and animal prosperity.

    PubMed

    Anchustegui, A T

    2005-01-01

    Singer's utilitarian and Regan's deontological views must be rejected because: (1) they rely on criteria for moral standing that can only be known a priori and (2) if these criteria were successful, they'd be too restrictive. I hold that while mental properties may be sufficient for moral standing, they are not necessary. (3) Their criteria of moral standing do not unambiguously abrogate needless harm to animals. I defend a theory of biocentric individualism that upholds the principle of species egalitarianism while at the same time recognizing that in certain cases, human needs must outweigh the needs of non-humans. On this view, moral consideration is not conferred only on beings that have human-life mental properties. Finally, it offers an unambiguous recommendation for the abolition of harmful animal experimentation, factory farming, and killing animals for sport. PMID:16276672

  12. Biocentric ethics and animal prosperity.

    PubMed

    Anchustegui, A T

    2005-01-01

    Singer's utilitarian and Regan's deontological views must be rejected because: (1) they rely on criteria for moral standing that can only be known a priori and (2) if these criteria were successful, they'd be too restrictive. I hold that while mental properties may be sufficient for moral standing, they are not necessary. (3) Their criteria of moral standing do not unambiguously abrogate needless harm to animals. I defend a theory of biocentric individualism that upholds the principle of species egalitarianism while at the same time recognizing that in certain cases, human needs must outweigh the needs of non-humans. On this view, moral consideration is not conferred only on beings that have human-life mental properties. Finally, it offers an unambiguous recommendation for the abolition of harmful animal experimentation, factory farming, and killing animals for sport.

  13. Data base on animal mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    A data base on animal mortality has been compiled. The literature on LD/sub 50/ and the dose-response function for radiation-induced lethality, reflect several inconsistencies - primarily due to dose assignments and to analytical methods and/or mathematical models used. Thus, in order to make the individual experiments which were included in the data base as consistent as possible, an estimate of the uniform dose received by the bone marrow in each treatment group was made so that the interspecies differences are minimized. The LD/sub 50/ was recalculated using a single estimation procedure for all studies for which sufficient experimental data are available. For small animals such as mice, the dose to the hematopoietic system is approximately equal to the treatment dose, but for large animals the marrow dose may be about half of the treatment dose.

  14. Animals in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Angela

    1988-01-01

    Animals are indispensable to the space program. Their continued use could have many significant results. Those who are opposed to using animals in space should remember that space animals are treated humanely; they are necessary because results can be obtained from them that would be unobtainable from humans; and results from animal experiments can be applied to human systems. Therefore, NASA should continue to use animals in space research.

  15. Electrochemical healing similarities between animals and plants.

    PubMed Central

    Gensler, W

    1979-01-01

    A brief summary of the major results in enhanced wound healing by electrolysis in animals and humans is presented along with the results of enhanced growth by electrolysis in plants. Hypotheses of normal and enhanced wound healing in animal and plants are reviewed. A comparison of the experimental results indicates strong similarities in the optimum magnitude and polarity of the externally applied galvanic current in animals and plants. There are, however, differences in optimum current densities, There are strong similarities in animal and plant electropotential changes during normal healing. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:262440

  16. Reforming the politics of animal research.

    PubMed

    Levin, Lisa Hara; Reppy, William A

    2015-07-01

    An unfortunate tension exists between the biomedical research and animal welfare/rights communities. We believe that despite the mistrust between these groups, there are individuals on both sides of the controversy who seek to better understand the other. We recommend an update of institutional policies that will better inform the public about the use of non-human animals in biomedical research and improve a dialogue on such use between concerned individuals who either support or oppose non-human animal-based biomedical research. Such interactions may well determine the longevity of using non-human animals as experimental subjects.

  17. Laboratory animal: biological reagent or living being?

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, C.V.P.; de Almeida, A.E.C.C.

    2014-01-01

    The duties of humans toward non-human animals and their rights in society have been debated for a long time. However, a discussion on the terminology used for the identification of laboratory animals is usually not considered, although the employment of inadequate terminology may generate disastrous consequences for the animals before, during, and after the experiment. This study intends to defend the use of appropriate terminology, call attention to an unethical attitude of certain professionals when dealing with experimental animals, and also propose operational mechanisms, which allow for those distortions to be corrected. PMID:24345873

  18. Laboratory animal: biological reagent or living being?

    PubMed

    Cardoso, C V P; Almeida, A E C C de

    2014-01-01

    The duties of humans toward non-human animals and their rights in society have been debated for a long time. However, a discussion on the terminology used for the identification of laboratory animals is usually not considered, although the employment of inadequate terminology may generate disastrous consequences for the animals before, during, and after the experiment. This study intends to defend the use of appropriate terminology, call attention to an unethical attitude of certain professionals when dealing with experimental animals, and also propose operational mechanisms, which allow for those distortions to be corrected.

  19. Animal use for science in Europe.

    PubMed

    Daneshian, Mardas; Busquet, Francois; Hartung, Thomas; Leist, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    To investigate long-term trends of animal use, the EU animal use statistics from the 15 countries that have been in the EU since 1995 plus respective data from Switzerland were analyzed. The overall number of animals used for scientific purposes in these countries, i.e., about 11 million/year, remained relatively constant between 1995 and 2011, with net increases in Germany and the UK and net decreases in Belgium, Denmark, Italy, Finland, the Netherlands and Sweden. The relatively low and constant numbers of experimental animals used for safety assessment (toxicology, 8%) may be due to the particularly intensive research on alternative methods in this area. The many efficiently working NGOs, multiple initiatives of the European Parliament, and coordinated activities of industry and the European Commission may have contributed to keeping the animal numbers in this field in check. Basic biological science, and research and development for medicine, veterinary and dentistry together currently make up 65% of animal use in science. Although the total numbers have remained relatively constant, consumption of transgenic animals has increased drastically; in Germany transgenic animals accounted for 30% of total animal use in 2011. Therefore, more focus on alternatives to the use of animals in biomedical research, in particular on transgenic animals, will be important in the future. One initiative designed to provide inter-sector information exchange for future actions is the "MEP - 3Rs scientists pairing scheme" initiated in 2015 by CAAT-Europe and MEP Pietikäinen.

  20. Animals for teaching purposes: medical students' attitude.

    PubMed

    Glick, S M

    1995-01-01

    Animal rights movements have increased the scope and intensity of their activities over the past decade. While it is generally assumed that doctors and other members of the health care professions favour the use of animals for science, few data are available. Student protests in various medical schools against use of animals in teaching laboratories indicated further need for objective data. A questionnaire about attitudes to the use of animals for teaching purposes was distributed to all the medical students at the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, present during classes on a given day. All students present (200) returned the questionnaire (70% of the student body). Also queried were attitudes towards related subjects. A high percentage of medical students surveyed had significant reservations about animal experimentation for teaching purposes and about the preferential priority for human life over that of animals. These attitudes, if confirmed, have serious implications for educators both in the health fields and otherwise. PMID:7623684