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Sample records for 100-fs laser pulses

  1. Band tail absorption saturation in CdWO4 with 100 fs laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Laasner, R; Fedorov, N; Grigonis, R; Guizard, S; Kirm, M; Makhov, V; Markov, S; Nagirnyi, V; Sirutkaitis, V; Vasil'ev, A; Vielhauer, S; Tupitsyna, I A

    2013-06-19

    The decay kinetics of the excitonic emission of CdWO4 scintillators was studied under excitation by powerful 100 fs laser pulses in the band tail (Urbach) absorption region. A special imaging technique possessing both spatial and temporal resolution provided a unique insight into the Förster dipole-dipole interaction of self-trapped excitons, which is the main cause of the nonlinear quenching of luminescence in this material. In addition, the saturation of phonon-assisted excitonic absorption due to extremely short excitation pulses was discovered. A model describing the evolution of electronic excitations in the conditions of absorption saturation was developed and an earlier model of decay kinetics based on the Förster interaction was extended to include the saturation effect. Compared to the previous studies, a more accurate calculation yields 3.7 nm as the Förster interaction radius. It was shown that exciton-exciton interaction is the main source of scintillation nonproportionality in CdWO4. A quantitative description using a new model of nonproportionality was presented, making use of the corrected value of the Förster radius.

  2. Generation of sub-100-fs pulses from a CW mode-locked chromium-doped forsterite laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seas, A.; Petricevic, V.; Alfano, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    Generation of femtosecond pulses from a continuous-wave mode-locked chromium-doped forsterite laser is reported. The forsterite laser was actively mode locked by using an acoustooptic modulator operating at 78 MHz with two Brewster high-dispersion glass prisms for intracavity chirp compensation. Transform-limited sub-100-fs pulses were routinely generated in the TEM(00) mode with 85 mW of continuous power (with 1 percent output coupler), tunable over 1230-1280 nm. The shortest pulses measured had a 60-fs pulse width.

  3. Sub-100 fs pulses at watt-level powers from a dissipative-soliton fiber laser

    PubMed Central

    Kieu, K.; Renninger, W. H.; Chong, A.; Wise, F. W.

    2011-01-01

    We report a mode-locked fiber laser that exploits dissipative-soliton pulse shaping along with cladding pumping for high average power. The laser generates 31 nJ chirped pulses at 70 MHz repetition rate, for an average power of 2.2 W. After dechirping outside the laser, 80 fs pulses, with 200 kW peak power, are obtained. PMID:19252562

  4. Generation of sub-100 fs pulses from mode-locked Nd,Y:SrF2 laser with enhancing SPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiangfeng; Wei, Long; Tian, Wenlong; Liu, Jiaxing; Wang, Zhaohua; Su, Liangbi; Xu, Jun; Wei, Zhiyi

    2016-05-01

    A mode-locked laser using Nd,Y:SrF2 crystal as the gain medium is presented in this letter. By special design of the cavity for enhancing the self-phase modulation effect, femtosecond mode-locking with 97 fs pulse duration and 13.2 nm spectral width centered at 1061 nm is obtained at a repetition rate of 96 MHz. The average output power is 102 mW under 925 mW pump power, corresponding to the optical-to-optical efficiency of 11%. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first sub-100 fs pulses generated from a mode-locked Nd doped crystal laser.

  5. Regenerative amplification of femtosecond pulses: Design and construction of a sub-100fs, {mu}J laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, A.B. |

    1996-10-01

    Femtosecond lasers are a powerful tool for a wealth of applications in physics, chemistry and biology. In most cases, however, their use is fundamentally restricted to a rather narrow spectral range. This thesis deals with the construction and characterization of a femtosecond light source for spectroscopic applications which overcomes that restriction. It is demonstrated how the output of a continuously pumped Ti:sapphire femtosecond oscillator is amplified to the {mu}J level, while the pulse duration remains below 100fs. A combination of continuous pumping, acousto-optic switching and Ti:Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a gain medium allows amplification at high repetition rates. By focusing the high energy pulses into a sapphire crystal, a broad-band continuum can be generated, extended in wavelengths over several hundred nanometers. To accomplish amplification of three orders of magnitude while maintaining the pulse length, a regenerative multipass amplifier system was built. The thesis describes theoretical design, realization and characterization of the system. Theoretical calculations and preliminary measurements were carried out and allow a critical evaluation of the final performance.

  6. Regenerative Amplification of Femtosecond Pulses: Design andConstruction of a sub-100fs, muon J Laser System

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, Andreas B.

    1996-10-01

    Femtosecond lasers are a powerful tool for a wealth of applications in physics, chemistry and biology. In most cases, however, their use is fundamentally restricted to a rather narrow spectral range. This thesis deals with the construction and characterization of a femtosecond light source for spectroscopic applications which overcomes that restriction. It is demonstrated how the output of a continuously pumped Ti:sapphire femtosecond oscillator is amplified to the μJ level,while the pulse duration remains below 100 fs. A combination of continuous pumping, acousto-optic switching and Ti:Al2O3 as a gain medium allows amplification at high repetition rates. By focusing the high energy pulses into a sapphire crystal, a broad-band continuum can be generated, extended in wavelengths over several hundred nanometers. To accomplish amplification of three orders of magnitude while maintaining the pulse length, a regenerative multipass amplifier system was built. The thesis describes theoretical design, realization and characterization of the system. Theoretical calculations and preliminary measurements were carried out and allow a critical evaluation of the final performance.

  7. Vector similariton erbium-doped all-fiber laser generating sub-100-fs nJ pulses at 100 MHz.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Michel; Piché, Michel

    2016-02-08

    Erbium-doped mode-locked fiber lasers with repetition rates comparable to those of solid-state lasers and generating nJ pulses are required for many applications. Our goal was to design a fiber laser that would meet such requirements, that could be built at relatively low cost and that would be reliable and robust. We thus developed a high-fundamental-repetition-rate erbium-doped all-fiber laser operating in the amplifier similariton regime. Experimental characterization shows that this laser, which is mode-locked by nonlinear polarization evolution, emits 76-fs pulses with an energy of 1.17 nJ at a repetition rate of 100 MHz. Numerical simulations support the interpretation of self-similar evolution of the pulse in the gain fiber. More specifically we introduce the concept of vector similariton in fiber lasers. The coupled x- and y- polarization components of such a pulse have a pulse profile with a linear chirp and their combined power profile evolves self-similarly when the nonlinear asymptotic regime is reached in the gain fiber.

  8. High-energy, sub-100 fs, all-fiber stretched-pulse mode-locked Er-doped ring laser with a highly-nonlinear resonator.

    PubMed

    Dvoretskiy, Dmitriy A; Lazarev, Vladimir A; Voropaev, Vasiliy S; Rodnova, Zhanna N; Sazonkin, Stanislav G; Leonov, Stanislav O; Pnev, Alexey B; Karasik, Valeriy E; Krylov, Alexander A

    2015-12-28

    We report on ultra-short stretched pulse generation in an all-fiber erbium-doped ring laser with a highly-nonlinear germanosilicate fiber inside the resonator with a slightly positive net-cavity group velocity dispersion (GVD). Stable 84 fs pulses were obtained with a 12 MHz repetition rate at a central wavelength of 1560 nm with a 48.1 nm spectral pulse width (full width at half maximum, FWHM) and 30 mW average output power; this corresponds to the 29.7 kW maximum peak power and 2.5 nJ pulse energy obtained immediately from the oscillator.

  9. Sub-100 fs mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser using a 45°-tilted fiber grating.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zuxing; Mou, Chengbo; Yan, Zhijun; Zhou, Kaiming; Zhang, Lin; Turitsyn, Sergei

    2013-11-18

    We demonstrate generation of sub-100 fs pulses at 1.5 µm in a mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser using a 45°-tilted fiber grating element. The laser features a genuine all-fiber configuration. Based on the unique polarization properties of the 45°-tilted fiber grating, we managed to produce sub-100 fs laser pulses through proper dispersion management. To the best of our knowledge, this is the shortest pulse generated from mode-locked lasers with fiber gratings. The output pulse has an average power of 8 mW, with a repetition rate of 47.8 MHz and pulse energy of 1.68 nJ. The performance of laser also matches well the theoretical simulations.

  10. Sub-100 fs high average power directly blue-diode-laser-pumped Ti:sapphire oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrbacher, Andreas; Markovic, Vesna; Pallmann, Wolfgang; Resan, Bojan

    2016-03-01

    Ti:sapphire oscillators are a proven technology to generate sub-100 fs (even sub-10 fs) pulses in the near infrared and are widely used in many high impact scientific fields. However, the need for a bulky, expensive and complex pump source, typically a frequency-doubled multi-watt neodymium or optically pumped semiconductor laser, represents the main obstacle to more widespread use. The recent development of blue diodes emitting over 1 W has opened up the possibility of directly diode-laser-pumped Ti:sapphire oscillators. Beside the lower cost and footprint, a direct diode pumping provides better reliability, higher efficiency and better pointing stability to name a few. The challenges that it poses are lower absorption of Ti:sapphire at available diode wavelengths and lower brightness compared to typical green pump lasers. For practical applications such as bio-medicine and nano-structuring, output powers in excess of 100 mW and sub-100 fs pulses are required. In this paper, we demonstrate a high average power directly blue-diode-laser-pumped Ti:sapphire oscillator without active cooling. The SESAM modelocking ensures reliable self-starting and robust operation. We will present two configurations emitting 460 mW in 82 fs pulses and 350 mW in 65 fs pulses, both operating at 92 MHz. The maximum obtained pulse energy reaches 5 nJ. A double-sided pumping scheme with two high power blue diode lasers was used for the output power scaling. The cavity design and the experimental results will be discussed in more details.

  11. Sub-100-fs Cr:YAG laser mode-locked by monolayer graphene saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Davide Di Dio Cafiso, Samuele; Ugolotti, Elena; Schmidt, Andreas; Petrov, Valentin; Griebner, Uwe; Agnesi, Antonio; Cho, Won Bae; Jung, Bo Hee; Rotermund, Fabian; Bae, Sukang; Hong, Byung Hee; Reali, Giancarlo; Pirzio, Federico

    2013-05-15

    We report on mode-locking of a Cr:YAG laser at 1516 nm using a monolayer graphene-based saturable absorber of transmission type generating 91 fs pulses with a Fourier product of 0.38 at an average output power exceeding 100 mW. Stable single-pulse mode-locked operation without any sign of Q-switching instabilities or multiple pulses is achieved.

  12. A sub-100 fs self-starting Cr:forsterite laser generating 1.4 W output power.

    PubMed

    Chia, Shih-Hsuan; Liu, Tzu-Ming; Ivanov, Anatoly A; Fedotov, Andrey B; Zheltikov, Aleksey M; Tsai, Ming-Rung; Chan, Ming-Che; Yu, Che-Hang; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2010-11-08

    Without cavity dumping or external amplification, we report a femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser with a 1.4 W output power and 2 W in continuous wave (CW) operated with a crystal temperature of 267 K. In the femtosecond regime, the oscillator generates Kerr-lens-mode-locked 84 fs pulses with a repetition rate of 85 MHz, corresponding to a high 16.5 nJ pulse energy directly from a single Cr:forsterite resonator. This intense femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser is ideal to pump varieties of high power fiber light sources and could be thus ideal for many biological and spectroscopy applications.

  13. Sub-100 fs pulses from an all-polarization maintaining Yb-fiber oscillator with an anomalous dispersion higher-order-mode fiber.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, A J; Zhu, L; Israelsen, S Møller; Grüner-Nielsen, L; Unterhuber, A; Kautek, W; Rottwitt, K; Baltuška, A; Fernández, A

    2015-10-05

    We present an Yb-fiber oscillator with an all-polarization-maintaining cavity with a higher-order-mode fiber for dispersion compensation. The polarization maintaining higher order mode fiber introduces not only negative second order dispersion but also negative third order dispersion in the cavity, in contrast to dispersion compensation schemes used in previous demonstrations of all-polarization maintaining Yb-fiber oscillators. The performance of the saturable absorber mirror modelocked oscillator, that employs a free space scheme for coupling onto the saturable absorber mirror and output coupling, was investigated for different settings of the intracavity dispersion. When the cavity is operated with close to zero net dispersion, highly stable 0.5-nJ pulses externally compressed to sub-100-fs are generated. These are to our knowledge the shortest pulses generated from an all-polarization-maintaining Yb-fiber oscillator. The spectral phase of the output pulses is well behaved and can be compensated such that wing-free Fourier transform limited pulses can be obtained. Further reduction of the net intracavity third order dispersion will allow generating broader output spectra and consequently shorter pulses, without sacrificing pulse fidelity.

  14. Comparison of amplified spontaneous emission pulse cleaners for use in chirped pulse amplification front end lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, J; Siders, C; Phan, H; Kanz, V; Barty, C

    2007-07-02

    We compare various schemes for removing amplified spontaneous emission from seed laser pulses. We focus on compact schemes that are compatible with fiber laser front end systems with pulse energies in the 10nJ-1{micro}J range and pulse widths in the 100fs-10ps range. Pre-pulse contrast ratios greater than 10{sup 9} have been measured.

  15. Relativistic laser pulse compression in magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Yun; Sang, Hai-Bo Wan, Feng; Lv, Chong; Xie, Bai-Song

    2015-07-15

    The self-compression of a weak relativistic Gaussian laser pulse propagating in a magnetized plasma is investigated. The nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which describes the laser pulse amplitude evolution, is deduced and solved numerically. The pulse compression is observed in the cases of both left- and right-hand circular polarized lasers. It is found that the compressed velocity is increased for the left-hand circular polarized laser fields, while decreased for the right-hand ones, which is reinforced as the enhancement of the external magnetic field. We find a 100 fs left-hand circular polarized laser pulse is compressed in a magnetized (1757 T) plasma medium by more than ten times. The results in this paper indicate the possibility of generating particularly intense and short pulses.

  16. Transforming graphite to nanoscale diamonds by a femtosecond laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Nueske, R.; Jurgilaitis, A.; Enquist, H.; Harb, M.; Larsson, J.; Fang, Y.; Haakanson, U.

    2012-01-23

    Formation of cubic diamond from graphite following irradiation by a single, intense, ultra-short laser pulse has been observed. Highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) samples were irradiated by a 100 fs pulse with a center wavelength of 800 nm. Following laser exposure, the HOPG samples were studied using Raman spectroscopy of the sample surface. In the laser-irradiated areas, nanoscale cubic diamond crystals have been formed. The exposed areas were also studied using grazing incidence x-ray powder diffraction showing a restacking of planes from hexagonal graphite to rhombohedral graphite.

  17. Megawatt peak power level sub-100 fs Yb:KGW oscillators.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haitao; Major, Arkady

    2014-12-15

    We report on the first demonstration, to the best of our knowledge, of sub-100 fs pulses directly from the diode-pumped mode-locked Yb:KGW bulk oscillators operated at a low repetition rate. The 36 MHz oscillator delivered 78 fs pulses with pulse energy of 50 nJ and peak power of 0.65 MW. The cavity was extended by inserting a 1:1 imaging telescope, allowing 85 fs pulses to be generated at a repetition rate of 18 MHz. The pulse energy up to 83 nJ was reached, corresponding to a peak power as high as 1 MW. Sub-100 fs regime was achieved by dual action of the Kerr-lens and saturable absorber (KLAS) mode locking.

  18. Propagation of ultrashort laser pulses through water.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianchao; Alexander, Dennis R; Zhang, Haifeng; Parali, Ufuk; Doerr, David W; Bruce, John C; Wang, Hao

    2007-02-19

    In this paper, propagation of ultrashort pulses through a long 3.5 meter water channel was studied. Of particular interest was the attenuation of the beam at various lengths along the variable path length and to find an explanation of why the attenuation deviates from typical Beer Lambert law around 3 meters for ultrashort laser pulse transmission. Laser pulses of 10 fs at 75 MHz, 100 fs at 80 MHz and 300 fs at 1 KHz were employed to investigate the effects of pulse duration, spectrum and repetition rate on the attenuation after propagating through water up to 3 meters. Stretched pulse attenuation measurements produced from 10 fs at a frequency of 75 MHz were compared with the 10 fs attenuation measurements. Results indicate that the broad spectrum of the ultrashort pulse is the dominant reason for the observed decrease in attenuation after 3 meters of travel in a long water channel. The repetition rate is found not to play a significant role at least for the long pulse scenario in this reported attenuation studies.

  19. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER: Effect of the pulse duration on graphitisation of diamond during laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kononenko, Vitalii V.; Kononenko, Taras V.; Pimenov, S. M.; Sinyavskii, M. N.; Konov, Vitalii I.; Dausinger, F.

    2005-03-01

    Processes of graphitisation of laser-irradiated polycrystalline diamond surface exposed to multipulse irradiation are studied experimentally. The thickness of the laser-modified layer as a function of the laser-pulse duration ranging from 100 fs to 1.5 μs and the effect of the radiation wavelength on this thickness are studied. It is shown that the diamond graphitisation during multipulse laser ablation is a thermally stimulated process. The dependences of the diamond-ablation rates on the radiation energy density under the action of laser pulses of various durations are presented.

  20. Short-pulse, high-intensity lasers at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A.J.; Roberts, J.P.; Rodriguez, G.; Fulton, R.D.; Kyrala, G.A.; Schappert, G.T.

    1994-03-01

    Advances in ultrafast lasers and optical amplifiers have spurred the development of terawatt-class laser systems capable of delivering focal spot intensities approaching 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. At these extremely high intensities, the optical field strength is more than twenty times larger than the Bohr electric field, permitting investigations of the optical properties of matter in a previously unexplored regime. The authors describe two laser systems for high intensity laser interaction experiments: The first is a terawatt system based on amplification of femtosecond pulses in XeCl which yields 250 mJ in 275 fs and routinely produces intensifies on target in excess of 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}. The second system is based on chirped pulse amplification of 100-fs pulses in Ti:sapphire.

  1. Switching of 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses using a compact PMN-PT modulator.

    PubMed

    Adany, Peter; Price, E Shane; Johnson, Carey K; Zhang, Run; Hui, Rongqing

    2009-03-01

    A voltage-controlled birefringent cell based on ceramic PMN-PT material is used to enable fast intensity modulation of femtosecond laser pulses in the 800 nm wavelength window. The birefringent cell based on a PMN-PT compound has comparatively high electro-optic response, allowing for a short interaction length of 3 mm and thus very small size, low attenuation of 0.16 dB, and negligible broadening for 100 fs optical pulses. As an application example, agile wavelength tuning of optical pulses is demonstrated using the soliton self-frequency shift in a photonic crystal fiber. By dynamically controlling the optical power into the fiber, this system switches the wavelength of 100 fs pulses from 900 nm to beyond 1120 nm with less than 5 micros time. In addition, a feedback system stabilizes the wavelength drift against external conditions resulting in high wavelength stability.

  2. Cloning assay thresholds on cells exposed to ultrafast laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Karsten; Riemann, Iris; Fischer, Peter; Becker, Thomas P.; Oehring, Hartmut; Halbhuber, Karl-Juergen

    1999-06-01

    The influence of the peak power, laser wavelength and the pulse duration of near infrared ultrashort laser pulses on the reproduction behavior of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells has been studied. In particular, we determined the cloning efficiency of single cell pairs after exposure to ultrashort laser pulses with an intensity in the range of GW/cm2 and TW/cm2. A total of more than 3500 non- labeled cells were exposed to a highly focused scanning beam of a multiphoton laser microscope with 60 microsecond(s) pixel dwell time per scan. The beam was provided by a tunable argon ion laser pumped mode-locked 76 MHz Titanium:Sapphire laser as well as by a compact solid-state laser based system (Vitesse) at a fixed wavelength of 800 nm. Pulse duration (tau) was varied in the range of 100 fs to 4 ps by out-of- cavity pulse-stretching units consisting of SF14 prisms and blazed gratings. Within an optical (laser power) window CHO cells could be scanned for hours without severe impact on reproduction behavior, morphology and vitality. Ultrastructural studies reveal that mitochondria are the major targets of intense destructive laser pulses. Above certain laser power P thresholds, CHO cells started to delay or failed to undergo cell division and, in part, to develop uncontrolled cell growth (giant cell formation). The damage followed a P2/(tau) relation which is typical for a two- photon excitation process. Therefore, cell damage was found to be more pronounced at shorter pulses. Due to the same P2/(tau) relation for the efficiency of fluorescence excitation, two-photon microscopy of living cells does not require extremely short femtosecond laser pulses nor pulse compression units. Picosecond as well as femtosecond lasers can be used as efficient light sources in safe two photon fluorescence microscopy. Only in three photon fluorescence microscopy, femtosecond laser pulses are advantageous over picosecond pulses.

  3. Cloning assay thresholds on cells exposed to ultrafast laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Karsten; Riemann, Iris; Fischer, Peter; Becker, Thomas P.; Oehring, Hartmut; Halbhuber, Karl-Juergen

    1999-06-01

    The influence of the peak power, laser wavelength and the pulse duration of near infrared (NIR) ultrashort laser pulses on the reproduction behavior of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells has been studied. In particular we determined the cloning efficiency of single cell pairs after exposure to ultrashort laser pulses with an intensity in the range of GW/cm2 and TW/cm2. A total of more than 3500 non- labeled cells were exposed to a highly focused scanning beam of a multiphoton laser microscope with 60 microsecond pixel dwell time per scan. The beam was provided by a tunable argon ion laser pumped mode-locked 76 MHz Titanium:Sapphire laser as well as by a compact solid-state laser based system (Vitesse) at a fixed wavelength of 800 nm. Pulse duration (tau) was varied in the range of 100 fs to 4 ps by out-of-cavity pulse- stretching units consisting of SF14 prisms and blazed gratings. Within an optical (laser power) window CHO cells could be scanned for hours without severe impact on reproduction behavior, morphology and vitality. Ultrastructural studies reveal that mitochondria are the major targets of intense destructive laser pulses. Above certain laser power P thresholds, CHO cells started to delay or failed to undergo cell division and, in part, to develop uncontrolled cell growth (giant cell formation). The damage followed a P2/(tau) relation which is typical for a two-photon excitation process. Therefore, cell damage was found to be more pronounced at shorter pulses. Due to the same P2/(tau) relation for the efficiency of fluorescence excitation, two- photon microscopy of living cells does not require extremely short femtosecond laser pulses nor pulse compression units. Picosecond as well as femtosecond layers can be used as efficient light sources in safe two photon fluorescence microscopy. Only in three photon fluorescence microscopy, femtosecond laser pulses are advantageous over picosecond pulses.

  4. Pulsed IR inductive lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razhev, A. M.; Churkin, D. S.; Kargapol'tsev, E. S.

    2014-07-01

    Pulsed inductive discharge is a new alternative method of pumping active gas laser media. The work presents results of experimental investigations of near, mid, and far IR inductive gas lasers (H2, HF, and CO2) operating at different transitions of atoms and molecules with different mechanisms of formation of inversion population. The excitation systems of a pulsed inductive cylindrical discharge (pulsed inductively coupled plasma) and pulsed RF inductive discharge in the gases are developed. Various gas mixtures including H2, N2, He, Ne, F2, NF3, and SF6 are used. Characteristics of near IR H2 laser radiation are investigated. Maximal pulse peak power of 7 kW is achieved. The possibility of using a pulsed inductive discharge as a new method of pumping HF laser active medium is demonstrated. The pulsed RF inductive CO2 laser is created and a total efficiency of 17% is achieved.

  5. Laser pulse stacking method

    DOEpatents

    Moses, Edward I.

    1992-01-01

    A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter.

  6. Laser pulse stacking method

    DOEpatents

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter. 2 figs.

  7. Laser fusion pulse shape controller

    DOEpatents

    Siebert, Larry D.

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus for controlling the pulse shape, i.e., the pulse duration and intensity pattern, of a pulsed laser system, and which is particularly well adapted for controlling the pellet ignition pulse in a laser-driven fusion reaction system. The apparatus comprises a laser generator for providing an optical control pulse of the shape desired, a pulsed laser triggered by the control pulse, and a plurality of optical Kerr-effect gates serially disposed at the output of the pulsed laser and selectively triggered by the control pulse to pass only a portion of the pulsed laser output generally corresponding in shape to the control pulse.

  8. Theory of plasmonic femtosecond pulse generation by mode-locking of long-range surface plasmon polariton lasers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang-Hyon; Husakou, Anton; Herrmann, Joachim

    2012-01-02

    We develop a semiclassical theory of passively mode-locked surface plasmon polariton (SPP) lasers based on a SPP Bragg resonator with a metal film deposited on a polymer host and adjacent layers of a slow saturable absorber and a slow saturable gain medium. The mode-locked laser dynamics is studied for the case that both the gain medium and the saturable absorber are solid-state dyes. The SPP laser pulse parameters are calculated in dependence on layer thicknesses of the metal film and pump parameters. We predict the possibility of SPP pulse generation with ∼ 100 fs pulse duration.

  9. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Formation of micromodifications in a KDP crystal irradiated by tightly focused femtosecond visible laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordienko, Vyacheslav M.; Makarov, Ivan A.; Mikheev, Pavel M.; Syrtsov, Vladimir S.; Shashkov, Alexander A.

    2005-07-01

    The formation of micromodifications in the bulk of a KDP crystal irradiated by tightly focused 600-nm, 100-fs and 200-fs, 0.02-10 μJ femtosecond laser pulses is studied. A theoretical model describing the initial stage of formation of a plasma channel taking into account field ionisation and heating of the electron component of the plasma is proposed. The laser pulse intensity (1013 W cm-2), the electron concentration (1020 cm-3) and the average electron temperature (5 eV) in the plasma channel are estimated.

  10. Pulsed inductive HF laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razhev, A. M.; Churkin, D. S.; Kargapol'tsev, E. S.; Demchuk, S. V.

    2016-03-01

    We report the results of experimentally investigated dependences of temporal, spectral and spatial characteristics of an inductive HF-laser generation on the pump conditions. Gas mixtures H2 - F2(NF3 or SF66) and He(Ne) - H2 - F2(NF3 or SF6) were used as active media. The FWHM pulse duration reached 0.42 μs. This value corresponded to a pulsed power of 45 kW. For the first time, the emission spectrum of an inductive HF laser was investigated, which consisted of seven groups of bands with centres around the wavelengths of 2732, 2736, 2739, 2835, 2837, 2893 and 2913 nm. The cross section profile of the laser beam was a ring with a diameter of about 20 mm and width of about 5 mm. Parameters of laser operation in the repetitively pulsed regime were sufficiently stable. The amplitude instability of light pulses was no greater than 5% - 6%.

  11. Guiding of high intensity ultrashort laser pulses in plasma channels produced with the dual laser pulse ignitor-heater technique

    SciTech Connect

    Volfbeyn, P.; Leemans, W.P.

    1998-07-01

    The authors present results of experimental investigations of laser guiding in plasma channels. A new technique for plasma channel creation, the Ignitor-Heater scheme is proposed and experimentally tested in hydrogen and nitrogen. It makes use of two laser pulses. The Ignitor, an ultrashort (< 100 fs) laser pulse, is brought to a line focus using a cylindrical lens to ionize the gas. The Heater pulse (160 ps long) is used subsequently to heat the existing spark via inverse Bremsstrahlung. The hydrodynamic shock expansion creates a partially evacuated plasma channel with a density minimum on axis. Such a channel has properties of an optical waveguide. This technique allows creation of plasma channels in low atomic number gases, such as hydrogen, which is of importance for guiding of highly intense laser pulses. The channel density was diagnosed with time resolved longitudinal interferometry. From these measurements the plasma temperature was inferred. The guiding properties of the channels were tested by injecting a > 5 {times} 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}, 75 fs laser pulse.

  12. Pulsed excimer laser processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, D.

    1985-01-01

    The status of pulsed excimer laser processing of PV cells is presented. The cost effective feasibility of fabricating high efficiency solar cells on Czochralski wafers using a pulsed excimer laser for junction formation, surface passivation, and front metallization. Laser annealing results were promising with the best AR coated cell having an efficiency of 16.1%. Better results would be expected with larger laser spot size because there was some degradation in open circuit voltage caused by laser spot overlap and edge effects. Surface heating and photolytic decomposition by the laser was used to deposit tungsten from the reaction of tungsten hexafluoride and hydrogen. The line widths were 5 to 10 mils, and the depositions passed the tape adhesion test. Thinner lines are practical using an optimized optical system.

  13. Pulsed excimer laser processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, D.

    1985-06-01

    The status of pulsed excimer laser processing of PV cells is presented. The cost effective feasibility of fabricating high efficiency solar cells on Czochralski wafers using a pulsed excimer laser for junction formation, surface passivation, and front metallization. Laser annealing results were promising with the best AR coated cell having an efficiency of 16.1%. Better results would be expected with larger laser spot size because there was some degradation in open circuit voltage caused by laser spot overlap and edge effects. Surface heating and photolytic decomposition by the laser was used to deposit tungsten from the reaction of tungsten hexafluoride and hydrogen. The line widths were 5 to 10 mils, and the depositions passed the tape adhesion test. Thinner lines are practical using an optimized optical system.

  14. Pulsed Laser Propulsion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-01

    Journal, Vol. 12, No. 9,September 1974, pp. 1254-1261. 5. D. D. Papailiou, ed., "Frontiers in Propulsion Research: Laser, Matter - Antimatter , Exited...82177AD-AI09 850 PHYSICAL SCIENCES INC WOBURN MA F/G 20/5 PULSED LASER PROPULSION .(U) OCT 78 P E NEBOLSINE, A N PIRRI, J S GOELA N00014-76-C 0738...UNCLASSIFIED PSI-TR-142 III~~D EEC~h~I -M 0 1111_L251.4 11 [4 LEVEL2PSI TR-1 2 LO "r PULSED LASER PROPULSION " P. E. Nebolsine, A. N. Pirri, J. S. Goela, G

  15. Modeling of ablation threshold dependence on pulse duration for dielectrics with ultrashort pulsed laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mingying; Zhu, Jianqiang; Lin, Zunqi

    2017-01-01

    We present a numerical model of plasma formation in ultrafast laser ablation on the dielectrics surface. Ablation threshold dependence on pulse duration is predicted with the model and the numerical results for water agrees well with the experimental data for pulse duration from 140 fs to 10 ps. Influences of parameters and approximations of photo- and avalanche-ionization on the ablation threshold prediction are analyzed in detail for various pulse lengths. The calculated ablation threshold is strongly dependent on electron collision time for all the pulse durations. The complete photoionization model is preferred for pulses shorter than 1 ps rather than the multiphoton ionization approximations. The transition time of inverse bremsstrahlung absorption needs to be considered when pulses are shorter than 5 ps and it can also ensure the avalanche ionization (AI) coefficient consistent with that in multiple rate equations (MREs) for pulses shorter than 300 fs. The threshold electron density for AI is only crucial for longer pulses. It is reasonable to ignore the recombination loss for pulses shorter than 100 fs. In addition to thermal transport and hydrodynamics, neglecting the threshold density for AI and recombination could also contribute to the disagreements between the numerical and the experimental results for longer pulses.

  16. Nanofabrication with pulsed lasers.

    PubMed

    Kabashin, Av; Delaporte, Ph; Pereira, A; Grojo, D; Torres, R; Sarnet, Th; Sentis, M

    2010-02-24

    An overview of pulsed laser-assisted methods for nanofabrication, which are currently developed in our Institute (LP3), is presented. The methods compass a variety of possibilities for material nanostructuring offered by laser-matter interactions and imply either the nanostructuring of the laser-illuminated surface itself, as in cases of direct laser ablation or laser plasma-assisted treatment of semiconductors to form light-absorbing and light-emitting nano-architectures, as well as periodic nanoarrays, or laser-assisted production of nanoclusters and their controlled growth in gaseous or liquid medium to form nanostructured films or colloidal nanoparticles. Nanomaterials synthesized by laser-assisted methods have a variety of unique properties, not reproducible by any other route, and are of importance for photovoltaics, optoelectronics, biological sensing, imaging and therapeutics.

  17. Pulsed inductive HF laser

    SciTech Connect

    Razhev, A M; Kargapol'tsev, E S; Churkin, D S; Demchuk, S V

    2016-03-31

    We report the results of experimentally investigated dependences of temporal, spectral and spatial characteristics of an inductive HF-laser generation on the pump conditions. Gas mixtures H{sub 2} – F{sub 2}(NF{sub 3} or SF6{sub 6}) and He(Ne) – H{sub 2} – F{sub 2}(NF{sub 3} or SF{sub 6}) were used as active media. The FWHM pulse duration reached 0.42 μs. This value corresponded to a pulsed power of 45 kW. For the first time, the emission spectrum of an inductive HF laser was investigated, which consisted of seven groups of bands with centres around the wavelengths of 2732, 2736, 2739, 2835, 2837, 2893 and 2913 nm. The cross section profile of the laser beam was a ring with a diameter of about 20 mm and width of about 5 mm. Parameters of laser operation in the repetitively pulsed regime were sufficiently stable. The amplitude instability of light pulses was no greater than 5% – 6%. (lasers)

  18. Pulsed laser beam intensity monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Cason, C.M.; Jones, R.W.

    1982-07-13

    A pulsed laser beam intensity monitor measures the peak power within a selectable cross section of a test laser beam and measures integrated energy of the beam during the pulse period of a test laser. A continuous wave laser and a pulsed ruby laser are coaxially arranged for simultaneously transmitting optical output energy through a crystal flat during the time a test laser pulse is transmitted through the flat. Due to stress birefringence in the crystal, the ruby laser pulse transmitted through the flat is recorded and analyzed to provide peak power information about the test laser output pulse, and the continuous wave laser output reflected from the crystal flat provides a measurement of energy during the test laser pulse.

  19. Nanofabrication with Pulsed Lasers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    An overview of pulsed laser-assisted methods for nanofabrication, which are currently developed in our Institute (LP3), is presented. The methods compass a variety of possibilities for material nanostructuring offered by laser–matter interactions and imply either the nanostructuring of the laser-illuminated surface itself, as in cases of direct laser ablation or laser plasma-assisted treatment of semiconductors to form light-absorbing and light-emitting nano-architectures, as well as periodic nanoarrays, or laser-assisted production of nanoclusters and their controlled growth in gaseous or liquid medium to form nanostructured films or colloidal nanoparticles. Nanomaterials synthesized by laser-assisted methods have a variety of unique properties, not reproducible by any other route, and are of importance for photovoltaics, optoelectronics, biological sensing, imaging and therapeutics. PMID:20672069

  20. Pulsed gas laser

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Louis W.; Fitzsimmons, William A.

    1978-01-01

    A pulsed gas laser is constituted by Blumlein circuits wherein space metal plates function both as capacitors and transmission lines coupling high frequency oscillations to a gas filled laser tube. The tube itself is formed by spaced metal side walls which function as connections to the electrodes to provide for a high frequency, high voltage discharge in the tube to cause the gas to lase. Also shown is a spark gap switch having structural features permitting a long life.

  1. High-power efficient cw and pulsed lasers based on bulk Yb : KYW crystals with end diode pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, G H; Yang, G H; Lee, D S; Kulik, Alexander V; Sall', E G; Chizhov, S A; Yashin, V E; Kang, U

    2012-04-30

    End-diode-pumped lasers based on one and two Yb : KYW crystals operating in cw and Q-switched regimes, as well as in the regime of mode-locking, are studied. The single-crystal laser generated stable ultrashort (shorter than 100 fs) laser pulses at wavelengths of 1035 and 1043 nm with an average power exceeding 1 W. The average output power of the two-crystal laser exceeded 18 W in the cw regime and 16 W in the Q-switched regime with a slope efficiency exceeding 30%.

  2. Unambiguous ultrashort pulse reconstruction from double spectrograms alone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, Birger; Wheatley, Robert Alastair; Rojas-Aedo, Ricardo; Wallentowitz, Sascha; Volkmann, Ulrich; Sperlich, Karsten; Stolz, Heinrich

    2016-10-01

    We report a spectrographic technique for amplitude and phase measurements of ultrashort laser pulses (above 10 fs). Pulse information is obtained directly from two different spectrograms, using the mathematical relations between Wigner-Ville function projections. Pulses are reconstructed rapidly and unambiguously without stagnation. This non-interferometric method is demonstrated experimentally for the successful characterization of 100 fs pulses.

  3. Laser pulse sampler

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles

    1998-01-01

    The Laser Pulse Sampler (LPS) measures temporal pulse shape without the problems of a streak camera. Unlike the streak camera, the laser pulse directly illuminates a camera in the LPS, i.e., no additional equipment or energy conversions are required. The LPS has several advantages over streak cameras. The dynamic range of the LPS is limited only by the range of its camera, which for a cooled camera can be as high as 16 bits, i.e., 65,536. The LPS costs less because there are fewer components, and those components can be mass produced. The LPS is easier to calibrate and maintain because there is only one energy conversion, i.e., photons to electrons, in the camera.

  4. Laser pulse sampler

    DOEpatents

    Vann, C.

    1998-03-24

    The Laser Pulse Sampler (LPS) measures temporal pulse shape without the problems of a streak camera. Unlike the streak camera, the laser pulse directly illuminates a camera in the LPS, i.e., no additional equipment or energy conversions are required. The LPS has several advantages over streak cameras. The dynamic range of the LPS is limited only by the range of its camera, which for a cooled camera can be as high as 16 bits, i.e., 65,536. The LPS costs less because there are fewer components, and those components can be mass produced. The LPS is easier to calibrate and maintain because there is only one energy conversion, i.e., photons to electrons, in the camera. 5 figs.

  5. Laser pulse detector

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, Douglas N.; Akerman, M. Alfred

    1981-01-01

    A laser pulse detector is provided which is small and inexpensive and has the capability of detecting laser light of any wavelength with fast response (less than 5 nanoseconds rise time). The laser beam is focused onto the receiving end of a graphite rod coaxially mounted within a close-fitting conductive, open-end cylindrical housing so that ablation and electric field breakdown of the resulting plasma occurs due to a bias potential applied between the graphite rod and housing. The pulse produced by the breakdown is transmitted through a matched impedance coaxial cable to a recording device. The cable is connected with its central lead to the graphite rod and its outer conductor to the housing.

  6. Laser pulse detector

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, D.N.; Akerman, M.A.

    1979-08-13

    A laser pulse detector is provided which is small and inexpensive and has the capability of detecting laser light of any wavelength with fast response (less than 5 nanoseconds rise time). The laser beam is focused onto the receiving end of a graphite rod coaxially mounted within a close-fitting conductive, open-end cylindrical housing so that ablation and electric field breakdown of the resulting plasma occurs due to a bias potential applied between the graphite rod and housing. The pulse produced by the breakdown is transmitted through a matched impedance coaxial cable to a recording device. The cable is connected with its central lead to the graphite rod and its outer conductor to the housing.

  7. Plasma Parameter of a Capillary Discharge-Produced Plasma Channel to Guide an Ultrashort Laser Pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Terauchi, Hiromitsu; Bai, Jin-xiang; Yugami, Noboru

    2009-01-22

    We have observed the optical guiding of a 100-fs laser pulse with the laser intensity in the range of 10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2} using a 1.5-cm long capillary discharge-produced plasma channel for compact electron acceleration applications. The optical pulse propagation using the plasma channel is achieved with the electron densities of 10{sup 17}-10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} and the electron temperatures of 0.5-4 eV at a discharge time delay of around 150 ns and a discharge current of 500 A with a pulse duration of 100-150 ns. An energy spectrum of the accelerated electrons from a laser-plasma acceleration scheme showed a peak at 1.3 MeV with a maximum energy tail of 1.6 MeV.

  8. Second-harmonic generation of femtosecond high-intensity Ti:sapphire laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Kurumi; Tamaki, Yusuke; Obara, Minoru; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    1998-03-01

    The second-harmonic generation (SHG) of ultrashort Ti:sapphire laser pulses in potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystal in type-I phase-matching geometry has been investigated theoretically, including the effects of cubic nonlinearity. It is found that the phase mismatch due to the broad bandwidth associated with the short pulse width limits the maximum conversion efficiency to less than 60%, and the temporal shape of the converted pulse has an intensity modulation at an incident intensity of 100 GW/cm2 for a 100 fs pulse. In order to increase the energy conversion efficiency and improve the temporal pulse shape, a new SHG geometry using two antiparallel tilted crystals is discussed.

  9. Influence of pulse duration on mechanical effects after laser-induced breakdown in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, Joachim; Hammer, Daniel X.; Noojin, Gary D.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.; Vogel, Alfred

    1998-06-01

    The influence of the pulse duration on the mechanical effects following laser-induced breakdown in water was studied at pulse durations between 100 fs and 100 ns. Breakdown was generated by focusing laser pulses into a cuvette containing distilled water. The pulse energy corresponded to 6-times breakdown threshold energy. Plasma formation and shock wave emission were studied photographically. The plasma photographs show a strong influence of self-focusing on the plasma geometry for femtosecond pulses. Streak photographic recording of the shock propagation in the immediate vicinity of the breakdown region allowed the measurement of the near-field shock pressure. At the plasma rim, shock pressures between 3 and 9 GPa were observed for most pulse durations. The shock pressure rapidly decays proportionally to r-(2⋯3) with increasing distance r from the optical axis. At a 6 mm distance of the shock pressure has dropped to (8.5±0.6) MPa for 76 ns and to <0.1 MPa for femtosecond pulses. The radius of the cavitation bubble is reduced from 2.5 mm (76 ns pulses) to less than 50 μm for femtosecond pulses. Mechanical effects such as shock wave emission and cavitation bubble expansion are greatly reduced for shorter laser pulses, because the energy required to produce breakdown decreases with decreasing pulse duration, and because a larger fraction of energy is required to overcome the heat of vaporization with femtosecond pulses.

  10. Laser beam pulse formatting method

    DOEpatents

    Daly, Thomas P.; Moses, Edward I.; Patterson, Ralph W.; Sawicki, Richard H.

    1994-01-01

    A method for formatting a laser beam pulse (20) using one or more delay loops (10). The delay loops (10) have a partially reflective beam splitter (12) and a plurality of highly reflective mirrors (14) arranged such that the laser beam pulse (20) enters into the delay loop (10) through the beam splitter (12) and circulates therein along a delay loop length (24) defined by the mirrors (14). As the laser beam pulse (20) circulates within the delay loop (10) a portion thereof is emitted upon each completed circuit when the laser beam pulse (20) strikes the beam splitter (12). The laser beam pulse (20) is thereby formatted into a plurality of sub-pulses (50, 52, 54 and 56). The delay loops (10) are used in combination to produce complex waveforms by combining the sub-pulses (50, 52, 54 and 56) using additive waveform synthesis.

  11. Generating femtosecond optical pulses tunable from 2 to 3  μm with a silica-based all-fiber laser system.

    PubMed

    Anashkina, E A; Andrianov, A V; Yu Koptev, M; Muravyev, S V; Kim, A V

    2014-05-15

    Femtosecond pulses with broad tunability in the range of 2-3 μm are generated in a germanate-glass core silica-glass cladding fiber with a driving pulse at 2 μm produced by an all-fiber laser system consisting of an Er:fiber source at 1.6 μm, a Raman fiber shifter, and a Tm:fiber amplifier. We demonstrate optical pulses with a duration of the order of 100 fs that are the shortest ones reported in the 2.5-3 μm range obtained by fiber laser systems.

  12. High Energy X-Ray Source Generation by Short Pulse High Intensity Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H-S; Koch, J A; Landen, O L; Phillips, T W; Goldsack, T; Clark, E; Eagleton, R; Edwards, R

    2003-09-02

    We are studying the feasibility of utilizing K{alpha} x-ray sources in the range of 20 to 100 keV as a backlighters for imaging various stages of implosions and high areal density planar samples driven by the NIF laser facility. The hard x-ray K{alpha} sources are created by relativistic electron plasma interactions in the target material after a radiation by short pulse high intensity lasers. In order to understand K{alpha} source characteristics such as production efficiency and brightness as a function of laser parameters, we have performed experiments using the 10 J, 100 fs JanUSP laser. We utilized single-photon counting spectroscopy and x-ray imaging diagnostics to characterize the K{alpha} source. We find that the K{alpha} conversion efficiency from the laser energy at 22 keV is {approx} 3 x 10{sup -4}.

  13. In-vivo plasma-mediated ablation as a function of laser pulse width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinbing; Tien, An-Chun; Juhasz, Tibor; Irish, Barbara; Elner, Victor; Kurtz, Ron M.

    1997-06-01

    We evaluated in vivo wound healing responses to plasma- mediated ablation in skin as a function of laser pulsewidth and energy. Experiments utilized a regeneratively amplified Ti:Sapphire laser operating at 800 nm with pulsewidths varied from 7 ns to 100 fs. Skin incisions were created in mice by tightly focusing the laser beam on the tissue surface. Incisions of equal depth were compared at time points ranging from 6 hours to 3 weeks using standard histologic methods. Incision depth was proportional to pulse energy at each pulsewidth. Fluence threshold dependence on laser pulsewidth agreed with those predicted by ex vivo testing. Histologic analysis revealed minimal adjacent tissue damage at pulsewidths less than a few picoseconds and energies near the fluence threshold. Longer pulsewidths and higher fluence levels were associated with more significant collateral effects. These in vivo results suggest collateral tissue damage and secondary effects may be minimized by controlling laser pulsewidth and energy.

  14. Strong-field ionization and Coulomb explosion of argon clusters by few-cycle laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, D.; Rajgara, F. A.; Holkundkar, A. R.; Gupta, N. K.

    2010-08-01

    Energy distributions are measured for ions emitted upon Coulomb explosion of Arn clusters (n=400-900) upon irradiation by intense three-cycle pulses (10 fs) of 800-nm laser light of peak intensity 5×1014Wcm-2. With few-cycle pulses, there is insufficient time for the cluster to undergo expansion; this results in overall dynamics that are significantly different from those in the many-cycle regime. The peak ion energies are much lower than those obtained when 100-fs pulses of the same intensity are used; they are almost independent of the size of the cluster (over the range 400-900 atoms). Ion yields are measured to be larger in the direction that is perpendicular to the laser-polarization vector than along it. Model molecular dynamics calculations are used to qualitatively rationalize this unexpected anisotropy in terms of shielding by a spatially asymmetric electronic-charge cloud within the cluster.

  15. Micro pulse laser radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, James D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An eye safe, compact, solid state lidar for profiling atmospheric cloud and aerosol scattering is disclosed. The transmitter of the micro pulse lidar is a diode pumped micro-J pulse energy, high repetition rate Nd:YLF laser. Eye safety is obtained through beam expansion. The receiver employs a photon counting solid state Geiger mode avalanche photodiode detector. Data acquisition is by a single card multichannel scaler. Daytime background induced quantum noise is controlled by a narrow receiver field-of-view and a narrow bandwidth temperature controlled interference filter. Dynamic range of the signal is limited to optical geometric signal compression. Signal simulations and initial atmospheric measurements indicate that micropulse lider systems are capable of detecting and profiling all significant cloud and aerosol scattering through the troposphere and into the stratosphere. The intended applications are scientific studies and environmental monitoring which require full time, unattended measurements of the cloud and aerosol height structure.

  16. Nanograting formation on metals in air with interfering femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, Kenzo E-mail: kmiyazaki@wind.ocn.ne.jp; Miyaji, Godai; Inoue, Toshishige

    2015-08-17

    It is demonstrated that a homogeneous nanograting having the groove period much smaller than the laser wavelength (∼800 nm) can be fabricated on metals in air through ablation induced by interfering femtosecond laser pulses (100 fs at a repetition rate of 10 Hz). Morphological changes on stainless steel and Ti surfaces, observed with an increase in superimposed shots of the laser pulses at a low fluence, have shown that the nanograting is developed through bonding structure change at the interference fringes, plasmonic near-field ablation to create parallel grooves on the fringe, and subsequent excitation of surface plasmon polaritons to regulate the groove intervals at 1/3 or 1/4 of the fringe period over the whole irradiated area. Calculation for a model target having a thin oxide layer on the metal substrate reproduces well the observed groove periods and explains the mechanism for the nanograting formation.

  17. Generation of GW radiation pulses from a VUV free-electron laser operating in the femtosecond regime.

    PubMed

    Ayvazyan, V; Baboi, N; Bohnet, I; Brinkmann, R; Castellano, M; Castro, P; Catani, L; Choroba, S; Cianchi, A; Dohlus, M; Edwards, H T; Faatz, B; Fateev, A A; Feldhaus, J; Flöttmann, K; Gamp, A; Garvey, T; Genz, H; Gerth, Ch; Gretchko, V; Grigoryan, B; Hahn, U; Hessler, C; Honkavaara, K; Hüning, M; Ischebeck, R; Jablonka, M; Kamps, T; Körfer, M; Krassilnikov, M; Krzywinski, J; Liepe, M; Liero, A; Limberg, T; Loos, H; Luong, M; Magne, C; Menzel, J; Michelato, P; Minty, M; Müller, U-C; Nölle, D; Novokhatski, A; Pagani, C; Peters, F; Pflüger, J; Piot, P; Plucinski, L; Rehlich, K; Reyzl, I; Richter, A; Rossbach, J; Saldin, E L; Sandner, W; Schlarb, H; Schmidt, G; Schmüser, P; Schneider, J R; Schneidmiller, E A; Schreiber, H-J; Schreiber, S; Sertore, D; Setzer, S; Simrock, S; Sobierajski, R; Sonntag, B; Steeg, B; Stephan, F; Sytchev, K P; Tiedtke, K; Tonutti, M; Treusch, R; Trines, D; Türke, D; Verzilov, V; Wanzenberg, R; Weiland, T; Weise, H; Wendt, M; Will, I; Wolff, S; Wittenburg, K; Yurkov, M V; Zapfe, K

    2002-03-11

    Experimental results are presented from vacuum-ultraviolet free-electron laser (FEL) operating in the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) mode. The generation of ultrashort radiation pulses became possible due to specific tailoring of the bunch charge distribution. A complete characterization of the linear and nonlinear modes of the SASE FEL operation was performed. At saturation the FEL produces ultrashort pulses (30-100 fs FWHM) with a peak radiation power in the GW level and with full transverse coherence. The wavelength was tuned in the range of 95-105 nm.

  18. High power ultrashort pulse lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, M.D.

    1994-10-07

    Small scale terawatt and soon even petawatt (1000 terawatt) class laser systems are made possible by application of the chirped-pulse amplification technique to solid-state lasers combined with the availability of broad bandwidth materials. These lasers make possible a new class of high gradient accelerators based on the large electric fields associated with intense laser-plasma interactions or from the intense laser field directly. Here, we concentrate on the laser technology to produce these intense pulses. Application of the smallest of these systems to the production of high brightness electron sources is also introduced.

  19. Laser system using ultra-short laser pulses

    DOEpatents

    Dantus, Marcos; Lozovoy, Vadim V.; Comstock, Matthew

    2009-10-27

    A laser system using ultrashort laser pulses is provided. In another aspect of the present invention, the system includes a laser, pulse shaper and detection device. A further aspect of the present invention employs a femtosecond laser and binary pulse shaping (BPS). Still another aspect of the present invention uses a laser beam pulse, a pulse shaper and a SHG crystal.

  20. High-power pulsed lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Holzrichter, J.F.

    1980-04-02

    The ideas that led to the successful construction and operation of large multibeam fusion lasers at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory are reviewed. These lasers are based on the use of Nd:glass laser materials. However, most of the concepts are applicable to any laser being designed for fusion experimentation. This report is a summary of lectures given by the author at the 20th Scottish University Summer School in Physics, on Laser Plasma Interaction. This report includes basic concepts of the laser plasma system, a discussion of lasers that are useful for short-pulse, high-power operation, laser design constraints, optical diagnostics, and system organization.

  1. Type-I cascaded quadratic soliton compression in lithium niobate: Compressing femtosecond pulses from high-power fiber lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Bache, Morten; Wise, Frank W.

    2010-05-15

    The output pulses of a commercial high-power femtosecond fiber laser or amplifier are typically around 300-500 fs with wavelengths of approximately 1030 nm and tens of microjoules of pulse energy. Here, we present a numerical study of cascaded quadratic soliton compression of such pulses in LiNbO{sub 3} using second-harmonic generation in a type-I phase-matching configuration. We find that because of competing cubic material nonlinearities, compression can only occur in the nonstationary regime, where group-velocity-mismatch-induced Raman-like nonlocal effects prevent compression to less than 100 fs. However, the strong group-velocity dispersion implies that the pulses can achieve moderate compression to durations of less than 130 fs in available crystal lengths. Most of the pulse energy is conserved because the compression is moderate. The effects of diffraction and spatial walk-off are addressed, and in particular the latter could become an issue when compressing such long crystals (around 10 cm long). We finally show that the second harmonic contains a short pulse locked to the pump and a long multi-picosecond red-shifted detrimental component. The latter is caused by the nonlocal effects in the nonstationary regime, but because it is strongly red-shifted to a position that can be predicted, we show that it can be removed using a bandpass filter, leaving a visible component of less than 100 fs at {lambda}=515 nm with excellent pulse quality.

  2. Efficient Cherenkov emission of broadband terahertz radiation from an ultrashort laser pulse in a sandwich structure with nonlinear core

    SciTech Connect

    Bodrov, S. B.; Bakunov, M. I.; Hangyo, M.

    2008-11-01

    A scheme for efficient generation of broadband terahertz radiation by a femtosecond laser pulse propagating in a planar sandwichlike structure is proposed. The structure consists of a thin nonlinear core cladded with prisms made of a material with low terahertz absorption. The focused into a line laser pulse propagates in the core as a leaky or waveguide mode and emits Cherenkov wedge of terahertz waves in the cladding. We developed a theory that describes terahertz generation in such a structure and calculated spatial distribution of the generated terahertz field, its energy spectrum and optical-to-terahertz conversion efficiency. The developed theory predicts the conversion efficiency of up to several percent in a 1 cm long and 1 cm wide Si-LiNbO{sub 3}-Si sandwich structure with a 20 {mu}m thick nonlinear layer pumped by 8.5 {mu}J Ti:sapphire laser with pulse duration of 100 fs.

  3. Dual-Laser-Pulse Ignition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Huu; Early, James W.; Thomas, Matthew E.; Bossard, John A.

    2006-01-01

    A dual-pulse laser (DPL) technique has been demonstrated for generating laser-induced sparks (LIS) to ignite fuels. The technique was originally intended to be applied to the ignition of rocket propellants, but may also be applicable to ignition in terrestrial settings in which electric igniters may not be suitable.

  4. Anharmonic resonance absorption of short laser pulses in clusters: A molecular dynamics simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahalik, S. S.; Kundu, M.

    2016-12-01

    Linear resonance (LR) absorption of an intense 800 nm laser light in a nano-cluster requires a long laser pulse >100 fs when Mie-plasma frequency ( ω M ) of electrons in the expanding cluster matches the laser frequency (ω). For a short duration of the pulse, the condition for LR is not satisfied. In this case, it was shown by a model and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123401 (2006)] that electrons absorb laser energy by anharmonic resonance (AHR) when the position-dependent frequency Ω [ r ( t ) ] of an electron in the self-consistent anharmonic potential of the cluster satisfies Ω [ r ( t ) ] = ω . However, AHR remains to be a debate and still obscure in multi-particle plasma simulations. Here, we identify AHR mechanism in a laser driven cluster using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. By analyzing the trajectory of each MD electron and extracting its Ω [ r ( t ) ] in the self-generated anharmonic plasma potential, it is found that electron is outer ionized only when AHR is met. An anharmonic oscillator model, introduced here, brings out most of the features of MD electrons while passing the AHR. Thus, we not only bridge the gap between PIC simulations, analytical models, and MD calculations for the first time but also unequivocally prove that AHR process is a universal dominant collisionless mechanism of absorption in the short pulse regime or in the early time of longer pulses in clusters.

  5. Ultrashort laser pulse beam shaping.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuyan; Ren, Yuhang; Lüpke, Gunter

    2003-02-01

    We calculated the temporal and spatial characteristics of an ultrashort laser pulse propagating through a diffractive beam-shaping system that converts a Gaussian beam into a beam with a uniform irradiance profile that was originally designed for continuous waves [Proc. SPIE 2863, 237(1996)]. The pulse front is found to be considerably curved for a 10-fs pulse, resulting in a temporal broadening of the pulse that increases with increasing radius. The spatial intensity distribution deviates significantly from a top-hat profile, whereas the fluence shows a homogeneous radial distribution.

  6. 20-100 keV K(alpha) X-Ray Source Generation by Short Pulse High Intensity Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H-S; Koch, J A; Landen, O L; Phillips, T W; Goldsack, T

    2003-08-22

    We are studying the feasibility of utilizing K{alpha} x-ray sources in the range of 20 to 100 keV as a backlighters for imaging various stages of implosions and high areal density planar samples driven by the NIF laser facility. The hard x-ray K{alpha} sources are created by relativistic electron plasma interactions in the target material after a radiation by short pulse high intensity lasers. In order to understand K{alpha} source characteristics such as production efficiency and brightness as a function of laser parameters, we have performed experiments using the 10 J, 100 fs JanUSP laser. We utilized single-photon counting spectroscopy and x-ray imaging diagnostics to characterize the K{alpha} source. We find that the K{alpha} conversion efficiency from the laser energy is {approx} 3 x 10{sup -4}.

  7. Coaxial short pulsed laser

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, M.A.; Davies, T.J.

    1975-08-01

    This invention relates to a laser system of rugged design suitable for use in a field environment. The laser itself is of coaxial design with a solid potting material filling the space between components. A reservoir is employed to provide a gas lasing medium between an electrode pair, each of which is connected to one of the coaxial conductors. (auth)

  8. Short pulse free electron laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Schlitt, Leland G.; Szoke, Abraham

    1985-01-01

    Method and apparatus for amplification of a laser pulse in a free electron laser amplifier where the laser pulse duration may be a small fraction of the electron beam pulse duration used for amplification. An electron beam pulse is passed through a first wiggler magnet and a short laser pulse to be amplified is passed through the same wiggler so that only the energy of the last fraction, f, (f<1) of the electron beam pulse is consumed in amplifying the laser pulse. After suitable delay of the electron beam, the process is repeated in a second wiggler magnet, a third, . . . , where substantially the same fraction f of the remainder of the electron beam pulse is consumed in amplification of the given short laser pulse in each wiggler magnet region until the useful electron beam energy is substantially completely consumed by amplification of the laser pulse.

  9. 66 W average power from a microjoule-class sub-100 fs fiber oscillator.

    PubMed

    Baumgartl, Martin; Lecaplain, Caroline; Hideur, Ammar; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2012-05-15

    Performance scaling of passively mode-locked ultrashort-pulse fiber oscillators in terms of average power, peak power, and pulse energy is demonstrated. A very-large-mode-area fiber laser in an all-positive group-velocity-dispersion ring cavity configuration with intracavity spectral filter, mode-locked by nonlinear polarization evolution, emits 66 W of average power at 76 MHz repetition rate, corresponding to 0.9 μJ pulse energy. The pulses are dechirped to 91 fs outside the cavity with an average power of 60 W remaining after the compressor. The generated pulse peak power is as high as 7 MW.

  10. Targeted disruption of deep-lying neocortical microvessels in rat using ultrashort laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Nozomi; Schaffer, Christopher B.; Friedman, Beth; Tsai, Philbert S.; Lyden, Patrick D.; Kleinfeld, David

    2004-06-01

    The study of neurovascular diseases such as vascular dementia and stroke require novel models of targeted vascular disruption in the brain. We describe a model of microvascular disruption in rat neocortex that uses ultrashort laser pulses to induce localized injury to specific targeted microvessels and uses two-photon microscopy to monitor and guide the photodisruption process. In our method, a train of high-intensity, 100-fs laser pulses is tightly focused into the lumen of a blood vessel within the upper 500 μm of cortex. Photodisruption induced by these laser pulses creates injury to a single vessel located at the focus of the laser, leaving the surrounding tissue intact. This photodisruption results in three modalities of localized vascular injury. At low power, blood plasma extravasation can be induced. The vessel itself remains intact, while serum is extravasated into the intercellular space. Localized ischemia caused by an intravascular clot results when the photodisruption leads to a brief disturbance of the vascular walls that initiates an endogenous clotting cascade. The formation of a localized thrombus stops the blood flow at the location of the photodisruption. A hemorrhage, defined as a large extravasation of blood including plasma and red blood cells, results when higher laser power is used. The targeted vessel does not remain intact.

  11. Ultrashort-pulse lasers machining

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, P S; Feit, M D; Nguyen, H T; Perry, M D, Stuart, B C

    1999-01-22

    A new type of material processing is enabled with ultrashort (t < 10 psec) laser pulses. Cutting, drilling, sculpting of all materials (biologic materials, ceramics, sapphire, silicon carbide, diamond, metals) occurs by new mechanisms which eliminate thermal shock or collateral damage. High precision machining to submicron tolerances is enabled resulting in high surface quality and negligible heat affected zone.

  12. Ultrashort-pulse laser machining

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, P S; Feit, M D; Nguyen, H T; Perry, M D; Rubenchik, A M; Sefcik, J A; Stuart, B C

    1998-09-01

    A new type of material processing is enabled with ultrashort (t < 10 ps) laser pulses. Cutting, drilling, sculpting of all materials (biologic materials, ceramics, sapphire, silicon carbide, diamond, metals) occurs by new mechanisms that eliminate thermal shock or collateral damage. High-precision machining to submicron tolerances is enabled resulting in high surface quality and negligible heat affected zone.

  13. Optical fiber link for transmission of 1-nJ femtosecond laser pulses at 1550 nm.

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, Finn; Olsson, Rasmus Kjelsmark; Buron, Jonas C D; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars; Pedersen, Jens Engholm; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-03-29

    We report on numerical and experimental characterization of the performance of a fiber link optimized for the delivery of sub-100-fs laser pulses at 1550 nm over several meters of fiber. We investigate the power handling capacity of the link, and demonstrate all-fiber delivery of 1-nJ pulses over a distance of 5.3 m. The fiber link consists of dispersion-compensating fiber (DCF) and standard single-mode fiber. The optical pulses at different positions in the fiber link are measured using frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG). The results are compared with numerical simulations of the pulse propagation based on the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The high input power capacity of the fiber link allows the splitting and distribution of femtosecond pulses to an array of fibers with applications in multi-channel fiber-coupled terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging systems. We demonstrate THz pulse generation and detection using a distributed fiber link with 32 channels and 2.6 nJ input pulse energy.

  14. Developing Pulsed Fiber Lasers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-15

    moving pupil imaging system. Y. Kawagoe et al. furthered the research in the early 80’s by using a rotating aperture at the Fourier ...dependent terms in Eq. 16 by their respective Fourier Series Eq. 16 can be written in the following form, ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( )( )( ) 1 2 0...Asakura, “Speckle reduction by a rotating aperture at the Fourier transform plane,” Opt. Lasers in Eng., 3 197-218, (1982) [8] T. Iwai, N. Takai

  15. Nanosecond component in a femtosecond laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Shneider, M. N.; Semak, V. V.; Zhang Zhili

    2012-11-15

    Experimental and computational results show that the coherent microwave scattering from a laser-induced plasma can be used for measuring the quality of a fs laser pulse. The temporal dynamics of the microwave scattered signal from the fs-laser induced plasma can be related to the effect of nanosecond tail of the fs laser pulse.

  16. Pulse transformer for GaAs laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutz, E. M.

    1976-01-01

    High-radiance gallium arsenide (GaAs) laser operating at room temperature is utilized in optical navigation system. For efficient transformer-to-laser impedance match, laser should be connected directly to pulse transformer secondary winding.

  17. Single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    A single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator is disclosed. The dye laser oscillator provides for improved power efficiency by reducing the physical dimensions of the overall laser cavity, which improves frequency selection capability.

  18. Single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, R.P.

    1992-11-24

    A single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator is disclosed. The dye laser oscillator provides for improved power efficiency by reducing the physical dimensions of the overall laser cavity, which improves frequency selection capability. 6 figs.

  19. Ultrafast pulse amplification in mode-locked vertical external-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Böttge, C. N. Hader, J.; Kilen, I.; Moloney, J. V.; Koch, S. W.

    2014-12-29

    A fully microscopic many-body Maxwell–semiconductor Bloch model is used to investigate the influence of the non-equilibrium carrier dynamics on the short-pulse amplification in mode-locked semiconductor microlaser systems. The numerical solution of the coupled equations allows for a self-consistent investigation of the light–matter coupling dynamics, the carrier kinetics in the saturable absorber and the multiple-quantum-well gain medium, as well as the modification of the light field through the pulse-induced optical polarization. The influence of the pulse-induced non-equilibrium modifications of the carrier distributions in the gain medium and the saturable absorber on the single-pulse amplification in the laser cavity is identified. It is shown that for the same structure, quantum wells, and gain bandwidth the non-equilibrium carrier dynamics lead to two preferred operation regimes: one with pulses in the (sub-)100 fs-regime and one with multi-picosecond pulses. The recovery time of the saturable absorber determines in which regime the device operates.

  20. Dark pulse emission of a fiber laser

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.; Tang, D. Y.; Zhao, L. M.; Wu, X.

    2009-10-15

    We report on the dark pulse emission of an all-normal dispersion erbium-doped fiber laser with a polarizer in cavity. We found experimentally that apart from the bright pulse emission, under appropriate conditions the fiber laser could also emit single or multiple dark pulses. Based on numerical simulations we interpret the dark pulse formation in the laser as a result of dark soliton shaping.

  1. Time of flight emission spectroscopy of laser produced nickel plasma: Short-pulse and ultrafast excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Smijesh, N.; Chandrasekharan, K.; Joshi, Jagdish C.; Philip, Reji

    2014-07-07

    We report the experimental investigation and comparison of the temporal features of short-pulse (7 ns) and ultrafast (100 fs) laser produced plasmas generated from a solid nickel target, expanding into a nitrogen background. When the ambient pressure is varied in a large range of 10⁻⁶Torr to 10²Torr, the plume intensity is found to increase rapidly as the pressure crosses 1 Torr. Time of flight (TOF) spectroscopy of emission from neutral nickel (Ni I) at 361.9 nm (3d⁹(²D) 4p → 3d⁹(²D) 4s transition) reveals two peaks (fast and slow species) in short-pulse excitation and a single peak in ultrafast excitation. The fast and slow peaks represent recombined neutrals and un-ionized neutrals, respectively. TOF emission from singly ionized nickel (Ni II) studied using the 428.5 nm (3p⁶3d⁸(³P) 4s→ 3p⁶3d⁹ 4s) transition shows only a single peak for either excitation. Velocities of the neutral and ionic species are determined from TOF measurements carried out at different positions (i.e., at distances of 2 mm and 4 mm, respectively, from the target surface) on the plume axis. Measured velocities indicate acceleration of neutrals and ions, which is caused by the Coulomb pull of the electrons enveloping the plume front in the case of ultrafast excitation. Both Coulomb pull and laser-plasma interaction contribute to the acceleration in the case of short-pulse excitation. These investigations provide new information on the pressure dependent temporal behavior of nickel plasmas produced by short-pulse and ultrafast laser pulses, which have potential uses in applications such as pulsed laser deposition and laser-induced nanoparticle generation.

  2. Wakefield generation via two color laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, Pallavi; Saroch, Akanksha; Kumar Verma, Nirmal

    2013-05-15

    The analytical study for the evolution of longitudinal as well as transverse electric wakefields, generated via passage of two color laser pulses through uniform plasma, has been presented in the mildly relativistic regime. The frequency difference between the two laser pulses is assumed to be equal to the plasma frequency, in the present analysis. The relative angle between the directions of polarization of the two laser pulses is varied and the wakefield amplitudes are compared. Further, the amplitude of the excited wakes by two color pulses are compared with those generated by a single laser pulse.

  3. Excitation of nuclear isomers by X rays from laser plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, Aleksandr A; Karpeshin, F; Trzhaskovskaya, M B; Platonov, Konstantin Yu; Rozhdestvenskii, Yu V

    2010-06-23

    The possibility of obtaining isomer nuclei is studied by the example of the molybdenum isomer {sup 93}Mo upon irradiation of a niobium {sup 93}Nb target by {approx}50-J, 100-fs laser pulses. It is shown that the modern laser technique allows production of isomer nuclei by accelerated protons and radiative de-excitation of isomer nuclear states by thermal or line X-rays from laser plasma. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  4. Pulse shaping on the Nova laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, J.K.; Speck, D.R.; Bibeau, C.; Weiland, T.L.

    1989-02-06

    Inertial confinement fusion requires temporally shaped pulses to achieve high gain efficiency. Recently, we demonstrated the ability to produce complex temporal pulse shapes at high power at 0.35 microns on the Nova laser system. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Chemical aerosol detection using femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Dennis R.; Rohlfs, Mark L.; Stauffer, John C.

    1997-07-01

    Many chemical warfare agents are dispersed as small aerosol particles. In the past, most electro-optical excitation and detection schemes have used continuous or pulsed lasers with pulse lengths ranging from nanoseconds to microseconds. In this paper, we present interesting ongoing new results on femtosecond imaging and on the time dependent solutions to the scattering problem of a femtosecond laser pulse interacting with a single small aerosol particle. Results are presented for various incident pulse lengths. Experimental imaging results using femtosecond pulses indicate that the diffraction rings present when using nanosecond laser pulses for imaging are greatly reduced when femtosecond laser pulses are used. Results are presented in terms of the internal fields as a function of time and the optical size parameter.

  6. Analysis of Picosecond Pulsed Laser Melted Graphite

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Steinbeck, J.; Braunstein, G.; Speck, J.; Dresselhaus, M. S.; Huang, C. Y.; Malvezzi, A. M.; Bloembergen, N.

    1986-12-01

    A Raman microprobe and high resolution TEM have been used to analyze the resolidified region of liquid carbon generated by picosecond pulse laser radiation. From the relative intensities of the zone center Raman-allowed mode for graphite at 1582 cm{sup -1} and the disorder-induced mode at 1360 cm{sup -1}, the average graphite crystallite size in the resolidified region is determined as a function of position. By comparison with Rutherford backscattering spectra and Raman spectra from nanosecond pulsed laser melting experiments, the disorder depth for picosecond pulsed laser melted graphite is determined as a function of irradiating energy density. Comparisons of TEM micrographs for nanosecond and picosecond pulsed laser melting experiments show that the structure of the laser disordered regions in graphite are similar and exhibit similar behavior with increasing laser pulse fluence.

  7. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Excitation of nuclear isomers by X rays from laser plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, Aleksandr A.; Platonov, Konstantin Yu; Rozhdestvenskii, Yu V.; Karpeshin, F.; Trzhaskovskaya, M. B.

    2010-06-01

    The possibility of obtaining isomer nuclei is studied by the example of the molybdenum isomer 93Mo upon irradiation of a niobium 93Nb target by ~50-J, 100-fs laser pulses. It is shown that the modern laser technique allows production of isomer nuclei by accelerated protons and radiative de-excitation of isomer nuclear states by thermal or line X-rays from laser plasma.

  8. Sub-80 femtosecond pulses generation from a diode-pumped mode-locked Nd:Ca3La2(BO3)4 disordered crystal laser.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Pan, Zhongben; Cai, Huaqiang; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Shen, Deyuan; Tang, Dingyuan

    2016-04-01

    We experimentally demonstrated a diode-pumped sub-80 fs Nd:Ca3La2(BO3)4 disordered crystal laser. Pumping by an 808 nm fiber coupled laser diode, stable continuous-wave mode-locked pulses as short as 79 fs were achieved with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM). The ultrashort pulses had a repetition rate of ∼98.9  MHz at the central wavelength of about 1068 nm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of sub-100 fs pulses and the shortest mode-locked pulses generated from the Nd3+-doped crystal lasers.

  9. Heating of solid targets with laser pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtel, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    Analytical and numerical solutions to the heat-conduction equation are obtained for the heating of absorbing media with pulsed lasers. The spatial and temporal form of the temperature is determined using several different models of the laser irradiance. Both surface and volume generation of heat are discussed. It is found that if the depth of thermal diffusion for the laser-pulse duration is large compared to the optical-attenuation depth, the surface- and volume-generation models give nearly identical results. However, if the thermal-diffusion depth for the laser-pulse duration is comparable to or less than the optical-attenuation depth, the surface-generation model can give significantly different results compared to the volume-generation model. Specific numerical results are given for a tungsten target irradiated by pulses of different temporal durations and the implications of the results are discussed with respect to the heating of metals by picosecond laser pulses.

  10. Pulse shaper assisted short laser pulse characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galler, A.; Feurer, T.

    2008-03-01

    We demonstrate that a pulse shaper is able to simultaneously act as an optical waveform generator and a short pulse characterization device when combined with an appropriate nonlinear element. We present autocorrelation measurements and their frequency resolved counterparts. We show that control over the carrier envelope phase allows continuous tuning between an intensity-like and an interferometric autocorrelation. By changing the transfer function other measurement techniques, for example STRUT, are easily realized without any modification of the optical setup.

  11. Nonlinear dynamics of additive pulse modelocked lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Sucha, G.; Bolton, S.R.; Chemla, D.S.

    1995-04-01

    Nonlinear dynamics have been studied in a number of modelocked laser systems, primarily in actively modelocked systems. However, less attention has been paid to the dynamics of passively modelocked laser systems. With the recent revolutionary advances in femtosecond modelocked laser technology, the understanding of instabilities and dynamics in passively modelocked lasers is an important issue. Here, the authors present experimental and numerical studies of the dynamics of an additive-pulse modelocked (APM) color-center laser.

  12. Limiting of microjoule femtosecond pulses in air-guided modes of a hollow photonic-crystal fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Konorov, S.O.; Serebryannikov, E.E.; Sidorov-Biryukov, D.A.; Bugar, I.; Chorvat, D. Jr.; Chorvat, D.; Bloemer, M.J.; Scalora, M.; Miles, R.B.; Zheltikov, A.M.

    2004-08-01

    Self-phase-modulation-induced spectral broadening of laser pulses in air-guided modes of hollow photonic-crystal fibers (PCFs) is shown to allow the creation of fiber-optic limiters for high-intensity ultrashort laser pulses. The performance of PCF limiters is analyzed in terms of elementary theory of self-phase modulation. Experiments performed with 100 fs microjoule pulses of 800 nm Ti:sapphire laser radiation demonstrate the potential of hollow PCFs as limiters for 10 MW ultrashort laser pulses and show the possibility to switch the limiting level of output radiation energy by guiding femtosecond pulses in different PCF modes.

  13. Time-resolved x-ray magnetic circular dichroism study of ultrafast demagnetization in a CoPd ferromagnetic film excited by circularly polarized laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Flores, Víctor; Arabski, Jacek; Stamm, Christian; Halté, Valérie; Pontius, Niko; Beaurepaire, Eric; Boeglin, Christine

    2012-07-01

    The magnetization dynamics of CoPd films excited by circularly polarized ultrashort laser pulses is studied by time-resolved x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. In those films the ultrafast dynamics measured at the Co-L3 edge is strongly sensitive to the orbital magnetic moment Lz. The amount of angular momentum transferred by the circularly polarized ultrashort laser pulses to the ferromagnetic films is evaluated to ±0.1 ℏ/atom, which is above the detection limit of the experiment. Despite this, no polarization-dependent difference on the magnetization dynamics could be evidenced. These results are explained by ultrafast electronic relaxation mechanisms of the transferred angular momentum, faster than ˜100 fs. This experiment sets the methodology as well as an upper time limit for determination of angular momentum relaxation processes.

  14. Pulse circuit apparatus for gas discharge laser

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, Laird P.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus and method using a unique pulse circuit for a known gas discharge laser apparatus to provide an electric field for preconditioning the gas below gas breakdown and thereafter to place a maximum voltage across the gas which maximum voltage is higher than that previously available before the breakdown voltage of that gas laser medium thereby providing greatly increased pumping of the laser.

  15. High-power picosecond laser pulse recirculation.

    PubMed

    Shverdin, M Y; Jovanovic, I; Semenov, V A; Betts, S M; Brown, C; Gibson, D J; Shuttlesworth, R M; Hartemann, F V; Siders, C W; Barty, C P J

    2010-07-01

    We demonstrate a nonlinear crystal-based short pulse recirculation cavity for trapping the second harmonic of an incident high-power laser pulse. This scheme aims to increase the efficiency and flux of Compton-scattering-based light sources. We demonstrate up to 40x average power enhancement of frequency-doubled submillijoule picosecond pulses, and 17x average power enhancement of 177 mJ, 10 ps, 10 Hz pulses.

  16. High Power Picosecond Laser Pulse Recirculation

    SciTech Connect

    Shverdin, M Y; Jovanovic, I; Semenov, V A; Betts, S M; Brown, C; Gibson, D J; Shuttlesworth, R M; Hartemann, F V; Siders, C W; Barty, C P

    2010-04-12

    We demonstrate a nonlinear crystal-based short pulse recirculation cavity for trapping the second harmonic of an incident high power laser pulse. This scheme aims to increase the efficiency and flux of Compton-scattering based light sources. We demonstrate up to 36x average power enhancement of frequency doubled sub-millijoule picosecond pulses, and 17x average power enhancement of 177 mJ, 10 ps, 10 Hz pulses.

  17. Intense isolated attosecond pulse generation from relativistic laser plasmas using few-cycle laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Guangjin; Dallari, William; Borot, Antonin; Tsakiris, George D.; Veisz, Laszlo; Krausz, Ferenc; Yu, Wei

    2015-03-15

    We have performed a systematic study through particle-in-cell simulations to investigate the generation of attosecond pulse from relativistic laser plasmas when laser pulse duration approaches the few-cycle regime. A significant enhancement of attosecond pulse energy has been found to depend on laser pulse duration, carrier envelope phase, and plasma scale length. Based on the results obtained in this work, the potential of attaining isolated attosecond pulses with ∼100 μJ energy for photons >16 eV using state-of-the-art laser technology appears to be within reach.

  18. Generation of laser pulse trains for tests of multi-pulse laser wakefield acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalloo, R. J.; Corner, L.; Arran, C.; Cowley, J.; Cheung, G.; Thornton, C.; Walczak, R.; Hooker, S. M.

    2016-09-01

    In multi-pulse laser wakefield acceleration (MP-LWFA) a plasma wave is driven by a train of low-energy laser pulses separated by the plasma period, an approach which offers a route to driving plasma accelerators with high efficiency and at high pulse repetition rates using emerging technologies such as fibre and thin-disk lasers. Whilst these laser technologies are in development, proof-of-principle tests of MP-LWFA require a pulse train to be generated from a single, high-energy ultrafast pulse. Here we demonstrate the generation of trains of up to 7 pulses with pulse separations in the range 150-170 fs from single 40 fs pulses produced by a Ti:sapphire laser.

  19. MOPA pulsed fiber laser for silicon scribing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Limei; Huang, Wei; Deng, Mengmeng; Li, Feng

    2016-06-01

    A 1064 nm master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) pulsed fiber laser is developed with flexible control over the pulse width, repetition frequency and peak power, and it is used to investigate the dependence of mono-crystalline silicon scribe depth on the laser pulse width, scanning speed and repeat times. Experimental results indicate that long pulses with low peak powers lead to deep ablation depths. We also demonstrate that the ablation depth grows fast with the scanning repeat times at first and progressively tends to be saturated when the repeat times reach a certain level. A thermal model considering the laser pulse overlapping effect that predicts the silicon temperature variation and scribe depth is employed to verify the experimental conclusions with reasonably close agreement. These conclusions are of great benefits to the optimization of the laser material processing with high efficiency.

  20. Picosecond pulsed diode ring laser gyroscope

    SciTech Connect

    Rosker, M.J.; Christian, W.R.; McMichael, I.C.

    1994-12-31

    An external ring cavity containing as its active medium a pair of InGaAsP diodes is modelocked to produce picosecond pulses. In such a laser, a small frequency difference proportional to the nonreciprocal phase shift (resulting from, e.g., the Sagnac effect) can be observed by beating together the counter propagating laser arms; the device therefore acts as a rotating sensor. In contrast to a conventional (cw) ring laser gyroscope, the pulsed gyroscope can avoid gain competition, thereby enabling the use of homogeneously broadened gain media like semiconductor diodes. Temporal separation of the pulses within the cavity also discriminates against frequency locking of the lasers. The picosecond pulsed diode ring laser gyroscope is reviewed. Both active and passive modelocking are discussed.

  1. The interaction of intense ultrashort laser pulses with cryogenic He planar jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shihab, M.; Bornath, Th; Redmer, R.

    2017-04-01

    We study the interaction of intense ultrashort laser pulses with cryogenic He planar jets, i.e., slabs, using 2D3V relativistic particle-in-cell simulations. Of particular interest are laser intensities ({10}15{--}{10}20) W cm‑2, pulse lengths ≤100 fs, and the wave length regime ∼800 nm for which the slabs are initially transparent and subsequently inhomogeneously ionized. Pulses ≥slant {10}16 W cm‑2 are found to drive ionization along the slab and outside the laser spot, the ionization front propagates along the slab at a considerable fraction of the speed of light. Within the ionized region, there is a highly transient field which is a result of the charge-neutralizing disturbance at the slab-vacuum interface and which may be interpreted in terms of a two-surface-wave decay. The ionized region is predicted to reach solid-like densities and temperatures of few to hundreds of eV, i.e., it belongs to warm and hot dense matter regimes. Such extreme conditions are relevant for high-energy densities as found, e.g., in shock-wave experiments and inertial confinement fusion studies. The temporal evolution of the ionization is studied considering theoretically a pump–probe x-ray Thomson scattering scheme. We observe plasmon and non-collective modes that are generated in the slab, and their amplitude is proportional to the ionized volume. Our theoretical findings could be tested at free-electron laser facilities such as FLASH and the European XFEL (Hamburg) and the LCLS (Stanford).

  2. Oral applications of ultra-short laser pulses: a new approach for gentle and painless treatment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousif, A.; Strassl, M.; Wieger, V.; Zoppel, S.; Wintner, E.

    2006-05-01

    In dental hard tissue ablation, ultra-short laser pulses have proven sufficiently their potential for material ablation with negligible collateral damage providing many advantages. The absence of microcracks and the possibility to avoid overheating of the pulp during dental cavity preparation may be among the most important issues, the latter opening up an avenue for potential painless treatment. Beside the evident short interaction time of laser radiation with the irradiated tissue, scanning of the ultra-short pulse trains turned out to be crucial for ablating cavities of required quality and shape. Additionally, such a technique allows to treat larger areas like the ones dentists are used to work with, i.e. ~ 1 mm Ø.In this paper, an overview of different scanning methods together with the algorithms used and an assessment of their applicability is presented. A variety of pulse durations from ~100 fs up to several ps has been used by numerous authors over the last approximately ten years. Having employed 330 fs pulses, we present the corresponding ablation thresholds for dental hard tissue (enamel, dentine; human and bovine), for a number of dental restoration materials, as well as for different types of bovine bone. Dental implants frequently have to be cleaned from plaque being deposited around their necks in areas where the gums have already retreated. A preliminary investigation is presented on the applicability of ultra-short pulses with mentioned duration for the gentle cleaning of titanium implants focusing on the preservation of the special plasma-sprayed biocompatible implant surface.

  3. Design and construction of a femtosecond pulse autocorrelator using two-photon absorption in a luminescent diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, M. A. G.; Rojo, R. R.; Jamasbi, N.; Mohebi, M.

    2003-06-01

    In this work, we present the design and construction of a femtosecond laser pulse autocorrelator, based on the two-photon absorption process in a light emitting diode (LED). Compared with traditional autocorrelators based on nonlinear crystals, this autocorrelator has the advantages of lower cost and greater ease of alignment. The intensity and interferometric autocorrelation traces obtained with this device for a titanium-sapphire laser with pulses that are less than 100 fs long, are also presented.

  4. Injection locked oscillator system for pulsed metal vapor lasers

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E.; Ault, Earl R.

    1988-01-01

    An injection locked oscillator system for pulsed metal vapor lasers is disclosed. The invention includes the combination of a seeding oscillator with an injection locked oscillator (ILO) for improving the quality, particularly the intensity, of an output laser beam pulse. The present invention includes means for matching the first seeder laser pulses from the seeding oscillator to second laser pulses of a metal vapor laser to improve the quality, and particularly the intensity, of the output laser beam pulse.

  5. Electron diffraction using ultrafast electron bunches from a laser-wakefield accelerator at kHz repetition rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Z.-H.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Beaurepaire, B.; Nees, J. A.; Hou, B.; Malka, V.; Krushelnick, K.; Faure, J.

    2013-02-01

    We show that electron bunches in the 50-100 keV range can be produced from a laser wakefield accelerator using 10 mJ, 35 fs laser pulses operating at 0.5 kHz. It is shown that using a solenoid magnetic lens, the electron bunch distribution can be shaped. The resulting transverse and longitudinal coherence is suitable for producing diffraction images from a polycrystalline 10 nm aluminum foil. The high repetition rate, the stability of the electron source, and the fact that its uncorrelated bunch duration is below 100 fs make this approach promising for the development of sub-100 fs ultrafast electron diffraction experiments.

  6. Fiber Laser Front Ends for High Energy, Short Pulse Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, J; Messerly, M; Phan, H; Siders, C; Beach, R; Barty, C

    2007-06-21

    We are developing a fiber laser system for short pulse (1-10ps), high energy ({approx}1kJ) glass laser systems. Fiber lasers are ideal for these systems as they are highly reliable and enable long term stable operation.

  7. Short Pulse Laser Applications Design

    SciTech Connect

    Town, R J; Clark, D S; Kemp, A J; Lasinski, B F; Tabak, M

    2008-02-11

    We are applying our recently developed, LDRD-funded computational simulation tool to optimize and develop applications of Fast Ignition (FI) for stockpile stewardship. This report summarizes the work performed during a one-year exploratory research LDRD to develop FI point designs for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). These results were sufficiently encouraging to propose successfully a strategic initiative LDRD to design and perform the definitive FI experiment on the NIF. Ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will begin in 2010 using the central hot spot (CHS) approach, which relies on the simultaneous compression and ignition of a spherical fuel capsule. Unlike this approach, the fast ignition (FI) method separates fuel compression from the ignition phase. In the compression phase, a laser such as NIF is used to implode a shell either directly, or by x rays generated from the hohlraum wall, to form a compact dense ({approx}300 g/cm{sup 3}) fuel mass with an areal density of {approx}3.0 g/cm{sup 2}. To ignite such a fuel assembly requires depositing {approx}20kJ into a {approx}35 {micro}m spot delivered in a short time compared to the fuel disassembly time ({approx}20ps). This energy is delivered during the ignition phase by relativistic electrons generated by the interaction of an ultra-short high-intensity laser. The main advantages of FI over the CHS approach are higher gain, a lower ignition threshold, and a relaxation of the stringent symmetry requirements required by the CHS approach. There is worldwide interest in FI and its associated science. Major experimental facilities are being constructed which will enable 'proof of principle' tests of FI in integrated subignition experiments, most notably the OMEGA-EP facility at the University of Rochester's Laboratory of Laser Energetics and the FIREX facility at Osaka University in Japan. Also, scientists in the European Union have recently proposed the construction of a new FI

  8. High-performance laser processing using manipulated ultrafast laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugioka, Koji; Cheng, Ya; Xu, Zhizhan; Hanada, Yasutaka; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2012-07-01

    We employ manipulated ultrafast laser pulses to realize microprocessing with high-performance. Efficient microwelding of glass substrates by irradiation by a double-pulse train of ultrafast laser pulses is demonstrated. The bonding strength of two photostructurable glass substrates welded by double-pulse irradiation was evaluated to be 22.9 MPa, which is approximately 22% greater than that of a sample prepared by conventional irradiation by a single pulse train. Additionally, the fabrication of hollow microfluidic channels with a circular cross-sectional shape embedded in fused silica is realized by spatiotemporally focusing the ultrafast laser beam. We show both theoretically and experimentally that the spatiotemporal focusing of ultrafast laser beam allows for the creation of a three-dimensionally symmetric spherical peak intensity distribution at the focal spot.

  9. Two-temperature relaxation and melting after absorption of femtosecond laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inogamov, N. A.; Zhakhovskii, V. V.; Ashitkov, S. I.; Khokhlov, V. A.; Petrov, Yu. V.; Komarov, P. S.; Agranat, M. B.; Anisimov, S. I.; Nishihara, K.

    2009-09-01

    The theory and experiments concerned with the electron-ion thermal relaxation and melting of overheated crystal lattice constitute the subject of this paper. The physical model includes two-temperature (2T) equation of state, many-body interatomic potential, the electron-ion energy exchange, electron thermal conductivity, and optical properties of solid, liquid, and two phase solid-liquid mixture. Two-temperature hydrodynamics and molecular dynamics codes are used. An experimental setup with pump-probe technique is used to follow evolution of an irradiated target with a short time step 100 fs between the probe femtosecond laser pulses. Accuracy of measurements of reflection coefficient and phase of reflected probe light are 1% and ˜1 nm, respectively. It is found that, firstly, the electron-electron collisions make a minor contribution to a light absorption in solid Al at moderate intensities; secondly, the phase shift of a reflected probe results from heating of ion subsystem and kinetics of melting of Al crystal during 0pspulses measured from the maximum of the pump; thirdly, the optical response of Au to a pump shows a marked contrast to that of Al on account of excitation of d-electrons.

  10. Evolution of laser pulse shape in a parabolic plasma channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, M.; Gupta, D. N.; Suk, H.

    2017-01-01

    During high-intensity laser propagation in a plasma, the group velocity of a laser pulse is subjected to change with the laser intensity due to alteration in refractive index associated with the variation of the nonlinear plasma density. The pulse front sharpened while the back of the pulse broadened due to difference in the group velocity at different parts of the laser pulse. Thus the distortion in the shape of the laser pulse is expected. We present 2D particle-in-cell simulations demonstrating the controlling the shape distortion of a Gaussian laser pulse using a parabolic plasma channel. We show the results of the intensity distribution of laser pulse in a plasma with and without a plasma channel. It has been observed that the plasma channel helps in controlling the laser pulse shape distortion. The understanding of evolution of laser pulse shape may be crucial while applying the parabolic plasma channel for guiding the laser pulse in plasma based accelerators.

  11. Pulsed Laser Illumination of Photovoltaic Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yater, Jane A.; Lowe, Roland; Jenkins, Philip; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1994-01-01

    In future space missions, free electron lasers (FEL) may be used to illuminate photovoltaic array receivers to provide remote power. The induction FEL and the radio-frequency (RF) FEL both produce pulsed rather than continuous output. In this work, we investigate cell response to pulsed laser light which simulates the RF FEL format, producing 50 ps pulses at a frequency of 78 MHz. A variety of Si, GaAs, CaSb and CdInSe2 (CIS) solar cells are tested at average incident powers between 4 mW/sq cm and 425 mW/sq cm. The results indicate that if the pulse repetition is high, cell efficiencies are only slightly reduced by using a pulsed laser source compared to constant illumination at the same wavelength. Because the pulse separation is less than or approximately equal to the minority carrier lifetime, the illumination conditions are effectively those of a continuous wave laser. The time dependence of the voltage and current response of the cells are also measured using a sampling oscilloscope equipped with a high frequency voltage probe and current transformer. The frequency response of the cells is weak, with both voltage and current outputs essentially dc in nature. Comparison with previous experiments shows that the RF FEL pulse format yields much more efficient photovoltaic conversion of light than does an induction FEL pulse format.

  12. Pulse laser assist optical tweezers (PLAT) with long-duration pulse laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Saki; Sugiura, Tadao; Minato, Kotaro

    2011-07-01

    Optical tweezers is a technique to trap and to manipulate micron sized objects under a microscope by radiation pressure force exerted by a laser beam. Optical tweezers has been utilized for single-molecular measurements of force exerted by molecular interactions and for cell palpation. To extend applications of optical tweezers we have developed a novel optical tweezers system combined with a pulse laser. We utilize a pulse laser (Q-switched Nd: YAG laser, wavelength of 1064 nm) to assist manipulations by conventional optical tweezers with a continuous wave (CW) laser. The pulse laser beam is introduced into the same optics for conventional optical tweezers. In principle, instantaneous radiation force is proportional to instantaneous power of laser beam. As a result, pulse laser beam generates strong instantaneous force on an object to be manipulated. If the radiation force becomes strong enough to get over an obstacle structure and/or to be released from adhesion, the object will be free from these difficulties. We investigate the effect of pulse laser assistance with changing pulse duration of the laser. We report optimum pulse duration of 100 ns to 200 ns deduced from motion analysis of a particle in a beam spot. Our goal is to realize in-vivo manipulation and operation of a cell. For this purpose we need to reduce light energy of pulse laser beam and to avoid laser induced breakdown caused by strong light field. So we have developed a pulse laser with 160-ns pulse duration and have confirmed that availability on manipulation of living cells.

  13. Pulse-shaping circuit for laser excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laudenslager, J. B.; Pacala, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    Narrower, impedence-matched pulses initiate stabler electric discharges for gas lasers. Discharges are more efficient, more compact, capable of high repetition rate, and less expensive than conventional electron-beam apparatus, but gas tends to break down and form localized arcs. Pulse-shaping circuit compresses width of high-voltage pulses from relatively-slow rise-time voltage generator and gradually grades circuit impedance from inherent high impedance of generator to low impedence of gas.

  14. Stimulated crystallization of melt-quenched Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} films employing femtosecond laser double pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Cotton, Rebecca L.; Siegel, Jan

    2012-12-15

    The phase transformation of Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} films from the melt-quenched amorphous phase into the crystalline phase induced by 800 nm, 100 fs laser pulses has been studied. For partly amorphized films, progressive crystallization could be induced by single pulses, which can be explained by growth of already existing crystalline embryos. For completely amorphized films, it was not possible to induce crystallization with one or two consecutive pulses; three pulses being the threshold for the onset of crystallization. By employing a fs laser double pulse with an adjustable inter-pulse delay, partial crystallization could be triggered for a delay range of 200 fs-100 ps, while for longer delays no crystallization was possible. The time window for stimulated crystallization can be related to the relaxation dynamics of free electrons excited by the first pulse, which are further excited by the second pulse still remaining in the excited state. Our results indicate that the lifetime of excited electrons in melt-quenched amorphous Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} is Almost-Equal-To 100 ps.

  15. Pressure wave charged repetitively pulsed gas laser

    DOEpatents

    Kulkarny, Vijay A.

    1982-01-01

    A repetitively pulsed gas laser in which a system of mechanical shutters bracketing the laser cavity manipulate pressure waves resulting from residual energy in the cavity gas following a lasing event so as to draw fresh gas into the cavity and effectively pump spent gas in a dynamic closed loop.

  16. Laser pulse shaping for high gradient accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, F.; Anania, M. P.; Bellaveglia, M.; Bisesto, F.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Curcio, A.; Galletti, M.; Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M.; Gatti, G.; Moreno, M.; Petrarca, M.; Pompili, R.; Vaccarezza, C.

    2016-09-01

    In many high gradient accelerator schemes, i.e. with plasma or dielectric wakefield induced by particles, many electron pulses are required to drive the acceleration of one of them. Those electron bunches, that generally should have very short duration and low emittance, can be generated in photoinjectors driven by a train of laser pulses coming inside the same RF bucket. We present the system used to shape and characterize the laser pulses used in multibunch operations at Sparc_lab. Our system gives us control over the main parameter useful to produce a train of up to five high brightness bunches with tailored intensity and time distribution.

  17. Quantifying pulsed laser induced damage to graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Currie, Marc; Caldwell, Joshua D.; Bezares, Francisco J.; Robinson, Jeremy; Anderson, Travis; Chun, Hayden; Tadjer, Marko

    2011-11-21

    As an emerging optical material, graphene's ultrafast dynamics are often probed using pulsed lasers yet the region in which optical damage takes place is largely uncharted. Here, femtosecond laser pulses induced localized damage in single-layer graphene on sapphire. Raman spatial mapping, SEM, and AFM microscopy quantified the damage. The resulting size of the damaged area has a linear correlation with the optical fluence. These results demonstrate local modification of sp{sup 2}-carbon bonding structures with optical pulse fluences as low as 14 mJ/cm{sup 2}, an order-of-magnitude lower than measured and theoretical ablation thresholds.

  18. Ultrashort Pulse (USP) Laser-Matter Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-05

    Sunlight He - Ne cw laser W ik ip ed ia W ik ip ed ia DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited time time time time...1996) DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited 26 Timescales of electron and lattice processes in laser - excited ...vortex, SSTF beams) – Novel laser -matter interaction geometries (confined microexplosions, SSTF excitation , few-cycle pulses) SSTF focus

  19. Pulsed solid state lasers for medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kertesz, Ivan; Danileiko, A. Y.; Denker, Boris I.; Kroo, Norbert; Osiko, Vyacheslav V.; Prokhorov, Alexander M.

    1994-02-01

    The effect on living tissues of different pulsed solid state lasers: Nd:YAG ((lambda) equals 1.06 micrometers ) Er:glass (1.54 micrometers ), Ho:YAG (2.1 micrometers ) and Er:YAG (2.94 micrometers ) is compared with the continuous wave Nd:YAG- and CO2-lasers used in operating theaters. Portable Er:glass- and Er:YAG-lasers are developed for surgery/cosmetics and HIV-safe blood testing.

  20. Integrated pulse stretchers for high-energy CPA and OPCPA systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Lawrence; Bodnar, Nathan; Roumayah, Patrick; Webb, Benjamin; Bradford, Joshua; Richardson, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Pulse stretchers are critical components in chirped pulse amplification (CPA) and optical parametric CPA (OPCPA) laser systems. In CPA systems, pulse stretching and compression is typical accomplished using bulk diffraction gratings; however integrated devices such volume or fiber Bragg gratings can provide similar optical performance with significantly smaller footprint and simplified alignment. In this work, we discuss the use of such integrated devices to stretch a 100 fs pulse to 400 ps with customized third order dispersion for use in a multi-TW Ti:Sapphire system as well as integrated optics to control the pulse duration in pump lasers for OPCPA systems.

  1. Frequency modulation of semiconductor disk laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Zolotovskii, I O; Korobko, D A; Okhotnikov, O G

    2015-07-31

    A numerical model is constructed for a semiconductor disk laser mode-locked by a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM), and the effect that the phase modulation caused by gain and absorption saturation in the semiconductor has on pulse generation is examined. The results demonstrate that, in a laser cavity with sufficient second-order dispersion, alternating-sign frequency modulation of pulses can be compensated for. We also examine a model for tuning the dispersion in the cavity of a disk laser using a Gires–Tournois interferometer with limited thirdorder dispersion. (control of radiation parameters)

  2. Classical dynamics of free electromagnetic laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, S.; Tucker, R. W.; Walton, T. J.

    2016-02-01

    We discuss a class of exact finite energy solutions to the vacuum source-free Maxwell field equations as models for multi- and single cycle laser pulses in classical interaction with relativistic charged test particles. These solutions are classified in terms of their chiral content based on their influence on particular charge configurations in space. Such solutions offer a computationally efficient parameterization of compact laser pulses used in laser-matter simulations and provide a potential means for experimentally bounding the fundamental length scale in the generalized electrodynamics of Bopp, Landé and Podolsky.

  3. Pulsed infrared laser ablation and clinical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Kin Foong

    Sufficient light energy deposited in tissue can result in ablation and excessive thermal and mechanical damage to adjacent tissues. The goals of this research are to investigate the mechanisms of pulsed infrared laser ablation of tissue, to optimize laser parameters for minimizing unnecessary damage to healthy tissue, and to explore the potential of using pulsed infrared lasers for clinical applications, especially laser lithotripsy. A dual-channel optical low coherence reflectometer was implemented to measure the expansion and collapse velocities of a Q-switched Ho:YAG (λ = 2.12 μm) laser-induced cavitation in water. Cavitation wall velocities up to 11 m/s were measured with this technique, and the results were in fair agreement with those calculated from fast-flash photographic images. The dependence of ablation threshold fluence on calculus absorption was examined. Preliminary results indicated that the product of optical absorption and ablation threshold fluence, which is the heat of ablation, remained constant for a given urinary calculus type and laser pulse duration. An extended study examined the influence of optical absorption on pulsed infrared laser ablation. An analytical photothermal ablation model was applied and compared to experimental ablation results using an infrared free-electron laser at selected wavelengths between 2.12 μm and 6.45 μm Results were in good agreement with the model, and the ablation depths of urinary calculi were highly dependent upon the calculus optical absorption as well as light attenuation within the intrapulse ablation plume. An efficient wavelength for ablation corresponded to the wavelength of the Er:YAG laser (λ = 2.94 μm) suggested this laser should be examined for laser lithotripsy. Schlieren flash photography, acoustic transient measurements with a piezoelectric polyvinylidene-fluoride needle-hydrophone, mass loss measurements, and chemical analyses were employed to study the ablation mechanisms of the free

  4. Heat accumulation during pulsed laser materials processing.

    PubMed

    Weber, Rudolf; Graf, Thomas; Berger, Peter; Onuseit, Volkher; Wiedenmann, Margit; Freitag, Christian; Feuer, Anne

    2014-05-05

    Laser materials processing with ultra-short pulses allows very precise and high quality results with a minimum extent of the thermally affected zone. However, with increasing average laser power and repetition rates the so-called heat accumulation effect becomes a considerable issue. The following discussion presents a comprehensive analytical treatment of multi-pulse processing and reveals the basic mechanisms of heat accumulation and its consequence for the resulting processing quality. The theoretical findings can explain the experimental results achieved when drilling microholes in CrNi-steel and for cutting of CFRP. As a consequence of the presented considerations, an estimate for the maximum applicable average power for ultra-shorts pulsed laser materials processing for a given pulse repetition rate is derived.

  5. RF synchronized short pulse laser ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Fuwa, Yasuhiro Iwashita, Yoshihisa; Tongu, Hiromu; Inoue, Shunsuke; Hashida, Masaki; Sakabe, Shuji; Okamura, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Atsushi

    2016-02-15

    A laser ion source that produces shortly bunched ion beam is proposed. In this ion source, ions are extracted immediately after the generation of laser plasma by an ultra-short pulse laser before its diffusion. The ions can be injected into radio frequency (RF) accelerating bucket of a subsequent accelerator. As a proof-of-principle experiment of the ion source, a RF resonator is prepared and H{sub 2} gas was ionized by a short pulse laser in the RF electric field in the resonator. As a result, bunched ions with 1.2 mA peak current and 5 ns pulse length were observed at the exit of RF resonator by a probe.

  6. Pulsed laser illumination of photovoltaic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yater, Jane A.; Lowe, Roland A.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1994-01-01

    In future space missions, free electron lasers (FEL) may be used to illuminate photovoltaic array receivers to provide remote power. Both the radio-frequency (RF) and induction FEL provide FEL produce pulsed rather than continuous output. In this work we investigate cell response to pulsed laser light which simulates the RF FEL format. The results indicate that if the pulse repetition is high, cell efficiencies are only slightly reduced compared to constant illumination at the same wavelength. The frequency response of the cells is weak, with both voltage and current outputs essentially dc in nature. Comparison with previous experiments indicates that the RF FEL pulse format yields more efficient photovoltaic conversion than does an induction FEL pulse format.

  7. Nonequilibrium Interlayer Transport in Pulsed Laser Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Tischler, Jonathan Zachary; Eres, Gyula; Larson, Ben C; Rouleau, Christopher M; Zschack, P.; Lowndes, Douglas H

    2006-01-01

    We use time-resolved surface x-ray diffraction measurements with microsecond range resolution to study the growth kinetics of pulsed laser deposited SrTiO3. Time-dependent surface coverages corresponding to single laser shots were determined directly from crystal truncation rod intensity transients. Analysis of surface coverage evolution shows that extremely fast nonequilibrium interlayer transport, which occurs concurrently with the arrival of the laser plume, dominates the deposition process. A much smaller fraction of material, which is governed by the dwell time between successive laser shots, is transferred by slow, thermally driven interlayer transport processes.

  8. Ophthalmic applications of ultrashort pulsed lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhasz, Tibor; Spooner, Greg; Sacks, Zachary S.; Suarez, Carlos G.; Raksi, Ferenc; Zadoyan, Ruben; Sarayba, Melvin; Kurtz, Ronald M.

    2004-06-01

    Ultrashort laser pulses can be used to create high precision incision in transparent and translucent tissue with minimal damage to adjacent tissue. These performance characteristics meet important surgical requirements in ophthalmology, where femtosecond laser flap creation is becoming a widely used refractive surgery procedure. We summarize clinical findings with femtosecond laser flaps as well as early experiments with other corneal surgical procedures such as corneal transplants. We also review laser-tissue interaction studies in the human sclera and their consequences for the treatment of glaucoma.

  9. Inductive gas line for pulsed lasers

    DOEpatents

    Benett, William J.; Alger, Terry W.

    1985-01-01

    A gas laser having a metal inlet gas feed line assembly shaped as a coil, to function as an electrical inductance and therefore high impedance to pulses of electric current applied to electrodes at opposite ends of a discharge tube of a laser, for example. This eliminates a discharge path for the laser through the inlet gas feed line. A ferrite core extends through the coil to increase the inductance of the coil and provide better electric isolation. By elimination of any discharge breakdown through the gas supply, efficiency is increased and a significantly longer operating lifetime of the laser is provided.

  10. Inductive gas line for pulsed lasers

    DOEpatents

    Benett, W.J.; Alger, T.W.

    1982-09-29

    A gas laser having a metal inlet gas feed line assembly shaped as a coil, to function as an electrical inductance and therefore high impedance to pulses of electric current applied to electrodes at opposite ends of a discharge tube of a laser, for example. This eliminates a discharge path for the laser through the inlet gas feed line. A ferrite core extends through the coil to increase the inductance of the coil and provide better electric isolation. By elimination of any discharge breakdown through the gas supply, efficiency is increased and a significantly longer operating lifetime of the laser is provided.

  11. Laser and intense pulsed light management of couperose and rosacea.

    PubMed

    Dahan, S

    2011-11-01

    Management of couperosis and rosacea has been totally renewed by laser and vascular laser techniques, with efficacy targeted on the telangiectases and to a lesser extent on the erythrosis. Laser management of hypertrophic rosacea or rhinophyma depends on surgical treatment with decortication, continuous CO(2) ablative laser or Erbium, fractionated at high power, then vascular laser treatment for the telangiectases: lasers with pulsed dye, KTP, or pulsed lights for red laser telangiectases and long pulse Nd-Yag laser for blue telangiectases. For papulopustular rosacea, vascular laser treatment (pulsed dye and KTP) and intense pulsed light will be begun once the inflammation has been treated. The major indication for vascular lasers and intense pulsed light is found in erythematotelangiectatic rosacea, with high efficacy for the telangiectases. Diffuse erythrosis is difficult to treat, requiring a high number of laser and/or intense pulsed light sessions.

  12. [Laser and intense pulsed light management of couperose and rosacea].

    PubMed

    Dahan, S

    2011-09-01

    Management of couperosis and rosacea has been totally renewed by laser and vascular laser techniques, with efficacy targeted on the telangiectases and to a lesser extent on the erythrosis. Laser management of hypertrophic rosacea or rhinophyma depends on surgical treatment with decortication, continuous CO(2) ablative laser or Erbium, fractionated at high power, then vascular laser treatment for the telangiectases: lasers with pulsed dye, KTP, or pulsed lights for red laser telangiectases and long pulse Nd-Yag laser for blue telangiectases. For papulopustular rosacea, vascular laser treatment (pulsed dye and KTP) and intense pulsed light will be begun once the inflammation has been treated. The major indication for vascular lasers and intense pulsed light is found in erythematotelangiectatic rosacea, with high efficacy for the telangiectases. Diffuse erythrosis is difficult to treat, requiring a high number of laser and/or intense pulsed light sessions.

  13. Cornea surgery with nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Karsten; Wang, Bagui; Riemann, Iris; Kobow, Jens

    2005-04-01

    We report on a novel optical method for (i) flap-generation in LASIK procedures as well as (ii) for flap-free intrastromal refractive surgery based on nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses. The near infrared 200 fs pulses for multiphoton ablation have been provided by ultracompact turn-key MHz laser resonators. LASIK flaps and intracorneal cavities have been realized with high precision within living New Zealand rabbits using the system FemtoCutO (JenLab GmbH, Jena, Germany) at 800 nm laser wavelength. Using low-energy sub-2 nJ laser pulses, collateral damage due to photodisruptive and self-focusing effects was avoided. The laser ablation system consists of fast galvoscanners, focusing optics of high numerical aperture as well as a sensitive imaging system and provides also the possibility of 3D multiphoton imaging of fluorescent cellular organelles and SHG signals from collagen. Multiphoton tomography of the cornea was used to determine the exact intratissue beam position and to visualize intraocular post-laser effects. The wound healing process has been investigated up to 90 days after instrastromal laser ablation by histological analysis. Regeneration of damaged collagen structures and the migration of inflammation cells have been detected.

  14. Pulsed laser illumination of photovoltaic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yater, Jane A.; Lowe, Roland A.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1995-01-01

    In future space missions, free electron lasers (FEL) may be used to illuminate photovoltaic receivers to provide remote power. Both the radio-frequency (RF) and induction FEL produce pulsed rather than continuous output. In this work we investigate cell response to pulsed laser light which simulates the RF FEL format. The results indicate that if the pulse repetition is high, cell efficiencies are only slightly reduced compared to constant illumination at the same wavelength. The frequency response of the cells is weak, with both voltage and current outputs essentially dc in nature. Comparison with previous experiments indicates that the RF FEL pulse format yields more efficient photovoltaic conversion than does an induction FEL format.

  15. Propagation of chirped laser pulses in a plasma channel

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, Pallavi; Malviya, Amita; Upadhyay, Ajay K.

    2009-06-15

    Propagation of an initially chirped, Gaussian laser pulse in a preformed parabolic plasma channel is analyzed. A variational technique is used to obtain equations describing the evolution of the phase shift and laser spot size. The effect of initial chirp on the laser pulse length and intensity of a matched laser beam propagating in a plasma channel has been analyzed. The effective pulse length and chirp parameter of the laser pulse due to its interaction with plasma have been obtained and graphically depicted. The resultant variation in laser frequency across the laser pulse is discussed.

  16. Ultrashort pulsed laser technology development program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manke, Gerald C.

    2014-10-01

    The Department of Navy has been pursuing a technology development program for advanced, all-fiber, Ultra Short Pulsed Laser (USPL) systems via Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) programs. Multiple topics have been published to promote and fund research that encompasses every critical component of a standard USPL system and enable the demonstration of mJ/pulse class systems with an all fiber architecture. This presentation will summarize published topics and funded programs.

  17. Modeling Pulsed Laser Melting of Embedded Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, Carolyn Anne

    A model of pulsed laser melting of embedded nanoparticles is introduced. Pulsed laser melting (PLM) is commonly used to achieve a fast quench rate in nanoparticles; this model enables a better understanding of the influence of PLM on the size distribution of nanoparticles, which is crucial for studying or using their size-dependent properties. The model includes laser absorption according to the Mie theory, a full heat transport model, and rate equations for nucleation, growth, coarsening, and melting and freezing of nanoparticles embedded in a transparent matrix. The effects of varying the laser parameters and sample properties are studied, as well as combining PLM and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) processing steps on the same sample. A general theory for achieving narrow size distributions of nanoparticles is presented, and widths as narrow as 12% are achieved using PLM and RTA.

  18. Ceramic dentures manufactured with ultrashort laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werelius, Kristian; Weigl, Paul

    2004-06-01

    Conventional manufacturing of individual ceramic dental prosthesis implies a handmade metallic framework, which is then veneered with ceramic layers. In order to manufacture all-ceramic dental prosthesis a CAD/CAM system is necessary due to the three dimensional shaping of high strength ceramics. Most CAD/CAM systems presently grind blocks of ceramic after the construction process in order to create the prosthesis. Using high-strength ceramics, such as Hot Isostatic Pressed (HIP)-zirconia, this is limited to copings. Anatomically shaped fixed dentures have a sculptured surface with small details, which can't be created by existing grinding tools. This procedure is also time consuming and subject to significant loss in mechanical strength and thus reduced survival rate once inserted. Ultra-short laser pulses offer a possibility in machining highly complex sculptured surfaces out of high-strength ceramic with negligible damage to the surface and bulk of the ceramic. In order to determine efficiency, quality and damage, several laser ablation parameters such as pulse duration, pulse energy and ablation strategies were studied. The maximum ablation rate was found using 400 fs at high pulse energies. High pulse energies such as 200μJ were used with low damage in mechanical strength compared to grinding. Due to the limitation of available laser systems in pulse repetition rates and power, the use of special ablation strategies provide a possibility to manufacture fully ceramic dental prosthesis efficiently.

  19. Ultrashort pulse laser deposition of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Perry, Michael D.; Banks, Paul S.; Stuart, Brent C.

    2002-01-01

    Short pulse PLD is a viable technique of producing high quality films with properties very close to that of crystalline diamond. The plasma generated using femtosecond lasers is composed of single atom ions with no clusters producing films with high Sp.sup.3 /Sp.sup.2 ratios. Using a high average power femtosecond laser system, the present invention dramatically increases deposition rates to up to 25 .mu.m/hr (which exceeds many CVD processes) while growing particulate-free films. In the present invention, deposition rates is a function of laser wavelength, laser fluence, laser spot size, and target/substrate separation. The relevant laser parameters are shown to ensure particulate-free growth, and characterizations of the films grown are made using several diagnostic techniques including electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and Raman spectroscopy.

  20. Tunable pulsed carbon dioxide laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Megie, G. J.; Menzies, R. T.

    1981-01-01

    Transverse electrically-excited-atmosphere (TEA) laser is continuously tunable over several hundred megahertz about centers of spectral lines of carbon dioxide. It is operated in single longitudinal mode (SLM) by injection of beam from continuous-wave, tunable-waveguide carbon dioxide laser, which serves as master frequency-control oscillator. Device measures absorption line of ozone; with adjustments, it is applicable to monitoring of atmospheric trace species.

  1. Ultrafast pulsed laser utilizing broad bandwidth laser glass

    DOEpatents

    Payne, Stephen A.; Hayden, Joseph S.

    1997-01-01

    An ultrafast laser uses a Nd-doped phosphate laser glass characterized by a particularly broad emission bandwidth to generate the shortest possible output pulses. The laser glass is composed primarily of P.sub.2 O.sub.5, Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and MgO, and possesses physical and thermal properties that are compatible with standard melting and manufacturing methods. The broad bandwidth laser glass can be used in modelocked oscillators as well as in amplifier modules.

  2. Ultrafast pulsed laser utilizing broad bandwidth laser glass

    DOEpatents

    Payne, S.A.; Hayden, J.S.

    1997-09-02

    An ultrafast laser uses a Nd-doped phosphate laser glass characterized by a particularly broad emission bandwidth to generate the shortest possible output pulses. The laser glass is composed primarily of P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MgO, and possesses physical and thermal properties that are compatible with standard melting and manufacturing methods. The broad bandwidth laser glass can be used in modelocked oscillators as well as in amplifier modules. 7 figs.

  3. Electromagnetic Pulses at Short-Pulse Laser Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Jr., C G; Throop, A; Eder, D; Kimbrough, J

    2007-08-28

    Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) is a known issue for short-pulse laser facilities, and will also be an issue for experiments using the advanced radiographic capability (ARC) at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The ARC diagnostic uses four NIF beams that are compressed to picosecond durations for backlighting ignition capsules and other applications. Consequently, we are working to understand the EMP due to high-energy (MeV) electrons escaping from targets heated by short-pulse lasers. Our approach is to measure EMP in the Titan short-pulse laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and to employ that data to establish analysis and simulation capabilities. We have installed a wide variety of probes inside and outside the Titan laser chamber. We have high-frequency B-dots and D-dots, a photodiode, and fast current-viewing and integrating current transformers. The probe outputs are digitized by 10 and 20 Gsample/s oscilloscopes. The cables and oscilloscopes are well shielded to reduce noise. Our initial measurement campaign has yielded data useful mainly from hundreds of MHz to several GHz. We currently are supplementing our high-frequency probes with lower-frequency ones to obtain better low-frequency data. In order to establish analysis and simulation capabilities we are modeling the Titan facility using various commercial and LLNL numerical electromagnetic codes. We have simulated EMP generation by having a specified number of electrons leave the target and strike the chamber wall and other components in the chamber. This short impulse of electrons has a corresponding broad spectrum, exciting high-frequency structure in the resulting EMP. In this paper, we present results of our initial measurement campaign and comparisons between the measurements and simulations.

  4. Electromagnetic Pulses at Short-Pulse Laser Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C G; Throop, A; Eder, D; Kimbrough, J

    2008-02-04

    Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) is a known issue for short-pulse laser facilities, and will also be an issue for experiments using the advanced radiographic capability (ARC) at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The ARC diagnostic uses four NIF beams that are compressed to picosecond durations for backlighting ignition capsules and other applications. Consequently, we are working to understand the EMP due to high-energy (MeV) electrons escaping from targets heated by short-pulse lasers. Our approach is to measure EMP in the Titan short-pulse laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and to employ that data to establish analysis and simulation capabilities. We have installed a wide variety of probes inside and outside the Titan laser chamber. We have high-frequency B-dot and D-dot probes, a photodiode, and fast current-viewing and integrating current transformers. The probe outputs are digitized by 10 and 20 Gsample/s oscilloscopes. The cables and oscilloscopes are well shielded to reduce noise. Our initial measurement campaign has yielded data useful mainly from several hundreds of MHz to several GHz. We currently are supplementing our high-frequency probes with lower-frequency ones to obtain better low-frequency data. In order to establish analysis and simulation capabilities we are modeling the Titan facility using various commercial and LLNL numerical electromagnetics codes. We have simulated EMP generation by having a specified number of electrons leave the target and strike the chamber wall and other components in the chamber. This short impulse of electrons has a correspondingly broad spectrum, exciting high-frequency structure in the resulting EMP. In this paper, we present results of our initial measurement campaign and comparisons between the measurements and simulations.

  5. Chemically-Assisted Pulsed Laser-Ramjet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horisawa, Hideyuki; Kaneko, Tomoki; Tamada, Kazunobu

    2010-10-01

    A preliminary study of a chemically-assisted pulsed laser-ramjet was conducted, in which chemical propellant such as a gaseous hydrogen/air mixture was utilized and detonated with a focused laser beam in order to obtain a higher impulse compared to the case only using lasers. CFD analysis of internal conical-nozzle flows and experimental measurements including impulse measurement were conducted to evaluate effects of chemical reaction on thrust performance improvement. From the results, a significant improvement in the thrust performances was confirmed with addition of a small amount of hydrogen to propellant air, or in chemically-augmented operation.

  6. Chemically-Assisted Pulsed Laser-Ramjet

    SciTech Connect

    Horisawa, Hideyuki; Kaneko, Tomoki; Tamada, Kazunobu

    2010-10-13

    A preliminary study of a chemically-assisted pulsed laser-ramjet was conducted, in which chemical propellant such as a gaseous hydrogen/air mixture was utilized and detonated with a focused laser beam in order to obtain a higher impulse compared to the case only using lasers. CFD analysis of internal conical-nozzle flows and experimental measurements including impulse measurement were conducted to evaluate effects of chemical reaction on thrust performance improvement. From the results, a significant improvement in the thrust performances was confirmed with addition of a small amount of hydrogen to propellant air, or in chemically-augmented operation.

  7. Laser zona dissection using short-pulse ultraviolet lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neev, Joseph; Tadir, Yona; Ho, Peter D.; Whalen, William E.; Asch, Richardo H.; Ord, Teri; Berns, Michael W.

    1992-06-01

    The interaction of pulsed ultraviolet radiation with the zona pellucida of human oocytes which had failed to fertilize in standard IVF cycles, was investigated. Two lasers were studied: a 100 ps pulsed Nd:YAG with a nonlinear crystal emitting light at 266 nm, and a 15 ns XeCl excimer laser with 308 nm radiation. Incisions in the zona were made by aiming the beam tangentially to the oocyte. The results indicate superior, high precision performance by the excimer laser creating trenches as narrow as 1 micrometers and as shallow as 1 micrometers . The incision size was found to be sensitive to the laser's energy and to the position of the microscope's objective focal plane, but relatively insensitive to the laser pulse repetition rate. Once the minimum spot size was defined by the system parameters, the laser beam was used to curve out any desired zona shape. This laser microsurgery technique as applied to partial zone dissection or zona drilling could prove very useful as a high-precision, non-contact method for treatments of low fertilization rate and for enhancing embryo implantation rates in patients undergoing IVF treatments.

  8. Spatially modulated laser pulses for printing electronics.

    PubMed

    Auyeung, Raymond C Y; Kim, Heungsoo; Mathews, Scott; Piqué, Alberto

    2015-11-01

    The use of a digital micromirror device (DMD) in laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) is reviewed. Combining this technique with high-viscosity donor ink (silver nanopaste) results in laser-printed features that are highly congruent in shape and size to the incident laser beam spatial profile. The DMD empowers LIFT to become a highly parallel, rapidly reconfigurable direct-write technology. By adapting half-toning techniques to the DMD bitmap image, the laser transfer threshold fluence for 10 μm features can be reduced using an edge-enhanced beam profile. The integration of LIFT with this beam-shaping technique allows the printing of complex large-area patterns with a single laser pulse.

  9. High power parallel ultrashort pulse laser processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillner, Arnold; Gretzki, Patrick; Büsing, Lasse

    2016-03-01

    The class of ultra-short-pulse (USP) laser sources are used, whenever high precession and high quality material processing is demanded. These laser sources deliver pulse duration in the range of ps to fs and are characterized with high peak intensities leading to a direct vaporization of the material with a minimum thermal damage. With the availability of industrial laser source with an average power of up to 1000W, the main challenge consist of the effective energy distribution and disposition. Using lasers with high repetition rates in the MHz region can cause thermal issues like overheating, melt production and low ablation quality. In this paper, we will discuss different approaches for multibeam processing for utilization of high pulse energies. The combination of diffractive optics and conventional galvometer scanner can be used for high throughput laser ablation, but are limited in the optical qualities. We will show which applications can benefit from this hybrid optic and which improvements in productivity are expected. In addition, the optical limitations of the system will be compiled, in order to evaluate the suitability of this approach for any given application.

  10. A laser driven pulsed X-ray backscatter technique for enhanced penetrative imaging.

    PubMed

    Deas, R M; Wilson, L A; Rusby, D; Alejo, A; Allott, R; Black, P P; Black, S E; Borghesi, M; Brenner, C M; Bryant, J; Clarke, R J; Collier, J C; Edwards, B; Foster, P; Greenhalgh, J; Hernandez-Gomez, C; Kar, S; Lockley, D; Moss, R M; Najmudin, Z; Pattathil, R; Symes, D; Whittle, M D; Wood, J C; McKenna, P; Neely, D

    2015-01-01

    X-ray backscatter imaging can be used for a wide range of imaging applications, in particular for industrial inspection and portal security. Currently, the application of this imaging technique to the detection of landmines is limited due to the surrounding sand or soil strongly attenuating the 10s to 100s of keV X-rays required for backscatter imaging. Here, we introduce a new approach involving a 140 MeV short-pulse (< 100 fs) electron beam generated by laser wakefield acceleration to probe the sample, which produces Bremsstrahlung X-rays within the sample enabling greater depths to be imaged. A variety of detector and scintillator configurations are examined, with the best time response seen from an absorptive coated BaF2 scintillator with a bandpass filter to remove the slow scintillation emission components. An X-ray backscatter image of an array of different density and atomic number items is demonstrated. The use of a compact laser wakefield accelerator to generate the electron source, combined with the rapid development of more compact, efficient and higher repetition rate high power laser systems will make this system feasible for applications in the field. Content includes material subject to Dstl (c) Crown copyright (2014). Licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: psi@ nationalarchives.gsi.gov.uk.

  11. Group velocity and pulse lengthening of mismatched laser pulses in plasma channels

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Carl; Benedetti, Carlo; Esarey, Eric; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Leemans, Wim

    2011-07-07

    Analytic solutions are presented to the non-paraxial wave equation describing an ultra-short, low-power, laser pulse propagating in aplasma channel. Expressions for the laser pulse centroid motion and laser group velocity are derived, valid for matched and mismatchedpropagation in a parabolic plasma channel, as well as in vacuum, for an arbitrary Laguerre-Gaussian laser mode. The group velocity of amismatched laser pulse, for which the laser spot size is strongly oscillating, is found to be independent of propagation distance andsignificantly less than that of a matched pulse. Laser pulse lengthening of a mismatched pulse owing to laser mode slippage isexamined and found to dominate over that due to dispersive pulse spreading for sufficiently long pulses. Analytic results are shown tobe in excellent agreement with numerical solutions of the full Maxwell equations coupled to the plasma response. Implications for plasmachannel diagnostics are discussed.

  12. Phase Noise Comparision of Short Pulse Laser Systems

    SciTech Connect

    S. Zhang; S. V. Benson; J. Hansknecht; D. Hardy; G. Neil; Michelle D. Shinn

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes the phase noise measurement on several different mode-locked laser systems that have completely different gain media and configurations including a multi-kW free-electron laser. We will focus on the state of the art short pulse lasers, especially the drive lasers for photocathode injectors. A comparison between the phase noise of the drive laser pulses, electron bunches and FEL pulses will also be presented.

  13. Ion acceleration by petawatt class laser pulses and pellet compression in a fast ignition scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetti, C.; Londrillo, P.; Liseykina, T. V.; Macchi, A.; Sgattoni, A.; Turchetti, G.

    2009-07-01

    Ion drivers based on standard acceleration techniques have faced up to now several difficulties. We consider here a conceptual alternative to more standard schemes, such as HIDIF (Heavy Ion Driven Inertial Fusion), which are still beyond the present state of the art of particle accelerators, even though the requirements on the total beam energy are lowered by fast ignition scenarios. The new generation of petawatt class lasers open new possibilities: acceleration of electrons or protons for the fast ignition and eventually light or heavy ions acceleration for compression. The pulses of chirped pulse amplification (CPA) lasers allow ions acceleration with very high efficiency at reachable intensities ( I˜1021 W/cm2), if circularly polarized light is used since we enter in the radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) regime. We analyze the possibility of accelerating carbon ion bunches by interaction of a circularly polarized pulses with an ultra-thin target. The advantage would be compactness and modularity, due to identical accelerating units. The laser efficiency required to have an acceptable net gain in the inertial fusion process is still far from the presently achievable values both for CPA short pulses and for long pulses used for direct illumination. Conversely the energy conversion efficiency from the laser pulse to the ion bunch is high and grows with the intensity. As a consequence the energy loss is not the major concern. For a preliminary investigation of the ions bunch production we have used the PIC code ALaDyn developed to analyze the results of the INFN-CNR PLASMONX experiment at Frascati National Laboratories (Rome, Italy) where the 0.3 PW laser FLAME will accelerate electrons and protons. We present the results of some 1D simulations and parametric scan concerning the acceleration of carbon ions that we suppose to be fully ionized. Circularly polarized laser pulses of 50 J and 50-100 fs duration, illuminating a 100 μm2 area of a 20 nm thick carbon

  14. Double nanosecond pulses generation in ytterbium fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiko, V. P.; Lednev, V. N.; Pershin, S. M.; Samokhvalov, A. A.; Yakovlev, E. B.; Zhitenev, I. Yu.; Kliushin, A. N.

    2016-06-01

    Double pulse generation mode for nanosecond ytterbium fiber laser was developed. Two sequential 60-200 ns laser pulses with variable delay between them were generated by acousto-optic modulator opening with continuous diode pumping. A custom radio frequency generator was developed to produce two sequential "opening" radio pulses with a delay of 0.2-1 μs. It was demonstrated that double pulse generation did not decrease the average laser power while providing the control over the laser pulse power profile. Surprisingly, a greater peak power in the double pulse mode was observed for the second laser pulse. Laser crater studies and plasma emission measurements revealed an improved efficiency of laser ablation in the double pulse mode.

  15. Dark and bright pulse passive mode-locked laser with in-cavity pulse-shaper.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Jochen B; Coen, Stéphane; Sylvestre, Thibaut; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2010-10-25

    We demonstrate the integration of a spectral pulse-shaper into a passive mode-locked laser cavity for direct control of the output pulse-shape of the laser. Depending on the dispersion filter applied with the pulse-shaper we either observe a bright or dark "soliton-like" pulse train. The results demonstrate the strong potential of an in-cavity spectral pulse-shaper as an experimental tool for controlling the dynamics of passively mode-locked lasers.

  16. Pulsed Power for Solid-State Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, W; Albrecht, G; Trenholme, J; Newton, M

    2007-04-19

    Beginning in the early 1970s, a number of research and development efforts were undertaken at U.S. National Laboratories with a goal of developing high power lasers whose characteristics were suitable for investigating the feasibility of laser-driven fusion. A number of different laser systems were developed and tested at ever larger scale in pursuit of the optimum driver for laser fusion experiments. Each of these systems had associated with it a unique pulsed power option. A considerable amount of original and innovative engineering was carried out in support of these options. Ultimately, the Solid-state Laser approach was selected as the optimum driver for the application. Following this, the Laser Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the University of Rochester undertook aggressive efforts directed at developing the technology. In particular, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a series of laser systems beginning with the Cyclops laser and culminating in the present with the National Ignition Facility were developed and tested. As a result, a large amount of design information for solid-state laser pulsed power systems has been documented. Some of it is in the form of published papers, but most of it is buried in internal memoranda, engineering reports and LLNL annual reports. One of the goals of this book is to gather this information into a single useable format, such that it is easily accessed and understood by other engineers and physicists for use with future designs. It can also serve as a primer, which when seriously studied, makes the subsequent reading of original work and follow-up references considerably easier. While this book deals only with the solid-state laser pulsed power systems, in the bibliography we have included a representative cross section of papers and references from much of the very fine work carried out at other institutions in support of different laser approaches. Finally, in recent years, there has

  17. Laser-supported detonation waves and pulsed laser propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Kare, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    A laser thermal rocket uses the energy of a large remote laser, possibly ground-based, to heat an inert propellant and generate thrust. Use of a pulsed laser allows the design of extremely simple thrusters with very high performance compared to chemical rockets. The temperatures, pressures, and fluxes involved in such thrusters (10{sup 4} K, 10{sup 2} atmospheres, 10{sup 7} w/cm{sup 2}) typically result in the creation of laser-supported detonation (LSD) waves. The thrust cycle thus involves a complex set of transient shock phenomena, including laser-surface interactions in the ignition if the LSD wave, laser-plasma interactions in the LSD wave itself, and high-temperature nonequilibrium chemistry behind the LSD wave. The SDIO Laser Propulsion Program is investigating these phenomena as part of an overall effort to develop the technology for a low-cost Earth-to-orbit laser launch system. We will summarize the program's approach to developing a high performance thruster, the double-pulse planar thruster, and present an overview of some results obtained to date, along with a discussion of the many research questions still outstanding in this area. 16 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Laser-supported detonation waves and pulsed laser propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Kare, J. )

    1990-07-30

    A laser thermal rocket uses the energy of a large remote laser, possibly ground-based, to heat an inert propellant and generate thrust. Use of a pulsed laser allows the design of extremely simple thrusters with very high performance compared to chemical rockets. The temperatures, pressures, and fluxes involved in such thrusters (10{sup 4} K, 10{sup 2} atmospheres, 10{sup 7} w/cm{sup 2}) typically result in the creation of laser-supported detonation (LSD) waves. The thrust cycle thus involves a complex set of transient shock phenomena, including laser-surface interactions in the ignition of the LSD wave, laser-plasma interactions in the LSD wave itself, and high-temperature nonequilibrium chemistry behind the LSD wave. The SDIO Laser Propulsion Program is investigating these phenomena as part of an overall effort to develop the technology for a low-cost Earth-to-orbit laser launch system. We will summarize the Program's approach to developing a high performance thruster, the double-pulse planar thruster, and present an overview of some results obtained to date, along with a discussion of the many research question still outstanding in this area.

  19. Post pulse shutter for laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, L.P.; Carder, B.M.; Gagnon, W.L.

    1981-03-17

    Disclosed are an apparatus and method for quickly closing off the return path for an amplified laser pulse at the output of an amplifier so as to prevent damage to amplifiers and other optical components appearing earlier in the chain by the return of an amplified pulse. The apparatus consists of a fast retropulse or post pulse shutter to suppress target reflection and/or beam return. This is accomplished by either quickly placing a solid across the light transmitting aperture of a component in the chain, such as a spatial filter pinhole, or generating and directing a plasma with sufficiently high density across the aperture, so as to, in effect, close the aperture to the returning amplified energy pulse. 13 figs.

  20. Post pulse shutter for laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, Laird P. [Livermore, CA; Carder, Bruce M. [Antioch, CA; Gagnon, William L. [Berkeley, CA

    1981-03-17

    Apparatus and method for quickly closing off the return path for an amplified laser pulse at the output of an amplifier so as to prevent damage to amplifiers and other optical components appearing earlier in the chain by the return of an amplified pulse. The apparatus consists of a fast retropulse or post pulse shutter to suppress target reflection and/or beam return. This is accomplished by either quickly placing a solid across the light transmitting aperture of a component in the chain, such as a spatial filter pinhole, or generating and directing a plasma with sufficiently high density across the aperture, so as to, in effect, close the aperture to the returning amplified energy pulse.

  1. Influence of ambient pressure on the ablation hole in femtosecond laser drilling Cu.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qinxin; Chen, Anmin; Li, Suyu; Qi, Hongxia; Qi, Ying; Hu, Zhan; Jin, Mingxing

    2015-09-20

    The holes were drilled by femtosecond laser pulse (800 nm, 100 fs) on Cu sheets at different ambient pressures. The pressure range was from 1 Pa to atmospheric pressure. The number of pulses to drill through the target, the stable photodiode signal, and the hole diameter were obtained as functions of ambient pressure. The morphology of the hole was observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The result showed that the ambient pressure had significant influence on the morphology of the hole.

  2. Laser-Material Interaction of Powerful Ultrashort Laser Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Komashko, A

    2003-01-06

    Laser-material interaction of powerful (up to a terawatt) ultrashort (several picoseconds or shorter) laser pulses and laser-induced effects were investigated theoretically in this dissertation. Since the ultrashort laser pulse (USLP) duration time is much smaller than the characteristic time of the hydrodynamic expansion and thermal diffusion, the interaction occurs at a solid-like material density with most of the light energy absorbed in a thin surface layer. Powerful USLP creates hot, high-pressure plasma, which is quickly ejected without significant energy diffusion into the bulk of the material, Thus collateral damage is reduced. These and other features make USLPs attractive for a variety of applications. The purpose of this dissertation was development of the physical models and numerical tools for improvement of our understanding of the process and as an aid in optimization of the USLP applications. The study is concentrated on two types of materials - simple metals (materials like aluminum or copper) and wide-bandgap dielectrics (fused silica, water). First, key physical phenomena of the ultrashort light interaction with metals and the models needed to describe it are presented. Then, employing one-dimensional plasma hydrodynamics code enhanced with models for laser energy deposition and material properties at low and moderate temperatures, light absorption was self-consistently simulated as a function of laser wavelength, pulse energy and length, angle of incidence and polarization. Next, material response on time scales much longer than the pulse duration was studied using the hydrocode and analytical models. These studies include examination of evolution of the pressure pulses, effects of the shock waves, material ablation and removal and three-dimensional dynamics of the ablation plume. Investigation of the interaction with wide-bandgap dielectrics was stimulated by the experimental studies of the USLP surface ablation of water (water is a model of

  3. Pulse energy dependence of subcellular dissection by femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heisterkamp, A.; Maxwell, I. Z.; Mazur, E.; Underwood, J. M.; Nickerson, J. A.; Kumar, S.; Ingber, D. E.

    2005-01-01

    Precise dissection of cells with ultrashort laser pulses requires a clear understanding of how the onset and extent of ablation (i.e., the removal of material) depends on pulse energy. We carried out a systematic study of the energy dependence of the plasma-mediated ablation of fluorescently-labeled subcellular structures in the cytoskeleton and nuclei of fixed endothelial cells using femtosecond, near-infrared laser pulses focused through a high-numerical aperture objective lens (1.4 NA). We find that the energy threshold for photobleaching lies between 0.9 and 1.7 nJ. By comparing the changes in fluorescence with the actual material loss determined by electron microscopy, we find that the threshold for true material ablation is about 20% higher than the photobleaching threshold. This information makes it possible to use the fluorescence to determine the onset of true material ablation without resorting to electron microscopy. We confirm the precision of this technique by severing a single microtubule without disrupting the neighboring microtubules, less than 1 micrometer away. c2005 Optical Society of America.

  4. Tetravalent chromium (Cr(4+)) as laser-active ion for tunable solid-state lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seas, A.; Petricevic, V.; Alfano, Robert R.

    1992-01-01

    Generation of femtosecond pulses from a continuous-wave mode-locked chromium-doped forsterite (Cr(4+):Mg2SiO4) laser has been accomplished. The forsterite laser was actively mode-locked using an acousto-optic modulator operating at 78 MHz with two Brewster high-dispersion glass prisms for intra-cavity chirp compensation. Transform-limited sub-100-fs pulses were routinely generated in the TEM(sub 00) mode with 85 mW of continuous power (with 1 percent output coupler), tunable over 1230-1280 nm. The shortest pulses of 60-fs pulsewidth were measured.

  5. Pulse Compression Techniques for Laser Generated Ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anastasi, R. F.; Madaras, E. I.

    1999-01-01

    Laser generated ultrasound for nondestructive evaluation has an optical power density limit due to rapid high heating that causes material damage. This damage threshold limits the generated ultrasound amplitude, which impacts nondestructive evaluation inspection capability. To increase ultrasound signal levels and improve the ultrasound signal-to-noise ratio without exceeding laser power limitations, it is possible to use pulse compression techniques. The approach illustrated here uses a 150mW laser-diode modulated with a pseudo-random sequence and signal correlation. Results demonstrate the successful generation of ultrasonic bulk waves in aluminum and graphite-epoxy composite materials using a modulated low-power laser diode and illustrate ultrasound bandwidth control.

  6. Pulsed laser radiation therapy of skin tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlov, A.P.; Moskalik, K.G.

    1980-11-15

    Radiation from a neodymium laser was used to treat 846 patients with 687 precancerous lesions or benign tumors of the skin, 516 cutaneous carcinomas, 33 recurrences of cancer, 51 melanomas, and 508 metastatic melanomas in the skin. The patients have been followed for three months to 6.5 years. No relapses have been observed during this period. Metastases to regional lymph nodes were found in five patients with skin melanoma. Pulsed laser radiation may be successfully used in the treatment of precancerous lesions and benign tumors as well as for skin carcinoma and its recurrences, and for skin melanoma. Laser radiation is more effective in the treatment of tumors inaccessible to radiation therapy and better in those cases in which surgery may have a bad cosmetic or even mutilating effect. Laser beams can be employed in conjunction with chemo- or immunotherapy.

  7. Nanosecond laser ablation for pulsed laser deposition of yttria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Sucharita

    2013-09-01

    A thermal model to describe high-power nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of yttria (Y2O3) has been developed. This model simulates ablation of material occurring primarily through vaporization and also accounts for attenuation of the incident laser beam in the evolving vapor plume. Theoretical estimates of process features such as time evolution of target temperature distribution, melt depth and ablation rate and their dependence on laser parameters particularly for laser fluences in the range of 6 to 30 J/cm2 are investigated. Calculated maximum surface temperatures when compared with the estimated critical temperature for yttria indicate absence of explosive boiling at typical laser fluxes of 10 to 30 J/cm2. Material ejection in large fragments associated with explosive boiling of the target needs to be avoided when depositing thin films via the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique as it leads to coatings with high residual porosity and poor compaction restricting the protective quality of such corrosion-resistant yttria coatings. Our model calculations facilitate proper selection of laser parameters to be employed for deposition of PLD yttria corrosion-resistive coatings. Such coatings have been found to be highly effective in handling and containment of liquid uranium.

  8. High speed sampling circuit design for pulse laser ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Rui-hai; Gao, Xuan-yi; Zhang, Yan-mei; Li, Huan; Guo, Hai-chao; Guo, Xiao-kang; He, Shi-jie

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, with the rapid development of digital chip, high speed sampling rate analog to digital conversion chip can be used to sample narrow laser pulse echo. Moreover, high speed processor is widely applied to achieve digital laser echo signal processing algorithm. The development of digital chip greatly improved the laser ranging detection accuracy. High speed sampling and processing circuit used in the laser ranging detection system has gradually been a research hotspot. In this paper, a pulse laser echo data logging and digital signal processing circuit system is studied based on the high speed sampling. This circuit consists of two parts: the pulse laser echo data processing circuit and the data transmission circuit. The pulse laser echo data processing circuit includes a laser diode, a laser detector and a high sample rate data logging circuit. The data transmission circuit receives the processed data from the pulse laser echo data processing circuit. The sample data is transmitted to the computer through USB2.0 interface. Finally, a PC interface is designed using C# language, in which the sampling laser pulse echo signal is demonstrated and the processed laser pulse is plotted. Finally, the laser ranging experiment is carried out to test the pulse laser echo data logging and digital signal processing circuit system. The experiment result demonstrates that the laser ranging hardware system achieved high speed data logging, high speed processing and high speed sampling data transmission.

  9. Electron acceleration by a propagating laser pulse in vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Fengchao; Shen Baifei; Zhang Xiaomei; Li Xuemei; Jin Zhangying

    2007-08-15

    Electrons accelerated by a propagating laser pulse of linear or circular polarization in vacuum have been investigated by one-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations and analytical modeling. A stopping target is used to stop the laser pulse and extract the energetic electrons from the laser field. The effect of the reflected light is taken into account. The maximum electron energy depends on the laser intensity and initial electron energy. There is an optimal acceleration length for electrons to gain maximum energy where electrons meet the peak of the laser pulse. The optimal acceleration length depends strongly on the laser pulse duration and amplitude.

  10. Pulse-burst laser systems for fast Thomson scattering (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Den Hartog, D. J.; Ambuel, J. R.; Holly, D. J.; Robl, P. E.; Borchardt, M. T.; Falkowski, A. F.; Harris, W. S.; Parke, E.; Reusch, J. A.; Stephens, H. D.; Yang, Y. M.

    2010-10-15

    Two standard commercial flashlamp-pumped Nd:YAG (YAG denotes yttrium aluminum garnet) lasers have been upgraded to ''pulse-burst'' capability. Each laser produces a burst of up to 15 2 J Q-switched pulses (1064 nm) at repetition rates of 1-12.5 kHz. Variable pulse-width drive (0.15-0.39 ms) of the flashlamps is accomplished by insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) switching of electrolytic capacitor banks. Direct control of the laser Pockels cell drive enables optimal pulse energy extraction, and up to four 2 J laser pulses during one flashlamp pulse. These lasers are used in the Thomson scattering plasma diagnostic system on the MST reversed-field pinch to record the dynamic evolution of the electron temperature profile and temperature fluctuations. To further these investigations, a custom pulse-burst laser system with a maximum pulse repetition rate of 250 kHz is now being commissioned.

  11. Pulse-burst laser systems for fast Thomson scattering (invited).

    PubMed

    Den Hartog, D J; Ambuel, J R; Borchardt, M T; Falkowski, A F; Harris, W S; Holly, D J; Parke, E; Reusch, J A; Robl, P E; Stephens, H D; Yang, Y M

    2010-10-01

    Two standard commercial flashlamp-pumped Nd:YAG (YAG denotes yttrium aluminum garnet) lasers have been upgraded to "pulse-burst" capability. Each laser produces a burst of up to 15 2 J Q-switched pulses (1064 nm) at repetition rates of 1-12.5 kHz. Variable pulse-width drive (0.15-0.39 ms) of the flashlamps is accomplished by insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) switching of electrolytic capacitor banks. Direct control of the laser Pockels cell drive enables optimal pulse energy extraction, and up to four 2 J laser pulses during one flashlamp pulse. These lasers are used in the Thomson scattering plasma diagnostic system on the MST reversed-field pinch to record the dynamic evolution of the electron temperature profile and temperature fluctuations. To further these investigations, a custom pulse-burst laser system with a maximum pulse repetition rate of 250 kHz is now being commissioned.

  12. Nanosecond pulsed laser blackening of copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Guang; Hourd, Andrew C.; Abdolvand, Amin

    2012-12-01

    Nanosecond (12 ns) pulsed laser processing of copper at 532 nm resulted in the formation of homogenously distributed, highly organized microstructures. This led to the fabrication of large area black copper substrates with absorbance of over 97% in the spectral range from 250 nm to 750 nm, and a broadband absorbance of over 80% between 750 nm and 2500 nm. Optical and chemical analyses of the fabricated black metal are presented and discussed. The employed laser is an industrially adaptable source and the presented technique for fabrication of black copper could find applications in broadband thermal radiation sources, solar energy absorbers, irradiative heat transfer devices, and thermophotovoltaics.

  13. Photostimulation of astrocytes with femtosecond laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuan; Zhang, Yuan; Liu, Xiuli; Lv, Xiaohua; Zhou, Wei; Luo, Qingming; Zeng, Shaoqun

    2009-02-02

    The involvement of astrocytes in brain functions rather than support has been identified and widely concerned. However the lack of an effective stimulation of astrocytes hampers our understanding of their essential roles. Here, we employed 800-nm near infrared (NIR) femtosecond laser to induce Ca2+ wave in astrocytes. It was demonstrated that photostimulation of astrocytes with femtosecond laser pulses is efficient with the advantages of non-contact, non-disruptiveness, reproducibility, and high spatiotemporal precision. Photostimulation of astrocytes would facilitate investigations on information processing in neuronal circuits by providing effective way to excite astrocytes.

  14. Polarization methods for diode laser excitation of solid state lasers

    DOEpatents

    Holtom, Gary R.

    2008-11-25

    A mode-locked laser employs a coupled-polarization scheme for efficient longitudinal pumping by reshaped laser diode bars. One or more dielectric polarizers are configured to reflect a pumping wavelength having a first polarization and to reflect a lasing wavelength having a second polarization. A Yb-doped gain medium can be used that absorbs light having a first polarization and emits light having a second polarization. Using such pumping with laser cavity dispersion control, pulse durations of less than 100 fs can be achieved.

  15. Pulse switching for high energy lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laudenslager, J. B.; Pacala, T. J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A saturable inductor switch for compressing the width and sharpening the rise time of high voltage pulses from a relatively slow rise time, high voltage generator to an electric discharge gas laser (EDGL) also provides a capability for efficient energy transfer from a high impedance primary source to an intermediate low impedance laser discharge network. The switch is positioned with respect to a capacitive storage device, such as a coaxial cable, so that when a charge build-up in the storage device reaches a predetermined level, saturation of the switch inductor releases or switches energy stored in the capactive storage device to the EDGL. Cascaded saturable inductor switches for providing output pulses having rise times of less than ten nanoseconds and a technique for magnetically biasing the saturable inductor switch are disclosed.

  16. Optical reprogramming with ultrashort femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchugonova, Aisada; Breunig, Hans G.; Batista, Ana; König, Karsten

    2015-03-01

    The use of sub-15 femtosecond laser pulses in stem cell research is explored with particular emphasis on the optical reprogramming of somatic cells. The reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be evoked through the ectopic expression of defined transcription factors. Conventional approaches utilize retro/lenti-viruses to deliver genes/transcription factors as well as to facilitate the integration of transcription factors into that of the host genome. However, the use of viruses may result in insertional mutations caused by the random integration of genes and as a result, this may limit the use within clinical applications due to the risk of the formation of cancer. In this study, a new approach is demonstrated in realizing non-viral reprogramming through the use of ultrashort laser pulses, to introduce transcription factors into the cell so as to generate iPS cells.

  17. Laser Pulse Heating of Spherical Metal Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tribelsky, Michael I.; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Luk'Yanchuk, Boris S.; Khokhlov, Alexei R.

    2011-10-01

    We consider the general problem of laser pulse heating of spherical metal particles with the sizes ranging from nanometers to millimeters. We employ the exact Mie solution of the diffraction problem and solve the heat-transfer equation to determine the maximum temperature rise at the particle surface as a function of optical and thermometric parameters of the problem. Primary attention is paid to the case when the thermal diffusivity of the particle is much larger than that of the environment, as it is in the case of metal particles in fluids. We show that, in this case, for any given duration of the laser pulse, the maximum temperature rise as a function of the particle size reaches a maximum at a certain finite size of the particle. We suggest simple approximate analytical expressions for this dependence, which cover the entire parameter range of the problem and agree well with direct numerical simulations.

  18. Short-pulse laser materials processing

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, B.C.; Perry, M.D.; Myers, B.R.; Banks, P.S.; Honea, E.C.

    1997-06-18

    While there is much that we have learned about materials processing in the ultrashort-pulse regime, there is an enormous amount that we don`t know. How short does the pulse have to be to achieve a particular cut (depth, material, quality)? How deep can you cut? What is the surface roughness? These questions are clearly dependent upon the properties of the material of interest along with the short-pulse interaction physics. From a technology standpoint, we are asked: Can you build a 100 W average power system ? A 1000 W average power system? This proposal seeks to address these questions with a combined experimental and theoretical program of study. Specifically, To develop an empirical database for both metals and dielectrics which can be used to determine the pulse duration and wavelength necessary to achieve a specific machining requirement. To investigate Yb:YAG as a potential laser material for high average power short-pulse systems both directly and in combination with titanium doped sapphire. To develop a conceptual design for a lOOW and eventually 5OOW average power short-pulse system.

  19. Laser pulse stretcher method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hawkins, Jon K.; Williams, William A.

    1990-01-01

    The output of an oscillator stage of a laser system is monitored by a photocell which is coupled to a feedback section to control a Pockels Cell and change the light output of the oscillator stage. A synchronizing pulse is generated in timed relation to the initiation of operation of the oscillator stage and is applied to a forward feed section which cooperates with the feedback section to maintain the light output constant for an extended time interval.

  20. Nonlinear optical studies on 4-(ferrocenylmethylimino)-2-hydroxy-benzoic acid thin films deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matei, Andreea; Marinescu, Maria; Constantinescu, Catalin; Ion, Valentin; Mitu, Bogdana; Ionita, Iulian; Dinescu, Maria; Emandi, Ana

    2016-06-01

    We present results on a new, laboratory synthesized ferrocene-derivative, i.e. 4-(ferrocenylmethylimino)-2-hydroxy-benzoic acid. Thin films with controlled thickness are deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE), on quartz and silicon substrates, with the aim of evaluating the nonlinear optical properties for potential optoelectronic applications. Dimethyl sulfoxide was used as matrix, with 1% wt. concentration of the guest compound. The frozen target is irradiated by using a Nd:YAG laser (4ω/266 nm, 7 ns pulse duration, 10 Hz repetition rate), at low fluences ranging from 0.1 to 1 J/cm2. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to probe the surface morphology of the films. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy reveal similar structure of the thin film material when compared to the starting material. The optical properties of the thin films are investigated by spectroscopic-ellipsometry (SE), and the refractive index dependence with respect to temperature is studied. The second harmonic generation (SHG) potential is assessed by using a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser (800 nm, 60-100 fs pulse duration, 80 MHz repetition rate), at 200 mW maximum output power, revealing that the SHG signal intensity is strongly influenced by the films' thickness.

  1. Picosecond pulse measurements using the active laser medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernardin, James P.; Lawandy, N. M.

    1990-01-01

    A simple method for measuring the pulse lengths of synchronously pumped dye lasers which does not require the use of an external nonlinear medium, such as a doubling crystal or two-photon fluorescence cell, to autocorrelate the pulses is discussed. The technique involves feeding the laser pulses back into the dye jet, thus correlating the output pulses with the intracavity pulses to obtain pulse length signatures in the resulting time-averaged laser power. Experimental measurements were performed using a rhodamine 6G dye laser pumped by a mode-locked frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. The results agree well with numerical computations, and the method proves effective in determining lengths of picosecond laser pulses.

  2. Pulsed Nd-YAG laser in endodontics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragot-Roy, Brigitte; Severin, Claude; Maquin, Michel

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish an operative method in endodontics. The effect of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser on root canal dentin has been examined with a scanning electron microscope. Our first experimentation was to observe the impacts carried out perpendicularly to root canal surface with a 200 micrometers fiber optic in the presence of dye. Secondarily, the optical fiber was used as an endodontic instrument with black dye. The irradiation was performed after root canal preparation (15/100 file or 40/100 file) or directly into the canal. Adverse effects are observed. The results show that laser irradiation on root canal dentin surfaces induces a nonhomogeneous modified dentin layer, melted and resolidified dentin closed partially dentinal tubules. The removal of debris is not efficient enough. The laser treatment seems to be indicated only for endodontic and periapical spaces sterilization after conventional root canal preparation.

  3. Shock profile induced by short laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couturier, S.; de Rességuier, T.; Hallouin, M.; Romain, J. P.; Bauer, F.

    1996-06-01

    Standard 25-μm-thick polyvinilydene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric gauges and new 450-μm-thick P(VDF 70%, TrFE 30%) piezoelectric copolymer have been used to record shock profiles at the back face of metallic targets irradiated by laser pulses of 2.5 and 0.6 ns duration at a 1.06 μm wavelength. The records are fully explained with simplified space-time diagram analysis. The pressure profile applied at the front face of the target has been determined from these records combined with numerical simulations of wave propagation through the target. A numerical code describing the interaction of laser with matter (FILM) has also been used for computing the applied pressure. Both methods lead to very close results. The peak pressure dependence on incident laser intensity is determined up to 30 GPa at 1012 W/cm2.

  4. Ultrafast laser pulses for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubatschowski, Holger; Heisterkamp, Alexander; Will, Fabian; Serbin, Jesper; Bauer, Thorsten; Fallnich, Carsten; Welling, Herbert; Mueller, Wiebke; Schwab, Burkard; Singh, Ajoy I.; Ertmer, Wolfgang

    2002-04-01

    Ultrafast lasers have become a promising tool for micromachining and extremely precise ablation of all kinds of materials. Due to the low energy threshold, thermal and mechanical side effects are limited to the bu micrometers range. The neglection of side effects enables the use of ultrashort laser pulses in a broad field of medical applications. Moreover, the interaction process based on nonlinear absorption offers the opportunity to process transparent tissue three dimensionally inside the bulk. We demonstrate the feasibility of surgical procedures in different fields of medical interest: in ophthalmology intrastromal cutting and preparing of cornael flaps for refractive surgery in living animals is presented. Besides, the very low mechanical side effects enables the use of fs- laser in otoralyngology to treat ocecular bones. Moreover, the precise cutting quality can be used in fields of cardiovascular surgery for the treatment of arteriosklerosis as well as in dentistry to remove caries from dental hard tissue.

  5. Pulsed-discharge carbon dioxide lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willetts, David V.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose is to attempt a general introduction to pulsed carbon dioxide lasers of the kind used or proposed for laser radar applications. Laser physics is an excellent example of a cross-disciplinary topic, and the molecular spectroscopy, energy transfer, and plasma kinetics of the devices are explored. The concept of stimulated emission and population inversions is introduced, leading on to the molecular spectroscopy of the CO2 molecule. This is followed by a consideration of electron-impact pumping, and the pertinent energy transfer and relaxation processes which go on. Since the devices are plasma pumped, it is necessary to introduce a complex subject, but this is restricted to appropriate physics of glow discharges. Examples of representative devices are shown. The implications of the foregoing to plasma chemistry and gas life are discussed.

  6. Enhanced Photoacoustic Beam Profiling of Pulsed Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, M.; Santiago, G.; Paz, M.; Slezak, V.; Peuriot, A.

    2013-09-01

    An improved version of a photoacoustic beam profiler of pulsed lasers is presented. The new model resorts to high-bandwidth condenser microphones to register higher-order, excited acoustic modes, thus enabling more accurate profiling. In addition, Xe was used as a buffer gas since its high atomic weight further reduces the eigenfrequencies. Furthermore, a new gas-handling system makes up for some deficiencies found in the first model. The system was calibrated using the Airy pattern generated with a pinhole illuminated by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser that excited traces. Once calibrated, the beam profile of a TEA laser was obtained, using ethylene as the absorbing species. This profiler returns more accurate profiles than thermal paper.

  7. Corneal and skin laser exposures from 1540-nm laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Thomas E.; Mitchell, Michael A.; Rico, Pedro J.; Fletcher, David J.; Eurell, Thomas E.; Roach, William P.

    2000-06-01

    Mechanisms of tissue damage are investigated for skin and cornea exposures from 1540 nm ('eye safe') laser single pulses of 0.8 milli-seconds. New skin model data point out the advantages of using the Yucatan mini-pig versus the Yorkshire pig for in-vivo skin laser exposures. Major advantages found include similarities in thickness and melanin content when compared with human skin. Histology from Yucatan mini-pig skin exposures and the calculation of an initial ED50 threshold indicate that the main photon tissue interaction may not be solely due to water absorption. In-vitro corneal equivalents compared well with in-vivo rabbit cornea exposure under similar laser conditions. In-vivo and in-vitro histology show that initial energy deposition leading to damage occurs intrastromally, while epithelial cells show no direct injury due to laser light absorption.

  8. Electron beam switched discharge for rapidly pulsed lasers

    DOEpatents

    Pleasance, Lyn D.; Murray, John R.; Goldhar, Julius; Bradley, Laird P.

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus for electrical excitation of a laser gas by application of a pulsed voltage across the gas, followed by passage of a pulsed, high energy electron beam through the gas to initiate a discharge suitable for laser excitation. This method improves upon current power conditioning techniques and is especially useful for driving rare gas halide lasers at high repetition rates.

  9. Ultrashort-pulse laser generated nanoparticles of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Welle, Eric J.; Tappan, Alexander S.; Palmer, Jeremy A.

    2010-08-03

    A process for generating nanoscale particles of energetic materials, such as explosive materials, using ultrashort-pulse laser irradiation. The use of ultrashort laser pulses in embodiments of this invention enables one to generate particles by laser ablation that retain the chemical identity of the starting material while avoiding ignition, deflagration, and detonation of the explosive material.

  10. Pulse shape control in a dual cavity laser: numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashkir, Yuri

    2006-04-01

    We present a numerical model of the laser system for generating a special shape of the pulse: a steep peak at the beginning followed by a long pulse tail. Laser pulses of this nature are required for various applications (laser material processing, optical breakdown spectroscopy, etc.). The laser system consists of two "overlapped" cavities with different round-trip times. The laser crystal, the Q-switching element, the back mirror, and the output coupler are shared. A shorter pulse is generated in a short cavity. A small fraction of this pulse is injected into the long cavity as a seed. It triggers generation of the longer pulse. The output emission from this hybrid laser produces a required pulse shape. Parameters of the laser pulse (ratios of durations and energies of short- and long- pulse components) can be controlled through cavity length and the output coupler reflection. Modelling of the laser system is based on a set of coupled rate equations for dynamic variables of the system: the inverse population in an active laser media and photon densities in coupled cavities. Numerical experiments were provided with typical parameters of a Nd:YAG laser to study the system behaviour for different combinations of parameters.

  11. Pulsed laser fluorometry for environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, G. C.; Martin, J. C.; Jett, J. H.; Wilder, M. E.; Martinez, A.; Bentley, B. F.; Lopez, J.; Hutson, L.

    1990-01-01

    A compact pulsed laser fluorometer has been incorporated into a continuous flow system developed to detect acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors and/or primary amine compounds in air and water. A pulsed nitrogen laser pumped dye laser excites fluorescent reactants which flow continuously through a quartz flow cell. Data are collected, analyzed, and displayed using a Macintosh II personal computer. For detection of cholinesterase inhibitors the fluorogenic substrate N methylindoxyl acetate is used to monitor the activity of immobilized enzyme. Presence of inhibitors results in a decrease of steady state fluorescence. Detection of compounds containing primary amines is based on their reaction with fluorescamine to rapidly produce intensely fluorescent products. Compounds of interest to our research were amino acids, peptides, and proteins. An increase in steady state fluorescence could be cause to evaluate the reasons for the change. The detection limit of the protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA) in water is 10 ppT. Nebulized BSA concentrated by the LANL air sampler can be detected at sub ppT original air concentration. 16 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Landau damping of a driven plasma wave from laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Bu Zhigang; Ji Peiyong

    2012-01-15

    The interaction between a laser pulse and a driven plasma wave with a phase velocity approaching the speed of light is studied, and our investigation is focused on the Gaussian laser pulse. It is demonstrated that when the resonance condition between the plasma wave and the laser pulse is satisfied, the Landau damping phenomenon of the plasma wave originated from the laser pulse will emerge. The dispersion relations for the plasma waves in resonance and non-resonance regions are obtained. It is proved that the Landau damping rate for a driven plasma wave is {gamma}>0 in the resonance region, so the laser pulse can produce an inverse damping effect, namely Landau growth effect, which leads an instability for the plasma wave. The Landau growth means that the energy is transmitted from the laser pulse to the plasma wave, which could be an effective process for enhancing the plasma wave.

  13. Transportation of megawatt millijoule laser pulses via optical fibers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauer, Johannes; Kofler, Heinrich; Schwarz, Elisabeth; Wintner, Ernst

    2010-04-01

    Laser ignition is considered to be one of the most promising future concepts for internal combustion engines. It combines the legally required reduction of pollutant emissions and higher engine efficiencies. The igniting plasma is generated by a focused pulsed laser beam. Having pulse durations of a few nanoseconds, the pulse energy E p for reliable ignition amounts to the order of 10 mJ. Different methods of laser ignition with an emphasis on fiber-based systems will be discussed and evaluated.

  14. Optimizing chirped laser pulse parameters for electron acceleration in vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Akhyani, Mina; Jahangiri, Fazel; Niknam, Ali Reza; Massudi, Reza

    2015-11-14

    Electron dynamics in the field of a chirped linearly polarized laser pulse is investigated. Variations of electron energy gain versus chirp parameter, time duration, and initial phase of laser pulse are studied. Based on maximizing laser pulse asymmetry, a numerical optimization procedure is presented, which leads to the elimination of rapid fluctuations of gain versus the chirp parameter. Instead, a smooth variation is observed that considerably reduces the accuracy required for experimentally adjusting the chirp parameter.

  15. Investigation of a Pulsed 1550 nm Fiber Laser System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-15

    Jain 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT...14. ABSTRACT There is a strong need for a pulsed laser system at eye safe wavelengths for illuminator applications . High power pulsed 1550 nm fiber...system at eye safe wavelengths for illuminator applications . High power pulsed 1550 nm fiber lasers systems are able to generate, shaped, pulses at

  16. Metallic Clusters in Strong Femtosecond Laser Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suraud, Eric; Reinhard, P.-G.; Ullrich, Carsten A.

    1998-03-01

    We present a theoretical study of the electron response of a Na_9^+ cluster excited by strong femtosecond laser pulses.(C. A. Ullrich, P.-G. Reinhard, and E. Suraud, J. Phys. B 30), 5043 (1997) Our approach is based on time-dependent density functional theory within the adiabatic local density approximation, including a recently developed self-interaction correction scheme. We investigate numerically the full electronic dipolar response and multiphoton ionization of the cluster and discuss the ionization mechanism. A strong correlation between induced electronic dipole oscillations and electron emission is observed, leading to a pronounced resonant enhancement of ionization at the frequency of the Mie plasmon.

  17. Modulated Pulsed Laser Sources for Imaging Lidars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    17 GHz in frequency-space implying SBS will not be a major concern while amplifying with 10 pm large mode area ( LMA ) fiber. Figure 1. Spectral plot... 10 /125 Pm Yb-doped gain fiber showing the effect of amplifier saturation. As the graph in Figure 11I shows, with a fixed pump power, the higher the...COVERED (From - To) 24- 10 -2007 Final Report April 2007 to October 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Modulated Pulsed Laser Sources for

  18. Pulsed laser deposition—invention or discovery?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesan, T.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of pulsed laser deposition had been an exciting process of invention and discovery, with the development of high Tc superconducting films as the main driver. It has become the method of choice in research and development for rapid prototyping of multicomponent inorganic materials for preparing a variety of thin films, heterostructures and atomically sharp interfaces, and has become an indispensable tool for advancing oxide electronics. In this paper I will give a personal account of the invention and development of this process at Bellcore/Rutgers, the opportunity, challenges and mostly the extraordinary excitement that was generated, typical of any disruptive technology.

  19. Optical penetration sensor for pulsed laser welding

    DOEpatents

    Essien, Marcelino; Keicher, David M.; Schlienger, M. Eric; Jellison, James L.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for determining the penetration of the weld pool created from pulsed laser welding and more particularly to an apparatus and method of utilizing an optical technique to monitor the weld vaporization plume velocity to determine the depth of penetration. A light source directs a beam through a vaporization plume above a weld pool, wherein the plume changes the intensity of the beam, allowing determination of the velocity of the plume. From the velocity of the plume, the depth of the weld is determined.

  20. Generating Submillimeter-Wave Frequencies From Laser Pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Michael G.; Maserjian, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    Semiconductor photoconductive switches generate electrical pulses containing submillimeter-wavelength carrier signals (frequency between 300 and 3,000 GHz) and harmonics thereof when illuminated with short-rise-time pulses from lasers. Device of this type used as local oscilator in heterodyne submillimeter-wave receiver. Electrical output of device coupled via transmission line, waveguide, or antenna to mixer circuitry of receiver. Phase delays between optically activated semiconductor switches determine output carrier frequencies. N electrical pulses generated by each laser pulse. Thus, fundamental output frequency is N times laser-pulse-repetition rate.

  1. Improved pulse laser ranging algorithm based on high speed sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xuan-yi; Qian, Rui-hai; Zhang, Yan-mei; Li, Huan; Guo, Hai-chao; He, Shi-jie; Guo, Xiao-kang

    2016-10-01

    Narrow pulse laser ranging achieves long-range target detection using laser pulse with low divergent beams. Pulse laser ranging is widely used in military, industrial, civil, engineering and transportation field. In this paper, an improved narrow pulse laser ranging algorithm is studied based on the high speed sampling. Firstly, theoretical simulation models have been built and analyzed including the laser emission and pulse laser ranging algorithm. An improved pulse ranging algorithm is developed. This new algorithm combines the matched filter algorithm and the constant fraction discrimination (CFD) algorithm. After the algorithm simulation, a laser ranging hardware system is set up to implement the improved algorithm. The laser ranging hardware system includes a laser diode, a laser detector and a high sample rate data logging circuit. Subsequently, using Verilog HDL language, the improved algorithm is implemented in the FPGA chip based on fusion of the matched filter algorithm and the CFD algorithm. Finally, the laser ranging experiment is carried out to test the improved algorithm ranging performance comparing to the matched filter algorithm and the CFD algorithm using the laser ranging hardware system. The test analysis result demonstrates that the laser ranging hardware system realized the high speed processing and high speed sampling data transmission. The algorithm analysis result presents that the improved algorithm achieves 0.3m distance ranging precision. The improved algorithm analysis result meets the expected effect, which is consistent with the theoretical simulation.

  2. Long pulse chemical laser. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Bardon, R.L.; Breidenthal, R.E.; Buonadonna, V.R.

    1989-02-01

    This report covers the technical effort through February, 1989. This effort was directed towards the technology associated with the development of a large scale, long pulse DF-CO{sub 2} chemical laser. Optics damage studies performed under Task 1 assessed damage thresholds for diamond-turned salt windows. Task 2 is a multi-faceted task involving the use of PHOCL-50 for laser gain measurements, LTI experiments, and detector testing by LANL personnel. To support these latter tests, PHOCL-50 was upgraded with Boeing funding to incorporate a full aperture outcoupler that increased its energy output by over a factor of 3, to a full kilojoule. The PHOCL-50 carbon block calorimeter was also recalibrated and compared with the LANL Scientech meter. Cloud clearing studies under Task 3 initially concentrated on delivering a Boeing built Cloud Simulation Facility to LANL, and currently involves design of a Cold Cloud Simulation Facility. A Boeing IRAD funded theoretical study on cold cloud clearing revealed that ice clouds may be easier to clear then warm clouds. Task 4 involves the theoretical and experimental study of flow system design as related to laser beam quality. Present efforts on this task are concentrating on temperature gradients induced by the gas filling process. General support for the LPCL field effort is listed under Task 5, with heavy emphasis on assuring reliable operation of the Boeing built Large Slide Valve and other device related tests. The modification of the PHOCL-50 system for testing long pulse DF (4{mu}m only) chemical laser operation is being done under Task 6.

  3. Pulsed laser surface hardening of ferrous alloys.

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Z.; Reed, C. B.; Leong, K. H.; Hunter, B. V.

    1999-09-30

    A high power pulsed Nd:YAG laser and special optics were used to produce surface hardening on 1045 steel and gray cast iron by varying the process parameters. Unlike CO{sub 2} lasers, where absorptive coatings are required, the higher absorptivity of ferrous alloys at the Nd:YAG laser wavelength eliminates the necessity of applying a coating before processing. Metallurgical analysis of the treated tracks showed that very fine and hard martensitic microstructure (1045 steel) or inhomogeneous martensite (gray cast iron) were obtained without surface melting, giving maximum hardness of HRC 61 and HRC 40 for 1045 steel and gray cast iron respectively. The corresponding maximum case depths for both alloys at the above hardness are 0.6 mm. Gray cast iron was more difficult to harden without surface melting because of its lower melting temperature and a significantly longer time-at-temperature required to diffuse carbon atoms from the graphite flakes into the austenite matrix during laser heating. The thermal distortion was characterized in term of flatness changes after surface hardening.

  4. Pulsed HF laser ablation of dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papagiakoumou, Eirini I.; Papadopoulos, Dimitris N.; Makropoulou, Mersini I.; Khabbaz, Maruan G.; Serafetinides, Alexander A.

    2005-03-01

    The interaction of a TEA (Transversally Excited Atmospheric pressure) corona preionized oscillator double amplifier HF (hydrogen fluoride) laser beam with dentin tissue is reported. Pulses of 39 ns in the wavelength range of 2.65-3.35 μm and output energies in the range of 10-45 mJ, in a predominantly TEM00 beam were used to interact with dentin tissue. Ablation experiments were conducted with the laser beam directly focused on the tissue. Several samples of freshly extracted human teeth were used, cut longitudinally in facets of about 1mm thick and stored in phosphate buffered saline after being cleaned from the soft tissue remains. The experimental data (ablation thresholds, ablation rates) are discussed with respect to the ablation mechanism(s). Adequate tissue removal was observed and the ablation behavior was, in the greates part of the available fluences, almost linear. From the microscopic examination of teh samples, in a scanning electron microscope (SEM), the irradiated surfaces displayed oval craters (reflecting the laser beam shape) with absence of any melting or carbonization zone. It is suggested that the specific laser removes hard tissue by a combined photothermal and plasma mediated ablation mechanism, leaving a surface free from thermal damage and with a well-shaped crater.

  5. Laser-Based Pulsed Photoacoustic Ammonia Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallespi, Arturo; Slezak, Verónica; Peuriot, Alejandro; Santiago, Guillermo

    2013-09-01

    Detecting ammonia traces is relevant in health, manufacturing, and security areas, among others. As ammonia presents a strong absorption band (the mode) around 10 m, some of the physical properties which may influence its detection by means of pulsed photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy with a TEA laser have been studied. The characteristics of the ammonia molecule and the laser intensity may result in a nonlinear dependence of the PA signal amplitude on the laser fluence. Ammonia absorption can be described as a simple two-level system with power broadening. As is a polar molecule, it strongly undergoes adsorption phenomena in contact with different surfaces. Therefore, physical adsorption-desorption at the cell’s wall is studied. A theoretical model, based on Langmuir’s assumptions, fits well to the experimental results with stainless steel. Related to these studies, measurements led to the conclusion that, at the used fluenced values, dissociation by multiphotonic absorption at the 10P(32) laser line may be discarded. A calibration of the system was performed, and a detection limit around 190 ppb (at 224 ) was achieved.

  6. 25 years of pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Michael; Ramachandra Rao, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    It is our pleasure to introduce this special issue appearing on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of pulsed laser deposition (PLD), which is today one of the most versatile growth techniques for oxide thin films and nanostructures. Ever since its invention, PLD has revolutionized the research on advanced functional oxides due to its ability to yield high-quality thin films, multilayers and heterostructures of a variety of multi-element material systems with rather simple technical means. We appreciate that the use of lasers to deposit films via ablation (now termed PLD) has been known since the 1960s after the invention of the first ruby laser. However, in the first two decades, PLD was something of a 'sleeping beauty' with only a few publications per year, as shown below. This state of hibernation ended abruptly with the advent of high T c superconductor research when scientists needed to grow high-quality thin films of multi-component high T c oxide systems. When most of the conventional growth techniques failed, the invention of PLD by T (Venky) Venkatesan clearly demonstrated that the newly discovered high-T c superconductor, YBa2Cu3O7-δ , could be stoichiometrically deposited as a high-quality nm-thin film with PLD [1]. As a remarkable highlight of this special issue, Venkatesan gives us his very personal reminiscence on these particularly innovative years of PLD beginning in 1986 [2]. After Venky's first paper [1], the importance of this invention was realized worldwide and the number of publications on PLD increased exponentially, as shown in figure 1. Figure 1. Figure 1. Published items per year with title or topic PLD. Data from Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge in September 2013. After publication of Venky's famous paper in 1987 [1], the story of PLD's success began with a sudden jump in the number of publications, about 25 years ago. A first PLD textbook covering its basic understanding was soon published, in 1994, by Chrisey and Hubler [3]. Within a

  7. Reshaping of intense laser pulse with a capillary

    SciTech Connect

    Cao Lihua; Yu Wei; Yu, M. Y.; Wang Xin; Gu Yuqiu; He, X. T.

    2009-09-15

    The reshaping of intense laser pulse by vacuum capillary is studied by particle-in-cell simulation. It is shown that as an intense laser pulse propagates from free space into a capillary, its profile is reshaped due to laser-plasma interaction near the entrance of capillary. As a result, the free-space mode is self-consistently converted into a capillary mode. Only the relatively low-intensity periphery of the reshaped pulse interacts with the capillary-wall plasma, so that the high-intensity center of the pulse can propagate in the narrow vacuum channel over a distance much larger than the Rayleigh length. The mechanism is then applied to reshape a radially imperfect laser pulse having two wings around the center spot. Most of the output light energy is concentrated in the center spot, and the wings are almost completely removed. That is, the quality of the laser pulse can be greatly improved by a capillary.

  8. Production of Picosecond, Kilojoule, and Petawatt Laser Pulses via Raman Amplification of Nanosecond Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Trines, R. M. G. M.; Bingham, R.; Norreys, P. A.; Fiuza, F.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.

    2011-09-02

    Raman amplification in plasma has been promoted as a means of compressing picosecond optical laser pulses to femtosecond duration to explore the intensity frontier. Here we show for the first time that it can be used, with equal success, to compress laser pulses from nanosecond to picosecond duration. Simulations show up to 60% energy transfer from pump pulse to probe pulse, implying that multikilojoule ultraviolet petawatt laser pulses can be produced using this scheme. This has important consequences for the demonstration of fast-ignition inertial confinement fusion.

  9. Nanosecond pulsed laser texturing of optical diffusers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alqurashi, Tawfiq; Sabouri, Aydin; Yetisen, Ali K.; Butt, Haider

    2017-02-01

    High-quality optical glass diffusers have applications in aerospace, displays, imaging systems, medical devices, and optical sensors. The development of rapid and accurate fabrication techniques is highly desirable for their production. Here, a micropatterning method for the fast fabrication of optical diffusers by means of nanosecond pulsed laser ablation is demonstrated (λ=1064 nm, power=7.02, 9.36 and 11.7 W and scanning speed=200 and 800 mm s-1). The experiments were carried out by point-to-point texturing of a glass surface in spiral shape. The laser machining parameters, the number of pulses and their power had significant effect on surface features. The optical characteristics of the diffusers were characterized at different scattering angles. The features of the microscale structures influenced average roughness from 0.8 μm to 1.97 μm. The glass diffusers scattered light at angles up to 20° and their transmission efficiency were measured up to ˜97% across the visible spectrum. The produced optical devices diffuse light less but do so with less scattering and energy losses as compared to opal diffusing glass. The presented fabrication method can be applied to any other transparent material to create optical diffusers. It is anticipated that the optical diffusers presented in this work will have applications in the production of LED spotlights and imaging devices.

  10. Pulsed laser deposition of pepsin thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kecskeméti, G.; Kresz, N.; Smausz, T.; Hopp, B.; Nógrádi, A.

    2005-07-01

    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of organic and biological thin films has been extensively studied due to its importance in medical applications among others. Our investigations and results on PLD of a digestion catalyzing enzyme, pepsin, are presented. Targets pressed from pepsin powder were ablated with pulses of an ArF excimer laser ( λ = 193 nm, FWHM = 30 ns), the applied fluence was varied between 0.24 and 5.1 J/cm 2. The pressure in the PLD chamber was 2.7 × 10 -3 Pa. The thin layers were deposited onto glass and KBr substrates. Our IR spectroscopic measurements proved that the chemical composition of deposited thin films is similar to that of the target material deposited at 0.5 and 1.3 J/cm 2. The protein digesting capacity of the transferred pepsin was tested by adapting a modified "protein cube" method. Dissolution of the ovalbumin sections proved that the deposited layers consisted of catalytically active pepsin.

  11. Relation Between Discharge Length and Laser Pulse Characteristics in Longitudinally Excited CO2 Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Kazuyuki; Dobashi, Kazuma; Akitsu, Tetsuya; Jitsuno, Takahisa

    2013-04-01

    A longitudinally excited CO2 laser pumped by a fast discharge emits a short laser pulse, similarly to TEA and Q-switched CO2 lasers. We investigated the relation between the discharge length and the laser pulse characteristics to develop a longitudinally excited CO2 laser producing a high spike laser pulse. We examined discharge lengths of 30, 45, and 60 cm, using the same mirrors and the same excitation circuit with the same input energy. A longer discharge length increased the discharge volume and improved the laser output energy. However, the longer discharge length caused a long discharge formation time (a slow fall time of the discharge voltage) due to the higher discharge impedance, which resulted in a long laser pulse tail. Therefore, the longitudinally excited CO2 laser had optimum conditions for obtaining a high spike laser pulse effectively.

  12. Stimulated brillouin backscatter of a short-pulse laser

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkel, D.E.; Williams, E.A.; Berger, R.L.

    1994-11-03

    Stimulated Brillouin backscattering (SBBS) from a short-pulse laser, where the pulse length is short compared to the plasma length, is found to be qualitatively different than in the long pulse regime, where the pulse length is long compared to the plasma length. We find that after an initial transient of order the laser pulse length transit time, the instability reaches a steady state in the variables x{prime} = x {minus} V{sub g}t, t{prime} = t, where V{sub g} is the pulse group velocity. In contrast, SBBS in a long pulse can be absolutely unstable and grows indefinitely, or until nonlinearities intervene. We find that the motion of the laser pulse induces Doppler related effects that substantially modify the backscattered spectrum at higher intensities, where the instability is strongly coupled (i.e. , has a growth rate large compared to the ion acoustic frequency).

  13. A new pulsed laser deposition technique: Scanning multi-component pulsed laser deposition method

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.; Jansen, M.; Fuente, G. F. de la

    2012-04-15

    The scanning multi-component pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method realizes uniform depositions of desired coatings by a modified pulsed laser deposition process, preferably with a femto-second laser-system. Multi-component coatings (single or multilayered) are thus deposited onto substrates via laser induced ablation of segmented targets. This is achieved via horizontal line-scanning of a focused laser beam over a uniformly moving target's surface. This process allows to deposit the desired composition of the coating simultaneously, starting from the different segments of the target and adjusting the scan line as a function of target geometry. The sequence and thickness of multilayers can easily be adjusted by target architecture and motion, enabling inter/intra layer concentration gradients and thus functional gradient coatings. This new, simple PLD method enables the achievement of uniform, large-area coatings. Case studies were performed with segmented targets containing aluminum, titanium, and niobium. Under the laser irradiation conditions applied, all three metals were uniformly ablated. The elemental composition within the rough coatings obtained was fixed by the scanned area to Ti-Al-Nb = 1:1:1. Crystalline aluminum, titanium, and niobium were found to coexist side by side at room temperature within the substrate, without alloy formation up to 600 deg. C.

  14. A new pulsed laser deposition technique: scanning multi-component pulsed laser deposition method.

    PubMed

    Fischer, D; de la Fuente, G F; Jansen, M

    2012-04-01

    The scanning multi-component pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method realizes uniform depositions of desired coatings by a modified pulsed laser deposition process, preferably with a femto-second laser-system. Multi-component coatings (single or multilayered) are thus deposited onto substrates via laser induced ablation of segmented targets. This is achieved via horizontal line-scanning of a focused laser beam over a uniformly moving target's surface. This process allows to deposit the desired composition of the coating simultaneously, starting from the different segments of the target and adjusting the scan line as a function of target geometry. The sequence and thickness of multilayers can easily be adjusted by target architecture and motion, enabling inter/intra layer concentration gradients and thus functional gradient coatings. This new, simple PLD method enables the achievement of uniform, large-area coatings. Case studies were performed with segmented targets containing aluminum, titanium, and niobium. Under the laser irradiation conditions applied, all three metals were uniformly ablated. The elemental composition within the rough coatings obtained was fixed by the scanned area to Ti-Al-Nb = 1:1:1. Crystalline aluminum, titanium, and niobium were found to coexist side by side at room temperature within the substrate, without alloy formation up to 600 °C.

  15. Generation of ultrashort electron bunches by colliding laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, C B; Lee, P B; Wurtele, J S; Esarey, E; Leemans, W P

    1999-05-01

    A proposed laser-plasma-based relativistic electron source [E. Esarey et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2682 (1997)] using laser-triggered injection of electrons is investigated. The source generates ultrashort electron bunches by dephasing and trapping background plasma electrons undergoing fluid oscillations in an excited plasma wake. The plasma electrons are dephased by colliding two counterpropagating laser pulses which generate a slow phase velocity beat wave. Laser pulse intensity thresholds for trapping and the optimal wake phase for injection are calculated. Numerical simulations of test particles, with prescribed plasma and laser fields, are used to verify analytic predictions and to study the longitudinal and transverse dynamics of the trapped plasma electrons. Simulations indicate that the colliding laser pulse injection scheme has the capability to produce relativistic femtosecond electron bunches with fractional energy spread of order a few percent and normalized transverse emittance less than 1 mm mrad using 1 TW injection laser pulses.

  16. Analysis on the characteristics of pulsed laser proximity fuze's echo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kun; Chen, Huimin

    2011-06-01

    With the rapid development of semiconductor technology and laser technology, a kind of proximity fuze named pulsed laser proximity fuze has been applied. Compared with other fuzes, pulsed laser proximity fuze has high ranging precision and strong resistance to artificial active interference. It is an important development tendency of proximity fuze. The paper analyze the characteristic of target echo of laser signal, and then make theoretical analysis and calculation on the laser signal transmission in the smog. Firstly, use the pulse width of 10ns semiconductor laser fuze to do typical targets experiment, to get the echo information of target distance is 5m; then to do smog interference experiment, by comparing the pulse width amplitude and backscattering signal amplitude of laser fuze in simulation and experiment, analyzing the effect of anti-clutter, providing the evidence for the subsequent of circuit of signal amplification and processing.

  17. Glass drilling by longitudinally excited CO2 laser with short laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Takuya; Akitsu, Tetsuya; Jitsuno, Takahisa

    2015-03-01

    We developed a longitudinally excited CO2 laser that produces a short laser pulse. The laser was very simple and consisted of a 45-cm-long alumina ceramic pipe with an inner diameter of 9 mm, a pulse power supply, a step-up transformer, a storage capacitance, and a spark-gap switch. The laser pulse had a spike pulse and a pulse tail. The energy of the pulse tail was controlled by adjusting medium gas. Using three types of CO2 laser pulse with the same spike-pulse energy and the different pulse-tail energy, the characteristics of the hole drilling of synthetic silica glass was investigated. Higher pulse-tail energy gave deeper ablation depth. In the short laser pulse with the spike-pulse energy of 1.2 mJ, the spike pulse width of 162 ns, the pulse-tail energy of 24.6 mJ, and the pulse-tail length of 29.6 μs, 1000 shots irradiation produced the ablation depth of 988 μm. In the hole drilling of synthetic silica glass by the CO2 laser, a crack-free process was realized.

  18. Pulse front adaptive optics: a new method for control of ultrashort laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bangshan; Salter, Patrick S; Booth, Martin J

    2015-07-27

    Ultrafast lasers enable a wide range of physics research and the manipulation of short pulses is a critical part of the ultrafast tool kit. Current methods of laser pulse shaping are usually considered separately in either the spatial or the temporal domain, but laser pulses are complex entities existing in four dimensions, so full freedom of manipulation requires advanced forms of spatiotemporal control. We demonstrate through a combination of adaptable diffractive and reflective optical elements - a liquid crystal spatial light modulator (SLM) and a deformable mirror (DM) - decoupled spatial control over the pulse front (temporal group delay) and phase front of an ultra-short pulse was enabled. Pulse front modulation was confirmed through autocorrelation measurements. This new adaptive optics technique, for the first time enabling in principle arbitrary shaping of the pulse front, promises to offer a further level of control for ultrafast lasers.

  19. Optical gene transfer by femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konig, Karsten; Riemann, Iris; Tirlapur, Uday K.

    2003-07-01

    Targeted transfection of cells is an important technique for gene therapy and related biomedical applications. We delineate how high-intensity (1012 W/cm2) near-infrared (NIR) 80 MHz nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses can create highly localised membrane perforations within a minute focal volume, enabling non-invasive direct transfection of mammalian cells with DNA. We suspended Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO), rat kangaroo kidney epithelial (PtK2) and rat fibroblast cells in 0.5 ml culture medium in a sterile miniaturized cell chamber (JenLab GmbH, Jena, Germany) containing 0.2 μg plasmid DNA vector pEGFP-N1 (4.7 kb), which codes for green fluorescent protein (GFP). The NIR laser beam was introduced into a femtosecond laser scanning microscope (JenLab GmbH, Jena, Germany; focussed on the edge of the cell membrane of a target cell for 16 ms. The integration and expression efficiency of EGFP were assessed in situ by two-photon fluorescence-lifetime imaging using time-correlated single photon counting. The unique capability to transfer foreign DNA safely and efficiently into specific cell types (including stem cells), circumventing mechanical, electrical or chemical means, will have many applications, such as targeted gene therapy and DNA vaccination.

  20. Solitary Nanostructures Produced by Ultrashort Laser Pulse.

    PubMed

    Inogamov, Nail A; Zhakhovsky, Vasily V; Khokhlov, Viktor A; Petrov, Yury V; Migdal, Kirill P

    2016-12-01

    Laser-produced surface nanostructures show considerable promise for many applications while fundamental questions concerning the corresponding mechanisms of structuring are still debated. Here, we present a simple physical model describing those mechanisms happened in a thin metal film on dielectric substrate irradiated by a tightly focused ultrashort laser pulse. The main ingredients included into the model are (i) the film-substrate hydrodynamic interaction, melting and separation of the film from substrate with velocity increasing with increase of absorbed fluence; (ii) the capillary forces decelerating expansion of the expanding flying film; and (iii) rapid freezing into a solid state if the rate of solidification is comparable or larger than hydrodynamic velocities. The developed model and performed simulations explain appearance of microbump inside the focal spot on the film surface. The model follows experimental findings about gradual transformation of the bump from small parabolic to a conical shape and to the bump with a jet on its tip with increasing fluence. Disruption of the bump as a result of thinning down the liquid film to a few interatomic distances or due to mechanical break-off of solid film is described together with the jetting and formation of one or many droplets. Developed theory opens door for optimizing laser parameters for intended nanostructuring in applications.

  1. Incubation and nanostructure formation on n- and p-type Si(1 0 0) and Si(1 1 1) at various doping levels induced by sub-nanojoule femto- and picosecond near-infrared laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüle, M.; Afshar, M.; Feili, D.; Seidel, H.; König, K.; Straub, M.

    2014-09-01

    N- and p-doped Si(1 0 0) and Si(1 1 1) surfaces with dopant concentrations of 2 × 1014-1 × 1019 cm-3 were irradiated by tightly focused 85-MHz repetition rate Ti:sapphire laser light (central wavelength 800 nm, bandwidth 120 nm) at pulse durations of 12 fs to 1.6 ps. Dependent on pulse peak intensity and exposure time nanorifts, ripples of period 130 nm as well as sponge-like randomly nanoporous surface structures were generated with water immersion and, thereafter, laid bare by etching off aggregated oxide nanoparticles. The same structure types emerged in air or water with transform-limited 100-fs pulses. At a pulse length of 12 fs pronounced incubation occurred with incubation coefficients S = 0.66-0.85, whereas incubation was diminished for picosecond pulses (S > 0.95). The ablation threshold strongly rose with dopant concentration. At similar doping level it was higher for n-type than for p-type samples and for Si(1 0 0) compared to Si(1 1 1) surfaces. These observations are attributed to laser-induced defect states in the bandgap which participate in photoexcitation, deactivation of dopants by complex formation, and different densities of interface states at the boundary with the ultrathin native silicon dioxide surface layer. The threshold increase with pulse length revealed predominant single-photon excitation as well as multiphoton absorption.

  2. Clutter discrimination algorithm simulation in pulse laser radar imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-mei; Li, Huan; Guo, Hai-chao; Su, Xuan; Zhu, Fule

    2015-10-01

    Pulse laser radar imaging performance is greatly influenced by different kinds of clutter. Various algorithms are developed to mitigate clutter. However, estimating performance of a new algorithm is difficult. Here, a simulation model for estimating clutter discrimination algorithms is presented. This model consists of laser pulse emission, clutter jamming, laser pulse reception and target image producing. Additionally, a hardware platform is set up gathering clutter data reflected by ground and trees. The data logging is as clutter jamming input in the simulation model. The hardware platform includes a laser diode, a laser detector and a high sample rate data logging circuit. The laser diode transmits short laser pulses (40ns FWHM) at 12.5 kilohertz pulse rate and at 905nm wavelength. An analog-to-digital converter chip integrated in the sample circuit works at 250 mega samples per second. The simulation model and the hardware platform contribute to a clutter discrimination algorithm simulation system. Using this system, after analyzing clutter data logging, a new compound pulse detection algorithm is developed. This new algorithm combines matched filter algorithm and constant fraction discrimination (CFD) algorithm. Firstly, laser echo pulse signal is processed by matched filter algorithm. After the first step, CFD algorithm comes next. Finally, clutter jamming from ground and trees is discriminated and target image is produced. Laser radar images are simulated using CFD algorithm, matched filter algorithm and the new algorithm respectively. Simulation result demonstrates that the new algorithm achieves the best target imaging effect of mitigating clutter reflected by ground and trees.

  3. Spectral compression of single-photon-level laser pulse

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuanhua; Xiang, Tong; Nie, Yiyou; Sang, Minghuang; Chen, Xianfeng

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that the bandwidth of single photons laser pulse is compressed by a factor of 58 in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide chip. A positively chirped single photons laser pulse and a negatively chirped classical laser pulse are employed to produce a narrowband single photon pulse with new frequency through sum-frequency generation. In our experiment, the frequency and bandwidth of single photons at 1550 nm are simultaneously converted. Our results mark a critical step towards the realization of coherent photonic interface between quantum communication at 1550 nm and quantum memory in the near-visible window. PMID:28240245

  4. Evolution of chirped laser pulses in a magnetized plasma channel

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, Pallavi; Hemlata,; Mishra, Rohit Kumar

    2014-12-15

    The propagation of intense, short, sinusoidal laser pulses in a magnetized plasma channel has been studied. The wave equation governing the evolution of the radiation field is set up and a variational technique is used to obtain the equations describing the evolution of the laser spot size, pulse length and chirp parameter. Numerical methods are used to analyze the simultaneous evolution of these parameters. The effect of the external magnetic field on initially chirped as well as unchirped laser pulses on the spot size, pulse length and chirping has been analyzed.

  5. Ultrashort-pulse laser system for hard dental tissue procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neev, Joseph; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Feit, Michael D.; Perry, Michael D.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Stuart, Brent C.

    1996-04-01

    In spite of intensive research, lasers have not replaced conventional tools in many hard tissue applications. Ultrashort pulse lasers offer several advantages in their highly per-pulse-efficient operation, negligible thermal and mechanical damage and low noise operation. Possible development of optimal laser systems to replace the high-speed dental drill is discussed. Applications of ultrashort pulse systems for dental procedures are outlined. Selection criteria and critical parameters are considered, and are compared to the conventional air-turbine drill and to long and short pulsed systems.

  6. Spectral compression of single-photon-level laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuanhua; Xiang, Tong; Nie, Yiyou; Sang, Minghuang; Chen, Xianfeng

    2017-02-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that the bandwidth of single photons laser pulse is compressed by a factor of 58 in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide chip. A positively chirped single photons laser pulse and a negatively chirped classical laser pulse are employed to produce a narrowband single photon pulse with new frequency through sum-frequency generation. In our experiment, the frequency and bandwidth of single photons at 1550 nm are simultaneously converted. Our results mark a critical step towards the realization of coherent photonic interface between quantum communication at 1550 nm and quantum memory in the near-visible window.

  7. Pulse-shaping of gain-switched pulse from multimode laser diode using fiber Sagnac interferometer.

    PubMed

    Wada, Kenji; Takamatsu, Shuji; Watanebe, Hideyuki; Matsuyama, Tetsuya; Horinaka, Hiromichi

    2008-11-24

    We propose a pulse-tail elimination and pulse shortening method using an optical interferometer, which is effective for picosecond chirped pulses from gain-switched multimode laser diodes. In a numerical simulation, when the delay distance between a chirped pulse and its replica in an optical interferometer matches two times the round-trip optical length of the laser cavity, the pulse-front and -rear tail parts are effectively eliminated from the input chirped pulse after passing through the optical interferometer. Using this method with a fiber Sagnac interferometer, a 33 ps pulse with a long-tail emitted from a gain-switched 1540 nm multimode laser diode was linearly transformed into a 20 ps pulse with a substantially reduced tail.

  8. Laser Pulse-Stretching Using Multiple Optical Ring-Cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, Jun; Nguyen, Quang-Viet; Lee, Chi-Ming (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We describe a simple and passive nanosecond-long (ns-long) laser 'pulse-stretcher' using multiple optical ring-cavities. We present a model of the pulse-stretching process for an arbitrary number of optical ring-cavities. Using the model, we optimize the design of a pulse-stretcher for use in a spontaneous Raman scattering excitation system that avoids laser-induced plasma spark problems. From the optimized design, we then experimentally demonstrate and verify the model with a 3-cavity pulse-stretcher system that converts a 1000 mJ, 8.4 ns-long input laser pulse into an approximately 75 ns-long (FWHM) output laser pulse with a peak power reduction of 0.10X, and an 83% efficiency.

  9. Mid-ultraviolet pulsed laser micromachining of SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Litao; Li, Mingxing; Lin, Haipeng; Hu, Jinping; Tang, Qingju; Liu, Chunsheng

    2014-11-01

    This paper provides an investigation of the ablation behavior of single crystal 4H-SiC and 6H-SiC wafer to improve the manufacturability and high-temperature performance of SiC using laser applications. 266nm pulsed laser micromachining of SiC was investigated. The purpose is to establish suitable laser parametric regime for the fabrication of high accuracy, high spatial resolution and thin diaphragms for high-temperature MEMS pressure sensor applications. Etch rate, ablation threshold and quality of micromachined features were evaluated. The governing ablation mechanisms, such as thermal vaporization, phase explosion, and photomechanical fragmentation, were correlated with the effects of pulse energy. The ablation threshold is obtained with ultraviolet pulsed laser ablation. The results suggested ultraviolet pulsed laser's potential for rapid manufacturing. Excellent quality of machined features with little collateral thermal damage was obtained in the lower pulse energy range. The leading material removal mechanisms under these conditions were discussed.

  10. Ultrafast pulse lasers jump to macro applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griebel, Martin; Lutze, Walter; Scheller, Torsten

    2016-03-01

    Ultrafast Lasers have been proven for several micro applications, e.g. stent cutting, for many years. Within its development of applications Jenoptik has started to use ultrafast lasers in macro applications in the automotive industry. The JenLas D2.fs-lasers with power output control via AOM is an ideal tool for closed loop controlled material processing. Jenoptik enhanced his well established sensor controlled laser weakening process for airbag covers to a new level. The patented process enables new materials using this kind of technology. One of the most sensitive cover materials is genuine leather. As a natural product it is extremely inhomogeneous and sensitive for any type of thermal load. The combination of femtosecond pulse ablation and closed loop control by multiple sensor array opens the door to a new quality level of defined weakening. Due to the fact, that the beam is directed by scanning equipment the process can be split in multiple cycles additionally reducing the local energy input. The development used the 5W model as well as the latest 10W release of JenLas D2.fs and achieved amazing processing speeds which directly fulfilled the requirements of the automotive industry. Having in mind that the average cycle time of automotive processes is about 60s, trials had been done of processing weakening lines in genuine leather of 1.2mm thickness. Parameters had been about 15 cycles with 300mm/s respectively resulting in an average speed of 20mm/s and a cycle time even below 60s. First samples had already given into functional and aging tests and passed successfully.

  11. Method and circuit for shaping laser output pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The invention is a method and circuit for shaping laser pulses 17' in which a laser medium 12' in a laser resonator 10' that includes a Q-switch 14' and polarizer 13' which act in combination to control the loss of the resonator 10' and provide the laser output 17' representative of such loss. An optical diode 22' senses the level of the output pulse 17' and provides an output signal 23' that when amplified is used with a control voltage from a supply 29' provide a control signal 19' which is applied to Q-switch 14' to control the shape of the output pulse 17' by adjusting its length.

  12. Single-grating laser pulse stretcher and compressor.

    PubMed

    Lai, M; Lai, S T; Swinger, C

    1994-10-20

    Stretching and compressing of laser pulses is demonstrated with a single-grating apparatus. A laser pulse of 110 fs is stretched to 250 ps and then recompressed to 115 fs. The apparatus exploits a two-level structure: one level for stretching and the other for compressing. This single-grating configuration shows significant simplification in structure and alignment over existing multiple-grating systems. Such a stretcher-compressor is particularly suitable for use with chirped-pulse amplification in which laser wavelength tuning is desirable. Only one rotational adjustment is rquired to restore the alignment of the entire stretcher and compressor when the laser wavelength is changed.

  13. Dark pulse generation in fiber lasers incorporating carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Liu, H H; Chow, K K

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate the generation of dark pulses from carbon nanotube (CNT) incorporated erbium-doped fiber ring lasers with net anomalous dispersion. A side-polished fiber coated with CNT layer by optically-driven deposition method is embedded into the laser in order to enhance the birefringence and nonlinearity of the laser cavity. The dual-wavelength domain-wall dark pulses are obtained from the developed CNT-incorporated fiber laser at a relatively low pump threshold of 50.6 mW. Dark pulses repeated at the fifth-order harmonic of the fundamental cavity frequency are observed by adjusting the intra-cavity polarization state.

  14. High energy protons generation by two sequential laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Shen, Baifei E-mail: zhxm@siom.ac.cn; Zhang, Xiaomei E-mail: zhxm@siom.ac.cn; Wang, Wenpeng; Xu, Jiancai; Yi, Longqing; Shi, Yin

    2015-04-15

    The sequential proton acceleration by two laser pulses of relativistic intensity is proposed to produce high energy protons. In the scheme, a relativistic super-Gaussian (SG) laser pulse followed by a Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) pulse irradiates dense plasma attached by underdense plasma. A proton beam is produced from the target and accelerated in the radiation pressure regime by the short SG pulse and then trapped and re-accelerated in a special bubble driven by the LG pulse in the underdense plasma. The advantages of radiation pressure acceleration and LG transverse structure are combined to achieve the effective trapping and acceleration of protons. In a two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation, protons of 6.7 GeV are obtained from a 2 × 10{sup 22 }W/cm{sup 2} SG laser pulse and a LG pulse at a lower peak intensity.

  15. Pulsed laser deposition vs. matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation for growth of biodegradable polymer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercado, A. L.; Allmond, C. E.; Hoekstra, J. G.; Fitz-Gerald, J. M.

    2005-08-01

    Thin films of poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), a biodegradable polymer, were deposited on Si wafers by both conventional pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) using chloroform (CHCl3) as a matrix solvent. This research represents an initial study to investigate the deposition characteristics of each technique at comparable conditions to gain insight into the transport and degradation mechanisms of each approach. The deposited materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) with refractive index (RI) detection. While FTIR and NMR results do not show a measurable departure from the native, in sharp contrast GPC results show a significant change (up to 95%) in molecular weight for both deposition methods. This result makes it clear that it is possible to overlook substantial degradation when incomplete chemical analysis is conducted.

  16. Studies of Photosynthesis Using a Pulsed Laser

    PubMed Central

    De Vault, Don; Chance, Britton

    1966-01-01

    The rate of oxidation of cytochrome following absorption of a short pulse of light from a ruby laser in the photosynthetic bacterium Chromatium has been measured spectrophotometrically. The half-time is about 2 μsec at room temperature increasing to 2.3 msec at about 100°K and constant at the latter value to 35°K or below. The temperature dependence above 120°K corresponds to an activation energy of 3.3 kcal/mole; that below 100°K to less than 80 cal/mol: essentially a temperature-independent electron transport reaction. Since the slowness below 100°K indicates the presence of a barrier, the lack of activation energy is taken to mean penetration by quantum-mechanical “tunneling.” PMID:5972381

  17. Approaches to solar cell design for pulsed laser power receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1993-01-01

    Using a laser to beam power from Earth to a photovoltaic receiver in space could be a technology with applications to many space missions. Extremely high average-power lasers would be required in a wavelength range of 700-1000 nm. However, high-power lasers inherently operate in a pulsed format. Existing solar cells are not well designed to respond to pulsed incident power. To better understand cell response to pulsed illumination at high intensity, the PC-1D finite-element computer model was used to analyze the response of solar cells to continuous and pulsed laser illumination. Over 50 percent efficiency was calculated for both InP and GaAs cells under steady-state illumination near the optimum wavelength. The time-dependent response of a high-efficiency GaAs concentrator cell to a laser pulse was modeled, and the effect of laser intensity, wavelength, and bias point was studied. Three main effects decrease the efficiency of a solar cell under pulsed laser illumination: series resistance, L-C 'ringing' with the output circuit, and current limiting due to the output inductance. The problems can be solved either by changing the pulse shape or designing a solar cell to accept the pulsed input. Cell design possibilities discussed are a high-efficiency, light-trapping silicon cell, and a monolithic, low-inductance GaAs cell.

  18. Laser nanoablation of diamond surface at high pulse repetition rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kononenko, V. V.; Gololobov, V. M.; Pashinin, V. P.; Konov, V. I.

    2016-10-01

    The chemical etching of the surface of a natural diamond single crystal irradiated by subpicosecond laser pulses with a high repetition rate (f ≤slant 500 {\\text{kHz}}) in air is experimentally investigated. The irradiation has been performed by the second-harmonic (515 {\\text{nm}}) radiation of a disk Yb : YAG laser. Dependences of the diamond surface etch rate on the laser energy density and pulse repetition rate are obtained.

  19. Electron beam-switched discharge for rapidly pulsed lasers

    DOEpatents

    Pleasance, L.D.; Murray, J.R.; Goldhar, J.; Bradley, L.P.

    1979-12-11

    A method and apparatus are designed for electrical excitation of a laser gas by application of a pulsed voltage across the gas, followed by passage of a pulsed, high energy electron beam through the gas to initiate a discharge suitable for laser excitation. This method improves upon current power conditioning techniques and is especially useful for driving rare gas halide lasers at high repetition rates.

  20. CO2 laser pulse shortening by laser ablation of a metal target.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, T; Mazoyer, M; Lynch, A; O'Sullivan, G; O'Reilly, F; Dunne, P; Cummins, T

    2012-03-01

    A repeatable and flexible technique for pulse shortening of laser pulses has been applied to transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO(2) laser pulses. The technique involves focusing the laser output onto a highly reflective metal target so that plasma is formed, which then operates as a shutter due to strong laser absorption and scattering. Precise control of the focused laser intensity allows for timing of the shutter so that different temporal portions of the pulse can be reflected from the target surface before plasma formation occurs. This type of shutter enables one to reduce the pulse duration down to ~2 ns and to remove the low power, long duration tails that are present in TEA CO(2) pulses. The transmitted energy is reduced as the pulse duration is decreased but the reflected power is ~10 MW for all pulse durations. A simple laser heating model verifies that the pulse shortening depends directly on the plasma formation time, which in turn is dependent on the applied laser intensity. It is envisaged that this plasma shutter will be used as a tool for pulse shaping in the search for laser pulse conditions to optimize conversion efficiency from laser energy to useable extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation for EUV source development.

  1. CO2 laser pulse shortening by laser ablation of a metal target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, T.; Mazoyer, M.; Lynch, A.; O'Sullivan, G.; O'Reilly, F.; Dunne, P.; Cummins, T.

    2012-03-01

    A repeatable and flexible technique for pulse shortening of laser pulses has been applied to transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO2 laser pulses. The technique involves focusing the laser output onto a highly reflective metal target so that plasma is formed, which then operates as a shutter due to strong laser absorption and scattering. Precise control of the focused laser intensity allows for timing of the shutter so that different temporal portions of the pulse can be reflected from the target surface before plasma formation occurs. This type of shutter enables one to reduce the pulse duration down to ˜2 ns and to remove the low power, long duration tails that are present in TEA CO2 pulses. The transmitted energy is reduced as the pulse duration is decreased but the reflected power is ˜10 MW for all pulse durations. A simple laser heating model verifies that the pulse shortening depends directly on the plasma formation time, which in turn is dependent on the applied laser intensity. It is envisaged that this plasma shutter will be used as a tool for pulse shaping in the search for laser pulse conditions to optimize conversion efficiency from laser energy to useable extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation for EUV source development.

  2. Dielectric breakdown induced by picosecond laser pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W. L.; Bechtel, J. H.; Bloembergen, N.

    1976-01-01

    The damage thresholds of transparent optical materials were investigated. Single picosecond pulses at 1.06 microns, 0.53 microns and 0.35 microns were obtained from a mode locked Nd-YAG oscillator-amplifier-frequency multiplier system. The pulses were Gaussian in space and time and permitted the determination of breakdown thresholds with a reproducibility of 15%. It was shown that the breakdown thresholds are characteristic of the bulk material, which included nine alkali halides, five different laser host materials, KDP, quartz, sapphire and calcium fluoride. The extension of the damage data to the ultraviolet is significant, because some indication was obtained that two- and three-photon absorption processes begin to play a role in determining the threshold. Throughout the visible region of the spectrum the threshold is still an increasing function of frequency, indicating that avalanche ionization is the dominant factor in determining the breakdown threshold. This was confirmed by a detailed study of the damage morphology with a high resolution microscope just above the threshold. The influence of self focusing is discussed, and evidence for beam distortion below the power threshold for complete self focusing is presented, confirming the theory of Marburger.

  3. Laser pulsing in linear Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krafft, G. A.; Johnson, E.; Deitrick, K.; Terzić, B.; Kelmar, R.; Hodges, T.; Melnitchouk, W.; Delayen, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Previous work on calculating energy spectra from Compton scattering events has either neglected considering the pulsed structure of the incident laser beam, or has calculated these effects in an approximate way subject to criticism. In this paper, this problem has been reconsidered within a linear plane wave model for the incident laser beam. By performing the proper Lorentz transformation of the Klein-Nishina scattering cross section, a spectrum calculation can be created which allows the electron beam energy spread and emittance effects on the spectrum to be accurately calculated, essentially by summing over the emission of each individual electron. Such an approach has the obvious advantage that it is easily integrated with a particle distribution generated by particle tracking, allowing precise calculations of spectra for realistic particle distributions "in collision." The method is used to predict the energy spectrum of radiation passing through an aperture for the proposed Old Dominion University inverse Compton source. Many of the results allow easy scaling estimates to be made of the expected spectrum.

  4. Ablation of steel using picosecond laser pulses in burst mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lickschat, Peter; Demba, Alexander; Weissmantel, Steffen

    2017-02-01

    Results obtained in picosecond laser processing of steel applying the burst mode are presented. Using the burst mode, pulse trains, i.e., bursts, consisting of a number of picosecond pulses with an inter-pulse delay of 12.5 ns and 10 ps pulse duration are applied for material processing. Small cavities with sizes in the range of the laser beam diameter made by single-burst ablation are compared to quadratic cavities of 0.5 × 0.5 mm² produced by multiburst ablation and simultaneous scanning of the laser beam across the steel sample surface. The ablated volume per pulse within the burst was calculated either from the ablated volume per burst or from the ablation depth of the quadratic cavities. With the second to fourth pulses in the bursts, a reduction of the ablated volume per pulse in comparison with the first pulse in the bursts (i.e., to the use of single pulses) was found for both single- and multiburst ablation, which is assumed to be due to plasma shielding. By contrast, the ablated volume per pulse within the bursts increases for the fifth to eighth pulses. Heat accumulation effect and the influence of the heated plasma can be assumed to be the reason for these higher ablation rates. SEM micrographs also show that there is a higher melt ejection out of the laser processed area. This is indicated by the formation of bulges about the ablated area.

  5. Bismuth thin films obtained by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Teresa; Arronte, Miguel; Rodriguez, Eugenio; Ponce, Luis; Alonso, J. C.; Garcia, C.; Fernandez, M.; Haro, E.

    1999-07-01

    In the present work Bi thin films were obtained by Pulsed Laser Deposition, using Nd:YAG lasers. The films were characterized by optical microscopy. Raman spectroscopy and X-rays diffraction. It was accomplished the real time spectral emission characterization of the plasma generated during the laser evaporation process. Highly oriented thin films were obtained.

  6. Optical pulse generation using fiber lasers and integrated optics

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, R.B.; Browning, D.F.; Burkhart, S.C.; VanWonterghem, B.W.

    1995-03-27

    We have demonstrated an optical pulse forming system using fiber and integrated optics, and have designed a multiple-output system for a proposed fusion laser facility. Our approach is an advancement over previous designs for fusion lasers, and an unusual application of fiber lasers and integrated optics.

  7. Multichannel optoacoustic spectroscopy of molecular gases with pulsed lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarev, Iu. N.

    1989-05-01

    The linear and nonlinear absorption of laser radiation by H20 and CO2 is studied using dual-channel optoacoustic spectroscopy (OAS) with pulsed ruby and CO2 lasers. The possibility of VT-relaxation time determination is studied with allowance made for its dependence on laser radiation intensity. The advantages of the OAS method are outlined.

  8. Pulsed Laser Deposition of Gallium Arsenide.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leppert, Valerie Jean

    Recent applications of pulsed laser deposition to the growth of various types of thin films suggest that it may be successfully used for III-V semiconductors. The goal of this work is to characterize the growth of GaAs using PLD and to determine the scope of the technique for this material. Therefore, laser ablation of GaAs is characterized here using spectroscopic analysis of the optical emission lines from the laser plasma plume. Additionally, the influence of growth conditions on GaAs films grown on a range of substrates is examined. In-situ analysis of the GaAs plume revealed that atomic, rather than molecular, arsenic is a major constituent of the GaAs plume. This may explain why no arsenic overpressure was needed to grow stoichiometric material. Nonlinear behavior of Ga emission intensity with laser power density indicated that several ablation mechanisms may be at work. EDAX studies indicate that deposited material is stoichiometric. Single crystal GaAs was grown on GaAs, Si and InP using PLD. A deposition rate of 0.65 mu m/hr was obtained. Defects consisting of dislocations, twinning and stacking faults were observed. An increase in laser power density decreased the minimum temperature for good film growth. Films were smooth overall, but suffered from an occasional inclusion of macroparticulates. Methods for screening particles were examined. The optimum growth temperature for GaAs/GaAs growth was 470^circC, but good films could be obtained as low as 335^circ C. GaAs/Si underwent a transition from a (110) oriented film to single crystal (100) film at 470 ^circC. Photoluminescence was obtained for the GaAs/GaAs and GaAs/InP systems. Well oriented films of GaAs (110) on an amorphous substrate (fused silica) were obtained for the first time using PLD at temperatures as low as 288^ circC. The effects of deposition temperature, deposition time, background gas, annealing, MOCVD overlayer and shadow masking were examined.

  9. A laser spectrometer and wavemeter for pulsed lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, J. A.; Laufer, P. M.; Cotnoir, L. J.

    1989-01-01

    The design, construction, calibration, and evaluation of a pulsed laser wavemeter and spectral analyzer are described. This instrument, called the Laserscope for its oscilloscope-like display of laser spectral structure, was delivered to NASA Langley Research Center as a prototype of a laboratory instrument. The key component is a multibeam Fizeau wedge interferometer, providing high (0.2 pm) spectral resolution and a linear dispersion of spectral information, ideally suited to linear array photodiode detectors. Even operating alone, with the classic order-number ambiguity of interferometers unresolved, this optical element will provide a fast, real-time display of the spectral structure of a laser output. If precise wavelength information is also desired then additional stages must be provided to obtain a wavelength measurement within the order-number uncertainty, i.e., within the free spectral range of the Fizeau wedge interferometer. A Snyder (single-beam Fizeau) wedge is included to provide this initial wavelength measurement. Difficulties in achieving the required wide-spectrum calibration limit the usefulness of this function.

  10. Measurements of Intense Femtosecond Laser Pulse Propagation in Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Antonio

    2004-11-01

    Intense femtosecond pulses generated from chirped pulse amplification (CPA) lasers can deliver laser powers many times above the critical power for self-focusing in air. Catastrophic collapse of the laser pulse is usually prevented by the defocusing of the plasma column formed when the laser intensity gets above the threshold for multiphoton ionization. The resultant laser/plasma filament can extend many meters as the laser pulse propagates in the atmosphere. We have carried out a series of experiments both for understanding the formation mechanisms of the filaments and the nonlinear effects such as white light and harmonics generation associated with them. Many applications of these filaments such as remote atmospheric breakdown, laser induced electrical discharge and femtosecond laser material interactions require direct measurements of their characteristics. Direct measurements of these filaments had been difficult because the high laser intensity ( ˜10^13 W/cm^2) can damage practically any optical diagnostics. A novel technique was invented to obtain the first absolute measurements of laser energy, transverse profile, fluence and spectral content of the filaments. We are investigating a ``remote atmospheric breakdown'' concept of remotely sensing chemical and biological compounds. A short intense laser pulse can be generated at a remote position by using the group velocity dispersion (GVD) of the air to compress an initially long, frequency negatively chirped laser pulse to generate the air breakdown and filaments. We have observed that nonlinear contributions to the laser spectrum through self-phase modulation can lead to modification of the linear GVD compression. We have also observed the generation of ultraviolet (UV) radiations from these filaments in air and the induced fluorescence by the UV radiation of a surrogate biological agent. These and other results such as laser induced electrical discharges will be presented.

  11. Ultrashort laser pulse interaction with photo-thermo-refractive glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siiman, Leo A.

    Photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass is an ideal photosensitive material for recording phase volume holograms. It is a homogeneous multi-component silicate glass that demonstrates all the advantages of optical glass: thermal stability, high laser damage threshold, and a wide transparency range. Moreover the ability to record phase patterns (i.e. spatial refractive index variations) into PTR glass has resulted in the fabrication of volume holograms with diffraction efficiency greater than 99%. The conventional method of recording a hologram in PTR glass relies on exposure to continuous-wave ultraviolet laser radiation. In this dissertation the interaction between infrared ultrashort laser pulses and PTR glass is studied. It is shown that photosensitivity in PTR glass can be extended from the UV region to longer wavelengths (near-infrared) by exposure to ultrashort laser pulses. It is found that there exists a focusing geometry and laser pulse intensity interval for which photoionization and refractive index change in PTR glass after thermal development occur without laser-induced optical damage. Photoionization of PTR glass by IR ultrashort laser pulses is explained in terms of strong electric field ionization. This phenomenon is used to fabricate phase optical elements in PTR glass. The interaction between ultrashort laser pulses and volume holograms in PTR glass is studied in two laser intensity regimes. At intensities below ˜10 12 W/cm2 properties such as diffraction efficiency, angular divergence, selectivity, and pulse front tilt are shown to agree with the theory of linear diffraction for broad spectral width lasers. A volume grating pair arrangement is shown to correct the laser pulse distortions arising from pulse front tilt and angular divergence. At higher intensities of irradiation, nonlinear generation and diffraction of third harmonic is observed for three types of interactions: sum-frequency generation, front-surface THG generation, and THG due to

  12. Fiber Optic Solutions for Short Pulse Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, R; Dawson, J; Liao, Z; Jovanovic, I; Wattellier, B; Payne, S; Barty, C P

    2003-01-29

    For applications requiring high beam quality radiation from efficient, compact and rugged sources, diffraction limited fiber lasers are ideal, and to date have been demonstrated at average CW power levels exceeding 100 W with near diffraction limited: output. For conventional single-core step-index single-mode fibers, this power level represents the sealing limit because of nonlinear and laser damage considerations. Higher average powers would exceed nonlinear process thresholds such as the Raman and stimulated Brillouin scattering limit, or else damage the fiber due to the high intensity level in the fiber's core. The obvious way to increase the average power capability of fibers is to increase the area of their core. Simply expanding the core dimensions of the fiber allows a straightforward power sealing due to enhanced nonlinear and power handling characteristics that scale directly with the core area. Femtosecond, chirped-pulse, fiber lasers with pulse energies greater than 1mJ have been demonstrated in the literature [2] using this technique. This output energy was still limited by the onset of stimulated Raman scattering. We have pursued an alternative and complimentary approach which is to reduce the intensity of light propagating in the core by distributing it more evenly across the core area via careful design of the refractive index profile [3]. We have also sought to address the primary issue that results from scaling the core. The enhanced power handling capability comes at the expense of beam quality, as increasing the core diameter in standard step index fibers permits multiple transverse modes to lase simultaneously. Although this problem of multimode operation can be mitigated to some extent by appropriately designing the fiber's waveguide structure, limitations such as bend radius loss, sensitivity to thermally induced perturbations of the waveguide structure, and refractive index control, all become more stringent as the core diameter grows

  13. Generation of high-power nanosecond pulses from laser diode-pumped Nd:YAG lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Kinpui

    1988-01-01

    Simulation results are used to compare the pulse energy levels and pulse energy widths that can be achieved with LD-pumped Nd:YAG lasers for both the pulse-transmission mode (PTM) and pulse-reflection mode (PRM) Q-switching methods for pulse energy levels up to hundreds of microjoules and pulse widths as short as 1 ns. It is shown that high-power pulses with pulse widths as short as 1 ns can be generated with PTM Q-switched in LD-pumped Nd:YAG lasers. With the PRM Q-switching method, pulse widths as short as 2 ns and pulse energy at the level of a few hundred microjoules can also be achieved but require pumping with 8-10-mJ AlGaAs laser diode arrays.

  14. Short-pulse laser interactions with disordered materials and liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Phinney, L.M.; Goldman, C.H.; Longtin, J.P.; Tien, C.L.

    1995-12-31

    High-power, short-pulse lasers in the picosecond and subpicosecond range are utilized in an increasing number of technologies, including materials processing and diagnostics, micro-electronics and devices, and medicine. In these applications, the short-pulse radiation interacts with a wide range of media encompassing disordered materials and liquids. Examples of disordered materials include porous media, polymers, organic tissues, and amorphous forms of silicon, silicon nitride, and silicon dioxide. In order to accurately model, efficiently control, and optimize short-pulse, laser-material interactions, a thorough understanding of the energy transport mechanisms is necessary. Thus, fractals and percolation theory are used to analyze the anomalous diffusion regime in random media. In liquids, the thermal aspects of saturable and multiphoton absorption are examined. Finally, a novel application of short-pulse laser radiation to reduce surface adhesion forces in microstructures through short-pulse laser-induced water desorption is presented.

  15. Prepulse effect on intense femtosecond laser pulse propagation in gas

    SciTech Connect

    Giulietti, Antonio; Tomassini, Paolo; Galimberti, Marco; Giulietti, Danilo; Gizzi, Leonida A.; Koester, Petra; Labate, Luca; Ceccotti, Tiberio; D'Oliveira, Pascal; Auguste, Thierry; Monot, Pascal; Martin, Philippe

    2006-09-15

    The propagation of an ultrashort laser pulse can be affected by the light reaching the medium before the pulse. This can cause a serious drawback to possible applications. The propagation in He of an intense 60-fs pulse delivered by a Ti:sapphire laser in the chirped pulse amplification (CPA) mode has been investigated in conditions of interest for laser-plasma acceleration of electrons. The effects of both nanosecond amplified spontaneous emission and picosecond pedestals have been clearly identified. There is evidence that such effects are basically of refractive nature and that they are not detrimental for the propagation of a CPA pulse focused to moderately relativistic intensity. The observations are fully consistent with numerical simulations and can contribute to the search of a stable regime for laser acceleration.

  16. Recent progress in picosecond pulse generation from semiconductor lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auyeung, J. C.; Johnston, A. R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent progress in producing picosecond optical pulses from semiconductor laser diodes. The discussion concentrates on the mode-locking of a semiconductor laser diode in an external resonator. Transform-limited optical pulses ranging from several picoseconds to subpicosecond durations have been observed with active and passive mode-locking. Even though continuing research on the influence of impurities and defects on the mode-locking process is still needed, this technique has good promise for being utilized in fiber-optic communication systems. Alternative methods of direct electrical and optical excitation to produce ultrashort laser pulses are also described. They can generate pulses of similar widths to those obtained by mode-locking. The pulses generated will find applications in laser ranging and detector response measurement.

  17. Response of silicon solar cell to pulsed laser illumination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willowby, D.; Alexander, D.; Edge, T.; Herren, K.

    1993-01-01

    The response of silicon solar cell(s) to pulsed laser illumination is discussed. The motivation was due to the interest of Earth to space/Moon power beaming applications. When this work began, it was not known if solar cells would respond to laser light with pulse lengths in the nanosecond range and a repetition frequency in the kHz range. This is because the laser pulse would be shorter than the minority carrier lifetime of silicon. A 20-nanosecond (ns) full width half max (FWHM) pulse from an aluminum-gallium/arsenide (Al-Ga-As) diode laser was used to illuminate silicon solar cells at a wavelength of 885 nanometers (nm). Using a high-speed digital oscilloscope, the response of the solar cells to individual pulses across various resistive loads was observed and recorded.

  18. LIBS using dual- and ultra-short laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Angel, S M; Stratis, D N; Eland, K L; Lai, T; Berg, M A; Gold, D M

    2001-02-01

    Pre-ablation dual-pulse LIBS enhancement data for copper, brass and steel using ns laser excitation are reported. Although large enhancements are observed for all samples, the magnitude of the enhancement is matrix dependent. Whereas all of the dual-pulse studies used ns laser excitation we see interesting effects when using ps and fs laser excitation for single-pulse LIBS. LIBS spectra of copper using 1.3 ps and 140 fs laser pulses show much lower background signals compared to ns pulse excitation. Also, the atomic emission decays much more rapidly with time. Because of relatively low backgrounds when using ps and fs pulses, non-gated detection of LIBS is shown to be very effective. The plasma dissipates quickly enough using ps and fs laser pulses, that high pulse rates, up to 1,000 Hz, are effective for increasing the LIBS signal, for a given measurement time. Finally, a simple near-collinear dual-pulse fiber-optic LIBS probe is shown to be useful for enhanced LIBS measurements.

  19. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with picosecond pulse train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lednev, Vasily N.; Pershin, Sergey M.; Sdvizhenskii, Pavel A.; Grishin, Mikhail Ya; Davydov, Mikhail A.; Stavertiy, Anton Ya; Tretyakov, Roman S.

    2017-02-01

    Picosecond pulse train and nanosecond pulse were compared for laser ablation and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) measurements. A detailed study revealed that the picosecond pulse train ablation improved the quality of laser craters (symmetric crater walls and the absence of large redeposited droplets), which was explained by a smaller heat affected zone and suppression of melt splash. Greater plasma dimensions and brighter plasma emission were observed by gated imaging for picosecond pulse train compared to nanosecond pulse ablation. Increased intensity of atomic and ionic lines in gated and time integrated spectra provided better signal-to-noise ratio for picosecond pulse train sampling. Higher temperature and electron density were detected during first microsecond for the plasma induced by the picosecond pulse train. Improved shot-to-shot reproducibility for atomic/ionic line intensity in the case of picosecond pulse train LIBS was explained by more effective atomization of target material in plasma and better quality of laser craters. Improved precision and limits of detections were determined for picosecond pulse train LIBS due to better reproducibility of laser sampling and increased signal-to-noise ratio.

  20. Ponderomotive acceleration of electrons by a self focused laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Rohtash; Sharma, A. K.

    2010-12-15

    Ponderomotive acceleration of electrons by a short laser pulse undergoing relativistic self-focusing in a plasma is investigated. The saturation in nonlinear plasma permittivity causes periodic self-focusing of the laser. The periodicity lengths are different for different axial segments of the pulse. As a result, pulse shape is distorted. An electron initially on the laser axis and at the front of the self-focusing pulse gains energy from the pulse until it is run over by the pulse peak. By the time electron reaches the tail, if pulse begins diverging, the deceleration of the electron is slower and the electron is left with net energy gain. The electrons slightly off the laser axis see a radial ponderomotive force too. Initially, when they are accelerated by the pulse front the acceleration is strong as they are closer to the axis. When they see the tail of the pulse (after being run by the pulse), they are farther from the axis and the retardation ponderomotive force is weaker. Thus, there is net energy gain.

  1. Airborne bathymetric charting using pulsed blue-green lasers.

    PubMed

    Kim, H H

    1977-01-01

    Laboratory and airborne experiments have proven the feasibility and demonstrated the techniques of an airborne pulsed laser system for rapidly mapping coastal water bathymetry. Water depths of 10 +/- 0.25 m were recorded in waters having an effective attenuation coefficient of 0.175 m(-1). A2-MW peak power Nd:YAG pulsed laser was flown at an altitude of 600 m. An advanced system, incorporating a mirror scanner, a high pulsed rate laser, and a good signal processor, could survey coastal zones at the rate of several square miles per hour.

  2. Airborne bathymetric charting using pulsed blue-green lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, H. H.

    1977-01-01

    Laboratory and airborne experiments have proven the feasibility and demonstrated the techniques of an airborne pulsed laser system for rapidly mapping coastal water bathymetry. Water depths of 10 plus or minus 0.25 m were recorded in waters having an effective attenuation coefficient of 0.175 m. A 2-MW peak power Nd:YAG pulsed laser was flown at an altitude of 600 m. An advanced system, incorporating a mirror scanner, a high pulsed rate laser, and a good signal processor, could survey coastal zones at the rate of several square miles per hour.

  3. Efficient spectral-step expansion of a filamenting laser pulse.

    PubMed

    Théberge, Francis; Lassonde, Philippe; Payeur, Stéphane; Châteauneuf, Marc; Dubois, Jacques; Kieffer, Jean-Claude

    2013-05-01

    We report an efficient transfer of 800 nm energy into both the ultraviolet and the far infrared (IR) during the filamentation in air of an appropriately shaped laser pulse. The multiorder enhancement of the IR supercontinuum in the 3-5 μm atmospheric transmission windows was achieved thanks to spectral-step cascaded four-wave mixing occurring within the spectrum of the shaped femtosecond laser pulse. These results also point out the limit of the self-phase modulation model to explain the spectral broadening of a filamenting laser pulse.

  4. All-fiber ring Raman laser generating parabolic pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Kruglov, V. I.; Mechin, D.; Harvey, J. D.

    2010-02-15

    We present theoretical and numerical results for an all-fiber laser using self-similar parabolic pulses ('similaritons') designed to operate using self-similar propagation regimes. The similariton laser features a frequency filter and a Sagnac loop which operate together to generate an integrated all-fiber mode-locked laser. Numerical studies show that this laser generates parabolic pulses with linear chirp in good agreement with analytical predictions. The period for propagating similariton pulses in stable regimes can vary from one to two round trips for different laser parameters. Two-round-trip-period operation in the mode-locked laser appears at bifurcation points for certain cavity parameters. The stability of the similariton regimes has been confirmed by numerical simulations for large numbers of round trips.

  5. Safe Operation and Alignment of the Variable Pulse Width Laser at the US Army Research Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    pulse at pulse widths between 50 µs to 10 ms. Maximum energy output is only achieved by proper alignment and laser operation. This report provides...not included in the operator’s manual. 15. SUBJECT TERMS pulse width, laser energy , laser alignment, peak power, laser operation 16. SECURITY...Acknowledgments v 1. Introduction 1 2. Energy Output of the Variable Pulse Width Laser 1 3. Operation of the Variable Pulse Width Laser 2 4

  6. Propagation of Complex Laser Pulses in Optically Dense Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetterman, M. R.; Davis, J. C.; Goswami, D.; Yang, W.; Warren, W. S.

    1999-05-01

    Ultrafast laser pulses with complex envelopes (amplitude and frequency modulated) are used to excite an optically dense column of rubidium vapor. Pulse reshaping, stimulated emission dynamics, and residual electronic excitation in the Rb vapor are all shown to depend strongly on the laser pulse shape. Pulses that produce adiabatic passage in the optically thin limit exhibit more complex behavior in optically thick samples, including an unexpected dependence on the sign of the frequency sweep. Numerical solutions of the Maxwell-Bloch equations are shown to account for our results.

  7. Pulse Splitting in Short Wavelength Seeded Free Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Labat, M.; Couprie, M. E.; Joly, N.; Bruni, C.

    2009-12-31

    We investigate a fundamental limitation occurring in vacuum ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet seeded free electron lasers (FELs). For a given electron beam and undulator configuration, an increase of the FEL output energy at saturation can be obtained via an increase of the seed pulse duration. We put in evidence a complex spatiotemporal deformation of the amplified pulse, leading ultimately to a pulse splitting effect. Numerical studies of the Colson-Bonifacio FEL equations reveal that slippage length and seed laser pulse wings are core ingredients of the dynamics.

  8. Femtosecond x-rays from Thomson scattering using laser wakefield accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Catravas, P.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W.P.

    2001-03-01

    The possibility of producing femtosecond x-rays through Thomson scattering high power laser beams off laser wakefield generated relativistic electron beams is discussed. The electron beams are produced with either a self-modulated laser wakefield accelerator (SM-LWFA) or through a standard laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) with optical injection. For a SM-LWFA (LWFA) produced electron beam, a broad (narrow) energy distribution is assumed, resulting in X-ray spectra that are broadband (monochromatic). Designs are presented for 3-100 fs x-ray pulses and the expected flux and brightness of these sources are compared.

  9. LASERS: Electric-discharge XeCl laser emitting 10-J, 300-ns pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalov, I. N.; Losev, V. F.; Panchenko, Yu N.; Ivanov, N. G.; Sukhov, M. Yu

    2005-03-01

    The development of a long-pulse electric-discharge XeCl laser with the 9 × 6 × 100 cm active volume is reported. Laser is excited by using a double circuit with a pulsed charged storage capacitor consisting of paper-oil capacitors forming the pulse-shaping line. The storage capacitor is switched by a multichannel extended gap. The laser mixture was preionised by X-rays. The laser generated the 10-J output pulses with the FWHM of 300 ns, and a uniform intensity distribution over the exit aperture.

  10. Stabilizing laser energy density on a target during pulsed laser deposition of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Dowden, Paul C.; Jia, Quanxi

    2016-05-31

    A process for stabilizing laser energy density on a target surface during pulsed laser deposition of thin films controls the focused laser spot on the target. The process involves imaging an image-aperture positioned in the beamline. This eliminates changes in the beam dimensions of the laser. A continuously variable attenuator located in between the output of the laser and the imaged image-aperture adjusts the energy to a desired level by running the laser in a "constant voltage" mode. The process provides reproducibility and controllability for deposition of electronic thin films by pulsed laser deposition.

  11. Over 0.5 MW green laser from sub-nanosecond giant pulsed microchip laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lihe; Taira, Takunori

    2016-03-01

    A sub-nanosecond green laser with laser head sized 35 × 35 × 35 mm3 was developed from a giant pulsed microchip laser for laser processing on organic superconducting transistor with a flexible substrate. A composite monolithic Y3Al5O12 (YAG) /Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG/YAG crystal was designed for generating giant pulsed 1064 nm laser. A fibercoupled 30 W laser diode centered at 808 nm was used with pump pulse duration of 245 μs. The 532 nm green laser was obtained from a LiB3O5 (LBO) crystal with output energy of 150 μJ and pulse duration of 268 ps. The sub-nanosecond green laser is interesting for 2-D ablation patterns.

  12. Ablation characteristics of quantum square pulse mode dental erbium laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukač, Nejc; Suhovršnik, Tomaž; Lukač, Matjaž; Jezeršek, Matija

    2016-01-01

    Erbium lasers are by now an accepted tool for performing ablative medical procedures, especially when minimal invasiveness is desired. Ideally, a minimally invasive laser cutting procedure should be fast and precise, and with minimal pain and thermal side effects. All these characteristics are significantly influenced by laser pulse duration, albeit not in the same manner. For example, high cutting efficacy and low heat deposition are characteristics of short pulses, while vibrations and ejected debris screening are less pronounced at longer pulse durations. We report on a study of ablation characteristics on dental enamel and cementum, of a chopped-pulse Er:YAG [quantum square pulse (QSP)] mode, which was designed to reduce debris screening during an ablation process. It is shown that in comparison to other studied standard Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser pulse duration modes, the QSP mode exhibits the highest ablation drilling efficacy with lowest heat deposition and reduced vibrations, demonstrating that debris screening has a considerable influence on the ablation process. By measuring single-pulse ablation depths, we also show that tissue desiccation during the consecutive delivery of laser pulses leads to a significant reduction of the intrinsic ablation efficacy that cannot be fully restored under clinical settings by rehydrating the tooth using an external water spray.

  13. Synchronization of sub-picosecond electron and laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenzweig, J.B.; Le Sage, G.P.

    1999-07-01

    Sub-picosecond laser-electron synchronization is required to take full advantage of the experimental possibilities arising from the marriage of modern high intensity lasers and high brightness electron beams in the same laboratory. Two particular scenarios stand out in this regard, injection of ultra-short electron pulses in short wavelength laser-driven plasma accelerators, and Compton scattering of laser photons from short electron pulses. Both of these applications demand synchronization, which is sub-picosecond, with tens of femtosecond synchronization implied for next generation experiments. The design of a microwave timing modulator system is now being investigated in more detail. (AIP) {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Synchronization of sub-picosecond electron and laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenzweig, J. B.; Le Sage, G. P.

    1999-07-12

    Sub-picosecond laser-electron synchronization is required to take full advantage of the experimental possibilities arising from the marriage of modern high intensity lasers and high brightness electron beams in the same laboratory. Two particular scenarios stand out in this regard, injection of ultra-short electron pulses in short wavelength laser-driven plasma accelerators, and Compton scattering of laser photons from short electron pulses. Both of these applications demand synchronization, which is sub-picosecond, with tens of femtosecond synchronization implied for next generation experiments. The design of a microwave timing modulator system is now being investigated in more detail.

  15. Acceleration Mechanism Of Pulsed Laser-Electromagnetic Hybrid Thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Horisawa, Hideyuki; Mashima, Yuki; Yamada, Osamu

    2011-11-10

    A fundamental study of a newly developed rectangular pulsed laser-electromagnetic hybrid thruster was conducted. Laser-ablation plasma in the thruster was induced through laser beam irradiation onto a solid target and accelerated by electrical means instead of direct acceleration only by using a laser beam. The performance of the thrusters was evaluated by measuring the ablated mass per pulse and impulse bit. As results, significantly high specific impulses up to 7,200 s were obtained at charge energies of 8.6 J. Moreover, from the Faraday cup measurement, it was confirmed that the speed of ions was accelerated with addition of electric energy.

  16. Pulsed infrared laser irradiation of biological tissue: effect of pulse duration and repetition rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, E. Duco; Chundru, Ravi K.; Samanani, Salim A.; Tibbetts, Todd A.; Welch, Ashley J.

    1993-07-01

    Pulsed laser ablation is a trade off between minimizing thermal damage (for relatively long pulses) and mechanical damage (for relatively short pulses) to tissue adjacent to the ablation crater. Often it is not known what the optimal laser parameters are for a specific application, since clinically used parameters have at least partially been dictated by physical limitations of the laser devices. We recently obtained a novel type of cryogenic continuous wave holmium:YAG laser ((lambda) equals 2.09 micrometers ) with a galvanometric drive outcouple mirror that acts as a Q-switch. This unique device provides pulse repetition rates from a few Hz up to kHz and the pulse length is variable from microsecond(s) to ms. The effect of pulse duration and repetition rate on the thermal response of chicken breast is documented using temperature measurements with a thermal camera. We varied the pulse width from 10 microsecond(s) to 5 ms and fond that these pulse durations can be considered impulses of thermalized optical energy. In this paper some theoretical considerations of the pulse length will be described that support the experimental data. It was also found that even at 1 pulse per second thermal superposition occurs, indicating a much longer thermal relaxation time than predicted by a simple time constant model.

  17. Parabolic similariton Yb-fiber laser with triangular pulse evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sijia; Wang, Lei

    2016-04-01

    We propose a novel mode-locked fiber laser design which features a passive nonlinear triangular pulse formation and self-similar parabolic pulse amplification intra cavity. Attribute to the nonlinear reshaping progress in the passive fiber, a triangular-profiled pulse with negative-chirp is generated and paved the way for rapid and efficient self-similar parabolic evolution in a following short-length high-gain fiber. In the meanwhile, the accompanied significantly compressed narrow spectrum from this passive nonlinear reshaping also gives the promise of pulse stabilization and gain-shaping robustness without strong filtering. The resulting short average intra-cavity pulse duration, low amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and low intra-cavity power loss are essential for the low-noise operation. Simulations predict this modelocked fiber laser allows for high-energy ultra-short transform-limited pulse generation exceeding the gain bandwidth. The output pulse has a de-chirped duration (full-width at half maximum, FWHM) of 27 fs. In addition to the ultrafast laser applications, the proposed fiber laser scheme can support low-noise parabolic and triangular pulse trains at the same time, which are also attractive in optical pulse shaping, all-optical signal processing and high-speed communication applications.

  18. Metal Processing with Ultra-Short Laser Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, P S; Feit, M D; Komashko, A M; Perry, M D; Rubenchik, A M; Stuart, B C

    2000-05-01

    Femtosecond laser ablation has been shown to produce well-defined cuts and holes in metals with minimal heat effect to the remaining material. Ultrashort laser pulse processing shows promise as an important technique for materials processing. We will discuss the physical effects associated with processing based experimental and modeling results. Intense ultra-short laser pulse (USLP) generates high pressures and temperatures in a subsurface layer during the pulse, which can strongly modify the absorption. We carried out simulations of USLP absorption versus material and pulse parameters. The ablation rate as function of the laser parameters has been estimated. Since every laser pulse removes only a small amount of material, a practical laser processing system must have high repetition rate. We will demonstrate that planar ablation is unstable and the initially smooth crater bottom develops a corrugated pattern after many tens of shots. The corrugation growth rate, angle of incidence and the polarization of laser electric field dependence will be discussed. In the nonlinear stage, the formation of coherent structures with scales much larger than the laser wavelength was observed. Also, there appears to be a threshold fluence above which a narrow, nearly perfectly circular channel forms after a few hundred shots. Subsequent shots deepen this channel without significantly increasing its diameter. The role of light absorption in the hole walls will be discussed.

  19. In vivo visualization of collagen fiber produced by cultured osteoblasts using sensitive second-harmonic-generation microscopy equipped with a 10-fs mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hase, Eiji; Sato, Katsuya; Yasui, Takeshi

    2015-03-01

    Second-harmonic-generation (SHG) microscopy is a new tool for observing the collagen fiber in tissue in vivo. Conventional SHG microscopy equipped with 100-fs pulse laser is insufficient to visualize low-order-structured, immature collagen with high contrast (for example, collagen fiber produced by cultured cell) because of low nonlinear susceptibility χ(2). To enhance the image contrast while avoiding the sample damage, one should increase a peak power of the laser light while maintaining the same average power as the 100-fs laser. In this paper, we constructed sensitive SHG microscopy equipped with a 10-fs Ti:Sapphire laser and succeeded to visualize collagen fibers produced by the cultured osteoblasts in vivo.

  20. Pulsed laser deposition of ferroelectric thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Somnath; McKnight, Steven H.; Sengupta, Louise C.

    1997-05-01

    It has been shown that in bulk ceramic form, the barium to strontium ratio in barium strontium titanium oxide (Ba1- xSrxTiO3, BSTO) affects the voltage tunability and electronic dissipation factor in an inverse fashion; increasing the strontium content reduces the dissipation factor at the expense of lower voltage tunability. However, the oxide composites of BSTO developed at the Army Research Laboratory still maintain low electronic loss factors for all compositions examined. The intent of this study is to determine whether such effects can be observed in the thin film form of the oxide composites. The pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method has been used to deposit the thin films. The different compositions of the compound (with 1 wt% of the oxide additive) chosen were: Ba0.3Sr0.7TiO3, Ba0.4Sr0.6TiO3, Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3, Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3, and Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3. The electronic properties investigated in this study were the dielectric constant and the voltage tunability. The morphology of the thin films were examined using the atomic force microscopy. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy was also utilized for optical characterization of the thin films. The electronic and optical properties of the thin films and the bulk ceramics were compared. The results of these investigations are discussed.

  1. Power Enhancement Cavity for Burst-Mode Laser Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yun

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel optical cavity scheme and locking method that can realize the power enhancement of picosecond UV laser pulses operating at a burst mode with arbitrary burst (macropulse) lengths and repetition rates.

  2. Schwinger vacuum pair production in chirped laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Dumlu, Cesim K.

    2010-08-15

    The recent developments of high intensity ultrashort laser pulses have raised the hopes of observing Schwinger vacuum pair production which is one of the important nonperturbative phenomena in QED. The quantitative analysis of realistic high intensity laser pulses is vital for understanding the effect of the field parameters on the momentum spectrum of the produced particles. In this study, we analyze chirped laser pulses with a subcycle structure, and investigate the effects of the chirp parameter on the momentum spectrum of the produced particles. The combined effect of the chirp and carrier phase of the laser pulse is also analyzed. These effects are qualitatively explained by investigating the turning-point structure of the potential within the framework of the complex WKB scattering approach to pair production.

  3. Chirped pulse inverse free-electron laser vacuum accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Hartemann, Frederic V.; Baldis, Hector A.; Landahl, Eric C.

    2002-01-01

    A chirped pulse inverse free-electron laser (IFEL) vacuum accelerator for high gradient laser acceleration in vacuum. By the use of an ultrashort (femtosecond), ultrahigh intensity chirped laser pulse both the IFEL interaction bandwidth and accelerating gradient are increased, thus yielding large gains in a compact system. In addition, the IFEL resonance condition can be maintained throughout the interaction region by using a chirped drive laser wave. In addition, diffraction can be alleviated by taking advantage of the laser optical bandwidth with negative dispersion focusing optics to produce a chromatic line focus. The combination of these features results in a compact, efficient vacuum laser accelerator which finds many applications including high energy physics, compact table-top laser accelerator for medical imaging and therapy, material science, and basic physics.

  4. Longitudinally excited CO2 laser with short laser pulse for hard tissue drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Kazuyuki; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Akitsu, Tetsuya; Jitsuno, Takahisa

    2014-02-01

    We developed a longitudinally excited CO2 laser that produces a short laser pulse with a circular beam and a low divergence angle. The laser was very simple and consisted of a 45-cm-long alumina ceramic pipe with an inner diameter of 9 mm, a pulse power supply, a step-up transformer, a storage capacitance, and a spark-gap switch. The laser pulse had a spike pulse width of 103 ns and a pulse tail length of 32.6 μs. The beam cross-section was circular and the full-angle beam divergence was 1.7 mrad. The laser was used to drill ivory samples without carbonization at fluences of 2.3-7.1 J/cm2. The drilling depth of the dry ivory increased with the fluence. The drilling mechanism of the dry ivory was attributed to absorption of the laser light by the ivory.

  5. Laser shaping of a relativistic circularly polarized pulse by laser foil interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, D. B.; Zhuo, H. B.; Yu, T. P.; Yang, X. H.; Shao, F. Q.; Ma, Y. Y.; Yin, Y.; Ouyang, J. M.; Ge, Z. Y.; Zhang, G. B.; Wang, P.

    2013-07-15

    Laser shaping of a relativistic circularly polarized laser pulse in ultra-intense laser thin-foil interaction is investigated by theoretical analysis and particle-in-cell simulations. It is found that the plasma foil as a nonlinear optical shutter has an obvious cut-out effect on the laser temporal and spatial profiles. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that the high intensity part of a Gaussian laser pulse can be well extracted from the whole pulse. The transmitted pulse with longitudinal steep rise front and transverse super-Gaussian profile is thus obtained which would be beneficial for the radiation pressure acceleration regime. The Rayleigh-Taylor-like instability is observed in the simulations, which destroys the foil and results in the cut-out effect of the pulse in the rise front of a circularly polarized laser.

  6. Effect of pulse duty cycle on Inconel 718 laser welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCay, M. H.; McCay, T. D.; Dahotre, N. B.; Sharp, C. M.; Sedghinasab, A.; Gopinathan, S.

    1989-01-01

    Crack sensitive Inconel 718 was laser pulse welded using a 3.0 kW CO2 laser. Weld shape, structure, and porosity were recorded as a function of the pulse duty cycle. Within the matrix studied, the welds were found to be optimized at a high (17 ms on, 7 ms off) duty cycle. These welds were superior in appearance and lack of porosity to both low duty cycle and CW welds.

  7. Rapid scanning autocorrelator for measurements of picosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harde, H.; Burggraf, H.

    1981-08-01

    A rapid scanning autocorrelation interferometer for measurements of picosecond laser pulses is described which uses a rotating prism as scanning device in one arm of the interferometer to permit continuous display of autocorrelation traces at audio frequencies on an oscilloscope. Scan widths of more than 500 ps with high linearity can be achieved. Autocorrelation measurements of picosecond pulses from a synchronously pumped mode-locked dye laser are presented.

  8. Long Pulse Narrowband XeCl Laser Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-15

    longest pulse width obtained with an e-beam pumped excimer laser . The kinetics processes of the long pulse narrowband were investigated by measurements...electrically triggered switch driven by a small Marx bank which produces the high voltage trigger required. This allows a high standoff voltage and...Phys. Lett 45, p. 507 (1984). 13 M. W. Taylor, J. Goldhar, and J. R. Murray, "Dylux: an instant image photographic material suitable for UV laser beam

  9. Effect of Pulse Length on Engraving Efficiency in Nanosecond Pulsed Laser Engraving of Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manninen, Matti; Hirvimäki, Marika; Poutiainen, Ilkka; Salminen, Antti

    2015-10-01

    Dependency of laser pulse length on the effectiveness of laser engraving 304 stainless steel with nanosecond pulses was investigated. Ytterbium fiber laser with pulse lengths from 4 to 200 ns was used at a constant average power of 20 W. Measured criteria for effective laser engraving were high material removal rate (MRR), good visual quality of the engraved surface, and low processing temperature. MRR was measured by weighing the samples prior and after the engraving process. Visual quality was evaluated from magnified images. Surface temperature of the samples was measured by two laser spot-welded K-type thermocouples near the laser-processed area. It was noticed that MRR increases significantly with longer pulse lengths, while the quality decreases and processing temperature increases. Some peculiar process behavior was noticed. With short pulses (<20 ns), the process temperature steadily increased as the engraving process continued, whereas with longer pulses the process temperature started to decrease after initially jumping to a specific level. From visually analyzing the samples, it was noticed that the melted and resolidified bottom structure had cracks and pores on the surface when 50 ns or longer pulse lengths were used.

  10. Supression of laser breakdown by pulsed nonequilibrium ns discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starikovskiy, A. Y.; Semenov, I. E.; Shneider, M. N.

    2016-10-01

    The avalanche ionization induced by infrared laser pulses was investigated in a pre-ionized argon gas. Pre-ionization was created by a high-voltage pulsed nanosecond discharge developed in the form of a fast ionization wave. Then, behind the front of ionization wave additional avalanche ionization was initiated by the focused Nd-YAG laser pulse. It was shown that the gas pre-ionization inhibits the laser spark generation. It was demonstrated that the suppression of laser spark development in the case of strong gas pre-ionization is because of fast electron energy transfer from the laser beam focal region. The main mechanism of this energy transfer is free electrons diffusion.

  11. High power repetitive TEA CO2 pulsed laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guilong; Li, Dianjun; Xie, Jijiang; Zhang, Laiming; Chen, Fei; Guo, Jin; Guo, Lihong

    2012-07-01

    A high power repetitive spark-pin UV-preionized TEA CO2 laser system is presented. The discharge for generating laser pulses is controlled by a rotary spark switch and a high voltage pulsed trigger. Uniform glow discharge between two symmetrical Chang-electrodes is realized by using an auto-inversion circuit. A couple of high power axial-flow fans with the maximum wind speed of 80 m/s are used for gas exchange between the electrodes. At a repetitive operation, the maximum average output laser power of 10.4 kW 10.6 μm laser is obtained at 300 Hz, with an electro-optical conversion efficiency of 15.6%. At single pulsed operation, more pumping energy and higher gases pressures can be injected, and the maximum output laser energy of 53 J is achieved.

  12. Mode-locked femtosecond all polarization-maintaining erbium-doped dispersion managed fiber laser based on a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wenjue; Zhou, Yue; Sun, Ji; Dai, Yitang; Yin, Feifei; Dai, Jian; Xu, Kun

    2016-11-01

    We proposed a mode-locked all-polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fiber laser base on a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror (NALM). The laser can generate 1.6 ps pulses at 1550 nm with the energy of 1 nJ that can be compressed down to 100 fs with the compressor outside the cavity. The repetition rate of the output pulse is 12MHz. Such configuration of laser is easier controlled and self starting long term operation, and is highly desirable for industrial applications, such as micro-machining.

  13. Experimental verification of physical model of pulsed laser welding

    SciTech Connect

    Jellison, J.L.; Keicher, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Whereas most experimental and theoretical studies of the role of convection in fusion welding have been concerned with continuous heat sources, a pulsed heat source is the focus of this study. This is primarily an experimental study of the pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding of austenitic stainless steels. 12 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Fabrication of micro-convex domes using long pulse laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingsheng; Zhang, Yongnian; Wang, Ling; Xian, Jieyu; Jin, Meifu; Kang, Min

    2017-01-01

    Micro-convex domes inspired from nature can be machined by chemical and physical routes to achieve specific functions. Laser surface texturing (LST) is the front runner among the current material micro-processing technologies. However, most of the studies relating to LST dealt with the formation of micro-dimples. In this paper, LST using long pulse laser was used to create micro-convex domes on 304L stainless steel. Spherical-cap-shaped domes with diameters of 30-75 μm and height of 0.9-5.5 μm were created through LST. The effects of laser-processing parameters on surface morphologies of the created convex domes were investigated. The height of the convex dome increased at first and then decreased with the increasing laser power. The change tendency of the height with the pulse duration varied at different laser powers. The diameter of the convex dome increased almost linearly with the laser power or pulse duration. The superior micro-convex domes were achieved at a pulse energy of 5.6 mJ with a laser power of 80 W and pulse duration of 70 μs.

  15. High Average Power, High Energy Short Pulse Fiber Laser System

    SciTech Connect

    Messerly, M J

    2007-11-13

    Recently continuous wave fiber laser systems with output powers in excess of 500W with good beam quality have been demonstrated [1]. High energy, ultrafast, chirped pulsed fiber laser systems have achieved record output energies of 1mJ [2]. However, these high-energy systems have not been scaled beyond a few watts of average output power. Fiber laser systems are attractive for many applications because they offer the promise of high efficiency, compact, robust systems that are turn key. Applications such as cutting, drilling and materials processing, front end systems for high energy pulsed lasers (such as petawatts) and laser based sources of high spatial coherence, high flux x-rays all require high energy short pulses and two of the three of these applications also require high average power. The challenge in creating a high energy chirped pulse fiber laser system is to find a way to scale the output energy while avoiding nonlinear effects and maintaining good beam quality in the amplifier fiber. To this end, our 3-year LDRD program sought to demonstrate a high energy, high average power fiber laser system. This work included exploring designs of large mode area optical fiber amplifiers for high energy systems as well as understanding the issues associated chirped pulse amplification in optical fiber amplifier systems.

  16. Fiber laser pumped high power mid-infrared laser with picosecond pulse bunch output.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kaihua; Chen, Tao; Jiang, Peipei; Yang, Dingzhong; Wu, Bo; Shen, Yonghang

    2013-10-21

    We report a novel quasi-synchronously pumped PPMgLN-based high power mid-infrared (MIR) laser with picosecond pulse bunch output. The pump laser is a linearly polarized MOPA structured all fiberized Yb fiber laser with picosecond pulse bunch output. The output from a mode-locked seed fiber laser was directed to pass through a FBG reflector via a circulator to narrow the pulse duration from 800 ps to less than 50 ps and the spectral FWHM from 9 nm to 0.15 nm. The narrowed pulses were further directed to pass through a novel pulse multiplier through which each pulse was made to become a pulse bunch composing of 13 sub-pulses with pulse to pulse time interval of 1.26 ns. The pulses were then amplified via two stage Yb fiber amplifiers to obtain a linearly polarized high average power output up to 85 W, which were then directed to pass through an isolator and to pump a PPMgLN-based optical parametric oscillator via quasi-synchronization pump scheme for ps pulse bunch MIR output. High MIR output with average power up to 4 W was obtained at 3.45 micron showing the feasibility of such pump scheme for ps pulse bunch MIR output.

  17. Synchronization of Sub-Picosecond Electron and Laser Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenzweig, J.B.; Le Sage G.P.

    2000-08-15

    Sub-picosecond laser-electron synchronization is required to take full advantage of the experimental possibilities arising from the marriage of modern high intensity lasers and high brightness electron beams in the same laboratory. Two particular scenarios stand out in this regard, injection of ultra-short electron pulses in short wavelength laser-driven plasma accelerators, and Compton scattering of laser photons from short electron pulses. Both of these applications demand synchronization, which is subpicosecond, with tens of femtosecond synchronization implied for next-generation experiments. Typically, an RF electron accelerator is synchronized to a short pulse laser system by detecting the repetition signal of a laser oscillator, adjusted to an exact subharmonic of the linac RF frequency, and multiplying or phase locking this signal to produce the master RF clock. Pulse-to-pulse jitter characteristic of self-mode-locked laser oscillators represents a direct contribution to the ultimate timing jitter between a high intensity laser focus and electron beam at the interaction point, or a photocathode drive laser in an RF photoinjector. This timing jitter problem has been addressed most seriously in the context of the RF photoinjector, where the electron beam properties are sensitive functions of relative timing jitter. The timing jitter achieved in synchronized photocathode drive laser systems is near, or slightly below one picosecond. The ultimate time of arrival jitter of the beam at the photoinjector exit is typically a bit smaller than the photocathode drive-laser jitter due to velocity compression effects in the first RF cell of the gun. This tendency of the timing of the electron beam arrival at a given spatial point to lock to the RF lock is strongly reinforced by use of magnetic compression.

  18. ULTRASHORT LIGHT PULSES: Formation of subfemtosecond laser pulses in aperiodically poled nonlinear-optical crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shutov, I. V.; Novikov, A. A.; Chirkin, A. S.

    2008-03-01

    The method of synthesis of ultrashort laser pulses in nonlinear aperiodically poled crystals based on the simultaneous generation of several higher optical harmonics is considered. The interaction of four waves with multiple frequencies involving three mutually coupled nonlinear three-frequency processes is studied. It is shown that by introducing intense laser radiation into a crystal, pulses of duration of the order of a few hundreds of attoseconds can be produced at the crystal output.

  19. Metal nanoplasmas as bright sources of hard X-ray pulses.

    PubMed

    Rajeev, P P; Taneja, P; Ayyub, P; Sandhu, A S; Kumar, G Ravindra

    2003-03-21

    We report significant enhancements in light coupling to intense-laser-created solid plasmas via surface plasmon and "lightning rod" effects. We demonstrate this in metal nanoparticle-coated solid targets irradiated with 100 fs, 806 nm laser pulses, focused to intensities approximately 10(14)-10(15) W cm(-2). Our experiments show a 13-fold enhancement in hard x-ray yield (10-200 keV) emitted by copper nanoparticle plasmas formed at the focal volume. A simple model explains the observed enhancement quantitatively and provides pointers to the design of structured surfaces for maximizing such emissions.

  20. Pulse-duration dependent sequential double ionization by elliptically polarized laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Aihong; Deng, Yongju; Liu, Dan

    2016-05-01

    Using a fully classical model, we have studied sequential double ionization of argon driven by elliptically polarized laser pulses at intensities well in the over-barrier ionization region. The results show that the joint electron momentum distributions in the minor elliptical direction depend strongly on the pulse duration. From pulse number N = 4 to 10, the clustering regions of the joint electron momentum increase with the pulse duration. For even larger pulse durations, the clustering region does not increase further but the population of the joint electron momentum in these regions changes with the pulse duration. Back analysis of double ionization trajectories shows the phenomenon of multiple ionization bursts and the pulse duration-dependent multiple ionization bursts of the second electron is responsible for the evolution of the joint electron momentum distribution with the pulse duration.

  1. Precision machining of pig intestine using ultrafast laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Rainer J.; Góra, Wojciech S.; Carter, Richard M.; Gunadi, Sonny; Jayne, David; Hand, Duncan P.; Shephard, Jonathan D.

    2015-07-01

    Endoluminal surgery for the treatment of early stage colorectal cancer is typically based on electrocautery tools which imply restrictions on precision and the risk of harm through collateral thermal damage to the healthy tissue. As a potential alternative to mitigate these drawbacks we present laser machining of pig intestine by means of picosecond laser pulses. The high intensities of an ultrafast laser enable nonlinear absorption processes and a predominantly nonthermal ablation regime. Laser ablation results of square cavities with comparable thickness to early stage colorectal cancers are presented for a wavelength of 1030 nm using an industrial picosecond laser. The corresponding histology sections exhibit only minimal collateral damage to the surrounding tissue. The depth of the ablation can be controlled precisely by means of the pulse energy. Overall, the application of ultrafast lasers to ablate pig intestine enables significantly improved precision and reduced thermal damage to the surrounding tissue compared to conventional techniques.

  2. Pulsed UV and ultrafast laser micromachining of surface structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apte, Paul; Sykes, Neil

    2015-07-01

    We describe and compare the cutting and patterning of various "difficult" materials using pulsed UV Excimer, picosecond and femtosecond laser sources. Beam delivery using both fast galvanometer scanners and scanning mask imaging are described. Each laser source has its own particular strengths and weaknesses, and the optimum choice for an application is also decided by financial constraints. With some materials notable improvements in process quality have been observed using femtosecond lasers compared to picosecond lasers, which makes for an interesting choice now that cost effective reliable femtosecond systems are increasingly available. By contrast Pulsed UV Excimer lasers offer different imaging characteristics similar to mask based Lithographic systems and are particularly suited to the processing of polymers. We discuss optimized beam delivery techniques for these lasers.

  3. Pulsed CO laser for isotope separation of uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Baranov, Igor Y.; Koptev, Andrey V.

    2012-07-30

    This article proposes a technical solution for using a CO laser facility for the industrial separation of uranium used in the production of fuel for nuclear power plants, employing a method of laser isotope separation of uranium with condensation repression in a free jet. The laser operation with nanosecond pulse irradiation can provide an acceptable efficiency in the separating unit and a high efficiency of the laser with the wavelength of 5.3 {mu}m. In the present work we also introduce a calculation model and define the parameters of a mode-locked CO laser with a RF discharge in the supersonic stream. The average pulsed CO laser power of 3 kW is sufficient for efficient industrial isotope separation of uranium in one stage.

  4. Plasma detector for TEA CO2 laser pulse measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, Y.; Yamanaka, M.; Mitsuishi, A.; Fujita, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamanaka, C.; Tsunawaki, Y.; Iwasaki, T.; Takai, M.

    1983-10-01

    Laser-pulse evolution can be detected by measuring the emf generated by fast electrons in a laser-produced plasma when the laser radiation is focused onto a solid metal target in a vacuum. Using this phenomenon a 'plasma detector' is constructed, and its characteristics for the TEA CO2 laser radiation of intensity 10 to the 9th to 10 to the 10th W/sq cm are investigated experimentally. The plasma detector operates at room temperature and is strong against laser damages. For the evacuated plasma detector down to 0.1 torr, a maximum output voltage of 90 V and a rise time shorter than 1 ns are observed. The plasma detector, therefore, can be used as a power monitor for laser pulses and as a trigger voltage source.

  5. Ultrashort pulsed fiber laser welding and sealing of transparent materials.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huan; Yang, Lih-Mei; Liu, Jian

    2012-05-20

    In this paper, methods of welding and sealing optically transparent materials using an ultrashort pulsed (USP) fiber laser are demonstrated which overcome the limit of small area welding of optical materials. First, the interaction of USP fiber laser radiation inside glass was studied and single line welding results with different laser parameters were investigated. Then multiline scanning was used to obtain successful area bonding. Finally, complete four-edge sealing of fused silica substrates with a USP laser was demonstrated and the hermetic seal was confirmed by water immersion test. This laser microwelding technique can be extended to various applications in the semiconductor industry and precision optic manufacturing.

  6. Applications of Ultra-Intense, Short Laser Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledingham, Ken W. D.

    The high intensity laser production of electron, proton, ion and photon beams is reviewed particularly with respect to the laser-plasma interaction which drives the acceleration process. A number of applications for these intense short pulse beams is discussed e.g. ion therapy, PET isotope production and laser driven transmutation studies. The future for laser driven nuclear physics at the huge new, multi-petawatt proposed laser installation ELI in Bucharest is described. Many people believe this will take European nuclear research to the next level.

  7. Feedback stabilization system for pulsed single longitudinal mode tunable lasers

    DOEpatents

    Esherick, Peter; Raymond, Thomas D.

    1991-10-01

    A feedback stabilization system for pulse single longitudinal mode tunable lasers having an excited laser medium contained within an adjustable length cavity and producing a laser beam through the use of an internal dispersive element, including detection of angular deviation in the output laser beam resulting from detuning between the cavity mode frequency and the passband of the internal dispersive element, and generating an error signal based thereon. The error signal can be integrated and amplified and then applied as a correcting signal to a piezoelectric transducer mounted on a mirror of the laser cavity for controlling the cavity length.

  8. Pulsed blue laser source based on frequency quadrupling of a thulium fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honea, Eric; Savage-Leuchs, Matthias; Bowers, Mark S.; Yilmaz, Tolga; Mead, Roy

    2013-03-01

    We describe a pulsed blue (485 nm) laser source based on frequency quadrupling a pulsed Tm fiber laser. Up to 1.2 W at 485 nm was generated with an M2 of 1.3. At 10 kHz pulse repetition frequency, the output pulse at 485 nm was 65 ns FWHM resulting in an estimated peak power of 1.8 kW. We anticipate further improvements in power scaling with higher power Tm fiber lasers and improved conversion efficiency to the blue with optimized AR coatings and nonlinear optical crystals.

  9. Analysis on volume grating induced by femtosecond laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Keya; Guo, Zhongyi; Ding, Weiqiang; Liu, Shutian

    2010-06-21

    We report on a kind of self-assembled volume grating in silica glass induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses. The formation of the volume grating is attributed to the multiple microexplosion in the transparent materials induced by the femtosecond pulses. The first order diffractive efficiency is in dependence on the energy of the pulses and the scanning velocity of the laser greatly, and reaches as high as 30%. The diffraction pattern of the fabricated grating is numerically simulated and analyzed by a two dimensional FDTD method and the Fresnel Diffraction Integral. The numerical results proved our prediction on the formation of the volume grating, which agrees well with our experiment results.

  10. Pulse duration dependence of atomic sequential double ionization by circular laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Aihong; Chen, Liangyuan; Li, Yingbin

    2016-09-01

    Using classical ensemble method, we have investigated the pulse duration dependence of sequential double ionization (SDI) of Ar atoms driven by circularly polarized laser pulses. The results show that the ion momentum distribution of Ar atoms depends strongly on the pulse duration. As the pulse duration increases, the ion momentum distribution changes from single-ring to double-ring structure, and finally to the single-ring structure. Back analysis of double ionization trajectories shows that the variation of the ring structure originates from the dependence of the ionization time of the second electron on the pulse duration. Moreover, our calculations clearly manifest the subcycle electron emission in sequential double ionization by circularly polarized laser pulses.

  11. Control of laser induced molecular fragmentation of n-propyl benzene using chirped femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Tapas; Karthick Kumar, S. K.; Dutta, Aveek; Goswami, Debabrata

    2009-06-01

    We present the effect of chirping a femtosecond laser pulse on the fragmentation of n-propyl benzene. An enhancement of an order of magnitude for the relative yields of C3H 3 + and C5H 5 + in the case of negatively chirped pulses and C6H 5 + in the case of positively chirped pulses with respect to the transform-limited pulse indicates that in some fragmentation channel, coherence of the laser field plays an important role. For the relative yield of all other heavier fragment ions, resulting from the interaction of the intense laser field with the molecule, there is no such enhancement effect with the sign of chirp, within experimental errors. The importance of the laser phase is further reinforced through a direct comparison of the fragmentation results with the second harmonic of the chirped laser pulse with identical bandwidth.

  12. Control of laser induced molecular fragmentation of n-propyl benzene using chirped femtosecond laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Tapas; Karthick Kumar, S K; Dutta, Aveek; Goswami, Debabrata

    2009-06-12

    We present the effect of chirping a femtosecond laser pulse on the fragmentation of n-propyl benzene. An enhancement of an order of magnitude for the relative yields of C3H3+ and C5H5+ in the case of negatively chirped pulses and C6H5+ in the case of positively chirped pulses with respect to the transform-limited pulse indicates that in some fragmentation channel, coherence of the laser field plays an important role. For the relative yield of all other heavier fragment ions, resulting from the interaction of the intense laser field with the molecule, there is no such enhancement effect with the sign of chirp, within experimental errors. The importance of the laser phase is further reinforced through a direct comparison of the fragmentation results with the second harmonic of the chirped laser pulse with identical bandwidth.

  13. Retinal Injuries From Single and Multiple Picosecond Laser Pulses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-30

    cell diameter -10 pm) can experience a pressure transient of >22 Kbar when the melanin granules contained within the cells are exposed to these laser...0719 Bolling AFB DC 20332-0001 Dr Walter KozumboF 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 60iia oontais~u solar -, plates: All D210 Mproduot- ioins ull. be 12 blaokSn...Maximum 200 words) We investigate laser-induced shock waves from melanin particles as a possible cause of retinal injury from ultrashort pulse laser

  14. Short pulse generation by laser slicing at NSLSII

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, L.; Blednykh, A.; Guo, W.; Krinsky, S.; Li, Y.; Shaftan, T.; Tchoubar, O.; Wang, G.; Willeke, F.; Yang, L.

    2011-03-28

    We discuss an upgrade R&D project for NSLSII to generate sub-pico-second short x-ray pulses using laser slicing. We discuss its basic parameters and present a specific example for a viable design and its performance. Since the installation of the laser slicing system into the storage ring will break the symmetry of the lattice, we demonstrate it is possible to recover the dynamical aperture to the original design goal of the ring. There is a rapid growth of ultrafast user community interested in science using sub-pico-second x-ray pulses. In BNL's Short Pulse Workshop, the discussion from users shows clearly the need for a sub-pico-second pulse source using laser slicing method. In the proposal submitted following this workshop, NSLS team proposed both hard x-ray and soft x-ray beamlines using laser slicing pulses. Hence there is clearly a need to consider the R&D efforts of laser slicing short pulse generation at NSLSII to meet these goals.

  15. Power-scalable subcycle pulses from laser filaments

    PubMed Central

    Voronin, A.A.; Zheltikov, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Compression of optical pulses to ultrashort pulse widths using methods of nonlinear optics is a well-established technology of modern laser science. Extending these methods to pulses with high peak powers, which become available due to the rapid progress of laser technologies, is, however, limited by the universal physical principles. With the ratio P/Pcr of the peak power of an ultrashort laser pulse, P, to the critical power of self-focusing, Pcr, playing the role of the fundamental number-of-particles integral of motion of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, keeping this ratio constant is a key principle for the power scaling of laser-induced filamentation. Here, we show, however, that, despite all the complexity of the underlying nonlinear physics, filamentation-assisted self-compression of ultrashort laser pulses in the regime of anomalous dispersion can be scaled within a broad range of peak powers against the principle of constant P/Pcr. We identify filamentation self-compression scaling strategies whereby subcycle field waveforms with almost constant pulse widths can be generated without a dramatic degradation of beam quality within a broad range of peak powers, varying from just a few to hundreds of Pcr. PMID:28367980

  16. Short Pulse Nd: YAG Laser for Optical Fuze Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    guidance systems or optical communications links. The primary concern of this work was optical proximity fuze systems, so the Nd:YAG laser system has been...AD-A099 042 HARRY DIAMOND LASS AOELPMI MO F/6 19/1 SHORT PULSE NO: YAG LASER FOR OPTICAL FUZE APPLICATIONS.(U) FEB 81 R WELLMAN, 4 NEMARICH...Subtitle) S TYPE OF I IPoRT & PERIOD COVERED Short Pulse Nd:YAG Laser for Optical Fuze Applications& _Technical t .,-Itp -PERFORMING OR;5. REPO*T NIUBER

  17. Interaction physics of multipicosecond Petawatt laser pulses with overdense plasma.

    PubMed

    Kemp, A J; Divol, L

    2012-11-09

    We study the interaction of intense petawatt laser pulses with overdense plasma over several picoseconds, using two- and three-dimensional kinetic particle simulations. Sustained irradiation with non-diffraction-limited pulses at relativistic intensities yields conditions that differ qualitatively from what is experimentally available today. Nonlinear saturation of laser-driven density perturbations at the target surface causes recurrent emissions of plasma, which stabilize the surface and keep absorption continuously high. This dynamics leads to the acceleration of three distinct groups of electrons up to energies many times the laser ponderomotive potential. We discuss their energy distribution for applications like the fast-ignition approach to inertial confinement fusion.

  18. Mechanism study of skin tissue ablation by nanosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Qiyin

    Understanding the fundamental mechanisms in laser tissue ablation is essential to improve clinical laser applications by reducing collateral damage and laser pulse energy requirement. The motive of this dissertation is to study skin tissue ablation by nanosecond laser pulses in a wide spectral region from near-infrared to ultraviolet for a clear understanding of the mechanism that can be used to improve future design of the pulsed lasers for dermatology and plastic surgery. Multiple laser and optical configurations have been constructed to generate 9 to 12ns laser pulses with similar profiles at 1064. 532, 266 and 213nm for this study of skin tissue ablation. Through measurements of ablation depth as a function cf laser pulse energy, the 589nm spectral line in the secondary radiation from ablated skin tissue samples was identified as the signature of the occurrence of ablation. Subsequently, this spectral signature has been used to investigate the probabilistic process of the ablation near the threshold at the four wavelengths. Measurements of the ablation probability were conducted as a function of the electrical field strength of the laser pulse and the ablation thresholds in a wide spectral range from 1064nm to 213nm were determined. Histology analysis and an optical transmission method were applied in assessing of the ablation depth per pulse to study the ablation process at irradiance levels higher than threshold. Because more than 70% of the wet weight of the skin tissue is water, optical breakdown and backscattering in water was also investigated along with a nonlinear refraction index measurement using a z-scan technique. Preliminary studies on ablation of a gelatin based tissue phantom are also reported. The current theoretical models describing ablation of soft tissue ablation by short laser pulses were critically reviewed. Since none of the existing models was found capable of explaining the experimental results, a new plasma-mediated model was developed

  19. Propagation of intense laser pulses in strongly magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, X. H. Ge, Z. Y.; Xu, B. B.; Zhuo, H. B.; Ma, Y. Y.; Shao, F. Q.; Yu, W.; Xu, H.; Yu, M. Y.; Borghesi, M.

    2015-06-01

    Propagation of intense circularly polarized laser pulses in strongly magnetized inhomogeneous plasmas is investigated. It is shown that a left-hand circularly polarized laser pulse propagating up the density gradient of the plasma along the magnetic field is reflected at the left-cutoff density. However, a right-hand circularly polarized laser can penetrate up the density gradient deep into the plasma without cutoff or resonance and turbulently heat the electrons trapped in its wake. Results from particle-in-cell simulations are in good agreement with that from the theory.

  20. Size control of nanoparticles by multiple-pulse laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jiaxin; Nan, Junyi; Zeng, Heping

    2017-04-01

    Bare nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation in water have found their application in catalysis, spectroscopy and biomedical research fields. In this perspective, how to efficiently produce stable nanoparticles with controllable size is an important topic and has attracted a lot of interests. Here, we introduce a multiple-pulse laser as the ablation source. By changing the number of sub-pulses, the average size of nanoparticles can be tuned in a broad range from ∼120 nm to ∼4 nm. The demonstration in this article may offer a new approach to fabricate ultrafine nanostructures and also help the scientific study of the mechanism in laser ablation.

  1. Interaction of repetitively pulsed high energy laser radiation with matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugenschmidt, M.

    1986-05-01

    Laser target interaction processes and methods of improving the overall energy balance are discussed. This can be achieved with high repetition rate pulsed lasers even for initially highly reflecting materials, such as metals. Experiments were performed using a pulsed CO2 laser at mean powers up to 2 KW and repetition rates up to 100 Hz. The rates of temperature rise of aluminum for example are increased by more than a factor of 3 as compared to cw-radiation of comparable power density. Similar improvements are found for the overall absorptivities, that are increased by more than an order of magnitude.

  2. Development of pulse laser processing for mounting fiber Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Aikihko; Shimada, Yukihiro; Yonemoto, Yukihiro; Suzuki, Hirokazu; Ishibashi, Hisayoshi

    2012-07-01

    Pulse laser processing has been developed for the application of industrial plants in monitoring and maintenance. Surface cleaning by nano-second laser ablation was demonstrated for decontamination of oxide layers of Cr contained steel. Direct writing by femtosecond processing induced a Bragg grating in optical fiber to make it a seismic sensor for structural health monitoring. Adhesive cement was used to fix the seismic sensor on the surface of reactor coolant pipe material. Pulse laser processing and its related technologies were presented to overcome the severe accidents of nuclear power plants.

  3. Xenon plasma sustained by pulse-periodic laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Rudoy, I. G.; Solovyov, N. G.; Soroka, A. M.; Shilov, A. O.; Yakimov, M. Yu.

    2015-10-15

    The possibility of sustaining a quasi-stationary pulse-periodic optical discharge (POD) in xenon at a pressure of p = 10–20 bar in a focused 1.07-μm Yb{sup 3+} laser beam with a pulse repetition rate of f{sub rep} ⩾ 2 kHz, pulse duration of τ ⩾ 200 μs, and power of P = 200–300 W has been demonstrated. In the plasma development phase, the POD pulse brightness is generally several times higher than the stationary brightness of a continuous optical discharge at the same laser power, which indicates a higher plasma temperature in the POD regime. Upon termination of the laser pulse, plasma recombines and is then reinitiated in the next pulse. The initial absorption of laser radiation in successive POD pulses is provided by 5p{sup 5}6s excited states of xenon atoms. This kind of discharge can be applied in plasma-based high-brightness broadband light sources.

  4. The efficiency of photovoltaic cells exposed to pulsed laser light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, R. A.; Landis, G. A.; Jenkins, P.

    1993-01-01

    Future space missions may use laser power beaming systems with a free electron laser (FEL) to transmit light to a photovoltaic array receiver. To investigate the efficiency of solar cells with pulsed laser light, several types of GaAs, Si, CuInSe2, and GaSb cells were tested with the simulated pulse format of the induction and radio frequency (RF) FEL. The induction pulse format was simulated with an 800-watt average power copper vapor laser and the RF format with a frequency-doubled mode-locked Nd:YAG laser. Averaged current vs bias voltage measurements for each cell were taken at various optical power levels and the efficiency measured at the maximum power point. Experimental results show that the conversion efficiency for the cells tested is highly dependent on cell minority carrier lifetime, the width and frequency of the pulses, load impedance, and the average incident power. Three main effects were found to decrease the efficiency of solar cells exposed to simulated FEL illumination: cell series resistance, LC 'ringing', and output inductance. Improvements in efficiency were achieved by modifying the frequency response of the cell to match the spectral energy content of the laser pulse with external passive components.

  5. Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Wataru; Onda, Satoshi; Tamaki, Takayuki; Itoh, Kazuyoshi; Nishii, Junji

    2006-07-10

    We report on the joining of dissimilar transparent materials based on localized melting and resolidification of the materials only around the focal volume due to nonlinear absorption of focused femtosecond laser pulses. We demonstrate the joining of borosilicate glass and fused silica, whose coefficients of thermal expansion are different. The joint strength and the transmittance through joint volume were investigated by varying the translation velocity of the sample and the pulse energy of the irradiated laser pulses.

  6. The interaction of intense subpicosecond laser pulses with underdense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Coverdale, Christine Ann

    1995-05-11

    Laser-plasma interactions have been of interest for many years not only from a basic physics standpoint, but also for their relevance to numerous applications. Advances in laser technology in recent years have resulted in compact laser systems capable of generating (psec), 1016 W/cm2 laser pulses. These lasers have provided a new regime in which to study laser-plasma interactions, a regime characterized by Lplasma ≥ 2LRayleigh > cτ. The goal of this dissertation is to experimentally characterize the interaction of a short pulse, high intensity laser with an underdense plasma (no ≤ 0.05ncr). Specifically, the parametric instability known as stimulated Raman scatter (SRS) is investigated to determine its behavior when driven by a short, intense laser pulse. Both the forward Raman scatter instability and backscattered Raman instability are studied. The coupled partial differential equations which describe the growth of SRS are reviewed and solved for typical experimental laser and plasma parameters. This solution shows the growth of the waves (electron plasma and scattered light) generated via stimulated Raman scatter. The dispersion relation is also derived and solved for experimentally accessible parameters. The solution of the dispersion relation is used to predict where (in k-space) and at what frequency (in ω-space) the instability will grow. Both the nonrelativistic and relativistic regimes of the instability are considered.

  7. Measuring the effective pulse duration of nanosecond and femtosecond laser pulses for laser-induced damage experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorila, Alexandru; Rusen, Laurentiu; Stratan, Aurel; Nemes, George

    2013-05-01

    We report on our approach to measure the quantity named effective pulse duration as defined in the ISO 21254-1:2011 standard, which deals with laser-induced damage (LID) threshold measurements. The approach is applied to measure pulses from two laser sources: an injection-seeded electro-optically Q-switched Nd:YAG nanosecond system with 10-Hz pulse repetition frequency, and a fully integrated Ti:sapphire laser with 150-400 fs and 2-kHz pulse repetition frequency. For comparison, the full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) of the same pulses is also measured. The analysis and description of the measurement process, the experimental results, and the corresponding uncertainties are presented. A smaller combined uncertainty is obtained for the effective pulse duration than for the FWHM-defined pulse duration for each time scale involved in experiments. This suggests that the effective pulse duration is the appropriate parameter to characterize the pulse duration in LID experiments.

  8. Transition metal dichalcogenides based saturable absorbers for pulsed laser technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanraj, J.; Velmurugan, V.; Sivabalan, S.

    2016-10-01

    Ultrashort pulsed laser is an indispensable tool for the evolution of photonic technology in the present and future. This laser has been progressing tremendously with new pulse regimes and incorporating novel devices inside its cavity. Recently, a nanomaterial based saturable absorber (SA) was used in ultrafast laser that has improved the lasing performance and caused a reduction in the physical dimension when compared to conventional SAs. To date, the nanomaterials that are exploited for the development of SA devices are carbon nanotubes, graphene, topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) and black phosphorous. These materials have unique advantages such as high nonlinear optical response, fiber compatibility and ease of fabrication. In these, TMDs are prominent and an emerging two-dimensional nanomaterial for photonics and optoelectronics applications. Therefore, we review the reports of Q-switched and mode-locked pulsed lasers using TMDs (specifically MoS2, MoSe2, WS2 and WSe2) based SAs.

  9. Medical applications of ultra-short pulse lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B M; Marion, J E

    1999-06-08

    The medical applications for ultra short pulse lasers (USPLs) and their associated commercial potential are reviewed. Short pulse lasers offer the surgeon the possibility of precision cutting or disruption of tissue with virtually no thermal or mechanical damage to the surrounding areas. Therefore the USPL offers potential improvement to numerous existing medical procedures. Secondly, when USPLs are combined with advanced tissue diagnostics, there are possibilities for tissue-selective precision ablation that may allow for new surgeries that cannot at present be performed. Here we briefly review the advantages of short pulse lasers, examine the potential markets both from an investment community perspective, and from the view. of the technology provider. Finally nominal performance and cost requirements for the lasers, delivery systems and diagnostics and the present state of development will be addressed.

  10. Ultrashort Pulse Laser Accelerated Proton Beams for First Radiobiological Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, U.; Zeil, K.; Beyreuther, E.; Bussmann, M.; Cowan, T. E.; Kluge, T.; Kraft, S.; Metzkes, J.; Sauerbrey, R.; Richter, C.; Enghardt, W.; Pawelke, J.; Karsch, L.; Laschinsky, L.; Naumburger, D.

    2010-11-04

    We report on the generation of proton pulses with maximum energies exceeding 15 MeV by means of the irradiation of few micron thick metal foils by ultrashort (30 fs) laser pulses at a power level of 100 TW. In contrast to the well known situation for longer laser pulses, here, a near linear scaling of the maximum proton energy with laser power can be found. Aiming for radiobiological applications the long and short term stability of the laser plasma accelerator as well as a compact energy selection and dosimetry system is presented. The first irradiation of in vitro tumour cells showing dose dependent biological damage is demonstrated paving the way for systematic radiobiological studies.

  11. Automatic Rejection Of Multimode Laser Pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tratt, David M.; Menzies, Robert T.; Esproles, Carlos

    1991-01-01

    Characteristic modulation detected, enabling rejection of multimode signals. Monitoring circuit senses multiple longitudinal mode oscillation of transversely excited, atmospheric-pressure (TEA) CO2 laser. Facility developed for inclusion into coherent detection laser radar (LIDAR) system. However, circuit described of use in any experiment where desireable to record data only when laser operates in single longitudinal mode.

  12. Device For Trapping Laser Pulses In An Optical Delay Line

    DOEpatents

    Yu, David U. L.; Bullock, Donald L.

    1997-12-23

    A device for maintaining a high-energy laser pulse within a recirculating optical delay line for a period time to optimize the interaction of the pulse with an electron beam pulse train comprising closely spaced electron micropulses. The delay line allows a single optical pulse to interact with many of the electron micropulses in a single electron beam macropulse in sequence and for the introduction of additional optical pulses to interact with the micropulses of additional electron beam macropulses. The device comprises a polarization-sensitive beam splitter for admitting an optical pulse to and ejecting it from the delay line according to its polarization state, a Pockels cell to control the polarization of the pulse within the delay line for the purpose of maintaining it within the delay line or ejecting it from the delay line, a pair of focusing mirrors positioned so that a collimated incoming optical pulse is focused by one of them to a focal point where the pulse interacts with the electron beam and then afterwards the pulse is recollimated by the second focusing mirror, and a timing device which synchronizes the introduction of the laser pulse into the optical delay line with the arrival of the electron macropulse at the delay line to ensure the interaction of the laser pulse with a prescribed number of electron micropulses in sequence. In a first embodiment of the invention, the principal optical elements are mounted with their axes collinear. In a second embodiment, all principal optical elements are mounted in the configuration of a ring.

  13. Intracavity frequency doubling of {mu}s alexandrite laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkmann, R.; Schoof, K.

    1994-12-31

    Intracavity second harmonic generation (SHG) with a three mirror folded cavity configuration was investigated with a flashlamp pumped, Q-switched Alexandrite laser. The authors therefore used different nonlinear optical crystals to convert the fundamental 750 nm radiation into the near UV spectral ,range (3 75 nm). The laser pulses were stretched into the {mu}s time domain by an electronic feedback system regulating the losses of the resonator. They investigated the conversion efficiency for different pulse lengths as well as the effect of pulse-lengthening due to the nonlinearity of the intracavity losses introduced by the optical crystal used. Working with BBO-crystals, they were able to achieve a second harmonic output of 25 mJ per pulse at 375 mn with a temporal rectangular pulse of 1 {mu}s in length and a stable nearly gaussian shaped beam profile.

  14. Electron acceleration by a chirped Gaussian laser pulse in vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Sohbatzadeh, F.; Mirzanejhad, S.; Ghasemi, M.

    2006-12-15

    Electron acceleration by a chirped Gaussian laser pulse is investigated numerically. A linear and negative chirp is employed in this study. At first, a simple analytical description for the chirp effect on the electron acceleration in vacuum is provided in one-dimensional model. The chirp mechanism is then extended to the interaction of a femtosecond laser pulse and electron. The electron final energy is obtained as a function of laser beam waist, laser intensity, chirp parameter, and initial phase of the laser pulse. It is shown that the electron final energy depends strongly on the chirp parameter and the initial phase of the laser pulse. There is an optimal value for the chirp parameter in which the electron acceleration takes place effectively. The energy gain increases with laser beam waist and intensity. It is also shown that the electron is accelerated within a few degrees to the axial direction. Emphasis is on the important aspect of the chirp effect on the energy gained by an electron from the electromagnetic wave.

  15. Ultrashort Laser Pulse Propagation in Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    of pulse shaping for coherent Raman spectroscopy. More complex pulse shapes will be particularly important for the studies of nonlinear pulse...Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) signal (measured in methanol-water solutions) varying in magnitude over many decades15 . At a further stage of the...explore the possibility of using the pseudospectral time domain (PSTD) method 6 which we feel will run much faster than the conventional FDTD method

  16. Active lamp pulse driver circuit. [optical pumping of laser media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, K. E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A flashlamp drive circuit is described which uses an unsaturated transistor as a current mode switch to periodically subject a partially ionized gaseous laser excitation flashlamp to a stable, rectangular pulse of current from an incomplete discharge of an energy storage capacitor. A monostable multivibrator sets the pulse interval, initiating the pulse in response to a flash command by providing a reference voltage to a non-inverting terminal of a base drive amplifier; a tap on an emitter resistor provides a feedback signal sensitive to the current amplitude to an inverting terminal of amplifier, thereby controlling the pulse amplitude. The circuit drives the flashlamp to provide a squarewave current flashlamp discharge.

  17. Vascular spasm complicates continuous wave but not pulsed laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gal, D.; Steg, P.G.; Rongione, A.J.; DeJesus, S.T.; Clarke, R.H.; Isner, J.M. )

    1989-11-01

    Preliminary clinical experience with laser angioplasty has suggested that arterial spasm may complicate attempts to employ laser light to accomplish vascular recanalization. The present study was designed to investigate the role of energy profile on the development of arterial spasm during laser angioplasty. Laser irradiation was delivered percutaneously in vivo to New Zealand white rabbits and to Yucatan microswine with or without atherosclerotic lesions induced by a combination of balloon endothelial denudation and atherogenic diet. Continuous wave (CW) laser irradiation from an argon ion gas laser (wavelength 488 to 514 nm) was applied to 23 arteries, while 16 arteries were irradiated using a pulsed xenon chloride (308 nm) or xenon fluoride (351 nm) excimer laser. Arterial spasm, defined as greater than 50% reduction in luminal diameter narrowing, complicated delivery of laser light to 17 (74%) of the 23 arteries irradiated with the CW argon laser. Spasm was consistently observed at powers greater than 2 W, at cumulative exposures greater than 200 seconds, and at total energy greater than 200 joules. Spasm was typically diffuse (including the length of the vessel) and protracted (lasting up to 120 minutes). Intra-arterial nitroglycerin (up to 300 micrograms) produced only temporary and incomplete resolution of laser-induced spasm. In contrast, spasm was never observed in any of the 16 arteries in which laser angioplasty was performed using a pulsed laser (0.95 to 6.37 joules/cm2, 10 to 50 Hz, 48 to 370 seconds). Thus CW but not pulsed laser angioplasty may be complicated by arterial spasm

  18. Pulse shaping effects on weld porosity in laser beam spot welds : contrast of long- & short- pulse welds.

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, Chad M.; Perricone, Matthew J.; Faraone, Kevin M.; Norris, Jerome T.

    2007-10-01

    Weld porosity is being investigated for long-pulse spot welds produced by high power continuous output lasers. Short-pulse spot welds (made with a pulsed laser system) are also being studied but to a much small extent. Given that weld area of a spot weld is commensurate with weld strength, the loss of weld area due to an undefined or unexpected pore results in undefined or unexpected loss in strength. For this reason, a better understanding of spot weld porosity is sought. Long-pulse spot welds are defined and limited by the slow shutter speed of most high output power continuous lasers. Continuous lasers typically ramp up to a simmer power before reaching the high power needed to produce the desired weld. A post-pulse ramp down time is usually present as well. The result is a pulse length tenths of a second long as oppose to the typical millisecond regime of the short-pulse pulsed laser. This study will employ a Lumonics JK802 Nd:YAG laser with Super Modulation pulse shaping capability and a Lasag SLS C16 40 W pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Pulse shaping will include square wave modulation of various peak powers for long-pulse welds and square (or top hat) and constant ramp down pulses for short-pulse welds. Characterization of weld porosity will be performed for both pulse welding methods.

  19. Femtosecond laser-induced formation of submicrometer spikes on silicon in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, M. Y.; Crouch, C. H.; Carey, J. E.; Mazur, E.

    2004-12-01

    We fabricate submicrometer silicon spikes by irradiating a silicon surface that is submerged in water with 400 nm, 100 fs laser pulses. These spikes are less than a micrometer tall and about 200 nm wide—one to two orders of magnitude smaller than the microspikes formed by laser irradiation of silicon in gases or vacuum. Scanning electron micrographs of the surface show that the formation of the spikes involves a combination of capillary waves on the molten silicon surface and laser-induced etching of silicon. Chemical analysis and scanning electron microscopy of the spikes show that they are composed of silicon with a 20-nm-thick surface oxide layer.

  20. Two-photon fluorescence excitation spectroscopy by pulse shaping ultrabroad-bandwidth femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Bingwei; Coello, Yves; Lozovoy, Vadim V.; Dantus, Marcos

    2010-11-10

    A fast and automated approach to measuring two-photon fluorescence excitation (TPE) spectra of fluorophores with high resolution ({approx}2 nm ) by pulse shaping ultrabroad-bandwidth femtosecond laser pulses is demonstrated. Selective excitation in the range of 675-990 nm was achieved by imposing a series of specially designed phase and amplitude masks on the excitation pulses using a pulse shaper. The method eliminates the need for laser tuning and is, thus, suitable for non-laser-expert use. The TPE spectrum of Fluorescein was compared with independent measurements and the spectra of the pH-sensitive dye 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid (HPTS) in acidic and basic environments were measured for the first time using this approach.

  1. Nanosecond pulsed laser generation of holographic structures on metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wlodarczyk, Krystian L.; Ardron, Marcus; Weston, Nick J.; Hand, Duncan P.

    2016-03-01

    A laser-based process for the generation of phase holographic structures directly onto the surface of metals is presented. This process uses 35ns long laser pulses of wavelength 355nm to generate optically-smooth surface deformations on a metal. The laser-induced surface deformations (LISDs) are produced by either localized laser melting or the combination of melting and evaporation. The geometry (shape and dimension) of the LISDs depends on the laser processing parameters, in particular the pulse energy, as well as on the chemical composition of a metal. In this paper, we explain the mechanism of the LISDs formation on various metals, such as stainless steel, pure nickel and nickel-chromium Inconel® alloys. In addition, we provide information about the design and fabrication process of the phase holographic structures and demonstrate their use as robust markings for the identification and traceability of high value metal goods.

  2. Experimental investigation of a unique airbreathing pulsed laser propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myrabo, L. N.; Nagamatsu, H. T.; Manka, C.; Lyons, P. W.; Jones, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    Investigations were conducted into unique methods of converting pulsed laser energy into propulsive thrust across a flat impulse surface under atmospheric conditions. The propulsion experiments were performed with a 1-micron neodymium-glass laser at the Space Plasma Branch of the Naval Research Laboratory. Laser-induced impulse was measured dynamically by ballistic pendulums and statically using piezoelectric pressure transducers on a stationary impulse surface. The principal goal was to explore methods for increasing the impulse coupling performance of airbreathing laser-propulsion engines. A magnetohydrodynamic thrust augmentation effect was discovered when a tesla-level magnetic field was applied perpendicular to the impulse surface. The impulse coupling coefficient performance doubled and continued to improve with increasing laser-pulse energies. The resultant performance of 180 to 200 N-s/MJ was found to be comparable to that of the earliest afterburning turbojets.

  3. Interaction of UV laser pulses with reactive dusty plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Wetering, Ferdi; Beckers, Job; Nijdam, Sander; Oosterbeek, Wouter; Kovacevic, Eva; Berndt, Johannes

    2016-09-01

    This contribution deals with the effects of UV photons on the synthesis and transport of nanoparticles in reactive complex plasmas (capacitively coupled RF discharge). First measurements showed that the irradiation of a reactive acetylene-argon plasma with high-energy, ns UV laser pulses (355 nm, 75 mJ pulse energy, repetition frequency 10Hz) can have a large effect on the global discharge characteristics. One particular example concerns the formation of a dust void in the center of the discharge. At sufficiently high pulse energies, this formation of a dust free region - which occurs without laser irradiation-is totally suppressed. Moreover the experiments indicate that the laser pulses influence the early stages of the particle formation. Although the interaction between the laser and the plasma is not yet fully understood, it is remarkable that these localized nanosecond laser pulses can influence the plasma on a global scale. Besides new insights into fundamental problems, this phenomenon opens also new possibilities for the controlled manipulation of particle growth and particle transport in reactive plasmas.

  4. Compact pulsed high-energy Er:glass laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Peng; Liu, Jian

    2012-03-01

    Bulk Erbium-doped lasers are widely used for long-distance telemetry and ranging. In some applications such as coherent Doppler radars, laser outputs with a relatively long pulse width, good beam profile and pulse shape are required. High energy Q-switched Er:glass lasers were demonstrated by use of electro-optic (E/O) Q-switching or frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR) Q-switching. However, the output pulse durations in these lasers were fixed to relatively small values and extremely hard to tune. We report here on developing a novel and compact Q-switched Er:Yb co-doped phosphate glass laser at an eye-safe wavelength of 1.5 μm. A rotating mirror was used as a Q-switch. Co-linear pump scheme was used to maintain a good output beam profile. Near-perfect Gaussian temporal shape was obtained in our experiment. By changing motor rotation speed, pulse duration was tunable and up to 240 ns was achieved. In our preliminary experiment, output pulse energies of 44 mJ and 4.5 mJ were obtained in free-running and Q-switched operation modes respectively.

  5. Short-pulse CO₂ laser with longitudinal tandem discharge tube.

    PubMed

    Uno, K; Akitsu, T; Jitsuno, T

    2014-10-01

    We developed a longitudinally excited CO2 laser with a tandem discharge tube. The tandem scheme was constituted of two 30-cm long discharge tubes connected with an intermediate electrode. Two parts, each consisting of a charged capacitance and a 30-cm long discharge tube, were electrically connected in parallel and switched by a spark gap. The tandem scheme produced a short laser pulse like that of a TEA-CO2 laser with a charging voltage of -24.8 kV, which was smaller than the -40.0 kV charging voltage of our previous CO2 laser. At a gas pressure of 3.8 kPa, the spike pulse width was 145 ns, the pulse tail length was 58.8 μs, the output energy was 52.0 mJ, and the spike pulse energy was 2.4 mJ. We also investigated the dependence of the laser pulse and the discharge voltage on gas pressure.

  6. Investigation of early plasma evolution induced by ultrashort laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenqian; Shin, Yung C; King, Galen B

    2012-07-02

    Early plasma is generated owing to high intensity laser irradiation of target and the subsequent target material ionization. Its dynamics plays a significant role in laser-material interaction, especially in the air environment(1-11). Early plasma evolution has been captured through pump-probe shadowgraphy(1-3) and interferometry(1,4-7). However, the studied time frames and applied laser parameter ranges are limited. For example, direct examinations of plasma front locations and electron number densities within a delay time of 100 picosecond (ps) with respect to the laser pulse peak are still very few, especially for the ultrashort pulse of a duration around 100 femtosecond (fs) and a low power density around 10(14) W/cm(2). Early plasma generated under these conditions has only been captured recently with high temporal and spatial resolutions(12). The detailed setup strategy and procedures of this high precision measurement will be illustrated in this paper. The rationale of the measurement is optical pump-probe shadowgraphy: one ultrashort laser pulse is split to a pump pulse and a probe pulse, while the delay time between them can be adjusted by changing their beam path lengths. The pump pulse ablates the target and generates the early plasma, and the probe pulse propagates through the plasma region and detects the non-uniformity of electron number density. In addition, animations are generated using the calculated results from the simulation model of Ref. (12) to illustrate the plasma formation and evolution with a very high resolution (0.04 ~ 1 ps). Both the experimental method and the simulation method can be applied to a broad range of time frames and laser parameters. These methods can be used to examine the early plasma generated not only from metals, but also from semiconductors and insulators.

  7. Investigation of Early Plasma Evolution Induced by Ultrashort Laser Pulses

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wenqian; Shin, Yung C.; King, Galen B.

    2012-01-01

    Early plasma is generated owing to high intensity laser irradiation of target and the subsequent target material ionization. Its dynamics plays a significant role in laser-material interaction, especially in the air environment1-11. Early plasma evolution has been captured through pump-probe shadowgraphy1-3 and interferometry1,4-7. However, the studied time frames and applied laser parameter ranges are limited. For example, direct examinations of plasma front locations and electron number densities within a delay time of 100 picosecond (ps) with respect to the laser pulse peak are still very few, especially for the ultrashort pulse of a duration around 100 femtosecond (fs) and a low power density around 1014 W/cm2. Early plasma generated under these conditions has only been captured recently with high temporal and spatial resolutions12. The detailed setup strategy and procedures of this high precision measurement will be illustrated in this paper. The rationale of the measurement is optical pump-probe shadowgraphy: one ultrashort laser pulse is split to a pump pulse and a probe pulse, while the delay time between them can be adjusted by changing their beam path lengths. The pump pulse ablates the target and generates the early plasma, and the probe pulse propagates through the plasma region and detects the non-uniformity of electron number density. In addition, animations are generated using the calculated results from the simulation model of Ref. 12 to illustrate the plasma formation and evolution with a very high resolution (0.04 ~ 1 ps). Both the experimental method and the simulation method can be applied to a broad range of time frames and laser parameters. These methods can be used to examine the early plasma generated not only from metals, but also from semiconductors and insulators. PMID:22806170

  8. Control of multiphoton molecular excitation with shaped femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bingwei

    The work presented in this dissertation describes the use of shaped femtosecond laser pulses to control the outcome of nonlinear optical process and thus to achieve the selectivity for multiphoton molecular transitions. This research could lead to applications in various fields including nonlinear optical spectroscopy, chemical identification, biological imaging, communications, photodynamic therapy, etc. In order to realize accurate pulse shaping of the femtosecond laser pulses, it is essential to measure and correct the spectral phase distortion of such pulses. A method called multiphoton intrapulse interference phase scan is used to do so throughout this dissertation. This method is highly accurate and reproducible, and has been proved in this work to be compatible with any femtosecond pulses regardless of bandwidth, intensity and repetition rate of the laser. The phase control of several quasi-octave laser sources is demonstrated in this dissertation, with the generation of 4.3 fs and 5.9 fs pulses that reach the theoretically predicted transform-limited pulse duration. The excellent phase control achieved also guarantees the reproducibility for selective multiphoton excitations by accurate phase and/or amplitude shaping. Selective two-photon excitation, stimulated Raman scattering and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering with a single broadband laser source are demonstrated in this dissertation. Pulse shaping is used to achieve a fast and robust approach to measure the two-photon excitation spectrum from fluorescent molecules, which provide important information for two-photon biological imaging. The selective excitation concept is also applied in the field of remote chemical identification. Detection of characteristic Raman lines for several chemicals using a single beam coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy from a 12 meter standoff distance is shown, providing a promising approach to standoff detection of chemicals, hazardous contaminations

  9. Plasma mediated ablation of biological tissues with ultrashort laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Oraevsky, A.A. |; DaSilva, L.B.; Feit, M.D.

    1995-03-08

    Plasma mediated ablation of collagen gels and porcine cornea was studied at various laser pulse durations in the range from 350 fs to 1 ns at 1,053 nm wavelength. A time resolved stress detection technique was employed to measure transient stress profiles and amplitudes. Optical microscopy was used to characterize ablation craters qualitatively, while a wide band acoustic transducer helped to quantify tissue mechanical response and the ablation threshold. The ablation threshold was measured as a function of laser pulse duration and linear absorption coefficient. For nanosecond pulses the ablation threshold was found to have a strong dependence on the linear absorption coefficient of the material. As the pulse length decreased into the subpicosecond regime the ablation threshold became insensitive to the linear absorption coefficient. The ablation efficiency was found to be insensitive to both the laser pulse duration and the linear absorption coefficient. High quality ablation craters with no thermal or mechanical damage to surrounding material were obtained with 350 fs laser pulses. The mechanism of optical breakdown at the tissue surface was theoretically investigated. In the nanosecond regime, optical breakdown proceeds as an electron collisional avalanche ionization initiated by thermal seed electrons. These seed electrons are created by heating of the tissue by linear absorption. In the ultrashort pulse range, optical breakdown is initiated by the multiphoton ionization of the irradiated medium (6 photons in case of tissue irradiated at 1,053 nm wavelength), and becomes less sensitive to the linear absorption coefficient. The energy deposition profile is insensitive to both the laser pulse duration and the linear absorption coefficient.

  10. Computer modeling of pulsed CO2 lasers for lidar applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiers, Gary D.

    1993-01-01

    The object of this effort is to develop code to enable the accurate prediction of the performance of pulsed transversely excited (TE) CO2 lasers prior to their construction. This is of particular benefit to the NASA Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS) project. A benefit of the completed code is that although developed specifically for the pulsed CO2 laser much of the code can be modified to model other laser systems of interest to the lidar community. A Boltzmann equation solver has been developed which enables the electron excitation rates for the vibrational levels of CO2 and N2, together with the electron ionization and attachment coefficients to be determined for any CO2 laser gas mixture consisting of a combination of CO2, N2, CO, He and CO. The validity of the model has been verified by comparison with published material. The results from the Boltzmann equation solver have been used as input to the laser kinetics code which is currently under development. A numerical code to model the laser induced medium perturbation (LIMP) arising from the relaxation of the lower laser level has been developed and used to determine the effect of LIMP on the frequency spectrum of the LAWS laser output pulse. The enclosed figures show representative results for a laser operating at 0.5 atm. with a discharge cross-section of 4.5 cm to produce a 20 J pulse with aFWHM of 3.1 microns. The first four plots show the temporal evolution of the laser pulse power, energy evolution, LIMP frequency chirp and electric field magnitude. The electric field magnitude is taken by beating the calculated complex electric field and beating it with a local oscillator signal. The remaining two figures show the power spectrum and energy distribution in the pulse as a function of the varying pulse frequency. The LIMP theory has been compared with experimental data from the NOAA Windvan Lidar and has been found to be in good agreement.

  11. Classical effect for enhanced high harmonic yield in ultrashort laser pulses with a moderate laser intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Y. Z.; Wang, S.; Dong, F. L.; Li, Y. P.; Chen, Y. J.

    2017-03-01

    We study the influence of pulse duration on high harmonic generation (HHG) by exploring a wide laser-parameter region theoretically. Previous studies have shown that for high laser intensities close to saturation ionization intensity, the HHG inversion efficiency is higher for shorter pulses since the ground-state depletion is weaker in short pulses. Our simulations show that this high efficiency also appears for a moderate laser intensity at which the ionization is not very strong. A classical effect relating to shorter travel distances of the rescattering electron in shorter pulses is shown to contribute importantly to this high efficiency. The effect can be amplified significantly if a two-color laser field is used, suggesting a potential approach to increasing the HHG yield and generating short and bright attosecond pulses.

  12. Laser Cooling with Ultrafast Pulse Trains

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-06

    supercontinuum light source for seeding the cooling laser system • designed an efficient, robust nonlinear upconverter, a key part of the cooling laser... supercontinuum source that we have constructed from telecom fiber components. We have also designed an optimized upconversion system for generating >2...the cooling laser system from an all-fiber supercontinuum source We have constructed an all-fiber supercontinuum source in order to derive the 1944

  13. Laser Cooling With Ultrafast Pulse Trains

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-30

    stabilized a high -repetition- rate mode-locked laser appropriate for demonstrating the cooling technique. We searched for the two-photon transition...mode-locked light in the deep ultraviolet to drive two-photon scattering at high rates . Sufficient cooling forces can only be generated at high powers ...low as 270 mK. We also constructed a high -repetition- rate mode-locked laser suitable for demonstrating our cooling technique and stabilized the laser

  14. Influence of pulse duration on ultrashort laser pulse ablation of biological tissues.

    PubMed

    Kim, B M; Feit, M D; Rubenchik, A M; Joslin, E J; Celliers, P M; Eichler, J; Da Silva, L B

    2001-07-01

    Ablation characteristics of ultrashort laser pulses were investigated for pulse durations in the range of 130 fs-10 ps. Tissue samples used in the study were dental hard tissue (dentin) and water. We observed differences in ablation crater morphology for craters generated with pulse durations in the 130 fs-1 ps and the 5 ps-10 ps range. For the water experiment, the surface ablation and subsequent propagation of stress waves were monitored using Mach-Zehnder interferometry. For 130 fs-1 ps, energy is deposited on the surface while for longer pulses the beam penetrates into the sample. Both studies indicate that a transition occurs between 1 and 5 ps.

  15. Periodically pulsed excimer master oscillator-regenerative amplifier laser set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageyev, V. P.; Atezhev, V. V.; Bukreyev, V. S.; Vartapetov, S. K.; Zhukov, A. I.; Konov, V. I.; Savelyev, A. D.

    1987-06-01

    A periodically pulsed excimer laser set consisting of a master oscillator and a regenerative amplifier is proposed for improvement of laser beam characteristics, particularly decreasing divergence in the case of short pumping pulses and attendant high gain. Each active medium is pumped by electric discharge, both discharge circuits using magnetic switches with a common commutator so that the laser energy characteristics and the time separation between gain buildup in the two lasers can be simultaneously optimized. An experimental set was built with a Model 170 excimer laser as amplifier and a compact excimer laser as oscillator. Tests were performed with F2 + Kr + He mixtures lasing at lambda = 248, with and without injection. Emission pulses were produced at a repetition rate of 20 Hz and the beam divergence was measured through a lens with a focal length of 300 cm. The oscillator beam with a divergence of 600 microrad carried an energy of 700 microJ per pulse and was amplified to 35 mJ. The divergence of the amplified beam in the direction parallel to that of the discharge current was 140 microrad without injection and 80 microrad with injection. Divergence in the perpendicular direction was 90 microrad without and with injection.

  16. Effects of pulsed CO2 laser in caries selective ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colojoara, Carmen; David, Ion; Marinovici, Mariana

    1995-03-01

    We have evaluated the effect of pulsed carbon dioxide laser in the treatment for deep carious decay. The so called `caries profonda' is still a problem for conservative dentistry. A `Valvfivre' Master 20S carbon dioxide laser was pulsed to determine the effects on dentine and for testing the properties of softened dentine in selective ablation. Laser treatment parameters were from 1 to 2 W, 50 to 150 ms, 200 to 320 Hz. Fifteen human teeth samples were exposed to irradiation: extracted third molar were exposed to CO2 pulsed laser to determine in vitro the effects on pulp morphology. The tissue samples were analyzed histologically and by means of scanning electron microscopy for evidence of thermal damage. Next, we have evaluated the morphologic changes in vivo on 10 cases in patients with deep carious decay. Pulsed infrared lasers are capable of inducing physical and chemical changes in dentine structure. The results showed an artificially sclerosing and micro-hardness on the remaining dentine. CO2 laser can vaporized carious dentine.

  17. Laser Thomson scattering in a pulsed atmospheric arc discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommers, Bradley; Adams, Steven

    2015-09-01

    Laser scattering measurements, including Rayleigh, Raman, and Thomson scattering have been performed on an atmospheric pulsed arc discharge. Such laser scattering techniques offer a non-invasive diagnostic to measure gas temperature, electron temperature, and electron density in atmospheric plasma sources, particularly those with feature sizes approaching 1 mm. The pulsed discharge is ignited in a pin to pin electrode geometry using a 6 kV pulse with 10 ns duration. The electrodes are housed in a glass vacuum chamber filled with argon gas. The laser signal is produced by a Nd:Yag laser supply, repetitively pulsed at 10 Hz and frequency quadrupled to operate at 266 nm. The scattered laser signal is imaged onto a triple grating spectrometer, which is used to suppress the Rayleigh scatter signal in order to measure the low amplitude Thomson and Raman signals. Preliminary results include measurements of electron temperature and electron density in the plasma column taken during the evolution of the discharge. The laser system is also used to measure the Rayleigh scattering signal, which provides space and time resolved measurements of gas temperature in the arc discharge.

  18. Free space optical communication based on pulsed lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozd, Tadeusz; Mierczyk, Zygmunt; Zygmunt, Marek; Wojtanowski, Jacek

    2016-12-01

    Most of the current optical data transmission systems are based on continuous wave (cw) lasers. It results from the tendency to increase data transmission speed, and from the simplicity in implementation (straightforward modulation). Pulsed lasers, which find many applications in a variety of industrial, medical and military systems, in this field are not common. Depending on the type, pulsed lasers can generate instantaneous power which is many times greater when compared with cw lasers. As such, they seem to be very attractive to be used in data transmission technology, especially due to the potentially larger ranges of transmission, or in adverse atmospheric conditions where low power cw-lasersbased transmission is no longer feasible. It is also a very practical idea to implement data transmission capability in the pulsed laser devices that have been around and already used, increasing the functionality of this type of equipment. At the Institute of Optoelectronics at Military University of Technology, a unique method of data transmission based on pulsed laser radiation has been developed. This method is discussed in the paper in terms of both data transmission speed and transmission range. Additionally, in order to verify the theoretical assumptions, modules for voice and data transmission were developed and practically tested which is also reported, including the measurements of Bit Error Rate (BER) and performance vs. range analysis.

  19. Modelling of noise-like pulses generated in fibre lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Sergey; Kobtsev, Sergey

    2016-03-01

    The present paper for the first time proposes and studies a relatively simple model of noise-like pulses that matches the experimental data well and suggests that there is a correlation between phases of adjacent spectral components of noiselike pulses. Comparison of a relatively basic model of `random' pulses with the results of noise-like pulse modelling in mode-locked fibre lasers based on coupled non-linear Schrödinger equations demonstrates that it adequately reproduces temporal and spectral properties of noise-like pulses as well as correlation between adjacent modes so that it's possible to use the proposed model for highly efficient simulations of promising applications of noise-like pulses, such as material processing, non-linear frequency conversion, microscopy, and others.

  20. Crystallization of silicon carbide thin films by pulsed laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Cesare, G.; La Monica, S.; Maiello, G.; Masini, G.; Proverbio, E.; Ferrari, A.; Chitica, N.; Dinescu, M.; Alexandrescu, R.; Morjan, I.; Rotiu, E.

    1996-10-01

    Pulsed laser irradiation at low incident fluences was demonstrated to be effective for the crystallization of amorphous hydrogenated silicon carbide (a-SiC:H) films deposited on Si wafers. The amorphous films, with a carbon content in the range 30-50%, were deposited on (100) Si wafers by low temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The crystallization treatment was carried out by a multipulse KrF excimer laser. The crystallinity modifications induced by the laser treatment were evidenced by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. An important increase of the microhardness was evidenced as an effect of the laser treatment.

  1. Modeling of High-Energy Pulsed Laser Interactions with Coupons

    SciTech Connect

    Boley, C D; Rubenchik, A M

    2003-02-06

    We describe a computational model of laser-materials interactions in the regime accessed by the solid state heat capacity lasers (SSHCLs) built at LLNL. We show that its predictions compare quite favorably with coupon experiments by the 10 kW SSHCL at LLNL. The body of this paper describes the following topics, listed by section number: (2) model in quiescent air, (3) comparison with experiments in quiescent air, (4) effects of air flow, (5) comparison with experiments involving air flow, (6) importance of material properties, (7) advantage of pulsed lasers over CW lasers, and (8) conclusions and recommendations.

  2. The effect of laser pulse width on laser-induced damage at K9 and UBK7 components surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xinda; Ba, Rongsheng; Zheng, Yinbo; Yuan, Jing; Li, Wenhong; Chen, Bo

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we investigated the effects of laser pulse width on laser-induced damage. We measured the damage threshold of K9 glass and UBK7 glass optical components at different pulse width, then analysis pulse-width dependence of damage threshold. It is shown that damage threshold at different pulse width conforms to thermal restriction mechanism, Because of cm size laser beam, defect on the optical component surface leads to laser-induced threshold decreased.

  3. Pulse compression techniques to improve modulated pulsed laser line scan systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Robert W.; Nash, Justin K.; Cochenour, Brandon M.; Mullen, Linda J.

    2015-05-01

    A modulated pulse laser imaging system has been developed which utilizes coded/chirped RF modulation to mitigate the adverse effects of optical scattering in degraded visual underwater environments. Current laser imaging techniques employ either short pulses or single frequency modulated pulses to obtain both intensity and range images. Systems using short pulses have high range resolution but are susceptible to scattering due to the wide bandwidth nature of the pulse. Range gating can be used to limit the effects of backscatter, but this can lead to blind spots in the range image. Modulated pulse systems can help suppress the contribution from scattered light in generated imagery without gating the receiver. However, the use of narrowband, single tone modulation results in limited range resolution where small targets are camouflaged within the background. This drives the need for systems which have high range resolution while still suppressing the effects of scattering caused by the environment. Coded/chirped modulated pulses enable the use of radar pulse compression techniques to substantially increase range resolution while also providing a way to discriminate the object of interest from the light scattered from the environment. Linearly frequency chirped waveforms and phase shift keyed barker codes were experimentally investigated to determine the effects that pulse compression would have on intensity/range data. The effect of modulation frequency on the data produced with both wideband and narrowband modulation was also investigated. The results from laboratory experiments will be presented and compared to model predictions.

  4. Octave-spanning mid-infrared pulses by plasma generation in air pumped with an Yb:KGW source

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jinqing; Parobek, Alexander; Ganim, Ziad

    2016-01-01

    Femtosecond mid-infrared (IR) supercontinuum generation in gas media provides a broadband source suited for time-domain spectroscopies and microscopies. This technology has largely utilized <100 fs Ti:sapphire pump lasers. In this Letter, we describe the first plasma generation mid-IR source based on a 1030 nm, 171 fs Yb:KGW laser system; when its first three harmonics are focused in air, a conical mode supercontinuum is generated that spans <1000 to 2700 cm−1 with a 190 pJ pulse energy and 0.5% RMS stability. PMID:27805634

  5. High power, short pulses ultraviolet laser for the development of a new x-ray laser

    SciTech Connect

    Meixler, L.; Nam, C.H.; Robinson, J.; Tighe, W.; Krushelnick, K.; Suckewer, S.; Goldhar, J.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.

    1989-04-01

    A high power, short pulse ultraviolet laser system (Powerful Picosecond-Laser) has been developed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) as part of experiments designed to generate shorter wavelength x-ray lasers. With the addition of pulse compression and a final KrF amplifier the laser output is expected to have reached 1/3-1/2 TW (10/sup 12/ watts) levels. The laser system, particularly the final amplifier, is described along with some initial soft x-ray spectra from laser-target experiments. The front end of the PP-Laser provides an output of 20--30 GW (10/sup 9/ watts) and can be focussed to intensities of /approximately/10/sup 16/ W/cm/sup 2/. Experiments using this output to examine the effects of a prepulse on laser-target interaction are described. 19 refs., 14 figs.

  6. Deterministic processing of alumina with ultra-short laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Furmanski, J; Rubenchik, A M; Shirk, M D; Stuart, B C

    2007-06-27

    Ultrashort pulsed lasers can accurately ablate materials which are refractory, transparent, or are otherwise difficult to machine by other methods. The typical method of machining surfaces with ultrashort laser pulses is by raster scanning, or the machining of sequentially overlapping linear trenches. Experiments in which linear trenches were machined in alumina at various pulse overlaps and incident fluences are presented, and the dependence of groove depth on these parameters established. A model for the machining of trenches based on experimental data in alumina is presented, which predicts and matches observed trench geometry. This model is then used to predict optimal process parameters for the machining of trenches for maximal material removal rate for a given laser.

  7. Boosting laser-ion acceleration with multi-picosecond pulses

    PubMed Central

    Yogo, A.; Mima, K.; Iwata, N.; Tosaki, S.; Morace, A.; Arikawa, Y.; Fujioka, S.; Johzaki, T.; Sentoku, Y.; Nishimura, H.; Sagisaka, A.; Matsuo, K.; Kamitsukasa, N.; Kojima, S.; Nagatomo, H.; Nakai, M.; Shiraga, H.; Murakami, M.; Tokita, S.; Kawanaka, J.; Miyanaga, N.; Yamanoi, K.; Norimatsu, T.; Sakagami, H.; Bulanov, S. V.; Kondo, K.; Azechi, H.

    2017-01-01

    Using one of the world most powerful laser facility, we demonstrate for the first time that high-contrast multi-picosecond pulses are advantageous for proton acceleration. By extending the pulse duration from 1.5 to 6 ps with fixed laser intensity of 1018 W cm−2, the maximum proton energy is improved more than twice (from 13 to 33 MeV). At the same time, laser-energy conversion efficiency into the MeV protons is enhanced with an order of magnitude, achieving 5% for protons above 6 MeV with the 6 ps pulse duration. The proton energies observed are discussed using a plasma expansion model newly developed that takes the electron temperature evolution beyond the ponderomotive energy in the over picoseconds interaction into account. The present results are quite encouraging for realizing ion-driven fast ignition and novel ion beamlines. PMID:28211913

  8. Plasma shape control by pulsed solenoid on laser ion source

    DOE PAGES

    Sekine, M.; Ikeda, S.; Romanelli, M.; ...

    2015-05-28

    A Laser ion source (LIS) provides high current heavy ion beams with a very simple mechanical structure. Plasma is produced by a pulsed laser ablation of a solid state target and ions are extracted by an electric field. It was difficult to manipulate the beam parameters of a LIS, since the plasma condition could only be adjusted by the laser irradiation condition. To enhance flexibility of LIS operation, we employed a pulsed solenoid in the plasma drift section and investigated the effect of the solenoid field on singly charged iron beams. The experimentally obtained current profile was satisfactorily controlled bymore » the pulsed magnetic field. Thus, this approach may also be useful to reduce beam emittance of a LIS.« less

  9. Plasma shape control by pulsed solenoid on laser ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Sekine, M.; Ikeda, S.; Romanelli, M.; Kumaki, M.; Fuwa, Y.; Kanesue, T.; Hayashizaki, N.; Lambiase, R.; Okamura, M.

    2015-05-28

    A Laser ion source (LIS) provides high current heavy ion beams with a very simple mechanical structure. Plasma is produced by a pulsed laser ablation of a solid state target and ions are extracted by an electric field. It was difficult to manipulate the beam parameters of a LIS, since the plasma condition could only be adjusted by the laser irradiation condition. To enhance flexibility of LIS operation, we employed a pulsed solenoid in the plasma drift section and investigated the effect of the solenoid field on singly charged iron beams. The experimentally obtained current profile was satisfactorily controlled by the pulsed magnetic field. Thus, this approach may also be useful to reduce beam emittance of a LIS.

  10. Boosting laser-ion acceleration with multi-picosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yogo, A.; Mima, K.; Iwata, N.; Tosaki, S.; Morace, A.; Arikawa, Y.; Fujioka, S.; Johzaki, T.; Sentoku, Y.; Nishimura, H.; Sagisaka, A.; Matsuo, K.; Kamitsukasa, N.; Kojima, S.; Nagatomo, H.; Nakai, M.; Shiraga, H.; Murakami, M.; Tokita, S.; Kawanaka, J.; Miyanaga, N.; Yamanoi, K.; Norimatsu, T.; Sakagami, H.; Bulanov, S. V.; Kondo, K.; Azechi, H.

    2017-02-01

    Using one of the world most powerful laser facility, we demonstrate for the first time that high-contrast multi-picosecond pulses are advantageous for proton acceleration. By extending the pulse duration from 1.5 to 6 ps with fixed laser intensity of 1018 W cm‑2, the maximum proton energy is improved more than twice (from 13 to 33 MeV). At the same time, laser-energy conversion efficiency into the MeV protons is enhanced with an order of magnitude, achieving 5% for protons above 6 MeV with the 6 ps pulse duration. The proton energies observed are discussed using a plasma expansion model newly developed that takes the electron temperature evolution beyond the ponderomotive energy in the over picoseconds interaction into account. The present results are quite encouraging for realizing ion-driven fast ignition and novel ion beamlines.

  11. Laser short pulse heating of metal nano-wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Al-Dweik, A. Y.

    2012-11-01

    Non-equilibrium energy transfer takes place in a solid substrate during a short-pulse laser irradiation and temperature field can be obtained analytically in the irradiated region. In the present study, laser short-pulse heating of metal nano-wire is considered and the analytical solution for two-dimensional axisymmetric nano-wire is presented. Since the absorption of the incident beam takes place in the skin of the irradiated surface, a volumetric heat source resembling the absorption process is incorporated in the analysis. Three different nano-wire materials are introduced in the analysis for the comparison reason. These include silver, chromium, and copper. It is found that temperature decay is gradual on the surface vicinity and temporal variation of the surface temperature follows almost the laser pulse intensity profile at the irradiated center.

  12. Plasma shape control by pulsed solenoid on laser ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekine, M.; Ikeda, S.; Romanelli, M.; Kumaki, M.; Fuwa, Y.; Kanesue, T.; Hayashizaki, N.; Lambiase, R.; Okamura, M.

    2015-09-01

    A Laser ion source (LIS) provides high current heavy ion beams with a very simple mechanical structure. Plasma is produced by a pulsed laser ablation of a solid state target and ions are extracted by an electric field. However, it was difficult to manipulate the beam parameters of a LIS, since the plasma condition could only be adjusted by the laser irradiation condition. To enhance flexibility of LIS operation, we employed a pulsed solenoid in the plasma drift section and investigated the effect of the solenoid field on singly charged iron beams. The experimentally obtained current profile was satisfactorily controlled by the pulsed magnetic field. This approach may also be useful to reduce beam emittance of a LIS.

  13. Programmable femtosecond laser pulses in the ultraviolet

    SciTech Connect

    Hacker, M.; Feurer, T.; Sauerbrey, R.; Lucza, T.; Szabo, G.

    2001-06-01

    Using a combination of a zero-dispersion compressor and spectrally compensated sum-frequency generation, we have produced amplitude-modulated femtosecond pulses in the UV at 200 nm. {copyright} 2001 Optical Society of America

  14. Seeded QED cascades in counterpropagating laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grismayer, T.; Vranic, M.; Martins, J. L.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.

    2017-02-01

    The growth rates of seeded QED cascades in counterpropagating lasers are calculated with first-principles two- and three-dimensional QED-PIC (particle-in-cell) simulations. The dependence of the growth rate on the laser polarization and intensity is compared with analytical models that support the findings of the simulations. The models provide insight regarding the qualitative trend of the cascade growth when the intensity of the laser field is varied. A discussion about the cascade's threshold is included, based on the analytical and numerical results. These results show that relativistic pair plasmas and efficient conversion from laser photons to γ rays can be observed with the typical intensities planned to operate on future ultraintense laser facilities such as ELI or Vulcan.

  15. Seeded QED cascades in counterpropagating laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Grismayer, T; Vranic, M; Martins, J L; Fonseca, R A; Silva, L O

    2017-02-01

    The growth rates of seeded QED cascades in counterpropagating lasers are calculated with first-principles two- and three-dimensional QED-PIC (particle-in-cell) simulations. The dependence of the growth rate on the laser polarization and intensity is compared with analytical models that support the findings of the simulations. The models provide insight regarding the qualitative trend of the cascade growth when the intensity of the laser field is varied. A discussion about the cascade's threshold is included, based on the analytical and numerical results. These results show that relativistic pair plasmas and efficient conversion from laser photons to γ rays can be observed with the typical intensities planned to operate on future ultraintense laser facilities such as ELI or Vulcan.

  16. Power limitations and pulse distortions in an Yb : KGW chirped-pulse amplification laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, G H; Yang, J; Kulik, A V; Sall, E G; Chizhov, S A; Kang, U; Yashin, V E

    2013-08-31

    We have studied self-action effects (self-focusing and self-phase modulation) and stimulated Raman scattering in an Yb : KGW chirped-pulse amplification laser system. The results demonstrate that self-focusing in combination with thermal lensing may significantly limit the chirped pulse energy in this system (down to 200 μJ) even at a relatively long pulse duration (50 ps). Nonlinear lenses in the laser crystals in combination with thermal lenses bring the regenerative amplifier cavity in the laser system to the instability zone and limit the average output power at pulse repetition rates under 50 kHz. Self-phase modulation, a manifestation of self-action, may significantly distort a recompressed femtosecond pulse at energies near the self-focusing threshold. Stimulated Raman scattering in such a laser has a weaker effect on output parameters than do self-focusing and thermal lensing, and Raman spectra are only observed in the case of pulse energy instability. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  17. Ultrashort Laser Pulse Propagation in Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    coherent Raman spectroscopy. More complex pulse shapes will be particularly important for the studies of nonlinear pulse propagation. In the second...Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) signal (measured in methanol-water solutions) varying in magnitude over many decades15. At a further stage of the...like to next explore the possibility of using the pseudospectral time domain (PSTD) method which we feel will run much faster than the conventional FDTD

  18. Long-pulse-width narrow-bandwidth solid state laser

    DOEpatents

    Dane, C. Brent; Hackel, Lloyd A.

    1997-01-01

    A long pulse laser system emits 500-1000 ns quasi-rectangular pulses at 527 nm with near diffraction-limited divergence and near transform-limited bandwidth. The system consists of one or more flashlamp-pumped Nd:glass zig-zag amplifiers, a very low threshold stimulated-Brillouin-scattering (SBS) phase conjugator system, and a free-running single frequency Nd:YLF master oscillator. Completely passive polarization switching provides eight amplifier gain passes. Multiple frequency output can be generated by using SBS cells having different pressures of a gaseous SBS medium or different SBS materials. This long pulse, low divergence, narrow-bandwidth, multi-frequency output laser system is ideally suited for use as an illuminator for long range speckle imaging applications. Because of its high average power and high beam quality, this system has application in any process which would benefit from a long pulse format, including material processing and medical applications.

  19. Laser bandwidth interlock capable of single pulse detection and rejection

    DOEpatents

    Armstrong, James P; Telford, Steven James; Lanning, Rodney Kay; Bayramian, Andrew James

    2012-10-09

    A pulse of laser light is switched out of a pulse train and spatially dispersed into its constituent wavelengths. The pulse is collimated to a suitable size and then diffracted by high groove density multilayer dielectric gratings. This imparts a different angle to each individual wavelength so that, when brought to the far field with a lens, the colors have spread out in a linear arrangement. The distance between wavelengths (resolution) can be tailored for the specific laser and application by altering the number of times the beam strikes the diffraction gratings, the groove density of the gratings and the focal length of the lens. End portions of the linear arrangement are each directed to a respective detector, which converts the signal to a 1 if the level meets a set-point, and a 0 if the level does not. If both detectors produces a 1, then the pulse train is allowed to propagate into an optical system.

  20. Flexible pulses from carbon nanotubes mode-locked fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ling-Zhen; Yang, Yi; Wang, Juan-Fen

    2016-12-01

    We demonstrate a flexible erbium-doped pulsed fiber laser which achieves the wavelength and pulse width tuning by adjusting an intracavity filter. The intracavity filter is flexible to achieve any of the different wavelengths and bandwidths in the tuning range. The wavelength and width of pulse can be tuned in a range of ˜ 20 nm and from ˜ 0.8 ps to 87 ps, respectively. The flexible pulsed fiber laser can be accurately controlled, which is insensitive to environmental disturbance. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61575137) and the Program on Social Development by Department of Science and Technology of Shanxi Province, China (Grant No. 20140313023-3).

  1. Long-pulse-width narrow-bandwidth solid state laser

    DOEpatents

    Dane, C.B.; Hackel, L.A.

    1997-11-18

    A long pulse laser system emits 500-1000 ns quasi-rectangular pulses at 527 nm with near diffraction-limited divergence and near transform-limited bandwidth. The system consists of one or more flashlamp-pumped Nd:glass zig-zag amplifiers, a very low threshold stimulated-Brillouin-scattering (SBS) phase conjugator system, and a free-running single frequency Nd:YLF master oscillator. Completely passive polarization switching provides eight amplifier gain passes. Multiple frequency output can be generated by using SBS cells having different pressures of a gaseous SBS medium or different SBS materials. This long pulse, low divergence, narrow-bandwidth, multi-frequency output laser system is ideally suited for use as an illuminator for long range speckle imaging applications. Because of its high average power and high beam quality, this system has application in any process which would benefit from a long pulse format, including material processing and medical applications. 5 figs.

  2. Recycle Rate in a Pulsed, Optically Pumped Rubidium Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Wooddy S.; Sulham, Clifford V.; Holtgrave, Jeremy C.; Perram, Glen P.

    2010-10-08

    A pulsed, optically pumped rubidium laser operating in analogy to the diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) system at pump intensities as high as 750 kW/cm{sup 2} has been demonstrated with output energies of up to 13 {mu}J/pulse. Output energy is dramatically limited by spin-orbit relaxation rates under these high intensity pump conditions. More than 250 photons are available for every rubidium atom in the pumped volume, requiring a high number of cycles per atom during the 2-8 ns duration of the pump pulse. At 550 Torr of ethane, the spin-orbit relaxation rate is too slow to effectively utilize all the incident pump photons. Indeed, a linear dependence of output energy on pump pulse duration for fixed pump energy is demonstrated.

  3. Diode laser based water vapor DIAL using modulated pulse technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Phong Le Hoai; Abo, Makoto

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a diode laser based differential absorption lidar (DIAL) for measuring lower-tropospheric water vapor profile using the modulated pulse technique. The transmitter is based on single-mode diode laser and tapered semiconductor optical amplifier with a peak power of 10W around 800nm absorption band, and the receiver telescope diameter is 35cm. The selected wavelengths are compared to referenced wavelengths in terms of random error and systematic errors. The key component of modulated pulse technique, a macropulse, is generated with a repetition rate of 10 kHz, and the modulation within the macropulse is coded according to a pseudorandom sequence with 100ns chip width. As a result, we evaluate both single pulse modulation and pseudorandom coded pulse modulation technique. The water vapor profiles conducted from these modulation techniques are compared to the real observation data in summer in Japan.

  4. The effect of laser pulse tailored welding of Inconel 718

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccay, T. Dwayne; Mccay, Mary Helen; Sharp, C. Michael; Womack, Michael G.

    1990-01-01

    Pulse tailored laser welding has been applied to wrought, wrought grain grown, and cast Inconel 718 using a CO2 laser. Prior to welding, the material was characterized metallographically and the solid state transformation regions were identified using Differential Scanning Calorimetry and high temperature x-ray diffraction. Bead on plate welds (restrained and unrestrained) were then produced using a matrix of pulse duty cycles and pulsed average power. Subsequent characterization included heat affected zone width, penetration and underbead width, the presence of cracks, microfissures and porosity, fusion zone curvature, and precipitation and liquated region width. Pedigree welding on three selected processing conditions was shown by microstructural and dye penetrant analysis to produce no microfissures, a result which strongly indicates the viability of pulse tailored welding for microfissure free IN 718.

  5. Molecular photoelectron holography with circularly polarized laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weifeng; Sheng, Zhihao; Feng, Xingpan; Wu, Miaoli; Chen, Zhangjin; Song, Xiaohong

    2014-02-10

    We investigate the photoelectron momentum distribution of molecular-ion H2+driven by ultrashort intense circularly polarized laser pulses. Both numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) and a quasiclassical model indicate that the photoelectron holography (PH) with circularly polarized pulses can occur in molecule. It is demonstrated that the interference between the direct electron wave and rescattered electron wave from one core to its neighboring core induces the PH. Moreover, the results of the TDSE predict that there is a tilt angle between the interference pattern of the PH and the direction perpendicular to the molecular axis. Furthermore, the tilt angle is sensitively dependent on the wavelength of the driven circularly polarized pulse, which is confirmed by the quasiclassical calculations. The PH induced by circularly polarized laser pulses provides a tool to resolve the electron dynamics and explore the spatial information of molecular structures.

  6. Numerical analysis of laser ablation and damage in glass with multiple picosecond laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mingying; Eppelt, Urs; Russ, Simone; Hartmann, Claudia; Siebert, Christof; Zhu, Jianqiang; Schulz, Wolfgang

    2013-04-08

    This study presents a novel numerical model for laser ablation and laser damage in glass including beam propagation and nonlinear absorption of multiple incident ultrashort laser pulses. The laser ablation and damage in the glass cutting process with a picosecond pulsed laser was studied. The numerical results were in good agreement with our experimental observations, thereby revealing the damage mechanism induced by laser ablation. Beam propagation effects such as interference, diffraction and refraction, play a major role in the evolution of the crater structure and the damage region. There are three different damage regions, a thin layer and two different kinds of spikes. Moreover, the electronic damage mechanism was verified and distinguished from heat modification using the experimental results with different pulse spatial overlaps.

  7. Transient photoacoustic effects induced in liquids by pulsed erbium lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenz, Martin; Pratisto, Hans; Ith, Michael; Asshauer, Thomas; Rink, Klaus; Delacretaz, Guy P.; Romano, Valerio; Salathe, Rene-Paul; Weber, Heinz P.

    1994-08-01

    The intense interest in the investigation of erbium laser radiation in medicine is due to the fact that radiation at 3 micrometers is very strongly absorbed by water, which is present in all biological tissue. As a consequence of this high absorption the interaction of pulsed radiation is characterized by an explosive process with a low ablation threshold and a thin coagulation zone along the laser incisions. Erbium lasers, therefore, have a wide field of potential medical applications which become even more attractive with the availability of reliable delivery systems. An interesting situation arises in orthopaedics and angioplasty, where a precise cutting instrument is needed in a liquid environment. For this reason, we experimentally investigated the interaction mechanism of fiber transmitted, pulsed, free-running and Q- switched Erbium:YSGG ((lambda) equals 2.79 micrometers ) and Erbium:YAG ((lambda) equals 2.94 micrometers ) laser radiation with liquid water. The dynamics of the bubble formation and the propagation of shockwaves in water was studied and visualized by flash photography. Acoustic transients of a few hundreds of bars accompanying the ablation process were measured with a needle hydrophone. A clear correlation between the spikes of the laser pulse and those of the pressure signal was observed. Additionally, strong pressure transients were measured after the end of the laser pulse, which could be associated with the collapse of the vapor bubble and further collapses after multiple rebounds. The influence of pulse energy, fiber size and pulse duration on the formation and the amplitude of the pressure waves is demonstrated.

  8. Probing nonperturbative QED with optimally focused laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Gonoskov, A; Gonoskov, I; Harvey, C; Ilderton, A; Kim, A; Marklund, M; Mourou, G; Sergeev, A

    2013-08-09

    We study nonperturbative pair production in intense, focused laser fields called e-dipole pulses. We address the conditions required, such as the quality of the vacuum, for reaching high intensities without initiating beam-depleting cascades, the number of pairs which can be created, and experimental detection of the created pairs. We find that e-dipole pulses offer an optimal method of investigating nonperturbative QED.

  9. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Ion acceleration by ultrahigh-power ultrashort laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brantov, A. V.; Bychenkov, V. Yu; Rozmus, V.

    2007-09-01

    Two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations of fast-ion generation under ultrashort high-power laser pulse irradiation of stratified targets of different density and thickness are performed by the 'particle-in-cell' technique. The intent of these simulations was to determine the optimal target for maximising the ion energy for a given energy of the laser pulse. The simulations were carried out for the presently highest laser radiation intensities.

  10. Pulsed UV laser technologies for ophthalmic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razhev, A. M.; Chernykh, V. V.; Bagayev, S. N.; Churkin, D. S.; Kargapol’tsev, E. S.; Iskakov, I. A.; Ermakova, O. V.

    2017-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of the results of multiyear joint researches of team of collaborators of Institute of Laser Physics SB RAS together with NF IRTC “Eye Microsurgery” for the period from 1988 to the present, in which were first proposed and experimentally realized laser medical technologies for correction of refractive errors of known today as LASIK, the treatment of ophthalmic herpes and open-angle glaucoma. It is proposed to carry out operations for the correction of refractive errors the use of UV excimer KrCl laser with a wavelength of 222 nm. The same laser emission is the most suitable for the treatment of ophthalmic herpes, because it has a high clinical effect, combined with many years of absence of recrudescence. A minimally invasive technique of glaucoma operations using excimer XeCl laser (λ=308 nm) is developed. Its wavelength allows perform all stages of glaucoma operations, while the laser head itself has high stability and lifetime, will significantly reduce operating costs, compared with other types of lasers.

  11. Patterning of silica microsphere monolayers with focused femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Wenjian; Piestun, Rafael

    2006-03-13

    We demonstrate the patterning of monolayer silica microsphere lattices with tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses. We selectively removed microspheres from a lattice and characterized the effect on the lattice and the substrate. The proposed physical mechanism for the patterning process is laser-induced breakdown followed by ablation of material. We show that a microsphere focuses radiation in its interior and in the near field. This effect plays an important role in the patterning process by enhancing resolution and accuracy and by reducing the pulse energy threshold for damage. Microsphere patterning could create controlled defects within self-assembled opal photonic crystals.

  12. Local immunity in treating skin melanoma by neodymium pulsed laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskalik, Konstantin G.

    1997-06-01

    The number and correlation of skin stroma cells was studied on mice C57B1 with the subcutaneously transplanted melanoma B16 which was exposed to neodymium pulsed laser radiation. Within 1-5 days after the exposure the total number of the free skin stroma cells was found to increase in the periphery from the radiation epicenter and the number of lymphocytes, macrophages and leucocytes tended to grow. Lymphoid infiltration was also revealed in the preparations of the epithelized wound and cicatrix on the skin melanoma sites in the patients who had undergone pulsed laser radiation therapy.

  13. Interaction of nanosecond ultraviolet laser pulses with reactive dusty plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Wetering, F. M. J. H.; Oosterbeek, W.; Beckers, J.; Nijdam, S.; Gibert, T.; Mikikian, M.; Rabat, H.; Kovačević, E.; Berndt, J.

    2016-05-01

    Even though UV laser pulses that irradiate a gas discharge are small compared to the plasma volume (≲3%) and plasma-on time (≲6 × 10-6%), they are found to dramatically change the discharge characteristics on a global scale. The reactive argon-acetylene plasma allows the growth of nanoparticles with diameters up to 1 μm, which are formed inside the discharge volume due to spontaneous polymerization reactions. It is found that the laser pulses predominantly accelerate and enhance the coagulation phase and are able to suppress the formation of a dust void.

  14. Above-threshold ionization by chirped laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Takashi

    2007-05-15

    We theoretically investigate above-threshold ionization by chirped laser pulses. By comparing the photoelectron energy spectra and the photoelectron angular distributions of Na for the laser pulses with different chirp rates but with the identical spectral profile, we find that the ionization processes have a clear dependence on the chirp rate. Further calculations without excited bound states during the time propagation of the wave function reveal practically no chirp dependence, which is clear evidence that the origin of the chirp dependence in above-threshold ionization is the excited bound states.

  15. Plasma and Cavitation Dynamics during Pulsed Laser Microsurgery in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Hutson, M. Shane; Ma Xiaoyan

    2007-10-12

    We compare the plasma and cavitation dynamics underlying pulsed laser microsurgery in water and in fruit fly embryos (in vivo)--specifically for nanosecond pulses at 355 and 532 nm. We find two key differences. First, the plasma-formation thresholds are lower in vivo --especially at 355 nm--due to the presence of endogenous chromophores that serve as additional sources for plasma seed electrons. Second, the biological matrix constrains the growth of laser-induced cavitation bubbles. Both effects reduce the disrupted region in vivo when compared to extrapolations from measurements in water.

  16. Quantum Quenching of Radiation Losses in Short Laser Pulses.

    PubMed

    Harvey, C N; Gonoskov, A; Ilderton, A; Marklund, M

    2017-03-10

    Accelerated charges radiate, and therefore must lose energy. The impact of this energy loss on particle motion, called radiation reaction, becomes significant in intense-laser matter interactions, where it can reduce collision energies, hinder particle acceleration schemes, and is seemingly unavoidable. Here we show that this common belief breaks down in short laser pulses, and that energy losses and radiation reaction can be controlled and effectively switched off by appropriate tuning of the pulse length. This "quenching" of emission is impossible in classical physics, but becomes possible in QED due to the discrete nature of quantum emissions.

  17. Quantum Quenching of Radiation Losses in Short Laser Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, C. N.; Gonoskov, A.; Ilderton, A.; Marklund, M.

    2017-03-01

    Accelerated charges radiate, and therefore must lose energy. The impact of this energy loss on particle motion, called radiation reaction, becomes significant in intense-laser matter interactions, where it can reduce collision energies, hinder particle acceleration schemes, and is seemingly unavoidable. Here we show that this common belief breaks down in short laser pulses, and that energy losses and radiation reaction can be controlled and effectively switched off by appropriate tuning of the pulse length. This "quenching" of emission is impossible in classical physics, but becomes possible in QED due to the discrete nature of quantum emissions.

  18. Tailored terahertz pulses from a laser-modulated electronbeam

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Michael C.; Byrd, John; Hao, Zhao; Robin, David; Sannibale,Fernando; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Zholents, Alexander; Zolotorev, Max

    2005-07-19

    Interaction of an electron beam with a femtosecond laserpulseco-propagating through a wiggler modulates the electronenergieswithin a short slice of the electron bunch comparable with the durationof the laser pulse (Figure 1). Propagating around an electron storagering, this bunch develops a longitudinal density perturbation due to thedispersion of electron trajectories. Figure 1 shows how this createsfemtosecond electron bunch wings which are used for femtosecond x-raylight. In addition, this density perturbation emits temporally andspatially coherent tera-hertz pulses whichare inherently synchronized tothe modulating laser. This gives us a new way to study coherentsynchrotron radaition, and creates an opportunity for tuning the THzemmission specifically for the needs of a given experiment.

  19. Hybrid Fiber-Bulk Pulsed Erbium Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Judd - Ofelt analysis (for radiative lifetimes) and the gap law (for non-radiative transitions by phonon emission). In both calculations, we have...3.6 Prospects for further power scaling 4.0 Fiber laser pumped Er:YAG laser 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Er:YAG laser design 4.3 Effect of Er3 ...procedure, so it is extremely important to identify the main factors affecting the overall efficiency. Er3 + and Yb3+ ion concentrations and background

  20. Interaction of intense multi-picosecond laser pulses with matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Andreas; Divol, Laurent; Cohen, Bruce

    2011-10-01

    We present new results on the two- and three-dimensional kinetic modeling of short-pulse laser-matter interaction of Petawatt pulses at the spatial and temporal scales relevant to current experiments. We address key questions such as characterizing the multi-picosecond evolution of the laser energy conversion into hot electrons, i.e., conversion efficiency as well as angular- and energy distribution; the impact of return currents on the laser-plasma interaction; and the effect of self-generated electric and magnetic fields on electron transport. We will report applications to current experiments at LLNL's Titan laser and Omega EP, and to a Fast-Ignition point design. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  1. Laser Ablation of Biological Tissue Using Pulsed CO{sub 2} Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Hashishin, Yuichi; Sano, Shu; Nakayama, Takeyoshi

    2010-10-13

    Laser scalpels are currently used as a form of laser treatment. However, their ablation mechanism has not been clarified because laser excision of biological tissue occurs over a short time scale. Biological tissue ablation generates sound (laser-induced sound). This study seeks to clarify the ablation mechanism. The state of the gelatin ablation was determined using a high-speed video camera and the power reduction of a He-Ne laser beam. The aim of this study was to clarify the laser ablation mechanism by observing laser excision using the high-speed video camera and monitoring the power reduction of the He-Ne laser beam. We simulated laser excision of a biological tissue by irradiating gelatin (10 wt%) with radiation from a pulsed CO{sub 2} laser (wavelength: 10.6 {mu}m; pulse width: 80 ns). In addition, a microphone was used to measure the laser-induced sound. The first pulse caused ablation particles to be emitted in all directions; these particles were subsequently damped so that they formed a mushroom cloud. Furthermore, water was initially evaporated by laser irradiation and then tissue was ejected.

  2. Laser ablation of GaAs in liquid: the role of laser pulse duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Bonis, Angela; Galasso, Agostino; Santagata, Antonio; Teghil, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of gallium arsenide (GaAs) nanoparticles has attracted wide scientific and technological interest due to the possibility of tuning the GaAs NP (nanoparticle) band gap across the visible spectrum and their consequent use in optoelectronic devices. In recent years, laser ablation in liquid (LAL) has been widely used for the preparation of colloidal solutions of semiconducting and metallic nanoparticles, thanks to its flexibility. With the aim of highlighting the key role played by laser pulse duration on the ablation mechanism and on the properties of the obtained materials, laser ablation of a gallium arsenide target in acetone was performed using laser sources operating in two different temporal regimes: Nd:glass laser (λ   =  527 nm, pulse duration of 250 fs and frequency repetition rate of 10 Hz) and Nd:YAG laser (λ   =  532 nm, pulse duration of 7 ns and frequency repetition rate of 10 Hz). The ablation process was studied following the dynamics of the laser induced shock waves (SWs) and cavitation bubbles (CBs) by fast shadowgraphy, showing that CB dimension and lifetime is related to the laser pulse length. A characterization of the obtained materials by TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and microRaman spectroscopy have shown that quite spherical gallium oxide/GaAs nanoparticles can be obtained by nanosecond laser ablation. On the other hand, pure polycrystalline GaAs nanoparticles can be produced by using an ultrashort laser source.

  3. Ionization of a multilevel atom by ultrashort laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, A. V.; Stremoukhov, S. Yu.; Shutova, O. A.

    2010-01-15

    Specific features of ionization of single atoms by laser fields of a near-atomic strength are investigated. Calculations are performed for silver atoms interacting with femtosecond laser pulses with wavelengths {lambda} = 800 nm (Ti:Sapphire) and {lambda} = 1.064 {mu}m (Nd:YAG). The dependences of the probability of ionization and of the form of the photoelectron energy spectra on the field of laser pulses for various values of their duration are considered. It is shown that the behavior of the probability of ionization in the range of subatomic laser pulse fields is in good agreement with the Keldysh formula. However, when the field strength attains values close to the atomic field strength, the discrepancies in these dependences manifested in a decrease in the ionization rate (ionization stabilization effect) or in its increase (accelerated ionization) are observed. These discrepancies are associated with the dependence of the population dynamics of excited discrete energy levels of the atom on the laser pulse field amplitude.

  4. Electron heating enhancement by frequency-chirped laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Yazdani, E.; Afarideh, H.; Sadighi-Bonabi, R.; Riazi, Z.; Hora, H.

    2014-09-14

    Propagation of a chirped laser pulse with a circular polarization through an uprising plasma density profile is studied by using 1D-3V particle-in-cell simulation. The laser penetration depth is increased in an overdense plasma compared to an unchirped pulse. The induced transparency due to the laser frequency chirp results in an enhanced heating of hot electrons as well as increased maximum longitudinal electrostatic field at the back side of the solid target, which is very essential in target normal sheath acceleration regime of proton acceleration. For an applied chirp parameter between 0.008 and 0.01, the maximum amount of the electrostatic field is improved by a factor of 2. Furthermore, it is noticed that for a chirped laser pulse with a₀=5, because of increasing the plasma transparency length, the laser pulse can penetrate up to about n{sub e}≈6n{sub c}, where n{sub c} is plasma critical density. It shows 63% increase in the effective critical density compared to the relativistic induced transparency regime for an unchirped condition.

  5. Computer modeling of pulsed CO2 lasers for lidar applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiers, Gary D.; Smithers, Martin E.; Murty, Rom

    1991-01-01

    The experimental results will enable a comparison of the numerical code output with experimental data. This will ensure verification of the validity of the code. The measurements were made on a modified commercial CO2 laser. Results are listed as following. (1) The pulse shape and energy dependence on gas pressure were measured. (2) The intrapulse frequency chirp due to plasma and laser induced medium perturbation effects were determined. A simple numerical model showed quantitative agreement with these measurements. The pulse to pulse frequency stability was also determined. (3) The dependence was measured of the laser transverse mode stability on cavity length. A simple analysis of this dependence in terms of changes to the equivalent fresnel number and the cavity magnification was performed. (4) An analysis was made of the discharge pulse shape which enabled the low efficiency of the laser to be explained in terms of poor coupling of the electrical energy into the vibrational levels. And (5) the existing laser resonator code was changed to allow it to run on the Cray XMP under the new operating system.

  6. Extensive angiokeratoma circumscriptum - successful treatment with 595-nm variable-pulse pulsed dye laser and 755-nm long-pulse pulsed alexandrite laser.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Ján; Šimaljaková, Mária; Babál, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    Angiokeratomas are rare vascular mucocutaneous lesions characterized by small-vessel ectasias in the upper dermis with reactive epidermal changes. Angiokeratoma circumscriptum (AC) is the rarest among the five types in the current classification of angiokeratoma. We present a case of an extensive AC in 19-year-old women with Fitzpatrick skin type I of the left lower extremity, characterized by a significant morphological heterogeneity of the lesions, intermittent bleeding, and negative psychological impact. Histopathological examination after deep biopsy was consistent with that of angiokeratoma. The association with metabolic diseases (Fabry disease) was excluded by ophthalmological, biochemical, and genetic examinations. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging has not detected deep vascular hyperplasia pathognomic for verrucous hemangioma. The combined treatment with 595-nm variable-pulse pulsed dye laser (VPPDL) and 755-nm long-pulse pulsed alexandrite laser (LPPAL) with dynamic cooling device led to significant removal of the pathological vascular tissue of AC. Only a slight degree of secondary reactions (dyspigmentations and texture changes) occurred. No recurrence was observed after postoperative interval of 9 months. We recommend VPPDL and LPPAL for the treatment of extensive AC.

  7. Filamentation of a relativistic short pulse laser in a plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Naveen; Tripathi, V. K.; Sawhney, B. K.

    2006-06-01

    An intense short pulse laser propagating through a plasma undergoes filamentation instability under the combined effects of relativistic mass variation and ponderomotive force-induced electron density depression. These two nonlinearities superimpose each other. In a tenuous plasma, the filament size scales as {\\sim}( c / \\omega _p\\; a_0 ) \\sqrt 2 \\gamma _0^{1/2} , where ω p is the plasma frequency, a0 is the normalized laser amplitude and γ 0 is the relativistic gamma factor.

  8. Electron rescattering at metal nanotips induced by ultrashort laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachter, G.; Lemell, C.; Burgdörfer, J.

    2014-04-01

    We theoretically investigate the interaction of moderate intensity near-infrared few cycle laser pulses with nano-scale metal tips. Local field enhancement in a nanometric region around the tip apex triggers coherent electron emission on the nanometer length and femtosecond time scale. The quantum dynamics at the surface are simulated with time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and interpreted based on the simple man's model. We investigate the dependence of the emitted electron spectra on the laser wavelength.

  9. Pulsed Laser Processing of Paper Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schechtel, Florian; Reg, Yvonne; Zimmermann, Maik; Stocker, Thomas; Knorr, Fabian; Mann, Vincent; Roth, Stephan; Schmidt, Michael

    At present the trends in paper and packaging industries are the personalization of products and the use of novel high-tech materials. Laser processes as non-contact and flexible techniques seem to be the obvious choice to address those developments. In this paper we present a basic understanding of the occurring mechanisms of laser based engraving of different paper and paperboard materials, using a picosecond laser source at 1064 nm. The influences on the beam-paper-interaction of grammage, the composition of the paper matrix, as well as the paper inherent cellulose fibers were investigated. Here the ablation threshold of commercially available paper was determined and a matrix ablation effect under the 1064 nm radiation observed. These results were characterized and qualified mainly by means of laser scanning microscope (LSM) micrographs in combination with color-space analytics.

  10. Influence of laser pulse frequency on the microstructure of aluminum nitride thin films synthesized by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonova, K.; Duta, L.; Szekeres, A.; Stan, G. E.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Anastasescu, M.; Stroescu, H.; Gartner, M.

    2017-02-01

    Aluminum Nitride (AlN) thin films were synthesized on Si (100) wafers at 450 °C by pulsed laser deposition. A polycrystalline AlN target was multipulsed irradiated in a nitrogen ambient, at different laser pulse repetition rate. Grazing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction and Atomic Force Microscopy analyses evidenced nanocrystallites with a hexagonal lattice in the amorphous AlN matrix. The thickness and optical constants of the layers were determined by infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry. The optical properties were studied by Fourier Transform Infrared reflectance spectroscopy in polarised oblique incidence radiation. Berreman effect was observed around the longitudinal phonon modes of the crystalline AlN component. Angular dependence of the A1LO mode frequency was analysed and connected to the orientation of the particles' optical axis to the substrate surface normal. The role of the laser pulse frequency on the layers' properties is discussed on this basis.

  11. Ultrashort transient pulse propagation effect in semiconductor waveguides under a nonlinear dispersion regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Pranay K.; Kumar, Abhay; Sen, Pratima

    1999-06-01

    Using semiclassical time dependent perturbation treatment, the coherence radiation-semiconductor interaction under ultrashort pulsed near band-gap resonant excitation regime has been analytically investigated in a narrow direct-gap semiconductor waveguide structure. The role of excitonic effect is incorporated to study transient pulse propagation effects in GAs/AlGaAs waveguide duly irradiated by a 100 fs Ti:Sapphire laser. Nonlinear Schroedinger equation is employed to examine the role of group velocity dispersion and nonlinear optical effect on the transmission characteristics of the pulse at various excitation intensities and waveguide lengths. The results suggest the occurrence of pulse break-up and pulse narrowing during propagation of the pulse through the GaAs/AlGaAs waveguide.

  12. Subsurface ablation of atherosclerotic plaque using ultrafast laser pulses

    PubMed Central

    Lanvin, Thomas; Conkey, Donald B.; Frobert, Aurelien; Valentin, Jeremy; Goy, Jean-Jacques; Cook, Stéphane; Giraud, Marie-Noelle; Psaltis, Demetri

    2015-01-01

    We perform subsurface ablation of atherosclerotic plaque using ultrafast pulses. Excised mouse aortas containing atherosclerotic plaque were ablated with ultrafast near-infrared (NIR) laser pulses. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to observe the ablation result, while the physical damage was inspected in histological sections. We characterize the effects of incident pulse energy on surface damage, ablation hole size, and filament propagation. We find that it is possible to ablate plaque just below the surface without causing surface damage, which motivates further investigation of ultrafast ablation for subsurface atherosclerotic plaque removal. PMID:26203381

  13. Zitterbewegung of electrons in carbon nanotubes created by laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Rusin, T M; Zawadzki, W

    2014-05-28

    We describe a possibility of creating non-stationary electron wave packets in zigzag carbon nanotubes (CNT) illuminated by short laser pulses. After the disappearance of the pulse the packet experiences a trembling motion (Zitterbewegung, ZB). The band structure of CNT is calculated using the tight-binding approximation generalized for the presence of radiation. By employing realistic pulse and CNT parameters we obtain the ZB oscillations with interband frequencies corresponding to specific pairs of energy bands. A choice of optimal parameters is presented in order to observe the phenomenon of ZB experimentally. The use of Gaussian wave packets to trigger the electron Zitterbewegung, as used in the literature, is critically reexamined.

  14. Subsurface ablation of atherosclerotic plaque using ultrafast laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Lanvin, Thomas; Conkey, Donald B; Frobert, Aurelien; Valentin, Jeremy; Goy, Jean-Jacques; Cook, Stéphane; Giraud, Marie-Noelle; Psaltis, Demetri

    2015-07-01

    We perform subsurface ablation of atherosclerotic plaque using ultrafast pulses. Excised mouse aortas containing atherosclerotic plaque were ablated with ultrafast near-infrared (NIR) laser pulses. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to observe the ablation result, while the physical damage was inspected in histological sections. We characterize the effects of incident pulse energy on surface damage, ablation hole size, and filament propagation. We find that it is possible to ablate plaque just below the surface without causing surface damage, which motivates further investigation of ultrafast ablation for subsurface atherosclerotic plaque removal.

  15. Filamentation of ultrashort laser pulses of different wavelengths in argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Xiexing; Lin, Wenbin

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the filaments formed by the ultrashort laser pulses with different wavelengths of 400 nm, 586 nm and 800 nm propagating in argon. Numerical results show that, when the input power or the ratio of the input power to the critical power is given, the pulse with 400 nm wavelength has the largest on-axis intensity, as well as the narrowest filament and the most stable beam radius. These results indicate that the pulse with shorter wavelength is more suitable for the long-range propagation in argon.

  16. SPECTRAL AMPLITUDE AND PHASE EVOLUTION IN PETAWATT LASER PULSES

    SciTech Connect

    Filip, C V

    2010-11-22

    The influence of the active gain medium on the spectral amplitude and phase of amplified pulses in a CPA system is studied. Results from a 10-PW example based on Nd-doped mixed glasses are presented. In conclusion, this study shows that, by using spectral shaping and gain saturation in a mixed-glass amplifier, it is possible to produce 124 fs, 1.4 kJ laser pulses. One detrimental effect, the pulse distortion due to resonant amplification medium, has been investigated and its magnitude as well as its compensation calculated.

  17. High-power pulsed ytterbium fibre laser with 10{-}\\unicode{956} {\\text{J}} pulse energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trikshev, A. I.; Kamynin, V. A.; Tsvetkov, V. B.; Egorova, O. N.

    2016-12-01

    An all-fibre pulsed fibre laser system emitting at a wavelength of 1093 {\\text{nm}} with an average output power up to 10 {\\text{W}} is presented. The system is assembled according to the master oscillator/fibre amplifier scheme. Pulses were generated with passive mode locking due to nonlinear polarisation rotation in a standard single-mode fibre. The main fibre amplifier was pumped by fibre-coupled semiconductor laser diodes at a wavelength of 976 {\\text{nm}} with a maximum total power up to 50 {\\text{W}}. The measured pump duration did not exceed 60 {\\text{ps}} at a pulse repetition rate of about 1 {\\text{MHz}}. The pulse energy was 10 \\unicode{956} {\\text{J}}.

  18. Coupling effects of the number of pulses, pulse repetition rate and fluence during laser PMMA ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. Q.; Feng, Y.; Yi, X.-S.

    2000-10-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was ablated using a 248-nm long-pulsed KrF excimer laser operating at a pulse repetition rate (PRR) of 2 and 10 Hz, and fluence varying from 0.4 to 2 J/cm 2. The coupling effects of multiple shots, PRR, and fluence are found and discussed on the etching depth data and topography of PMMA. An increase in either PRR, or fluence or the number of pulses can accelerate the etching efficiency in terms of ablation rate, as a result of strengthened thermal effects. Quality of the craters such as roughness, porosity and contamination is sensitively dependent on the specific laser operating conditions. Basically, increasing the PRR and the number of pulses gives rise to a crater with smoother and less porous bottom.

  19. Modeling of ultrafast laser pulse propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesik, Miroslav; Brown, Jeffrey; Bahl, Anand

    2016-05-01

    Computer simulations of ultrafast optical pulses face multiple challenges. This requires one to construct a propagation model to reduce the Maxwell system so that it can be efficiently simulated at the temporal and spatial scales relevant to experiments. The second problem concerns the light-matter interactions, demanding novel approaches for gaseous and condensed media alike. As the nonlinear optics pushes into new regimes, the need to honor the first principles is ever greater, and requires striking a balance between computational complexity and physical fidelity of the model. With the emphasis on the dynamics in intense optical pulses, this paper discusses some recent developments and promising directions in the field of ultrashort pulse modeling.

  20. Dynamics of pulsed holmium:YAG laser photocoagulation of albumen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfefer, T. Joshua; Foong Chan, Kin; Hammer, Daniel X.; Welch, A. J.

    2000-05-01

    The pulsed holmium:YAG laser (λ = 2.12 µm, τp = 250 µs) has been investigated as a method for inducing localized coagulation for medical procedures, yet the dynamics of this process are not well understood. In this study, photocoagulation of albumen (egg white) was analysed experimentally and results compared with optical-thermal simulations to investigate a rate process approach to thermal damage and the role of heat conduction and dynamic changes in absorption. The coagulation threshold was determined using probit analysis, and coagulum dynamics were documented with fast flash photography. The nonlinear computational model, which included a Beer's law optical component, a finite difference heat transfer component and an Arrhenius equation-based damage calculation, was verified against data from the literature. Moderate discrepancies between simulation results and our experimental data probably resulted from the use of a laser beam with an irregular spatial profile. This profile produced a lower than expected coagulation threshold and an irregular damage distribution within a millisecond after laser onset. After 1 ms, heat conduction led to smoothing of the coagulum. Simulations indicated that dynamic changes in absorption led to a reduction in surface temperatures. The Arrhenius equation was shown to be effective for simulating transient albumen coagulation during pulsed holmium:YAG laser irradiation. Greater understanding of pulsed laser-tissue interactions may lead to improved treatment outcome and optimization of laser parameters for a variety of medical procedures.

  1. Multifunctional optical correlator for picosecond ultraviolet laser pulse measurement.

    PubMed

    Rakhman, Abdurahim; Wang, Yang; Garcia, Frances; Long, Cary; Huang, Chunning; Takeda, Yasuhiro; Liu, Yun

    2014-11-01

    A compact multifunctional optical correlator system for pulse width measurement of ultrashort ultraviolet (UV) pulses has been designed and experimentally demonstrated. Both autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions are measured using a single nonlinear crystal, and the switching between two measurements requires no adjustment of phase matching and detector. The system can measure UV pulse widths from sub-picoseconds to 100 ps, and it involves no auxiliary pulse in the measurement. The measurement results on a burst-mode picosecond UV laser show a high-quality performance on speed, accuracy, resolution, and dynamic range. The proposed correlator can be applied to measure any ultrashort UV pulses produced through sum-frequency generation or second-harmonic generation.

  2. Pulsed Laser Deposition of the Ni-Base Superalloy Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Joonghan; Mazumder, Jyotirmoy

    2016-03-01

    Ni-base superalloy films were deposited on single-crystal (SC) Ni-base superalloy substrates from a target with the same alloy composition by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. Microstructure and growth behavior of the films deposited were investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscope. The homoepitaxial growth of the SC Ni-base superalloy film occurred at the 1123 K (850 °C) substrate temperature and 2 J/cm2 pulse energy. Films generally exhibited a strong polycrystalline characteristic as the substrate temperature and pulse energy increased. The SC film had a smooth surface. The measured root mean square roughness of the SC film surface was ~6 nm. Based on the Taguchi analysis, the substrate temperature and pulse energy were the most significant process parameters influencing the structural characteristics of the films. Also, the influence of the pulse repletion rate and deposition time was not found to be significant.

  3. Temporal laser pulse manipulation using multiple optical ring-cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet (Inventor); Kojima, Jun (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An optical pulse stretcher and a mathematical algorithm for the detailed calculation of its design and performance is disclosed. The optical pulse stretcher has a plurality of optical cavities, having multiple optical reflectors such that an optical path length in each of the optical cavities is different. The optical pulse stretcher also has a plurality of beam splitters, each of which intercepts a portion of an input optical beam and diverts the portion into one of the plurality of optical cavities. The input optical beam is stretched and a power of an output beam is reduced after passing through the optical pulse stretcher and the placement of the plurality of optical cavities and beam splitters is optimized through a model that takes into account optical beam divergence and alignment in the pluralities of the optical cavities. The optical pulse stretcher system can also function as a high-repetition-rate (MHz) laser pulse generator, making it suitable for use as a stroboscopic light source for high speed ballistic projectile imaging studies, or it can be used for high speed flow diagnostics using a laser light sheet with digital particle imaging velocimetry. The optical pulse stretcher system can also be implemented using fiber optic components to realize a rugged and compact optical system that is alignment free and easy to use.

  4. Fiber laser as the pulse source for a laser rangefinder system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissilae, Seppo M.; Kostamovaara, Juha T.

    1993-05-01

    Active fibers, i.e. optically pumped doped fibers, have been developed and studied intensively during the last few years, and an optical amplifier based mainly on erbium-doped fibers has just been launched on the expanding telecommunications market. Fiber lasers have a market of their own in the sensor applications. The use of fiber lasers as pulse sources in laser rangefinder applications is studied here. The main advantages with respect to high energy pulses and a small emitting area are listed, the problems and disadvantages are discussed and some practical solutions to these problems are given. Possible Q-switching techniques for obtaining short, powerful pulses (> 10 W) of about 10 ns are studied as are liquid-crystal, PLZT crystal, acousto-optic and Pockels Cell modulators. Finally, the practicability of these modulators for laser pulsing in industrial environments is discussed.

  5. Megahertz pulse-burst alexandrite laser diagnostic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luff, Jon David

    Megahertz pulse-burst laser systems coupled with megahertz-rate framing cameras have proven (over the last ten years) to be very robust in imaging of high-speed reacting and nonreacting supersonic flows. These Nd:YAG systems produce 20--30 pulses (at variable rates from 500 kHz to 1 MHz) with 50--100 mJ/pulse (lambda = 1064nm) and have been used with narrow, spectral-linewidth, iodine, atomic filters to image turbulence in supersonic boundary layers with great success (when operating at lambda = 532nm). To extend this pulse-burst capability at other wavelengths (wavelengths outside of the 5--30 GHz tuning range of Nd:YAG: lambda = 1064 nm fundamental, and lambda = 532 nm second harmonic), two unique, tunable, megahertz-rate alexandrite laser systems were designed and built. This dissertation documents these two systems and discusses the potential for tunable, megahertz, pulse-burst systems that have more tuning range than Nd:YAG. These tunable alexandrite systems substantially extend the wavelength range of pulse-burst laser technology, but, to date, have pulse-energy limitations. Tunable from 710 nm to 800 nm (in the fundamental), these lasers provide researchers one laser to reach multiple molecular or atomic resonances with variable pulse-burst pulse separations. The molecular and atomic species of interest in reacting and nonreacting flows are presented in Chapter 1, providing a road-map for the development of these tunable lasers. This dissertation presents the design and development of these systems, including mode control, Herriott cell design for pulse separation, and the megahertz-tuning ringmaster-oscillator. Chapter 2 covers the physics of alexandrite as a solid-state, lamp-pumped, tunable medium and compares it to the tunability of Ti:sapphire. Chapter 3 and 4 present the pulse-burst alexandrite systems. The first system, built in Princeton's Applied Physics group (PAPG) (Chapter 3), produced 1-5 mJ total pulse-packet energy of 20--30 pulses, or

  6. Polycrystalline ZnTe thin film on silicon synthesized by pulsed laser deposition and subsequent pulsed laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Menglei; Gao, Kun; Wu, Jiada; Cai, Hua; Yuan, Ye; Prucnal, S.; Hübner, R.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.; Zhou, Shengqiang

    2016-03-01

    ZnTe thin films on Si substrates have been prepared by pulsed laser deposition and subsequent pulsed laser melting (PLM) treatment. The crystallization during PLM is confirmed by Raman scattering, x-ray diffraction and room temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The PL results show a broad peak at 574 nm (2.16 eV), which can be assigned to the transitions from the conduction band to the acceptor level located at 0.145 eV above the valence band induced by zinc-vacancy ionization. Our work provides an applicable approach to low temperature preparation of crystalline ZnTe thin films.

  7. Acousto-optical imaging using a powerful long pulse laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Guy; Blouin, Alain; Monchalin, Jean-Pierre

    2008-06-01

    Acousto-optical imaging is an emerging biodiagnostic technique which provides an optical spectroscopic signature and a spatial localization of an optically absorbing target embedded in a strongly scattering medium. The transverse resolution of the technique is determined by the lateral extent of ultrasound beam focal zone while the axial resolution is obtained by using short ultrasound pulses. Although very promising for medical diagnostic, the practical application of this technique is presently limited by its poor sensitivity. Moreover, any method to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio must obviously satisfy the in vivo safety limits regarding the acceptable power level of both the ultrasonic pressure wave and the laser beam. In this paper, we propose to improve the sensitivity by using a pulsed single-frequency laser source to raise the optical peak power applied to the scattering medium and to collect more ultrasonically tagged photons. Such a laser source also allows illuminating the tissues mainly during the transit time of the ultrasonic wave to maintain the average optical power below the maximum permissible exposure. In our experiment, a single-frequency Nd:YAG laser emitting 500-μs pulses with a peak power superior to 100 W was used. Photons were tagged in few-cm thick optical phantoms with tone bursts generated by an ultrasonic transducer. Tagged photons were detected with a GaAs photorefractive interferometer characterized by a large optical etendue to process simultaneously a large number of speckle grains. When pumped by high intensity laser pulses, such an interferometer also provides the fast response time essential to obtain an apparatus insensitive to the speckle decorrelation due to mechanical vibrations or tissues movements. The use of a powerful long pulse laser appears promising to enhance the signal level in ultrasound modulated optical imaging. When combined with a photorefractive interferometer of large optical etendue, such a source could

  8. Dynamics of laser self-triggered plasma shutter for shortening laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Xia Changquan; Liu Jiansheng; Deng Aihua; Wang Wentao; Wang Cheng; Li Ruxin; Xu Zhizhan

    2010-12-15

    The dynamics of a solid foil irradiated by a circularly polarized laser pulse in the normal incidence is investigated by performing particle-in-cell simulations. After sufficiently compressed by the light pressure, the foil becomes transparent, with a part of the incident pulse transmitted through, and then it turns opaque again, blocking the tail of the pulse. It is found that the transparency dynamically depends on the motion of the compressed foil and relies on the incident pulse. Thus, the foil can be used to shorten the incident pulse as a self-triggered shutter.

  9. Microwave interferometry of laser induced air plasmas formed by short laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Jungwirth, P.W.

    1993-08-01

    Applications for the interaction of laser induced plasmas with electromagnetic probes requires time varying complex conductivity data for specific laser/electromagnetic probe geometries. Applications for this data include plasma switching (Q switching) and the study of ionization fronts. The plasmas were created in laboratory air by 100 ps laser pulses at a wavelength of 1 {mu}m. A long focal length lens focused the laser pulse into WR90 (X band) rectangular waveguide. Two different laser beam/electromagnetic probe geometries were investigated. For the longitudinal geometry, the laser pulse and the microwave counterpropagated inside the waveguide. For the transverse geometry, the laser created a plasma ``post`` inside the waveguide. The effects of the laser beam deliberately hitting the waveguide were also investigated. Each geometry exhibits its own characteristics. This research project focused on the longitudinal geometry. Since the laser beam intensity varies inside the waveguide, the charge distribution inside the waveguide also varies. A 10 GHz CW microwave probe traveled through the laser induced plasma. From the magnitude and phase of the microwave probe, a spatially integrated complex conductivity was calculated. No measurements of the temporal or spatial variation of the laser induced plasma were made. For the ``plasma post,`` the electron density is more uniform.

  10. Pulse-to-pulse jitter measurement by photon correlation in high-β lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Lebreton, Armand; Abram, Izo; Belabas, Nadia; Sagnes, Isabelle; Robert-Philip, Isabelle Beveratos, Alexios; Braive, Rémy; Marsili, Francesco; Verma, Varun B.; Nam, Sae Woo; Gerrits, Thomas; Stevens, Martin J.

    2015-01-19

    The turn-on delay jitter in pulsed lasers in which a large fraction (β) of spontaneous emission is channeled into the lasing mode is measured by use of a photon correlation technique. This jitter is found to significantly increase with β, reaching values of the order of the pulse width at threshold. This is due to the increase in the relative value of the discretization noise when the number of photons at threshold becomes small, as is the case in high-β lasers.

  11. Laser fusion neutron source employing compression with short pulse lasers

    DOEpatents

    Sefcik, Joseph A; Wilks, Scott C

    2013-11-05

    A method and system for achieving fusion is provided. The method includes providing laser source that generates a laser beam and a target that includes a capsule embedded in the target and filled with DT gas. The laser beam is directed at the target. The laser beam helps create an electron beam within the target. The electron beam heats the capsule, the DT gas, and the area surrounding the capsule. At a certain point equilibrium is reached. At the equilibrium point, the capsule implodes and generates enough pressure on the DT gas to ignite the DT gas and fuse the DT gas nuclei.

  12. Simple Short-Pulse CO2 Laser Excited by Longitudinal Discharge without High-Voltage Switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Kazuyuki; Jitsuno, Takahisa; Akitsu, Tetsuya

    2012-05-01

    We have developed a longitudinally excited CO2 laser without a high-voltage switch. The laser produces a short laser pulse similar to those from TEA and Q-switched CO2 lasers. This system, which is the simplest short-pulse CO2 laser yet constructed, includes a pulsed power supply, a high-speed step-up transformer, a storage capacitor, and a laser tube. At high pressure (4.2 kPa and above), a rapid discharge produces a short laser pulse with a sharp spike pulse. In mixed gas (CO2: N2: He = 1: 1: 2) at a pressure of 9.0 kPa, the laser pulse contains a spike pulse of 218 ns and has a pulse tail length of 16.7 μs.

  13. Laser Cooling with Ultrafast Pulse Trains

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-19

    gave sufficiently short pulses for efficient supercontinuum generation. We amplified the 1944 nm band of the supercontinuum using a thulium fiber...preamplifier and subsequent thulium fiber, obtaining 10 W of average power for future upconversion to 243 nm. Characterization of dissociation fraction

  14. Chirped-Pulse Inverse Free Electron Laser: A Tabletop, High-Gradient Vacuum Laser Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Hartemann, F V; Troha, A L; Baldis, H A

    2001-03-05

    The inverse free-electron laser (IFEL) interaction is studied both theoretically and numerically in the case where the drive laser intensity approaches the relativistic regime, and the pulse duration is only a few optical cycles long. We show that by using an ultrashort, ultrahigh-intensity drive laser pulse, the IFEL interaction bandwidth and accelerating gradient are increased considerably, thus yielding large energy gains. Using a chirped pulse and negative dispersion focusing optics allows one to take further advantage of the laser optical bandwidth and produce a chromatic line focus maximizing the gradient. The combination of these novel ideas results in a compact vacuum laser accelerator capable of accelerating picosecond electron bunches with a high gradient (GeV/m) and very low energy spread. A computer code which takes into account the three-dimensional nature of the interaction is currently in development and results are expected this Spring.

  15. Tunable repetitively pulsed flashlamp-pumped dye lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Dzyubenko, M I; Maslov, V V; Pelipenko, V P; Shevchenko, V V

    1998-12-31

    An experimental investigation was made of the spatioangular and spectral-energy characteristics of high-power tunable repetitively pulsed flashlamp-pumped dye lasers. A high directionality of the output radiation was attained in a wide range of the concentrations of the active molecules when aqueous solutions of dyes, in particular an inclusion complex of coumarin-120 and {beta}-cyclodextrin, were used. Such high directionality was obtained for alcohol and water-alcohol solutions only when the concentrations of these molecules were low. Continuous variation of the tuning range of lasers of this class should be possible by the use of suitable mixtures of efficient donor and acceptor dyes. (lasers)

  16. A compact field-portable double-pulse laser system to enhance laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuo; Liu, Lei; Yan, Aidong; Huang, Sheng; Huang, Xi; Chen, Rongzhang; Lu, Yongfeng; Chen, Kevin

    2017-02-01

    This paper reports the development of a compact double-pulse laser system to enhance laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for field applications. Pumped by high-power vertical-surface emitting lasers, the laser system that produces 16 ns pulse at 12 mJ/pulse with total weight less than 10 kg is developed. The inter-pulse delay can be adjusted from 0 μ s with 0.5 μ s increment. Several LIBS experiments were carried out on NIST standard aluminum alloy samples. Comparing with the single-pulse LIBS, up to 9 times enhancement in atomic emission line was achieved with continuum background emission reduced by 70%. This has led to up to 10 times improvement in the limit of detection. Signal stability was also improved by 128% indicating that a more robust and accurate LIBS measurement can be achieved using a compact double-pulse laser system. This paper presents a viable and field deployable laser tool to dramatically improve the sensitivity and applicability of LIBS for a wide array of applications.

  17. Injection of electrons by colliding laser pulses in a laser wakefield accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansson, M.; Aurand, B.; Ekerfelt, H.; Persson, A.; Lundh, O.

    2016-09-01

    To improve the stability and reproducibility of laser wakefield accelerators and to allow for future applications, controlling the injection of electrons is of great importance. This allows us to control the amount of charge in the beams of accelerated electrons and final energy of the electrons. Results are presented from a recent experiment on controlled injection using the scheme of colliding pulses and performed using the Lund multi-terawatt laser. Each laser pulse is split into two parts close to the interaction point. The main pulse is focused on a 2 mm diameter gas jet to drive a nonlinear plasma wave below threshold for self-trapping. The second pulse, containing only a fraction of the total laser energy, is focused to collide with the main pulse in the gas jet under an angle of 150°. Beams of accelerated electrons with low divergence and small energy spread are produced using this set-up. Control over the amount of accelerated charge is achieved by rotating the plane of polarization of the second pulse in relation to the main pulse. Furthermore, the peak energy of the electrons in the beams is controlled by moving the collision point along the optical axis of the main pulse, and thereby changing the acceleration length in the plasma.

  18. Ultrashort pulse laser microsurgery system with plasma luminescence feedback control

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B.M.; Feit, M.D.; Rubenchik, A.M.; Gold, D.M.; Darrow, C.B.; Da Silva, L.B.

    1997-11-10

    Plasma luminescence spectroscopy was used for precise ablation of bone tissue during ultrashort pulse laser (USPL) micro-spinal surgery. Strong contrast of the luminescence spectra between bone marrow and spinal cord provided the real time feedback control so that only bone tissue can be selectively ablated while preserving the spinal cord.

  19. Vacuum electron acceleration by using two variable frequency laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Saberi, H.; Maraghechi, B.

    2013-12-15

    A method is proposed for producing a relativistic electron bunch in vacuum via direct acceleration by using two frequency-chirped laser pulses. We consider the linearly polarized frequency-chiped Hermit-Gaussian 0, 0 mode lasers with linear chirp in which the local frequency varies linearly in time and space. Electron motion is investigated through a numerical simulation using a three-dimensional particle trajectory code in which the relativistic Newton's equations of motion with corresponding Lorentz force are solved. Two oblique laser pulses with proper chirp parameters and propagation angles are used for the electron acceleration along the z-axis. In this way, an electron initially at rest located at the origin could achieve high energy, γ=319 with the scattering angle of 1.02{sup ∘} with respect to the z-axis. Moreover, the acceleration of an electron in different initial positions on each coordinate axis is investigated. It was found that this mechanism has the capability of producing high energy electron microbunches with low scattering angles. The energy gain of an electron initially located at some regions on each axis could be greatly enhanced compared to the single pulse acceleration. Furthermore, the scattering angle will be lowered compared to the acceleration by using laser pulses propagating along the z-axis.

  20. X-ray production with sub-picosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Schappert, G.T.; Cobble, J.A.; Fulton, R.D.; Kyrala, G.A.

    1993-12-31

    The interaction of intense, sub-picosecond laser pulses with solid targets produces intense picosecond x-ray pulses. With focused laser pulses of several 10 {sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}, He-like and H-like line radiation from targets such as aluminum and silicon has been produced. The energy conversion efficiency from the laser pulse energy to the 1--2 keV line x-rays is nearly one percent. The duration of the line x-ray radiation is of the order of ten picoseconds, although this may be an upper estimate because of the temporal resolution of the x-ray streak camera. The spatial extent of the x-ray source region is only slightly larger than the laser focal spot, or about 10 {mu}m in diameter. With these characteristics, such x-ray sources emit an intensity of nearly 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}. Experiments and modeling which led to the above conclusions will be discussed.

  1. Pulsed laser ablation of pepsin on an inorganic substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicco, N.; Lopizzo, T.; Marotta, V.; Morone, A.; Verrastro, M.; Viggiano, V.

    2009-03-01

    Pressed pepsin pellets used as targets were ablated with the pulses of the Nd-YAG laser. The activity of the pepsin thin layer, deposited on a glass substrate, was successfully detected by analyzing the proteolytic degradation areas on the polyacrylamide gel (PA-gel) copolymerized with albumin from the hen egg white (ovalbumin), used as an enzymatic substrate.

  2. Reciprocity in long pulse duration laser interactions with polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchant, A. L.; Snelling, H. V.

    2012-05-01

    The laser irradiation of polyimide Kapton HN (PI), polyetheretherketone (PEEK), polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) and polypropylene (PP) by long pulse, radio frequency excited, CO2 laser radiation has been studied. In the pulse duration range 47-757 µs the minimum pulse energy required to damage the surface is found to be independent of exposure time. Hence, the threshold fluence is also independent of pulse duration; the same effect is achieved through the application of long pulses at low irradiance as shorter ones at higher irradiance. The values of these threshold fluences have been found to be 8.15 J cm-2, 5.36 J cm-2, 3.39 J cm-2 and 9.63 J cm-2 for PI, PEEK, PET and PP, respectively. The details of this behaviour have been analysed through calculations of the laser-induced temperature rise and the application of an Eyring-type rate law for the thermal decomposition of polyimide and PEEK and by considering the melting points of PP and PET.

  3. Study on the techniques of pulse laser fuze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huimin; Yan, Xiaopeng; Ma, Yi; Li, Kun; Sun, Jianqiang; Li, Ping

    2008-03-01

    With the development of semiconductor laser technology, laser proximity fuzes have been widely used in various kinds of guided missiles and routine ammunitions. Combined with the current situation, the digital laser fuzes system based on the FPGA has been proposed in this paper. Combined with the current situation, the system has been divided into emitting module, receiving module and signal processing module, the three modules have been analyzed in details. In the emitting module, the driven circuit based on the FPGA has been developed, the laser pulse with 20ns width and 10kHz repetition frequency have been obtained. Meanwhile, the emitting optical system and receiving optical system have been designed. In the receiving module, the receiving circuit with preamplifier and A/D sampling and convert circuit have been developed. In the signal processing module, anti-interference methods were proposed which can find applications in the laser proximity fuze research.

  4. Formation of ultrasmooth thin silver films by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, I. A.; Garaeva, M. Ya.; Mamichev, D. A. Grishchenko, Yu. V.; Zanaveskin, M. L.

    2013-09-15

    Ultrasmooth thin silver films have been formed on a quartz substrate with a buffer yttrium oxide layer by pulsed laser deposition. The dependence of the surface morphology of the film on the gas (N{sub 2}) pressure in the working chamber and laser pulse energy is investigated. It is found that the conditions of film growth are optimal at a gas pressure of 10{sup -2} Torr and lowest pulse energy. The silver films formed under these conditions on a quartz substrate with an initial surface roughness of 0.3 nm had a surface roughness of 0.36 nm. These films can be used as a basis for various optoelectronics and nanoplasmonics elements.

  5. Optoelectronic delay-time controller for laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Lin, G R

    2000-06-01

    A dc-voltage-controlled optoelectronic delay line for continuous tuning of the relative delay time of an optical pulse train generated from a gain-switched laser diode is demonstrated. A maximum tunable range delay time of 3.9 ns ( approximately 2 periods) for optical pulses at a 500-MHz repetition rate is reported, which corresponds to a phase shift of as much as 4pi. The tuning responsivity and resolution of the current apparatus are 0.54 ps/mV and <0.2 ps, respectively. The measured timing fluctuation and long-term drift at any delay time are 0.13 ps and 20 fs/min, respectively. This scheme further permits the simultaneous phase tracking of the laser pulse train to unknown signals generated from the device under test.

  6. Making Relativistic Positrons Using Ultra-Intense Short Pulse Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H; Wilks, S; Bonlie, J; Chen, C; Chen, S; Cone, K; Elberson, L; Gregori, G; Liang, E; Price, D; Van Maren, R; Meyerhofer, D D; Mithen, J; Murphy, C V; Myatt, J; Schneider, M; Shepherd, R; Stafford, D; Tommasini, R; Beiersdorfer, P

    2009-08-24

    This paper describes a new positron source produced using ultra-intense short pulse lasers. Although it has been studied in theory since as early as the 1970s, the use of lasers as a valuable new positron source was not demonstrated experimentally until recent years, when the petawatt-class short pulse lasers were developed. In 2008 and 2009, in a series of experiments performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a large number of positrons were observed after shooting a millimeter thick solid gold target. Up to 2 x 10{sup 10} positrons per steradian ejected out the back of {approx}mm thick gold targets were detected. The targets were illuminated with short ({approx}1 ps) ultra-intense ({approx}1 x 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}) laser pulses. These positrons are produced predominantly by the Bethe-Heitler process, and have an effective temperature of 2-4 MeV, with the distribution peaking at 4-7 MeV. The angular distribution of the positrons is anisotropic. For a wide range of applications, this new laser based positron source with its unique characteristics may complements the existing sources using radioactive isotopes and accelerators.

  7. Fluorescence of silicon nanoparticles prepared by nanosecond pulsed laser

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chunyang Sui, Xin; Yang, Fang; Ma, Wei; Li, Jishun; Xue, Yujun; Fu, Xing

    2014-03-15

    A pulsed laser fabrication method is used to prepare fluorescent microstructures on silicon substrates in this paper. A 355 nm nanosecond pulsed laser micromachining system was designed, and the performance was verified and optimized. Fluorescence microscopy was used to analyze the photoluminescence of the microstructures which were formed using the pulsed laser processing technique. Photoluminescence spectra of the microstructure reveal a peak emission around 500 nm, from 370 nm laser irradiation. The light intensity also shows an exponential decay with irradiation time, which is similar to attenuation processes seen in porous silicon. The surface morphology and chemical composition of the microstructure in the fabricated region was also analyzed with multifunction scanning electron microscopy. Spherical particles are produced with diameters around 100 nm. The structure is compared with porous silicon. It is likely that these nanoparticles act as luminescence recombination centers on the silicon surface. The small diameter of the particles modifies the band gap of silicon by quantum confinement effects. Electron-hole pairs recombine and the fluorescence emission shifts into the visible range. The chemical elements of the processed region are also changed during the interaction between laser and silicon. Oxidation and carbonization play an important role in the enhancement of fluorescence emission.

  8. Making relativistic positrons using ultraintense short pulse lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Hui; Wilks, S. C.; Bonlie, J. D.; Chen, S. N.; Cone, K. V.; Elberson, L. N.; Price, D. F.; Schneider, M. B.; Shepherd, R.; Stafford, D. C.; Tommasini, R.; Van Maren, R.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Gregori, G.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Myatt, J.

    2009-12-15

    This paper describes a new positron source using ultraintense short pulse lasers. Although it has been theoretically studied since the 1970s, the use of lasers as a valuable new positron source was not demonstrated experimentally until recent years, when the petawatt-class short pulse lasers were developed. In 2008 and 2009, in a series of experiments performed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a large number of positrons were observed after shooting a millimeter thick solid gold target. Up to 2x10{sup 10} positrons/s ejected at the back of approximately millimeter thick gold targets were detected. The targets were illuminated with short (approx1 ps) ultraintense (approx1x10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}) laser pulses. These positrons are produced predominantly by the Bethe-Heitler process and have an effective temperature of 2-4 MeV, with the distribution peaking at 4-7 MeV. The angular distribution of the positrons is anisotropic. For a wide range of applications, this new laser-based positron source with its unique characteristics may complement the existing sources based on radioactive isotopes and accelerators.

  9. Test results from LAGEOS-2 optical characterization using pulsed lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varghese, Thomas K.; Selden, Michael; Oldham, Thomas; Clarke, Christopher; Zagwodzki, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    The Laser Geodynamic Satellite-2 (LAGEOS-2) has undergone extensive optical testing at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center during 1989. The techniques included measuring the far field diffraction pattern using cw and pulsed lasers. In the pulsed measurement technique, response of the satellite was studied by measuring the far-field diffraction pattern (FFDP) as a function of pulsewidth, wavelength, polarization, position in the FFDP, detector/processing techniques, and satellite orientation. The purpose of the pulsed laser testing was two-fold: (1) to characterize the satellite optical response with the detector and signal processing electronics currently used in most SLR stations using the portable laser ranging standard, and (2) to characterize the satellite response for various conditions using the highest bandwidth optical detector (streak camera) available for the next generation of satellite laser ranging (SLR) technology. The portable ranging standard employed multiple measurement devices and an optical calibration scheme to eliminate range-dependent and amplitude-dependent systematics. These precautions were taken to eliminate/minimize instrumental errors and provide maximum accuracy. For LAGEOS orbit (6000 Km), ground stations are located 34 to 38 Mu radians off the axis of the return signal from the satellite; therefore, an optical mask was used to restrict the field of view (FOV) of detection to this annular region of the FFDP. The two measurement techniques were implemented using an aperture sharing scheme and complemented each other by providing mutual verification.

  10. Precision resection of intestine using ultrashort laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Rainer J.; Gora, Wojciech S.; Jayne, David; Hand, Duncan P.; Shephard, Jonathan D.

    2016-03-01

    Endoscopic resection of early colorectal neoplasms typically employs electrocautery tools, which lack precision and run the risk of full thickness thermal injury to the bowel wall with subsequent perforation. We present a means of endoluminal colonic ablation using picosecond laser pulses as a potential alternative to mitigate these limitations. High intensity ultrashort laser pulses enable nonlinear absorption processes, plasma generation, and as a consequence a predominantly non-thermal ablation regimen. Robust process parameters for the laser resection are demonstrated using fresh ex vivo pig intestine samples. Square cavities with comparable thickness to early colorectal neoplasms are removed for a wavelength of 1030 nm and 515 nm using a picosecond laser system. The corresponding histology sections exhibit in both cases only minimal collateral damage to the surrounding tissue. The ablation depth can be controlled precisely by means of the pulse energy. Overall, the application of ultrafast lasers for the resection of intestine enables significantly improved precision and reduced thermal damage to the surrounding tissue compared to conventional electrocautery.

  11. Experimental study on double-pulse laser ablation of steel upon multiple parallel-polarized ultrashort-pulse irradiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schille, Joerg; Schneider, Lutz; Kraft, Sebastian; Hartwig, Lars; Loeschner, Udo

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, double-pulse laser processing is experimentally studied with the aim to explore the influence of ultrashort pulses with very short time intervals on ablation efficiency and quality. For this, sequences of 50 double pulses of varied energy and inter-pulse delay, as adjusted between 400 fs and 18 ns by splitting the laser beam into two optical paths of different length, were irradiated to technical-grade stainless steel. The depth and the volume of the craters produced were measured in order to evaluate the efficiency of the ablation process; the crater quality was analyzed by SEM micrographs. The results obtained were compared with craters produced with sequences of 50 single pulses and energies equal to the double pulse. It is demonstrated that double-pulse processing cannot exceed the ablation efficiency of single pulses of optimal fluence, but the ablation crater surface formed smoother if inter-pulse delay was in the range between 10 ns and 18 ns. In addition, the influence of pulse duration and energy distribution between the individual pulses of the double pulse on ablation was studied. For very short inter-pulse delay, no significant effect of energy variation within the double pulse on removal rate was found, indicating that the double pulse acts as a big single pulse of equal energy. Further, the higher removal efficiency was achieved when double-pulse processing using femtosecond pulses instead of picosecond pulses.

  12. Laser pulse detection method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goss, W.; Janesick, J. R. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A sensor is described for detecting the difference in phase of a pair of returned light pulse components, such as two components of a light pulse of an optical gyro. In an optic gyro, the two light components have passed in opposite directions through a coil of optical fiber, with the difference in phase of the returned light components determining the intensity of light shining on the sensor. The sensor includes a CCD (charge coupled device) that receives the pair of returned light components to generate a charge proportional to the number of photons in the received light. The amount of the charge represents the phase difference between the two light components. At a time after the transmission of the light pulse and before the expected time of arrival of the interfering light components, charge accumulating in the CCD as a result of reflections from components in the system, are repeatedly removed from the CCD, by transferring out charges in the CCD and dumping these charges.

  13. Laser pulse detection method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goss, Willis C. (Inventor); Janesick, James R. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A sensor is described for detecting the difference in phase of a pair of returned light pulse components, such as the two components of a light pulse of an optical gyro. In an optic gyro, the two light components have passed in opposite directions through a coil of optical fiber, with the difference in phase of the returned light components determining the intensity of light shining on the sensor. The sensor includes a CCD (charge coupled device) that receives the pair of returned light components to generate a charge proportional to the number of photons in the received light. The amount of the charge represents the phase difference between the two light components. At a time after the transmission of the light pulse and before the expected time of arrival of the interfering light components, charge accumulating in the CCD as a result of reflections from optical components in the system, are repeatedly removed from the CCD, by transferring out charges in the CCD and dumping these charges.

  14. Medical and biological applications for ultrafast laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubatschowski, Holger; Heisterkamp, Alexander; Will, Fabian; Singh, Ajoy I.; Serbin, Jesper; Ostendorf, Andreas; Kermani, Omid; Heermann, R.; Welling, Herbert; Ertmer, Wolfgang

    2003-02-01

    Due to the low energy threshold of photodisruption with fs laser pulses, thermal and mechanical side effects are limited to the sub μm range. The neglection of side effects enables the use of ultrashort laser pulses in a broad field of medical applications. Moreover, the interaction process based on nonlinear absorption offers the opportunity to process transparent tissue three dimensionally inside the bulk. We demonstrate the feasibility of surgical procedures in different fields of medical interest: In ophthalmology intrastromal cutting and preparing of corneal flaps for refractive surgery in living animals is presented. Besides, the very low mechanical side effects enables the use of fs-laser in otoralyngology to treat ocecular bones. Moreover, the precise cutting quality can be used in fields of cardiovascular surgery for the treatment of arteriosclerosis as well as in dentistry to remove caries from dental hard tissue.

  15. Thomson scattering in high-intensity chirped laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Holkundkar, Amol R.; Harvey, Chris Marklund, Mattias

    2015-10-15

    We consider the Thomson scattering of an electron in an ultra-intense laser pulse. It is well known that at high laser intensities, the frequency and brilliance of the emitted radiation will be greatly reduced due to the electron losing energy before it reaches the peak field. In this work, we investigate the use of a small frequency chirp in the laser pulse in order to mitigate this effect of radiation reaction. It is found that the introduction of a negative chirp means the electron enters a high frequency region of the field while it still has a large proportion of its original energy. This results in a significant enhancement of the frequency and intensity of the emitted radiation as compared to the case without chirping.

  16. Multifunctional optical correlator for picosecond ultraviolet laser pulse measurement

    DOE PAGES

    Rakhman, Abdurahim; Wang, Yang; Garcia, Frances; ...

    2014-01-01

    A compact optical correlator system that measures both the autocorrelation between two infrared (IR) lights and the cross-correlation between an IR and an ultraviolet (UV) light using a single nonlinear optical crystal has been designed and experimentally demonstrated. The rapid scanning of optical delay line, switching between auto and cross-correlations, crystal angle tuning, and data acquisition and processing are all computer controlled. Pulse widths of an IR light from a mode-locked laser are measured by the correlator and the results are compared with a direct measurement using a high-speed photodetector system. The correlator has been used to study the parametermore » dependence of the pulse width of a macropulse UV laser designed for laser-assisted hydrogen ion (H-) beam stripping for the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.« less

  17. Multifunctional optical correlator for picosecond ultraviolet laser pulse measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Rakhman, Abdurahim; Wang, Yang; Garcia, Frances; Long, Cary D.; Huang, Chunning; Takeda, Yasuhiro; Liu, Yun

    2014-01-01

    A compact optical correlator system that measures both the autocorrelation between two infrared (IR) lights and the cross-correlation between an IR and an ultraviolet (UV) light using a single nonlinear optical crystal has been designed and experimentally demonstrated. The rapid scanning of optical delay line, switching between auto and cross-correlations, crystal angle tuning, and data acquisition and processing are all computer controlled. Pulse widths of an IR light from a mode-locked laser are measured by the correlator and the results are compared with a direct measurement using a high-speed photodetector system. The correlator has been used to study the parameter dependence of the pulse width of a macropulse UV laser designed for laser-assisted hydrogen ion (H-) beam stripping for the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  18. Interaction of Repetitively Pulsed High Energy Laser Radiation With Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugenschmidt, Manfred

    1986-10-01

    The paper is concerned with laser target interaction processes involving new methods of improving the overall energy balance. As expected theoretically, this can be achieved with high repetition rate pulsed lasers even for initially highly reflecting materials, such as metals. Experiments were performed by using a pulsed CO2 laser at mean powers up to 2 kW and repetition rates up to 100 Hz. The rates of temperature rise of aluminium for example were thereby increased by lore than a factor of 3 as compared to cw-radiation of comparable power density. Similar improvements were found for the overall absorptivities that were increased by this method by more than an order of magnitude.

  19. Pulsed excimer laser angioplasty of human cadaveric arteries.

    PubMed

    Farrell, E M; Higginson, L A; Nip, W S; Walley, V M; Keon, W J

    1986-02-01

    Laser angioplasty has been limited by the lack of precise control of thermal and acoustic vascular injury. Pulsed excimer lasers, by contrast, have a capacity to affect target tissue without heat dispersion or damage to surrounding structures. The ablative properties of three excimer wavelengths, krypton fluoride (249 nm), xenon chloride (308 nm), and xenon fluoride (351 nm), were investigated with the use of fresh human cadaveric normal and atherosclerotic femoral arteries. Light and electron microscopy demonstrated clean cuts with histologically normal edges. There was no evidence of either thermal or acoustic damage with any of the wavelengths studied. The depth of ablation varied directly with the number of pulses and inversely with tissue density while the incision width remained constant. The excimer laser appears to offer significant advantages over its conventional counterparts for the ablation of atherosclerotic plaque.

  20. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SEMICONDUCTOR INJECTION LASERS SELCO-87: Simple pulsed semiconductor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulicius, E.; Abrahám, A.; Sĭmeček, T.

    1988-11-01

    A brief review is given of the main characteristics of pulsed GaAlAs/GaAs lasers made in Czechoslovakia. A description is given of laser structures with large optical cavities and their electrical, optical, and service life characteristics are reported.

  1. A New Kind of Laser Microphone Using High Sensitivity Pulsed Laser Vibrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Chen-Chia; Trivedi, Sudhir; Jin, Feng; Swaminathan, V.; Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally a new kind of laser microphone using a highly sensitive pulsed laser vibrometer. By using the photo-electromotive-force (photo-EMF) sensors, we present data indicating the real-time detection of surface displacements as small as 4 pm.

  2. Tunable high-efficient pulsed NH3 terahertz lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiu, Zhi-Xian; Li, Qiang; Zuo, Du-Luo; Miao, Liang; Cheng, Zu-Hai

    2012-03-01

    Experimental studies on a tunable efficient high-efficient pulsed NH3 terahertz (THz) lasers pumped by TEA CO2 lasers are presented. When NH3 is pumped by the different lines with the CO2 lasers, the generation of different terahertz radiations is discussed. The lines of the CO2 lasers are 9R(08), 9P(20), 10R(14), 10R(08), and 10R(06). To improve THz laser energy and photon conversion efficiency, different higher power of the CO2 laser can effectively improve THz laser energy and photon conversion efficiency. When the 9P(20) CO2 lasers with 9.68 J and 4.12 J pump NH3, the corresponding energy conversion efficiencies are 0.28% and 0.19%, increasing by a factor of about 1.5. The generation of terahertz radiations with energy as high as 27.29 mJ and 7.73 mJ are obtained, respectively, increasing by a factor of about 3.5. Meanwhile, for 10R(14) line, the energy conversion efficiencies increase to 8.5 times and the energy of THz lasers increase to 32 times.

  3. Tunable high-efficient pulsed NH3 terahertz lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiu, Zhi-Xian; Li, Qiang; Zuo, Du-Luo; Miao, Liang; Cheng, Zu-Hai

    2011-11-01

    Experimental studies on a tunable efficient high-efficient pulsed NH3 terahertz (THz) lasers pumped by TEA CO2 lasers are presented. When NH3 is pumped by the different lines with the CO2 lasers, the generation of different terahertz radiations is discussed. The lines of the CO2 lasers are 9R(08), 9P(20), 10R(14), 10R(08), and 10R(06). To improve THz laser energy and photon conversion efficiency, different higher power of the CO2 laser can effectively improve THz laser energy and photon conversion efficiency. When the 9P(20) CO2 lasers with 9.68 J and 4.12 J pump NH3, the corresponding energy conversion efficiencies are 0.28% and 0.19%, increasing by a factor of about 1.5. The generation of terahertz radiations with energy as high as 27.29 mJ and 7.73 mJ are obtained, respectively, increasing by a factor of about 3.5. Meanwhile, for 10R(14) line, the energy conversion efficiencies increase to 8.5 times and the energy of THz lasers increase to 32 times.

  4. Pulse bursts with a controllable number of pulses from a mode-locked Yb-doped all fiber laser system.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingliang; Zhang, Shumin; Hao, Yanping; Yang, Zhenjun

    2014-03-24

    Pulse bursts with a controllable number of pulses per burst have been produced directly from a mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser for the first time. Each output burst contained numerous pulses with a high pulse repetition rate of 29.4 MHz. The duration of a single pulse was 680 ps. The pulse burst had a repetition rate of 251.6 kHz. The pulse burst could easily be further amplified to a total pulse burst energy of ~795 nJ, corresponding to a total average power of 200 mW.

  5. Dynamics of Semiconductor Microcavities Using Ultrashort Pulse Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, June-Koo

    1995-01-01

    Using femtosecond optical spectroscopy, we perform an extensive study of dynamics of an AlAs/AlGaAs/GaAs-based semiconductor quantum microcavity, which exhibit cavity -polariton behavior owing to strong coupling between the exciton and cavity modes. We explore the dynamics of time -domain vacuum Rabi oscillations, the spatial coherence transfer of cavity-polariton states, and cavity-polariton dynamics in the nonlinear regime. In the time domain, when the microcavity is impulsively excited by a short coherent optical pulse, we observe the vacuum Rabi oscillations in the radiation, corresponding to the cavity-polariton mode splitting of the microcavity. Interferometric pump-probe measurements clearly show the coherent evolution of the cavity-polaritons. At high intensity, the normal mode splitting collapses due to bleaching of the excitonic oscillator strength. The dynamics of the splitting reveal the momentum relaxation of the cavity-polaritons due to inhomogeneous broadening, and provides evidence for delayed exciton-exciton scattering due to vacuum Rabi oscillation. When the cavity is excited coherently at an oblique angle, we also observe coherent radiation in the normal direction of the substrate, with a nearly fixed delay of 450 fs. This radiation is coherent with the excitation pulse and dependent on excitation density. Specifically, the initially-excited spatial cavity-polariton state is coherently transferred to the other spatial state selected by the cavity mode. The excitation dependence suggests this coherence transfer is associated with exciton scatterings. A density-matrix analysis for two cavity-polariton systems shows our model is in good qualitative agreement with the experiment. In order to perform femtosecond semiconductor spectroscopic experiments, it was necessary to develop the ultrafast laser source. We describe a cw-argon-laser -pumped Ti:sapphire laser system and a real-time femtosecond -optical-pulse analyzer, for femtosecond spectroscopy

  6. Frequency conversion of high-intensity, femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, P S

    1997-06-01

    Almost since the invention of the laser, frequency conversion of optical pulses via non- linear processes has been an area of active interest. However, third harmonic generation using ~(~1 (THG) in solids is an area that has not received much attention because of ma- terial damage limits. Recently, the short, high-intensity pulses possible with chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) laser systems allow the use of intensities on the order of 1 TW/cm2 in thin solids without damage. As a light source to examine single-crystal THG in solids and other high field inter- actions, the design and construction of a Ti:sapphire-based CPA laser system capable of ultimately producing peak powers of 100 TW is presented. Of special interest is a novel, all-reflective pulse stretcher design which can stretch a pulse temporally by a factor of 20,000. The stretcher design can also compensate for the added material dispersion due to propagation through the amplifier chain and produce transform-limited 45 fs pulses upon compression. A series of laser-pumped amplifiers brings the peak power up to the terawatt level at 10 Hz, and the design calls for additional amplifiers to bring the power level to the 100 TW level for single shot operation. The theory for frequency conversion of these short pulses is presented, focusing on conversion to the third harmonic in single crystals of BBO, KD*P, and d-LAP (deuterated I-arginine phosphate). Conversion efficiencies of up to 6% are obtained with 500 fs pulses at 1053 nm in a 3 mm thick BBO crystal at 200 GW/cm 2. Contributions to this process by unphasematched, cascaded second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation are shown to be very significant. The angular relationship between the two orders is used to measure the tensor elements of C = xt3)/4 with Crs = -1.8 x 1O-23 m2/V2 and .15Cri + .54Crs = 4.0 x 1O-23 m2/V2. Conversion efficiency in d-LAP is about 20% that in BBO and conversion efficiency in KD*P is 1% that of BBO. It is calculated

  7. Hard-tissue drilling by short-pulse CO2 laser with controllable pulse-tail energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Kazuyuki; Sasaki, Tatsufumi; Yamamoto, Takuya; Akitsu, Tetsuya; Jitsuno, Takahisa

    2016-02-01

    We developed a longitudinally excited CO2 laser that produces a short laser pulse with the almost same spike-pulse energy of about 0.8 mJ and the controllable pulse-tail energy of 0-21.26 mJ. The laser was very simple and consisted of a 45-cm-long alumina ceramic pipe with an inner diameter of 9 mm, a pulse power supply, a step-up transformer, a storage capacitance and a spark-gap switch. In single-shot irradiation using these laser pulses, the dependence of the drilling depth of dry ivory samples on the fluence was investigated. The drilling depth increased with the fluence in the same laser pulse waveform. In this work, the effective short laser pulse for the hard tissue drilling was the laser pulse with the spike pulse energy of 0.87 mJ and the pulse tail energy of 6.33 mJ that produced the drilling depth of 28.1 μm at the fluence of 3.48 J/cm2 and the drilling depth per the fluence of 7.27 μm/J/cm2.

  8. Aberration-free, all-reflective laser pulse stretcher

    DOEpatents

    Perry, Michael D.; Banks, Paul S.; Stuart, Brent C.; Fochs, Scott N.

    1999-09-28

    An all-reflective pulse stretcher for laser systems employing chirped-pulse amplification enables on-axis use of the focusing mirror which results in ease of use, significantly decreased sensitivity to alignment and near aberration-free performance. By using a new type of diffraction grating which contains a mirror incorporated into the grating, the stretcher contains only three elements: 1) the grating, 2) a spherical or parabolic focusing mirror, and 3) a flat mirror. Addition of a fourth component, a retro-reflector, enables multiple passes of the same stretcher resulting in stretching ratios beyond the current state of the art in a simple and compact design. The pulse stretcher has been used to stretch pulses from 20 fsec to over 600 psec (a stretching ratio in excess of 30,000).

  9. Atmospheric propagation of two CO2 laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autric, M.; Caressa, J.-P.; Dufresne, D.; Bournot, Ph.

    1984-01-01

    At the intensity and fluence levels reached in an experimental investigation of high-energy laser beam propagation, air breakdown occurs through the interaction of the intense radiation with aerosol particles naturally suspended in the path of the beam. The air plasma created is found to expand rapidly and have a detrimental effect on energy propagation. It is determined that the energy transmitted through the breakdown plasma as a function of the incident average energy density is less than 15 percent for fluences greater than 300 J/sq cm, and that incident energy transmission may be increased through the generation of a precursor pulse as a function of double pulse separation times ranging from a few microsec to 0.1 sec. Maximum effects have been obtained at pulse separation intervals of 100-200 microsec, and these are ascribed to the vaporization of aerosol particles by the first pulse.

  10. Heating of a sample with a laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logvinov, G. N.; Drogobitskiy, Yu. V.; de Rivera, Luis Niño; Gurevich, Yu. G.

    2007-05-01

    The transient temperature associated with the bulk absorption of a rectangular laser pulse in a solidstate sample of finite size is calculated analytically and analyzed. Radiation is incident on the frontal surface with an arbitrary surface thermal conductivity. The opposite surface is thermostatically controlled and maintained at a constant equilibrium temperature. The general solution is obtained for pulses of arbitrary duration. The pulse duration is determined with respect to the relaxation time of the nonstationary thermal diffusion (it is the characteristic time of the problem). The limiting cases of the adiabatic insulation and isothermal contact at the frontal surface are considered, and the criteria for surface and bulk light absorption are derived for both cases. The temperature distributions are numerically simulated and examined for long and short pulses, as well as for different values of the light absorption coefficient and the surface thermal conductivity of the frontal surface.

  11. Circularly Polarized MHOHG with Bichromatic Circularly Polarized Laser Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandrauk, Andre D.; Mauger, Francois; Uzer, Turgay

    2016-05-01

    Circularly polarized MHOHG-Molecular High Order Harmonic Generation is shown to occur efficiently with intense ultrashort bichromatic circularly polarized pulses due to frequent electron-parent -ion recollision with co-or counter-rotating incident circular pulses as predicted in 1995. We show in this context that molecules offer a very robust and efficient frameworkfor the production of circularly polarized harmonics for the generation of single circularly polarized ``attosecond'' pulses. The efficiency of such new MHOHG is shown to depend on the compatibility of the symmetry of the molecular medium with the net electric field generated by the combination of the laser pulses.Using a time-dependent symmetry analysis with concrete examples such as H 2 + vs H 3 + we show how all the features(harmonic order and ∧ polarization) of MHOHG can be explained and predicted.

  12. Peculiarities of laser phase behavior associated with the accelerated electron in a chirped laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Q.; Wu, X. Y.; Wang, J. X.; Kawata, S.; Wang, P. X.

    2014-05-15

    In this paper, we qualitatively analyzed peculiarities of laser phase behavior associated with the accelerated electron in a chirped laser pulse. We unveiled the relationship between the changes in the orientation of the electron trajectory and the cusps in magnitude of the phase velocity of the optical field along the electron trajectory in a chirped laser pulse. We also explained how the chirp effect induced the singular point of the phase velocity. Finally, we discussed the phase velocity and phase witnessed by the electron in the particle's moving instantaneous frame.

  13. Powerful laser pulse absorption in partly homogenized foam plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipriani, M.; Gus'kov, S. Yu.; De Angelis, R.; Andreoli, P.; Consoli, F.; Cristofari, G.; Di Giorgio, G.; Ingenito, F.; Rupasov, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    The internal volume structure of a porous medium of light elements determines unique features of the absorption mechanism of laser radiation; the characteristics of relaxation and transport processes in the produced plasma are affected as well. Porous materials with an average density larger than the critical density have a central role in enhancing the pressure produced during the ablation by the laser pulse; this pressure can exceed the one produced by target direct irradiation. The problem of the absorption of powerful laser radiation in a porous material is examined both analytically and numerically. The behavior of the medium during the process of pore filling in the heated region is described by a model of viscous homogenization. An expression describing the time and space dependence of the absorption coefficient of laser radiation is therefore obtained from the model. A numerical investigation of the absorption of a nanosecond laser pulse is performed within the present model. In the context of numerical calculations, porous media with an average density larger than the critical density of the laser-produced plasma are considered. Preliminary results about the inclusion of the developed absorption model into an hydrodynamic code are presented.

  14. Fabrication of Au nanostructures by pulsed laser deposition in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikov, Rumen G.; Dikovska, Anna Og.; Nedyalkov, Nikolay N.; Atanasov, Petar A.

    2016-01-01

    Results on fabrication of Au nanostructures by laser ablation in open air are presented. The ablation of the Au target is performed in air environment by nanosecond laser pulses delivered by Nd:YAG laser system operated at λ = 355 nm. Due to the high density of the ambient atmosphere, the intensive collisions of the plume spices result in formation of nanoparticles and aggregates by condensation close to the target. The produced nanoagregates are deposited on a quartz substrate where grow in a specific nanostructure. Diagnostics of the laser-generated plasma for the laser fluences used in this study is performed. Study based on change of ambient conditions shows that the increase of the air pressure from 10 Torr to atmospheric one leads to transition from thin film to porous structures. It is found that the surface morphology of the structures produced by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in open air strongly depends on the substrate-target distance. The electrical properties of the obtained structures are studied by measurement of their electrical resistance. It is found that the conductivity of the structures strongly depends on their morphology. The fabricated structures have potential for application in the field of electronics and sensors.

  15. Underwater femtosecond laser micromachining of thin nitinol tubes for medical coronary stent manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Noorhafiza; Li, Lin

    2012-06-01

    Microprofiling of medical coronary stents has been dominated by the use of Nd:YAG lasers with pulse lengths in the range of a few milliseconds, and material removal is based on the melt ejection with a high-pressure gas. As a result, recast and heat-affected zones are produced, and various post-processing procedures are required to remove these defects. This paper reports a new approach of machining stents in submerged conditions using a 100-fs pulsed laser. A comparison is given of dry and underwater femtosecond laser micromachining techniques of nickel-titanium alloy (nitinol) typically used as the material for coronary stents. The characteristics of laser interactions with the material have been studied. A femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser system (wavelength of 800 nm, pulse duration of 100 fs, repetition rate of 1 kHz) was used to perform the cutting process. It is observed that machining under a thin water film resulted in no presence of heat-affected zone, debris, spatter or recast with fine-cut surface quality. At the optimum parameters, the results obtained with dry cutting showed nearly the same cut surface quality as with cutting under water. However, debris and recast formation still appeared on the dry cut, which is based on material vaporization. Physical processes involved during the cutting process in a thin water film, i.e. bubble formation and shock waves, are discussed.

  16. Generation of circularly polarized attosecond pulses by intense ultrashort laser pulses from extended asymmetric molecular ions

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Kai-Jun; Bandrauk, Andre D.

    2011-08-15

    We present a method for generation of single circularly polarized attosecond pulses in extended asymmetric HHe{sup 2+} molecular ions. By employing an intense ultrashort circularly polarized laser pulse with intensity 4.0x10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}, wavelength 400 nm, and duration 10 optical cycles, molecular high-order-harmonic generation (MHOHG) spectra with multiple plateaus exhibit characters of circular polarization. Using a classical laser-induced collision model, double collisions of continuum electrons first with neighboring ions and then second with parent ions are presented at a particular internuclear distance and confirmed from numerical solutions of a time-dependent Schroedinger equation. We analyze the MHOHG spectra with a Gabor time window and find that, due to the asymmetry of HHe{sup 2+}, a single collision trajectory of continuum electrons with ions can produce circularly polarized harmonics, leading to single circularly polarized attosecond pulses for specific internuclear distances.

  17. Pulsed photothermal depth profiling of tattoos undergoing laser removal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanic, Matija; Majaron, Boris

    2012-02-01

    Pulsed photothermal radiometry (PPTR) allows noninvasive determination of temperature depth profiles induced by pulsed laser irradiation of strongly scattering biological tissues and organs, including human skin. In present study, we evaluate the potential of this technique for investigational characterization and possibly quantitative evaluation of laser tattoo removal. The study involved 5 healthy volunteers (3 males, 2 females), age 20-30 years, undergoing tattoo removal treatment using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. There were four measurement and treatment sessions in total, separated by 2-3 months. Prior to each treatment, PPTR measurements were performed on several tattoo sites and one nearby healthy site in each patient, using a 5 ms Nd:YAG laser at low radiant exposure values and a dedicated radiometric setup. The laser-induced temperature profiles were then reconstructed by applying a custom numerical code. In addition, each tatoo site was documented with a digital camera and measured with a custom colorimetric system (in tristimulus color space), providing an objective evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy to be correlated with our PPTR results. The results show that the laser-induced temperature profile in untreated tattoos is invariably located at a subsurface depth of 300 μm. In tattoo sites that responded well to laser therapy, a significant drop of the temperature peak was observed in the profiles obtained from PPTR record. In several sites that appeared less responsive, as evidenced by colorimetric data, a progressive shift of the temperature profile deeper into the dermis was observed over the course of consecutive laser treatments, indicating that the laser tattoo removal was efficient.

  18. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER: Laser swelling model for polymers irradiated by nanosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyshev, A. Yu; Bityurin, N. M.

    2005-09-01

    Mechanisms of laser swelling of polymers are considered. A theoretical model for one of such mechanisms is constructed and investigated. This mechanism is based on the formation of a thermoelastic wave upon absorption of a laser pulse. Tensile stresses in this wave lead to elastic and plastic deformation of a polymer in the heated region and to the formation of convex structures (humps). The threshold energy density of a laser pulse required for the production of a residual hump under laser irradiation is obtained analytically. A formula for the height of this hump is also derived. The model explains the earlier experimental data from the literature on swelling of a PMMA film irradiated by UV pulses.

  19. Real-time energy measurement of high repetition rate ultrashort laser pulses using pulse integration and FPGA processing.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qi-Jie; Yang, Dong-Xu; Wang, Jian; Feng, Yi; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Chen, Teng-Yun

    2016-11-01

    Real-time energy measurement using pulse integration method for high repetition rate ultrashort laser pulses based on FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) and high-speed pipeline ADC (Analog-to-Digital Convertor) is introduced in this paper. There are two parts contained in this method: pulse integration and real-time data processing. The pulse integration circuit will convert the pulse to the step type signals which are linear to the laser pulse energy. Through the real-time data processing part, the amplitude of the step signals will be obtained by ADC sampling and conducting calculation in real time in FPGA. The test result shows that the method with good linearity (4.770%) and without pulse measurement missing is suitable for ultrashort laser pulses with high repetition rate up to 100 MHz.

  20. Real-time energy measurement of high repetition rate ultrashort laser pulses using pulse integration and FPGA processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Qi-jie; Yang, Dong-xu; Wang, Jian; Feng, Yi; Zhang, Hong-fei; Chen, Teng-yun

    2016-11-01

    Real-time energy measurement using pulse integration method for high repetition rate ultrashort laser pulses based on FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) and high-speed pipeline ADC (Analog-to-Digital Convertor) is introduced in this paper. There are two parts contained in this method: pulse integration and real-time data processing. The pulse integration circuit will convert the pulse to the step type signals which are linear to the laser pulse energy. Through the real-time data processing part, the amplitude of the step signals will be obtained by ADC sampling and conducting calculation in real time in FPGA. The test result shows that the method with good linearity (4.770%) and without pulse measurement missing is suitable for ultrashort laser pulses with high repetition rate up to 100 MHz.

  1. A comparison between pulsed and CW laser annealing for solar cell applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jellison, G. E., Jr.; Young, R. T.; Wood, R. F.; Gat, A.

    1980-01-01

    The application of laser processing in solar cell fabrication is considered. Specific emphasis is placed on a process developed for the fabrication of a 16.6% silicon solar cell using pulsed laser processing. Results are presented which compare pulsed laser annealing with CW laser annealing in solar cell fabrication.

  2. Novel concepts for laser-plasma-based acceleration of electrons using ultrahigh power laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joon-Koo

    Analytical and numerical studies of plasma physics in ultra-intense plasma wave generation, electron injection, and wavebreaking are performed, which are relevant to the subject of plasma wake-field accelerators. A method for generating large-amplitude nonlinear plasma waves, which utilizes an optimized train of independently adjustable, intense laser pulses, is analyzed in one dimension both theoretically and numerically (using both Maxwell-fluid and particle-in-cell codes). Optimal pulse widths and interpulse spacings are computed for pulses with either square or finite-rise-time sine shapes. A resonant region of the plasma-wave phase space is found where the plasma wave is driven most efficiently by the laser pulses. Resonant excitation is found to be superior for electron acceleration to either beatwave or single- pulse excitation because comparable plasma wave amplitudes may be generated at lower plasma densities, reducing electron-phase detuning, or at lower laser intensities, reducing laser-plasma instabilities. The idea of all-optical acceleration of electrons in the wakefield is also discussed. It is shown that the injection of background plasma electrons can be accomplished using the large ponderomotive force of an injection laser pulse in either collinear or transverse geometry with respect to the direction of pump propagation, thus removing the necessity of an expensive first-stage linac system for injection of electrons. Detailed nonlinear analysis of the trapping and acceleration of electrons inside the separatrix of the wakefield is formulated and compared with PIC (Particle- In-Cell) and fluid simulations. The three-dimensional wave-breaking of relativistic plasma waves driven by a ultrashort high-power lasers, is described within a framework of cold 2-D fluid theory. It is shown that the transverse nonlinearity of the plasma wave results in temporally increasing transverse plasma oscillation in the wake of the laser pulse, inevitably inducing wave

  3. A single-shot spatial chirp method for measuring initial AC conductivity evolution of femtosecond laser pulse excited warm dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z.; Hering, P.; Brown, S. B.; Curry, C.; Tsui, Y. Y.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2016-09-19

    To study the rapid evolution of AC conductivity from ultrafast laser excited warm dense matter (WDM), a spatial chirp single-shot method is developed utilizing a crossing angle pump-probe configuration. The pump beam is shaped individually in two spatial dimensions so that it can provide both sufficient laser intensity to excite the material to warm dense matter state and a uniform time window of up to 1 ps with sub-100 fs FWHM temporal resolution. Here, temporal evolution of AC conductivity in laser excited warm dense gold was also measured.

  4. A single-shot spatial chirp method for measuring initial AC conductivity evolution of femtosecond laser pulse excited warm dense matter.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z; Hering, P; Brown, S B; Curry, C; Tsui, Y Y; Glenzer, S H

    2016-11-01

    To study the rapid evolution of AC conductivity from ultrafast laser excited warm dense matter (WDM), a spatial chirp single-shot method is developed utilizing a crossing angle pump-probe configuration. The pump beam is shaped individually in two spatial dimensions so that it can provide both sufficient laser intensity to excite the material to warm dense matter state and a uniform time window of up to 1 ps with sub-100 fs FWHM temporal resolution. Temporal evolution of AC conductivity in laser excited warm dense gold was also measured.

  5. Welding of transparent materials with ultrashort laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Sören; Döring, Sven; Zimmermann, Felix; Lescieux, Ludovic; Eberhardt, Ramona; Nolte, Stefan; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2012-03-01

    The realization of stable bonds between different glasses has attracted a lot interest in recent years. However, conventional bonding techniques are often problematic due to required thermal annealing steps which may lead to induced stress, whereas glue and other adhesives tend to degrade over time. These problems can be overcome by using ultrashort laser pulses. When focussed at the interface, the laser energy is deposited locally in the focal volume due to nonlinear absorption processes. While even single pulses can lead to the formation of bonds between transparent glass substrates, the application of high repetition rates offers an additional degree of freedom. If the time between two pulses is shorter than the time required for heat diffusion out of the focal volume, heat accumulation of successive pulses leads to localized melting at the interface. The subsequent resolidification finally yields strong and robust bonds. Using optimized processing parameters, we achieved a breaking strength up 95% of the pristine bulk material. In this paper, we will detail the experimental background and the influence of the laser parameters on the achievable breaking strength.

  6. Longitudinally excited CO2 laser with short laser pulse operating at high repetition rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianhui; Uno, Kazuyuki; Akitsu, Tetsuya; Jitsuno, Takahisa

    2016-11-01

    A short-pulse longitudinally excited CO2 laser operating at a high repetition rate was developed. The discharge tube was made of a 45 cm-long or 60 cm-long dielectric tube with an inner diameter of 16 mm and two metallic electrodes at the ends of the tube. The optical cavity was formed by a ZnSe output coupler with a reflectivity of 85% and a high-reflection mirror. Mixed gas (CO2:N2:He = 1:1:2) was flowed into the discharge tube. A high voltage of about 33 kV with a rise time of about 200 ns was applied to the discharge tube. At a repetition rate of 300 Hz and a gas pressure of 3.4 kPa, the 45 cm-long discharge tube produced a short laser pulse with a laser pulse energy of 17.5 mJ, a spike pulse energy of 0.2 mJ, a spike width of 153 ns, and a pulse tail length of 90 μs. The output power was 5.3 W. The laser pulse waveform did not depend on the repetition rate, but the laser beam profile did. At a low repetition rate of less than 50 Hz, the laser beam had a doughnut-like shape. However, at a high repetition rate of more than 150 Hz, the discharge concentrated at the center of the discharge tube, and the intensity at the center of the laser beam was higher. The laser beam profile depended on the distribution of the discharge. An output power of 7.0 W was achieved by using the 60 cm-long tube.

  7. A Multiterawatt Laser Using a High-Contrast, Optical Parametric Chirped-Pulse Presamplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Bagnoud, V.; Puth, J.; Begishev, I.; Guardalben, M.; Zuegel, J.D.; Forget, N.; LeBlanc, C.

    2005-09-30

    A laser has been built that uses optical parametric chirped-pulse preamplification and a glass booster amplifier. We review the performance of the 5-Hz, multijoule OPCPA pump laser, the 370-mJ OPCPA, and the overall laser.

  8. Calculations of population transfer during intense laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Schafer, K.J.; Kulander, K.C.

    1993-08-01

    Recent experiments by several groups have examined the question of population transfer to resonantly excited states during intense short laser pulses, in particular the amount of population that remains ``trapped`` in excited states at the end of a laser pulse. In this chapter we present calculations of population transfer and resonant ionization in xenon at both 660 and 620 nm. At the longer wavelength, the seven photon channel closes at 2.5{times}10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}. Pulses with peak intensities higher than this result in ``Rydberg trapping``, the resonant transfer of population to a broad range of high-lying states. The amount of population transferred depends on both the peak intensity and pulse duration. At 620 mm there are numerous possible six photon resonances to states with p or f angular momentum. We have done a large number of calculations for 40 fs pulses at different peak intensities and have examined the population transferred to these low-lying resonant states as a function of the peak laser intensity. We do not have room to comment upon the resonantly enhanced ionized electron energy spectra that we also determine in the same calculations. Our calculations involve the direct numerical integration of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation for an atom interacting with a strong laser field. The time-dependent wave function of a given valence electron is calculated on a spatial grid using a one-electron pseudo potential. This single active electron approximation (SAE) has been shown to be a good approximation for the rare gases at the intensities and wavelengths that we will consider. The SAE potential we use has an explicit angular momentum dependence which allows us to reproduce all of the excited state energies for xenon quite well.

  9. Picosecond lasers: the next generation of short-pulsed lasers.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Joshua R; Kaufman, Joely; Metelitsa, Andrea I; Green, Jeremy B

    2014-12-01

    Selective photothermolysis, first discussed in the context of targeted microsurgery in 1983, proposed that the optimal parameters for specific thermal damage rely critically on the duration over which energy is delivered to the tissue. At that time, nonspecific thermal damage had been an intrinsic limitation of all commercially available lasers, despite efforts to mitigate this by a variety of compensatory cooling mechanisms. Fifteen years later, experimental picosecond lasers were first reported in the dermatological literature to demonstrate greater efficacy over their nanosecond predecessors in the context of targeted destruction of tattoo ink. Within the last 4 years, more than a decade after those experiments, the first commercially available cutaneous picosecond laser unit became available (Cynosure, Westford, Massachusetts), and several pilot studies have demonstrated its utility in tattoo removal. An experimental picosecond infrared laser has also recently demonstrated a nonthermal tissue ablative capability in soft tissue, bone, and dentin. In this article, we review the published data pertaining to dermatology on picosecond lasers from their initial reports to the present as well as discuss forthcoming technology.

  10. Computational Design of Short Pulse Laser Driven Iron Opacity Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Madison E.; London, Richard A.; Goluoglu, Sedat; Whitley, Heather D.

    2015-11-01

    Opacity is a critical parameter in the transport of radiation in systems such as inertial confinement fusion capsules and stars. The resolution of current disagreements between solar models and helioseismological observations would benefit from experimental validation of theoretical opacity models. Short pulse lasers can be used to heat targets to higher temperatures and densities than long pulse lasers and pulsed power machines, thus potentially enabling access to emission spectra at conditions relevant to solar models. In order to ensure that the relevant plasma conditions are accessible and that an emission measurement is practical, we use computational design of experiments to optimize the target characteristics and laser conditions. Radiation-hydrodynamic modeling, using HYDRA, is used to investigate the effects of modifying laser irradiance, target dimensions, and dopant dilution on the plasma conditions and emission of an iron opacity target. Several optimized designs reaching temperatures and densities relevant to the radiative zone of the sun will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC.

  11. Determination of the temporal structure of femtosecond laser pulses by means of laser-induced air plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nan; Bao, Wen-Xia; Yang, Jing-Hui; Zhu, Xiao-Nong

    2013-05-01

    A new approach is presented to reveal the temporal structure of femtosecond laser pulses by recording the corresponding time-resolved shadowgraphs of the laser-induced air plasma. It is shown that the temporal structures of femtosecond laser pulses, normally not observable by the ordinary intensity autocorrelator, can be detected through intuitively analyzing the ultrafast evolution process of the air plasma induced by the femtosecond laser pulses under examination. With this method, existence of pre- and post-pulses has been clearly unveiled within the time window of ±150 fs in reference with the main 50-fs laser pulses output from a commercial 1-kHz femtosecond laser amplifier. The unique advantage of the proposed method is that it can directly provide valuable information about the pulse temporal structures' effect on the laser-induced ionization or material ablation.

  12. Mode-locked solid state lasers using diode laser excitation

    DOEpatents

    Holtom, Gary R [Boston, MA

    2012-03-06

    A mode-locked laser employs a coupled-polarization scheme for efficient longitudinal pumping by reshaped laser diode bars. One or more dielectric polarizers are configured to reflect a pumping wavelength having a first polarization and to reflect a lasing wavelength having a second polarization. An asymmetric cavity provides relatively large beam spot sizes in gain medium to permit efficient coupling to a volume pumped by a laser diode bar. The cavity can include a collimation region with a controlled beam spot size for insertion of a saturable absorber and dispersion components. Beam spot size is selected to provide stable mode locking based on Kerr lensing. Pulse durations of less than 100 fs can be achieved in Yb:KGW.

  13. Colorizing metals with femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Vorobyev, A. Y.; Guo Chunlei

    2008-01-28

    For centuries, it had been the dream of alchemists to turn inexpensive metals into gold. Certainly, it is not enough from an alchemist's point of view to transfer only the appearance of a metal to gold. However, the possibility of rendering a certain metal to a completely different color without coating can be very interesting in its own right. In this work, we demonstrate a femtosecond laser processing technique that allows us to create a variety of colors on a metal that ultimately leads us to control its optical properties from UV to terahertz.

  14. Ultrashort pulse laser slicing of semiconductor crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eunho; Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko; Sakakura, Masaaki; Miura, Kiyotaka

    2016-07-01

    Meanwhile, by the convention wire-saw technique, it is difficult to slice off a thin wafer from bulk SiC crystal without the reserving space for cutting. In this study, we have achieved exfoliation of 4H-SiC single crystal by femtosecond laser induced slicing method. By using this, the exfoliated surface with the root-mean-square roughness of 3 μm and the cutting-loss thickness smaller than 30 μm was successfully demonstrated. We have also observed the nanostructure on the exfoliated surface in SiC crystal.

  15. Colorizing metals with femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobyev, A. Y.; Guo, Chunlei

    2008-01-01

    For centuries, it had been the dream of alchemists to turn inexpensive metals into gold. Certainly, it is not enough from an alchemist's point of view to transfer only the appearance of a metal to gold. However, the possibility of rendering a certain metal to a completely different color without coating can be very interesting in its own right. In this work, we demonstrate a femtosecond laser processing technique that allows us to create a variety of colors on a metal that ultimately leads us to control its optical properties from UV to terahertz.

  16. Ultrashort Laser Pulse Propagation in Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    namely, Ti:Sapphire laser Experimental 6  ∇ × r H = ∂ r D ∂t ∇ × r E...relation between the displacement current and the electric field; namely,   D = ε(ω ) r E where ε(ω ) is the frequency dependent permittivity and is...3) then  r D ( rx,t) = r E( rx,t) + G( −∞ ∞ ∫ τ ) r E( rx,t − τ )dτ = r E( rx,t) + G(τ

  17. Improvement in encrustation removal from artworks using multi pulse Q-switched laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marczak, Jan; Jach, Karol; Sarzyński, Antoni

    2005-09-01

    The paper presents application of laser radiation for cleaning of monuments and art works, using Q -switched Nd:YAG laser generating high power series of pulses in so called "burst mode". The time width of pulse train is 200 ÷ 300 μs. The oscilloscope traces of pulse repetition frequency and the results of energy measurements are shown. Numerical model of interaction of high power laser pulse with graphite layer of aluminium substrate on the base of equations in one-dimensional hydrodynamic approximation is presented. The results of calculations of graphite removal process for single pulse and train of laser pulses are in qualitative agreement with the results of measurements.

  18. Temporal Behavior of the Pump Pulses, Residual Pump Pulses, and THz Pulses for D2O Gas Pumped by a TEA CO2 Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Lijie; Zhang, Zhifeng; Zhai, Yusheng; Su, Yuling; Zhou, Fanghua; Qu, Yanchen; Zhao, Weijiang

    2016-08-01

    Temporal behavior of the pump pulses, residual pump pulses, and THz pulses for optically pumped D2O gas molecules was investigated by using a tunable TEA CO2 laser as the pumping source. The pulse profiles of pump laser pulses, residual pump pulses, and the THz output pulses were measured, simultaneously, at several different gas pressures. For THz pulse, the pulse delay between the THz pulse and the pump pulse was observed and the delay time was observed to increase from 40 to 70 ns with an increase in gas pressure from 500 to 1700 Pa. Both THz pulse broadening and compression were observed, and the pulse broadening effect transformed to the compression effect with increasing the gas pressure. For the residual pump pulse, the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the main pulse decreased with increasing gas pressure, and the main pulse disappeared at high gas pressures. The secondary pulses were observed at high gas pressure, and the time intervals of about 518 and 435 ns were observed between the THz output pulse and the secondary residual pump pulse at the pressure of 1400 Pa and 1700 Pa, from which the vibrational relaxation time constants of about 5.45 and 5.55 μs Torr were obtained.

  19. Femtosecond pulses generated from a synchronously pumped chromium-doped forsterite laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seas, A.; Petricevic, V.; Alfano, R. R.

    1993-01-01

    Kerr lens mode-locking (KLM) has become a standard method to produce femtosecond pulses from tunable solid state lasers. High power inside the laser resonator propagating through the laser-medium with nonlinear index of refraction, coupled with the stability conditions of the laser modes in the resonator, result in a passive amplitude modulation which explains the mechanism for pulse shortening. Recently, chromium doped forsterite was shown to exhibit similar pulse behavior. A successful attempt to generate femtosecond pulses from a synchronously pumped chromium-doped forsterite laser with intracavity dispersion compensation is reported. Stable, transform limited pulses with duration of 105 fs were routinely generated, tunable between 1240 to 1270 nm.

  20. Electron detachment from negative ions in a short laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Shearer, S. F. C.; Smyth, M. C.; Gribakin, G. F.

    2011-09-15

    We present an efficient and accurate method to study electron detachment from negative ions by a few-cycle linearly polarized laser pulse. The adiabatic saddle-point method of Gribakin and Kuchiev [Phys. Rev. A 55, 3760 (1997)] is adapted to calculate the transition amplitude for a short laser pulse. Its application to a pulse with N optical cycles produces 2(N+1) saddle points in complex time, which form a characteristic 'smile.' Numerical calculations are performed for H{sup -} in a 5-cycle pulse with frequency 0.0043 a.u. and intensities of 10{sup 10}, 5x10{sup 10}, and 10{sup 11} W/cm{sup 2}, and for various carrier-envelope phases. We determine the spectrum of the photoelectrons as a function of both energy and emission angle, as well as the angle-integrated energy spectra and total detachment probabilities. Our calculations show that the dominant contribution to the transition amplitude is given by 5-6 central saddle points, which correspond to the strongest part of the pulse. We examine the dependence of the photoelectron angular distributions on the carrier-envelope phase and show that measuring such distributions can provide a way of determining this phase.