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Sample records for 100-m effelsberg telescope

  1. Homologous Deformation of the Effelsberg 100-m Telescope Determined with a Total Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nothnagel, Axel; Pietzner, Judith; Eling, Christian; Hering, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Due to gravitation the main reflector of the Effelsberg 100-m telescope of the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy is deformed whenever it is tilted from zenith to arbitrary elevation angles. However, the resulting shape always is a paraboloid again, though with different parameters, a phenomenon which is called homologous deformation. In summer 2008, we have carried out measurements with a total station to determine the magnitude of these deformations in order to evaluate existing assumptions provided by the manufacturer from the telescope's design phase. The measurements are based on a newly developed approach with a Leica TCRP 1201 total station mounted head down near the subreflector. Mini-retro-reflectors are placed at various locations on the paraboloid itself and on the subreflector support structure. The results indicate that the measurement setup is suitable for the purpose and provides the information needed for a determination of elevation dependent delay corrections. The focal length changes only by about 8 mm when the telescope is tilted from 90. to 7.5. elevation angle.

  2. Novel technology for the the Effelsberg 100-m Radio Telescope and MeerKAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Michael; Kraus, Alex; Wieching, Gundolf

    2015-08-01

    The 100-m radio telescope of the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (MPIfR) is a unique European astronomical facility that combines superb sensitivity and wide frequency coverage (300 MHz - 95 GHz) with distinct versatility, making the telescope not only a cutting edge instrument for front-line research but also a testbed for emerging and future technology.Even more than 40 years old, the telescope has been continuously modernized and is heavily involved in various kinds of astronomical research as stand-alone instrument as well as in several VLBI networks. Currently, a large upgrade of the receiver suite at the telescope is ongoing. Several new, state-of-the-are broad-band receivers have been installed recently or are under constructions. Along with the new receivers, modern digital backends are being designed. We report on the current status of these upgrades by presenting some „highlights" and giving an outlook on the activities planned for the future.The technology developed and tested during these upgrades also finds application in the MeerKAT observatory in South Africa. MeerKAT is a fully funded radio observatory under construction in the Northern Cape of South Africa. When complete, MeerKAT’s 64 13.5-m dishes will form the - by far - most sensitive telescope in the Southern hemisphere, being equivalent to a 110 m dish. Due to the dish design with an offset Gregorian feed it will be 60%more sensitive than large center feed single dishes of comparable size.MPIfR is designing and constructing a 1.75- 3.44 GHz Receiver system for MeerKAT. The receiver will allow observations at a frequency range at currently unavailable sensitivity and spatial resolution in the Southern hemisphere. Combined with its powerful MPIfR Pulsar search backend it is expected to detect more than 1600 normal and 270 millisecond pulsars. In addition MeerKat will open up science that stays for its own but also prepares future observations with SKA and complements future SKA

  3. Single-Dish Radio Polarimetry in the F-GAMMA Program with the Effelsberg 100-m Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuchert, Tobias; Kadler, Matthias; Wilms, Jörn; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Fuhrmann, Lars; Myserlis, Ioannis; Nestoras, Ioannis; Kraus, Alex; Bach, Uwe; Ros, Eduardo; Grossberger, Christoph; Schulz, Robert

    2013-12-01

    Studying the variability of polarized AGN jet emission in the radio band is crucial for understanding the dynamics of moving shocks as well as the structure of the underlying magnetic field. The 100-m Effelsberg Telescope is a high-quality instrument for studying the long-term variability of both total and polarized intensity as well as the electric-vector position angle. Since 2007, the F-GAMMA program has been monitoring the linear polarized emission of roughly 60 blazars at 11 frequencies between 2.7 and 43 GHz. Here, we describe the calibration of the polarimetric data at 5 and 10 GHz and the resulting F-GAMMA full-Stokes light curves for the exemplary case of the radio galaxy 3C 111.

  4. Multifrequency Analysis of Intraday Variability in Quasars and BL Lacs II: First results from the Effelsberg 100-m radiotelescope.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimò, G.; Fuhmann, L.; Krichbaum, T.; Kraus, A.; Witzel, A.

    Variability of flat-spectrum quasars on timescales of weeks to years is a useful instrument to study the inner regions of these objects. Variability on shorter timescales, less than one day (Intraday Variability, IDV), was discovered in the middle of the eighties (Witzel et al. 1986, Heeschen et al. 1987). It was found (Quirrenbach et al. 1992) that about 30% of compact flat-spectrum objects show such intraday variability (IDV). The observed rapid variations imply, via the light travel time argument, a very small source size and a very high apparent brightness temperature (up to 1021K, if we consider this variations source intrinsic). In order to explain the apparent violation of the inverse-Compton limit three different scenarios have been proposed: refractive interstellar scattering, source intrinsic processes and an intrinsic violation of this limit. The sizes of intraday variable sources at cm-wavelength are typically smaller than the scattering size set by the ISM in our galaxy, hence IDV sources should show refractive scattering effects (e.g.. 0917+62: Rickett et al. 1995). We present total intensity and polarization data obtained with the Effelsberg 100-m radiotelescope at 2.8, 6 and 11cm during a broad band observing campaign (involving numerous other observatories around the world; see the Fuhrmann's contribution about Westerbork data) carried out in March 2000. We briefly describe the observations and the data reduction procedure pointing on the analysis of the results by presenting structure functions and power spectra from these data. Additionally we show a first comparison of the Effelsberg observations with the data at 3mm coming from Pico Veleta (30m telescope) and optical measurements carried out with the Calar Alto 2.2m telescope, which were also involved in this campaign. Broad band correlations could help to discriminate among the causes of the IDV phenomenon. In fact at mm-wavelength the variability should be free from interstellar scattering

  5. Ultra low wind resistance enclosure for a 100-m telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditto, Thomas D.; Ritter, Joseph M.

    2008-07-01

    We discuss a transmission primary objective grating (POG) telescope that is nearly flat to the ground with its secondary components buried below ground in a protected environment that enjoys a controlled atmosphere. Temperature gradients can be held steady by sealing this enclosure. End-to-end ray paths need not be interrupted by spiders or other structural support elements. Unlike mirror and lens telescopes, this layout is intrinsically off-axis. Light diffracted from a POG at a grazing angle can be collected a few meters below the POG, and the substructures do not require a deep excavation, as would be required for buried on-axis mirrors such as a zenith tube. The POG principle can take advantage of the rotation of the earth to acquire spectra sequentially, so active tilt and rotate axes are not necessary during observations. The POG aperture is extensible as a ribbon optic to kilometer scale at a linear increase in cost, as compared to other choices where infrastructure grows as the cube of the telescope size. The principle of operation was proven in miniature during bench tests that show high resolution spectra can be obtained at angular resolutions equal to seeing. Mathematical models of the underlying relationships show that flux collection increases with increased angles of grazing exodus even as efficiency decreases. Zemax models show a 30° field-of-view and the capacity to take spectra of all sources within that very wide field-of-view. The method lends itself to large apertures, because it is tolerant of POG surface unevenness.

  6. Measuring the Solar Magnetic Field with STEREO A Radio Transmissions: Faraday Rotation Observations using the 100m Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobelski, A.; Jensen, E.; Wexler, D.; Heiles, C.; Kepley, A.; Kuiper, T.; Bisi, M.

    2016-04-01

    The STEREO mission spacecraft recently passed through superior conjunction, providing an opportunity to probe the solar corona using radio transmissions. Strong magnetic field and dense plasma environment induce Faraday rotation of the linearly polarized fraction of the spacecraft radio carrier signal. Variations in the Faraday rotation signify changes in magnetic field components and plasma parameters, and thus can be used to gain understanding processes of the quiescent sun as well as active outbursts including coronal mass ejections. Our 2015 observing campaign resulted in a series of measurements over several months with the 100m Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to investigate the coronal Faraday rotation at various radial distances. These observations reveal notable fluctuations in the Faraday rotation of the signal in the deep corona, and should yield unique insights into coronal magnetohydrodynamics down to a 1.5 solar radius line-of-sight solar elongation.

  7. Observations of free-free and anomalous microwave emission from LDN 1622 with the 100 m Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, S. E.; Dickinson, C.; Cleary, K.

    2015-11-01

    LDN 1622 has previously been identified as a possible strong source of dust-correlated anomalous microwave emission (AME). Previous observations were limited by resolution meaning that the radio emission could not be compared with current generation high-resolution infrared data from Herschel, Spitzer or Wide-field Infrared Sky Explorer. This paper presents arcminute resolution mapping observations of LDN 1622 at 4.85 and 13.7 GHz using the 100 m Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. The 4.85 GHz map reveals a corona of free-free emission enclosing LDN 1622 that traces the photodissociation region of the cloud. The brightest peaks of the 4.85 GHz map are found to be within ≈10 per cent agreement with the expected free-free predicted by Southern H-Alpha Sky Survey Atlas H α data of LDN 1622. At 13.7 GHz, the AME flux density was found to be 7.0 ± 1.4 mJy and evidence is presented for a rising spectrum between 13.7 and 31 GHz. The spinning dust model of AME is found to naturally account for the flux seen at 13.7 GHz. Correlations between the diffuse 13.7 GHz emission and the diffuse mid-infrared emission are used to further demonstrate that the emission originating from LDN 1622 at 13.7 GHz is described by the spinning dust model.

  8. The Effelsberg-Bonn H I Survey: Data Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkel, B.; Kalberla, P. M. W.; Kerp, J.; Flöer, L.

    2010-06-01

    Starting in winter 2008/2009 an L-band seven-feed-array receiver is used for a 21 cm line survey performed with the 100 m telescope, the Effelsberg-Bonn H I survey (EBHIS). The EBHIS will cover the whole northern hemisphere for decl. > - 5° comprising both the galactic and extragalactic sky out to a distance of about 230 Mpc. Using state-of-the-art FPGA-based digital fast Fourier transform spectrometers, superior in dynamic range and temporal resolution to conventional correlators, allows us to apply sophisticated radio frequency interference (RFI) mitigation schemes. In this paper, the EBHIS data reduction package and first results are presented. The reduction software consists of RFI detection schemes, flux and gain-curve calibration, stray-radiation removal, baseline fitting, and finally the gridding to produce data cubes. The whole software chain is successfully tested using multi-feed data toward many smaller test fields (1-100 deg2) and recently applied for the first time to data of two large sky areas, each covering about 2000 deg2. The first large area is toward the northern galactic pole and the second one toward the northern tip of the Magellanic Leading Arm. Here, we demonstrate the data quality of EBHIS Milky Way data and give a first impression on the first data release in 2011.

  9. THE EFFELSBERG-BONN H I SURVEY: DATA REDUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Winkel, B.; Kalberla, P. M. W.; Kerp, J.; Floeer, L.

    2010-06-15

    Starting in winter 2008/2009 an L-band seven-feed-array receiver is used for a 21 cm line survey performed with the 100 m telescope, the Effelsberg-Bonn H I survey (EBHIS). The EBHIS will cover the whole northern hemisphere for decl. > - 5{sup 0} comprising both the galactic and extragalactic sky out to a distance of about 230 Mpc. Using state-of-the-art FPGA-based digital fast Fourier transform spectrometers, superior in dynamic range and temporal resolution to conventional correlators, allows us to apply sophisticated radio frequency interference (RFI) mitigation schemes. In this paper, the EBHIS data reduction package and first results are presented. The reduction software consists of RFI detection schemes, flux and gain-curve calibration, stray-radiation removal, baseline fitting, and finally the gridding to produce data cubes. The whole software chain is successfully tested using multi-feed data toward many smaller test fields (1-100 deg{sup 2}) and recently applied for the first time to data of two large sky areas, each covering about 2000 deg{sup 2}. The first large area is toward the northern galactic pole and the second one toward the northern tip of the Magellanic Leading Arm. Here, we demonstrate the data quality of EBHIS Milky Way data and give a first impression on the first data release in 2011.

  10. The Effelsberg-Bonn H i Survey: Milky Way gas. First data release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkel, B.; Kerp, J.; Flöer, L.; Kalberla, P. M. W.; Ben Bekhti, N.; Keller, R.; Lenz, D.

    2016-01-01

    Context. The Effelsberg-Bonn H i Survey (EBHIS) is a new 21-cm survey performed with the 100-m telescope at Effelsberg. It covers the whole northern sky out to a redshift of z ~ 0.07 and comprises H i line emission from the Milky Way and the Local Volume. Aims: We aim to substitute the northern-hemisphere part of the Leiden/Argentine/Bonn Milky Way H i survey (LAB) with this first EBHIS data release, which presents the H i gas in the Milky Way regime. Methods: The use of a seven-beam L-band array made it feasible to perform this all-sky survey with a 100-m class telescope in a reasonable amount of observing time. State-of-the-art fast-Fourier-transform spectrometers provide the necessary data read-out speed, dynamic range, and spectral resolution to apply software radio-frequency interference mitigation. EBHIS is corrected for stray radiation and employs frequency-dependent flux-density calibration and sophisticated baseline-removal techniques to ensure the highest possible data quality. Results: Detailed analyses of the resulting data products show that EBHIS is not only outperforming LAB in terms of sensitivity and angular resolution, but also matches the intensity-scale of LAB extremely well, allowing EBHIS to be used as a drop-in replacement for LAB. Data products are made available to the public in a variety of forms. Most important, we provide a properly gridded Milky Way H i column density map in HEALPix representation. To maximize the usefulness of EBHIS data, we estimate uncertainties in the H i column density and brightness temperature distributions, accounting for systematic effects. EBHIS Milky Way HI data is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/585/A41

  11. Prospects for high-precision pulsar timing with the new Effelsberg PSRIX backend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarus, P.; Karuppusamy, R.; Graikou, E.; Caballero, R. N.; Champion, D. J.; Lee, K. J.; Verbiest, J. P. W.; Kramer, M.

    2016-05-01

    The PSRIX backend is the primary pulsar timing instrument of the Effelsberg 100 m radio telescope since early 2011. This new ROACH-based system enables bandwidths up to 500 MHz to be recorded, significantly more than what was possible with its predecessor, the Effelsberg-Berkeley Pulsar Processor (EBPP). We review the first four years of PSRIX timing data for 33 pulsars collected as part of the monthly European Pulsar Timing Array (EPTA) observations. We describe the automated data analysis pipeline, COASTGUARD, that we developed to reduce these observations. We also introduce TOASTER, the EPTA timing data base, used to store timing results, processing information and observation metadata. Using these new tools, we measure the phase-averaged flux densities at 1.4 GHz of all 33 pulsars. For seven of these pulsars, our flux density measurements are the first values ever reported. For the other 26 pulsars, we compare our flux density measurements with previously published values. By comparing PSRIX data with EBPP data, we find an improvement of ˜2-5 times in signal-to-noise ratio, which translates to an increase of ˜2-5 times in pulse time-of-arrival (TOA) precision. We show that such an improvement in TOA precision will improve the sensitivity to the stochastic gravitational wave background. Finally, we showcase the flexibility of the new PSRIX backend by observing several millisecond-period pulsars (MSPs) at 5 and 9 GHz. Motivated by our detections, we discuss the potential for complementing existing pulsar timing array data sets with MSP monitoring campaigns at these higher frequencies.

  12. Simulations of cm-wavelength Sunyaev-Zel'dovich galaxy cluster and point source blind sky surveys and predictions for the RT32/OCRA-f and the Hevelius 100-m radio telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, Bartosz; Kus, Andrzej; Birkinshaw, Mark; Wilkinson, Peter E-mail: Mark.Birkinshaw@bristol.ac.uk E-mail: ajk@astro.uni.torun.pl

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the effectiveness of blind surveys for radio sources and galaxy cluster thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects (TSZEs) using the four-pair, beam-switched OCRA-f radiometer on the 32-m radio telescope in Poland. The predictions are based on mock maps that include the cosmic microwave background, TSZEs from hydrodynamical simulations of large scale structure formation, and unresolved radio sources. We validate the mock maps against observational data, and examine the limitations imposed by simplified physics. We estimate the effects of source clustering towards galaxy clusters from NVSS source counts around Planck-selected cluster candidates, and include appropriate correlations in our mock maps. The study allows us to quantify the effects of halo line-of-sight alignments, source confusion, and telescope angular resolution on the detections of TSZEs. We perform a similar analysis for the planned 100-m Hevelius radio telescope (RTH) equipped with a 49-beam radio camera and operating at frequencies up to 22 GHz.We find that RT32/OCRA-f will be suitable for small-field blind radio source surveys, and will detect 33{sup +17}{sub −11} new radio sources brighter than 0.87 mJy at 30 GHz in a 1 deg{sup 2} field at > 5σ CL during a one-year, non-continuous, observing campaign, taking account of Polish weather conditions. It is unlikely that any galaxy cluster will be detected at 3σ CL in such a survey. A 60-deg{sup 2} survey, with field coverage of 2{sup 2} beams per pixel, at 15 GHz with the RTH, would find <1.5 galaxy clusters per year brighter than 60 μJy (at 3σ CL), and would detect about 3.4 × 10{sup 4} point sources brighter than 1 mJy at 5σ CL, with confusion causing flux density errors ∼< 2% (20%) in 68% (95%) of the detected sources.A primary goal of the planned RTH will be a wide-area (π sr) radio source survey at 15 GHz. This survey will detect nearly 3 × 10{sup 5} radio sources at 5σ CL down to 1.3 mJy, and tens of galaxy clusters

  13. Mechanical determinants of 100-m sprint running performance.

    PubMed

    Morin, Jean-Benoît; Bourdin, Muriel; Edouard, Pascal; Peyrot, Nicolas; Samozino, Pierre; Lacour, Jean-René

    2012-11-01

    Sprint mechanics and field 100-m performances were tested in 13 subjects including 9 non-specialists, 3 French national-level sprinters and a world-class sprinter, to further study the mechanical factors associated with sprint performance. 6-s sprints performed on an instrumented treadmill allowed continuous recording of step kinematics, ground reaction forces (GRF), and belt velocity and computation of mechanical power output and linear force-velocity relationships. An index of the force application technique was computed as the slope of the linear relationship between the decrease in the ratio of horizontal-to-resultant GRF and the increase in velocity. Mechanical power output was positively correlated to mean 100-m speed (P < 0.01), as was the theoretical maximal velocity production capability (P < 0.011), whereas the theoretical maximal force production capability was not. The ability to apply the resultant force backward during acceleration was positively correlated to 100-m performance (r (s) > 0.683; P < 0.018), but the magnitude of resultant force was not (P = 0.16). Step frequency, contact and swing time were significantly correlated to acceleration and 100-m performance (positively for the former, negatively for the two latter, all P < 0.05), whereas aerial time and step length were not (all P > 0.21). Last, anthropometric data of body mass index and lower-limb-to-height ratio showed no significant correlation with 100-m performance. We concluded that the main mechanical determinants of 100-m performance were (1) a "velocity-oriented" force-velocity profile, likely explained by (2) a higher ability to apply the resultant GRF vector with a forward orientation over the acceleration, and (3) a higher step frequency resulting from a shorter contact time. PMID:22422028

  14. Testing of 100 mK bolometers for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, A. G.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bhatia, R. S.; Griffin, M. J.; Maffei, B.; Nartallo, R.; Beeman, J. W.; Bock, J.; Lange, A.; DelCastillo, H.

    1996-01-01

    Electrical and optical performance data are presented for a prototype 100 mK spider-web bolometer operating under very low photon backgrounds. These data are compared with the bolometer theory and are used to estimate the expected sensitivity of such a detector used for low background space astronomy. The results demonstrate that the sensitivity and speed of response requirements of the bolometer instruments proposed for these missions can be met by 100 mK spider-web bolometers using neutron transmutation doped germanium as the temperature sensitive element.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The Megamaser Cosmology Project (MCP). III. (Kuo+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, C. Y.; Braatz, J. A.; Condon, J. J.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V.; Lo, K. Y.; Zaw, I.; Schenker, M.; Henkel, C.; Reid, M. J.; Greene, J. E.

    2012-08-01

    The megamaser galaxies in our sample were observed between 2005 and 2009 with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), augmented by the 100m Green Bank Telescope (GBT) and in most cases the Effelsberg 100m telescope. (3 data files).

  16. A Kinematics Analysis Of Three Best 100 M Performances Ever

    PubMed Central

    Krzysztof, Maćkała; Mero, Antti

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare and determine the relevance of the morphological characteristics and variability of running speed parameters (stride length and stride frequency) between Usain Bolt’s three best 100 m performances. Based on this, an attempt was made to define which factors determine the performance of Usain Bolt’s sprint and, therefore, distinguish him from other sprinters. We analyzed the previous world record of 9.69 s set in the 2008 Beijing Olympics, the current record of 9.58 s set in the 2009 Berlin World Championships in Athletics and the O lympic record of 9.63 s set in 2012 London Olympics Games by Usain Bolt. The application of VirtualDub Programme allowed the acquisition of basic kinematical variables such as step length and step frequency parameters of 100 m sprint from video footage provided by NBC TV station, BBC TV station. This data was compared with other data available on the web and data published by the Scientific Research Project Office responsible on behalf of IAAF and the German Athletics Association (DVL). The main hypothesis was that the step length is the main factor that determines running speed in the 10 and 20 m sections of the entire 100 m distance. Bolt’s anthropometric advantage (body height, leg length and liner body) is not questionable and it is one of the factors that makes him faster than the rest of the finalists from each three competitions. Additionally, Bolt’s 20 cm longer stride shows benefit in the latter part of the race. Despite these factors, he is probably able to strike the ground more forcefully than rest of sprinters, relative to their body mass, therefore, he might maximize his time on the ground and to exert the same force over this period of time. This ability, combined with longer stride allows him to create very high running speed - over 12 m/s (12.05 – 12.34 m/s) in some 10 m sections of his three 100 m performances. These assumption confirmed the application of

  17. A kinematics analysis of three best 100 m performances ever.

    PubMed

    Krzysztof, Maćkała; Mero, Antti

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare and determine the relevance of the morphological characteristics and variability of running speed parameters (stride length and stride frequency) between Usain Bolt's three best 100 m performances. Based on this, an attempt was made to define which factors determine the performance of Usain Bolt's sprint and, therefore, distinguish him from other sprinters. We analyzed the previous world record of 9.69 s set in the 2008 Beijing Olympics, the current record of 9.58 s set in the 2009 Berlin World Championships in Athletics and the O lympic record of 9.63 s set in 2012 London Olympics Games by Usain Bolt. The application of VirtualDub Programme allowed the acquisition of basic kinematical variables such as step length and step frequency parameters of 100 m sprint from video footage provided by NBC TV station, BBC TV station. This data was compared with other data available on the web and data published by the Scientific Research Project Office responsible on behalf of IAAF and the German Athletics Association (DVL). The main hypothesis was that the step length is the main factor that determines running speed in the 10 and 20 m sections of the entire 100 m distance. Bolt's anthropometric advantage (body height, leg length and liner body) is not questionable and it is one of the factors that makes him faster than the rest of the finalists from each three competitions. Additionally, Bolt's 20 cm longer stride shows benefit in the latter part of the race. Despite these factors, he is probably able to strike the ground more forcefully than rest of sprinters, relative to their body mass, therefore, he might maximize his time on the ground and to exert the same force over this period of time. This ability, combined with longer stride allows him to create very high running speed - over 12 m/s (12.05 - 12.34 m/s) in some 10 m sections of his three 100 m performances. These assumption confirmed the application of Ballerieich

  18. Selected determinants of acceleration in the 100m sprint.

    PubMed

    Maćkała, Krzysztof; Fostiak, Marek; Kowalski, Kacper

    2015-03-29

    The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between kinematics, motor abilities, anthropometric characteristics, and the initial (10 m) and secondary (30 m) acceleration phases of the 100 m sprint among athletes of different sprinting performances. Eleven competitive male sprinters (10.96 s ± 0.36 for 100 with 10.50 s fastest time) and 11 active students (12.20 s ± 0.39 for 100 m with 11.80 s fastest time) volunteered to participate in this study. Sprinting performance (10 m, 30 m, and 100 m from the block start), strength (back squat, back extension), and jumping ability (standing long jump, standing five-jumps, and standing ten-jumps) were tested. An independent t-test for establishing differences between two groups of athletes was used. The Spearman ranking correlation coefficient was computed to verify the association between variables. Additionally, the Ward method of hierarchical cluster analysis was applied. The recorded times of the 10 and 30 m indicated that the strongest correlations were found between a 1-repetition maximum back squat, a standing long jump, standing five jumps, standing ten jumps (r = 0.66, r = 0.72, r = 0.66, and r = 0.72), and speed in the 10 m sprint in competitive athletes. A strong correlation was also found between a 1-repetition maximum back squat and a standing long jump, standing five jumps, and standing ten jumps (r = 0.88, r = 0.87 and r = 0.85), but again only for sprinters. The most important factor for differences in maximum speed development during both the initial and secondary acceleration phase among the two sub-groups was the stride frequency (p<0.01).

  19. Selected Determinants of Acceleration in the 100m Sprint

    PubMed Central

    Maćkała, Krzysztof; Fostiak, Marek; Kowalski, Kacper

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between kinematics, motor abilities, anthropometric characteristics, and the initial (10 m) and secondary (30 m) acceleration phases of the 100 m sprint among athletes of different sprinting performances. Eleven competitive male sprinters (10.96 s ± 0.36 for 100 with 10.50 s fastest time) and 11 active students (12.20 s ± 0.39 for 100 m with 11.80 s fastest time) volunteered to participate in this study. Sprinting performance (10 m, 30 m, and 100 m from the block start), strength (back squat, back extension), and jumping ability (standing long jump, standing five-jumps, and standing ten-jumps) were tested. An independent t-test for establishing differences between two groups of athletes was used. The Spearman ranking correlation coefficient was computed to verify the association between variables. Additionally, the Ward method of hierarchical cluster analysis was applied. The recorded times of the 10 and 30 m indicated that the strongest correlations were found between a 1-repetition maximum back squat, a standing long jump, standing five jumps, standing ten jumps (r = 0.66, r = 0.72, r = 0.66, and r = 0.72), and speed in the 10 m sprint in competitive athletes. A strong correlation was also found between a 1-repetition maximum back squat and a standing long jump, standing five jumps, and standing ten jumps (r = 0.88, r = 0.87 and r = 0.85), but again only for sprinters. The most important factor for differences in maximum speed development during both the initial and secondary acceleration phase among the two sub-groups was the stride frequency (p<0.01). PMID:25964817

  20. Selected determinants of acceleration in the 100m sprint.

    PubMed

    Maćkała, Krzysztof; Fostiak, Marek; Kowalski, Kacper

    2015-03-29

    The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between kinematics, motor abilities, anthropometric characteristics, and the initial (10 m) and secondary (30 m) acceleration phases of the 100 m sprint among athletes of different sprinting performances. Eleven competitive male sprinters (10.96 s ± 0.36 for 100 with 10.50 s fastest time) and 11 active students (12.20 s ± 0.39 for 100 m with 11.80 s fastest time) volunteered to participate in this study. Sprinting performance (10 m, 30 m, and 100 m from the block start), strength (back squat, back extension), and jumping ability (standing long jump, standing five-jumps, and standing ten-jumps) were tested. An independent t-test for establishing differences between two groups of athletes was used. The Spearman ranking correlation coefficient was computed to verify the association between variables. Additionally, the Ward method of hierarchical cluster analysis was applied. The recorded times of the 10 and 30 m indicated that the strongest correlations were found between a 1-repetition maximum back squat, a standing long jump, standing five jumps, standing ten jumps (r = 0.66, r = 0.72, r = 0.66, and r = 0.72), and speed in the 10 m sprint in competitive athletes. A strong correlation was also found between a 1-repetition maximum back squat and a standing long jump, standing five jumps, and standing ten jumps (r = 0.88, r = 0.87 and r = 0.85), but again only for sprinters. The most important factor for differences in maximum speed development during both the initial and secondary acceleration phase among the two sub-groups was the stride frequency (p<0.01). PMID:25964817

  1. Robust constraint on a drifting proton-to-electron mass ratio at z=0.89 from methanol observation at three radio telescopes.

    PubMed

    Bagdonaite, J; Daprà, M; Jansen, P; Bethlem, H L; Ubachs, W; Muller, S; Henkel, C; Menten, K M

    2013-12-01

    A limit on a possible cosmological variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio μ is derived from methanol (CH3OH) absorption lines in the benchmark PKS1830-211 lensing galaxy at redshift z=0.89 observed with the Effelsberg 100-m radio telescope, the Institute de Radio Astronomie Millimétrique 30-m telescope, and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. Ten different absorption lines of CH3OH covering a wide range of sensitivity coefficients K(μ) are used to derive a purely statistical 1σ constraint of Δμ/μ=(1.5±1.5)×10(-7) for a lookback time of 7.5 billion years. Systematic effects of chemical segregation, excitation temperature, frequency dependence, and time variability of the background source are quantified. A multidimensional linear regression analysis leads to a robust constraint of Δμ/μ=(-1.0±0.8(stat)±1.0(sys))×10(-7). PMID:24476248

  2. Robust constraint on a drifting proton-to-electron mass ratio at z=0.89 from methanol observation at three radio telescopes.

    PubMed

    Bagdonaite, J; Daprà, M; Jansen, P; Bethlem, H L; Ubachs, W; Muller, S; Henkel, C; Menten, K M

    2013-12-01

    A limit on a possible cosmological variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio μ is derived from methanol (CH3OH) absorption lines in the benchmark PKS1830-211 lensing galaxy at redshift z=0.89 observed with the Effelsberg 100-m radio telescope, the Institute de Radio Astronomie Millimétrique 30-m telescope, and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. Ten different absorption lines of CH3OH covering a wide range of sensitivity coefficients K(μ) are used to derive a purely statistical 1σ constraint of Δμ/μ=(1.5±1.5)×10(-7) for a lookback time of 7.5 billion years. Systematic effects of chemical segregation, excitation temperature, frequency dependence, and time variability of the background source are quantified. A multidimensional linear regression analysis leads to a robust constraint of Δμ/μ=(-1.0±0.8(stat)±1.0(sys))×10(-7).

  3. Wheel drives for large telescopes: save the cost and keep the performance over hydrostatic bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Marvin F.

    2014-07-01

    The use of steel wheels on steel tracks has been around since steel was invented, and before that it was iron wheels on iron tracks. Not to be made obsolete by the passage of time, this approach for moving large objects is still valid, even optimal, but the detailed techniques for achieving high performance and long life have been much improved. The use of wheel-and-track designs has been very popular in radio astronomy for the largest of the large radio telescopes (RT), including such notables as the 305m Arecibo RT, the 100m telescopes at Effelsberg, Germany (at 3600 tonnes) and the Robert C. Byrd, Greenbank Telescope (GBT, 7600 tonnes) at Greenbank, West Virginia. Of course, the 76m Lovell Telescope at Jodrell Bank is the grandfather of all large aperture radio telescopes that use wheel drives. Smaller sizes include NRAO's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) telescopes at 25m and others. Wheel drives have also been used on large radars of significance such as the 410 tonne Ground Based Radar-Prototype (GBR-P) and the 150 foot (45.7m) Altair Radar, and the 2130 tonne Sea Based X-Band Radar (SBX). There are also many examples of wheel driven communications antennas of 18 meters and larger. All of these instruments have one thing in common: they all use steel wheels that run in a circle on one or more flat, level, steel tracks. This paper covers issues related to designing for wheel driven systems. The intent is for managing motion to sub arc-second levels, and for this purpose it is primary for the designer to manage measurement and alignment errors, and to establish repeatability through dimensional control, structural and drive stiffness management, adjustability and error management. In a practical sense, there are very few, if any, fabricators that can machine structural and drive components to sufficiently small decimal places to matter. In fact, coming within 2-3 orders of magnitude of the precision needed is about the best that can be expected. Further, it is

  4. Source finding, parametrization, and classification for the extragalactic Effelsberg-Bonn H i Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flöer, L.; Winkel, B.; Kerp, J.

    2014-09-01

    Context. Source extraction for large-scale H i surveys currently involves large amounts of manual labor. For data volumes expected from future H i surveys with upcoming facilities, this approach is not feasible any longer. Aims: We describe the implementation of a fully automated source finding, parametrization, and classification pipeline for the Effelsberg-Bonn H i Survey (EBHIS). With future radio astronomical facilities in mind, we want to explore the feasibility of a completely automated approach to source extraction for large-scale H i surveys. Methods: Source finding is implemented using wavelet denoising methods, which previous studies show to be a powerful tool, especially in the presence of data defects. For parametrization, we automate baseline fitting, mask optimization, and other tasks based on well-established algorithms, currently used interactively. For the classification of candidates, we implement an artificial neural network, which is trained on a candidate set comprised of false positives from real data and simulated sources. Using simulated data, we perform a thorough analysis of the algorithms implemented. Results: We compare the results from our simulations to the parametrization accuracy of the H i Parkes All-Sky Survey (HIPASS) survey. Even though HIPASS is more sensitive than EBHIS in its current state, the parametrization accuracy and classification reliability match or surpass the manual approach used for HIPASS data.

  5. Ethnicity and spatiotemporal parameters of bilateral and unilateral transtibial amputees in a 100-m sprint.

    PubMed

    Hobara, Hiroaki; Hashizume, Satoru; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Usami, Yuko; Mochimaru, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    Similar to able-bodied sprinters, most of the medals for the 100-m sprint in past Paralympic Games and IPC Athletics World Championships were dominated by West African (WA) and Caucasian (CC) amputee sprinters, not Asian (AS) sprinters. Although these results indicate differences in sprint performance due to ethnicity, little is known about the ethnicity and spatiotemporal parameters of the 100-m sprint for amputee sprinters. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in the spatiotemporal parameters of WA, CC and AS sprinters with bilateral and unilateral transtibial amputations during a 100-m sprint. We analyzed 6 WA, 28 CC, and 10 AS amputee sprinters from publicly available Internet broadcasts. For each sprinter's run, the average speed, average step length, and step frequency were calculated by using the number of steps in conjunction with the official race time. No significant differences were found in the spatiotemporal parameters of the 100-m sprint for the WA and CC groups. On the other hand, the average speed of the AS group was significantly lower because of its shorter step length during the 100-m sprint. The results suggest that WA and CC sprinters would perform similarly during a 100-m sprint, but AS sprinters would not. PMID:27066362

  6. Ethnicity and spatiotemporal parameters of bilateral and unilateral transtibial amputees in a 100-m sprint.

    PubMed

    Hobara, Hiroaki; Hashizume, Satoru; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Usami, Yuko; Mochimaru, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    Similar to able-bodied sprinters, most of the medals for the 100-m sprint in past Paralympic Games and IPC Athletics World Championships were dominated by West African (WA) and Caucasian (CC) amputee sprinters, not Asian (AS) sprinters. Although these results indicate differences in sprint performance due to ethnicity, little is known about the ethnicity and spatiotemporal parameters of the 100-m sprint for amputee sprinters. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in the spatiotemporal parameters of WA, CC and AS sprinters with bilateral and unilateral transtibial amputations during a 100-m sprint. We analyzed 6 WA, 28 CC, and 10 AS amputee sprinters from publicly available Internet broadcasts. For each sprinter's run, the average speed, average step length, and step frequency were calculated by using the number of steps in conjunction with the official race time. No significant differences were found in the spatiotemporal parameters of the 100-m sprint for the WA and CC groups. On the other hand, the average speed of the AS group was significantly lower because of its shorter step length during the 100-m sprint. The results suggest that WA and CC sprinters would perform similarly during a 100-m sprint, but AS sprinters would not.

  7. Spatiotemporal Variables of Able-bodied and Amputee Sprinters in Men's 100-m Sprint.

    PubMed

    Hobara, H; Kobayashi, Y; Mochimaru, M

    2015-06-01

    The difference in world records set by able-bodied sprinters and amputee sprinters in the men's 100-m sprint is still approximately 1 s (as of 28 March 2014). Theoretically, forward velocity in a 100-m sprint is the product of step frequency and step length. The goal of this study was to examine the hypothesis that differences in the sprint performance of able-bodied and amputee sprinters would be due to a shorter step length rather than lower step frequency. Men's elite-level 100-m races with a total of 36 able-bodied, 25 unilateral and 17 bilateral amputee sprinters were analyzed from the publicly available internet broadcasts of 11 races. For each run of each sprinter, the average forward velocity, step frequency and step length over the whole 100-m distance were analyzed. The average forward velocity of able-bodied sprinters was faster than that of the other 2 groups, but there was no significant difference in average step frequency among the 3 groups. However, the average step length of able-bodied sprinters was significantly longer than that of the other 2 groups. These results suggest that the differences in sprint performance between 2 groups would be due to a shorter step length rather than lower step frequency.

  8. A 100 m/320 Gbps SDM FSO link with a doublet lens scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chung-Yi; Lu, Hai-Han; Lu, Ting-Chien; Wu, Chang-Jen; Chu, Chien-An; Lin, Hung-Hsien; Cheng, Ming-Te

    2016-07-01

    A 100 m/320 Gbps space-division-multiplexing (SDM) free-space optical (FSO) link with a doublet lens scheme is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The transmission capacity of FSO links is increased significantly by the SDM topology, and the transmission distance of FSO links is greatly extended by the doublet lens scheme. An FSO link of eight channels over a 100 m free-space link with a total transmission rate of 320 Gbps (40 Gbps/λ  ×  8λ  =  320 Gbps) is achieved. With the assistance of a low noise amplifier (LNA) and clock/data recovery (CDR) at the receiving site, a good bit error rate (BER) performance and a clear eye diagram are obtained at 100 m/320 Gbps. The proposed 100 m/320 Gbps SDM FSO link is shown to be a notable option to provide the advantages of long transmission distances and high transmission rates for optical wireless communications.

  9. Is it useful to assess annual effective doses that are less than 100 mSv?

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.; Cameron, John R.

    2002-03-07

    It is useful to assess annual effective doses less than 100 mSv. Beyond the''score-keeping'' needs of regulatory compliance, there are at least seven other valid reasons for performing personnel monitoring, many of which fall into the category of''no news is good news,'' or more aptly,''null news, as long as you can prove it, is good news.'' These are performance measures for contractual compliance, diagnosis of problems with radiation protection programs, health surveillance and occupational epidemiology, prevention of and support for litigation, demonstration of management commitment and safety, worker counseling, ensuring peace of mind. Furthermore, it is shown that there is very reasonable expectation that detriment may be associated with doses smaller than 100 mSv per year.

  10. Efficient Dual Head Nd:YAG 100mJ Oscillator for Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyle, Donald B.; Stysley, Paul R.; Kay, Richard b.; Poulios, Demetrios

    2007-01-01

    A diode pumped, Nd:YAG laser producing 100 mJ Q-switched pulses and employing a dual-pump head scheme in an unstable resonator configuration is described. Each head contains a side pumped zig-zag slab and four 6-bar QCW 808 nm diodes arrays which are de-rated 23%. Denoting 'z' as the lasing axis, the pump directions were along the x-axis in one head and the y-axis in the other, producing a circularized thermal lens, more typical in laser rod-based cavities. The dual head design's effective thermal lens is now corrected with a proper HR mirror curvature selection. This laser has demonstrated over 100 mJ output with high optical efficiency (24%), good TEM(sub 00) beam quality, and high pointing stability.

  11. System for rapid detection and mapping of gas plumes on 100 m scales: examination of some technical and economic issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Marc L.; Drescher, Anushka C.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Yost, Michael G.

    1995-05-01

    We consider the design of a system combining computed tomography and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (CT/FTIR) to detect and map the concentration of multicontaminant gas plumes in ambient air over a 100 m square area. Several factors affecting the accuracy of the reconstructed map and the detection limits that can be achieved in the field are discussed. The estimated cost and capabilities of the system are compared with those of a more conventional gas monitoring system that might operate over a similar spatial extent. The paper includes a description of a proposed system that is designed to produce a map of multiple gaseous contaminants with a resolution of 12 m X 12 m in a time of approximately 10 minutes by sequentially measuring the contaminant concentrations along 48 intersecting beam paths and then reconstructing the map using a CT algorithm adapted to detect Gaussian plumes. The optical elements consist of an FTIR mounted on a steerable telescope platform, a second remote steerable mirror platform, and 32 fixed retro-reflectors.

  12. Modeling of Women's 100-M Dash World Record: Wind-Aided or Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazelrigg, Conner; Waibel, Bryson; Baker, Blane

    2015-01-01

    On July 16, 1988, Florence Griffith Joyner (FGJ) shattered the women's 100-m dash world record (WR) with a time of 10.49 s, breaking the previous mark by an astonishing 0.27 s. By all accounts FGJ dominated the race that day, securing her place as the premiere female sprinter of that era, and possibly all time. In the aftermath of such an…

  13. Evaluation of the EFCOM SC-100M/120M/125M wireless underwater communicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, J. R.

    1982-04-01

    In June 1981, the EFCOM SC-100M/120M/125M wireless communications system was evaluated in conjunction with the AGA DIVATOR 324 Full-Face Mask by the Navy Experimental Diving Unit. The purpose was to determine the systems suitability for U.S. Navy use with open-circuit Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (SCUBA). The EFCOM system was evaluated for intelligibility, reliability and human engineering.

  14. The Influence of Different Hand Paddle Size on 100-m Front Crawl Kinematics

    PubMed Central

    López-Plaza, Daniel; Alacid, Fernando; López-Miñarro, Pedro A.; Muyor, José M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of different sizes of hand paddles on kinematic parameters during a 100 m freestyle swimming performance in elite swimmers. Nine elite swimmers (19.1 ± 1.9 years) completed three tests of 100 m without paddles, with small paddles (271.27 cm2) and with large paddles (332.67 cm2), respectively. One video camera was used to record the performance during the three trials. The mean swimming velocity, stroke rate and stroke length were measured in the central 10 meters of each 50 m length. The results showed that stroke length tended to increase significantly when wearing hand paddles (p < 0.05) during both the first and second 50 m sections whereas the increase in swimming velocity occurred only in the second 50 m (p < 0.05). Conversely, the stroke rate showed a slight decreasing trend with increasing paddle size. During the 100 m freestyle trial the stroke kinematics were changed significantly as a result of the increase in propelling surface size when hand paddles were worn. PMID:23486988

  15. Simultaneous radar and aircraft observations of mixed-phase cloud at the 100-m-scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, P.; Hogan, R.; Brown, P.; Illingworth, A.; Choularton, T.; Kaye, P.; Hirst, E.; Greenaway, R.

    2003-04-01

    Determination of cloud phase is important for predicting the radiative impact of clouds. Previous work by some of the authors has shown that even the presence of thin (~100 m) supercooled liquid layers above and below ice cloud significantly increase the reflection of solar radiation to space. We present 100-m-scale in situ and simultaneous radar observations of mixed-phase clouds over the UK. Particle sphericity, as determined by the aircraft mounted Small Ice Detector, appears to be a good indication of phase in these types of cloud where any newly produced ice will quickly grow in highly ice supersaturated conditions into non-spherical particles. During 1-d aircraft transects the dominant phase of the cloud was determined in contiguous 100 m horizontal segments. The resulting structure reveals that mixed-phase clouds can exhibit alternating regions of ice and liquid of varying horizontal scale that may be the result of the 1-d transect of the aircraft intercepting undulating liquid layers or turbulent activity. High differential reflectivity signals measured by the radar can be indicative of the nearby presence of liquid water giving rise to highly ice saturated conditions conducive to the growth of pristine crystals with high axial ratios. Although this is the case for discrete cloud layers it is not always true within a deep frontal cloud.

  16. Data Assimilation of PROBA-V 100 m and 300 m.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliams, S. J. B.; Kempeneers, P.

    2015-12-01

    One of the goals of the FP7 SIGMA projects is the extension of remote sensing time series to better monitor agricultural productivity at global scale. Extending these time series can be seen in differnt ways; on the one hand we are looking at the integration of different existing data sets with equal resolution e.g. SPOT-VGT and PROBA-V 1km resolution, or building new time series for Eta and Soil moisture. on the other hand we are also updating methods to extend existing time series with respect to their resolution and revisting frequency. The research presentend here will focus on the latter, focussing on the integration of PROBA-V 100 and 300m. The PROBA-V microsatellite is designed to offer a global coverage of land surfaces at four spectral bands at a spatial resolution of 300 m and 1 km with a daily revisit for latitudes 75°N to 56°S [1]. Due to the specific design, data can also be acquired at 100 m for a reduced swath, providing partial coverage (global coverage only every 5 days). This study proposes a data assimilation method that combines the 100 m data at the reduced swath with PROBA-V 300 m resolution data at the full swath. The resulting product is a synthetic product at 100 m spatial resolution, with a potential revisit time equal to the 300 m products (S10@300). Here, we concentrate on a ten day composite product (K10@100), to mitigate the effect of clouds. The goal of the proposed method is to produce continuous and cloud free time series of PROBA-V data at 100 m spatial resolution. The S10@300 and S10@100 ten day composits serve as input, with respective spatial resolutions of 300 m and 100 m. Whereas the S10@300 is obtained from all sensors onbaord the PROBA-V platform, the S10@100 is the product from the central viewing sensor only. Due to a combination of the reduced swath and potential cloud cover, the S10@100 is typically sparse (gaps). The data assimilation method follows the approach proposed in that is based on a Kalman filter. It is a

  17. Normative Spatiotemporal Parameters During 100-m Sprints in Amputee Sprinters Using Running-Specific Prostheses.

    PubMed

    Hobara, Hiroaki; Potthast, Wolfgang; Müller, Ralf; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Heldoorn, Thijs A; Mochimaru, Masaaki

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a normative sample of step frequency and step length during maximal sprinting in amputee sprinters. We analyzed elite-level 100-m races of 255 amputees and 93 able-bodied sprinters, both men and women, from publicly-available Internet broadcasts. For each sprinter's run, the average forward velocity, step frequency, and step length over the 100-m distance were analyzed by using the official record and number of steps in each race. The average forward velocity was greatest in able-bodied sprinters (10.04 ± 0.17 m/s), followed by bilateral transtibial (8.77 ± 0.27 m/s), unilateral transtibial (8.65 ± 0.30 m/s), and transfemoral amputee sprinters (7.65 ± 0.38 m/s) in men. Differences in velocity among 4 groups were associated with step length (able-bodied vs transtibial amputees) or both step frequency and step length (able-bodied vs transfemoral amputees). Although we also found that the velocity was greatest in able-bodied sprinters (9.10 ± 0.14 m/s), followed by unilateral transtibial (7.08 ± 0.26 m/s), bilateral transtibial (7.06 ± 0.48 m/s), and transfemoral amputee sprinters (5.92 ± 0.33 m/s) in women, the differences in the velocity among the groups were associated with both step frequency and step length. Current results suggest that spatiotemporal parameters during a 100-m race of amputee sprinters is varied by amputation levels and sex. PMID:26251966

  18. Normative Spatiotemporal Parameters During 100-m Sprints in Amputee Sprinters Using Running-Specific Prostheses.

    PubMed

    Hobara, Hiroaki; Potthast, Wolfgang; Müller, Ralf; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Heldoorn, Thijs A; Mochimaru, Masaaki

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a normative sample of step frequency and step length during maximal sprinting in amputee sprinters. We analyzed elite-level 100-m races of 255 amputees and 93 able-bodied sprinters, both men and women, from publicly-available Internet broadcasts. For each sprinter's run, the average forward velocity, step frequency, and step length over the 100-m distance were analyzed by using the official record and number of steps in each race. The average forward velocity was greatest in able-bodied sprinters (10.04 ± 0.17 m/s), followed by bilateral transtibial (8.77 ± 0.27 m/s), unilateral transtibial (8.65 ± 0.30 m/s), and transfemoral amputee sprinters (7.65 ± 0.38 m/s) in men. Differences in velocity among 4 groups were associated with step length (able-bodied vs transtibial amputees) or both step frequency and step length (able-bodied vs transfemoral amputees). Although we also found that the velocity was greatest in able-bodied sprinters (9.10 ± 0.14 m/s), followed by unilateral transtibial (7.08 ± 0.26 m/s), bilateral transtibial (7.06 ± 0.48 m/s), and transfemoral amputee sprinters (5.92 ± 0.33 m/s) in women, the differences in the velocity among the groups were associated with both step frequency and step length. Current results suggest that spatiotemporal parameters during a 100-m race of amputee sprinters is varied by amputation levels and sex.

  19. The relationship between extension of the metatarsophalangeal joint and sprint time for 100 m Olympic athletes.

    PubMed

    Krell, Jason B; Stefanyshyn, Darren J

    2006-02-01

    Selected kinematic variables of the foot segments and the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint were investigated in relation to sprinting performance among 100 m sprint athletes at the 2000 Summer Olympic Games. It was hypothesized that the kinematics of the MTP joint, and forefoot and rearfoot segments, are related to sprint performance for both male and female athletes. Kinematic sagittal plane data were collected using two digital video cameras recording at 120 fields per second. It was determined that faster male sprinters experienced higher maximal rates of MTP extension, and faster female sprinters touch down with higher posterior sole angles and take off with lower posterior sole angles.

  20. Simultaneous radar and aircraft observations of mixed-phase cloud at the 100 m scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, P. R.; Hogan, R. J.; Brown, P. R. A.; Illingworth, A. J.; Choularton, T. W.; Kaye, P. H.; Hirst, E.; Greenaway, R.

    2004-07-01

    Three UK C-130 aircraft flights performed in conjunction with the Chilbolton Advanced Meteorological Radar were carried out in mixed-phase clouds. The aircraft instrumentation included the Small Ice Detector (SID) and Nevzorov probe that are both capable of discriminating between liquid and ice phase. It was found that particle sphericity measured by the SID could be successfully used as a proxy for particle phase. Using a combination of the SID and other probes it is possible to determine whether a 100 m cloud segment is ice, liquid or mixed-phase. Regions as short as 100 m exhibited mixed-phase characteristics. There was generally good agreement between water phase indicated by the SID and Nevzorov probes, with any differences arising from the fact that the SID provides a number-weighted estimate of dominant phase, while the Nevzorov probe provides a mass-weighted estimate. The radar and aircraft observations show that when high values of differential reflectivity are observed the nearby presence of liquid water is indicated. When large ice crystals are present in deeper cloud they can suppress the differential reflectivity signal. Therefore the absence of a high differential reflectivity signal does not necessarily mean that liquid water is absent.

  1. 9.58 and 10.49: nearing the citius end for 100 m?

    PubMed

    Haugen, Thomas; Tønnessen, Espen; Seiler, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Human upper performance limits in the 100-m sprint remain the subject of much debate. The aim of this commentary is to highlight the vulnerabilities of prognoses from historical trends by shedding light on the mechanical and physiological limitations associated with human sprint performance. Several conditions work against the athlete with increasing sprint velocity; air resistance and braking impulse in each stride increase while ground-contact time typically decreases with increasing running velocity. Moreover, muscle-force production declines with increasing speed of contraction. Individual stature (leg length) strongly limits stride length such that conditioning of senior sprinters with optimized technique mainly must be targeted to enhance stride frequency. More muscle mass means more power and thereby greater ground-reaction forces in sprinting. However, as the athlete gets heavier, the energy cost of accelerating that mass also increases. This probably explains why body-mass index among world-class sprinters shows low variability and averages 23.7±1.5 and 20.4±1.4 for male and female sprinters, respectively. Performance development of world-class athletes indicates that ~8% improvement from the age of 18 represents the current maximum trainability of sprint performance. However, drug abuse is a huge confounding factor associated with such analyses, and available evidence suggests that we are already very close to "the citius end" of 100-m sprint performance.

  2. Modeling of Women's 100-m Dash World Record: Wind-Aided or Not?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazelrigg, Conner; Waibel, Bryson; Baker, Blane

    2015-11-01

    On July 16, 1988, Florence Griffith Joyner (FGJ) shattered the women's 100-m dash world record (WR) with a time of 10.49 s, breaking the previous mark by an astonishing 0.27 s. By all accounts FGJ dominated the race that day, securing her place as the premiere female sprinter of that era, and possibly all time. In the aftermath of such an extraordinary performance, track officials immediately assumed that her posted time was wind aided—that is, attained under tailwind conditions beyond the legal limit of 2.0 m/s for world records. However, wind-measuring devices at the track site showed zero wind conditions during her WR performance. Before and during FGJ's race, other wind-measuring devices indicated speeds exceeding 4.0 m/s at the site of the triple jump runway, located on the same field as the running track. Video clips of flags placed near the starting line of FGJ's race also revealed tailwind conditions. Using available data from that era, the study here incorporates modeling techniques to compute velocity and position as functions of time for no wind and tailwind conditions. Modeling under no wind conditions produces a 100-m time of 10.70 s, a performance clearly attainable by FGJ during this stage of her sprinting career. Incorporating tailwinds of 4.0 m/s into the computations reduces this time by approximately 0.20 s, in close agreement with FGJ's record-breaking performance. These results strongly suggest that tailwinds of order 4 m/s were present during FGJ's world record race even though wind-measuring devices at the track site did not register these speeds. In spite of such strong evidence to support a wind-aided race on July 16, 1988, FGJ remains one of the top female sprinters in history and would likely hold the WR even today, given that she attained a non-wind-aided 100-m time of 10.61 s on the day following her WR performance.

  3. A Compact Instrument for Remote Raman and Fluorescence Measurements to a Radial Distance of 100 m

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, S. K.; Misra, A. K.; Lucey, P. g.; McKay, C. P.

    2005-01-01

    Compact remote spectroscopic instruments that could provide detailed information about mineralogy, organic and biomaterials on a planetary surface over a relatively large area are desirable for NASA s planetary exploration program. Ability to explore a large area on the planetary surfaces as well as in impact craters from a fixed location of a rover or lander will enhance the probability of selecting target rocks of high scientific contents as well as desirable sites in search of organic compounds and biomarkers on Mars and other planetary bodies. We have developed a combined remote inelastic scattering (Raman) and laser-induced fluorescence emission (LIFE) compact instrument capable of providing accurate information about minerals, organic and biogenic materials to a radial distance of 100 m. Here we present the Raman and LIFE (R-LIFE) data set.

  4. Towards a 100mA Superconducting RF Photoinjector for BERLinPro

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann, Axel; Anders, W; Burrill, Andrew; Jankowiak, Andreas; Kamps, T; Knobloch, Jens; Kugeler, Oliver; Lauinger, P; Matveenko, A N; Schmeisser, M; Volker, J; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Kneisel, Peter; Nietubyc, R; Schubert, S G; Smedley, John; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Volkov, V; Will, I; Zaplatin, Evgeny

    2013-09-01

    For BERLinPro, a 100 mA CW-driven SRF energy recovery linac demonstrator facility, HZB needs to develop a photo-injector superconducting cavity which delivers a at least 1mm*mr emittance beam at high average current. To address these challenges of producing a high peak brightness beam at high repetition rate, at first HZB tested a fully superconducting injector with a lead cathode*,followed now by the design of a SC cavity allowing operation up to 4 mA using CW-modified TTF-III couplers and inserting a normal conducting high quantum efficiency cathode using the HZDR-style insert scheme. This talk will present the latest results and an overview of the measurements with the lead cathode cavity and will describe the design and optimization process, the first production results of the current design and an outlook to the further development steps towards the full power version.

  5. On the performance of Usain Bolt in the 100 m sprint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández Gómez, J. J.; Marquina, V.; Gómez, R. W.

    2013-09-01

    Many university texts on mechanics consider the effect of air drag force, using the slowing down of a parachute as an example. Very few discuss what happens when the drag force is proportional to both u and u2. In this paper we deal with a real problem to illustrate the effect of both terms on the speed of a runner: a theoretical model of the world-record 100 m sprint of Usain Bolt during the 2009 World Championships in Berlin is developed, assuming a drag force proportional to u and to u2. The resulting equation of motion is solved and fitted to the experimental data obtained from the International Association of Athletics Federations, which recorded Bolt's position with a laser velocity guard device. It is worth noting that our model works only for short sprints.

  6. Space Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    This pamphlet describes the Space Telescope, an unmanned multi-purpose telescope observatory planned for launch into orbit by the Space Shuttle in the 1980s. The unique capabilities of this telescope are detailed, the major elements of the telescope are described, and its proposed mission operations are outlined. (CS)

  7. Crop suitability monitoring for improved yield estimations with 100m PROBA-V data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özüm Durgun, Yetkin; Gilliams, Sven; Gobin, Anne; Duveiller, Grégory; Djaby, Bakary; Tychon, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    This study has been realised within the framework of a PhD targeting to advance agricultural monitoring with improved yield estimations using SPOT VEGETATION remotely sensed data. For the first research question, the aim was to improve dry matter productivity (DMP) for C3 and C4 plants by adding a water stress factor. Additionally, the relation between the actual crop yield and DMP was studied. One of the limitations was the lack of crop specific maps which leads to the second research question on 'crop suitability monitoring'. The objective of this work is to create a methodological approach based on the spectral and temporal characteristics of PROBA-V images and ancillary data such as meteorology, soil and topographic data to improve the estimation of annual crop yields. The PROBA-V satellite was launched on 6th May 2013, and was designed to bridge the gap in space-borne vegetation measurements between SPOT-VGT (March 1998 - May 2014) and the upcoming Sentinel-3 satellites scheduled for launch in 2015/2016. PROBA -V has products in four spectral bands: BLUE (centred at 0.463 µm), RED (0.655 µm), NIR (0.845 µm), and SWIR (1.600 µm) with a spatial resolution ranging from 1km to 300m. Due to the construction of the sensor, the central camera can provide a 100m data product with a 5 to 8 days revisiting time. Although the 100m data product is still in test phase a methodology for crop suitability monitoring was developed. The multi-spectral composites, NDVI (Normalised Difference Vegetation Index) (NIR_RED/NIR+RED) and NDII (Normalised Difference Infrared Index) (NIR-SWIR/NIR+SWIR) profiles are used in addition to secondary data such as digital elevation data, precipitation, temperature, soil types and administrative boundaries to improve the accuracy of crop yield estimations. The methodology is evaluated on several FP7 SIGMA test sites for the 2014 - 2015 period. Reference data in the form of vector GIS with boundaries and cover type of agricultural fields are

  8. Deficit of reactor antineutrinos at distances smaller than 100 m and inverse β decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. N.; Höllwieser, R.; Troitskaya, N. I.; Wellenzohn, M.; Zherebtsov, O. M.; Serebrov, A. P.

    2013-11-01

    We analyze a change in a deficit of reactor antineutrinos at distances smaller than 100m by changing the lifetime of the neutron from τn=885.7s to τn=879.6s, calculated for the axial coupling constants λ=-1.2694 and λ=-1.2750, respectively, to get a result corresponding the new world average value τn=880.1(1.1)s. We calculate the angular distribution and cross section for the inverse β decay, taking into account the contributions of the “weak magnetism” and the neutron recoil to next-to-leading order in the large baryon mass expansion and the radiative corrections of order α/π˜10-3, calculated to leading order in the large baryon mass expansion. We obtain an increase of a deficit of reactor antineutrinos of about 0.734%. We discuss a universality of radiative corrections to order α to the neutrino (antineutrino) reactions induced by weak charged currents, pointed out by Kurylov, Ramsey-Musolf, and Vogel [Phys. Rev. CPRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.67.035502 67, 035502 (2003)], and calculate the antineutrino-energy spectrum of the neutron β- decay to order α/π and taking into account the contributions of the weak magnetism and the proton recoil.

  9. The effect of fatigue on the underwater arm stroke motion in the 100-m front crawl.

    PubMed

    Suito, Hiroshi; Ikegami, Yasuo; Nunome, Hiroyuki; Sano, Shinya; Shinkai, Hironari; Tsujimoto, Norio

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to indicate the effect of fatigue on the underwater right arm stroke motion during the 100-m front crawl. The arm stroke motions of eight male competitive swimmers were captured three-dimensionally at 60 Hz in the positions of 15 m and 65 m from the start. The hand velocity, the arm angular velocities and the relative contribution of the arm angular velocities to the hand velocity were computed at each instant during the arm stroke motion. A significant decrease of the hand velocity and the peak angular velocity of shoulder adduction were observed in the second half than in the first half. The contribution of shoulder adduction was especially large in the pull phase and subsequently that of shoulder horizontal abduction became dominant in the push phase. However, in the second half, the contribution of shoulder adduction tended to decrease while that of shoulder internal rotation tended to increase. Thus, it is quite likely that the arm stroke motion of swimmers were driven to be influenced by induced fatigue and resulted in an increase in the contribution of shoulder internal rotation to compensate the decreased contribution of shoulder adduction angular velocity. PMID:19075300

  10. Spatiotemporal Parameters of 100-m Sprint in Different Levels of Sprinters with Unilateral Transtibial Amputation

    PubMed Central

    Hobara, Hiroaki; Hashizume, Satoru; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Mochmaru, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences of the spatiotemporal parameters in a 100-m sprint among elite, sub-elite, and non-elite sprinters with a unilateral transtibial amputation. Using publicly available Internet broadcasts, we analyzed 125, 19, and 33 records from 30 elite, 12 sub-elite, and 22 non-elite sprinters, respectively. For each sprinter’s run, the average velocity, step frequency, and step length were calculated using the number of steps in conjunction with the official race time. Average velocity was greatest in elite sprinters (8.71±0.32 m/s), followed by the sub-elite (8.09±0.06 m/s) and non-elite groups (7.72±0.27 m/s). Although there was a significant difference in average step frequency between the three groups, the effect size was small and the relative difference among the three groups was 3.1%. Statistical analysis also revealed that the average step length was longest in elite sprinters, followed by the sub-elite and non-elite groups. These results suggest that the differences in sprint performance between the three groups is mainly due to the average step length rather than step frequency. PMID:27701443

  11. Identification and Attribution of Global Wind Speed Trends at 100m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, Zachary; Smith, Ronald; Storelvmo, Trude

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have found evidence that global climate change significantly alters the strength of large-scale wind patterns. Any enduring trends over large regions are potentially of value to understand due to their implications for the wind energy industry. In this study we identify and evaluate global wind speed trends at the wind turbine hub height (~100m) through the use of CMIP5 models, standard reanalyses (ERA-Interim, NCEP2) and a uniquely high-resolution analysis dataset (Vestas Mesoscale Library). By analyzing how wind speeds change across the globe throughout the period 1900-2100 (with emphasis on the satellite era, 1979-2014), we assess the significance of multi-decadal wind speed trends in the context of natural spatial and temporal variability. Our results show substantial differences in regional trends between different datasets though several regions including the Southern Hemisphere mid-latitudes and the Caribbean show consistently substantial changing wind speeds during the satellite era. Wind speed trends tend to diminish over large time scales and follow spatial patterns that link multi-decadal trends to the evolving behaviors of internal variability modes, especially those of ENSO and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM).

  12. Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark; Flanagan, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Space telescopes have been a dominant force in astrophysics and astronomy over the last two decades. As Lyman Spitzer predicted in 1946, space telescopes have opened up much of the electromagnetic spectrum to astronomers, and provided the opportunity to exploit the optical performance of telescopes uncompromised by the turbulent atmosphere. This special section of Optical Engineering is devoted to space telescopes. It focuses on the design and implementation of major space observatories from the gamma-ray to far-infrared, and highlights the scientific and technical breakthroughs enabled by these telescopes. The papers accepted for publication include reviews of major space telescopes spanning the last two decades, in-depth discussions of the design considerations for visible and x-ray telescopes, and papers discussing concepts and technical challenges for future space telescopes.

  13. Overview of the 100 mA average-current RF photoinjector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, D. C.; Colestock, P. L.; Kurennoy, S. S.; Rees, D. E.; Regan, A. H.; Russell, S.; Schrage, D. L.; Wood, R. L.; Young, L. M.; Schultheiss, T.; Christina, V.; Cole, M.; Rathke, J.; Shaw, J.; Eddy, C.; Holm, R.; Henry, R.; Yater, J.

    2004-08-01

    High-average-power FELs require high-current, low-emittance and low-energy-spread electron beams. These qualities have been achieved with RF photoinjectors operating at low-duty factors. To date, a high-average-current RF photoinjector operating continuously at 100% duty factor is yet to be demonstrated. The principal challenges of a high-duty-factor normal-conducting RF photoinjector are related to applying a high accelerating gradient continuously, thus generating large ohmic losses in the cavity walls, cooling the injector cavity walls and the high-power RF couplers, and finding a photocathode with reasonable Q.E. that can survive the poor vacuum of the RF photoinjector. We present the preliminary design of a normal-conducting 700 MHz photoinjector with solenoid magnetic fields for emittance compensation. The photoinjector is designed to produce 2.7 MeV electron beams at 3 nC bunch charge and 35 MHz repetition rate (100 mA average current). The photoinjector consists of a 2 {1}/{2}-cell, π-mode, RF cavity with on-axis electric coupling, and a non-resonant vacuum plenum. Heat removal in the resonant cells is achieved via dense arrays of internal cooling passages capable of handling high-velocity water flows. Megawatt RF power is coupled into the injector through two tapered ridge-loaded waveguides. PARMELA simulations show that the 2 {1}/{2}-cell injector can produce a 7 μm emittance directly. Transverse plasma oscillations necessitate additional acceleration and a second solenoid to realign the phase space envelopes of different axial slices at higher energy, resulting in a normalized rms emittance of 6.5 μm and 34 keV rms energy spread. We are developing a novel cesiated p-type GaN photocathode with 7% quantum efficiency at 350 nm and a cesium dispenser to replenish the cathode with cesium through a porous silicon carbide substrate. These performance parameters will be necessary for the design of the 100 kW FEL.

  14. X-Ray Testing Constellation-X Optics at MSFC's 100-m Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen; Baker, Markus; Content, David; Freeman, Mark; Glenn, Paul; Gubarev, Mikhail; Hair, Jason; Jones, William; Joy, Marshall

    2003-01-01

    In addition to the 530-m-long X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF), NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) operates a 104-m-long (source-to-detector) X-ray-test facility. Originally developed and still occasionally used for stray-light testing of visible-fight optical systems, the so-called "Stray-Light Facility" now serves primarily as a convenient and inexpensive facility for performance evaluation and calibration of X-ray optics and detectors. The facility can accommodate X-ray optics up to about 1-m diameter and 12-m focal length. Currently available electron-impact sources at the facility span the approximate energy range 0.2 to 100 keV, thus supporting testing of soft- and hard-X-ray optics and detectors. Available MSFC detectors are a front-illuminated CCD (charge-coupled device) and a scanning CZT (cadmium--zinc--telluride) detector, with low-energy cut-offs of about 0.8 and 3 keV, respectively. In order to test developmental optics for the Constellation-X Project, led by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), MSFC undertook several enhancements to the facility. Foremost among these was development and fabrication of a five-degree-of-freedom (5-DoF) optics mount and control system, which translates and tilts the user-provided mirror assembly suspended from its interface plate. Initial Constellation-X tests characterize the performance of the Optical Alignment Pathfinder Two (OAP2) for the large Spectroscopy X-ray Telescope (SXT) and of demonstration mirror assemblies for the Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT). With the Centroid Detector Assembly (CDA), used for precision alignment of the Chandra (nee AXAF) mirrors, the Constellation-X SXT Team optically aligned the individual mirrors of the OAPZ at GSFC. The team then developed set-up and alignment procedures, including transfer of the alignment from the optical alignment facility at GSFC to the X-ray test facility at MSFC, using a reference flat and fiducials. The OAPZ incorporates additional ancillary

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Megamaser Cosmology Project. VIII. NGC5765B (Gao+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, F.; Braatz, J. A.; Reid, M. J.; Lo, K. Y.; Condon, J. J.; Henkel, C.; Kuo, C. Y.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V.; Pesce, D. W.; Zhao, W.

    To map the spatial distribution of maser spots in NGC 5765b, we conducted a series of VLBI observations between 2012 April and 2014 January, with the 10 antennas of the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), augmented by the 100m GBT, the Effelsberg 100m telescope (EB), and the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). (1 data file).

  16. Single-transverse-mode near-IR superluminescent diodes with cw output power up to 100 mW

    SciTech Connect

    Andreeva, E V; Il'chenko, S N; Kostin, Yu O; Yakubovich, S D

    2014-10-29

    A series of light-emitting modules based on single-mode quantum-well superluminescent diodes with centre emission wavelengths of about 790, 840, 960 and 1060 nm and a cw output power up to 100 mW in free space is developed. A sufficiently long service life of these devices is demonstrated. (lasers)

  17. Telescope Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Renaissance Telescope for high resolution and visual astronomy has five 82-degree Field Tele-Vue Nagler Eyepieces, some of the accessories that contribute to high image quality. Telescopes and eyepieces are representative of a family of optical equipment manufactured by Tele-Vue Optics, Inc.

  18. 100 M.a. remagnetization as a dating tool for deformation and cleavage in the Central High Atlas (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvin, P.; Casas, A. M.; Villalain, J. J.; Moussaid, B.

    2015-12-01

    The High Atlas is an intracontinental chain developed as a result of the inversion of Mesozoic basins during the Cenozoic. Its structure is characterized by ENE-WSW tight anticlines limited by wide synclines. In the central sector of the chain, a pervasive tectonic foliation affects Jurassic limestones and marls. There is a controversy about the age of this tectonic foliation and its relationship with either a Late Jurassic or Cenozoic compressional events. The Jurassic carbonates of the Central High Atlas (CHA) show a widespread syntectonic remagnetization carried by magnetite and dated at 100 M.a. by comparing the paleomagnetic direction obtained by small circle intersection (SCI) method with the apparent polar wander path in NW Africa coordinates. Once the 100 M.a. paleomagnetic direction is known, the obtained paleomagnetic direction remagnetization in each site can be used to restore the bedding at the time of the acquisition. In each site, the in situ mean direction of remagnetization defines a small circle (SC) in a complete rotation about the strike of the bedding. This SC gives all possible original directions of the magnetization and if all deformation events are coaxial and without vertical rotation (as it is the case in the study area) all the SC contains the 100 M.a. expected direction. Then, the angle between the 100 M.a. and the in situ paleomagnetic direction along the small circle, equals the angle of rotation of each bed to ultimately find their dips (paleodip) at 100 M.a. Since the consistency between folding and cleavage can be examined from their geometrical relationship, and bedding can be restored to its 100 M.a. geometry (paleodips obtained from paleomagnetic analysis), two end-members exist for the different examined folds: (i) cleavage is consistent with present-day bedding orientation and attitude of bedding was acquired after remagnetization (Cenozoic cleavage), (ii) cleavage is consistent with bedding, but dip of bedding was acquired

  19. The Effects of Different Warm-up Volumes on the 100-m Swimming Performance: A Randomized Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Neiva, Henrique P; Marques, Mário C; Barbosa, Tiago M; Izquierdo, Mikel; Viana, João L; Teixeira, Ana M; Marinho, Daniel A

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of 3 different warm-up (WU) volumes on 100-m swimming performance. Eleven male swimmers at the national level completed 3 time trials of 100-m freestyle on separate days and after a standard WU, a short WU (SWU), or a long WU (LWU) in a randomized sequence. All of them replicated some usual sets and drills, and the WU totaled 1,200 m, the SWU totaled 600 m, and the LWU totaled 1,800 m. The swimmers were faster after the WU (59.29 seconds; confidence interval [CI] 95%, 57.98-60.61) and after the SWU (59.38 seconds; CI 95%, 57.92-60.84) compared with the LWU (60.18 seconds; CI 95%, 58.53-61.83). The second 50-m lap after the WU was performed with a higher stroke length (effect size [ES] = 0.77), stroke index (ES = 1.26), and propelling efficiency (ES = 0.78) than that after the SWU. Both WU and SWU resulted in higher pretrial values of blood lactate concentrations [La] compared with LWU (ES = 1.58 and 0.74, respectively), and the testosterone:cortisol levels were increased in WU compared with LWU (ES = 0.86). In addition, the trial after WU caused higher [La] (ES ≥ 0.68) and testosterone:cortisol values compared with the LWU (ES = 0.93). These results suggest that an LWU could impair 100-m freestyle performance. The swimmers showed higher efficiency during the race after a 1200-m WU, suggesting a favorable situation. It highlighted the importance of the [La] and hormonal responses to each particular WU, possibly influencing performance and biomechanical responses during a 100-m race. PMID:26506059

  20. Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, Jane R.

    2011-01-01

    The science of astronomy depends on modern-day temples called telescopes. Astronomers make pilgrimages to remote mountaintops where these large, intricate, precise machines gather light that rains down from the Universe. Bit, since Earth is a bright, turbulent planet, our finest telescopes are those that have been launched into the dark stillness of space. These space telescopes, named after heroes of astronomy (Hubble, Chandra, Spitzer, Herschel), are some of the best ideas our species has ever had. They show us, over 13 billion years of cosmic history, how galaxies and quasars evolve. They study planets orbiting other stars. They've helped us determine that 95% of the Universe is of unknown composition. In short, they tell us about our place in the Universe. The next step in this journey is the James Webb Space Telescope, being built by NASA, Europe, and Canada for a 2018 launch; Webb will reveal the first galaxies that ever formed.

  1. SNAP telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Lampton, Michael L.; Akerlof, C.W.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Bercovitz, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers Jr., W.C.; Commins, E.D.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.E.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis,R.S.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar,A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.E.; Harvey, P.R.; Heetderks, H.D.; Holland,S.E.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kim, A.G.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.S.; Linder, E.V.; Loken,S.C.; Malina, R.; Massey, R.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.P.; Miquel, R.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi,H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto,E.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch,A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, G.; Wang, G.

    2002-07-29

    The SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will require a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction limited images spanning a one degree field in the visible and near infrared wavelength regime. This requirement, equivalent to nearly one billion pixel resolution, places stringent demands on its optical system in terms of field flatness, image quality, and freedom from chromatic aberration. We discuss the advantages of annular-field three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) telescopes for applications such as SNAP, and describe the features of the specific optical configuration that we have baselined for the SNAP mission. We discuss the mechanical design and choice of materials for the telescope. Then we present detailed ray traces and diffraction calculations for our baseline optical design. We briefly discuss stray light and tolerance issues, and present a preliminary wavefront error budget for the SNAP Telescope. We conclude by describing some of tasks to be carried out during the upcoming SNAP research and development phase.

  2. Designing power supplies for 2.5 MV, 100 mADC for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reginato, L. L.; Ayers, J.; Johnson, R.; Peters, C.; Stevenson, R.

    1997-02-01

    Renewed interest by several major university medical centers (UCSF, Stanford, U. of Washington, Loma Linda) in conducting Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) led to the investigation of generating a continuous proton beam with 2.5 MeV of energy and up to 100 mA of current. The power supply for the Heavy Ion Injector (Adam) at LBNL operated at lower currents from its completion in 1970 until it was shut down in 1993. This power supply consisted of 64 stages of shunt-fed multipliers (Dynamitron) and seemed to offer an attractive first step for BNCT experiments. The Adam power supply was reactivated in June of 1995 and extensive tests were performed to establish its maximum capability. After the tests were completed, it became clear that 100 mA was well beyond the capability of this power source and that even 10-20 mA would require extensive modifications. After some initial conceptual design studies, it was decided that the air-coupled transformer with multiple secondaries warranted some serious investigations and could offer the best chance for achieving 100 mA.

  3. Radio Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekers, Ron; Wilson, Thomas L.

    ``Radio Telescopes" starts with a brief historical introduction from Jansky's1931 discovery of radio emission from the Milky Way through the development ofradio telescope dishes and arrays to aperture synthesis imaging. It includessufficient basics of electromagnetic radiation to provide some understanding of thedesign and operation of radio telescopes. The criteria such as frequencyrange, sensitivity, survey speed, angular resolution, and field of view thatdetermine the design of radio telescopes are introduced. Because it is soeasy to manipulate the electromagnetic waves at radio frequencies, radiotelescopes have evolved into many different forms, sometimes with "wire"structures tuned to specific wavelengths, which look very different from anykind of classical telescope. To assist astronomers more familiar with otherwavelength domains, the appendix A.1. includes a comparison of radioand optical terminology. Some of the different types of radio telescopesincluding the filled aperture dishes, electronically steered phased arrays, andaperture synthesis radio telescopes are discussed, and there is a sectioncomparing the differences between dishes and arrays. Some of the morerecent developments including hierarchical beam forming, phased arrayfeeds, mosaicing, rotation measure synthesis, digital receivers, and longbaseline interferometers are included. The problem of increasing radiofrequency interference is discussed, and some possible mitigation strategies areoutlined.

  4. Long-range high-speed visible light communication system over 100-m outdoor transmission utilizing receiver diversity technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yiguang; Huang, Xingxing; Shi, Jianyang; Wang, Yuan-quan; Chi, Nan

    2016-05-01

    Visible light communication (VLC) has no doubt become a promising candidate for future wireless communications due to the increasing trends in the usage of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). In addition to indoor high-speed wireless access and positioning applications, VLC usage in outdoor scenarios, such as vehicle networks and intelligent transportation systems, are also attracting significant interest. However, the complex outdoor environment and ambient noise are the key challenges for long-range high-speed VLC outdoor applications. To improve system performance and transmission distance, we propose to use receiver diversity technology in an outdoor VLC system. Maximal ratio combining-based receiver diversity technology is utilized in two receivers to achieve the maximal signal-to-noise ratio. A 400-Mb/s VLC transmission using a phosphor-based white LED and a 1-Gb/s wavelength division multiplexing VLC transmission using a red-green-blue LED are both successfully achieved over a 100-m outdoor distance with the bit error rate below the 7% forward error correction limit of 3.8×10-3. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest data rate at 100-m outdoor VLC transmission ever achieved. The experimental results clearly prove the benefit and feasibility of receiver diversity technology for long-range high-speed outdoor VLC systems.

  5. Swimming Stroke Mechanical Efficiency and Physiological Responses of 100-m Backstroke with and without the use of paddles.

    PubMed

    Messinis, Spilios; Beidaris, Nikos; Messinis, Spyros; Soultanakis, Helen; Botonis, Petros; Platanou, Theodoros

    2014-03-27

    The use of swimming aids during training contributes to greater swimming efficiency by the improvement of the swimming specific power of the athlete. The purpose of this study was to compare the swimming stroke technical characteristics and the physiological responses of swimming 100-m backstroke, with and without the use of paddles at maximum and sub-maximum intensities at the same swimming speed. Eight swimmers competing at the national level participated in this study. The measurements took place at 4 different sessions. At every session, each participant swam individually one 100-m backstroke swimming trial with or without paddles at the same speed and two levels of intensity (100% and 85% of maximum speed). The results revealed lower stroke length, greater stroke number and gliding length without the use of swimming paddles at both intensities. Blood lactate concentration (10.03±2.96 vs. 5.85±2.23 mmol/l) and Rating of Perceived Exertion (17.43±2.07 vs. 12±2.82) were greater without the use of swimming paddles only at 100% of maximum speed. Thus, swimming backstroke with paddles compared to unaided swimming, at a similar speed, showed a greater efficiency at maximal but not at sub-maximal intensity. PMID:25031685

  6. Swimming Stroke Mechanical Efficiency and Physiological Responses of 100-m Backstroke with and without the use of paddles

    PubMed Central

    Messinis, Spilios; Beidaris, Nikos; Messinis, Spyros; Soultanakis, Helen; Botonis, Petros; Platanou, Theodoros

    2014-01-01

    The use of swimming aids during training contributes to greater swimming efficiency by the improvement of the swimming specific power of the athlete. The purpose of this study was to compare the swimming stroke technical characteristics and the physiological responses of swimming 100-m backstroke, with and without the use of paddles at maximum and sub-maximum intensities at the same swimming speed. Eight swimmers competing at the national level participated in this study. The measurements took place at 4 different sessions. At every session, each participant swam individually one 100-m backstroke swimming trial with or without paddles at the same speed and two levels of intensity (100% and 85% of maximum speed). The results revealed lower stroke length, greater stroke number and gliding length without the use of swimming paddles at both intensities. Blood lactate concentration (10.03±2.96 vs. 5.85±2.23 mmol/l) and Rating of Perceived Exertion (17.43±2.07 vs. 12±2.82) were greater without the use of swimming paddles only at 100% of maximum speed. Thus, swimming backstroke with paddles compared to unaided swimming, at a similar speed, showed a greater efficiency at maximal but not at sub-maximal intensity. PMID:25031685

  7. Optimization of 100-meter Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strain, Douglas

    1994-01-01

    Candidate designs for NRAO's 100-m clear-aperture radio telescope were evaluated and optimized by JPL using JPL-developed structural optimization and analysis software. The weight of a non-optimum design was reduced from 9.4 million pounds to 9.2 million pounds. The half-pathlength error due to gravity deformations was reduced from 0.041-inch rms to 0.034-inch rms.

  8. Infrared telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, G. R.; Hendricks, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    The development of the Infrared Telescope for Spacelab 2 is discussed. The design, development, and testing required to interface a stationary superfluid helium dewar with a scanning cryostate capable of operating in the zero-g environment in the space shuttle bay is described.

  9. Telescopic hindsight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Laurence

    2014-08-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com blog post "Cosmic blunders that have held back science" (2 June, http://ow.ly/xwC7C), about an essay by the astronomer Avi Loeb in which he criticized, among others, his Harvard University predecessor Edward Pickering, who claimed in 1909 that telescopes had reached their optimal size.

  10. Selecting Your First Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Sherwood

    1982-01-01

    Designed for first-time telescope purchasers, provides information on how a telescope works; major telescope types (refractors, reflectors, compound telescopes); tripod, pier, altazimuth, and equatorial mounts; selecting a telescope; visiting an astronomy club; applications/limitations of telescope use; and tips on buying a telescope. Includes a…

  11. Development of a 100 mJ, 5 Hz, flashlamp-pumped, Cr,Tm:YAG coherent lidar transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, S.; Johnson, S.

    1993-01-01

    A contract to develop a 100 mJ, 5 Hz, flashlamp-pumped Cr,Tm:YAG coherent lidar transmitter has been awarded to Coherent Technologies, Inc. (CTI). The lidar transmitter will operate at an eyesafe wavelength of 2.01 microns. The development complements work being performed under an SBIR Phase II with Electro-Optics Technology (EOT). EOT is developing continuous wave, low and medium power Tm:YAG oscillators of a unique design. One of the low power oscillators will be used as the injection seeder/local oscillator in the CIT lidar transmitter. The lidar transmitter will require the addition of a receiver section. Once completed, the lidar will be used in atmospheric performance studies, allowing comparison with that of the more mature CO2 lidar technology. The focus of current research and plans for next year are presented.

  12. Acceleration of 100 mA of H{sup {minus}} in a single channel electrostatic quadrupole accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, J.W.; Ackerman, G.D.; Chan, C.F.; Cooper, W.S.; de Vries, G.J.; Steele, W.F.; Stuart, M.E.; Vella, M.C.; Wells, R.P.; Inoue, T.; Okumura, Y.; Mizuno, M.

    1995-07-01

    Neutral beams for the next generation tokamaks will be based on multiampere negative ion beams with a beam energy of about 1.0 MeV and pulse lengths of a thousand seconds. High intensity dc beams at these levels of beam energy will require extensive development in electrostatic accelerators. At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, a two-module electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator was built to accelerate ions to 200 keV. In this experiment, up to 100 mA of H{sup {minus}} beam current was obtained from a Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute cesiated volume source using a multiaperture preaccelerator which merged 19 beamlets into a single circular beam at the entrance to the ESQ accelerator. The H{sup {minus}} beam was accelerated by the ESQ to accelerate 200 keV without any significant beam loss or emittance growth. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  13. VO2 Kinetics in All-out Arm Stroke, Leg Kick and Whole Stroke Front Crawl 100-m Swimming.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, F A; Lätt, E; Jürimäe, J; Maestu, J; Purge, P; Rämson, R; Haljaste, K; Keskinen, K L; Jürimäe, T

    2016-03-01

    The VO2 response to extreme-intensity exercise and its relationship with sports performance are largely unexplored. This study investigated the pulmonary VO2 kinetics during all-out 100-m front crawl whole stroke swimming (S), arm stroke (A) and leg kick (L). 26 male and 10 female competitive swimmers performed an all-out S trial followed by A and L of equal duration in random order. Breath-by-breath VO2 was measured using a snorkel attached to a portable gas analyzer. Mean (±SD) primary component parameters and peak blood lactate (Lapeak) during S, A, and L were, respectively: time delay (s), 14.2 ± 4.7, 14.3 ± 4.5, 15.6 ± 5.1; amplitude (ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)), 46.8 ± 6.1, 37.3 ± 6.9, 41.0 ± 4.7; time constant (τ, s): 9.2 ± 3.2, 12.4 ± 4.7, 10.1 ± 3.2; Lapeak (mmol·l(-1)), 6.8 ± 3.1, 6.3 ± 2.5, 7.9 ± 2.8. During A and L respectively, 80% and 87% of amplitude in S was reached, whereas A+L were 68% greater than in S. 100-m performance was associated to shorter cardiodynamic phase and greater VO2 amplitude and Lapeak (accounting up to 61% of performance variance), but not to τ. We conclude that (i) VO2 gain was proportional to exercise intensity and muscle mass involved, (ii) kicking is metabolically less efficient, and (iii) the main limiting factor of peak VO2 appears to be O2 delivery and not muscle extraction. PMID:26575404

  14. Radio refractive index in the lowest 100-m layer of the troposphere in Akure, South Western Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falodun, S. E.; Ajewole, M. O.

    2006-01-01

    The structure of the radio refractive index “in altitudes of” first 100 m of the troposphere is important for the planning and design of microwave communication “links”. For this reason, measurements of atmospheric pressure, temperature, and relative humidity were conducted in Akure “(7.15°N, 5.12°E)” to determine the radio refractive index. “Wireless meteorological sensors were positioned at the ground surface and at 100 m altitude on a 202 m high tower owned by the Nigerian Television Authority (hereafter NTA) which is now idle due to the relocation of the television house”. The measurements were “made” every “30 min” and round the clock. “Statistical” distributions of the refractive index modulus, “its” vertical gradient, and the diurnal and seasonal variations of the refractivity modulus were determined from the measured “data”. The results obtained show that the local climate has an appreciable influence on the radio refractivity. The curve of the seasonal variation of the vertical gradient of the radio refractive modulus has some minima points corresponding to the dry and the rainy seasons in Akure. The results obtained also show that the values of the refractive modulus at the “100 m” altitude were high in the morning and late evening/night hours while they “show” minima during the afternoon hours. Thus, the worst propagation condition obtained for Akure was observed in the afternoon “within” the time window “from 15:00 to 18:00” local time (hereafter LT) during the dry months and from roughly 17:00 to 19:00 LT during the rainy season.

  15. VO2 Kinetics in All-out Arm Stroke, Leg Kick and Whole Stroke Front Crawl 100-m Swimming.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, F A; Lätt, E; Jürimäe, J; Maestu, J; Purge, P; Rämson, R; Haljaste, K; Keskinen, K L; Jürimäe, T

    2016-03-01

    The VO2 response to extreme-intensity exercise and its relationship with sports performance are largely unexplored. This study investigated the pulmonary VO2 kinetics during all-out 100-m front crawl whole stroke swimming (S), arm stroke (A) and leg kick (L). 26 male and 10 female competitive swimmers performed an all-out S trial followed by A and L of equal duration in random order. Breath-by-breath VO2 was measured using a snorkel attached to a portable gas analyzer. Mean (±SD) primary component parameters and peak blood lactate (Lapeak) during S, A, and L were, respectively: time delay (s), 14.2 ± 4.7, 14.3 ± 4.5, 15.6 ± 5.1; amplitude (ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)), 46.8 ± 6.1, 37.3 ± 6.9, 41.0 ± 4.7; time constant (τ, s): 9.2 ± 3.2, 12.4 ± 4.7, 10.1 ± 3.2; Lapeak (mmol·l(-1)), 6.8 ± 3.1, 6.3 ± 2.5, 7.9 ± 2.8. During A and L respectively, 80% and 87% of amplitude in S was reached, whereas A+L were 68% greater than in S. 100-m performance was associated to shorter cardiodynamic phase and greater VO2 amplitude and Lapeak (accounting up to 61% of performance variance), but not to τ. We conclude that (i) VO2 gain was proportional to exercise intensity and muscle mass involved, (ii) kicking is metabolically less efficient, and (iii) the main limiting factor of peak VO2 appears to be O2 delivery and not muscle extraction.

  16. The Allen Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreher, J.

    2006-12-01

    The ATA will be a massively parallel array of 350 6-m antennas operating from 0.5 GHz to 11.3 GHz. It will be a superb instrument for both surveys and for imaging large, complex sources. By exploiting recent drops in the cost of electronics and by adopting the simplest possible design, the cost of the ATA will be significantly less than that of existing 100-m class telescopes. The ATA offers a very large primary field of view that may be imaged with a spectralline correlator and, at the same time, be studied with 16 dual-polarization pencil beams. The ATA also will have unique capabilities for very high fidelity imaging and for RFI excision. Central to the design is a high performance, yet cost effective, antenna with a Gregorian reflector system, connected to a novel ultrawide- band, log-periodic feed. Analog fiber is used to eliminate most of the electronics that are located at the antennas in more conventional arrays, allowing for a massively parallel signal processing design that offers enormous flexibility. A 42-element version of the ATA will begin observing in 2006.

  17. 100 mW deep-ultraviolet emission from aluminium-nitride-based quantum wells pumped by an electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oto, Takao; Banal, Ryan G.; Kataoka, Ken; Funato, Mitsuru; Kawakami, Yoichi

    2010-11-01

    Ultraviolet light sources, represented by excimer and mercury lamps, are currently used for various applications, including water purification/sterilization, biotechnology, photolithography and surface modification. However, they have the disadvantages of limited portability, low emission efficiency and the presence of harmful constituents. Finding a compact, efficient and environmentally friendly alternative ultraviolet light source is therefore of considerable technological interest. Aluminium-nitride-based semiconductors show promise as materials for this purpose, but because of difficulties in controlling electronic conductivity, in light-emitting diodes are hampered by low external quantum efficiencies. Here, we use an electron-beam pumping technique, demonstrating an output of 100 mW and a record power efficiency of ~40% from AlxGa1-xN/AlN quantum wells emitting at ~240 nm. This achievement is attributed to carrier confinement within the high-quality quantum wells, as well as the appropriate design of sample structures for electron-beam pumping, and may be a milestone in the path to realizing next-generation ultraviolet light sources with great ecological and economic benefits.

  18. Performance and energy costs associated with scaling infrared heater arrays for warming field plots from 1 to 100 m

    SciTech Connect

    Kimball B. A.; Lewin K.; Conley, M. M.

    2012-04-01

    To study the likely effects of global warming on open-field vegetation, hexagonal arrays of infrared heaters are currently being used for low-stature (<1 m) plants in small ({le}3 m) plots. To address larger ecosystem scales, herein we show that excellent uniformity of the warming can be achieved using nested hexagonal and rectangular arrays. Energy costs depend on the overall efficiency (useable infrared energy on the plot per electrical energy in), which varies with the radiometric efficiency (infrared radiation out per electrical energy in) of the individual heaters and with the geometric efficiency (fraction of thermal radiation that falls on useable plot area) associated with the arrangement of the heaters in an array. Overall efficiency would be about 26% at 4 ms{sup -1} wind speed for a single hexagonal array over a 3-m-diameter plot and 67% for a 199-hexagon honeycomb array over a 100-m-diameter plot, thereby resulting in an economy of scale.

  19. The Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Di; Pan, Zhichen

    2016-07-01

    The Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope (FAST) is a Chinese megascience project funded by the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) of the People's Republic of China. The National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC) is in charge of its construction and subsequent operation. Upon its expected completion in September 2016, FAST will surpass the 305 m Arecibo Telescope and the 100 m Green Bank Telescope in terms of absolute sensitivity in the 70 MHz to 3 GHz bands. In this paper, we report on the project, its current status, the key science goals, and plans for early science.

  20. Neutrino telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Costantini, H.

    2012-09-15

    Neutrino astrophysics offers a new possibility to observe our Universe: high-energy neutrinos, produced by the most energetic phenomena in our Galaxy and in the Universe, carry complementary (if not exclusive) information about the cosmos: this young discipline extends in fact the conventional astronomy beyond the usual electromagnetic probe. The weak interaction of neutrinos with matter allows them to escape from the core of astrophysical objects and in this sense they represent a complementary messenger with respect to photons. However, their detection on Earth due to the small interaction cross section requires a large target mass. The aim of this article is to review the scientific motivations of the high-energy neutrino astrophysics, the detection principles together with the description of a running apparatus, the experiment ANTARES, the performance of this detector with some results, and the presentation of other neutrino telescope projects.

  1. Relations between surface conductance and spectral vegetation indices at intermediate (100 m2 to 15 km2) length scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellers, Piers J.; Heiser, Mark D.; Hall, Forrest G.

    1992-11-01

    The theoretical analysis of Sellers et al. (1992) indicates that the relative response of the unstressed canopy conductance (g*c) to changes in incident (nonsaturating) PAR flux (F0) should be proportional to some spectral vegetation indices (SVI), specifically the simple ratio (SR) vegetation index, for vegetation covers of similar physiology and physiognomy; or ∇F ≡ (∂g*c/∂F0) ∝ SR. This relationship was tested using the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE) flux station data set (g*c) and the FIFE Landsat thematic mapper image data (SVI). The flux station data were used to invert a soil-plant-atmosphere model (the simple biosphere model (SiB) of Sellers et al., 1986) to derive estimates of g*c separate from the soil evaporation contribution and corrected for the "stress" effects of vapor pressure deficit and soil moisture deficit. The Landsat imagery was sampled to produce SR vegetation index values for small areas (90 × 90 m) centered on each flux station. The derived ∇F and SR values were found to be near-linearly related on a site-by-site basis. Differences between sites are thought to be related to the fractional cover of C3 versus C4 vegetation so that ∇S,F ≡ (∂∇F/∂(SR)) ∝ V3, where V3 is the fractional cover of C3 vegetation. The above equations form the basis for a simple biophysically based model of canopy-scale conductance. The model was applied on the flux station scale (100 m)2 and was also used to calculate fluxes for the entire FIFE site (15 × 15 km)2; the latter results were compared with airborne flux measurements. It is demonstrated that because the proposed relationship between ∇F and SR is near-linear, the calculation of evapotranspiration rates for large areas using this model is effectively scale-invariant.

  2. JSC Particle Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed description of the Johnson Space Center's Particle Telescope. Schematic diagrams of the telescope geometry and an electronic block diagram of the detector telescopes' components are also described.

  3. Auxiliary control systems for Pachmarhi array of Cverenkov telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gothe, K. S.; Acharya, B. S.; Bhat, P. N.; Chitnis, V. R.; D'Souza, A. I.; Francis, P. J.; John, A. V.; Joshi, S. R.; Majumdar, P.; Nagesh, B. K.; Pose, M. S.; Purohit, P. N.; Rahman, M. A.; Rao, K. K.; Rao, S. K.; Sharma, S. K.; Singh, B. B.; Stanislaus, A. J.; Sudershanan, P. V.; Upadhya, S. S.; Venkateshmurthy, B. L.; Vishwanath, P. R.

    2002-03-01

    Pachmarhi Array of Cverenkov Telescopes (PACT) consists of 25 Telescopes deployed over an area of 100m x 80m. The experiment is based on atmospheric Cverenkov technique to detect Very High Energy celestial gamma-rays using wavefront sampling method. Each telescope consists of 7 large area parabolic mirrors mounted para-axially on an equatorial mount and a fast photo-multiplier tube at the focus of each mirror. For efficient operation of the experiment 3 automated control systems were developed and installed, viz. Automated Computerized Telescope Orientation System (ACTOS) to control the pointing and tracking of individual telescopes, Automatic Photo-multiplier Exposure System (APES) to facilitate the exposure of photo-tubes only during observations, and Computerized Automated Rate Adjustment and Monitoring System (CARAMS) to ensure uniform gains for all the phototube - mirror systems. The design features and performance of each of these systems are discussed.

  4. [Evaluation of heart impact in the 100 m extreme intensity sport using near-infrared non-invasive muscle oxygen detecting device and sports heart rate detection technology].

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei-Yong; Long, Fei-Xiao; Fu, Lan-Ying; Li, Yue; Ding, Hai-Shu; Qu, An-Lian; Zhou, Xiao-Ping

    2010-02-01

    Using continuous two wavelength near-infrared technology to detect the variation in the consistency of oxygen hemoglobin in the muscle and the sports heart rate wireless real time collection technology, we devised the real time muscle tissue oxygenation and instantaneous heart rate experiment scheme and implemented it for the process of the 100 m run with two parameters given simultaneously. The experiment shows that the concentration of the oxygen hemoglobin in the muscle tissue continues decreasing after the end of the 100 m run, and the time interval between the moment when the concentration of the oxygen hemoglobin attains the minimum value and the moment when the athletes finish the 100 m run is (6.65 +/- 1.10) sec; while the heart rate continues increasing after the end of the 100 m run, and the time interval between the moment when the heart rate attains the maximum value and the moment when the athletes finish the 100 m run is (8.00 +/- 1.57) sec. The results show that the two wavelength near-infrared tissue oxygenation detection technology and the sports heart rate real time collection equipment can accurately measure the sports tissue oxygenation and the heart rate in the extreme intensity sport, and reveal the process of muscle oxygen transportation and consumption and its dynamic character with the heart rate in the extreme intensity sport.

  5. The acute effects of static stretching on the sprint performance of collegiate men in the 60- and 100-m dash after a dynamic warm-up.

    PubMed

    Kistler, Brandon M; Walsh, Mark S; Horn, Thelma S; Cox, Ronald H

    2010-09-01

    Previous research has shown that static stretching has an inhibitory effect on sprinting performances up to 50 m. The purpose of this study was to see what would happen to these effects at longer distances such as those seen in competition. This study used a within-subjects design to investigate the effects of passive static stretching vs. no stretching on the 60- and 100-m sprint performance of college track athletes after a dynamic warm-up. Eighteen male subjects completed both the static stretching and the no stretching conditions in counterbalanced order across 2 days of testing. On each day, all subjects first completed a generalized dynamic warm-up routine that included a self-paced 800-m run, followed by a series of dynamic movements, sprint, and hurdle drills. At the end of this generalized warm-up, athletes were assigned to either a static stretching or a no-stretching condition. They then immediately performed 2 100-m trials with timing gates set up at 20, 40, 60, and 100 m. Results revealed a significant slowing in performance with static stretching (p < 0.039) in the second 20 (20-40) m of the sprint trials. After the first 40 m, static stretching exhibited no additional inhibition of performance in a 100-m sprint. However, although there was no additional time loss, athletes never gained back the time that was originally lost in the first portion of the trials. Therefore, in strict terms of performance, it seems harmful to include static stretching in the warm-up protocol of collegiate male sprinters in distances up to 100 m.

  6. Toward Active X-ray Telescopes II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Aldroft, Thomas L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Button, Timothy W.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Doel, Peter; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Lillie, Charles F.; Michette, Alan G.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Sanmartin, Daniel Rodriguez; Saha, Timo T.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan E.; Ulmer, Melville P.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Willingale, Richard; Zhang, William W.

    2012-01-01

    In the half century since the initial discovery of an astronomical (non-solar) x-ray source, the sensitivity for detection of cosmic x-ray sources has improved by ten orders of magnitude. Largely responsible for this dramatic progress has been the refinement of the (grazing-incidence) focusing x-ray telescope. The future of x-ray astronomy relies upon the development of x-ray telescopes with larger aperture areas (greater than 1 m2) and finer angular resolution (less than 1.). Combined with the special requirements of grazing-incidence optics, the mass and envelope constraints of space-borne telescopes render such advances technologically challenging.requiring precision fabrication, alignment, and assembly of large areas (greater than 100 m2) of lightweight (approximately 1 kg m2 areal density) mirrors. Achieving precise and stable alignment and figure control may entail active (in-space adjustable) x-ray optics. This paper discusses relevant programmatic and technological issues and summarizes progress toward active x-ray telescopes.

  7. Search for Gamma Rays above 100 TeV from the Crab Nebula with the Tibet Air Shower Array and the 100 m2 muon Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amenomori, M.; Bi, X. J.; Chen, D.; Chen, T. L.; Chen, W. Y.; Cui, S. W.; Danzengluobu; Ding, L. K.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Z. Y.; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; He, Z. T.; Hibino, K.; Hotta, N.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, H. B.; Huang, J.; Jia, H. Y.; Jiang, L.; Kajino, F.; Kasahara, K.; Katayose, Y.; Kato, C.; Kawata, K.; Kozai, M.; Labaciren; Le, G. M.; Li, A. F.; Li, H. J.; Li, W. J.; Liu, C.; Liu, J. S.; Liu, M. Y.; Lu, H.; Meng, X. R.; Miyazaki, T.; Mizutani, K.; Munakata, K.; Nakajima, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Nanjo, H.; Nishizawa, M.; Niwa, T.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohta, I.; Ozawa, S.; Qian, X. L.; Qu, X. B.; Saito, T.; Saito, T. Y.; Sakata, M.; Sako, T. K.; Shao, J.; Shibata, M.; Shiomi, A.; Shirai, T.; Sugimoto, H.; Takita, M.; Tan, Y. H.; Tateyama, N.; Torii, S.; Tsuchiya, H.; Udo, S.; Wang, H.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamauchi, K.; Yang, Z.; Yasue, S.; Yuan, A. F.; Yuda, T.; Zhai, L. M.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Ying; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.; Tibet ASγ Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    A 100 m2 muon detector (MD) was successfully constructed under the existing Tibet air shower (AS) array in the late fall of 2007. The sensitivity of the Tibet AS array to cosmic gamma rays can be improved by selecting muon-poor events with the MD. Our MC simulation of the MD response reasonably agrees with the experimental data in terms of the charge distribution for one-muon events and the background rejection power. Using the data collected by the Tibet AS array and the 100 m2 MD taken from 2008 March to 2010 February, we search for continuous gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula above ˜100 TeV. No significant excess is found, and the most stringent upper limit is obtained above 140 TeV.

  8. Search for 100 TeV gamma rays from the Crab Nebula with the Tibet Air Shower Array and the 100 m2 muon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sako, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    The 100 m ^{2} muon detector (MD) was constructed under the Tibet air shower (AS) array in the late autumn of 2007. By selecting muon-poor events with the MD, the sensitivity of the Tibet AS array to cosmic gamma rays can be improved. Our MC simulation of the MD response is in reasonable agreement with the experimental data, with regard to the charge distribution for one-muon events and the background rejection power. Using the data taken from 2008 March to 2010 February by the Tibet AS array and the 100 m ^{2} MD, we search for continuous 100 TeV gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula. No significant excess is detected, and the world's best upper limit is obtained above 140 TeV.

  9. SEARCH FOR GAMMA RAYS ABOVE 100 TeV FROM THE CRAB NEBULA WITH THE TIBET AIR SHOWER ARRAY AND THE 100 m{sup 2} MUON DETECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Amenomori, M.; Bi, X. J.; Chen, W. Y.; Ding, L. K.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; Hu, H. B.; Huang, J.; Chen, D.; Chen, T. L.; Danzengluobu; Hu, Haibing; Cui, S. W.; He, Z. T.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Z. Y.; Hibino, K.; Hotta, N.; Collaboration: Tibet ASγ Collaboration; and others

    2015-11-10

    A 100 m{sup 2} muon detector (MD) was successfully constructed under the existing Tibet air shower (AS) array in the late fall of 2007. The sensitivity of the Tibet AS array to cosmic gamma rays can be improved by selecting muon-poor events with the MD. Our MC simulation of the MD response reasonably agrees with the experimental data in terms of the charge distribution for one-muon events and the background rejection power. Using the data collected by the Tibet AS array and the 100 m{sup 2} MD taken from 2008 March to 2010 February, we search for continuous gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula above ∼100 TeV. No significant excess is found, and the most stringent upper limit is obtained above 140 TeV.

  10. Telescopes and space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.; Maran, S. P.

    1976-01-01

    The necessity for different types of telescopes for astronomical investigations is discussed. Major findings in modern astronomy by ground-based and spaceborne telescopes are presented. Observations of the Crab Nebula, solar flares, interstellar gas, and the Black Hole are described. The theory of the oscillating universe is explored. Operating and planned telescopes are described.

  11. The space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Papers concerning the development of the Space Telescope which were presented at the Twenty-first Annual Meeting of the American Astronautical Society in August, 1975 are included. Mission planning, telescope performance, optical detectors, mirror construction, pointing and control systems, data management, and maintenance of the telescope are discussed.

  12. The Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestage, R. M.; Constantikes, K. T.; Hunter, T. R.; King, L. J.; Lacasse, R. J.; Lockman, F. J.; Norrod, R. D.

    2009-08-01

    The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory is the world's premiere single-dish radio telescope operating at centimeter to long millimeter wavelengths. This paper describes the history, construction, and main technical features of the telescope.

  13. Close to 100 Gbps discrete multitone transmission over 100m of multimode fiber using a single transverse mode 850nm VCSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bo; Zhou, Xian; Ma, Yanan; Luo, Jun; Zhong, Kangping; Qiu, Shaofeng; Feng, Zhiyong; Luo, Yazhi; Agustin, Mikel; Ledentsov, Nikolay; Kropp, Joerg; Shchukin, Vitaly; Ledentsov, Nikolay N.; Eddie, Iain; Chao, Lu

    2016-03-01

    Discrete Multitone Transmission (DMT) transmission over standard multimode fiber (MMF) using high-speed single (SM) and multimode (MM) Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) is studied. Transmission speed in the range of 72Gbps to 82Gbps over 300m -100m distances of OM4 fiber is realized, respectively, at Bit-Error-Ratio (BER) <5e-3 and the received optical power of only -5dBm. Such BER condition requires only 7% overhead for the conversion to error-free operation using single Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem forward error correction (BCH-FEC) coding and decoding. SM VCSEL is demonstrated to provide a much higher data transmission capacity over MMF. For 100m MMF transmission SM VCSEL allows 82Gbps as compared to MM VCSEL resulting in only 34Gbps at the same power (-5dBm). Furthermore, MM VCSEL link at 0dBm is still restricted at 100m distance by 63Gbps while SM VCSEL can exceed 100Gbps at such power levels. We believe that with further improvement in SM VCSELs and fiber coupling >100Gbps data transmission over >300m MMF distances at the BER levels matching the industry standards will become possible.

  14. ATST telescope mount: telescope of machine tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffers, Paul; Stolz, Günter; Bonomi, Giovanni; Dreyer, Oliver; Kärcher, Hans

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world, and will be able to provide the sharpest views ever taken of the solar surface. The telescope has a 4m aperture primary mirror, however due to the off axis nature of the optical layout, the telescope mount has proportions similar to an 8 meter class telescope. The technology normally used in this class of telescope is well understood in the telescope community and has been successfully implemented in numerous projects. The world of large machine tools has developed in a separate realm with similar levels of performance requirement but different boundary conditions. In addition the competitive nature of private industry has encouraged development and usage of more cost effective solutions both in initial capital cost and thru-life operating cost. Telescope mounts move relatively slowly with requirements for high stability under external environmental influences such as wind buffeting. Large machine tools operate under high speed requirements coupled with high application of force through the machine but with little or no external environmental influences. The benefits of these parallel development paths and the ATST system requirements are being combined in the ATST Telescope Mount Assembly (TMA). The process of balancing the system requirements with new technologies is based on the experience of the ATST project team, Ingersoll Machine Tools who are the main contractor for the TMA and MT Mechatronics who are their design subcontractors. This paper highlights a number of these proven technologies from the commercially driven machine tool world that are being introduced to the TMA design. Also the challenges of integrating and ensuring that the differences in application requirements are accounted for in the design are discussed.

  15. ATA50 telescope: hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeşilyaprak, C.; Yerli, S. K.; Aksaker, N.; Yildiran, Y.; Güney, Y.; Güçsav, B. B.; Özeren, F. F.; Kiliç, Y.; Shameoni, M. N.; Fişek, S.; Kiliçerkan, G.; Nasiroğlu, İ.; Özbaldan, E. E.; Yaşar, E.

    2014-12-01

    ATA50 Telescope is a new telescope with RC optics and 50 cm diameter. It was supported by Atatürk University Scientific Research Project (2010) and established at about 2000 meters altitude in city of Erzurum in Turkey last year. The observations were started a few months ago under the direction and control of Atatürk University Astrophysics Research and Application Center (ATASAM). The technical properties and infrastructures of ATA50 Telescope are presented and we have been working on the robotic automation of the telescope as hardware and software in order to be a ready-on-demand candidate for both national and international telescope networks.

  16. Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) telescope overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schember, Helene; Manhart, Paul; Guiar, Cecilia; Stevens, James H.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) will be the first true infrared observatory in space, building upon the technical and scientific experience gained through its two NASA survey-oriented predecessors: the Infrared Astronomical Satellite and the Cosmic Background Explorer. During its minimum five year lifetime, the SIRTF will perform pointed scientific observations at wavelengths from 1.8 to 1200 microns with an increase in sensitivity over previous missions of several orders of magnitude. This paper discusses a candidate design for the SIRTF telescope, encompassing optics, cryostat, and instrument accommodation, which has been undertaken to provide a fulcrum for the development of functional requirements, interface definition, risk assessment and cost. The telescope optics employ a baffled Ritchey-Chretien Cassegrain system with a 1-m class primary mirror, an active secondary mirror, and a stationary facetted tertiary mirror. The optics are embedded in a large superfluid He cryostat designed to maintain the entire telescope-instrument system at temperatures below 3 K.

  17. SIM.M.FF-S7: Final report on SIM/ANDIMET supplementary comparison for volume of liquids at 100 mL and 100 μL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, S.; Maldonado, J. M.; Vega, M. C.; Santalla, E.; Sica, A.; Cantero, D.; Salazar, M.; Morales, A.; Solano, P.; Rodríguez, L. D.

    2016-01-01

    A SIM/ANDIMET comparison for liquid volume using two 100 mL pycnometers and two 100 μL piston pipettes was performed between January 2012 and October 2013. The National Metrology Institute (NMI) of Bolivia was the coordinating laboratory and the Mexican NMI provided technical assistance. The participating labs were IBMETRO (Bolivia), INM (Colombia), INEN (Ecuador), INDECOPI (Peru), LACOMET (Costa Rica), LATU (Uruguay), INTN (Paraguay), and CENAM (Mexico). Based on measurements made by CENAM at the beginning and end of the comparison, the transfer standards were stable during the comparison within 0.0001 mL for the 100 mL pycnometers and 0.03 μL for the 100 μL pipettes. For 100 mL, six of the eight participants agreed within ± 0.003 % and had standardized degrees of equivalence (EN) less than 1. Two participants (INEN and INM) had EN values greater than 1. For the 100 μL pipettes, the results were corrected for the influence of altitude and seven of the eight participants agreed within ± 0.3 %. Results from INEN and some from INM and IBMETRO had EN values greater than 1 for the 100 μL pipettes. Uncertainties recommended by Guideline DKD-R 8-1 for micropipettes were included. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  18. JWST pathfinder telescope integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Kennard, Scott H.; Broccolo, Ronald T.; Ellis, James M.; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Hahn, Walter G.; Amon, John N.; Mt. Pleasant, Stephen M.; Texter, Scott; Atkinson, Charles B.; McKay, Andrew; Levi, Joshua; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Feinberg, Lee

    2015-08-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.5m, segmented, IR telescope that will explore the first light of the universe after the big bang. In 2014, a major risk reduction effort related to the Alignment, Integration, and Test (AI and T) of the segmented telescope was completed. The Pathfinder telescope includes two Primary Mirror Segment Assemblies (PMSA's) and the Secondary Mirror Assembly (SMA) onto a flight-like composite telescope backplane. This pathfinder allowed the JWST team to assess the alignment process and to better understand the various error sources that need to be accommodated in the flight build. The successful completion of the Pathfinder Telescope provides a final integration roadmap for the flight operations that will start in August 2015.

  19. Automated telescope scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1988-01-01

    With the ever increasing level of automation of astronomical telescopes the benefits and feasibility of automated planning and scheduling are becoming more apparent. Improved efficiency and increased overall telescope utilization are the most obvious goals. Automated scheduling at some level has been done for several satellite observatories, but the requirements on these systems were much less stringent than on modern ground or satellite observatories. The scheduling problem is particularly acute for Hubble Space Telescope: virtually all observations must be planned in excruciating detail weeks to months in advance. Space Telescope Science Institute has recently made significant progress on the scheduling problem by exploiting state-of-the-art artificial intelligence software technology. What is especially interesting is that this effort has already yielded software that is well suited to scheduling groundbased telescopes, including the problem of optimizing the coordinated scheduling of more than one telescope.

  20. The Sardinia Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grueff, G.; Alvito, G.; Ambrosini, R.; Bolli, P.; D'Amico, N.; Maccaferri, A.; Maccaferri, G.; Morsiani, M.; Mureddu, L.; Natale, V.; Olmi, L.; Orfei, A.; Pernechele, C.; Poma, A.; Porceddu, I.; Rossi, L.; Zacchiroli, G.

    We describe the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT), a new general purpose, fully steerable antenna of the National Institute for Astrophysics. The radio telescope is under construction near Cagliari (Sardinia). With its large aperture (64m diameter) and its active surface, SRT is capable of operations up to ˜100GHz, it will contribute significantly to VLBI networks and will represent a powerful single-dish radio telescope for many science fields. The radio telescope has a Gregorian optical configuration with a supplementary beam-waveguide (BWG), which provides additional focal points. The Gregorian surfaces are shaped to minimize the spill-over and standing wave. After the start of the contract for the radio telescope structural and mechanical fabrication in 2003, in the present year the foundation construction will be completed. The schedule foresees the radio telescope inauguration in late 2006.

  1. JWST Pathfinder Telescope Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Kennard, Scott H.; Broccolo, Ronald T.; Ellis, James M.; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Hahn, Walter G.; Amon, John N.; Mt. Pleasant, Stephen M.; Texter, Scott; Atkinson, Charles B.; McKay, Andrew; Levi, Joshua; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Feinberg, Lee

    2015-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.5m, segmented, IR telescope that will explore the first light of the universe after the big bang. In 2014, a major risk reduction effort related to the Alignment, Integration, and Test (AI&T) of the segmented telescope was completed. The Pathfinder telescope includes two Primary Mirror Segment Assemblies (PMSA's) and the Secondary Mirror Assembly (SMA) onto a flight-like composite telescope backplane. This pathfinder allowed the JWST team to assess the alignment process and to better understand the various error sources that need to be accommodated in the flight build. The successful completion of the Pathfinder Telescope provides a final integration roadmap for the flight operations that will start in August 2015.

  2. South Pole Telescope optics.

    PubMed

    Padin, S; Staniszewski, Z; Keisler, R; Joy, M; Stark, A A; Ade, P A R; Aird, K A; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; Dobbs, M A; Halverson, N W; Heimsath, S; Hills, R E; Holzapfel, W L; Lawrie, C; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Leong, J; Lu, W; Lueker, M; McMahon, J J; Meyer, S S; Mohr, J J; Montroy, T E; Plagge, T; Pryke, C; Ruhl, J E; Schaffer, K K; Shirokoff, E; Spieler, H G; Vieira, J D

    2008-08-20

    The South Pole Telescope is a 10 m diameter, wide-field, offset Gregorian telescope with a 966-pixel, millimeter-wave, bolometer array receiver. The telescope has an unusual optical system with a cold stop around the secondary. The design emphasizes low scattering and low background loading. All the optical components except the primary are cold, and the entire beam from prime focus to the detectors is surrounded by cold absorber. PMID:18716649

  3. South Pole Telescope optics.

    PubMed

    Padin, S; Staniszewski, Z; Keisler, R; Joy, M; Stark, A A; Ade, P A R; Aird, K A; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; Dobbs, M A; Halverson, N W; Heimsath, S; Hills, R E; Holzapfel, W L; Lawrie, C; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Leong, J; Lu, W; Lueker, M; McMahon, J J; Meyer, S S; Mohr, J J; Montroy, T E; Plagge, T; Pryke, C; Ruhl, J E; Schaffer, K K; Shirokoff, E; Spieler, H G; Vieira, J D

    2008-08-20

    The South Pole Telescope is a 10 m diameter, wide-field, offset Gregorian telescope with a 966-pixel, millimeter-wave, bolometer array receiver. The telescope has an unusual optical system with a cold stop around the secondary. The design emphasizes low scattering and low background loading. All the optical components except the primary are cold, and the entire beam from prime focus to the detectors is surrounded by cold absorber.

  4. LISA Telescope Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The results of a LISA telescope sensitivity analysis will be presented, The emphasis will be on the outgoing beam of the Dall-Kirkham' telescope and its far field phase patterns. The computed sensitivity analysis will include motions of the secondary with respect to the primary, changes in shape of the primary and secondary, effect of aberrations of the input laser beam and the effect the telescope thin film coatings on polarization. An end-to-end optical model will also be discussed.

  5. Telescope performance verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swart, Gerhard P.; Buckley, David A. H.

    2004-09-01

    While Systems Engineering appears to be widely applied on the very large telescopes, it is lacking in the development of many of the medium and small telescopes currently in progress. The latter projects rely heavily on the experience of the project team, verbal requirements and conjecture based on the successes and failures of other telescopes. Furthermore, it is considered an unaffordable luxury to "close-the-loop" by carefully analysing and documenting the requirements and then verifying the telescope's compliance with them. In this paper the authors contend that a Systems Engineering approach is a keystone in the development of any telescope and that verification of the telescope's performance is not only an important management tool but also forms the basis upon which successful telescope operation can be built. The development of the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) has followed such an approach and is now in the verification phase of its development. Parts of the SALT verification process will be discussed in some detail to illustrate the suitability of this approach, including oversight by the telescope shareholders, recording of requirements and results, design verification and performance testing. Initial test results will be presented where appropriate.

  6. LUTE telescope structural design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruthven, Gregory

    1993-01-01

    The major objective of the Lunar Ultraviolet Transit Experiment (LUTE) Telescope Structural Design Study was to investigate the feasibility of designing an ultralightweight 1-m aperture system within optical performance requirements and mass budget constraints. This study uses the results from our previous studies on LUTE as a basis for further developing the LUTE structural architecture. After summarizing our results in Section 2, Section 3 begins with the overall logic we used to determine which telescope 'structural form' should be adopted for further analysis and weight estimates. Specific telescope component analysis showing calculated fundamental frequencies and how they compare with our derived requirements are included. 'First-order' component stress analyses to ensure telescope optical and structural component (i.e. mirrors & main bulkhead) weights are realistic are presented. Layouts of both the primary and tertiary mirrors showing dimensions that are consistent with both our weight and frequency calculations also form part of Section 3. Section 4 presents our calculated values for the predicted thermally induced primary-to-secondary mirror despace motion due to the large temperature range over which LUTE must operate. Two different telescope design approaches (one which utilizes fused quartz metering rods and one which assumes the entire telescope is fabricated from beryllium) are considered in this analysis. We bound the secondary mirror focus mechanism range (in despace) based on these two telescope configurations. In Section 5 we show our overall design of the UVTA (Ultraviolet Telescope Assembly) via an 'exploded view' of the sub-system. The 'exploded view' is annotated to help aid in the understanding of each sub-assembly. We also include a two view layout of the UVTA from which telescope and telescope component dimensions can be measured. We conclude our study with a set of recommendations not only with respect to the LUTE structural architecture

  7. High resolution telescope

    DOEpatents

    Massie, Norbert A.; Oster, Yale

    1992-01-01

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employs speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1 m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12 m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by an electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activites. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes.

  8. Goddard Robotic Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Takanori; Donato, Davide; Gehrels, Neil; Okajima, Takashi; Ukwatta, Tilan N.

    2009-05-01

    We are constructing the 14'' fully automated optical robotic telescope, Goddard Robotic Telescope (GRT), at the Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory. The aims of our robotic telescope are 1) to follow-up the Swift/Fermi Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) and 2) to perform the coordinated optical observations of the Fermi/Large Area Telescope (LAT) Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Our telescope system consists of the 14'' Celestron Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Astro-Physics 1200GTO mount, the Apogee U47 CCD camera, the JMI's electronic focuser, and the Finger Lake Instrumentation's color filter wheel with U, B, V, R and I filters. With the focal reducer, 20'×20' field of view has been achieved. The observatory dome is the Astro Haven's 7 ft clam-shell dome. We started the scientific observations on mid-November 2008. While not observing our primary targets (GRBs and AGNs), we are planning to open our telescope time to the public for having a wider use of our telescope in both a different research field and an educational purpose.

  9. Video Telescope Operating Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Divers, Stephen J

    2015-09-01

    Exotic pet veterinarians frequently have to operate on small animals, and magnification is commonly used. Existing endoscopy equipment can be used with a mechanical arm and telescope to enable video telescope operating microscopy. The additional equipment items and their specifics are described, and several case examples are provided. PMID:26117519

  10. Goddard Robotic Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Takanori; Donato, Davide; Gehrels, Neil; Okajima, Takashi; Ukwatta, Tilan N.

    2009-05-25

    We are constructing the 14'' fully automated optical robotic telescope, Goddard Robotic Telescope (GRT), at the Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory. The aims of our robotic telescope are 1) to follow-up the Swift/Fermi Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) and 2) to perform the coordinated optical observations of the Fermi/Large Area Telescope (LAT) Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Our telescope system consists of the 14'' Celestron Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Astro-Physics 1200GTO mount, the Apogee U47 CCD camera, the JMI's electronic focuser, and the Finger Lake Instrumentation's color filter wheel with U, B, V, R and I filters. With the focal reducer, 20'x20' field of view has been achieved. The observatory dome is the Astro Haven's 7 ft clam-shell dome. We started the scientific observations on mid-November 2008. While not observing our primary targets (GRBs and AGNs), we are planning to open our telescope time to the public for having a wider use of our telescope in both a different research field and an educational purpose.

  11. Video Telescope Operating Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Divers, Stephen J

    2015-09-01

    Exotic pet veterinarians frequently have to operate on small animals, and magnification is commonly used. Existing endoscopy equipment can be used with a mechanical arm and telescope to enable video telescope operating microscopy. The additional equipment items and their specifics are described, and several case examples are provided.

  12. Hubble Space Telescope overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polidan, Ronald S.

    1991-01-01

    A general overview of the performance and current status of the Hubble Space Telescope is presented. Most key spacecraft subsystems are operating well, equaling or exceeding specifications. Spacecraft thermal properties, power, and communications, are superb. The only spacecraft subsystem to have failed, a gyro, is briefly discussed. All science instruments are functioning extremely well and are returning valuable scientific data. The two significant problems effecting the Hubble Space Telescope science return, the pointing jitter produced by thermally induced bending of the solar array wings and the optical telescope assembly spherical aberration, are discussed and plans to repair both problems are mentioned. The possible restoration of full optical performance of the axial scientific instruments through the use of the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement, currently under study for the 1993 servicing mission, is discussed. In addition, an overview of the scientific performance of the Hubble Space Telescope is presented.

  13. The European Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collados, M.; Bettonvil, F.; Cavaller, L.; Ermolli, I.; Gelly, B.; Pérez, A.; Socas-Navarro, H.; Soltau, D.; Volkmer, R.; EST Team

    The European Solar Telescope (EST) is a project to design, build and operate an European Solar 4-meter class telescope to be located in the Canary Islands, with the participation of institutions from fifteen European countries gathered around the consortium EAST (European Association for Solar Telescopes). The project main objective up to the present has been the development of the conceptual design study (DS) of a large aperture Solar Telescope. The study has demonstrated the scientific, technical and financial feasibility of EST. The DS has been possible thanks to the co-financing allocated specifically by the EU and the combined efforts of all the participant institutions. Different existing alternatives have been analysed for all telescope systems and subsystems, and decisions have been taken on the ones that are most compatible with the scientific goals and the technical strategies. The present status of some subsystems is reviewed in this paper.

  14. The GBT precision telescope control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestage, Richard M.; Constantikes, Kim T.; Balser, Dana S.; Condon, James J.

    2004-10-01

    The NRAO Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) is a 100m diameter advanced single dish radio telescope designed for a wide range of astronomical projects with special emphasis on precision imaging. Open-loop adjustments of the active surface, and real-time corrections to pointing and focus on the basis of structural temperatures already allow observations at frequencies up to 50GHz. Our ultimate goal is to extend the observing frequency limit up to 115GHz; this will require a two dimensional tracking error better than 1.3", and an rms surface accuracy better than 210μm. The Precision Telescope Control System project has two main components. One aspect is the continued deployment of appropriate metrology systems, including temperature sensors, inclinometers, laser rangefinders and other devices. An improved control system architecture will harness this measurement capability with the existing servo systems, to deliver the precision operation required. The second aspect is the execution of a series of experiments to identify, understand and correct the residual pointing and surface accuracy errors. These can have multiple causes, many of which depend on variable environmental conditions. A particularly novel approach is to solve simultaneously for gravitational, thermal and wind effects in the development of the telescope pointing and focus tracking models. Our precision temperature sensor system has already allowed us to compensate for thermal gradients in the antenna, which were previously responsible for the largest "non-repeatable" pointing and focus tracking errors. We are currently targetting the effects of wind as the next, currently uncompensated, source of error.

  15. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON: NORAMET intercomparison of volume standards at 50 mL and 100 mL (SIM.M.FF-S1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, C.; Trujillo Juarez, S.; Maldonado, J. M.; Bean, V.

    2003-01-01

    An intercomparison of volume standards, 50 mL and 100 mL pycnometers, was decided on at the NORAMET Technical Contacts Meeting of 8-9 June 1998. The participating laboratories were CENAM, NIST, and NRC. NRC acted as the pilot laboratory. The comparison was done between April 1999 and October 1999. The pycnometers were not protected against evaporation by a supplementary cap. Even with this handicap, the three laboratories agreed with one another very well. The difference between maximum and minimum reported volumes never exceeded 0.014%. This comparison was assigned the number SIM.M.FF-S1. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the SIM, according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  16. Total body 100-mGy X-irradiation does not induce Alzheimer's disease-like pathogenesis or memory impairment in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bing; Tanaka, Kaoru; Ji, Bin; Ono, Maiko; Fang, Yaqun; Ninomiya, Yasuharu; Maruyama, Kouichi; Izumi-Nakajima, Nakako; Begum, Nasrin; Higuchi, Makoto; Fujimori, Akira; Uehara, Yoshihiko; Nakajima, Tetsuo; Suhara, Tetsuya; Ono, Tetsuya; Nenoi, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    The cause and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are poorly understood. Possible cognitive and behavioral consequences induced by low-dose radiation are important because humans are exposed to ionizing radiation from various sources. Early transcriptional response in murine brain to low-dose X-rays (100 mGy) has been reported, suggesting alterations of molecular networks and pathways associated with cognitive functions, advanced aging and AD. To investigate acute and late transcriptional, pathological and cognitive consequences of low-dose radiation, we applied an acute dose of 100-mGy total body irradiation (TBI) with X-rays to C57BL/6J Jms mice. We collected hippocampi and analyzed expression of 84 AD-related genes. Mouse learning ability and memory were assessed with the Morris water maze test. We performed in vivo PET scans with 11C-PIB, a radiolabeled ligand for amyloid imaging, to detect fibrillary amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) accumulation, and examined characteristic AD pathologies with immunohistochemical staining of amyloid precursor protein (APP), Aβ, tau and phosphorylated tau (p-tau). mRNA studies showed significant downregulation of only two of 84 AD-related genes, Apbb1 and Lrp1, at 4 h after irradiation, and of only one gene, Il1α, at 1 year after irradiation. Spatial learning ability and memory were not significantly affected at 1 or 2 years after irradiation. No induction of amyloid fibrillogenesis or changes in APP, Aβ, tau, or p-tau expression was detected at 4 months or 2 years after irradiation. TBI induced early or late transcriptional alteration in only a few AD-related genes but did not significantly affect spatial learning, memory or AD-like pathological change in mice. PMID:23908553

  17. Total body 100-mGy X-irradiation does not induce Alzheimer's disease-like pathogenesis or memory impairment in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Tanaka, Kaoru; Ji, Bin; Ono, Maiko; Fang, Yaqun; Ninomiya, Yasuharu; Maruyama, Kouichi; Izumi-Nakajima, Nakako; Begum, Nasrin; Higuchi, Makoto; Fujimori, Akira; Uehara, Yoshihiko; Nakajima, Tetsuo; Suhara, Tetsuya; Ono, Tetsuya; Nenoi, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    The cause and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are poorly understood. Possible cognitive and behavioral consequences induced by low-dose radiation are important because humans are exposed to ionizing radiation from various sources. Early transcriptional response in murine brain to low-dose X-rays (100 mGy) has been reported, suggesting alterations of molecular networks and pathways associated with cognitive functions, advanced aging and AD. To investigate acute and late transcriptional, pathological and cognitive consequences of low-dose radiation, we applied an acute dose of 100-mGy total body irradiation (TBI) with X-rays to C57BL/6J Jms mice. We collected hippocampi and analyzed expression of 84 AD-related genes. Mouse learning ability and memory were assessed with the Morris water maze test. We performed in vivo PET scans with (11)C-PIB, a radiolabeled ligand for amyloid imaging, to detect fibrillary amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) accumulation, and examined characteristic AD pathologies with immunohistochemical staining of amyloid precursor protein (APP), Aβ, tau and phosphorylated tau (p-tau). mRNA studies showed significant downregulation of only two of 84 AD-related genes, Apbb1 and Lrp1, at 4 h after irradiation, and of only one gene, Il1α, at 1 year after irradiation. Spatial learning ability and memory were not significantly affected at 1 or 2 years after irradiation. No induction of amyloid fibrillogenesis or changes in APP, Aβ, tau, or p-tau expression was detected at 4 months or 2 years after irradiation. TBI induced early or late transcriptional alteration in only a few AD-related genes but did not significantly affect spatial learning, memory or AD-like pathological change in mice.

  18. Two Easily Made Astronomical Telescopes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, M.; Jacobs, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    The directions and diagrams for making a reflecting telescope and a refracting telescope are presented. These telescopes can be made by students out of plumbing parts and easily obtainable, inexpensive, optical components. (KR)

  19. The large binocular telescope.

    PubMed

    Hill, John M

    2010-06-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Observatory is a collaboration among institutions in Arizona, Germany, Italy, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio, and Virginia. The telescope on Mount Graham in Southeastern Arizona uses two 8.4 m diameter primary mirrors mounted side by side. A unique feature of the LBT is that the light from the two Gregorian telescope sides can be combined to produce phased-array imaging of an extended field. This cophased imaging along with adaptive optics gives the telescope the diffraction-limited resolution of a 22.65 m aperture and a collecting area equivalent to an 11.8 m circular aperture. This paper describes the design, construction, and commissioning of this unique telescope. We report some sample astronomical results with the prime focus cameras. We comment on some of the technical challenges and solutions. The telescope uses two F/15 adaptive secondaries to correct atmospheric turbulence. The first of these adaptive mirrors has completed final system testing in Firenze, Italy, and is planned to be at the telescope by Spring 2010. PMID:20517352

  20. The large binocular telescope.

    PubMed

    Hill, John M

    2010-06-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Observatory is a collaboration among institutions in Arizona, Germany, Italy, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio, and Virginia. The telescope on Mount Graham in Southeastern Arizona uses two 8.4 m diameter primary mirrors mounted side by side. A unique feature of the LBT is that the light from the two Gregorian telescope sides can be combined to produce phased-array imaging of an extended field. This cophased imaging along with adaptive optics gives the telescope the diffraction-limited resolution of a 22.65 m aperture and a collecting area equivalent to an 11.8 m circular aperture. This paper describes the design, construction, and commissioning of this unique telescope. We report some sample astronomical results with the prime focus cameras. We comment on some of the technical challenges and solutions. The telescope uses two F/15 adaptive secondaries to correct atmospheric turbulence. The first of these adaptive mirrors has completed final system testing in Firenze, Italy, and is planned to be at the telescope by Spring 2010.

  1. Telescopic vision contact lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Eric J.; Beer, R. Dirk; Arianpour, Ashkan; Ford, Joseph E.

    2011-03-01

    We present the concept, optical design, and first proof of principle experimental results for a telescopic contact lens intended to become a visual aid for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), providing magnification to the user without surgery or external head-mounted optics. Our contact lens optical system can provide a combination of telescopic and non-magnified vision through two independent optical paths through the contact lens. The magnified optical path incorporates a telescopic arrangement of positive and negative annular concentric reflectors to achieve 2.8x - 3x magnification on the eye, while light passing through a central clear aperture provides unmagnified vision.

  2. Cooled infrared telescope development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. S.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of the design concept for a 1-m-aperture, cryogenically cooled telescope for Spacelab is assessed. The device makes use of double-folded Gregorian reflective optics. The planned cryogen is helium, and beryllium will be used for the 1.2 m primary mirror. Results of studies based on smaller instruments indicate that no new technology will be required to construct a Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility which will offer improvement over the sensitivity of conventional telescopes by a factor of 1000 at 10 micrometers.

  3. Multi-use lunar telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Mark; Hine, Butler; Genet, Russell; Genet, David; Talent, David; Boyd, Louis; Trueblood, Mark; Filippenko, Alexei V. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The objective of multi-use telescopes is to reduce the initial and operational costs of space telescopes to the point where a fair number of telescopes, a dozen or so, would be affordable. The basic approach is to develop a common telescope, control system, and power and communications subsystem that can be used with a wide variety of instrument payloads, i.e., imaging CCD cameras, photometers, spectrographs, etc. By having such a multi-use and multi-user telescope, a common practice for earth-based telescopes, development cost can be shared across many telescopes, and the telescopes can be produced in economical batches.

  4. Webb Telescope: Planetary Evolution

    NASA Video Gallery

    Stars and planets form in the dark, inside vast, cold clouds of gas and dust. The James Webb Space Telescope's large mirror and infrared sensitivity will let astronomers peer inside dusty knots whe...

  5. The Large Millimeter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schloerb, F. Peter; Carrasco, Luis

    2004-10-01

    We present a summary of the Large Millimeter Telescope Project and its present status. The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts (UMass) in the USA and the Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE) in Mexico to build a 50m-diameter millimeter-wave telescope. The LMT is being built at an altitude of 4600 m atop Volcan Sierra Negra, an extinct volcanic peak in the state of Puebla, Mexico, approximately 100 km east of the city of Puebla. Construction of the antenna is now well underway. The basic structure with a limited number of surface panels is expected to be completed in 2005. Engineering acceptance and telescope commissioning are expected to be completed in 2007.

  6. Composite Space Telescope Truss

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA engineers are recycling an idea for a lightweight, compact space telescope structure from the early 1990s. The 315 struts and 84 nodes were originally designed to enable spacewalking astronaut...

  7. Building a Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linas, Chris F.

    1988-01-01

    Provides information on the parts, materials, prices, dimensions, and tools needed for the construction of a telescope that can be used in high school science laboratories. Includes step-by-step directions and a diagram for assembly. (RT)

  8. Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, S. G.

    1976-01-01

    The Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) will combine high sensitivity with the flexibility offered by the Space Transportation System. A recently completed study has generated a preliminary design which demonstrates the feasibility of SIRTF. The 1.0 to 1.5 meter aperture, f/8 Gregorian telescope will be cooled to 20 K by a stored supercritical helium system. The telescope will be pointed and stabilized at two levels: the European-developed Instrument Pointing System provides primary pointing and stabilization; and an internal star tracker senses residual errors and drives a folding mirror inside the telescope to null the errors. The folding mirror can also be driven by square or triangular waves to provide space chopping or small-area scanning.

  9. Telescopes in History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, P.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The precise origins of the optical telescope are hidden in the depths of time. In the thirteenth century Roger Bacon claimed to have devised a combination of lenses which enabled him to see distant objects as if they were near. Others who have an unsubstantiated claim to have invented the telescope in the sixteenth century include an Englishman, Leonard DIGGES, and an Italian, Giovanni Batista Po...

  10. Hubble Space Telescope Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This image illustrates the overall Hubble Space Telescope (HST) configuration. The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  11. LISA Telescope Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) for the detection of Gravitational Waves is a very long baseline interferometer which will measure the changes in the distance of a five million kilometer arm to picometer accuracies. As with any optical system, even one with such very large separations between the transmitting and receiving, telescopes, a sensitivity analysis should be performed to see how, in this case, the far field phase varies when the telescope parameters change as a result of small temperature changes.

  12. Comparison of separations of fatty acids from fish products using a 30-m Supelcowax-10 and a 100-m SP-2560 column.

    PubMed

    Santercole, Viviana; Delmonte, Pierluigi; Kramer, John K G

    2012-03-01

    Commercial fish oils and foods containing fish may contain trans and/or isomerized fatty acids (FA) produced during processing or as part of prepared foods. The current American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) official method for marine oils (method Ce 1i-07) is based on separation by use of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) columns, for example Supelcowax-10 or equivalent, which do not resolve most unsaturated FA geometric isomers. Highly polar 100-m cyanopropyl siloxane (CPS) columns, for example SP-2560 and CP Sil 88 are recommended for separation of geometric FA isomers. Complementary separations were achieved by use of two different elution temperature programs with the same CPS column. This study is the first direct comparison of the separations achieved by use of 30-m Supelcowax-10 and 100-m SP-2560 columns for fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) prepared from the same fish oil and fish muscle sample. To simplify the identification of the FA in these fish samples, FA were fractionated on the basis of the number and type of double bonds by silver-ion solid-phase extraction (Ag⁺-SPE) before GC analysis. The results showed that a combination of the three GC separations was necessary to resolve and identify most of the unsaturated FA, FA isomers, and other components of fish products, for example phytanic and phytenic acids. Equivalent chain length (ECL) values of most FAME in fish were calculated from the separations achieved by use of both GC columns; the values obtained were shown to be consistent with previously reported values for the Supelcowax-10 column. ECL values were also calculated for the FA separated on the SP-2560 column. The calculated ECL values were equally valid under isothermal and temperature-programmed elution GC conditions, and were valuable for confirmation of the identity of several unsaturated FAME in the fish samples. When analyzing commercially prepared fish foods, deodorized marine oils, or foods fortified with marine oils it is strongly

  13. Amplification of broad-band chirped pulses up to the 100-mJ level using alexandrite-pumped neodymium-doped glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Gamache, C.; Husson, D.; Seznec, S.; Descamps, D.; Migus, A. |

    1996-08-01

    In this work, the authors are concerned by the amplification of broad-band energetic pulses in laser-pumped Nd:glasses, with obvious applications to ultrashort pulse technology, but also to a front end for the envisioned Megajoules Nd:glass laser facility devoted to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) studies and ignition demonstration. An alexandrite laser is used to longitudinally end-pump mixed Nd:glass rods in a multipass arrangement in order to amplify chirped pulses in the 50--100-mJ range at a 1-Hz repetition rate. This system has a broad-band capability of up to 8--10 nm output bandwidth. The authors have developed a model, which in the specific case of amplification of chirped-pulse, takes into account the exact configuration of the rods, their spectral properties, and the longitudinal pumping geometry. An agreement between experiment and theory is obtained by assuming a pump quantum efficiency of the order of 60%.

  14. Uniform transport performance of a 100 m-class multifilament MgB2 wire fabricated by an internal Mg diffusion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dongliang; Xu, Da; Zhang, Xianping; Yao, Chao; Yuan, Pusheng; Ma, Yanwei; Oguro, Hidetoshi; Awaji, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2016-06-01

    A 100 m long six-filament MgB2 wire was successfully fabricated using an internal magnesium diffusion (IMD) process. We investigated the transport properties and the uniformity of this long multifilament IMD wire. The MgB2 layer and the sub-filament region are regular, and the J c values have a fairly homogenous distribution throughout the wire, suggesting that there were no obvious defects along the length of the wire. The uniformity problem of long multifilament IMD MgB2 wires can be mitigated by optimizing the starting composite parameters, multifilament geometry, fabricating process and annealing conditions. A layer J c as high as 1.2 × 105 A cm-2 at 4.2 K and 8 T was obtained, which was comparable with the highest reported value for a short multifilament IMD wire. The transport layer J c, non-barrier J c and J e values are independent of the wire diameter. In addition, the analysis of the stress-strain characteristics and the n value of the IMD wire is also presented. These results indicate that the long multifilament IMD-processed MgB2 superconducting wire is suitable for practical applications.

  15. PULMONARY ARTERIAL DISEASE ASSOCIATED WITH RIGHT-SIDED CARDIAC HYPERTROPHY AND CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE IN ZOO MAMMALS HOUSED AT 2,100 M ABOVE SEA LEVEL.

    PubMed

    Juan-Sallés, Carles; Martínez, Liliana Sofía; Rosas-Rosas, Arely G; Parás, Alberto; Martínez, Osvaldo; Hernández, Alejandra; Garner, Michael M

    2015-12-01

    Subacute and chronic mountain sickness of humans and the related brisket disease of cattle are characterized by right-sided congestive heart failure in individuals living at high altitudes as a result of sustained hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Adaptations to high altitude and disease resistance vary among species, breeds, and individuals. The authors conducted a retrospective survey of right-sided cardiac hypertrophy associated with pulmonary arterial hypertrophy or arteriosclerosis in zoo mammals housed at Africam Safari (Puebla, México), which is located at 2,100 m above sea level. Seventeen animals with detailed pathology records matched the study criterion. Included were 10 maras (Dolichotis patagonum), 2 cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus oedipus), 2 capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris), and 1 case each of Bennet's wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus), nilgai antelope (Boselaphus tragocamelus), and scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah). All had right-sided cardiac hypertrophy and a variety of arterial lesions restricted to the pulmonary circulation and causing arterial thickening with narrowing of the arterial lumen. Arterial lesions most often consisted of medial hypertrophy or hyperplasia of small and medium-sized pulmonary arteries. All maras also had single or multiple elevated plaques in the pulmonary arterial trunk consisting of fibrosis, accompanied by chondroid metaplasia in some cases. Both antelopes were juvenile and died with right-sided congestive heart failure associated with severe pulmonary arterial lesions. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of cardiac and pulmonary arterial disease in zoo mammals housed at high altitudes.

  16. PULMONARY ARTERIAL DISEASE ASSOCIATED WITH RIGHT-SIDED CARDIAC HYPERTROPHY AND CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE IN ZOO MAMMALS HOUSED AT 2,100 M ABOVE SEA LEVEL.

    PubMed

    Juan-Sallés, Carles; Martínez, Liliana Sofía; Rosas-Rosas, Arely G; Parás, Alberto; Martínez, Osvaldo; Hernández, Alejandra; Garner, Michael M

    2015-12-01

    Subacute and chronic mountain sickness of humans and the related brisket disease of cattle are characterized by right-sided congestive heart failure in individuals living at high altitudes as a result of sustained hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Adaptations to high altitude and disease resistance vary among species, breeds, and individuals. The authors conducted a retrospective survey of right-sided cardiac hypertrophy associated with pulmonary arterial hypertrophy or arteriosclerosis in zoo mammals housed at Africam Safari (Puebla, México), which is located at 2,100 m above sea level. Seventeen animals with detailed pathology records matched the study criterion. Included were 10 maras (Dolichotis patagonum), 2 cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus oedipus), 2 capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris), and 1 case each of Bennet's wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus), nilgai antelope (Boselaphus tragocamelus), and scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah). All had right-sided cardiac hypertrophy and a variety of arterial lesions restricted to the pulmonary circulation and causing arterial thickening with narrowing of the arterial lumen. Arterial lesions most often consisted of medial hypertrophy or hyperplasia of small and medium-sized pulmonary arteries. All maras also had single or multiple elevated plaques in the pulmonary arterial trunk consisting of fibrosis, accompanied by chondroid metaplasia in some cases. Both antelopes were juvenile and died with right-sided congestive heart failure associated with severe pulmonary arterial lesions. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of cardiac and pulmonary arterial disease in zoo mammals housed at high altitudes. PMID:26667539

  17. The Multiple-Mirror Telescope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carleton, Nathaniel P.; Hoffmann, William F.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the basic design and principle of operating an optical-infrared telescope, the MMT. This third largest telescope in the world represents a new stage in telescope design; it uses a cluster of six reflecting telescopes, and relies on an automatic sensing and control system. (GA)

  18. Construction Milestone Announced on Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-04-01

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory announces completion of a major construction milestone on the world's largest fully steerable radio telescope - the National Science Foundation's Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The last of 2,004 aluminum surface panels was recently installed on the GBT's two-acre (100 m x 110 m) collecting dish. The telescope is located at NRAO's Green Bank site, in rural Pocahontas County, West Virginia. The GBT will be used to study everything from the formation of galaxies in the early universe, to the chemical make-up of the dust and gas inside galaxies and in the voids that separate them, to the birth processes of stars. In conjunction with other instruments, it will help make highly accurate radar maps of some familiar objects in our own solar system. The GBT is an engineering marvel. At 485 feet tall, it is comparable in height to the Washington Monument. It weighs 16 million pounds, yet by swiveling the dish in both azimuth and elevation, it can be pointed to any point in the sky with exquisite accuracy. Additionally, the telescope's two-acre collecting dish has many novel features. Most radio telescopes in use today use receivers suspended above the dish by four struts. These struts block some of the surface of the dish, scattering some of the incoming radio waves from celestial objects under study. The GBT's offset feedarm has no struts to block incoming radio waves. The GBT also boasts an active surface. The surface of the dish is composed of 2,004 panels. On the underside of the dish, actuators are located at each corner (i.e., intersection of four panels). These actuators are motors that move the surface panels up and down, keeping the (paraboloid) shape of the dish precisely adjusted, no matter what the tilt of the telescope. The combination of its unblocked aperture and active surface promise that the GBT will display extremely high sensitivity to faint radio signals. The GBT itself is not the only precious national resource in

  19. The South Pole Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Ruhl, J.E.; Ade, P.A.R.; Carlstrom, J.E.; Cho, H.M.; Crawford,T.; Dobbs, M.; Greer, C.H.; Halverson, N.W.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Lanting,T.M.; Lee, A.T.; Leitch, E.M.; Leong, J.; Lu, W.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S.S.; Mohr, J.J.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Runyan, M.C.; Schwan, D.; Sharp, M.K.; Spieler, H.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A.A.

    2004-11-04

    A new 10 meter diameter telescope is being constructed for deployment at the NSF South Pole research station. The telescope is designed for conducting large-area millimeter and sub-millimeter wave surveys of faint, low contrast emission, as required to map primary and secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. To achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, the telescope design employs an off-axis primary with a 10 m diameter clear aperture. The full aperture and the associated optics will have a combined surface accuracy of better than 20 microns rms to allow precision operation in the submillimeter atmospheric windows. The telescope will be surrounded with a large reflecting ground screen to reduce sensitivity to thermal emission from the ground and local interference. The optics of the telescope will support a square degree field of view at 2mm wavelength and will feed a new 1000-element micro-lithographed planar bolometric array with superconducting transition-edge sensors and frequency-multiplexed readouts. The first key project will be to conduct a survey over 4000 degrees for galaxy clusters using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect. This survey should find many thousands of clusters with a mass selection criteria that is remarkably uniform with redshift. Armed with redshifts obtained from optical and infrared follow-up observations, it is expected that the survey will enable significant constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy.

  20. Robotic and Survey Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woźniak, Przemysław

    Robotic telescopes are revolutionizing the way astronomers collect their dataand conduct sky surveys. This chapter begins with a discussion of principles thatguide the process of designing, constructing, and operating telescopes andobservatories that offer a varying degree of automation, from instruments remotelycontrolled by observers to fully autonomous systems requiring no humansupervision during their normal operations. Emphasis is placed on designtrade-offs involved in building end-to-end systems intended for a wide range ofscience applications. The second part of the chapter contains descriptions ofseveral projects and instruments, both existing and currently under development.It is an attempt to provide a representative selection of actual systems thatillustrates state of the art in technology, as well as important ideas and milestonesin the development of the field. The list of presented instruments spans the fullrange in size starting from small all-sky monitors, through midrange robotic andsurvey telescopes, and finishing with large robotic instruments and surveys.Explosive growth of telescope networking is enabling entirely new modesof interaction between the survey and follow-up observing. Increasingimportance of standardized communication protocols and software is stressed.These developments are driven by the fusion of robotic telescope hardware,massive storage and databases, real-time knowledge extraction, and datacross-correlation on a global scale. The chapter concludes with examplesof major science results enabled by these new technologies and futureprospects.

  1. Telescope Adaptive Optics Code

    2005-07-28

    The Telescope AO Code has general adaptive optics capabilities plus specialized models for three telescopes with either adaptive optics or active optics systems. It has the capability to generate either single-layer or distributed Kolmogorov turbulence phase screens using the FFT. Missing low order spatial frequencies are added using the Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The phase structure curve is extremely dose to the theoreUcal. Secondly, it has the capability to simulate an adaptive optics control systems. The defaultmore » parameters are those of the Keck II adaptive optics system. Thirdly, it has a general wave optics capability to model the science camera halo due to scintillation from atmospheric turbulence and the telescope optics. Although this capability was implemented for the Gemini telescopes, the only default parameter specific to the Gemini telescopes is the primary mirror diameter. Finally, it has a model for the LSST active optics alignment strategy. This last model is highly specific to the LSST« less

  2. Spectroradiometry with space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauluhn, Anuschka; Huber, Martin C. E.; Smith, Peter L.; Colina, Luis

    2015-12-01

    Radiometry, i.e. measuring the power of electromagnetic radiation—hitherto often referred to as "photometry"—is of fundamental importance in astronomy. We provide an overview of how to achieve a valid laboratory calibration of space telescopes and discuss ways to reliably extend this calibration to the spectroscopic telescope's performance in space. A lot of effort has been, and still is going into radiometric "calibration" of telescopes once they are in space; these methods use celestial primary and transfer standards and are based in part on stellar models. The history of the calibration of the Hubble Space Telescope serves as a platform to review these methods. However, we insist that a true calibration of spectroscopic space telescopes must directly be based on and traceable to laboratory standards, and thus be independent of the observations. This has recently become a well-supported aim, following the discovery of the acceleration of the cosmic expansion by use of type-Ia supernovae, and has led to plans for launching calibration rockets for the visible and infrared spectral range. This is timely, too, because an adequate exploitation of data from present space missions, such as Gaia, and from many current astronomical projects like Euclid and WFIRST demands higher radiometric accuracy than is generally available today. A survey of the calibration of instruments observing from the X-ray to the infrared spectral domains that include instrument- or mission-specific estimates of radiometric accuracies rounds off this review.

  3. Monolithic afocal telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, William T. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An afocal monolithic optical element formed of a shallow cylinder of optical material (glass, polymer, etc.) with fast aspheric surfaces, nominally confocal paraboloids, configured on the front and back surfaces. The front surface is substantially planar, and this lends itself to deposition of multi-layer stacks of thin dielectric and metal films to create a filter for rejecting out-of-band light. However, an aspheric section (for example, a paraboloid) can either be ground into a small area of this surface (for a Cassegrain-type telescope) or attached to the planar surface (for a Gregorian-type telescope). This aspheric section of the surface is then silvered to create the telescope's secondary mirror. The rear surface of the cylinder is figured into a steep, convex asphere (again, a paraboloid in the examples), and also made reflective to form the telescope's primary mirror. A small section of the rear surface (approximately the size of the secondary obscuration, depending on the required field of the telescope) is ground flat to provide an unpowered surface through which the collimated light beam can exit the optical element. This portion of the rear surface is made to transmit the light concentrated by the reflective surfaces, and can support the deposition of a spectral filter.

  4. The Travelling Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murabona Oduori, Susan

    2015-08-01

    The telescope has been around for more than 400 years, and through good use of it scientists have made many astonishing discoveries and begun to understand our place in the universe. Most people, however, have never looked through one. Yet it is a great tool for cool science and observation especially in a continent and country with beautifully dark skies. The Travelling Telescope project aims to invite people outside under the stars to learn about those curious lights in the sky.The Travelling Telescope aims to promote science learning to a wide range of Kenyan schools in various locations exchanging knowledge about the sky through direct observations of celestial bodies using state of the art telescopes. In addition to direct observing we also teach science using various hands-on activities and astronomy software, ideal for explaining concepts which are hard to understand, and for a better grasp of the sights visible through the telescope. We are dedicated to promoting science using astronomy especially in schools, targeting children from as young as 3 years to the youth, teachers, their parents and members of the public. Our presentation focuses on the OAD funded project in rural coastal Kenya.

  5. Segmented telescopes co-phasing using Pyramid Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Simone; Devaney, Nicholas

    The high resolution performance of present segmented mirror telescopes like 10m Keck and GTC or the future generation of ELT's like 100m OWL, 50m MAXAT, and 30 CELT will depend critically an the accurate co-phasing of the mirror segments. This paper describes the use of a Pyramid wavefron sensor to detect and correct the segments misalignement. The sensing operation is performed using light from a natural reference star. Our simulations take into account various effects like the atmospheric wavefront disturbances that take place during the sensing process, the bandwith of the detected light and wavefront perturbation static aberration of the telescope optics due to decentering, tilting and so on. The achieved results in terms of the segmented mirror residual phase rms are shown and discussed.

  6. Replacement of the Green Bank Telescope azimuth track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Robert; Symmes, Arthur; Egan, Dennis

    2008-07-01

    The azimuth track of the Green Bank Telescope did not perform as designed. Relative movement of components was noted during construction; in addition, fretting of the base plate and wear plate faying surfaces, fatigue cracking of the wear plates, fatigue failure of wear plate fasteners, and deterioration of the cementitous grout layer occurred at a rapid pace during the first few years of operation. After extensive failure analysis, a new system of components was designed and fabricated, and installation of the components was performed during 2007 (Symmes, Anderson, and Egan, "Improving the service life of the 100m Green Bank Telescope azimuth track", SPIE 7012-121). The highlights and lessons learned during the fabrication and installation phases are described herein. This information will benefit any organization performing a similar replacement, and may be helpful in new installations as well.

  7. Magnetic Nickel iron Electroformed Trap (MagNET): a master/replica fabrication strategy for ultra-high throughput (>100 mL h(-1)) immunomagnetic sorting.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jina; Yelleswarapu, Venkata; Singh, Anup; Shah, Nishal; Issadore, David

    2016-08-01

    Microfluidic devices can sort immunomagnetically labeled cells with sensitivity and specificity much greater than that of conventional methods, primarily because the size of microfluidic channels and micro-scale magnets can be matched to that of individual cells. However, these small feature sizes come at the expense of limited throughput (ϕ < 5 mL h(-1)) and susceptibility to clogging, which have hindered current microfluidic technology from processing relevant volumes of clinical samples, e.g. V > 10 mL whole blood. Here, we report a new approach to micromagnetic sorting that can achieve highly specific cell separation in unprocessed complex samples at a throughput (ϕ > 100 mL h(-1)) 100× greater than that of conventional microfluidics. To achieve this goal, we have devised a new approach to micromagnetic sorting, the magnetic nickel iron electroformed trap (MagNET), which enables high flow rates by having millions of micromagnetic traps operate in parallel. Our design rotates the conventional microfluidic approach by 90° to form magnetic traps at the edges of pores instead of in channels, enabling millions of the magnetic traps to be incorporated into a centimeter sized device. Unlike previous work, where magnetic structures were defined using conventional microfabrication, we take inspiration from soft lithography and create a master from which many replica electroformed magnetic micropore devices can be economically manufactured. These free-standing 12 μm thick permalloy (Ni80Fe20) films contain micropores of arbitrary shape and position, allowing the device to be tailored for maximal capture efficiency and throughput. We demonstrate MagNET's capabilities by fabricating devices with both circular and rectangular pores and use these devices to rapidly (ϕ = 180 mL h(-1)) and specifically sort rare tumor cells from white blood cells. PMID:27170379

  8. Human muscle net K(+) release during exercise is unaffected by elevated anaerobic metabolism, but reduced after prolonged acclimatization to 4,100 m.

    PubMed

    Nordsborg, Nikolai B; Calbet, José A L; Sander, Mikael; van Hall, Gerrit; Juel, Carsten; Saltin, Bengt; Lundby, Carsten

    2010-07-01

    It was investigated whether skeletal muscle K(+) release is linked to the degree of anaerobic energy production. Six subjects performed an incremental bicycle exercise test in normoxic and hypoxic conditions prior to and after 2 and 8 wk of acclimatization to 4,100 m. The highest workload completed by all subjects in all trials was 260 W. With acute hypoxic exposure prior to acclimatization, venous plasma [K(+)] was lower (P < 0.05) in normoxia (4.9 +/- 0.1 mM) than hypoxia (5.2 +/- 0.2 mM) at 260 W, but similar at exhaustion, which occurred at 400 +/- 9 W and 307 +/- 7 W (P < 0.05), respectively. At the same absolute exercise intensity, leg net K(+) release was unaffected by hypoxic exposure independent of acclimatization. After 8 wk of acclimatization, no difference existed in venous plasma [K(+)] between the normoxic and hypoxic trial, either at submaximal intensities or at exhaustion (360 +/- 14 W vs. 313 +/- 8 W; P < 0.05). At the same absolute exercise intensity, leg net K(+) release was less (P < 0.001) than prior to acclimatization and reached negative values in both hypoxic and normoxic conditions after acclimatization. Moreover, the reduction in plasma volume during exercise relative to rest was less (P < 0.01) in normoxic than hypoxic conditions, irrespective of the degree of acclimatization (at 260 W prior to acclimatization: -4.9 +/- 0.8% in normoxia and -10.0 +/- 0.4% in hypoxia). It is concluded that leg net K(+) release is unrelated to anaerobic energy production and that acclimatization reduces leg net K(+) release during exercise.

  9. A transition-edge-sensor-based instrument for the measurement of individual He2* excimers in a superfluid 4He bath at 100 mK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Faustin Wirkus

    This dissertation is an account of the first calorimetric detection of individual He*2 excimers within a bath of superfluid 4He. When superfluid helium is subject to ionizing radiation, diatomic He molecules are created in both the singlet and triplet states. The singlet He molecules decay within nanoseconds, but due to a forbidden spin-flip the triplet molecules have a relatively long lifetime of 13 seconds in superfluid He. When He* 2 molecules decay, they emit a ~15 eV photon. Nearly all matter is opaque to these vacuum-UV photons, although they do propagate through liquid helium. The triplet state excimers propagate ballistically through the superfluid until they quench upon a surface; this process deposits a large amount of energy into the surface. The prospect of detecting both excimer states is the motivation for building a detector immersed directly in the superfluid bath. The detector used in this work is a single superconducting titanium transition edge sensor (TES). The TES is mounted inside a hermetically sealed chamber at the baseplate of a dilution refrigerator. The chamber contains superfluid helium at 100 mK. Excimers are created during the relaxation of high-energy electrons, which are introduced into the superfluid bath either in situ via a sharp tungsten tip held above the field-emission voltage, or by using an external gamma-ray source to ionize He atoms. These excimers either propagate through the LHe bath and quench on a surface, or decay and emit vacuum-ultraviolet photons that can be collected by the detector. This dissertation discusses the design, construction, and calibration of the TES-based excimer detecting instrument. It also presents the first spectra resulting from the direct detection of individual singlet and triplet helium excimers.

  10. Amateur Telescope Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonkin, Stephen

    Many amateur astronomers make their own instruments, either because of financial considerations or because they are just interested. Amateur Telescope Making offers a variety of designs for telescopes, mounts and drives which are suitable for the home-constructor. The designs range from simple to advanced, but all are within the range of a moderately well-equipped home workshop. The book not only tells the reader what he can construct, but also what it is sensible to construct given what time is available commercially. Thus each chapter begins with reasons for undertaking the project, then looks at theoretical consideration before finishing with practical instructions and advice. An indication is given as to the skills required for the various projects. Appendices list reputable sources of (mail order) materials and components. The telescopes and mounts range from "shoestring" (very cheap) instruments to specialist devices that are unavailable commercially.

  11. The Large Millimeter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Grovas, Alfonso Serrano; Schloerb, F. Peter; Hughes, David; Yun, Min

    2006-06-01

    We present a summary of the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) Project and its current status. The LMT is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts (UMass) in the USA and the Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE) in Mexico to build a 50m-diameter millimeter-wave telescope. The LMT site is at an altitude of 4600 m atop Volcan Sierra Negra, an extinct volcanic peak in the state of Puebla, Mexico, approximately 100 km east of the city of Puebla. Construction of the antenna steel structure has been completed and the antenna drive system has been installed. Fabrication of the reflector surface is underway. The telescope is expected to be completed in 2008.

  12. The Sardinia Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Nichi

    2011-08-01

    We present the status of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) project, a new general purpose, fully steerable 64 m diameter parabolic radio telescope under construction in Sardinia. The instrument is funded by Italian Ministry of University and Research (MIUR), by the Sardinia Regional Government (RAS), and by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), and it is charge to three research structures of the National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF): the Institute of Radio Astronomy of Bologna, the Cagliari Astronomical Observatory (in Sardinia), and the Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory in Florence. The radio telescope has a shaped Gregorian optical configuration with a 8 m diameter secondary mirror and additional Beam-Wave Guide (BWG) mirrors. One of the most challenging feature of SRT is the active surface of the primary reflector which provides good efficiency up to about 100 GHz. This paper reports on the most recent advances of the construction.

  13. Configurable Aperture Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Bendek, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    In December 2014, we were awarded Center Innovation Fund to evaluate an optical and mechanical concept for a novel implementation of a segmented telescope based on modular, interconnected small sats (satlets). The concept is called CAST, a Configurable Aperture Space Telescope. With a current TRL is 2 we will aim to reach TLR 3 in Sept 2015 by demonstrating a 2x2 mirror system to validate our optical model and error budget, provide straw man mechanical architecture and structural damping analyses, and derive future satlet-based observatory performance requirements. CAST provides an alternative access to visible and/or UV wavelength space telescope with 1-meter or larger aperture for NASA SMD Astrophysics and Planetary Science community after the retirement of HST

  14. The Discovery Channel Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millis, R. L.; Dunham, E. W.; Sebring, T. A.; Smith, B. W.; de Kock, M.; Wiecha, O.

    2004-11-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) is a 4.2-m telescope to be built at a new site near Happy Jack, Arizona. The DCT features a large prime focus mosaic CCD camera with a 2-degree-diameter field of view especially designed for surveys of KBOs, Centaurs, NEAs and other moving or time-variable targets. The telescope can be switched quickly to a Ritchey-Chretien configuration for optical/IR spectroscopy or near-IR imaging. This flexibility allows timely follow-up physical studies of high priority objects discovered in survey mode. The ULE (ultra-low-expansion) meniscus primary and secondary mirror blanks for the telescope are currently in fabrication by Corning Glass. Goodrich Aerospace, Vertex RSI, M3 Engineering and Technology Corp., and e2v Technologies have recently completed in-depth conceptual design studies of the optics, mount, enclosure, and mosaic focal plane, respectively. The results of these studies were subjected to a formal design review in July, 2004. Site testing at the 7760-ft altitude Happy Jack site began in 2001. Differential image motion observations from 117 nights since January 1, 2003 gave median seeing of 0.84 arcsec FWHM, and the average of the first quartile was 0.62 arcsec. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process for securing long-term access to this site on the Coconino National Forest is nearing completion and ground breaking is expected in the spring of 2005. The Discovery Channel Telescope is a project of the Lowell Observatory with major financial support from Discovery Communications, Inc. (DCI). DCI plans ongoing television programming featuring the construction of the telescope and the research ultimately undertaken with the DCT. An additional partner can be accommodated in the project. Interested parties should contact the lead author.

  15. Hubble Space Telescope Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is a photograph of giant twisters and star wisps in the Lagoon Nebula. This superb Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image reveals a pair of one-half light-year long interstellar twisters, eerie furnels and twisted rope structures (upper left), in the heart of the Lagoon Nebula (Messier 8) that lies 5,000 light-years away in the direction of the constellation Sagittarius. This image was taken by the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 (WF/PC2).

  16. Ground based automated telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A.; Thompson, W.

    1980-01-01

    Recommendation that a ground-based automated telescope of the 2-meter class be built for remote multiuser use as a natural facility. Experience dictates that a primary consideration is a time shared multitasking operating system with virtual memory overlayed with a real time priority interrupt. The primary user facility is a remote terminal networked to the single computer. Many users must have simultaneous time shared access to the computer for program development. The telescope should be rapid slewing, and hence a light weight construction. Automation allows for the closed loop pointing error correction independent of extreme accuracy of the mount.

  17. Robust telescope scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Keith; Bresina, John; Drummond, Mark

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for building robust telescope schedules that tend not to break. The technique is called Just-In-Case (JIC) scheduling and it implements the common sense idea of being prepared for likely errors, just in case they should occur. The JIC algorithm analyzes a given schedule, determines where it is likely to break, reinvokes a scheduler to generate a contingent schedule for each highly probable break case, and produces a 'multiply contingent' schedule. The technique was developed for an automatic telescope scheduling problem, and the paper presents empirical results showing that Just-In-Case scheduling performs extremely well for this problem.

  18. Pointing the SOFIA Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, M. A. K.; Rasmussen, J. J.; Moore, E. M.

    2010-12-01

    SOFIA is an airborne, gyroscopically stabilized 2.5m infrared telescope, mounted to a spherical bearing. Unlike its predecessors, SOFIA will work in absolute coordinates, despite its continually changing position and attitude. In order to manage this, SOFIA must relate equatorial and telescope coordinates using a combination of avionics data and star identification, manage field rotation and track sky images. We describe the algorithms and systems required to acquire and maintain the equatorial reference frame, relate it to tracking imagers and the science instrument, set up the oscillating secondary mirror, and aggregate pointings into relocatable nods and dithers.

  19. Hubble Space Telescope Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This color image from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) shows a region in NGC 1365, a barred spiral galaxy located in a cluster of galaxies called Fornax. A barred spiral galaxy is characterized by a bar of stars, dust, and gas across its center. The black and white photograph from a ground-based telescope shows the entire galaxy, which is visible from the Southern Hemisphere. The galaxy is estimated to be 60-million light-years from Earth. This image was taken by the HST Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 (WF/PC-2).

  20. TELESCOPES: Astronomers Overcome 'Aperture Envy'.

    PubMed

    Irion, R

    2000-07-01

    Many users of small telescopes are disturbed by the trend of shutting down smaller instruments in order to help fund bigger and bolder ground-based telescopes. Small telescopes can thrive in the shadow of giant new observatories, they say--but only if they are adapted to specialized projects. Telescopes with apertures of 2 meters or less have unique abilities to monitor broad swaths of the sky and stare at the same objects night after night, sometimes for years; various teams are turning small telescopes into robots, creating networks that span the globe and devoting them to survey projects that big telescopes don't have a prayer of tackling. PMID:17832960

  1. The Large Millimeter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schloerb, F. Peter

    2008-07-01

    This paper, presented on behalf of the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) project team, describes the status and near-term plans for the telescope and its initial instrumentation. The LMT is a bi-national collaboration between Mexico and the USA, led by the Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE) and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, to construct, commission and operate a 50m-diameter millimeter-wave radio telescope. Construction activities are nearly complete at the 4600m LMT site on the summit of Sierra Negra, an extinct volcano in the Mexican state of Puebla. Full movement of the telescope, under computer control in both azimuth and elevation, has been achieved. First-light at centimeter wavelengths on astronomical sources was obtained in November 2006. Installation of precision surface segments for millimeter-wave operation is underway, with the inner 32m-diameter of the surface now complete and ready to be used to obtain first light at millimeter wavelengths in 2008. Installation of the remainder of the reflector will continue during the next year and be completed in 2009 for final commissioning of the antenna. The full LMT antenna, outfitted with its initial complement of scientific instruments, will be a world-leading scientific research facility for millimeter-wave astronomy.

  2. The Large Millimeter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, D. H.; Schloerb, F. P.; LMT Project Team

    2009-05-01

    This paper, presented on behalf of the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) project team, describes the status and near-term plans for the telescope and its initial instrumentation. The LMT is a bi-national collaboration between México and the USA, led by the Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE) and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, to construct, commission and operate a 50 m diameter millimeter-wave radio telescope. Construction activities are nearly complete at the LMT site, at an altitude of ˜ 4600 m on the summit of Sierra Negra, an extinct volcano in the Mexican state of Puebla. Full movement of the telescope, under computer control in both azimuth and elevation, has been achieved. First-light at centimeter wavelengths on astronomical sources was obtained in November 2006. Installation of precision surface segments for millimeter-wave operation is underway, with the inner 32 m diameter of the surface now complete and ready to be used to obtain first-light at millimeter wavelengths in 2008. Installation of the remainder of the reflector will continue during the next year and be completed in 2009 for final commissioning of the antenna. The full LMT antenna, outfitted with its initial complement of scientific instruments, will be a world-leading scientific research facility for millimeter-wave astronomy.

  3. Solar Rotating Fourier Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Jonathan

    1994-01-01

    Proposed telescope based on absorbing Fourier-transform grids images full Sun at unprecedented resolution. Overcomes limitations of both conventional optical and pinhole cameras. Arrays of grids and detectors configured for sensitivity to selected fourier components of x-ray images.

  4. Exploring Galileo's Telescope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straulino, Samuele; Terzuoli, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    In the first months of 2009, the International Year of Astronomy, the authors developed an educational project for middle-level students connected with the first astronomical discoveries that Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) made 400 years ago. The project included the construction of a basic telescope and the observation of the Moon. The project, if…

  5. The Space Telescope Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahcall, J. N.; Odell, C. R.

    1979-01-01

    A convenient guide to the expected characteristics of the Space Telescope Observatory for astronomers and physicists is presented. An attempt is made to provide enough detail so that a professional scientist, observer or theorist, can plan how the observatory may be used to further his observing programs or to test theoretical models.

  6. The Falcon Telescope Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, F.; Tippets, R.; Dearborn, M.; Gresham, K.; Freckleton, R.; Douglas, M.

    2014-09-01

    The Falcon Telescope Network (FTN) is a global network of small aperture telescopes developed by the Center for Space Situational Awareness Research in the Department of Physics at the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA). Consisting of commercially available equipment, the FTN is a collaborative effort between USAFA and other educational institutions ranging from two- and four-year colleges to major research universities. USAFA provides the equipment (e.g. telescope, mount, camera, filter wheel, dome, weather station, computers and storage devices) while the educational partners provide the building and infrastructure to support an observatory. The user base includes USAFA along with K-12 and higher education faculty and students. Since the FTN has a general use purpose, objects of interest include satellites, astronomical research, and STEM support images. The raw imagery, all in the public domain, will be accessible to FTN partners and will be archived at USAFA in the Cadet Space Operations Center. FTN users will be able to submit observational requests via a web interface. The requests will then be prioritized based on the type of user, the object of interest, and a user-defined priority. A network wide schedule will be developed every 24 hours and each FTN site will autonomously execute its portion of the schedule. After an observational request is completed, the FTN user will receive notification of collection and a link to the data. The Falcon Telescope Network is an ambitious endeavor, but demonstrates the cooperation that can be achieved by multiple educational institutions.

  7. A Simple "Tubeless" Telescope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straulino, S.; Bonechi, L.

    2010-01-01

    Two lenses make it possible to create a simple telescope with quite large magnification. The set-up is very simple and can be reproduced in schools, provided the laboratory has a range of lenses with different focal lengths. In this article, the authors adopt the Keplerian configuration, which is composed of two converging lenses. This instrument,…

  8. Coherent array telescopes as a fifteen meter optical telescope equivalent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odgers, G. J.

    1982-10-01

    The potential benefits of using a mirror array to form a large optical telescope equivalent to a 15 m monolithic mirror telescope are discussed. The concept comprises 25 three meter telescopes in a circular array or 13 double unit telescopes, also in a circular array. The double-units would have individual 4.2 m instruments. Meniscus-shaped mirrors with F/2 aperture ratios would allow lightweight construction. A smaller, four double unit telescope would be equivalent to an 8.4 m telescope, larger than any existing in the world. The viewing capabilities could also be extended to the IR. Each sector of the compound telescopes, if built with 3 m apertures, could be controlled with 1/20th arsec acccuracy. Finally, the inherent long baseline of an array telescope would permit enhanced interferometric viewing.

  9. Instrumentation for single-dish observations with The Greenland Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimes, Paul K.; Asada, K.; Blundell, R.; Burgos, R.; Chang, H.-H.; Chen, M. T.; Goldie, D.; Groppi, C.; Han, C. C.; Ho, P. T. P.; Huang, Y. D.; Inoue, M.; Kubo, D.; Koch, P.; Leech, J.; de Lera Acedo, E.; Martin-Cocher, P.; Nishioka, H.; Nakamura, M.; Matsushita, S.; Paine, S. N.; Patel, N.; Raffin, P.; Snow, W.; Sridharan, T. K.; Srinivasan, R.; Thomas, C. N.; Tong, E.; Wang, M.-J.; Wheeler, C.; Withington, S.; Yassin, G.; Zeng, L.-Z.

    2014-07-01

    The Greenland Telescope project will deploy and operate a 12m sub-millimeter telescope at the highest point of the Greenland i e sheet. The Greenland Telescope project is a joint venture between the Smithsonian As- trophysical Observatory (SAO) and the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA). In this paper we discuss the concepts, specifications, and science goals of the instruments being developed for single-dish observations with the Greenland Telescope, and the coupling optics required to couple both them and the mm-VLBI receivers to antenna. The project will outfit the ALMA North America prototype antenna for Arctic operations and deploy it to Summit Station,1 a NSF operated Arctic station at 3,100m above MSL on the Greenland I e Sheet. This site is exceptionally dry, and promises to be an excellent site for sub-millimeter astronomical observations. The main science goal of the Greenland Telescope is to carry out millimeter VLBI observations alongside other telescopes in Europe and the Americas, with the aim of resolving the event horizon of the super-massive black hole at the enter of M87. The Greenland Telescope will also be outfitted for single-dish observations from the millimeter-wave to Tera-hertz bands. In this paper we will discuss the proposed instruments that are currently in development for the Greenland Telescope - 350 GHz and 650 GHz heterodyne array receivers; 1.4 THz HEB array receivers and a W-band bolometric spectrometer. SAO is leading the development of two heterodyne array instruments for the Greenland Telescope, a 48- pixel, 325-375 GHz SIS array receiver, and a 4 pixel, 1.4 THz HEB array receiver. A key science goal for these instruments is the mapping of ortho and para H2D+ in old protostellar ores, as well as general mapping of CO and other transitions in molecular louds. An 8-pixel prototype module for the 350 GHz array is currently being built for laboratory and operational testing on the Greenland Telescope

  10. Deployable ultrahigh-throughput x-ray telescope: concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorenstein, Paul

    1998-11-01

    We describe a method of building and deploying an ultra high throughput x-ray observatory with 2 by 10(superscript 5) cm(superscript 2) of effective area for the era following the Constellation X-ray Mission and XEUS. It is based upon a single focus telescope. Replacing and adding detectors are possible. Instead of an optical bench, the detector uses electric propulsion with plasma thrusters and ion engines to maintain its station at the focus and repositioning itself for new targets. The preferred site is the L2 point; a high circular orbit is also possible. Additional or replacement detectors equipped with ion/plasma engines are launched on much smaller rockets and rendez-vous with the telescope. We describe how such a telescope with an angular resolution of a few arcseconds could be fabricated. As an example, we consider a 7 m X 7 m aperture, 100 m focal length standard Kirkpatrick-Baez optic. It is segmented into several hundred modules of identical size. A co-aligned group of segments is equipped with a fiducial and a positioning system for alignment to a common focus in space. With subdivided reflector substrates made from light weight advanced composite materials the launch mass of the telescope spacecraft is within the capability of current vehicles.

  11. The Large Millimeter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, David H.; Jáuregui Correa, Juan-Carlos; Schloerb, F. Peter; Erickson, Neal; Romero, Jose Guichard; Heyer, Mark; Reynoso, David Huerta; Narayanan, Gopal; Perez-Grovas, Alfonso Serrano; Souccar, Kamal; Wilson, Grant; Yun, Min

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes the current status of the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT), the near-term plans for the telescope and the initial suite of instrumentation. The LMT is a bi-national collaboration between Mexico and the USA, led by the Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE) and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, to construct, commission and operate a 50m-diameter millimeter-wave radio telescope. Construction activities are nearly complete at the 4600m LMT site on the summit of Volcán Sierra Negra, an extinct volcano in the Mexican state of Puebla. Full movement of the telescope, under computer control in both azimuth and elevation, has been achieved. The commissioning and scientific operation of the LMT is divided into two major phases. As part of phase 1, the installation of precision surface segments for millimeter-wave operation within the inner 32m-diameter of the LMT surface is now complete. The alignment of these surface segments is underway. The telescope (in its 32-m diameter format) will be commissioned later this year with first-light scientific observations at 1mm and 3mm expected in early 2011. In phase 2, we will continue the installation and alignment of the remainder of the reflector surface, following which the final commissioning of the full 50-m LMT will take place. The LMT antenna, outfitted with its initial complement of scientific instruments, will be a world-leading scientific research facility for millimeter-wave astronomy.

  12. Giant Magellan Telescope: overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johns, Matt; McCarthy, Patrick; Raybould, Keith; Bouchez, Antonin; Farahani, Arash; Filgueira, Jose; Jacoby, George; Shectman, Steve; Sheehan, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) is a 25-meter optical/infrared extremely large telescope that is being built by an international consortium of universities and research institutions. It will be located at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. The GMT primary mirror consists of seven 8.4-m borosilicate honeycomb mirror segments made at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab (SOML). Six identical off-axis segments and one on-axis segment are arranged on a single nearly-paraboloidal parent surface having an overall focal ratio of f/0.7. The fabrication, testing and verification procedures required to produce the closely-matched off-axis mirror segments were developed during the production of the first mirror. Production of the second and third off-axis segments is underway. GMT incorporates a seven-segment Gregorian adaptive secondary to implement three modes of adaptive-optics operation: natural-guide star AO, laser-tomography AO, and ground-layer AO. A wide-field corrector/ADC is available for use in seeing-limited mode over a 20-arcmin diameter field of view. Up to seven instruments can be mounted simultaneously on the telescope in a large Gregorian Instrument Rotator. Conceptual design studies were completed for six AO and seeing-limited instruments, plus a multi-object fiber feed, and a roadmap for phased deployment of the GMT instrument suite is being developed. The partner institutions have made firm commitments for approximately 45% of the funds required to build the telescope. Project Office efforts are currently focused on advancing the telescope and enclosure design in preparation for subsystem- and system-level preliminary design reviews which are scheduled to be completed in the first half of 2013.

  13. The Greenland Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimes, Paul; Blundell, Raymond

    2012-09-01

    In the spring of 2010, the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, acquired the ALMA North America prototype antenna - a state-of-the-art 12-m diameter dish designed for submillimeter astronomy. Together with the MIT-Haystack Observatory and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, the plan is to retrofit this antenna for cold-weather operation and equip it with a suite of instruments designed for a variety of scientific experiments and observations. The primary scientific goal is to image the shadow of the Super-Massive Black Hole in M87 in order to test Einstein’s theory of relativity under extreme gravity. This requires the highest angular resolution, which can only be achieved by linking this antenna with others already in place to form a telescope almost the size of the Earth. We are therefore developing plans to install this antenna at the peak of the Greenland ice-sheet. This location will produce an equivalent North-South separation of almost 9,000 km when linked to the ALMA telescope in Northern Chile, and an East-West separation of about 6,000 km when linked to SAO and ASIAA’s Submillimeter Array on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, and will provide an angular resolution almost 1000 times higher than that of the most powerful optical telescopes. Given the quality of the atmosphere at the proposed telescope location, we also plan to make observations in the atmospheric windows at 1.3 and 1.5 THz. We will present plans to retrofit the telescope for cold-weather operation, and discuss potential instrumentation and projected time-line.

  14. Allen Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Geoffrey

    2007-05-01

    The Allen Telescope Array (ATA) is a pioneering centimeter-wavelength radio telescope that will produce science that cannot be done with any other instrument. The ATA is the first radio telescope designed for commensal observing; it will undertake the most comprehensive and sensitive SETI surveys ever done as well as the deepest and largest area continuum and spectroscopic surveys. Science operations will commence this year with a 42-element array. The ATA will ultimately comprise 350 6-meter dishes at Hat Creek in California, and will make possible large, deep radio surveys that were not previously feasible. The telescope incorporates many new design features including hydroformed antenna surfaces, a log-periodic feed covering the entire range of frequencies from 500 MHz to 11.2 GHz, low noise, wide-band amplifiers with a flat response over the entire band. The full array has the sensitivity of the Very Large Array but with a survey capability that is greater by an order of magnitude due to the wide field of view of the 6-meter dishes. Even with 42 elements, the ATA will be one of the most powerful radio survey telescopes. Science goals include the Five GHz sky survey (FiGSS) to match the 1.4-GHz NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey within the first year of operation with the 42 element array, and a deep all-sky survey of extragalactic hydrogen to investigate galaxy evolution and intergalactic gas accretion. Transient and variable source surveys, pulsar science, spectroscopy of new molecular species in the galaxy, large-scale mapping of galactic magnetic filaments, and wide-field imaging of comets and other solar system objects are among the other key science objectives of the ATA. SETI surveys will reach sufficient sensitivity to detect an Arecibo planetary radar from 1,000,000 stars to distances of 300 pc.

  15. Wavefront Analysis of Adaptive Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James B.; Hillman, Lloyd

    1997-01-01

    The motivation for this work came from a NASA Headquarters interest in investigating design concepts for a large space telescope employing active optics technology. The development of telescope optical requirements and potential optical design configurations is reported.

  16. Science operations with Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacconi, R.

    1982-08-01

    The operation, instrumentation, and expected contributions of the Space Telescope are discussed. Space Telescope capabilities are described. The organization and nature of the Space Telescope Science Institute are outlined, including the allocation of observing time and the data rights and data access policies of the institute.

  17. Lunar transit telescope lander design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omar, Husam A.

    1992-01-01

    The Program Development group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has been involved in studying the feasibility of placing a 16 meter telescope on the lunar surface to scan the skies using visible/ Ultraviolet/ Infrared light frequencies. The precursor telescope is now called the TRANSIT LUNAR TELESCOPE (LTT). The Program Development Group at Marshall Space Flight Center has been given the task of developing the basic concepts and providing a feasibility study on building such a telescope. The telescope should be simple with minimum weight and volume to fit into one of the available launch vehicles. The preliminary launch date is set for 2005. A study was done to determine the launch vehicle to be used to deliver the telescope to the lunar surface. The TITAN IV/Centaur system was chosen. The engineering challenge was to design the largest possible telescope to fit into the TITAN IV/Centaur launch system. The telescope will be comprised of the primary, secondary and tertiary mirrors and their supporting system in addition to the lander that will land the telescope on the lunar surface and will also serve as the telescope's base. The lunar lander should be designed integrally with the telescope in order to minimize its weight, thus allowing more weight for the telescope and its support components. The objective of this study were to design a lander that meets all the constraints of the launching system. The basic constraints of the TITAN IV/Centaur system are given.

  18. Lunar transit telescope lander design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omar, Husam A.

    1991-01-01

    The Program Development group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has been involved in studying the feasibility of placing a 16 meter telescope on the lunar surface to scan the skies using visible/ Ultraviolet/ Infrared light frequencies. The precursor telescope is now called the TRANSIT LUNAR TELESCOPE (LTT). The Program Development Group at Marshall Space Flight Center has been given the task of developing the basic concepts and providing a feasibility study on building such a telescope. The telescope should be simple with minimum weight and volume to fit into one of the available launch vehicles. The preliminary launch date is set for 2005. A study was done to determine the launch vehicle to be used to deliver the telescope to the lunar surface. The TITAN IV/Centaur system was chosen. The engineering challenge was to design the largest possible telescope to fit into the TITAN IV/Centaur launch system. The telescope will be comprised of the primary, secondary and tertiary mirrors and their supporting system in addition to the lander that will land the telescope on the lunar surface and will also serve as the telescope's base. The lunar lander should be designed integrally with the telescope in order to minimize its weight, thus allowing more weight for the telescope and its support components. The objective of this study were to design a lander that meets all the constraints of the launching system. The basic constraints of the TITAN IV/Centaur system are given.

  19. The Allen Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deboer, David; Ackermann, Rob; Blitz, Leo; Bock, Douglas; Bower, Geoffrey; Davis, Michael; Dreher, John; Engargiola, Greg; Fleming, Matt; Keleta, Girmay; Harp, Gerry; Lugten, John; Tarter, Jill; Thornton, Doug; Wadefalk, Niklas; Weinreb, Sander; Welch, William J.

    2004-06-01

    The Allen Telescope Array, a joint project between the SETI Institute and the Radio Astronomy Laboratory at the University of California Berkeley, is currently under development and construction at the Hat Creek Radio Observatory in northern California. It will consist of 350 6.1-m offset Gregorian antennas in a fairly densely packed configuration, with minimum baselines of less than 10 m and a maximum baseline of about 900 m. The dual-polarization frequency range spans from about 500 MHz to 11 GHz, both polarizations of which are transported back from each antenna. The first generation processor will provide 32 synthesized beams of 104 MHz bandwidth, eight at each of four tunings, as well as outputs for a full-polarization correlator at two of the tunings at the same bandwidth. This paper provides a general description of the Allen Telescope Array.

  20. Telescopes of galileo.

    PubMed

    Greco, V; Molesini, G; Quercioli, F

    1993-11-01

    The Florentine Istituto e Museo di Storia delta Scienza houses two complete telescopes and a single objective lens (reconstructed from several fragments) that can be attributed to Galileo. These optics have been partially dismantled and made available for optical testing with state-of-the-art equipment. The lenses were investigated individually; the focal length and the radii of curvature were measured, and the optical layout of the instruments was worked out. The optical quality of the surfaces and the overall performance of the two complete telescopes have been evaluated interferometrically at a wavelength of 633 nm (with a He-Ne laser source). It was found in particular that the optics of Galileo came close to attaining diffraction-limited operation.

  1. The European Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socas-Navarro, H.

    2012-12-01

    In this presentation I will describe the current status of the European Solar Telescope (EST) project. The EST design has a 4-m aperture to achieve both a large photon collection and very high spatial resolution. It includes a multi-conjugate adaptive system integrated in the light path for diffraction-limited imaging. The optical train is optimized to minimize instrumental polarization and to keep it nearly constant as the telescope tracks the sky. A suite of visible and infrared instruments are planned with a light distribution system that accomodates full interoperability and simultaneous usage. The science drivers emphasize combined observations at multiple heights in the atmosphere to build a connected view of solar magnetism from the photosphere to the corona.

  2. COROT telescope development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viard, Thierry; Bodin, Pierre; Magnan, Alain

    2004-06-01

    COROTEL is the telescope of the future COROT satellite which aims at measuring stellar flux variations very accurately. To perform this mission, COROTEL has to be very well protected against straylight (from Sun and Earth) and must be very stable with time. Thanks to its high experience in this field, Alcatel Space has proposed an original optical concept associated with a high performance baffle. From 2001, the LAM (Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, CNRS) has placed the telescope development contract to Alcatel Space and is presently almost finished. Based on relevant material and efficient thermal control design, COROTEL should meet its ambitious performance and bring to scientific community for the first time precious data coming from stars and their possible companions.

  3. Telescopic limiting magnitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1990-01-01

    The prediction of the magnitude of the faintest star visible through a telescope by a visual observer is a difficult problem in physiology. Many prediction formulas have been advanced over the years, but most do not even consider the magnification used. Here, the prediction algorithm problem is attacked with two complimentary approaches: (1) First, a theoretical algorithm was developed based on physiological data for the sensitivity of the eye. This algorithm also accounts for the transmission of the atmosphere and the telescope, the brightness of the sky, the color of the star, the age of the observer, the aperture, and the magnification. (2) Second, 314 observed values for the limiting magnitude were collected as a test of the formula. It is found that the formula does accurately predict the average observed limiting magnitudes under all conditions.

  4. The Neutrino Telescope ANTARES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Juan José

    Neutrinos can reveal a brand new Universe at high energies. The ANTARES collaboration [1] , formed in 1996, works towards the building and deployment of a neutrino telescope. This detector could observe and study high energy astrophysical sources such as X-ray binary systems, young supernova remnants or Active Galactic Nuclei and help to discover or set exclusion limits on some of the elementary particles and objects that have been put forward as candidates to fill the Universe (WIMPS, neutralinos, topological deffects, Q-balls, etc). A neutrino telescope will certainly open a new observational window and can shed light on the most energetic phenomena of the Universe. A review of the progress made by the ANTARES collaboration to achieve this goal is presented

  5. The Large Area Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Michelson, Peter F.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL

    2007-11-13

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of two instruments on the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view, high-energy pair-conversion telescope, covering the energy range from {approx}20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. The LAT is being built by an international collaboration with contributions from space agencies, high-energy particle physics institutes, and universities in France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, and the United States. The scientific objectives the LAT will address include resolving the high-energy gamma-ray sky and determining the nature of the unidentified gamma-ray sources and the origin of the apparently isotropic diffuse emission observed by EGRET; understanding the mechanisms of particle acceleration in celestial sources, including active galactic nuclei, pulsars, and supernovae remnants; studying the high-energy behavior of gamma-ray bursts and transients; using high-energy gamma-rays to probe the early universe to z {ge} 6; and probing the nature of dark matter. The components of the LAT include a precision silicon-strip detector tracker and a CsI(Tl) calorimeter, a segmented anticoincidence shield that covers the tracker array, and a programmable trigger and data acquisition system. The calorimeter's depth and segmentation enable the high-energy reach of the LAT and contribute significantly to background rejection. The aspect ratio of the tracker (height/width) is 0.4, allowing a large field-of-view and ensuring that nearly all pair-conversion showers initiated in the tracker will pass into the calorimeter for energy measurement. This paper includes a description of each of these LAT subsystems as well as a summary of the overall performance of the telescope.

  6. [Galileo and his telescope].

    PubMed

    Strebel, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    Galileo's publication of observations made with his newly reinvented telescope provoked a fierce debate. In April 1610 Martinus Horky, a young Bohemian astronomer, had an opportunity to make his own observations with Galileo's telescope in the presence of Antonio Magini and other astronomers. Horky and the other witnesses denied the adequacy of Galileo's telescope and therefore the bona fides of his discoveries. Kepler conjectured Horky as well as all his witnesses to be myopic. But Kepler's objection could not stop the publication of Horky's Peregrinatio contra nuncium sidereum (Modena, 1610), the first printed refutation of Galileo's Sidereus nuncius. In his treatise, Horky adresses four questions: 1) Do the four newly observed heavenly bodies actually exist? Horky denies their existence on various grounds: a) God, as every astronomer teaches, has created only seven moveable heavenly bodies and astronomical knowledge originates in God, too. b) Heavenly bodies are either stars or planets. Galileo's moveable heavenly bodies fit into neither category. c) If they do exist, why have they not already been observed by other scholars? Horky concludes that there are no such heavenly bodies. 2) What are these phenomena? They are purely artefactual, and produced by Galileo's telescope. 3) How are they like? Galileo's "stars" are so small as to be almost invisible. Galileo claims that he has measured their distances from each other. This however is impossible due to their diminutive size and other observational problems. Hence, Galileo's claim is a further proof that he is a fraud. 4) Why are they? For Galileo they are a chance to earn money but for astronomers like Horky they are a reason to offer thanks and honour to God. Horky's treatise was favourably received by the enemies of Galileo. But Kepler's critique was devastating. After calling on Kepler in Prague, Horky had to revoke the contents of his book.

  7. [Galileo and his telescope].

    PubMed

    Strebel, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    Galileo's publication of observations made with his newly reinvented telescope provoked a fierce debate. In April 1610 Martinus Horky, a young Bohemian astronomer, had an opportunity to make his own observations with Galileo's telescope in the presence of Antonio Magini and other astronomers. Horky and the other witnesses denied the adequacy of Galileo's telescope and therefore the bona fides of his discoveries. Kepler conjectured Horky as well as all his witnesses to be myopic. But Kepler's objection could not stop the publication of Horky's Peregrinatio contra nuncium sidereum (Modena, 1610), the first printed refutation of Galileo's Sidereus nuncius. In his treatise, Horky adresses four questions: 1) Do the four newly observed heavenly bodies actually exist? Horky denies their existence on various grounds: a) God, as every astronomer teaches, has created only seven moveable heavenly bodies and astronomical knowledge originates in God, too. b) Heavenly bodies are either stars or planets. Galileo's moveable heavenly bodies fit into neither category. c) If they do exist, why have they not already been observed by other scholars? Horky concludes that there are no such heavenly bodies. 2) What are these phenomena? They are purely artefactual, and produced by Galileo's telescope. 3) How are they like? Galileo's "stars" are so small as to be almost invisible. Galileo claims that he has measured their distances from each other. This however is impossible due to their diminutive size and other observational problems. Hence, Galileo's claim is a further proof that he is a fraud. 4) Why are they? For Galileo they are a chance to earn money but for astronomers like Horky they are a reason to offer thanks and honour to God. Horky's treatise was favourably received by the enemies of Galileo. But Kepler's critique was devastating. After calling on Kepler in Prague, Horky had to revoke the contents of his book. PMID:16929794

  8. MIRI Telescope Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belenguer, T.; Alcacera, M. A.; Aricha, A.; Balado, A.; Barandiarán, J.; Bernardo, A.; Canchal, M. R.; Colombo, M.; Diaz, E.; Eiriz, V.; Figueroa, I.; García, G.; Giménez, A.; González, L.; Herrada, F.; Jiménez, A.; López, R.; Menéndez, M.; Reina, M.; Rodríguez, J. A.; Sánchez, A.

    2008-07-01

    The MTS, MIRI Telescope Simulator, is developed by INTA as the Spanish contribution of MIRI (Mid InfraRed Instrument) on board JWST (James Web Space Telescope). The MTS is considered as optical equipment which is part of Optical Ground Support Equipment for the AIV/Calibration phase of the instrument at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK. It is an optical simulator of the JWST Telescope, which will provide a diffractionlimited test beam, including the obscuration and mask pattern, in all the MIRI FOV and in all defocusing range. The MTS will have to stand an environment similar to the flight conditions (35K) but using a smaller set-up, typically at lab scales. The MTS will be used to verify MIRI instrument-level tests, based on checking the implementation/realisation of the interfaces and performances, as well as the instrument properties not subject to interface control such as overall transmission of various modes of operation. This paper includes a functional description and a summary of the development status.

  9. Hubble Space Telescope satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope, named for the American astronomer Edwin Powell Hubble, will be the largest and most powerful astronomical instrument ever orbited. Placed above the obscuring effects of the earth's atmosphere in a 600-km orbit, this remotely-controlled, free-flying satellite observatory will expand the terrestrial-equivalent resolution of the universe by a factor of seven, or a volumetric factor of 350. This telescope has a 2.4-m primary mirror and can accommodate five scientific instruments (cameras, spectrographs and photometers). The optics are suitable for a spectral range from 1100 angstrom to 1 mm wavelength. With a projected service life of fifteen years, the spacecraft can be serviced on-orbit for replacement of degraded systems, to insert advanced scientific instruments, and to reboost the telescope from decayed altitudes. The anticipated image quality will be a result of extremely precise lambda/20 optics, stringent cleanliness, and very stable pointing: jitter will be held to less than 0.01 arcsecond for indefinite observation periods, consistent with instrument apertures as small as 0.1 arcsecond.

  10. Fast Fourier transform telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2009-04-15

    We propose an all-digital telescope for 21 cm tomography, which combines key advantages of both single dishes and interferometers. The electric field is digitized by antennas on a rectangular grid, after which a series of fast Fourier transforms recovers simultaneous multifrequency images of up to half the sky. Thanks to Moore's law, the bandwidth up to which this is feasible has now reached about 1 GHz, and will likely continue doubling every couple of years. The main advantages over a single dish telescope are cost and orders of magnitude larger field-of-view, translating into dramatically better sensitivity for large-area surveys. The key advantages over traditional interferometers are cost (the correlator computational cost for an N-element array scales as Nlog{sub 2}N rather than N{sup 2}) and a compact synthesized beam. We argue that 21 cm tomography could be an ideal first application of a very large fast Fourier transform telescope, which would provide both massive sensitivity improvements per dollar and mitigate the off-beam point source foreground problem with its clean beam. Another potentially interesting application is cosmic microwave background polarization.

  11. Scanning holographic lidar telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a unique telescope for lidar using a holographic optical element (HOE) as the primary optic. The HOE diffracts 532 nm laser backscatter making a 43 deg angle with a normal to its surface to a focus located 130 cm along the normal. The field of view scans a circle as the HOE rotates about the normal. The detector assembly and baffling remain stationary, compared to conventional scanning lidars in which the entire telescope and detector assembly require steering, or which use a large flat steerable mirror in front of the telescope to do the pointing. The spectral bandpass of our HOE is 50 nm (FWHM). Light within that bandpass is spectrally dispersed at 0.6 nm/mm in the focal plane. An aperture stop reduces the bandpass of light reaching the detector from one direction to 1 nm while simultaneously reducing the field of view to 1 mrad. Wavelengths outside the 50 nm spectral bandpass pass undiffracted through HOE to be absorbed by a black backing. Thus, the HOE combines three functions into one optic: the scanning mirror, the focusing mirror, and a narrowband filter.

  12. Volcanoes muon imaging using Cherenkov telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, O.; Del Santo, M.; Mineo, T.; Cusumano, G.; Maccarone, M. C.; Pareschi, G.

    2016-01-01

    A detailed understanding of a volcano inner structure is one of the key-points for the volcanic hazards evaluation. To this aim, in the last decade, geophysical radiography techniques using cosmic muon particles have been proposed. By measuring the differential attenuation of the muon flux as a function of the amount of rock crossed along different directions, it is possible to determine the density distribution of the interior of a volcano. Up to now, a number of experiments have been based on the detection of the muon tracks crossing hodoscopes, made up of scintillators or nuclear emulsion planes. Using telescopes based on the atmospheric Cherenkov imaging technique, we propose a new approach to study the interior of volcanoes detecting of the Cherenkov light produced by relativistic cosmic-ray muons that survive after crossing the volcano. The Cherenkov light produced along the muon path is imaged as a typical annular pattern containing all the essential information to reconstruct particle direction and energy. Our new approach offers the advantage of a negligible background and an improved spatial resolution. To test the feasibility of our new method, we have carried out simulations with a toy-model based on the geometrical parameters of ASTRI SST-2M, i.e. the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope currently under installation onto the Etna volcano. Comparing the results of our simulations with previous experiments based on particle detectors, we gain at least a factor of 10 in sensitivity. The result of this study shows that we resolve an empty cylinder with a radius of about 100 m located inside a volcano in less than 4 days, which implies a limit on the magma velocity of 5 m/h.

  13. PKS 1502+106: A NEW AND DISTANT GAMMA-RAY BLAZAR IN OUTBURST DISCOVERED BY THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bogaert, G.; Brigida, M. E-mail: stefano.ciprini@pg.infn.i

    2010-02-10

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope discovered a rapid ({approx}5 days duration), high-energy (E > 100 MeV) gamma-ray outburst from a source identified with the blazar PKS 1502+106 (OR 103, S3 1502+10, z = 1.839) starting on 2008 August 5 ({approx}23 UTC, MJD 54683.95), and followed by bright and variable flux over the next few months. Results on the gamma-ray localization and identification, as well as spectral and temporal behavior during the first months of the Fermi all-sky survey, are reported here in conjunction with a multiwaveband characterization as a result of one of the first Fermi multifrequency campaigns. The campaign included a Swift ToO (followed up by a 16 day observation on August 7-22, MJD 54685-54700), VLBA (within the MOJAVE program), Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) 40 m, Effelsberg-100 m, Metsaehovi-14 m, RATAN-600, and Kanata-Hiroshima radio/optical observations. Results from the analysis of archival observations by {integral}, XMM-Newton, and Spitzer space telescopes are reported for a more complete picture of this new gamma-ray blazar. PKS 1502+106 is a sub-GeV peaked, powerful flat spectrum radio quasar (luminosity at E > 100 MeV, L{sub g}amma, is about 1.1 x 10{sup 49} erg s{sup -1}, and black hole mass likely close to 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}), exhibiting marked gamma-ray bolometric dominance, in particular during the asymmetric outburst (L{sub g}amma/L{sub opt} {approx} 100, and 5 day averaged flux F{sub E>100MeV} = 2.91 +- 1.4 x 10{sup -6} ph cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}), which was characterized by a factor greater than 3 of flux increase in less than 12 hr. The outburst was observed simultaneously from optical to X-ray bands (F{sub 0.3-10{sub keV}} = 2.18{sup +0.15}{sub -0.12} x 10{sup -12} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, and hard photon index {approx}1.5, similar to past values) with a flux increase of less than 1 order of magnitude with respect to past observations, and was likely controlled by

  14. The Allen Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBoer, David R.; Welch, William J.; Dreher, John; Tarter, Jill; Blitz, Leo; Davis, Michael; Fleming, Matt; Bock, Douglas; Bower, Geoffrey; Lugten, John; Girmay-Keleta, G.; D'Addario, Larry R.; Harp, Gerry R.; Ackermann, Rob; Weinreb, Sander; Engargiola, Greg; Thornton, Doug; Wadefalk, Niklas

    2004-10-01

    The Allen Telescope Array, originally called the One Hectare Telescope (1hT) [1] will be a large array radio telescope whose novel characteristics will be a wide field of view (3.5 deg-GHz HPBW), continuous frequency coverage of 0.5 - 11 GHz, four dual-linear polarization output bands of 100 MHz each, four beams in each band, two 100 MHz spectral correlators for two of the bands, and hardware for RFI mitigation built in. Its scientific motivation is for deep SETI searches and, at the same time, a variety of other radio astronomy projects, including transient (e.g. pulsar) studies, HI mapping of the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, Zeeman studies of the galactic magnetic field in a number of transitions, mapping of long chain molecules in molecular clouds, mapping of the decrement in the cosmic background radiation toward galaxy clusters, and observation of HI absorption toward quasars at redshifts up to z=2. The array is planned for 350 6.1-meter dishes giving a physical collecting area of about 10,000 square meters. The large number of components reduces the price with economies of scale. The front end receiver is a single cryogenically cooled MIMIC Low Noise Amplifier covering the whole band. The feed is a wide-band log periodic feed of novel design, and the reflector system is an offset Gregorian for minimum sidelobes and spillover. All preliminary and critical design reviews have been completed. Three complete antennas with feeds and receivers are under test, and an array of 33 antennas is under construction at the Hat Creek Radio Observatory for the end of 2004. The present plan is to have a total of about 200 antennas completed by the summer of 2006 and the balance of the array finished before the end of the decade.

  15. Comparing NEO Search Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myhrvold, Nathan

    2016-04-01

    Multiple terrestrial and space-based telescopes have been proposed for detecting and tracking near-Earth objects (NEOs). Detailed simulations of the search performance of these systems have used complex computer codes that are not widely available, which hinders accurate cross-comparison of the proposals and obscures whether they have consistent assumptions. Moreover, some proposed instruments would survey infrared (IR) bands, whereas others would operate in the visible band, and differences among asteroid thermal and visible-light models used in the simulations further complicate like-to-like comparisons. I use simple physical principles to estimate basic performance metrics for the ground-based Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and three space-based instruments—Sentinel, NEOCam, and a Cubesat constellation. The performance is measured against two different NEO distributions, the Bottke et al. distribution of general NEOs, and the Veres et al. distribution of Earth-impacting NEO. The results of the comparison show simplified relative performance metrics, including the expected number of NEOs visible in the search volumes and the initial detection rates expected for each system. Although these simplified comparisons do not capture all of the details, they give considerable insight into the physical factors limiting performance. Multiple asteroid thermal models are considered, including FRM, NEATM, and a new generalized form of FRM. I describe issues with how IR albedo and emissivity have been estimated in previous studies, which may render them inaccurate. A thermal model for tumbling asteroids is also developed and suggests that tumbling asteroids may be surprisingly difficult for IR telescopes to observe.

  16. The Planck Telescope reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stute, Thomas

    2004-09-01

    The mechanical division of EADS-Astrium GmbH, Friedrichshafen is currently engaged with the development, manufacturing and testing of the advanced dimensionally stable composite reflectors for the ESA satellite borne telescope Planck. The objective of the ESA mission Planck is to analyse the first light that filled the universe, the cosmic microwave background radiation. Under contract of the Danish Space Research Institute and ESA EADS-Astrium GmbH is developing the all CFRP primary and secondary reflectors for the 1.5-metre telescope which is the main instrument of the Planck satellite. The operational frequency ranges from to 25 GHz to 1000 GHz. The demanding high contour accuracy and surface roughness requirements are met. The design provides the extreme dimensional stability required by the cryogenic operational environment at around 40 K. The elliptical off-axis reflectors display a classical lightweight sandwich design with CFRP core and facesheets. Isostatic mounts provide the interfaces to the telescope structure. Protected VDA provides the reflecting surface. The manufacturing is performed at the Friedrichshafen premises of EADS-Space Transportation GmbH, the former Dornier composite workshops. Advanced manufacturing technologies like true angle lay-up by CNC fibre placement and filament winding are utilized. The protected coating is applied at the CAHA facilities at the Calar Alto Observatory, Spain. The exhaustive environmental testing is performed at the facilities of IABG, Munich (mechanical testing) and for the cryo-optical tests at CSL Liege. The project is in advanced state with both Qualification Models being under environmental testing. The flight models will be delivered in 2004. The paper gives an overview over the requirements and the main structural features how these requirements are met. Special production aspects and available test results are reported.

  17. Phase Sensor for Aligning a Segmented Telescope Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, Philip; Walker, Chanda Barlett

    2006-01-01

    A phase sensor has been developed for use in aligning a segmented telescope mirror to within a fraction of a wavelength in piston. (As used here, piston signifies displacement of a mirror segment along the optical axis of the telescope.) Such precise alignment is necessary in order to realize the full benefit of the large aperture achievable through segmentation. This phase sensor is achromatic. It is based on two-wavelength shearing interferometry, and can be modified to utilize an extended or broad-band (e.g., white) light source. The sensor optics include a ruled diffraction grating and an imaging lens. The sensor can measure the piston shift between segments as well as aberrations of the segments. It can measure the surface error of an individual segment, making it possible to compensate for the error with optimal amount(s) of piston and/or tilt. The precise capture range of the sensor depends partly on the telescope design; the largest relative piston shifts measurable by use of this sensor are of the order of 100 m. The accuracy of the sensor also depends partly on the telescope design; in general, the accuracy is sufficient to enable alignment to within approximately half a wavelength. The interferometric image is digitized and processed by a simple algorithm in real time, and the output of the algorithm can be used to maintain alignment in real time, even in the presence of atmospheric turbulence. The sensor is robust. Through calibration, it can be made insensitive to (and, hence, tolerant of) misalignments and aberrations of its own optics, most aberrations of the telescope as a whole (in contradistinction to aberrations of individual segments), and most aberrations introduced by atmospheric turbulence

  18. Astronomy before the telescope.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, C.

    This book is the most comprehensive and authoritative survey to date of world astronomy before the telescope in AD 1609. International experts have contributed chapters examining what observations were made, what instruments were used, the effect of developments in mathematics and measurement, and the diversity of early views of cosmology and astrology. The achievements of European astronomers from prehistoric times to the Renaissance are linked with those of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, India and the Islamic world. Other chapters deal with early astronomy in the Far East and in the Americas, and with traditional astronomical knowledge in Africa, Australia and the Pacific.

  19. Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nurre, G.

    1987-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope will employ magnetic torque controllers, which make use of the Earth's magnetic field augmented by four reaction wheels. DC torques are easily allowed for, but variations, orbit by orbit, can result in excessive wheel speeds which can excite vibratory modes in the telescope structure. If the angular momentum from aerodynamic sources exceeds its allocation of 100 Nms, the excess has to come out of the maneuvering budget since the total capacity of the momentum storage system is fixed at 500 Nms. This would mean that maneuvers could not be made as quickly, and this would reduce the amount of science return. In summary, there is a definite need for a model that accurately portrays short term (within orbit) variations in density for use in angular momentum management analyses. It would be desirable to have a simplified model that could be used for planning purposes; perhaps applicable only over a limited altitude range (400 to 700 km) and limited latitude band.

  20. Antares Reference Telescope System

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, V.K.; Kaprelian, E.; Swann, T.; Parker, J.; Wolfe, P.; Woodfin, G.; Knight, D.

    1983-01-01

    Antares is a 24-beam, 40-TW carbon-dioxide laser-fusion system currently nearing completion at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 24 beams will be focused onto a tiny target (typically 300 to 1000 ..mu..m in diameter) located approximately at the center of a 7.3-m-diameter by 9.3-m-long vacuum (10/sup -6/ torr) chamber. The design goal is to position the targets to within 10 ..mu..m of a selected nominal position, which may be anywhere within a fixed spherical region 1 cm in diameter. The Antares Reference Telescope System is intended to help achieve this goal for alignment and viewing of the various targets used in the laser system. The Antares Reference Telescope System consists of two similar electro-optical systems positioned in a near orthogonal manner in the target chamber area of the laser. Each of these consists of four subsystems: (1) a fixed 9X optical imaging subsystem which produces an image of the target at the vidicon; (2) a reticle projection subsystem which superimposes an image of the reticle pattern at the vidicon; (3) an adjustable front-lighting subsystem which illuminates the target; and (4) an adjustable back-lighting subsystem which also can be used to illuminate the target. The various optical, mechanical, and vidicon design considerations and trade-offs are discussed. The final system chosen (which is being built) and its current status are described in detail.

  1. Antares reference telescope system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, V. K.; Kaprelian, E.; Swann, T.; Parker, J.; Wolfe, P.; Woodfin, G.; Knight, D.

    Antares is a 24 beam, 40 TW carbon dioxide laser fusion system currently nearing completion. The 24 beams will be focused onto a tiny target. It is to position the targets to within 10 (SIGMA)m of a selected nominal position, which may be anywhere within a fixed spherical region 1 cm in diameter. The Antares reference telescope system is intended to help achieve this goal for alignment and viewing of the various targets used in the laser system. The Antares reference telescope system consists of two similar electrooptical systems positioned in a near orthogonal manner in the target chamber area of the laser. Each of these consists of four subsystems: (1) a fixed 9% optical imaging subsystem which produces an image of the target at the vidicon; (2) a reticle projection subsystem which superimposes an image of the reticle pattern at the vidicon; (3) an adjustable front lighting subsystem which illuminates the target; and (4) an adjustable back lighting subsystem which also can be used to illuminate the target. The various optical, mechanical, and vidicon design considerations and tradeoffs are discussed. The final system chosen and its current status are described.

  2. SNAP Telescope Latest Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampton, M.; SNAP Collaboration

    2004-12-01

    The coming era of precision cosmology imposes new demands on space telescopes with regard to spectrophotometric accuracy and image stability. To meet these requirements for SNAP we have developed an all reflecting two-meter-class space telescope of the three-mirror anastigmat type. Our design features a large flat annular field (1.5 degrees = 580mm diameter) and a telephoto advantage of 6, delivering a 22m focal length within an optical package length of only 3.5 meters. The use of highly stable materials (Corning ULE glass and carbon-fiber reinforced cyanate ester resin for the metering structure) combined with agressive distributed thermal control and an L2 orbit location will lead to unmatched figure stability. Owing to our choice of rigid structure with nondeployable solar panels, finite-element models show no structural resonances below 10Hz. An exhaustive stray light study has been completed. Beginning in 2005, two industry studies will develop plans for fabrication, integration and test, bringing SNAP to a highly realistic level of definition. SNAP is supported by the Office of Science, US DoE, under contract DE-AC03-76SF00098.

  3. The Parkes radio telescope - 1986

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ables, J. G.; Jacka, C. E.; McConnell, D.; Schinckel, A. E.; Hunt, A. J.

    The Parkes radio telescope has been refurbished 25 years after its commisioning in 1961, with complete replacement of its drive and control systems. The new computer system distributes computing tasks among a loosely coupled network of minicomputers which communicate via full duplex serial lines. Central to the control system is the 'CLOCK' element, which relates all positioning of the telescope to absolute time and synchronizes the logging of astronomical data. Two completely independent servo loops furnish telescope positioning functions.

  4. Telescope structures - An evolutionary overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meinel, Aden B.; Meinel, Marjorie P.

    1987-01-01

    A development history is presented for telescope structural support materials, design concepts, equatorial and altazimuthal orientational preferences, and mechanical control system structural realizations. In the course of 50 years after Galileo, the basic configurations of all reflecting telescopes was set for the subsequent 300 years: these were the Cassegrain, Gregorian, and Newtonian designs. The challenge of making a lightweight ribbed pyrex glass primary mirror for the 5-m Palomar telescope was met by von Karman's use of finite element analysis. Attention is given to the prospects for a 20-m deployable space-based reflecting telescope.

  5. Why Space Telescopes Are Amazing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, Jane R.

    2012-01-01

    One of humanity's best ideas has been to put telescopes in space. The dark stillness of space allows telescopes to perform much better than they can on even the darkest and clearest of Earth's mountaintops. In addition, from space we can detect colors of light, like X-rays and gamma rays, that are blocked by the Earth's atmosphere I'll talk about NASA's team of great observatories: the Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer Space Telescope, and Chandra X-ray Observatory} and how they've worked together to answer key questions: When did the stars form? Is there really dark matter? Is the universe really expanding ever faster and faster?

  6. Large space telescope, phase A. Volume 3: Optical telescope assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development and characteristics of the optical telescope assembly for the Large Space Telescope are discussed. The systems considerations are based on mission-related parameters and optical equipment requirements. Information is included on: (1) structural design and analysis, (2) thermal design, (3) stabilization and control, (4) alignment, focus, and figure control, (5) electronic subsystem, and (6) scientific instrument design.

  7. Gamma-Ray Telescopes: 400 Years of Astronomical Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.

    2010-01-01

    The last half-century has seen dramatic developments in gamma-ray telescopes, from their initial conception and development through to their blossoming into full maturity as a potent research tool in astronomy. Gamma-ray telescopes are leading research in diverse areas such as gamma-ray bursts, blazars, Galactic transients, and the Galactic distribution of Al-26.

  8. Hubble Space Telescope Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Astronomers using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have identified what may be the most luminous star known; a celestial mammoth that releases up to 10-million times the power of the Sun and is big enough to fill the diameter of Earth's orbit. The star unleashes as much energy in six seconds as our Sun does in one year. The image, taken by a UCLA-led team with the recently installed Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) aboard the HST, also reveals a bright nebula, created by extremely massive stellar eruptions. The UCLA astronomers estimate that the star, called the Pistol Star, (for the pistol shaped nebula surrounding it), is approximately 25,000 light-years from Earth, near the center of our Milky Way galaxy. The Pistol Star is not visible to the eye, but is located in the direction of the constellation Sagittarius, hidden behind the great dust clouds along the Milky Way

  9. Composite telescope technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peter C.; Rabin, Douglas

    2014-07-01

    We report the development of optical mirrors based on polymer matrix composite materials. Advantages of this technology are low cost and versatility. By using appropriate combinations of polymers and various metallic and nonmetallic particles and fibers, the properties of the materials can be tailored to suit a wide variety of applications. We report the fabrication and testing of flat and curved mirrors made with metal powders, multiple mirrors replicated with high degree of uniformity from the same mandrels, cryogenic testing, mirrors made of ferromagnetic materials that can be actively or adaptively controlled by non-contact actuation, optics with very smooth surfaces made by replication, and by spincasting. We discuss development of a new generation of ultra-compact, low power active optics and 3D printing of athermal telescopes.

  10. Microoptical telescope compound eye.

    PubMed

    Duparré, Jacques; Schreiber, Peter; Matthes, André; Pshenay-Severin, Ekaterina; Bräuer, Andreas; Tünnermann, Andreas; Völkel, Reinhard; Eisner, Martin; Scharf, Toralf

    2005-02-01

    A new optical concept for compact digital image acquisition devices with large field of view is developed and proofed experimentally. Archetypes for the imaging system are compound eyes of small insects and the Gabor-Superlens. A paraxial 3x3 matrix formalism is used to describe the telescope arrangement of three microlens arrays with different pitch to find first order parameters of the imaging system. A 2mm thin imaging system with 21x3 channels, 70 masculinex10 masculine field of view and 4.5mm x 0.5mm image size is optimized and analyzed using sequential and non-sequential raytracing and fabricated by microoptics technology. Anamorphic lenses, where the parameters are a function of the considered optical channel, are used to achieve a homogeneous optical performance over the whole field of view. Captured images are presented and compared to simulation results. PMID:19494951

  11. The Travelling Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    The telescope has been around for over 400 years, yet most people have never looked though one. We invite people outside under the stars to learn about those curious lights in the sky, and have a close encounter with the cosmos.Our main aim is to promote science, technology, engineering, and mathematics to the young minds by inspiring, empowering and engaging them using astronomy and astrophysics tools and concepts. We would like to see Africa compete with the rest of the world and we believe this can happen through having a scientifically literate society. We also work closely wit teachers, parents and the general public to further our objectives. We will present on our recently awarded project to work with schools in rural coastal Kenya, a very poor area of the country. We will also present on other work we continue to do with schools to make our project sustainable even after the OAD funding.

  12. Actuated Hybrid Mirror Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, Gregory; Redding, David; Lowman, Andrew; Cohen, David; Ohara, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The figure depicts the planned Actuated Hybrid Mirror Telescope (AHMT), which is intended to demonstrate a new approach to the design and construction of wide-aperture spaceborne telescopes for astronomy and Earth science. This technology is also appropriate for Earth-based telescopes. The new approach can be broadly summarized as using advanced lightweight mirrors that can be manufactured rapidly at relatively low cost. More specifically, it is planned to use precise replicated metallic nanolaminate mirrors to obtain the required high-quality optical finishes. Lightweight, dimensionally stable silicon carbide (SiC) structures will support the nanolaminate mirrors in the required surface figures. To enable diffraction- limited telescope performance, errors in surface figures will be corrected by use of mirror-shape-control actuators that will be energized, as needed, by a wave-front-sensing and control system. The concepts of nanolaminate materials and mirrors made from nanolaminate materials were discussed in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. Nanolaminates constitute a relatively new class of materials that can approach theoretical limits of stiffness and strength. Nanolaminate mirrors are synthesized by magnetron sputter deposition of metallic alloys and/or compounds on optically precise master surfaces to obtain optical-quality reflector surfaces backed by thin shell structures. As an integral part of the deposition process, a layer of gold that will constitute the reflective surface layer is deposited first, eliminating the need for a subsequent and separate reflective-coating process. The crystallographic textures of the nanolaminate will be controlled to optimize the performance of the mirror. The entire deposition process for making a nanolaminate mirror takes less than 100 hours, regardless of the mirror diameter. Each nanolaminate mirror will be bonded to its lightweight SiC supporting structure. The lightweight nanolaminate mirrors and Si

  13. Asteroseismology with robotic telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handler, G.

    2004-10-01

    Asteroseismology explores the interior of pulsating stars by analysing their normal mode spectrum. The detection of a sufficient number of pulsation modes for seismic modelling of main sequence variables requires large quantities of high-precision time resolved photometry. Robotic telescopes have become an asset for asteroseismology because of their stable instrumentation, cost- and time-efficient operation and the potentially large amounts of observing time available. We illustrate these points by presenting selected results on several types of pulsating variables, such as δ Scuti stars (main sequence and pre-main sequence), γ Doradus stars, rapidly oscillating Ap stars and β Cephei stars, thereby briefly reviewing recent success stories of asteroseismic studies of main sequence stars.

  14. The metagenomic telescope.

    PubMed

    Szalkai, Balázs; Scheer, Ildikó; Nagy, Kinga; Vértessy, Beáta G; Grolmusz, Vince

    2014-01-01

    Next generation sequencing technologies led to the discovery of numerous new microbe species in diverse environmental samples. Some of the new species contain genes never encountered before. Some of these genes encode proteins with novel functions, and some of these genes encode proteins that perform some well-known function in a novel way. A tool, named the Metagenomic Telescope, is described here that applies artificial intelligence methods, and seems to be capable of identifying new protein functions even in the well-studied model organisms. As a proof-of-principle demonstration of the Metagenomic Telescope, we considered DNA repair enzymes in the present work. First we identified proteins in DNA repair in well-known organisms (i.e., proteins in base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair and DNA break repair); next we applied multiple alignments and then built hidden Markov profiles for each protein separately, across well-researched organisms; next, using public depositories of metagenomes, originating from extreme environments, we identified DNA repair genes in the samples. While the phylogenetic classification of the metagenomic samples are not typically available, we hypothesized that some very special DNA repair strategies need to be applied in bacteria and Archaea living in those extreme circumstances. It is a difficult task to evaluate the results obtained from mostly unknown species; therefore we applied again the hidden Markov profiling: for the identified DNA repair genes in the extreme metagenomes, we prepared new hidden Markov profiles (for each genes separately, subsequent to a cluster analysis); and we searched for similarities to those profiles in model organisms. We have found well known DNA repair proteins, numerous proteins with unknown functions, and also proteins with known, but different functions in the model organisms. PMID:25054802

  15. The metagenomic telescope.

    PubMed

    Szalkai, Balázs; Scheer, Ildikó; Nagy, Kinga; Vértessy, Beáta G; Grolmusz, Vince

    2014-01-01

    Next generation sequencing technologies led to the discovery of numerous new microbe species in diverse environmental samples. Some of the new species contain genes never encountered before. Some of these genes encode proteins with novel functions, and some of these genes encode proteins that perform some well-known function in a novel way. A tool, named the Metagenomic Telescope, is described here that applies artificial intelligence methods, and seems to be capable of identifying new protein functions even in the well-studied model organisms. As a proof-of-principle demonstration of the Metagenomic Telescope, we considered DNA repair enzymes in the present work. First we identified proteins in DNA repair in well-known organisms (i.e., proteins in base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair and DNA break repair); next we applied multiple alignments and then built hidden Markov profiles for each protein separately, across well-researched organisms; next, using public depositories of metagenomes, originating from extreme environments, we identified DNA repair genes in the samples. While the phylogenetic classification of the metagenomic samples are not typically available, we hypothesized that some very special DNA repair strategies need to be applied in bacteria and Archaea living in those extreme circumstances. It is a difficult task to evaluate the results obtained from mostly unknown species; therefore we applied again the hidden Markov profiling: for the identified DNA repair genes in the extreme metagenomes, we prepared new hidden Markov profiles (for each genes separately, subsequent to a cluster analysis); and we searched for similarities to those profiles in model organisms. We have found well known DNA repair proteins, numerous proteins with unknown functions, and also proteins with known, but different functions in the model organisms.

  16. The Metagenomic Telescope

    PubMed Central

    Szalkai, Balázs; Scheer, Ildikó; Nagy, Kinga; Vértessy, Beáta G.; Grolmusz, Vince

    2014-01-01

    Next generation sequencing technologies led to the discovery of numerous new microbe species in diverse environmental samples. Some of the new species contain genes never encountered before. Some of these genes encode proteins with novel functions, and some of these genes encode proteins that perform some well-known function in a novel way. A tool, named the Metagenomic Telescope, is described here that applies artificial intelligence methods, and seems to be capable of identifying new protein functions even in the well-studied model organisms. As a proof-of-principle demonstration of the Metagenomic Telescope, we considered DNA repair enzymes in the present work. First we identified proteins in DNA repair in well–known organisms (i.e., proteins in base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair and DNA break repair); next we applied multiple alignments and then built hidden Markov profiles for each protein separately, across well–researched organisms; next, using public depositories of metagenomes, originating from extreme environments, we identified DNA repair genes in the samples. While the phylogenetic classification of the metagenomic samples are not typically available, we hypothesized that some very special DNA repair strategies need to be applied in bacteria and Archaea living in those extreme circumstances. It is a difficult task to evaluate the results obtained from mostly unknown species; therefore we applied again the hidden Markov profiling: for the identified DNA repair genes in the extreme metagenomes, we prepared new hidden Markov profiles (for each genes separately, subsequent to a cluster analysis); and we searched for similarities to those profiles in model organisms. We have found well known DNA repair proteins, numerous proteins with unknown functions, and also proteins with known, but different functions in the model organisms. PMID:25054802

  17. Kashima 34-m Radio Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekido, Mamoru; Kawai, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    The Kashima 34-m radio telescope has been continuously operated and maintained by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) as a facility of the Kashima Space Technology Center (KSTC) in Japan. This brief report summarizes the status of this telescope, the staff, and activities during 2012.

  18. Direct detection of terrestrial exoplanets: comparing the potential for space and ground telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, Roger

    2003-10-01

    Telescopes of various different designs are potentially capable of detecting extrasolar terrestrial planets. We analyze here in a consistent way the limiting sensitivities set by photon noise from the background underlying the planet signal, which may be of thermal, zodiacal or stellar origin. The strength of the unsuppressed stellar halo is itself set by photon noise in wavefront measurement. While optical telescopes have potentially higher limiting sensitivity, thermal detection is more secure. At 11 μm wavelength, the planet/star contrast is 1000 times more favorable than in the optical. Together with the longer wavelength, this leads to a 500 times more relaxed tolerance for star suppression, one that can be met by a fast servo based on the bright star flux sensed at shorter wavelengths. Either Darwin or a 100 m ground telescope should be capable of thermal detection of the earth in a solar system twin at 10 pc at 5 to 10σ in 24hr. At optical wavelengths, the limiting sensitivity for space telescopes is set at the 10-30σ level by photon noise in the zodiacal background. Reaching this limit, as do the deep fields of the Hubble Space Telescope, will require extreme coronagraphic suppression of the bright star at 0.1 arcsec separation. The ~1 m-scale Fourier components of the wavefront would need to have stable amplitude ≤2 picometers, a severe challenge. On the ground, fast atmospheric correction at the photon noise limit will leave residual Fourier amplitudes of 20-60 pm, for a halo background 100-1000 times zodiacal. But given larger apertures and stronger fluxes, optical sensitivity can still be high, provided the photon noise limit of short halo exposures can be maintained in a long-term average. If this challenge can be met, detection in 24 hr would be at the 5σ level for a 20 m Antarctic telescope, ~50σ for the 100 m OWL. If a terrestrial planet were detected at 10 pc, a spectrum that could reveal water and oxygen would be of great interest. Thermal

  19. Wind buffeting of large telescopes.

    PubMed

    MacMynowski, Douglas G; Andersen, Torben

    2010-02-01

    Unsteady wind loads due to turbulence within the telescope enclosure are one of the largest dynamic disturbances for ground-based optical telescopes. The desire to minimize the response to the wind influences the design of the telescope enclosure, structure, and control systems. There is now significant experience in detailed integrated modeling to predict image jitter due to wind. Based on this experience, a relatively simple model is proposed that is verified (from a more detailed model) to capture the relevant physics. In addition to illustrating the important elements of the telescope design that influence wind response, this model is used to understand the sensitivity of telescope image jitter to a wide range of design parameters. PMID:20119010

  20. Wind buffeting of large telescopes.

    PubMed

    MacMynowski, Douglas G; Andersen, Torben

    2010-02-01

    Unsteady wind loads due to turbulence within the telescope enclosure are one of the largest dynamic disturbances for ground-based optical telescopes. The desire to minimize the response to the wind influences the design of the telescope enclosure, structure, and control systems. There is now significant experience in detailed integrated modeling to predict image jitter due to wind. Based on this experience, a relatively simple model is proposed that is verified (from a more detailed model) to capture the relevant physics. In addition to illustrating the important elements of the telescope design that influence wind response, this model is used to understand the sensitivity of telescope image jitter to a wide range of design parameters.

  1. Seismic Imager Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidick, Erkin; Coste, Keith; Cunningham, J.; Sievers,Michael W.; Agnes, Gregory S.; Polanco, Otto R.; Green, Joseph J.; Cameron, Bruce A.; Redding, David C.; Avouac, Jean Philippe; Ampuero, Jean Paul; Leprince, Sebastien; Michel, Remi

    2012-01-01

    A concept has been developed for a geostationary seismic imager (GSI), a space telescope in geostationary orbit above the Pacific coast of the Americas that would provide movies of many large earthquakes occurring in the area from Southern Chile to Southern Alaska. The GSI movies would cover a field of view as long as 300 km, at a spatial resolution of 3 to 15 m and a temporal resolution of 1 to 2 Hz, which is sufficient for accurate measurement of surface displacements and photometric changes induced by seismic waves. Computer processing of the movie images would exploit these dynamic changes to accurately measure the rapidly evolving surface waves and surface ruptures as they happen. These measurements would provide key information to advance the understanding of the mechanisms governing earthquake ruptures, and the propagation and arrest of damaging seismic waves. GSI operational strategy is to react to earthquakes detected by ground seismometers, slewing the satellite to point at the epicenters of earthquakes above a certain magnitude. Some of these earthquakes will be foreshocks of larger earthquakes; these will be observed, as the spacecraft would have been pointed in the right direction. This strategy was tested against the historical record for the Pacific coast of the Americas, from 1973 until the present. Based on the seismicity recorded during this time period, a GSI mission with a lifetime of 10 years could have been in position to observe at least 13 (22 on average) earthquakes of magnitude larger than 6, and at least one (2 on average) earthquake of magnitude larger than 7. A GSI would provide data unprecedented in its extent and temporal and spatial resolution. It would provide this data for some of the world's most seismically active regions, and do so better and at a lower cost than could be done with ground-based instrumentation. A GSI would revolutionize the understanding of earthquake dynamics, perhaps leading ultimately to effective warning

  2. Hubble Space Telescope Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    These eerie, dark, pillar-like structures are actually columns of cool interstellar hydrogen gas and dust that are also incubators for new stars. The pillars protrude from the interior wall of a dark molecular cloud like stalagmites from the floor of a cavern. They are part of the Eagle Nebula (also called M16), a nearby star-forming region 7,000 light-years away, in the constellation Serpens. The ultraviolet light from hot, massive, newborn stars is responsible for illuminating the convoluted surfaces of the columns and the ghostly streamers of gas boiling away from their surfaces, producing the dramatic visual effects that highlight the three-dimensional nature of the clouds. This image was taken on April 1, 1995 with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. The color image is constructed from three separate images taken in the light of emission from different types of atoms. Red shows emissions from singly-ionized sulfur atoms, green shows emissions from hydrogen, and blue shows light emitted by doubly-ionized oxygen atoms.

  3. SOFIA: Flying the Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asher, Troy; Cumming, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an international cooperative development and operations program between the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the German Space Agency, DLR (Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft-und Raumfahrt). SOFIA is a 2.5 meter, optical/infrared/sub-millimeter telescope mounted in a Boeing model 747SP-21 aircraft and will be used for many basic astronomical observations performed at stratospheric altitudes. It will accommodate installation of different focal plane instruments with in-flight accessibility provided by investigators selected from the international science community. The Facility operational lifetime is planned to be greater than 20 years. This presentation will present the results of developmental testing of SOFIA, including analysis, envelope expansion and the first operational mission. It will describe a brief history of open cavities in flight, how NASA designed and tested SOFIAs cavity, as well as flight test results. It will focus on how the test team achieved key milestones by systematically and efficiently reducing the number of test points to only those absolutely necessary to achieve mission requirements, thereby meeting all requirements and saving the potential loss of program funding. Finally, it will showcase examples of the observatory in action and the first operational mission of the observatory, illustrating the usefulness of the system to the international scientific community. Lessons learned on how to whittle a mountain of test points into a manageable sum will be presented at the conclusion.

  4. Why systems engineering on telescopes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swart, Gerhard P.; Meiring, Jacobus G.

    2003-02-01

    Although Systems Engineering has been widely applied to the defence industry, many other projects are unaware of its potential benefits when correctly applied, assuming that it is an expensive luxury. It seems that except in a few instances, telescope projects are no exception, prompting the writing of this paper. The authors postulate that classical Systems Engineering can and should be tailored, and then applied to telescope projects, leading to cost, schedule and technical benefits. This paper explores the essence of Systems Engineering and how it can be applied to any complex development project. The authors cite real-world Systems Engineering examples from the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). The SALT project is the development and construction of a 10m-class telescope at the price of a 4m telescope. Although SALT resembles the groundbreaking Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) in Texas, the project team are attempting several challenging changes to the original design, requiring a focussed engineering approach and discernment in the definition of the telescope requirements. Following a tailored Systems Engineering approach on this project has already enhanced the quality of decisions made, improved the fidelity of contractual specifications for subsystems, and established criteria testing their performance. Systems Engineering, as applied on SALT, is a structured development process, where requirements are formally defined before the award of subsystem developmental contracts. During this process conceptual design, modeling and prototyping are performed to ensure that the requirements were realistic and accurate. Design reviews are held where the designs are checked for compliance with the requirements. Supplier factory and on-site testing are followed by integrated telescope testing, to verify system performance against the specifications. Although the SALT project is still far from completion, the authors are confident that the present benefits from

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SFI++ II. A new I-band Tully-Fisher catalog (Springob+, 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springob, C. M.; Masters, K. L.; Haynes, M. P.; Giovanelli, R.; Marinoni, C.

    2009-05-01

    The complete photometric and spectroscopic data sample is composed of the previously published SFI (Spiral Field I-band, Haynes, 1999, Cat. ), SCI (Spiral Cluster I-band, Giovanelli, 1997, Cat. ), and SC2 (Spiral Cluster I-band 2, Dale, 1999, Cat. ) data sets, and the until now unpublished Spiral Field I-band 2 (SF2) sample. The HI spectroscopy observations were made with the 305m Arecibo telescope, the late 91m and 42m Green Bank telescopes, the Nancay radio telescope, and the Effelsberg 100m telescope; the optical spectroscopic observations were made with the 2.3m telescope at Siding Spring Observatory, the Hale 5m telescope at Palomar Observatory, and the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) 4m telescope. (4 data files).

  6. Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schloerb, F. Peter; Carrasco, Luis; Wilson, Grant W.

    2003-02-01

    We present a summary of the Large Millimeter Telescope Project and its present status. The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts (UMass) in the USA and the Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE) in Mexico to build a 50m-diameter millimeter-wave telescope. The LMT is being built at an altitude of 4600 m atop Volcan Sierra Negra, an extinct volcanic peak in the state of Puebla, Mexico, approximately 100 km east of the city of Puebla. Construction of the antenna is now well underway, and it is expected to be completed in 2004.

  7. Formation flight astronomical survey telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    2012-03-01

    Formation Flight Astronomical Survey Telescope (FFAST) is a project for hard X-ray observation. It consists of two small satellites; one (telescope satellite) has a super mirror covering the energy range up to 80 keV while the other (detector satellite) has an scintillator deposited CCD (SDCCD) having good spatial resolution and high efficiency up to 100 keV. Two satellites will be put into individual Kepler orbits forming an X-ray telescope with a focal length of 20 m. They will be not in pointing mode but in survey mode to cover a large sky region.

  8. Geodetic Observatory Wettzell - 20-m Radio Telescope and Twin Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neidhardt, Alexander; Kronschnabl, Gerhard; Schatz, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    In the year 2012, the 20-m radio telescope at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell, Germany again contributed very successfully to the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry observing program. Technical changes, developments, improvements, and upgrades were made to increase the reliability of the entire VLBI observing system. In parallel, the new Twin radio telescope Wettzell (TTW) got the first feedhorn, while the construction of the HF-receiving and the controlling system was continued.

  9. Ice Middleware in the New Solar Telescope's Telescope Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumko, S.

    2009-09-01

    The Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) is now in the process of assembling and aligning its 1.6 m New Solar Telescope (NST). There are many challenges controlling NST and one of them is establishing reliable and robust communications between different parts of the Telescope Control System (TCS). For our TCS we selected Ice (Internet communication engine) from ZeroC, Inc. In this paper we discuss advantages of the Ice middleware, details of implementation and problems we face implementing it.

  10. Prime focus architectures for large space telescopes: reduce surfaces to save cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breckinridge, J. B.; Lillie, C. F.

    2016-07-01

    Conceptual architectures are now being developed to identify future directions for post JWST large space telescope systems to operate in the UV Optical and near IR regions of the spectrum. Here we show that the cost of optical surfaces within large aperture telescope/instrument systems can exceed $100M/reflection when expressed in terms of the aperture increase needed to over come internal absorption loss. We recommend a program in innovative optical design to minimize the number of surfaces by considering multiple functions for mirrors. An example is given using the Rowland circle imaging spectrometer systems for UV space science. With few exceptions, current space telescope architectures are based on systems optimized for ground-based astronomy. Both HST and JWST are classical "Cassegrain" telescopes derived from the ground-based tradition to co-locate the massive primary mirror and the instruments at the same end of the metrology structure. This requirement derives from the dual need to minimize observatory dome size and cost in the presence of the Earth's 1-g gravitational field. Space telescopes, however function in the zero gravity of space and the 1- g constraint is relieved to the advantage of astronomers. Here we suggest that a prime focus large aperture telescope system in space may have potentially have higher transmittance, better pointing, improved thermal and structural control, less internal polarization and broader wavelength coverage than Cassegrain telescopes. An example is given showing how UV astronomy telescopes use single optical elements for multiple functions and therefore have a minimum number of reflections.

  11. The Allen Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Geoffrey C.; Allen Telescope Array Team

    2010-01-01

    The ATA is a 42-element centimeter wavelength array located in Hat Creek, California and jointly operated by UC Berkeley Radio Astronomy Laboratory and the SETI Institute. Since the ATA dedication in Fall 2007, activities have been focused on commissioning the array, retrofitting a handful of components including the feed, developing an operations model, creation of pipeline processing for correlator imaging data, early science observations, and launching of the major surveys for which the telescope was built. The retrofit of the feed improves feed mechanical robustness as well as high frequency performance. Science programs launched include imaging radio transient and static sky surveys (ATATS and PiGSS), commensal SETI and transient surveys of the Galactic Center, targeted SETI observations of nearby stars, the Fly's Eye transient survey, broadband spectra of nearby star-forming galaxies, polarimetric observations of bright radio sources, observations of hydrogen in nearby galaxies and galaxy groups, molecular line observations in the Galaxy, and observations of Jupiter and the Moon. The baseline Square Kilometer Array (SKA) design, a large-N-small-diameter (LNSD) array with wide-band single-pixel feeds and an offset Gregorian antenna, bears a strong resemblance to the ATA. Additional ATA contributions to the SKA include configuration studies for LNSD arrays, the use of fiber optics for broadband data transmission, the use of flexible FPGA-based digital electronics, passive cooling of antennas, and implementation of commensal observing modes. The ATA is currently used for exploration of calibration and imaging algorithms necessary for the SKA. I will summarize current technical status and performance, the results from early science and surveys, and ATA contributions to SKA development.

  12. Lightweighted ZERODUR for telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerhoff, T.; Davis, M.; Hartmann, P.; Hull, T.; Jedamzik, R.

    2014-07-01

    The glass ceramic ZERODUR® from SCHOTT has an excellent reputation as mirror blank material for earthbound and space telescope applications. It is known for its extremely low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) at room temperature and its excellent CTE homogeneity. Recent improvements in CNC machining at SCHOTT allow achieving extremely light weighted substrates up to 90% incorporating very thin ribs and face sheets. In 2012 new ZERODUR® grades EXPANSION CLASS 0 SPECIAL and EXTREME have been released that offer the tightest CTE grades ever. With ZERODUR® TAILORED it is even possible to offer ZERODUR® optimized for customer application temperature profiles. In 2013 SCHOTT started the development of a new dilatometer setup with the target to drive the industrial standard of high accuracy thermal expansion metrology to its limit. In recent years SCHOTT published several paper on improved bending strength of ZERODUR® and lifetime evaluation based on threshold values derived from 3 parameter Weibull distribution fitted to a multitude of stress data. ZERODUR® has been and is still being successfully used as mirror substrates for a large number of space missions. ZERODUR® was used for the secondary mirror in HST and for the Wolter mirrors in CHANDRA without any reported degradation of the optical image quality during the lifetime of the missions. Some years ago early studies on the compaction effects of electron radiation on ZERODUR® were re analyzed. Using a more relevant physical model based on a simplified bimetallic equation the expected deformation of samples exposed in laboratory and space could be predicted in a much more accurate way. The relevant ingredients for light weighted mirror substrates are discussed in this paper: substrate material with excellent homogeneity in its properties, sufficient bending strengths, space radiation hardness and CNC machining capabilities.

  13. Prism beamswitch for radio telescopes.

    PubMed

    Payne, J M; Ulich, B L

    1978-12-01

    A dielectric prism and switching mechanism have been constructed for beamswitching a Cassegrain radio telescope. Spatially extended radio sources may be mapped without significant confusion utilizing the sensitivity and stability inherent in the conventional Dicke radiometer.

  14. The CMS pixel luminosity telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornmayer, A.

    2016-07-01

    The Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) is a new complement to the CMS detector for the LHC Run II data taking period. It consists of eight 3-layer telescopes based on silicon pixel detectors that are placed around the beam pipe on each end of CMS viewing the interaction point at small angle. A fast 3-fold coincidence of the pixel planes in each telescope will provide a bunch-by-bunch measurement of the luminosity. Particle tracking allows collision products to be distinguished from beam background, provides a self-alignment of the detectors, and a continuous in-time monitoring of the efficiency of each telescope plane. The PLT is an independent luminometer, essential to enhance the robustness on the measurement of the delivered luminosity and to reduce its systematic uncertainties. This will allow to determine production cross-sections, and hence couplings, with high precision and to set more stringent limits on new particle production.

  15. Hubble Space Telescope-Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This is a cutaway illustration of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) with callouts. The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  16. Hubble Space Telescope-Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This is an artist's concept of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than is visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  17. Hubble Space Telescope-Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This illustration depicts a side view of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  18. Imaging phased telescope array study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, James E.

    1989-01-01

    The problems encountered in obtaining a wide field-of-view with large, space-based direct imaging phased telescope arrays were considered. After defining some of the critical systems issues, previous relevant work in the literature was reviewed and summarized. An extensive list was made of potential error sources and the error sources were categorized in the form of an error budget tree including optical design errors, optical fabrication errors, assembly and alignment errors, and environmental errors. After choosing a top level image quality requirment as a goal, a preliminary tops-down error budget allocation was performed; then, based upon engineering experience, detailed analysis, or data from the literature, a bottoms-up error budget reallocation was performed in an attempt to achieve an equitable distribution of difficulty in satisfying the various allocations. This exercise provided a realistic allocation for residual off-axis optical design errors in the presence of state-of-the-art optical fabrication and alignment errors. Three different computational techniques were developed for computing the image degradation of phased telescope arrays due to aberrations of the individual telescopes. Parametric studies and sensitivity analyses were then performed for a variety of subaperture configurations and telescope design parameters in an attempt to determine how the off-axis performance of a phased telescope array varies as the telescopes are scaled up in size. The Air Force Weapons Laboratory (AFWL) multipurpose telescope testbed (MMTT) configuration was analyzed in detail with regard to image degradation due to field curvature and distortion of the individual telescopes as they are scaled up in size.

  19. Telescope optical systems program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschbein, Murray S.; Key, Richard W.

    1991-01-01

    Telescope Optical Systems is a new focused program of technology development that will shape and enable the new 'telescope' missions being studied and planned by NASA. The program structure contains six major elements: systems, optics, materials, structures, controls, and integration and test. Activities in each element will address key technology issues that support a wide range of user needs. Program goals, technology needs, and technology performance objectives are summarized in outline form.

  20. Global TIE (Telescopes in Education)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, L.; Schweitzer, A. E.; Clark, G.; Hoban, S.; Melsheimer, T. T.

    2001-12-01

    The NASA-sponsored Telescopes In Education (TIE) project (http://tie.jpl.nasa.gov) has been wildly successful in engaging the K-12 education community in real-time, hands-on, interactive astronomy activities. Hundreds of schools in the US, Australia, Canada, England, and Japan have participated in the TIE program, remotely controlling the 24-inch telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory from their classrooms. In recent years, several (approximately 20 to date) other telescopes have been, or are in the process of being, outfitted for remote use as TIE affiliates. Global TIE integrates these telescopes seamlessly into one virtual observatory and provides the services required to operate this facility, including a scheduling service, tools for data manipulation, an online proposal review environment, an online "Virtual TIE Student Ap J" for publication of results, and access to related educational materials provided by the TIE community. Global TIE seeks to establish a network of research grade telescopes, no longer useful to the professional astronomical community, that can be made accessible to schools all across the country through existing IT technologies and applications. These telescopes could provide unparalleled research and educational opportunities for a broad spectrum of K-12 and college students and turns underutilized observatory facilities into valuable, state-of-the-art teaching centers.

  1. Alt-Az Spacewatch Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Tom

    1997-01-01

    This grant funded about one third of the cost of the construction of a telescope with an aperture 1.8 meters in diameter to discover asteroids and comets and investigate the statistics of their populations and orbital distributions. This telescope has been built to the PI's specifications and installed in a dome on Kitt Peak mountain in Arizona. Funds for the dome and building were provided entirely by private sources. The dome building and telescope were dedicated in a ceremony at the site on June 7, 1997. The attached abstract describes the parameters of the telescope. The telescope is a new item of capital property. It is permanently located in University of Arizona building number 910 in the Steward Observatory compound on Kitt Peak mountain in the Tohono O'odham Nation, Arizona. fts property tag number is A252107. This grant did not include funds for the coma corrector lens, instrument derotator, CCD detector, detector electronics, or computers to acquire or process the data. It also did not include funds to operate the telescope or conduct research with it. Funds for these items and efforts are pending from NASA and other sources.

  2. Concept Design for SOAR Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebring, T.; Cecil, G.; Krabbendam, V.; Moretto, G.

    1998-12-01

    The Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope is a \\$28M collaboration between Brazil, NOAO, Michigan State University, and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. NOAO will operate the telescope for 20 years in exchange for 30 astronomers.) The project is now fully funded. This f/16 telescope is optimized for high-quality images across the isokinetic field (0."17 FWHM degradation from the telescope+facility over a field of 7.5' diameter.) It is being designed to take up to 2 Gemini-class (2100 kg) instruments, or a combination of lighter instruments at 7 Nasmyth and bent Cassegrain foci. The facility is now under construction atop Cerro Pachon, 400m from Gemini-S. First light is currently scheduled for early 2002. Corning Inc. is preparing to fabricate the 4.2m-diameter, 7.5-10 cm thick primary mirror from ULE glass. In early 1999 contacts will be awarded for 2 major subsystems: active optics (which includes optics polishing), and the alt.-az. telescope mount. We will outline the novel strategies that are being used to control project costs while optimizing telescope performance. Instrumentation plans will also be summarized.

  3. Green Bank Telescope Observations of Interstellar Glycolaldehyde: Low Temperature Sugar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, J. M.; Jewell, P. R.; Lovas, F. J.; Remijan, A.

    2004-01-01

    Interstellar glycolaldehyde (CH20HCHO) has been detected with the 100-m Green Bank Telescope (GBT) toward the star-forming region Sagittarius B2(N) by means of the 1(sub 10)-1(sub 01),2(sub 11)-2(sub 02),3(sub 12)-3(sub 0), and 4(sub 13)-4(sub 04) rotational transitions at 13.48, 15.18, 17.98, and 22.14 GHz, respectively. An analysis of these four high signal- to-noise rotational transitions yields a glycolaldehyde state temperature of 8 K. Previously reported emission line detections of glycolaldehyde with the NRAO 12-m telescope at mm-wavelengths (71 GHz to 103 GHz) are characterized by a state temperature of -50 K. By comparison the GBT detections are surprisingly strong and seen in emission at 13.48 GHz, emission and absorption at 15.18 GHz, and absorption at 17.98 GHz and 22.14 GHz. We attribute the strong absorption observed by the GBT at the higher frequencies to the correspondingly smaller GBT beams coupling better to the continuum source(s) in Sagittarius B2(N). A possible model for the two-temperature regions of glycolaldehyde is discussed.

  4. Progression of Stellar Intensity Interferometry techniques using 3 meter telescopes at StarBase-Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Nolan; Kieda, Dave; Lebohec, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    The emergence of large air Cherenkov telescope arrays have opened up the potential for high-resolution imaging of stellar surfaces using Intensity Interferometry techniques. Stellar Intensity Interferometry (SII) allows coverage into the optical and ultraviolet frequency bands which are traditionally inaccessible to classical Michelson interferometry. The relative insensitivity to atmospheric turbulence allows for unprecedented angular resolution scales as the baselines between telescopes can be made very large (>100m) without the need for precise spatial resolution as required by Michelson interferometry. In this talk I will illustrate the science capabilities of the SII technique and describe the progress achieved in developing a modern Stellar Intensity Interferometry system with a pair of 3 meter diameter optical telescopes located at StarBase-Utah. In particular, I will discuss the current status of the StarBase-Utah observatory and present results from two telescope low frequency optical correlation observations of the optical Crab pulsar. These measurements provide a first step towards actual intensity interferometry observations and establish the working condition of the StarBase-Utah telescopes.

  5. SOFIA: Flying the Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asher, Troy A.; Cumming, Stephen B.

    2012-01-01

    and a proof of concept mission for which SOFIA was opportunely positioned is showcased. Success on this time-critical mission to observe a rare astronomical event proved the usefulness of an airborne observatory and the value in waiting for the capability provided by SOFIA. Finally, lessons learned in the test program are presented with emphasis on how lessons from previous aircraft and successful test programs were applied to SOFIA. Effective application of these lessons was crucial to the success of the SOFIA flight test program. SOFIA is an international cooperative program between NASA and the German Space Agency, DLR. It is a 2.5 meter (100-inch) telescope mounted in a Boeing 747SP aircraft used for astronomical observations at altitudes above 35,000 feet. SOFIA will accommodate a host of scientific instruments from the international science community and has a planned operational lifespan of more than 20 years.

  6. Hubble Space Telescope Scale Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This is a photograph of a 1/15 scale model of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is 42.5-feet (13- meters) long and weighs about 25,000 pounds (11,600 kilograms). The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  7. LISA Telescope Spacer Design Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, Jeff; Arsenovic, P.; Catelluci, K.; Generie, J.; Howard, J.; Stebbins, Howard R.; Preston, A.; Sanjuan, J.; Williams, L.; Mueller, G.

    2010-01-01

    The LISA mission observes gravitational waves by measuring the separations between freely floating proof masses located 5 million kilometers apart with an accuracy of - 10 picometers. The separations are measured interferometrically. The telescope is an afocal Cassegrain style design with a magnification of 80x. The entrance pupil has a 40 cm diameter and will either be centered on-axis or de-centered off-axis to avoid obscurations. Its two main purposes are to transform the small diameter beam used on the optical bench to a diffraction limited collimated beam to efficiently transfer the metrology laser between spacecraft, and to receive the incoming light from the far spacecraft. It transmits and receives simultaneously. The basic optical design and requirements are well understood for a conventional telescope design for imaging applications, but the LISA design is complicated by the additional requirement that the total optical path through the telescope must remain stable at the picometer level over the measurement band during the mission to meet the measurement accuracy. We describe the mechanical requirements for the telescope and the preliminary work that has been done to understand the materials and mechanical issues associated with the design of a passive metering structure to support the telescope and to maintain the spacing between the primary and secondary mirrors in the LISA on-orbit environment. This includes the requirements flowdown from the science goals, thermal modeling of the spacecraft and telescope to determine the expected temperature distribution, layout options for the telescope including an on- and off-axis design. Plans for fabrication and testing will be outlined.

  8. Preliminary LISA Telescope Spacer Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, J.; Arsenovic, P.; Catellucci, K.; Generie, J.; Howard, J.; Stebbins, R. T.

    2010-01-01

    The Laser Interferometric Space Antenna (LISA) mission observes gravitational waves by measuring the separations between freely floating proof masses located 5 million kilometers apart with an accuracy of approximately 10 picometers. The separations are measured interferometrically. The telescope is an afocal Cassegrain style design with a magnification of 80x. The entrance pupil has a 40 cm diameter and will either be centered on-axis or de-centered off-axis to avoid obscurations. Its two main purposes are to transform the small diameter beam used on the optical bench to a diffraction limited collimated beam to efficiently transfer the metrology laser between spacecraft, and to receive the incoming light from the far spacecraft. It transmits and receives simultaneously. The basic optical design and requirements are well understood for a conventional telescope design for imaging applications, but the LISA design is complicated by the additional requirement that the total optical path through the telescope must remain stable at the picometer level over the measurement band during the mission to meet the measurement accuracy. This poster describes the requirements for the telescope and the preliminary work that has been done to understand the materials and mechanical issues associated with the design of a passive metering structure to support the telescope and to maintain the spacing between the primary and secondary mirrors in the LISA on-orbit environment. This includes the requirements flowdown from the science goals, thermal modeling of the spacecraft and telescope to determine the expected temperature distribution,layout options for the telescope including an on- and off-axis design, and plans for fabrication and testing.

  9. Alignment and phasing of deployable telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolf, N. J.; Ulich, B. L.

    1983-01-01

    The experiences in coaligning and phasing the Multi-Mirror Telescope (MMT), together with studies in setting up radio telescopes, are presented. These experiences are discussed, and on the basis they furnish, schemes are suggested for coaligning and phasing four large future telescopes with complex primary mirror systems. These telescopes are MT2, a 15-m-equivalent MMT, the University of California Ten Meter Telescope, the 10 m sub-mm wave telescope of the University of Arizona and the Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy, and the Large Deployable Reflector, a future space telescope for far-IR and sub-mm waves.

  10. James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element Mirror Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keski-Kuha, Ritva A.; Bowers, Charles W.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Heaney, James B.; Gallagher, Benjamin; McKay, Andrew; Stevenson, Ian

    2012-01-01

    James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Telescope Element (OTE) mirror coating program has been completed. The science goals of the JWST mission require a uniform, low stress, durable optical coating with high reflectivity over the JWST spectral region. The coating has to be environmentally stable, radiation resistant and compatible with the cryogenic operating environment. The large size, 1.52 m point to point, light weight, beryllium primary mirror (PM) segments and flawless coating process during the flight mirror coating program that consisted coating of 21 flight mirrors were among many technical challenges. This paper provides an overview of the JWST telescope mirror coating program. The paper summarizes the coating development program and performance of the flight mirrors.

  11. Optical Telescope Design Study Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livas, J.; Sankar, S.

    2015-05-01

    We report on the results of a study conducted from Nov 2012-Apr 2013 to develop a telescope design for a space-based gravitational wave detector. The telescope is needed for efficient power delivery but since it is directly in the beam path, the design is driven by the requirements for the overall displacement sensitivity of the gravitational wave observatory. Two requirements in particular, optical pathlength stability and scattered light performance, are beyond the usual specifications for good image quality encountered in traditional telescopic systems. An important element of the study was to tap industrial expertise to develop an optimized design that can be reliably manufactured. Key engineering and design trade-offs and the sometimes surprising results will be presented.

  12. ORFEUS-SPAS MAIN TELESCOPE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In the Multi-Payload Processing Facility (MPPF) at KSC, technicians hoist the orbiting and Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph-Shuttle Pallet Satellite (ORFEUS-SPAS) II main telescope to a vertical position prior to installing it atop the Astronomy Shuttle Pallet Satellite (ASTRO-SPAS) platform. Two spectrographs share the main telescope: the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph (EUV) provided by the University of California at Berkeley, and the Far Ultraviolet Spectrograph (FUV) designed by German institutions the University of Tubingen and Landessternwarte Heidelberg and built by German company Kayser-Threde. The main telescope has a primary mirror approximately one yard (one meter) in diameter, coated with iridium to improve its light-gathering power in the ultraviolet. During the flight of ORFEUS-SPAS II on Space Shuttle Mission STS- 80, these two spectrographs -- along with a third installed separately on the ASTRO-SPAS -- will gather data about the life cycle of stars.

  13. Hubble Space Telescope Primary Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This photograph shows the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) Primary Mirror being polished at the the Perkin-Elmer Corporation's large optics fabrication facility. After the 8-foot diameter mirror was ground to shape and polished, the glass surface was coated with a reflective layer of aluminum and a protective layer of magnesium fluoride, 0.1- and 0.025-micrometers thick, respectively. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST and the Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors.

  14. Hubble Space Telescope Primary Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This photograph shows engineers inspecting the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) Primary Mirror at the Perkin-Elmer Corporation's large optics fabrication facility. After the 8-foot diameter mirror was ground to shape and polished, the glass surface was coated with a reflective layer of aluminum and a protective layer of magnesium fluoride, 0.1- and 0.025- micrometers thick, respectively. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST and the Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors.

  15. Hubble Space Telescope Primary Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This photograph shows the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) Primary Mirror being ground at the Perkin-Elmer Corporation's large optics fabrication facility. After the 8-foot diameter mirror was ground to shape and polished, the glass surface was coated with a reflective layer of aluminum and a protective layer of magnesium fluoride, 0.1- and 0.025-micrometers thick, respectively. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST and the Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors.

  16. Quantum telescope: feasibility and constraints.

    PubMed

    Kurek, A R; Pięta, T; Stebel, T; Pollo, A; Popowicz, A

    2016-03-15

    The quantum telescope is a recent idea aimed at beating the diffraction limit of spaceborne telescopes and possibly other distant target imaging systems. There is no agreement yet on the best setup of such devices, but some configurations have already been proposed. In this Letter we characterize the predicted performance of quantum telescopes and their possible limitations. Our extensive simulations confirm that the presented model of such instruments is feasible and the device can provide considerable gains in the angular resolution of imaging in the UV, optical, and infrared bands. We argue that it is generally possible to construct and manufacture such instruments using the latest or soon to be available technology. We refer to the latest literature to discuss the feasibility of the proposed QT system design. PMID:26977642

  17. The Spitzer Space Telescope Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, M. W.

    2005-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope, NASA's Great Observatory for infrared astronomy, was launched 2003 August 25 and is returning excellent scientific data from its Earth-trailing solar orbit. Spitzer combines the intrinsic sensitivity achievable with a cryogenic telescope in space with the great imaging and spectroscopic power of modern detector arrays to provide the user community with huge gains in capability for exploration of the cosmos in the infrared. The observatory systems are largely performing as expected, and the projected cryogenic lifetime is about five years. Spitzer is thus both a scientific and a technical precursor to the infrared astronomy missions of the future. This very brief paper refers interested readers to several sets of recent publications which describe both the scientific and the technical features of Spitzer in detail. Note that, until 2003 December, Spitzer was known as the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF).

  18. Scientific management of Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odell, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    A historical summay is given on the science management of the Space Telescope, the inception of which began in 1962, when scientists and engineers first recommended the development of a nearly diffraction limited substantial-size optical telescope. Phase A, the feasibility requirements generation phase, began in 1971 and consisted largely of NASA scientists and a NASA design. Phase B, the preliminary design phase, established a tiered structure of scientists, led by the Large Space Telescope operations and Management Work Group. A Mission Operations Working Group headed six instrument definition teams to develop the essential instrument definitions. Many changes took place during Phase B, before design and development, which began in 1978 and still continues today.

  19. Quantum telescope: feasibility and constraints.

    PubMed

    Kurek, A R; Pięta, T; Stebel, T; Pollo, A; Popowicz, A

    2016-03-15

    The quantum telescope is a recent idea aimed at beating the diffraction limit of spaceborne telescopes and possibly other distant target imaging systems. There is no agreement yet on the best setup of such devices, but some configurations have already been proposed. In this Letter we characterize the predicted performance of quantum telescopes and their possible limitations. Our extensive simulations confirm that the presented model of such instruments is feasible and the device can provide considerable gains in the angular resolution of imaging in the UV, optical, and infrared bands. We argue that it is generally possible to construct and manufacture such instruments using the latest or soon to be available technology. We refer to the latest literature to discuss the feasibility of the proposed QT system design.

  20. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is being developed by NASA in partnership with the European and Canadian space agencies for launch during 2013. This mission is expected to carry the legacy of discovery of the Hubble Space Telescope through the next decade, and is designed with unique capability to address key questions about formation of the first galaxies after the Big Bang, their subsequelet volution, and the formation of stars and planets within our own galaxy. This talk will present an overview of the mission science objectives and the status of the mission development.

  1. Superconductor lunar telescopes --Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, P. C.; Pitts, R.; Shore, S.; Oliversen, R.; Stolarik, J.; Segal, K.; Hojaji, H.

    1994-01-01

    We propose a new type of telescope designed specifically for the lunar environment of high vacuum and low temperature. Large area UV-Visible-IR telescope arrays can be built with ultra-light-weight replica optics. High T(sub c) superconductors provide support, steering, and positioning. Advantages of this approach are light-weight payload compatible with existing launch vehicles, configurable large area optical arrays, no excavation or heavy construction, and frictionless electronically controlled mechanisms. We have built a prototype and will be demonstarting some of its working characteristics.

  2. Wide field of view telescope

    DOEpatents

    Ackermann, Mark R.; McGraw, John T.; Zimmer, Peter C.

    2008-01-15

    A wide field of view telescope having two concave and two convex reflective surfaces, each with an aspheric surface contour, has a flat focal plane array. Each of the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary reflective surfaces are rotationally symmetric about the optical axis. The combination of the reflective surfaces results in a wide field of view in the range of approximately 3.8.degree. to approximately 6.5.degree.. The length of the telescope along the optical axis is approximately equal to or less than the diameter of the largest of the reflective surfaces.

  3. Hubble Space Telescope prescription retrieval.

    PubMed

    Redding, D; Dumont, P; Yu, J

    1993-04-01

    Prescription retrieval is a technique for directly estimating optical prescription parameters from images. We apply it to estimate the value of the Hubble Space Telescope primary mirror conic constant. Our results agree with other studies that examined primary-mirror test fixtures and results. In addition they show that small aberrations exist on the planetary-camera repeater optics.

  4. Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Fermi’s Large Area Telescope (LAT) is the spacecraft’s main scientificinstrument. This animation shows a gamma ray (purple) entering the LAT,where it is converted into an electron (red) and a...

  5. Push-To Telescope Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teets, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Two coordinate systems are related here, one defined by the earth's equator and north pole, the other by the orientation of a telescope at some location on the surface of the earth. Applying an interesting though somewhat obscure property of orthogonal matrices and using the cross-product simplifies this relationship, revealing that a surprisingly…

  6. Absolute energy calibration of the Telescope Array fluorescence detector with an electron linear accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, T.; Beitollahi, M.; Fukushima, M.; Ikeda, D.; Langely, K.; Matthews, J. N.; Sagawa, H.; Shin, B. K.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.

    2013-06-01

    The Electron Light Source(ELS) is a new light source for the absolute energy calibration of cosmic ray Fluorescence Detector(FD) telescopes. The ELS is a compact electron linear accelerator with a typical output of 109 electrons per pulse at 40 MeV. We fire the electron beam vertically into the air 100 m in front of the telescope. The electron beam excites the gases of the atmosphere in the same way as the charged particles of the cosmic ray induced extensive air shower. The gases give off the same light with the same wavelength dependence. The light passes through a small amount of atmosphere and is collected by the same mirror and camera with their wavelength dependence. In this way we can use the electron beam from ELS to make an end-to-end calibration of the telescope. In September 2010, we began operation of the ELS and the FD telescopes observed the fluorescence photons from the air shower which was generated by the electron beam. In this article, we will reort the status of analysis of the absolute energy calibration with data which was taken in September 2010, and beam monitor study in November 2011.

  7. Solar System Research with the Spacewatch 1.8-m Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillan, Robert S.

    2001-01-01

    During this grant period, the 1.8-m Spacewatch telescope was put into routine operation to search for asteroids and comets ranging in location from near-Earth space to regions beyond the orbit of Neptune. All of these classes of objects can be detected simultaneously with our uniform scanning procedures. We are studying near Earth objects (NEOs), main belt asteroids, comets, Centaurs, and trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs), as well as the interrelationships of these classes and their bearing on the origin and evolution of the solar system. The Spacewatch 1.8-meter telescope is sensitive to V(mag) < 22.6 in sidereal scanning mode and is able to reach even fainter in longer 'staring' exposures, with a field of view 0.5 degrees square. These faint limits make the operation of the Spacewatch 1.8-m telescope complementary to asteroid surveys being done by other groups. Specifically, EAs smaller than 100 m in diameter and small main belt asteroids can be found, as well as more distant objects such as Centaurs/Scattered Disk Objects (SDOs) and TNOs. The 1.8-m telescope is also being used to do recoveries and astrometry of recently-discovered asteroids that subsequently become too faint for the other groups before good orbits are established.

  8. Deposition of metal films on an ionic liquid as a basis for a lunar telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borra, Ermanno F.; Seddiki, Omar; Angel, Roger; Eisenstein, Daniel; Hickson, Paul; Seddon, Kenneth R.; Worden, Simon P.

    2007-06-01

    An optical/infrared telescope of 20-100m aperture located on the Moon would be able to observe objects 100 to 1,000 times fainter than the proposed next generation of space telescopes. The infrared region of the spectrum is particularly important for observations of objects at redshifts z>7. The apparent simplicity and low mass of a liquid mirror telescope, compared with a traditional pointable glass mirror, suggest that the concept should be considered further. A previously proposed liquid mirror telescope, based upon a spinning liquid metallic alloy, is not appropriate for infrared applications, which will require a liquid below 130K. Here we report the successful coating of an ionic liquid with silver. The surface is smooth and the silver coating is stable on a timescale of months. The underlying ionic liquid does not evaporate in a vacuum and remains liquid down to a temperature of 175K. Given that there are ~106 simple and ~1018 ternary ionic liquids, it should be possible to synthesize liquids with even lower melting temperatures.

  9. NEAT: a microarcsec astrometric telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, M.; Nemati, B.; Zhai, C.; Goullioud, R.; Malbet, F.; Leger, A.

    2011-10-01

    NEAT, Nearby Exo-Earth Astrometric Telescope is a medium-small telescope ~ 1m in diameter that is designed to make ultra precise < 1 uas (microarcsec) astrometric measurements of nearby stars in a ~ 1hr observation. Four major error sources prevent normal space telescopes from obtaining accuracies close to 1 uas. Even with a small 1m telescope, photon noise is usually not a problem for the bright nearby target stars. But in general, the reference stars are much fainter. Typically a field of view of ~0.5 deg dia is needed to obtain enough bright reference stars. The NEAT concept uses a very simple but unusual design to avoid optically induced astrometric errors. The third source of error is the accuracy and stability of the focal plane. A 1uas error over a ~2000 arcsec field of view implies the focal plane is accurate or at least stable to 5 parts in 1010 over the lifetime of the mission (~5yrs). The 4th class of error has to do with our knowledge of the PSF and how that PSF is sampled by an imperfect detector. A Nyquist sampled focal plane would have > 2 pixels per λ/D, and centroiding to 1uas means centroiding to 10-5 pixels. This paper describes the mission concept, and an overview of the technology needed to perform 1uas astrometry with a small telescope, and how we overcome problems 1 and 2. A companion paper will describe the technical progress we've made in solving problems 3 and 4.

  10. Eclipse Photographs Through a Small Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Bill

    1999-08-01

    Results of previous eclipse photography using a small telescope (Questar 90mm x 1200mm EFL) and camera. During the presentation of images, tips and ideas for getting good pictures through a telescope will be discussed.

  11. FORCAST Camera Installed on SOFIA Telescope

    NASA Video Gallery

    Cornell University's Faint Object Infrared Camera for the SOFIA Telescope, or FORCAST, being installed on the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy's 2.5-meter telescope in preparation f...

  12. Optical Telescope Assembly Concept for Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, N.; Krim, M.; Horner, G.

    1996-12-01

    A recent study by a TRW/HDOS/GSFC/LaRC/Swales team produced a conceptual design for an eight-meter diameter Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). This space telescope would have a deployed primary mirror with active figure control of the mirror petals to give diffraction limited performance at one micron wavelength. The High Accuracy Reflector Development (HARD) scheme, utilizing special translation-rotation mechanisms and precision latches, would deploy and lock the primary mirror segments into place. Thin mirror faceplates on stiff, lightweight backing structure would allow the extremely low weight at moderate cost. The telescope would produce images and spectra from radiation in the 0.5 micron to 10 micron spectral interval, have a 10 arc-minute circular field of view, weigh about 1000 kg, and fit within the shroud of an Atlas II AS launch vehicle. A deployable sunshield and an L2 Lissajous orbit would give passive cooling to 30 K. This paper describes the baseline optics, structures, and control systems of the Optical Telescope Assembly design produced in the study. The associated technologies are discussed, with emphasis on the optics and mechanisms for the primary mirror. For the optics, different mirror materials, fabrication processes, structural configurations, controls configurations, and verification techniques were studied, and a preliminary wavefront error budget was produced. For mechanisms, concepts were produced for high resolution actuators with a large operating range and for active vibration suppression. The state-of-the-art of all these technologies is presented, the technological advances needed, and some preliminary plans for their development.

  13. Alignment of the James Webb Space Telescope optical telescope element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassman, Tiffany; Levi, Joshua; Liepmann, Till; Hahn, Walter; Bisson, Gary; Porpora, Dan; Hadjimichael, Theo

    2016-07-01

    The optical telescope element (OTE) of the James Webb Space Telescope has now been integrated and aligned. The OTE comprises the flight mirrors and the structure that supports them - 18 primary mirror segments, the secondary mirror, and the tertiary and fine steering mirrors (both housed in the aft optics subsystem). The primary mirror segments and the secondary mirror have actuators to actively control their positions during operations. This allows the requirements for aligning the OTE subsystems to be in the range of microns rather than nanometers. During OTE integration, the alignment of the major subsystems of the OTE structure and optics were controlled to ensure that, when the telescope is on orbit and at cryogenic temperatures, the active mirrors will be within the adjustment range of the actuators. Though the alignment of this flagship mission was complex and intricate, the key to a successful integration process turned out to be very basic: a clear, concise series of steps employing advanced planning, backup measurements, and cross checks that this multi-organizational team executed with a careful and methodical approach. This approach was not only critical to our own success but has implications for future space observatories.

  14. The Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bely, Pierre-Yves (Editor); Burrows,, Christopher J. (Editor); Illingworth,, Garth D.

    1989-01-01

    In Space Science in the Twenty-First Century, the Space Science Board of the National Research Council identified high-resolution-interferometry and high-throughput instruments as the imperative new initiatives for NASA in astronomy for the two decades spanning 1995 to 2015. In the optical range, the study recommended an 8 to 16-meter space telescope, destined to be the successor of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and to complement the ground-based 8 to 10-meter-class telescopes presently under construction. It might seem too early to start planning for a successor to HST. In fact, we are late. The lead time for such major missions is typically 25 years, and HST has been in the making even longer with its inception dating back to the early 1960s. The maturity of space technology and a more substantial technological base may lead to a shorter time scale for the development of the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). Optimistically, one could therefore anticipate that NGST be flown as early as 2010. On the other hand, the planned lifetime of HST is 15 years. So, even under the best circumstances, there will be a five year gap between the end of HST and the start of NGST. The purpose of this first workshop dedicated to NGST was to survey its scientific potential and technical challenges. The three-day meeting brought together 130 astronomers and engineers from government, industry and universities. Participants explored the technologies needed for building and operating the observatory, reviewed the current status and future prospects for astronomical instrumentation, and discussed the launch and space support capabilities likely to be available in the next decade. To focus discussion, the invited speakers were asked to base their presentations on two nominal concepts, a 10-meter telescope in space in high earth orbit, and a 16-meter telescope on the moon. The workshop closed with a panel discussion focused mainly on the scientific case, siting, and the

  15. World atlas of large optical telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, S. P.

    1979-01-01

    By 1980 there will be approximately 100 large optical telescopes in the world with mirror or lens diameters of one meter (39 inches) and larger. This atlas gives information on these telescopes and shows their locations on continent-sized maps. Observatory locations considered suitable for the construction of future large telescopes are also shown.

  16. The Hubble Space Telescope: Problems and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villard, Ray

    1990-01-01

    Presented is the best understanding of the flaw discovered in the optics of the Hubble Space Telescope and the possible solutions to the problems. The spherical aberration in the telescope's mirror and its effect on the quality of the telescope's imaging ability is discussed. (CW)

  17. Telescoping Space-Station Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    New telescoping-space-station design involves module within a module. After being carried to orbit within payload bay of Space Shuttle orbiter, outer module telescopically deployed to achieve nearly twice as much usable space-station volume per Space Shuttle launch. Closed-loop or "race-track" space-station configurations possible with this concept and provide additional benefits. One benefit involves making one of modules double-walled haven safe from debris, radiation, and like. Module accessible from either end, and readily available to all positions in space station. Concept also provides flexibility in methods in which Space Shuttle orbiter docked or berthed with space station and decrease chances of damage.

  18. THE OPTIMAL GRAVITATIONAL LENS TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Surdej, J.; Hanot, C.; Sadibekova, T.; Delacroix, C.; Habraken, S.; Coleman, P.; Dominik, M.; Le Coroller, H.; Mawet, D.; Quintana, H.; Sluse, D.

    2010-05-15

    Given an observed gravitational lens mirage produced by a foreground deflector (cf. galaxy, quasar, cluster, ...), it is possible via numerical lens inversion to retrieve the real source image, taking full advantage of the magnifying power of the cosmic lens. This has been achieved in the past for several remarkable gravitational lens systems. Instead, we propose here to invert an observed multiply imaged source directly at the telescope using an ad hoc optical instrument which is described in the present paper. Compared to the previous method, this should allow one to detect fainter source features as well as to use such an optimal gravitational lens telescope to explore even fainter objects located behind and near the lens. Laboratory and numerical experiments illustrate this new approach.

  19. Focusing X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen; Brissenden, Roger; Davis, William; Elsner, Ronald; Elvis, Martin; Freeman, Mark; Gaetz, Terrance; Gorenstein, Paul; Gubarev, Mikhall; Jerlus, Diab; Juda, Michael; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey; Murray, Stephen; Petre, Robert; Podgorski, William; Ramsey, Brian; Reid, Paul; Saha, Timo; Wolk, Scott; Troller-McKinstry, Susan; Weisskopf, Martin; Wilke, Rudeger; Zhang, William

    2010-01-01

    During the half-century history of x-ray astronomy, focusing x-ray telescopes, through increased effective area and finer angular resolution, have improved sensitivity by 8 orders of magnitude. Here, we review previous and current x-ray-telescope missions. Next, we describe the planned next-generation x-ray-astronomy facility, the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). We conclude with an overview of a concept for the next next-generation facility, Generation X. Its scientific objectives will require very large areas (about 10,000 sq m) of highly-nested, lightweight grazing-incidence mirrors, with exceptional (about 0.1-arcsec) resolution. Achieving this angular resolution with lightweight mirrors will likely require on-orbit adjustment of alignment and figure.

  20. Synchronous network of distant telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhilyaev, B.; Svyatogorov, O.; Verlyuk, I.; Andreev, M.; Sergeev, A.; Lovkaya, M.; Antov, A.; Konstantinova-Antova, R.; Bogdanovski, R.; Avgoloupis, S.; Seiradakis, J.; Contadakis, M. E.

    The Synchronous Network of distant Telescopes (SNT) represents an innovative approach in observational astrophysics. The authors present an unique existing realization of the SNT-conception. It was founded within the international collaboration between astronomical observatories of Ukraine, Russia, Bulgaria and Greece. All the telescopes of the Network are equipped with standardized photometric systems (based on photo-multipliers). The unified timing systems (based on GPS-receivers) synchronize all the apertures to UTC with an accuracy of 1 microsecond and better. The essential parts of the SNT are the original software for operating and data processing. The described international Network successfully works for more than 10 years. The obtained unique observational data made it possible to discover new fine-scale features and flare-triggered phenomena in flaring red dwarfs, as well as the recently found high-frequency variability in some chromospherically active stars.

  1. Hubble Space Telescope Servicing begins.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-12-01

    The day's work began when astronauts Story Musgrave and Jeff Hoffman stepped out into the cargo bay at 9h41 pm CST, Saturday (4h41 am CET, Sunday). They immediately set to work replacing two gyroscope assemblies, known as the Rate Sensor Units, two associated electronics boxes, called Electronic Control Units, and eight electrical fuse plugs. The work was completed ahead of schedule, but the astronauts had trouble closing the doors of the compartment housing the gyros and took over an hour to get them shut. The astronauts also prepared equipment for the replacement of the solar arrays. "The feeling down here is one of great satisfaction for a tremendous job today" said spacecraft communicator Greg Harbaugh in mission control. "We are very proud of the work that you all did and we are very confident in the continued success of the mission. Everything is going great and tomorrow is going to be another great day". ESA astronaut Claude Nicollier played a vital role during the spacewalk moving the astronauts and their equipment around the cargo bay with the shuttle's robot arm. The Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission features more robot arm operations than any other shuttle flight. The telescope's left-hand solar array was rolled up successfully at 6h24 am CST (1h24 pm CET). The 11-tonne observatory was rotated 180 degrees on its turntable before commands were sent to retract the second array at 8h23 am CST (3h23 pm CET). The crew stopped the retraction when it appeared the system may have jammed. Mission control instructed the crew to jettison the array, a procedure that they have trained for. Tomorrow astronauts Kathy Thornton and Tom Akers will make a six-hour spacewalk to jettison the troublesome wing, store the other in the cargo bay, and install two new panels supplied by ESA. The second set of arrays feature thermal shields and a modified thermal compensation system to prevent the flexing that affected the first pair. The Hubble Space Telescope was plucked

  2. Workshop on Mars Telescopic Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, J. F., III (Editor); Moersch, J. E. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The Mars Telescopic Observations Workshop, held August 14-15, 1995, at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, was organized and planned with two primary goals in mind: The first goal was to facilitate discussions among and between amateur and professional observers and to create a workshop environment fostering collaborations and comparisons within the Mars observing community. The second goal was to explore the role of continuing telescopic observations of Mars in the upcoming era of increased spacecraft exploration. The 24 papers presented at the workshop described the current NASA plans for Mars exploration over the next decade, current and recent Mars research being performed by professional astronomers, and current and past Mars observations being performed by amateur observers and observing associations. The workshop was divided into short topical sessions concentrating on programmatic overviews, groundbased support of upcoming spacecraft experiments, atmospheric observations, surface observations, modeling and numerical studies, and contributions from amateur astronomers.

  3. Space infrared telescope facility project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.

    1988-01-01

    The functions undertaken during this reporting period were: to inform the planetary science community of the progress and status of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) Project; to solicit input from the planetary science community on needs and requirements of planetary science in the use of SIRTF at such time that it becomes an operational facility; and a white paper was prepared on the use of the SIRTF for solar system studies.

  4. TOML - Telescope Observation Markup Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Witt, S.; Jenness, T.; Economou, F.; Folger, M.

    2005-12-01

    Telescope Observation Markup Language (TOML) has been developed by the Joint Astronomy Centre as a means of expressing an astronomical observing program in XML. It provides a means of encoding a program developed using a graphical tool in a language neutral format which can be sent over the web to a database or a colleague who is also working on the same project. This can then be loaded into any tool capable of accepting TOML.

  5. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is currently the largest scientific project under construction in the United States. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope falls into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  6. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is currently the largest scientific project under construction in the United States. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched in about 5 years into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope falls into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  7. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is currently the largest scientific project under construction in the United States. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched in about 5 years into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope falls into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Proto planetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  8. India's National Large Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, S. S.

    2012-12-01

    India's 2-m National Large Solar Telescope (NLST) is aimed primarily at carrying out observations of the solar atmosphere with high spatial and spectral resolution. A comprehensive site characterization program, that commenced in 2007, has identified two superb sites in the Himalayan region at altitudes greater than 4000-m that have extremely low water vapor content and are unaffected by monsoons. With an innovative optical design, the NLST is an on-axis Gregorian telescope with a low number of optical elements to reduce the number of reflections and yield a high throughput with low polarization. In addition, it is equipped with a high-order adaptive optics to produce close to diffraction limited performance. To control atmospheric and thermal perturbations of the observations, the telescope will function with a fully open dome, to achieve its full potential atop a 25 m tower. Given its design, NLST can also operate at night, without compromising its solar performance. The post-focus instruments include broad-band and tunable Fabry-Pérot narrow-band imaging instruments; a high resolution spectropolarimeter and an Echelle spectrograph for night time astronomy. This project is led by the Indian Institute of Astrophysics and has national and international partners. Its geographical location will fill the longitudinal gap between Japan and Europe and is expected to be the largest solar telescope with an aperture larger than 1.5 m till the ATST and EST come into operation. An international consortium has been identified to build the NLST. The facility is expected to be commissioned by 2016.

  9. Study of mutual occultation phenomena of the Galilean satellites at radio wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluchino, S.; Salerno, E.; Pupillo, G.; Schillirò, F.; Kraus, A.; Mack, K.-H.

    2010-01-01

    We present preliminary results for our study of mutual phenomena of the Galilean satellites performed at radio wavelengths with the Medicina and Noto antennas of the Istituto di Radioastronomia - INAF, and with the Effelsberg 100-m radio telescope of the Max-Planck-Institute for Radioastronomy, Bonn. Measurements of the radio flux density variation during the mutual occultations of Io by Europa and Ganymede were carried out during the PHEMU09 campaign at 22 GHz and 43 GHz. Flux density variations observed at radio wavelengths are consistent with the typical optical patterns measured when partial occultations occur.

  10. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these for science themes, JWST will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point early in the next decade. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I review the status and capabilities of the observatory and instruments in the context of the major scientific goals.

  11. First light for space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tresch-Fienberg, Richard

    1986-12-01

    The launch of the 2.4-m Hubble Space Telescope (HST) by the Space Shuttle Atlantis in late 1988 is discussed. Only after a commissioning period will the observatory begin routine scientific operations. After circling the globe in tandem for two days, Atlantis and space telescope will part and a one-to-two month Orbital Verification period will begin. 'First light' will involve the detection of an anonymous star by the spacecraft's pointing and control system. Three fine-guidance sensors permit the telescope to find a particular object and remain pointed at it to within 0.007 arc second for as long as 24 hours. Magnitude 28 stars will be detected routinely and magnitude 31 stars in the longest exposures. Objects that will be used to test the functioning of the various scientific instruments are noted: NGC 188 for the wide-field/planetary camera, 30 Doradus (Tarantula nebula) for the high-resolution spectrograph, the triple quasar PG 1115 + 80A, B, C in Leo for the faint-object spectrograph. In a Science verification period, the scientific instruments will be calibrated so as to remove their signatures as much as possible from the data. Kapteyn's Selected Area 95, the Orion nebula, and the 'Egg nebula' in Cygnus are candidate calibration objects.

  12. QUIJOTE telescope design and fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Alberto; Murga, Gaizka; Etxeita, Borja; Sanquirce, Rubén; Rebolo, Rafael; Rubiño-Martin, Jose Alberto; Herreros, José-Miguel; Hoyland, Roger; Gomez, Francisca; Génova-Santos, Ricardo T.; Piccirillo, Lucio; Maffei, Bruno; Watson, Robert

    2010-07-01

    The QUIJOTE CMB experiment aims to characterize the polarization of the CMB in the frequency range 10-30 GHz and large angular scales. It will be installed in the Teide Observatory, following the projects that the Anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background group has developed in the past (Tenerife experiment, IAC-Bartol experiment...) and is running at the present time (VSA, Cosmosomas). The QUIJOTE CMB experiment will consist of two telescopes which will be installed inside a unique enclosure, which is already constructed. The layout of both telescopes is based on an altazimuth mount supporting a primary and a secondary mirror disposed in a offset Gregorian Dragon scheme. The use of industrial-like fabrication techniques, such as sand-mould casting, CNC machining, and laser tracker measuring for alignment, provided the required performances for microwave observation. A fast-track construction scheme, altogether with the use of these fabrication techniques allowed designing and manufacturing the opto-mechanics of the telescope in 14 months prior to delivery for final start-up in December 2008.

  13. The NASA Spitzer Space Telescope.

    PubMed

    Gehrz, R D; Roellig, T L; Werner, M W; Fazio, G G; Houck, J R; Low, F J; Rieke, G H; Soifer, B T; Levine, D A; Romana, E A

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Spitzer Space Telescope (formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility) is the fourth and final facility in the Great Observatories Program, joining Hubble Space Telescope (1990), the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (1991-2000), and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (1999). Spitzer, with a sensitivity that is almost three orders of magnitude greater than that of any previous ground-based and space-based infrared observatory, is expected to revolutionize our understanding of the creation of the universe, the formation and evolution of primitive galaxies, the origin of stars and planets, and the chemical evolution of the universe. This review presents a brief overview of the scientific objectives and history of infrared astronomy. We discuss Spitzer's expected role in infrared astronomy for the new millennium. We describe pertinent details of the design, construction, launch, in-orbit checkout, and operations of the observatory and summarize some science highlights from the first two and a half years of Spitzer operations. More information about Spitzer can be found at http://spitzer.caltech.edu/.

  14. NEWS: Hands-on telescopes!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-05-01

    As part of the International Astronomical Union Meeting taking place in Manchester in August, the Education Committee of the Royal Astronomical Society is organizing a day conference on using robotic telescopes in schools. `Astronomy research projects for schools and university students' will commence at 10.30 on Friday 18 August 2000. This discussion meeting will explore ways in which students at school and university can participate in research projects, and at the same time increase their understanding of astronomy and develop useful skills. The increase in access to robotic telescopes and to astronomy databases is making research by school and undergraduate students ever more feasible. In addition, useful research can be done with very modest telescope systems, of the sort a school could afford. A range of international speakers will describe and demonstrate the possibilities, as well as leading the discussion. This meeting is being organized by the Education Committee of the Royal Astronomical Society and by Commission 46 of the International Astronomical Union. It is being held at the end of the IAU General Assembly. Those who pay the registration fee for the General Assembly need pay no further fee for attending the discussion meeting; otherwise there is a fee of £10. Refreshments will be provided at no charge. To obtain a registration form for this discussion meeting please contact Alan Pickwick (Alan_C_Pickwick@compuserve.com).

  15. EUSO-TA prototype telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisconti, Francesca

    2016-07-01

    EUSO-TA is one of the prototypes developed for the JEM-EUSO project, a space-based large field-of-view telescope to observe the fluorescence light emitted by cosmic ray air showers in the atmosphere. EUSO-TA is a ground-based prototype located at the Telescope Array (TA) site in Utah, USA, where an Electron Light Source and a Central Laser Facility are installed. The purpose of the EUSO-TA project is to calibrate the prototype with the TA fluorescence detector in presence of well-known light sources and cosmic ray air showers. In 2015, the detector started the first measurements and tests using the mentioned light sources have been performed successfully. A first cosmic ray candidate has been observed, as well as stars of different magnitude and color index. Since Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPMs) are very promising for fluorescence telescopes of next generation, they are under consideration for the realization of a new prototype of EUSO Photo Detector Module (PDM). The response of this sensor type is under investigation through simulations and laboratory experimentation.

  16. The NASA Spitzer Space Telescope.

    PubMed

    Gehrz, R D; Roellig, T L; Werner, M W; Fazio, G G; Houck, J R; Low, F J; Rieke, G H; Soifer, B T; Levine, D A; Romana, E A

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Spitzer Space Telescope (formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility) is the fourth and final facility in the Great Observatories Program, joining Hubble Space Telescope (1990), the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (1991-2000), and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (1999). Spitzer, with a sensitivity that is almost three orders of magnitude greater than that of any previous ground-based and space-based infrared observatory, is expected to revolutionize our understanding of the creation of the universe, the formation and evolution of primitive galaxies, the origin of stars and planets, and the chemical evolution of the universe. This review presents a brief overview of the scientific objectives and history of infrared astronomy. We discuss Spitzer's expected role in infrared astronomy for the new millennium. We describe pertinent details of the design, construction, launch, in-orbit checkout, and operations of the observatory and summarize some science highlights from the first two and a half years of Spitzer operations. More information about Spitzer can be found at http://spitzer.caltech.edu/. PMID:17503900

  17. Educational activities with the Faulkes Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, S.; Roche, P.; Ross, R.

    2008-06-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGTN) will eventually provide access to a global network of robotic telescopes for research-based science education. Here we present the educational projects that have been undertaken using the 2-m Faulkes Telescopes in Hawaii and Australia in both the UK and Europe. These include themed observing days in which schools collaborate in their telescope sessions, the development of science portals where schools can upload and share their telescope data, and other innovative projects. Public access to these facilities will increase as IYA2009 approaches.

  18. Equal-Curvature X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Timo T.; Zhang, William

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a new type of x-ray telescope design; an Equal-Curvature telescope. We simply add a second order axial sag to the base grazing incidence cone-cone telescope. The radius of curvature of the sag terms is the same on the primary surface and on the secondary surface. The design is optimized so that the on-axis image spot at the focal plane is minimized. The on-axis RMS (root mean square) spot diameter of two studied telescopes is less than 0.2 arc-seconds. The off-axis performance is comparable to equivalent Wolter type 1 telescopes.

  19. Cost Modeling for Space Optical Telescope Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Henrichs, Todd; Luedtke, Alexander; West, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Parametric cost models are used to plan missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments. This paper reviews an on-going effort to develop cost modes for space telescopes. This paper summarizes the methodology used to develop cost models and documents how changes to the database have changed previously published preliminary cost models. While the cost models are evolving, the previously published findings remain valid: it costs less per square meter of collecting aperture to build a large telescope than a small telescope; technology development as a function of time reduces cost; and lower areal density telescopes cost more than more massive telescopes.

  20. Twin-Telescope Wettzell (TTW)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hase, H.; Dassing, R.; Kronschnabl, G.; Schlüter, W.; Schwarz, W.; Lauber, P.; Kilger, R.

    2007-07-01

    Following the recommendations made by the VLBI2010 vision report of the IVS, a proposal has been made to construct a Twin Telescope for the Fundamental Station Wettzell in order to meet the future requirements of the next VLBI generation. The Twin Telescope consists of two identical radiotelescopes. It is a project of the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG). This article summarizes the project and some design ideas for the Twin-Telescope. %ZALMA (2005). Technical Specification for Design, Manufacturing, Transport and Integration on Site of the ALMA ANTENNAS, Doc. ALMA-34.00.00.00.006-BSPE. Behrend, D. (2006). VLBI2010 Antenna Specs, Data sheet. DeBoer, D. (2001). The ATA Offset Gregorian Antenna, ATA Memo #16, February 10. Imbriale, W.A. (2006). Design of a Wideband Radio Telescope, Jet Propulsion Laboratory and S. Weinreb and H. Mandi, California Institute of Technology. Kilger, R. (2007). TWIN-Design studies, Presentation for the IVS board members (internal document),Wettzell. Kronschnabl, G. (2006). Subject: Memo from Bill Petrachenko, E-mail to the Twin-Working Group (in German), July. Lindgren, ETS-Lindgren (2005). The Model 3164-05 Open Boundary Quadridge Horn, Data Sheet. Niell, A., A. Whitney, W. Petrachenko, W. Schlüter, N. Vandenberg, H.Hase, Y. Koyama, C. Ma, H. Schuh, G. Tucari (2006). in: IVS Annual Report 2005, pg. 13-40, NASA/TP-2006-214136, April. Olsson, R., Kildal, P.-S., and Weinreb, S. (2006). IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 54, No. 2, February. Petrachenko, B. (2006). The Case For and Against Multiple Antennas at a Site, IVS Memorandum, 2006-019v01. Petrachenko, B. (2006). IVS Memorandum, 2006-016v01. RFSpin (2004). Double Ridged Waveguide Horn-Model DRH20, Antenna Specifications, Data Sheet. Rohde&Schwarz (2004). SHF Antennas Crossed Log- Periodic Antennas HL024A1/S1, Data Sheet. Rohde&Schwarz (2004). SHF Antennas Log-Periodic Antennas HL050/HL050S1, Data Sheet. Rogers, A.E.E. (2006). Simulations of broadband

  1. Wavefront Analysis of Adaptive Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James B.; Hillman, Lloyd

    1997-01-01

    The motivation for this work came from a NASA Headquarters interest in investigating design concepts for a large space telescope employing active optics technology. Current and foreseeable launch vehicles will be limited to carrying around 4-5 meter diameter objects. Thus, if a large, filled-aperture telescope (6-20 meters in diameter) is to be placed in space, it will be required to have a deployable primary mirror. Such a mirror may be an inflatable membrane or a segmented mirror consisting of many smaller pieces. In any case, it is expected that the deployed primary will not be of sufficient quality to achieve diffraction-limited performance for its aperture size. Thus, an active optics system will be needed to correct for initial as well as environmentally-produced primary figure errors. Marshall Space Flight Center has developed considerable expertise in the area of active optics with the PAMELA test-bed. The combination of this experience along with the Marshall optical shop's work in mirror fabrication made MSFC the logical choice to lead NASA's effort to develop active optics technology for large, space-based, astronomical telescopes. Furthermore, UAH's support of MSFC in the areas of optical design, fabrication, and testing of space-based optical systems placed us in a key position to play a major role in the development of this future-generation telescope. A careful study of the active optics components had to be carried out in order to determine control segment size, segment quality, and segment controllability required to achieve diffraction-limited resolution with a given primary mirror. With this in mind, UAH undertook the following effort to provide NASA/MSFC with optical design and analysis support for the large telescope study. All of the work performed under this contract has already been reported, as a team member with MSFC, to NASA Headquarters in a series of presentations given between May and December of 1995. As specified on the delivery

  2. Hubble Space Telescope: The Telescope, the Observations & the Servicing Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-11-01

    Today the HST Archives contain more than 260 000 astronomical observations. More than 13 000 astronomical objects have been observed by hundreds of different groups of scientists. Direct proof of the scientific significance of this project is the record-breaking number of papers published : over 2400 to date. Some of HST's most memorable achievements are: * the discovery of myriads of very faint galaxies in the early Universe, * unprecedented, accurate measurements of distances to the farthest galaxies, * significant improvement in the determination of the Hubble constant and thus the age of the Universe, * confirmation of the existence of blacks holes, * a far better understanding of the birth, life and death of stars, * a very detailed look at the secrets of the process by which planets are created. Europe and HST ESA's contribution to HST represents a nominal investment of 15%. ESA provided one of the two imaging instruments - the Faint Object Camera (FOC) - and the solar panels. It also has 15 scientists and computer staff working at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore (Maryland). In Europe the astronomical community receives observational assistance from the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) located in Garching, Munich. In return for ESA's investment, European astronomers have access to approximately 15% of the observing time. In reality the actual observing time competitively allocated to European astronomers is closer to 20%. Looking back at almost ten years of operation, the head of ST-ECF, European HST Project Scientist Piero Benvenuti states: "Hubble has been of paramount importance to European astronomy, much more than the mere 20% of observing time. It has given the opportunity for European scientists to use a top class instrument that Europe alone would not be able to build and operate. In specific areas of research they have now, mainly due to HST, achieved international leadership." One of the major reasons for

  3. Safety considerations for magnetic fields of 10 mT to 100 mT amplitude in the frequency range of 10 kHz to 100 kHz for magnetic particle imaging.

    PubMed

    Dössel, Olaf; Bohnert, Julia

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a new imaging modality using oscillating magnetic fields in the frequency range of 10 kHz to 100 kHz. The duration of data acquisition becomes smaller, and signal-to-noise ratio improves if the amplitude of these fields is increased - technically amplitudes of up to 100 mT might be feasible for human-sized systems. On the other hand, with increasing field strength, adverse health effects must be expected: oscillating magnetic fields can stimulate nerves and muscle and heat up tissue. Thresholds for stimulation with magnetic fields in this frequency range are not precisely known, neither is the local temperature rise following exposure. The ICNIRP guidelines define reference levels for magnetic field exposure for the general public that contain large safety factors - for medical diagnostics, they might be exceeded for a short time. In this article, research and guidelines in this field are briefly reviewed, and new results are presented in order to contribute to a future definition of safety limits for oscillating magnetic fields in MPI. PMID:24176960

  4. Safety considerations for magnetic fields of 10 mT to 100 mT amplitude in the frequency range of 10 kHz to 100 kHz for magnetic particle imaging.

    PubMed

    Dössel, Olaf; Bohnert, Julia

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a new imaging modality using oscillating magnetic fields in the frequency range of 10 kHz to 100 kHz. The duration of data acquisition becomes smaller, and signal-to-noise ratio improves if the amplitude of these fields is increased - technically amplitudes of up to 100 mT might be feasible for human-sized systems. On the other hand, with increasing field strength, adverse health effects must be expected: oscillating magnetic fields can stimulate nerves and muscle and heat up tissue. Thresholds for stimulation with magnetic fields in this frequency range are not precisely known, neither is the local temperature rise following exposure. The ICNIRP guidelines define reference levels for magnetic field exposure for the general public that contain large safety factors - for medical diagnostics, they might be exceeded for a short time. In this article, research and guidelines in this field are briefly reviewed, and new results are presented in order to contribute to a future definition of safety limits for oscillating magnetic fields in MPI.

  5. Enhanced therapeutic anti-inflammatory effect of betamethasone upon topical administration with low frequency, low intensity (20 kHz, 100 mW/cm2) ultrasound exposure on carrageenan-induced arthritis in mice model

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Gadi; Natsheh, Hiba; Sunny, Youhan; Bawiec, Christopher R.; Touitou, Elka; Lerman, Melissa A.; Lazarovici, Philip; Lewin, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate whether low frequency, low intensity (LFLI, 20 kHz, <100 mW/cm2, spatial-peak, temporal-peak) ultrasound (US), delivered by a light-weight (<100g), tether-free, fully wearable, battery powered applicator is capable of reducing inflammation in a mouse model of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). The therapeutic, acute, anti-inflammatory effect was estimated by the relative swelling induced in mice hind limb paws. In an independent, indirect approach, the inflammation was bio-imaged by measuring glycolytic activity with near infrared labeled 2-deoxy-glucose (2DG). The outcome of the experiments indicated that the combination of US exposure with topical application of 0.1% w/w betamethasone gel, exhibited statistically significant (p<0.05) enhanced anti-inflammatory properties in comparison with the drug or US treatment alone. The present study underscores the potential benefits of LFLI US assisted drug delivery. However, the proof of concept presented indicates the need for additional experiments to systematically evaluate and optimize the potential of, and the conditions for, safe, LFLI ultrasound promoted non-invasive drug delivery. PMID:26003010

  6. Aligning Astronomical Telescopes via Identification of Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark

    2010-01-01

    A proposed method of automated, precise alignment of a ground-based astronomical telescope would eliminate the need for initial manual alignment. The method, based on automated identification of known stars and other celestial objects in the telescope field of view, would also eliminate the need for an initial estimate of the aiming direction. The method does not require any equipment other than a digital imaging device such as a charge-coupled-device digital imaging camera and control computers of the telescope and camera, all of which are standard components in professional astronomical telescope systems and in high-end amateur astronomical telescope systems. The method could be implemented in software running in the telescope or camera control computer or in an external computer communicating with the telescope pointing mount and camera control computers.

  7. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2007-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these four science themes, JWST will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point early in the next decade. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. In this paper, the status and capabilities of the observatory and instruments in the context of the major scientific goals are reviewed.

  8. The Northwest Indiana Robotic Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavin, Shawn D.; Rengstorf, A. W.; Aros, J. C.; Segally, W. B.

    2011-01-01

    The Northwest Indiana Robotic (NIRo) Telescope is a remote, automated observing facility recently built by Purdue University Calumet (PUC) at a site in Lowell, IN, approximately 30 miles from the PUC campus. The recently dedicated observatory will be used for broadband and narrowband optical observations by PUC students and faculty, as well as pre-college students through the implementation of standards-based, middle-school modules developed by PUC astronomers and education faculty. The NIRo observatory and its web portal are the central technical elements of a project to improve astronomy education at Purdue Calumet and, more broadly, to improve science education in middle schools of the surrounding region. The NIRo Telescope is a 0.5-meter (20-inch) Ritchey-Chrétien design on a Paramount ME robotic mount, featuring a seven-position filter wheel (UBVRI, Hα, Clear), Peltier (thermoelectrically) cooled CCD camera with 3056 x 3056, square, 12 μm pixels, and off-axis guiding. It provides a coma-free imaging field of 0.5 degrees square, with a plate scale of 0.6 arcseconds per pixel. The observatory has a wireless internet connection, local weather station which publishes data to an internet weather site, and a suite of CCTV security cameras on an IP-based, networked video server. Control of power to every piece of instrumentation is maintained via internet-accessible power distribution units. The telescope can be controlled on-site, or off-site in an attended fashion via an internet connection, but will be used primarily in an unattended mode of automated observation, where queued observations will be scheduled daily from a database of requests. Completed observational data from queued operation will be stored on a campus-based server, which also runs the web portal and observation database. Partial support for this work was provided by the National Science Foundation's Course, Curriculum, and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI) program under Award No. 0736592.

  9. Optical telescope system-level design considerations for a space-based gravitational wave mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.; Sankar, Shannon R.

    2016-07-01

    The study of the Universe through gravitational waves will yield a revolutionary new perspective on the Universe, which has been intensely studied using electromagnetic signals in many wavelength bands. A space-based gravitational wave observatory will enable access to a rich array of astrophysical sources in the measurement band from 0.1 to 100 mHz, and nicely complement observations from ground-based detectors as well as pulsar timing arrays by sampling a different range of compact object masses and astrophysical processes. The observatory measures gravitational radiation by precisely monitoring the tiny change in the proper distance between pairs of freely falling proof masses. These masses are separated by millions of kilometers and, using a laser heterodyne interferometric technique, the change in their proper separation is detected to ~ 10 pm over timescales of 1000 seconds, a fractional precision of better than one part in 1019. Optical telescopes are essential for the implementation of this precision displacement measurement. In this paper we describe some of the key system level design considerations for the telescope subsystem in a mission context. The reference mission for this purpose is taken to be the enhanced Laser Interferometry Space Antenna mission (eLISA), a strong candidate for the European Space Agency's Cosmic Visions L3 launch opportunity in 2034. We will review the flow-down of observatory level requirements to the telescope subsystem, particularly pertaining to the effects of telescope dimensional stability and scattered light suppression, two performance specifications which are somewhat different from the usual requirements for an image forming telescope.

  10. Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, T. M.; Baliber, N.; Bianco, F. B.; Bowman, M.; Burleson, B.; Conway, P.; Crellin, M.; Depagne, É.; De Vera, J.; Dilday, B.; Dragomir, D.; Dubberley, M.; Eastman, J. D.; Elphick, M.; Falarski, M.; Foale, S.; Ford, M.; Fulton, B. J.; Garza, J.; Gomez, E. L.; Graham, M.; Greene, R.; Haldeman, B.; Hawkins, E.; Haworth, B.; Haynes, R.; Hidas, M.; Hjelstrom, A. E.; Howell, D. A.; Hygelund, J.; Lister, T. A.; Lobdill, R.; Martinez, J.; Mullins, D. S.; Norbury, M.; Parrent, J.; Paulson, R.; Petry, D. L.; Pickles, A.; Posner, V.; Rosing, W. E.; Ross, R.; Sand, D. J.; Saunders, E. S.; Shobbrook, J.; Shporer, A.; Street, R. A.; Thomas, D.; Tsapras, Y.; Tufts, J. R.; Valenti, S.; Vander Horst, K.; Walker, Z.; White, G.; Willis, M.

    2013-09-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) is a young organization dedicated to time-domain observations at optical and (potentially) near-IR wavelengths. To this end, LCOGT is constructing a worldwide network of telescopes, including the two 2 m Faulkes telescopes, as many as 17 × 1 m telescopes, and as many as 23 × 40 cm telescopes. These telescopes initially will be outfitted for imaging and (excepting the 40 cm telescopes) spectroscopy at wavelengths between the atmospheric UV cutoff and the roughly 1-μm limit of silicon detectors. Since the first of LCOGT's 1 m telescopes are now being deployed, we lay out here LCOGT's scientific goals and the requirements that these goals place on network architecture and performance, we summarize the network's present and projected level of development, and we describe our expected schedule for completing it. In the bulk of the paper, we describe in detail the technical approaches that we have adopted to attain desired performance. In particular, we discuss our choices for the number and location of network sites, for the number and sizes of telescopes, for the specifications of the first generation of instruments, for the software that will schedule and control the network's telescopes and reduce and archive its data, and for the structure of the scientific and educational programs for which the network will provide observations.

  11. History of Robotic and Remotely Operated Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genet, Russell M.

    2011-03-01

    While automated instrument sequencers were employed on solar eclipse expeditions in the late 1800s, it wasn't until the 1960s that Art Code and associates at Wisconsin used a PDP minicomputer to automate an 8-inch photometric telescope. Although this pioneering project experienced frequent equipment failures and was shut down after a couple of years, it paved the way for the first space telescopes. Reliable microcomputers initiated the modern era of robotic telescopes. Louis Boyd and I applied single board microcomputers with 64K of RAM and floppy disk drives to telescope automation at the Fairborn Observatory, achieving reliable, fully robotic operation in 1983 that has continued uninterrupted for 28 years. In 1985 the Smithsonian Institution provided us with a suburb operating location on Mt. Hopkins in southern Arizona, while the National Science Foundation funded additional telescopes. Remote access to our multiple robotic telescopes at the Fairborn Observatory began in the late 1980s. The Fairborn Observatory, with its 14 fully robotic telescopes and staff of two (one full and one part time) illustrates the potential for low operating and maintenance costs. As the information capacity of the Internet has expanded, observational modes beyond simple differential photometry opened up, bringing us to the current era of real-time remote access to remote observatories and global observatory networks. Although initially confined to smaller telescopes, robotic operation and remote access are spreading to larger telescopes as telescopes from afar becomes the normal mode of operation.

  12. VLTI First Fringes with Two Auxiliary Telescopes at Paranal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    World's Largest Interferometer with Moving Optical Telescopes on Track Summary The Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) at Paranal Observatory has just seen another extension of its already impressive capabilities by combining interferometrically the light from two relocatable 1.8-m Auxiliary Telescopes. Following the installation of the first Auxiliary Telescope (AT) in January 2004 (see ESO PR 01/04), the second AT arrived at the VLT platform by the end of 2004. Shortly thereafter, during the night of February 2 to 3, 2005, the two high-tech telescopes teamed up and quickly succeeded in performing interferometric observations. This achievement heralds an era of new scientific discoveries. Both Auxiliary Telescopes will be offered from October 1, 2005 to the community of astronomers for routine observations, together with the MIDI instrument. By the end of 2006, Paranal will be home to four operational ATs that may be placed at 30 different positions and thus be combined in a very large number of ways ("baselines"). This will enable the VLTI to operate with enormous flexibility and, in particular, to obtain extremely detailed (sharp) images of celestial objects - ultimately with a resolution that corresponds to detecting an astronaut on the Moon. PR Photo 07a/05: Paranal Observing Platform with AT1 and AT2 PR Photo 07b/05: AT1 and AT2 with Open Domes PR Photo 07c/05: Evening at Paranal with AT1 and AT2 PR Photo 07d/05: AT1 and AT2 under the Southern Sky PR Photo 07e/05: First Fringes with AT1 and AT2 PR Video Clip 01/05: Two ATs at Paranal (Extract from ESO Newsreel 15) A Most Advanced Device ESO PR Video 01/05 ESO PR Video 01/05 Two Auxiliary Telescopes at Paranal [QuickTime: 160 x 120 pix - 37Mb - 4:30 min] [QuickTime: 320 x 240 pix - 64Mb - 4:30 min] ESO PR Photo 07a/05 ESO PR Photo 07a/05 [Preview - JPEG: 493 x400 pix - 44k] [Normal - JPEG: 985 x 800 pix - 727k] [HiRes - JPEG: 5000 x 4060 pix - 13.8M] Captions: ESO PR Video Clip 01/05 is an extract from

  13. Hubble Space Telescope battery background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standlee, Dan

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the MSFC Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Contract; HST battery design requirements; HST nickel-hydrogen battery development; HST nickel-hydrogen battery module; HST NiH2 battery module hardware; pressure vessel design; HST NiH2 cell design; offset non-opposing vs. rabbit ear cell; HST NiH2 specified capacity; HST NiH2 battery design; and HST NiH2 module design.

  14. The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baars, J. W. M.; Carrasco, L.; Schloerb, F. P.

    1999-05-01

    The University of Massachusetts at Amherst, through the FCRAO, and the Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE) in Puebla, Mexico, are collaborating in the design, construction and joint operation of the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT). The LMT is a full aperture telescope of 50 m diameter for operation to a shortest wavelength of 1 mm. First generation facility instruments include a 32-channel spectroscopy receiver for the 85-115 GHz band and a 144-channel bolometer system at 250 GHz. A joint institute, the LMT Observatory, will operate the telescope for the astronomers from the participating institutes and outside observers. Commissioning of the LMT is scheduled to start in 2001. The LMT is expected to contribute in particular to the study of the Universe at high redshifts. Its size and southern location also make it a powerful member of the growing mm-wavelength VLBI activity. The LMT is located on Cerro la Negra in Central Mexico at 4600 m altitude and a latitude of 19 degrees. The site is 100 km east of Puebla. The opacity shows median tau-values of less than 0.15 at 230 GHz from Sep through May, good for operation to 300 GHz. Site preparation and installation of utilities is under way. Work on the telescope foundation will begin in Spring 1999 with steel assembly expected to commence in early 2000. The LMT is being designed by MAN Technologie. It is an exposed, alt-azimuth antenna with a wheel-on-track azimuth drive and double bull-gear elevation drive. An advanced servo-system will aid in achieving the pointing accuracy of 1''. A spacious receiver cabin behind the reflector, allows the deployment of and easy access to several receiver systems. The reflector is a space-frame structure, supporting 130 reflector subframes of about 5x3 m2 which carry the reflector surface panels. The subframes are supported on actuators to enable real-time correction of the reflector surface for deformations, caused by gravity, temperature gradients and

  15. Apollo Telescope Mount Thermal Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and served as the primary scientific instrument unit aboard Skylab (1973-1979). The ATM consisted of eight scientific instruments as well as a number of smaller experiments. This image is of the ATM thermal unit being tested in MSFC's building 4619. The thermal unit consisted of an active fluid-cooling system of water and methanol that was circulated to radiators on the outside of the canister. The thermal unit provided temperature stability to the ultrahigh resolution optical instruments that were part of the ATM.

  16. Planets Around Neutron Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolszczan, Alexander; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R; Anderson, Stuart B.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this proposal was to continue investigations of neutron star planetary systems in an effort to describe and understand their origin, orbital dynamics, basic physical properties and their relationship to planets around normal stars. This research represents an important element of the process of constraining the physics of planet formation around various types of stars. The research goals of this project included long-term timing measurements of the planets pulsar, PSR B1257+12, to search for more planets around it and to study the dynamics of the whole system, and sensitive searches for millisecond pulsars to detect further examples of old, rapidly spinning neutron stars with planetary systems. The instrumentation used in our project included the 305-m Arecibo antenna with the Penn State Pulsar Machine (PSPM), the 100-m Green Bank Telescope with the Berkeley- Caltech Pulsar Machine (BCPM), and the 100-m Effelsberg and 64-m Parkes telescopes equipped with the observatory supplied backend hardware.

  17. Mars Telescopic Observations Workshop II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprague, A. L. (Editor); Bell, J. F., III (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Mars Telescopic Observations Workshop E convened in Tucson, Arizona, in October 1997 by popular demand slightly over two years following the first successful Mars Telescopic Observations Workshop, held in Ithaca, New York, in August 1995. Experts on Mars from the United Kingdom, Japan, Germany, and the United States were present. Twenty-eight oral presentations were made and generous time allotted for useful discussions among participants. The goals of the workshop were to (1) summarize active groundbased observing programs and evaluate them in the context of current and future space missions to Mars, (2) discuss new technologies and instrumentation in the context of changing emphasis of observations and theory useful for groundbased observing, and (3) more fully understand capabilities of current and planned Mars missions to better judge which groundbased observations are and will continue to be of importance to our overall Mars program. In addition, the exciting new discoveries presented from the Pathfinder experiments and the progress report from the Mars Global Surveyor infused the participants with satisfaction for the successes achieved in the early stages of these missions. Just as exciting was the enthusiasm for new groundbased programs designed to address new challenges resulting from mission science results. We would like to thank the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as well as Dr. David Black, director of the Lunar and Planetary Institute, and the staff of the Institute's Publications and Program Services Department for providing logistical, administrative, and publication support services for this workshop.

  18. ALMA telescope reaches new heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    of the Array Operations Site. This means surviving strong winds and temperatures between +20 and -20 Celsius whilst being able to point precisely enough that they could pick out a golf ball at a distance of 15 km, and to keep their smooth reflecting surfaces accurate to better than 25 micrometres (less than the typical thickness of a human hair). Once the transporter reached the high plateau it carried the antenna to a concrete pad - a docking station with connections for power and fibre optics - and positioned it with an accuracy of a few millimetres. The transporter is guided by a laser steering system and, just like some cars today, also has ultrasonic collision detectors. These sensors ensure the safety of the state-of-the-art antennas as the transporter drives them across what will soon be a rather crowded plateau. Ultimately, ALMA will have at least 66 antennas distributed over about 200 pads, spread over distances of up to 18.5 km and operating as a single, giant telescope. Even when ALMA is fully operational, the transporters will be used to move the antennas between pads to reconfigure the telescope for different kinds of observations. "Transporting our first antenna to the Chajnantor plateau is a epic feat which exemplifies the exciting times in which ALMA is living. Day after day, our global collaboration brings us closer to the birth of the most ambitious ground-based astronomical observatory in the world", said Thijs de Graauw, ALMA Director. This first ALMA antenna at the high site will soon be joined by others and the ALMA team looks forward to making their first observations from the Chajnantor plateau. They plan to link three antennas by early 2010, and to make the first scientific observations with ALMA in the second half of 2011. ALMA will help astronomers answer important questions about our cosmic origins. The telescope will observe the Universe using light with millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths, between infrared light and radio waves in

  19. Holographic spectrograph for space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditto, Thomas D.; Lysenko, Sergiy; Crenshaw, Melissa

    2013-09-01

    A spectrograph is described which is made with dual Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs) which are identical and parallel to each other. Both optics are collimating transmission HOEs with focal points that are at equal and opposite distances from each other. The identical HOEs are formed by the interference of a plane wave parallel to the grating plane with an off-axis spherical wave originating in the near-field. In playback, a spectrum can be formed from a point source radiator placed at the position of the recording spherical wave. If played back at an arbitrary wavelength other than the recording wavelength, the image exhibits coma. This spectrograph is intended for an unusual configuration where many nearly monochromatic sources of known wavelengths are separately positioned relative to the first HOE. The special application is in a space telescope capable of resolving spectra from habitable planets within 10 pc. HOEs of this type could be fabricated on membrane substrates with a low areal mass and stowable on rolls for insertion into the second Lagrange point. The intended application is for a 50 x 10 meter class primary objective holographic space telescope with 50 x 10 m HOEs in the spectrograph. We present a computer model of the spectrograph.. Experimental results are compared with predictions from theory. A single HOE is shown to perform over a wider bandwidth and is demonstrated.

  20. Large aperture diffractive space telescope

    DOEpatents

    Hyde, Roderick A.

    2001-01-01

    A large (10's of meters) aperture space telescope including two separate spacecraft--an optical primary objective lens functioning as a magnifying glass and an optical secondary functioning as an eyepiece. The spacecraft are spaced up to several kilometers apart with the eyepiece directly behind the magnifying glass "aiming" at an intended target with their relative orientation determining the optical axis of the telescope and hence the targets being observed. The objective lens includes a very large-aperture, very-thin-membrane, diffractive lens, e.g., a Fresnel lens, which intercepts incoming light over its full aperture and focuses it towards the eyepiece. The eyepiece has a much smaller, meter-scale aperture and is designed to move along the focal surface of the objective lens, gathering up the incoming light and converting it to high quality images. The positions of the two space craft are controlled both to maintain a good optical focus and to point at desired targets which may be either earth bound or celestial.

  1. JWST Telescope Integration and Test Progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Whitman, Tony L.; Feinberg, Lee D.; Voyton, Mark F.; Lander, Juli A.; Keski-Kuha, Ritva

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.5m, segmented, IR telescope that will explore the first light of the universe after the big bang. The JWST Optical Telescope Element (Telescope) integration and test program is well underway. The telescope was completed in the spring of 2016 and the cryogenic test equipment has been through two optical test programs leading up to the final flight verification program. The details of the telescope mirror integration will be provided along with the current status of the flight observatory. In addition, the results of the two optical ground support equipment cryo tests will be shown and how these plans fold into the flight verification program.

  2. JWST telescope integration and test progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Whitman, Tony L.; Feinberg, Lee D.; Voyton, Mark F.; Lander, Juli A.; Keski-Kuha, Ritva

    2016-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.5m, segmented, IR telescope that will explore the first light of the universe after the big bang. The JWST Optical Telescope Element (Telescope) integration and test program is well underway. The telescope was completed in the spring of 2016 and the cryogenic test equipment has been through two optical test programs leading up to the final flight verification program. The details of the telescope mirror integration will be provided along with the current status of the flight observatory. In addition, the results of the two optical ground support equipment cryo tests will be shown and how these plans fold into the flight verification program.

  3. Review of lunar telescope studies at MSFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilchey, John D.; Nein, Max E.

    1993-09-01

    In the near future astronomers can take advantage of the lunar surface as the new 'high ground' from which to study the universe. Optical telescopes placed and operated on the lunar surface would be successors to NASA's Great Observatories. Four telescopes, ranging in aperture from a 16-m, IR/Vis/UV observatory down to a 1-m, UV 'transit' instrument, have been studied by the Lunar Telescope Working Group and the LUTE (lunar telescope ultraviolet experiment) Task Team of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This paper presents conceptual designs of the telescopes, provides descriptions of the telescope subsystem options selected for each concept, and outlines the potential evolution of their science capabilities.

  4. Optical aperture synthesis with electronically connected telescopes.

    PubMed

    Dravins, Dainis; Lagadec, Tiphaine; Nuñez, Paul D

    2015-04-16

    Highest resolution imaging in astronomy is achieved by interferometry, connecting telescopes over increasingly longer distances and at successively shorter wavelengths. Here, we present the first diffraction-limited images in visual light, produced by an array of independent optical telescopes, connected electronically only, with no optical links between them. With an array of small telescopes, second-order optical coherence of the sources is measured through intensity interferometry over 180 baselines between pairs of telescopes, and two-dimensional images reconstructed. The technique aims at diffraction-limited optical aperture synthesis over kilometre-long baselines to reach resolutions showing details on stellar surfaces and perhaps even the silhouettes of transiting exoplanets. Intensity interferometry circumvents problems of atmospheric turbulence that constrain ordinary interferometry. Since the electronic signal can be copied, many baselines can be built up between dispersed telescopes, and over long distances. Using arrays of air Cherenkov telescopes, this should enable the optical equivalent of interferometric arrays currently operating at radio wavelengths.

  5. Telescope Systems for Balloon-Borne Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, C. (Editor); Witteborn, F. C. (Editor); Shipley, A. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on the use of balloons for scientific research are presented. The subjects discussed include the following: (1) astronomical observations with balloon-borne telescopes, (2) orientable, stabilized balloon-borne gondola for around-the-world flights, (3) ultraviolet stellar spectrophotometry from a balloon platform, (4) infrared telescope for balloon-borne infrared astronomy, and (5) stabilization, pointing, and command control of balloon-borne telescopes.

  6. Optical photometry using Bradford robotic telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seal Braun, P.; Baruch, J. E. F.

    2009-06-01

    The Bradford Robotic Telescope (BRT) is located on Mount Teide at Tenerife and is working, taking observations since 2003. It is a fully automated telescope. The hardware and software used for the working of the telescope are described here. Twenty four BL Lac objects are observed since 2005 and magnitudes of the objects are calculated. We describe in this paper the working of BRT and optical BVR photometry of BL Lac objects, observed during 2005-2007.

  7. ANTARES: The first undersea neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Arnaud, K.; Aslanides, E.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Auer, R.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Becherini, Y.; Beltramelli, J.; Bersani, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; Bogazzi, C.; de Botton, N.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Boudahef, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A. M.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Caillat, L.; Calzas, A.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Carton, P. H.; Cassano, B.; Castorina, E.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Chaleil, Th.; Charvis, Ph.; Chauchot, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Compère, C.; Coniglione, R.; Coppolani, X.; Cosquer, A.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Cuneo, S.; Curtil, C.; D'Amato, C.; Damy, G.; van Dantzig, R.; de Bonis, G.; Decock, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Delagnes, E.; Desages-Ardellier, F.; Deschamps, A.; Destelle, J.-J.; di Maria, F.; Dinkespiler, B.; Distefano, C.; Dominique, J.-L.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drogou, J.-F.; Drouhin, D.; Druillole, F.; Durand, D.; Durand, R.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Engelen, J. J.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Falchini, E.; Favard, S.; Fehr, F.; Feinstein, F.; Ferri, M.; Ferry, S.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatá, S.; Galeotti, S.; Gay, P.; Gensolen, F.; Giacomelli, G.; Gojak, C.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Goret, Ph.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartmann, B.; Heijboer, A. J.; Heine, E.; Hello, Y.; Henry, S.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hsu, C. C.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaquet, M.; Jaspers, M.; de Jong, M.; Jourde, D.; Kadler, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karkar, S.; Karolak, M.; Katz, U.; Keller, P.; Kestener, P.; Kok, E.; Kok, H.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Kruijer, A.; Kuch, S.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachartre, D.; Lafoux, H.; Lagier, P.; Lahmann, R.; Lahonde-Hamdoun, C.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Languillat, J.-C.; Larosa, G.; Lavalle, J.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; Levansuu, A.; Lefèvre, D.; Legou, T.; Lelaizant, G.; Lévéque, C.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Magnier, P.; Mangano, S.; Marcel, A.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Masullo, R.; Mazéas, F.; Mazure, A.; Meli, A.; Melissas, M.; Migneco, E.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Musumeci, M.; Naumann, C.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Neff, M.; Niess, V.; Nooren, G. J. L.; Oberski, J. E. J.; Olivetto, C.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Palioselitis, D.; Papaleo, R.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Peek, H.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Picq, C.; Piret, Y.; Poinsignon, J.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Prono, G.; Racca, C.; Raia, G.; van Randwijk, J.; Real, D.; Reed, C.; Réthoré, F.; Rewiersma, P.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Ricol, J. S.; Rigaud, V.; Roca, V.; Roensch, K.; Rolin, J.-F.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rottura, A.; Roux, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Salomon, K.; Sapienza, P.; Schmitt, F.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Sciliberto, D.; Shanidze, R.; Shirokov, E.; Simeone, F.; Sottoriva, A.; Spies, A.; Spona, T.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Streeb, K.; Sulak, L.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tao, C.; Tasca, L.; Terreni, G.; Tezier, D.; Toscano, S.; Urbano, F.; Valdy, P.; Vallage, B.; van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Venekamp, G.; Verlaat, B.; Vernin, P.; Virique, E.; de Vries, G.; van Wijk, R.; Wijnker, G.; Wobbe, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yakovenko, Y.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zaccone, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2011-11-01

    The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope was completed in May 2008 and is the first operational Neutrino Telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The main purpose of the detector is to perform neutrino astronomy and the apparatus also offers facilities for marine and Earth sciences. This paper describes the design, the construction and the installation of the telescope in the deep sea, offshore from Toulon in France. An illustration of the detector performance is given.

  8. A cooled telescope for infrared balloon astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, C.; Jacobson, M. R.; Harwit, M. O.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics of a 16 inch liquid helium cooled Cassegrain telescope with vibrating secondary mirror are discussed. The telescope is used in making far infrared astronomical observations. The system houses several different detectors for multicolor photometry. The cooled telescope has a ten to one increase in signal-to-noise ratio over a similar warm version and is installed in a high altitude balloon gondola to obtain data on the H2 region of the galaxy.

  9. Design of Galilean-type telescope systems.

    PubMed

    Menchaca, C; Malacara, D

    1988-09-01

    In this paper we present the design of three Galilean-type telescope systems with magnifications of 2.2x, 4x, and 5x. These systems are free of the large weight and length as well as the reduced field of view, which are frequent undesirable properties of Galilean telescopes. These designs have a moderate field of view and a short length, with reasonably good aberration correction, and may be used as binocular telescopes or magnifiers with a large working distance.

  10. Hubble Space Telescope: The Telescope, the Observations & the Servicing Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-11-01

    Today the HST Archives contain more than 260 000 astronomical observations. More than 13 000 astronomical objects have been observed by hundreds of different groups of scientists. Direct proof of the scientific significance of this project is the record-breaking number of papers published : over 2400 to date. Some of HST's most memorable achievements are: * the discovery of myriads of very faint galaxies in the early Universe, * unprecedented, accurate measurements of distances to the farthest galaxies, * significant improvement in the determination of the Hubble constant and thus the age of the Universe, * confirmation of the existence of blacks holes, * a far better understanding of the birth, life and death of stars, * a very detailed look at the secrets of the process by which planets are created. Europe and HST ESA's contribution to HST represents a nominal investment of 15%. ESA provided one of the two imaging instruments - the Faint Object Camera (FOC) - and the solar panels. It also has 15 scientists and computer staff working at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore (Maryland). In Europe the astronomical community receives observational assistance from the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) located in Garching, Munich. In return for ESA's investment, European astronomers have access to approximately 15% of the observing time. In reality the actual observing time competitively allocated to European astronomers is closer to 20%. Looking back at almost ten years of operation, the head of ST-ECF, European HST Project Scientist Piero Benvenuti states: "Hubble has been of paramount importance to European astronomy, much more than the mere 20% of observing time. It has given the opportunity for European scientists to use a top class instrument that Europe alone would not be able to build and operate. In specific areas of research they have now, mainly due to HST, achieved international leadership." One of the major reasons for

  11. Preliminary Cost Model for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Prince, F. Andrew; Smart, Christian; Stephens, Kyle; Henrichs, Todd

    2009-01-01

    Parametric cost models are routinely used to plan missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments. However, great care is required. Some space telescope cost models, such as those based only on mass, lack sufficient detail to support such analysis and may lead to inaccurate conclusions. Similarly, using ground based telescope models which include the dome cost will also lead to inaccurate conclusions. This paper reviews current and historical models. Then, based on data from 22 different NASA space telescopes, this paper tests those models and presents preliminary analysis of single and multi-variable space telescope cost models.

  12. Relationship Between Final Performance and Block Times with the Traditional and the New Starting Platforms with A Back Plate in International Swimming Championship 50-M and 100-M Freestyle Events

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Hermoso, Antonio; Escalante, Yolanda; Arellano, Raul; Navarro, Fernando; Domínguez, Ana M.; Saavedra, Jose M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between block time and final performance for each sex in 50-m and 100-m individual freestyle, distinguishing between classification (1st to 3rd, 4th to 8th, 9th to 16th) and type of starting platform (old and new) in international competitions. Twenty-six international competitions covering a 13-year period (2000-2012) were analysed retrospectively. The data corresponded to a total of 1657 swimmers’ competition histories. A two-way ANOVA (sex x classification) was performed for each event and starting platform with the Bonferroni post-hoc test, and another two-way ANOVA for sex and starting platform (sex x starting platform). Pearson’s simple correlation coefficient was used to determine correlations between the block time and the final performance. Finally, a simple linear regression analysis was done between the final time and the block time for each sex and platform. The men had shorter starting block times than the women in both events and from both platforms. For 50-m event, medalists had shorter block times than semi- finalists with the old starting platforms. Block times were directly related to performance with the old starting platforms. With the new starting platforms, however, the relationship was inverse, notably in the women’s 50-m event. The block time was related for final performance in the men’s 50- m event with the old starting platform, but with the new platform it was critical only for the women’s 50-m event. Key Points The men had shorter block times than the women in both events and with both platforms. For both distances, the swimmers had shorter block times in their starts from the new starting platform with a back plate than with the old platform. For the 50-m event with the old starting platform, the medalists had shorter block times than the semi-finalists. The new starting platform block time was only determinant in the women’s 50-m event. In order to improve

  13. Diffractive X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, Gerald K.

    2010-01-01

    Diffractive X-ray telescopes, using zone plates, phase Fresnel lenses, or related optical elements have the potential to provide astronomers with true imaging capability with resolution many orders of magnitude better than available in any other waveband. Lenses that would be relatively easy to fabricate could have an angular resolution of the order of micro-arc-seconds or even better, that would allow, for example, imaging of the distorted spacetime in the immediate vicinity of the super-massive black holes in the center of active galaxies. What then is precluding their immediate adoption? Extremely long focal lengths, very limited bandwidth, and difficulty stabilizing the image are the main problems. The history, and status of the development of such lenses is reviewed here and the prospects for managing the challenges that they present are discussed.

  14. The Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nityananda, R.

    2003-05-01

    The Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) of the National Centre of Radio Astrophysics (NCRA) of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) at Khodad, India, has been operational in the band 0.2 to 2 metres for the last two and a half years. The system characteristics and performance and recent results from the group will be presented. Details of use over the last six months by scientists from other observatories under the GMRT Time Allocation Committee (GTAC) and future plans will be also be reviewed in this paper. Areas which have been studied include observations made in the GMRT band of neutral hydrogen, nearby galaxies, supernova remnants, the Galactic Centre, pulsars, the Sun and others.

  15. Unparticle effects in neutrino telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Sprinberg, G.; Martinez, R.; Sampayo, Oscar A.

    2009-03-01

    Recently H. Georgi has introduced the concept of unparticles in order to describe the low energy physics of a nontrivial scale invariant sector of an effective theory. We investigate its physical effects on the neutrino flux to be detected in a kilometer cubic neutrino telescope such as IceCube. We study the effects, on different observables, of the survival neutrino flux after through the Earth, and the regeneration originated in the neutral currents. We calculate the contribution of unparticle physics to the neutrino-nucleon interaction and, then, to the observables in order to evaluate detectable effects in IceCUbe. Our results are compared with the bounds obtained by other nonunderground experiments. Finally, the results are presented as an exclusion plot in the relevant parameters of the new physics stuff.

  16. Recent results from telescope array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Masaki

    2015-08-01

    The Telescope Array (TA) is an experiment to observe Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs). TA's recent results, the energy spectrum and anisotropy based on the 6-year surface array data, and the primary composition obtained from the shower maximum (XMAX) are reported. The spectrum demonstrates a clear dip and cutoff. The shape of the spectrum is well described by the energy loss of extra-galactic protons interacting with the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Above the cutoff, a medium-scale (20∘ radius) flux enhancement was observed near the Ursa-Major. A chance probability of creating this hotspot from the isotropic flux is 4.0 σ. The measured ⟨XMAX⟩ is consistent with the primary being proton or light nuclei for energies 1018.2 eV-1019.2 eV.

  17. SLAC Cosmic Ray Telescope Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Va'vra, J.

    2010-02-15

    SLAC does not have a test beam for the HEP detector development at present. We have therefore created a cosmic ray telescope (CRT) facility, which is presently being used to test the FDIRC prototype. We have used it in the past to debug this prototype with the original SLAC electronics before going to the ESA test beam. Presently, it is used to test a new waveform digitizing electronics developed by the University of Hawaii, and we are also planning to incorporate the new Orsay TDC/ADC electronics. As a next step, we plan to put in a full size DIRC bar box with a new focusing optics, and test it together with a final SuberB electronics. The CRT is located in building 121 at SLAC. We anticipate more users to join in the future. This purpose of this note is to provide an introductory manual for newcomers.

  18. Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S

    2008-06-27

    The use of adaptive optics was originally conceived by astronomers seeking to correct the blurring of images made with large telescopes due to the effects of atmospheric turbulence. The basic idea is to use a device, a wave front corrector, to adjust the phase of light passing through an optical system, based on some measurement of the spatial variation of the phase transverse to the light propagation direction, using a wave front sensor. Although the original concept was intended for application to astronomical imaging, the technique can be more generally applied. For instance, adaptive optics systems have been used for several decades to correct for aberrations in high-power laser systems. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the world's largest laser system, the National Ignition Facility, uses adaptive optics to correct for aberrations in each of the 192 beams, all of which must be precisely focused on a millimeter scale target in order to perform nuclear physics experiments.

  19. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivezic, Zeljko

    2007-05-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is currently by far the most ambitious proposed ground-based optical survey. With initial funding from the US National Science Foundation (NSF), Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories and private sponsors, the design and development efforts are well underway at many institutions, including top universities and leading national laboratories. The main science themes that drive the LSST system design are Dark Energy and Matter, the Solar System Inventory, Transient Optical Sky and the Milky Way Mapping. The LSST system, with its 8.4m telescope and 3,200 Megapixel camera, will be sited at Cerro Pachon in northern Chile, with the first light scheduled for 2014. In a continuous observing campaign, LSST will cover the entire available sky every three nights in two photometric bands to a depth of V=25 per visit (two 15 second exposures), with exquisitely accurate astrometry and photometry. Over the proposed survey lifetime of 10 years, each sky location would be observed about 1000 times, with the total exposure time of 8 hours distributed over six broad photometric bandpasses (ugrizY). This campaign will open a movie-like window on objects that change brightness, or move, on timescales ranging from 10 seconds to 10 years, and will produce a catalog containing over 10 billion galaxies and a similar number of stars. The survey will have a data rate of about 30 TB/night, and will collect over 60 PB of raw data over its lifetime, resulting in an incredibly rich and extensive public archive that will be a treasure trove for breakthroughs in many areas of astronomy and astrophysics.

  20. The Onsala Twin Telescope Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, R.

    2013-08-01

    This paper described the Onsala Twin Telescope project. The project aims at the construction of two new radio telescopes at the Onsala Space Observatory, following the VLBI2010 concept. The project starts in 2013 and is expected to be finalized within 4 years. Z% O. Rydbeck. Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, Göteborg, ISBN 91-7032-621-5, 407-823, 1991. B. Petrachenko, A. Niell, D. Behrend, B. Corey, J. Böhm, P. Charlot, A. Collioud, J. Gipson, R. Haas, Th. Hobiger, Y. Koyama, D. MacMillan, Z. Malkin, T. Nilsson, A. Pany, G. Tuccari, A. Whitney, and J. Wresnik. Design Aspects of the VLBI2010 System. NASA/TM-2009-214180, 58 pp., 2009. R. Haas, G. Elgered, J. Löfgren, T. Ning, and H.-G. Scherneck. Onsala Space Observatory - IVS Network Station. In K. D. Baver and D. Behrend, editors, International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry 2011 Annual Report, NASA/TP-2012-217505, 88-91, 2012. H.-G. Scherneck, G. Elgered, J. M. Johansson, and B. O. Rönnäng. Phys. Chem. Earth, Vol. 23, No. 7-8, 811-823, 1998. A. R. Whitney. Ph.D. thesis, Dept. of Electrical engineering, MIT Cambridge, MA., 1974. B. A. Harper, J. D. Kepert, and J. D. Ginger. Guidelines for converting between various wind averaging periods in tropical cyclone conditions. WMO/TD-No. 1555, 64 pp., 2010 (available at \\url{http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/tcp/documents/WMO_TD_1555_en.pdf})

  1. Proposed Integrated Radio-Telescope Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M. H.; Ewing, M. S.; Levy, G. S.; Mallis, R. K.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Smith, J. R.; Backer, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed network of radio telescopes, controlled by a central computer and managed by a single organization, offer potential for research on a scale that could not be matched by present privately and publicly-owned radio telescopes. With 10 antenna sites, network would establish base lines thousands of miles long. Antennas will be linked to computer center by telephone circuits.

  2. Milestone reached for James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The primary mirror for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) - the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope - is complete after engineers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland, US, put in place the craft's 18th and final mirror segment.

  3. Telescopes in Education: the Little Thompson Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, A.; Vanlew, K.; Melsheimer, T.; Melsheimer, L.; Rideout, C.; Patterson, T.

    1997-12-01

    A second observatory of the Telescopes in Education (TIE) project is in the planning stages, with hopes to be in use by fall 1998. The Little Thompson Observatory will be located adjacent to Berthoud High School in northern Colorado. TIE has offered the observatory a Tinsley 18" Cassegrain telescope on a 10-year loan. Local schools and youth organizations will have prioritized access to the telescope until midnight; after that, the telescope will be open to world-wide use by schools via the Internet. The first TIE observatory is a 24" telescope on Mt. Wilson, already booked through July 1998. That telescope has been in use every clear night for the past four years by up to 50 schools per month. Students remotely control the telescope over the Internet, and then receive the images on their local computers. The estimated cost of the Little Thompson Observatory is roughly \\170,000. However, donations of labor and materials have reduced the final price tag closer to \\40,000. Habitat for Humanity is organized to construct the dome, classrooms, and other facilities. Tom and Linda Melsheimer, who developed the remote telescope control system for the University of Denver's Mount Evans Observatory, are donating a similar control system. The formally-trained, all-volunteer staff will be comprised of local residents, teachers and amateur astronomers. Utilities and Internet access will be provided by the Thompson School District.

  4. A Mechanical Analogue of the Refracting Telescope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannoni, Maurizio; Molesini, Giuseppe; Sordini, Andrea; Straulino, Samuele

    2011-01-01

    The recent celebration of the discoveries made by Galileo four centuries ago has attracted new attention to the refracting telescope and to its use as an instrument for the observation of the night sky. This has offered the opportunity for addressing in the classroom the basic principles explaining the operation of the telescope. When doing so, a…

  5. Longer-baseline telescopes using quantum repeaters.

    PubMed

    Gottesman, Daniel; Jennewein, Thomas; Croke, Sarah

    2012-08-17

    We present an approach to building interferometric telescopes using ideas of quantum information. Current optical interferometers have limited baseline lengths, and thus limited resolution, because of noise and loss of signal due to the transmission of photons between the telescopes. The technology of quantum repeaters has the potential to eliminate this limit, allowing in principle interferometers with arbitrarily long baselines. PMID:23006349

  6. Galaxies, quasars, and beyond - The Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahcall, J. N.

    1983-03-01

    The overall NASA plans for the Space Telescope are described. A brief history of the development of the Space Telescope is presented and the major characteristics of the ST Observatory are summarized. The astronomical instruments that will be used in the first few years are described and some of the important scientific projects are outlined.

  7. Adaptive compensation for an optical tracking telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbart, J. W.; Winston, G. C.

    1974-01-01

    The application of model referenced adaptive control theory to an optical tracking telescope is discussed. The capability of the adaptive technique to compensate for mount irregularities such as inertial variations and bearing friction is demonstrated via field test results on a large tracking telescope. Results are presented which show a 6 to 1 improvement in tracking accuracy for a worst-case satellite trajectory.

  8. Software controls for the ATST Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrich, Bret D.; Wampler, Stephen B.

    2004-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) is intended to be the premier solar observatory for experimental solar physics. The ATST telescope control software is designed to operate similar to current nighttime telescopes, but will contain added functionality required for solar observations. These additions include the use of solar coordinate systems, non-sidereal track rates, solar rotation models, alternate guide signal sources, the control of thermal loads on the telescope, unusual observation and calibration motions, and serendipitous acquisition of transient objects. These requirements have resulted in a design for the ATST telescope control system (TCS) that is flexible and well-adapted for solar physics experiments. This report discusses both the classical design of the ATST TCS and the modifications required to observe in a solar physics environment. The control and servo loops required to operate both the pointing and wavefront correction systems are explained.

  9. James Webb Space Telescope Project (JWST) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Mitra

    2008-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project. The JWST is an infrared telescope designed to collect data in the cosmic dark zone. Specifically, the mission of the JWST is to study the origin and evolution of galaxies, stars and planetary systems. It is a deployable telescope with a 6.5 m diameter, segmented, adjustable primary mirror. outfitted with cryogenic temperature telescope and instruments for infrared performance. The JWST is several times more sensitive than previous telescope and other photographic and electronic detection methods. It hosts a near infrared camera, near infrared spectrometer, mid-infrared instrument and a fine guidance sensor. The JWST mission objection and architecture, integrated science payload, instrument overview, and operational orbit are described.

  10. Optical design of a rotating eyepiece telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddique, M.; Nasim, F.; Khan, A. N.; Gul, A.

    2016-08-01

    Flexible eyepiece telescope has been designed and verified. The rotating eyepiece of telescope will facilitate viewing of objects in a remote or out of sight target. Eyepiece arm of telescope can be rotated upto 360o keeping objective and reticule unchanged and ensuring zero deviation in reticule inclination. Main application of this scope is off axis viewing of objects. Image inversion has been carried out by using pair of mirrors and length of telescope is controlled by using relay lenses. The optical design, simulation and image analysis has been carried out by using ZEMAX®. Magnification of telescope is between 10∼⃒12 times with FOV of 60. Experiment has been carried out using uncoated Edmund Optics and optical tool box of Micro Series Kit, NEWPORT.

  11. Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope 1-meter Telescope Project: Design, Deployment Plans, Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Timothy M.; Burleson, B.; Crellin, M.; De Vera, J.; Dubberly, M.; Greene, R.; Falarski, M.; Haldeman, B.; Hausler, S.; Haynes, R.; Hjelstrom, A.; Hygelund, J.; Johnson, D.; Lobdill, R.; Martinez, J.; Mullins, D.; Pickles, A.; Posner, V.; Rosing, W.; Tufts, J.; Vander Horst, K.; Vanderhyden, B.; Walker, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) is a privately-funded observatory dedicated to time-domain astronomy. Our main observing tool will be a homogeneous world-wide network of 12 x 1m optical telescopes, each equipped for both imaging and spectroscopy. Here we describe the LCOGT 1m telescope design, its development status, and our plans for deploying a dozen or so such telescopes in a worldwide network capable of continuous observing. We also describe the 80 cm Sedgwick telescope, which is now in regular operation as a research instrument, and which has served as a prototype for many of the 1m mechanical and control systems.

  12. ALMA Telescope Reaches New Heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    ball at a distance of nine miles, and to keep their smooth reflecting surfaces accurate to less than the thickness of a human hair. Once the transporter reached the high plateau it carried the antenna to a concrete pad -- a docking station with connections for power and fiber optics -- and positioned it with an accuracy of a small fraction of an inch. The transporter is guided by a laser steering system and, just like some cars, also has ultrasonic collision detectors. These sensors ensure the safety of the state-of-the-art antennas as the transporter drives them across what will soon be a rather crowded plateau. Ultimately, ALMA will have at least 66 antennas distributed over about 200 pads, spread over distances of up to 11.5 miles and operating as a single, giant telescope. Even when ALMA is fully operational, the transporters will be used to move the antennas between pads to reconfigure the telescope for different kinds of observations. This first ALMA antenna at the high site will soon be joined by others, and the ALMA team looks forward to making their first observations from the Chajnantor plateau. They plan to link three antennas by early 2010, and to make the first scientific observations with ALMA in the second half of 2011. ALMA will help astronomers answer important questions about our cosmic origins. The telescope will observe the Universe using light with millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths, between infrared light and radio waves in the electromagnetic spectrum. Light at these wavelengths comes from some of the coldest, and from some of the most distant objects in the cosmos. These include cold clouds of gas and dust where new stars are being born, or remote galaxies towards the edge of the observable universe. The Universe is relatively unexplored at submillimeter wavelengths, as the telescopes need extremely dry atmospheric conditions, such as those at Chajnantor, and advanced detector technology. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array

  13. Buyer's guide to telescopes at the best sites: Dome A, L2, and Shackleton Rim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, J. Roger P.

    2004-10-01

    operation large telescopes in space should be possible at affordable cost if we adopt the strategy used on the ground, where the same telescope OTA and mount is maintained for decades while instruments are periodically upgraded. HST has already shown the power of this modus operandi in space. It makes sense because the optical image quality of any telescope cannot be improved once the diffraction limit is reached, while instruments need to be renewed to keep pace with scientific and technical developments. Thus if future space exploration results in long-term robotic or human infrastructure on the Moon, the Shackleton rim would be favored as an observatory site, especially for ultra-deep optical/infrared surveys. If, on the other hand, exploration is centered a new station in free space, out of the Earth's gravitational potential well, observatories at L2 would be more easily supported. When contrasting the performance of ground and space telescope options, an important trade is larger aperture on Earth versus lower background in space The thermal zodiacal background of space is typically 105 times lower than even the Antarctic background, and the optical scattered starlight background in space is much less, but because of the strong dependence of sensitivity on diameter a 100 m telescope at Dome A or Dome C would have sensitivity and power to study Earth-like planets comparable to that of NASA's proposed TPF coronagraphic and interferometric missions combined. For ultradeep field studies in the infrared, integration time is also important, thus a 20 m fixed telescope on the lunar south pole surveying just the south ecliptic pole region would have nearly 100 times the sensitivity of the JWST at L2. Neither Dome A nor the Moon"s south pole has yet been explored, even robotically. If large telescopes are ever to be built at these optimum sites, smaller precursors must be built first to develop the required technology and to gain experience. On the Moon, a start which would

  14. The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, J. S.; Carrasco, L.; Schloerb, F. P.

    2002-05-01

    The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) project is a collaboration between the University of Massachusetts (UMass) in the USA and the Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE) in Mexico to build a 50m-diameter millimeter-wave antenna which will operate with good efficiency at wavelengths as short as 1 mm. The LMT is being built at an altitude of 4600 m atop Volcan Sierra Negra, an extinct volcanic peak in the state of Puebla, Mexico, approximately 100 km east of the city of Puebla. At 18 degrees 59' N latitude, the site offers an excellent view of the Galactic Center and good sky coverage of both hemispheres. Construction of the telescope is now well underway, and it is expected to be completed in late 2004. The LMT specifications call for an overall effective surface accuracy of 75 microns rms and a pointing accuracy of 1" rms. The strategy for meeting these performance goals supplements conventional antenna designs with various "active" systems to bring the final performance within the requirements. For surface accuracy, the LMT will rely on an open loop active surface which includes 180 moveable surface segments. For pointing accuracy, we will use traditional approaches supplemented by measurements to characterize the behavior of the structure, including inclinometers and temperature sensors which may be used with finite element models to determine structural deformations and predict pointing behavior. The initial complement of instruments will include a 32 element, heterodyne focal plane array at 3mm; a large format, focal plane bolometer array; a unique wide band receiver and spectrometer to determine the redshifts of primordial galaxies; and a 4 element receiver for the 1mm band. With its excellent sensitivity and angular resolution, the LMT will enable unique studies of the early universe and galaxy evolution, the interstellar medium and star formation in galaxies, and planetary science. In particular, with nearly 2000 m2 of collecting

  15. A swing arm profilometer for large telescope mirror element metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callender, M. J.; Efstathiou, A.; King, C. W.; Walker, D. D.; Gee, A. E.; Lewis, A. J.; Oldfield, S.; Steel, R. M.

    2006-06-01

    The next generation of ground-based extremely large telescopes of 30 m to 100 m aperture calls for the manufacture of several hundred sub-aperture segments of 1 m to 2 m diameter. Each annulus of the overall aperture is formed from separate elements of the appropriate off-axis conic section (usually a paraboloid). Manufacture of these segments requires a systematic approach to in- and post-process metrology for all stages of manufacture, including the grinding stage, despite the fact that the resulting ground surface is generally not amenable to optically reflective measurement techniques. To address the need for measurements on such 1 m to 2 m telescope segments, a swing arm profilometer has been constructed as part of a collaborative project between University College London (UCL) and the UK National Physical Laboratory (NPL). The current swing-arm profilometer is intended as a proof-of-concept device and has the capability to measure concave and convex surfaces of up to 1 m in diameter with a minimum radius of curvature of 1.75 m for concave and 1.25 m for convex surfaces. Results will be traceable to national length standards. Principles of the swing-arm instrument will be described together with the mechanics of the arm design, its bearing and adjustment arrangements and surface probe options. We assess the performance requirements of 20 nm RMS form measurement accuracy in the context of the tolerances of the selected profilometer components, the error budget, and preliminary system measurements. Initial results are presented with a Solartron linear encoder. We also plan to mount optical sensors on the end of the arm as an alternative to traditional contact probes. Initially these will include an Arden AWS-50 wavefront curvature sensor and a Fisba μ-phase interferometer. The method of attachment of the Arden AWS-50 is outlined. The swing arm profilometer is to be located at a specialised facility, the OPtiC Technium, Denbigh, North Wales, where it will form

  16. The One-Hectare Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, William J.; Dreher, John W.

    2000-07-01

    The 1HT will be a large area telescope whose novel characteristics will be a wide field of view, continuous frequency coverage from .500 - 11 Ghz, multibeam capability, and provision for RFI mitigation built in. Its scientific motivation includes deep SETI searches, pulsar detection and investigation, galactic magnetic field mapping through many Zeemann transitions, mapping of the decrement in the cosmic background radiation seen toward galaxy clusters, observation of HI absorption toward quasars at redshifts up to z equals 2, and deep mapping of the HI distributions in the Milky Way and nearby galaxies. The array will use economies of scale to keep the costs down. It will consist of 500 - 1000 dishes of diameters in the range 3.6 m - 5 m. The dishes will be TV satellite style with wideband MMIC chip front-end amplifiers. Substantial prototype activity is under way. The feed, dish, and front-end MMIC designs are well along. A seven element test array is nearing completion. It will be used for studying RFI mitigation. By 2002, a 12 element array (PTA) which will be made up of all the final components will be operational. Final construction of the full array is expected by 2005.

  17. Spitzer Space Telescope proposal process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laine, S.; Silbermann, N. A.; Rebull, L. M.; Storrie-Lombardi, L. J.

    2006-06-01

    This paper discusses the Spitzer Space Telescope General Observer proposal process. Proposals, consisting of the scientific justification, basic contact information for the observer, and observation requests, are submitted electronically using a client-server Java package called Spot. The Spitzer Science Center (SSC) uses a one-phase proposal submission process, meaning that fully-planned observations are submitted for most proposals at the time of submission, not months after acceptance. Ample documentation and tools are available to the observers on SSC web pages to support the preparation of proposals, including an email-based Helpdesk. Upon submission proposals are immediately ingested into a database which can be queried at the SSC for program information, statistics, etc. at any time. Large proposals are checked for technical feasibility and all proposals are checked against duplicates of already approved observations. Output from these tasks is made available to the Time Allocation Committee (TAC) members. At the review meeting, web-based software is used to record reviewer comments and keep track of the voted scores. After the meeting, another Java-based web tool, Griffin, is used to track the approved programs as they go through technical reviews, duplication checks and minor modifications before the observations are released for scheduling. In addition to detailing the proposal process, lessons learned from the first two General Observer proposal calls are discussed.

  18. The earliest telescope preserved in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Tsuko

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes the antique telescope owned by one of Japan's major feudal warlords, Tokugawa Yoshinao. As he died in 1650, this means that this telescope was produced in or before that year. Our recent investigation of the telescope revealed that it is of Schyrlean type, consisting of four convex lenses, so that it gives erect images with a measured magnifying power of 3.9 (± 0.2-0.3). This also implies that Yoshinao's telescope could be one of the earliest Schyrlean telescopes ever. The design, fabrication technique, and the surface decoration of the telescopic tube and caps all suggest that it is not a Western make at all, but was produced probably under the guidance of a Chinese Jesuit missionary or by the Chinese, in Suzhou or Hangzhou in Zhejiang province, China, or in Nagasaki. Following descriptions in the Japanese and Chinese historical literature, we also discuss the possibility that production of Schyrlean-type telescopes started independently in the Far East nearly simultaneously with the publication of Oculus Enoch et Eliae by Anton Maria Schyrle in 1645.

  19. NLST: the Indian National Large Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, S. S.; Soltau, D.; Kärcher, H.; Süss, M.; Berkefeld, T.

    2010-07-01

    India is planning a new solar telescope with an aperture of 2-m for carrying out high resolution studies of the Sun. Site characterization is underway at high altitude locations in the Himalayan mountains. A detailed concept design for NLST (National Large Solar Telescope) has been completed. The optical design of the telescope is optimized for high optical throughput and uses a minimum number of optical elements. A high order AO system is integrated part of the design that works with a modest Fried's parameter of 7-cm to give diffraction limited performance. The telescope will be equipped with a suite of post-focus instruments including a high resolution spectrograph and a polarimeter. NLST will also be used for carrying out stellar observations during the night. The mechanical design of the telescope, building, and the innovative dome is optimized to take advantage of the natural air flush which will help to keep the open telescope in temperature equilibrium. After its completion (planned for 2014), NLST will fill a gap in longitude between the major solar facilities in USA and Europe, and it will be for years the largest solar telescope in the world

  20. Reproduction Of William Herschel's Metallic Mirror Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, N.; Hirabayashi, S.; Isida, A.; Komori, A.; Nishitani, M.

    2006-08-01

    Following the reproduction of Cassini's open-air telescope, which took us almost three years to complete, our club decided to reproduce the metallic mirror telescope invented by William Herschel, which is a telescope of the subsequent generation. We based our design on the 7-foot telescope by which he used to discover Uranus in 1781. The metallic mirror was casted and blended copper and tin in the ratio of seven to three, exactly like the mirrors in those days. The surface of the casted mirror had many imperfections such as hollow portions and bubbles. These were removed by using the rock grinder at our school and the mirror was later polished at the Hidaka Optical Institute. The tube of the mirror was also made up of eight polygons just like the original. When we observed the stars with the metallic mirror telescope, they were a little bit dark, but it was possible to observe them well and to observe the gap between Saturn and Cassini. We also succeeded in observing Uranus with this telescope last September. Reproduction of the telescope mount is being made in a nearly the same design as the original one. We have learned through the reproduction that the unique design of the mount allows us to make observations with precise tracking accuracy in a comfortable observing position.

  1. Parametric Cost Models for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Henrichs, Todd; Dollinger, Courtney

    2010-01-01

    Multivariable parametric cost models for space telescopes provide several benefits to designers and space system project managers. They identify major architectural cost drivers and allow high-level design trades. They enable cost-benefit analysis for technology development investment. And, they provide a basis for estimating total project cost. A survey of historical models found that there is no definitive space telescope cost model. In fact, published models vary greatly [1]. Thus, there is a need for parametric space telescopes cost models. An effort is underway to develop single variable [2] and multi-variable [3] parametric space telescope cost models based on the latest available data and applying rigorous analytical techniques. Specific cost estimating relationships (CERs) have been developed which show that aperture diameter is the primary cost driver for large space telescopes; technology development as a function of time reduces cost at the rate of 50% per 17 years; it costs less per square meter of collecting aperture to build a large telescope than a small telescope; and increasing mass reduces cost.

  2. Intermediate-mass-ratio inspirals in the Einstein Telescope. II. Parameter estimation errors

    SciTech Connect

    Huerta, E. A.; Gair, Jonathan R.

    2011-02-15

    We explore the precision with which the Einstein Telescope will be able to measure the parameters of intermediate-mass-ratio inspirals, i.e., the inspirals of stellar mass compact objects into intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs). We calculate the parameter estimation errors using the Fisher Matrix formalism and present results of Monte Carlo simulations of these errors over choices for the extrinsic parameters of the source. These results are obtained using two different models for the gravitational waveform which were introduced in paper I of this series. These two waveform models include the inspiral, merger, and ringdown phases in a consistent way. One of the models, based on the transition scheme of Ori and Thorne [A. Ori and K. S. Thorne, Phys. Rev. D 62, 124022 (2000)], is valid for IMBHs of arbitrary spin; whereas, the second model, based on the effective-one-body approach, has been developed to cross-check our results in the nonspinning limit. In paper I of this series, we demonstrated the excellent agreement in both phase and amplitude between these two models for nonspinning black holes, and that their predictions for signal-to-noise ratios are consistent to within 10%. We now use these waveform models to estimate parameter estimation errors for binary systems with masses 1.4M{sub {circle_dot}}+100M{sub {circle_dot}}, 10M{sub {circle_dot}}+100M{sub {circle_dot}}, 1.4M{sub {circle_dot}}+500M{sub {circle_dot}}, and 10M{sub {circle_dot}}+500M{sub {circle_dot}} and various choices for the spin of the central IMBH. Assuming a detector network of three Einstein Telescopes, the analysis shows that for a 10M{sub {circle_dot}} compact object inspiralling into a 100M{sub {circle_dot}} IMBH with spin q=0.3, detected with a signal-to-noise ratio of 30, we should be able to determine the compact object and IMBH masses, and the IMBH spin magnitude to fractional accuracies of {approx}10{sup -3}, {approx}10{sup -3.5}, and {approx}10{sup -3}, respectively. We also

  3. Ground-Based Telescope Parametric Cost Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Rowell, Ginger Holmes

    2004-01-01

    A parametric cost model for ground-based telescopes is developed using multi-variable statistical analysis, The model includes both engineering and performance parameters. While diameter continues to be the dominant cost driver, other significant factors include primary mirror radius of curvature and diffraction limited wavelength. The model includes an explicit factor for primary mirror segmentation and/or duplication (i.e.. multi-telescope phased-array systems). Additionally, single variable models based on aperture diameter are derived. This analysis indicates that recent mirror technology advances have indeed reduced the historical telescope cost curve.

  4. General surface equations for glancing incidence telescopes.

    PubMed

    Saha, T T

    1987-02-15

    A generalized set of equations are derived for two mirror glancing incidence telescopes using Fermat's principle, a differential form of the law of reflection, the generalized sine condition, and a ray propagation equation described in vector form as a theoretical basis. The resulting formulation groups the possible telescope configurations into three distinct classes which are the Wolter, Wolter-Schwarzschild, and higherorder telescopes in which the Hettrick-Bowyer types are a subset. Eight configurations are possible within each class depending on the sign and magnitude of the parameters. PMID:20454195

  5. NASA capabilities roadmap: advanced telescopes and observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee D.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Telescopes and Observatories (ATO) Capability Roadmap addresses technologies necessary for NASA to enable future space telescopes and observatories collecting all electromagnetic bands, ranging from x-rays to millimeter waves, and including gravity-waves. It has derived capability priorities from current and developing Space Missions Directorate (SMD) strategic roadmaps and, where appropriate, has ensured their consistency with other NASA Strategic and Capability Roadmaps. Technology topics include optics; wavefront sensing and control and interferometry; distributed and advanced spacecraft systems; cryogenic and thermal control systems; large precision structure for observatories; and the infrastructure essential to future space telescopes and observatories.

  6. Hubble Space Telescope Primer for Cycle 21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzaga, S.; et al.

    2012-12-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope Primer for Cycle 21 is a companion document to the HST Call for Proposals1. It provides an overview of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), with basic information about telescope operations, instrument capabilities, and technical aspects of the proposal preparation process. A thorough understanding of the material in this document is essential for the preparation of a competitive proposal. This document is available as an online HTML document and a PDF file. The HTML version, optimized for online browsing, contains many links to additional information. The PDF version is optimized for printing, but online PDF readers have search capabilities for quick retrieval of specific information.

  7. The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, G.; TMT Project

    2004-12-01

    The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) Project is engaged in a design and development phase. TMT is proposed as a private-public partnership of the California Institute of Technology and the University of California (partners in the earlier CELT design study), AURA (designers of the earlier GSMT concept), and the Canadian ACURA consortium (designers of the VLOT concept). The partners are developing a 30 meter diameter, finely segmented filled aperture telescope with seeing-limited and diffraction-limited capabilities to address the broad range of GSMT science goals. The paper will present the status of the project development and telescope and instrument design.

  8. Passive Cooling For Large Infrared Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Edward I.

    1993-01-01

    Conceptual passive-cooling technique enables very large infrared telescope in vacuum of outer space cooled to below 20 K without using cryogen. Telescope orbiting Earth at high altitude of around 100,000 km. Scheme also offers very small gradient of temperature across primary telescope reflector, so thermal distortions smaller; accuracy of surface figure of reflector significantly enhanced. Passive-cooling technique also applied to building of very large cryostats and to development of very large sun shields in traditional manner, and some elements of technique adapted for current small observatories.

  9. Telescoping cylindrical piezoelectric fiber composite actuator assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Sidney G. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Fox, legal representative, Christopher L. (Inventor); Fox Chattin, legal representative, Melanie L. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A telescoping actuator assembly includes a plurality of cylindrical actuators in a concentric arrangement. Each cylindrical actuator is at least one piezoelectric fiber composite actuator having a plurality of piezoelectric fibers extending parallel to one another and to the concentric arrangement's longitudinal axis. Each cylindrical actuator is coupled to concentrically-adjacent ones of the cylindrical actuators such that the plurality of cylindrical actuators can experience telescopic movement. An electrical energy source coupled to the cylindrical actuators applies actuation energy thereto to generate the telescopic movement.

  10. Dual-Channel Multi-Purpose Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Joseph M.; Content, David

    2009-01-01

    A dual-channel telescope allows for a wide-field telescope design wit h a good, narrow field channel of fewer surfaces for shorter-wavelen gth or planet-finding applications. The design starts with a Korsch three-mirror-anastigmat (TMA) telescope that meets the mission criter ia for image quality over a wide field of view. The internal image a t the Cassegrain focus is typically blurry due to the aberration bala ncing among the three mirrors. The Cassegrain focus is then re-optim ized on the axis of the system where the narrow field channel instru ment is picked off by bending the primary mirror.

  11. Support structures for large infrared telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedgepeth, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    An infrared telescope requires an accuracy of its reflecting surfaces of less than a micrometer. Future missions may require such accuracy from telescopes that are 20 meters or larger in diameter. The structure for supporting such a telescope will most probably take the form of a deep truss. Various approaches for constructing the primary mirror in space are illustrated. One that employs automated deployment of interconnected reflector-structure modules was described in detail. Estimates were made of the precision obtainable with properly configured truss structures and the required ability of active control systems for achieving the desired accuracy.

  12. Measuring Neutrinos with the ANTARES Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Corey

    2009-12-17

    The ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope has been taking data since construction began in 2006. The telescope, completed in May of 2008, detects the Cerenkov radiation of charged leptons produced by high energy neutrinos interacting in or around the detector. The lepton trajectory is reconstructed with high precision, revealing the direction of the incoming neutrino. The performance of the detector will be discussed and recent data showing muons, electromagnetic showers and atmospheric neutrinos will be presented. Studies have been underway to search for neutrino point sources in the ANTARES data since 2007. Results from these studies will be presented, and the sensitivity of the telescope will be discussed.

  13. California Extremely Large Telescope : conceptual design for a thirty-meter telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Following great success in the creation of the Keck Observatory, scientists at the California Institute of Technology and the University of California have begun to explore the scientific and technical prospects for a much larger telescope. The Keck telescopes will remain the largest telescopes in the world for a number of years, with many decades of forefront research ahead after that. Though these telescopes have produced dramatic discoveries, it is already clear that even larger telescopes must be built if we are to address some of the most profound questions about our universe. The time required to build a larger telescope is approximately ten years, and the California community is presently well-positioned to begin its design and construction. The same scientists who conceived, led the design, and guided the construction of the Keck Observatory have been intensely engaged in a study of the prospects for an extremely large telescope. Building on our experience with the Keck Observatory, we have concluded that the large telescope is feasible and is within the bounds set by present-day technology. Our reference telescope has a diameter of 30 meters, the largest size we believe can be built with acceptable risk. The project is currently designated the California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT).

  14. Dense cores in the dark cloud complex LDN 1188

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verebélyi , E.; Könyves, V.; Nikolić, S.; Kiss, Cs.; Moór, A.; Ábrahám, P.; Kun, M.

    2013-11-01

    We present a molecular line emission study of the LDN 1188 dark cloud complex located in Cepheus. In this work we focused on the densest parts of the cloud and on the close neighbourhood of infrared point sources. We made ammonia mapping with the Effelsberg 100 m radio telescope and identified 3 dense cores. CS(1-0), CS(2-1) and HCO+(1-0) measurements performed with the Onsala 20 m telescope revealed the distribution of dense molecular material. The molecular line measurements were supplemented by mapping the dust emission at 1.2 mm in some selected directions using the IRAM 30 m telescope. With these data we could work out a likely evolutionary sequence in this dark cloud complex.

  15. The ALMA Telescope Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farris, A.; Marson, Ralph; Kern, Jeff

    2005-10-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between North America, Europe and Japan. ALMA is an aperture synthesis radio telescope consisting of 50 12-meter antennas located at an elevation of 5,000 meters in Llano de Chajnantor, Chile. These antennas will operate at frequencies ranging from 31.3 GHz to 950 GHz. The antennas can be moved and placed in different configurations, with baselines between the antennas varying from 150 meters to 20 km. The 50 antennas are supplemented by sixteen additional ones, known as the ALMA Compact Array (ACA): 12 7-meter antennas and 4 12-meter antennas. The ALMA control system will consist of over 70 computers separated by distances of over 20 km. Two aspects of the system are apparent: its distributed nature and its need to accurately synchronize events across many computers separated by large distances. In this paper we describe key features of the architecture of the ALMA Control System, focusing on its properties as a distributed system and on the mechanisms employed to achieve its time synchronization goals. This control system is a distributed system that uses the ALMA Common Software (ACS) as a middleware system layered on top of CORBA. The architecture of the control system extensively employs the component/container model in ACS. In addition, the use of CORBA allows us to employ Java in the higher levels of the control system, leaving C++ to the lower time-critical levels. Python as a scripting language is used by astronomers, to craft standard observing programs, and engineers, in a testing and debugging mode. Key to the concept of an aperture synthesis telescope is a special purpose hardware system known as a correlator, responsible for making various delay model corrections and correlating the signals from the antennas. There are two correlators in ALMA, one for the array of 50 antennas and one for the ACA. This entire system operates under a control system that must synchronize events across the

  16. Cosmology with liquid mirror telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogg, David W.; Gibson, Brad K.; Hickson, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Liquid mirrors provide an exciting means to obtain large optical telescopes for substantially lower costs than conventional technologies. The liquid mirror concept has been demonstrated in the lab with the construction of a diffraction limited 1.5 m mirror. The mirror surface, using liquid mercury, forms a perfect parabolic shape when the mirror cell is rotated at a uniform velocity. A liquid mirror must be able to support a heavy mercury load with minimal flexure and have a fundamental resonant frequency that is as high as possible, to suppress the amplitude of surface waves caused by small vibrations transmitted to the mirror. To minimize the transmission of vibrations to the liquid surface, the entire mirror rests on an air bearing. This necessitates the mirror cell being lightweight, due to the limited load capabilities of the air bearing. The mirror components must also have physical characteristics which minimize the effects of thermal expansion with ambient temperature fluctuations in the observatory. In addition, the 2.7 m mirror construction is designed so that the techniques used may be readily extended to the construction of large mirrors. To attain the goals of a lightweight, rigid mirror, a composite laminant construction was used. The mirror consists of a foam core cut to the desired parabolic shape, with an accuracy of a few mm. An aluminum hub serves as an anchor for the foam and skin, and allows precise centering of the mirror on the air bearing and drive system. Several plys of Kevlar, covered in an epoxy matrix, are then applied to the foam. A final layer of pure epoxy is formed by spin casting. This final layer is parabolic to within a fraction of a mm. An aluminum ring bonded to the circumference of the mirror retains the mercury, and incorporates stainless-steel hard-points for the attachment of balance weights.

  17. The associate principal astronomer telescope operations model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Mark; Bresina, John; Swanson, Keith; Edgington, Will; Henry, Greg

    1994-01-01

    This paper outlines a new telescope operations model that is intended to achieve low operating costs with high operating efficiency and high scientific productivity. The model is based on the existing Principal Astronomer approach used in conjunction with ATIS, a language for commanding remotely located automatic telescopes. This paper introduces the notion of an Associate Principal Astronomer, or APA. At the heart of the APA is automatic observation loading and scheduling software, and it is this software that is expected to help achieve efficient and productive telescope operations. The purpose of the APA system is to make it possible for astronomers to submit observation requests to and obtain resulting data from remote automatic telescopes, via the Internet, in a highly-automated way that minimizes human interaction with the system and maximizes the scientific return from observing time.

  18. Apollo Telescope Mount of Skylab: an overview.

    PubMed

    Tousey, R

    1977-04-01

    This introductory paper describes Skylab and the course of events that led to this complex space project. In particular it covers the Apollo Telescope Mount and its instruments and the method of operation of the ATM mission.

  19. Theoretical contamination of cryogenic satellite telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, M.

    1978-01-01

    The state of contaminant molecules, the deposition rate on key surfaces, and the heat transfer rate were estimated by the use of a zeroth-order approximation. Optical surfaces of infrared telescopes cooled to about 20 K should be considered to be covered with at least several deposition layers of condensible molecules without any contamination controls. The effectiveness of the purge gas method of contamination controls was discussed. This method attempts to drive condensible molecules from the telescope tube by impacts with a purge gas in the telescope tube. For this technique to be sufficiently effective, the pressure of the purge gas must be more than 2 x .000001 torr. The influence caused by interactions of the purged gas with the particulate contaminants was found to slightly increase the resident times of the particulate contaminants within the telescope field of view.

  20. Compound catadioptric telescopes with all spherical surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sigler, R D

    1978-05-15

    Catadioptric, all spherical Cassegrainian and Gregorian telescopes with one and two full aperture corrector lenses are investigated. Appropriate closed form third-order aberration equations are presented, and a variety of aplanatic and anastigmatic solutions are indicated. PMID:20198015

  1. Improving the Blanco Telescope's delivered image quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Timothy M. C.; Montane, Andrés; Tighe, Roberto; Walker, Alistair R.; Gregory, Brooke; Smith, R. Christopher; Cisternas, Alfonso

    2010-07-01

    The V. M. Blanco 4-m telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory is undergoing a number of improvements in preparation for the delivery of the Dark Energy Camera. The program includes upgrades having potential to deliver gains in image quality and stability. To this end, we have renovated the support structure of the primary mirror, incorporating innovations to improve both the radial support performance and the registration of the mirror and telescope top end. The resulting opto-mechanical condition of the telescope is described. We also describe some improvements to the environmental control. Upgrades to the telescope control system and measurements of the dome environment are described in separate papers in this conference.

  2. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets coronagraphic operations: lessons learned from the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debes, John H.; Ygouf, Marie; Choquet, Elodie; Hines, Dean C.; Perrin, Marshall D.; Golimowski, David A.; Lajoie, Charles-Phillipe; Mazoyer, Johan; Pueyo, Laurent; Soummer, Rémi; van der Marel, Roeland

    2016-01-01

    The coronagraphic instrument (CGI) currently proposed for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) mission will be the first example of a space-based coronagraph optimized for extremely high contrasts that are required for the direct imaging of exoplanets reflecting the light of their host star. While the design of this instrument is still in progress, this early stage of development is a particularly beneficial time to consider the operation of such an instrument. We review current or planned operations on the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope with a focus on which operational aspects will have relevance to the planned WFIRST-AFTA CGI. We identify five key aspects of operations that will require attention: (1) detector health and evolution, (2) wavefront control, (3) observing strategies/postprocessing, (4) astrometric precision/target acquisition, and (5) polarimetry. We make suggestions on a path forward for each of these items.

  3. Hunting Spinning Asteroids with the Faulkes Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Richard

    2008-08-01

    The Faulkes telescopes are proving a dab hand at allowing schools and amateurs to do real science. The author discusses the latest Faulkes research project, and his record-breaking discovery that was pert of it.

  4. Wind loads on ground-based telescopes.

    PubMed

    MacMynowski, Douglas G; Vogiatzis, Konstantinos; Angeli, George Z; Fitzsimmons, Joeleff; Nelson, Jerry E

    2006-10-20

    One of the factors that can influence the performance of large optical telescopes is the vibration of the telescope structure due to unsteady wind inside the telescope enclosure. Estimating the resulting degradation in image quality has been difficult because of the relatively poor understanding of the flow characteristics. Significant progress has recently been made, informed by measurements in existing observatories, wind-tunnel tests, and computational fluid dynamic analyses. We combine the information from these sources to summarize the relevant wind characteristics and enable a model of the dynamic wind loads on a telescope structure within an enclosure. The amplitude, temporal spectrum, and spatial distribution of wind disturbances are defined as a function of relevant design parameters, providing a significant improvement in our understanding of an important design issue.

  5. Compound catadioptric telescopes with all spherical surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sigler, R D

    1978-05-15

    Catadioptric, all spherical Cassegrainian and Gregorian telescopes with one and two full aperture corrector lenses are investigated. Appropriate closed form third-order aberration equations are presented, and a variety of aplanatic and anastigmatic solutions are indicated.

  6. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Transportation Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Ready for transportation to the Kennedy Space Center, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is pictured onboard the strongback dolly at the Vertical Processing Facility (VPF) at the Lockheed assembly plant upon completion of final testing and verification.

  7. The misalignment induced aberrations of TMA telescopes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kevin P; Schmid, Tobias; Rolland, Jannick P

    2008-12-01

    The next major space-borne observatory, the James Webb Space Telescope, will be a 6.6M field-biased, obscured, three-mirror anastigmat (TMA). Over the used field of view, the performance of TMA telescopes is dominated by 3(rd) order misalignment aberrations. Here it is shown that two dominant 3(rd) order misalignment aberrations arise for any TMA telescope. One aberration, field constant 3(rd) order coma is a well known misalignment aberration commonly seen in two-mirror Ritchey Chretien telescopes. The second aberration, field-asymmetric, field-linear, 3(rd) order astigmatism is a new and unique image orientation dependence with field derived here for the first time using nodal aberration theory.

  8. Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibe, Mary; MacLaren, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project as a way of teaching astronomy concepts to middle school students. The project provides students opportunities to work with professional scientists. (SOE)

  9. Solar Rejection Filter for Large Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Lesh, James

    2009-01-01

    To reject solar radiation photons at the front aperture for large telescopes, a mosaic of large transmission mode filters is placed in front of the telescope or at the aperture of the dome. Filtering options for effective rejection of sunlight include a smaller filter down-path near the focus of the telescope, and a large-diameter filter located in the front of the main aperture. Two types of large filters are viable: reflectance mode and transmittance mode. In the case of reflectance mode, a dielectric coating on a suitable substrate (e.g. a low-thermal-expansion glass) is arranged to reflect only a single, narrow wavelength and to efficiently transmit all other wavelengths. These coatings are commonly referred to as notch filter. In this case, the large mirror located in front of the telescope aperture reflects the received (signal and background) light into the telescope. In the case of transmittance mode, a dielectric coating on a suitable substrate (glass, sapphire, clear plastic, membrane, and the like) is arranged to transmit only a single wavelength and to reject all other wavelengths (visible and near IR) of light. The substrate of the large filter will determine its mass. At first glance, a large optical filter with a diameter of up to 10 m, located in front of the main aperture, would require a significant thickness to avoid sagging. However, a segmented filter supported by a structurally rugged grid can support smaller filters. The obscuration introduced by the grid is minimal because the total area can be made insignificant. This configuration can be detrimental to a diffraction- limited telescope due to diffraction effects at the edges of each sub-panel. However, no discernable degradation would result for a 20 diffraction-limit telescope (a photon bucket). Even the small amount of sagging in each subpanel should have minimal effect in the performance of a non-diffraction limited telescope because the part has no appreciable optical power. If the

  10. Productivity and Impact of Optical Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia; Zaich, Paul; Bosler, Tammy

    2005-01-01

    In 2001, about 2100 papers appearing in 18 journals reported and/or analyzed data collected with ground-based optical and infrared telescopes and the Hubble Space Telescope. About 250 telescopes were represented, including 25 with primary mirror diameters of 3 m or larger. The subjects covered in the papers divide reasonably cleanly into 20 areas, from solar system to cosmology. These papers were cited 24,354 times in 2002 and 2003, for a mean rate of 11.56 citations per paper, or 5.78 citations per paper per year (sometimes called impact or impact factor). We analyze here the distributions of the papers, citations, and impact factors among the telescopes and subject areas and compare the results with those of a very similar study of papers published in 1990-1991 and cited in 1993. Some of the results are exactly as expected. Big telescopes produce more papers and more citations per paper than small ones. There are fashionable topics (cosmology and exoplanets) and less fashionable ones (binary stars and planetary nebulae). And the Hubble Space Telescope has changed the landscape a great deal. Some other results surprised us but are explicable in retrospect. Small telescopes on well-supported sites (La Silla and Cerro Tololo, for instance) produce papers with larger impact factors than similar sized telescopes in relative isolation. Not just the fraction of all papers, but the absolute numbers of papers coming out of the most productive 4 m telescopes of a decade ago have gone down. The average number of citations per paper per year resulting from the 38 telescopes (2 m and larger) considered in 1993 has gone up 38%, from 3.48 to 4.81, a form, perhaps, of grade inflation. And 53% of the 2100 papers and 38% of the citations (including 44% of the papers and 31% of the citations from mirrors of 3 m and larger) pertain to topics often not regarded as major drivers for the next generation of still larger ground-based telescopes.

  11. New optical telescope projects at Devasthal Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagar, Ram; Kumar, Brijesh; Omar, Amitesh; Pandey, A. K.

    2012-09-01

    Devasthal, located in the Kumaun region of Himalayas is emerging as one of the best optical astronomy site in the continent. The minimum recorded ground level atmospheric seeing at the site is 0.006 with median value at 1.001. Currently, a 1.3-m fast (f/4) wide field-of-view (660) optical telescope is operating at the site. In near future, a 4-m liquid mirror telescope in collaboration with Belgium and Canada, and a 3.6-m optical telescope in collaboration with Belgium are expected to be installed in 2013. The telescopes will be operated by Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences. The first instruments on the 3.6-m telescope will be in-house designed and assembled faint object spectrograph and camera. The second generation instruments will be including a large field-of-view optical imager, high resolution optical spectrograph, integral field unit and an optical near-infrared spectrograph. The 1.3-m telescope is primarily used for wide field photometry imaging while the liquid mirror telescope will see a time bound operation to image half a degree wide strip in the galactic plane. There will be an aluminizing plant at the site to coat mirrors of sizes up to 3.7 m. The Devasthal Observatory and its geographical importance in between major astronomical observatories makes it important for time critical observations requiring continuous monitoring of variable and transient objects from ground based observatories. The site characteristics, its expansions plans and first results from the existing telescope are presented.

  12. Development of a clean optical telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Particulate contamination on astronomical mirrors degrades performance in two ways: by information loss by extinction of light; and background and noise from scattering, especially forward or Fraunhofer scattering. These effects were not generally understood, and an ambitious pilot program was outlined to measure particulate effects on telescope optical performance; develop prophylactic and cleaning procedures suitable for groundbased observatories; investigate by computational modelling the effects on telescopes in space; and communicate the results and concerns within the astronomical community.

  13. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Primary Mirror Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Prior to installation, technicians inspect the primary mirror of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The first in a series of great observatories launched by NASA, the HST was designed to last approximately 15 years. The Marshall Space Flight Center had management responsibility for the development of the HST and played a major role in ground tests and orbital checkout of the telescope. The HST was launched April 24, 1990 aboard Space Shuttle Discovery's STS-31 mission.

  14. Improvements to the CTIO Blanco Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Alistair

    2011-01-01

    The V. M. Blanco 4-m telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, is undergoing a number of improvements prior to the delivery of the Dark Energy Camera. These include improved slewing and tracking performance resulting from a new telescope control system plus new encoders, and upgrades to the primary mirror support system and the environmental control system that have potential to improve both image quality and stability. I will describe the status of the upgrades.

  15. Zone generator for Large Space Telescope technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, K. E.

    1974-01-01

    A concept is presented for monitoring the optical adjustment and performance of a Large Space Telescope which consists of a 1.2m diameter turntable with a laser stylus to operate at speeds up to 30 rpm. The focus of the laser stylus is under closed loop control. A technique for scribing zones of suitable depth, width, and uniformity applicable to large telescope mirrors is also reported.

  16. Holographic Optical Elements as Scanning Lidar Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.; Rallison, Richard D.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Guerra, David V.

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated and developed the use of holographic optical elements (HOE) and holographic transmission gratings for scanning lidar telescopes. By rotating a flat HOE in its own plane with the focal spot on the rotation axis, a very simple and compact conical scanning telescope is possible. We developed and tested transmission and reflection HOES for use with the first three harmonics of Nd:YAG lasers, and designed, built, and tested two lidar systems based on this technology.

  17. Commissioning Results on the JWST Testbed Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Bruce H.; Acton, D. Scott

    2006-01-01

    The one-meter 18 segment JWST Testbed Telescope (TBT) has been developed at Ball Aerospace to facilitate commissioning operations for the JWST Observatory. Eight different commissioning activities were tested on the TBT: telescope focus sweep, segment ID and Search, image array, global alignment, image stacking, coarse phasing, fine phasing, and multi-field phasing. This paper describes recent commissioning results from experiments performed on the TBT.

  18. Utrecht and the European Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettonvil, F. C. M.; EST Team

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, in the quest towards large solar facilities, a pan-European project was started to study a 4-m European Solar Telescope (EST). As one of the major partners, Utrecht played a significant role in the design, in particular in relation to the intended open design, its enclosure, telescope mechanics as well its polarimetric properties. Mid-2011 the work did result in an innovative conceptual design for EST.

  19. Range-balancing the Large Binocular Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakich, A.; Thompson, D.; Kuhn, O. P.

    2011-10-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) consists of two 8.4 m telescopes mounted on a common alt-az gimbal. The telescope has various modes of operation, including prime-focus, bent- and direct-Gregorian modes. The telescopes can feed independent instruments or their light can be combined in one of two interferometric instruments, giving an interferometric baseline of over 22 m. With all large telescopes, including the LBT, collimation models or modeled values for hexapod positions, are required to maintain reasonable optical alignment over the working range of temperatures and telescope elevations. Unlike other telescopes, the LBT has a highly asymmetric mechanical structure, and as a result the collimation models are required to do a lot more "work", than on an equivalent aperture monocular telescope that are usually designed to incorporate a Serurrier truss arrangement. LBT has been phasing in science operations over the last 5 years, with first light on the prime-focus cameras in 2006, and first light in Gregorian mode in 2008. In this time the generation of collimation models for LBT has proven to be problematic, with large departures from a given model, and large changes in pointing, being the norm. A refined approach to generating collimation models, "range balancing", has greatly improved this situation. The range-balancing approach to generating collimation models has delivered reliable collimation and pointing in both prime focus and Gregorian modes which has led to greatly increased operational efficiency. The details of the range-balancing approach, involving the removal of pointing "contamination" from collimation data, are given in this paper.

  20. The Faulkes Telescope Optical Spectrographs and Swift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Paul

    The Faulkes Telescope project funded primarily by the Dill Faulkes Educational Trust is currently constructing two 2-m robotic telescopes to be located in Hawaii and Australia. These will be the largest and most powerful telescopes ever built dedicated for use by schools and colleges. We have been awarded funding to build two optical spectrographs to be permanently mounted on these telescopes by the end of 2003. At this time an astronomical satellite called Swift will be launched by NASA. Swift is dedicated to the study of gamma-ray bursts the most powerful explosive events in the Universe. The Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Leicester has provided the X-ray camera for Swift and is a partner in the Faulkes Telescopes project. To enhance both projects we intend to use the Faulkes Telescope optical spectrographs to study the gamma-ray bursts identified by Swift. These data will also be made available to schools thereby raising the profile of physics and astronomy in the educational community.

  1. Thermal analysis of the TMT telescope structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Myung; Corredor, Andrew; Vogiatzis, Konstantinos; Angeli, George

    2010-07-01

    Thermal performances of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) structure were evaluated by finite element thermal models. The thermal models consist of the telescope optical assembly systems, instruments, laser facility, control and electronic equipments, and structural members. Temporal and spatial temperature distributions of the optical assembly systems and the telescope structure were calculated under various thermal conditions including air convections, conductions, heat flux loadings, and radiations. In order to capture thermal responses faithfully, a three-consecutive-day thermal environment data was implemented. This thermal boundary condition was created by CFD based on the environment conditions of the corresponding TMT site. The thermo-elastic analysis was made to predict thermal deformations of the telescope structure at every hour for three days. The line of sight calculation was made using the thermally induced structural deformations. Merit function was utilized to calculate the OPD maps after repositioning the optics based on a best fit of M1 segment deformations. The goal of this thermal analysis is to establish creditable thermal models by finite element analysis to simulate the thermal effects with the TMT site environment data. These thermal models can be utilized for estimating the thermal responses of the TMT structure. Thermal performance prediction of the TMT structure will guide us to assess the thermal impacts, and enables us to establish a thermal control strategy and requirements in order to minimize the thermal effects on the telescope structure due to heat dissipation from the telescope mounted equipment and systems.

  2. Analysis of space telescope data collection systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingels, F. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Multiple Access (MA) communication link of the Space Telescope (ST) is described. An expected performance bit error rate is presented. The historical perspective and rationale behind the ESTL space shuttle end-to-end tests are given. The concatenated coding scheme using a convolutional encoder for the outer coder is developed. The ESTL end-to-end tests on the space shuttle communication link are described. Most important is how a concatenated coding system will perform. This is a go-no-go system with respect to received signal-to-noise ratio. A discussion of the verification requirements and Specification document is presented, and those sections that apply to Space Telescope data and communications system are discussed. The Space Telescope System consists of the Space Telescope Orbiting Observatory (ST), the Space Telescope Science Institute, and the Space Telescope Operation Control Center. The MA system consists of the ST, the return link from the ST via the Tracking and Delay Relay Satellite system to White Sands, and from White Sands via the Domestic Communications Satellite to the STOCC.

  3. Optical aperture synthesis with electronically connected telescopes

    PubMed Central

    Dravins, Dainis; Lagadec, Tiphaine; Nuñez, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Highest resolution imaging in astronomy is achieved by interferometry, connecting telescopes over increasingly longer distances and at successively shorter wavelengths. Here, we present the first diffraction-limited images in visual light, produced by an array of independent optical telescopes, connected electronically only, with no optical links between them. With an array of small telescopes, second-order optical coherence of the sources is measured through intensity interferometry over 180 baselines between pairs of telescopes, and two-dimensional images reconstructed. The technique aims at diffraction-limited optical aperture synthesis over kilometre-long baselines to reach resolutions showing details on stellar surfaces and perhaps even the silhouettes of transiting exoplanets. Intensity interferometry circumvents problems of atmospheric turbulence that constrain ordinary interferometry. Since the electronic signal can be copied, many baselines can be built up between dispersed telescopes, and over long distances. Using arrays of air Cherenkov telescopes, this should enable the optical equivalent of interferometric arrays currently operating at radio wavelengths. PMID:25880705

  4. Adaptive-optics performance of Antarctic telescopes.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Jon S

    2004-02-20

    The performance of natural guide star adaptive-optics systems for telescopes located on the Antarctic plateau is evaluated and compared with adaptive-optics systems operated with the characteristic mid-latitude atmosphere found at Mauna Kea. A 2-m telescope with tip-tilt correction and an 8-m telescope equipped with a high-order adaptive-optics system are considered. Because of the large isoplanatic angle of the South Pole atmosphere, the anisoplanatic error associated with an adaptive-optics correction is negligible, and the achievable resolution is determined only by the fitting error associated with the number of corrected wave-front modes, which depends on the number of actuators on the deformable mirror. The usable field of view of an adaptive-optics equipped Antarctic telescope is thus orders of magnitude larger than for a similar telescope located at a mid-latitude site; this large field of view obviates the necessity for multiconjugate adaptive-optics systems that use multiple laser guide stars. These results, combined with the low infrared sky backgrounds, indicate that the Antarctic plateau is the best site on Earth at which to perform high-resolution imaging with large telescopes, either over large fields of view or with appreciable sky coverage. Preliminary site-testing results obtained recently from the Dome Concordia station indicate that this site is far superior to even the South Pole. PMID:15008551

  5. Retention force measurement of telescopic crowns.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Stefan; Stark, Helmut; Mues, Sebastian; Keilig, Ludger; Schrader, Anja; Enkling, Norbert

    2010-10-01

    This study deals with the determination of the retentive force between primary and secondary telescopic crowns under clinical conditions. Forty-three combined fixed-removable prostheses with a total of 140 double crowns were used for retention force measurement of the telescopic crowns prior to cementation. The crowns had a preparation of 1-2°. A specifically designed measuring device was used. The retentive forces were measured with and without lubrication by a saliva substitute. The measured values were analyzed according to the type of tooth (incisors, canines, premolars, and molars). Additionally, a comparison between lubricated and unlubricated telescopic crowns was done. As maximum retention force value 29.98 N was recorded with a telescopic crown on a molar, while the minimum of 0.08 N was found with a specimen on a canine. The median value of retention force of all telescopic crowns reached 1.93 N with an interquartile distance of 4.35 N. No statistically significant difference between lubricated and unlubricated specimens was found. The results indicate that retention force values of telescopic crowns, measured in clinical practice, are often much lower than those cited in the literature. The measurements also show a wide range. Whether this proves to be a problem for the patient's quality of life or not can however only be established by a comparison of the presented results with a follow-up study involving measurement of intraoral retention and determination by e.g. oral health impact profile.

  6. Sardinia Radio Telescope: the new Italian project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grueff, Gavril; Alvito, Giovanni; Ambrosini, Roberto; Bolli, Pietro; Maccaferri, Andrea; Maccaferri, Giuseppe; Morsiani, Marco; Mureddu, Leonardo; Natale, Vincenzo; Olmi, Luca; Orfei, Alessandro; Pernechele, Claudio; Poma, Angelo; Porceddu, Ignazio; Rossi, Lucio; Zacchiroli, Gianpaolo

    2004-10-01

    This contribution gives a description of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT), a new general purpose, fully steerable antenna proposed by the Institute of Radio Astronomy (IRA) of the National Institute for Astrophysics. The radio telescope is under construction near Cagliari (Sardinia) and it will join the two existing antennas of Medicina (Bologna) and Noto (Siracusa) both operated by the IRA. With its large antenna size (64m diameter) and its active surface, SRT, capable of operations up to about 100GHz, will contribute significantly to VLBI networks and will represent a powerful single-dish radio telescope for many science fields. The radio telescope has a Gregorian optical configuration with a supplementary beam-waveguide (BWG), which provides additional focal points. The Gregorian surfaces are shaped to minimize the spill-over and the standing wave between secondary mirror and feed. After the start of the contract for the radio telescope structural and mechanical fabrication in 2003, in the present year the foundation construction will be completed. The schedule foresees the radio telescope inauguration in late 2006.

  7. Telescopes Lofted to Space: An Historical Chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahams, Peter

    2005-01-01

    To become airborne was an early dream of humanity. It was a profound dream because of the meaningfulness of the perspective from aloft: the subject was able to observe the Earth and to become closer to heaven. In this context, a telescope is the most basic augmentation of the airborne experience: it expands the new perspective, allows measurement and analysis, and provides new forms of beauty. The first telescopes in space were anticipated by imaginative authors and by exacting engineers, whose dreams and proposals have a part in this story. The earliest telescopes to achieve space, the rocket-launched suborbital missions, both successes and failures, will be described, along with the effect they had on science and culture. Telescopes in orbit and in space probes are the current generation of instruments, a prelude to a future of lunar and planetary telescopes. Every success can be seen to have had a direct effect on the widening of horizons provided by the telescope. This paper will serve as an introduction to a very extensive subject.

  8. Optical aperture synthesis with electronically connected telescopes.

    PubMed

    Dravins, Dainis; Lagadec, Tiphaine; Nuñez, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    Highest resolution imaging in astronomy is achieved by interferometry, connecting telescopes over increasingly longer distances and at successively shorter wavelengths. Here, we present the first diffraction-limited images in visual light, produced by an array of independent optical telescopes, connected electronically only, with no optical links between them. With an array of small telescopes, second-order optical coherence of the sources is measured through intensity interferometry over 180 baselines between pairs of telescopes, and two-dimensional images reconstructed. The technique aims at diffraction-limited optical aperture synthesis over kilometre-long baselines to reach resolutions showing details on stellar surfaces and perhaps even the silhouettes of transiting exoplanets. Intensity interferometry circumvents problems of atmospheric turbulence that constrain ordinary interferometry. Since the electronic signal can be copied, many baselines can be built up between dispersed telescopes, and over long distances. Using arrays of air Cherenkov telescopes, this should enable the optical equivalent of interferometric arrays currently operating at radio wavelengths. PMID:25880705

  9. Astronomy in Hawaii: Telescopes, Research, and Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, A. K.

    2012-08-01

    Since early Polynesian way-finding combined observations of sky and ocean and allowed voyagers to locate and se ttle the far-flung islands of the Pacific, astronomy has impacted the islands of Hawaii. The Twentieth Century saw telescope development on both Haleakala on Maui and Mauna Kea on Hawaii Island. These complexes have developed libraries and information services to support and enhance their research. The University of Hawaii established the Institute for Astronomy (IfA). The IfA Library serves researchers and instrument developers at each of its three locations. Canada-France-Ha waii Telescope, the Joint Astronomy Center, the W. M. Keck Observatory, Gemini Northern Telescope and Subaru Telescope have each developed library services to respond to their unique needs. The librarians at these organizations have formed Astronomy Libraries of HAwaii (A LOHA) to share resources. As electronic research has developed, each library has responded to capitalize on these new capabilities. In coming years, projects such as the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope on Maui and the Thirty Meter Telescope on Hawaii Island have the promise of enlarging our understanding of the Universe. Astronomy libraries in Hawaii will con tinue to enhance their expertise to match the evolution of astronomy technologies and maximize research impact.

  10. Wind responses of Giant Magellan telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irarrazaval, Benjamin; Buleri, Christine; Johns, Matt

    2014-08-01

    The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) is 25 meter diameter extremely large ground based infrared/optical telescope being built by an international consortium of universities and research institutions. It will be located at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. The GMT primary mirror consists of seven 8.4 meter diameter borosilicate mirror segments. Two seven segment Gregorian secondary mirror systems will be built; an Adaptive Secondary Mirror (ASM) to support adaptive optics modes and a Fast-steering Secondary Mirror (FSM) with monolithic segments to support natural seeing modes when the ASM is being serviced. Wind excitation results in static deformation and vibration in the telescope structure that affects alignment and image jitter performance. The telescope mount will reject static and lower frequency windshake, while each of the Faststeering Secondary Mirror (FSM) segments will be used to compensate for the higher frequency wind-shake, up to 20 Hz. Using a finite element model of the GMT, along with CFD modeling of the wind loading on the telescope structure, wind excitation scenarios were created to study the performance of the FSM and telescope against wind-induced jitter. A description of the models, methodology and results of the analyses are presented.

  11. A new control system hardware architecture for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope prime focus instrument package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramiller, Chuck; Taylor, Trey; Rafferty, Tom H.; Cornell, Mark E.; Rafal, Marc; Savage, Richard

    2010-07-01

    The Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) will be undergoing a major upgrade as a precursor to the HET Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX‡). As part of this upgrade, the Prime Focus Instrument Package (PFIP) will be replaced with a new design that supports the HETDEX requirements along with the existing suite of instruments and anticipated future additions. This paper describes the new PFIP control system hardware plus the physical constraints and other considerations driving its design. Because of its location at the top end of the telescope, the new PFIP is essentially a stand-alone remote automation island containing over a dozen subsystems. Within the PFIP, motion controllers and modular IO systems are interconnected using a local Controller Area Network (CAN) bus and the CANOpen messaging protocol. CCD cameras that are equipped only with USB 2.0 interfaces are connected to a local Ethernet network via small microcontroller boards running embedded Linux. Links to ground-level systems pass through a 100 m cable bundle and use Ethernet over fiber optic cable exclusively; communications are either direct or through Ethernet/CAN gateways that pass CANOpen messages transparently. All of the control system hardware components are commercially available, designed for rugged industrial applications, and rated for extended temperature operation down to -10 °C.

  12. Seismic analysis of the 4-meter telescope SST-GATE for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dournaux, Jean-Laurent; Huet, Jean-Michel; Amans, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Delphine; Blake, Simon; Sol, Hélène

    2014-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project aims to create a next generation Very High Energy (VHE)γ-ray telescope array, devoted to the observation in a wide band of energy, from a few tens of GeV to more than 100 TeV. Two sites are foreseen to view the whole sky, with the main one in the Southern Hemisphere where about 100 telescopes of three different classes, related to the specific energy region to be investigated, will be installed. Among these, the Small Size class of Telescopes, SSTs, are 4-meter telescopes and are devoted to the highest energy region, from 1 TeV to beyond 100 TeV. Some of these sites considered for CTA exhibit strong seismic constraints. At the Observatoire de Paris, we have designed a prototype of a Small Size Telescope named SST-GATE, based on the dual-mirror Schwarzschild-Couder optical formula, which was never before implemented in the design of a Cherenkov telescope. The integration of this telescope on the site of the Observatoire de Paris is currently in progress. Technical solutions exist in the literature to protect structures from dynamic loads caused by earthquakes without increasing the mass and cost of the structure. This paper presents a state of the art of these techniques by keeping in mind that the operational performance of the telescope should not be compromised. The preliminary seismic analysis of SSTGATE performed by the finite element method is described before.

  13. The Lunar Configurable Array Telescope (LCAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meinel, Aden B.; Meinel, Marjorie P.

    1989-01-01

    The desire for a much larger space telescope than HST by astronomers is clearly demonstrated by the attendance at this Workshop. The reality is that a much larger space telescope than the HST collides with cost scaling reality. Coupled with this reality is the fact that any multi-billion dollar science project must have broad-based support from the science community and solid political support at both Presidential and Congressional levels. The HST successor is certainly in the same multi-billion dollar class as the Super Collider of the physics community, a project that has finally achieved the broad support base necessary for funding to follow. Advocacy of a bigger HST on the general grounds that 'bigger is better' will not be sufficient. A new concept needs to be developed that clearly diverges from scaling up of a traditional HST-type space telescope. With these realities in mind we have a few comments regarding the nature of a possible space telescope that may depart from what the organizers of this Workshop had in mind. The national goal declared by the President is Space Station, the Moon and Mars, in that order. Space Station is a potential location where a large system could be assembled prior to being sent into a high orbit. It is not a desirable environment for a large space telescope. Mars is not relevant as an observatory site. The Moon is very relevant for reasons we will address. Our comments are based on the premise of a permanent Lunar Outpost. One of the main arguments for a lunar telescope is a degree of permanency, that is, as long as a Lunar Outpost is maintained. In contrast, the relatively short lifetime of an orbiting telescope is a disadvantage, especially as a cost penalty. Access to a telescope in a 100,000 km orbit for refurbishment and resupply is a major problem with no solution in the present NASA planning. A telescope in conjunction with a Lunar Outpost means the possibility for continual upgrading or modifying the telescope to meet

  14. The Lunar Configurable Array Telescope (LCAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinel, Aden B.; Meinel, Marjorie P.

    1990-01-01

    The desire for a much larger space telescope than HST by astronomers is clearly demonstrated by the attendance at this Workshop. The reality is that a much larger space telescope than the HST collides with cost scaling reality. Coupled with this reality is the fact that any multi-billion dollar science project must have broad-based support from the science community and solid political support at both Presidential and Congressional levels. The HST successor is certainly in the same multi-billion dollar class as the Super Collider of the physics community, a project that has finally achieved the broad support base necessary for funding to follow. Advocacy of a bigger HST on the general grounds that 'bigger is better' will not be sufficient. A new concept needs to be developed that clearly diverges from scaling up of a traditional HST-type space telescope. With these realities in mind we have a few comments regarding the nature of a possible space telescope that may depart from what the organizers of this Workshop had in mind. The national goal declared by the President is Space Station, the Moon and Mars, in that order. Space Station is a potential location where a large system could be assembled prior to being sent into a high orbit. It is not a desirable environment for a large space telescope. Mars is not relevant as an observatory site. The Moon is very relevant for reasons we will address. Our comments are based on the premise of a permanent Lunar Outpost. One of the main arguments for a lunar telescope is a degree of permanency, that is, as long as a Lunar Outpost is maintained. In contrast, the relatively short lifetime of an orbiting telescope is a disadvantage, especially as a cost penalty. Access to a telescope in a 100,000 km orbit for refurbishment and resupply is a major problem with no solution in the present NASA planning. A telescope in conjunction with a Lunar Outpost means the possibility for continual upgrading or modifying the telescope to meet

  15. Monte Carlo studies of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, M.; Jogler, T.; Dumm, J.; Funk, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present studies for optimizing the next generation of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). Results focus on mid-sized telescopes (MSTs) for CTA, detecting very high energy gamma rays in the energy range from a few hundred GeV to a few tens of TeV. We describe a novel, flexible detector Monte Carlo package, FAST (FAst Simulation for imaging air cherenkov Telescopes), that we use to simulate different array and telescope designs. The simulation is somewhat simplified to allow for efficient exploration over a large telescope design parameter space. We investigate a wide range of telescope performance parameters including optical resolution, camera pixel size, and light collection area. In order to ensure a comparison of the arrays at their maximum sensitivity, we analyze the simulations with the most sensitive techniques used in the field, such as maximum likelihood template reconstruction and boosted decision trees for background rejection. Choosing telescope design parameters representative of the proposed Davies-Cotton (DC) and Schwarzchild-Couder (SC) MST designs, we compare the performance of the arrays by examining the gamma-ray angular resolution and differential point-source sensitivity. We further investigate the array performance under a wide range of conditions, determining the impact of the number of telescopes, telescope separation, night sky background, and geomagnetic field. We find a 30-40% improvement in the gamma-ray angular resolution at all energies when comparing arrays with an equal number of SC and DC telescopes, significantly enhancing point-source sensitivity in the MST energy range. We attribute the increase in point-source sensitivity to the improved optical point-spread function and smaller pixel size of the SC telescope design.

  16. Monte Carlo studies of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    DOE PAGES

    Wood, M. D.; Jogler, T.; Dumm, J.; Funk, S.

    2015-06-07

    In this paper, we present studies for optimizing the next generation of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). Results focus on mid-sized telescopes (MSTs) for CTA, detecting very high energy gamma rays in the energy range from a few hundred GeV to a few tens of TeV. We describe a novel, flexible detector Monte Carlo package, FAST (FAst Simulation for imaging air cherenkov Telescopes), that we use to simulate different array and telescope designs. The simulation is somewhat simplified to allow for efficient exploration over a large telescope design parameter space. We investigate a wide range of telescope performance parametersmore » including optical resolution, camera pixel size, and light collection area. In order to ensure a comparison of the arrays at their maximum sensitivity, we analyze the simulations with the most sensitive techniques used in the field, such as maximum likelihood template reconstruction and boosted decision trees for background rejection. Choosing telescope design parameters representative of the proposed Davies–Cotton (DC) and Schwarzchild–Couder (SC) MST designs, we compare the performance of the arrays by examining the gamma-ray angular resolution and differential point-source sensitivity. We further investigate the array performance under a wide range of conditions, determining the impact of the number of telescopes, telescope separation, night sky background, and geomagnetic field. We find a 30–40% improvement in the gamma-ray angular resolution at all energies when comparing arrays with an equal number of SC and DC telescopes, significantly enhancing point-source sensitivity in the MST energy range. Finally, we attribute the increase in point-source sensitivity to the improved optical point-spread function and smaller pixel size of the SC telescope design.« less

  17. Monte Carlo studies of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M. D.; Jogler, T.; Dumm, J.; Funk, S.

    2015-06-07

    In this paper, we present studies for optimizing the next generation of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). Results focus on mid-sized telescopes (MSTs) for CTA, detecting very high energy gamma rays in the energy range from a few hundred GeV to a few tens of TeV. We describe a novel, flexible detector Monte Carlo package, FAST (FAst Simulation for imaging air cherenkov Telescopes), that we use to simulate different array and telescope designs. The simulation is somewhat simplified to allow for efficient exploration over a large telescope design parameter space. We investigate a wide range of telescope performance parameters including optical resolution, camera pixel size, and light collection area. In order to ensure a comparison of the arrays at their maximum sensitivity, we analyze the simulations with the most sensitive techniques used in the field, such as maximum likelihood template reconstruction and boosted decision trees for background rejection. Choosing telescope design parameters representative of the proposed Davies–Cotton (DC) and Schwarzchild–Couder (SC) MST designs, we compare the performance of the arrays by examining the gamma-ray angular resolution and differential point-source sensitivity. We further investigate the array performance under a wide range of conditions, determining the impact of the number of telescopes, telescope separation, night sky background, and geomagnetic field. We find a 30–40% improvement in the gamma-ray angular resolution at all energies when comparing arrays with an equal number of SC and DC telescopes, significantly enhancing point-source sensitivity in the MST energy range. Finally, we attribute the increase in point-source sensitivity to the improved optical point-spread function and smaller pixel size of the SC telescope design.

  18. Hubble Space Telescope Deployment-Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the Hubble Space Telescope after being released into orbit, with the high gain anternas and solar arrays deployed and the aperture doors opened. The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is 42.5-feet (13-meters) long and weighs about 25,000 pounds (11,600 kilograms). The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  19. Hubble Space Telescope Deployment-Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) being raised to a vertical position in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle orbiter. The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is 42.5-feet (13-meters) long and weighs about 25,000 pounds (11,600 kilograms). The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  20. Hubble Space Telescope Deployment-Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) being positioned for release from the Space Shuttle orbiter by the Remote Manipulator System (RMS). The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is 42.5-feet (13- meters) long and weighs about 25,000 pounds (11,600 kilograms). The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  1. TALON - The Telescope Alert Operation Network System : intelligent linking of distributed autonomous robotic telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    White, R. R.; Wren, J.; Davis, H. R.; Galassi, M. C.; Starr, D. L.; Vestrand, W. T.; Wozniak, P. R.

    2004-01-01

    The internet has brought about great change in the astronomical community, but this interconnectivity is just starting to be exploited for use in instrumentation. Utilizing the internet for communicating between distributed astronomical systems is still in its infancy, but it already shows great potential. Here we present an example of a distributed network of telescopes that performs more efficienfiy in synchronous operation than as individual instruments. RAPid Telescopes for Optical Response (RAPTOR) is a system of telescopes at LANL that has intelligent intercommunication, combined with wide-field optics, temporal monitoring software, and deep-field follow-up capability all working in closed-loop real-time operation. The Telescope ALert Operations Network (TALON) is a network server that allows intercommunication of alert triggers from external and internal resources and controls the distribution of these to each of the telescopes on the network. TALON is designed to grow, allowing any number of telescopes to be linked together and communicate. Coupled with an intelligent alert client at each telescope, it can analyze and respond to each distributed TALON alert based on the telescopes needs and schedule.

  2. SST-GATE telescope: an innovative dual-mirror prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumas, Delphine; Huet, Jean-Michel; Dournaux, Jean-Laurent; Laporte, Philippe; Amans, Jean-Philippe; Fasola, Gilles; Zech, Andreas; Rulten, Cameron; Sol, Hélène; Blake, Simon; Schmoll, Jurgen

    2014-07-01

    The Observatoire de Paris is involved in the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project by designing and constructing on the site of Meudon a Small Size Telescope prototype, named SST-GATE, in collaboration with the CHEC team (Compact High Energy Camera) which is providing the camera. The telescope structure is based on the Schwarzschild- Couder optical design which has never been adopted before in the design of a ground-based telescope. This concept allows a larger field of view and cheaper and smaller telescope and camera design with improved performance compared to the Davies-Cotton design traditionally used in very high energy gamma-ray telescopes. The SST-GATE telescope has been designed with the prime objectives of being light, versatile and simple to assemble with a minimal maintenance cost. This papers aims at reviewing the SST-GATE telescope structure from mechanics to optics along with the control command architecture; several innovative developments implemented within the design are discussed. Updates of the project status and perspectives are made.

  3. Active optics control of VST telescope secondary mirror.

    PubMed

    Schipani, Pietro; D'Orsi, Sergio; Fierro, Davide; Marty, Laurent

    2010-06-01

    In telescopes based on active optics, defocus and coma are usually compensated for by secondary mirror movements. They are performed at the Very Large Telescope Survey Telescope (VST) with a hexapod--a parallel robot with six degrees of freedom positioning capability. We describe the application of the two-mirror telescope theory to the VST case and the solutions adopted for the hexapod control. We present the results of performance and reliability tests performed both in the laboratory and at the telescope.

  4. Introduction to the Chinese Giant Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Deng, Y.; Ji, H.

    2012-12-01

    In order to detect the fine structures of solar magnetic field and dynamic field, an 8 meter solar telescope has been proposed by Chinese solar community. Due to the advantages of ring structure in polarization detection and thermal control, the current design of CGST (Chinese Giant Solar Telescope) is an 8 meter ring solar telescope. The spatial resolution of CGST is equivalent to an 8 meter diameter telescope, and the light-gathering power equivalent to a 5 meter full aperture telescope. The integrated simulation of optical system and imaging ability such as optical design, MCAO, active maintenance of primary mirror were carried out in this paper. Mechanical system was analyzed by finite element method too. The results of simulation and analysis showed that the current design could meet the demand of most science cases not only in infrared band but also in near infrared band and even in visible band. CGST was proposed by all solar observatories in Chinese Academy of Sciences and several overseas scientists. It is supported by CAS (Chinese Academy of Sciences) and NSFC (National Natural Science Foundation of China) as a long term astronomical project.

  5. Introduction to the Chinese Giant Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhong; Deng, Yuanyong; Jin, Zhenyu; Ji, Haisheng

    2012-09-01

    In order to detect the fine structures of solar magnetic field and dynamic field, an 8 meter solar telescope has been proposed by Chinese solar community. Due to the advantages of ring structure in polarization detection and thermal control, the current design of CGST (Chinese Giant Solar Telescope) is an 8 meter ring solar telescope. The spatial resolution of CGST is equivalent to an 8 meter diameter telescope, and the light-gathering power equivalent to a 5 meter full aperture telescope. The integrated simulation of optical system and imaging ability such as optical design, MCAO, active maintenance of primary mirror were carried out in this paper. Mechanical system was analyzed by finite element method too. The results of simulation and analysis showed that the current design could meet the demand of most science cases not only in infrared band but also in near infrared band and even in visible band. CGST was proposed by all solar observatories in Chinese Academy of Sciences and several overseas scientists. It is supported by CAS and NSFC (National Natural Science Foundation of China) as a long term astronomical project.

  6. The Telescope: Outline of a Poetic History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocchi, M. P.

    2011-06-01

    Amongst the first editions of Galileo's books, only the Saggiatore has on its frontispiece the image of the telescope. Indeed, the telescope is not pictured on the very emphatic frontispieces of the other books in which Galileo was presenting and defending the results achieved by his celestial observations, such as the Sidereus Nuncius. Many contemporary scientists denied the reliability of the telescope, and some even refused to look into the eyepiece. In the 16th and 17th century, the lenses, mirrors, and optical devices of extraordinary complexity did not have the main task of leading to the objective truth but obtaining the deformation of the reality by means of amazing effects of illusion. The Baroque art and literature had the aim of surprising, and the artists gave an enthusiastic support to the telescope. The poems in praise of Galileo's telescopic findings were quite numerous, including Adone composed by Giovanni Battista Marino, one of the most renowned poets of the time. The Galilean discoveries were actually accepted by the poets as ideologically neutral contributions to the "wonder" in spite they were rejected or even condemned by the scientists, philosophers, and theologians.

  7. Science with the Space Infrared Telescope Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roellig, Thomas L.

    2003-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), the fourth and final member of NASA's series of Great Observatories, is scheduled to launch on April 15,2003. Together with the Hubbie Space Telescope, the Compton Gamma ray Telescope, and the Chandra X-Ray Telescope this series of observatories offers observational capabilities across the electromagnetic spectrum from the infrared to high-energy gamma rays. SIRTF is based on three focal plane instruments - an infrared spectrograph and two infrared imagers - coupled to a superfluid-helium cooled telescope to achieve unprecedented sensitivity from 3 to 180 microns. Although SIRTF is a powerful general-purpose infrared observatory, its design was based on the capability to address four broad science themes: (1) understanding the structure and composition of the early universe, (2) understanding the nature of brown dwarfs and super-planets, (3) probing protostellar, protoplanetary, and planetary debris disk systems, and (4) understanding the origin and structure of ultraluminous infrared galaxies and active galactic nuclei. This talk will address the design and capabilities of the SIRTF observatory, provide an overview of some of the initial science investigations planned by the SIRTF Guaranteed Time Observers, and give a brief overview of the General Observer proposal process.

  8. Undergraduate Research with a Small Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, P. L.; Williams, G. J.

    2001-11-01

    We describe the construction of a small radio telescope system at ULM and the role of radio astronomy in undergraduate education. The heart of the system is the Small Radio Telescope (SRT), which is a modified satellite TV antenna and custom receiver purchased from MIT Haystack Observatory. This telescope measures the brightness of many celestial objects at wavelengths near 21 cm. The system consists of various components to control dish movement, as well as perform analog to digital conversions allowing analysis of collected data. Undergraduate students have participated in the construction of the hardware and the task of interfacing the hardware to software on two GNU/Linux computer systems. The construction of the telescope and analysis of data allow the students to employ key concepts from mechanics, optics, electrodynamics, and thermodynamics, as well as computer and electronics skills. We will report preliminary results of solar observations conducted with this instrument and with the MIT Haystack Observatory 37m radio telescope. This work was supported by Louisiana Board of Regents grant LEQSF-ENH-UG-16, NASA/LaSPACE LURA R109139 and ULM Development Foundation Grant 97317.

  9. Control challenges for extremely large telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMartin, Douglas G.

    2003-08-01

    The next generation of large ground-based optical telescopes are likely to involve a highly segmented primary mirror that must be controlled in the presence of wind and other disturbances, resulting in a new set of challenges for control. The current design concept for the California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT) includes 1080 segments in the primary mirror, with the out-of-plane degrees of freedom actively controlled. In addition to the 3240 primary mirror actuators, the secondary mirror of the telescope will also require at least 5 degree of freedom control. The bandwidth of both control systems will be limited by coupling to structural modes. I discuss three control issues for extremely large telescopes in the context of the CELT design, describing both the status and remaining challenges. First, with many actuators and sensors, the cost and reliability of the control hardware is critical; the hardware requirements and current actuator design are discussed. Second, wind buffeting due to turbulence inside the telescope enclosure is likely to drive the control bandwidth higher, and hence limitations resulting from control-structure-interaction must be understood. Finally, the impact on the control architecture is briefly discussed.

  10. Calibration strategies for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaug, Markus; Berge, David; Daniel, Michael; Doro, Michele; Förster, Andreas; Hofmann, Werner; Maccarone, Maria C.; Parsons, Dan; de los Reyes Lopez, Raquel; van Eldik, Christopher

    2014-08-01

    The Central Calibration Facilities workpackage of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory for very high energy gamma ray astronomy defines the overall calibration strategy of the array, develops dedicated hardware and software for the overall array calibration and coordinates the calibration efforts of the different telescopes. The latter include LED-based light pulsers, and various methods and instruments to achieve a calibration of the overall optical throughput. On the array level, methods for the inter-telescope calibration and the absolute calibration of the entire observatory are being developed. Additionally, the atmosphere above the telescopes, used as a calorimeter, will be monitored constantly with state-of-the-art instruments to obtain a full molecular and aerosol profile up to the stratosphere. The aim is to provide a maximal uncertainty of 10% on the reconstructed energy-scale, obtained through various independent methods. Different types of LIDAR in combination with all-sky-cameras will provide the observatory with an online, intelligent scheduling system, which, if the sky is partially covered by clouds, gives preference to sources observable under good atmospheric conditions. Wide-field optical telescopes and Raman Lidars will provide online information about the height-resolved atmospheric extinction, throughout the field-of-view of the cameras, allowing for the correction of the reconstructed energy of each gamma-ray event. The aim is to maximize the duty cycle of the observatory, in terms of usable data, while reducing the dead time introduced by calibration activities to an absolute minimum.

  11. Optimal Calibration of the Spitzer Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David; Kang, Bryan; Brugarolas, Paul; Boussalis, Dhemetrio

    2007-01-01

    A document discusses the focal-plane calibration of the Spitzer Space Telescope by use of the instrument pointing frame (IPF) Kalman filter, which was described in Kalman Filter for Calibrating a Telescope Focal Plane (NPO-40798), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 9 (September 2006), page 62. To recapitulate: In the IPF Kalman filter, optimal estimates of both engineering and scientific focal-plane parameters are obtained simultaneously, using data taken in each focalplane survey activity. The IPF Kalman filter offers greater efficiency and economy, relative to prior calibration practice in which scientific and engineering parameters were estimated by separate teams of scientists and engineers and iterated upon each other. In the Spitzer Space Telescope application, the IPF Kalman filter was used to calibrate 56 frames for precise telescope pointing, estimate >1,500 parameters associated with focal-plane mapping, and process calibration runs involving as many as 1,338 scientific image centroids. The final typical survey calibration accuracy was found to be 0.09 arc second. The use of the IPF Kalman filter enabled a team of only four analysts to complete the calibration processing in three months. An unanticipated benefit afforded by the IPF Kalman filter was the ability to monitor health and diagnose performance of the entire end-to-end telescope-pointing system.

  12. Roughness tolerances for Cherenkov telescope mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayabaly, K.; Spiga, D.; Canestrari, R.; Bonnoli, G.; Lavagna, M.; Pareschi, G.

    2015-09-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a forthcoming international ground-based observatory for very high-energy gamma rays. Its goal is to reach sensitivity five to ten times better than existing Cherenkov telescopes such as VERITAS, H.E.S.S. or MAGIC and extend the range of observation to energies down to few tens of GeV and beyond 100 TeV. To achieve this goal, an array of about 100 telescopes is required, meaning a total reflective surface of several thousands of square meters. Thence, the optimal technology used for CTA mirrors' manufacture should be both low-cost (~1000 euros/m2) and allow high optical performances over the 300-550 nm wavelength range. More exactly, a reflectivity higher than 85% and a PSF (Point Spread Function) diameter smaller than 1 mrad. Surface roughness can significantly contribute to PSF broadening and limit telescope performances. Fortunately, manufacturing techniques for mirrors are now available to keep the optical scattering well below the geometrically-predictable effect of figure errors. This paper determines first order surface finish tolerances based on a surface microroughness characterization campaign, using Phase Shift Interferometry. That allows us to compute the roughness contribution to Cherenkov telescope PSF. This study is performed for diverse mirror candidates (MAGIC-I and II, ASTRI, MST) varying in manufacture technologies, selected coating materials and taking into account the degradation over time due to environmental hazards.

  13. Pier vibration isolation for lightweight interferometry telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Perry G.; Penado, F. Ernesto; Clark, James H., III; Walton, Joshua P.

    2007-09-01

    The Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI) in Flagstaff, Arizona, makes use of separate smaller telescopes spaced along a Y-array and used simultaneously to simulate an equivalent single large telescope. Each telescope is mounted on a massive reinforced concrete pier tied to bedrock. The mass of the pier dampens most, but not all, of the unwanted vibration in the required spectrum. The quality and resolution of a stellar image depends on minimizing movement of the mirrors due to vibration. The main source of pier vibration is due to the soil-pier interaction. Surrounding environmental and man-made vibration propagates through the soil as body and surface waves, and forces the pier to move. In this paper, a novel concept based on a sleeve/air gap system to isolate the soil from the pier is used to minimize the vibration input to the telescope. An example of the concept is presented with respect to the future implementation of a 1.4-m diameter composite telescope at the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer.

  14. Debris Collision Warning Sensor (DCWS) telescope design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    The 60-cm diameter, f/2 DCWS telescope is a modified Ritchey Chretein configuration which collects radiation in three spectral bands, 0.4 to 0.9/micron (visible), 5.0 to 9.0/microns (MWIR), and 9.0 to 12.0 microns (LWIR). The visible and infrared radiation are separated by a dichroic beamsplitter and focused on to separate focal planes; the MWIR and LWIR radiation share a common focal plane with separate detector arrays residing side-by-side. The conic constants of the primary and secondary mirrors are that of a Ritchey Chretein telescope; to improve the image quality at the edges of the field of view, a set of zero power correcting optics have been introduced to each optical train. The Ritchey Chretein telescope is corrected to have zero third order spherical aberration and zero third order coma; the DCWS telescope is further configured such that the positive power in the primary mirror is approximately equal to the negative power in the secondary mirror, resulting in a telescope with very little field curvature.

  15. The Astronomical Telescope of New York: a new 12-meter astronomical telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebring, T.; Junquist, R.; Stutzki, C.; Sebring, P.; Baum, S.

    2012-09-01

    The Astronomical Corporation of New York has commissioned a study of a 12-meter class telescope to be developed by a group of NY universities. The telescope concept builds on the basic principles established by the Keck telescopes; segmented primary mirror, Ritchey Chretien Nasmyth instrument layout, and light weight structures. New, lightweight, and low cost approaches are proposed for the primary mirror architecture, dome structure and mechanisms, telescope mount approach, and adaptive optics. Work on the design is supported by several NY based corporations and universities. The design offers a substantially larger aperture than any existing Visible/IR wavelength telescope at historically low cost. The concept employs an adaptive secondary mirror and laser guide star adaptive optics. Two First Light instruments are proposed; A High resolution near infrared spectrograph and a near infrared Integral field spectrograph/imager.

  16. The Cherenkov Telescope Array single-mirror small size telescope project: status and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Bilnik, W.; Bogacz, L.; Bulik, T.; Christov, A.; della Volpe, D.; Dyrda, M.; Frankowski, A.; Grudzińska, M.; Grygorczuk, J.; Heller, M.; Idźkowski, B.; Janiak, M.; Jamrozy, M.; Karczewski, M.; Kasperek, J.; Lyard, E.; Marszalek, A.; Michalowski, J.; Rameez, M.; Moderski, R.; Montaruli, T.; Neronov, A.; Nicolau-Kukliński, J.; Niemiec, J.; Ostrowski, M.; Paśko, P.; Płatos, Ł.; Prandini, E.; Rafalski, J.; Rajda, P. J.; Rataj, M.; Rupiński, M.; Rutkowskai, K.; Seweryn, K.; Sidz, M.; Stawarz, Ł.; Stodulska, M.; Stodulski, M.; Tokarz, M.; Toscano, S.; Troyano Pujadas, I.; Walter, R.; Wawer, P.; Wawrzaszek, R.; Wiśniewski, L.; Winiarski, K.; Zietara, K.; Ziółkowski, P.; Źychowski, P.

    2014-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), the next generation very high energy gamma-ray observatory, will consist of three types of telescopes: large (LST), medium (MST) and small (SST) size telescopes. The small size telescopes are dedicated to the observation of gamma-rays with energy between a few TeV and few hundreds of TeV. The single-mirror small size telescope (SST-1M) is one of several SST designs. It will be equipped with a 4 m-diameter segmented mirror dish and a fully digital camera based on Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes. Currently, the first prototype of the mechanical structure is under assembly in Poland. In 2014 it will be equipped with 18 mirror facets and a prototype of the camera.

  17. An innovative telescope control system architecture for SST-GATE telescopes at the CTA Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasola, Gilles; Mignot, Shan; Laporte, Philippe; Abchiche, Abdel; Buchholtz, Gilles; Jégouzo, Isabelle

    2014-07-01

    SST-GATE (Small Size Telescope - GAmma-ray Telescope Elements) is a 4-metre telescope designed as a prototype for the Small Size Telescopes (SST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), a major facility for the very high energy gamma-ray astronomy of the next three decades. In this 100-telescope array there will be 70 SSTs, involving a design with an industrial view aiming at long-term service, low maintenance effort and reduced costs. More than a prototype, SST-GATE is also a fully functional telescope that shall be usable by scientists and students at the Observatoire de Meudon for 30 years. The Telescope Control System (TCS) is designed to work either as an element of a large array driven by an array controller or in a stand-alone mode with a remote workstation. Hence it is built to be autonomous with versatile interfacing; as an example, pointing and tracking —the main functions of the telescope— are managed onboard, including astronomical transformations, geometrical transformations (e.g. telescope bending model) and drive control. The core hardware is a CompactRIO (cRIO) featuring a real-time operating system and an FPGA. In this paper, we present an overview of the current status of the TCS. We especially focus on three items: the pointing computation implemented in the FPGA of the cRIO —using CORDIC algorithms— since it enables an optimisation of the hardware resources; data flow management based on OPCUA with its specific implementation on the cRIO; and the use of an EtherCAT field-bus for its ability to provide real-time data exchanges with the sensors and actuators distributed throughout the telescope.

  18. Overview of the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Champin, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is ulxve uperk/rc (6.5 meter), cryogenic space telescope with a suite of near and mid-infrared instruments covering the wavelength range of 0.6 prnio 28 pn). JWS7 s primaryacicoce goal is k) detect and characterize the first galaxies. U will also study the uascrob|y of galaxies, uiur bzcrou1ion, and the formation of evolution of planetary systems. Recent progress in hardware development for the observatory will he presented, including a discussion of the status of JWST's optical system and Beryllium mirror fabrication, progress with sunshield prototypes, and the integration and test configuration. We also review the expected scientific performance of the observatory for observations of exosolar planets by means of transit imaging and spectroscopy. We will review the science goals, the capabilities of each science instrument, and the design and operation of the telescope.

  19. AIROscope: Ames infrared balloon-borne telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, O. L.; Scott, S. G.

    1974-01-01

    A balloon-borne telescope system designed for astronomical observations at infrared wavelengths is discussed. The telescope is gyro-stabilized with updated pointing information derived from television, star tracker, or ground commands. The television system furnishes both course and fine acquisition after initial orientation using a pair of fluxgate servo compasses. Command and control is by a UHF link with 256 commands available. Scientific and engineering data are telemetered to the ground station via narrow band F.M. in the L band. The ground station displays all scientific, engineering and status information during the flights and records the command and telemetry digital bit stream for detailed analysis. The AIROscope telescope has a 28-inch diameter primary mirror and Dall-Kirkham optics. The beam is modulated by oscillating a secondary mirror at 11 or 25 Hz with provision for left or right beam fixed positions by command.

  20. A Deployable Primary Mirror for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lake, Mark S.; Phelps, James E.; Dyer, Jack E.; Caudle, David A.; Tam, Anthony

    1999-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center, Composite Optics, Inc., and Nyma/ADF have developed jointly a deployable primary mirror for space telescopes that combines over five years of research on deployment of optical-precision structures and over ten years of development of fabrication techniques for optical-precision composite mirror panels and structures. The deployable mirror is directly applicable to a broad class of non-imaging "lidar" (Light direction and ranging) telescopes whose figure-error requirements are in the range of one to ten microns RMS. Furthermore, the mirror design can be readily modified to accommodate imaging-quality reflector panels and active panel-alignment control mechanisms for application to imaging telescopes. The present paper: 1) describes the deployable mirror concept; 2) explains the status of the mirror development; and 3) provides some technical specifications for a 2.55- m-diameter, proof-of-concept mirror.

  1. Pulsar prospects for the Cherenkov telescope array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, T.; Bonnefoy, S.; López, M.; Mirabal, N.; Barrio, J. A.; Contreras, J. L.; de los Reyes, R.; Wilhelmi, E. O.; Rudak, B.; CTA Consortium

    2012-12-01

    In the last few years, the Fermi-LAT telescope has discovered over a 100 pulsars at energies above 100 MeV, increasing the number of known gamma-ray pulsars by an order of magnitude. In parallel, imaging Cherenkov telescopes, such as MAGIC and VERITAS, have detected for the first time VHE pulsed gamma-rays from the Crab pulsar. Such detections have revealed that the Crab VHE spectrum follows a power-law up to at least 400 GeV, challenging most theoretical models, and opening wide possibilities of detecting more pulsars from the ground with the future Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). In this contribution, we study the capabilities of CTA for detecting Fermi pulsars. For this, we extrapolate their spectra with "Crab-like" power-law tails in the VHE range, as suggested by the latest MAGIC and VERITAS results.

  2. Science with the James Webb Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a large (6.5m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point in 2011. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. Its science goals are to detect and identify the first galaxies to form in the universe, to trace the assembly of galaxies, and to study stellar and planetary system formation. JWST will have three instruments: The Near Infrared Camera and the Near Infrared multiobject Spectrometer will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, and the Mid Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 27 microns. In this special session, we review the status and capabilities of the observatory and instruments in the context of these major goals.

  3. On buying a telescope for videolaryngoscopy.

    PubMed

    Painter, C; Komiyama, S

    1987-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to compare aspects of the performance of three widely-used rigid laryngoscopy telescopes. The Nagashima SFT-I, Wolf 4450.57, and Karl Storz 8702 D were used with a JVC GX-N8U camera and Panasonic PV 8600 VCR to make recordings of a one-tenth-inch grid at various distances between the lens and the grid and at two telescope holding angles. Measurements were made of the anteroposterior and mediolateral viewing fields at all distances and holding angles on maximum and minimum zoom. The telescopes were compared for viewing field, lens angle effects, holding angle effects, plane distortion effects, effects due to lens distance, color, edge definition, focus control, light source compatibility, stroboscopic use, cross-sectional diameter, fogging, and cost. An overview enables laryngologists to assess their needs before buying.

  4. The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baars, Jacob W.

    1998-07-01

    The LMT is a 50 m diameter telescope for operation to a wavelength of 1 mm from a high mountain site in central Mexico at a latitude of 19 degrees. The telescope is designed to address fundamental questions about the origin and formation of galaxies, clusters of galaxies as well as stars and planets. It is a joint project of the Mexican Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE) in Tonantzintla, Puebla and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. The telescope is in the Critical Design phase and completion of the basic assembly at the site is scheduled for the end of 2000. We describe historical and organizational aspects of the Project and present the major technical specifications and plans for realization.

  5. Telescopic nanotube device for hot nanolithography

    DOEpatents

    Popescu, Adrian; Woods, Lilia M

    2014-12-30

    A device for maintaining a constant tip-surface distance for producing nanolithography patterns on a surface using a telescopic nanotube for hot nanolithography. An outer nanotube is attached to an AFM cantilever opposite a support end. An inner nanotube is telescopically disposed within the outer nanotube. The tip of the inner nanotube is heated to a sufficiently high temperature and brought in the vicinity of the surface. Heat is transmitted to the surface for thermal imprinting. Because the inner tube moves telescopically along the outer nanotube axis, a tip-surface distance is maintained constant due to the vdW force interaction, which in turn eliminates the need of an active feedback loop.

  6. The Wyoming Infrared Observatory telescope software system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spillar, Earl J.; Dumbrill, Daniel; Grasdalen, G. L.; Howell, R. R.

    1993-06-01

    We describe the University of Wyoming telescope control and data- acquisition software system. The software was designed to be maintainable, portable, and inexpensive. Moreover, the software was designed to allow rapid communication between the hardware, the data- acquisition processes, and the tracking processes, while leaving each distinct. We show how the new real-time features embodied in the POSIX.4 standard and implemented in the Unix compatible LynxOS operating system allow us to perform all of our tasks on a single 80486 machine with a standard Unix-like environment, with outstanding real-time performance. We discuss our telescope pointing model, which allows us to point with a root-mean-square error of less than 5 arcsec over the sky with the 2.3-m telescope. For more detailed investigation and use, we will make the software available through anonymous FTP.

  7. Deployable reflector configurations. [for space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meinel, A. B.; Meinel, M. P.; Woolf, N. J.

    1983-01-01

    Both the theoretical reasons for considering a non-circular format for the Large Deployable Reflector, and a potentially realizable concept for such a device, are discussed. The optimum systems for diffraction limited telescopes with incoherent detection have either a single filled aperture, or two such apertures as an interferometer to synthesize a larger aperture. For a single aperture of limited area, a reflector in the form of a slot can be used to give increased angular resolution. It is shown how a 20 x 8 meter telescope can be configured to fit the Space Shuttle bay, and deployed with relatively simple operations. The relationship between the sunshield design and the inclination of the orbit is discussed. The possible use of the LDR as a basic module to permit the construction of supergiant space telescopes and interferometers both for IR/submm studies and for the entire ultraviolet through mm wave spectral region is discussed.

  8. Self-locking telescoping manipulator arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesmith, M. F. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A telescoping manipulator arm and pivotable finger assembly are disclosed. The telescoping arm assembly includes a generally T-shaped arm having three outwardly extending fingers guided on grooved roller guides to compensate for environmental variations. The pivotable finger assembly includes four pivoting fingers. Arcuate teeth are formed on the ends of the fingers. A rack having teeth on four sides meshes with each one of the fingers. One surface of the rack includes teeth along its entire surface which mesh with teeth of one of the fingers. The teeth at the remote end of the rack engage teeth of a gear wheel. The wheel includes a worm which meshes with a worn drive shaft of the drive motor providing a ninety degree self-locking drive for locking the fingers in a desired position. A similar drive provides a self-locking drive for positioning the telescoping arm.

  9. Perceptual image quality and telescope performance ranking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentz, Joshua K.; Harvey, James E.; Marshall, Kenneth H.; Salg, Joseph; Houston, Joseph B.

    2010-08-01

    Launch Vehicle Imaging Telescopes (LVIT) are expensive, high quality devices intended for improving the safety of vehicle personnel, ground support, civilians, and physical assets during launch activities. If allowed to degrade from the combination of wear, environmental factors, and ineffective or inadequate maintenance, these devices lose their ability to provide adequate quality imagery to analysts to prevent catastrophic events such as the NASA Space Shuttle, Challenger, accident in 1986 and the Columbia disaster of 2003. A software tool incorporating aberrations and diffraction that was developed for maintenance evaluation and modeling of telescope imagery is presented. This tool provides MTF-based image quality metric outputs which are correlated to ascent imagery analysts' perception of image quality, allowing a prediction of usefulness of imagery which would be produced by a telescope under different simulated conditions.

  10. Nearby Exo-Earth Astrometric Telescope (NEAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, M.; Nemati, B.; Zhai, C.; Goullioud, R.

    2011-01-01

    NEAT (Nearby Exo ]Earths Astrometric Telescope) is a modest sized (1m diameter telescope) It will be capable of searching approx 100 nearby stars down to 1 Mearth planets in the habitable zone, and 200 @ 5 Mearth, 1AU. The concept addresses the major issues for ultra -precise astrometry: (1) Photon noise (0.5 deg dia field of view) (2) Optical errors (beam walk) with long focal length telescope (3) Focal plane errors , with laser metrology of the focal plane (4) PSF centroiding errors with measurement of the "True" PSF instead of using a "guess " of the true PSF, and correction for intra pixel QE non-uniformities. Technology "close" to complete. Focal plane geometry to 2e-5 pixels and centroiding to approx 4e -5 pixels.

  11. Accurate Telescope Mount Positioning with MEMS Accelerometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, L.; Jaskó, A.; Pál, A.; Csépány, G.

    2014-08-01

    This paper describes the advantages and challenges of applying microelectromechanical accelerometer systems (MEMS accelerometers) in order to attain precise, accurate, and stateless positioning of telescope mounts. This provides a completely independent method from other forms of electronic, optical, mechanical or magnetic feedback or real-time astrometry. Our goal is to reach the subarcminute range which is considerably smaller than the field-of-view of conventional imaging telescope systems. Here we present how this subarcminute accuracy can be achieved with very cheap MEMS sensors and we also detail how our procedures can be extended in order to attain even finer measurements. In addition, our paper discusses how can a complete system design be implemented in order to be a part of a telescope control system.

  12. The James Webb Space Telescope Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is the scientific successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. It is a cryogenic infrared space observatory with a 25 m2 aperture telescope that will extend humanities’ high angular resolution view of the universe into the infrared spectrum to reveal early epochs of the universe that the Hubble cannot see. The Webb’s science instrument payload includes four cryogenic near-infrared sensors that provide imagery, coronagraphy, and spectroscopy over the near- and mid-infrared spectrum. The JWST is being developed by NASA, in partnership with the European and Canadian Space Agencies, as a general user facility with science observations to be proposed by the international astronomical community in a manner similar to the Hubble. Construction, integration and verification testing is underway in all areas of the program. The JWST is on schedule for launch during 2018.

  13. A Deployable Primary Mirror for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lake, Mark S.; Phelps, James E.; Dyer, Jack E.; Caudle, David A.; Tam, Anthony; Escobedo, Javier; Kasl, Eldon P.

    1999-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center, Composite Optics, Inc., and Nyma/ADF have developed jointly a deployable primary mirror for space telescopes that combines over five years of research on deployment of optical-precision structures and over ten years of development of fabrication techniques for optical-precision composite mirror panels and structures. The deployable mirror is directly applicable to a broad class of non-imaging "lidar" (light direction and ranging) telescopes whose figure-error requirements are in the range of one to ten microns RMS. Furthermore, the mirror design can be readily modified to accommodate imaging-quality reflector panels and active panel-alignment control mechanisms for application to imaging telescopes. The present paper: 1) describes the deployable mirror concept; 2) explains the status of the mirror development; and 3) provides some technical specifications for a 2.55-m-diameter, proof-of-concept mirror.

  14. Fresnel phasing of segmented mirror telescopes.

    PubMed

    Chanan, Gary; Troy, Mitchell; Surdej, Isabelle; Gutt, Gary; Roberts, Lewis C

    2011-11-20

    Shack-Hartmann (S-H) phasing of segmented telescopes is based upon a physical optics generalization of the geometrical optics Shack-Hartmann test, in which each S-H lenslet straddles an intersegment edge. For the extremely large segmented telescopes currently in the design stages, one is led naturally to very large pupil demagnifications for the S-H phasing cameras. This in turn implies rather small Fresnel numbers F for the lenslets; the nominal design for the Thirty Meter Telescope calls for F=0.6. For such small Fresnel numbers, it may be possible to eliminate the lenslets entirely, replacing them with a simple mask containing a sparse array of clear subapertures and thereby also eliminating a number of manufacturing problems and experimental complications associated with lenslets. We present laboratory results that demonstrate the validity of this approach.

  15. Concepts for the Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margulis, M.; Tenerelli, D.

    1996-12-01

    In collaboration with NASA GSFC, we have examined a wide range of potential concepts for a large, passively cooled space telescope. Our design goals were to achieve a theoretical imaging sensitivity in the near-IR of 1 nJy and an angular resolution at 1 micron of 0.06 arcsec. Concepts examined included a telescope/spacecraft system with a 6-m diameter monolithic primary mirror, a variety of telescope/spacecraft systems with deployable primary mirror segments to achieve an 8-m diameter aperture, and a 12-element sparse aperture phased array telescope. Trade studies indicate that all three concept categories can achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, but that considerable technology development is required to bring any of the concepts to fruition. One attractive option is the system with the 6-m diameter monolithic primary. This option achieves high sensitivity without telescope deployments and includes a stiff structure for robust attitude and figure control. This system capitalizes on coming advances in launch vehicle and shroud technology, which should enable launch of large, monolithic payloads into orbit positions where background noise due to zodiacal dust is low. Our large space telescope study was performed by a consortium of organizations and individuals including: Domenick Tenerelli et al. (Lockheed Martin Corp.), Roger Angel et al. (U. Ariz.), Tom Casey et al. (Eastman Kodak Co.), Jim Gunn (Princeton), Shel Kulick (Composite Optics, Inc.), Jim Westphal (CIT), Johnny Batache et al. (Harris Corp.), Costas Cassapakis et al. (L'Garde, Inc.), Dave Sandler et al. (ThermoTrex Corp.), David Miller et al. (MIT), Ephrahim Garcia et al. (Garman Systems Inc.), Mark Enright (New Focus Inc.), Chris Burrows (STScI), Roc Cutri (IPAC), and Art Bradley (Allied Signal Aerospace).

  16. Cooling Technology for Large Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiPirro, Michael; Cleveland, Paul; Durand, Dale; Klavins, Andy; Muheim, Daniella; Paine, Christopher; Petach, Mike; Tenerelli, Domenick; Tolomeo, Jason; Walyus, Keith

    2007-01-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program funded an effort to develop a system cooling technology, which is applicable to all future infrared, sub-millimeter and millimeter cryogenic space telescopes. In particular, this technology is necessary for the proposed large space telescope Single Aperture Far-Infrared Telescope (SAFIR) mission. This technology will also enhance the performance and lower the risk and cost for other cryogenic missions. The new paradigm for cooling to low temperatures will involve passive cooling using lightweight deployable membranes that serve both as sunshields and V-groove radiators, in combination with active cooling using mechanical coolers operating down to 4 K. The Cooling Technology for Large Space Telescopes (LST) mission planned to develop and demonstrate a multi-layered sunshield, which is actively cooled by a multi-stage mechanical cryocooler, and further the models and analyses critical to scaling to future missions. The outer four layers of the sunshield cool passively by radiation, while the innermost layer is actively cooled to enable the sunshield to decrease the incident solar irradiance by a factor of more than one million. The cryocooler cools the inner layer of the sunshield to 20 K, and provides cooling to 6 K at a telescope mounting plate. The technology readiness level (TRL) of 7 will be achieved by the active cooling technology following the technology validation flight in Low Earth Orbit. In accordance with the New Millennium charter, tests and modeling are tightly integrated to advance the technology and the flight design for "ST-class" missions. Commercial off-the-shelf engineering analysis products are used to develop validated modeling capabilities to allow the techniques and results from LST to apply to a wide variety of future missions. The LST mission plans to "rewrite the book" on cryo-thermal testing and modeling techniques, and validate modeling techniques to scale to future space telescopes such as SAFIR.

  17. A three-field IR telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    High performance confidence is now obtainable in thermal imaging telescopes with complex optomechanical layouts, in virtue of recent advancements in germanium surfaces' diamond turning and computer-aided mechanical design. Attention is presently given to the specifications, optical configuration and mechanical design features of a three-field IR telescope employing aspheric surfaces, which would be suitable for parent vehicle guidance, target acquisition, and target identification tasks. Dramatic weight and cost reductions are noted to be achievable through the use of mechanical modelling to ensure the most essential application of metalworking operations.

  18. Integrated optics interferometric four telescopes nuller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errmann, Ronny; Minardi, Stefano; Labadie, Lucas; Dreisow, Felix; Nolte, Stefan; Pertsch, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    Nulling interferometry has been identified as a competitive technique for the detection of extrasolar planets. The technique consists in combining out-of-phase pairs of telescopes to null effectively the light of a bright star an reveal the dim glow of the companion. We have manufactured and tested with monochromatic light an integrated optics component which combines a linear array of 4 telescopes in the nulling mode envisaged by Angel&Wolf.1 Our testbench simulates the motion of a star in the sky. The tests have demonstrated a nulling scaling as the fourth power of the baseline delay.

  19. 8-Meter UV/Optical Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation proposes using the unprecedented capability of the planned Ares V launch vehicle, to place a 8 meter monolithic space telescope at the Earth-Sun L2 point. This new capability enables a new design pardigm -- simplicity. The six to eight meter class telescope with a massive high Technical Readiness Level ground observatory class monolithic primary mirror has been determined feasible. The proposed design, structural analysis, spacecraft design and shroud integration, thermal analysis, propulsion system, guidance navigation and pointing control assumptions about the avionics, and power systems, operational lifetime, and the idea of in-space servicing are reviewed.

  20. Phasing piston error in segmented telescopes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Junlun; Zhao, Weirui

    2016-08-22

    To achieve a diffraction-limited imaging, the piston errors between the segments of the segmented primary mirror telescope should be reduced to λ/40 RMS. We propose a method to detect the piston error by analyzing the intensity distribution on the image plane according to the Fourier optics principle, which can capture segments with the piston errors as large as the coherence length of the input light and reduce these to 0.026λ RMS (λ = 633nm). This method is adaptable to any segmented and deployable primary mirror telescope. Experiments have been carried out to validate the feasibility of the method. PMID:27557192

  1. The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, H.; Bock, J.; Freund, M. M.; Guo, H.; Hirao, T.; Lange, A. E.; Matsuhara, H.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Mcmahon, T. J.

    1994-01-01

    The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS) is a cryogenically cooled small infrared telescope that will fly aboard the small space platform Space Flyer Unit. It will survey approximately 10% of the sky with a relatively wide beam during its 20 day emission. Four focal-plane instruments will make simultaneous observations of the sky at wavelengths ranging from 1 to 1000 microns. The IRTS will provide significant information on cosmology, interstellar matter, late-type stars, and interplanetary dust. This paper describes the instrumentation and mission.

  2. DESTINY, The Dark Energy Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasquale, Bert A.; Woodruff, Robert A.; Benford, Dominic J.; Lauer, Tod

    2007-01-01

    We have proposed the development of a low-cost space telescope, Destiny, as a concept for the NASA/DOE Joint Dark Energy Mission. Destiny is a 1.65m space telescope, featuring a near-infrared (0.85-1.7m) survey camera/spectrometer with a moderate flat-field field of view (FOV). Destiny will probe the properties of dark energy by obtaining a Hubble diagram based on Type Ia supernovae and a large-scale mass power spectrum derived from weak lensing distortions of field galaxies as a function of redshift.

  3. Deep Antarctic ice as a neutrino telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Barwick, S.; Halzen, F.

    1992-12-31

    At present scientists do not know of any cost-effective method to commission neutrino telescopes with effective area of order 1 km{sup 2}. The authors draw attention to the possibility of using large volumes of ice as a low-noise particle detector sensing the Cherenkov light from neutrino-induced electromagnetic showers. A program to map the optical clarity of polar ice at depths ranging from 300 meters to 1 kilometer is already underway. They also discuss the possibility of using of radio and acoustic methods to transform large volumes of ice into a neutrino telescope.

  4. TV system considerations for the Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowrance, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    The Space Telescope, designed as a permanent observatory in space, will be launched into orbit, maintained, and refurbished by the Space Shuttle. One of the primary instruments to fly with the telescope is the f/24 Camera. The camera's mission requirements and their impact on the choice and design of a television system are discussed, along with the system engineering aspects of the TV system design and spacecraft design. An SEC type television camera tube was selected as the primary data acquisition sensor, because of its ability to accommodate exposure times of several hours with only modest cooling.

  5. Telescope Automation and Remote Observing System (TAROS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, G.; Czezowski, A.; Hovey, G. R.; Jarnyk, M. A.; Nielsen, J.; Roberts, B.; Sebo, K.; Smith, D.; Vaccarella, A.; Young, P.

    2005-12-01

    TAROS is a system that will allow for the Australian National University telescopes at a remote location to be operated automatically or interactively with authenticated control via the internet. TAROS is operated by a Java front-end GUI and employs the use of several Java technologies - such as Java Message Service (JMS) for communication between the telescope and the remote observer, Java Native Interface to integrate existing data acquisition software written in C++ (CICADA) with new Java programs and the JSky collection of Java GUI components for parts of the remote observer client. In this poster the design and implementation of TAROS is described.

  6. Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope Science Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tritschler, Alexandra; Rimmele, Thomas R.; Berukoff, Steven

    2016-05-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) is a versatile high resolution ground-based solar telescope designed to explore the dynamic Sun and its magnetism throughout the solar atmosphere from the photosphere to the faint corona. The DKIST is currently under construction on Haleakala, Maui, Hawai'i, and expected to commence with science operations in 2019. In this contribution we provide an overview of the high-level science operations concepts from proposal preparation and submission to the flexible and dynamic planning and execution of observations.

  7. Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBrayer, R. O.; Frazier, J.; Nein, M.

    1993-09-01

    The Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) is a 1-m aperture telescope for imaging the stellar ultraviolet spectrum from the lunar surface. The aspects of Lute's educational value and the information it can provide on designing for the long-term exposure to the lunar environment are important considerations. This paper briefly summarizes the status of the phase A study by the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) LUTE Task Team. The primary focus will be a discussion of the merits of LUTE as a small and relatively inexpensive project that benefits a wide spectrum of interests and could be operating on the lunar surface by the turn of the century.

  8. Actuated Hybrid Mirrors for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, Gregory; Ealey, Mark; Redding, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes new, large, ultra-lightweight, replicated, actively controlled mirrors, for use in space telescopes. These mirrors utilize SiC substrates, with embedded solid-state actuators, bonded to Nanolaminate metal foil reflective surfaces. Called Actuated Hybrid Mirrors (AHMs), they use replication techniques for high optical quality as well as rapid, low cost manufacturing. They enable an Active Optics space telescope architecture that uses periodic image-based wavefront sensing and control to assure diffraction-limited performance, while relaxing optical system fabrication, integration and test requirements. The proposed International Space Station Observatory seeks to demonstrate this architecture in space.

  9. Phasing piston error in segmented telescopes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Junlun; Zhao, Weirui

    2016-08-22

    To achieve a diffraction-limited imaging, the piston errors between the segments of the segmented primary mirror telescope should be reduced to λ/40 RMS. We propose a method to detect the piston error by analyzing the intensity distribution on the image plane according to the Fourier optics principle, which can capture segments with the piston errors as large as the coherence length of the input light and reduce these to 0.026λ RMS (λ = 633nm). This method is adaptable to any segmented and deployable primary mirror telescope. Experiments have been carried out to validate the feasibility of the method.

  10. The ANTARES telescope neutrino alert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigi, A.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fermani, P.; Ferri, M.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartman, J.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hsu, C. C.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, C.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruiz-Rivas, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Sapienza, P.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2012-03-01

    The ANTARES telescope has the capability to detect neutrinos produced in astrophysical transient sources. Potential sources include gamma-ray bursts, core collapse supernovae, and flaring active galactic nuclei. To enhance the sensitivity of ANTARES to such sources, a new detection method based on coincident observations of neutrinos and optical signals has been developed. A fast online muon track reconstruction is used to trigger a network of small automatic optical telescopes. Such alerts are generated for special events, such as two or more neutrinos, coincident in time and direction, or single neutrinos of very high energy.

  11. Design of the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 M telescope. V - Telescope enclosure thermal modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegmund, Walter A.

    1990-07-01

    A 3.5 m telescope is under construction at Apache Point near Alamogordo, New Mexico, at an elevation of 2800 m. A thermal model of a telescope enclosure is described. The model evaluates various strategies for minimizing local sources of image degradation (dome seeing). Direct and diffuse insolation, radiation to the sky, conduction, and the thermal inertia of the walls, interior air, roof, and structural steel are included. It is observed that highly reflective surface coatings reduce heat absorbed during the day, but are not very effective in reducing heat transfer in the telescope chamber at night, assuming that components with large heat capacities or thermal time constants are insulated.

  12. James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element Mirror Development History and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinber, Lee D.; Clampin, Mark; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Atkinson, Charlie; Texter, Scott; Bergeland, Mark; Gallagher, Benjamin B.

    2012-01-01

    In a little under a decade, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) program has designed, manufactured, assembled and tested 21 flight beryllium mirrors for the James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element. This paper will summarize the mirror development history starting with the selection of beryllium as the mirror material and ending with the final test results. It will provide an overview of the technological roadmap and schedules and the key challenges that were overcome. It will also provide a summary or the key tests that were performed and the results of these tests.

  13. Novel Adaptive Optics concepts : wavefront sensing with sodium laser guide stars at Extemely Large Telescopes and simultaneous differential imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellner, Stephan Albert

    2005-12-01

    Since more than 15 years, Adaptive Optics (AO) is a proven concept to reach diffraction limited imaging at modern astronomical telescopes. In the case of next generation telescopes (Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs)) with aperture diameters of up to 100m, sodium laser guide star based multi-conjugated-AO systems will be a basic requirement to exploit their full capability in terms of resolution and light concentration. A drawback of such an approach emerges in the finite distance and vertical extent of the sodium beacon in the mesosphere with respect to the telescope. This induces effects such as perspective elongation, where conventional wavefront sensing mechanisms will fail. Although several engineering concepts are under development to counteract these constraints at the cost of overall light efficiency and increased system complexity, this thesis proposes a novel kind of wavefront sensing technique to overcome the imposed limitations in a more natural way. The sensing technique is composed of two independently working sensors, a reflective rod and a mask with circular slits, each a representative of a novel wavefront sensor class, the so called z-invariant and Inverse Bessel Beam technique. Both are discussed in this thesis with a focus on the Inverse Bessel Beam technique. The latter is compared to alternative concepts such as temporal gating, with respect to the photon efficiency. Furthermore, the reflective rod was tested for its feasibility in laboratory conditions and in a more realistic environment at the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) at La Palma. With this test run its sensing principle has been verified. A novel technique already intensively used at 8m class telescopes is Simultaneous Differential Imaging. The direct detection of giant extra-solar planets is and will be a major science driver for galactic astronomy in the coming years. Modern telescope facilities such as the VLT reach, by means of adaptive optics, potentially the capability in terms

  14. Study on fault diagnose expert system for large astronomy telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia-jing; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Tang, Peng-yi; Wu, Wen-qing; Zhang, Guang-yu; Zhang, Hong-fei; Wang, Jian

    2014-08-01

    The development of astronomical techniques and telescopes currently entered a new vigorous period. The telescopes have trends of the giant, complex, diversity of equipment and wide span of control despite of optical, radio space telescopes. That means, for telescope observatory, the control system must have these specifications: flexibility, scalability, distributive, cross-platform and real-time, especially the fault locating and fault processing is more important when fault or exception arise. Through the analysis of the structure of large telescopes, fault diagnosis expert system of large telescope based on the fault tree and distributed log service is given.

  15. Remote access and operation of telescopes by the scientific users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, P. G.; Amy, S.; Brodrick, D.; Carretti, E.; Hoyle, S.; Indermuehle, B.; McConnell, D.; Mader, S.; Mirtschin, P.; Preisig, B.; Smith, M.; Stevens, J.; Wark, R.; Wieringa, M.; Wu, X.

    2014-08-01

    The Australia Telescope National Facility operates three radio telescopes: the Parkes 64m Telescope, the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), and the Mopra 22m Telescope. Scientific operation of all these is conducted by members of the investigating teams rather than by professional operators. All three can now be accessed and controlled from any location served by the internet, the telescopes themselves being unattended for part or all of the time. Here we describe the rationale, advantages, and means of implementing this operational model.

  16. The 4-meter lunar engineering telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peacock, Keith; Giannini, Judith A.; Kilgus, Charles C.; Bely, Pierre Y.; May, B. Scott; Cooper, Shannon A.; Schlimm, Gerard H.; Sounder, Charles; Ormond, Karen; Cheek, Eric

    1991-01-01

    The 16-meter diffraction limited lunar telescope incorporates a primary mirror with 312 one-meter segments; 3 nanometer active optics surface control with laser metrology and hexapod positioners; a space frame structure with one-millimeter stability; and a hexapod mount for pointing. The design data needed to limit risk in this development can be obtained by building a smaller engineering telescope on the moon with all of the features of the 16-meter design. This paper presents a 4.33-meter engineering telescope concept developed by the Summer 1990 Student Program of the NASA/JHU Space Grant Consortium Lunar Telescope Project. The primary mirror, made up of 18 one-meter hexagonal segments, is sized to provide interesting science as well as engineering data. The optics are configured as a Ritchey-Chretien with a coude relay to the focal plane beneath the surface. The optical path is continuously monitored with 3-nanometer precision interferometrically. An active optics processor and piezoelectric actuators operate to maintain the end-to-end optical configuration established by wave front sensing using a guide star. The mirror segments, consisting of a one-centimeter thick faceplate on 30-cm deep ribs, maintain the surface figure to a few nanometers under lunar gravity and thermal environment.

  17. Tilt-Sensitivity Analysis for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papalexandris, Miltiadis; Waluschka, Eugene

    2003-01-01

    A report discusses a computational-simulation study of phase-front propagation in the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), in which space telescopes would transmit and receive metrological laser beams along 5-Gm interferometer arms. The main objective of the study was to determine the sensitivity of the average phase of a beam with respect to fluctuations in pointing of the beam. The simulations account for the effects of obscurations by a secondary mirror and its supporting struts in a telescope, and for the effects of optical imperfections (especially tilt) of a telescope. A significant innovation introduced in this study is a methodology, applicable to space telescopes in general, for predicting the effects of optical imperfections. This methodology involves a Monte Carlo simulation in which one generates many random wavefront distortions and studies their effects through computational simulations of propagation. Then one performs a statistical analysis of the results of the simulations and computes the functional relations among such important design parameters as the sizes of distortions and the mean value and the variance of the loss of performance. These functional relations provide information regarding position and orientation tolerances relevant to design and operation.

  18. Teaching a Course about the Space Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Thornton

    1983-01-01

    "Astronomy with the Space Telescope" is a course designed to show scientists/engineers how this instrument can make important advances in astrophysics, planetology, and geophysics. A description of the course (taught to 11 students working for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration) and sample student paper on black holes are provided.…

  19. Adapted Fuzzy Controller for Astronomical Telescope Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attia, Abdel-Fattah

    2004-04-01

    This paper presents a novel application of fuzzy logic (FL) controller driven by an adaptive fuzzy set (AFS) for position tracking of the telescope driven by electric motor. Also, the proposed FL controller, driven by AFS, is compared with a classical FL control, driven by a static fuzzy set (SFS). Both FL controllers algorithm use the position error and its rate of change as an input vector. The mathematical model of the telescope driven by electric motor is highly nonlinear differential equations. Therefore the use of the artificial intelligent controller, such as FL is much better than the conventional controller, to cover a wide range of operating conditions. So, the output of FL control is utilized to force the electric drives, of the telescope, to satisfy a perfect matching of the predefined desired position of the telescope arms. Both of FL controllers, using AFS and SFS, are simulated and tested when the system is subjected to a step change in reference value. In addition, these simulation results are compared with the conventional Proportional-Derivative (PD) controller, driven by fixed gain. The proposed FL, using an adaptive fuzzy set, improve the dynamic response of the overall system by improving the damping coefficient and decreasing the rise time and settling time compared with other two controllers.

  20. SAAO small telescopes, capabilities and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sefako, Ramotholo

    2015-03-01

    The SAAO is at a geographically crucial site in the southern hemisphere between South America and Australasia. SAAO has a long history of involvement in infrared and optical astronomy that dates back almost two hundred years. The observatory expects to continue contributing to astronomical research for many years to come, using its small (0.5m, 0.75m, 1.0m and 1.9m) telescopes and their various instruments (ranging from spectroscopy to polarimetry and high-speed photometry), together with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) and other hosted international telescopes. In this paper, I discuss the capabilities and uses of the SAAO small telescopes, and the challenges that threaten astronomical research at the observatory, including light pollution and other emerging threats to the usually dust-free and dark-night-sky site at Sutherland. This is mitigated by the legislation called the Astronomy Geographic Advantage (AGA) Act of 2007 that protects the observatory from these threats.

  1. The Giant Magellan Telescope adaptive optics program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchez, Antonin H.; Acton, D. Scott; Agapito, Guido; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Bennet, Francis; Biliotti, Valdemaro; Bonaglia, Marco; Briguglio, Runa; Brusa-Zappellini, Guido; Busoni, Lorenzo; Carbonaro, Luca; Codona, Johanan L.; Conan, Rodolphe; Connors, Thomas; Durney, Oliver; Espeland, Brady; Esposito, Simone; Fini, Luca; Gardhouse, Rusty; Gauron, Thomas M.; Hart, Michael; Hinz, Philip M.; Kanneganti, Srikrishna; Kibblewhite, Edward J.; Knox, Russell P.; McLeod, Brian A.; McMahon, Thomas; Montoya, Manny; Norton, Timothy J.; Ordway, Mark P.; d'Orgeville, Celine; Parcell, Simon; Piatrou, Piotr K.; Pinna, Enrico; Price, Ian; Puglisi, Alfio; Quiros-Pacheco, Fernando; Riccardi, Armando; Roll, John B.; Trancho, Gelys; Uhlendorf, Kristina; Vaitheeswaran, Vidhya; van Dam, Marcos A.; Weaver, David; Xompero, Marco

    2012-07-01

    The Giant Magellan Telescope adaptive optics system will be an integral part of the telescope, providing laser guide star generation, wavefront sensing, and wavefront correction to most of the currently envisioned instruments. The system will provide three observing modes: Natural Guidestar AO (NGSAO), Laser Tomography AO (LTAO), and Ground Layer AO (GLAO). Every AO observing mode will use the telescope’s segmented adaptive secondary mirror to deliver a corrected beam directly to the instruments. High-order wavefront sensing for the NGSAO and LTAO modes is provided by a set of wavefront sensors replicated for each instrument and fed by visible light reflected off the cryostat window. An infrared natural guidestar wavefront sensor with open-loop AO correction is also required to sense tip-tilt, focus, segment piston, and dynamic calibration errors in the LTAO mode. GLAO mode wavefront sensing is provided by laser guidestars over a ~5 arcminute field of view, and natural guidestars over wider fields. A laser guidestar facility will project 120 W of 589 nm laser light in 6 beacons from the periphery of the primary mirror. An off-axis phasing camera and primary and secondary mirror metrology systems will ensure that the telescope optics remain phased. We describe the system requirements, overall architecture, and innovative solutions found to the challenges presented by high-order AO on a segmented extremely large telescope. Further details may be found in specific papers on each of the observing modes and major subsystems.

  2. New improvements in robotic telescopes at CAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuesta, L.; Eibe, M. T.; Ullán, A.

    The Robotic Telescopes at the Centro de Astrobiología (CAB, CSIC-INTA) are scientific installations dedicated mainly to observe and characterize exoplanets through the analysis of their transits. Over the last year, we have improved several characteristics of these telescopes. We have put great efforts into improving the accuracy of the observations through improved observation techniques and methods of analysis and data reduction. A new CCD with better QE and linearity has been installed. Also, a new Ströngrem filter has been set to provide enhanced capacities to the telescope. Finally, the primary and secondary mirror have been re-coated. In the case of the methodology to analyze the data, we have improved the tables of focus versus temperature and the procedures to compensate for the deviations on the image focusing. Although the main use of these telescopes is scientific, a significant amount of observation time is dedicated to outreach programs. We have developed an educative program based on simple scientific projects that students can carry out. In this paper we will go over these improvements and the new projects of Public Outreach.

  3. Pulsar observations with the MAGIC telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidalgo, David

    2016-07-01

    The vast majority of spectra of gamma-ray pulsars exhibit an exponential cut-off at a few GeV, as seen by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board of the Fermi satellite. Due to this cut-off, current Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) with an energy threshold as low as 30 GeV, struggle to detect pulsars. So far, emission above 50 GeV has been confirmed only for the Crab and Vela pulsars. In the case of the former, the spectrum even extends up to about 1 TeV firmly revealing a second emission component. To further understand the emission mechanism of gamma-ray pulsars, the MAGIC collaboration continues the search of pulsars above 50 GeV. In this talk we report on recent results on the Crab and Geminga Pulsar obtained with the MAGIC telescopes, including the analysis of data taken with a new trigger system lowering the energy threshold of the MAGIC telescopes.

  4. Hubble Space Telescope 2004 Battery Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollandsworth, Roger; Armantrout, Jon; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    2004-01-01

    Battery cell wear out mechanisms and signatures are examined and compared to orbital data from the six on-orbit Hubble Space Telescope (HST) batteries, and the Flight Spare Battery (FSB) Test Bed at Marshall Space Fiight Center (MSFC), which is instrumented with individual cell voltage monitoring.

  5. Hubble Space Telescope, High Speed Photometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This drawing illustrates the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) High Speed Photometer (HSP). The HSP measures the intensity of starlight (brightness), which will help determine astronomical distances. Its principal use will be to measure extremely-rapid variations or pulses in light from celestial objects, such as pulsating stars. The HSP produces brightness readings. Light passes into one of four special signal-multiplying tubes that record the data. The HSP can measure energy fluctuations from objects that pulsate as rapidly as once every 10 microseconds. From HSP data, astronomers expect to learn much about such mysterious objects as pulsars, black holes, and quasars. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors.

  6. Perception for a large deployable reflector telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckinridge, J. M.; Swanson, P. N.; Meinel, A. B.; Meinel, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    Optical science and technology concepts for a large deployable reflector for far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy from above the earth's atmosphere are discussed. Requirements given at the Asilomar Conference are reviewed. The technical challenges of this large-aperture (about 20-meter) telescope, which will be diffraction limited in the infrared, are highlighted in a brief discussion of one particular configuration.

  7. Holographic Optical Elements as Scanning Lidar Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.; Rallison, Richard D.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Guerra, David V.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed and investigated the use of holographic optical elements (HOEs) and holographic transmission gratings for scanning lidar telescopes. For example, rotating a flat HOE in its own plane with the focal spot on the rotation axis makes a very simple and compact conical scanning telescope. We developed and tested transmission and reflection HOEs for use at the first three harmonic wavelengths of Nd:YAG lasers. The diffraction efficiency, diffraction angle, focal length, focal spot size and optical losses were measured for several HOEs and holographic gratings, and found to be suitable for use as lidar receiver telescopes, and in many cases could also serve as the final collimating and beam steering optic for the laser transmitter. Two lidar systems based on this technology have been designed, built, and successfully tested in atmospheric science applications. This technology will enable future spaceborne lidar missions by significantly lowering the size, weight, power requirement and cost of a large aperture, narrow field of view scanning telescope.

  8. Apollo Telescope Mount Sun End Canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and served as the primary scientific instrument unit aboard Skylab (1973-1979). The ATM consisted of eight scientific instruments as well as a number of smaller experiments. This image is of the ATM flight unit sun end canister in MSFC's building 4755.

  9. Classroom Astronomy Via Remotely-Controlled Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duff, B. S.

    2006-06-01

    The Telescopes in Education (TIE) project, sponsored by the Mount Wilson Institute, NASA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and California Institute of Technology (Caltech), gives teachers and their students worldwide the opportunity to use a 0.61-meter telescope by remote access from their classrooms. Since 1993, over 160 schools have imaged deep-space objects by communicating with the telescope over a telephone line, slewing to the desired object, operating the CCD camera, and downloading the image directly to the classroom computer. Grades K through 12 conduct classroom research projects, including learning the different types of deep-space objects by imaging stars, nebulae, galaxies, comets, and asteroids. Advanced projects include astrometry and photometry. Of special interest is the discovery of new variable stars and the measurement of known variables, including periods and color indexes. Recently, Project SCHOLAR-Students Conducting Hands-On Learning in Astronomy Research-was initiated to give students around the world the opportunity to work hand-in-hand conducting observations and research for the astronomical community through the TIE program. Additional telescopes in several northern and southern hemisphere countries will provide expanded capacity, diversity and scheduling flexibility.

  10. Teaching with Internet Telescopes: Some Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stencel, Robert

    Observational astronomy is often difficult for pre-college students and teachers because: (1) school occurs in daytime and visual observing at night; (2) light pollution hides the stars from students living in cities; (3) few schools have teachers trained to use and maintain astronomy equipment; (4) there is lack of access to expertise when needed; (5) physically disabled students cannot easily access a telescope eypiece. Internet access to computer controlled telescopes with digital cameras can solve many of these difficulties. The Web enables students and teachers to access well-maintained internet-controllable telescopes at dark-site locations and to consult more readily with experts. This paper reports on a three-month pilot project exploring this situation conducted Feb-May 2002 which allowed high school students to access a CCD-equipped accurately-pointing and tracking telescope located in New Mexico controllable over the Web with a user-friendly skymap browser tool. User interest proved phenomenal and user statistics proved diverse. There were distinct lessons learned about how to enhance student participation in the research process. Details available at website www.du.edu/~rstencel/stn.htm. We thank the ICSRC for a grant to Denver University and acknowledge in-kind support from the estate of William Herschel Womble.

  11. Taming the 1.2 m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, S.; Edwards, M.; Greenwald, D.; Kono, D.; Liang, D.; Lohnes, K.; Wright, V.; Spillar, E.

    2013-09-01

    Achievable residual jitter on the 1.2 m telescope at MSSS shown in Figure 1 has historically been limited to 10-20 arc-sec. peak in moderate wind conditions due to the combination of the dynamics associated with the twin telescopes on the common declination axis shaft, and the related control system behavior. Figure 1 1.2 m Telescope The lightly damped, low frequency fundamental vibration mode shape of the telescopes rotating out of phase on the common declination axis shaft severely degraded the performance of the prior controllers. This vibration mode is easily excited by external forces such as wind loading and internal torque commands from the mount control system. The relatively poor historic performance was due to a combination of the low error rejection of external disturbances, and the controller exciting the mode. A radical new approach has been implemented that has resulted in a decrease of jitter to less than 1 arcsec under most conditions. The new approach includes minor hardware modifications to provide active damping with accelerometers as feedback sensors. This architecture has allowed a bandwidth increase of almost an order of magnitude and eliminated the large amplitude motions at the mode natural frequency, resulting in much improved pointing and jitter performance. A representative comparison of historical versus new architecture performance is shown in Figure 2 for the declination axis.

  12. Solar optical telescope primary mirror controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. J.; Liu, D.

    1980-01-01

    The development of a technique to control the articulated primary mirror (APM) of the solar optical telescope (SOT) is discussed. Program results indicate that a single, all digital controller has sufficient capability to totally handle the computational requirements for control of the SOT APM.

  13. A Deployable Primary Mirror for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lake, Mark S.; Phelps, James E.; Dyer, Jack E.; Caudle, David A.; Tam, Anthony; Escobedo, Javier; Kasl, Eldon P.

    1999-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center, Composite Optics, Inc., and Nyma/ADF have developed jointly a deployable primary mirror for space telescopes that combines over five years of research on deployment of optical-precision structures and over ten years of development of fabrication techniques for optical-precision composite mirror panels and structures. The deployable mirror is directly applicable to a broad class of non-imaging "lidar" (light direction a nd ranging) telescopes whose figure-error requirements are in the range of one to ten microns RMS. Furthermore, the mirror design can be readily modified to accommodate imaging-quality reflector panels and active panel-alignment control mechanisms for application to imaging telescopes. The present paper: 1) describes the deployable mirror concept; 2) explains the status of the mirror development; and 3) provides some technical specifications for a 2.55- m-diameter, proof-of-concept mirror. Keywords: precision deployment, hinge joint, latch joint, deployable structures, fabrication, space telescopes, optical instruments, microdynamics.

  14. Freeform Optical Design of Two Mirror Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Joseph; West, Garrett; Trumper, Isaac; Anderson, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Two Mirror telescopes composed of freeform optical surfaces are investigated and surveyed to explore the usable design space. F-number and field of view are evaluated and plotted. A case study is presented to show the benefits of volume reduction using freeform surfaces.

  15. The Mathematics of Go to Telescopes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teets, Donald

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the mathematics involved in finding and tracking celestial objects with an electronically controlled telescope. The essential idea in solving this problem is to choose several different coordinate systems that simplify the various motions of the earth and other celestial objects. These coordinate systems are then related by…

  16. Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Located on the Johns Hopkins University Homewood campus, Baltimore, Maryland. The institute is responsible to NASA's GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER for the scientific operations of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). It was established by NASA, following a recommendation by the National Academy of Sciences, and is operated by ASSOCIATION OF UNIVERSITIES FOR RESEARCH IN ASTRONOMY (AURA) under contract ...

  17. Neutral Buoyancy Test - NB23 - Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Once the United States' space program had progressed from Earth's orbit into outerspace, the prospect of building and maintaining a permanent presence in space was realized. To accomplish this feat, NASA launched a temporary workstation, Skylab, to discover the effects of low gravity and weightlessness on the human body, and also to develop tools and equipment that would be needed in the future to build and maintain a more permanent space station. The structures, techniques, and work schedules had to be carefully designed to fit this unique construction site. The components had to be lightweight for transport into orbit, yet durable. The station also had to be made with removable parts for easy servicing and repairs by astronauts. All of the tools necessary for service and repairs had to be designed for easy manipulation by a suited astronaut. And construction methods had to be efficient due to limited time the astronauts could remain outside their controlled environment. In lieu of all the specific needs for this project, an environment on Earth had to be developed that could simulate a low gravity atmosphere. A Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) was constructed by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in 1968. Since then, NASA scientists have used this facility to understand how humans work best in low gravity and also provide information about the different kinds of structures that can be built. Included in the plans for the space station was a space telescope. This telescope would be attached to the space station and directed towards outerspace. Astronomers hoped that the space telescope would provide a look at space that is impossible to see from Earth because of Earth's atmosphere and other man made influences. In an effort to make replacement and repairs easier on astronauts the space telescope was designed to be modular. Practice makes perfect as demonstrated in this photo: an astronaut practices moving modular pieces of the space telescope in the Neutral

  18. The Student Telescope Network (STN) experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannahoe, Ryan M.; Stencel, Robert E.; Bisque, Steve; Rice, Mike

    2003-02-01

    Several factors make observational astronomy difficult for pre-college students and teachers. (1) not many schools have teachers trained to use and maintain astronomy equipment; (2) school usually happens during the day and observing normally is a night-time activity; (3) the scourge of light pollution has hidden the stars from many students living in or near cities; (4) there is a general lack of access to expertise when needed. In addition, physically disabled students cannot climb ladders, to access the telescope eyepiece. Internet access to computer-controlled telescopes equipped with digital cameras can solve many of these difficulties. This enables students and their teachers to access well-maintained, robust Internet-controllable telescopes in dark-site locations and to consult more readily with experts. We present the results of technical solutions to Internet-control of telescopes, by Software Bisque, the New Mexico Skies Guest Observatory and the Youth Activities Committee of the Astronomical League in collaboration with Denver University Astronomy. We jointly submitted a funding proposal to the Institute for Connecting Science Research to the Classroom, and conducted a pilot program allowing high school students to access a CCD-equipped, accurately-pointing and tracking telescope, controllable over the Web, with a user-friendly skymap browser tool. With suitably placed telescopes worldwide, observing from the classroom in daylight will become feasible, as we have demonstrated with Australian and Eurasian student users of the New Mexico Skies Internet telescope. We report here on a three-month pilot project exploring this solution, conducted Feb-May 2002. User interest proved phenomenal, while user statistics proved diverse and there were distinct lessons learned about how to enhance student participation in the research process. We thank the Institute for Connecting Science Research to the Classroom for a grant to the University of Denver in partial

  19. Continuum observation of Sagittarius B2 at 23 and 43 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akabane, Kenji; Sofue, Yoshiaki; Hirabayashi, Hisashi; Morimoto, Masaki; Inoue, Makoto

    The source Sgr B2 has been mapped with a single-dish resolution of ≡40arcsec at frequencies of 23 GHz and 43 GHz. An extended thermal component was found, and has been compared with that in lower frequency observations. The core region of Sgr B2 (containing the compact sources MD4 and MD5) was resolved at both 23 GHz and 43 GHz. The compact components MD4 and MD5 have complex thermal spectra which may indicate inhomogeneities within each compact core. A new source, G0.64-0.06, was found in the southern area of the extended thermal component. The 43-GHz map made with the Nobeyama 45-m telescope was compared with a 10.7-GHz map made with the Effelsberg 100-m telescope. This comparison suggests that there may be some nonthermal emission in the southern area of Sgr B2.

  20. RadioAstron Space-VLBI observation of SN2014J and the possible AGN in M82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolovsky, Kirill V.; Voytsik, Petr A.; Alakoz, Alexei V.; Asaki, Yoshiharu; Bach, Uwe; Feiler, Roman; Gawronski, Marcin P.; Giroletti, Marcello; Kharinov, Mikhail A.; Ipatov, Alexander V.; Kutkin, Alexander M.; Rahimov, Ismail A.; Schinzel, Frank K.; Wolak, Pawel

    2014-06-01

    The Type Ia supernova SN2014J (ATel #5786, CBET #3792) appeared in M82 around 2014 January 14.75 UT (Zheng et al., arXiv:1401.7968). On 2014 March 27 05:20-06:00 UT (71.5d after explosion) it was observed with the RadioAstron Space-VLBI array consisting of the 10m Space radio telescope (Kardashev et al., 2013 ARep, 57, 153) operating simultaneously at 1.6 and 4.8 GHz, the Effelsberg 100m (observing at 4.8 GHz), Usuda 64m (1.6 GHz), Kalyazin 64m (1.6 and 4.8 GHz), Torun 32m (1.6 GHz), and Svetloe 32m (4.8 GHz) telescopes. ...