Science.gov

Sample records for 100-m meteorological tower

  1. Height profile of some air quality markers in the urban atmosphere surrounding a 100 m tower building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubino, Federico Maria; Floridia, Lucia; Tavazzani, Manuela; Fustinoni, Silvia; Giampiccolo, Rosario; Colombi, Antonio

    Air quality inside buildings, whether naturally or mechanically ventilated, is strongly dependent on that of ambient external air in the surrounding atmosphere. This paper describes results obtained in the assessment of urban air quality influence in the neighbouring of a tall, multistorey building with mechanical ventilation on its indoor air quality. Within the study, which lasted for more than 30 d of continuous monitoring, the concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), of total and grossly speciated classes of airborne organic vapours and of PM 10 airborne particulate were measured both outdoors, at ground and at various heights between street level and the top of the tower building (approximately 100 m) and inside the building. The daily variation of airborne pollutants in the urban atmosphere in the neighbouring of the tower building was traced as the contribution of both time-dependent pollutant production from urban outdoor sources (mainly vehicular traffic) and of the variation of meteoclimatic conditions influencing pollutant diffusion from street level upwards. In particular, a steady concentration decrease with increasing height of the concentration of automotive-related pollutants, such as of PM 10 airborne particulate, of a mixture of volatile aromatic compounds (TAAC) and of CO could be measured in the immediate neghbouring of the tower building (values of 40 μg m -3 of PM 10 airborne particulate decreasing to 32 μg m -3 at 80 m; of 5 mg of benzene equivalents m -3 at ground level with a 30% decrease at 100 m height; of 3 mg m -3 of CO decreasing to 2.2 mg m -3 at 100 m). The acquired information was employed to advice the building management on the improvement of indoor air quality attainable by moving the air feed grid of the HVAC system to a higher level from ground. An example is reported, which shows the improvement of the indoor air quality in a three-storey peripheral building of the same complex subject to scheduled refurbishing, obtained by

  2. Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at NSA Handbook - January 2006

    SciTech Connect

    MT Ritsche

    2006-01-30

    The Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at Atqasuk (METTWR2H) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors to measure wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, dew point and humidity mounted on a 10-m tower. It also obtains barometric pressure, visibility, and precipitation data from sensors at or near the base of the tower. In addition, a Chilled Mirror Hygrometer is located at 1 m for comparison purposes. Temperature and relative humidity probes are mounted at 2 m and 5 m on the tower. For more information, see the Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at Atqasuk Handbook.

  3. Applications of Meteorological Tower Data at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altino, Karen M.; Barbre, Robert E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Members of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) design and operation communities rely on meteorological information collected at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), located near Cape Canaveral, Florida, to correctly apply the ambient environment to various tasks. The Natural Environments Branch/EV44, located at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, is responsible for providing its NASA customers with meteorological data using various climatological data sources including balloons, surface stations, aircraft, hindcast models, and meteorological towers. Of the many resources available within the KSC region, meteorological towers are preferred for near-surface applications because they record data at regular, frequent intervals over an extensive period of record at a single location. This paper discusses the uses of data measured at several different meteorological towers for a common period of record and how the data can be applied to various engineering decisions for the new Constellation Program Ares and Orion space vehicles.

  4. Meteorological tower design for severe weather and remote locations

    Treesearch

    Kelly Elder; Ilkoo Angutikjuak; Jessica Baker; Matt Belford; Tom Bennett; Karl Birkeland; Daniel Bowker; Doug Chabot; April Cheuvront; Mark Dixon; Dylan Elder; Lee Elder; Shari Gearheard; Greg Giedt; Kim Grant; Sam Green; Ethan Greene; Nick Houfek; Caleb Huntington; Henry Huntington; Thomas Huntington; Daniel Janigian; Crane Johnson; Glen Liston; Rob Maris; Andrea Marsh; Hans-Peter Marshall; Aidan Meiners; Alex Meiners; Theo Meiners; Limakee Palluq; Josh Pope; Esa Qillaq; Joelli Sanguya; Sam Sehnert; Ron Simenhois; Banning Starr; Roger Tyler

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a robust meteorological tower for deployment in locations with extreme conditions and for applications that require relatively maintenance-free structures. The basic design consists of a triangular base with two horizontal rails on each side, and uprights at the triangle vertices for various instrument configurations. The fabrication materials include...

  5. 4. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF METEOROLOGICAL TOWER; SOUTH FACE OF SLC3W ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF METEOROLOGICAL TOWER; SOUTH FACE OF SLC-3W MST IN BACKGROUND - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Meteorological Shed & Tower, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. Turbulence Structure in the Wake Region of a Meteorological Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthlott, Christian; Fiedler, Franz

    A meteorological tower significantly modifies the air flow, the mean windspeed and wind direction as well as the turbulencestructure of the air. Suchchanges can be noticed in particular in the wake region of the tower.Measurementson the 200 m tower ofForschungszentrum Karlsruhewere carried outusing Solent sonic anemometers in the lee of the towerand cup anemometers on both sides.In the wake region, spectral energydensity is increased in the high-frequency range. Superposition of this disturbance spectrum on the undisturbedspectrum yields a `knee' in the resulting spectrum. In the case of low turbulence intensity with stable stratification,a plateau with a constant energy content is observed in front of the knee.This effect is caused by the new production of turbulence energy from the mean flow as well as by an energy transfer fromlarger to smaller vortices. Power spectra in strongly stable conditionsshow a more rapid decrease of intensity in the region where the inertialsubrange is expected.The relevant scales of wake turbulence are derived from the maximum of the disturbance spectrum.Locations of the high-frequency peak do not depend on atmospheric stability,but are controlled mainly by mean wind speed.Apart from the reduction of the mean wind speed, the spectra and cospectra exhibit a strong anisotropy for such cases.The results demonstrate the significant influence of a tower on turbulence spectra in the wake region.

  7. Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at Atqasuk (METTWR2H) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Ritsche, MT

    2006-01-01

    The Atqasuk meteorology station (AMET) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors to measure wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, dew point, and humidity mounted on a 10-m tower. It also obtains barometric pressure, visibility and precipitation data from sensors at or near the base of the tower. In addition, a chilled mirror hygrometer (CMH) is located at 1 m for comparison purposes. Temperature and relative humidity (RH) probes are mounted at 2 m and 5 m on the tower.

  8. BOREAS TF-3 NSA-OBS Tower Flux, Meteorological, and Soil Temperature Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wofsy, Steven; Sutton, Doug; Goulden, Mike; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Tower Flux (BOREAS TF-3) team collected tower flux, surface meteorological, and soil temperature data at the BOREAS Northern Study Area-Old Black Spruce (NSA-OBS) site continuously from the March 1994 through October 1996. The data are available in tabular ASCII files.

  9. Surface Meteorological Station - ESRL Short Tower, Troutdale - Raw Data

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Tim

    2016-10-25

    A diversity of instruments are used to measure various quantities related to meteorology, precipitation, and radiation near the Earth’s surface. Typically, a standard suite of instruments is deployed to monitor meteorological state variables.

  10. Surface Meteorological Station - ESRL Short Tower, Wasco Airport - Raw Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Coleman, Tim

    2016-10-25

    A diversity of instruments are used to measure various quantities related to meteorology, precipitation, and radiation near the Earth’s surface. Typically, a standard suite of instruments is deployed to monitor meteorological state variables.

  11. 24 M meteorological tower data report period: January--December, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, D.; Bowen, J.; Egami, R.

    1997-08-01

    This report was prepared by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). It summarizes meteorological data collected at the 24 meter tower at the Nevada Test Site Hazardous Material Spill Center (HAZMAT) located at Frenchman Flat near Mercury, Nevada, approximately 75 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The tower was originally installed in July, 1993 to characterize baseline conditions for an EPA sponsored experimental research program at the HAZMAT.

  12. Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at Barrow (METTWR4H) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Ritsche, MT

    2008-04-01

    The Barrow meteorology station (BMET) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors mounted at four different heights (2m, 10m, 20m and 40m) on a 40 m tower to obtain profiles of wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, dew point and humidity. It also obtains barometric pressure, visibility and precipitation data from sensors at the base of the tower. Additionally, a Chilled Mirror Hygrometer and an Ultrasonic wind speed sensor are located near the 2m level for comparison purposes.

  13. Comparison of Second Wind Triton Data with Meteorological Tower Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, G.; Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.

    2010-02-01

    With the increased interest in remote sensing of wind information in recent years, it is important to determine the reliability and accuracy of new wind measurement technologies if they are to replace or supplement conventional tower-based measurements. In this study, we present the results of an analysis characterizing the measurement performance of a state-of-the-art SOund Detection And Ranging (sodar) device when compared to a high-quality tower measurement program. Second Wind Inc. (Somerville, MA, USA) provided NREL with more than six months of data from a measurement program conducted near an operating wind farm in western Texas.

  14. 24 m meteorological tower data report period: January through December, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, D.; Bowen, J.B.; Egami, R.; Coulombe, W.; Crow, D.; Cristani, B.; Schmidt, S.

    1997-12-01

    This report was prepared by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). It summarizes meteorological data collected at the 24 meter tower at the Nevada Test Site Hazardous Material Spill Center (HAZMAT) located at Frenchman Flat near Mercury, Nevada, approximately 75 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The tower was originally installed in July, 1993 to characterize baseline conditions for an EPA sponsored experimental research program at the HAZMAT. A previous report reported monitoring results for 1994. This report presents results of the monitoring for January--December, 1995, providing: a status of the measurement systems (including any quality assurance activities) during the report period and a summary of the meteorological conditions at the HAZMAT during the report period. The scope of the report is limited to summary data analyses and does not include extensive meteorological analysis. The tower was instrumented at 8 levels. Wind speed, wind direction, and temperature were measured at all 8 levels. Relative humidity was measured at 3 levels. Solar and net radiation were measured at 2 meters above the ground. Barometric pressure was measured at the base of the tower and soil temperature was measured near the base of the tower.

  15. 24 m meteorological tower data report period: January through December, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, D.; Bowen, J.; Egami, R.; Coulombe, W.; Crow, D.; Cristani, B.; Schmidt, S.

    1997-12-01

    This report was prepared by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). It summarizes meteorological data collected at the 24 meter tower at the Nevada Test Site Hazardous Material Spill Center (HAZMAT) located at Frenchman Flat near Mercury, Nevada, approximately 75 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The tower was originally installed in July, 1993 to characterize baseline conditions for an EPA sponsored experimental research program at the HAZMAT. This report presents results of the monitoring for January--December, 1996, providing: a status of the measurement systems during the report period and a summary of the meteorological conditions at the HAZMAT during the report period. The scope of the report is limited to summary data analyses and does not include extensive meteorological analysis. The tower was instrumented at 8 levels. Wind speed, wind direction, and temperature were measured at all 8 levels. Relative humidity was measured at 3 levels. Solar and net radiation were measured at 2 meters above the ground. Barometric pressure was measured at the base of the tower and soil temperature was measured near the base of the tower.

  16. BOREAS TF-4 SSA-YJP Tower Flux, Meteorological, and Canopy Condition Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Striegl, Robert; Wickland, Kimberly; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Tower Flux (BOREAS TF-4) team collected energy, carbon dioxide, and water vapor flux data at the BOREAS Southern Study Area-Young Jack Pine (SSA-YJP) site during the growing season of 1994. In addition, meteorological data were collected both above and within the canopy. The data are available in tabular ASCII files.

  17. Flux Tower Eddy Covariance and Meteorological Measurements for Barrow, Alaska: 2012-2016

    DOE Data Explorer

    Dengel, Sigrid; Torn, Margaret; Billesbach, David

    2017-08-24

    The dataset contains half-hourly eddy covariance flux measurements and determinations, companion meteorological measurements, and ancillary data from the flux tower (US-NGB) on the Barrow Environmental Observatory at Barrow (Utqiagvik), Alaska for the period 2012 through 2016. Data have been processed using EddyPro software and screened by the contributor. The flux tower sits in an Arctic coastal tundra ecosystem. This dataset updates a previous dataset by reprocessing a longer period of record in the same manner. Related dataset "Eddy-Covariance and auxiliary measurements, NGEE-Barrow, 2012-2013" DOI:10.5440/1124200.

  18. Measurement of new particle formation at several altitudes on a 300 m meteorological observation tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, M.; Yum, S. S.; Kim, N.

    2014-12-01

    Since new particle formation (NPF) affects aerosol number size distribution and subsequently the newly formed particles can grow enough to act as cloud condensation nuclei, understanding NPF mechanism is crucially important as a step towards a better understanding of aerosol life cycle and its effects on cloud microphysical and radiative properties. However, not clearly understood are at what altitudes NPF actually occurs, what the spatial scale of NPF is, and what are the good meteorological conditions that lead to NPF. In this study, we analyze the data that will be obtained from a 300 m meteorological observation tower to have a better understanding of where NPF occurs and the meteorological conditions that lead to NPF. The tower is installed at the National Center for Intensive Observation of severe weather (NCIO) at a southern coastal rural town of Boseong, Korea (34.76N, 127.16E) and is equipped with measurement platforms at 11 altitudes. Aerosol number concentration and size distribution will be measured at 300 m and 10 m altitudes. A complementary aerosol number concentration measurement will also be made at an intermediate altitude. The basic meteorological variables (e.g., air temperature, relative humidity, wind direction and speed) measured at each of the 11 measurement platform altitudes of the tower will be jointly collected. Comprehensive analysis of these continuous and vertically aligned measurement data will give us an opportunity to look at the details of NPF mechanism.

  19. A study of air-to-ground sound propagation using an instrumented meteorological tower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasper, P. K.; Pappa, R. S.; Keefe, L. R.; Sutherland, L. C.

    1975-01-01

    The results of an exploratory NASA study, leading to a better understanding of the effects of meteorological conditions on the propagation of aircraft noise, are reported. The experimental program utilized a known sound source fixed atop an instrumented meteorological tower. The basic experimental scheme consisted of measuring the amplitude of sound radiated toward the ground along a line of microphones fixed to a tower guy wire. Experimental results show the feasibility of this approach in the acquisition of data indicating the variations encountered in the time-averaged and instantaneous amplitudes of propagated sound. The investigation included a consideration of ground reflections, a comparison of measured attenuations with predicted atmospheric absorption losses, and an evaluation of the amplitude fluctuations of recorded sound pressures.

  20. The Quality Control Algorithms Used in the Creation of NASA Kennedy Space Center Lightning Protection System Towers Meteorological Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orcutt, John M.; Brenton, James C.

    2016-01-01

    An accurate database of meteorological data is essential for designing any aerospace vehicle and for preparing launch commit criteria. Meteorological instrumentation were recently placed on the three Lightning Protection System (LPS) towers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch complex 39B (LC-39B), which provide a unique meteorological dataset existing at the launch complex over an extensive altitude range. Data records of temperature, dew point, relative humidity, wind speed, and wind direction are produced at 40, 78, 116, and 139 m at each tower. The Marshall Space Flight Center Natural Environments Branch (EV44) received an archive that consists of one-minute averaged measurements for the period of record of January 2011 - April 2015. However, before the received database could be used EV44 needed to remove any erroneous data from within the database through a comprehensive quality control (QC) process. The QC process applied to the LPS towers' meteorological data is similar to other QC processes developed by EV44, which were used in the creation of meteorological databases for other towers at KSC. The QC process utilized in this study has been modified specifically for use with the LPS tower database. The QC process first includes a check of each individual sensor. This check includes removing any unrealistic data and checking the temporal consistency of each variable. Next, data from all three sensors at each height are checked against each other, checked against climatology, and checked for sensors that erroneously report a constant value. Then, a vertical consistency check of each variable at each tower is completed. Last, the upwind sensor at each level is selected to minimize the influence of the towers and other structures at LC-39B on the measurements. The selection process for the upwind sensor implemented a study of tower-induced turbulence. This paper describes in detail the QC process, QC results, and the attributes of the LPS towers meteorological

  1. Brief communication "An extreme meteorological event at the ISMAR oceanographic tower"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastianini, M.; Cavaleri, L.; La Rocca, T.

    2012-02-01

    We report the evidence of a remarkable meteorological event in the Northern Adriatic Sea. Following the irruption of cold northerly air into the previously hot and humid eastern part of the Po valley, a strong instability developed with violent thunderstorms. At the ISMAR oceanographic tower, 15 km off the coast of the Venice lagoon, although no one was on board, the records of 6 July 2008 from the various instruments coherently show the presence of an extreme and short-lived event that we associate either to a water spout or, more likely, to the strong downdraft of a mesoscale convective system

  2. BOREAS TF-2 SSA-OA Tower Flux, Meteorological, and Precipitation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Harold; Mickle, Robert; Staebler, Ralf; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Tower Flux-2 (BOREAS TF-2) team collected energy, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and momentum flux data above the canopy and in profiles through the canopy, along with meteorological data at the BOREAS Southern Study Area-Old Aspen (SSA-OA) site. Above-canopy measurements began in early February and ran through mid-September of 1994. Measurements were collected over a longer period of 1994 than most BOREAS flux sites. Daily precipitation data from several gauges were also collected. The data are available in tabular ASCII files.

  3. BOREAS TF-10 NSA-Fen Tower Flux and Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCaughey, J. Harry; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor); Jelinski, Dennis E.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-10 team collected tower flux and meteorological data at two sites, a fen and a young jack pine forest, near Thompson, Manitoba, Canada, as part of BOREAS. A preliminary data set was assembled in August 1993 while field testing the instrument packages, and at both sites data were collected from 15-Aug to 31-Aug. The main experimental period was in 1994, when continuous data were collected from 08-Apr to 23-Sep at the fen site. A very limited experiment was run in the spring/ summer of 1995, when the fen site tower was operated from 08-Apr to 14-Jun in support of a hydrology experiment in an adjoining feeder basin. Upon examination of the 1994 data set, it became clear that the behavior of the heat, water, and carbon dioxide fluxes throughout the whole growing season was an important scientific question, and that the 1994 data record was not sufficiently long to capture the character of the seasonal behavior of the fluxes. Thus, the fen site was operated in 1996 in order to collect data from spring melt to autumn freeze-up. Data were collected from 29-Apr to 05-Nov at the fen site. All variables are presented as 30-minute averages. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  4. A molten salt tower model used for site selection in South Africa using SAURAN meteorological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poole, Ian Vincent; Dinter, Frank

    2017-06-01

    South Africa has become a hotspot for concentrating solar power (CSP) development in recent years. With an abundance of solar resource and an existing governmental framework for renewable energy development, the country has captured the attention of CSP developers worldwide. The primary limitations for CSP plants in South Africa are electrical transmission and water availability. While taking into account such infrastructure limitations, six sites were proposed. A purpose-built simulation model for a proposed 100 MWe (gross) tower plant with 12 hours of storage was developed. Using site South African Universities Radiometric Network (SAURAN) meteorological data with a resolution of up to 1 minute, each of the sites was evaluated in terms of electrical yield using the model. The investigation found that the site situated in Springbok will generate 450.8 GWhe per annum, and is the most advantageous site for the modeled plant. The most promising alternative site is situated in near Laingsburg in the Western Province. This site offered 413.7 GWhe per annum, and it is close to available transmission and surface water.

  5. BOREAS TF-10 NSA-YJP Tower Flux, Meteorological, and Porometry Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCaughey, J. Harry; Liblik, Laura; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, K. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-10 team collected tower flux and meteorological data at two sites, a fen and a young jack pine forest, near Thompson, Manitoba, Canada, as part of BOREAS. A preliminary data set was assembled in August 1993 while field testing the instrument packages, and at both sites data were collected from 15-Aug to 31-Aug. The main experimental period was in 1994, when continuous data were collected from the young jack pine site from 23-May to 20-Sep. Upon examination of the 1994 data set, it became clear that the behavior of the heat, water, and carbon dioxide fluxes throughout the whole growing season was an important scientific question, and that the 1994 data record was not sufficiently long to capture the character of the seasonal behavior of the fluxes. Thus, the young jack pine site was operated from 08-May to 07-Nov in 1996 in order to collect data from spring melt to autumn freeze-up. All variables are presented as 30-minute averages. Supporting data were also collected to describe the surface#s state and to provide the information, in association with the flux data, to build SVAT models. For the young jack pine site, these supporting data included stomatal conductance measurements. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  6. [Measurements of atmospheric boundary layer O3, NOx and CO in summer with Beijing 325 m meteorological tower].

    PubMed

    An, Junlin; Li, Xin; Wang, Yuesi; Shi, Liqing; Hu, Fei; Xu, Yongfu

    2003-11-01

    Based on the Beijing 325 m meteorological tower, O3, NOx and CO concentrations and meteorological parameters in urban atmospheric boundary layer were measured in July 2002. The variations of O3 concentration were remarkably different among the five levels. Contrasted with the higher levels, the daily variations were clear and the difference values between day and night were large in the lower levels. It was also found that the photochemistry reaction was an important source in boundary layer in daytime and precipitation process could arouse marked change of O3 concentration.

  7. The Quality Control Algorithms Used in the Process of Creating the NASA Kennedy Space Center Lightning Protection System Towers Meteorological Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orcutt, John M.; Brenton, James C.

    2016-01-01

    The methodology and the results of the quality control (QC) process of the meteorological data from the Lightning Protection System (LPS) towers located at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch complex 39B (LC-39B) are documented in this paper. Meteorological data are used to design a launch vehicle, determine operational constraints, and to apply defined constraints on day-of-launch (DOL). In order to properly accomplish these tasks, a representative climatological database of meteorological records is needed because the database needs to represent the climate the vehicle will encounter. Numerous meteorological measurement towers exist at KSC; however, the engineering tasks need measurements at specific heights, some of which can only be provided by a few towers. Other than the LPS towers, Tower 313 is the only tower that provides observations up to 150 m. This tower is located approximately 3.5 km from LC-39B. In addition, data need to be QC'ed to remove erroneous reports that could pollute the results of an engineering analysis, mislead the development of operational constraints, or provide a false image of the atmosphere at the tower's location.

  8. BOREAS TF-5 SSA-OJP Tower Flux and Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldocchi, Dennis; Vogel, Christoph; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Tower Flux (BOREAS TF-5) team collected tower flux data at the BOREAS Southern Study Area Old Jack Pine (SSA-OJP) site through the growing season of 1994. The data are available in tabular ASCII files.

  9. BOREAS TF-7 SSA-OBS Tower Flux and Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor); Pattey, Elizabeth; Desjardins, Raymond L.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-7 team collected meteorological data as well as energy, carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, and nitrous oxide flux data at the BOREAS SSA-OBS site. The data were collected from 24-May to 19-Sep-1994. The data are available in tabular ASCII files.

  10. BOREAS TF-1 SSA-OA Tower Flux, Meteorological, and Soil Temperature Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor); Black, T. Andrew; Chen, Z.; Nesic, Zoran

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-1 team collected energy, carbon dioxide, and momentum flux data above the canopy along with meteorological and soils data at the BOREAS SSA-OA site from mid-April to the end of the year for 1996. The data are available in tabular ASCII files.

  11. The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO): overview of pilot measurements on ecosystem ecology, meteorology, trace gases, and aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreae, M. O.; Acevedo, O. C.; Araùjo, A.; Artaxo, P.; Barbosa, C. G. G.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Brito, J.; Carbone, S.; Chi, X.; Cintra, B. B. L.; da Silva, N. F.; Dias, N. L.; Dias-Júnior, C. Q.; Ditas, F.; Ditz, R.; Godoi, A. F. L.; Godoi, R. H. M.; Heimann, M.; Hoffmann, T.; Kesselmeier, J.; Könemann, T.; Krüger, M. L.; Lavric, J. V.; Manzi, A. O.; Lopes, A. P.; Martins, D. L.; Mikhailov, E. F.; Moran-Zuloaga, D.; Nelson, B. W.; Nölscher, A. C.; Santos Nogueira, D.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Pöhlker, C.; Pöschl, U.; Quesada, C. A.; Rizzo, L. V.; Ro, C.-U.; Ruckteschler, N.; Sá, L. D. A.; de Oliveira Sá, M.; Sales, C. B.; dos Santos, R. M. N.; Saturno, J.; Schöngart, J.; Sörgel, M.; de Souza, C. M.; de Souza, R. A. F.; Su, H.; Targhetta, N.; Tóta, J.; Trebs, I.; Trumbore, S.; van Eijck, A.; Walter, D.; Wang, Z.; Weber, B.; Williams, J.; Winderlich, J.; Wittmann, F.; Wolff, S.; Yáñez-Serrano, A. M.

    2015-09-01

    The Amazon Basin plays key roles in the carbon and water cycles, climate change, atmospheric chemistry, and biodiversity. It has already been changed significantly by human activities, and more pervasive change is expected to occur in the coming decades. It is therefore essential to establish long-term measurement sites that provide a baseline record of present-day climatic, biogeochemical, and atmospheric conditions and that will be operated over coming decades to monitor change in the Amazon region, as human perturbations increase in the future. The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) has been set up in a pristine rain forest region in the central Amazon Basin, about 150 km northeast of the city of Manaus. Two 80 m towers have been operated at the site since 2012, and a 325 m tower is nearing completion in mid-2015. An ecological survey including a biodiversity assessment has been conducted in the forest region surrounding the site. Measurements of micrometeorological and atmospheric chemical variables were initiated in 2012, and their range has continued to broaden over the last few years. The meteorological and micrometeorological measurements include temperature and wind profiles, precipitation, water and energy fluxes, turbulence components, soil temperature profiles and soil heat fluxes, radiation fluxes, and visibility. A tree has been instrumented to measure stem profiles of temperature, light intensity, and water content in cryptogamic covers. The trace gas measurements comprise continuous monitoring of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, and ozone at five to eight different heights, complemented by a variety of additional species measured during intensive campaigns (e.g., VOC, NO, NO2, and OH reactivity). Aerosol optical, microphysical, and chemical measurements are being made above the canopy as well as in the canopy space. They include aerosol light scattering and absorption, fluorescence, number and volume size distributions, chemical

  12. Comparison of Triton SODAR Data to Meteorological Tower Wind Measurement Data in Hebei Province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Yuechun, Y.; Jixue, W.; Hongfang, W.; Guimin, L.; Bolin, Y.; Scott, G.; Elliott, D.; Kline, D.

    2012-01-01

    With the increased interest in remote sensing of wind information in recent years, it is important to determine the reliability and accuracy of new wind measurement technologies if they are to replace or supplement conventional tower-based measurements. In view of this, HydroChina Corporation and the United States National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted a comparative test near a wind farm in Hebei Province, China. We present the results of an analysis characterizing the measurement performance of a state-of-the-art Sound Detection and Ranging (sodar) device when compared to a traditional tower measurement program. NREL performed the initial analysis of a three-month period and sent the results to HydroChina. When another month of data became available, HydroChina and their consultant Beijing Millenium Engineering Software (MLN) repeated NREL's analysis on the complete data set, also adding sensitivity analysis for temperature, humidity, and wind speed (Section 6). This report presents the results of HydroChina's final analysis of the four-month period.

  13. Meteorological Tower, Microbarograph Array, and Sodar Observations of Solitary-like Waves in the Nocturnal Boundary Layer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, T. K.; Little, C. G.

    1990-11-01

    Five short-duration disturbances of the stable nocturnal boundary layer, ranging in depth from about 15 m to over 500 m, were observed using a 300 m meteorological tower, 2 sodars, and a 4-station microbarograph array. Four of the events showed characteristic pulse-like sodar signatures; the fifth occurred within the minimum range of the sodars. We show that the events have the characteristics expected of strongly nonlinear deep-fluid internal solitary waves that are transporting and recirculating cold air at a supercritical velocity. The unique sodar signatures, tracing out the form of the waves, are attributed to small-scale turbulent temperature inhomogeneities marking the boundary of the recirculating air as it is transported through the ambient nocturnal boundary layer by the wave. All the events are shown to deviate from the Benjamin-Davis-Ono (BDO) theory, because of their amplitude/wavelength and amplitude/stable layer thickness ratios are considerably larger than normally thought appropriate for the weakly nonlinear BDO theory. These events exhibit characteristics that are consistent with those predicted by the nonlinear theory of Tung et al.

  14. ASCOT meteorological towers

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, K.P.

    1991-09-01

    During the winter of 1991, LLNL participated in a series of field experiments near the Rocky Flats Plant south of Boulder, Colorado. These experiments were made in conjunction with the winter validation studies being managed by Rocky Flats personnel. This is a review of the tethersonde data taken during the period of January 28, 1991 through February 8, 1991.

  15. FIRE_ACE_UTRECHT_TOWER

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-10-28

    FIRE_ACE_UTRECHT_TOWER Project Title:  FIRE II ACE Discipline:  ... L3 Platform:  SHEBA Ship Site; Meteorological tower Instrument:  Eppley precision pyrgeometers Meteorological tower Spatial Coverage:  Fairbanks, Alaska and the surrounding ...

  16. The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) in the remote Amazon Basin: overview of first results from ecosystem ecology, meteorology, trace gas, and aerosol measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreae, M. O.; Acevedo, O. C.; Araùjo, A.; Artaxo, P.; Barbosa, C. G. G.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Brito, J.; Carbone, S.; Chi, X.; Cintra, B. B. L.; da Silva, N. F.; Dias, N. L.; Dias-Júnior, C. Q.; Ditas, F.; Ditz, R.; Godoi, A. F. L.; Godoi, R. H. M.; Heimann, M.; Hoffmann, T.; Kesselmeier, J.; Könemann, T.; Krüger, M. L.; Lavric, J. V.; Manzi, A. O.; Moran-Zuloaga, D.; Nölscher, A. C.; Santos Nogueira, D.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Pöhlker, C.; Pöschl, U.; Rizzo, L. V.; Ro, C.-U.; Ruckteschler, N.; Sá, L. D. A.; Sá, M. D. O.; Sales, C. B.; Santos, R. M. N. D.; Saturno, J.; Schöngart, J.; Sörgel, M.; de Souza, C. M.; de Souza, R. A. F.; Su, H.; Targhetta, N.; Tóta, J.; Trebs, I.; Trumbore, S.; van Eijck, A.; Walter, D.; Wang, Z.; Weber, B.; Williams, J.; Winderlich, J.; Wittmann, F.; Wolff, S.; Yáñez-Serrano, A. M.

    2015-04-01

    The Amazon Basin plays key roles in the carbon and water cycles, climate change, atmospheric chemistry, and biodiversity. It already has been changed significantly by human activities, and more pervasive change is expected to occur in the next decades. It is therefore essential to establish long-term measurement sites that provide a baseline record of present-day climatic, biogeochemical, and atmospheric conditions and that will be operated over coming decades to monitor change in the Amazon region as human perturbations increase in the future. The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) has been set up in a pristine rain forest region in the central Amazon Basin, about 150 km northeast of the city of Manaus. An ecological survey including a biodiversity assessment has been conducted in the forest region surrounding the site. Two 80 m towers have been operated at the site since 2012, and a 325 m tower is nearing completion in mid-2015. Measurements of micrometeorological and atmospheric chemical variables were initiated in 2012, and their range has continued to broaden over the last few years. The meteorological and micrometeorological measurements include temperature and wind profiles, precipitation, water and energy fluxes, turbulence components, soil temperature profiles and soil heat fluxes, radiation fluxes, and visibility. A tree has been instrumented to measure stem profiles of temperature, light intensity, and water content in cryptogamic covers. The trace gas measurements comprise continuous monitoring of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, and ozone at 5 to 8 different heights, complemented by a variety of additional species measured during intensive campaigns (e.g., VOC, NO, NO2, and OH reactivity). Aerosol optical, microphysical, and chemical measurements are made above the canopy as well as in the canopy space. They include light scattering and absorption, aerosol fluorescence, number and volume size distributions, chemical composition, cloud

  17. 2. SOUTH FACE OF METEOROLOGICAL SHED (BLDG. 756) WITH METEOROLOGICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SOUTH FACE OF METEOROLOGICAL SHED (BLDG. 756) WITH METEOROLOGICAL DATA ACQUISITION TERMINAL (MDAT) INSIDE BUILDING - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Meteorological Shed & Tower, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  18. Validation of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics emergency response model with the meteorological towers measurements and SF6 diffusion and pool fire experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Junling; Xiang, Weiling; Han, Zhiwei; Xiao, Kaitao; Wang, Zifa; Wang, Xinhua; Wu, Jianbin; Yan, Pingzhong; Li, Jie; Chen, Yong; Li, Jian; Li, Ying

    2013-12-01

    The urban canopy layer parameterization (UCP), a successive bias correction method (SBC), an atmospheric dispersion module for denser-than-air releases, and the emission intensity of chemicals monitored by a Fourier-transform-infrared remote sensor (EM27) were incorporated into the Institute of Atmospheric Physics emergency response model (IAPERM). IAPERM's performance was tested in Beijing using the field data collected from a 325-m meteorological tower and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) diffusion and pool fire experiments. The results show that the IAPERM simulations of the vertical wind speeds in the urban canopy layer (UCL) with the UCP perform much better than those with the Monin-Obukhov similarity parameterization scheme. The IAPERM forecasts for air temperature and relative humidity are more accurate than those for wind speed and direction, which require correction. When the SBC with the local terrain effect is adopted, the wind speed and direction and the maximum concentrations of black carbon near the ground are well forecasted. IAPERM reproduces the spatial distributions of the SF6 observations more accurately near the release source (≤500 m) than at locations far away from the release source with the use of the observed meteorological parameters. These results suggest that IAPERM could be a promising tool for passive and dense gas diffusion simulations or forecasts.

  19. Levels and vertical distributions of PCBs, PBDEs, and OCPs in the atmospheric boundary layer: observation from the Beijing 325-m meteorological tower.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingming; Zhang, Qinghua; Ji, Dongsheng; Wang, Thanh; Wang, Yawei; Wang, Pu; Ding, Lei; Jiang, Guibin

    2009-02-15

    Polyurethane foam disk passive air sampling was carried out to investigate the levels, vertical distributions, and potential sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the atmospheric boundary layer of an urban site in Asia. Sampling was performed at nine heights (15, 47, 80, 120, 160, 200, 240, 280, 320 m) of the 325-m meteorological tower in Beijing, China over three 2-month periods between December 2006 and August 2007. This is the first study to report vertical variations of PBDEs in the ABL and one of only a few studies to investigate vertical distributions of persistent organic pollutants. The levels of sigma19PCBs and sigma8PBDEs were relatively low, ranging from 22 to 65 and from 2.3 to 18 pg m(-3), respectively. Air concentrations of gamma-HCH were high, with values in the range of 39-103 pg m(-3) in winter, 100-180 pg m(-3) in spring, and 115-242 pg m(-3) in summer, respectively. alpha-HCH concentrations ranged from 20 to 86 pg m(-3), p,p'-DDT between 7.3 and 78 pg m(-3), and HCB between 15 and 160 pg m(-3). The seasonal variations of PCBs, PBDEs, and OCPs may reflect different sources for these chemicals, such as those related with regional use (gamma-HCH), volatilization/re-emission (PBDEs, PCBs, alpha-HCH), and pesticide impurities (HCB). Although the performance reference compounds (PRCs) were spiked before deployment, the sampling rates showed strong dependency on wind speeds, resulting in large variations in uptake rates in the ABL, ranging from approximately 7.0 m3 day(-1) at ground level to 11 m3 day(-1) at 320 m. Levels of PCBs, PBDEs, and OCPs decreased with increasing ABL height indicating the potential of Beijing as the local sources.

  20. Tower Temperature and Humidity Sensors (TWR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, DR

    2010-02-01

    Three tall towers are installed at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility: a 60-meter triangular tower at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (CF), a 21-meter walkup scaffolding tower at the SGP Okmulgee forest site (E21), and a 40-meter triangular tower at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) Barrow site. The towers are used for meteorological, radiological, and other measurements.

  1. Evaluation of Tower Shadowing on Anemometer Measurements at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bruggeman, David Alan

    2016-06-14

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of tower shadowing from the meteorology towers at LANL during 2014. This study is in response to the Department of Energy Meteorological Coordinating Council visit in 2015 that recommended an evaluation of any biases in the wind data introduced by the tower and boom alignment at all meteorology towers.

  2. 1. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF METEOROLOGICAL SHED (BLDG. 756) SOUTH FACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF METEOROLOGICAL SHED (BLDG. 756) SOUTH FACE OF SLC-3W MOBILE SERVICE TOWER IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Meteorological Shed & Tower, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  3. 'Quantum valley' receives C100m funding boost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Elizabeth

    2013-05-01

    Mike Lazaridis - who founded the company now known as BlackBerry (previously Research in Motion, or RIM) - has established a new C100m fund in Canada that could push forward the development of quantum computing.

  4. Mechanical determinants of 100-m sprint running performance.

    PubMed

    Morin, Jean-Benoît; Bourdin, Muriel; Edouard, Pascal; Peyrot, Nicolas; Samozino, Pierre; Lacour, Jean-René

    2012-11-01

    Sprint mechanics and field 100-m performances were tested in 13 subjects including 9 non-specialists, 3 French national-level sprinters and a world-class sprinter, to further study the mechanical factors associated with sprint performance. 6-s sprints performed on an instrumented treadmill allowed continuous recording of step kinematics, ground reaction forces (GRF), and belt velocity and computation of mechanical power output and linear force-velocity relationships. An index of the force application technique was computed as the slope of the linear relationship between the decrease in the ratio of horizontal-to-resultant GRF and the increase in velocity. Mechanical power output was positively correlated to mean 100-m speed (P < 0.01), as was the theoretical maximal velocity production capability (P < 0.011), whereas the theoretical maximal force production capability was not. The ability to apply the resultant force backward during acceleration was positively correlated to 100-m performance (r (s) > 0.683; P < 0.018), but the magnitude of resultant force was not (P = 0.16). Step frequency, contact and swing time were significantly correlated to acceleration and 100-m performance (positively for the former, negatively for the two latter, all P < 0.05), whereas aerial time and step length were not (all P > 0.21). Last, anthropometric data of body mass index and lower-limb-to-height ratio showed no significant correlation with 100-m performance. We concluded that the main mechanical determinants of 100-m performance were (1) a "velocity-oriented" force-velocity profile, likely explained by (2) a higher ability to apply the resultant GRF vector with a forward orientation over the acceleration, and (3) a higher step frequency resulting from a shorter contact time.

  5. Testing of 100 mK bolometers for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, A. G.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bhatia, R. S.; Griffin, M. J.; Maffei, B.; Nartallo, R.; Beeman, J. W.; Bock, J.; Lange, A.; DelCastillo, H.

    1996-01-01

    Electrical and optical performance data are presented for a prototype 100 mK spider-web bolometer operating under very low photon backgrounds. These data are compared with the bolometer theory and are used to estimate the expected sensitivity of such a detector used for low background space astronomy. The results demonstrate that the sensitivity and speed of response requirements of the bolometer instruments proposed for these missions can be met by 100 mK spider-web bolometers using neutron transmutation doped germanium as the temperature sensitive element.

  6. Testing of 100 mK bolometers for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, A. G.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bhatia, R. S.; Griffin, M. J.; Maffei, B.; Nartallo, R.; Beeman, J. W.; Bock, J.; Lange, A.; DelCastillo, H.

    1996-01-01

    Electrical and optical performance data are presented for a prototype 100 mK spider-web bolometer operating under very low photon backgrounds. These data are compared with the bolometer theory and are used to estimate the expected sensitivity of such a detector used for low background space astronomy. The results demonstrate that the sensitivity and speed of response requirements of the bolometer instruments proposed for these missions can be met by 100 mK spider-web bolometers using neutron transmutation doped germanium as the temperature sensitive element.

  7. A 400 Gbps/100 m free-space optical link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chun-Yu; Lu, Hai-Han; Ho, Chun-Ming; Cheng, Ming-Te; Huang, Sheng-Jhe; Wang, Yun-Chieh; Chi, Jing-Kai

    2017-02-01

    A 400 Gbps/100 m free-space optical (FSO) link with dense-wavelength-division-multiplexing (DWDM)/space-division-multiplexing (SDM) techniques and a doublet lens scheme is proposed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a link adopting DWDM and SDM techniques and a doublet lens scheme has demonstrated a 400 Gbps/100 m FSO link. The experimental results show that the free-space transmission rate is significantly enhanced by the DWDM and SDM techniques, and the free-space transmission distance is greatly increased by the doublet lens scheme. A 16-channel FSO link with a total transmission rate of 400 Gbps (25 Gbps/λ  ×  16 λ  =  400 Gbps) over a 100 m free-space link is successfully demonstrated. Such a 400 Gbps/100 m DWDM/SDM FSO link provides the advantages of optical wireless communications for high transmission rates and long transmission distances, which is very useful for high-speed and long-haul light-based WiFi (LiFi) applications.

  8. Convection towers

    DOEpatents

    Prueitt, Melvin L.

    1994-01-01

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air and of generating electricity utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity. Other embodiments may also provide fresh water, and operate in an updraft mode.

  9. Convection towers

    DOEpatents

    Prueitt, M.L.

    1996-01-16

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air, of generating electricity, and of producing fresh water utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity, and condensers produce fresh water. 6 figs.

  10. Convection towers

    DOEpatents

    Prueitt, Melvin L.

    1995-01-01

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air, of generating electricity, and of producing fresh water utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity, and condensers produce fresh water.

  11. Convection towers

    DOEpatents

    Prueitt, Melvin L.

    1996-01-01

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air, of generating electricity, and of producing fresh water utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity, and condensers produce fresh water.

  12. Ant Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlot, Nathan; Shinotsuka, Sho; Hu, David

    2010-11-01

    Ants walk via adhesive drops of fluid extruded by their feet. They also use these drops as mortar to build structures such as rafts, bridges and towers, each composed of thousands of ants linked together. We investigate experimentally the construction of triangular ant towers braced by hydrophobic walls. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between tower height and contact angle hysteresis of the wall. We rationalize tower height according to ant adhesion, and tower shape according to the constraints on a column of constant strength.

  13. A Kinematics Analysis Of Three Best 100 M Performances Ever

    PubMed Central

    Krzysztof, Maćkała; Mero, Antti

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare and determine the relevance of the morphological characteristics and variability of running speed parameters (stride length and stride frequency) between Usain Bolt’s three best 100 m performances. Based on this, an attempt was made to define which factors determine the performance of Usain Bolt’s sprint and, therefore, distinguish him from other sprinters. We analyzed the previous world record of 9.69 s set in the 2008 Beijing Olympics, the current record of 9.58 s set in the 2009 Berlin World Championships in Athletics and the O lympic record of 9.63 s set in 2012 London Olympics Games by Usain Bolt. The application of VirtualDub Programme allowed the acquisition of basic kinematical variables such as step length and step frequency parameters of 100 m sprint from video footage provided by NBC TV station, BBC TV station. This data was compared with other data available on the web and data published by the Scientific Research Project Office responsible on behalf of IAAF and the German Athletics Association (DVL). The main hypothesis was that the step length is the main factor that determines running speed in the 10 and 20 m sections of the entire 100 m distance. Bolt’s anthropometric advantage (body height, leg length and liner body) is not questionable and it is one of the factors that makes him faster than the rest of the finalists from each three competitions. Additionally, Bolt’s 20 cm longer stride shows benefit in the latter part of the race. Despite these factors, he is probably able to strike the ground more forcefully than rest of sprinters, relative to their body mass, therefore, he might maximize his time on the ground and to exert the same force over this period of time. This ability, combined with longer stride allows him to create very high running speed - over 12 m/s (12.05 – 12.34 m/s) in some 10 m sections of his three 100 m performances. These assumption confirmed the application of

  14. Selected Determinants of Acceleration in the 100m Sprint

    PubMed Central

    Maćkała, Krzysztof; Fostiak, Marek; Kowalski, Kacper

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between kinematics, motor abilities, anthropometric characteristics, and the initial (10 m) and secondary (30 m) acceleration phases of the 100 m sprint among athletes of different sprinting performances. Eleven competitive male sprinters (10.96 s ± 0.36 for 100 with 10.50 s fastest time) and 11 active students (12.20 s ± 0.39 for 100 m with 11.80 s fastest time) volunteered to participate in this study. Sprinting performance (10 m, 30 m, and 100 m from the block start), strength (back squat, back extension), and jumping ability (standing long jump, standing five-jumps, and standing ten-jumps) were tested. An independent t-test for establishing differences between two groups of athletes was used. The Spearman ranking correlation coefficient was computed to verify the association between variables. Additionally, the Ward method of hierarchical cluster analysis was applied. The recorded times of the 10 and 30 m indicated that the strongest correlations were found between a 1-repetition maximum back squat, a standing long jump, standing five jumps, standing ten jumps (r = 0.66, r = 0.72, r = 0.66, and r = 0.72), and speed in the 10 m sprint in competitive athletes. A strong correlation was also found between a 1-repetition maximum back squat and a standing long jump, standing five jumps, and standing ten jumps (r = 0.88, r = 0.87 and r = 0.85), but again only for sprinters. The most important factor for differences in maximum speed development during both the initial and secondary acceleration phase among the two sub-groups was the stride frequency (p<0.01). PMID:25964817

  15. Selected determinants of acceleration in the 100m sprint.

    PubMed

    Maćkała, Krzysztof; Fostiak, Marek; Kowalski, Kacper

    2015-03-29

    The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between kinematics, motor abilities, anthropometric characteristics, and the initial (10 m) and secondary (30 m) acceleration phases of the 100 m sprint among athletes of different sprinting performances. Eleven competitive male sprinters (10.96 s ± 0.36 for 100 with 10.50 s fastest time) and 11 active students (12.20 s ± 0.39 for 100 m with 11.80 s fastest time) volunteered to participate in this study. Sprinting performance (10 m, 30 m, and 100 m from the block start), strength (back squat, back extension), and jumping ability (standing long jump, standing five-jumps, and standing ten-jumps) were tested. An independent t-test for establishing differences between two groups of athletes was used. The Spearman ranking correlation coefficient was computed to verify the association between variables. Additionally, the Ward method of hierarchical cluster analysis was applied. The recorded times of the 10 and 30 m indicated that the strongest correlations were found between a 1-repetition maximum back squat, a standing long jump, standing five jumps, standing ten jumps (r = 0.66, r = 0.72, r = 0.66, and r = 0.72), and speed in the 10 m sprint in competitive athletes. A strong correlation was also found between a 1-repetition maximum back squat and a standing long jump, standing five jumps, and standing ten jumps (r = 0.88, r = 0.87 and r = 0.85), but again only for sprinters. The most important factor for differences in maximum speed development during both the initial and secondary acceleration phase among the two sub-groups was the stride frequency (p<0.01).

  16. Convection towers

    DOEpatents

    Prueitt, M.L.

    1994-02-08

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air and of generating electricity utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity. Other embodiments may also provide fresh water, and operate in an updraft mode. 5 figures.

  17. Evaluation of muscle fatigue during 100-m front crawl.

    PubMed

    Stirn, Igor; Jarm, Tomaz; Kapus, Venceslav; Strojnik, Vojko

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate muscle fatigue in upper body muscles during 100-m all-out front crawl. Surface electromyogram (EMG) was collected from the pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi and triceps brachii muscles of 11 experienced swimmers. Blood lactate concentration level increased to 14.1 ± 2.9 mmol l(-1) 5 min after the swim. The velocity, stroke length and stroke rate calculated based on video analysis decreased by 15.0, 5.8 and 7.4%, respectively, during the swim. EMG amplitude of the triceps and the lower part of the latissimus muscles increased, whilst the mean power frequency (MNF) of all muscles significantly decreased by 20-25%. No significant differences in the relative MNF decrease were observed amongst the muscles; however, the differences in the rate of the MNF decrease between the lower part of the latissimus and the triceps brachii muscles were found (P < 0.05). The time of rest between the muscle activation of the two consecutive arm strokes at the end of swimming was extended (P < 0.05). It was concluded that 100-m all-out crawl induced significant fatigue with no evident differences amongst the analysed muscles.

  18. Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Guastad, Krista; Riihimaki, Laura; none,

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio (TWRMR) value-added product (VAP) is to calculate water-vapor mixing ratio at the 25-meter and 60-meter levels of the meteorological tower at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility.

  19. Radon data acquisition: An automated system for radon analysis of both ground air and tower air and for the simultaneous logging of meteorological data

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, S.

    1990-10-01

    A system to acquire radon data was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to provide information about the effect of weather conditions on the release of radon gas from soils into air. One of the system criteria that drive other design considerations was the need for operation at remote sites where the availability of 120-volt AC power was problematic. As a consequence, all components were selected or designed to run on +12 and/or {minus}12 volts DC. PC-based laptop computers were used for all data acquisition because of their availability, their low power consumption, and the abundance of software written for this platform. The system is comprised of four major sub-systems that are linked by laptop computers: radon-monitor controller, HANDAR 540 data-capture platform, radon-detection units, and barometric pressure unit. Using this system, we successfully collected data at an LLNL field site during 1990. Data from meteorological sensors and radon-concentration profiles from both air and soil were acquired simultaneously and logged on MS-DOS computers for data reduction at a future time. This document describes the functions, hardware, firmware, and software of this system.

  20. Collapsible Towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    NASA needed a means of orbiting a large radio telescope antenna. Astro Research Corporation developed a new structure that was strong, lightweight, folded into a small storage space, and could be erected by rotation. Later they adapted it to commercial use. Today the "Astromast" tower consists of tubular aluminum alloy and stainless steel members that deploy into small three-sided bays, each made rigid by six diagonal cables. All joints are flexible to permit folding and unfolding. Tower packs into container 5% of its height, can be erected without tools and is reusable. Tower has won "Design of the Year" award from Machine Design. Variations include portable emergency bridges and commercial scaffolding.

  1. Seasonal and annual variability of the global onshore and offshore wind power resource at 100 m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, C. L.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2010-12-01

    We present the results of numerical simulations of the global wind power potential over land and offshore with a coupled climate-meteorological-air pollution model, GATOR-GCMOM, that dynamically calculates wind power at the 100-m hub height of a modern 5 MW wind turbine at each time step. The model was run at various horizontal resolutions (4x5, 2x2.5, and 1.5x1.5 degrees of latitude and longitude) and with various initial conditions (summer or winter) for at least four years each. The global delivered wind power potential at 100 m at fast-wind locations (≥7 m/s) over land, excluding both polar regions, is found to be 138-150 TW (TW=1012 Watts) on average. This result further supports previous observation-based estimates of 72 TW at 80 m and model-based estimates of 79-126 TW at 100 m. Seasonal variations are however significant, with values as low as 94-102 TW in June-July-August (JJA) to 218-246 TW in December-January-February (DJF), with minima in September and maxima in January in all simulations. Global wind power over land at fast-wind locations during DJF is 1.6-2.5 times greater than that during JJA on average. Furthermore, the average wind power over land in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) is ˜126 TW, over 5 times greater than the Southern Hemisphere (SH) average (˜24 TW). In December, the NH wind power over land is up to 32 times greater than that in the SH. This suggests that the two hemispheres have different wind resources, driven by the different distributions of land and ocean areas. The offshore delivered wind power potential (excluding polar regions) is 15-23 TW at 100 m on average, consistent with previous estimates of 18-21 TW, varying between 16-17 and 19-31 TW from JJA to DJF. Wind power over land and near shore in fast-wind locations (which are 7-8% of the total land excluding polar regions) represents 7-10% of the theoretical global wind power over land plus ocean at all wind speeds of ˜1700 TW. Available wind power over land and near shore

  2. Tower counts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woody, Carol Ann; Johnson, D.H.; Shrier, Brianna M.; O'Neal, Jennifer S.; Knutzen, John A.; Augerot, Xanthippe; O'Neal, Thomas A.; Pearsons, Todd N.

    2007-01-01

    Counting towers provide an accurate, low-cost, low-maintenance, low-technology, and easily mobilized escapement estimation program compared to other methods (e.g., weirs, hydroacoustics, mark-recapture, and aerial surveys) (Thompson 1962; Siebel 1967; Cousens et al. 1982; Symons and Waldichuk 1984; Anderson 2000; Alaska Department of Fish and Game 2003). Counting tower data has been found to be consistent with that of digital video counts (Edwards 2005). Counting towers do not interfere with natural fish migration patterns, nor are fish handled or stressed; however, their use is generally limited to clear rivers that meet specific site selection criteria. The data provided by counting tower sampling allow fishery managers to determine reproductive population size, estimate total return (escapement + catch) and its uncertainty, evaluate population productivity and trends, set harvest rates, determine spawning escapement goals, and forecast future returns (Alaska Department of Fish and Game 1974-2000 and 1975-2004). The number of spawning fish is determined by subtracting subsistence, sport-caught fish, and prespawn mortality from the total estimated escapement. The methods outlined in this protocol for tower counts can be used to provide reasonable estimates ( plus or minus 6%-10%) of reproductive salmon population size and run timing in clear rivers. 

  3. Wind Shear Characteristics at Central Plains Tall Towers (presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, M.; Elliott, D.

    2006-06-05

    The objectives of this report are: (1) Analyze wind shear characteristics at tall tower sites for diverse areas in the central plains (Texas to North Dakota)--Turbines hub heights are now 70-100 m above ground and Wind measurements at 70-100+ m have been rare. (2) Present conclusions about wind shear characteristics for prime wind energy development regions.

  4. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Lambert, Winifred; Wheeler, Mark; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the second quarter of Fiscal Year 2007 (January - March 2007). Tasks reported on are: Obiective Lightning Probability Tool, Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting, Situational Lightning Climatologies for Central Florida, Anvil Threat Corridor Forecast Tool in AWIPS, Volume Averaqed Heiqht lnteq rated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR), Tower Data Skew-t Tool, and Weather Research and Forecastini (WRF) Model Sensitivity Study

  5. Towering Arches

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-04-06

    This still image from an animation from NASA GSFC Solar Dynamics Observatory shows arches of magnetic field lines towered over the edge of the Sun as a pair of active regions began to rotate into view Apr. 5-6, 2016.

  6. Rapunzel's Tower

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depp, Sheryl

    2007-01-01

    Children's literature often inspires the author's lessons, and reading to her primary students motivates their participation. In this article, the author presents and describes her lesson which is based on the book "Falling for Rapunzel" by Leah Wilcox. Students created a fairy tale tower in this lesson, which took place over three class periods.…

  7. 76 FR 36983 - Marking Meteorological Evaluation Towers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... database of METs, and making the guidance for marking mandatory. The American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) and California Wind Energy Association favored enhancing pilot safety. AWEA supported painting the... of METs in remote and rural areas that also have low-level flight operations. METs are used by wind...

  8. 76 FR 490 - Marking Meteorological Evaluation Towers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... energy, converted into electrical energy by wind turbines, is widely pursued as a viable alternative. In order to determine if a site meets requirements to construct a wind turbine or wind farm, companies... represents a potential location for the installation of wind turbines. Requirements to file notice under part...

  9. Virtual Tower

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne, R.A.

    1997-08-01

    The primary responsibility of an intrusion detection system (IDS) operator is to monitor the system, assess alarms, and summon and coordinate the response team when a threat is acknowledged. The tools currently provided to the operator are somewhat limited: monitors must be switched, keystrokes must be entered to call up intrusion sensor data, and communication with the response force must be maintained. The Virtual tower is an operator interface assembled from low-cost commercial-off-the-shelf hardware and software; it enables large amounts of data to be displayed in a virtual manner that provides instant recognition for the operator and increases assessment accuracy in alarm annunciator and control systems. This is accomplished by correlating and fusing the data into a 360-degree visual representation that employs color, auxiliary attributes, video, and directional audio to prompt the operator. The Virtual Tower would be a valuable low-cost enhancement to existing systems.

  10. Crop suitability monitoring for improved yield estimations with 100m PROBA-V data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özüm Durgun, Yetkin; Gilliams, Sven; Gobin, Anne; Duveiller, Grégory; Djaby, Bakary; Tychon, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    This study has been realised within the framework of a PhD targeting to advance agricultural monitoring with improved yield estimations using SPOT VEGETATION remotely sensed data. For the first research question, the aim was to improve dry matter productivity (DMP) for C3 and C4 plants by adding a water stress factor. Additionally, the relation between the actual crop yield and DMP was studied. One of the limitations was the lack of crop specific maps which leads to the second research question on 'crop suitability monitoring'. The objective of this work is to create a methodological approach based on the spectral and temporal characteristics of PROBA-V images and ancillary data such as meteorology, soil and topographic data to improve the estimation of annual crop yields. The PROBA-V satellite was launched on 6th May 2013, and was designed to bridge the gap in space-borne vegetation measurements between SPOT-VGT (March 1998 - May 2014) and the upcoming Sentinel-3 satellites scheduled for launch in 2015/2016. PROBA -V has products in four spectral bands: BLUE (centred at 0.463 µm), RED (0.655 µm), NIR (0.845 µm), and SWIR (1.600 µm) with a spatial resolution ranging from 1km to 300m. Due to the construction of the sensor, the central camera can provide a 100m data product with a 5 to 8 days revisiting time. Although the 100m data product is still in test phase a methodology for crop suitability monitoring was developed. The multi-spectral composites, NDVI (Normalised Difference Vegetation Index) (NIR_RED/NIR+RED) and NDII (Normalised Difference Infrared Index) (NIR-SWIR/NIR+SWIR) profiles are used in addition to secondary data such as digital elevation data, precipitation, temperature, soil types and administrative boundaries to improve the accuracy of crop yield estimations. The methodology is evaluated on several FP7 SIGMA test sites for the 2014 - 2015 period. Reference data in the form of vector GIS with boundaries and cover type of agricultural fields are

  11. FLORIDA TOWER FOOTPRINT EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    WATSON,T.B.; DIETZ, R.N.; WILKE, R.; HENDREY, G.; LEWIN, K.; NAGY, J.; LECLERC, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Florida Footprint experiments were a series of field programs in which perfluorocarbon tracers were released in different configurations centered on a flux tower to generate a data set that can be used to test transport and dispersion models. These models are used to determine the sources of the CO{sub 2} that cause the fluxes measured at eddy covariance towers. Experiments were conducted in a managed slash pine forest, 10 km northeast of Gainesville, Florida, in 2002, 2004, and 2006 and in atmospheric conditions that ranged from well mixed, to very stable, including the transition period between convective conditions at midday to stable conditions after sun set. There were a total of 15 experiments. The characteristics of the PFTs, details of sampling and analysis methods, quality control measures, and analytical statistics including confidence limits are presented. Details of the field programs including tracer release rates, tracer source configurations, and configuration of the samplers are discussed. The result of this experiment is a high quality, well documented tracer and meteorological data set that can be used to improve and validate canopy dispersion models.

  12. 8. SOUTH SIDE OF EAST PHOTO TOWER; ELECTRICAL POWER BOX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. SOUTH SIDE OF EAST PHOTO TOWER; ELECTRICAL POWER BOX ON RIGHT. LEFT TO RIGHT IN BACKGROUND: A STORAGE SHED (BLDG. 776), METEOROLOGICAL TOWER, PYROTECHNIC SHED (BLDG. 757), AND SLC-3W MST. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  13. Plant Vogtle cooling tower studies

    SciTech Connect

    O'Steen, L.

    2000-01-26

    Intensive ground-based field studies of plumes from two large, natural-draft cooling towers were conducted in support of the MTI modeling effort. Panchromatic imagery, IR imagery, meteorological data, internal tower temperatures and plant power data were collected during the field studies. These data were used to evaluate plume simulations, plume radioactive transfer calculations and plume volume estimation algorithms used for power estimation. Results from six field studies indicate that a 3-D atmospheric model at sufficient spatial resolution can effectively simulate a cooling tower plume if the plume is of sufficient size and the ambient meteorology is known and steady. Small plumes and gusty wind conditions degrade the agreement between the simulated and observed plumes. Thermal radiance calculations based on the simulated plumes produced maximum IR temperatures (near tower exit) which were in good agreement with measured IR temperatures for the larger plumes. For the smaller plumes, the calculated IR temperature was lower than the measured temperature by several degrees. Variations in maximum IR plume temperature with decreasing power (one reactor was undergoing a shutdown process), were clearly observed in the IR imagery and seen in the simulations. These temperature changes agreed with those calculated from an overall tower energy and momentum balance. Plume volume estimates based on camcorder images at three look angles were typically 20--30 percent larger than the plume volumes derived from the simulations, although one estimate was twice the simulated volume. Volume overestimation is expected and will have to be accounted for to some degree if plume volume is to be a useful diagnostic quantity in power estimation. Volume estimation with MTI imagery will require a large, stable plume and two looks in the visible bands (5m GSD) along with a solar shadow.

  14. Motivational Meteorology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Lee

    1993-01-01

    Describes an introductory meteorology course for nonacademic high school students. The course is made hands-on by the use of an educational software program offered by Accu-Weather. The program contains a meteorology database and instructional modules. (PR)

  15. Motivational Meteorology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Lee

    1993-01-01

    Describes an introductory meteorology course for nonacademic high school students. The course is made hands-on by the use of an educational software program offered by Accu-Weather. The program contains a meteorology database and instructional modules. (PR)

  16. Tower Mesonetwork Climatology and Interactive Display Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Bauman, William H., III

    2004-01-01

    Forecasters at the 45th Weather Squadron and Spaceflight Meteorology Group use data from the tower network over the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) to evaluate Launch Commit Criteria, and issue and verify forecasts for ground operations. Systematic biases in these parameters could adversely affect an analysis, forecast, or verification. Also, substantial geographical variations in temperature and wind speed can occur under specific wind directions. To address these concerns, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed a climatology of temperatures and winds from the tower network, and identified the geographical variation and significant tower biases. The mesoclimate is largely driven by the complex land-water interfaces across KSC/CCAFS. Towers with close proximity to water typically had much warmer nocturnal temperatures and higher wind speeds throughout the year. The strongest nocturnal wind speeds occurred from October to March whereas the strongest mean daytime wind speeds occurred from February to May. These results of this project can be viewed by forecasters through an interactive graphical user interface developed by the AMU. The web-based interface includes graphical and map displays of mean, standard deviation, bias, and data availability for any combination of towers, variables, months, hours, and wind directions.

  17. Vertical and Horizontal Jump Tests Are Strongly Associated With Competitive Performance in 100-m Dash Events.

    PubMed

    Loturco, Irineu; Pereira, Lucas A; Cal Abad, Cesar C; DʼAngelo, Ricardo A; Fernandes, Victor; Kitamura, Katia; Kobal, Ronaldo; Nakamura, Fabio Y

    2015-07-01

    Fourteen male elite sprinters performed short-distance sprints and jump tests until 18 days before 100-m dash competitions in track and field to determine if these tests are associated with 100-m sprint times. Testing comprised of squat jumps (SJ), countermovement jumps (CMJ), horizontal jumps (HJ), maximum mean propulsive power relative to body mass in loaded jump squats, and a flying start 50-m sprint. Moderate associations were found between speed tests and competitive 100-m times (r = 0.54, r = 0.61, and r = 0.66 for 10-, 30-, and 50-m, respectively, p ≤ 0.05). In addition, the maximum mean propulsive power relative to body mass was very largely correlated with 100-m sprinting performance (r = 0.75, p < 0.01). The correlations of SJ, CMJ, and HJ with actual 100-m sprinting times amounted to -0.82, -0.85, and -0.81, respectively. Because of their practicality, safeness, and relationship with the actual times obtained by top-level athletes in 100-m dash events, it is highly recommended that SJ, CMJ, and HJ be regularly incorporated into elite sprint-testing routines.

  18. Towering Infernos

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-11-09

    This majestic false-color image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows the "mountains" where stars are born. Dubbed "Mountains of Creation" by Spitzer scientists, these towering pillars of cool gas and dust are illuminated at their tips with light from warm embryonic stars. The new infrared picture is reminiscent of Hubble's iconic visible-light image of the Eagle Nebula, which also features a star-forming region, or nebula, that is being sculpted into pillars by radiation and winds from hot, massive stars. The pillars in the Spitzer image are part of a region called W5, in the Cassiopeia constellation 7,000 light-years away and 50 light-years across. They are more than 10 times in the size of those in the Eagle Nebula (shown to scale here). The Spitzer's view differs from Hubble's because infrared light penetrates dust, whereas visible light is blocked by it. In the Spitzer image, hundreds of forming stars (white/yellow) can seen for the first time inside the central pillar, and dozens inside the tall pillar to the left. Scientists believe these star clusters were triggered into existence by radiation and winds from an "initiator" star more than 10 times the mass of our Sun. This star is not pictured, but the finger-like pillars "point" toward its location above the image frame. The Spitzer picture also reveals stars (blue) a bit older than the ones in the pillar tips in the evacuated areas between the clouds. Scientists believe these stars were born around the same time as the massive initiator star not pictured. A third group of young stars occupies the bright area below the central pillar. It is not known whether these stars formed in a related or separate event. Some of the blue dots are foreground stars that are not members of this nebula. The red color in the Spitzer image represents organic molecules known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These building blocks of life are often found in star-forming clouds of gas and dust. Like small dust grains

  19. Typical Mid Tower Elevation & Section, Typical Mid Tower Footing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Typical Mid Tower Elevation & Section, Typical Mid Tower Footing Section & Elevation, South Tower Section & Elevation, and North Tower Sections & Elevation - Cape Arago Light Station Footbridge, Gregory Point, Charleston, Coos County, OR

  20. Cellular Phone Towers

    MedlinePlus

    ... the call. How are people exposed to the energy from cellular phone towers? As people use cell ... where people can be exposed to them. The energy from a cellular phone tower antenna, like that ...

  1. Meteorological Monitoring And Warning Computer Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Randolph J.; Dianic, Allan V.; Moore, Lien N.

    1996-01-01

    Meteorological monitoring system (MMS) computer network tracks weather conditions and issues warnings when weather hazards are about to occur. Receives data from such meteorological instruments as wind sensors on towers and lightning detectors, and compares data with weather restrictions specified for outdoor activities. If weather violates restriction, network generates audible and visible alarms to alert people involved in activity. Also displays weather and toxic diffusion data and disseminates weather forecasts, advisories, and warnings to workstations.

  2. Meteorological Monitoring And Warning Computer Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Randolph J.; Dianic, Allan V.; Moore, Lien N.

    1996-01-01

    Meteorological monitoring system (MMS) computer network tracks weather conditions and issues warnings when weather hazards are about to occur. Receives data from such meteorological instruments as wind sensors on towers and lightning detectors, and compares data with weather restrictions specified for outdoor activities. If weather violates restriction, network generates audible and visible alarms to alert people involved in activity. Also displays weather and toxic diffusion data and disseminates weather forecasts, advisories, and warnings to workstations.

  3. 100-mK bolometric receiver for low-background astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, S. T.; Clapp, Andre; Devlin, Mark J.; Fischer, Marc L.; Hagmann, Chris; Lange, A. E.; Richards, Paul L.

    1993-10-01

    The design and construction of 100 mK composite bolometers for low background submillimeter and millimeter-wave astronomy are discussed. The bolometers are cooled to 100 mK using an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator. The bolometers consist of a silicon substrate suspended by nylon fibers, a bismuth film absorber, a neutron transmutation doped germanium thermometer with graphite fiber electrical leads, and a brass wire thermal strap. Heated JFET amplifiers located on the 1.5 K cold plate are used to read out the bolometer signals. Electrically measured noise equivalent powers as low as 2 X 10(superscript -17) W/(root)Hz have been achieved.

  4. Meteorology Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity to learn about meteorology and weather using the internet. Discusses the National Weather Service (NWS) internet site www.weather.gov. Students examine maximum and minimum daily temperatures, wind speed, and direction. (SAH)

  5. Meteorology Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity to learn about meteorology and weather using the internet. Discusses the National Weather Service (NWS) internet site www.weather.gov. Students examine maximum and minimum daily temperatures, wind speed, and direction. (SAH)

  6. Adriatic Meteorology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-30

    Italian AGIP gas platform Amelia-B, site of one of four automated meteorological stations. The third approach was to fill in between the fixed...effort. A summer 2002 visit was made to AGIP , the Italian national petroleum company that owns the Adriatic gas platforms. Access to the gas...more than 3 weeks late. Four automated meteorological stations were installed on four Italian AGIP gas platforms in the NW Adriatic by 7 February

  7. Does warm-up have a beneficial effect on 100-m freestyle?

    PubMed

    Neiva, Henrique P; Marques, Mario C; Fernandes, Ricardo J; Viana, João L; Barbosa, Tiago M; Marinho, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of warm-up on 100-m swimming performance. Twenty competitive swimmers (with a training frequency of 8.0 ± 1.0 sessions/wk) performed 2 maximal 100-m freestyle trials on separate days, with and without prior warm-up, in a counterbalanced and randomized design. The warm-up distance totaled 1000 m and replicated the swimmers' usual precompetition warm-up strategy. Performance (time), physiological (capillary blood lactate concentrations), psychophysiological (perceived exertion), and biomechanical variables (distance per stroke, stroke frequency, and stroke index) were assessed on both trials. Performance in the 100-m was fastest in the warm-up condition (67.15 ± 5.60 vs 68.10 ± 5.14 s; P = .01), although 3 swimmers swam faster without warm-up. Critical to this was the 1st 50-m lap (32.10 ± 2.59 vs 32.78 ± 2.33 s; P < .01), where the swimmers presented higher distance per stroke (2.06 ± 0.19 vs. 1.98 ± 0.16 m; P = .04) and swimming efficiency compared with the no-warm-up condition (stroke index 3.46 ± 0.53 vs 3.14 ± 0.44 m2 · c1 · s1; P < .01). Notwithstanding this better stroke-kinematic pattern, blood lactate concentrations and perceived exertion were similar between trials. These results suggest that swimmers' usual warm-up routines lead to faster 100-m freestyle swimming performance, a factor that appears to be related to better swimming efficiency in the 1st lap of the race. This study highlights the importance of performing swimming drills (for higher distance per stroke) before a maximal 100-m freestyle effort in similar groups of swimmers.

  8. BOREAS AFM-6 Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminsitration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) collected surface meteorological data from 21 May to 20 Sep 1994 near the Southern Study Area-Old Jack Pine (SSA-OJP) tower site. The data are in tabular ASCII files. The surface meteorological data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  9. BOREAS TE-21 Daily Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimball, John; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-21 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the meteorology of boreal forest areas. Daily meteorological data were derived from half-hourly BOREAS tower flux (TF) and Automatic Meteorological Station (AMS) mesonet measurements collected in the Southern and Northern Study Areas (SSA and NSA) for the period of 01 Jan 1994 until 31 Dec 1994. The data were stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  10. Efficient Dual Head Nd:YAG 100mJ Oscillator for Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyle, Donald B.; Stysley, Paul R.; Kay, Richard b.; Poulios, Demetrios

    2007-01-01

    A diode pumped, Nd:YAG laser producing 100 mJ Q-switched pulses and employing a dual-pump head scheme in an unstable resonator configuration is described. Each head contains a side pumped zig-zag slab and four 6-bar QCW 808 nm diodes arrays which are de-rated 23%. Denoting 'z' as the lasing axis, the pump directions were along the x-axis in one head and the y-axis in the other, producing a circularized thermal lens, more typical in laser rod-based cavities. The dual head design's effective thermal lens is now corrected with a proper HR mirror curvature selection. This laser has demonstrated over 100 mJ output with high optical efficiency (24%), good TEM(sub 00) beam quality, and high pointing stability.

  11. Modeling of Women's 100-M Dash World Record: Wind-Aided or Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazelrigg, Conner; Waibel, Bryson; Baker, Blane

    2015-01-01

    On July 16, 1988, Florence Griffith Joyner (FGJ) shattered the women's 100-m dash world record (WR) with a time of 10.49 s, breaking the previous mark by an astonishing 0.27 s. By all accounts FGJ dominated the race that day, securing her place as the premiere female sprinter of that era, and possibly all time. In the aftermath of such an…

  12. Modeling of Women's 100-M Dash World Record: Wind-Aided or Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazelrigg, Conner; Waibel, Bryson; Baker, Blane

    2015-01-01

    On July 16, 1988, Florence Griffith Joyner (FGJ) shattered the women's 100-m dash world record (WR) with a time of 10.49 s, breaking the previous mark by an astonishing 0.27 s. By all accounts FGJ dominated the race that day, securing her place as the premiere female sprinter of that era, and possibly all time. In the aftermath of such an…

  13. Evaluation of the EFCOM SC-100M/120M/125M wireless underwater communicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, J. R.

    1982-04-01

    In June 1981, the EFCOM SC-100M/120M/125M wireless communications system was evaluated in conjunction with the AGA DIVATOR 324 Full-Face Mask by the Navy Experimental Diving Unit. The purpose was to determine the systems suitability for U.S. Navy use with open-circuit Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (SCUBA). The EFCOM system was evaluated for intelligibility, reliability and human engineering.

  14. Auditory scene analysis and sensory memory: the role of the auditory N100m.

    PubMed

    May, P J C; Tiitinen, H

    2004-11-30

    We consider the neural dynamics underlying auditory streaming, the perceptual grouping of transient auditory events, by using neural modeling and magnetoencephalographic (MEG) measurements in humans. We demonstrate that spatial variations in the strength of feedback inhibition leads to differential amplitude modulation (AM) tuning resembling that found in animal models. In our model, neurons respond selectively to stimuli presented at different onset-to-onset interstimulus intervals (ISIs), and their summed activity (corresponding to the MEG signal) exhibits both transient and sustained responses (SRs) at fast ISIs. In MEG measurements utilizing 2-s trains of 50-ms stimuli presented at 0-1950 ms ISIs, we observed the transient N100m and SRs predicted by the model, with a prominent SR emerging for discrete stimuli at ISIs below 200 ms. Our results explain why, at fast stimulus rates, the amplitude of the auditory N100m appears to be strongly attenuated even though auditory cortex continues to respond vigorously to the stimuli. The results suggest that the longer and shorter forms of auditory sensory memory may be reflected in the N100m and the SR, respectively. As the emergence of the SR coincides with the stimuli being perceived as auditory streams, our study suggests that auditory sensory memory as indexed by transient and sustained cortical activity might underlie auditory scene analysis.

  15. Remote Raman Spectroscopic Detection of Inorganic, Organic and Biological Materials to 100 m and More

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Shiv K.; Misra, Anupam K.

    2008-11-01

    We have designed and tested a portable gated-Raman system that is capable of detecting organic and inorganic bulk chemicals over stand-off distances of 100 m and more during day and night time. Utilizing a 532 nm laser pulse (~35 mJ/pulse), Raman spectra of several organic and inorganic compounds have been measured with the portable Raman instrument over a distance of 100 m. Remote Raman spectra, obtained with a very short gate (2 micro second), from a variety of inorganic minerals such as calcite (CaCO3), α-quartz (α-SiO2), barite (BaSO4), and FeSO4.7H2O, and organic compounds such as acetone, methanol, 2-propanol and naphthalene showed all major bands required for unambiguous chemical identification. We also measured the Raman and fluorescence spectra of plant leaves, tomato, and chicken eggshell excited with a 532 nm, 20 Hz pulsed laser and accumulated over 200 laser shots (10-s integration time) at 110 m with good signal-to-noise ratio. The results of these investigations show that remote Raman spectroscopy over a distance of 100 m can be used to identify Raman fingerprints of both inorganic, organic, and some biological compounds on planetary surfaces and could be useful for environmental monitoring.

  16. The Influence of Different Hand Paddle Size on 100-m Front Crawl Kinematics

    PubMed Central

    López-Plaza, Daniel; Alacid, Fernando; López-Miñarro, Pedro A.; Muyor, José M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of different sizes of hand paddles on kinematic parameters during a 100 m freestyle swimming performance in elite swimmers. Nine elite swimmers (19.1 ± 1.9 years) completed three tests of 100 m without paddles, with small paddles (271.27 cm2) and with large paddles (332.67 cm2), respectively. One video camera was used to record the performance during the three trials. The mean swimming velocity, stroke rate and stroke length were measured in the central 10 meters of each 50 m length. The results showed that stroke length tended to increase significantly when wearing hand paddles (p < 0.05) during both the first and second 50 m sections whereas the increase in swimming velocity occurred only in the second 50 m (p < 0.05). Conversely, the stroke rate showed a slight decreasing trend with increasing paddle size. During the 100 m freestyle trial the stroke kinematics were changed significantly as a result of the increase in propelling surface size when hand paddles were worn. PMID:23486988

  17. 13. INTERIOR VIEW OF TOWER OFFICE SHOWING CONTROL TOWER DESK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR VIEW OF TOWER OFFICE SHOWING CONTROL TOWER DESK, FACING NORTHWEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Signal Tower, Corner of Seventh Street & Avenue D east of Drydock No. 1, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. Data Assimilation of PROBA-V 100 m and 300 m.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliams, S. J. B.; Kempeneers, P.

    2015-12-01

    One of the goals of the FP7 SIGMA projects is the extension of remote sensing time series to better monitor agricultural productivity at global scale. Extending these time series can be seen in differnt ways; on the one hand we are looking at the integration of different existing data sets with equal resolution e.g. SPOT-VGT and PROBA-V 1km resolution, or building new time series for Eta and Soil moisture. on the other hand we are also updating methods to extend existing time series with respect to their resolution and revisting frequency. The research presentend here will focus on the latter, focussing on the integration of PROBA-V 100 and 300m. The PROBA-V microsatellite is designed to offer a global coverage of land surfaces at four spectral bands at a spatial resolution of 300 m and 1 km with a daily revisit for latitudes 75°N to 56°S [1]. Due to the specific design, data can also be acquired at 100 m for a reduced swath, providing partial coverage (global coverage only every 5 days). This study proposes a data assimilation method that combines the 100 m data at the reduced swath with PROBA-V 300 m resolution data at the full swath. The resulting product is a synthetic product at 100 m spatial resolution, with a potential revisit time equal to the 300 m products (S10@300). Here, we concentrate on a ten day composite product (K10@100), to mitigate the effect of clouds. The goal of the proposed method is to produce continuous and cloud free time series of PROBA-V data at 100 m spatial resolution. The S10@300 and S10@100 ten day composits serve as input, with respective spatial resolutions of 300 m and 100 m. Whereas the S10@300 is obtained from all sensors onbaord the PROBA-V platform, the S10@100 is the product from the central viewing sensor only. Due to a combination of the reduced swath and potential cloud cover, the S10@100 is typically sparse (gaps). The data assimilation method follows the approach proposed in that is based on a Kalman filter. It is a

  19. Airport Remote Tower Sensor Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maluf, David A.; Gawdiak, Yuri; Leidichj, Christopher; Papasin, Richard; Tran, Peter B.; Bass, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Networks of video cameras, meteorological sensors, and ancillary electronic equipment are under development in collaboration among NASA Ames Research Center, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). These networks are to be established at and near airports to provide real-time information on local weather conditions that affect aircraft approaches and landings. The prototype network is an airport-approach-zone camera system (AAZCS), which has been deployed at San Francisco International Airport (SFO) and San Carlos Airport (SQL). The AAZCS includes remotely controlled color video cameras located on top of SFO and SQL air-traffic control towers. The cameras are controlled by the NOAA Center Weather Service Unit located at the Oakland Air Route Traffic Control Center and are accessible via a secure Web site. The AAZCS cameras can be zoomed and can be panned and tilted to cover a field of view 220 wide. The NOAA observer can see the sky condition as it is changing, thereby making possible a real-time evaluation of the conditions along the approach zones of SFO and SQL. The next-generation network, denoted a remote tower sensor system (RTSS), will soon be deployed at the Half Moon Bay Airport and a version of it will eventually be deployed at Los Angeles International Airport. In addition to remote control of video cameras via secure Web links, the RTSS offers realtime weather observations, remote sensing, portability, and a capability for deployment at remote and uninhabited sites. The RTSS can be used at airports that lack control towers, as well as at major airport hubs, to provide synthetic augmentation of vision for both local and remote operations under what would otherwise be conditions of low or even zero visibility.

  20. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The AMU Team began four new tasks in this quarter: (1) began work to improve the AMU-developed tool that provides the launch weather officers information on peak wind speeds that helps them assess their launch commit criteria; (2) began updating lightning climatologies for airfields around central Florida. These climatologies help National Weather Service and Air Force forecasters determine the probability of lightning occurrence at these sites; (3) began a study for the 30th Weather Squadron at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California to determine if precursors can be found in weather observations to help the forecasters determine when they will get strong wind gusts in their northern towers; and (4) began work to update the AMU-developed severe weather tool with more data and possibly improve its performance using a new statistical technique. Include is a section of summaries and detail reporting on the quarterly tasks: (1) Peak Wind Tool for user Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (LCC), Phase IV, (2) Situational Lightning climatologies for Central Florida, Phase V, (3) Vandenberg AFB North Base Wind Study and (4) Upgrade Summer Severe Weather Tool Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS).

  1. 43. TOP OF SOUTHEAST TOWER FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. TOP OF SOUTHEAST TOWER FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING EAST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. 36. FLAG TOWER CLOCK ZONE FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. FLAG TOWER CLOCK ZONE FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING NORTH - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. 37. NORTH TOWER UPPER ZONE FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. NORTH TOWER UPPER ZONE FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING NORTH - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. 47. NORTHWEST TOWER FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING NORTH BY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. NORTHWEST TOWER FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING NORTH BY NORTHWEST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. 40. CAMPANILE & SOUTHEAST TOWER FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. CAMPANILE & SOUTHEAST TOWER FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING EAST BY NORTHEAST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. 19. NORTH TOWER, PORTE COCHERE & FLAG TOWER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. NORTH TOWER, PORTE COCHERE & FLAG TOWER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. 18. NORTH TOWER, PORTE COCHERE & FLAG TOWER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. NORTH TOWER, PORTE COCHERE & FLAG TOWER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST BY WEST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. Confusion at the Tower

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Loretta F.

    2014-01-01

    This study will explore the omission of the Tower of Babel narrative from middle and secondary school world history, world studies, and world geography textbooks and will consider what might be learned from inclusion of the story in the curriculum. A total of 17 textbooks are analyzed. The Tower of Babel narrative is examined within the context of…

  9. Leaning Tower of PESA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, John

    2009-01-01

    There is a certain similarity between the Philosophy of Education Society of Australasia (PESA) and the leaning tower of Pisa. Both have a certain presence on the landscape: the tower has a commanding appearance on the Italian countryside while PESA has left its mark on the academic fabric of Australasia. Both are much loved: Pisa by visiting…

  10. Drop Tower Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittrich, William A.

    2014-01-01

    The drop towers of yesteryear were used to make lead shot for muskets, as described in "The Physics Teacher" in April 2012. However, modern drop towers are essentially elevators designed so that the cable can "break" on demand, creating an environment with microgravity for a short period of time, currently up to nine seconds at…

  11. Drop Tower Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittrich, William A.

    2014-01-01

    The drop towers of yesteryear were used to make lead shot for muskets, as described in "The Physics Teacher" in April 2012. However, modern drop towers are essentially elevators designed so that the cable can "break" on demand, creating an environment with microgravity for a short period of time, currently up to nine seconds at…

  12. Confusion at the Tower

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Loretta F.

    2014-01-01

    This study will explore the omission of the Tower of Babel narrative from middle and secondary school world history, world studies, and world geography textbooks and will consider what might be learned from inclusion of the story in the curriculum. A total of 17 textbooks are analyzed. The Tower of Babel narrative is examined within the context of…

  13. Normative Spatiotemporal Parameters During 100-m Sprints in Amputee Sprinters Using Running-Specific Prostheses.

    PubMed

    Hobara, Hiroaki; Potthast, Wolfgang; Müller, Ralf; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Heldoorn, Thijs A; Mochimaru, Masaaki

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a normative sample of step frequency and step length during maximal sprinting in amputee sprinters. We analyzed elite-level 100-m races of 255 amputees and 93 able-bodied sprinters, both men and women, from publicly-available Internet broadcasts. For each sprinter's run, the average forward velocity, step frequency, and step length over the 100-m distance were analyzed by using the official record and number of steps in each race. The average forward velocity was greatest in able-bodied sprinters (10.04 ± 0.17 m/s), followed by bilateral transtibial (8.77 ± 0.27 m/s), unilateral transtibial (8.65 ± 0.30 m/s), and transfemoral amputee sprinters (7.65 ± 0.38 m/s) in men. Differences in velocity among 4 groups were associated with step length (able-bodied vs transtibial amputees) or both step frequency and step length (able-bodied vs transfemoral amputees). Although we also found that the velocity was greatest in able-bodied sprinters (9.10 ± 0.14 m/s), followed by unilateral transtibial (7.08 ± 0.26 m/s), bilateral transtibial (7.06 ± 0.48 m/s), and transfemoral amputee sprinters (5.92 ± 0.33 m/s) in women, the differences in the velocity among the groups were associated with both step frequency and step length. Current results suggest that spatiotemporal parameters during a 100-m race of amputee sprinters is varied by amputation levels and sex.

  14. Wind tower service lift

    DOEpatents

    Oliphant, David; Quilter, Jared; Andersen, Todd; Conroy, Thomas

    2011-09-13

    An apparatus used for maintaining a wind tower structure wherein the wind tower structure may have a plurality of legs and may be configured to support a wind turbine above the ground in a better position to interface with winds. The lift structure may be configured for carrying objects and have a guide system and drive system for mechanically communicating with a primary cable, rail or other first elongate member attached to the wind tower structure. The drive system and guide system may transmit forces that move the lift relative to the cable and thereby relative to the wind tower structure. A control interface may be included for controlling the amount and direction of the power into the guide system and drive system thereby causing the guide system and drive system to move the lift relative to said first elongate member such that said lift moves relative to said wind tower structure.

  15. "Big Data Assimilation" for 30-second-update 100-m-mesh Numerical Weather Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, Takemasa; Lien, Guo-Yuan; Kunii, Masaru; Ruiz, Juan; Maejima, Yasumitsu; Otsuka, Shigenori; Kondo, Keiichi; Seko, Hiromu; Satoh, Shinsuke; Ushio, Tomoo; Bessho, Kotaro; Kamide, Kazumi; Tomita, Hirofumi; Nishizawa, Seiya; Yamaura, Tsuyoshi; Ishikawa, Yutaka

    2017-04-01

    A typical lifetime of a single cumulonimbus is within an hour, and radar observations often show rapid changes in only a 5-minute period. For precise prediction of such rapidly-changing local severe storms, we have developed what we call a "Big Data Assimilation" (BDA) system that performs 30-second-update data assimilation cycles at 100-m grid spacing. The concept shares that of NOAA's Warn-on-Forecast (WoF), in which rapidly-updated high-resolution NWP will play a central role in issuing severe-storm warnings even only minutes in advance. The 100-m resolution and 30-second update frequency are a leap above typical recent research settings, and it was possible by the fortunate combination of Japan's most advanced supercomputing and sensing technologies: the 10-petaflops K computer and the Phased Array Weather Radar (PAWR). The X-band PAWR is capable of a dense three-dimensional volume scan at 100-m range resolution with 100 elevation angles and 300 azimuth angles, up to 60-km range within 30 seconds. The PAWR data show temporally-smooth evolution of convective rainstorms. This gives us a hope that we may assume the Gaussian error distribution in 30-second forecasts before strong nonlinear dynamics distort the error distribution for rapidly-changing convective storms. With this in mind, we apply the Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (LETKF) that considers flow-dependent error covariance explicitly under the Gaussian-error assumption. The flow-dependence would be particularly important in rapidly-changing convective weather. Using a 100-member ensemble at 100-m resolution, we have tested the Big Data Assimilation system in real-world cases of sudden local rainstorms, and obtained promising results. However, the real-time application is a big challenge, and currently it takes 10 minutes for a cycle. We explore approaches to accelerating the computations, such as using single-precision arrays in the model computation and developing an efficient I/O middleware for

  16. Influence of a 100-M Simulated In-Water Rescue on Cardiopulmonary Parameters.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Ana; Fernandes, Ricardo J; Rodríguez, Núria; Abraldes, J Arturo

    2017-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) after a drowning episode is performed under fatigue conditions. However, the characterization of CPR in this context is still unknown. Our purpose was to investigate the effect of a 100-m simulated in-water rescue on CPR and physiological parameters in trained certified lifeguards. Thirty trained certified lifeguards (age 24.6 ± 3.8 yrs; height 178.2 ± 7.4 cm and weight 76.9 ± 10.6 kg) completed two protocols using an adult manikin: (i) 4-min CPR after 4-min baseline conditions (CPR), and (ii) 4-min CPR after a 100-m simulated in-water rescue in the sea (CPR Rescue), both with a compression-ventilation ratio of 30:2. Physiological parameters of the subjects were continuously measured (breath-by-breath) during baseline and CPR conditions, using a telemetric portable gas analyzer (K4b (2) , Cosmed, Rome, Italy) and CPR techniques analyzed using two HD video cameras (Sony, HDR PJ30VE, Japan). The 100-m simulated in-water rescue induced higher values of physiological related parameters all over the 4-min CPR exercise (e.g. Tidal Volume: 1.5 ± 0.4 and 2.4 ± 0.5 L; VO2: 15.9 ± 3.9 and 22.8 ± 3.2 ml.kg(-1).min(-1); R: 0.9 ± 0.1 and 1.2 ± 0.1, for CPR and CPR Rescue, respectively). However, the compression rate was higher in CPR Rescue compared to the CPR in the first (cycle 3: 85 ± 12 vs. 78 ± 9 s) and last three complete cycles (cycle 12: 100 ± 12 and 85 ± 12 s), and, in both conditions, it increased from the first to the last CPR complete cycle. Fatigue induced by the 100-m simulated in-water rescue had a strong physiological expression but a minimal impact on CPR performance. Key words: CPR; fatigue; lifeguards; VO2.

  17. Automated emergency meteorological response system

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper, D W

    1980-01-01

    A sophisticated emergency response system was developed to aid in the evaluation of accidental releases of hazardous materials from the Savannah River Plant to the environment. A minicomputer system collects and archives data from both onsite meteorological towers and the National Weather Service. In the event of an accidental release, the computer rapidly calculates the trajectory and dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere. Computer codes have been developed which provide a graphic display of predicted concentration profiles downwind from the source, as functions of time and distance.

  18. Meteorological satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, L. J. (Editor); Schnapf, A.; Diesen, B. C., III; Martin, P. S.; Schwalb, A.; Bandeen, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is presented of the meteorological satellite programs that have been evolving from 1958 to the present, and plans for the future meteorological and environmental satellite systems that are scheduled to be placed into service in the early 1980's are reviewed. The development of the TIROS family of weather satellites, including TIROS, ESSA, ITOS/NOAA, and the present TIROS-N (the third generation operational system) is summarized. The contribution of the Nimbus and ATS technology satellites to the development of the operational-orbiting and geostationary satellites is discussed. Included are descriptions of both the TIROS-N and the DMSP payloads currently under development to assure a continued and orderly growth of these systems into the 1980's.

  19. Extensible Wind Towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinagra, Marco; Tucciarelli, Tullio

    The diffusion of wind energy generators is restricted by their strong landscape impact. The PERIMA project is about the development of an extensible wind tower able to support a wind machine for several hundred kW at its optimal working height, up to more than 50 m. The wind tower has a telescopic structure, made by several tubes located inside each other with their axis in vertical direction. The lifting force is given by a jack-up system confined inside a shaft, drilled below the ground level. In the retracted tower configuration, at rest, tower tubes are hidden in the foundation of the telescopic structure, located below the ground surface, and the wind machine is the only emerging part of the system. The lifting system is based on a couple of oleodynamic cylinders that jack-up a central tube connected to the top of the tower by a spring, with a diameter smaller than the minimum tower diameter and with a length a bit greater than the length of the extended telescopic structure. The central tube works as plunger and lifts all telescopic elements. The constraint between the telescopic elements is ensured by special parts, which are kept in traction by the force of the spring and provide the resisting moment. The most evident benefit of the proposed system is attained with the use of a two-blade propeller, which can be kept horizontal in the retracted tower configuration.

  20. View of Nevada rim towers from Arizona side. Left tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Nevada rim towers from Arizona side. Left tower supports Circuit 6, middle tower supports Circuit 5, and right tower supports Circuits 4 and 15, view north - Hoover Dam, Circuits 1-15, U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  1. Tower Camera Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Moudry, D

    2005-01-01

    The tower camera in Barrow provides hourly images of ground surrounding the tower. These images may be used to determine fractional snow cover as winter arrives, for comparison with the albedo that can be calculated from downward-looking radiometers, as well as some indication of present weather. Similarly, during spring time, the camera images show the changes in the ground albedo as the snow melts. The tower images are saved in hourly intervals. In addition, two other cameras, the skydeck camera in Barrow and the piling camera in Atqasuk, show the current conditions at those sites.

  2. Modeling of Women's 100-m Dash World Record: Wind-Aided or Not?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazelrigg, Conner; Waibel, Bryson; Baker, Blane

    2015-11-01

    On July 16, 1988, Florence Griffith Joyner (FGJ) shattered the women's 100-m dash world record (WR) with a time of 10.49 s, breaking the previous mark by an astonishing 0.27 s. By all accounts FGJ dominated the race that day, securing her place as the premiere female sprinter of that era, and possibly all time. In the aftermath of such an extraordinary performance, track officials immediately assumed that her posted time was wind aided—that is, attained under tailwind conditions beyond the legal limit of 2.0 m/s for world records. However, wind-measuring devices at the track site showed zero wind conditions during her WR performance. Before and during FGJ's race, other wind-measuring devices indicated speeds exceeding 4.0 m/s at the site of the triple jump runway, located on the same field as the running track. Video clips of flags placed near the starting line of FGJ's race also revealed tailwind conditions. Using available data from that era, the study here incorporates modeling techniques to compute velocity and position as functions of time for no wind and tailwind conditions. Modeling under no wind conditions produces a 100-m time of 10.70 s, a performance clearly attainable by FGJ during this stage of her sprinting career. Incorporating tailwinds of 4.0 m/s into the computations reduces this time by approximately 0.20 s, in close agreement with FGJ's record-breaking performance. These results strongly suggest that tailwinds of order 4 m/s were present during FGJ's world record race even though wind-measuring devices at the track site did not register these speeds. In spite of such strong evidence to support a wind-aided race on July 16, 1988, FGJ remains one of the top female sprinters in history and would likely hold the WR even today, given that she attained a non-wind-aided 100-m time of 10.61 s on the day following her WR performance.

  3. DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWER SIX WITH TOWERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWER SIX WITH TOWERS SEVEN,EIGHT, NINE, TEN, AND BREAK OVER TOWER IN DISTANCE, LOOKING NORTH. TOWER SIX IS THE LAST BEFORE A DEEP CHASM, AS IS SEEN BY THE DISTANCE BETWEEN TOWERS SIX AND SEVEN. SEE CA-291-48 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  4. DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWER SIX WITH TOWERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWER SIX WITH TOWERS SEVEN, EIGHT, NINE, TEN, AND BREAK OVER TOWER IN DISTANCE, LOOKING NORTH. TOWER SIX IS THE LAST BEFORE A DEEP CHASM, AS IS SEEN BY THE DISTANCE BETWEEN TOWERS SIX AND SEVEN. SEE CA-291-21 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  5. A Compact Instrument for Remote Raman and Fluorescence Measurements to a Radial Distance of 100 m

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, S. K.; Misra, A. K.; Lucey, P. g.; McKay, C. P.

    2005-01-01

    Compact remote spectroscopic instruments that could provide detailed information about mineralogy, organic and biomaterials on a planetary surface over a relatively large area are desirable for NASA s planetary exploration program. Ability to explore a large area on the planetary surfaces as well as in impact craters from a fixed location of a rover or lander will enhance the probability of selecting target rocks of high scientific contents as well as desirable sites in search of organic compounds and biomarkers on Mars and other planetary bodies. We have developed a combined remote inelastic scattering (Raman) and laser-induced fluorescence emission (LIFE) compact instrument capable of providing accurate information about minerals, organic and biogenic materials to a radial distance of 100 m. Here we present the Raman and LIFE (R-LIFE) data set.

  6. Towards a 100mA Superconducting RF Photoinjector for BERLinPro

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann, Axel; Anders, W; Burrill, Andrew; Jankowiak, Andreas; Kamps, T; Knobloch, Jens; Kugeler, Oliver; Lauinger, P; Matveenko, A N; Schmeisser, M; Volker, J; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Kneisel, Peter; Nietubyc, R; Schubert, S G; Smedley, John; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Volkov, V; Will, I; Zaplatin, Evgeny

    2013-09-01

    For BERLinPro, a 100 mA CW-driven SRF energy recovery linac demonstrator facility, HZB needs to develop a photo-injector superconducting cavity which delivers a at least 1mm*mr emittance beam at high average current. To address these challenges of producing a high peak brightness beam at high repetition rate, at first HZB tested a fully superconducting injector with a lead cathode*,followed now by the design of a SC cavity allowing operation up to 4 mA using CW-modified TTF-III couplers and inserting a normal conducting high quantum efficiency cathode using the HZDR-style insert scheme. This talk will present the latest results and an overview of the measurements with the lead cathode cavity and will describe the design and optimization process, the first production results of the current design and an outlook to the further development steps towards the full power version.

  7. On the performance of Usain Bolt in the 100 m sprint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández Gómez, J. J.; Marquina, V.; Gómez, R. W.

    2013-09-01

    Many university texts on mechanics consider the effect of air drag force, using the slowing down of a parachute as an example. Very few discuss what happens when the drag force is proportional to both u and u2. In this paper we deal with a real problem to illustrate the effect of both terms on the speed of a runner: a theoretical model of the world-record 100 m sprint of Usain Bolt during the 2009 World Championships in Berlin is developed, assuming a drag force proportional to u and to u2. The resulting equation of motion is solved and fitted to the experimental data obtained from the International Association of Athletics Federations, which recorded Bolt's position with a laser velocity guard device. It is worth noting that our model works only for short sprints.

  8. Sparse interferometric millimeter-wave array for centimeter-level 100-m standoff imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suen, Jonathan Y.; Lubin, Philip M.; Solomon, Steven L.; Ginn, Robert P.

    2013-05-01

    We present work on the development of a long range standoff concealed weapons detection system capable of imaging under very heavy clothing at distances exceeding 100 m with a cm resolution. The system is based off a combination of phased array technologies used in radio astronomy and SAR radar by using a coherent, multi-frequency reconstruction algorithm which can run at up to 1000 Hz frame rates and high SNR with a multi-tone transceiver. We show the flexible design space of our system as well as algorithm development, predicted system performance and impairments, and simulated reconstructed images. The system can be used for a variety of purposes including portal applications, crowd scanning and tactical situations. Additional uses include seeing through dust and fog.

  9. A 100mA fractional step-down charge pump with digital control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadio, Valter A. L.; Parreira, Abílio E. M.; Santos, Marcelino B.

    2009-05-01

    A switched capacitor step-down DC-DC converter (charge pump) is proposed. High efficiency is achieved by combination of fractional conversion ratios (different step-down modes of operation), output voltage sensing and pulse skipping based digital control techniques. Two control techniques were implemented with automatic change between modes and their results are discussed and compared. The power module has 9 switches, implemented with 14 power transistors, and a current limit circuit to mitigate the in-rush current in startup phase. This circuit has been designed in AMS C35B4 (0.35um) CMOS process. The charge pump was designed to provide a maximum load current of 100mA. The peak-to-peak output voltage ripple is less than 30mV with two 3uF flying capacitors and one 20uF output capacitor. Peak and average efficiencies, with maximum load current, are over 80% and 68%, respectively.

  10. Aquarius: Tower Rollback

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The mobile service tower at NASA's Launch Complex-2 at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California is being moved away from the ULA Delta II rocket with the Aquarius/SAC-D spacecraft atop, in preparati...

  11. Drop Tower Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David

    2013-01-01

    Ground based microgravity facilities are an important proving ground for space experiments, ground-based research and space hardware risk mitigation. An overview of existing platforms will be discussed with an emphasis on drop tower capabilities. The potential for extension to partial gravity conditions will be discussed. Input will be solicited from attendees for their potential to use drop towers in the future and the need for enhanced capabilities (e.g. partial gravity)

  12. Towers for Antarctic Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerschlag, R. H.; Bettonvil, F. C. M.; Jägers, A. P. L.; Nielsen, G.

    To take advantage of the exceptional seeing above the boundary layer on Antarctic sites, a high-resolution telescope must be mounted on a support tower. An open transparent tower of framework minimizes the upward temperature-disturbed airflow. A typical minimum height is 30m. The tower platform has to be extremely stable against wind-induced rotational motions, which have to be less than fractions of an arc second, unusually small from a mechanical engineering viewpoint. In a traditional structure, structural deflections result in angular deflections of the telescope platform, which introduce tip and tilt motions in the telescope. However, a structure that is designed to deflect with parallel motion relative to the horizontal plane will undergo solely translation deflections in the telescope platform and thus will not degrade the image. The use of a parallel motion structure has been effectively demonstrated in the design of the 15-m tower for the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on La Palma. Special framework geometries are developed, which make it possible to construct high towers in stories having platforms with extreme stability against wind-induced tilt. These geometric solutions lead to constructions, being no more massive than a normal steel framework carrying the same load. Consequently, these lightweight towers are well suited to difficult sites as on Antarctica. A geometry with 4 stories has been worked out.

  13. BOREAS TF-2 SSA-OA Tethersonde Meteorological and Ozone Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, A. James; Mickle, Robert E.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Tower Flux-2 (BOREAS TF-2) team collected meteorological and ozone measurements from instruments mounted below a tethered balloon. These data were collected at the Southern Study Area Old Aspen (SSA-OA) site to extend meteorological and ozone measurements made from the flux tower to heights of 300 m. The tethersonde operated during the fall of 1993 and the spring, summer, and fall of 1994. The data are available in tabular ASCII files.

  14. Identification and Attribution of Global Wind Speed Trends at 100m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, Zachary; Smith, Ronald; Storelvmo, Trude

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have found evidence that global climate change significantly alters the strength of large-scale wind patterns. Any enduring trends over large regions are potentially of value to understand due to their implications for the wind energy industry. In this study we identify and evaluate global wind speed trends at the wind turbine hub height (~100m) through the use of CMIP5 models, standard reanalyses (ERA-Interim, NCEP2) and a uniquely high-resolution analysis dataset (Vestas Mesoscale Library). By analyzing how wind speeds change across the globe throughout the period 1900-2100 (with emphasis on the satellite era, 1979-2014), we assess the significance of multi-decadal wind speed trends in the context of natural spatial and temporal variability. Our results show substantial differences in regional trends between different datasets though several regions including the Southern Hemisphere mid-latitudes and the Caribbean show consistently substantial changing wind speeds during the satellite era. Wind speed trends tend to diminish over large time scales and follow spatial patterns that link multi-decadal trends to the evolving behaviors of internal variability modes, especially those of ENSO and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM).

  15. Homologous Deformation of the Effelsberg 100-m Telescope Determined with a Total Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nothnagel, Axel; Pietzner, Judith; Eling, Christian; Hering, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Due to gravitation the main reflector of the Effelsberg 100-m telescope of the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy is deformed whenever it is tilted from zenith to arbitrary elevation angles. However, the resulting shape always is a paraboloid again, though with different parameters, a phenomenon which is called homologous deformation. In summer 2008, we have carried out measurements with a total station to determine the magnitude of these deformations in order to evaluate existing assumptions provided by the manufacturer from the telescope's design phase. The measurements are based on a newly developed approach with a Leica TCRP 1201 total station mounted head down near the subreflector. Mini-retro-reflectors are placed at various locations on the paraboloid itself and on the subreflector support structure. The results indicate that the measurement setup is suitable for the purpose and provides the information needed for a determination of elevation dependent delay corrections. The focal length changes only by about 8 mm when the telescope is tilted from 90. to 7.5. elevation angle.

  16. Distinct prognostic values of S100 mRNA expression in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shizhen; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Weiwei; Lei, Rui; Shan, Jinlan; Li, Ling; Wang, Xiaochen

    2017-01-01

    S100 family genes encode low molecular weight, acidic-Ca2+ binding proteins implicating in a wide spectrum of biological processes. S100 family contains at least 20 members, most of which are frequently dysregulated in human malignancies including breast cancer. However, the prognostic roles of each individual S100, especially the mRNA level, in breast cancer patients remain elusive. In the current study, we used “The Kaplan-Meier plotter” (KM plotter) database to investigate the prognostic values of S100 mRNA expression in breast cancer. Our results indicated that high mRNA expression of S100A8, S100A9, S100A11 and S100P were found to be significantly correlated to worse outcome, while S100A1 and S100A6 were associated with better prognosis in all breast cancer patients. We further assessed the prognostic value of S100 in different intrinsic subtypes and clinicopathological features of breast cancer. The associated results will elucidate the role of S100 in breast cancer and may further lead the research to explore the S100-targeting reagents for treating breast cancer patients. PMID:28051137

  17. Spatiotemporal Parameters of 100-m Sprint in Different Levels of Sprinters with Unilateral Transtibial Amputation

    PubMed Central

    Hobara, Hiroaki; Hashizume, Satoru; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Mochmaru, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences of the spatiotemporal parameters in a 100-m sprint among elite, sub-elite, and non-elite sprinters with a unilateral transtibial amputation. Using publicly available Internet broadcasts, we analyzed 125, 19, and 33 records from 30 elite, 12 sub-elite, and 22 non-elite sprinters, respectively. For each sprinter’s run, the average velocity, step frequency, and step length were calculated using the number of steps in conjunction with the official race time. Average velocity was greatest in elite sprinters (8.71±0.32 m/s), followed by the sub-elite (8.09±0.06 m/s) and non-elite groups (7.72±0.27 m/s). Although there was a significant difference in average step frequency between the three groups, the effect size was small and the relative difference among the three groups was 3.1%. Statistical analysis also revealed that the average step length was longest in elite sprinters, followed by the sub-elite and non-elite groups. These results suggest that the differences in sprint performance between the three groups is mainly due to the average step length rather than step frequency. PMID:27701443

  18. The MPIR 100mK bolometer array for 2mm continuum observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichertz, L. A.; Esch, W.; Gemünd, H.-P.; Gromke, J.; Kreysa, E.

    2000-04-01

    We are developing bolometer arrays for continuum detection in millimeter and submillimeter astronomy [1]. For the 2mm atmospheric window, where the transmission is comparatively high, a bolometer temperature of about 100mK is necessary in order to avoid being limited by the system noise. Our new 2mm array is cooled by a 3He/4He-dilution refrigerator with a base temperature of 30mK. The substrate for the 19 channel bolometer array consists of a single-crystal silicon wafer with silicon-nitride membranes. Radiation is collected by a single-mode horn array in front of the wafer and coupled into efficient absorbers in the center of the membranes. Resulting temperature changes of the absorbers are measured with NTD-germanium thermistors. In the first stage of the read out electronics, we use JFETs working at 150K. Cold RF-filters prevent RF interference from entering the bolometer array cavity. The combination of several mesh filters and a short piece of cylindrical waveguide at the end of each horn defines the bandpass for the incoming radiation, which is matched to the 2mm atmospheric window.

  19. The nominal cooling tower

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, R.

    1995-12-31

    The heat Rejection Industry defines a nominal cooling tower as circulating three gallons of water per minute (GPM) per ton of refrigeration from entering the tower at 95{degrees}F. Hot Water temperature (HWT) Leaving at 85{degrees}F Cold Water Temperature (CWT) at a Design Wet Bulb of 70{degrees}F (WBT). Manufacturers then provide a selection chart based on various wet bulb temperatures and HWTs. The wet bulb fluctuates and varies through out the world since it is the combination ambient temperature, relative humidity, and/or dew point. Different HWT and CWT requirements are usually charted as they change, so that the user can select the nominal cooling tower model recommended by the manufacturer. Ask any HVAC operator, refinery manager, power generating station operator what happens when the Wet Bulb reaches or exceeds the design WBT of the area. He probably will tell you, {open_quotes}My cooling tower works quite well, but in the summer time, I usually have trouble with it.{close_quotes} This occurs because he is operating a nominal cooling tower.

  20. Tall tower or mountain top measurements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamberger, Ines; Eugster, Werner; Oney, Brian; Brunner, Dominik; Leuenberger, Markus; Schanda, Rüdiger; Henne, Stephan; Buchmann, Nina

    2014-05-01

    greenhouse gas fluxes at a regional scale in order to achieve a better understanding about CO2 and CH4 fluxes and their response to climate. We will present first direct comparisons of measurements obtained from continuously calibrated laser absorption spectrometers to quantify the atmospheric concentrations of carbon-dioxide and methane, but also from meteorological sensors and turbulence measurements. Data from the sensors at the two stations will be used to address the following question: can a mountain top station provide similar quality of data and spatial representativeness as a tall tower for the investigation of atmospheric patterns of greenhouse gases at diurnal to seasonal scale?

  1. 26. STATIC TEST TOWER CONTROL PANELS AT REAR OF TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. STATIC TEST TOWER CONTROL PANELS AT REAR OF TOWER UNDERNEATH SHED ROOF. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  2. 69. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE ABSORPTION TOWER BUILDING, ABSORPTION TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE ABSORPTION TOWER BUILDING, ABSORPTION TOWER UNDER CONSTRUCTION. (DATE UNKNOWN). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  3. 8. GENERAL VIEW OF TOWER 32, LEFT, AND TOWER 31, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. GENERAL VIEW OF TOWER 32, LEFT, AND TOWER 31, RIGHT. VIEW LOOKING NORTH SHOWING AERIAL WIRE DESIGN WITH VERTICAL 'TOP HAT' WIRES IN CENTER. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  4. 3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  5. 41. SOUTHEAST TOWER & EAST WING FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. SOUTHEAST TOWER & EAST WING FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING EAST BY NORTHEAST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. 46. OCTAGONAL & WEST TOWERS FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. OCTAGONAL & WEST TOWERS FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING NORTHWEST, WITH WEST WING ROOF - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. 42. SOUTHEAST TOWER & EAST WING ROOF FROM SOUTH TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. SOUTHEAST TOWER & EAST WING ROOF FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING EAST BY NORTHEAST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. View of the north tower porte cochere and flag tower, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the north tower porte cochere and flag tower, looking southwest (duplicate of HABS No. DC-141-19) - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. 45. OCTAGONAL, WEST & NORTHWEST TOWERS FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. OCTAGONAL, WEST & NORTHWEST TOWERS FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING WEST BY NORTHWEST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. A Model for Determining the Effect of the Wind Velocity on 100 m Sprinting Performance

    PubMed Central

    Janjic, Natasa; Kapor, Darko; Doder, Dragan; Petrovic, Aleksandar; Doder, Radoslava

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This paper introduces an equation for determining instantaneous and final velocity of a sprinter in a 100 m run completed with a wind resistance ranging from 0.1 to 4.5 m/s. The validity of the equation was verified using the data of three world class sprinters: Carl Lewis, Maurice Green, and Usain Bolt. For the given constant wind velocity with the values + 0.9 and + 1.1 m/s, the wind contribution to the change of sprinter velocity was the same for the maximum as well as for the final velocity. This study assessed how the effect of the wind velocity influenced the change of sprinting velocity. The analysis led to the conclusion that the official limit of safely neglecting the wind influence could be chosen as 1 m/s instead of 2 m/s, if the velocity were presented using three, instead of two decimal digits. This implies that wind velocity should be rounded off to two decimal places instead of the present practice of one decimal place. In particular, the results indicated that the influence of wind on the change of sprinting velocity in the range of up to 2 m/s and was of order of magnitude of 10-3 m/s. This proves that the IAAF Competition Rules correctly neglect the influence of the wind with regard to such velocities. However, for the wind velocity over 2 m/s, the wind influence is of order 10-2 m/s and cannot be neglected. PMID:28713468

  11. A Model for Determining the Effect of the Wind Velocity on 100 m Sprinting Performance.

    PubMed

    Janjic, Natasa; Kapor, Darko; Doder, Dragan; Petrovic, Aleksandar; Doder, Radoslava

    2017-06-01

    This paper introduces an equation for determining instantaneous and final velocity of a sprinter in a 100 m run completed with a wind resistance ranging from 0.1 to 4.5 m/s. The validity of the equation was verified using the data of three world class sprinters: Carl Lewis, Maurice Green, and Usain Bolt. For the given constant wind velocity with the values + 0.9 and + 1.1 m/s, the wind contribution to the change of sprinter velocity was the same for the maximum as well as for the final velocity. This study assessed how the effect of the wind velocity influenced the change of sprinting velocity. The analysis led to the conclusion that the official limit of safely neglecting the wind influence could be chosen as 1 m/s instead of 2 m/s, if the velocity were presented using three, instead of two decimal digits. This implies that wind velocity should be rounded off to two decimal places instead of the present practice of one decimal place. In particular, the results indicated that the influence of wind on the change of sprinting velocity in the range of up to 2 m/s and was of order of magnitude of 10(-3) m/s. This proves that the IAAF Competition Rules correctly neglect the influence of the wind with regard to such velocities. However, for the wind velocity over 2 m/s, the wind influence is of order 10(-2) m/s and cannot be neglected.

  12. Evaluation of prototype 100mK bolometric detector for Planck Surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudiwala, R. V.; Maffei, B.; Griffin, M. J.; Haynes, C. V.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bhatia, R. S.; Turner, A. D.; Bock, J. J.; Lange, A. E.; Beeman, J. W.

    2000-04-01

    The High-Frequency Instrument (HFI) for the Planck Surveyor mission will measure anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) down to scales of 6 arcmin and to an accuracy of /ΔT/T=2×10-6. Channels ranging in frequency from 100 to 857GHz will use 100mK spider web bolometer detectors with NTD Ge thermistors. The detectors must be photon noise limited and fast enough to preserve signal information at the 1r.p.m. scan rate of the satellite. The prime low-frequency CMB channels at 143 and 217GHz are the most technically demanding owing to the lower background limited NEPs. For the 143GHz channel the requirements are that the time constant /τ<5.7 ms and the NEPbol <1.53×10-17 WHz-1/2 including contribution from amplifier noise. We present here thermal, electrical and optical data on a prototype detector which, although optimised for the 100GHz channel, satisfies most of the requirements of the more demanding 143GHz channel. The measurements are consistent with ideal thermal behaviour of the detector over the appropriate bias and temperature ranges for optimum performance. From optically blanked electrical measurements we determined the dependence of resistance and thermal conductance on temperature over a wide range, 70-200mK. The optical responsivity and NEP were measured under photon background conditions similar to those expected in flight. Measurements of speed of response as a function of bias at different temperatures allowed us to determine the variation of total heat capacity with temperature. Extrapolation of these data show that in principal performance for all the Planck HFI channels can be met.

  13. THE TOWER HOUSE, LOOKING WEST. The tower house provided a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    THE TOWER HOUSE, LOOKING WEST. The tower house provided a water tank on the second floor that gravity fed water to the Kineth house and farm buildings. The one-story addition to the west of the tower provided workshop space. The hog shed is seen on the left of the image and the concrete foundation of the upright silo is in the foreground on the right. - Kineth Farm, Tower House, 19162 State Route 20, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  14. Solar thermal power towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreith, F.; Meyer, R. T.

    1984-07-01

    The solar thermal central receiver technology, known as solar power towers, is rapidly evolving to a state of near-term energy availability for electrical power generation and industrial process heat applications. The systems consist of field arrays of heliostat reflectors, a central receiver boiler, short term thermal storage devices, and either turbine-generators or heat exchangers. Fluid temperatures up to 550 C are currently achievable, and technology developments are underway to reach 1100 C. Six solar power towers are now under construction or in test operation in five countries around the world.

  15. 5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, operations building, and central heating plant - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  16. Thermal Characteristics of Heating Towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Toshihiko; Kametani, Shigeki

    Thermal characteristics of heating towers for air-source heat pumps are studied in terms of the overall enthalpy-transfer coefficient. Ka. First. the method of counter-flow calculation is presented taking physical properties of ethylene glycol solutions into account. Next, both cooling-tower and heating-tower experiments are carried out in a small, induced-draft. counterflow tower packed with tubes of a staggerd arrangement. using water and commercial ethylene glycol solutions. The coefficient Ka measured in the heating-tower experiment shows a trend similar to that in the cooling-tower experiment. So. the data on cooling towers will be helpful to the thermal design of heating towers.

  17. Evaporation Tower With Prill Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    Tower more efficient than conventional evaporation equipment. Liquids such as milk and fruit juice concentrated by passing them through tiny nozzle to form droplets, then allowing droplets to fall through evacuated tower with cooled walls.

  18. Airline meteorological requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, C. L.; Pappas, J.

    1985-01-01

    A brief review of airline meteorological/flight planning is presented. The effects of variations in meteorological parameters upon flight and operational costs are reviewed. Flight path planning through the use of meteorological information is briefly discussed.

  19. Novel technology for the the Effelsberg 100-m Radio Telescope and MeerKAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Michael; Kraus, Alex; Wieching, Gundolf

    2015-08-01

    The 100-m radio telescope of the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (MPIfR) is a unique European astronomical facility that combines superb sensitivity and wide frequency coverage (300 MHz - 95 GHz) with distinct versatility, making the telescope not only a cutting edge instrument for front-line research but also a testbed for emerging and future technology.Even more than 40 years old, the telescope has been continuously modernized and is heavily involved in various kinds of astronomical research as stand-alone instrument as well as in several VLBI networks. Currently, a large upgrade of the receiver suite at the telescope is ongoing. Several new, state-of-the-are broad-band receivers have been installed recently or are under constructions. Along with the new receivers, modern digital backends are being designed. We report on the current status of these upgrades by presenting some „highlights" and giving an outlook on the activities planned for the future.The technology developed and tested during these upgrades also finds application in the MeerKAT observatory in South Africa. MeerKAT is a fully funded radio observatory under construction in the Northern Cape of South Africa. When complete, MeerKAT’s 64 13.5-m dishes will form the - by far - most sensitive telescope in the Southern hemisphere, being equivalent to a 110 m dish. Due to the dish design with an offset Gregorian feed it will be 60%more sensitive than large center feed single dishes of comparable size.MPIfR is designing and constructing a 1.75- 3.44 GHz Receiver system for MeerKAT. The receiver will allow observations at a frequency range at currently unavailable sensitivity and spatial resolution in the Southern hemisphere. Combined with its powerful MPIfR Pulsar search backend it is expected to detect more than 1600 normal and 270 millisecond pulsars. In addition MeerKat will open up science that stays for its own but also prepares future observations with SKA and complements future SKA

  20. LANL Meteorology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dewart, Jean Marie

    2015-02-09

    The goal of the Meteorology Program is to provide all routine meteorology measurements for LANL operational requirements. This report discusses the program, its routine operations, and other services.

  1. Ivory Basements and Ivory Towers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Tanya

    2012-01-01

    The metaphors of the ivory tower and ivory basement are used in this chapter to reflect how many women understand and experience the academy. The ivory tower signifies a place that is protected, a place of privilege and authority and a place removed from the outside world (and consequently the rigours of the market place). The ivory tower, by…

  2. Ivory Basements and Ivory Towers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Tanya

    2012-01-01

    The metaphors of the ivory tower and ivory basement are used in this chapter to reflect how many women understand and experience the academy. The ivory tower signifies a place that is protected, a place of privilege and authority and a place removed from the outside world (and consequently the rigours of the market place). The ivory tower, by…

  3. A Meso-Climatology Study of the High-Resolution Tower Network Over the Florida Spaceport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Bauman, William H., III

    2004-01-01

    Forecasters at the US Air Force 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) use wind and temperature data from the tower network over the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) to evaluate Launch Commit Criteria and to issue and verify temperature and wind advisories, watches, and warnings for ground operations. The Spaceflight Meteorology Group at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX also uses these data when issuing forecasts for shuttle landings at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility. Systematic biases in these parameters at any of the towers could adversely affect an analysis, forecast, or verification for all of these operations. In addition, substantial geographical variations in temperature and wind speed can occur under specific wind directions. Therefore, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU), operated by ENSCO Inc., was tasked to develop a monthly and hourly climatology of temperatures and winds from the tower network, and identify the geographical variation, tower biases, and the magnitude of those biases. This paper presents a sub-set of results from a nine-year climatology of the KSC/CCAFS tower network, highlighting the geographical variations based on location, month, times of day, and specific wind direction regime. Section 2 provides a description of the tower mesonetwork and instrumentation characteristics. Section 3 presents the methodology used to construct the tower climatology including QC methods and data processing. The results of the tower climatology are presented in Section 4 and Section 5 summarizes the paper.

  4. The Ivory Tower Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chantler, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    The corollary of the concept of the "ivory tower", as reflected in the writings of Plato and Newman amongst others, was, paradoxically, the vital importance of the university for wider society. Nevertheless from the mid-twentieth century, the esteem in which a "liberal" university education was held was diminished by rising…

  5. Cell Towers and Songbirds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klosterman, Michelle; Mesa, Jennifer; Milton, Katie

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how our common addiction to cell phones was used to launch a discussion about their use, impacts on the environment, and connections to issues of civic concern. By encouraging middle school science students to adopt the perspectives of special-interest groups debating communication tower restrictions designed to protect…

  6. The Towers of Hanoi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, George C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an investigation carried out with a group of able mathematics students who were studying at a level 1 year in advance of their peers. The purpose was to investigate the extension of usual three peg Towers of Hanoi to four pegs and attempt to find a rule that could be used to predict the minimum number of moves required to…

  7. Talking Towers, Making Withs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemke, J. L.

    The notion of a linguistic "register" is useful in posing questions about how the ways language is used differ from one kind of human activity to another. This paper analyzes a videotaped segment of male grade 4/5 students (n=3) who are talking as they work to build a tower from plastic drinking straws and pins. Discussion of the…

  8. Cell Towers and Songbirds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klosterman, Michelle; Mesa, Jennifer; Milton, Katie

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how our common addiction to cell phones was used to launch a discussion about their use, impacts on the environment, and connections to issues of civic concern. By encouraging middle school science students to adopt the perspectives of special-interest groups debating communication tower restrictions designed to protect…

  9. Meteorological analysis for Fenton Hill, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, S.; Wilson, S.K.

    1981-01-01

    Three years of meteorological data have been collected at the Fenton Hill site to establish a local climatic baseline, transport and diffusion climatology, and an initial site for an eventual Valles Caldera meteorological network. Tower-based wind and temperature data at 15 m above ground were supplemented during 1979 with precipitation, humidity and pressure measurements, and a limited program of upper winds. Preliminary analysis of the data has been made to identify major topographic and meteorological driving forces affecting the local climatic variations on diurnal and seasonal time scales. The site is quite high and exposed enough tht external influences such as gradient wind flow and thunderstorms tend to dominate over purely local driving forces in determining climate. Locally generated wind circulations are identifiable at night but tend to be weak and sporadic. The presence of topographic obstacles on the 10- to 100-km scale is observed in the winds.

  10. Solar tower enhanced natural draft dry cooling tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huiqiang; Xu, Yan; Acosta-Iborra, Alberto; Santana, Domingo

    2017-06-01

    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plants are located in desert areas where the Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) value is very high. Since water resource is scarcely available, mechanical draft cooing technology is commonly used, with power consumption of mechanical fans being approximately 2% of the total power generated. Today, there is only one solar power plant (Khi Solar One in South Africa) uses a condenser installed in a Natural Draft Cooling (NDC) tower that avoids the windage loss of water occurring in wet cooling towers. Although, Khi Solar One is a cavity receiver power tower, the receivers can be hung onto the NDC tower. This paper looks at a novel integration of a NDC tower into an external molten salt receiver of a solar power plant, which is one of a largest commercial molten salt tower in China, with 100MWe power capacity. In this configuration study, the NDC tower surrounds the concrete tower of the receiver concentrically. In this way, the receiver concrete tower is the central support of the NDC tower, which consists of cable networks that are fixed to the concrete tower and suspended at a certain height over the floor. The cable networks support the shell of the NDC tower. To perform a preliminary analysis of the behavior of this novel configuration, two cases of numerical simulation in three dimensional (3D) models have been solved using the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code, ANSYS Fluent 6.3. The results show that the integration of the NDC tower into an external central receiver tower is feasible. Additionally, the total heat transfer rate is not reduced but slightly increases when the molten salt receiver is in operation because of the additional natural draft induced by the high temperature of the receiver.

  11. Comparison of Savannah River Site`s meteorological databases

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, A.H.

    1993-07-01

    A five-year meteorological database from the 61-meter, H-Area tower for the period 1987--1991 was compared to an earlier database for the period 1982--1986. The amount of invalid data for the newer 87--91 database was one third that for the earlier database. The data recovery percentage for the last four years of the 87-91 database was well above 90%. Considerable effort was necessary to fill in for missing data periods for the newer database for the H-Area tower. Therefore, additional databases that have been prepared for the remaining SRS meteorological towers have had missing and erroneous data flagged, but not replaced. The F-Area tower`s database was used for cross-comparison purposes because of its proximity to H Area. The primary purpose of this report is to compare the H-Tower databases for 82-86 and 87-91. Statistical methods enable the use of probability statements to be made concerning the hypothesis of no differences between the distributions of the two time periods, assuming each database is a random sample from its respective distribution. This assumption is required for the statistical tests to be valid. A number of statistical comparisons can be made between the two data sets, even though the 82-86 database exist only as distributions of frequency and mean speed.

  12. Preliminary Design, Feasibility and Cost Evaluation of 1- to 15-Kilometer Height Steel Towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shanker, Ajay

    2003-01-01

    Design and construction of tall towers is an on-going research program of NASA. The agency has already done preliminary review in this area and has determined that multi-kilometer height towers are technically and economically feasible. The proposed towers will provide high altitude launch platforms reaching above eighty percent of Earth's atmosphere and provide tremendous gains in the potential energy as well as substantial reduction in aerodynamic drag. NASA has also determined that a 15-KM tower will have many useful applications in: (i)Meteorology,(ii)Oceanography, (iii)Astronomy, (iv)High Altitude Launch, (v)Physics Drop Tower, (vi) Biosphere Research, (vii) Nanotechnology, (viii) Energy/Power, (ix)Broadband Wireless Technology, (x)Space Transportation and (xi)Space Tourism.

  13. Technical procedures for implementation of meteorology/air quality site studies, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    This report describes The Technical Procedures that will be used to monitor air quality and meteorology. Topics include: high-volume filter handling; operation, maintenance, and calibration of the 10-M meteorological and air quality system; processing data from the 10-M meteorological tower; processing data from the 60-M meteorological tower; processing total suspended particulate filters and data from the high-volume air samplers; operation maintenance, and calibration of the 60-M meteorological and air quality system; and auditing the air quality system. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Single-transverse-mode near-IR superluminescent diodes with cw output power up to 100 mW

    SciTech Connect

    Andreeva, E V; Il'chenko, S N; Kostin, Yu O; Yakubovich, S D

    2014-10-29

    A series of light-emitting modules based on single-mode quantum-well superluminescent diodes with centre emission wavelengths of about 790, 840, 960 and 1060 nm and a cw output power up to 100 mW in free space is developed. A sufficiently long service life of these devices is demonstrated. (lasers)

  15. The Physics of Shot Towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipscombe, Trevor C.; Mungan, Carl E.

    2012-04-01

    In the late 18th and throughout the 19th century, lead shot for muskets was prepared by use of a shot tower. Molten lead was poured from the top of a tower and, during its fall, the drops became spherical under the action of surface tension. In this article, we ask and answer the question: How does the size of the lead shot depend on the height of the tower? In the process, we explain the basic technology underlying an important historical invention (the shot tower) and use simple physics (Newtonian mechanics and the thermodynamic laws of cooling) to model its operation.

  16. Eiffel Tower Plume

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-08-19

    This still image from an animation from NASA GSFC Solar Dynamics Observatory shows a single plume of plasma, many times taller than the diameter of Earth, spewing streams of particles for over two days Aug. 17-19, 2015 before breaking apart. At times, its shape resembled the Eiffel Tower. Other lesser plumes and streams of particles can be seen dancing above the solar surface as well. The action was observed in a wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19875

  17. 100 M.a. remagnetization as a dating tool for deformation and cleavage in the Central High Atlas (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvin, P.; Casas, A. M.; Villalain, J. J.; Moussaid, B.

    2015-12-01

    The High Atlas is an intracontinental chain developed as a result of the inversion of Mesozoic basins during the Cenozoic. Its structure is characterized by ENE-WSW tight anticlines limited by wide synclines. In the central sector of the chain, a pervasive tectonic foliation affects Jurassic limestones and marls. There is a controversy about the age of this tectonic foliation and its relationship with either a Late Jurassic or Cenozoic compressional events. The Jurassic carbonates of the Central High Atlas (CHA) show a widespread syntectonic remagnetization carried by magnetite and dated at 100 M.a. by comparing the paleomagnetic direction obtained by small circle intersection (SCI) method with the apparent polar wander path in NW Africa coordinates. Once the 100 M.a. paleomagnetic direction is known, the obtained paleomagnetic direction remagnetization in each site can be used to restore the bedding at the time of the acquisition. In each site, the in situ mean direction of remagnetization defines a small circle (SC) in a complete rotation about the strike of the bedding. This SC gives all possible original directions of the magnetization and if all deformation events are coaxial and without vertical rotation (as it is the case in the study area) all the SC contains the 100 M.a. expected direction. Then, the angle between the 100 M.a. and the in situ paleomagnetic direction along the small circle, equals the angle of rotation of each bed to ultimately find their dips (paleodip) at 100 M.a. Since the consistency between folding and cleavage can be examined from their geometrical relationship, and bedding can be restored to its 100 M.a. geometry (paleodips obtained from paleomagnetic analysis), two end-members exist for the different examined folds: (i) cleavage is consistent with present-day bedding orientation and attitude of bedding was acquired after remagnetization (Cenozoic cleavage), (ii) cleavage is consistent with bedding, but dip of bedding was acquired

  18. Impact of nocturnal planetary boundary layer on urban air pollutants: measurements from a 250-m tower over Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Han, Suqin; Bian, Hai; Tie, Xuexi; Xie, Yiyang; Sun, Meiling; Liu, Aixia

    2009-02-15

    It is well known that nocturnal planetary boundary layer (NPBL) has important effects on urban air pollutants. However, the direct measurements of the interactions between the NPBL height and urban air pollutants are normally difficult, because such measurements require continuous vertical profiles of air pollutants and meteorological parameters. This paper provides an unique data, which temperature, NPBL, NO(x) and O(3) concentrations are measured at a 250-m meteorological tower in the city of Tianjin, China (a much polluted city located in central-eastern China). The results are analyzed to study the trend of NPBL and the impacts of NPBL on air pollutants in the city. The results show that the measured NPBL height ranges from 100m to 150m. The measurement of 10-year trend of the NPBL height suggests that the averaged NPBL height increases by about 20% between 1995 and 2006. The results also show that the NPBL height has important effects on air pollutants. This study suggests that NO(x) and O(3) concentrations are strongly anti-correlated inside of the NPBL height. During nighttime, NO(x) is directly emitted from the surface and is limited to inside of NPBL (40m), resulting in high NO(x) concentrations near the surface. The high NO(x) concentrations depress O(3), producing low O(3) concentrations near the surface. The measurements of vertical gradient of O(3) show that about 30-50ppbv of O(3) concentrations are chemically destroyed due to the surface emission of NO(x) during nighttime, suggesting that NPBL plays important roles in regulating the diurnal cycle of O(3) at the surface.

  19. 2. Southern Light Tower and Northern Light Tower, view north, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Southern Light Tower and Northern Light Tower, view north, south sides - Kennebec River Light Station, South side of Doubling Point Road, off State Highway 127, 1.8 miles south of U.S. Route 1, Arrowsic, Sagadahoc County, ME

  20. INTERIOR TOWER STAIRS BETWEEN SECOND LEVEL AND TOWER ROOM, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR TOWER STAIRS BETWEEN SECOND LEVEL AND TOWER ROOM, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  1. INTERIOR TOWER STAIRS BETWEEN TOWER ROOM AND SECOND LEVEL, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR TOWER STAIRS BETWEEN TOWER ROOM AND SECOND LEVEL, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  2. Meteorological satellite accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, L. J.; Arking, A.; Bandeen, W. R.; Shenk, W. E.; Wexler, R.

    1974-01-01

    The various types of meteorological satellites are enumerated. Vertical sounding, parameter extraction technique, and both macroscale and mesoscale meteorological phenomena are discussed. The heat budget of the earth-atmosphere system is considered, along with ocean surface and hydrology.

  3. Monitoring the biomechanics of a wheelchair sprinter racing the 100 m final at the 2016 Paralympic Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Tiago M.; Coelho, Eduarda

    2017-07-01

    The aim was to run a case study of the biomechanics of a wheelchair sprinter racing the 100 m final at the 2016 Paralympic Games. Stroke kinematics was measured by video analysis in each 20 m split. Race kinetics was estimated by employing an analytical model that encompasses the computation of the rolling friction, drag, energy output and energy input. A maximal average speed of 6.97 m s-1 was reached in the last split. It was estimated that the contributions of the rolling friction and drag force would account for 54% and 46% of the total resistance at maximal speed, respectively. Energy input and output increased over the event. However, we failed to note a steady state or any impairment of the energy input and output in the last few metres of the race. Data suggest that the 100 m is too short an event for the sprinter to be able to achieve his maximal power in such a distance.

  4. Archaeoastronomy: the Newport Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penhallow, William

    1997-07-01

    The Newport Tower is a masonry structure of fieldstone about 28 feet high and 22 feet in diameter located near the top of a hill overlooking the harbor in Newport, Rhode Island. In essence it is a cylinder with Romanesque arches resting on eight pillars. The cylinder has three major openings as well as four smaller ones. On the inside there are eight indentations for beams on a first floor and four for a second,. In addition there are seven niches and a fireplace on the inside. A careful photogrammetric survey of the tower done by the Technical University of Denmark for the Danish National Museum provided data for the calculation of declinations, azimuths and altitudes associated with possible pairs of features. Numerous alignments involving the Sun and Moon indicate an emphasis on determining the location of the nodes of the Moon's orbit. Accurate determination of true north by observing Polaris at upper culmination is evident. Possible observations of Sirius are indicated. These results provide strong evidence that astronomy was involved in the design and use of this intriguing structure first mentioned in Governor Arnold's will in 1677. Further study is clearly warranted. This paper was published in the New England Antiquities Research Association Journal, p. 44, 1994

  5. The Effects of Different Warm-up Volumes on the 100-m Swimming Performance: A Randomized Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Neiva, Henrique P; Marques, Mário C; Barbosa, Tiago M; Izquierdo, Mikel; Viana, João L; Teixeira, Ana M; Marinho, Daniel A

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of 3 different warm-up (WU) volumes on 100-m swimming performance. Eleven male swimmers at the national level completed 3 time trials of 100-m freestyle on separate days and after a standard WU, a short WU (SWU), or a long WU (LWU) in a randomized sequence. All of them replicated some usual sets and drills, and the WU totaled 1,200 m, the SWU totaled 600 m, and the LWU totaled 1,800 m. The swimmers were faster after the WU (59.29 seconds; confidence interval [CI] 95%, 57.98-60.61) and after the SWU (59.38 seconds; CI 95%, 57.92-60.84) compared with the LWU (60.18 seconds; CI 95%, 58.53-61.83). The second 50-m lap after the WU was performed with a higher stroke length (effect size [ES] = 0.77), stroke index (ES = 1.26), and propelling efficiency (ES = 0.78) than that after the SWU. Both WU and SWU resulted in higher pretrial values of blood lactate concentrations [La] compared with LWU (ES = 1.58 and 0.74, respectively), and the testosterone:cortisol levels were increased in WU compared with LWU (ES = 0.86). In addition, the trial after WU caused higher [La] (ES ≥ 0.68) and testosterone:cortisol values compared with the LWU (ES = 0.93). These results suggest that an LWU could impair 100-m freestyle performance. The swimmers showed higher efficiency during the race after a 1200-m WU, suggesting a favorable situation. It highlighted the importance of the [La] and hormonal responses to each particular WU, possibly influencing performance and biomechanical responses during a 100-m race.

  6. Model for the determination of instantaneous values of the velocity, instantaneous, and average acceleration for 100-m sprinters.

    PubMed

    JanjiĆ, NataŠa J; Kapor, Darko V; Doder, Dragan V; Doder, Radoslava Z; SaviĆ, Biljana V

    2014-12-01

    Temporal patterns of running velocity is of profound interest for coaches and researchers involved in sprint racing. In this study, we applied a nonhomogeneous differential equation for the motion with resistance force proportional to the velocity for the determination of the instantaneous velocity and instantaneous and average acceleration in the sprinter discipline at 100 m. Results obtained for the instantaneous velocity in this study using the presented model indicate good agreement with values measured directly, which is a good verification of the proposed procedure. To perform a comprehensive analysis of the applicability of the results obtained, the harmonic canon of running for the 100-m sprint discipline was formed. Using the data obtained by the measurement of split times for segments of 100-m run of the sprinters K. Lewis (1988), M. Green (2001), and U. Bolt (2009), the method described yielded results that enable comparative analysis of the kinematical parameters for each sprinter. Further treatment allowed the derivation of the ideal harmonic velocity canon of running, which can be helpful to any coach in evaluating the results achieved at particular distances in this and other disciplines. The method described can be applied for the analysis of any race.

  7. Assimilating every-30-second 100-m-mesh radar observations for convective weather: implications to non-Gaussian PDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, T.; Teramura, T.; Ruiz, J.; Kondo, K.; Lien, G. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Convective weather is known to be highly nonlinear and chaotic, and it is hard to predict their location and timing precisely. Our Big Data Assimilation (BDA) effort has been exploring to use dense and frequent observations to avoid non-Gaussian probability density function (PDF) and to apply an ensemble Kalman filter under the Gaussian error assumption. The phased array weather radar (PAWR) can observe a dense three-dimensional volume scan with 100-m range resolution and 100 elevation angles in only 30 seconds. The BDA system assimilates the PAWR reflectivity and Doppler velocity observations every 30 seconds into 100 ensemble members of storm-scale numerical weather prediction (NWP) model at 100-m grid spacing. The 30-second-update, 100-m-mesh BDA system has been quite successful in multiple case studies of local severe rainfall events. However, with 1000 ensemble members, the reduced-resolution BDA system at 1-km grid spacing showed significant non-Gaussian PDF with every-30-second updates. With a 10240-member ensemble Kalman filter with a global NWP model at 112-km grid spacing, we found roughly 1000 members satisfactory to capture the non-Gaussian error structures. With these in mind, we explore how the density of observations in space and time affects the non-Gaussianity in an ensemble Kalman filter with a simple toy model. In this presentation, we will present the most up-to-date results of the BDA research, as well as the investigation with the toy model on the non-Gaussianity with dense and frequent observations.

  8. The clinical application of the 100mL water swallow test in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Joanne M; Hildreth, Anthony; McColl, Elaine; Carding, Paul N; Hamilton, David; Wilson, Janet A

    2011-03-01

    Water swallow tests have been used as to screen patients with neurological dysphagia who are at risk of aspiration. This study examines the clinical utility of the 100mL water swallow test (WST) in head and neck cancer, by measuring its sensitivity and specificity for identifying aspiration and for monitoring swallow performance up to one year following (chemo)radiotherapy. Patients referred for (chemo)radiotherapy were assessed on the WST (n=173) pre-treatment and 3, 6 and 12months post-treatment. Patients failed the test if they coughed or had a wet voice quality post swallow or were unable to finish the task. A Flexible Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing was conducted at the same time points, to test for the presence of aspiration. The WST was timed and the number of swallows required was recorded. Sensitivity of the WST for predicting aspiration was >67%, specificity >46%. There was marked deterioration from pre- to 3months post-treatment for the time taken to drink 100mL (p=0.005), but this improved over the first year (p=0.001). Disease characteristics, patient demographics, radiotherapy dose, or treatment volume were not predictors of this improvement. The 100mL WST is a quick and simple assessment for identifying patients with aspiration, post (chemo)radiotherapy. This test is a useful adjunct to a clinical examination, helping to highlight patients who require an instrumental assessment such as videofluoroscopy. Furthermore, quantitative measures can be derived from this test, which can be used as a measure of swallow performance over time. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cooling tower windage: a new aspect to environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, F. G.; Park, S. H.

    1980-01-01

    Results of the several investigations provided quantitative estimates of windage from Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant cooling towers. Windage water deposited on the ground has the potential to reach nearby streams through runoff. Windage deposited on moisture depleted soils would not be significant. During winter months at Oak Ridge soils generally have a high moisture content such that windage deposition could be quickly transported as runoff. It is during this time that cooling towers are sometimes operated without fan-induced draft. Since windage water contains the same hexavalent chromium concentration (9 ppM) as the recirculating cooling water system, the runoff stream from the K-892J tower constitues a NPDES violation as an unpermitted discharge. As a long-term abatement strategy, concrete aprons were constructed along each side of new cooling towers at the Paducah, Kentucky Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The maximum distance of windage impact is wind dependent. If apron construction is envisioned as an abatement strategy at Oak Ridge, the maximum distance of impact can be inferred graphically from the several points where windage (fans off) and drift (fans on) loss curves intersect under the different meteorological conditions. Once the hexavalent chromium laden runoff stream reaches Poplar Creek, it is diluted well below the standards for drinking water and poses little potential for biological effects to aquatic systems.

  10. Self-stabilizing floating tower

    SciTech Connect

    Mougin, G.L.

    1980-12-30

    An offshore floating tower comprises two coaxial cylindrical enclosures interconnected by continuous radial bulkheads forming in the upper portion a ring of damping chambers and in the lower portion a ring of buoyancy tanksaround a bell-shaped chamber which is partially filled with air to produce pneumatic damping of vertical movement of the tower. The upper portion of the tower is separated from the lower portion by a horizontal slab. The upper portion of the internal enclosure is perforated in the vicinity of the horizontal slab.

  11. LDSD on the Launch Tower

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-06-05

    NASA's Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) hangs from a launch tower at U.S. Navy's Pacific Missile Range Facility in Kauai, Hawaii. The saucer-shaped vehicle will test two devices for landing heavy payloads on Mars: an inflatable donut-shaped device and a supersonic parachute. The launch tower helps link the vehicle to a balloon; once the balloon floats up, the vehicle is released from the tower and the balloon carries it to high altitudes. The vehicle's rocket takes it to even higher altitudes, to the top of the stratosphere, where the supersonic test begins. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19343

  12. PBF Cooling Tower. Hot deck of Cooling Tower with fan ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Cooling Tower. Hot deck of Cooling Tower with fan motors in place. Fan's propeller blades (not in view) rotate within lower portion of vents. Inlet pipe is a left of view. Contractor's construction buildings in view to right. Photographer: Larry Page. Date: June 30, 1969. INEEL negative no. 69-3781 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. Meteorological annual report for 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, C.H.; Tatum, C.P.

    1997-08-01

    An analysis of meteorological data collected at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in 1996 shows that overall weather conditions for the year were characterized by below normal temperatures and near normal precipitation. The average temperature for the year, 62.2{degrees}F, was the lowest observed at SRS for the 33 years in which temperature data are available (1964-96). Temperature extremes for 1996 ranged from a minimum of 10{degrees}F on February 5 to a maximum of 100{degrees}F on July 2. Monthly rainfall was near or slightly below average each month except March and August which had considerably above average rainfall. The maximum 24-hour rainfall was 2.47 inches on July 5. Daily rainfall in excess of 2 inches occurred on July 5 and August 25. These rainfall events were associated with slow moving cold fronts. Approximately one inch of, snow was recorded in the SRS area on February 4. The annual average wind speed, based on data collected at the Central Climatology meteorology tower, was about 10% higher than the average for a previous 5-year period (1987-91). The 1996 data also showed a slightly higher frequency of west to southwest winds and a slightly lower frequency of northeast winds than was observed in the earlier 5-year period. A winter storm that formed over Alabama and moved northeastward through east Tennessee March 18-19 produced the most notable period of sustained strong winds. Daily and 15-minute average wind speeds of 16 miles per hour (mph) and 26.6 mph, respectively, were recorded at Central Climatology. The average relative humidity for the year was 69% and the average daily minimum relative humidity, which typically occurs during the afternoon, was 45%. Tropical Storm Josephine moved through eastern portions of Georgia and South Carolina on October 8 producing a total rainfall at SRS of about 1.8 inches.

  14. You're a What?: Tower Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilorio, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the role and functions of a tower technician. A tower technician climbs up the face of telecommunications towers to remove, install, test, maintain, and repair a variety of equipment--from antennas to light bulbs. Tower technicians also build shelters and radiofrequency shields for electronic equipment, lay…

  15. How 100-m event analyses improve our understanding of world-class men's and women's sprint performance.

    PubMed

    Slawinski, J; Termoz, N; Rabita, G; Guilhem, G; Dorel, S; Morin, J-B; Samozino, P

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the force (F)-velocity (v)-power (P)-time (t) relationships of female and male world-class sprinters. A total of 100 distance-time curves (50 women and 50 men) were computed from international 100-m finals, to determine the acceleration and deceleration phases of each race: (a) mechanical variables describing the velocity, force, and power output; and (b) F-P-v relationships and associated maximal power output, theoretical force and velocity produced by each athlete (Pmax , F0 , and V0 ). The results showed that the maximal sprint velocity (Vmax ) and mean power output (W/kg) developed over the entire 100 m strongly influenced 100-m performance (r > -0.80; P ≤ 0.001). With the exception of mean force (N/kg) developed during the acceleration phase or during the entire 100 m, all of the mechanicals variables observed over the race were greater in men. Shorter acceleration and longer deceleration in women may explain both their lower Vmax and their greater decrease in velocity, and in turn their lower performance level, which can be explained by their higher V0 and its correlation with performance. This highlights the importance of the capability to keep applying horizontal force to the ground at high velocities.

  16. Swimming Stroke Mechanical Efficiency and Physiological Responses of 100-m Backstroke with and without the use of paddles

    PubMed Central

    Messinis, Spilios; Beidaris, Nikos; Messinis, Spyros; Soultanakis, Helen; Botonis, Petros; Platanou, Theodoros

    2014-01-01

    The use of swimming aids during training contributes to greater swimming efficiency by the improvement of the swimming specific power of the athlete. The purpose of this study was to compare the swimming stroke technical characteristics and the physiological responses of swimming 100-m backstroke, with and without the use of paddles at maximum and sub-maximum intensities at the same swimming speed. Eight swimmers competing at the national level participated in this study. The measurements took place at 4 different sessions. At every session, each participant swam individually one 100-m backstroke swimming trial with or without paddles at the same speed and two levels of intensity (100% and 85% of maximum speed). The results revealed lower stroke length, greater stroke number and gliding length without the use of swimming paddles at both intensities. Blood lactate concentration (10.03±2.96 vs. 5.85±2.23 mmol/l) and Rating of Perceived Exertion (17.43±2.07 vs. 12±2.82) were greater without the use of swimming paddles only at 100% of maximum speed. Thus, swimming backstroke with paddles compared to unaided swimming, at a similar speed, showed a greater efficiency at maximal but not at sub-maximal intensity. PMID:25031685

  17. Long-range high-speed visible light communication system over 100-m outdoor transmission utilizing receiver diversity technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yiguang; Huang, Xingxing; Shi, Jianyang; Wang, Yuan-quan; Chi, Nan

    2016-05-01

    Visible light communication (VLC) has no doubt become a promising candidate for future wireless communications due to the increasing trends in the usage of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). In addition to indoor high-speed wireless access and positioning applications, VLC usage in outdoor scenarios, such as vehicle networks and intelligent transportation systems, are also attracting significant interest. However, the complex outdoor environment and ambient noise are the key challenges for long-range high-speed VLC outdoor applications. To improve system performance and transmission distance, we propose to use receiver diversity technology in an outdoor VLC system. Maximal ratio combining-based receiver diversity technology is utilized in two receivers to achieve the maximal signal-to-noise ratio. A 400-Mb/s VLC transmission using a phosphor-based white LED and a 1-Gb/s wavelength division multiplexing VLC transmission using a red-green-blue LED are both successfully achieved over a 100-m outdoor distance with the bit error rate below the 7% forward error correction limit of 3.8×10-3. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest data rate at 100-m outdoor VLC transmission ever achieved. The experimental results clearly prove the benefit and feasibility of receiver diversity technology for long-range high-speed outdoor VLC systems.

  18. Contralateral white noise attenuates 40-Hz auditory steady-state fields but not N100m in auditory evoked fields.

    PubMed

    Kawase, Tetsuaki; Maki, Atsuko; Kanno, Akitake; Nakasato, Nobukazu; Sato, Mika; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu

    2012-01-16

    The different response characteristics of the different auditory cortical responses under conventional central masking conditions were examined by comparing the effects of contralateral white noise on the cortical component of 40-Hz auditory steady state fields (ASSFs) and the N100 m component in auditory evoked fields (AEFs) for tone bursts using a helmet-shaped magnetoencephalography system in 8 healthy volunteers (7 males, mean age 32.6 years). The ASSFs were elicited by monaural 1000 Hz amplitude modulation tones at 80 dB SPL, with the amplitude modulated at 39 Hz. The AEFs were elicited by monaural 1000 Hz tone bursts of 60 ms duration (rise and fall times of 10 ms, plateau time of 40 ms) at 80 dB SPL. The results indicated that continuous white noise at 70 dB SPL presented to the contralateral ear did not suppress the N100 m response in either hemisphere, but significantly reduced the amplitude of the 40-Hz ASSF in both hemispheres with asymmetry in that suppression of the 40-Hz ASSF was greater in the right hemisphere. Different effects of contralateral white noise on these two responses may reflect different functional auditory processes in the cortices.

  19. Meteorological Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, H.A. Jr.; Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of the meteorological monitoring program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The principle function of the program is to provide current, accurate meteorological data as input for calculating the transport and diffusion of any unplanned release of an atmospheric pollutant. The report is recommended for meteorologists, technicians, or any personnel who require an in-depth understanding of the meteorological monitoring program.

  20. Ozonation of cooling tower waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.; French, K. R.; Howe, R. D. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Continuous ozone injection into water circulating between a cooling tower and heat exchanger with heavy scale deposits inhibits formation of further deposits, promotes flaking of existing deposits, inhibits chemical corrosion and controls algae and bacteria.

  1. Critical point wetting drop tower experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaukler, William F.

    1990-01-01

    The 100 m Drop Tower at NASA-Marshall was used to provide the step change in acceleration from 1.0 to 0.0005 g. An inter-fluid meniscus oscillates vertically within a cylindrical container when suddenly released from earth's gravity and taken into a microgravity environment. Oscillations damp out from energy dissipative mechanisms such as viscosity and interfacial friction. Damping of the oscillations by the later mechanism is affected by the nature of the interfacial junction between the fluid-fluid interface and the container wall. In earlier stages of the project, the meniscus shape which developed during microgravity conditions was applied to evaluations of wetting phenomena near the critical temperature. Variations in equilibrium contact angle against the container wall were expected to occur under critical wetting conditions. However, it became apparent that the meaningful phenomenon was the damping of interfacial oscillations. This latter concept makes up the bulk of this report. Perfluoromethyl cyclohexane and isopropanol in glass were the materials used for the experiment. The wetting condition of the fluids against the wall changes at the critical wetting transition temperature. This change in wetting causes a change in the damping characteristics of the interfacial excursions during oscillation and no measurable change in contact angle. The effect of contact line friction measured above and below the wetting transition temperature was to increase the period of vertical oscillation for the vapor-liquid interface when below the wetting transition temperature.

  2. A Vortical Hot Tower Route to Tropical Cyclogenesis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, M. T.; Nicholls, M. E.; Cram, T. A.; Saunders, A. B.

    2006-01-01

    A nonhydrostatic cloud model is used to examine the thermomechanics of tropical cyclogenesis under realistic meteorological conditions. Observations motivate the focus on the problem of how a midtropospheric cyclonic vortex, a frequent by-product of mesoscale convective systems during summertime conditions over tropical oceans, may be transformed into a surface-concentrated (warm core) tropical depression. As a first step, the vortex transformation is studied in the absence of vertical wind shear or zonal flow.Within the cyclonic vorticity-rich environment of the mesoscale convective vortex (MCV) embryo, the simulations demonstrate that small-scale cumulonimbus towers possessing intense cyclonic vorticity in their cores [vortical hot towers (VHTs)] emerge as the preferred coherent structures. The VHTs acquire their vertical vorticity through a combination of tilting of MCV horizontal vorticity and stretching of MCV and VHT-generated vertical vorticity. Horizontally localized and exhibiting convective lifetimes on the order of 1 h, VHTs overcome the generally adverse effects of downdrafts by consuming convective available potential energy in their local environment, humidifying the middle and upper troposphere, and undergoing diabatic vortex merger with neighboring towers.During metamorphosis, the VHTs vortically prime the mesoscale environment and collectively mimic a quasi-steady diabatic heating rate within the MCV embryo. A quasi-balanced toroidal (transverse) circulation develops on the system scale that converges cyclonic vorticity of the initial MCV and small-scale vorticity anomalies generated by subsequent tower activity. The VHTs are found to accelerate the spinup of near-surface mean tangential winds relative to an approximate axisymmetric model that excises the VHTs. This upscale growth mechanism appears capable of generating a tropical depression vortex on time scales on the order of 1 2 days, for reasonable parameter choices.Further tests of the VHT

  3. The Physics of Shot Towers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipscombe, Trevor C.; Mungan, Carl E.

    2012-01-01

    In the late 18th and throughout the 19th century, lead shot for muskets was prepared by use of a shot tower. Molten lead was poured from the top of a tower and, during its fall, the drops became spherical under the action of surface tension. In this article, we ask and answer the question: "How does the size of the lead shot depend on the height…

  4. The Physics of Shot Towers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipscombe, Trevor C.; Mungan, Carl E.

    2012-01-01

    In the late 18th and throughout the 19th century, lead shot for muskets was prepared by use of a shot tower. Molten lead was poured from the top of a tower and, during its fall, the drops became spherical under the action of surface tension. In this article, we ask and answer the question: "How does the size of the lead shot depend on the height…

  5. SWECS tower dynamics analysis methods and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, A. D.; Sexton, J. H.; Butterfield, C. P.; Thresher, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    Several different tower dynamics analysis methods and computer codes were used to determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of both guyed and freestanding wind turbine towers. These analysis methods are described and the results for two types of towers, a guyed tower and a freestanding tower, are shown. The advantages and disadvantages in the use of and the accuracy of each method are also described.

  6. Analysis of 2015 Meteorological Data from the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory and Kesselring Site Operations Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Aluzzi, F. J.

    2016-02-19

    Both the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) in Schenectady, N.Y. and the Kesselring Site Operations (KSO) facility near Ballston Spa, N.Y. are required to estimate the effects of hypothetical emissions of radiological material from their respective facilities by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which regulates both sites. An atmospheric dispersion model known as CAP88, which was developed and approved by the EPA for such purposes, is used by KAPL and KSO to meet this requirement. CAP88 calculations over a given time period are based on statistical data on the meteorological conditions for that period. Both KAPL and KSO have on-site meteorological towers which take atmospheric measurements at a frequency ideal for EPA regulatory model input. However, an independent analysis and processing of the meteorological data from each tower is required to derive a data set appropriate for use in the CAP88 model. The National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) was contracted to process the meteorological tower data for the 2015 calendar year from both on-site meteorological towers.

  7. cw, 325nm, 100mW semiconductor laser system as potential substitute for HeCd gas lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, T.; Able, A.; Häring, R.; Sumpf, B.; Erbert, G.; Tränkle, G.; Lison, F.; Kaenders, W. G.

    2008-02-01

    In the last decades, diode laser systems conquered the spectral range step-by-step from conventional gas lasers, wherever they can match or outperform in optical specifications. Although highly anticipated in the ultraviolet wavelength range, for instance in high-resolution lithography, biological and medical fluorescence applications or holography, cw single frequency operation of sufficient power has been a challenge for diode or other solid state laser systems. Currently this scope is still dominated by the HeCd gas laser, emitting at 325 nm with powers of up to 100 mW. In this paper we present a diode laser system emitting at 325 nm offering the same output power by efficient second harmonic generation (SHG) of a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) at 650 nm. For the master oscillator a ridge waveguide diode is anti-reflection coated and used in an external cavity diode laser (ECDL) with grating feedback in Littrow configuration. This setup features a MHz line width (coherence length of 100m), a coarse tuning range from 649 nm to 657 nm and a mode hope free tuning of 20 GHz. In a second step, we use a tapered amplifier to boost the output from the ECDL to a level of 400 mW, for powering an efficient second harmonic generation process in an enhancement cavity. Faraday isolators on both ends of the amplifier stage prevent back reflection and stabilize the single mode operation of the system. Together with astigmatism compensation this yields to a high spatial quality (M2<1.5) of the amplified beam. The frequency doubling is achieved by using a four mirror bow-tie enhancement resonator fitted with a Beta-Barium Borate (BBO) crystal. The cavity length is actively locked to the laser frequency using the Pound-Drever-Hall method. With this set-up, stable and reliable laser operation is achieved. After a few minutes warm-up time, fixed frequency and tunable UV output power of more than 100 mW could be generated, opening this important wavelength range for future

  8. A central tower solar test facility /RM/CTSTF/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevilacqua, S.; Gislon, R.

    The considered facility is intended for the conduction of test work in connection with studies of receivers, thermodynamic cycles, heliostats, components, and subassemblies. Major components of the test facility include a mirror field with a reflecting surface of 800 sq m, a 40 m tower, an electronic control system, a data-acquisition system, and a meteorological station. A preliminary experimental program is discussed, taking into account investigations related to facility characterization, an evaluation of advanced low-cost heliostats, materials and components tests, high-concentration photovoltaic experiments, and a study of advanced solar thermal cycles.

  9. Analysis of 2015 Meteorological Data from the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Aluzzi, F. J.

    2016-02-19

    The Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory (Bettis) in West Miffin, PA is required to estimate the effects of hypothetical emissions of radiological material from its facility by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). An atmospheric dispersion model known as CAP88, which was developed and approved by the EPA for such purposes, is used by Bettis to meet this requirement. CAP88 calculations over a given time period are based on statistical data on the meteorological conditions for that period. The Bettis facility has an on-site meteorological tower which takes atmospheric measurements at a frequency ideal for EPA regulatory model input. However, an independent analysis and processing of the meteorological data from the site tower is required to derive a data set appropriate for use in the CAP88 model. The National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) was contracted by the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory to process the on-site meteorological data for the calendar year 2015.

  10. Fire and forest meteorology

    Treesearch

    SA Ferguson; T.J. Brown; M. Flannigan

    2005-01-01

    The American Meteorological Society symposia series on Fire and Forest Meteorology provides biennial forums for atmospheric and fire scientists to introduce and discuss the latest and most relevant research on weather, climate and fire. This special issue highlights significant work that was presented at the Fifth Symposium in Orlando, Florida during 16-20 November...

  11. Systems and Meteorology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hills, Rodney; Beer, Tom

    1981-09-01

    Meteorological services are expected to function as forecasting agencies, but much of the existing data collection network appears to exist in order to provide a data base for scientific studies. A better definition of the goals of a meteorological service should result in greater management and administrative efficiency, and we offer suggestions as to the means of achieving this within a systems analytic framework

  12. Single-Dish Radio Polarimetry in the F-GAMMA Program with the Effelsberg 100-m Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuchert, Tobias; Kadler, Matthias; Wilms, Jörn; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Fuhrmann, Lars; Myserlis, Ioannis; Nestoras, Ioannis; Kraus, Alex; Bach, Uwe; Ros, Eduardo; Grossberger, Christoph; Schulz, Robert

    2013-12-01

    Studying the variability of polarized AGN jet emission in the radio band is crucial for understanding the dynamics of moving shocks as well as the structure of the underlying magnetic field. The 100-m Effelsberg Telescope is a high-quality instrument for studying the long-term variability of both total and polarized intensity as well as the electric-vector position angle. Since 2007, the F-GAMMA program has been monitoring the linear polarized emission of roughly 60 blazars at 11 frequencies between 2.7 and 43 GHz. Here, we describe the calibration of the polarimetric data at 5 and 10 GHz and the resulting F-GAMMA full-Stokes light curves for the exemplary case of the radio galaxy 3C 111.

  13. Development of solar tower observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    Because the horizontal solar telescope, the Snow Telescope in Yerkes Observatory, was affected by air-currents from the warmed-up soil, George Ellery Hale had the idea of a tower telescope. In 1904, the 60-foot tower in Mt. Wilson was ready, in 1908 the 150-foot tower was built with the help of the Carnegie foundation. After World War I, Germany made heavy efforts to regain its former strong position in the field of science. Already in December 1919 - after the spectacular result of the English eclipse expedition in October 1919 - Erwin Finlay-Freundlich started a successful fund raising (“Einstein-Stiftungrdquo;) among German industrialists. The company Zeiss in Jena was responsible for the instrumentation of the 20-m solar tower, built in 1920-22. The optical design of the Einstein Tower in respect to light intensity surpassed even the Mt. Wilson solar observatory. Also abroad solar tower observatories were built in the 1920s: Utrecht,The Netherlands (1922), Canberra, Australia (1924), Arcetri, Italy (1926), Pasadena, California (1926) and Tokyo, Japan (1928). In the thirties, solar physics became important because of the solar maximum in 1938 and the new observational possibilities created by Bernard Lyot. At the end of the 1930s, Karl-Otto Kiepenheuer proposed to establish a solar tower observatory on Wendelstein in order to improve the predictions of radio interference by observing sunspots. By stressing the importance of the solar research for war efforts, Otto Heckmann of Göttingen observatory finally succeeded in winning the “Reichsluftfahrtministerium” to finance several solar observatories, like Wendelstein, Hainberg/Göttingen, Kanzelhöhe/Villach, and Schauinsland/Freiburg. Solar astronomy profited by the foundation of the new observatories - four of them existed still after the war. Abroad only the solar observatories of Oxford (1935) and the 50 foot tower of the McMath-Hulbert Observatory, University of Michigan (1936) should be mentioned. Only

  14. VO2 Kinetics in All-out Arm Stroke, Leg Kick and Whole Stroke Front Crawl 100-m Swimming.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, F A; Lätt, E; Jürimäe, J; Maestu, J; Purge, P; Rämson, R; Haljaste, K; Keskinen, K L; Jürimäe, T

    2016-03-01

    The VO2 response to extreme-intensity exercise and its relationship with sports performance are largely unexplored. This study investigated the pulmonary VO2 kinetics during all-out 100-m front crawl whole stroke swimming (S), arm stroke (A) and leg kick (L). 26 male and 10 female competitive swimmers performed an all-out S trial followed by A and L of equal duration in random order. Breath-by-breath VO2 was measured using a snorkel attached to a portable gas analyzer. Mean (±SD) primary component parameters and peak blood lactate (Lapeak) during S, A, and L were, respectively: time delay (s), 14.2 ± 4.7, 14.3 ± 4.5, 15.6 ± 5.1; amplitude (ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)), 46.8 ± 6.1, 37.3 ± 6.9, 41.0 ± 4.7; time constant (τ, s): 9.2 ± 3.2, 12.4 ± 4.7, 10.1 ± 3.2; Lapeak (mmol·l(-1)), 6.8 ± 3.1, 6.3 ± 2.5, 7.9 ± 2.8. During A and L respectively, 80% and 87% of amplitude in S was reached, whereas A+L were 68% greater than in S. 100-m performance was associated to shorter cardiodynamic phase and greater VO2 amplitude and Lapeak (accounting up to 61% of performance variance), but not to τ. We conclude that (i) VO2 gain was proportional to exercise intensity and muscle mass involved, (ii) kicking is metabolically less efficient, and (iii) the main limiting factor of peak VO2 appears to be O2 delivery and not muscle extraction.

  15. Effect of Different Training Methods on Stride Parameters in Speed Maintenance Phase of 100m Sprint Runningmel.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Emel; Hindistan, Ibrahim Ethem; Ozkaya, Yasar Gul

    2017-04-27

    This study examined the effects of two different training methods relevant to sloping surface on stride parameters in speed maintenance phase of 100 m sprint running. Twenty recreationally active students were assigned into one of three groups: combined training (Com), horizontal training (H), and control (C) group. Com group performed uphill and downhill training on a sloping surface with an angle of 4°, while H group trained on a horizontal surface, 3 days a week for 8 weeks. Speed maintenance and deceleration phases were divided into distances with 10m intervals, and running time (t), running velocity (RV), step frequency (SF) and step length (SL) were measured at pre-, and post-exercise period. After 8-weeks of training program, t was shortened by 3.97% in Com group, and 2.37% in H group. RV also increased for totally 100m of running distance by 4,13% and 2,35% in Com, and H groups, respectively. At the speed maintenance phase, although t and maximal RV (RVmax) found to be statistically unaltered during overall phase, t was found to be decreased, and RVmax was preceded by 10m in distance in both training groups. SL was increased at 60-70m, and SF was decreased at 70-80m in H group. SL was increased with concomitant decrease in SF at 80-90m in Com group. Both training groups were maintained the RVmax with a great percentage at the speed maintenance phase. In conclusion, although both training methods resulted an increase in running time and RV, Com training method was more prominently effective method in improving RV, and this improvement was originated from the positive changes in SL during the speed maintaining phase.

  16. Packed tower program eases calculations for diameter, hydraulics of towers

    SciTech Connect

    Petrarca, C.A.

    1986-04-14

    A packed tower program will calculate the diameter and hydraulics of a packed tower, or check the hydraulics of an existing tower for other process conditions. It is written in simple BASIC for an IBM PC and could easily be converted to other PC's. There are approximately 100 statement lines, with memory requirement of approximately 4,100 bytes. The program is presented as an aid, or tool, to reduce tedious calculations in design or revision work. Much has already been written on the specifics of design methods and calculation procedures for packed towers. This article will cover only the program's procedure and calculation method, input requirements, output data, and features. The program first transforms the raw data into consistent units. Gas flow rate in pounds per hour is calculated from the input of standard cubic feet per minute and specific gravity, or moles per hour and molecular weight. Liquid flow rate in pounds per hour is calculated from the gallons per minute and specific gravity input. Using the temperature, pressure, compressibility, and molecular weight inputs, the gas density in pounds per cubic foot is calculated from the ideal gas law equation. Liquid density is calculated directly from the specific gravity. With this data, the program then calculates the ''x'' ordinate of the generalized flooding correlation for packed towers. Using regressed design curves of X vs. Y, which somewhat parallel the flooding curve, the program calculates the Y abscissa function which relates liquid and gas densities, gas mass velocity, packing factor, gravitational constant, and liquid viscosity.

  17. Optical sampling of the flux tower footprint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamon, J. A.

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to address the reasons and methods for conducting optical remote sensing within the flux tower footprint. Fundamental principles and conclusions gleaned from over two decades of proximal remote sensing at flux tower sites are reviewed. An organizing framework is the light-use efficiency (LUE) model, both because it is widely used, and because it provides a useful theoretical construct for integrating optical remote sensing with flux measurements. Multiple ways of driving this model, ranging from meteorological measurements to remote sensing, have emerged in recent years, making it a convenient conceptual framework for comparative experimental studies. New interpretations of established optical sampling methods, including the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) and Solar-Induced Fluorescence (SIF), are discussed within the context of the LUE model. Multi-scale analysis across temporal and spatial axes is a central theme, because such scaling can provide links between ecophysiological mechanisms detectable at the level of individual organisms and broad patterns emerging at larger scales, enabling evaluation of emergent properties and extrapolation to the flux footprint and beyond. Proper analysis of sampling scale requires an awareness of sampling context that is often essential to the proper interpretation of optical signals. Additionally, the concept of optical types, vegetation exhibiting contrasting optical behavior in time and space, is explored as a way to frame our understanding of the controls on surface-atmosphere fluxes. Complementary NDVI and PRI patterns across ecosystems are offered as an example of this hypothesis, with the LUE model and light-response curve providing an integrating framework. We conclude that experimental approaches allowing systematic exploration of plant optical behavior in the context of the flux tower network provides a unique way to improve our understanding of environmental constraints and

  18. Aircraft- and tower-based fluxes of carbon dioxide, latent, and sensible heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desjardins, R. L.; Hart, R. L.; Macpherson, J. I.; Schuepp, P. H.; Verma, S. B.

    1992-01-01

    Fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and sensible heat obtained over a grassland ecosystem, during the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE), using an aircraft- and two tower-based systems are compared for several days in 1987 and in 1989. The tower-based cospectral estimates of CO2, sensible heat, water vapor, and momentum, expressed as a function of wavenumber K times sampling height z, are relatively similar to the aircraft-based estimates for K x z greater than 0.1. A measurable contribution to the fluxes is observed by tower-based systems at K x z less than 0.01 but not by the aircraft-based system operating at an altitude of approximately 100 m over a 15 x 15 km area. Using all available simultaneous aircraft and tower data, flux estimates by both systems were shown to be highly correlated. As expected from the spatial variations of the greenness index, surface extrapolation of airborne flux estimates tended to lie between those of the two tower sites. The average fluxes obtained, on July 11, 1987, and August 4, 1989, by flying a grid pattern over the FIFE site agreed with the two tower data sets for CO2, but sensible and latent heat were smaller than those obtained by the tower-based systems. However, in general, except for a small underestimation due to the long wavelength contributions and due to flux divergence with height, the differences between the aircraft- and tower-based surface estimates of fluxes appear to be mainly attributable to differences in footprint, that is, differences in the area contributing to the surface flux estimates.

  19. Common misconceptions about cooling towers

    SciTech Connect

    Willa, J.L.; Campbell, J.C.

    1983-12-01

    This article discusses the design and performance of the water cooling tower. In many cases the numbers presented in a cooling tower inquiry for thermal performance design represent a more stringent condition than that found in the operation of the unit. A common misconception is to take the service factor or safety factor in the cold water temperature or the wet bulb temperature. Service factors are used in the preparation of specifications for most industrial equipment. Standards specify a minimum service factor of 2.0 for cooling tower right angle spiral bevel gears. Closing the approach (cold water temperature minus wet bulb temperature) does not vary linearly with increasing difficulty of duty for the cooling tower, and consequently does not represent a straight-line increase in size or cost. A decrease in the specified approach is equivalent to a decrease in the driving force available for the transfer of mass and heat from the water to the air stream. A decrease in approach from 20 to 19/sup 0/F would result in an increase in cost of about 5%, while a decrease from 5 to 4/sup 0/F would require about 20% more cooling tower.

  20. Survey of power tower technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, A. F.; Dasgupta, S.

    1980-05-01

    The history of the power tower programs is reviewed, and attention is given to the current state of heliostat, receiver, and storage design. Economic considerations are discussed, as are simulation studies and implications. Also dealt with are alternate applications for the power tower and some financing and energy aspects of solar electric conversion. It is noted that with a national commitment to solar energy, the power tower concept could generate 40 GW of electricity and double this amount in process heat by the year 2000. Calculations show an energy amplification factor of 20 for solar energy plants; that is, the ratio of the electric energy produced over the lifetime of a power plant to the thermal energy required to produce the plant.

  1. Generalist dinoflagellate endosymbionts and host genotype diversity detected from mesophotic (67-100 m depths) coral Leptoseris

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yvonne L; Pochon, Xavier; Fisher, Marla A; Wagner, Daniel; Concepcion, Gregory T; Kahng, Samuel E; Toonen, Robert J; Gates, Ruth D

    2009-01-01

    Background Mesophotic corals (light-dependent corals in the deepest half of the photic zone at depths of 30 - 150 m) provide a unique opportunity to study the limits of the interactions between corals and endosymbiotic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. We sampled Leptoseris spp. in Hawaii via manned submersibles across a depth range of 67 - 100 m. Both the host and Symbiodinium communities were genotyped, using a non-coding region of the mitochondrial ND5 intron (NAD5) and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2), respectively. Results Coral colonies harbored endosymbiotic communities dominated by previously identified shallow water Symbiodinium ITS2 types (C1_ AF333515, C1c_ AY239364, C27_ AY239379, and C1b_ AY239363) and exhibited genetic variability at mitochondrial NAD5. Conclusion This is one of the first studies to examine genetic diversity in corals and their endosymbiotic dinoflagellates sampled at the limits of the depth and light gradients for hermatypic corals. The results reveal that these corals associate with generalist endosymbiont types commonly found in shallow water corals and implies that the composition of the Symbiodinium community (based on ITS2) alone is not responsible for the dominance and broad depth distribution of Leptoseris spp. The level of genetic diversity detected in the coral NAD5 suggests that there is undescribed taxonomic diversity in the genus Leptoseris from Hawaii. PMID:19747389

  2. Performance and energy costs associated with scaling infrared heater arrays for warming field plots from 1 to 100 m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimball, Bruce A.; Conley, Matthew M.; Lewin, Keith F.

    2012-04-01

    To study the likely effects of global warming on open-field vegetation, hexagonal arrays of infrared heaters are currently being used for low-stature (<1 m) plants in small (≤3 m) plots. To address larger ecosystem scales, herein we show that excellent uniformity of the warming can be achieved using nested hexagonal and rectangular arrays. Energy costs depend on the overall efficiency (useable infrared energy on the plot per electrical energy in), which varies with the radiometric efficiency (infrared radiation out per electrical energy in) of the individual heaters and with the geometric efficiency (fraction of thermal radiation that falls on useable plot area) associated with the arrangement of the heaters in an array. Overall efficiency would be about 26% at 4 m s-1 wind speed for a single hexagonal array over a 3-m-diameter plot and 67% for a 199-hexagon honeycomb array over a 100-m-diameter plot, thereby resulting in an economy of scale.

  3. Performance and energy costs associated with scaling infrared heater arrays for warming field plots from 1 to 100 m

    SciTech Connect

    Kimball B. A.; Lewin K.; Conley, M. M.

    2012-04-01

    To study the likely effects of global warming on open-field vegetation, hexagonal arrays of infrared heaters are currently being used for low-stature (<1 m) plants in small ({le}3 m) plots. To address larger ecosystem scales, herein we show that excellent uniformity of the warming can be achieved using nested hexagonal and rectangular arrays. Energy costs depend on the overall efficiency (useable infrared energy on the plot per electrical energy in), which varies with the radiometric efficiency (infrared radiation out per electrical energy in) of the individual heaters and with the geometric efficiency (fraction of thermal radiation that falls on useable plot area) associated with the arrangement of the heaters in an array. Overall efficiency would be about 26% at 4 ms{sup -1} wind speed for a single hexagonal array over a 3-m-diameter plot and 67% for a 199-hexagon honeycomb array over a 100-m-diameter plot, thereby resulting in an economy of scale.

  4. System for rapid detection and mapping of gas plumes on 100 m scales: examination of some technical and economic issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Marc L.; Drescher, Anushka C.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Yost, Michael G.

    1995-05-01

    We consider the design of a system combining computed tomography and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (CT/FTIR) to detect and map the concentration of multicontaminant gas plumes in ambient air over a 100 m square area. Several factors affecting the accuracy of the reconstructed map and the detection limits that can be achieved in the field are discussed. The estimated cost and capabilities of the system are compared with those of a more conventional gas monitoring system that might operate over a similar spatial extent. The paper includes a description of a proposed system that is designed to produce a map of multiple gaseous contaminants with a resolution of 12 m X 12 m in a time of approximately 10 minutes by sequentially measuring the contaminant concentrations along 48 intersecting beam paths and then reconstructing the map using a CT algorithm adapted to detect Gaussian plumes. The optical elements consist of an FTIR mounted on a steerable telescope platform, a second remote steerable mirror platform, and 32 fixed retro-reflectors.

  5. Generalist dinoflagellate endosymbionts and host genotype diversity detected from mesophotic (67-100 m depths) coral Leptoseris.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yvonne L; Pochon, Xavier; Fisher, Marla A; Wagner, Daniel; Concepcion, Gregory T; Kahng, Samuel E; Toonen, Robert J; Gates, Ruth D

    2009-09-11

    Mesophotic corals (light-dependent corals in the deepest half of the photic zone at depths of 30-150 m) provide a unique opportunity to study the limits of the interactions between corals and endosymbiotic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. We sampled Leptoseris spp. in Hawaii via manned submersibles across a depth range of 67-100 m. Both the host and Symbiodinium communities were genotyped, using a non-coding region of the mitochondrial ND5 intron (NAD5) and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2), respectively. Coral colonies harbored endosymbiotic communities dominated by previously identified shallow water Symbiodinium ITS2 types (C1_ AF333515, C1c_ AY239364, C27_ AY239379, and C1b_ AY239363) and exhibited genetic variability at mitochondrial NAD5. This is one of the first studies to examine genetic diversity in corals and their endosymbiotic dinoflagellates sampled at the limits of the depth and light gradients for hermatypic corals. The results reveal that these corals associate with generalist endosymbiont types commonly found in shallow water corals and implies that the composition of the Symbiodinium community (based on ITS2) alone is not responsible for the dominance and broad depth distribution of Leptoseris spp. The level of genetic diversity detected in the coral NAD5 suggests that there is undescribed taxonomic diversity in the genus Leptoseris from Hawaii.

  6. Observations of free-free and anomalous microwave emission from LDN 1622 with the 100 m Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, S. E.; Dickinson, C.; Cleary, K.

    2015-11-01

    LDN 1622 has previously been identified as a possible strong source of dust-correlated anomalous microwave emission (AME). Previous observations were limited by resolution meaning that the radio emission could not be compared with current generation high-resolution infrared data from Herschel, Spitzer or Wide-field Infrared Sky Explorer. This paper presents arcminute resolution mapping observations of LDN 1622 at 4.85 and 13.7 GHz using the 100 m Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. The 4.85 GHz map reveals a corona of free-free emission enclosing LDN 1622 that traces the photodissociation region of the cloud. The brightest peaks of the 4.85 GHz map are found to be within ≈10 per cent agreement with the expected free-free predicted by Southern H-Alpha Sky Survey Atlas H α data of LDN 1622. At 13.7 GHz, the AME flux density was found to be 7.0 ± 1.4 mJy and evidence is presented for a rising spectrum between 13.7 and 31 GHz. The spinning dust model of AME is found to naturally account for the flux seen at 13.7 GHz. Correlations between the diffuse 13.7 GHz emission and the diffuse mid-infrared emission are used to further demonstrate that the emission originating from LDN 1622 at 13.7 GHz is described by the spinning dust model.

  7. Daytime rapid detection of minerals and organics from 50 and 100 m distances using a remote Raman system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Anupam K.; Sharma, Shiv K.; Lucey, Paul G.; Lentz, Rachel C. F.; Chio, Chi Hong

    2007-09-01

    We have developed a remote Raman system, using an 8-in telescope and a 532-nm pulse laser (20 Hz and 20 mJ/pulse), which is capable of operating in daylight. From distances of 50 and 100 m and with an integration time of just 1 second (equivalent to 20 laser pulses at 20 Hz), good quality Raman spectra with high signal-to-noise ratios were readily obtained. The Raman system was also tested using only single-laser-pulse excitation (8 ns pulse width) with an integration time of 2 μs. The spectra obtained from single-laser-pulse excitation also show clear Raman features and can be used for rapid, unambiguous identification of various chemical substances. We successfully identified a number of substances, including organic chemicals (acetone, naphthalene, nitro-methane, nitro-benzene and cyclohexane); inorganic chemicals and minerals (nitric acids, sulfuric acid, potassium perchlorate, gypsum, ammonium nitrate, epsomite, melanterite, calcite and sulfur); and amino acids. The remote Raman system has a range of applications, such as environmental monitoring (e.g., detection of hazardous chemicals and chemical spills from a safe distance in real time) or homeland security (e.g., rapid identification of chemicals on a conveyor belt or from a fast-moving object).

  8. First Arcas Meteorological Rocket

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-07-31

    First Arcas meteorological rocket, shown at Wallops prior to flight test, July 31, 1959. Photograph published in A New Dimension Wallops Island Flight Test Range: The First Fifteen Years by Joseph Shortal. A NASA publication. Page 696.

  9. Wave Meteorology and Soaring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews some mountain wave turbulence and operational hazards while soaring. Maps, photographs, and satellite images of the meteorological phenomena are included. Additionally, photographs of aircraft that sustained mountain wave damage are provided.

  10. Lasting Impressions in Meteorology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herold, James M.

    1992-01-01

    Describes activities integrating science and art education in which students examine slides of impressionist paintings or photographs of meteorological phenomena to determine the weather conditions depicted and to make and defend weather predictions. Includes a reproducible worksheet. (MDH)

  11. Graph Theory of Tower Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Hinz, Andreas M.

    2012-01-01

    The appropriate mathematical model for the problem space of tower transformation tasks is the state graph representing positions of discs or balls and their moves. Graph theoretical quantities like distance, eccentricities or degrees of vertices and symmetries of graphs support the choice of problems, the selection of tasks and the analysis of performance of subjects whose solution paths can be projected onto the graph. The mathematical model is also at the base of a computerized test tool to administer various types of tower tasks. PMID:22207419

  12. Climate and meteorology

    SciTech Connect

    Hoitink, D.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the significant activities conducted in 1994 to monitor the meteorology and climatology of the site. Meteorological measurements are taken to support Hanford Site emergency preparedness and response, Hanford Site operations, and atmospheric dispersion calculations. Climatological data are collected to help plan weather-dependent activities and are used as a resource to assess the environmental effects of Hanford Site operations.

  13. Meteorology for public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Špoler Čanić, Kornelija; Rasol, Dubravka; Milković, Janja

    2013-04-01

    The Meteorological and Hydrological Service in Croatia (MHSC) is, as a public service, open to and concentrated on public. The organization of visits to the MHSC for groups started in 1986. The GLOBE program in Croatia started in 1995 and after that interest for the group tours at the MHSC has increased. The majority of visitors are school and kindergarten children, students and groups of teachers. For each group tour we try to prepare the content that is suitable for the age and interest of a group. Majority of groups prefer to visit the meteorological station where they can see meteorological instruments and learn how they work. It is organized as a little workshop, where visitors can ask questions and discuss with a guide not only about the meteorological measurements but also about weather and climate phenomena they are interested in. Undoubtedly the highlight of a visit is the forecaster's room where visitors can talk to the forecasters (whom they can also see giving a weather forecast on the national TV station) and learn how weather forecasts are made. Sometimes we offer to visitors to make some meteorological experiments but that is still not in a regular program of the group tours due to the lack of performing space. Therefore we give them the instructions for making instruments and simulations of meteorological phenomena from household items. Visits guides are meteorologists with profound experience in the popularization of science.

  14. Surface Meteorological Station - SWiFT southwest - METa1 - Reviewed Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Herges, Thomas

    2017-04-06

    Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) Facility meteorological tower (MET), turbine, and Technical University of Denmark (DTU) SpinnerLidar data acquired on 20161216 UTC during a neutral atmospheric boundary layer inflow at a single focus distance of 2.5 D (D=27 m).

  15. How errors on meteorological variables impact simulated ecosystem fluxes: a case study for six French sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Ciais, P.; Peylin, P.; Viovy, N.; Longdoz, B.; Bonnefond, J. M.; Rambal, S.; Klumpp, K.; Olioso, A.; Cellier, P.; Maignan, F.; Eglin, T.; Calvet, J. C.

    2011-03-01

    We analyze how biases of meteorological drivers impact the calculation of ecosystem CO2, water and energy fluxes by models. To do so, we drive the same ecosystem model by meteorology from gridded products and by ''true" meteorology from local observation at eddy-covariance flux sites. The study is focused on six flux tower sites in France spanning across a 7-14 °C and 600-1040 mm yr-1 climate gradient, with forest, grassland and cropland ecosystems. We evaluate the results of the ORCHIDEE process-based model driven by four different meteorological models against the same model driven by site-observed meteorology. The evaluation is decomposed into characteristic time scales. The main result is that there are significant differences between meteorological models and local tower meteorology. The seasonal cycle of air temperature, humidity and shortwave downward radiation is reproduced correctly by all meteorological models (average R2=0.90). At sites located near the coast and influenced by sea-breeze, or located in altitude, the misfit of meteorological drivers from gridded dataproducts and tower meteorology is the largest. We show that day-to-day variations in weather are not completely well reproduced by meteorological models, with R2 between modeled grid point and measured local meteorology going from 0.35 (REMO model) to 0.70 (SAFRAN model). The bias of meteorological models impacts the flux simulation by ORCHIDEE, and thus would have an effect on regional and global budgets. The forcing error defined by the simulated flux difference resulting from prescribing modeled instead than observed local meteorology drivers to ORCHIDEE is quantified for the six studied sites and different time scales. The magnitude of this forcing error is compared to that of the model error defined as the modeled-minus-observed flux, thus containing uncertain parameterizations, parameter values, and initialization. The forcing error is the largest on a daily time scale, for which it is

  16. Wireless monitoring of structural components of wind turbines including tower and foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wondra, B.; Botz, M.; Grosse, C. U.

    2016-09-01

    Only few large wind turbines contain an extensive structural health monitoring (SHM) system. Such SHM systems could provide deeper insight into the real load history of a wind turbine along its standard lifetime of 20 years and support a justified extension of operation beyond the original intended period. This paper presents a new concept of a wireless SHM system based on acceleration measurement sensor nodes to permanently record acceleration of the tower structure at different heights. Exploitation of acceleration data and its referring position on the turbine tower enables calculation of vibration frequencies, their amplitudes and subsequently eigenmodes. Tower heights of 100 m and more are within the transmission range of wireless nodes, enabling a complete surveillance of the tower in three dimensions without the need for long cabling or electric signal amplification. Mounting of the sensor nodes on the tower is not limited to a few positions by the presence of an electric cable anymore. Still a comparison between data recorded by wireless sensors and data recorded by high-resolution wire-based sensors shows that the present resolution of the wireless sensors has to be improved to record accelerations more accurately and thus analyze vibration frequencies more precisely.

  17. Synergetic Use of Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 Data for Soil Moisture Mapping at 100 m Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qi; Zribi, Mehrez

    2017-01-01

    The recent deployment of ESA’s Sentinel operational satellites has established a new paradigm for remote sensing applications. In this context, Sentinel-1 radar images have made it possible to retrieve surface soil moisture with a high spatial and temporal resolution. This paper presents two methodologies for the retrieval of soil moisture from remotely-sensed SAR images, with a spatial resolution of 100 m. These algorithms are based on the interpretation of Sentinel-1 data recorded in the VV polarization, which is combined with Sentinel-2 optical data for the analysis of vegetation effects over a site in Urgell (Catalunya, Spain). The first algorithm has already been applied to observations in West Africa by Zribi et al., 2008, using low spatial resolution ERS scatterometer data, and is based on change detection approach. In the present study, this approach is applied to Sentinel-1 data and optimizes the inversion process by taking advantage of the high repeat frequency of the Sentinel observations. The second algorithm relies on a new method, based on the difference between backscattered Sentinel-1 radar signals observed on two consecutive days, expressed as a function of NDVI optical index. Both methods are applied to almost 1.5 years of satellite data (July 2015–November 2016), and are validated using field data acquired at a study site. This leads to an RMS error in volumetric moisture of approximately 0.087 m3/m3 and 0.059 m3/m3 for the first and second methods, respectively. No site calibrations are needed with these techniques, and they can be applied to any vegetation-covered area for which time series of SAR data have been recorded. PMID:28846601

  18. 30 CFR 57.10006 - Tower guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tower guards. 57.10006 Section 57.10006 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Aerial Tramways § 57.10006 Tower guards. Towers shall be suitably protected from swaying buckets....

  19. 30 CFR 57.10006 - Tower guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tower guards. 57.10006 Section 57.10006 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Aerial Tramways § 57.10006 Tower guards. Towers shall be suitably protected from swaying buckets....

  20. 30 CFR 56.10006 - Tower guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tower guards. 56.10006 Section 56.10006 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Aerial Tramways § 56.10006 Tower guards. Towers shall be suitably protected from swaying buckets....

  1. 30 CFR 56.10006 - Tower guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tower guards. 56.10006 Section 56.10006 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Aerial Tramways § 56.10006 Tower guards. Towers shall be suitably protected from swaying buckets....

  2. 30 CFR 56.10006 - Tower guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tower guards. 56.10006 Section 56.10006 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Aerial Tramways § 56.10006 Tower guards. Towers shall be suitably protected from swaying buckets....

  3. 30 CFR 57.10006 - Tower guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tower guards. 57.10006 Section 57.10006 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Aerial Tramways § 57.10006 Tower guards. Towers shall be suitably protected from swaying buckets....

  4. 30 CFR 56.10006 - Tower guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tower guards. 56.10006 Section 56.10006 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Aerial Tramways § 56.10006 Tower guards. Towers shall be suitably protected from swaying buckets....

  5. 30 CFR 57.10006 - Tower guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tower guards. 57.10006 Section 57.10006 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Aerial Tramways § 57.10006 Tower guards. Towers shall be suitably protected from swaying buckets....

  6. 30 CFR 57.10006 - Tower guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tower guards. 57.10006 Section 57.10006 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Aerial Tramways § 57.10006 Tower guards. Towers shall be suitably protected from swaying buckets....

  7. 30 CFR 56.10006 - Tower guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tower guards. 56.10006 Section 56.10006 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Aerial Tramways § 56.10006 Tower guards. Towers shall be suitably protected from swaying buckets....

  8. View of first bank of circuit towers on Arizona side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of first bank of circuit towers on Arizona side of canyon. Left tower supports Circuit 12, second from left tower supports Circuit 11, middle tower supports Circuit 10, second from right tower supports Circuit 9, and right tower supports Circuit 8, view west - Hoover Dam, Circuits 1-15, U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  9. View of Arizona rim towers from top of power plant. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Arizona rim towers from top of power plant. Left tower supports Circuit 3, second tower from left supports Circuit 12, middle tower supports Circuit 10, second tower from right supports Circuit 9, and right tower supports Circuit 8, view southeast - Hoover Dam, Circuits 1-15, U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  10. Identification of tower-wake distortions using sonic anemometer and lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffrey, Katherine; Quelet, Paul T.; Choukulkar, Aditya; Wilczak, James M.; Wolfe, Daniel E.; Oncley, Steven P.; Brewer, W. Alan; Debnath, Mithu; Ashton, Ryan; Valerio Iungo, G.; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2017-02-01

    The eXperimental Planetary boundary layer Instrumentation Assessment (XPIA) field campaign took place in March through May 2015 at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory, utilizing its 300 m meteorological tower, instrumented with two sonic anemometers mounted on opposite sides of the tower at six heights. This allowed for at least one sonic anemometer at each level to be upstream of the tower at all times and for identification of the times when a sonic anemometer is in the wake of the tower frame. Other instrumentation, including profiling and scanning lidars aided in the identification of the tower wake. Here we compare pairs of sonic anemometers at the same heights to identify the range of directions that are affected by the tower for each of the opposing booms. The mean velocity and turbulent kinetic energy are used to quantify the wake impact on these first- and second-order wind measurements, showing up to a 50 % reduction in wind speed and an order of magnitude increase in turbulent kinetic energy. Comparisons of wind speeds from profiling and scanning lidars confirmed the extent of the tower wake, with the same reduction in wind speed observed in the tower wake, and a speed-up effect around the wake boundaries. Wind direction differences between pairs of sonic anemometers and between sonic anemometers and lidars can also be significant, as the flow is deflected by the tower structure. Comparisons of lengths of averaging intervals showed a decrease in wind speed deficit with longer averages, but the flow deflection remains constant over longer averages. Furthermore, asymmetry exists in the tower effects due to the geometry and placement of the booms on the triangular tower. An analysis of the percentage of observations in the wake that must be removed from 2 min mean wind speed and 20 min turbulent values showed that removing even small portions of the time interval due to wakes impacts these two quantities. However, a vast majority of intervals have no

  11. Identification of tower-wake distortions using sonic anemometer and lidar measurements

    DOE PAGES

    McCaffrey, Katherine; Quelet, Paul T.; Choukulkar, Aditya; ...

    2017-02-02

    The eXperimental Planetary boundary layer Instrumentation Assessment (XPIA) field campaign took place in March through May 2015 at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory, utilizing its 300 m meteorological tower, instrumented with two sonic anemometers mounted on opposite sides of the tower at six heights. This allowed for at least one sonic anemometer at each level to be upstream of the tower at all times and for identification of the times when a sonic anemometer is in the wake of the tower frame. Other instrumentation, including profiling and scanning lidars aided in the identification of the tower wake. Here we compare pairsmore » of sonic anemometers at the same heights to identify the range of directions that are affected by the tower for each of the opposing booms. The mean velocity and turbulent kinetic energy are used to quantify the wake impact on these first- and second-order wind measurements, showing up to a 50% reduction in wind speed and an order of magnitude increase in turbulent kinetic energy. Comparisons of wind speeds from profiling and scanning lidars confirmed the extent of the tower wake, with the same reduction in wind speed observed in the tower wake, and a speed-up effect around the wake boundaries. Wind direction differences between pairs of sonic anemometers and between sonic anemometers and lidars can also be significant, as the flow is deflected by the tower structure. Comparisons of lengths of averaging intervals showed a decrease in wind speed deficit with longer averages, but the flow deflection remains constant over longer averages. Furthermore, asymmetry exists in the tower effects due to the geometry and placement of the booms on the triangular tower. An analysis of the percentage of observations in the wake that must be removed from 2 min mean wind speed and 20 min turbulent values showed that removing even small portions of the time interval due to wakes impacts these two quantities. Furthermorew, a vast majority of intervals

  12. Corona discharges from a windmill and its lightning protection tower in winter thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Daohong; Rison, William; Thomas, Ronald J.; Edens, Harald E.; Takagi, Nobuyuki; Krehbiel, Paul R.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents lightning mapping array (LMA) observations of corona discharges from a windmill and its lightning protection tower in winter thunderstorms in Japan. Corona discharges from the windmill, called windmill coronas, and those from the tower, called tower coronas, are distinctly different. Windmill coronas occur with periodic bursts, generally radiate larger power, and possibly develop to higher altitudes than tower coronas do. A strong negative electric field is necessary for the frequent production of tower coronas but is not apparently related with windmill coronas. These differences are due to the periodic rotation of the windmill and the moving blades which can escape space charges produced by corona discharges and sustain a large local electric field. The production period of windmill coronas is related with the rotation period of the windmill. Surprisingly, for one rotation of the windmill, only two out of the three blades produce detectable discharges and source powers of discharges from these two blades are different. The reason for this phenomenon is still unclear. For tower coronas, the source rate can get very high only when there is a strong negative electric field, and the source power can get very high only when the source rate is very low. The relationship between corona discharges and lightning flashes is investigated. There is no direct evidence that corona discharges can increase the chance of upward leader initiation, but nearby lightning flashes can increase the source rate of corona discharges right after the flashes. The peak of the source height distribution of corona discharges is about 100 m higher than the top of the windmill and the top of the tower. Possible reasons for this result are discussed.

  13. Validation of the Dynamic Wake Meander model with focus on tower loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, T. J.; Larsen, G. C.; Pedersen, M. M.; Enevoldsen, K.; Madsen, H. A.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a comparison between measured and simulated tower loads for the Danish offshore wind farm Nysted 2. Previously, only limited full scale experimental data containing tower load measurements have been published, and in many cases the measurements include only a limited range of wind speeds. In general, tower loads in wake conditions are very challenging to predict correctly in simulations. The Nysted project offers an improved insight to this field as six wind turbines located in the Nysted II wind farm have been instrumented to measure tower top and tower bottom moments. All recorded structural data have been organized in a database, which in addition contains relevant wind turbine SCADA data as well as relevant meteorological data - e.g. wind speed and wind direction - from an offshore mast located in the immediate vicinity of the wind farm. The database contains data from a period extending over a time span of more than 3 years. Based on the recorded data basic mechanisms driving the increased loading experienced by wind turbines operating in offshore wind farm conditions have been identified, characterized and modeled. The modeling is based on the Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) approach in combination with the state-of-the-art aeroelastic model HAWC2, and has previously as well as in this study shown good agreement with the measurements. The conclusions from the study have several parts. In general the tower bending and yaw loads show a good agreement between measurements and simulations. However, there are situations that are still difficult to match. One is tower loads of single-wake operation near rated ambient wind speed for single wake situations for spacing’s around 7-8D. A specific target of the study was to investigate whether the largest tower fatigue loads are associated with a certain downstream distance. This has been identified in both simulations and measurements, though a rather flat optimum is seen in the measurements.

  14. The shape of the Eiffel Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallant, Joseph

    2002-02-01

    The distinctive shape of the Eiffel Tower is based on simple physics and is designed so that the maximum torque created by the wind is balanced by the torque due to the Tower's weight. We use this idea to generate an equation for the shape of the Tower. The solution depends only on the width of the base and the maximum wind pressure. We parametrize the wind pressure and reproduce the shape of the Tower. We also discuss some of the Tower's interesting history and characteristics.

  15. The Calibration and error analysis of Shallow water (less than 100m) Multibeam Echo-Sounding System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, M.

    2016-12-01

    Multibeam echo-sounders(MBES) have been developed to gather bathymetric and acoustic data for more efficient and more exact mapping of the oceans. This gain in efficiency does not come without drawbacks. Indeed, the finer the resolution of remote sensing instruments, the harder they are to calibrate. This is the case for multibeam echo-sounding systems (MBES). We are no longer dealing with sounding lines where the bathymetry must be interpolated between them to engender consistent representations of the seafloor. We now need to match together strips (swaths) of totally ensonified seabed. As a consequence, misalignment and time lag problems emerge as artifacts in the bathymetry from adjacent or overlapping swaths, particularly when operating in shallow water. More importantly, one must still verify that bathymetric data meet the accuracy requirements. This paper aims to summarize the system integration involved with MBES and identify the various source of error pertaining to shallow water survey (100m and less). A systematic method for the calibration of shallow water MBES is proposed and presented as a set of field procedures. The procedures aim at detecting, quantifying and correcting systematic instrumental and installation errors. Hence, calibrating for variations of the speed of sound in the water column, which is natural in origin, is not addressed in this document. The data which used in calibration will reference International Hydrographic Organization(IHO) and other related standards to compare. This paper aims to set a model in the specific area which can calibrate the error due to instruments. We will construct a procedure in patch test and figure out all the possibilities may make sounding data with error then calculate the error value to compensate. In general, the problems which have to be solved is the patch test's 4 correction in the Hypack system 1.Roll 2.GPS Latency 3.Pitch 4.Yaw. Cause These 4 correction affect each others, we run each survey line

  16. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2010 (October - December 2009). A detailed project schedule is included in the Appendix. Included tasks are: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Objective Lightning Probability Tool, Phase III, (3) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting, Phase II, (4) Upgrade Summer Severe Weather Tool in Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS), (5) Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS) Update and Maintainability, (5) Verify 12-km resolution North American Model (MesoNAM) Performance, and (5) Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) Graphical User Interface.

  17. Transport and Meteorological Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Leonhard; Selkirk, Henry B.; Legg, Marion J.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this work are twofold. First, to provide real-time meteorological satellite guidance to airborne field missions for NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program, the Global Tropospheric Experiment, and the Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project. Extensive meteorological satellite datasets were provided for use by the mission scientist and by the science team. These same data were then archived for postdeployment data analysis by the science team. Second, to provide scientific analysis of the data from the airborne field missions supported. The results of these analyses were made public through peer-reviewed publications.

  18. Airport Remote Tower Sensor Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papasin, Richard; Gawdiak, Yuri; Maluf, David A.; Leidich, Christopher; Tran, Peter B.

    2001-01-01

    Remote Tower Sensor Systems (RTSS) are proof-of-concept prototypes being developed by NASA/Ames Research Center (NASA/ARC) with collaboration with the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) and NOAA (National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration). RTSS began with the deployment of an Airport Approach Zone Camera System that includes real-time weather observations at San Francisco International Airport. The goal of this research is to develop, deploy, and demonstrate remotely operated cameras and sensors at several major airport hubs and un-towered airports. RTSS can provide real-time weather observations of airport approach zone. RTSS will integrate and test airport sensor packages that will allow remote access to realtime airport conditions and aircraft status.

  19. Reusable Material for Drop Tower

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution A. Approved for public release. REUSABLE MATERIAL FOR DROP TOWER A thesis written at TANK AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH AND...ABSTRACT This thesis represents the capstone of my five years combined academic work at Kettering University and job experience at Tank Automotive ...NUMBER OF PAGES 57 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form

  20. Ozone Treatment For Cooling Towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwelder, Rick; Baldwin, Leroy V.; Feeney, Ellen S.

    1990-01-01

    Report presents results of study of cooling tower in which water treated with ozone instead of usual chemical agents. Bacteria and scale reduced without pollution and at low cost. Operating and maintenance costs with treatment about 30 percent of those of treatment by other chemicals. Corrosion rates no greater than with other chemicals. Advantage of ozone, even though poisonous, quickly detected by smell in very low concentrations.

  1. Computer Exercises in Meteorology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trapasso, L. Michael; Conner, Glen; Stallins, Keith

    Beginning with Western Kentucky University's (Bowling Green) fall 1999 semester, exercises required for the geography and meteorology course used computers for learning. This course enrolls about 250 students per year, most of whom choose it to fulfill a general education requirement. Of the 185 geography majors, it is required for those who…

  2. Meteorology: Project Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, P. Sean; Ford, Brent A.

    This document on meteorology is one of a four-volume series of Project Earth Science that includes exemplary hands-on science and reading materials for use in the classroom. This book is divided into three sections: activities, readings, and appendix. The activities are constructed around three basic concept divisions. First, students investigate…

  3. FRAM I Meteorology Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    kilometer south of the initial -- - 7 -FM 3. April camp. Change of weather regime to light and variable winds, generally northerly. 2 Meteorological... sunshot at the main part of the camp. South FRAM" dire ction to ’main camp PRIL ambient nto’s. Distance from UW hut BID to NPI hut at the main seismic

  4. Cellular automaton for bacterial towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indekeu, J. O.; Giuraniuc, C. V.

    2004-05-01

    A simulation approach to the stochastic growth of bacterial towers is presented, in which a non-uniform and finite nutrient supply essentially determines the emerging structure through elementary chemotaxis. The method is based on cellular automata and we use simple, microscopic, local rules for bacterial division in nutrient-rich surroundings. Stochastic nutrient diffusion, while not crucial to the dynamics of the total population, is influential in determining the porosity of the bacterial tower and the roughness of its surface. As the bacteria run out of food, we observe an exponentially rapid saturation to a carrying capacity distribution, similar in many respects to that found in a recently proposed phenomenological hierarchical population model, which uses heuristic parameters and macroscopic rules. Complementary to that phenomenological model, the simulation aims at giving more microscopic insight into the possible mechanisms for one of the recently much studied bacterial morphotypes, known as “towering biofilm”, observed experimentally using confocal laser microscopy. A simulation suggesting a mechanism for biofilm resistance to antibiotics is also shown.

  5. Self-assembled granular towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco-Vazquez, Felipe; Moreau, Florian; Vandewalle, Nicolas; Dorbolo, Stephan; GroupResearch; Applications in Statistical Physics Team

    2013-03-01

    When some water is added to sand, cohesion among the grains is induced. In fact, only 1% of liquid volume respect to the total pore space of the sand is necessary to built impressive sandcastles. Inspired on this experience, the mechanical properties of wet piles and sand columns have been widely studied during the last years. However, most of these studies only consider wet materials with less than 35% of liquid volume. Here we report the spontaneous formation of granular towers produced when dry sand is poured on a highly wet sand bed: The impacting grains stick on the wet grains due to instantaneous liquid bridges created during the impact. The grains become wet by the capillary ascension of water and the process continues, giving rise to stable narrow sand towers. Actually, the towers can reach the maximum theoretical limit of stability predicted by previous models, only expected for low liquid volumes. The authors would like to thank FNRS and Conacyt Mexico for financial support. FPV is a beneficiary of a movility grant from BELSPO/Marie Curie and the University of Liege.

  6. Acute changes in selected serum enzyme and metabolite concentrations in 12- to 14-yr.-old athletes after an all-out 100-m swimming sprint.

    PubMed

    Fu, Frank H; You, Chun-Ying; Kong, Zhao-Wei

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of an all-out 100-m swimming sprint on changes in serum enzyme and calcium ion concentrations in young (12 to 14 years) male and female swimmers. Changes in serum enzyme concentrations of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), serum glucose (GL), and calcium ion ((Ca2+) concentrations were measured in 23 elite swimmers (13 boys and 10 girls) before and after a 100-m freestyle all-out sprint. Analysis showed (1) there were significant sex differences in serum CK concentration at baseline (Pretest); (2) significant sex differences in serum CK and LDH concentrations after the 100-m spring; (3) no significant differences in Ca2+ concentration after the 100-m spring; and (4) significant increase in Serum GOT and blood glucose concentrations after the 100-m sprint, suggesting that these might both be useful indicators of anaerobic exercise stress in young swimmers.

  7. [Evaluation of heart impact in the 100 m extreme intensity sport using near-infrared non-invasive muscle oxygen detecting device and sports heart rate detection technology].

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei-Yong; Long, Fei-Xiao; Fu, Lan-Ying; Li, Yue; Ding, Hai-Shu; Qu, An-Lian; Zhou, Xiao-Ping

    2010-02-01

    Using continuous two wavelength near-infrared technology to detect the variation in the consistency of oxygen hemoglobin in the muscle and the sports heart rate wireless real time collection technology, we devised the real time muscle tissue oxygenation and instantaneous heart rate experiment scheme and implemented it for the process of the 100 m run with two parameters given simultaneously. The experiment shows that the concentration of the oxygen hemoglobin in the muscle tissue continues decreasing after the end of the 100 m run, and the time interval between the moment when the concentration of the oxygen hemoglobin attains the minimum value and the moment when the athletes finish the 100 m run is (6.65 +/- 1.10) sec; while the heart rate continues increasing after the end of the 100 m run, and the time interval between the moment when the heart rate attains the maximum value and the moment when the athletes finish the 100 m run is (8.00 +/- 1.57) sec. The results show that the two wavelength near-infrared tissue oxygenation detection technology and the sports heart rate real time collection equipment can accurately measure the sports tissue oxygenation and the heart rate in the extreme intensity sport, and reveal the process of muscle oxygen transportation and consumption and its dynamic character with the heart rate in the extreme intensity sport.

  8. 2004 Savannah River Cooling Tower Collection (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, Alfred; Parker, Matthew J.; Villa-Aleman, E.

    2005-05-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) collected ground truth in and around the Savannah River Site (SRS) F-Area cooling tower during the spring and summer of 2004. The ground truth data consisted of air temperatures and humidity inside and around the cooling tower, wind speed and direction, cooling water temperatures entering; inside adn leaving the cooling tower, cooling tower fan exhaust velocities and thermal images taken from helicopters. The F-Area cooling tower had six cells, some of which were operated with fans off during long periods of the collection. The operating status (fan on or off) for each of the six cells was derived from operations logbooks and added to the collection database. SRNL collected the F-Area cooling tower data to produce a database suitable for validation of a cooling tower model used by one of SRNL's customer agencies. SRNL considers the data to be accurate enough for use in a model validation effort. Also, the thermal images of the cooling tower decks and throats combined with the temperature measurements inside the tower provide valuable information about the appearance of cooling towers as a function of fan operating status and time of day.

  9. Meteorological Observations for Renewable Energy Applications at Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, S; Alai, M; Myers, K

    2011-10-26

    In early October 2010, two Laser and Detection Ranging (LIDAR) units (LIDAR-96 and LIDAR-97), a 3 m tall flux tower, and a 3 m tall meteorological tower were installed in the northern section of Site 300 (Figure 1) as a first step in development of a renewable energy testbed facility. This section of the SMS project is aimed at supporting that effort with continuous maintenance of atmospheric monitoring instruments capable of measuring vertical profiles of wind speed and wind direction at heights encountered by future wind power turbines. In addition, fluxes of energy are monitored to estimate atmospheric mixing and its effects on wind flow properties at turbine rotor disk heights. Together, these measurements are critical for providing an accurate wind resource characterization and for validating LLNL atmospheric prediction codes for future renewable energy projects at Site 300. Accurate, high-resolution meteorological measurements of wind flow in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and surface-atmosphere energy exchange are required for understanding the properties and quality of available wind power at Site 300. Wind speeds at heights found in a typical wind turbine rotor disk ({approx} 40-140 m) are driven by the synergistic impacts of atmospheric stability, orography, and land-surface characteristics on the mean wind flow in the PBL and related turbulence structures. This section of the report details the maintenance and labor required in FY11 to optimize the meteorological instruments and ensure high accuracy of their measurements. A detailed look at the observations from FY11 is also presented. This portion of the project met the following milestones: Milestone 1: successful maintenance and data collection of LIDAR and flux tower instruments; Milestone 2: successful installation of solar power for the LIDAR units; and Milestone 3: successful implementation of remote data transmission for the LIDAR units.

  10. Urban Climatology Applied to the Deterioration of the Pisa Leaning Tower, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camuffo, D.; Sturaro, G.; Valentino, A.

    Among the peculiarities of the urban climatology, a relevant one concerns the interactions with monuments, which include stone weathering, deposition and removal of airborne pollutants. In order to know more about the case of the Pisa Leaning Tower, Italy, a field survey has been made for one year, measuring the microclimate interacting with the structure, the vertical temperature and humidity profiles, the Tower surface temperature at different locations and the concentration of particles in air. Also more general information was collected studying the meteorological parameters in the area of Pisa. The correlation between rainfalls and wind evidenced that the windborne droplets arrive from preferential directions, determined on the regional scale by the sea shore on the west (sea breeze) and the channelling operated by the valley of the Arno river on the west. The tilting of the Tower gives a natural shield to the southern part, which is hardly washed by rainfall. The complex balance between airborne particulate matter deposition, tower tilting, rainfall washout and surface runoff determines the pattern of the black crusts which disfigure the elegance of this historical building. The land and sea breezes transport air with different moisture content, and the urban heat island accentuates the mid day drop on relative humidity, determining condensation-evaporation cycles in the stone micropores. The urban climatology of Pisa and the interactions with the Leaning Tower are discussed in view of the conservation of this monument.

  11. 'Towers in the Tempest' Computer Animation Submission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirah, Greg

    2008-01-01

    The following describes a computer animation that has been submitted to the ACM/SIGGRAPH 2008 computer graphics conference: 'Towers in the Tempest' clearly communicates recent scientific research into how hurricanes intensify. This intensification can be caused by a phenomenon called a 'hot tower.' For the first time, research meteorologists have run complex atmospheric simulations at a very fine temporal resolution of 3 minutes. Combining this simulation data with satellite observations enables detailed study of 'hot towers.' The science of 'hot towers' is described using: satellite observation data, conceptual illustrations, and a volumetric atmospheric simulation data. The movie starts by showing a 'hot tower' observed by NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft's three dimensional precipitation radar data of Hurricane Bonnie. Next, the dynamics of a hurricane and the formation of 'hot towers' are briefly explained using conceptual illustrations. Finally, volumetric cloud, wind, and vorticity data from a supercomputer simulation of Hurricane Bonnie are shown using volume techniques such as ray marching.

  12. 'Towers in the Tempest' Computer Animation Submission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirah, Greg

    2008-01-01

    The following describes a computer animation that has been submitted to the ACM/SIGGRAPH 2008 computer graphics conference: 'Towers in the Tempest' clearly communicates recent scientific research into how hurricanes intensify. This intensification can be caused by a phenomenon called a 'hot tower.' For the first time, research meteorologists have run complex atmospheric simulations at a very fine temporal resolution of 3 minutes. Combining this simulation data with satellite observations enables detailed study of 'hot towers.' The science of 'hot towers' is described using: satellite observation data, conceptual illustrations, and a volumetric atmospheric simulation data. The movie starts by showing a 'hot tower' observed by NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft's three dimensional precipitation radar data of Hurricane Bonnie. Next, the dynamics of a hurricane and the formation of 'hot towers' are briefly explained using conceptual illustrations. Finally, volumetric cloud, wind, and vorticity data from a supercomputer simulation of Hurricane Bonnie are shown using volume techniques such as ray marching.

  13. 2. Abandoned light tower and keeper's house/light tower, view southeast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Abandoned light tower and keeper's house/light tower, view southeast, north northwest and west southwest sides - Matinicus Rock Light Station, Matinicus Island, on Matinicus Rock, Matinicus, Knox County, ME

  14. 1. Light tower/keeper's house and abandoned light tower, view northwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Light tower/keeper's house and abandoned light tower, view northwest, south southeast and east northeast sides - Matinicus Rock Light Station, Matinicus Island, on Matinicus Rock, Matinicus, Knox County, ME

  15. Vortex-augmented cooling tower - windmill combination

    DOEpatents

    McAllister, J.E. Jr.

    1982-09-02

    A cooling tower for cooling large quantities of effluent water from a production facility by utilizing natural wind forces includes the use of a series of helically directed air inlet passages extending outwardly from the base of the tower to introduce air from any direction in a swirling vortical pattern while the force of the draft created in the tower makes it possible to place conventional power generating windmills in the air passage to provide power as a by-product.

  16. Meteorological Support in Scientific Ballooning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwantes, Chris; Mullenax, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The weather affects every portion of a scientific balloon mission, from payload integration to launch, float, and impact and recovery. Forecasting for these missions is very specialized and unique in many aspects. CSBF Meteorology incorporates data from NWSNCEP, as well as several international meteorological organizations, and NCAR. This presentation will detail the tools used and specifics on how CSBF Meteorology produces its forecasts.

  17. Meteorological Support in Scientific Ballooning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwantes, Chris; Mullenax, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The weather affects every portion of a scientific balloon mission, from payload integration to launch, float, and impact and recovery. Forecasting for these missions is very specialized and unique in many aspects. CSBF Meteorology incorporates data from NWSNCEP, as well as several international meteorological organizations, and NCAR. This presentation will detail the tools used and specifics on how CSBF Meteorology produces its forecasts.

  18. Survey: National Meteorological Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The National Meteorological Center (NMC) is comprised of three operational divisions (Development, Automation, and Forecast) and an Administrative Division. The Development Division develops and implements mathematical models for forecasting the weather. The Automation Division provides the software and processing services to accommodate the models used in daily forecasts. The Forecasting Division applies a combination of numerical and manual techniques to produce analyses and prognoses up to 120 hr into the future. This guidance material is combined with severe storm information from the National Hurricane Center and the National Severe Storms Forecasting Center to develop locally tailored forecasts by the Weather Service Forecast Offices and, in turn, by the local Weather Service Offices. A very general flow of this information is shown. A more detailed illustration of data flow into, within, and from the NMC is given. The interrelations are depicted between the various meteorological organizations and activities.

  19. Vega balloon meteorological measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, D.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Hildebrand, C. E.; Preston, R. A.

    1990-01-01

    The Vega balloons obtained in situ measurements of pressure, temperature, vertical winds, cloud density, ambient illumination, and the frequency of lightning during their flights in the Venus middle cloud layer. The Vega measurements were used to develop a comprehensive description of the meteorology of the Venus middle cloud layer. The Vega measurements provide the following picture: large horizontal temperature gradients near the equator, vigorous convection, and weather conditions that can change dramatically on time scales as short as one hour.

  20. Optimal Inflatable Space Towers of High Height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    Author provides theory and computations for building inflatable space towers up to a hundred km in height. These towers can be used for tourism; scientific observation of space, earth's surface, weather, top atmosphere, as well as for radio, television, and communication transmissions. These towers can also be used to launch space ships and Earth satellites. These projects are not expensive and do not require rockets. They require thin strong films composed from artificial fibers and fabricated by current industry. Towers can be built using present technology. Towers can be used (for tourism, communication, etc.) during the construction process and provide self-financing for further construction. The tower design does not require work at high altitudes; all construction can be done at the earth's surface. The transport system for this tower consists a small engine (used only for friction compensation) located at the earth's surface. The tower is separated into sections and has special protection mechanism in case of a damage. Problems involving security, control, repair, and stability of the proposed towers are addressed in subsequent publications. The author is prepared to discuss these and other problems with serious organizations desiring to research and develop these projects.

  1. Optimal inflatable space towers of high height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolonkin, A.

    Author suggested, developed theory, and computed some projects of an optimal inflatable space tower of the heights some hundreds km. These towers can be used for tourism, scientist observation of space, Earth surface, Earth weather, Earth top atmosphere, and for radio, TV, communication transmissions. These towers can be used for launching of the space ships and Earth s atellites. The computed projects not expensive, do not request rockets. They need only in thin strong films composed from the artificial fibers and fabricated by a current industry. Towers can be built by a current technology. Towers can be explored (for tourism, communication, etc.) in a time of the construction process and give a profit, self- financing for further constriction. They can permanent increase their height. The tower design does not request a work at the high altitudes. All construction works will be making at the Earth surface. Author suggests the transport system for this tower of a high capability, which does not request a power energy issue. The small engine (only for a friction compensation) is located at the Earth surface. The tower is separated on sections and has a special protection of a case of a damage. It is considered also the problems of security, control, repair, etc. of the suggested towers. The author has also solved additional problems, which appear in these projects and which can look as difficult for the given proposal and current technology. The author is prepared to discuss the problems with serious organizations, which want to research and develop these projects.

  2. Extreme Meteorological Parameters During Space Shuttle Pad Exposure Periods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barry C.; Overbey, B. Glenn

    2004-01-01

    During the 113 missions of the Space Transportation System (STS), the Space Shuttle fleet has been exposed to the elements on the launch pad for a total of 4195 days. This paper provides a summary of the historical record of the meteorological extremes encountered by the Space Shuttle fleet during the pad exposure period. Parameters included are temperature, dew point, relative humidity, wind speed, sea level pressure and precipitation. All the data presented are archived by the Marshall Space Flight Center Environments Group, and were obtained from a combination of surface observations and meteorological towers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. Data are provided from the first launch of the STS in 1981 through the launch of STS-107 in 2003.

  3. Meteorological Annual Report for 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, C.H.

    1998-12-17

    An analysis of meteorological data collected at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in 1997 shows that overall weather conditions for the year were relatively cool and wet. The average temperature for 1997 was 63.7 degree F which is about 1 degree F below the annual average for the 30-year period 1968-97. June 1997 had the lowest average temperature of any June in the 34 years for which temperature records are available at SRS ; moreover, the average temperature for the summer months (June, July, and August) was the third lowest for any summer on record. Conversely, the average temperature for March 1997 was the highest for any March in the 34-year record. Temperature extremes for 1997 ranged from a minimum of 18.6 degree F on January 18 to a maximum of 99.1 degree F on August 15.Wet weather during the last three months of the year was due to the development of a strong El Nino event (NOAA, 1998). Total rainfall for December 1997, 10.19 inches, was the highest for a December in the 46 year period of record for precipitation. Monthly rainfall was above average each month except March, May, and August. The greatest 24-hour rainfall during the year was 2.82 inches on December 24. Daily rainfall in excess of 2 inches occurred on April 28, June 28, and September 25. No snow was recorded.The annual average wind speed at the Central Climatology meteorology tower near N Area was 5.8 mph which is very nearly equal to the average wind speed at that station for the 7-year period 1991-97. The 1997 data also showed a slightly higher frequency of west to northwest winds and a slightly lower frequency of northeast winds than was observed in the 5-year period 1992-96. A winter storm which developed over the Mid-Atlantic States March 30-31 produced the most notable period of sustained strong winds. Daily and 15-minute average wind speeds of 15.3 miles per hour (mph) and 25.1 mph, respectively, were recorded at Central Climatology.Monthly average relative humidity for the year was lowest

  4. COOLING TOWER PUMP HOUSE, TRA606. CONNECTION TO COOLING TOWER. PUMPHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    COOLING TOWER PUMP HOUSE, TRA-606. CONNECTION TO COOLING TOWER. PUMP-HOUSE FLOOR PLAN AND FOUNDATION PLANS. LAYOUT OF SIX COOLING TOWER UNITS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-807-2, 12/1950. INL INDEX NO. 53-0607-62-098-100671, REV. 1. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. Drop Tower and Aircraft Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David L.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is a brief introduction to existing capabilities in drop towers and low-gravity aircraft that will be presented as part of a Symposium: Microgravity Platforms Other Than the ISS, From Users to Suppliers which will be a half day program to bring together the international community of gravity-dependent scientists, program officials and technologists with the suppliers of low gravity platforms (current and future) to focus on the future requirements and use of platforms other than the International Space Station (ISS).

  6. European Sail Tower SPS concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seboldt, W.; Klimke, M.; Leipold, M.; Hanowski, N.

    2001-03-01

    Based on a DLR-study in 1998/99 on behalf of ESA/ESTEC called "System Concepts, Architectures and Technologies for Space Exploration and Utilization (SE&U)" a new design for an Earth-orbiting Solar Power Satellite (SPS) has been developed. The design is called "European Sail Tower SPS" and consists mainly of deployable sail-like structures derived from the ongoing DLR/ESA solar sail technology development activity. Such a SPS satellite features an extremely light-weight and large tower-like orbital system and could supply Europe with significant amounts of electrical power generated by photovoltaic cells and subsequently transmitted to Earth via microwaves. In order to build up the sail tower, 60 units - each consisting of a pair of square-shaped sails - are moved from LEO to GEO with electric propulsion and successively assembled in GEO robotically on a central strut. Each single sail has dimensions of 150m × 150 m and is automatically deployed, using four diagonal light-weight carbon fiber (CFRP) booms which are initially rolled up on a central hub. The electric thrusters for the transport to GEO could also be used for orbit and attitude control of the assembled tower which has a total length of about 15 km and would be mainly gravity gradient stabilized. Employing thin film solar cell technology, each sail is used as a solar array and produces an electric power in orbit of about 3.7 MW e. A microwave antenna with a diameter of 1 km transmits the power to a 10 km rectenna on the ground. The total mass of this 450 MW SPS is about 2100 tons. First estimates indicate that the costs for one kWh delivered in this way could compete with present day energy costs, if launch costs would decrease by two orders of magnitude. Furthermore, mass production and large numbers of installed SPS systems must be assumed in order to lower significantly the production costs and to reduce the influence of the expensive technology development. The paper presents the technical concept

  7. Women in Meteorology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemone, Margaret A.; Waukau, Patricia L.

    1982-11-01

    The names of 927 women who are or have been active in meteorology or closely related fields have been obtained from various sources. Of these women, at least 500 are presently active. An estimated 4-5% of the total number of Ph.D.s in meteorology are awarded to women. About 10% of those receiving B.S. and M.S. degrees are women.The work patterns, accomplishments, and salaries of employed women meteorologists have been summarized from 330 responses to questionnaires, as functions of age, family status, part- or full-time working status, and employing institutions. It was found that women meteorologists holding Ph.D.s are more likely than their male counterparts to be employed by universities. As increasing number of women were employed in operational meteorology, although few of them were married and fewer still responsible for children. Several women were employed by private industry and some had advanced into managerial positions, although at the present time, such positions remain out of the reach of most women.The subjective and objective effects of several gender-related factors have been summarized from the comments and responses to the questionnaires. The primary obstacles to advancement were found to be part-time work and the responsibility for children. Part-time work was found to have a clearly negative effect on salary increase as a function of age. prejudicated discrimination and rules negatively affecting women remain important, especially to the older women, and affirmative action programs are generally seen as beneficial.Surprisingly, in contrast to the experience of women in other fields of science, women Ph.D.s in meteorology earn salaries comparable of their employment in government or large corporations and universities where there are strong affirmative action programs and above-average salaries. Based on the responses to the questionnaire, the small size of the meteorological community is also a factor, enabling women to become recognized

  8. Test of the inverse-square law of gravitation using the 300-m tower at Erie, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speake, C. C.; Niebauer, T. M.; McHugh, M. P.; Keyser, P. T.; Faller, J. E.

    1990-10-01

    Gravity was measured at eight different heights on a 300-m meteorological tower using LaCoste and Romberg gravimeters. The observed values were adjusted for tides, drift, and gravimeter screw errors, and tested for systematic effects due to tower motion. These results are compared with values predicted using Newton's inverse-square law from surface gravity. The differences exhibit no systematic trends and their rms value is only 10 x 10 to the -8th m/sec sq, well within the estimated erros of the experiment. This result places new constraints on the possible strength and range of any non-Newtonian force.

  9. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This Quarter's Highlights incllude: completion of the second phase of verifying the performance of the MesoNAM weather model at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). (1) The data was delivered to the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and the final report was distributed (2) Staff completed modifying and updating lightning c1imatologies for KSC/CCAFS and other airfields around central Florida. We delivered the tool to the National Weather Service in Melbourne and 45 WS and distributed the final report (3) Staff completed modifying the AMU peak wind tool by analyzing wind tower data to determine peak wind behavior during times of onshore and offshore flow. This was delivered the to the 45 WS and distributed the final report.

  10. The acute effects of static stretching on the sprint performance of collegiate men in the 60- and 100-m dash after a dynamic warm-up.

    PubMed

    Kistler, Brandon M; Walsh, Mark S; Horn, Thelma S; Cox, Ronald H

    2010-09-01

    Previous research has shown that static stretching has an inhibitory effect on sprinting performances up to 50 m. The purpose of this study was to see what would happen to these effects at longer distances such as those seen in competition. This study used a within-subjects design to investigate the effects of passive static stretching vs. no stretching on the 60- and 100-m sprint performance of college track athletes after a dynamic warm-up. Eighteen male subjects completed both the static stretching and the no stretching conditions in counterbalanced order across 2 days of testing. On each day, all subjects first completed a generalized dynamic warm-up routine that included a self-paced 800-m run, followed by a series of dynamic movements, sprint, and hurdle drills. At the end of this generalized warm-up, athletes were assigned to either a static stretching or a no-stretching condition. They then immediately performed 2 100-m trials with timing gates set up at 20, 40, 60, and 100 m. Results revealed a significant slowing in performance with static stretching (p < 0.039) in the second 20 (20-40) m of the sprint trials. After the first 40 m, static stretching exhibited no additional inhibition of performance in a 100-m sprint. However, although there was no additional time loss, athletes never gained back the time that was originally lost in the first portion of the trials. Therefore, in strict terms of performance, it seems harmful to include static stretching in the warm-up protocol of collegiate male sprinters in distances up to 100 m.

  11. View second bank of circuit towers on Arizona side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View second bank of circuit towers on Arizona side of canyon. Left tower supports Circuit 10 and right tower supports Circuit 11, view north - Hoover Dam, Circuits 1-15, U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  12. Wind turbine tower for storing hydrogen and energy

    DOEpatents

    Fingersh, Lee Jay

    2008-12-30

    A wind turbine tower assembly for storing compressed gas such as hydrogen. The tower assembly includes a wind turbine having a rotor, a generator driven by the rotor, and a nacelle housing the generator. The tower assembly includes a foundation and a tubular tower with one end mounted to the foundation and another end attached to the nacelle. The tower includes an in-tower storage configured for storing a pressurized gas and defined at least in part by inner surfaces of the tower wall. In one embodiment, the tower wall is steel and has a circular cross section. The in-tower storage may be defined by first and second end caps welded to the inner surface of the tower wall or by an end cap near the top of the tower and by a sealing element attached to the tower wall adjacent the foundation, with the sealing element abutting the foundation.

  13. 157. Copy of Louis Rosenberg Etching (original in the Tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    157. Copy of Louis Rosenberg Etching (original in the Tower City Development Office) TERMINAL TOWER UNDER CONSTRUCTION, STEEL FRAMEWORK OF THE SOUTHWEST WING, VIEW WEST TO EAST - Terminal Tower Building, Cleveland Union Terminal, 50 Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  14. APPROACH BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE, AS SEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    APPROACH BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE, AS SEEN FROM BELOW, SHOWING VALVE TOWER TO RIGHT. VIEW FACING NORTH - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Ku Tree Reservoir, Valve Tower Foot Bridge, Kalakoa Stream, East Range, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  15. Fire ants perpetually rebuild sinking towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phonekeo, Sulisay; Mlot, Nathan; Monaenkova, Daria; Hu, David L.; Tovey, Craig

    2017-07-01

    In the aftermath of a flood, fire ants, Solenopsis invicta, cluster into temporary encampments. The encampments can contain hundreds of thousands of ants and reach over 30 ants high. How do ants build such tall structures without being crushed? In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we investigate the shape and rate of construction of ant towers around a central support. The towers are bell shaped, consistent with towers of constant strength such as the Eiffel tower, where each element bears an equal load. However, unlike the Eiffel tower, the ant tower is built through a process of trial and error, whereby failed portions avalanche until the final shape emerges. High-speed and novel X-ray videography reveal that the tower constantly sinks and is rebuilt, reminiscent of large multicellular systems such as human skin. We combine the behavioural rules that produce rafts on water with measurements of adhesion and attachment strength to model the rate of growth of the tower. The model correctly predicts that the growth rate decreases as the support diameter increases. This work may inspire the design of synthetic swarms capable of building in vertical layers.

  16. Fire ants perpetually rebuild sinking towers

    PubMed Central

    Phonekeo, Sulisay; Mlot, Nathan; Monaenkova, Daria; Tovey, Craig

    2017-01-01

    In the aftermath of a flood, fire ants, Solenopsis invicta, cluster into temporary encampments. The encampments can contain hundreds of thousands of ants and reach over 30 ants high. How do ants build such tall structures without being crushed? In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we investigate the shape and rate of construction of ant towers around a central support. The towers are bell shaped, consistent with towers of constant strength such as the Eiffel tower, where each element bears an equal load. However, unlike the Eiffel tower, the ant tower is built through a process of trial and error, whereby failed portions avalanche until the final shape emerges. High-speed and novel X-ray videography reveal that the tower constantly sinks and is rebuilt, reminiscent of large multicellular systems such as human skin. We combine the behavioural rules that produce rafts on water with measurements of adhesion and attachment strength to model the rate of growth of the tower. The model correctly predicts that the growth rate decreases as the support diameter increases. This work may inspire the design of synthetic swarms capable of building in vertical layers. PMID:28791170

  17. Fire ants perpetually rebuild sinking towers.

    PubMed

    Phonekeo, Sulisay; Mlot, Nathan; Monaenkova, Daria; Hu, David L; Tovey, Craig

    2017-07-01

    In the aftermath of a flood, fire ants, Solenopsis invicta, cluster into temporary encampments. The encampments can contain hundreds of thousands of ants and reach over 30 ants high. How do ants build such tall structures without being crushed? In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we investigate the shape and rate of construction of ant towers around a central support. The towers are bell shaped, consistent with towers of constant strength such as the Eiffel tower, where each element bears an equal load. However, unlike the Eiffel tower, the ant tower is built through a process of trial and error, whereby failed portions avalanche until the final shape emerges. High-speed and novel X-ray videography reveal that the tower constantly sinks and is rebuilt, reminiscent of large multicellular systems such as human skin. We combine the behavioural rules that produce rafts on water with measurements of adhesion and attachment strength to model the rate of growth of the tower. The model correctly predicts that the growth rate decreases as the support diameter increases. This work may inspire the design of synthetic swarms capable of building in vertical layers.

  18. View of first bank of circuit towers on Arizona side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of first bank of circuit towers on Arizona side of canyon. Photograph taken from Nevada side of canyon. Left tower supports Circuit 8, second from left tower supports Circuit 9, middle tower supports Circuit 10, second from right tower supports Circuit 11, and right tower supports Circuit 12, view southeast. - Hoover Dam, Circuits 1-15, U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  19. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., Jr.; Crawford, Winifred; Short, David; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the second quarter of Fiscal Year 2008 (January - March 2008). Projects described are: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting, (3) Situational Lightning Climatologies for Central Florida. Phase III, (4) Volume Averaged Height Integrated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR), (5) Impact of Local Sensors, (6) Radar Scan Strategies for the PAFB WSR-74C Replacement and (7) WRF Wind Sensitivity Study at Edwards Air Force Base.

  20. Mapping the Martian Meteorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Michael; Ross, J. D.; Soloman, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars-adapted version of the NASA/GISS general circulation model (GCM) has been applied to the hourly/daily simulation of the planet's meteorology over several seasonal orbits. The current running version of the model includes a diurnal solar cycle, CO2 sublimation, and a mature parameterization of upper level wave drag with a vertical domain extending from the surface up to the 6 micro b level. The benchmark simulations provide a four-dimensional archive for the comparative evaluation of various schemes for the retrieval of winds from anticipated polar orbiter measurements of temperatures by the Pressure Modulator Infrared Radiometer.

  1. Mapping the Martian Meteorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, M.; Ross, J. D.; Solomon, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars-adapted version of the NASA/GISS general circulation model (GCM) has been applied to the hourly/daily simulation of the planet's meteorology over several seasonal orbits. The current running version of the model includes a diurnal solar cycle, CO2 sublimation, and a mature parameterization of upper level wave drag with a vertical domain extending from the surface up to the 6microb level. The benchmark simulations provide a four-dimensional archive for the comparative evaluation of various schemes for the retrieval of winds from anticipated polar orbiter measurements of temperatures by the Pressure Modulator Infrared Radiometer. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  2. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, William D.; Mandt, Gregory A.; Gagliardo, John

    The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) is described, with particular attention given to the DMSP space segment; the command, control, and communications segment; and the user segment. DMSP performs its mission with space-based remote and in situ sensors, reliable spacecraft, and ground systems, which contribute to the efficient use of increasingly scarce military resources. Presently, the DMSP space segment consists of two Block 5D-2 satellites in 833 kilometer circular sun-synchronous polar orbits. In the future, DMSP will develop smaller, more easily deployable tactical terminals to complement the larger Mark IV class terminals.

  3. Agricultural Meteorology in China.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Norman J.

    1982-03-01

    During nearly five weeks in China (May-June 1981), the author visited scientific institutions and experiment stations engaged in agricultural meterology and climatology research and teaching. The facilities, studies, and research programs at each institution are described and the scientific work in these fields is evaluated. Agricultural meteorology and climatology are faced with some unique problems and opportunities in China and progress in these fields may be of critical importance to that nation in coming years. The author includes culinary notes and comments on protocol in China.

  4. Arctic hydrology and meteorology

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    During 1990, we have continued our meteorological and hydrologic data collection in support of our process-oriented research. The six years of data collected to data is unique in its scope and continuity in a North Hemisphere Arctic setting. This valuable data base has allowed us to further our understanding of the interconnections and interactions between the atmosphere/hydrosphere/biosphere/lithosphere. The increased understanding of the heat and mass transfer processes has allowed us to increase our model-oriented research efforts.

  5. An Automatic Meteorological Station

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    the measurement site. Not only the transmission depends on meteorological conditions, but also the thermal behaviour of materials. Solar heating for... pannel in the power supply box. 0 0 FUSE 0 0 0 0 220-MAINS 0 PIR S-NETr AMRP CM1 1 0 0/1 o 0 0 0 220-T+RH PRECIP WIND.DIR T+RH WIND.SP.Q Fa.4.1 Lay-u co...ectr pannel in pow mipply box TNOMW The codes on the cables consist of two parts. The first parn indicates the sga flow, the second part describes

  6. Mapping the Martian Meteorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Michael; Ross, J. D.; Soloman, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars-adapted version of the NASA/GISS general circulation model (GCM) has been applied to the hourly/daily simulation of the planet's meteorology over several seasonal orbits. The current running version of the model includes a diurnal solar cycle, CO2 sublimation, and a mature parameterization of upper level wave drag with a vertical domain extending from the surface up to the 6 micro b level. The benchmark simulations provide a four-dimensional archive for the comparative evaluation of various schemes for the retrieval of winds from anticipated polar orbiter measurements of temperatures by the Pressure Modulator Infrared Radiometer.

  7. Mapping the Martian Meteorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, M.; Ross, J. D.; Solomon, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars-adapted version of the NASA/GISS general circulation model (GCM) has been applied to the hourly/daily simulation of the planet's meteorology over several seasonal orbits. The current running version of the model includes a diurnal solar cycle, CO2 sublimation, and a mature parameterization of upper level wave drag with a vertical domain extending from the surface up to the 6microb level. The benchmark simulations provide a four-dimensional archive for the comparative evaluation of various schemes for the retrieval of winds from anticipated polar orbiter measurements of temperatures by the Pressure Modulator Infrared Radiometer. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  8. The meteorology of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingersoll, A. P.

    1976-01-01

    From the point of view of meteorology the most important differences between Jupiter and the earth are related to the fact that Jupiter has an appreciable internal energy source and probably lacks a solid surface. The composition and vertical structure of the Jovian atmosphere is considered along with the composition of Jovian cloud particles, turbulence in Jupiter's atmosphere, data on the horizontal structure and motions of the atmosphere, and questions related to the longevity of Jupiter's clouds. Attention is given to the barotropic characteristics of Jupiter's atmosphere, the radiation balance in the atmosphere of the earth and of Jupiter, and studies of the Great Red Spot.

  9. Flux Sampling Errors for Aircraft and Towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahrt, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Various errors and influences leading to differences between tower- and aircraft-measured fluxes are surveyed. This survey is motivated by reports in the literature that aircraft fluxes are sometimes smaller than tower-measured fluxes. Both tower and aircraft flux errors are larger with surface heterogeneity due to several independent effects. Surface heterogeneity may cause tower flux errors to increase with decreasing wind speed. Techniques to assess flux sampling error are reviewed. Such error estimates suffer various degrees of inapplicability in real geophysical time series due to nonstationarity of tower time series (or inhomogeneity of aircraft data). A new measure for nonstationarity is developed that eliminates assumptions on the form of the nonstationarity inherent in previous methods. When this nonstationarity measure becomes large, the surface energy imbalance increases sharply. Finally, strategies for obtaining adequate flux sampling using repeated aircraft passes and grid patterns are outlined.

  10. Performance specification for control tower display systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleva, Denise L.; Meyer, Frederick M.

    2003-09-01

    Personnel in airport control towers monitor and direct the takeoff of outgoing aircraft, landing of incoming aircraft and all movements of aircraft on the ground. Although the primary source of information for the Local Controller, Assistant Local Controller and the Ground Controller is the real world viewed through the windows of the control tower, electronic displays are also used to provide situation awareness. Due to the criticality of the work to be performed by the controllers and the rather unique environment of the air traffic control tower, display hardware standards, which have been developed for general use, are not directly applicable. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requested assistance of Air Force Research Laboratory Human Effectiveness Directorate in producing a document which can be adopted as a Tower Display Standard usable by display engineers, human factors practitioners and system integrators. Particular emphasis was placed on human factors issues applicable to the control tower environment and controller task demands.

  11. Carbon Nanotube Tower-Based Supercapacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A supercapacitor system, including (i) first and second, spaced apart planar collectors, (ii) first and second arrays of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) towers or single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) towers, serving as electrodes, that extend between the first and second collectors where the nanotube towers are grown directly on the collector surfaces without deposition of a catalyst and without deposition of a binder material on the collector surfaces, and (iii) a porous separator module having a transverse area that is substantially the same as the transverse area of at least one electrode, where (iv) at least one nanotube tower is functionalized to permit or encourage the tower to behave as a hydrophilic structure, with increased surface wettability.

  12. Failure analysis of lattice tower like structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramalingam, Raghavan

    2017-07-01

    The Experimental investigations have revealed significant mismatches between analytical estimates and experimentally measured deflections of tower structures. Conductor and groundwire tension and sag are influenced by the peak and cross-arm deflections and hence accurate estimates of the tower deflections at service loads are of key interest. This paper presents a nonlinear formulation for analysis of tower structures in an attempt to close the mismatch. The analysis includes geometric nonlinear behaviour of the tower, material nonlinearity as well as leg member buckling in compression. The nonlinear analysis reveals that the ultimate collapse loads of the towers tested to failure can be predicted. However the, deflections continue to have a mismatch despite nonlinear analysis. This demonstrates the need for inclusion of other parameters to be able to reduce the error of analytical deflection estimates.

  13. Flux Sampling Errors for Aircraft and Towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahrt, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Various errors and influences leading to differences between tower- and aircraft-measured fluxes are surveyed. This survey is motivated by reports in the literature that aircraft fluxes are sometimes smaller than tower-measured fluxes. Both tower and aircraft flux errors are larger with surface heterogeneity due to several independent effects. Surface heterogeneity may cause tower flux errors to increase with decreasing wind speed. Techniques to assess flux sampling error are reviewed. Such error estimates suffer various degrees of inapplicability in real geophysical time series due to nonstationarity of tower time series (or inhomogeneity of aircraft data). A new measure for nonstationarity is developed that eliminates assumptions on the form of the nonstationarity inherent in previous methods. When this nonstationarity measure becomes large, the surface energy imbalance increases sharply. Finally, strategies for obtaining adequate flux sampling using repeated aircraft passes and grid patterns are outlined.

  14. 2. Signal Tower, looking east. Delaware, Lackawanna & Western ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Signal Tower, looking east. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Mattes Street Signal Tower, 80 feet Southwest of Railroad Alley & Cedar Avenue, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  15. 3. West elevation of Signal Tower. Delaware, Lackawanna & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. West elevation of Signal Tower. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Mattes Street Signal Tower, 80 feet Southwest of Railroad Alley & Cedar Avenue, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  16. Meteorological annual report for 1995 at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, C.H.; Tatum, C.P.

    1996-12-01

    The Environmental Technology Section (ETS) of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) collects, archives, and analyzes basic meteorological data supporting a variety of activities at SRS. These activities include the design, construction, and operation of nuclear and non-nuclear facilities, emergency response, environmental compliance, resource management, and environmental research. This report contains tabular and graphical summaries of data collected during 1995 for temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, wind, barometric pressure, and solar radiation. Most of these data were collected at the central Climatology Facility. Summaries of temperature and relative humidity were generated with data from the lowest level of measurement at the Central Climatology Site tower (13 feet above ground). (Relative humidity is calculated from measurements of dew-point temperature.) Wind speed summaries were generated with data from the second measurement level (58 feet above ground). Wind speed measurements from this level are believed to best represent open, well-exposed areas of the Site. Precipitation summaries were based on data from the Building 773-A site since quality control algorithms for the central Climatology Facility rain gauge data were not finalized at the time this report was prepared. This report also contains seasonal and annual summaries of joint occurrence frequencies for selected wind speed categories by 22.5 degree wind direction sector (i.e., wind roses). Wind rose summaries are provided for the 200-foot level of the Central Climatology tower and for each of the eight 200-foot area towers.

  17. Meteorological Sensor Calibration Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, F. J.

    1988-01-01

    The meteorological sensor calibration facility is designed to test and assess radiosonde measurement quality through actual flights in the atmosphere. United States radiosonde temperature measurements are deficient in that they require correction for errors introduced by long- and short-wave radiation. The effect of not applying corrections results in a large bias between day time and night time measurements. This day/night bias has serious implications for users of radiosonde data, of which NASA is one. The derivation of corrections for the U.S. radiosonde is quite important. Determination of corrections depends on solving the heat transfer equation of the thermistor using laboratory measurements of the emissivity and absorptivity of the thermistor coating. The U.S. radiosonde observations from the World Meteorological Organization International Radiosonde Intercomparison were used as the data base to test whether the day/night height bias can be removed. Twenty-five noon time and 26 night time observations were used. Corrected temperatures were used to calculate new geopotentials. Day/night bias in the geopotentials decreased significantly when corrections were introduced. Some testing of thermal lag attendant with the standard carbon hygristor took place. Two radiosondes with small bead thermistors imbedded in the hygristor were flown. Detailed analysis was not accomplished; however, cursory examination of the data showed that the hygristor is at a higher temperature than the external thermistor indicates.

  18. Meteorological Instruction Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    At Florida State University and the Naval Postgraduate School, meteorology students have the opportunity to apply theoretical studies to current weather phenomena, even prepare forecasts and see how their predictions stand up utilizing GEMPAK. GEMPAK can display data quickly in both conventional and non-traditional ways, allowing students to view multiple perspectives of the complex three-dimensional atmospheric structure. With GEMPAK, mathematical equations come alive as students do homework and laboratory assignments on the weather events happening around them. Since GEMPAK provides data on a 'today' basis, each homework assignment is new. At the Naval Postgraduate School, students are now using electronically-managed environmental data in the classroom. The School's Departments of Meteorology and Oceanography have developed the Interactive Digital Environment Analysis (IDEA) Laboratory. GEMPAK is the IDEA Lab's general purpose display package; the IDEA image processing package is a modified version of NASA's Device Management System. Bringing the graphic and image processing packages together is NASA's product, the Transportable Application Executive (TAE).

  19. Nineteenth century Parisian smoke variations inferred from Eiffel Tower atmospheric electrical observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. G.; Aplin, K. L.

    Atmospheric electrical measurements provide proxy data from which historic smoke pollution levels can be determined. This approach is applied to infer autumnal Parisian smoke levels in the 1890s, based on atmospheric electric potential measurements made at the surface and the summit of the Eiffel Tower (48.7°N, 2.4°E). A theoretical model of the development of the autumn convective boundary layer is used to determine when local pollution effects dominated the Eiffel Tower potential measurements. The diurnal variation of the Eiffel Tower potential showed a single oscillation, but it differs from the standard oceanic air potential gradient (PG) variations during the period 09-17 UT, when the model indicates that the Eiffel Tower summit should be within the boundary layer. Outside these hours, the potential changes closely follow the clean air PG variation: this finding is used to calibrate the Eiffel Tower measurements. The surface smoke pollution concentration found during the morning maximum was 60±30 μg m -3, substantially lower than the values previously inferred for Kew in 1863. A vertical smoke profile was also derived using a combination of the atmospheric electrical data and boundary layer meteorology theory. Midday smoke concentration decreased with height from 60 μg m -3 at the surface to 15 μg m -3 at the top of the Eiffel Tower. The 19th century PG measurements in both polluted and clean Parisian air present a unique resource for European air pollution and atmospheric composition studies, and early evidence of the global atmospheric electrical circuit.

  20. SEARCH FOR GAMMA RAYS ABOVE 100 TeV FROM THE CRAB NEBULA WITH THE TIBET AIR SHOWER ARRAY AND THE 100 m{sup 2} MUON DETECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Amenomori, M.; Bi, X. J.; Chen, W. Y.; Ding, L. K.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; Hu, H. B.; Huang, J.; Chen, D.; Chen, T. L.; Danzengluobu; Hu, Haibing; Cui, S. W.; He, Z. T.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Z. Y.; Hibino, K.; Hotta, N.; Collaboration: Tibet ASγ Collaboration; and others

    2015-11-10

    A 100 m{sup 2} muon detector (MD) was successfully constructed under the existing Tibet air shower (AS) array in the late fall of 2007. The sensitivity of the Tibet AS array to cosmic gamma rays can be improved by selecting muon-poor events with the MD. Our MC simulation of the MD response reasonably agrees with the experimental data in terms of the charge distribution for one-muon events and the background rejection power. Using the data collected by the Tibet AS array and the 100 m{sup 2} MD taken from 2008 March to 2010 February, we search for continuous gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula above ∼100 TeV. No significant excess is found, and the most stringent upper limit is obtained above 140 TeV.

  1. Search for 100 TeV gamma rays from the Crab Nebula with the Tibet Air Shower Array and the 100 m2 muon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sako, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    The 100 m ^{2} muon detector (MD) was constructed under the Tibet air shower (AS) array in the late autumn of 2007. By selecting muon-poor events with the MD, the sensitivity of the Tibet AS array to cosmic gamma rays can be improved. Our MC simulation of the MD response is in reasonable agreement with the experimental data, with regard to the charge distribution for one-muon events and the background rejection power. Using the data taken from 2008 March to 2010 February by the Tibet AS array and the 100 m ^{2} MD, we search for continuous 100 TeV gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula. No significant excess is detected, and the world's best upper limit is obtained above 140 TeV.

  2. Search for Gamma Rays above 100 TeV from the Crab Nebula with the Tibet Air Shower Array and the 100 m2 muon Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amenomori, M.; Bi, X. J.; Chen, D.; Chen, T. L.; Chen, W. Y.; Cui, S. W.; Danzengluobu; Ding, L. K.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Z. Y.; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; He, Z. T.; Hibino, K.; Hotta, N.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, H. B.; Huang, J.; Jia, H. Y.; Jiang, L.; Kajino, F.; Kasahara, K.; Katayose, Y.; Kato, C.; Kawata, K.; Kozai, M.; Labaciren; Le, G. M.; Li, A. F.; Li, H. J.; Li, W. J.; Liu, C.; Liu, J. S.; Liu, M. Y.; Lu, H.; Meng, X. R.; Miyazaki, T.; Mizutani, K.; Munakata, K.; Nakajima, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Nanjo, H.; Nishizawa, M.; Niwa, T.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohta, I.; Ozawa, S.; Qian, X. L.; Qu, X. B.; Saito, T.; Saito, T. Y.; Sakata, M.; Sako, T. K.; Shao, J.; Shibata, M.; Shiomi, A.; Shirai, T.; Sugimoto, H.; Takita, M.; Tan, Y. H.; Tateyama, N.; Torii, S.; Tsuchiya, H.; Udo, S.; Wang, H.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamauchi, K.; Yang, Z.; Yasue, S.; Yuan, A. F.; Yuda, T.; Zhai, L. M.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Ying; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.; Tibet ASγ Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    A 100 m2 muon detector (MD) was successfully constructed under the existing Tibet air shower (AS) array in the late fall of 2007. The sensitivity of the Tibet AS array to cosmic gamma rays can be improved by selecting muon-poor events with the MD. Our MC simulation of the MD response reasonably agrees with the experimental data in terms of the charge distribution for one-muon events and the background rejection power. Using the data collected by the Tibet AS array and the 100 m2 MD taken from 2008 March to 2010 February, we search for continuous gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula above ˜100 TeV. No significant excess is found, and the most stringent upper limit is obtained above 140 TeV.

  3. Kinetic Space Towers and Launchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolonkin, A.

    The paper discusses a new revolutionary method for access to outer space. A cable stands up vertically and pulls up its payload to space with a maximum force determined by its strength. From the ground the cable is allowed to rise up to the required altitude. After this, one can climb to an altitude by this cable or deliver to altitude a required load. The paper shows this is possible and does not infringe on the law of gravity. The article contains the theory of the method and the computations for four projects for towers that are 4, 75, 225 and 160,000 km in height. The first three projects use conventional artificial fiber widely produced by current industry, while the fourth project uses nanotubes made in scientific laboratories. The paper also shows in a fifth project how this idea can be used to launch a load at high altitude.

  4. Augmented Reality Tower Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reisman, Ronald J.; Brown, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Augmented Reality technology may help improve Air Traffic Control Tower efficiency and safety during low-visibility conditions. This paper presents the assessments of five off-duty controllers who shadow-controlled' with an augmented reality prototype in their own facility. Initial studies indicated unanimous agreement that this technology is potentially beneficial, though the prototype used in the study was not adequate for operational use. Some controllers agreed that augmented reality technology improved situational awareness, had potential to benefit clearance, control, and coordination tasks and duties and could be very useful for acquiring aircraft and weather information, particularly aircraft location, heading, and identification. The strongest objections to the prototype used in this study were directed at aircraft registration errors, unacceptable optical transparency, insufficient display performance in sunlight, inadequate representation of the static environment and insufficient symbology.

  5. KEY COMPARISON: Final report on regional key comparison SIM.M.FF-K4: Volume of liquids at 20 L and 100 mL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, Roberto; Maldonado, Manuel; Wright, John; Wallace, Tanisha; Rodríguez, Sandra; Pinzón, Orlando; Morales, Abed; Vega, Maria; Santo, Claudia; Kornblit, Fernando; Malta, Dalni

    2010-01-01

    At its meeting in October 2006 in Querétaro, Mexico, the Interamerican Metrology System (SIM) Technical Committee for Fluid Flow (TCFF) approved a Regional Key Comparison for Volume of Liquids at 20 L and 100 mL, to be piloted by the national metrology institute of Mexico (CENAM). The objective of this comparison was to demonstrate the degree of equivalence of the volume measurement standards held at national measurement institutes (NMIs) and to provide supporting evidence for the Calibration and Measurement Capabilities (CMCs) claimed by the participating laboratories in the Americas. During the comparison, one of the pycnometers suffered irreversible damage, and degrees of equivalence for volume at 100 mL were calculated using the results obtained with one single pycnometer (TS 03.04.04). Conclusions are as follows: The transfer standards for SIM.M.FF-K4 exhibited global good performance all the way along, both in terms of stability and repeatability. Degrees of equivalence have been produced for volumes at 20 L and at 100 mL. The best estimation of the measurands, as reported by the participants, shows a general agreement better than +/-0.0070% for volume of liquids at 100 mL and 20 L. It is advisable to review the uncertainty analysis of some participants. New CMC entries for some NMIs should take into account the information presented in this Report. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  6. KEY COMPARISON: Results of the key comparison CCM.FF-K4 for volume of liquids at 20 L and 100 mL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, Roberto; Maldonado, Manuel; Wright, John; Jacques, Claude; Lachance, Christian; Lau, Peter; Többen, Helmut; Cignolo, Giorgio; Lorefice, Salvatore; Man, John; Aibe, Valter Y.

    2006-01-01

    A key comparison was performed in order to compare national measurement systems to determine volume of liquids, particularly at fixed volumes of 20 L and 100 mL. The participants were CENAM (Mexico), NIST (United States of America), NRC/MC (Canada), SP (Sweden), PTB (Germany), INRIM (former IMGC, Italy), NMIA (Australia) and INMETRO (Brazil). CENAM acted as pilot laboratory. The measurements were carried out from December 2003 to March 2005. The chosen values of volume (20 L and 100 mL) are both representatives of the Calibration and Measurement Capabilities (CMCs) declared by most of the participating national metrology institutes. The transfer standards (TSs) were three stainless steel pipettes for volume at 20 L and six commercially available glass pycnometers for volume at 100 mL. Prior to the beginning of the key comparison, the 20 L TSs were tested by CENAM, SP and NMIA The results of the test phase showed excellent values for both repeatability and reproducibility. During the CCM.FF-K4, the results of most of the laboratories showed good agreement with the reference values. The best estimation of the measurands, as reported by the participants showed a general agreement better than ±0.0025% for volume of liquids at 100 mL and 20 L. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  7. Airborne Meteorological and Turbulence Instrumentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    SEP 1999 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1999 to 00-00-1999 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Airborne Meteorological and Turbulence Instrumentation...by ANSI Std Z39-18 Airborne Meteorological and Turbulence Instrumentation Carl A. Friehe Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Earth System... meteorological and turbulence instrumentation for the Navy CIRPAS Twin Otter research aircraft to be used in the ONR Sea of Japan/East Sea experiment in Winter

  8. Close to 100 Gbps discrete multitone transmission over 100m of multimode fiber using a single transverse mode 850nm VCSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bo; Zhou, Xian; Ma, Yanan; Luo, Jun; Zhong, Kangping; Qiu, Shaofeng; Feng, Zhiyong; Luo, Yazhi; Agustin, Mikel; Ledentsov, Nikolay; Kropp, Joerg; Shchukin, Vitaly; Ledentsov, Nikolay N.; Eddie, Iain; Chao, Lu

    2016-03-01

    Discrete Multitone Transmission (DMT) transmission over standard multimode fiber (MMF) using high-speed single (SM) and multimode (MM) Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) is studied. Transmission speed in the range of 72Gbps to 82Gbps over 300m -100m distances of OM4 fiber is realized, respectively, at Bit-Error-Ratio (BER) <5e-3 and the received optical power of only -5dBm. Such BER condition requires only 7% overhead for the conversion to error-free operation using single Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem forward error correction (BCH-FEC) coding and decoding. SM VCSEL is demonstrated to provide a much higher data transmission capacity over MMF. For 100m MMF transmission SM VCSEL allows 82Gbps as compared to MM VCSEL resulting in only 34Gbps at the same power (-5dBm). Furthermore, MM VCSEL link at 0dBm is still restricted at 100m distance by 63Gbps while SM VCSEL can exceed 100Gbps at such power levels. We believe that with further improvement in SM VCSELs and fiber coupling >100Gbps data transmission over >300m MMF distances at the BER levels matching the industry standards will become possible.

  9. 100-mW high-power three-section tunable distributed Bragg reflector laser diodes with a real refractive-index-guided self-aligned structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayama, Toru; Mochida, Atsunori; Orita, Kenji; Tamura, Satoshi; Ohnishi, Toshikazu; Yuri, Masaaki; Shimizu, Hirokazu

    2002-05-01

    High-power (>100mW) 820 nm-band distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) laser diodes (LDs) with stable fundamental transverse mode operation and continuous wavelength tuning characteristics have been developed. To obtain high-power LDs with a stable fundamental transverse mode in 820 nm wavelength range, an AlGaAs narrow stripe (2.0 micrometers ) real refractive-index-guided self-aligned (RISA) structure is utilized. In the RISA structure, the index step between inside and outside the stripe region ((Delta) n) can be precisely controlled in the order of 10-3). To maintain a stable fundamental transverse mode up to an output power over 100 mW, (Delta) n is designed to be 4x10-3. Higher-order transverse modes are effectively suppressed by a narrow stripe geometry. Further, to achieve continuous wavelength tuning capability, the three-section LD structure, which consists of the active (700micrometers ), phase control (300micrometers ), and DBR(500micrometers ) sections, is incorporated. Our DBR LDs show a maximum output power over 200mW with a stable fundamental transverse mode, and wavelength tuning characteristics ((Delta) (lambda) ~2nm) under 100 mW CW operation.

  10. FINAL REPORT: EDDY-COVARIANCE FLUX TOWER AND TRACER TECHNOLOGY SUPPORT FOR THE UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA PROPOSAL: FROM TOWER TO PIXEL: INTEGRATION OF PATCH-SIZE NEE USING EXPERIMENTAL MODELING FOOTPRINT ANALYSIS.

    SciTech Connect

    LEWIN,K.F.; NAGY, J.; WATSON, T.B.

    2007-09-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has been funded since October of 2000 to provide assistance to the University of Georgia in conducting footprint analyses of individual towers based on meteorology and trace gas measurements. Brookhaven researchers conducted air flow measurements using perfluorocarbon tracers and meteorological instrumentation for three experimental campaigns at an AmeriFlux research site maintained by Dr. Monique Leclerc near Gainesville, FL. In addition, BNL provided assistance with remote data collection and distribution from remote field sites operated by Dr. John Hom of the US Forest Service in the Pine Barrens of New Jersey and at FACE research sites in North Carolina and Wisconsin.

  11. Meteorological Effects of Thermal Energy Releases (METER) Program. Annual progress report, October 1978-September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Patrinos, A.A.N.; Hoffman, H.W.

    1980-04-01

    The METER (Meteorological Effects of Thermal Energy Releases) Program was organized to develop and verify methods for predicting the maximum amount of energy that can be dissipated to the atmosphere (through cooling towers or cooling ponds) from proposed nuclear energy centers without affecting...the local and regional environment. The initial program scope (mathematical modeling, laboratory and field experimentation, and societal impact assessment) has now narrowed to emphasis on the acquisition of field data of substantial quality and extent.

  12. Airborne LIDAR point cloud tower inclination judgment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    liang, Chen; zhengjun, Liu; jianguo, Qian

    2016-11-01

    Inclined transmission line towers for the safe operation of the line caused a great threat, how to effectively, quickly and accurately perform inclined judgment tower of power supply company safety and security of supply has played a key role. In recent years, with the development of unmanned aerial vehicles, unmanned aerial vehicles equipped with a laser scanner, GPS, inertial navigation is one of the high-precision 3D Remote Sensing System in the electricity sector more and more. By airborne radar scan point cloud to visually show the whole picture of the three-dimensional spatial information of the power line corridors, such as the line facilities and equipment, terrain and trees. Currently, LIDAR point cloud research in the field has not yet formed an algorithm to determine tower inclination, the paper through the existing power line corridor on the tower base extraction, through their own tower shape characteristic analysis, a vertical stratification the method of combining convex hull algorithm for point cloud tower scarce two cases using two different methods for the tower was Inclined to judge, and the results with high reliability.

  13. Blasting response of the Eiffel Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horlyck, Lachlan; Hayes, Kieran; Caetano, Ryan; Tahmasebinia, Faham; Ansourian, Peter; Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando

    2016-08-01

    A finite element model of the Eiffel Tower was constructed using Strand7 software. The model replicates the existing tower, with dimensions justified through the use of original design drawings. A static and dynamic analysis was conducted to determine the actions of the tower under permanent, imposed and wind loadings, as well as under blast pressure loads and earthquake loads due to an explosion. It was observed that the tower utilises the full axial capacity of individual members by acting as a `truss of trusses'. As such, permanent and imposed loads are efficiently transferred to the primary columns through compression, while wind loads induce tensile forces in the windward legs and compressive forces in the leeward. Under blast loading, the tower experienced both ground vibrations and blast pressures. Ground vibrations induced a negligibly small earthquake loading into the structure which was ignored in subsequent analyses. The blast pressure was significant, and a dynamic analysis of this revealed that further research is required into the damping qualities of the structure due to soil and mechanical properties. In the worst case scenario, the blast was assumed to completely destroy several members in the adjacent leg. Despite this weakened condition, it was observed that the tower would still be able to sustain static loads, at least for enough time for occupant evacuation. Further, an optimised design revealed the structure was structurally sound under a 46% reduction of the metal tower's mass.

  14. Geology of Devils Tower National Monument, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Charles Sherwood

    1956-01-01

    Devils Tower is a steep-sided mass of igneous rock that rises above the surrounding hills and the valley of the Belle Fourche River in Crook County, Wyo. It is composed of a crystalline rock, classified as phonolite porphyry, that when fresh is gray but which weathers to green or brown. Vertical joints divide the rock mass into polygonal columns that extend from just above the base to the top of the Tower. The hills in the vicinity and at the base of the Tower are composed of red, yellow, green, or gray sedimentary rocks that consist of sandstone, shale, or gypsum. These rocks, in aggregate about 400 feet thick, include, from oldest to youngest, the upper part of the Spearfish formation, of Triassic age, the Gypsum Spring formation, of Middle Jurassic age, and the Sundance formation, of Late Jurassic age. The Sundance formation consists of the Stockade Beaver shale member, the Hulett sandstone member, the Lak member, and the Redwater shale member. The formations have been only slightly deformed by faulting and folding. Within 2,000 to 3.000 feet of the Tower, the strata for the most part dip at 3 deg - 5 deg towards the Tower. Beyond this distance, they dip at 2 deg - 5 deg from the Tower. The Tower is believed to have been formed by the intrusion of magma into the sedimentary rocks, and the shape of the igneous mass formed by the cooled magma is believed to have been essentially the same as the Tower today. Devils Tower owes its impressiveness to its resistance to erosion as compared with the surrounding sedimentary rocks, and to the contrast of the somber color of the igneous column to the brightly colored bands of sedimentary rocks.

  15. Martian Meteorological Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorontsov, V.; Pichkhadze, K.; Polyakov, A.

    2002-01-01

    Martian meteorological lander (MML) is dedicated for landing onto the Mars surface with the purpose to carry on the monitoring of Mars atmosphere condition at a landing point during one Martian year. MML is supposed to become the basic element of a global net of meteorological mini stations and will permit to observe the dynamics of Martian atmosphere parameters changes during a long time duration. The main scientific tasks of MML are as follows: -study of vertical structure of Mars atmosphere during MML descending; -meteorological observations on Mars surface during one Martian year. One of the essential factor influencing to the lander design is descent trajectory design. During the preliminary phase of development five (5) options of MML were considered. In our opinion, these variants provide the accomplishment of the above-mentioned tasks with a high effectiveness. Joined into the first group, variants with parachute system and with Inflatable Air Brakes+Inflatable Airbag are similar in arranging of pre-landing braking stage and completely analogous in landing by means of airbags. The usage of additional Inflatable Braking Unit (IBU) in the second variant does not affect the procedure of braking - decreasing of velocity by the moment of touching the surface due to decreasing of ballistic parameter Px. A distinctive feature of MML development variants of other three concepts is the presence of Inflatable Braking Unit (IBU) in their configurations (IBU is rigidly joined with landing module up to the moment of its touching the surface). Besides, in variant with the tore-shaped IBU it acts as a shock- absorbing unit. In two options, Inflatable Braking Shock-Absorbing Unit (IBSAU) (or IBU) releases the surface module after its landing at the moment of IBSAU (or IBU) elastic recoil. Variants of this concept are equal in terms of mass (approximately 15 kg). For variants of concepts with IBU the landing velocity is up to50-70 m/s. Stations of last three options are

  16. Antarctic Meteorology and Climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. C.; Turner, J.

    1997-07-01

    This book is a comprehensive survey of the climatology and meteorology of Antarctica. The first section of the book reviews the methods by which we can observe the Antarctic atmosphere and presents a synthesis of climatological measurements. In the second section, the authors consider the processes that maintain the observed climate, from large-scale atmospheric circulation to small-scale processes. The final section reviews our current knowledge of the variability of Antarctic climate and the possible effects of "greenhouse" warming. The authors stress links among the Antarctic atmosphere, other elements of the Antarctic climate system (oceans, sea ice and ice sheets), and the global climate system. This volume will be of greatest interest to meteorologists and climatologists with a specialized interest in Antarctica, but it will also appeal to researchers in Antarctic glaciology, oceanography and biology. Graduates and undergraduates studying physical geography, and the earth, atmospheric and environmental sciences will find much useful background material in the book.

  17. Meteorological radar calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, D. B.

    1978-01-01

    A meteorological radar calibration technique is developed. It is found that the integrated, range corrected, received power saturates under intense rain conditions in a manner analogous to that encountered for the radiometric path temperature. Furthermore, it is found that this saturation condition establishes a bound which may be used to determine an absolution radar calibration for the case of radars operating at attenuating wavelengths. In the case of less intense rainfall or for radars at nonattenuating wavelengths, the relationship for direct calibration in terms of an independent measurement of radiometric path temperature is developed. This approach offers the advantage that the calibration is in terms of an independent measurement of the rainfall through the same elevated region as that viewed by the radar.

  18. Japanese Advanced Meteorological Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puschell, Jeffery J.; Lowe, Howard A.; Jeter, James W.; Kus, Steven M.; Osgood, Roderic; Hurt, W. Todd; Gilman, David; Rogers, David L.; Hoelter, Roger L.; Kamel, Ahmed

    2005-01-01

    The Japanese Advanced Meteorological Imager (JAMI) was developed by Raytheon and delivered to Space Systems/Loral as the Imager Subsystem for Japan's MTSAT-1R satellite. Due to Japan's urgent need to replace MTSAT-1, which was destroyed in a launch failure in 1999, JAMI was developed on an expeditious 39-month schedule. Raytheon's success in responding to the needs of MTSAT-1R and delivering an excellent operational geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) imager was enabled by an elegant instrument architecture and use of newer but proven technology that simplified design, assembly and test of the Imager while simultaneously supplying superior performance. JAMI breaks through limitations of earlier three-axis stabilized GEO instruments with significant improvements in many areas, including spatial sampling, radiometric sensitivity, calibration and performance around local midnight.

  19. Meteorology as an infratechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, G. A.; Smith, L. A.

    2003-04-01

    From an economists perspective, meteorology is an underpinning or infratechnology in the sense that in general it does not of its own accord lead to actual products. Its value added comes from the application of its results to the activities of other forms of economic and technological activity. This contribution discusses both the potential applications of meteorology as an ininfratechnology, and quantifying its socio-economic impact. Large economic and social benefits are both likely in theory and can be identified in practice. Case studies of particular weather dependent industries or particular episodes are suggested, based on the methodology developed by NIST to analyze the social impact of technological innovation in US industries (see www.nist.gov/director/planning/strategicplanning.htm ). Infratechnologies can provide economic benefits in the support of markets. Incomplete information is a major cause of market failure because it inhibits the proper design of contracts. The performance of markets in general can be influenced by strategies adopted by different firms within a market to regulate the performance of others especially suppliers or purchasers. This contribution will focus on benefits to society from mechanisms which enhance and enforce mitigating actions. When the market mechanism fails, who might social benefits be gained, for example, by widening the scope of authorities to ensure that those who could have taken mitigating action, given prior warning, cover the costs. This goes beyond the design and implementation of civil responses to severe weather warnings to include the design of legislative recourse in the event of negligence given prior knowledge, or the modification of insurance contracts. The aim here, for example, would be to avoid the loss of an oil tanker in heavy seas at a location where a high probability of heavy seas had been forecast for some time.

  20. CITE 3 meteorological highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipham, Mark C.; Bachmeier, A. Scott; Anderson, Bruce E.

    1993-01-01

    Meteorological highlights from the third NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (GTE/CITE 3) are presented. During August and September 1989, research flights were conducted from Wallops Island, Virginia, and Natal, Brazil, and included airborne sampling of air masses over adjacent regions of the Atlantic Ocean. Isentropic backward trajectory calculations, wind vector/streamline fields, rawinsonde data, and GOES and METEOSAT satellite imagery are utilized to examine the meteorological conditions for each flight and to determine the transport paths of the sampled air masses. Some aspects of the chemical signatures of the sampled air are also discussed. During the series of flights based at Wallops Island, Virginia, the flow into the experiment area was governed primarily by the position of the North Atlantic subtropical anticyclone. The large-scale tropospheric circulation switched from primarily a marine flow during flights 1-4, to a predominantly offshore mid-latitude continental flow during flights 5-10. During these later flights, the regional influences of large eastern U.S. cities along with vertical mixing by typical summertime convective activity strongly influenced the chemical characteristics of the sampled air. During the series of flights based at Natal, Brazil, the dominant synoptic feature was the South Atlantic subtropical anticyclone which generally transported air across the tropical Atlantic toward eastern Brazil. Pronounced subsidence and a well-defined trade wind inversion often characterized the lower and middle troposphere over the Natal region. Some high-altitude recirculation of air from South America was observed, as was cross-equatorial transport which had come from northern Africa. Biomass burning plumes were observed on segments of all of the flights, the source region being the central and southern savannah regions of Africa.

  1. View of Nevada rim towers from top of power plant. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Nevada rim towers from top of power plant. Left tower supports Circuits 7 and 14, middle tower supports Circuit 6, and right tower supports Circuit 5, view west - Hoover Dam, Circuits 1-15, U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  2. View of second bank of circuit towers on Arizona side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of second bank of circuit towers on Arizona side of canyon. Left tower supports Circuit 8, middle tower supports Circuit 9, and right tower supports Circuit 10, view northwest - Hoover Dam, Circuits 1-15, U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  3. A comment on towers for windmills. [structural and economic criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budgen, H. P.

    1973-01-01

    Design considerations for windmill tower structures include the effects of normal wind forces on the rotor and on the tower. Circular tabular or masonry towers present a relatively simple aerodynamic solution. Economic factors establish the tubular tower as superior for small and medium sized windmills. Concrete and standard concrete block designs are cheaper than refabricated steel structures that have to be freighted.

  4. 17. VIEW OF THE TOP OF THE TOWER SHOWING BASE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF THE TOP OF THE TOWER SHOWING BASE OF TOWER MAST AND WOOD DECKING ON SIGNAL TOWER ROOF. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Signal Tower, Corner of Seventh Street & Avenue D east of Drydock No. 1, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. 5. View of south tower, facing northnortheast from south bank ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of south tower, facing north-northeast from south bank of the Columbia River. Center tower and north tower in background, lower right. - Pasco-Kennewick Transmission Line, Columbia River Crossing Towers, Columbia Drive & Gum Street, Kennewick, Benton County, WA

  6. Radiocommunications for meteorological satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, B. A.

    1975-01-01

    A general overview is presented of the spectrum utilization and frequency requirements of present and planned meteorological satellite programs. The sensors, and TIROS operational systems are discussed along with the Nimbus and Synchronous Meteorological Satellites. STORMSAT, SEASAT, and the Spacelab are briefly described.

  7. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, J. W., Jr.; Arnold, C. P., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program is a total satellite system composed of spacecraft with meteorological sensors, an Earth-based command and control network, user stations, launch vehicle and support; with a communication network linking the various segments together. The various system segments are described.

  8. Geosynchronous Meteorological Satellite Data Seminar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A seminar was organized by NASA to acquaint the meteorological community with data now available, and data scheduled to be available in the future, from geosynchronous meteorological satellites. The twenty-four papers were presented in three half-day sessions in addition to tours of the Image Display and LANDSAT Processing Facilities during the afternoon of the second day.

  9. The Tower of London bomb explosion.

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, K; Lettin, A

    1975-01-01

    After the detonation of a bomb in the Tower of London 37 people were brought to St. Bartholomew's Hospital. The explosion caused numerous severe injuries of a type rarely seen in peacetime. PMID:1148778

  10. GTE_A3B_TOWER

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-07-23

    ... Campaigns Aerosols Platform:  Ground based tower Shefferville, Canada Instrument:  See Parameters & ... File Format:  ASCII Tools:  FTP Web Access:  Data Pool Parameters:  See Parameters & ...

  11. GTE_A3A_TOWER

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-07-23

    ... Campaigns Aerosols Platform:  Ground based tower, Bethel Alaska Instrument:  See Parameters & Sensors ... File Format:  ASCII Tools:  FTP Web Access:  Data Pool Parameters:  See Parameters & ...

  12. Alternative water treatment for cooling towers

    SciTech Connect

    Wilsey, C.A.

    1997-04-01

    Problems commonly found in cooling towers include: calcium scale formation, corrosion, algae and bacterial growth. These problems can inhibit a cooling tower from operating at its most efficient capacity. An energy-saving, cost-efficient method to control each of these problems in tower water will ultimately benefit the owner as well as the environment. Supplemental ionic water purification was developed to overcome the disadvantages associates with a total chemical disinfection system. The concept of supplemental ionic water purification was developed in the early 1900s and later reviewed by NASA in the mid-1960`s. Only in the past seven years have biologists combined copper ions with chlorine to act as a bactericide. The findings have shown that metal compound ions (copper), when absorbed by bacteria, affect the organisms enzyme balance. This combination inhibits the organism`s reproduction and respiration capabilities. This technology has been applied to cooling tower operations as an alternative to a chemical-only regimen.

  13. Critical point wetting drop tower experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaukler, W. F.; Tcherneshoff, L. M.; Straits, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary results for the Critical Point Wetting CPW Drop Tower Experiment are produced with immiscible systems. Much of the observed phenomena conformed to the anticipated behavior. More drops will be needed to test the CPW theory with these immiscible systems.

  14. Ozone inhibits corrosion in cooling towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, K. R.; Howe, R. D.; Humphrey, M. F.

    1980-01-01

    Commercially available corona discharge ozone generator, fitted onto industrial cooling tower, significantly reduces formation of scales (calcium carbonate) and corrosion. System also controls growth of algae and other microorganisms. Modification lowers cost and improves life of cooling system.

  15. Pilot scale cooling tower fouled fill treatment: AFCATT (Anti-Fouling Chemical Additive Test Tower)

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, M.T.; Noble, R.T.; Philpot, E.F.; Eastis, J.H.

    1995-02-01

    Polyvinylchloride (PVC) film-type cellular fill is the fill of choice in replacing cement asbestor board fill in existing cooling towers and in new cooling towers because of its high thermal performance, ease of installation, and low initial cost. However, PVC fill has been found to foul quickly with biological and sediment material, significant reducing tower performance and the fill`s useful life. The Anti-Fouling Chemical Additives Test Tower (AFCATT) has been built to study accumulation rates of fouling deposits in corrugated PVC film fill and to study methods of cleaning and preventing the fouling deposits. This small mechanical draft cooling tower is located next to the Unit 4 natural draft cooling tower at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Bowen. The once-through mechanical draft tower receives hot water from the condenser and returns the cold water to the basin of the host tower. The pilot tower is divided into four chambers allowing for three different treatment programs and one control to be run simultaneously. PVC fill packs are suspended from load cells to allow the weight of the fill packs to be measured continuously. Six vendors participated in the summer 1993 test program. Each proposed different methods of cleaning the fouled fill and were given the opportunity to try their proposed method of fill cleaning. The success of each treatment program was determined by its ability to reduce fill pack weight (i.e., reduce fouling).

  16. Analysis of 2011 Meteorological Data from the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory and Kesselring Site Operations Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Aluzzi, F J

    2012-02-27

    Both the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) in Schenectady, NY and the Kesselring Site Operations (KSO) facility near Ballston Spa, NY are required to estimate the effects of hypothetical emissions of radiological material from their respective facilities by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which regulates these facilities. An atmospheric dispersion model known as CAP88, which was developed and approved by the EPA for such purposes, is used by KAPL and KSO to meet this requirement. CAP88 calculations over a given time period are based on statistical data on the meteorological conditions for that period. Both KAPL and KSO have on-site meteorological towers which take atmospheric measurements at a frequency ideal for EPA regulatory model input. However, an independent analysis and processing of the meteorological data from each tower is required to derive a data set appropriate for use in the CAP88 model. The National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) was contracted by KAPL to process the on-site data for the calendar year 2011. The purpose of this document is to: (1) summarize the procedures used in the preparation/analysis of the 2011 meteorological data; and (2) document adherence of these procedures to the guidance set forth in 'Meteorological Monitoring Guidance for Regulatory Modeling Applications', EPA document - EPA-454/R-99-005 (EPA-454). This document outlines the steps in analyzing and processing meteorological data from the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory and Kesselring Site Operations facilities into a format that is compatible with the steady state dispersion model CAP88. This process is based on guidance from the EPA regarding the preparation of meteorological data for use in regulatory dispersion models. The analysis steps outlined in this document can be easily adapted to process data sets covering time period other than one year. The procedures will need to be modified should the guidance in EPA-454 be updated or revised.

  17. Estimation of regional CO2 fluxes in northern Wisconsin using the ring of towers concentration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uliasz, M.; Denning, A. S.; Corbin, K.; Miles, N.; Richardson, S.; Davis, K.

    2006-12-01

    The WLEF TV tower in northern Wisconsin is instrumented to take continuous measurements of CO2 mixing ratio at 6 levels from 11 to 396m. During the spring and summer of 2004 additional CO2 measurements were deployed on five 76 m communication towers forming a ring around the WLEF tower with a 100-150 km radius. The data from the ring of towers are being used to estimate regional fluxes of CO2. The modeling framework developed for this purpose is based on SiB-RAMS: Regional Atmospheric Modeling System linked to Simple Biosphere model. The RAMS domain extends over the entire continental US with nested grids centered in northern Wisconsin. The CO2 lateral boundary conditions are provided by a global transport model PCTM (Parameterized Chemistry and Transport Model). This model system is capable to realistically reproduce diurnal cycle of CO2 fluxes as well as their spatial patterns in regional scale related to different vegetation types. However, there is still significant uncertainty in simulating atmospheric transport of CO2 due to synoptic and mesoscale circulations. We are attempting to assimilate available CO2 tower data into our modeling system in order to provide corrections for the fluxes simulated by the SiB-RAMS. These corrections applied separately to respiration and assimilation fluxes have spatial patterns but are assumed constant in time during a period of 10 days. Another correction is estimated for the CO2 inflow concentration entering the regional domain. The CO2 data assimilation is based the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion (LPD) model and the Bayessian inversion technique. The LPD model is driven by meteorological fields from the SiB-RAMS and is used for a regional domain in its adjoint mode to trace particles backward in time to derive influence functions for each concentration sample. The influence functions provide information on potential contributions both from surface sources and inflow fluxes that make their way through the modeling domain

  18. Multi-point meteorological observation for Cross-country skiing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, K.; Tadashi, O.; Kawarabayashi, S.; Iwadate, N.; Kobayashi, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Imai, M.; Watanabe, K.; Naruse, N.; Takahashi, Y.

    2016-12-01

    To select the glide wax in the cross-country skiing competition is important, because it can work as a reduction of the friction between skiing and snow surface. Inherently, we need to select the wax judged from meteorological conditions, such as temperature, humidity, snow surface temperature, and wind speed in the whole course, however, the wax has been decided on the basis of meteorological conditions in one representative place so far. This study aims to develop a meteorological multi-point observation system using wireless network to select the suitable wax for cross-country skiing on the basis of quantitative analysis. The observation points in this study are temperature and illumination sensors connected to a wireless module. These sensors was put within 0.1m apart from the snow surface. We made 40 sets of the above sensors, and set on the actual cross-country skiing course (Hokkaido) in interval of 50-100m. Observed meteorological data were recorded by PC through the sending by wireless communication (XBee pro). We have succeeded in multi-point meteorological observation for the actual of cross-country skiing course. To escape the effect of sunlight for the air temperature, we cunducted to measure in the case of cloudy. As the results, the positional dependence of the air temperature was in the range of less than 2 degrees Celcius. This value is equivalent to the standard deviation of our sensors. Moreover, we observed in the case of occationally cloudy, air temperature by each point was more than 4 degrees Celcius. This indicates that the local difference of temperature can originate from the existence of cloud from the analysis of the data of illumination sensors. In conclusion, we have observed the local difference of temperature to occur under the influence of cloud on the corse of cross-country skiing , which can affect to select the wax.

  19. SIM.M.FF-S7: Final report on SIM/ANDIMET supplementary comparison for volume of liquids at 100 mL and 100 μL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, S.; Maldonado, J. M.; Vega, M. C.; Santalla, E.; Sica, A.; Cantero, D.; Salazar, M.; Morales, A.; Solano, P.; Rodríguez, L. D.

    2016-01-01

    A SIM/ANDIMET comparison for liquid volume using two 100 mL pycnometers and two 100 μL piston pipettes was performed between January 2012 and October 2013. The National Metrology Institute (NMI) of Bolivia was the coordinating laboratory and the Mexican NMI provided technical assistance. The participating labs were IBMETRO (Bolivia), INM (Colombia), INEN (Ecuador), INDECOPI (Peru), LACOMET (Costa Rica), LATU (Uruguay), INTN (Paraguay), and CENAM (Mexico). Based on measurements made by CENAM at the beginning and end of the comparison, the transfer standards were stable during the comparison within 0.0001 mL for the 100 mL pycnometers and 0.03 μL for the 100 μL pipettes. For 100 mL, six of the eight participants agreed within ± 0.003 % and had standardized degrees of equivalence (EN) less than 1. Two participants (INEN and INM) had EN values greater than 1. For the 100 μL pipettes, the results were corrected for the influence of altitude and seven of the eight participants agreed within ± 0.3 %. Results from INEN and some from INM and IBMETRO had EN values greater than 1 for the 100 μL pipettes. Uncertainties recommended by Guideline DKD-R 8-1 for micropipettes were included. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  20. Effects of 10min vs. 20min passive rest after warm-up on 100m freestyle time-trial performance: A randomized crossover study.

    PubMed

    Neiva, Henrique P; Marques, Mário C; Barbosa, Tiago M; Izquierdo, Mikel; Viana, João L; Marinho, Daniel A

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of 10min vs. 20min passive rest post warm-up on performance in a 100m freestyle time-trial. Randomized crossover. Eleven competitive male swimmers performed two experimental trials on different days, consisting of 100m freestyle time-trials following 10min or 20min passive rest after a standard 1200m warm-up. Performance (time-trial), biomechanical (stroke length, stroke frequency, stroke index, propelling efficiency), physiological (blood lactate concentrations, heart rate, core and tympanic temperature), and psychophysiological (perceived effort) variables were assessed during both trials. Time-trial performance was faster after 10min as opposed to 20min passive rest (58.41±1.99s vs. 59.06±1.86, p<0.01). This was supported by strong effect sizes (d=0.99) and the qualitative indication of "likely" positive effects. Heart rate before the time-trial was also higher after 10min passive rest (89±12bpm vs. 82±13bpm; p<0.01). Furthermore, net core temperature and oxygen uptake values before the time-trial were substantially lower after 20min passive rest. These data suggest that the 10min post warm-up passive rest enhances 100m freestyle performance when compared to a 20min period. An improvement that appears to be mediated by the combined effects of a shorter post warm-up period on core temperature, heart rate and oxygen uptake. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The initial maternal cost of providing 100 mL of human milk for very low birth weight infants in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Jegier, Briana J; Meier, Paula; Engstrom, Janet L; McBride, Timothy

    2010-04-01

    Human milk (HM) feeding is associated with lower incidence and severity of costly prematurity-specific morbidities compared to formula feeding in very low birth weight (VLBW; <1,500 g) infants. However, the costs of providing HM are not routinely reimbursed by payers and can be a significant barrier for mothers. This study determined the initial maternal cost of providing 100 mL of HM for VLBW infants during the early neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stay. This secondary analysis examined data from 111 mothers who provided HM for their VLBW infants during the early NICU stay. These data were collected during a multisite, randomized clinical trial where milk output and time spent pumping were recorded for every pumping session (n = 13,273). The cost analysis examined the cost of the breast pump rental, pump kit, and maternal opportunity cost (an estimate of the cost of maternal time). Mean daily milk output and time spent pumping were 558.2 mL (SD = 320.7; range = 0-2,024) and 98.7 minutes (SD = 38.6; range = 0-295), respectively. The mean cost of providing 100 mL of HM varied from $2.60 to $6.18 when maternal opportunity cost was included and from $0.95 to $1.55 when it was excluded. The cost per 100 mL of HM declined with every additional day of pumping and was most sensitive to the costs of the breast pump rental and pump kit. These findings indicate that HM is reasonably inexpensive to provide and that the maternal cost of providing milk is mitigated by increasing milk output over the early NICU stay.

  2. Demonstration of a 100mJ OPO/OPA for future lidar applications and LIDT testing of optical components for MERLIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsen, F.; Livrozet, M.; Strotkamp, M.; Wüppen, J.; Jungbluth, Bernd; Kasemann, R.; Löhring, J.; Meissner, A.; Meyer, Rudolf; Hoffmann, D.; Poprawe, R.

    2017-02-01

    In the field of atmospheric research, LIDAR is a powerful technology that can measure gas or aerosol concentrations, wind speed or temperature profiles remotely. To conduct such measurements globally, spaceborne systems are advantageous. Pulse energies in the 100 mJ range are required to achieve highly accurate, longitudinal resolved measurements. Measuring concentrations of specific gases, such as CH4 or CO2, requires output wavelengths in the IRB, which can be addressed by optical parametric frequency conversion. An OPO/OPA frequency conversion setup was designed and built as a demonstration module to address the 1.6 μm range. The pump laser is an Nd:YAG-MOPA system, consisting of a stable oscillator and two subsequent Innoslab-based amplifier stages that deliver up to 500 mJ of output pulse energy at 100 Hz repetition frequency. The OPO is inherited from the OPO design for the CH4 lidar instrument on the French-German climate satellite MERLIN. In order to address the 100 mJ regime, the OPO output beam is amplified in a subsequent multistage OPA. With KTP as nonlinear medium, the OPO/OPA delivered more than 100 mJ of output energy at 1645 nm from 450 mJ of the pump energy and a pump pulse duration of 30 ns. This corresponds to a quantum conversion efficiency of about 25 %. Besides demonstrating optical performance for future lidar systems, this laser will be part of a LIDT test facility, which will be used to qualify optical components especially for the MERLIN mission.

  3. [Calculation of underwater decompression schedule for the simulated 100 m Trimix conventional diving and verification of the schedule with animal experiment].

    PubMed

    Li, Yang-yang; Shi, Lu; Zhang, Yan-meng; Xiao, Chan-juan; Liu, Hong-tao

    2015-05-01

    To explore the underwater decompression schedule for 100 m Trimix conventional diving operations and evaluate its safety through a simulated rabbits Trimix conventional diving. According to the Haldane theory, the assumed time units, the classification of tissue compartments, the nitrogen super-saturation safety coefficient and the selection of methods used for the calculation of the simulated 100 m Trimix conventional diving schedule were properly selected, and the calculating method for the dive decompression schedule was thus firmly established. In our experiments, five tissue compartments were selected during the calculation of decompression schedule: 5 min, 10 min, 20 min, 40 min and 75 min, and the nitrogen super-saturation safety coefficient was calculated by 1.6. Eight New Zealand rabbits were performed a simulated 100 m Trimix dive program which was established according to the Haldane theory, and eight rabbits for intact group. The tissues wet/dry ratio and ethology were detected and observed before and after the simulated diving to evaluate the safety of decompression schedule. By using the developed underwater decompression schedule, abnormal ethology changes in rabbits could not be observed after compression and decompression to the surface; and the tissues wet/dry ratio of simulated diving rabbits had no significant changes compared with the intact group (P > 0.05). The decompression schedule calculated by Haldane theory seemed to be safe and reliable, the diving breathing gas concentration did not cause oxygen toxicity and nitrogen narcosis among the dive rabbits, and dive efficiency was greatly improved by using enriched oxygen gas in UPTD safety range during decompression.

  4. Minimizing solids buildup in cooling towers

    SciTech Connect

    Barzuza, I.

    1995-10-01

    The quality of water passing through a cooling tower affects its operation and performance as a heat exchanger. Since evaporative cooling is usually the primary mode of operation, any dirt or solid impurity in the water tends to become concentrated in the closed-cycle tower as the water is evaporated. To reduce the buildup of impurities and thus minimize fouling, the cooling tower is periodically or continuously discharged or blown down and fresh makeup water added. An effective technique used to further minimize dirt load is to install a filter on a side stream of the tower. But it is often difficult to prove any cost justification for a particular type of filtration equipment. Presented below is an algorithm to calculate the changes in solids load in a cooling tower after the installation of a filtration system of known performance. This calculation constitutes the first step toward full-fledged economic evaluation of a filter`s cost-effectiveness. Furthermore, a method is introduced to operate self-cleaning strainers installed on the side stream of a cooling tower. The method increases the removal efficiency of particles smaller than the mesh size of the filter cake.

  5. Modeling of tower relief dynamics: Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Cassata, J.R.; Dasgupta, S.; Gandhi, S.L. )

    1993-11-01

    Dynamic simulations of individual towers or systems of distillations columns overcome limitations of steady-state models by rigorously determining dynamic responses. These will lead to a realistic quantification of relief header and flare system load and identify the design-setting relief scenario. Determination of distillation tower relief loads based on steady-state simulations or recognized methods of approximation can lead to over designing relief systems by large margins. This can result in unnecessary capital expenditure for relief headers and flare systems that can significantly alter the economics of a proposed project. Such overly conservative requirements may even cause potentially attractive projects to be unnecessarily canceled. In addition, approximate methods or analyses based on steady-state simulations sometimes do not identify the design-setting relief mode. Part 1 introduced the PRV and tower dynamic models. Different strategies were shown that can simplify these models. These strategies include tower segmentation, tray lumping and component lumping. Two case studies illustrate the advantages of dynamic models. The two studies are a depentanizer tower relief study and a delthanizer tower relief study.

  6. Arctic hydrology and meteorology

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    To date, five years of hydrologic and meteorologic data have been collected at Imnavait Creek near Toolik Lake, Alaska. This is the most complete set of field data of this type collected in the Arctic of North America. These data have been used in process-oriented research to increase our understanding of atmosphere/hydrosphere/biosphere/lithosphere interactions. Basically, we are monitoring heat and mass transfer between various spheres to quantify rates. These could be rates of mass movement such as hillslope flow or rates of heat transfer for active layer thawing or combined heat and mass processes such as evapotranspiration. We have utilized a conceptual model to predict hydrologic processes. To test the success of this model, we are comparing our predicted rates of runoff and snowmelt to measured valves. We have also used a surface energy model to simulate active layer temperatures. The final step in this modeling effort to date was to predict what impact climatic warming would have on active layer thicknesses and how this will influence the hydrology of our research watershed by examining several streambeds.

  7. Four-planet meteorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    All planets with atmospheres have common characteristics which are helpful in understanding weather and climate on earth. Of the terrestrial planets, Mars displays the most earth-like characteristics. The feedback mechanism of the Martian Great Dust Storms may control climate on a global scale and shows some parallels to the water cycle on the earth. Venus, on the other hand, has atmosphere motions and characteristics far different from those of earth but appears to be valuable for comparative meteorology and it seems to be a simple weather machine due to absence of axial tilt. A completely gaseous Jupiter also can help because its atmosphere, driven by internal heat, flows round-and-round, showing the same general patterns for years at a time. Results of studying extraterrestrial atmospheres are most important for understanding earth's multi-year weather cycles such as the droughts in the American West every 22 years or effects of the Little Ice Age (1450-1915) on agriculture in the North Hemisphere.

  8. Meteorological satellites: Past, present, and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Past developments, accomplishments and future potential of meteorological satellites are discussed. Meteorological satellite design is described in detail. Space platforms and their meteorological applications are discussed. User needs are also discussed.

  9. COOLING TOWER PUMP HOUSE, TRA606. SECTION, LAYOUT OF TOWERS. BLAWKNOX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    COOLING TOWER PUMP HOUSE, TRA-606. SECTION, LAYOUT OF TOWERS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-7-2, 9/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0607-00-098-100014, REV. 2. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. Tower Based Load Measurements for Individual Pitch Control and Tower Damping of Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A. A.; Hugues-Salas, O.; Savini, B.; Keogh, W.

    2016-09-01

    The cost of IPC has hindered adoption outside of Europe despite significant loading advantages for large wind turbines. In this work we presented a method for applying individual pitch control (including for higher-harmonics) using tower-top strain gauge feedback instead of blade-root strain gauge feedback. Tower-top strain gauges offer hardware savings of approximately 50% in addition to the possibility of easier access for maintenance and installation and requiring a less specialised skill-set than that required for applying strain gauges to composite blade roots. A further advantage is the possibility of using the same tower-top sensor array for tower damping control. This method is made possible by including a second order IPC loop in addition to the tower damping loop to reduce the typically dominating 3P content in tower-top load measurements. High-fidelity Bladed simulations show that the resulting turbine spectral characteristics from tower-top feedback IPC and from the combination of tower-top IPC and damping loops largely match those of blade-root feedback IPC and nacelle- velocity feedback damping. Lifetime weighted fatigue analysis shows that the methods allows load reductions within 2.5% of traditional methods.

  11. Application of a semi-spectral cloud water parameterization to cooling tower plumes simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzereau, Emmanuel; Musson Genon, Luc; Carissimo, Bertrand

    2008-10-01

    In order to simulate the plume produced by large natural draft cooling towers, a semi-spectral warm cloud parameterization has been implemented in an anelastic and non-hydrostatic 3D micro-scale meteorological code. The model results are compared to observations from a detailed field experiment carried out in 1980 at Bugey (location of an electrical nuclear power plant in the Rhône valley in East Central France) including airborne dynamical and microphysical measurements. Although we observe a slight overestimation of the liquid-water content, the results are satisfactory for all the 15 different cases simulated, which include different meteorological conditions ranging from low wind speed and convective conditions in clear sky to high wind and very cloudy. Such parameterization, which includes semi-spectral determination for droplet spectra, seems to be promising to describe plume interaction with atmosphere especially for aerosols and cloud droplets.

  12. Reviews and Syntheses: optical sampling of the flux tower footprint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamon, J. A.

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this review is to address the reasons and methods for conducting optical remote sensing within the flux tower footprint. Fundamental principles and conclusions gleaned from over 2 decades of proximal remote sensing at flux tower sites are reviewed. The organizing framework used here is the light-use efficiency (LUE) model, both because it is widely used, and because it provides a useful theoretical construct for integrating optical remote sensing with flux measurements. Multiple ways of driving this model, ranging from meteorological measurements to remote sensing, have emerged in recent years, making it a convenient conceptual framework for comparative experimental studies. New interpretations of established optical sampling methods, including the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), are discussed within the context of the LUE model. Multi-scale analysis across temporal and spatial axes is a central theme because such scaling can provide links between ecophysiological mechanisms detectable at the level of individual organisms and broad patterns emerging at larger scales, enabling evaluation of emergent properties and extrapolation to the flux footprint and beyond. Proper analysis of the sampling scale requires an awareness of sampling context that is often essential to the proper interpretation of optical signals. Additionally, the concept of optical types, vegetation exhibiting contrasting optical behavior in time and space, is explored as a way to frame our understanding of the controls on surface-atmosphere fluxes. Complementary normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and PRI patterns across ecosystems are offered as an example of this hypothesis, with the LUE model and light-response curve providing an integrating framework. I conclude that experimental approaches allowing systematic exploration of plant optical behavior in the context of the flux tower network provides a unique way to

  13. Recommended changes in meteorological measurement and prediction methods for coastal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Raynor, G.S.; Michael, P.; SethuRaman, S.

    1980-01-01

    A study was performed to examine currently recommended meteorological measurement programs and atmospheric transport and diffusion prediction models for nuclear power plants to determine their adequacy for plants located in coastal zones where meteorological conditions are normally more complex than at inland sites and to make recommendations for changes to improve current procedures. Recommendations were based on an extensive literature review and on studies of coastal meteorology and diffusion. The study was focused on the following areas: coastal internal boundary layers; tower location; instrument heights; atmospheric stability classification; plume meander; and diffusion calculations. Each of the areas is discussed with appropriate recommendations which were made with respect to either the scientific or the regulation aspects of current procedures or both. Other potential problem areas are also pointed out.

  14. Summary of tower designs for large horizontal axis wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, G. R.; Savino, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Towers for large horizontal axis wind turbines, machines with a rotor axis height above 30 meters and rated at more than 500 kW, have varied in configuration, materials of construction, type of construction, height, and stiffness. For example, the U.S. large HAWTs have utilized steel truss type towers and free-standing steel cylindrical towers. In Europe, the trend has been to use only free-standing and guyed cylindrical towers, but both steel and reinforced concrete have been used as materials of construction. These variations in materials of construction and type of construction reflect different engineering approaches to the design of cost effective towers for large HAWTs. Tower designs are the NASA/DOE Mod-5B presently being fabricated. Design goals and requirements that influence tower configuration, height and materials are discussed. In particular, experiences with United States large wind turbine towers are elucidated. Finally, current trends in tower designs for large HAWTs are highlighted.

  15. BOREAS TF-9 SSA-OBS Tower Flux, Meteorological, and Soil Temperature Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor); Massheder, Jonathan M.; Moncrieff, John B.; Rayment, Mark B.; Jarvis, Paul G.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-9 team collected energy, carbon dioxide, and water vapor flux data at the BOREAS SSA-OBS site during the growing season of 1994 and most of the year for 1996. From the winter of 1995 to 1996, soil temperature data were also collected and provided. The data are available in tabular ASCII files.

  16. A Design Study for a Meteorological Instrumentation System for an OMEGA Tower.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    count, recycling after a count of 256. They are convenient to use with pulse or pulse rate output devices such as cup anemometers or propellors. For...some transducer configurations are con’nidered. 4.4.1 Wind Velocity Transducers which have been considered for this parameter are: Sonic anemometer ...Vortex shedding anemometer /vane Bivane and propellor. While these all have particular advantages it is considered that the best compromise between

  17. BOREAS TF-8 NSA-OJP Tower Flux, Meteorological, and Soil Temperature Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor); Moore, Kathleen E.; Fitzjarrald, David R.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-8 team collected energy, CO2, and water vapor flux data at the BOREAS NSA-OJP site during the growing season of 1994 and most of the year for 1996. The data are available in tabular ASCII files.

  18. BOREAS TGB-4 NSA-BVP Tower Flux and Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roulet, Nigel T.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor); Conrad, Sara K. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Trace Gas Biogeochemistry (BOREAS TGB-4) team measured the exchange of heat, water, and CO2 between a boreal forest beaver pond and the atmosphere in the Northern Study Area (NSA) for the ice-free period of BOREAS. The data cover the period of 28-May to 18-Sep-1994. The data are available in tabular ASCII files.

  19. Mathematics and Meteorology: Perfect Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bomeli, Cynthia L.

    1991-01-01

    The integration of science and mathematics in the middle school using the topic of meteorology is discussed. Seven selected activities for this approach are suggested. Lists of materials and resources for use in this teaching approach are appended. (CW)

  20. Meteorological Processors and Accessory Programs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Surface and upper air data, provided by NWS, are important inputs for air quality models. Before these data are used in some of the EPA dispersion models, meteorological processors are used to manipulate the data.

  1. Air Modeling - Observational Meteorological Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Observed meteorological data for use in air quality modeling consist of physical parameters that are measured directly by instrumentation, and include temperature, dew point, wind direction, wind speed, cloud cover, cloud layer(s), ceiling height,

  2. Mathematics and Meteorology: Perfect Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bomeli, Cynthia L.

    1991-01-01

    The integration of science and mathematics in the middle school using the topic of meteorology is discussed. Seven selected activities for this approach are suggested. Lists of materials and resources for use in this teaching approach are appended. (CW)

  3. Meteorological measurements from satellite platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suomi, V. E.

    1972-01-01

    Quantitative exploitation of meteorological data from geosynchronous satellites is starting to move from the laboratory to operational practice. Investigations of the data applications portion of the total meteorological satellite system include: (1) tropospheric wind shear and the related severe storm circulations; (2) kinematic properties of the tropical atmosphere as derived from cloud motion vectors; (3) application of a geostationary satellite rake system to measurements of rainfall; and (4) pointing error analysis of geosynchronous satellites.

  4. BOREAS Derived Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Twine, Tracy; Rinker, Donald; Knapp, David

    2000-01-01

    In 1995, the BOREAS science teams identified the need for a continuous surface meteorological and radiation data set to support flux and surface process modeling efforts. This data set contains actual, substituted, and interpolated 15-minute meteorological and radiation data compiled from several surface measurements sites over the BOREAS SSA and NSA. Temporally, the data cover 01-Jan-1994 to 31-Dec-1996. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data.

  5. The Drop Tower Bremen -An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Kampen, Peter; Könemann, Thorben; Rath, Hans J.

    The Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) was founded in 1985 as an institute of the University of Bremen, which focuses on research on gravitational and space-related phenomena. In 1988, the construction of ZARM`s drop tower began. Since its inau-guration in September 1990, the eye-catching Drop Tower Bremen with a height of 146m and its characteristic glass roof has become twice a landmark on the campus of the University of Bremen and the emblem of the technology park Bremen. As such an outstanding symbol of space science in Bremen the drop tower provides an european unique facility for experiments under conditions of high-quality weightlessness with residual gravitational accelerations in the microgravity regime. The period of maximum 4.74s of each freely falling experiment at the Drop Tower Bremen is only limited by the height of the drop tower vacuum tube, which was fully manufactured of steal and enclosed by an outer concrete shell. Thus, the pure free fall height of each microgravity drop experiment is approximately 110m. By using the later in-stalled catapult system established in 2004 ZARM`s short-term microgravity laboratory is able to nearly double the time of free fall. This world-wide inimitable capsule catapult system meets scientists` demand of extending the period of weightlessness. During the catapult operation the experiment capsule performs a vertical parabolic flight within the drop tower vacuum tube. In this way the time of microgravity can be extended to slightly over 9s. Either in the drop or in the catapult operation routine the repetition rates of microgravity experiments at ZARM`s drop tower facility are the same, generally up to 3 times per day. In comparison to orbital platforms the ground-based laboratory Drop Tower Bremen represents an economic alternative with a permanent access to weightlessness on earth. Moreover, the exceptional high quality of weightlessness in order of 1e-6 g (in the frequency range below 100

  6. Film fill for power plant cooling towers

    SciTech Connect

    Mirsky, G.R. ); Monjoie, M. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on film fill, which is the use of flat or formed sheets to provide a surface upon which liquid and air come in contact with each other to affect the exchange of heat. The only other fill options available to a cooling tower designer is the use of splash fill or combinations whereby heat exchange occurs on the surface of water droplets, or both. As film fill allows the designer the opportunity to build a more compact, cost effective, energy efficient cooling tower; this type of fill material is receiving ever increasing acceptance and finding it way into more and more cooling tower applications. film fill is used to both counterflow and crossflow cooling towers, from small air conditioning applications to large natural draft towers serving 1300 to 1500 M.W. power plants around the world. It is being used in applications using unfiltered water high in suspended solids, high concentrations of dissolved salts, water carrying fibers, silt, mud, treated and untreated waste effluent, scale etc. These situations are caused by users who are: trying to reduce water make-up, using untreated or unfiltered water, or trying to save on the cost of chemical treatment.

  7. Final report on APMP key comparison of volume of liquids at 20 L and 100 mL: APMP.M.FF-K4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, John; Arias, Roberto; Terao, Yoshiya; Lee, Yong Jae; Ligong, Guo; Tulasombut, Verra; Chan, Tak Kin; Thai, Nguyen Hong; Steyn, Ronel; Sampath, H. L. I. S.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the results of a key comparison of liquid volume measurement conducted between ten participating institutes during the period July 2006 to August 2008 within the framework of the Asia Pacifica Metrology Program (APMP). The transfer standards comprised one 20 L volume measure and two 100 mL glass pycnometers. These transfer standards had been used in a similar CIPM key comparison CCM.FF-K4 in 2003 to 2005. The pilot institute was the National Measurement Institute, Australia (NMIA), which together with CENAM act as link laboratories to the CCM.FF-K4 comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  8. Total body 100-mGy X-irradiation does not induce Alzheimer's disease-like pathogenesis or memory impairment in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bing; Tanaka, Kaoru; Ji, Bin; Ono, Maiko; Fang, Yaqun; Ninomiya, Yasuharu; Maruyama, Kouichi; Izumi-Nakajima, Nakako; Begum, Nasrin; Higuchi, Makoto; Fujimori, Akira; Uehara, Yoshihiko; Nakajima, Tetsuo; Suhara, Tetsuya; Ono, Tetsuya; Nenoi, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    The cause and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are poorly understood. Possible cognitive and behavioral consequences induced by low-dose radiation are important because humans are exposed to ionizing radiation from various sources. Early transcriptional response in murine brain to low-dose X-rays (100 mGy) has been reported, suggesting alterations of molecular networks and pathways associated with cognitive functions, advanced aging and AD. To investigate acute and late transcriptional, pathological and cognitive consequences of low-dose radiation, we applied an acute dose of 100-mGy total body irradiation (TBI) with X-rays to C57BL/6J Jms mice. We collected hippocampi and analyzed expression of 84 AD-related genes. Mouse learning ability and memory were assessed with the Morris water maze test. We performed in vivo PET scans with 11C-PIB, a radiolabeled ligand for amyloid imaging, to detect fibrillary amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) accumulation, and examined characteristic AD pathologies with immunohistochemical staining of amyloid precursor protein (APP), Aβ, tau and phosphorylated tau (p-tau). mRNA studies showed significant downregulation of only two of 84 AD-related genes, Apbb1 and Lrp1, at 4 h after irradiation, and of only one gene, Il1α, at 1 year after irradiation. Spatial learning ability and memory were not significantly affected at 1 or 2 years after irradiation. No induction of amyloid fibrillogenesis or changes in APP, Aβ, tau, or p-tau expression was detected at 4 months or 2 years after irradiation. TBI induced early or late transcriptional alteration in only a few AD-related genes but did not significantly affect spatial learning, memory or AD-like pathological change in mice. PMID:23908553

  9. Acute Response of Well-Trained Sprinters to a 100-m Race: Higher Sprinting Velocity Achieved With Increased Step Rate Compared With Speed Training.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Mitsuo; Kawahara, Taisuke; Isaka, Tadao

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to clarify the contribution of differences in step length and step rate to sprinting velocity in an athletic race compared with speed training. Nineteen well-trained male and female sprinters volunteered to participate in this study. Sprinting motions were recorded for each sprinter during both 100-m races and speed training (60-, 80-, and 100-m dash from a block start) for 14 days before the race. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance was used to compare the step characteristics and sprinting velocity between race and speed training, adjusted for covariates including race-training differences in the coefficients of restitution of the all-weather track, wind speed, air temperature, and sex. The average sprinting velocity to the 50-m mark was significantly greater in the race than in speed training (8.26 ± 0.22 m·s vs. 8.00 ± 0.70 m·s, p < 0.01). Although no significant difference was seen in the average step length to the 50-m mark between the race and speed training (1.81 ± 0.09 m vs. 1.80 ± 0.09 m, p = 0.065), the average step rate was significantly greater in the race than in speed training (4.56 ± 0.17 Hz vs. 4.46 ± 0.13 Hz, p < 0.01). These findings suggest that sprinters achieve higher sprinting velocity and can run with higher exercise intensity and more rapid motion during a race than during speed training, even if speed training was performed at perceived high intensity.

  10. Total body 100-mGy X-irradiation does not induce Alzheimer's disease-like pathogenesis or memory impairment in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Tanaka, Kaoru; Ji, Bin; Ono, Maiko; Fang, Yaqun; Ninomiya, Yasuharu; Maruyama, Kouichi; Izumi-Nakajima, Nakako; Begum, Nasrin; Higuchi, Makoto; Fujimori, Akira; Uehara, Yoshihiko; Nakajima, Tetsuo; Suhara, Tetsuya; Ono, Tetsuya; Nenoi, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    The cause and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are poorly understood. Possible cognitive and behavioral consequences induced by low-dose radiation are important because humans are exposed to ionizing radiation from various sources. Early transcriptional response in murine brain to low-dose X-rays (100 mGy) has been reported, suggesting alterations of molecular networks and pathways associated with cognitive functions, advanced aging and AD. To investigate acute and late transcriptional, pathological and cognitive consequences of low-dose radiation, we applied an acute dose of 100-mGy total body irradiation (TBI) with X-rays to C57BL/6J Jms mice. We collected hippocampi and analyzed expression of 84 AD-related genes. Mouse learning ability and memory were assessed with the Morris water maze test. We performed in vivo PET scans with (11)C-PIB, a radiolabeled ligand for amyloid imaging, to detect fibrillary amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) accumulation, and examined characteristic AD pathologies with immunohistochemical staining of amyloid precursor protein (APP), Aβ, tau and phosphorylated tau (p-tau). mRNA studies showed significant downregulation of only two of 84 AD-related genes, Apbb1 and Lrp1, at 4 h after irradiation, and of only one gene, Il1α, at 1 year after irradiation. Spatial learning ability and memory were not significantly affected at 1 or 2 years after irradiation. No induction of amyloid fibrillogenesis or changes in APP, Aβ, tau, or p-tau expression was detected at 4 months or 2 years after irradiation. TBI induced early or late transcriptional alteration in only a few AD-related genes but did not significantly affect spatial learning, memory or AD-like pathological change in mice.

  11. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report First Quarter FY-14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William Henry; Crawford, Winifred C.; Shafer, Jaclyn A.; Watson, Leela R.; Huddleston, Lisa L.; Decker, Ryan K.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's LSP and other programs at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) use wind forecasts issued by the 30th Operational Support Squadron (30 OSS) to determine if they need to limit activities or protect property such as a launch vehicle due to the occurrence of warning level winds at VAFB in California. The 30 OSS tasked the AMU to provide a wind forecasting capability to improve wind warning forecasts and enhance the safety of their customers' operations. This would allow 30 OSS forecasters to evaluate pressure gradient thresholds between pairs of regional observing stations to help determine the onset and duration of warning category winds. Development of such a tool will require that solid relationships exist between wind speed and the pressure gradient of one or more station pairs. As part of this task, the AMU will also create a statistical climatology of meteorological observations from the VAFB wind towers.

  12. Cooling tower water conditioning study. [using ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.; French, K. R.

    1979-01-01

    Successful elimination of cooling tower treatment chemicals was demonstrated. Three towers functioned for long periods of time with ozone as the only treatment for the water. The water in the systems was reused as much as 30 times (cycles of concentration) without deleterious effects to the heat exchangers. Actual system blow-down was eliminated and the only makeup water added was that required to replace the evaporation and mist entrainment losses. Minimum water savings alone are approximately 75.1 1/kg/year. Cost estimates indicate that a savings of 55 percent was obtained on the systems using ozone. A major problem experienced in the use of ozone for cooling tower applications was the difficulty of accurate concentration measurements. The ability to control the operational characteristics relies on easily and accurately determined concentration levels. Present methods of detection are subject to inaccuracies because of interfering materials and the rapid destruction of the ozone.

  13. Repair and completion of damaged cooling tower

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, P.L. . Dept. of Civil Engineering); Guedelhoefer, O.C. )

    1989-03-01

    This paper reports on a large hyperbolic cooling tower, under construction and nearly completed, struck by a falling tower crane during a tornado. Damage occurred at the upper edge where a V-shaped notch was gouged. Also, considerable cracking beneath the notch was observed. The extent of the damage was documented by precision survey techniques and visual inspection. A comprehensive analytical study was performed to insure that the completed tower would meet the design criteria. The repair plan involved repairing the cracks, sawing back the notch in a step fashion, refurbishing the scaffolding, rebuilding the gouged region, and then carrying the construction to completion. Also, two circumferential stiffening rings were added to the shell.

  14. Operating manual for the Tower Shielding Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-01

    This manual provides information necessary to operate and perform maintenance on the reactor systems and all equipment or systems which can affect their operation or the safety of personnel at the Tower Shielding Facility. The first four chapters consist of introductory and descriptive material of benefit to personnel in training, the qualifications required for training, the responsibilities of the personnel in the organization, and the procedures for reviewing proposed experiments. Chapter 8, Emergency Procedures, is also a necessary part of the indoctrination of personnel. The procedures for operation of the Tower Shielding Reactor (TSR-II), its water cooling system, and the main tower hoists are outlined in Chapters 5, 6, and 7. The Technical Specification surveillance requirements for the TSR-II are summarized in Chapter 9. The maintenance and calibration schedule is spelled out in Chapter 10. The procedures for assembly and disassembly of the TSR-II are outlined in Chapter 11.

  15. The design of solar tower power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gretz, J.

    The conversion of solar energy into electricity in solar thermal tower power plants is examined. Mirrors attached to mobile, sun-following heliostats concentrate solar rays into the opening of a receiver mounted on a tower. In the receiver, the radiant energy is absorbed by a system of pipes filled with a flowing material which is heated and drives a turbogenerator directly or via a heat exchanger. It is shown that the optics involved in this concept preclude the optimization of the pipe material, since the local distribution of rays in the heater of tower power plants varies diurnally and annually. This requires each pipe section to be designed for maximum stress, even though that stress occurs only at brief intervals during the day.

  16. Engineering photochemical smog through convection towers

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, S.; Prueitt, M.L.; Bossert, J.E.; Mroz, E.J.; Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.; Jacobson, M.Z.; Turco, R.P. |

    1995-02-01

    Reverse convection towers have attracted attention as a medium for cleansing modern cities. Evaporation of an aqueous mist injected at the tower opening could generate electrical power by creating descent, and simultaneously scavenge unsightly and unhealthful particulates. The study offered here assesses the influence to tower water droplets on the photochemical component of Los Angeles type smog. The primary radical chain initiator OH is likely removed into aqueous phases well within the residence time of air in the tower, and then reacts away rapidly. Organics do not dissolve, but nighttime hydrolysis of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} depletes the nitrogen oxides. A lack of HOx would slow hydrocarbon oxidation and so also ozone production. Lowering of NOx would also alter ozone production rates, but the direction is uncertain. SO{sub 2} is available in sufficient quantities in some urban areas to react with stable oxidants, and if seawater were the source of the mist, the high pH would lead to fast sulfur oxidation kinetics. With an accommodation coefficient of 10{sup {minus}3}, however, ozone may not enter the aqueous phase efficiently. Even if ozone is destroyed or its production suppressed, photochemical recovery times are on the order of hours, so that tower processing must be centered on a narrow midday time window. The cost of building the number of structures necessary for this brief turnover could be prohibitive. The increase in humidity accompanying mist evaporation could be controlled with condensers, but might otherwise counteract visibility enhancements by recreating aqueous aerosols. Quantification of the divergent forcings convection towers must exert upon the cityscape would call for coupled three dimensional modeling of transport, microphysics, and photochemistry. 112 refs.

  17. Space Shuttle interactive meteorological data system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, J. T.; Fox, R. J.; Benson, J. M.; Rueden, J. P.; Oehlkers, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Although focused toward the operational meteorological support review and definition of an operational meteorological interactive data display systems (MIDDS) requirements for the Space Meteorology Support Group at NASA/Johnson Space Center, the total operational meteorological support requirements and a systems concept for the MIDDS network integration of NASA and Air Force elements to support the National Space Transportation System are also addressed.

  18. The new Drop Tower catapult system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Kampen, Peter; Kaczmarczik, Ulrich; Rath, Hans J.

    2006-07-01

    The Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) was founded in 1985 as an institute of the University Bremen, which focuses on research on gravitational and space-related phenomena. In 1988, the construction of the "Drop Tower" began. Since then, the eye-catching tower with a height of 146 m and its characteristic glass roof has become the emblem of the technology centre in Bremen. The Drop Tower Bremen provides a facility for experiments under conditions of weightlessness. Items are considered weightless, when they are in "free fall", i.e. moving without propulsion within the gravity field of the earth. The height of the tower limits the simple "free fall" experiment period to max. 4.74 s. With the inauguration of the catapult system in December 2004, the ZARM is entering a new dimension. This world novelty will meet scientists' demands of extending the experiment period up to 9.5 s. Since turning the first sod on May 3rd, 1988, the later installation of the catapult system has been taken into account by building the necessary chamber under the tower. The catapult system is located in a chamber 10 m below the base of the tower. This chamber is almost completely occupied by 12 huge pressure tanks. These tanks are placed around the elongation of the vacuum chamber of the drop tube. In its centre there is the pneumatic piston that accelerates the drop capsule by the pressure difference between the vacuum inside the drop tube and the pressure inside the tanks. The acceleration level is adjusted by means of a servo hydraulic breaking system controlling the piston velocity. After only a quarter of a second the drop capsule achieves its lift-off speed of 175 km/h. With this exact speed, the capsule will rise up to the top of the tower and afterwards fall down again into the deceleration unit which has been moved under the drop tube in the meantime. The scientific advantages of the doubled experiment time are obvious: during almost 10 s of high

  19. New Particle Formation Above a Loblolly Pine Forest at a New Tower Site in Central Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joerger, V.; O'Halloran, T. L.; Barr, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    We present initial results investigating the environmental controls on new particle formation events at a new research site in central Virginia. The Sweet Briar College Land-Atmosphere Research Station (SBC-LARS) became operational in July, 2014 and features a 37-meter tower within a ~30 year-old loblolly pine plantation that is surrounded by mixed deciduous forest at the eastern edge of the Blue Ridge Mountains. The tower supports meteorological instruments at three different heights (2, 26, and 37 meters) and two air sampling inlets located above the canopy. The inlets draw air samples into a climate-controlled shed where precursor gas concentrations (ozone, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides) are determined by gas analyzers. Aerosol size distributions between 10 and 470 nm are measured every 3 minutes by a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). For this study, aerosol size distributions from July through November 2014 were analyzed along with HYSPLIT backwards trajectories, meteorological measurements, gas concentrations, and the condensational sink, to investigate controls on new particle formation. This station and corresponding dataset will contribute to a better understanding of the contribution of biogenic and anthropogenic emissions to aerosol formation in the southeastern United States.

  20. Stability and Turbulence in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer: A Comparison of Remote Sensing and Tower Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, K.; Lundquist, J. K.; Aitken, M.; Kalina, E. A.; Marshall, R. F.

    2012-01-01

    When monitoring winds and atmospheric stability for wind energy applications, remote sensing instruments present some advantages to in-situ instrumentation such as larger vertical extent, in some cases easy installation and maintenance, measurements of vertical humidity profiles throughout the boundary layer, and no restrictions on prevailing wind directions. In this study, we compare remote sensing devices, Windcube lidar and microwave radiometer, to meteorological in-situ tower measurements to demonstrate the accuracy of these measurements and to assess the utility of the remote sensing instruments in overcoming tower limitations. We compare temperature and wind observations, as well as calculations of Brunt-Vaisala frequency and Richardson numbers for the instrument deployment period in May-June 2011 at the U.S. Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory's National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado. The study reveals that a lidar and radiometer measure wind and temperature with the same accuracy as tower instruments, while also providing advantages for monitoring stability and turbulence. We demonstrate that the atmospheric stability is determined more accurately when the liquid-water mixing ratio derived from the vertical humidity profile is considered under moist-adiabatic conditions.

  1. NREL National Wind Technology Center (NWTC): M2 Tower; Boulder, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Jager, D.; Andreas, A.

    1996-09-24

    The National Wind Technology Center (NWTC), located at the foot of the Rocky Mountains near Boulder, Colorado, is a world-class research facility managed by NREL for the U.S. Department of Energy. NWTC researchers work with members of the wind energy industry to advance wind power technologies that lower the cost of wind energy through research and development of state-of-the-art wind turbine designs. NREL's Measurement and Instrument Data Center provides data from NWTC's M2 tower which are derived from instruments mounted on or near an 82 meter (270 foot) meteorological tower located at the western edge of the NWTC site and about 11 km (7 miles) west of Broomfield, and approximately 8 km (5 miles) south of Boulder, Colorado. The data represent the mean value of readings taken every two seconds and averaged over one minute. The wind speed and direction are measured at six heights on the tower and air temperature is measured at three heights. The dew point temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, totalized liquid precipitation, and global solar radiation are also available.

  2. Tower-Perturbation Measurements in Above-Water Radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Zibordi, Giuseppe; Berthon, Jean-Francois; DAlimonte, Davide; vanderLinde, Dirk; Brown, James W.

    2003-01-01

    This report documents the scientific activities which took place during June 2001 and June 2002 on the Acqua Alta Oceanographic Tower (AAOT) in the northern Adriatic Sea. The primary objective of these field campaigns was to quantify the effect of platform perturbations (principally reflections of sunlight onto the sea surface) on above-water measurements of water-leaving radiances. The deployment goals documented in this report were to: a) collect an extensive and simultaneous set of above- and in-water optical measurements under predominantly clear-sky conditions; b) establish the vertical properties of the water column using a variety of ancillary measurements, many of which were taken coincidently with the optical measurements; and c) determine the bulk properties of the environment using a diversity of atmospheric, biogeochemical, and meteorological techniques. A preliminary assessment of the data collected during the two field campaigns shows the perturbation in above-water radiometry caused by a large offshore structure is very similar to that caused by a large research vessel.

  3. 10. View west along carillon tower axis from base of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View west along carillon tower axis from base of tower to gates in western estate wall at SR 141 - A. I. Du Pont Estate, Junction of State Route 141 & Rockland Road, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  4. 13. 212 AUBURN AVENUE (Bethel Towers) PARTIAL VIEW OF SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. 212 AUBURN AVENUE (Bethel Towers) PARTIAL VIEW OF SOUTH FACADE (Parking Garage and Shops in front of Bethel Towers at 210 Auburn Avenue.) - 126-255 Auburn Avenue (Commercial Buildings), Auburn Avenue, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  5. 50. NORTHERN VIEW OF NONEVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COOLING TOWERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. NORTHERN VIEW OF NON-EVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COOLING TOWERS IN CENTER, AND EVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER COOLING TOWERS ON RIGHT. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  6. 27. STATIC TEST TOWER CLOSEUP VIEW OF CONTROL PANEL AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. STATIC TEST TOWER CLOSE-UP VIEW OF CONTROL PANEL AT REAR OF TOWER UNDER SHED ROOF. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  7. 1. Keeper's house and light tower, view northwest, south and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Keeper's house and light tower, view northwest, south and east sides of keeper's house, southwest and southeast sides of light tower - Curtis Island Light Station, Curtis Island, at entrance to Camden Harbor, Camden, Knox County, ME

  8. 39. View from top of Brooklyn Tower looking SW at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. View from top of Brooklyn Tower looking SW at tower cornice, main cable and stay cables. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  9. View of EPA Farm metal weather tower, facing east, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of EPA Farm metal weather tower, facing east, showing thirty-acre irrigated field - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Weather Tower, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  10. Lifting system and apparatus for constructing wind turbine towers

    DOEpatents

    Livingston, Tracy; Schrader, Terry; Goldhardt, James; Lott, James

    2011-02-01

    The disclosed invention is utilized for mounting a wind turbine and blade assembly on the upper end of a wind turbine tower. The invention generally includes a frame or truss that is pivotally secured to the top bay assembly of the tower. A transverse beam is connected to the frame or truss and extends fore of the tower when the frame or truss is in a first position and generally above the tower when in a second position. When in the first position, a wind turbine or blade assembly can be hoisted to the top of the tower. The wind turbine or blade assembly is then moved into position for mounting to the tower as the frame or truss is pivoted to a second position. When the turbine and blade assembly are secured to the tower, the frame or truss is disconnected from the tower and lowered to the ground.

  11. 4. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING NORTHWEST ELEVATION OF TOWER ND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING NORTHWEST ELEVATION OF TOWER ND SIGNAL BRIDGE No. 6 AND DWARF SIGNAL IN FOREGROUND - South Station Tower No. 1 & Interlocking System, Dewey Square, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  12. Interior of the mine observation tower building, showing the steel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of the mine observation tower building, showing the steel compass ring in the tower. View facing east - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Waipio Peninsula, Waipo Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. 15. VIEW OF COAL TOWER No. 2, LOOKING WEST TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF COAL TOWER No. 2, LOOKING WEST TO EAST FROM COAL TOWER No. 1 (FLOOR BELOW CRANE CONTROL) - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA

  14. 14. WEST ELEVATION OF COAL TOWER No. 2, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. WEST ELEVATION OF COAL TOWER No. 2, LOOKING WEST TO EAST FROM COAL TOWER No. 1 (FLOOR BELOW THE CRANE CONTROL) - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA

  15. North and west sides of the cooling tower, utility building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North and west sides of the cooling tower, utility building (building 2606) is in the background at right - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Cooling Tower, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  16. View from southwest to northeast of cooling towers for perimeter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from southwest to northeast of cooling towers for perimeter acquisition radar building and PAR power plant - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Cooling Tower, In Limited Access Area, between Service Roads D & A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  17. A simple wrist arthroscopy tower: the wrist triangle.

    PubMed

    Sraj, Shafic A

    2013-12-01

    Several wrist arthroscopy towers are commercially available. In this report, the use of a triangular holder as a cheap, mobile, radiolucent tower for wrist arthroscopy is described, which can be useful in a cost-conscious surgical practice.

  18. Overall view of tower and adjacent aircraft shelters on flight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overall view of tower and adjacent aircraft shelters on flight line. View to east. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Security Guard Tower, Florida Street at Aircraft Shelters Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  19. 2. Detail of tower foundation with lightning transfer wire, southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Detail of tower foundation with lightning transfer wire, southeast corner - Cold Mountain Fire Lookout Station, Lookout Tower, Krassel District, Frank Church River of No Return Wilderness, Dixie, Idaho County, ID

  20. View uphill of single chair lift, tower 15 in foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View uphill of single chair lift, tower 15 in foreground, TOWERS 16 and 17 in the distance, LOOKING SOUTH. - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

  1. 332. Caltrans, Photographer April 4, 1934 "TOWER #2"; VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    332. Caltrans, Photographer April 4, 1934 "TOWER #2"; VIEW OF TOWER #2 UNDER CONSTRUCTION, SHOWING HAMMERHEAD CRANE. 6-101 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. Cell block one and southeast guard tower, looking from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cell block one and southeast guard tower, looking from the central guard tower, facing southeast (note view also includes cell block ten (left) and cell block nine (right)) - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. Steam sand dryer in northeast part of sand tower. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Steam sand dryer in northeast part of sand tower. View to northeast - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Sand Tower, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  4. 1. Keeper's house and light tower, view north, south and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Keeper's house and light tower, view north, south and east sides of keeper's house, southwest and southeast sides of tower - Whitehead Light Station, Whitehead Island, East northeast of Tenants Harbor, Spruce Head, Knox County, ME

  5. 2. Light tower, keeper's house and shed, view south southwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Light tower, keeper's house and shed, view south southwest, northwest and northeast sides of tower, east and north sides of keeper's house and shed - Whitehead Light Station, Whitehead Island, East northeast of Tenants Harbor, Spruce Head, Knox County, ME

  6. 1. VIEW NORTHWEST, operations building, height finder radar tower, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW NORTHWEST, operations building, height finder radar tower, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  7. 26. Evening view of concrete mixing plant, concrete placement tower, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Evening view of concrete mixing plant, concrete placement tower, cableway tower, power line and derrick. Photographer unknown, 1927. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  8. 10. ENTRANCE VIEW OF ELEVATOR SHAFT AT TOP OF TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. ENTRANCE VIEW OF ELEVATOR SHAFT AT TOP OF TOWER FACING SOUTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Signal Tower, Corner of Seventh Street & Avenue D east of Drydock No. 1, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. 14. CLOSEUP VIEW OF WINDOW IN SIGNAL TOWER OFFICE FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF WINDOW IN SIGNAL TOWER OFFICE FACING WEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Signal Tower, Corner of Seventh Street & Avenue D east of Drydock No. 1, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. 12. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF SIGNAL TOWER OFFICE FACING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF SIGNAL TOWER OFFICE FACING NORTH. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Signal Tower, Corner of Seventh Street & Avenue D east of Drydock No. 1, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. 9. VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO SIGNAL TOWER OFFICE AT TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO SIGNAL TOWER OFFICE AT TOP OF ELEVATOR FACING NORTHWEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Signal Tower, Corner of Seventh Street & Avenue D east of Drydock No. 1, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. 7. Detail of first floor doorway to Signal Tower. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail of first floor doorway to Signal Tower. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Mattes Street Signal Tower, 80 feet Southwest of Railroad Alley & Cedar Avenue, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  13. 1. Perspective of Mattes Street Signal Tower looking southwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Perspective of Mattes Street Signal Tower looking southwest. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Mattes Street Signal Tower, 80 feet Southwest of Railroad Alley & Cedar Avenue, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  14. 6. Detail of windows in north wall of Signal Tower. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail of windows in north wall of Signal Tower. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Mattes Street Signal Tower, 80 feet Southwest of Railroad Alley & Cedar Avenue, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  15. 29. Photocopy of 1921 photograph. Glass Negative Box IX, Tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Photocopy of 1921 photograph. Glass Negative Box IX, Tower Grove, Missouri Botanical Garden. ITALIAN GARDEN AND NEW PALM HOUSE (DEMOLISHED), LOOKING NORTHEAST - Missouri Botanical Garden, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  16. 3. View looking E from top of World Trade Tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View looking E from top of World Trade Tower with World Trade Tower parapet in foreground. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  17. TOWER S389, MAGAZINES IN BACKGROUND. Naval Magazine Lualualei, West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOWER S389, MAGAZINES IN BACKGROUND. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, West Loch Branch, Guard-Watch Tower Type, Near A Avenue between Fourth & Sixth Streets, Ninth Street & D Avenue intersection, & F Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. TOWER 450 WITH POLE. Naval Magazine Lualualei, West Loch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOWER 450 WITH POLE. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, West Loch Branch, Guard-Watch Tower Type, Near A Avenue between Fourth & Sixth Streets, Ninth Street & D Avenue intersection, & F Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. TOWER S389, WITH POLE. MAGAZINES IN BACKGROUND. Naval Magazine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOWER S389, WITH POLE. MAGAZINES IN BACKGROUND. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, West Loch Branch, Guard-Watch Tower Type, Near A Avenue between Fourth & Sixth Streets, Ninth Street & D Avenue intersection, & F Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. S316, GUARD TOWER INTERIOR. Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    S316, GUARD TOWER INTERIOR. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Guard-Watch Tower Type, Off Dent Road & on Kolekole Road near north boundary of installation, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. 8. LOOKING EAST FROM TOP OF WATER TOWER: VIEW SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. LOOKING EAST FROM TOP OF WATER TOWER: VIEW SHOWS BUILDING #626 AND PORTION OF QUADRANGLE - Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio Depot, Water-Watch Tower, Grayson Street & New Braunfels Avenue, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX

  2. S316, GUARD TOWER ON KOLEKOLE PASS RD. Naval Magazine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    S316, GUARD TOWER ON KOLEKOLE PASS RD. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Guard-Watch Tower Type, Off Dent Road & on Kolekole Road near north boundary of installation, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. 28. WEST CONFEDERATE AVENUE, OBSERVATION TOWER, VIEW FROM THE TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. WEST CONFEDERATE AVENUE, OBSERVATION TOWER, VIEW FROM THE TOP OF TOWER TO SOUTH. NOTE FOREST AND AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES. VIEW S. - Gettysburg National Military Park Tour Roads, Gettysburg, Adams County, PA

  4. 3. General view showing north elevation of Shell Interlocking Tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General view showing north elevation of Shell Interlocking Tower and electric relay station. - New York, New Haven, & Hartford Railroad, Shell Interlocking Tower, New Haven Milepost 16, approximately 100 feel east of New Rochelle Junction, New Rochelle, Westchester County, NY

  5. 13. Detail, west facade of tower at track grade. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Detail, west facade of tower at track grade. View to southeast. - New York, New Haven, & Hartford Railroad, Shell Interlocking Tower, New Haven Milepost 16, approximately 100 feel east of New Rochelle Junction, New Rochelle, Westchester County, NY

  6. 1. General view of site looking south, showing tower to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view of site looking south, showing tower to east of interlocking. - New York, New Haven, & Hartford Railroad, Shell Interlocking Tower, New Haven Milepost 16, approximately 100 feel east of New Rochelle Junction, New Rochelle, Westchester County, NY

  7. TOWER, WEST ELEVATION, SHOWING CONNECTION PIPES FOR TURNOUTS 22 (FOREGROUND) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOWER, WEST ELEVATION, SHOWING CONNECTION PIPES FOR TURNOUTS 22 (FOREGROUND) AND 24. NOTE “LAZY JACK” TEMPERATURE COMPENSATOR IN FOREGROUND. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Z Tower, State Route 46, Keyser, Mineral County, WV

  8. APPROACH BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE, AS SEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    APPROACH BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE, AS SEEN FROM ENTRY. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Ku Tree Reservoir, Valve Tower Foot Bridge, Kalakoa Stream, East Range, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  9. View of the campanile and southeast tower looking from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the campanile and southeast tower looking from the south tower roof (duplicate of HABS No. DC-141-40) - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. TOWER SECOND FLOOR INTERIOR, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING OVERHEAD TRACK DIAGRAM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOWER SECOND FLOOR INTERIOR, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING OVERHEAD TRACK DIAGRAM, OPERATING LEVERS (BEING PULLED BY OPERATOR TOM HARTMAN), AND AUXILIARY TRACK DIAGRAM ABOVE DESK AT LEFT. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Z Tower, State Route 46, Keyser, Mineral County, WV

  11. 1. Keeper's house and light tower, view north northeast, southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Keeper's house and light tower, view north northeast, southwest and southeast sides of house, northwest and southwest sides of tower - Wood Island Light Station, East end of Wood Island, at mouth of Soo River, Biddeford Pool, York County, ME

  12. 2. Light tower and keeper's house, view southwest, north northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Light tower and keeper's house, view southwest, north northeast side of tower, northeast and northwest sides of keeper's house - Wood Island Light Station, East end of Wood Island, at mouth of Soo River, Biddeford Pool, York County, ME

  13. Investigating Alaskan methane and carbon dioxide fluxes using measurements from the CARVE tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Miller, J. B.; Andrews, A. E.; Commane, R.; Dinardo, S.; Henderson, J. M.; Lindaas, J.; Lin, J. C.; Luus, K. A.; Newberger, T.; Tans, P.; Wofsy, S. C.; Wolter, S.; Miller, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Northern high-latitude carbon sources and sinks, including those resulting from degrading permafrost, are thought to be sensitive to the rapidly warming climate. Because the near-surface atmosphere integrates surface fluxes over large (~ 500-1000 km) scales, atmospheric monitoring of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) mole fractions in the daytime mixed layer is a promising method for detecting change in the carbon cycle throughout boreal Alaska. Here we use CO2 and CH4 measurements from a NOAA tower 17 km north of Fairbanks AK, established as part of NASA's Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE), to investigate regional fluxes of CO2 and CH4 for 2012-2014. CARVE was designed to use aircraft and surface observations to better understand and quantify the sensitivity of Alaskan carbon fluxes to climate variability. We use high-resolution meteorological fields from the Polar Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model (hereafter, WRF-STILT), along with the Polar Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model (PolarVPRM), to investigate fluxes of CO2 in boreal Alaska using the tower observations, which are sensitive to large areas of central Alaska. We show that simulated PolarVPRM/WRF-STILT CO2 mole fractions show remarkably good agreement with tower observations, suggesting that the WRF-STILT model represents the meteorology of the region quite well, and that the PolarVPRM flux magnitudes and spatial distribution are consistent with CO2 mole fractions observed at the CARVE tower. CO2 signals at the tower are larger than predicted, with significant respiration occurring in the fall that is not captured by PolarVPRM. Using the WRF-STILT model, we find that average CH4 fluxes in boreal Alaska are somewhat lower than flux estimates by Chang et al. (2014) over all of Alaska for May-September 2012; we also find emissions persist during some wintertime periods, augmenting those

  14. Low-cost Triangular Lattice Towers for Small Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Ram Chandra

    This thesis focuses on the study of low-cost steel and bamboo triangular lattice towers for small wind turbines. The core objective is to determine the material properties of bamboo and assess the feasibility of bamboo towers. Using the experimentally determined buckling resistance, elastic modulus, and Poisson's ratio, a 12 m high triangular lattice tower for a 500W wind turbine has been modeled as a tripod to formulate the analytical solutions for the stresses and tower deflections, which enables design of the tower based on buckling strength of tower legs. The tripod formulation combines the imposed loads, the base distance between the legs and tower height, and cross-sectional dimensions of the tower legs. The tripod model was used as a reference for the initial design of the bamboo tower and extended to finite element analysis. A 12 m high steel lattice tower was also designed for the same turbine to serve as a comparison to the bamboo tower. The primary result of this work indicates that bamboo is a valid structural material. The commercial software package ANSYS APDL was used to carry out the tower analysis, evaluate the validity of the tripod model, and extend the analysis for the tower design. For this purpose, a 12 m high steel lattice tower for a 500 W wind turbine was examined. Comparison of finite element analysis and analytical solution has shown that tripod model can be accurately used in the design of lattice towers. The tower designs were based on the loads and safety requirements of international standard for small wind turbine safety, IEC 61400-2. For connecting the bamboo sections in the lattice tower, a steel-bamboo adhesive joint combined with conventional lashing has been proposed. Also, considering the low durability of bamboo, periodic replacement of tower members has been proposed. The result of this study has established that bamboo could be used to construct cost-effective and lightweight lattice towers for wind turbines of 500 Watt

  15. Comparison of separations of fatty acids from fish products using a 30-m Supelcowax-10 and a 100-m SP-2560 column.

    PubMed

    Santercole, Viviana; Delmonte, Pierluigi; Kramer, John K G

    2012-03-01

    Commercial fish oils and foods containing fish may contain trans and/or isomerized fatty acids (FA) produced during processing or as part of prepared foods. The current American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) official method for marine oils (method Ce 1i-07) is based on separation by use of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) columns, for example Supelcowax-10 or equivalent, which do not resolve most unsaturated FA geometric isomers. Highly polar 100-m cyanopropyl siloxane (CPS) columns, for example SP-2560 and CP Sil 88 are recommended for separation of geometric FA isomers. Complementary separations were achieved by use of two different elution temperature programs with the same CPS column. This study is the first direct comparison of the separations achieved by use of 30-m Supelcowax-10 and 100-m SP-2560 columns for fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) prepared from the same fish oil and fish muscle sample. To simplify the identification of the FA in these fish samples, FA were fractionated on the basis of the number and type of double bonds by silver-ion solid-phase extraction (Ag⁺-SPE) before GC analysis. The results showed that a combination of the three GC separations was necessary to resolve and identify most of the unsaturated FA, FA isomers, and other components of fish products, for example phytanic and phytenic acids. Equivalent chain length (ECL) values of most FAME in fish were calculated from the separations achieved by use of both GC columns; the values obtained were shown to be consistent with previously reported values for the Supelcowax-10 column. ECL values were also calculated for the FA separated on the SP-2560 column. The calculated ECL values were equally valid under isothermal and temperature-programmed elution GC conditions, and were valuable for confirmation of the identity of several unsaturated FAME in the fish samples. When analyzing commercially prepared fish foods, deodorized marine oils, or foods fortified with marine oils it is strongly

  16. View of second bank of circuit towers on Arizona side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of second bank of circuit towers on Arizona side of canyon. Left tower supports Circuit 10 and right tower supports Circuit 11, view north - Hoover Dam, Circuits 1-15, U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  17. 3. View from former light tower to Cape Elizabeth Light ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View from former light tower to Cape Elizabeth Light Tower, view northeast, southwest side of Cape Elizabeth Tower - Cape Elizabeth Light Station, Near Two Lights State Park at end of Two Lights Road, off State Highway 77, Cape Elizabeth, Cumberland County, ME

  18. 38. View from top of Brooklyn Tower showing man walking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. View from top of Brooklyn Tower showing man walking up main cable, stay cables radiating from top of tower and tower cornice. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  19. DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWERS THREE AND FOUR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWERS THREE AND FOUR WITH TOWERS FIVE AND SIX IN THE DISTANCE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE TWO INTACT CABLES RUNNING ALONG TOP OF THE TOWERS ARE FIXED. WHILE THE MOVING CABLE IS LYING SLACK ON THE GROUND. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  20. 6. Detail of northeast corner of Shell Interlocking Tower, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail of northeast corner of Shell Interlocking Tower, showing ornamental east concrete beltcourse and tower shield with bronze numerals. - New York, New Haven, & Hartford Railroad, Shell Interlocking Tower, New Haven Milepost 16, approximately 100 feel east of New Rochelle Junction, New Rochelle, Westchester County, NY

  1. 40 CFR 63.1329 - Process contact cooling towers provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Process contact cooling towers... Process contact cooling towers provisions. (a) The owner or operator of each new affected source that... end finisher process that utilizes a process contact cooling tower shall comply with paragraph (c)...

  2. 4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, emergency power building, and height finder radar tower - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  3. 78 FR 17183 - Information Collection: Grey Towers Visitor Comment Card

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... Forest Service Information Collection: Grey Towers Visitor Comment Card AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... collection 0596- 0222, ``Grey Towers Visitor Comment Card'' with 0596-0226, ``Forest Service Generic... addressed to Nicole Bernarsky, USDA Forest Service, Grey Towers National Historic Site, P.O. Box...

  4. 2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar towards, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  5. Utility Towers, Insulator Detail, Front Elevation, Side Elevation, Elevation, Double ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Utility Towers, Insulator Detail, Front Elevation, Side Elevation, Elevation, Double Pole Tower, Single Pole Tower - La Bajada Historic Trails and Roads, Approximately 1 mile East/Northeast of intersection of State Highway 16 and Indian Service Road 841, La Bajada, Santa Fe County, NM

  6. 8. VIEW OF THE EAST BASE CONNECTION OF ANTENNA TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF THE EAST BASE CONNECTION OF ANTENNA TOWER S-111 FACING NORTHEAST. BUILDING 1 AND ANTENNA TOWER S-110 IN THE BACKGROUND. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Lualualei Radio Transmitter, Edison & Tower Drives, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. 14. General oblique view of Shell Interlocking Tower, north and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. General oblique view of Shell Interlocking Tower, north and west facades, showing over head catenary tower and bridge at right. - New York, New Haven, & Hartford Railroad, Shell Interlocking Tower, New Haven Milepost 16, approximately 100 feel east of New Rochelle Junction, New Rochelle, Westchester County, NY

  8. CONCRETE PAD AND SUSPENSION BRIDGE TOWERS FOR CABLES FORMERLY SUPPORTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONCRETE PAD AND SUSPENSION BRIDGE TOWERS FOR CABLES FORMERLY SUPPORTING THE SUSPENSION BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Ku Tree Reservoir, Valve Tower Foot Bridge, Kalakoa Stream, East Range, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  9. Advances in the Use of In Situ Flux Tower Measures of Canopy Structure and Function for Evaluation of MODIS and VIIRS Vegetation Indices and Phenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huete, A. R.; Ma, X.; Devadas, R.; Miura, T.; Obata, K.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Kato, A.

    2016-12-01

    Prior studies have linked tower-based measures of ecosystem productivity (GEP) and satellite vegetation indices (VIs) over primarily phenologically driven ecosystems. In situ flux towers are advantageous for satellite product assessments due to their comparable footprints and finer temporal resolution measurements. However, weaker relationships have been reported in meteorological driven ecosystems in which satellite and flux tower measures of productivity are asynchronous. This suggests that satellite derived biophysical measures are not a measure of GEP, but rather a proxy for ecosystem structure (e.g. LAI) and function. Here we investigate the use of flux tower measures of photosynthetic infrastructure, including photosynthetic capacity and light use efficiency, as more appropriate measures for the evaluation of satellite VI products and phenology. We related MODIS and VIIRS VIs (NDVI, EVI, EVI2) and phenology over a series of flux tower sites located across a climatically-diverse north to south gradient in central Australia, encompassing wet and dry subtropcal savannas, semi-arid shrub/grass, and temperate broadleaf evergreen forests. These represented environmental conditions where phenology and meteorology are not always synchronized. Our objectives were to (1) advance the use of in situ tower data for more accurate evaluation of satellite products and assess challenges and limitations of in situ tower networks; (2) intercompare cross-sensor VI products and derived phenology with tower measures across biomes to assess consistencies; and (3) better understand satellite and tower relationships to improve upon interpretation of satellite VI and phenology data. Our results show, that in contrast to measures of GEP, our measures of photosynthetic infrastructure were much better related to satellite VIs; they removed strong hysteresis influences on VI- productivity relationships across phenologic green-up and brown-down phases; and thus were better related to

  10. LDSD Test Vehicle Attached to Launch Tower

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-06-09

    NASA's Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator test vehicle attached to launch tower just prior to take off. LDSD completed its second flight test when the saucer-shaped craft splashed down safely Monday, June 8, 2015, in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of the Hawaiian island of Kauai. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19683

  11. The Legacy of the Texas Tower Sniper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavergne, Gary

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author relates the incident that happened at the University of Texas to the tragedy that took place at Virginia Tech. On August 1, 1966, Charles Joseph Whitman ascended the University of Texas Tower, in Austin, and in 96 minutes fired 150 high-powered rounds of ammunition down upon an unsuspecting university family. The…

  12. Drop tower with no aerodynamic drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, J. M., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Cooling air accelerated to match velocity of falling object eliminates drag. 3 meter drop tower with suction fan and specific geometry causes air to accelerate downward at 1 g. Although cooling of molten material released from top is slow because surrounding air moves with it, drop remains nearly spherical.

  13. Tower Power: Producing Fuels from Solar Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antal, M. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This article examines the use of power tower technologies for the production of synthetic fuels. This process overcomes the limitations of other processes by using a solar furnace to drive endothermic fuel producing reactions and the resulting fuels serve as a medium for storing solar energy. (BT)

  14. The Legacy of the Texas Tower Sniper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavergne, Gary

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author relates the incident that happened at the University of Texas to the tragedy that took place at Virginia Tech. On August 1, 1966, Charles Joseph Whitman ascended the University of Texas Tower, in Austin, and in 96 minutes fired 150 high-powered rounds of ammunition down upon an unsuspecting university family. The…

  15. The Tower of Hanoi and Inductive Logic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrotsy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In the "Australian Curriculum," the concept of mathematical induction is first met in the senior secondary subject Specialist Mathematics. This article details an example, the Tower of Hanoi problem, which provides an enactive introduction to the inductive process before moving to more abstract and cognitively demanding representations.…

  16. Balsa Tower Walls Brave "Big Buster"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granlund, George

    2008-01-01

    Like many technology teachers, the author, a technology education teacher at Arthur Hill High School in Saginaw, Michigan, tries to stretch his budget by "milking" each student activity for maximum benefit. In the technology department, they use balsa wood towers to teach the basics of structural engineering. To get the most from their materials,…

  17. 29 CFR 1926.1435 - Tower cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manufacturer or, where manufacturer does not specify this information, the speed determined by a qualified... moment overloading. Temporary alternative measures: A radius indicating device must be used (if the tower... weight), or by other equally reliable means. This information must be provided to the operator prior...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.1435 - Tower cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufacturer or, where manufacturer does not specify this information, the speed determined by a qualified... moment overloading. Temporary alternative measures: A radius indicating device must be used (if the tower... weight), or by other equally reliable means. This information must be provided to the operator prior...

  19. Activation of a new cooling tower facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lansford, W.D.

    1986-01-01

    The activation of a completely new facility presents problems not found in modifications or additions to existing systems. Known baselines of previous operations provide some guidelines as to what is causing a particular problem. However, when a totally new, complex facility initially becomes operational, unfamiliar instrumentation, mechanical equipment, and unknown system idiosyncrasies, require careful analysis of each event to determine whether one is observing a symptom of pending disaster or a minor isolated occurrence of some subsystem. Careful planning and progressive introduction of related systems must be initiated, introducing operating personnel into the chain of events as early as possible. Personnel responsible for operation and maintenance should participate in the review of initial concepts and designs, to provide input based on systems experience. The cooling tower system described in this paper has gained recognition for dependability and consistency of operations since initially becoming operational. Instead of a once weekly activity, as originally anticipated, test units are now requesting cooling tower support for all test operations. During one five-month period, a total of 660 cooling tower operating hours were logged with one test support period of 78 non-stop hours recorded. The use of the cooling tower beyond original expectations is a compliment without comparison.

  20. The Tower and Glass Marbles Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denman, Richard T.; Hailey, David; Rothenberg, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The Catseye Marble company tests the strength of its marbles by dropping them from various levels of their office tower, to find the highest floor from which a marble will not break. We find the smallest number of drops required and from which floor each drop should be made. We also find out how these answers change if a restriction is placed on…

  1. Troubleshooting crude vacuum tower overhead ejector systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lines, J.R.; Frens, L.L. )

    1995-03-01

    Routinely surveying tower overhead vacuum systems can improve performance and product quality. These vacuum systems normally provide reliable and consistent operation. However, process conditions, supplied utilities, corrosion, erosion and fouling all have an impact on ejector system performance. Refinery vacuum distillation towers use ejector systems to maintain tower top pressure and remove overhead gases. However, as with virtually all refinery equipment, performance may be affected by a number of variables. These variables may act independently or concurrently. It is important to understand basic operating principles of vacuum systems and how performance is affected by: utilities, corrosion and erosion, fouling, and process conditions. Reputable vacuum-system suppliers have service engineers that will come to a refinery to survey the system and troubleshoot performance or offer suggestions for improvement. A skilled vacuum-system engineer may be needed to diagnose and remedy system problems. The affect of these variables on performance is discussed. A case history is described of a vacuum system on a crude tower in a South American refinery.

  2. Tower Power: Producing Fuels from Solar Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antal, M. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This article examines the use of power tower technologies for the production of synthetic fuels. This process overcomes the limitations of other processes by using a solar furnace to drive endothermic fuel producing reactions and the resulting fuels serve as a medium for storing solar energy. (BT)

  3. Taking the Plunge off the Ivory Tower.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauzerall, Jorgette

    1997-01-01

    Relates the experiences of a white academic teaching in a black rural state college--a plunge into the world of black experience which shocked the academic. States that everything was different--students' names, their manner of dress, their reaction to the O.J. Simpson verdict. Finds that leaving the ivory tower was not easy, but the job exceeded…

  4. Balsa Tower Walls Brave "Big Buster"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granlund, George

    2008-01-01

    Like many technology teachers, the author, a technology education teacher at Arthur Hill High School in Saginaw, Michigan, tries to stretch his budget by "milking" each student activity for maximum benefit. In the technology department, they use balsa wood towers to teach the basics of structural engineering. To get the most from their materials,…

  5. The Tower and Glass Marbles Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denman, Richard T.; Hailey, David; Rothenberg, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The Catseye Marble company tests the strength of its marbles by dropping them from various levels of their office tower, to find the highest floor from which a marble will not break. We find the smallest number of drops required and from which floor each drop should be made. We also find out how these answers change if a restriction is placed on…

  6. The WACMOS-ET project - Part 1: Tower-scale evaluation of four remote sensing-based evapotranspiration algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, D.; Jiménez, C.; Miralles, D. G.; Jung, M.; Hirschi, M.; Ershadi, A.; Martens, B.; McCabe, M. F.; Fisher, J. B.; Mu, Q.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Wood, E. F.; Fernández-Prieto, D.

    2015-10-01

    The WACMOS-ET project has compiled a forcing data set covering the period 2005-2007 that aims to maximize the exploitation of European Earth Observations data sets for evapotranspiration (ET) estimation. The data set was used to run 4 established ET algorithms: the Priestley-Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory model (PT-JPL), the Penman-Monteith algorithm from the MODIS evaporation product (PM-MOD), the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) and the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM). In addition, in-situ meteorological data from 24 FLUXNET towers was used to force the models, with results from both forcing sets compared to tower-based flux observations. Model performance was assessed across several time scales using both sub-daily and daily forcings. The PT-JPL model and GLEAM provide the best performance for both satellite- and tower-based forcing as well as for the considered temporal resolutions. Simulations using the PM-MOD were mostly underestimated, while the SEBS performance was characterized by a systematic overestimation. In general, all four algorithms produce the best results in wet and moderately wet climate regimes. In dry regimes, the correlation and the absolute agreement to the reference tower ET observations were consistently lower. While ET derived with in situ forcing data agrees best with the tower measurements (R2 = 0.67), the agreement of the satellite-based ET estimates is only marginally lower (R2 = 0.58). Results also show similar model performance at daily and sub-daily (3-hourly) resolutions. Overall, our validation experiments against in situ measurements indicate that there is no single best-performing algorithm across all biome and forcing types. An extension of the evaluation to a larger selection of 85 towers (model inputs re-sampled to a common grid to facilitate global estimates) confirmed the original findings.

  7. The WACMOS-ET project - Part 1: Tower-scale evaluation of four remote-sensing-based evapotranspiration algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, D.; Jiménez, C.; Miralles, D. G.; Jung, M.; Hirschi, M.; Ershadi, A.; Martens, B.; McCabe, M. F.; Fisher, J. B.; Mu, Q.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Wood, E. F.; Fernández-Prieto, D.

    2016-02-01

    The WAter Cycle Multi-mission Observation Strategy - EvapoTranspiration (WACMOS-ET) project has compiled a forcing data set covering the period 2005-2007 that aims to maximize the exploitation of European Earth Observations data sets for evapotranspiration (ET) estimation. The data set was used to run four established ET algorithms: the Priestley-Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory model (PT-JPL), the Penman-Monteith algorithm from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) evaporation product (PM-MOD), the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) and the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM). In addition, in situ meteorological data from 24 FLUXNET towers were used to force the models, with results from both forcing sets compared to tower-based flux observations. Model performance was assessed on several timescales using both sub-daily and daily forcings. The PT-JPL model and GLEAM provide the best performance for both satellite- and tower-based forcing as well as for the considered temporal resolutions. Simulations using the PM-MOD were mostly underestimated, while the SEBS performance was characterized by a systematic overestimation. In general, all four algorithms produce the best results in wet and moderately wet climate regimes. In dry regimes, the correlation and the absolute agreement with the reference tower ET observations were consistently lower. While ET derived with in situ forcing data agrees best with the tower measurements (R2 = 0.67), the agreement of the satellite-based ET estimates is only marginally lower (R2 = 0.58). Results also show similar model performance at daily and sub-daily (3-hourly) resolutions. Overall, our validation experiments against in situ measurements indicate that there is no single best-performing algorithm across all biome and forcing types. An extension of the evaluation to a larger selection of 85 towers (model inputs resampled to a common grid to facilitate global estimates) confirmed the original

  8. Meteorology section considers new name

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winston, Jay S.

    The AGU Meteorology Section business meeting was held at the Jack Tar Hotel, December 9, during the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco. The principal item discussed at the half-hour meeting was the proposal made by several members that consideration be given to renaming the section ‘Atmospheric Science.’ The members present felt the proposed name would better serve the strong physical, chemical, and electrical constituencies now in the Meteorology Section. There was also some indication that those now in the SPR: Aeronomy Section would be interested in joining a revamped Atmospheric Science Section.

  9. ETR COOLING TOWER. PUMP HOUSE (TRA645) IN SHADOW OF TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR COOLING TOWER. PUMP HOUSE (TRA-645) IN SHADOW OF TOWER ON LEFT. AT LEFT OF VIEW, HIGH-BAY BUILDING IS ETR. ONE STORY ATTACHMENT IS ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING. STACK AT RIGHT IS ETR STACK; MTR STACK IS TOWARD LEFT. CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3799. Jack L. Anderson, 11/26/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. Uniform transport performance of a 100 m-class multifilament MgB2 wire fabricated by an internal Mg diffusion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dongliang; Xu, Da; Zhang, Xianping; Yao, Chao; Yuan, Pusheng; Ma, Yanwei; Oguro, Hidetoshi; Awaji, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2016-06-01

    A 100 m long six-filament MgB2 wire was successfully fabricated using an internal magnesium diffusion (IMD) process. We investigated the transport properties and the uniformity of this long multifilament IMD wire. The MgB2 layer and the sub-filament region are regular, and the J c values have a fairly homogenous distribution throughout the wire, suggesting that there were no obvious defects along the length of the wire. The uniformity problem of long multifilament IMD MgB2 wires can be mitigated by optimizing the starting composite parameters, multifilament geometry, fabricating process and annealing conditions. A layer J c as high as 1.2 × 105 A cm-2 at 4.2 K and 8 T was obtained, which was comparable with the highest reported value for a short multifilament IMD wire. The transport layer J c, non-barrier J c and J e values are independent of the wire diameter. In addition, the analysis of the stress-strain characteristics and the n value of the IMD wire is also presented. These results indicate that the long multifilament IMD-processed MgB2 superconducting wire is suitable for practical applications.

  11. Amplification of broad-band chirped pulses up to the 100-mJ level using alexandrite-pumped neodymium-doped glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Gamache, C.; Husson, D.; Seznec, S.; Descamps, D.; Migus, A. |

    1996-08-01

    In this work, the authors are concerned by the amplification of broad-band energetic pulses in laser-pumped Nd:glasses, with obvious applications to ultrashort pulse technology, but also to a front end for the envisioned Megajoules Nd:glass laser facility devoted to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) studies and ignition demonstration. An alexandrite laser is used to longitudinally end-pump mixed Nd:glass rods in a multipass arrangement in order to amplify chirped pulses in the 50--100-mJ range at a 1-Hz repetition rate. This system has a broad-band capability of up to 8--10 nm output bandwidth. The authors have developed a model, which in the specific case of amplification of chirped-pulse, takes into account the exact configuration of the rods, their spectral properties, and the longitudinal pumping geometry. An agreement between experiment and theory is obtained by assuming a pump quantum efficiency of the order of 60%.

  12. Final report on COOMET supplementary comparison of inductance at 10 mH and 100 mH at 1 kHz (COOMET.EM-S14)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velychko, O.; Shevkun, S.

    2016-01-01

    An inter-comparison of 10 mH and 100 mH inductance standards has taken place within the framework of COOMET. The inter-comparison, piloted by State Enterprise 'Ukrmetrteststandard'-UMTS (Ukraine), has involved four laboratories, including one who is a member of another regional metrological organization - EURAMET (GUM, Poland). The results presented in this report show that there are significant differences between some laboratory representations of the henry. However, the agreement demonstrated by the inter-comparison provides confidence in maintaining traceability for the henry. KEY WORDS FOR SEARCH Inter-comparison, inductance standard, traceability, regional metrological organization Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  13. PULMONARY ARTERIAL DISEASE ASSOCIATED WITH RIGHT-SIDED CARDIAC HYPERTROPHY AND CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE IN ZOO MAMMALS HOUSED AT 2,100 M ABOVE SEA LEVEL.

    PubMed

    Juan-Sallés, Carles; Martínez, Liliana Sofía; Rosas-Rosas, Arely G; Parás, Alberto; Martínez, Osvaldo; Hernández, Alejandra; Garner, Michael M

    2015-12-01

    Subacute and chronic mountain sickness of humans and the related brisket disease of cattle are characterized by right-sided congestive heart failure in individuals living at high altitudes as a result of sustained hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Adaptations to high altitude and disease resistance vary among species, breeds, and individuals. The authors conducted a retrospective survey of right-sided cardiac hypertrophy associated with pulmonary arterial hypertrophy or arteriosclerosis in zoo mammals housed at Africam Safari (Puebla, México), which is located at 2,100 m above sea level. Seventeen animals with detailed pathology records matched the study criterion. Included were 10 maras (Dolichotis patagonum), 2 cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus oedipus), 2 capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris), and 1 case each of Bennet's wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus), nilgai antelope (Boselaphus tragocamelus), and scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah). All had right-sided cardiac hypertrophy and a variety of arterial lesions restricted to the pulmonary circulation and causing arterial thickening with narrowing of the arterial lumen. Arterial lesions most often consisted of medial hypertrophy or hyperplasia of small and medium-sized pulmonary arteries. All maras also had single or multiple elevated plaques in the pulmonary arterial trunk consisting of fibrosis, accompanied by chondroid metaplasia in some cases. Both antelopes were juvenile and died with right-sided congestive heart failure associated with severe pulmonary arterial lesions. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of cardiac and pulmonary arterial disease in zoo mammals housed at high altitudes.

  14. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MECHANICAL DRAFT COOLING TOWER

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S; Alfred Garrett, A; James02 Bollinger, J; Larry Koffman, L

    2009-02-10

    Industrial processes use mechanical draft cooling towers (MDCT's) to dissipate waste heat by transferring heat from water to air via evaporative cooling, which causes air humidification. The Savannah River Site (SRS) has cross-flow and counter-current MDCT's consisting of four independent compartments called cells. Each cell has its own fan to help maximize heat transfer between ambient air and circulated water. The primary objective of the work is to simulate the cooling tower performance for the counter-current cooling tower and to conduct a parametric study under different fan speeds and ambient air conditions. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model and performed the benchmarking analysis against the integral measurement results to accomplish the objective. The model uses three-dimensional steady-state momentum, continuity equations, air-vapor species balance equation, and two-equation turbulence as the basic governing equations. It was assumed that vapor phase is always transported by the continuous air phase with no slip velocity. In this case, water droplet component was considered as discrete phase for the interfacial heat and mass transfer via Lagrangian approach. Thus, the air-vapor mixture model with discrete water droplet phase is used for the analysis. A series of parametric calculations was performed to investigate the impact of wind speeds and ambient conditions on the thermal performance of the cooling tower when fans were operating and when they were turned off. The model was also benchmarked against the literature data and the SRS integral test results for key parameters such as air temperature and humidity at the tower exit and water temperature for given ambient conditions. Detailed results will be published here.

  15. Prediction of worst case concentrations due to landfill emissions in absence of historical emissions in absence of historical meteorological data

    SciTech Connect

    Kura, B.; Lea, W.R.

    1995-08-01

    Planning for a new landfill site in a given locality requires a detailed environmental impact analysis to evaluate qualitative and quantitative impacts on the surrounding environment. Among several environmental parameters of interest, air quality is of the utmost concern due to landfill gas emissions. Methane and carbon dioxide are the two principal gases in the landfill gas with small percentage of ammonia, and other VOC gases. This paper presents a methodology for estimating the worst case methane concentrations assuming sample meteorological conditions. As an example, a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill of size 100 m x 100 m was considered with different fill heights (10 m, 50 m and 100 m). The isopleths (lines of equal concentration) for methane are plotted using the dispersion model. Also, the curves for methane concentration versus downwind distance are provided for various fill heights.

  16. Analysis of 2014 Meteorological Data from the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory and Kesselring Site Operations Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Aluzzi, Fernando J.

    2015-02-25

    Both the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) in Schenectady, N.Y. and the Kesselring Site Operations (KSO) facility near Ballston Spa, N.Y. are required to estimate the effects of hypothetical emissions of radiological material from their respective facilities by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which regulates both sites. An atmospheric dispersion model known as CAP88, which was developed and approved by the EPA for such purposes, is used by KAPL and KSO to meet this requirement. CAP88 calculations over a given time period are based on statistical data on the meteorological conditions for that period. Both KAPL and KSO have on-site meteorological towers which take atmospheric measurements at a frequency ideal for EPA regulatory model input. However, an independent analysis and processing of the meteorological data from each tower is required to derive a data set appropriate for use in the CAP88 model. The National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) was contracted by KAPL to process the on-site data for the calendar year 2014.

  17. Meteorological determinants of growing season onset in grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orescanin, B.; Denning, A.; Baker, I. T.

    2011-12-01

    The exchange of the trace gases between the land and atmosphere is highly influenced by vegetation. Therefore, the representation of phenological properties in global carbon models plays a key role in understanding and predicting the global carbon cycle. Phenological parameters such as Leaf Area Index (LAI) and fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed (fPAR) are often calculated or estimated based on remote sensing measurements, which can be biased by clouds, aerosols, or snow. Alternatively, we can prognose vegetation phenology through the use of models that predict vegetation status based on meteorological conditions. Here our goal is to provide better understanding of carbon dynamics as a function of phenological parameters and their dependence on meteorological forcing. We evaluate phenological characteristics and their influence on carbon dynamics at several grassland sites. Modeled carbon flux, as a function of both diagnosed (from satellite) and prognosed phenological state are confronted with data from flux towers. Remotely-sensed phenology has a tendency to expand the growing season, and does not reflect the rapid response of vegetation in rain-green biomes as well as the prognostic phenology model does. These differences in phenology are reflected in modeled fluxes of energy, moisture, and carbon.

  18. Meteorological determinants of growing season onset in grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orescanin, B.; Denning, S.; Baker, I. T.; Hanan, N. P.

    2012-12-01

    The exchange of the trace gases between the land and atmosphere is highly influenced by vegetation. Therefore, the representation of phenological properties in global carbon models plays a key role in understanding and predicting the global carbon cycle. Phenological parameters such as Leaf Area Index (LAI) and fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed (fPAR) are often calculated or estimated based on remote sensing measurements, which can be biased by clouds, aerosols, or snow. Alternatively, we can prognose vegetation phenology through the use of models that predict vegetation status based on meteorological conditions. Here our goal is to provide better understanding of carbon dynamics as a function of phenological parameters and their dependence on meteorological forcing and also in the future we plan to estimate these parameters using data assimilation methodology. We evaluate phenological characteristics and their influence on carbon dynamics at Kruger National Park grassland site. Modeled carbon flux, as a function of prognosed phenological state is confronted with data from flux tower. By re-evaluating and better adjusting specific contributors to the growth season index (GSI) equation, we develop better understanding for prognostic phenology. These differences in phenology are reflected in modeled fluxes of energy, moisture, and carbon.

  19. Method to characterize local meteorology at nuclear facilities for application to emergency response needs

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, C.G.; Glantz, C.S.

    1986-04-01

    Effluent dispersion is evaluated using computer codes that require various meteorological parameters such as wind and stability data. These data will be based on current conditions at the site in question, and on forecasts of the expected local meteorology for the time period to be simulated. To assist NRC personnel in preparing these forecasts, a weather-typing model was implemented to analyze the characteristic behavior of local meteorology as it responds to various synoptic-scale weather features (e.g., warm fronts, cold fronts, high pressure systems). Historical observations acquired by instrumented towers at several nuclear power plants were analyzed as a function of the prevailing synoptic weather feature, synoptic-scale pressure gradient, and time of year. This study focused on sites located in shoreline and complex terrain environments because of the occurrence of mesoscale circulations, which are the sea/lake-land breeze and valley wind systems. Such circulations produce diurnally changing wind and stability conditions that cannot be readily identified by synoptic-scale weather forecasts. The advantage in analyzing the climatological behavior of local meteorology as it responds to various synoptic weather systems is that certain weather systems will control the local meteorology and produce persistent conditions.

  20. Assessment of virtual towers performed with scanning wind lidars and Ka-band radars during the XPIA experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Debnath, Mithu; Iungo, Giacomo Valerio; Brewer, W. Alan; ...

    2017-03-29

    During the eXperimental Planetary boundary layer Instrumentation Assessment (XPIA) campaign, which was carried out at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) in spring 2015, multiple-Doppler scanning strategies were carried out with scanning wind lidars and Ka-band radars. Specifically, step–stare measurements were collected simultaneously with three scanning Doppler lidars, while two scanning Ka-band radars carried out simultaneous range height indicator (RHI) scans. The XPIA experiment provided the unique opportunity to compare directly virtual-tower measurements performed simultaneously with Ka-band radars and Doppler wind lidars. Furthermore, multiple-Doppler measurements were assessed against sonic anemometer data acquired from the meteorological tower (met-tower) present at the BAOmore » site and a lidar wind profiler. As a result, this survey shows that – despite the different technologies, measurement volumes and sampling periods used for the lidar and radar measurements – a very good accuracy is achieved for both remote-sensing techniques for probing horizontal wind speed and wind direction with the virtual-tower scanning technique.« less