Science.gov

Sample records for 100-man fallout shelter

  1. 31. Threequarter view of front of building 161, fallout shelter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Three-quarter view of front of building 161, fallout shelter taken from top of water storage mound, looking northwest - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  2. 38. Overall view showing building 161, fallout shelter on far ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Overall view showing building 161, fallout shelter on far right, and building 102, officers quarters and enlisted men barracks on far left, looking east - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  3. National Fallout Shelter Design Competition. Community Center. Awards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    Award winning designs for dual-use fallout shelters are presented, representing contributions by the design professions toward development of the national defense resource. The focus and concept of the competition is described as the basis for judging. The nature of dual-use shelter is discussed, which contributes to understanding of the…

  4. A MODEL BUILDING CODE ARTICLE ON FALLOUT SHELTERS WITH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INCLUSION OF REQUIREMENTS FOR FALLOUT SHELTER CONSTRUCTION IN FOUR NATIONAL MODEL BUILDING CODES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    A MODEL BUILDING CODE FOR FALLOUT SHELTERS WAS DRAWN UP FOR INCLUSION IN FOUR NATIONAL MODEL BUILDING CODES. DISCUSSION IS GIVEN OF FALLOUT SHELTERS WITH RESPECT TO--(1) NUCLEAR RADIATION, (2) NATIONAL POLICIES, AND (3) COMMUNITY PLANNING. FALLOUT SHELTER REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIELDING, SPACE, VENTILATION, CONSTRUCTION, AND SERVICES SUCH AS ELECTRICAL…

  5. Organizational and social-psychological issues relevant to fallout-shelter evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Wernette, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary review of the literature on organizational and social-psychological issues relevant to fallout-shelter evaluation. Fallout-shelter options are evaluated along two dimensions: shelter size, and extent of shelteree participation in the shelter construction. Four functional criteria are used in the evaluation: decision-making, member coordination, social control, and maintaining morale. Smaller shelters requiring shelteree participation in construction appear preferable as measured in most of these criteria. Additional factors mentioned include demographic characteristics of the shelter population, degree and type of ventilation system, and availability of medical equipment and personnel. 10 references.

  6. Preliminary evaluation of crisis-relocation fallout-shelter options. Volume 2. Detailed analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Santini, D.J.; Clinch, J.M.; Davis, F.H.; Hill, L.G.; Lynch, E.P.; Tanzman, E.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1982-12-01

    This report presents a preliminary, detailed evaluation of various shelter options for use if the President orders crisis relocation of the US urban population because of strong expectation of a nuclear war. The availability of livable shelter space at 40 ft/sup 2/ per person (congregate-care space) by state is evaluated. Options are evaluated for construction of fallout shelters allowing 10 ft/sup 2/ per person - such shelters are designed to provide 100% survival at projected levels of radioactive fallout. The FEMA concept of upgrading existing buildings to act as fallout shelters can, in principle, provide adequate shelter throughout most of the US. Exceptions are noted and remedies proposed. In terms of upgrading existing buildings to fallout shelter status, great benefits are possible by turning away from a standard national approach and adopting a more site-specific approach. Existing FEMA research provides a solid foundation for successful crisis relocation planning, but the program can be refined by making suitable modifications in its locational, engineering, and institutionally specific elements.

  7. 'Do-it-yourself' fallout/blast shelter evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, P.T.; Baker, W.E.; Esparza, E.D.; Westine, P.S.; Blaylock, N.W.

    1984-03-01

    Expedient fallout shelters recommended to the general public were evaluated for their potential to provide safety to occupants during nuclear blast. The blast threat was in the 2 to 50 psi overpressure range from a 1 megaton (MT) yield weapon. Research included a literature search for expedient shelter designs and evaluations of the designs to certify their ability to protect occupants. Shelters were evaluated systematically by first analyzing each design for expected failure loads. Next, scale model tests were planned and conducted in the Fort Cronkhite shock tunnel. Structural responses and blast pressures were recorded in a series of twelve experiments involving 96 structural response models. Two rigid models were included in each test to measure internal blast pressure leakage. Probabilities of survival were determined for each of the shelters tested. Expected failure mechanisms were identified for each of the eight U.S. shelters. One shelter, tilt-up doors and earth, was eliminated from consideration because of uncertainties for the associated permanent structure. Failure loads of the remaining seven shelters were determined through analysis. Analyses included failure by overturning/translation, trench collapse, or roof collapse. A car-over-trench shelter was evaluated solely through analysis. The threshold for human tolerance to blast pressures (lung damage) was calculated as 8 psi with a 99 percent survival rate at 28 psi. Thresholds for trench wall stability were calculated based on material strengths and shelter geometries.

  8. Radioactive fallout

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, C.S.; Harvey, T.F.; Peterson, K.R.

    1985-12-01

    Potential radiation doses from several scenarios involving nuclear attack on an unsheltered United States population are calculated for local, intermediate time scale and long-term fallout. Dose estimates are made for both a normal atmosphere and an atmosphere perturbed by smoke produced by massive fires. A separate section discusses the additional doses from nuclear fuel facilities, were they to be targeted in an attack. Finally, in an appendix the direct effects of fallout on humans are considered. These include effects of sheltering and biological repair of damage from chronic doses. 21 refs., 10 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. New Trends in Fallout Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    The objective of the national fallout shelter program is to provide shelter space for all Americans by--(1) locating, marking, and stocking suitable public shelter areas in existing buildings, and (2) having new structures designed and built to maximize protection. This nation's architects and engineers are now knowledgeable in radiation shielding…

  10. Designing Shelter in New Buildings. A Manual for Architects on the Preliminary Designing of Shielding from Fallout Gamma Radiation in Normally Functioning Spaces in New Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knott, Albert

    Analysis of radiation fallout prevention factors in new construction is presented with emphasis on architectural shielding principles. Numerous diagrams and charts illustrate--(1) radiation and fallout properties, (2) building protection principles, (3) details and planning suggestions, and (4) tabular data interpretation. A series of charts is…

  11. Regional Shelter Analysis Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, Michael B.; Dennison, Deborah; Kane, Jave; Walker, Hoyt; Miller, Paul

    2015-08-01

    The fallout from a nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill 100,000 or more people through exposure to external gamma (fallout) radiation. Existing buildings can reduce radiation exposure by placing material between fallout particles and exposed people. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was tasked with developing an operationally feasible methodology that could improve fallout casualty estimates. The methodology, called a Regional Shelter Analysis, combines the fallout protection that existing buildings provide civilian populations with the distribution of people in various locations. The Regional Shelter Analysis method allows the consideration of (a) multiple building types and locations within buildings, (b) country specific estimates, (c) population posture (e.g., unwarned vs. minimally warned), and (d) the time of day (e.g., night vs. day). The protection estimates can be combined with fallout predictions (or measurements) to (a) provide a more accurate assessment of exposure and injury and (b) evaluate the effectiveness of various casualty mitigation strategies. This report describes the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology, highlights key operational aspects (including demonstrating that the methodology is compatible with current tools), illustrates how to implement the methodology, and provides suggestions for future work.

  12. 46 CFR 199.100 - Manning of survival craft and supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manning of survival craft and supervision. 199.100 Section 199.100 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 199.100 Manning of survival craft and supervision....

  13. 42 CFR 84.100 - Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements. 84.100 Section 84.100 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.100 Man tests...

  14. 46 CFR 199.100 - Manning of survival craft and supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Manning of survival craft and supervision. 199.100 Section 199.100 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 199.100 Manning of survival craft and supervision....

  15. 42 CFR 84.100 - Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements. 84.100 Section 84.100 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.100 Man tests...

  16. 42 CFR 84.100 - Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements. 84.100 Section 84.100 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.100 Man tests...

  17. 42 CFR 84.100 - Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements. 84.100 Section 84.100 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.100 Man tests...

  18. 42 CFR 84.100 - Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements. 84.100 Section 84.100 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.100 Man tests...

  19. 46 CFR 199.100 - Manning of survival craft and supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Manning of survival craft and supervision. 199.100 Section 199.100 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 199.100 Manning of survival craft and supervision....

  20. 46 CFR 199.100 - Manning of survival craft and supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Manning of survival craft and supervision. 199.100 Section 199.100 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 199.100 Manning of survival craft and supervision....

  1. 46 CFR 199.100 - Manning of survival craft and supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Manning of survival craft and supervision. 199.100 Section 199.100 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 199.100 Manning of survival craft and supervision....

  2. Design of Schools to Incorporate Fallout Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folley, Milo D.

    Means are suggested by which a school district may incorporate low-cost fallout protection in a school construction program, through construction of an underground shelter beneath the concrete slab foundation. Ways of controlling distribution and filtering air are discussed. The author also suggests consideration of a completely underground…

  3. Shelter Care Operations Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Champaign. Community Research Center.

    This manual provides guidelines for the planning and development of shelter care projects as alternatives for juveniles facing pretrial detention, and suggestions for improving the quality of services in existing shelters. A six-phase planning process for establishing a shelter care service is outlined, with planning activities and narrative…

  4. Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for an urban nuclear detonation scenario.

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

    2009-05-01

    Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. This study examines shelter-evacuate policies and effectiveness focusing on a 10 kt scenario in Los Angeles. The goal is to provide technical insights that can support development of urban response plans. Results indicate that extended shelter-in-place can offer the most robust protection when high quality shelter exists. Where less effective shelter is available and the fallout radiation intensity level is high, informed evacuation at the appropriate time can substantially reduce the overall dose to personnel. However, uncertainties in the characteristics of the fallout region and in the exit route can make evacuation a risky strategy. Analyses indicate that only a relatively small fraction of the total urban population may experience significant dose reduction benefits from even a well-informed evacuation plan.

  5. Fallout from Nuclear Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comar, C. L.

    This booklet, in the series "Understanding the Atom," summarizes the important findings on radioactive fallout for which there is substantial scientific agreement, indicates the areas of disagreement, and lists some answered questions. Sources of fallout, its local and worldwide effects (including movement in the atmosphers), the biological…

  6. Rapid deployment shelter system

    DOEpatents

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M.

    2006-10-10

    A shelter for the protection of for the protection of persons, animals, equipment, materials, property, and similar things of value from potentially damaging environmental conditions is disclosed. Various embodiments include the use of a frame structure and hinged panels which are unfolded to create the walls of the structure. Optionally flexible surfaces may be added to the ends of the shelter to at least partially close the end of the shelter.

  7. Volunteer Shelter Bed Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Washington, DC.

    The volunteer shelter bed program development guidelines in this booklet are offered as a community-based alternative to the institutionalization of status offenders. The volunteer shelter bed program is described as a nonsecure residential alternative for status offenders, which can be implemented without the creation of new facilities or the…

  8. Nuclear effects hardened shelters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindke, Paul

    1990-11-01

    The Houston Fearless 76 Government Projects Group has been actively engaged for more than twenty-five years as a sub-contractor and currently as a prime contractor in the design, manufacture, repair and logistics support of custom mobile ground stations and their equipment accommodations. Other associated products include environmental control units (ECU's), mobilizers for shelters and a variety of mobile power generation units (MPU's). Since 1984, Houston Fearless 76 has designed and manufactured four 8' x 8' x 22' nuclear hardened mobile shelters. These shelters were designed to contain electronic data processing/reduction equipment. One shelter is currently being operated by the Air Force as a Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) approved and certified Special Corrpartmented Information Facility (SCIF). During the development and manufacturing process of the shelters, we received continual technical assistance and design concept evaluations from Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Operations Analysis and Logistics Engineering Division and the Nondestructive Inspection Lab at McClellan AFB. SAIC was originally employed by the Air Force to design the nuclear hardening specifications applied to these shelters. The specific levels of hardening to which the shelters were designed are classified and will not be mentioned during this presentation.

  9. Fallout Protection in School Construction. Proceedings, Association of School Business Officials of the United States and Canada (49th, Denver, Colorado, November 3-8, 1963).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roembke, James E.

    Discussion of the effects of nuclear weapons and consequent radiation fallout precedes justification of the need for fallout shelters. Competition for the design of an elementary school with a population of 300-500 and an emergency population of 600-1000 is then described. Criteria and requirements are detailed. The winning entries illustrate…

  10. Evacuation and Community Shelters

    MedlinePlus

    Evacuation and community shelters − Leave natural gas on unless local officials advise otherwise. Local government officials issue evacuation orders when disaster threatens. Listen to local radio and TV ...

  11. The Creation of Shelter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Nora Richter

    The American Institute of Architects (AIA) became involved in the problem of homelessness through the establishment of the Search for Shelter program, a collaboration with several other architectural organizations. The program, led by the AIA Housing Committee, sought solutions to the housing crisis through a series of workshops held around the…

  12. Shelter for the Sky

    SciTech Connect

    Schmieman, Eric A.

    2007-07-01

    A solemn ceremony in Slavutich Ukraine on April 26th 2007 marked the twenty-first anniversary of the most catastrophic accident in the history of commercial nuclear power. Significant progress has recently been made toward transformation of Chernobyl to an environmentally sound site. Many readers will recall that in only eight months following the 1986 accident, the Soviets constructed an enormous facility to contain the radioactive contamination in the remains of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit-4. Popularly known as the “sarcophagus”, but correctly referred to as the “Object Shelter”, it has deteriorated with time and is now in danger of collapse. STABILIZATION Several measures to structurally stabilize the Object Shelter and prevent its collapse have recently been completed. These measures are the largest construction projects undertaken in the local zone since the completion of the Object Shelter. The most significant risk reduction was accomplished by Measure-2 in December 2006. Stabilization

  13. Shelterization: how the homeless adapt to shelter living.

    PubMed

    Grunberg, J; Eagle, P F

    1990-05-01

    Emergency shelters have become the backbone of the service delivery system to the homeless. Particularly in large shelters, crime is a pervasive aspect of life. But despite the dangers of shelter living, many residents do not flee; instead they develop coping strategies that provide them with a feeling of mastery unparalleled on the outside. This adaptation process, which the authors call "shelterization," is characterized by a decrease in interpersonal responsiveness, a neglect of personal hygiene, increasing passivity, and increasing dependency on others. The authors suggest that the shelterization process may be ameliorated by helping homeless persons establish positive social networks and affiliations with social service and mental health providers. They believe onsite psychosocial rehabilitation programs can foster such affiliation by offering a therapeutic alternative to the shelter subculture. PMID:2094234

  14. 9. View inside Building 802, "Toilet", facing east. Naval ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View inside Building 802, "Toilet", facing east. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  15. 16. Photograph of Structural Building Plans. Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photograph of Structural Building Plans. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  16. 1. View of Building 802 from the parking lot, Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of Building 802 from the parking lot, Building 800 in the background, facing east. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  17. 4. View of Building 802 from the access road, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of Building 802 from the access road, facing northwest. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  18. 8. View inside Building 802, "Control Area", facing southeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View inside Building 802, "Control Area", facing southeast. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  19. 6. View of Building 802 towards front entry, facing south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. View of Building 802 towards front entry, facing south. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  20. 14. View inside Building 802, the "Escape Hatch" at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. View inside Building 802, the "Escape Hatch" at the rear of the "Sleeping Quarters", facing south. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  1. 15. Photograph of Architectural Building Plans. Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photograph of Architectural Building Plans. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  2. Sheltered Instruction Techniques for ELLs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pray, Lisa; Monhardt, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    The suggestions described here to adapt instruction for English Language Learners (ELLs) are based on the concept of "sheltered instruction," a model of language-support methods for instruction for ELLs derived primarily through the Sheltered Instruction Observational Protocol (SIOP) developed by Jana Echevarria, Mary Ellen Vogt, and Deborah Short…

  3. FALLOUT DOSAGE AND MONITORING

    PubMed Central

    Kinsman, Simon

    1960-01-01

    At present there are a large number of people capable of conducting the task of surface and area radiation monitoring including external monitoring of personnel. Once the extent and the intensity of radioactivity in an area is determined, good use of personnel can be made without too much risk. This is fortunate for the medical profession whose personnel can devote their talents to casualty care during or following nuclear warfare. Most individuals who know how to detect and measure the extent of radioactive contamination are also capable of conducting personnel decontamination operations and would do so if necessary. Consequently the spread of contamination can be minimized by adequate decontamination and the medical personnel can treat casualties who are relatively free of external radioactive contamination. The appropriate use of trained manpower and radiation detection equipment which are available in California combined with sufficient rehearsals prior to a nuclear war will greatly reduce any casualty damage due to radioactive fallout. The chances of survival of individuals can be greatly improved with a little knowledge of protection from radioactive contamination and of salvage of food and water. PMID:14409247

  4. A proposed new handbook for the Federal Emergency Management Agency: Radiation safety in shelters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haaland, C. M.

    1981-09-01

    A proposed replacement for the portion of the current Handbook for Radiological Monitoring that deals with protection of people in shelters from radiation from fallout resulting from nuclear war is presented. Basic information at a high school level is given on how to detect nuclear radiation, how to find and improve the safest places in a shelter, the necessity for and how to keep records on individual radiation exposures, and how to minimize exposures. Several procedures are introduced, some of which are based more on theoretical considerations than on actual experiments. These procedures include: (1) the method of time averaging radiation readings taken with one instrument in different locations of a large shelter while fallout is coming down and radiation levels ar climbing too rapidly for direct comparison of readings to determine the safest location; (2) the method of using one's own body to obtain directionality in radiation readings taken with a standard Civil Defense survey meter; (3) the method of using mutual shielding to reduce the average radiation exposure to shelter occupants; and (4) the ratio method for estimating radiation levels in hazardous areas.

  5. NUclear EVacuation Analysis Code (NUEVAC) : a tool for evaluation of sheltering and evacuation responses following urban nuclear detonations.

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

    2009-11-01

    The NUclear EVacuation Analysis Code (NUEVAC) has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories to support the analysis of shelter-evacuate (S-E) strategies following an urban nuclear detonation. This tool can model a range of behaviors, including complex evacuation timing and path selection, as well as various sheltering or mixed evacuation and sheltering strategies. The calculations are based on externally generated, high resolution fallout deposition and plume data. Scenario setup and calculation outputs make extensive use of graphics and interactive features. This software is designed primarily to produce quantitative evaluations of nuclear detonation response options. However, the outputs have also proven useful in the communication of technical insights concerning shelter-evacuate tradeoffs to urban planning or response personnel.

  6. Chernobyl fallout on Alpine glaciers

    SciTech Connect

    Ambach, W.; Rehwald, W.; Blumthaler, M.; Eisner, H.; Brunner, P.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of the gross beta activity of snow samples from four Alpine glaciers contaminated by radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident and a gamma-spectrum analysis of selected samples are reported. The results are discussed with respect to possible risks to the population from using meltwater from these glaciers as drinking water.

  7. Fukushima fallout at Milano, Italy.

    PubMed

    Ioannidou, Alexandra; Manenti, Simone; Gini, Luigi; Groppi, Flavia

    2012-12-01

    The radionuclides (131)I, (137)Cs and (134)Cs were observed in the Milano region (45°) of Italy early after the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan. Increased atmospheric radioactivity was observed on an air filter taken on 30 March 2011, while the maximum activity of 467 μBq m(-3) for (131)I was recorded at April 3-4, 2011. The first evidence of Fukushima fallout was confirmed with (131)I and (137)Cs measured in precipitation at two sampling sites at Milano on 28 March, 2011, with the concentrations of (131)I and (137)Cs in the rainwater equal to 0.89 Bq L(-1) and 0.12 Bq L(-1), respectively. A sample of dry deposition that was collected 9 days after the first rainfall event of 27-28 March, 2011 showed that the dry deposition was more effective in the case of (137)Cs than it was for (131)I, probably because iodine was mainly in gaseous form whereas caesium was rapidly bound to aerosols and thus highly subject to dry deposition. The relatively high observed values of (137)Cs in grass, soil and fresh goat and cow milk samples were probably from Chernobyl fallout and global fallout from past nuclear tests rather than from the Fukushima accident. Finally, a dose assessment for the region of investigation showed clearly that the detected activities in all environmental samples were very far below levels of concern. PMID:22300481

  8. The Second Student-Run Homeless Shelter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seider, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    From 1983-2011, the Harvard Square Homeless Shelter (HSHS) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, was the only student-run homeless shelter in the United States. However, college students at Villanova, Temple, Drexel, the University of Pennsylvania, and Swarthmore drew upon the HSHS model to open their own student-run homeless shelter in Philadelphia,…

  9. Pentagon. Civil Defense and Fire Instructions. Part 2: Shelter Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of the Army Headquarters Commandant, Washington, DC.

    This instructional guide to civil defense shelter management is given as an aid to shelter survival techniques rather than to shelter comfort. The basis, purposes, and organization of shelter administration are outlined, with instructions on--(1) shelter management, (2) shelter teams and functions, (3) supplies and locations, and (4) daily shelter…

  10. Fallout forecasting: 1945-1962

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.R. Jr.

    1986-03-01

    The delayed hazards of fallout from the detonations of nuclear devices in the atmosphere have always been the concern of those involved in the Test Program. Even before the Trinity Shot (TR-2) of July 16, 1945, many very competent, intelligent scientists and others from all fields of expertise tried their hand at the prediction problems. This resume and collection of parts from reports, memoranda, references, etc., endeavor to chronologically outline prediction methods used operationally in the field during Test Operations of nuclear devices fired into the atmosphere.

  11. Shelter

    MedlinePlus

    ... this kind of action. The process used to seal the room is considered a temporary protective measure ... an interior room with few windows, if possible. Seal all windows, doors and air vents with 2- ...

  12. How to Cope with Sheltering in Place

    MedlinePlus

    ... your own or a relative’s home, school, or work. Sheltering in place may be required because of an emergency such ... things to keep yourself calm while sheltering in place. Relax your body often by doing things that work for you—take deep breaths, stretch, meditate or ...

  13. 78 FR 21256 - Shelter for the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 226 RIN 0790-AI88 Shelter for the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the Under... Defense Shelter for the Homeless Program. This direct final rule makes nonsubstantive changes to the... the Homeless Program. DoD expects no opposition to the changes and no significant adverse...

  14. Dispersal and fallout simulations for urban consequences management (u)

    SciTech Connect

    Grinstein, Fernando F; Wachtor, Adam J; Nelson, Matt; Brown, Michael; Bos, Randy; Patnik, Gopal

    2010-01-01

    Hazardous chemical, biological, or radioactive releases from leaks, spills, fires, or blasts, may occur (intentionally or accidentally) in urban environments during warfare or as part of terrorist attacks on military bases or other facilities. The associated contaminant dispersion is complex and semi-chaotic. Urban predictive simulation capabilities can have direct impact in many threat-reduction areas of interest, including, urban sensor placement and threat analysis, contaminant transport (CT) effects on surrounding civilian population (dosages, evacuation, shelter-in-place), education and training of rescue teams and services. Detailed simulations for the various processes involved are in principle possible, but generally not fast. Predicting urban airflow accompanied by CT presents extremely challenging requirements. Crucial technical issues include, simulating turbulent fluid and particulate transport, initial and boundary condition modeling incorporating a consistent stratified urban boundary layer with realistic wind fluctuations, and post-processing of the simulation results for practical consequences management. Relevant fluid dynamic processes to be simulated include, detailed energetic and contaminant sources, complex building vortex shedding and flows in recirculation zones, and modeling of particle distributions, including particulate fallout, as well as deposition, re-suspension and evaporation. Other issues include, modeling building damage effects due to eventual blasts, addressing appropriate regional and atmospheric data reduction.

  15. Fallout-particle-trajectory computations and fallout-particle arrival time calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, V.E.; Kennedy, N.C.

    1989-09-01

    This report describes the Weather Service Nuclear Support Office (WSNSO) procedure for deriving estimates of fallout-particle arrival times along a fallout pattern. Analyses of meteorological data are discussed. The equations and calculations used in deriving particle-sedimentation velocities and times in layers are discussed. 17 refs., 21 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Estimates of doses from global fallout.

    PubMed

    Bouville, André; Simon, Steven L; Miller, Charles W; Beck, Harold L; Anspaugh, Lynn R; Bennett, Burton G

    2002-05-01

    This paper summarizes information about external and internal doses resulting from global fallout and presents preliminary estimates of doses resulting from intermediate fallout in the contiguous United States. Most of the data on global fallout were extracted from the reports of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, in which the radiation exposures from fallout have been extensively reviewed at regular intervals. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation estimated the average effective doses received by the world's population before 2000 to be about 0.4 mSv from external irradiation and 0.6 mSv from internal irradiation, the main radionuclide contributing to the effective dose being 137Cs. Effective doses received beyond 2000 result mainly from the environmentally mobile, long-lived 14C and amount to about 2.5 mSv summed over present and future generations. Specific information about the doses from fallout received by the United States population is based on the preliminary results of a study requested by the U.S. Congress and conducted jointly by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute. Separate calculations were made for the tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site and for the high-yield tests conducted mainly by the United States and the former Soviet Union at sites far away from the contiguous United States (global tests). The estimated average doses from external irradiation received by the United States population were about 0.5 mGy for Nevada Test Site fallout and about 0.7 mGy for global fallout. These values vary little from one organ or tissue of the body to another. In contrast, the average doses from internal irradiation vary markedly from one organ or tissue to another; estimated average thyroid doses to children born in 1951 were about 30 mGy from Nevada Test Site fallout and about 2 mGy from global fallout. PMID:12003019

  17. Recent Incarceration History among a Sheltered Homeless Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metraux, Stephen; Culhane, Dennis P.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined incarceration histories and shelter use patterns of 7,022 persons staying in public shelters in New York City. Through matching administrative shelter records with data on releases from New York State prisons and New York City jails, 23.1% of a point-prevalent shelter population was identified as having had an incarceration…

  18. 26 CFR 301.6111-2 - Confidential corporate tax shelters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Confidential corporate tax shelters. 301.6111-2....6111-2 Confidential corporate tax shelters. (a) In general. (1) Under section 6111(d) and this section, a confidential corporate tax shelter is treated as a tax shelter subject to the requirements...

  19. Design and Construction Guidance for Community Shelters. FEMA 361.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.

    This manual presents guidance to engineers, architects, building officials, and prospective shelter owners concerning the design and construction of community shelters that will provide protection during tornado and hurricane events. The manual covers two types of community shelters: stand-alone shelters designed to withstand high winds and the…

  20. Food and Shelter Standards in Humanitarian Action.

    PubMed

    Pothiawala, Sohil

    2015-10-01

    The number of disasters, both natural as well as man-made, has been increasing in frequency in the recent years. This leads to short as well as long-term effects on food security and shelter, requiring humanitarian assistance. This article aims to identify the principles and standards that are applicable to food and shelter related aid that needs to be provided by the co-operation of the local government as well as the relevant supporting organizations. Also, food and shelter security during a disaster response is achieved through better preparedness. The level of preparedness must include risk assessment, contingency planning, stockpiling of equipment and supplies, emergency services and stand-by arrangements, communications, information management and coordination arrangements between various agencies involved. Discussing these issues would contribute to a better understanding of the implications of the right to adequate food and shelter, which in complex humanitarian emergencies, is one of the key necessities of the affected population. PMID:27437530

  1. Fallout of lead and uptake by crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, A. C.

    The distribution with depth of lead in cores of peat shows that the annual fallout in the U.K. has not changed greatly since the middle of the last century. Increased fallout of lead from vehicles has been balanced by decreases in other sources. Fallout of lead from vehicles since 1946 has contributed about 3 ppm in country districts and less than 10 ppm in towns to topsoils. This represents a small addition to the amounts naturally present or attributable to dissemination of industrial and domestic waste over the centuries. However, the current rate of fallout can be ascribed mainly to vehicle emissions. Although many surveys and experiments comparing lead in plants and soils have been done, the contribution of root uptake to lead in crops remains uncertain. Contamination of foliage with particles of soil may be more important than uptake by roots in many instances. Foliage near motorways and other sources of airborne lead shows evidence of direct contamination, and extrapolation of the results indicates that foliar uptake accounts for most of the lead in grasses and other plants having high leaf surface area per unit mass. Translocation of lead from outer to inner leaves, and to tubers, fruits and seeds is very slight, and it seems that not more than a few μg per day of lead enters diet by this route. Measurements of the naturally-occurring radioisotope 210Pb in fallout and in diet can be used to calculate an equivalent area, defined as Equivalent area = Amount in average adult diet per day/ Amount falling per unit area of ground per day The equivalent area for 210Pb is 0.18 m 2, and if it is assumed that stable lead in fallout enters diet to the same degree as does 210Pb, it follows that together the various pathways contribute about 13 μg day -1 to the average adult diet.

  2. Ventilation-kinetics testing of a steel frame/rubber fabric underground shelter. Final report, Aug 89-Aug 90

    SciTech Connect

    Seitzinger, A.T.

    1991-05-01

    Design modifications were implemented on a respectively new steel frame/rubber fabric underground shelter to improve its collective protection characteristics for usage in an NBC warfare environment. Design changes were evaluated by analyzing volumetric air flow and pressure data collected from ventilation tests conducted for each design modification. Modifications to doors within the shelter proved to have significant impact on its performance. One door modification utilized velcro and rubber adhesives to attach the doorflap on the positive pressure side of the doorway. This modification increased maximum overpressure attained by the shelter from 0.125 inches of water (in.WG) to 1.8 in.WG over its original design. Test results indicated that this was due to a substantial decrease in the effective leakage areas associated with all of the doorways. At this higher overpressure, the risk of airborne nuclear fallout, biological agents, or vapors from chemical agents or aerosols penetrating into the shelter during exit/entry operations would be greatly reduced.

  3. Ready II damage estimation system: fallout trajectories program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    The Fallout Trajectories Program is designed to provide the Ready II Fallout Effects Program with a file containing weapon fallout trajectories. The program is designed to be run on an Univac 1108 computer in conjunction with the Ready II Damage Estimation System. This program differs from earlier versions in that it allows the attack to cover up to a 2-week period.

  4. Solar Eclipse Effect on Shelter Air Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segal, M.; Turner, R. W.; Prusa, J.; Bitzer, R. J.; Finley, S. V.

    1996-01-01

    Decreases in shelter temperature during eclipse events were quantified on the basis of observations, numerical model simulations, and complementary conceptual evaluations. Observations for the annular eclipse on 10 May 1994 over the United States are presented, and these provide insights into the temporal and spatial changes in the shelter temperature. The observations indicated near-surface temperature drops of as much as 6 C. Numerical model simulations for this eclipse event, which provide a complementary evaluation of the spatial and temporal patterns of the temperature drops, predict similar decreases. Interrelationships between the temperature drop, degree of solar irradiance reduction, and timing of the peak eclipse are also evaluated for late spring, summer, and winter sun conditions. These simulations suggest that for total eclipses the drops in shelter temperature in midlatitudes can be as high as 7 C for a spring morning eclipse.

  5. View of EPA Farm cattle shelter (featuring horse trailer), facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of EPA Farm cattle shelter (featuring horse trailer), facing northwest - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Shelter Unit Type, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  6. View of EPA Farm cattle shelters (Building 1506 in background), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of EPA Farm cattle shelters (Building 15-06 in background), facing southeast - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Shelter Unit Type, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  7. Closeup view of EPA Farm cattle shelter lamp, facing west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of EPA Farm cattle shelter lamp, facing west - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Shelter Unit Type, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  8. 4. INTERIOR VIEW OF SLEEPING SHELTER SHOWING STORAGE LOCKERS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR VIEW OF SLEEPING SHELTER SHOWING STORAGE LOCKERS IN CENTER PORTION WITH SLEEPING BUNKS AT EACH END - Camp Cleawox, Adirondack Sleeping Shelter, Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area, Siuslaw National Forest, Florence, Lane County, OR

  9. FEATURE 2, SHELTER, NORTHNORTHEAST SIDE, VIEW FACING SOUTHSOUTHWEST. Naval ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 2, SHELTER, NORTH-NORTHEAST SIDE, VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Shelter, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  10. FEATURE 2, SHELTER, NORTHNORTHEAST SIDE, VIEW FACING SOUTHSOUTHWEST (with scale ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 2, SHELTER, NORTH-NORTHEAST SIDE, VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST (with scale stick). - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Shelter, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  11. FEATURE 2, OPEN SIDE OF SHELTER, VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 2, OPEN SIDE OF SHELTER, VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Shelter, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  12. Deep Space Storm Shelter Simulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, Kathryn; Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Cerro, Jeffrey; Simon, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Missions outside of Earth's magnetic field are impeded by the presence of radiation from galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events. To overcome this issue, NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Radiation Works Storm Shelter (RadWorks) has been studying different radiation protective habitats to shield against the onset of solar particle event radiation. These habitats have the capability of protecting occupants by utilizing available materials such as food, water, brine, human waste, trash, and non-consumables to build short-term shelters. Protection comes from building a barrier with the materials that dampens the impact of the radiation on astronauts. The goal of this study is to develop a discrete event simulation, modeling a solar particle event and the building of a protective shelter. The main hallway location within a larger habitat similar to the International Space Station (ISS) is analyzed. The outputs from this model are: 1) the total area covered on the shelter by the different materials, 2) the amount of radiation the crew members receive, and 3) the amount of time for setting up the habitat during specific points in a mission given an event occurs.

  13. Sheltered Employment for Persons with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visier, Laurent

    1998-01-01

    Across nations, sheltered workshops for people with disabilities follow several models: therapeutic (protection vs. employee status), intermediate (disabled worker as "quasi-employee"), mixed/dual, and wage employment (protection and labor legislation). Impairment should present no insurmountable obstacle to integration into working life. (SK)

  14. Training Shelter Volunteers to Teach Dog Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Veronica J.; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which training procedures influenced the integrity of behaviorally based dog training implemented by volunteers of an animal shelter. Volunteers were taught to implement discrete-trial obedience training to teach 2 skills (sit and wait) to dogs. Procedural integrity during the baseline and written instructions…

  15. Preserving Childhood for Children in Shelters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harms, Thelma, Ed.; Ray, Adele Richardson, Ed.; Rolandelli, Pam, Ed.

    This book provides useful "how-to" information to help shelters create a safe, healthful, and supportive environment for their youngest residents. The chapters of the book are: (1) "The Effects of Homelessness on Children and Families" (Janice Molnar); (2) "Children and Domestic Violence: Recognizing Effects and Building Programs" (Evelyn…

  16. Space Shelter. Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Erik; Ryan, Emily; Swift, Charles

    Based on a hypothetical situation that aliens have invaded Earth and humans must relocate to another planet, students design a shelter that can be built on another planet to insure their survival. Students research the characteristics of a planet of their choice and consider how to get to that planet from Earth, determine which five items that…

  17. Sheltered Workshops: Financial and Philosophical Liabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, John W.

    1990-01-01

    Sheltered workshops are asserted to be failing to provide mentally retarded clients with appropriate work experiences because of low wage rates, unavailability of work, changing industrial forecasts for blue collar employment, financial dependence, tax returns, segregation, and normalization issues. (Author/DB)

  18. Shelters for Runaway and Homeless Youths: Capacity and Occupancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jody M.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Data from a nationally representative sample of shelters for runaway and homeless youths (n=160) were analyzed to determine shelter capacity, occupancy, and occupancy ratios. Analysis focused in particular on occupancy ratios by funding status, shelter size, metropolitan statistical area, season, and day of the week. Results showed a relatively…

  19. 9 CFR 3.3 - Sheltered housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.3 Sheltered housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. The sheltered part of sheltered housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  20. 9 CFR 3.3 - Sheltered housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.3 Sheltered housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. The sheltered part of sheltered housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  1. 9 CFR 3.3 - Sheltered housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.3 Sheltered housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. The sheltered part of sheltered housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  2. 9 CFR 3.3 - Sheltered housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.3 Sheltered housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. The sheltered part of sheltered housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  3. 9 CFR 3.3 - Sheltered housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.3 Sheltered housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. The sheltered part of sheltered housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  4. 41 CFR 60-741.45 - Sheltered workshops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Sheltered workshops. 60... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES Affirmative Action Program § 60-741.45 Sheltered workshops. Contracts with sheltered workshops do not constitute affirmative action in lieu of employment and advancement of...

  5. 1. FRONT VIEW SHOWING MAIN FACADE OF SHELTER WITH SPLIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. FRONT VIEW SHOWING MAIN FACADE OF SHELTER WITH SPLIT SHAKES AND LOG BEAM SUPPORTS AND PORCH STEP; NOTE SHELTER NAME 'LAFITTE' OVER EYEBROW - Camp Cleawox, Adirondack Sleeping Shelter, Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area, Siuslaw National Forest, Florence, Lane County, OR

  6. 30 CFR 75.1403-9 - Criteria-Shelter holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criteria-Shelter holes. 75.1403-9 Section 75.1403-9 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips § 75.1403-9 Criteria—Shelter holes. (a) Shelter holes should...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1403-9 - Criteria-Shelter holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Criteria-Shelter holes. 75.1403-9 Section 75.1403-9 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips § 75.1403-9 Criteria—Shelter holes. (a) Shelter holes should...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1403-9 - Criteria-Shelter holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criteria-Shelter holes. 75.1403-9 Section 75.1403-9 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips § 75.1403-9 Criteria—Shelter holes. (a) Shelter holes should...

  9. 5. View of Building 802 from the parking lot, Buildings ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of Building 802 from the parking lot, Buildings 800 and 801 in the background, facing southeast. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  10. 2. View of Building 802 from the parking lot, Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of Building 802 from the parking lot, Building 800 and 804 in the background, facing northeast. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  11. 3. View of Building 802 from the Guard Shack (Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of Building 802 from the Guard Shack (Building 801), Buildings 800 and 804 beside, facing north. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  12. 7. View into Building 802, front entry hall to "U" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View into Building 802, front entry hall to "U" turn. Light and shower spigot seen through chain-link fence, facing east. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  13. 10. View inside Building 802, the "Sitting Area" looking from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View inside Building 802, the "Sitting Area" looking from the "Control Area" towards the doors to the "Sleeping Quarters", facing south. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  14. 13. View inside Building 802, the "Sleeping Quarters" looking down ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View inside Building 802, the "Sleeping Quarters" looking down the west side, bunks on the left, escape hatch at rear, facing south. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  15. 11. View inside Building 802, the "Sitting Area" looking from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. View inside Building 802, the "Sitting Area" looking from the "Sleeping Quarters" toward the doors to the "Control Area", facing north. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  16. 12. View inside Building 802, the "Sleeping Quarters" looking down ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View inside Building 802, the "Sleeping Quarters" looking down the east side, bunks on the right, facing south. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  17. Application of the ORIGEN Fallout Analysis Tool and the DELFIC Fallout Planning Tool to National Technical Nuclear Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Jodoin, Vincent J; Lee, Ronald W; Peplow, Douglas E.; Lefebvre, Jordan P

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this project was to provide a robust fallout analysis and planning tool for the National Technical Nuclear Forensics interagency ground sample collection team. Their application called for a fast-running, portable mission-planning tool for use in response to emerging improvised nuclear device (IND) post-detonation situations. The project met those goals by research and development of models to predict the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of fallout debris. ORNL has developed new graphical user interfaces for two existing codes, the Oak Ridge Isotope Generation (ORIGEN) code and the Defense Land Fallout Interpretive Code (DELFIC). ORIGEN is a validated, radionuclide production and decay code that has been implemented into the Fallout Analysis Tool to predict the fallout source term nuclide inventory after the detonation of an IND. DELFIC is a validated, physics-based, research reference fallout prediction software package. It has been implemented into the Fallout Planning Tool and is used to predict the fractionated isotope concentrations in fallout, particle sizes, fractionation ratios, dose rate, and integrated dose over the planned collection routes - information vital to ensure quality samples for nuclear forensic analysis while predicting dose to the sample collectors. DELFIC contains a particle activity module, which models the radiochemical fractionation of the elements in a cooling fireball as they condense into and onto particles to predict the fractionated activity size distribution for a given scenario. This provides the most detailed physics-based characterization of the fallout source term phenomenology available in an operational fallout model.

  18. Radon in earth-sheltered structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.

    1984-01-01

    Radon concentration in the indoor air of six residential and three non-residential earth-sheltered buildings in eastern Colorado was monitored quarterly over a nine-month period using passive, integrating detectors. Average radon concentrations during the three-month sampling periods ranged from about 1 to 9 pCi/L, although one building, a poorly ventilated storage bunker, had concentrations as high as 39 pCi/L. These radon concentrations are somewhat greater than those typically reported for conventional buildings (around 1 pCi/L); but they are of the same order of magnitude as radon concentrations reported for energy-efficient buildings which are not earth-sheltered. ?? 1984.

  19. Self-Healing, Inflatable, Rigidizable Shelter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haight, Andrea; Gosau, Jan-Michael; Dixit, Anshu; Gleeson, Dan

    2012-01-01

    An inflatable, rigidizable shelter system was developed based on Rigi dization on Command (ROC) technology incorporating not only the requ ired low-stowage volume and lightweight character achieved from an i nflatable/rigidizable system, but also a self-healing foam system inc orporated between the rigidizable layers of the final structure to m inimize the damage caused by any punctures to the structure.

  20. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Conard, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  1. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Conard, R.A.

    1991-12-31

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  2. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidently exposed to fallout radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Conard, R.A.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical Team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Noteworthy has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  3. Radioactive Fallout from Terrorist Nuclear Detonations

    SciTech Connect

    Marrs, R E

    2007-05-03

    Responding correctly during the first hour after a terrorist nuclear detonation is the key to reducing casualties from a low-yield surface burst, and a correct response requires an understanding of the rapidly changing dose rate from fallout. This report provides an empirical formula for dose rate as a function of time and location that can guide the response to an unexpected nuclear detonation. At least one post-detonation radiation measurement is required if the yield and other characteristics of the detonation are unknown.

  4. Barriers and facilitators to shelter utilization among homeless young adults.

    PubMed

    Ha, Yoonsook; Narendorf, Sarah C; Santa Maria, Diane; Bezette-Flores, Noel

    2015-12-01

    Rates of shelter use among homeless youth are low compared to use of other supportive services, yet research on barriers to shelter use has been conducted in limited regions, specifically in West Coast or Midwest cities. Additionally, while studies have generally focused on barriers to shelter use, studies on what might facilitate shelter use are lacking. This study explores barriers and facilitators to shelter use among homeless young adults from a large city in the Southwest region. Focus groups were conducted with a diverse sample of 49 homeless young adults ages 18-24. Drawing on models of health service use, findings were categorized into two domains--attitudinal and access. Themes related to attitudinal barriers include stigma/shame and self-reliance/pride. Attitudinal facilitators include the desire to extricate themselves from street life and turn their lives in a new direction. Access-related themes include barriers such as a lack of shelters and services available to meet the needs of youth, adverse shelter conditions, staff attitudes that are not acceptable to youth, restrictive shelter rules, restrictive definitions of homelessness, and a desire to differentiate themselves from older homeless individuals. Certain characteristics or circumstances (e.g., being pregnant), having supportive others, and shelters' ability to connect them to other services emerged as access facilitators to shelter use. Implications for policymakers, service providers, and future research are discussed. PMID:26246453

  5. Far field fallout prediction techniques. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, W.S. Jr.

    1983-12-01

    A calculational technique for use in predicting fallout far downwind from nuclear bursts is developed and validated. Possible siting strategies for the next generation of missiles might invite a concentrated attack by thousands of nuclear warheads. The resulting fallout field could consist of the superposition of thousands of single burst patterns. The downwind extent of damaging radiation levels would extend beyond the distances to which calculations are usually performed for single bursts. Numerical models currently available cannot be extended to these large downwind distances because of the artificial pattern break up inherent in their numerical quadrature and because of prohibitive computing requirements. Two approaches to this problem are taken here. First, a numerical smoothing which conserves radioactivity is developed to help prevent pattern break up. This is partially successful in that it extends the predictive range farther downwind, but not far enough. The second approach is to abandon the numerical quadrature -- known as disc tossing -- and adopt a whole cloud smearing approach. The key function needed for the smearing approach, the fractional arrival rate of activity on the ground, is derived directly from physical principles and validated by comparison with an extensive series of numerical (disc tosser) predictions.

  6. Laboratory Study of Airborne Fallout Particles and Their Time Distribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, H. A., Jr.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Samples of filtered airborne particulate, collected daily for the first month after the September 18, 1977 Chinese nuclear detonation, showed fourteen fission products. Fluctuations in the daily fallout activity levels suggested a global fallout orbit time of approximately twenty days. (Author/BB)

  7. 32. 'WATCHMAN'S SHELTER,' drawn by project architect Alfred Eichler, March ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. 'WATCHMAN'S SHELTER,' drawn by project architect Alfred Eichler, March 28, 1934. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  8. The Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine Shelter Program

    PubMed Central

    Bushby, Philip; Woodruff, Kimberly; Shivley, Jake

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary First initiated in 1995 to provide veterinary students with spay/neuter experience, the shelter program at the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine has grown to be comprehensive in nature incorporating spay/neuter, basic wellness care, diagnostics, medical management, disease control, shelter management and biosecurity. Junior veterinary students spend five days in shelters; senior veterinary students spend 2-weeks visiting shelters in mobile veterinary units. The program has three primary components: spay/neuter, shelter medical days and Animals in Focus. Student gain significant hands-on experience and evaluations of the program by students are overwhelmingly positive. Abstract The shelter program at the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine provides veterinary students with extensive experience in shelter animal care including spay/neuter, basic wellness care, diagnostics, medical management, disease control, shelter management and biosecurity. Students spend five days at shelters in the junior year of the curriculum and two weeks working on mobile veterinary units in their senior year. The program helps meet accreditation standards of the American Veterinary Medical Association’s Council on Education that require students to have hands-on experience and is in keeping with recommendations from the North American Veterinary Medical Education Consortium. The program responds, in part, to the challenge from the Pew Study on Future Directions for Veterinary Medicine that argued that veterinary students do not graduate with the level of knowledge and skills that is commensurate with the number of years of professional education. PMID:26479234

  9. OVERHILLS GOLF COURSE LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM SPECTATOR SHELTER BACK UP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERHILLS GOLF COURSE LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM SPECTATOR SHELTER BACK UP FAIRWAY #1 - Overhills, Fort Bragg Military Reservation, Approximately 15 miles NW of Fayetteville, Overhills, Harnett County, NC

  10. Predictive Fallout Composition Modeling: Improvements and Applications of the Defense Land Fallout Interpretive Code

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, David A; Jodoin, Vincent J; Lee, Ronald W; Monterial, Mateusz

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines several improvements to the Particle Activity Module of the Defense Land Fallout Interpretive Code (DELFIC). The modeling of each phase of the fallout process is discussed within DELFIC to demonstrate the capabilities and limitations with the code for modeling and simulation. Expansion of the DELFIC isotopic library to include actinides and light elements is shown. Several key features of the new library are demonstrated, including compliance with ENDF/B-VII standards, augmentation of hardwired activated soil and actinide decay calculations with exact Bateman calculations, and full physical and chemical fractionation of all material inventories. Improvements to the radionuclide source term are demonstrated, including the ability to specify heterogeneous fission types and the ability to import source terms from irradiation calculations using the Oak Ridge Isotope Generation (ORIGEN) code. Additionally, the dose, kerma, and effective dose conversion factors are revised. Finally, the application of DELFIC for consequence management planning and forensic analysis is presented. For consequence management, DELFIC is shown to provide disaster recovery teams with simulations of real-time events, including the location, composition, time of arrival, activity rates, and dose rates of fallout, accounting for site-specific atmospheric effects. The results from DELFIC are also demonstrated for use by nuclear forensics teams to plan collection routes (including the determination of optimal collection locations), estimate dose rates to collectors, and anticipate the composition of material at collection sites. These capabilities give mission planners the ability to maximize their effectiveness in the field while minimizing risk to their collectors.

  11. Radioanalytical studies of fallout 63Ni.

    PubMed

    Holm, E; Roos, P; Skwarzec, B

    1992-01-01

    Fallout of Nickel-63 (T1/2 = 100 a) produced in small amounts at nuclear weapon tests following the neutron activation of weapon construction material was investigated by studying carpets of lichen collected during 1961 to 1988 at the Lake Rogen district in central Sweden (62.3 degrees N, 12.4 degrees E). The maximal level of 63Ni in the lichen carpet, which occurred in 1964, was about 0.6 Bq kg-1, dry weight, and decreased to 0.1 Bq kg-1 in 1988. The deposition pattern for 63Ni was similar to other fallout radionuclides such as 137Cs, 90Sr and 239 + 240Pu. The concentrations of stable Ni were relatively constant at 0.5 to 1.0 microgram g-1 throughout the years resulting in, for example, a specific activity (63Ni/stable Ni) of 0.5 Bq mg-1 in 1964 and 0.1 Bq mg-1 in 1988. The total area content of 63Ni was estimated to be 1.0 Bq m-2 and the activity ratio 63Ni/60Co was estimated to be 0.03 in 1966. The Chernobyl accident in April 1986 did not significantly increase the levels of 63Ni. For the measurement of these extremely low-levels of 63Ni, 200 g of dry material (about 1 kg fresh) were ashed and leached with aqua regia after hydroxides had been precipitated with ammonia, leaving Ni in the aqueous phase. Nickel was extracted as a dimethylglyoxime complex by chloroform and back-extracted with HCl. Finally, Ni was electroplated onto copper discs from an ammonium sulfate medium at high pH. The radiochemical yield was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry of stable Ni before and after electrodeposition.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1310303

  12. Lessons Learned: A "Homeless Shelter Intervention" by a Medical Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu, Yasmin; Kunik, Mark; Coverdale, John; Shah, Asim; Primm, Annelle; Harris, Toi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors explored the process of implementing a medical student-initiated program designed to provide computerized mental health screening, referral, and education in a homeless shelter. Method: An educational program was designed to teach homeless shelter staff about psychiatric disorders and culturally-informed treatment…

  13. Longitudinal Outcomes for Youth Receiving Runaway/Homeless Shelter Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollio, David E.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Tobias, Lisa; Reid, Donna; Spitznagel, Edward

    2006-01-01

    This research examined outcomes and use of specific types of services 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months post-discharge for a large sample of runaway/homeless youth using crisis shelter services. Data were collected for 371 runaway/homeless youth using emergency shelter and crisis services at eleven agencies across a four-state midwestern region. Outcomes…

  14. 26 CFR 301.6111-2 - Confidential corporate tax shelters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... before February 28, 2003, are contained in § 301.6111-2T in effect prior to February 28, 2003 (see 26 CFR...; and (iii) For which the tax shelter promoters may receive fees in excess of $100,000 in the aggregate... tax shelter promoter (or other person who would be responsible for registration under this...

  15. 26 CFR 301.6111-2 - Confidential corporate tax shelters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... before February 28, 2003, are contained in § 301.6111-2T in effect prior to February 28, 2003 (see 26 CFR...; and (iii) For which the tax shelter promoters may receive fees in excess of $100,000 in the aggregate... tax shelter promoter (or other person who would be responsible for registration under this...

  16. 26 CFR 301.6111-2 - Confidential corporate tax shelters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... before February 28, 2003, are contained in § 301.6111-2T in effect prior to February 28, 2003 (see 26 CFR...; and (iii) For which the tax shelter promoters may receive fees in excess of $100,000 in the aggregate... tax shelter promoter (or other person who would be responsible for registration under this...

  17. Shelter-Building Insects and Their Role as Ecosystem Engineers.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, T; Cintra, F; Santos, J C

    2016-02-01

    Amelioration of harsh conditions, manipulation of host plant quality, and protection from natural enemies have all been suggested as potential forces in the evolution and maintenance of concealed feeding in insects. The construction of shelters--either in the form of mines, galls, and leaf rolls--are expected to increase larval survivorship and might influence other organisms of the community through non-trophic direct and indirect effects when shelters are co-occupied or occupied after abandonment, placing leaf and stem shelter-builders within the context of ecosystem engineering. In this review, we evaluate the potential of shelter built by insects to reduce pressure exerted by natural enemies, increase tissue quality, and provide shelter against abiotic conditions experienced during insect development. Through a quantitative analysis, we also examined the effects of insect shelters on patterns of richness and abundance of local communities, reviewing the data published in the last 15 years. We demonstrate strong effects of shelters on several arthropods, with increased richness and abundance when shelters are present in the host plants. These results reinforce the importance of the physical structures created by insects that although subtle, might have important roles in facilitative interactions. PMID:26631227

  18. Research on Academic Literacy Development in Sheltered Instruction Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Deborah J.; Echevarria, Jana; Richards-Tutor, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    This article describes an extended program of research in sheltered instruction and the effects on the academic literacy development of English language learners. It also highlights the challenges of scaling up an instructional intervention. The intervention was the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) Model, an approach that teaches…

  19. Domestic Violence Shelters as Prevention Agents for HIV/AIDS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rountree, Michele A.; Pomeroy, Elizabeth C.; Marsiglia, Flavio F.

    2008-01-01

    The article reports findings from a pilot study of 21 domestic violence shelters in a southwestern state in the United States. The survey instrument included descriptive information on shelter service delivery. Specifically, questions were asked about the practice of assessing a client's risk of HIV/AIDS, the provision of HIV/AIDS educational and…

  20. Implementing an Art Program for Children in a Homeless Shelter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heise, Donalyn; MacGillivray, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative research study designed to analyze the implementation of an art program for children in a homeless shelter. Using a socio-cultural lens and the framework of resilience theory, teacher researchers implemented community-art programs for children residing in a family emergency shelter. Data collection included…

  1. 24 CFR 576.53 - Use as an emergency shelter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Use as an emergency shelter. 576.53... ASSISTANCE ACT Program Requirements § 576.53 Use as an emergency shelter. (a)(1) Restrictions and definition... under paragraph (a) of this section begin to run: (1) In the case of a building that was not operated...

  2. Analysis of meteorological and radiological data for selected fallout episodes

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, V.E. )

    1990-11-01

    The Weather Service Nuclear Support Office has analyzed the meteorological and radiological data collected for the following atmospheric nuclear tests: TRINITY; EASY of the Tumbler-Snapper series; ANNIE, NANCY, BADGER, SIMON, and HARRY of the Upshot-Knothole series; BEE and ZUCCHINI of the Teapot series; BOLTZMANN and SMOKY of the Plumbbob series; and SMALL BOY of the Dominic II series. These tests were chosen as having the greatest impact on nearby downwind populated locations, contributing approximately 80% of the collective estimated exposure. This report describes the methods of analysis used in deriving fallout-pattern contours and estimated fallout arrival times. Inconsistencies in the radiological data and their resolution are discussed. The methods of estimating fallout arrival times from the meteorological data are described. Comparisons of fallout patterns resulting from these analyses with earlier analyses show insignificant differences in the areas covered or people exposed.

  3. Sheltered Workshop Study. A Nationwide Report on Sheltered Workshops and Their Employment of Handicapped Individuals. Statistical Appendix to Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment and Training Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Presented is the statistical appendix to the Department of Labor's survey of sheltered workshop programs for handicapped persons. Included are 198 tables on such aspects as regional distribution of sheltered workshops and clients, client capacity of workshops, clients not accepted for workshop services, capital investment in plant and equipment,…

  4. Ingestion of Nevada Test Site Fallout: Internal dose estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Whicker, F.W.; Kirchner, T.B.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1996-10-01

    This paper summarizes individual and collective dose estimates for the internal organs of hypothetical yet representative residents of selected communities that received measurable fallout from nuclear detonations at the Nevada Test Site. The doses, which resulted from ingestion of local and regional food products contaminated with over 20 radionuclides, were estimated with use of the PATHWAY food-chain-transport model to provide estimates of central tendency and uncertainty. The thyroid gland received much higher doses than other internal organs and tissues. In a avery few cases, infants might have received thyroid doses in excess of 1 Gy, depending on location, diet, and timing of fallout. {sup 131}I was the primary thyroid dose contributor, and fresh milk was the main exposure pathway. With the exception of the thyroid, organ doses from the ingestion pathway were much smaller (<3%) than those from external gamma exposure to deposited fallout. Doses to residents living closest to the Nevada Test Site were contributed mainly by a few fallout events; doses to more distantly located people were generally smaller, but a greater number of events provided measurable contributions. The effectiveness of different fallout events in producing internal organ doses through ingestion varied dramatically with seasonal timing of the test, with maximum dose per unit fallout occurring for early summer depositions when milk cows were on pasture and fresh, local vegetables were used. Within specific communities, internal doses differed by age, sex, and lifestyle. Collective internal dose estimates for specific geographic areas are provided.

  5. Ingestion of Nevada Test Site fallout: internal dose estimates.

    PubMed

    Whicker, F W; Kirchner, T B; Anspaugh, L R; Ng, Y C

    1996-10-01

    This paper summarizes individual and collective dose estimates for the internal organs of hypothetical yet representative residents of selected communities that received measurable fallout from nuclear detonations at the Nevada Test Site. The doses, which resulted from ingestion of local and regional food products contaminated with over 20 radionuclides, were estimated with use of the PATHWAY food-chain-transport model to provide estimates of central tendency and uncertainty. The thyroid gland received much higher doses than other internal organs and tissues. In a very few cases, infants might have received thyroid doses in excess of 1 Gy, depending on location, diet, and timing of fallout. 131I was the primary thyroid dose contributor, and fresh milk was the main exposure pathway. With the exception of the thyroid, organ doses from the ingestion pathway were much smaller (< 3%) than those from external gamma exposure to deposited fallout. Doses to residents living closest to the Nevada Test Site were contributed mainly by a few fallout events; doses to more distantly located people were generally smaller, but a greater number of events provided measurable contributions. The effectiveness of different fallout events in producing internal organ doses through ingestion varied dramatically with seasonal timing of the test, with maximum dose per unit fallout occurring for early summer depositions when milk cows were on pasture and fresh, local vegetables were used. Within specific communities, internal doses differed by age, sex, and lifestyle. Collective internal dose estimates for specific geographic areas are provided. PMID:8830749

  6. Open space suitability analysis for emergency shelter after an earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anhorn, J.; Khazai, B.

    2015-04-01

    In an emergency situation shelter space is crucial for people affected by natural hazards. Emergency planners in disaster relief and mass care can greatly benefit from a sound methodology that identifies suitable shelter areas and sites where shelter services need to be improved. A methodology to rank suitability of open spaces for contingency planning and placement of shelter in the immediate aftermath of a disaster is introduced. The Open Space Suitability Index uses the combination of two different measures: a qualitative evaluation criterion for the suitability and manageability of open spaces to be used as shelter sites and another quantitative criterion using a capacitated accessibility analysis based on network analysis. For the qualitative assessment implementation issues, environmental considerations and basic utility supply are the main categories to rank candidate shelter sites. A geographic information system is used to reveal spatial patterns of shelter demand. Advantages and limitations of this method are discussed on the basis of an earthquake hazard case study in the Kathmandu Metropolitan City. According to the results, out of 410 open spaces under investigation, 12.2% have to be considered not suitable (Category D and E) while 10.7% are Category A and 17.6% are Category B. Almost two-thirds (59.55%) are fairly suitable (Category C).

  7. Open space suitability analysis for emergency shelter after an earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anhorn, J.; Khazai, B.

    2014-06-01

    In an emergency situation shelter space is crucial for people affected by natural hazards. Emergency planners in disaster relief and mass care can greatly benefit from a sound methodology that identifies suitable shelter areas and sites where shelter services need to be improved. A methodology to rank suitability of open spaces for contingency planning and placement of shelter in the immediate aftermath of a disaster is introduced. The Open Space Suitability Index (OSSI) uses the combination of two different measures: a qualitative evaluation criterion for the suitability and manageability of open spaces to be used as shelter sites, and a second quantitative criterion using a capacitated accessibility analysis based on network analysis. For the qualitative assessment, implementation issues, environmental considerations, and basic utility supply are the main categories to rank candidate shelter sites. Geographic Information System (GIS) is used to reveal spatial patterns of shelter demand. Advantages and limitations of this method are discussed on the basis of a case study in Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC). According to the results, out of 410 open spaces under investigation, 12.2% have to be considered not suitable (Category D and E) while 10.7% are Category A and 17.6% are Category B. Almost two third (59.5%) are fairly suitable (Category C).

  8. VERTICAL MIGRATION OF RADIONUCLIDES IN THE VICINITY OF THE CHERNOBYL CONFINEMENT SHELTER

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.; Marra, J.

    2011-10-01

    Studies on vertical migration of Chernobyl-origin radionuclides in the 5-km zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in the area of the Red Forest experimental site were completed. Measurements were made by gamma spectrometric methods using high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors with beryllium windows. Alpha-emitting isotopes of plutonium were determined by the measurement of the x-rays from their uranium progeny. The presence of {sup 60}Co, {sup 134,137}Cs, {sup 154,155}Eu, and {sup 241}Am in all soil layers down to a depth of 30 cm was observed. The presence of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 241}Am were noted in the area containing automorphous soils to a depth of 60 cm. In addition, the upper soil layers at the test site were found to contain {sup 243}Am and {sup 243}Cm. Over the past ten years, the {sup 241}Am/{sup 137}Cs ratio in soil at the experimental site has increased by a factor of 3.4, nearly twice as much as would be predicted based solely on radioactive decay. This may be due to 'fresh' fallout emanating from the ChNPP Confinement Shelter.

  9. Vertical migration of radionuclides in the vicinity of the chernobyl confinement shelter.

    PubMed

    Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Zheltonozhsky, Viktor A; Zheltonozhskaya, Maryna V; Kulich, Nadezhda V; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Farfán, Eduardo B; Jannik, G Timothy; Marra, James C

    2011-10-01

    Studies of vertical migration of Chernobyl-origin radionuclides in the 5-km zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in the area of the Red Forest experimental site were completed. Measurements were made by gamma spectrometric methods using high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors with beryllium windows. Alpha-emitting isotopes of plutonium were determined by the measurement of the x-rays from their uranium progeny. The presence of 60Co, 134,137Cs, 154,155Eu, and 241Am in all soil layers down to a depth of 30 cm was observed. The presence of 137Cs and 241Am was noted in the area containing automorphous soils to a depth of 60 cm. In addition, the upper soil layers at the test site were found to contain 243Am and 243Ñm. Over the past 10 years, the 241Am/137Cs ratio in soil at the experimental site has increased by a factor of 3.4, nearly twice as much as would be predicted based solely on radioactive decay. This may be due to "fresh" fallout emanating from the ChNPP Confinement Shelter. PMID:21878761

  10. Common and emerging infectious diseases in the animal shelter.

    PubMed

    Pesavento, P A; Murphy, B G

    2014-03-01

    The beneficial role that animal shelters play is unquestionable. An estimated 3 to 4 million animals are cared for or placed in homes each year, and most shelters promote public health and support responsible pet ownership. It is, nonetheless, inevitable that shelters are prime examples of anthropogenic biological instability: even well-run shelters often house transient, displaced, and mixed populations of animals. Many of these animals have received minimal to no prior health care, and some have a history of scavenging or predation to survive. Overcrowding and poor shelter conditions further magnify these inherent risks to create individual, intraspecies, and interspecies stress and provide an environment conducive to exposure to numerous potentially collaborative pathogens. All of these factors can contribute to the evolution and emergence of new pathogens or to alterations in virulence of endemic pathogens. While it is not possible to effectively anticipate the timing or the pathogen type in emergence events, their sites of origin are less enigmatic, and pathologists and diagnosticians who work with sheltered animal populations have recognized several such events in the past decade. This article first considers the contribution of the shelter environment to canine and feline disease. This is followed by summaries of recent research on the pathogenesis of common shelter pathogens, as well as research that has led to the discovery of novel or emerging diseases and the methods that are used for their diagnosis and discovery. For the infectious agents that commonly affect sheltered dogs and cats, including canine distemper virus, canine influenza virus, Streptococcus spp, parvoviruses, feline herpesvirus, feline caliciviruses, and feline infectious peritonitis virus, we present familiar as well as newly recognized lesions associated with infection. Preliminary studies on recently discovered viruses like canine circovirus, canine bocavirus, and feline norovirus

  11. Pu isotopes in soils collected downwind from Lop Nor: regional fallout vs. global fallout

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Wenting; Ni, Youyi; Guo, Qiuju; Zheng, Jian; Uchida, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, soil core samples from the Jiuquan region have been analyzed for Pu isotopes for radioactive source identification and radiological assessment. The Jiuquan region is in downwind from the Lop Nor Chinese nuclear test (CNT) site. The high Pu inventories (13 to 546 Bq/m2) in most of the sampling locations revealed that this region was heterogeneously contaminated by the regional fallout Pu from the CNTs. The contributions of the CNTs to the total Pu in soils were estimated to be more than 40% in most cases. The 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in the soils ranged from 0.059 to 0.186 with an inventory-weighted average of 0.158, slightly lower than that of global fallout. This atom ratio could be considered as a mixed fingerprint of Pu from the CNTs. In addition, Pu in soils of Jiuquan region had a faster downward migration rate compared with other investigated places in China. PMID:26184740

  12. Pu isotopes in soils collected downwind from Lop Nor: regional fallout vs. global fallout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Wenting; Ni, Youyi; Guo, Qiuju; Zheng, Jian; Uchida, Shigeo

    2015-07-01

    For the first time, soil core samples from the Jiuquan region have been analyzed for Pu isotopes for radioactive source identification and radiological assessment. The Jiuquan region is in downwind from the Lop Nor Chinese nuclear test (CNT) site. The high Pu inventories (13 to 546 Bq/m2) in most of the sampling locations revealed that this region was heterogeneously contaminated by the regional fallout Pu from the CNTs. The contributions of the CNTs to the total Pu in soils were estimated to be more than 40% in most cases. The 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in the soils ranged from 0.059 to 0.186 with an inventory-weighted average of 0.158, slightly lower than that of global fallout. This atom ratio could be considered as a mixed fingerprint of Pu from the CNTs. In addition, Pu in soils of Jiuquan region had a faster downward migration rate compared with other investigated places in China.

  13. [The biological effects of a nuclear explosion. Introduction of a new system on a colorimetric scale (black, grey, red, orange, yellow and white zone) to estimate the effects of fall-out on civilian populations].

    PubMed

    Nacci, G

    2002-08-01

    Following September 11 the eventuality of terrorist attacks using bags containing nuclear devices is considered possible in western cities like New York, London, Paris, Rome, Berlin, Moscow etc. However, with a modern Civil Defence programme the effects of a catastrophe of this nature can be partially limited, at least as far as Fall-out is concerned. The present paper explains the medical reasons for building anti-fall-out shelters for the larger part of western populations: from the USA to Russia. The paper also sets out a new method for classifying levels of radioactive Fall-out based on a scale of colours (black, grey, red, orange, yellow and white) whatever kind of radioactivity is involved (total gamma levels, Cesium 137 levels, Strontium 90 levels). The arrival times for fall-out in each area of the scale are fixed, whatever the energy of the explosion and the speed of the wind might be. The radioactive decay in each area of the scale, from the time of arrival of the fall-out is described with precision. Also described are the acute radiation syndrome, tumours, miscarriages and genetic diseases. A nomogram is attached for civil defence purposes showing the leeward extension of these areas, easily measurable in just a few minutes, if four parameters are known: ground zero (locality) of the explosion, the energy of the explosion, the direction of the wind and the speed of the wind. PMID:12207196

  14. 4. PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO THE NORTHEAST OF THE CREW SHELTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO THE NORTHEAST OF THE CREW SHELTER IN AR-8. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base, Rammed Earth Aircraft Dispersal Revetments, Western Shore of Rogers Dry Lake, Boron, Kern County, CA

  15. Facilitating a Collaborative Partnership with a Homeless Shelter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Marsha D.; Weyer, Mary E.

    2002-01-01

    Nursing faculty initiated a partnership with a homeless shelter through which nursing students experienced community nursing and health promotion. Lessons learned from partnership development included the importance of ongoing dialogue and negotiation and clarification of expectations and responsibilities. (SK)

  16. 50. Stream gaging station in steelpipe well and shelter, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Stream gaging station in steel-pipe well and shelter, looking west. Photo by Robin Lee Tedder, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  17. Efficacy of bomb shelters: with lessons from the Hamburg firestorm.

    PubMed

    Lucas, K A; Orient, J M; Robinson, A; Maccabee, H; Morris, P; Looney, G; Klinghoffer, M

    1990-07-01

    Shelters for protection against the effects of nuclear weapons are often stated to be useless, largely because of firestorms. Recent models purport to show that nuclear weapons are more likely to cause firestorms than previously thought. These controversial models are based on uncertain assumptions, which are difficult or impossible to test. Regardless of the predictive validity of fire models, conclusions about the ability of shelters to protect their occupants against firestorms, if they occur, are based primarily on historical experience. A review of the original data from the Hamburg firestorm shows that almost all persons in adequate shelters survived, contradicting a currently prevailing belief that all died. The results of the strategic bombing during World War II and of nuclear weapons tests show that a considerable level of population protection can be achieved through attention to proper shelter design. PMID:2196693

  18. View of Chapel Park, showing bomb shelters at right foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Chapel Park, showing bomb shelters at right foreground, from building 746 parking lot across Walnut Avenue; camera facing north. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, East of Nave Drive, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  19. 214. RUSTIC BUS SHELTER, GUARDRAILS AND LAMP POST BELLE HAVEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    214. RUSTIC BUS SHELTER, GUARDRAILS AND LAMP POST BELLE HAVEN BUS STOP WIDENING, 1932. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  20. 6. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing cattle shelter, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing cattle shelter, facing southeast. - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  1. Chernobyl fallout and outcome of pregnancy in Finland.

    PubMed Central

    Auvinen, A; Vahteristo, M; Arvela, H; Suomela, M; Rahola, T; Hakama, M; Rytömaa, T

    2001-01-01

    Possible effects of Chernobyl fallout on outcome of pregnancy in Finland were evaluated in a nationwide follow-up study. The outcomes were the rate of live births and stillbirths, pregnancy loss, and induced abortions by municipality. Exposure was assessed based on nationwide surveys of radiation dose rate from the Chernobyl fallout, from both external and internal exposures. Using these measurements, we estimated the monthly dose rate for each of the 455 Finnish municipalities. On average, the dose rate from Chernobyl fallout reached 50 microSv per month in May 1986--a doubling of the natural background radiation. In the most heavily affected area, 4 times the normal background dose rates were recorded. Given the underlying regional differences in live birth, stillbirth, and abortion rates, we used longitudinal analysis comparing changes over time within municipalities. A temporary decline in the live birth rate had already begun before 1986, with no clear relationship to the level of fallout. A statistically significant increase in spontaneous abortions with dose of radiation was observed. No marked changes in induced abortions or stillbirths were observed. The decrease in the live birth rate is probably not a biological effect of radiation, but more likely related to public concerns of the fallout. The effect on spontaneous abortions should be interpreted with caution, because of potential bias or confounding. Further, there is little support in the epidemiologic literature on effects of very low doses of radiation on pregnancy outcome. PMID:11266330

  2. Multi-culture solar heated bio-shelter. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    A rooftop greenhouse (bio-shelter) that is heated with active and passive solar systems is presented. The intent of the greenhouse is to grow vegetables hydroponically the year-round using a nutrient flow technique; and to growth the giant tropical Malaysian prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in a recycling raceway water system heated with solar power. The produce grown was continuously monitored and the harvests weighed in order to estimate the year-round production potential of the bio-shelter greenhouse.

  3. Attitudes Toward Smoking Cessation Among Sheltered Homeless Parents.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Holly C; Stevenson, Terrell N; Bruce, Janine S; Greenberg, Brian; Chamberlain, Lisa J

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of smoking among homeless adults is approximately 70 %. Cessation programs designed for family shelters should be a high priority given the dangers cigarette smoke poses to children. However, the unique nature of smoking in the family shelter setting remains unstudied. We aimed to assess attitudes toward smoking cessation, and unique barriers and motivators among homeless parents living in family shelters in Northern California. Six focus groups and one interview were conducted (N = 33, ages 23-54). The focus groups and interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and a representative team performed qualitative theme analysis. Eight males and 25 females participated. The following major themes emerged: (1) Most participants intended to quit eventually, citing concern for their children as their primary motivation. (2) Significant barriers to quitting included the ubiquity of cigarette smoking, its central role in social interactions in the family shelter setting, and its importance as a coping mechanism. (3) Participants expressed interest in quitting "cold turkey" and in e-cigarettes, but were skeptical of the patch and pharmacotherapy. (4) Feelings were mixed regarding whether individual, group or family counseling would be most effective. Homeless parents may be uniquely motivated to quit because of their children, but still face significant shelter-based social and environmental barriers to quitting. Successful cessation programs in family shelters must be designed with the unique motivations and barriers of this population in mind. PMID:25980523

  4. Economic impacts of adoption and fundraising strategies in animal shelters.

    PubMed

    Lord, Emily; Olynk Widmar, Nicole; Litster, Annette

    2014-03-01

    The adoption strategies used in animal shelters can have a large impact on the total number of adoptions and donations that take place. Reducing adoption fees during peak kitten or puppy season is one way to reduce inventories and increase the number of open spaces to save more lives, but does not necessarily increase the financial well-being of the shelter if the per-animal costs exceed the revenues generated. We developed a stochastic model to simulate the expected costs, revenues, and net income of a hypothetical animal shelter for various alternative management strategies, based on US conditions. A total of 8 scenarios were developed and compared to the base-case scenario (BC). In the model, scenarios which decreased or waived adoption fees caused total costs to increase due to the escalating costs associated with increasing the total number and density of animals housed. This effect was especially pronounced when adoptions were free. When the return on money invested in additional fundraising was predetermined to be 'good' (rather than 'fair' or 'poor'), net shelter income did exceed costs - but even 'fair' return increased net shelter income compared to the BC. Of the eight scenarios compared to BC, the mean monthly net income was significantly different from that in the BC in all eight scenarios (p<0.01). In contrast, variances were different (p<0.01) in five of the eight scenarios (and the uncertainty that comes with high variance would make planning difficult for shelter managers); however, the variance in net income did not differ from the BC for any of the scenarios investigating returns to additional spending on promotion and fundraising. In these scenarios, because the extra cost involved is relatively low compared to the other scenarios, the potential risk of a reduction in net shelter revenue is reduced. When shelters are aware of the positive and negative impacts of various adoption strategies on mean net income and variation in net income, shelter

  5. Childhood leukemia and fallout from the Nevada nuclear tests

    SciTech Connect

    Land, C.E.; McKay, F.W.; Machado, S.G.

    1984-01-13

    Cancer mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics, covering the period 1950 through 1978, were used to test a reported association between childhood leukemia and exposure to radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons tests in Nevada between 1951 and 1958. No pattern of temporal and geographic variation in risk supportive of the reported association was found. Comparison of these results with those presented in support of an association of risk with fallout suggests that the purported association merely reflects an anomalously low leukemia rate in southern Utah during the period 1944 to 1949. 14 references, 4 figures, 7 tables.

  6. Sediment core record of global fallout and Bikini close-in fallout Pu in Sagami Bay, Western Northwest Pacific margin.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2004-07-01

    The total 239-240Pu activity and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio in the sediments in Sagami Bay of the western Northwest Pacific margin were investigated using ICP-MS with a shield torch system. 239+240Pu inventories in the examined sediment cores were found to be much higher than those predicted from atmospheric global fallout (42 MBq/km2) at the same latitude. In addition, elevated 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios ranging from 0.22 to 0.28 were observed in the sediment samples. On the basis of the vertical profiles of 239+240Pu and characterized 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in a sediment core collected in the center of Sagami Bay, we identified two distinct sources of fallout Pu in the bay: the global stratospheric fallout with characteristic 240Pu/239Pu ratio of 0.18 and the transported close-in fallout derived from Bikini and Enewetak surface nuclear weapon test series in the 1950s. We propose that the Pu transportation was mainly due to oceanic processes (for example, through the North Equatorial Current and the Kuroshio Current). Using a two fallout end-member model, we find that the contribution of Bikini close-in fallout Pu ranged from 44 to 59% in Sagami Bay sediments. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that Pu contamination, which originated from Bikini and Enewetak nuclear weapon test series in the 1950s, has extended westwards as far as the Japanese coast. PMID:15296298

  7. Lied Animal Shelter Animal campus Renewable Energy Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Randy Spitzmesser, AIA

    2005-11-22

    The Animal Shelter campus plan includes a new adoption center coupled with a dog adoption park, a wellness/veterinary technician education center, a show arena, and an addition to the existing shelter that will accommodate all animal control and sheltering for the Las Vegas Valley. The new facility will provide a sophisticated and innovative presentation of the animals to be adopted in an attempt to improve the public's perception of shelter animals. Additionally, the Regional Animal Campus will be a ''green building'', embodying a design intent on balancing environmental responsiveness, resource efficiency and cultural and community sensitivity. Designing an energy-efficient building helps reduce pollution from burning fossil fuels, reduce disturbance of natural habitats for the harvesting of resources and minimizes global warming. The project will be a leader in the use of renewable energy by relying on photovoltaic panels, wind turbines, and solar collectors to produce a portion of the project's energy needs The building will operate more efficiently in comparison to a typical shelter through the use of monitoring and specialized cooling/heating equipment. Windows bringing in natural daylight will reduce the center's demand for electricity.

  8. Rate of neuronal fallout in a transsynaptic cerebellar model.

    PubMed

    Triarhou, L C

    1998-10-01

    Quantitative analyses of transsynaptic granule cell death subsequent to the genetically determined degeneration of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum of pcd/pcd mutant mice show that granule neuron fallout follows a typical mathematical pattern of elemental decay. Biological and theoretical connotations are discussed in light of the empirical observations and a simulation model. PMID:9865853

  9. Temporal variability of beryllium-7 fallout in southwest UK.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A; Keith-Roach, M J; Iurian, A R; Mabit, L; Blake, W H

    2016-08-01

    Cosmogenic beryllium-7 has been widely employed as a sediment tracing tool and continued development of its use as a soil erosion tracer requires knowledge of fallout temporal dynamics. Data regarding beryllium-7 fallout in the UK are scarce and here the authors provide a record of beryllium-7 fallout in southwest England spanning a two-year period. A monthly fallout record was developed for Plymouth, UK using regular rainfall sampling to determine beryllium-7 rainfall activity concentration (Bq L(-1)) and deposition flux (Bq m(-2)). Data showed a general tendency for higher activity during the spring/summer months and lower activity in the autumn/winter months. Comparison with data for other UK sites (Chilton and Aberporth) for the same period found significant differences in (7)Be activity in rainwater and lower variability in Plymouth than Chilton and Aberporth. Total deposition was largely controlled by rainfall in Plymouth although regression coefficients suggested greater importance of other atmospheric controls at the Chilton and Aberporth sites. Use of a deposition proportion to rainfall proportion ratio identified periods when deposition was influenced by varying (7)Be activity in rainfall. Broad ranges in ratios were found for Chilton and Aberporth and this has implications for sediment tracer studies requiring estimates of (7)Be deposition flux across months or seasons. PMID:27155526

  10. Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident

    SciTech Connect

    Beiriger, J.M.; Failor, R.A.; Marsh, K.V.; Shaw, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    This report describes the detection of fallout in the United States from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. As part of its environmental surveillance program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory maintained detectors for gamma-emitting radionuclides. Following the reactor accident, additional air filters were set out. Several uncommon isotopes were detected at the time the plume passed into the US. (TEM)

  11. Pituitary tumors following fallout radiation exposure. [Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.H.; Harper, J.A.; Rittmaster, R.S.; Grimson, R.C.

    1984-08-03

    Two pituitary tumors were diagnosed in a small population of Marshallese accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout in 1954. Endocrinologic findings in the exposed population, are reported and the possible relation of the tumors to radiation exposure and thyroid disease is discussed.

  12. House to house, shelter to shelter: experiences of black women seeking housing after leaving abusive relationships.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Patty R; Laughon, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Locating safe and affordable housing is a vital step for women who decide to leave their abuser. Without housing, many women, particularly those who live in poverty, are forced to remain in abusive relationships, accept inadequate or unsafe housing, or become homeless (Menard, 2001; Moses, 2010). Women who choose to leave their abusers are faced with multiple barriers in establishing their independence such as limited financial resources, mental illness, and the lack of affordable housing (Botein & Hetling, 2010), putting them at risk of revictimization. This pilot study explores the narratives of Black mothers currently residing at an emergency intimate partner violence shelter to discover their experiences in seeking housing after leaving abusive relationships with a focus on housing instability and mental health. Utilizing a qualitative descriptive design, four major themes emerged: (a) unstable/insecure housing over time, (b) limited support, PMID:25996432

  13. Dynamic Monitoring of Cleanroom Fallout Using an Air Particle Counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Radford

    2011-01-01

    The particle fallout limitations and periodic allocations for the James Webb Space Telescope are very stringent. Standard prediction methods are complicated by non-linearity and monitoring methods that are insufficiently responsive. A method for dynamically predicting the particle fallout in a cleanroom using air particle counter data was determined by numerical correlation. This method provides a simple linear correlation to both time and air quality, which can be monitored in real time. The summation of effects provides the program better understanding of the cleanliness and assists in the planning of future activities. Definition of fallout rates within a cleanroom during assembly and integration of contamination-sensitive hardware, such as the James Webb Space Telescope, is essential for budgeting purposes. Balancing the activity levels for assembly and test with the particle accumulation rate is paramount. The current approach to predicting particle fallout in a cleanroom assumes a constant air quality based on the rated class of a cleanroom, with adjustments for projected work or exposure times. Actual cleanroom class can also depend on the number of personnel present and the type of activities. A linear correlation of air quality and normalized particle fallout was determined numerically. An air particle counter (standard cleanroom equipment) can be used to monitor the air quality on a real-time basis and determine the "class" of the cleanroom (per FED-STD-209 or ISO-14644). The correlation function provides an area coverage coefficient per class-hour of exposure. The prediction of particle accumulations provides scheduling inputs for activity levels and cleanroom class requirements.

  14. Direct estimation of the cost effectiveness of tornado shelters.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Kevin M; Sutter, Daniel

    2006-08-01

    This article estimates the cost effectiveness of tornado shelters using the annual probability of a tornado and new data on fatalities per building struck by a tornado. This approach differs from recent estimates of the cost effectiveness of tornado shelters in Reference 1 that use historical casualties. Historical casualties combine both tornado risk and resident action. If residents of tornado-prone states take greater precautions, observed fatalities might not be much higher than in states with lower risk. Estimation using the tornado probability avoids this potential bias. Despite the very different method used, the estimates are 68 million US dollars in permanent homes and 6.0 million US dollars in mobile homes in Oklahoma using a 3% real discount rate, within about 10% of estimates based on historical fatalities. The findings suggest that shelters provide cost-effective protection for mobile homes in the most tornado-prone states but not for permanent homes. PMID:16948687

  15. Interprofessional program to provide emergency sheltering to abused elders.

    PubMed

    Heck, Lauri; Gillespie, Gordon L

    2013-01-01

    Abuse of senior citizens should be paradoxical in a civilized society; however, the U.S. Government Accountability Office reports that 14.1% of noninstitutionalized older adults experienced some type of abuse within the previous year. This is suspected to be an underestimation of the number of abuses reported. In a society where the older population is predicted to increase significantly, it is likely that the number of cases for abused elders will increase proportionately. Through the success of advocacy groups to raise awareness of child and domestic partner abuse, funding has been channeled to shelter these abuse victims. The same cannot be said for elders who are abused. Providing shelter in a safe, secure, medically appropriate environment, free from violence, for an older adult is essential. This article describes a community's collaborative health planning process to respond to elder abuse and develop a program to shelter elders experiencing abuse or suspected abuse. PMID:23636048

  16. Emergency shelter care utilization in child welfare: Who goes to shelter care? How long do they stay?

    PubMed

    Leon, Scott C; Jhe Bai, Grace; Fuller, Anne K; Busching, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Emergency shelter care for children entering foster care is widely used as a temporary first placement, despite its contraindications. However, little research has examined predictors of utilization (e.g., entry into care, length of stay in care). A sample of 123 children (ages 6-13) entering foster care was studied to explore the variables associated with an initial placement in shelter care versus kinship care and variables associated with children staying less than 30 days in the shelter versus 30 days or longer. After applying a classification tree analysis (CTA via Optimal Data Analysis), results indicated that variables across the child's ecology--specifically the microsystem, mesosystem, and exosystem--were associated with increased emergency shelter utilization, including older age, entering as a dependency case, more relatives and fictive kin with barriers to involvement in the child's life, and the child welfare agency serving the child. These results suggest that although emergency shelter care utilization may be determined by a complex interaction of variables across the child's ecology, policy and programmatic attention to some of these risk factors might be effective in limiting utilization so that children can enter care with a more long-term, family-based placement. PMID:26569355

  17. Experimental Winter Coccidiosis in Sheltered and Unsheltered Calves

    PubMed Central

    Niilo, L.

    1970-01-01

    Hereford calves, seven months old, were inoculated orally with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria bovis and E. zurnii and housed in a heated building together with uninoculated animals. Duplicate groups of similarly treated animals were left unsheltered in cold winter weather. Clinical coccidiosis developed in most of the inoculated calves, sheltered and unsheltered. There was no marked difference in the severity of the infections. The sheltered uninoculated contact animals remained clinically unaffected, but mild coccidiosis developed in the unsheltered controls. The results suggest that cold may increase the host's susceptibility to clinical coccidiosis, but may not increase the severity of the signs once the clinical infection is established. PMID:4245999

  18. Psychological and physical distress of sheltered battered women.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, J; Lee, K; Neylan, T; Marmar, C

    2001-06-01

    We explored the physical and psychological distress of sheltered battered women. A convenience sample of 50 ethnically diverse women was obtained from women who had resided in two shelters for at least 21 days. Participants had experienced multiple traumatic events (8.1+/-4.6); however, only 19 (38.8%) of the participants were diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). When we analyzed biopsychosocial variables, we saw beneficial effects of support (financial, social, spiritual). These findings reinforce the need to enhance the resources of battered women, to help them identify existing opportunities, and to fortify self-caring strategies that give them strength. PMID:11813787

  19. SHELTER THROUGH ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, THE SHIELDING REQUIREMENTS INFLUENCE ON FORM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    FALLOUT PROTECTION CAN BE PROVIDED BY CAREFUL ARRANGEMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS WITHOUT SPECIFIC FACILITIES FOR THEIR PURPOSE AND WITHOUT INTERFERING WITH NORMAL SPACE USE. CHARACTERISTICS OF RADIATION ARE DISCUSSED AND ILLUSTRATED PRINCIPLES OF SHIELDING DESIGN WITH RESPECT TO DISTANCE, GEOMETRY, AND TIME ARE GIVEN. (JT)

  20. 66. VIEW OF DELUGE CHANNEL; NORTH FACE OF THEODOLITE SHELTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. VIEW OF DELUGE CHANNEL; NORTH FACE OF THEODOLITE SHELTER (BLDG. 788); TELEVISION CAMERA TOWER; CAMERA TOWER FROM SOUTH END OF LAUNCH DECK - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  1. Assessing the Physical and Architectural Features of Sheltered Care Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moos, Rudolf H.; Lemke, Sonne

    1980-01-01

    The Physical and Architectural Features Checklist (PAF) measures physical resources of sheltered care settings in terms of nine derived dimensions. Data show that facilities which have more physical resources are seen as attractive by outside observers and pleasant by residents. Cost is not related to any PAF dimension. (Author)

  2. Vulnerability Assessment of Selected Buildings Designated as Shelters: Dominica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (IDCA), Washington, DC.

    Educational facilities in the Caribbean often serve roles as shelters during natural hazards, but they often sustain as much damage as other buildings. This study investigated the physical vulnerability of schools located on Dominica to wind forces, torrential rain, and seismic forces in order to provide relevant local agencies with some of the…

  3. Vulnerability Assessment of Selected Buildings Designated as Shelters: Grenada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Tony

    Educational facilities in the Caribbean often serve as shelters during natural hazards, but they often sustain as much damage as other buildings. This study investigated the physical vulnerability of schools, located in Grenada, to wind forces, torrential rain, and seismic forces in order to provide relevant local agencies with some of the input…

  4. Vulnerability Assessment of Selected Buildings Designated as Shelters: Anguilla.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Tony

    Educational facilities in the Caribbean often serve roles as shelters during natural hazards, but they often sustain as much damage as other buildings. This study investigated the physical vulnerability of schools located on Anguilla to wind forces, torrential rain, and seismic forces in order to provide relevant local agencies with some of the…

  5. Shelter Dogs as Sentinels for Trypanosoma cruzi Transmission across Texas

    PubMed Central

    Tenney, Trevor D.; Curtis-Robles, Rachel; Snowden, Karen F.

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease, an infection with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is increasingly diagnosed among humans in the southern United States. We assessed exposure of shelter dogs in Texas to T. cruzi; seroprevalence across diverse ecoregions was 8.8%. Canine serosurveillance is a useful tool for public health risk assessment. PMID:25062281

  6. Developing Academic Language in English Language Learners through Sheltered Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Deborah J.; Fidelman, Carolyn G.; Louguit, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a study examining the effects of Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) model instruction on the academic language performance of middle and high school English language learners. The SIOP model is an approach for teaching content curriculum to students learning through a new language. Teachers employ techniques…

  7. Lunar surface operations. Volume 1: Lunar surface emergency shelter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, William; Feteih, Salah; Hollis, Patrick

    1993-01-01

    The lunar surface emergency shelter (LSES) is designed to provide survival-level accommodations for up to four astronauts for a maximum of five days. It would be used by astronauts who were caught out in the open during a large solar event. The habitable section consists of an aluminum pressure shell with an inner diameter of 6 ft. and a length of 12.2 ft. Access is through a 4 in. thick aluminum airlock door mounted at the rear of the shelter. Shielding is provided by a 14.9 in. thick layer of lunar regolith contained within a second, outer aluminum shell. This provides protection against a 200 MeV event, based on a 15 REM maximum dose. The shelter is self-contained with a maximum range of 1000 km. Power is supplied by a primary fuel cell which occupies 70.7 cu ft. of the interior volume. Mobility is achieved by towing the shelter behind existing lunar vehicles. It was assumed that a fully operational, independent lunar base was available to provide communication support and tools for set-up and maintenance. Transportation to the moon would be provided by the proposed heavy lift launch vehicle. Major design considerations for the LSES were safety, reliability, and minimal use of earth materials.

  8. 25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... LAW AND ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1004 Detention and shelter care. (a) A minor alleged to be a juvenile offender may be detained, pending a court hearing, in the following places: (1) A... family home approved by the tribe. (b) A minor who is 16 years of age or older may be detained in a...

  9. National Call for Organizational Change from Sheltered to Integrated Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogan, Patricia; Rinne, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Our purpose in this article is to contend that organizational change from sheltered to integrated employment is not only possible but necessary, and a federal Employment First agenda must be advanced. Findings are reported from interviews with senior managers from 10 organizations that have shifted their service delivery to community employment,…

  10. 24 CFR 576.403 - Shelter and housing standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Shelter and housing standards. 576.403 Section 576.403 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY...

  11. Lunar surface operations. Volume 1: Lunar surface emergency shelter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, William; Feteih, Salah; Hollis, Patrick

    1993-07-01

    The lunar surface emergency shelter (LSES) is designed to provide survival-level accommodations for up to four astronauts for a maximum of five days. It would be used by astronauts who were caught out in the open during a large solar event. The habitable section consists of an aluminum pressure shell with an inner diameter of 6 ft. and a length of 12.2 ft. Access is through a 4 in. thick aluminum airlock door mounted at the rear of the shelter. Shielding is provided by a 14.9 in. thick layer of lunar regolith contained within a second, outer aluminum shell. This provides protection against a 200 MeV event, based on a 15 REM maximum dose. The shelter is self-contained with a maximum range of 1000 km. Power is supplied by a primary fuel cell which occupies 70.7 cu ft. of the interior volume. Mobility is achieved by towing the shelter behind existing lunar vehicles. It was assumed that a fully operational, independent lunar base was available to provide communication support and tools for set-up and maintenance. Transportation to the moon would be provided by the proposed heavy lift launch vehicle. Major design considerations for the LSES were safety, reliability, and minimal use of earth materials.

  12. 9 CFR 3.77 - Sheltered housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sheltered housing facilities. 3.77 Section 3.77 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Nonhuman Primates 2 Facilities...

  13. Toilet Training in the Sheltered Workshop--Why Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olofsson, Gunilla; Karan, Orv. C.

    1976-01-01

    The present case study describes a toilet training program planned, developed, and implemented within a sheltered workshop. The client was a severely retarded woman for whom incontinence had been a life-long problem. The ease with which the program was carried out recommends its use with similar client problems. (Author)

  14. EFFECTIVENESS OF EXPEDIENT SHELTERING IN PLACE IN A RESIDENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of expedient sheltering in place in a residence for protection against airborne hazards, as outlined in the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) guidance to the public. An improved method was developed to determi...

  15. Sheltered Workshops Employee Satisfaction Survey. Part Two: Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogren, Evelyn H.; Lauricella, John

    The special employment program in Yooralla Society of Victoria (Australia) began operation two decades ago with establishment of sheltered workshops. As part of an overall review of Yooralla's programs, a survey was conducted as a first stage in evaluation of the workshops--Ability Industries and Ability Press. The aim of the research project was…

  16. 9. Photocopy of sketch from Elliott, Clifford A., 'Shelters and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of sketch from Elliott, Clifford A., 'Shelters and Stations on Pacific Electric's Interurban Lines', Electric Railway Journal, V. 53, No. 15, April 12, 1919, p. 733 - Lynwood Pacific Electric Railway Depot, 11453 Long Beach Boulevard, Lynwood, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. Elementary ELL Interaction: Mainstream v. Sheltered Instructional Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Joan Ann

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study investigated the English verbal interactions of seven 3rd-6th grade beginning level English language learners across three different instructional settings: the mainstream grade level classroom, the sheltered English classroom, and the ELL pullout group. The quantitative component of the study documented significant…

  18. Effect of shelter porosity on downwind flow characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosek, Š.; Kellnerová, R.; Jurčáková, K.; Jaňour, Z.; Chaloupecká, H.; Jakubcová, M.

    2016-03-01

    Previous wind-tunnel studies were focused mainly on lonely standing windbreaks or wind fences with respect to their wind velocity reduction efficiency and effective shelter distance. In presented wind-tunnel study, we investigated the effects of a three different fence porosities (0.5, 0.25 and 0) embodied in a shelter-like building for coal convey by means of two-component Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA). The turbulent flow characteristics behind the fences were compared with those performed without the fence. For characterization of the fence effectiveness we used following quantities: wind-speed and turbulence kinetic energy reduction, and time fractions of the turbulent coherent structures associated with the sediment transport (sweeps and outward interactions). Results from mentioned quantities revealed that for the case of embodied fence the shelter construction has significant impact on the flow characteristics behind. The fence of the 0.5 porosity has been indicated as the most shelter effective considering the studied quantities.

  19. 9 CFR 3.77 - Sheltered housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheltered housing facilities. 3.77 Section 3.77 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment,...

  20. Candidate new rotavirus species in sheltered dogs, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Mihalov-Kovács, Eszter; Gellért, Ákos; Marton, Szilvia; Farkas, Szilvia L; Fehér, Enikő; Oldal, Miklós; Jakab, Ferenc; Martella, Vito; Bányai, Krisztián

    2015-04-01

    We identified unusual rotavirus strains in fecal specimens from sheltered dogs in Hungary by viral metagenomics. The novel rotavirus species displayed limited genome sequence homology to representatives of the 8 rotavirus species, A-H, and qualifies as a candidate new rotavirus species that we tentatively named Rotavirus I. PMID:25811414

  1. Shelter dogs as sentinels for Trypanosoma cruzi transmission across Texas.

    PubMed

    Tenney, Trevor D; Curtis-Robles, Rachel; Snowden, Karen F; Hamer, Sarah A

    2014-08-01

    Chagas disease, an infection with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is increasingly diagnosed among humans in the southern United States. We assessed exposure of shelter dogs in Texas to T. cruzi; seroprevalence across diverse ecoregions was 8.8%. Canine serosurveillance is a useful tool for public health risk assessment. PMID:25062281

  2. Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP). WWC Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) is a framework for planning and delivering instruction in content areas such as science, history, and mathematics to limited-English proficient students. The goal of SIOP is to help teachers integrate academic language development into their lessons, allowing students to learn and practice…

  3. 9 CFR 3.77 - Sheltered housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sheltered housing facilities. 3.77 Section 3.77 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment,...

  4. 9 CFR 3.77 - Sheltered housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sheltered housing facilities. 3.77 Section 3.77 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment,...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1403-9 - Criteria-Shelter holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (except crosscuts used as shelter holes) and at least the height of the coal seam where the coal seam is less than 6 feet high and at least 6 feet in height where the coal seam is 6 feet or more in height. (c... feet in width, and 6 feet in height should be provided....

  6. 30 CFR 75.1403-9 - Criteria-Shelter holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (except crosscuts used as shelter holes) and at least the height of the coal seam where the coal seam is less than 6 feet high and at least 6 feet in height where the coal seam is 6 feet or more in height. (c... feet in width, and 6 feet in height should be provided....

  7. Products, Service Contracts, Operations, and Tools in Sheltered Workshops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Richard T.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Among findings of surveys on general capabilities for contract work completed by 737 sheltered workshops were that electronic/electrical assembly and wood pallet manufacture were the most common products; collating and mailing the most common service contracts; and bagging /packaging and assembly the most predominant hand operations. (Author/CL)

  8. Self-Study and Evaluation Guide for Sheltered Workshops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Accreditation Council for Agencies Serving the Blind and Visually Handicapped, New York, NY.

    Developed from a general "Self-Study and Evaluation Guide," this document is designed as an instrument for self study and evaluation of a sheltered workshop for the blind which operates as an independent agency rather than as part of a larger multiservice organization. In addition, the volume serves as a guide to an on-site review as part of the…

  9. Site Selection Criteria for Sheltering after Earthquakes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Ahmad; Ardalan, Ali; Darvishi Boloorani, Ali; Haghdoost, AliAkbar; Hosseinzadeh-Attar, Mohammad Javad

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Proper shelter site selection is necessary for long-term welfare of earthquake affected people. This study aims to explore the criteria that need to be considered after earthquakes. Methods: Through a systematic review, 273 articles found that were published till April 2014. Among these, seven articles have been selected and analyzed for the criteria that they introduced for sheltering site selection after earthquakes. Results: Out of 27 proposed criteria, accessibility and proximity to homes of affected people were stressed in all the papers. Moreover, seven other criteria were the same in most of the papers including suitable size, suitable distance from hazardous areas, geological hazards and land slope, suitable distance from medical centers, water supply and Security. We categorized all the mentioned criteria in six main categories. Size and location, disaster risk reduction, relief and rescue facilities, feasibility of the site, environmental and social aspects are the main categories. Conclusion: Selection and applying proper criteria for shelter site selection after earthquakes is a multi-disciplinary task. The decision needs relevant models and/or tools. Geographic Information System (GIS) is a useful tool for this purpose. Key words: Disaster, earthquake, shelter, site selection, systematic review PMID:25642367

  10. Review of Programs and Services; Shelter Rock Public Library, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullom, Linda; And Others

    A system study of the Shelter Rock Public Library was conducted using available documents, background statistical data, and site visits. The library was found to be a strong public institution. The study group's major recommendations included: reorganization of the staff into three major departments--public services, technical services, and…

  11. A survey of radioactive fallout data in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    DePhillips, M.P.

    1995-10-23

    Considerable attention has been directed by the scientific community to assessing the levels and fate of radionuclides in Arctic ecosystems. The following text and tables present available data and discussion of radionuclide fallout in Alaska. A literature search of 23 on-line databases (Table 1) using Alaska, Strontium (Sr), Cesium (Cs), Plutonium (Pu) and Radionuclide as constraint terms responded with 177 possible citations. After eliminating duplicate citations, 31 articles were available: 17 were relevant to the subject matter; the remainder addressed geologic issues. All of the cited literature addressed {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239,240}Pu as a result of radionuclide fallout from nuclear testing or accidental release.

  12. 38 CFR 21.144 - Vocational course in a sheltered workshop or rehabilitation facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sheltered workshop or rehabilitation facility. 21.144 Section 21.144 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... in a sheltered workshop or rehabilitation facility. (a) General. A vocational course in a sheltered workshop or rehabilitation facility may be an institutional, on-job, or combination course which has...

  13. 26 CFR 301.6111-1T - Questions and answers relating to tax shelter registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... borrowed on a recourse basis, from any person who participated in the organization, sale, or management of... in the tax shelter are first offered for sale, then any person who participates in the management of... opinion relating to the tax shelter; (5) Preparation of an appraisal relating to the tax shelter;...

  14. A pollinators' eye view of a shelter mimicry system

    PubMed Central

    Vereecken, Nicolas J.; Dorchin, Achik; Dafni, Amots; Hötling, Susann; Schulz, Stefan; Watts, Stella

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims ‘Human-red’ flowers are traditionally considered to be rather unpopular with bees, yet some allogamous species in the section Oncocyclus (genus Iris, Iridaceae) have evolved specialized interactions with their pollinators, a narrow taxonomic range of male solitary bees. The dark-red, tubular flowers of these irises are nectarless but provide protective shelters (i.e. a non-nutritive form of reward) primarily to male solitary bees (Apidae, Eucerini) that pollinate the flowers while looking for a shelter. An earlier study on orchids suggested that species pollinated predominantly by male solitary bees produce significantly larger amounts and larger numbers of different n-alkenes (unsaturated cuticular hydrocarbons). Whether or not this also applies to the Oncocyclus irises and whether pollinators are attracted by specific colours or scents of these flowers is unknown. Methods Using Iris atropurpurea, recording of pollinator preferences for shelters with different spatial parameters was combined with analyses of floral colours (by spectrophotometry) and scents (by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry) to test the hypotheses that (a) pollinators significantly prefer floral tunnels facing the rising sun (floral heat-reward hypothesis), and that (b) flowers pollinated predominantly by male solitary bees produce significantly larger amounts and larger numbers of unsaturated cuticular hydrocarbons (n-alkenes) in their floral scent (preadaptation to sexual-deception hypothesis). Key Results Male bees do not significantly prefer shelters facing the rising sun or with the presence of high absolute/relative amounts and numbers of n-alkenes in the floral scent. Conclusions The results suggest that the flowers of I. atropurpurea probably evolved by pollinator-mediated selection acting primarily on floral colours to mimic large achromatic (‘bee-black’) protective shelters used preferentially by male solitary bees, and that pollinator visits are

  15. Web-Enabled Optoelectronic Particle-Fallout Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lineberger, Lewis P.

    2008-01-01

    A Web-enabled optoelectronic particle- fallout monitor has been developed as a prototype of future such instruments that (l) would be installed in multiple locations for which assurance of cleanliness is required and (2) could be interrogated and controlled in nearly real time by multiple remote users. Like prior particle-fallout monitors, this instrument provides a measure of particles that accumulate on a surface as an indication of the quantity of airborne particulate contaminants. The design of this instrument reflects requirements to: Reduce the cost and complexity of its optoelectronic sensory subsystem relative to those of prior optoelectronic particle fallout monitors while maintaining or improving capabilities; Use existing network and office computers for distributed display and control; Derive electric power for the instrument from a computer network, a wall outlet, or a battery; Provide for Web-based retrieval and analysis of measurement data and of a file containing such ancillary data as a log of command attempts at remote units; and Use the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) for maximum performance and minimal network overhead.

  16. THE DEVELOPMENT OF RADIOACTIVE GLASS SURROGATES FOR FALLOUT DEBRIS

    SciTech Connect

    Martha R. Finck; Leigh R. Martin; Russel R. Lewis; Kevin P. Carney; Christopher A. McGrath

    2014-01-01

    The production of glass that emulates fallout is desired for the nuclear forensics community for training and measurement exercises. The composition of nuclear fallout is complex varying isotopic compositions . As the gaseous cloud traverses from hotter to cooler regions of the atmosphere, the processes of condensation and nucleation entrain environmental materials, vaporized nuclear materials and fission products. The elemental and isotopic composition of the fission products is altered due to chemical fractionation (i.e. the fission product composition that would be expected from fission of the original nuclear material is altered by differences in condensation rates of the elements); the fallout may be enriched or depleted in volatile or refractory fission products. This work describes preliminary results to synthesize, irradiate and fractionate the fission product content of irradiated particulate glass using a thermal distillation two hours after irradiation. The glass was synthesized using a solution-based polymerization of tetraethyl orthosilicate. Uranium was incorporated into the glass particulate at trace concentrations during polymerization. The particulate was subjected to a short thermal neutron irradiation then heated to 1273 K approximately 2 hours after the end of irradiation. Fission products of 133, 134, 135I, 132, 134Te, 135Xe, 138Cs and 91, 92Sr were observed to be distilled from the particulate. The results of these preliminary studies are discussed.

  17. Thyroid neoplasia in Marshall Islanders exposed to nuclear fallout

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T.E.; van Belle, G.; LoGerfo, J.P.

    1987-08-07

    We studied the risk of thyroid neoplasia in Marshall Islanders exposed to radioiodines in nuclear fallout from the 1954 BRAVO thermonuclear test. We screened 7266 Marshall Islanders for thyroid nodules; the islanders were from 14 atolls, including several southern atolls, which were the source of the best available unexposed comparison group. Using a retrospective cohort design, we determined the prevalence of thyroid nodularity in a subgroup of 2273 persons who were alive in 1954 and who therefore were potentially exposed to fallout from the BRAVO test. For those 12 atolls previously thought to be unexposed to fallout, the prevalence of thyroid nodules ranged from 0.9% to 10.6%. Using the distance of each atoll from the test site as a proxy for the radiation dose to the thyroid gland, a weighted linear regression showed an inverse linear relationship between distance and the age-adjusted prevalence of thyroid nodules. Distance was the strongest single predictor in logistic regression analysis. A new absolute risk estimate was calculated to be 1100 excess cases/Gy/y/1 X 10(6) persons (11.0 excess cases/rad/y/1 million persons), 33% higher than previous estimates. We conclude that an excess of thyroid nodules was not limited only to the two northern atolls but extended throughout the northern atolls; this suggests a linear dose-response relationship.

  18. RandAgiamo™, a Pilot Project Increasing Adoptability of Shelter Dogs in the Umbria Region (Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Menchetti, Laura; Mancini, Stefania; Catalani, Maria Chiara; Boccini, Beatrice; Diverio, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary In Italy, dog shelters are overcrowded because the rate of dog adoption is lower than that of abandonment. A project called “RandAgiamo” was implemented in a rescue shelter in central Italy. RandAgiamo provides training, socialization and advertising of adult shelter dogs. Official data of the Umbria regional health authorities from the year 2014 showed a higher rate of adoption in shelters involved in the project. RandAgiamo dogs had triple odds of being adopted compared to others housed in shelters of the same province. The increase in adoption rate can be beneficial for both dog welfare and shelter management. Abstract Current Italian legislation does not permit euthanasia of dogs, unless they are ill or dangerous. Despite good intentions and ethical benefits, this “no-kill policy” has caused a progressive overpopulation of dogs in shelters, due to abandonment rates being higher than adoption rates. Shelter overcrowding has negative implications for dog welfare and increases public costs. The aim of this paper is to describe the pilot project “RandAgiamo” implemented in a rescue shelter in the Umbria Region and to evaluate its effectiveness on the rate of dog adoption using official data. RandAgiamo aimed to increase adult shelter dogs’ adoptability by a standard training and socialization programme. It also promoted dogs’ visibility by publicizing them through social media and participation in events. We analysed the official data of the Umbria regional health authorities regarding dog shelters of the Perugia province of the year 2014. In the RandAgiamo shelter, the dog adoption rate was 27.5% higher than that of dogs housed in other shelters located in the same geographical area (p < 0.001). The RandAgiamo project could be beneficial for the dogs’ welfare, owner satisfaction, shelter management, and public perception of shelter dogs. However, staff were required to provide dog training and related activities. PMID:26479385

  19. What counts? A mixed-methods study to inform evaluation of shelters for abused women.

    PubMed

    Wathen, C Nadine; Harris, Roma M; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Hansen, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Shelters for abused women have expanded from "safe havens" to providing a range of residential and outreach services, and face increasing pressure to demonstrate "value for money" by providing evaluation metrics that may or may not reflect what they actually do. We conducted interviews and surveys with 68 shelter directors in Ontario, Canada, and found that differences in service philosophy and how abuse is defined influence decisions about who receives services and the shelter's role in the broader community; these in turn affect how the work of shelters is positioned. Implications for shelter service evaluation are discussed. PMID:25540254

  20. Global fallout Pu recorded in lacustrine sediments in Lake Hongfeng, SW China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian; Wu, Fengchang; Yamada, Masatoshi; Liao, Haiqing; Liu, Congqiang; Wan, Guojiang

    2008-03-01

    Studies on the distribution and isotope compositions of fallout Pu are important for source characterization of possible future non-fallout Pu contamination in aquatic environments, and useful for dating of recent sediments to understand the pollution history of environmental contaminants. We present the historical record of atmospheric Pu fallout reconstructed from a sediment core from Lake Hongfeng, China. The Pu activity profile was in agreement with the 137Cs profile. Inventories were 50.7 Bq m(-2) for 239+240Pu and 1586 Bq m(-2) for 137Cs. The average 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio was 0.185+/-0.009, indicating that Pu originated from global stratospheric fallout rather than from direct tropospheric or close-in fallout from the Chinese nuclear testing conducted in the 1970s. Our data suggested that Lake Hongfeng would be an ideal setting for monitoring atmospheric fallout and environmental changes in this region. PMID:17651874

  1. Identifying Evacuees' Demand of Tsunami Shelters using Agent Based Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mas, E.; Adriano, B.; Koshimura, S.; Imamura, F.; Kuroiwa, J.; Yamazaki, F.; Zavala, C.; Estrada, M.

    2012-12-01

    Amongst the lessons learned in tsunami events such as the 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Great Tohoku Japan earthquake is that sometimes nature exceeds structural countermeasures like seawalls, breakwaters or tsunami gates. In such situations it is a challenging task for people in plain areas to find sheltering places. The vertical evacuation to multistory buildings is one alternative to provide areas for sheltering in a complex environment of evacuation. However, if the spatial distribution and the available capacity of these structures are not well displayed, conditions of evacuee over-demand or under-demand might be observed in several structures. In this study, we present the integration of the tsunami numerical modeling and the agent based simulation of evacuation as the method to estimate the sheltering demand of evacuees in an emergent behavior approach. The case study is set in La Punta district in Peru. Here, we used in the tsunami simulation a seismic source of slip distribution model (Pulido et.al. ,2011; Chlieh et.al, 2011) for a possible future tsunami scenario in the central Andes. We modeled three alternatives of evacuation. First, the horizontal evacuation scenario was analyzed to support the necessity of the sheltering-in-place option for the district. Second, the vertical evacuation scenario and third, the combination of vertical and horizontal evacuation scenarios of pedestrians and vehicles were conducted. In the last two alternatives, the demand of evacuees were measured at each official tsunami evacuation building and compared to the sheltering capacity of the structure. Results showed that out of twenty tsunami evacuation buildings, thirteen resulted with over-demands and seven were still with available space. Also it is confirmed that in this case the horizontal evacuation might lead to a high number of casualties due to the traffic congestion at the neck of the district. Finally the vertical evacuation would be a suitable solution for this area

  2. Ventilation of Animal Shelters in Wildland Fire Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bova, A. S.; Bohrer, G.; Dickinson, M. B.

    2009-12-01

    The effects of wildland fires on cavity-nesting birds and bats, as well as fossorial mammals and burrow-using reptiles, are of considerable interest to the fire management community. However, relatively little is known about the degree of protection afforded by various animal shelters in wildland fire events. We present results from our ongoing investigation, utilizing NIST’s Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) and experimental data, of the effectiveness of common shelter configurations in protecting animals from combustion products. We compare two sets of simulations with observed experimental results. In the first set, wind tunnel experiments on single-entry room ventilation by Larsen and Heiselberg (2008) were simulated in a large domain resolved into 10 cm cubic cells. The set of 24 simulations comprised all combinations of incident wind speeds of 1,3 and 5 m/s; angles of attack of 0, 45, 90 and 180 degrees from the horizontal normal to the entrance; and temperature differences of 0 and 10 degrees C between the building interior and exterior. Simulation results were in good agreement with experimental data, thus providing a validation of FDS code for further ventilation experiments. In the second set, a cubic simulation domain of ~1m on edge and resolved into 1 cm cubic cells, was set up to represent the experiments by Ar et al. (2004) of wind-induced ventilation of woodpecker cavities. As in the experiments, we simulated wind parallel and perpendicular to the cavity entrance with different mean forcing velocities, and monitored the rates of evacuation of a neutral-buoyancy tracer from the cavity. Simulated ventilation rates in many, though not all, cases fell within the range of experimental data. Reasons for these differences, which include vagueness in the experimental setup, will be discussed. Our simulations provide a tool to estimate the viability of an animal in a shelter as a function of the shelter geometry and the fire intensity. In addition to the above

  3. Assessing the Relationship Between the Perceived Shelter Environment and Mental Health Among Homeless Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Beharie, Nisha; Lennon, Mary Clare; McKay, Mary McKernan

    2015-01-01

    Little attention has been given to how the environment of homeless shelters may impact the mental health of their residents. This study addresses this gap in the literature and presents a cross-sectional analysis of 209 caregivers nested within 10 family shelters across New York City. Multivariate regression was employed using hierarchical modeling to test the association between two shelter related variables (ie, the perceived social environment of the shelter and difficulty following shelter rules) and the mental health status of the caregiver residents. Less favorable perceptions of the social environment of the shelter and difficulty following shelter rules were both found to be associated with poorer mental health after controlling for demographic covariates as well as time in the shelter and first time in the shelter. These findings highlight the potential impact of the perceived social environment of shelters and methods of governance of shelters on the mental health of caregiver residents. In addition, the findings support the notion that interventions such as trauma informed care could potentially aid in addressing the mental health challenges that residents face. PMID:26332928

  4. Parasite control in Canadian companion animal shelters and a cost-comparison of anthelmintics.

    PubMed

    Schurer, Janna M; McKenzie, Christina; Dowling, Patricia M; Bouchard, Emilie; Jenkins, Emily J

    2015-09-01

    Animal shelters have limited resources and must accommodate large numbers of animals at unpredictable intake rates. These dogs and cats are often parasitized, which can adversely affect the health of animals and expose shelter workers and adoptive owners to zoonoses. We analyzed survey responses from rural (n = 32) and urban (n = 50) companion animal shelters across Canada, and compared the wholesale cost of commercially available anthelmintics to identify cost-effective methods of managing parasites within shelters. Almost all shelters employed nematocides (98% to 99%), but cestocides and ectoparasiticides were used less frequently. Shelters identified cost as an important consideration in choosing to perform fecal diagnostic testing and administer anthelmintics, and this motivated many shelters to selectively perform testing (66%) or never to test (32%), and to use drugs extralabel (80%). PMID:26345387

  5. Parasite control in Canadian companion animal shelters and a cost-comparison of anthelmintics

    PubMed Central

    Schurer, Janna M.; McKenzie, Christina; Dowling, Patricia M.; Bouchard, Emilie; Jenkins, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    Animal shelters have limited resources and must accommodate large numbers of animals at unpredictable intake rates. These dogs and cats are often parasitized, which can adversely affect the health of animals and expose shelter workers and adoptive owners to zoonoses. We analyzed survey responses from rural (n = 32) and urban (n = 50) companion animal shelters across Canada, and compared the wholesale cost of commercially available anthelmintics to identify cost-effective methods of managing parasites within shelters. Almost all shelters employed nematocides (98% to 99%), but cestocides and ectoparasiticides were used less frequently. Shelters identified cost as an important consideration in choosing to perform fecal diagnostic testing and administer anthelmintics, and this motivated many shelters to selectively perform testing (66%) or never to test (32%), and to use drugs extralabel (80%). PMID:26345387

  6. Multifractal structure of the ¹³⁷Cs fallout at small spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Grubich, A O

    2012-05-01

    Regardless of the surface area of the site, the spatial distribution of radioactive contamination of soils with ¹³⁷Cs for Chernobyl fallout is described by a lognormal distribution. Moreover, the spatial pattern of the radioactive contamination of soil is random geometrical multifractal field. Due to that, any contamination spot, when studied in detail, decomposes into a multitude of small spots decomposing further into a multitude of smaller spots etc. Similar patterns are apparently characteristic for fallout of other radionuclides, the Fukushima fallout, as well as atmospheric fallout of non-radioactive dust and aerosols. PMID:22370652

  7. Survey of euthanasia practices in animal shelters in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Caffrey, Niamh; Mounchili, Aboubakar; McConkey, Sandra; Cockram, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Questionnaires on methods of euthanasia used in Canadian animal shelters were sent to 196 Canadian animal shelters yielding 67 responses. Sodium pentobarbital injection was the only method of euthanasia used by 61% of establishments that euthanized dogs and 53% of the establishments that euthanized cats. Many of these establishments used pre-medication. Sodium pentobarbital was mostly administered intravenously but some establishments also used intracardiac and intraperitoneal routes, and some only used intracardiac administration for cats. T-61 injection was the only method of euthanasia used by 23% of the establishments that euthanized dogs and 35% of the establishments that euthanized cats. All of these establishments used pre-medication, but the percentages of establishments that only used the intravenous route for administration of T-61 in dogs and cats were 45% and 7%, respectively. Further studies on the use of T-61, and the training and provision of counselling services for staff are recommended. PMID:21461208

  8. Faecal virome of cats in an animal shelter

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen; Li, Linlin; Deng, Xutao; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Pesavento, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the metagenomics-derived feline enteric virome in the faeces of 25 cats from a single shelter in California. More than 90 % of the recognizable viral reads were related to mammalian viruses and the rest to bacterial viruses. Eight viral families were detected: Astroviridae, Coronaviridae, Parvoviridae, Circoviridae, Herpesviridae, Anelloviridae, Caliciviridae and Picobirnaviridae. Six previously known viruses were also identified: feline coronavirus type 1, felid herpes 1, feline calicivirus, feline norovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and picobirnavirus. Novel species of astroviruses and bocaviruses, and the first genome of a cyclovirus in a feline were characterized. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase region from four highly divergent partial viral genomes in the order Picornavirales were sequenced. The detection of such a diverse collection of viruses shed within a single shelter suggested that such animals experience robust viral exposures. This study increases our understanding of the viral diversity in cats, facilitating future evaluation of their pathogenic and zoonotic potentials. PMID:25078300

  9. Delivery of Mental Health Care in a Large Disaster Shelter.

    PubMed

    North, Carol S; King, Richard V; Fowler, Raymond L; Kucmierz, Rita; Wade, Jess D; Hogan, Dave; Carlo, John T

    2015-08-01

    Large numbers of evacuees arrived in Dallas, Texas, from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita just 3 weeks apart in 2005 and from Hurricanes Gustav and Ike just 3 weeks apart again in 2008. The Dallas community needed to locate, organize, and manage the response to provide shelter and health care with locally available resources. With each successive hurricane, disaster response leaders applied many lessons learned from prior operations to become more efficient and effective in the provision of services. Mental health services proved to be an essential component. From these experiences, a set of operating guidelines for large evacuee shelter mental health services in Dallas was developed, with involvement of key stakeholders. A generic description of the processes and procedures used in Dallas that highlights the important concepts, key considerations, and organizational steps was then created for potential adaptation by other communities. PMID:26008136

  10. PIONEER: A Robot for Structural Assessment of the Chornobyl Shelter

    SciTech Connect

    Catalan, Michael A. ); Thompson, Bruce R.; Dan G. Cacuci

    2001-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsored the design and fabrication of a radiation-hardened mobile diagnostic robot dubbed Pioneer. Pioneer was designed to operate in the most hazardous locations within the Chornobyl Shelter. Pioneer was delivered to the Ukraine in the spring of 1999. Initial system training and cold testing was performed after delivery.

  11. Effectiveness of sheltering in buildings and vehicles for plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Engelmann, R.J.

    1990-07-30

    The purpose of this paper is to collect and present current knowledge relevant to the protection offered by sheltering against exposure to plutonium particles released to the atmosphere during accidents. For those many contaminants for which effects are linear with the airborne concentration, it is convenient to define a Dose Reduction Factor (DRF). In the past, the DRF has been defined as the ratio of the radiological dose that may be incurred within the shelter to that in the outdoors. As such, it includes the dose through shine from plumes aloft and from material deposited on the surface. For this paper, which is concerned only with the inhalation pathway, the DRF is the ratio of the time-integrated concentration inside the shelter to that outdoors. It is important to note that the range over which effects are linear with concentration may be limited for many contaminants. Examples are when concentrations produce effects that are irreversible, or when concentrations are below effects threshold levels. 71 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Case series of feline panleukopenia virus in an animal shelter.

    PubMed

    Litster, Annette; Benjanirut, Chutamas

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a series of confirmed and suspected cases of feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) and in-contact cats in an adoption-guarantee shelter in an FPV-endemic area by reviewing shelter records over a 10-month period (January-October 2010). Cats were divided into three groups: in-contact group - asymptomatic cats that were housed with a FPV fecal antigen (Ag)-positive cat/kitten as part of a litter group (n = 66); FPV-survivors group (FPV-infected survivors) - tested FPV fecal Ag-positive and showed clinical signs of FPV, but survived (n = 27); FPV-non-survivors group (FPV-infected non-survivors) - showed clinical signs of FPV and either tested FPV fecal Ag-positive or were housed with an Ag-positive family member, but did not survive (n = 52). Ages ranged from 3 weeks to 3 years, but most were <6 months old (in-contact group: 79%; FPV-survivors group: 70%; FPV-non-survivors group: 85%). A seasonal peak occurred over summer, but cases occurred year-round. Anorexia, dehydration, fever and diarrhea predominated in the FPV-survivors group, and death was preceded by clinical signs of circulatory shock in the FPV-non-survivors group. Housing litters of kittens with their mother was not associated with improved outcome, perhaps because in this population clinical FPV infection was relatively common in queens arriving at the shelter with susceptible litters. PMID:23873047

  13. Northern San Andreas fault near Shelter Cove, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prentice, C.S.; Merritts, D.J.; Beutner, E.C.; Bodin, P.; Schill, A.; Muller, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    The location of the San Andreas fault in the Shelter Cove area of northern California has been the subject of long-standing debate within the geological community. Although surface ruptures were reported near Shelter Cove in 1906, several subsequent workers questioned whether these ruptures represented true fault slip or shaking-related, gravity-driven deformation. This study, involving geologic and geomorphic mapping, historical research, and excavation across the 1906 rupture zone, concludes that the surface ruptures reported in 1906 were the result of strike-slip faulting, and that a significant Quaternary fault is located onshore near Shelter Cove. Geomorphic arguments suggest that the Holocene slip rate of this fault is greater than about 14 mm/yr, indicating that it plays an important role within the modern plate-boundary system. The onshore trace of the fault zone is well expressed as far north as Telegraph Hill; north of Telegraph Hill, its location is less well-constrained, but we propose that a splay of the fault may continue onshore northward for at least 9 km to the vicinity of Saddle Mountain.

  14. Mesomorphic [2]rotaxanes: sheltering ionic cores with interlocking components.

    PubMed

    Suhan, Natalie D; Loeb, Stephen J; Eichhorn, S Holger

    2013-01-01

    Two types of liquid crystalline [2]rotaxanes based on a conventional tetracatenar motif (a rod-shaped molecule with two side chains at each end) have been prepared. Dicationic compounds with ester stoppers and tetracationic materials with pyridinium stoppers are compared to each other and their dumbbell shaped analogs. Since the ionic core contributes about 70% to the overall length and molecular weight of the molecules, sheltering the ionic cores with an interlocked neutral macrocycle has considerable effect on the mesomorphism and thermal stability of the materials. The influence of the sheltering macrocycle, the numbers of charges on the core and the size and nature of the side chains (aliphatic vs siloxane) were probed. [2]Rotaxanes with linear side chains and minimum ratios of chain-to-core volumes of about 0.35 and 0.30 for tetra- and dicationic compounds, respectively, display smectic liquid crystal phases. Larger ratios increase the temperature range of the smectic A phases beyond the decomposition temperatures; a disadvantage for processing because no stable isotropic liquid phase is available. The change from tetra- to dicationic [2]rotaxanes increased not only the fluidity of their smectic A phases but also their thermal and chemical stability. Branched side chains (2-hexyldecyl) disfavor the formation of lamellar mesophases and, instead, induce higher ordered soft crystal phases. No liquid crystal phases but soft crystal phases are observed for the analogous di- and tetracationic compounds without an ion sheltering interlocked macrocycle (dumbbells). PMID:23215351

  15. Effectiveness of Urban Shelter-in-Place. III: Commercial Districts

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Wanyu R.; Chan, Wanyu R.; Nazaroff, William W.; Price, Phillip N.; Gadgil, Ashok J.

    2007-12-28

    In the event of a toxic chemical release to the atmosphere, shelter-in-place (SIP) is an emergency response option available to protect public health. This paper is the last in a three-part series that examines the effectiveness of SIP at reducing adverse health effects in communities. We model a hypothetical chemical release in an urban area, and consider SIP effectiveness in protecting occupants of commercial buildings. Building air infiltration rates are predicted from empirical data using an existing model. We consider the distribution of building air infiltration rates both with mechanical ventilation systems turned off and with the systems operating. We also consider the effects of chemical sorption to indoor surfaces and nonlinear chemical dose-response relationships. We find that commercial buildings provide effective shelter when ventilation systems are off, but that any delay in turning off ventilation systems can greatly reduce SIP effectiveness. Using a two-zone model, we find that there can be substantial benefit by taking shelter in the inner parts of a building that do not experience direct air exchange with the outdoors. Air infiltration rates vary substantially among buildings and this variation is important in quantifying effectiveness for emergency response. Community-wide health metrics, introduced in the previous papers in this series, can be applied in pre-event planning and to guide real-time emergency response.

  16. Outcome of Transplant-fallout Patients With Unresectable Cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sio, Terence T.; Haddock, Michael G.; Novotny, Paul J.; Gores, Gregory J.; Alberts, Steven R.; Miller, Robert C.; Heimbach, Julie K.; Rosen, Charles B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this was to determine survival after starting neoadjuvant therapy for patients who became ineligible for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Methods and Materials: Since January 1993, 215 patients with unresectable cholangiocarcinoma began treatment with planned OLT. Treatment included external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with fluorouracil, bile duct brachytherapy, and postradiotherapy fluorouracil or capecitabine before OLT. Adverse findings at the staging operation, death, and other factors precluded OLT in 63 patients (29%), of whom 61 completed neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Results: By October 2012, 56 (89%) of the 63 patients unable to undergo OLT had died. Twenty-two patients (35%) became ineligible for OLT before the staging operation, 38 (60%) at the staging operation, and 3 (5%) after staging. From the date of diagnosis, median overall survival was 12.3 months. Survival was 17% at 18 months and 7% at 24 months. Median survival after fallout was 6.8 months. Median survival after the staging operation was 6 months. Two patients lived for 3.7 and 8.7 years before dying of cancer or liver failure caused by persistent biliary stricture at the site of the original cancer, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that time from diagnosis to fallout correlated with overall survival (P=0.04). Conclusions: In highly selected patients initially suitable for OLT, the mortality rate for cholangiocarcinoma was high in patients who became ineligible for OLT. Their survival, however, was comparable to expected survival for patients with locally advanced or metastatic disease treated with nontransplant therapies. The most common reason for patient fallout was adverse findings at the staging operation. PMID:24921218

  17. Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident

    SciTech Connect

    Beiriger, J.M.; Failor, R.A.; Marsh, K.V.; Shaw, G.E.

    1987-03-23

    Following the accident at the nuclear reactor at Chernobyl, in the Soviet Union on April 26, 1986, we performed a variety of measurements to determine the level of the radioactive fallout on the western United States. We used gamma-spectroscopy to analyze air filters from the areas around Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), California, and Barrow and Fairbanks, Alaska. Milk from California and imported vegetables were also analyzed. The levels of the various fission products detected were far below the maximum permissible concentration levels.

  18. Agent-based evacuation simulation for spatial allocation assessment of urban shelters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jia; Wen, Jiahong; Jiang, Yong

    2015-12-01

    The construction of urban shelters is one of the most important work in urban planning and disaster prevention. The spatial allocation assessment is a fundamental pre-step for spatial location-allocation of urban shelters. This paper introduces a new method which makes use of agent-based technology to implement evacuation simulation so as to conduct dynamic spatial allocation assessment of urban shelters. The method can not only accomplish traditional geospatial evaluation for urban shelters, but also simulate the evacuation process of the residents to shelters. The advantage of utilizing this method lies into three aspects: (1) the evacuation time of each citizen from a residential building to the shelter can be estimated more reasonably; (2) the total evacuation time of all the residents in a region is able to be obtained; (3) the road congestions in evacuation in sheltering can be detected so as to take precautionary measures to prevent potential risks. In this study, three types of agents are designed: shelter agents, government agents and resident agents. Shelter agents select specified land uses as shelter candidates for different disasters. Government agents delimitate the service area of each shelter, in other words, regulate which shelter a person should take, in accordance with the administrative boundaries and road distance between the person's position and the location of the shelter. Resident agents have a series of attributes, such as ages, positions, walking speeds, and so on. They also have several behaviors, such as reducing speed when walking in the crowd, helping old people and children, and so on. Integrating these three types of agents which are correlated with each other, evacuation procedures can be simulated and dynamic allocation assessment of shelters will be achieved. A case study in Jing'an District, Shanghai, China, was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the method. A scenario of earthquake disaster which occurs in nighttime

  19. Dynamic test of a corrugated steel keyworker blast shelter MISTY PICTURE. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, R.L.; Slawson, T.R.; Harris, A.L.

    1987-11-01

    The 18-man blast shelter was tested dynamically on May 14, 1987 in the MISTY PICTURE event at White Sands Missile Range, NM. The main section of the shelter was fabricated from a 9-foot-diameter, 27.5-foot-long section of 10-gage, galvanized, corrugated steel culvert. The shelter included a vertical entryway and air intake and exhaust stacks. The shelter design was found to be conservative during a previous 50-psi validation test, and some constructibility problems were encountered with the entryway-to-shelter connections. This test was conducted to validate the modifications made to the shelter design. The modifications were made to reduce construction costs and improve constructibility. Primary modifications included: replacing the stiffened endwalls with lighter-weight unstiffened plates, connecting the entryway to an endwall rather than to the main section of the shelter, and the inclusion of an emergency exit. The structure was located at the anticipated 200-psi peak overpressure level. Post-test inspection revealed that the main section of the shelter suffered very little damage during the test. Due to the failure of the emergency exit cover plate, it was necessary to determine if enough pressure entered the shelter to affect its structural response. This test also investigated the shock environment inside the shelter.

  20. Fallout 137Cs in reindeer herders in Arctic Norway.

    PubMed

    Skuterud, Lavrans; Thørring, Håvard

    2015-03-01

    Reindeer herders in the Arctic were among the most heavily exposed populations to the global fallout from nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s and 1960s, due to high transfer of radionuclides in the lichens-reindeer-human food chain. Annual studies of (137)Cs in reindeer herders in Kautokeino, Norway, were initiated in 1965 to monitor radiation doses and follow environmental (137)Cs behavior. The (137)Cs concentrations declined from the peak in 1965 with effective half-times of 6-8 years, only interrupted by a temporary doubling in levels from 1986 to 1987 due to the Chernobyl fallout. During the period of 1950-2010 an average herder received an integrated effective dose from incorporated (137)Cs of about 18 mSv. This dose represents an insignificant increase in the risk for developing cancer. Health studies even show a significantly lower cancer incidence among Sámis and reindeer herders in northern Norway compared to other populations in the same area. PMID:25671344

  1. Individual human odor fallout as detected by trained canines.

    PubMed

    Vyplelová, Petra; Vokálek, Václav; Pinc, Ludvík; Pacáková, Zuzana; Bartoš, Luděk; Santariová, Milena; Čapková, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that if odor fallout (the release of a human's odor onto an untouched object) in human subjects exists, then holding a hand above an absorbent will produce a detectable scent which will be subsequently matched in a detection test by trained canines. Scents were collected from seven males to sterile cotton absorbent squares. The left hand was used to get the control scent and the right hand served as the target scent. Each experimental subject was sitting; his left hand was laid down on a cotton square for 3 min. The right hand was held 5 cm above another cotton square for 3 min. The scent identification was done by two specially trained police German shepherds. These canines had routinely performed scent identification line-ups as part of criminal investigation procedures. Both canines performed 14 line-ups and correctly matched the collected scents of all test subjects. The results suggest the existence of human odor fallout, whereby a human scent trace is left by humans even if they do not touch an object. PMID:24378296

  2. COMIDA: a radionuclide food chain model for acute fallout deposition.

    PubMed

    Abbott, M L; Rood, A S

    1994-01-01

    A dynamic food chain model and computer code, named "COMIDA," has been developed to estimate radionuclide concentrations in agricultural food products following an acute fallout event. COMIDA estimates yearly harvest concentrations for five human crop types (Bq kg-1 crop per Bq m-2 deposited) and integrated concentrations for four animal products (Bq d kg-1 animal product per Bq m-2) for a unit deposition that occurs on any user-specified day of the year. COMIDA is structurally very similar to the PATHWAY model and includes the same seasonal transport processes and discrete events for soil and vegetation compartments. Animal product assimilation is modeled using simpler equilibrium models. Differential transport and ingrowth of up to three radioactive progeny are also evaluated. Benchmark results between COMIDA and PATHWAY for monthly fallout events show very similar seasonal agreement for integrated concentrations in milk and beef. Benchmark results between COMIDA and four international steady-state models show good agreement for deposition events that occur during the middle of the growing season. COMIDA will be implemented in the new Department of Energy version of the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System for evaluation of accidental releases from nuclear power plants. PMID:8253573

  3. Determination of lateral spread of nuclear-fallout patterns. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, D.P.

    1986-03-01

    This report develops an improved method of determining the lateral spread of nuclear fallout. A full physics model of pattern development based on particle mass is analyzed. A rapid, simplified method for the prediction of nuclear-fallout patterns is developed for the case of a 1-Mt weapon based on empirical data from WSEG-10. This model is extended to other weapon sizes.

  4. Sensitivity analysis to aid shelter management decisions: how does altering expenditure affect operational viability?

    PubMed

    Widmar, Nicole Olynk; Lord, Emily; Litster, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Streamlining purchasing in nonhuman animal shelters can provide multiple financial benefits. Streamlining shelter inputs and thus reducing shelter costs can include trading paid labor and management for fewer, more involved volunteers or purchasing large quantities of medical supplies from fewer vendors to take advantage of bulk-purchasing discounts. Beyond direct savings, time and energy spent on purchasing and inventory control can be reduced through careful management. Although cost-cutting measures may seem attractive, shelter managers are cautioned to consider the potential unintended consequences of short-term cost reduction measures that could limit revenues or increase costs in the future. This analysis illustrates an example of the impact of cost reductions in specific expense categories and the impact on shelter net revenue, as well as the share of expenses across categories. An in-depth discussion of labor and purchasing cost-reducing strategies in the real world of animal shelter management is provided. PMID:25775134

  5. Rates of euthanasia and adoption for dogs and cats in Michigan animal shelters.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Paul C; Bartlett, Andrew; Walshaw, Sally; Halstead, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Estimates of canine and feline euthanasia at U.S. animal shelters--largely based on voluntary surveys with low response rates--make it difficult to estimate the population from which the euthanized animals derive. Estimates of euthanasia rates (animals euthanized per unit of population) have varied widely and been available only sporadically. This study used requirements of Michigan state law (Pet Shops, Dog Pounds, and Animal Shelters Act, 1969) for animal shelters to collect admission and discharge data for all 176 Michigan-licensed animal shelters. In 2003, Michigan shelters discharged 140,653 dogs: Of these, 56,972 (40%) were euthanized; 40,005 (28%) were adopted. This annual euthanasia rate is 2.6% of the estimated 2003 Michigan dog population. Michigan shelters discharged 134,405 cats in 2003: 76,321 (57%) by euthanasia and (24%) by adoption. The estimated ratio of euthanized cats to cats who had owners was 3.1%. Small shelters and privately owned shelters were associated with higher adoption rates. Comparison with historical information from the past 10 to 20 years suggests the number of companion animals being euthanized in shelters has decreased and that progress has been made in reducing the companion animal overpopulation problem. PMID:16277593

  6. RandAgiamo™, a Pilot Project Increasing Adoptability of Shelter Dogs in the Umbria Region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Menchetti, Laura; Mancini, Stefania; Catalani, Maria Chiara; Boccini, Beatrice; Diverio, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Current Italian legislation does not permit euthanasia of dogs, unless they are ill or dangerous. Despite good intentions and ethical benefits, this 'no-kill policy' has caused a progressive overpopulation of dogs in shelters, due to abandonment rates being higher than adoption rates. Shelter overcrowding has negative implications for dog welfare and increases public costs. The aim of this paper is to describe the pilot project "RandAgiamo" implemented in a rescue shelter in the Umbria Region and to evaluate its effectiveness on the rate of dog adoption using official data. RandAgiamo aimed to increase adult shelter dogs' adoptability by a standard training and socialization programme. It also promoted dogs' visibility by publicizing them through social media and participation in events. We analysed the official data of the Umbria regional health authorities regarding dog shelters of the Perugia province of the year 2014. In the RandAgiamo shelter, the dog adoption rate was 27.5% higher than that of dogs housed in other shelters located in the same geographical area (P < 0.001). The RandAgiamo project could be beneficial for the dogs' welfare, owner satisfaction, shelter management, and public perception of shelter dogs. However, staff were required to provide dog training and related activities. PMID:26479385

  7. What factors were important for dietary improvement in emergency shelters after the Great East Japan Earthquake?

    PubMed

    Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Hoshi, Yuko; Onodera, Kazue; Mizuno, Shoichi; Sako, Kazuko

    2014-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011 left many evacuees with insufficient food and emergency shelter. However, there is no evidence concerning the factors affecting dietary circumstances in emergency shelters after disasters. To clarify the factors that influenced the provision of meals, we reanalyzed a data set from a dietary survey conducted in emergency shelters one month after the Great East Japan Earthquake (2011). Among the 69 shelters in "city A," 53 (79.1%) had food shortages. The possibility of cooking in the emergency shelter improved the provision of meals to evacuees. When comparing emergency shelters with and without cooking equipment, the shelters with cooking equipment provided more meals, as well as more dishes containing grains and vegetables. When there was a gas supply, the twice per day provision of "balanced" meals (containing grains, vegetables, and meat/fish) was more frequent than when there was no gas supply. Interestingly, neither the water supply nor the electricity supply affected the provision of balanced meals. Further, emergency shelters with larger numbers of evacuees had a lower possibility of cooking and lower availability of gas supply. Our results demonstrate that early improvements to post-disaster meal provision may maintain the health of evacuees. Such improvements could be achieved by 1) the speedy restoration of the gas supply to enable cooking, and 2) limiting the number of evacuees per emergency shelter. PMID:24561984

  8. The Exposure Rate Conversion Factor for Nuclear Fallout

    SciTech Connect

    Spriggs, G D

    2009-02-11

    Nuclear fallout is comprised of approximately 2000 radionuclides. About 1000 of these radionuclides are either primary fission products or activated fission products that are created during the burn process. The exposure rate one meter above the surface produced by this complex mixture of radionuclides varies rapidly with time since many of the radionuclides are short-lived and decay numerous times before reaching a stable isotope. As a result, the mixture of radionuclides changes rapidly with time. Using a new code developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the mixture of radionuclides at any given point in time can be calculated. The code also calculates the exposure rate conversion factor (ECF) for all 3864 individual isotopes contained in its database based on the total gamma energy released per decay. Based on the combination of isotope mixture and individual ECFs, the time-dependent variation of the composite exposure rate conversion factor for nuclear fallout can be easily calculated. As example of this new capability, a simple test case corresponding to a 10 kt, uranium-plutonium fuel has been calculated. The results for the time-dependent, composite ECF for this test case are shown in Figure 1. For comparison, we also calculated the composite exposure rate conversion factor using the conversion factors found in Federal Guidance Report No.12 (FGR-12) published by ORNL, which contains the conversion factors for approximately 1000 isotopes. As can be noted from Figure 1, the two functions agree reasonably well at times greater than about 30 minutes. However, they do not agree at early times since FGR-12 does not include all of the short-lived isotopes that are produced in nuclear fallout. It should also be noted that the composite ECF at one hour is 19.7 R/hr per Ci/m{sup 2}. This corresponds to 3148 R/hr per 1 kt per square mile, which agrees reasonably well with the value of 3000 R/hr per 1 kt per square mile as quoted by Glasstone. We have

  9. The KFM, A Homemade Yet Accurate and Dependable Fallout Meter

    SciTech Connect

    Kearny, C.H.

    2001-11-20

    The KFM is a homemade fallout meter that can be made using only materials, tools, and skills found in millions of American homes. It is an accurate and dependable electroscope-capacitor. The KFM, in conjunction with its attached table and a watch, is designed for use as a rate meter. Its attached table relates observed differences in the separations of its two leaves (before and after exposures at the listed time intervals) to the dose rates during exposures of these time intervals. In this manner dose rates from 30 mR/hr up to 43 R/hr can be determined with an accuracy of {+-}25%. A KFM can be charged with any one of the three expedient electrostatic charging devices described. Due to the use of anhydrite (made by heating gypsum from wallboard) inside a KFM and the expedient ''dry-bucket'' in which it can be charged when the air is very humid, this instrument always can be charged and used to obtain accurate measurements of gamma radiation no matter how high the relative humidity. The heart of this report is the step-by-step illustrated instructions for making and using a KFM. These instructions have been improved after each successive field test. The majority of the untrained test families, adequately motivated by cash bonuses offered for success and guided only by these written instructions, have succeeded in making and using a KFM. NOTE: ''The KFM, A Homemade Yet Accurate and Dependable Fallout Meter'', was published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory report in1979. Some of the materials originally suggested for suspending the leaves of the Kearny Fallout Meter (KFM) are no longer available. Because of changes in the manufacturing process, other materials (e.g., sewing thread, unwaxed dental floss) may not have the insulating capability to work properly. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has not tested any of the suggestions provided in the preface of the report, but they have been used by other groups. When using these instructions, the builder can verify the

  10. Determinants of adoption and euthanasia of shelter dogs spayed or neutered in the university of california veterinary student surgery program compared to other shelter dogs.

    PubMed

    Clevenger, Jaime; Kass, Philip H

    2003-01-01

    Limited economic resources and pet overpopulation force animals shelters to consider euthanasia of adoptable animals every day. Veterinary medical schools can play a positive role in increasing pet adoption and combating overpopulation by providing free neutering for shelter animals. This retrospective cohort study illustrated that the cooperative efforts of a veterinary medicine surgical teaching program and local animal shelters decreases euthanasia of adoptable pets. At the University of California, Davis (UCD), shelter dogs are neutered by veterinary students and then returned to the shelter for adoption. The rates of adoption and euthanasia of the dogs neutered at UCD were contrasted with a comparison shelter group to determine the effect of pre-adoption neutering. The UCD-neutered dogs had a lower rate of euthanasia than the comparison shelter group at the shelters investigated. At Sacramento County Animal Care and Regulation, 73% of the UCD group but only 36% of the comparison group were adopted. At Yolo County Animal Services, 71% of the UCD group and 45% of the comparison group were adopted. The sex of an animal did not significantly affect the rate of euthanasia. Dogs that were predominantly pit bull, rottweiler, or chow chow breeds had higher rates of euthanasia than other breeds, independent of neuter status. Also, juveniles (less than one year old) had lower rates of euthanasia than adults, independent of neuter status. UCD adult dogs had lower rates of euthanasia than comparison adults. Post-surgical UCD dogs spent a longer average time in the shelter before adoption (15 days at Sacramento; 16 days at Yolo) than the comparison dogs (11 and 12 days, respectively). UCD dogs also spent a longer average time in the shelter before euthanasia (18 and 25 days, respectively) than the comparison dogs (13 days at both shelters). Lower probabilities of euthanasia for behavioral or medical reasons were found for UCD dogs than for the comparison dogs. The

  11. Using fallout plutonium as a probe for erosion assessment.

    PubMed

    Hoo, W T; Fifield, L K; Tims, S G; Fujioka, T; Mueller, N

    2011-10-01

    A study has been carried out to assess the potential of using fallout plutonium (Pu), which originated from atmospheric nuclear-weapons tests, as a tool to investigate recent erosional processes within the lower Cotter water-supply catchment in the Australian Capital Territory. This catchment, which was predominantly pine plantation, was severely affected by a major bush fire in 2003. Accelerator mass spectrometry has been used to measure Pu in soil samples collected from a number of sites across the catchment. The results indicate that less than 1cm of surface soil had been lost since the early 1960s over much of the catchment. Areas of more erodible soil have, however, lost 2-4cm of topsoil, and a loss of ∼6cm of soil was identified at one particular site. PMID:20638160

  12. Chernobyl team seeks aid for fallout cleanup studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-18

    British nuclear experts have begun raising international aid agency interest in financing studies into cleaning up vast areas of the Ukraine still contaminated with fallout from the Chernobyl reactor explosion in April 1986. In a new 11-month investigation of the area outside an 18.6-mile radius of Chernobyl, the experts identified 80 necessary studies estimated to cost $62 million. [open quotes]That's just to get the system up and running. The total cost is much larger, but the authors don't yet know how much,[close quotes] says investigation coordinator Alan Eggleton of AEA Technology Ltd., Harwell, which led the study team. According to the report, radioactivity contaminated 19,000 sq miles of the Ukraine. The government is now spending some 12% of its income on mitigating the contamination, although most spending is for victim compensation and resettlement.

  13. Another look at the calculation of fallout tephra volumes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fierstein, J.; Nathenson, M.

    1992-01-01

    The calculation of volumes of fallout tephra layers is difficult because of the nonlinear dependence of thickness on area and because of the extrapolations required at the vent and in distal regions. Calculation using the trapezoidal rule, straight lines on log-log plots of area versus thickness, straight lines on plots of log thickness versus area1/2, and the crystal-concentration method are reviewed and the problems with each method discussed. The method using straight lines on plots of log thickness versus area1/2 is the most geologically reasonable because most deposits thin exponentially from source and therefore plot as straight lines using these coordinates. Errors and uncertainties in previous derivations for using this method are discussed and more general formulas presented. The method is also used to gain perspective on the "missing" distal volumes calculated by the crystal-concentration method compared to those calculated based only on isopach data. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag.

  14. Assessment of spatial distribution of fallout radionuclides through geostatistics concept.

    PubMed

    Mabit, L; Bernard, C

    2007-01-01

    After introducing geostatistics concept and its utility in environmental science and especially in Fallout Radionuclide (FRN) spatialisation, a case study for cesium-137 ((137)Cs) redistribution at the field scale using geostatistics is presented. On a Canadian agricultural field, geostatistics coupled with a Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to test three different techniques of interpolation [Ordinary Kriging (OK), Inverse Distance Weighting power one (IDW1) and two (IDW2)] to create a (137)Cs map and to establish a radioisotope budget. Following the optimization of variographic parameters, an experimental semivariogram was developed to determine the spatial dependence of (137)Cs. It was adjusted to a spherical isotropic model with a range of 30 m and a very small nugget effect. This (137)Cs semivariogram showed a good autocorrelation (R(2)=0.91) and was well structured ('nugget-to-sill' ratio of 4%). It also revealed that the sampling strategy was adequate to reveal the spatial correlation of (137)Cs. The spatial redistribution of (137)Cs was estimated by Ordinary Kriging and IDW to produce contour maps. A radioisotope budget was established for the 2.16 ha agricultural field under investigation. It was estimated that around 2 x 10(7)Bq of (137)Cs were missing (around 30% of the total initial fallout) and were exported by physical processes (runoff and erosion processes) from the area under investigation. The cross-validation analysis showed that in the case of spatially structured data, OK is a better interpolation method than IDW1 or IDW2 for the assessment of potential radioactive contamination and/or pollution. PMID:17673340

  15. Training Veterinary Students in Shelter-Medicine: A Service-Learning Community Classroom Based Technique

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Brenda J.; Gruen, Margaret E.

    2015-01-01

    Shelter medicine is a rapidly developing field of great importance, and shelters themselves provide abundant training opportunities for veterinary medical students. Students trained in shelter medicine have opportunities to practice zoonotic and species-specific infectious disease control, behavioral evaluation and management, primary care, as well as animal welfare, ethics, and public policy issues. Ranges of sheltering systems now exist, from brick-and-mortar facilities to networks of foster homes with no centralized facility. Exposure to a single shelter setting may not allow students to understand the full range of sheltering systems that exist; a community classroom approach balances the opportunity to introduce students to a diverse array of sheltering systems, while gaining practical experience. This article presents the details and results of a series of two-week, elective clinical rotations with a focus on field and service-learning in animal shelters. The overall aim was to provide opportunities that familiarized students with sheltering systems and provided primary care training. Other priorities included increasing awareness of public health concerns, and equipping students to evaluate shelters on design, operating protocols, infectious disease control, enrichment and community outreach. Students were required to participate in rounds, and complete a project that addressed a need recognized by them during the rotation. This article includes costs associated with the rotation, a blueprint for how the rotation was carried out at our institution, and details of shelters visited and animals treated, including a breakdown of treatments provided. Also discussed are the student projects and student feedback on this valuable clinical experience. PMID:24407109

  16. A Storm's Approach; Hurricane Shelter Training in a Digital Age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyarsky, Andrew; Burden, David; Gronstedt, Anders; Jinman, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    New York City's Office of Emergency Management (OEM) originally ran hundreds of classroom based courses, where they brought together civil servants to learn how to run a Hurricane Shelter (HS). This approach was found to be costly, time consuming and lacked any sense of an impending disaster and need for emergency response. In partnership with the City of New York University School of Professional studies, Gronstedt Group and Daden Limited, the OEM wanted to create a simulation that overcame these issues, providing users with a more immersive and realistic approach at a lower cost. The HS simulation was built in the virtual world Second Life (SL). Virtual worlds are a genre of online communities that often take the form of a computer-based simulated environments, through which users can interact with one another and use or create objects. Using this technology allowed managers to apply their knowledge in both classroom and remote learning environments. The shelter simulation is operational 24/7, guiding users through a 4 1/2 hour narrative from start to finish. This paper will describe the rationale for the project, the technical approach taken - particularly the use of a web based authoring tool to create and manage the immersive simulation, and the results from operational use.

  17. Primary-Grade Students' Knowledge and Thinking about Shelter as a Cultural Universal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, Jere; Alleman, Janet

    The traditional K-3 social studies curriculum has focused on food, clothing, shelter, communication, transportation, and other cultural universals. A study was designed to provide information with respect to the topic of shelter, and in the process, to assess claims that primary grade students do not need instruction in the topic because they…

  18. When Rescue Is Urgent: Children in Shelter Placement for Seven Days or Less.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wattenberg, Esther; Luke, Katherine; Cornelius, Molly; Menke, Jennifer

    This study examined the circumstances of children in Hennepin County, Minnesota, who were removed from their homes under urgent circumstances and placed for 7 days or less in emergency shelter care. It investigated whether shelter placement was the least intrusive response for the safety of the children in emergency situations and clarified the…

  19. Schools As Post-Disaster Shelters: Planning and Management Guidelines for Districts and Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of Emergency Services, Sacramento.

    This guidebook outlines a method for preparing school facilities and personnel in the event that schools are needed for disaster shelters. It serves as a blueprint for planning and preparedness. Chapter 1 provides descriptions of actual incidents in which California schools served as emergency shelters. Chapter 2 describes schools' legal…

  20. Control of Pest Species: Tree shelters help protect seedlings from nutria (Louisiana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.A.; Boykin, R.

    1991-01-01

    Various methods of nutria preventative techniques were tested in attempts to curb the loss of seedlings due to nutria capturing. The results of testing possibly indicate that tree shelters have real potential for use in forest restoration projects on sites with moderate nutria populations. Tree shelters may even prove effective on sites with high nutria populations, as long as alternative food supplies are available.

  1. Do Sheltered Workshops Enhance Employment Outcomes for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimera, Robert Evert; Wehman, Paul; West, Michael; Burgess, Sloane

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether sheltered workshops help prepare individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) for competitive employment within the community. Two groups of individuals were compared: (a) 215 supported employees who were in sheltered workshops prior to entering supported employment and (b) 215 supported employees who were not in…

  2. Tuberculosis Exposure among Evacuees at a Shelter after Earthquake, Japan, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Aso, Noboru; Tadano, Satoko; Saito, Miyoko; Saito, Hiroo; Uchiyama, Bine; Ishibashi, Noriomi; Inomata, Shinya; Endo, Shiro; Aoyagi, Tetsuji; Hatta, Masumitsu; Yamada, Mitsuhiro; Gu, Yoshiaki; Tokuda, Koichi; Yano, Hisakazu; Kunishima, Hiroyuki; Hirakata, Yoichi; Saijyo, Takao; Kitagawa, Miho; Kaku, Mitsuo

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis was diagnosed in a person who had stayed in a shelter after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. A contact investigation showed that the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection among other evacuees at the shelter was 20%. Our report underscores the importance of tuberculosis prevention and control after natural disasters. PMID:23648069

  3. A National Student Competition on Adaptive Re-use: A Shelter Care Facility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana.

    The Shelter Care Competition, devised to help communities identify cost-effective shelter care facilities for juveniles, sought to generate new ideas for, and to apply environmental characteristics to, residential facilities. The designs were submitted by university students who incorporated the concept of adaptive re-use as a cost effective…

  4. Using Multiple Perspectives in Observations of Diverse Classrooms: The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echevarria, Jana; Short, Deborah J.

    This paper introduces a research-based model of sheltered instruction that promotes teaching practices that make teachers more effective in promoting the learning of limited-English-proficient (LEP) students. The model is instantiated in an observation instrument, the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP). The SIOP may be used as part…

  5. Questions and Answers Regarding Actions to Take When Ending Shelter-in-Place

    SciTech Connect

    Shumpert, B.

    2003-12-30

    Shelter-in-place has found increasing acceptance as an effective protective action option for communities participating in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program. Studies have confirmed that it can provide optimum protection under certain accident conditions. However, emergency managers and planners, as well as the public, continue to be troubled by the need to end sheltering when the plume has passed in order to avoid sustained exposure to the small amount of agent that has penetrated the shelter. One of the concerns posed by this necessity is uncertainty regarding what hazards will then be faced in the environment outside the shelter and what actions can be taken to avoid those hazards. This report attempts to address those uncertainties. It recognizes that there is an extremely low probability that the environment outside the shelter will be contaminated with chemical agent residue. However, as people comply with an official recommendation to leave their shelters, they probably can't be certain that the environment is free from contamination. Therefore, this report identifies and explains specific and simple actions they can take to avoid the possibility of exposure to chemical agent hazards outside their shelters. It addresses such issues as the actions people should take upon ending shelter-in-place, what clothing they should wear, how they should handle animals, and what they should do about food in their homes and produce in their gardens.

  6. Perchance to Sleep: Homeless Children without Shelter in New York City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coalition for the Homeless, New York, NY.

    New York City's response to the demand for shelter has consistently been adequate. The city's homeless population is estimated at 35,000, including 11,000 members of homeless families, of whom almost 7,625 are children. The City's Human Resources Administration (HRA) has routinely failed to provide temporary emergency shelter for homeless…

  7. 77 FR 40626 - RP9580.210, Personal Assistance Services in Shelters Fact Sheet

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency RP9580.210, Personal Assistance Services in Shelters Fact... comments. SUMMARY: The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is accepting comments on Recovery Fact Sheet RP9580.210, Personal Assistance Services in Shelters. The purpose of this new fact sheet is...

  8. 76 FR 51381 - Supplemental Awards to Seven Unaccompanied Alien Shelter Care Providers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Care Providers AGENCY: Office of Refugee Resettlement, ACF, HHS. ACTION: The Office of Refugee... Shelter Care Providers. CFDA Number: 93.676. Statutory Authority: Awards announced in this notice are... supplement grants to seven unaccompanied alien shelter care providers for a total of $5,016,218....

  9. Recidivism at a Shelter for Adolescents: First-Time versus Repeat Runaways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Amy J. L.; McKay, Mary M.; Lynn, Cynthia J.; Schlange, Hans; Auville, Alicia

    2003-01-01

    Presents results of a study that examined child and family influences on recidivism for 166 youths admitted to a shelter. Results indicated that youth emotional problems were significantly related to recidivism for repeat runaways, whereas family changes and length of stay at the shelter were significantly related to recidivism for first-time…

  10. Here's How! Practical Hints for Establishing Library Services in Homeless Shelters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norfolk, Sherry Des Enfants

    This guide contains suggestions for those seeking to establish library services for homeless children, help for computerizing a homeless shelter, and a discussion of the problems and rewards of establishing library services in a shelter. Steps to establishing services include: (1) clarifying the purpose of the effort; (2) doing the homework to…

  11. 5 CFR 591.219 - How does OPM compute shelter price indexes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How does OPM compute shelter price...-Of-Living Allowances § 591.219 How does OPM compute shelter price indexes? (a) In addition to rental... estimates in hedonic regressions (a type of multiple regression) to compute for each COLA survey area...

  12. Physical Health, Mental Health, and Substance Abuse Problems of Shelter Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Shirley N.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined physical health of 72 users of homeless shelters, comparing shelter users with mental illness or substance abuse problems with those without these problems. Found that alcohol abusers were significantly more likely to have low blood pressure, symptoms of liver disease, and tuberculosis treatment history. Found no health differences for…

  13. Perspectives on US Domestic Violence Emergency Shelters: What Do Young Adolescent Residents and Their Mothers Say?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chanmugam, Amy

    2011-01-01

    As part of a larger qualitative study using Life Story methods, an ethnically diverse, purposive sample (n = 27) of young adolescents (ages 12-14) and their mothers residing in four US domestic violence emergency shelters were interviewed about their perspectives of shelter life. Youth reported aspects they liked, most often expressing that they…

  14. Study of the effect on shelter cat intakes and euthanasia from a shelter neuter return project of 10,080 cats from March 2010 to June 2014.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Karen L; Cicirelli, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Cat impoundments were increasing at the municipal San Jose animal shelter in 2009, despite long-term successful low cost sterilization programs and attempts to lower the euthanasia rate of treatable-rehabilitatable impounds beginning in 2008. San Jose Animal Care and Services implemented a new strategy designed to control overall feral cat reproduction by altering and returning feral cats entering the shelter system, rather than euthanizing the cats. The purpose of this case study was to determine how the program affected the shelter cat intakes over time. In just over four years, 10,080 individual healthy adult feral cats, out of 11,423 impounded at the shelter during this time frame, were altered and returned to their site of capture. Included in the 11,423 cats were 862 cats impounded from one to four additional times for a total of 958 (9.5%) recaptures of the previously altered 10,080 cats. The remaining 385 healthy feral cats were euthanized at the shelter from March 2010 to June 2014. Four years into the program, researchers observed cat and kitten impounds decreased 29.1%; euthanasia decreased from over 70% of intakes in 2009, to 23% in 2014. Euthanasia in the shelter for Upper Respiratory Disease decreased 99%; dead cat pick up off the streets declined 20%. Dog impounds did not similarly decline over the four years. No other laws or program changes were implemented since the beginning of the program. PMID:25374785

  15. Study of the effect on shelter cat intakes and euthanasia from a shelter neuter return project of 10,080 cats from March 2010 to June 2014

    PubMed Central

    Cicirelli, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Cat impoundments were increasing at the municipal San Jose animal shelter in 2009, despite long-term successful low cost sterilization programs and attempts to lower the euthanasia rate of treatable-rehabilitatable impounds beginning in 2008. San Jose Animal Care and Services implemented a new strategy designed to control overall feral cat reproduction by altering and returning feral cats entering the shelter system, rather than euthanizing the cats. The purpose of this case study was to determine how the program affected the shelter cat intakes over time. In just over four years, 10,080 individual healthy adult feral cats, out of 11,423 impounded at the shelter during this time frame, were altered and returned to their site of capture. Included in the 11,423 cats were 862 cats impounded from one to four additional times for a total of 958 (9.5%) recaptures of the previously altered 10,080 cats. The remaining 385 healthy feral cats were euthanized at the shelter from March 2010 to June 2014. Four years into the program, researchers observed cat and kitten impounds decreased 29.1%; euthanasia decreased from over 70% of intakes in 2009, to 23% in 2014. Euthanasia in the shelter for Upper Respiratory Disease decreased 99%; dead cat pick up off the streets declined 20%. Dog impounds did not similarly decline over the four years. No other laws or program changes were implemented since the beginning of the program. PMID:25374785

  16. Diversity and adaptation of shelters in transitional settlements for IDPs in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Ashmore, Joseph; Babister, Elizabeth; Corsellis, Tom; Fowler, Jon; Kelman, Ilan; McRobie, Allan; Manfield, Peter; Spence, Robin; Vitale, Antonella; Battilana, Rachel; Crawford, Kate

    2003-12-01

    The diversity of shelters used in transitional settlements for internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Herat, Afghanistan is described. The information is based on a field survey undertaken in March 2002 and highlights the adaptation techniques, which IDPs undertake to improve any provided shelter. Potential areas for improvement are indicated; for example, the possibility for using insulated, demountable liners to prevent cold-related deaths without sacrificing shelter flexibility along with the likely need for better agency coordination of the shelter responses they provide. The wider context in which the technical recommendations would be implemented must also be considered. Such issues include agency resources, political impediments to providing the desired option, and the preference of many IDPs that the best shelter would be their home. PMID:14725087

  17. Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for a national capital region nuclear detonation scenario.

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

    2011-12-01

    Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. Extensive studies have been performed and guidance published that highlight the key principles for saving lives following such an event. However, region-specific data are important in the planning process as well. This study examines some of the unique regional factors that impact planning for a 10 kT detonation in the National Capital Region. The work utilizes a single scenario to examine regional impacts as well as the shelter-evacuate decision alternatives at one exemplary point. For most Washington, DC neighborhoods, the excellent assessed shelter quality available make shelter-in-place or selective transit to a nearby shelter a compelling post-detonation strategy.

  18. Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for a Chicago nuclear detonation scenario.

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

    2011-09-01

    Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. Extensive studies have been performed and guidance published that highlight the key principles for saving lives following such an event. However, region-specific data are important in the planning process as well. This study examines some of the unique regional factors that impact planning for a 10 kt detonation in Chicago. The work utilizes a single scenario to examine regional impacts as well as the shelter-evacuate decision alternatives at selected exemplary points. For many Chicago neighborhoods, the excellent assessed shelter quality available make shelter-in-place or selective transit to a nearby shelter a compelling post-detonation strategy.

  19. Shelter Proximity and Affect among Homeless Smokers Making a Quit Attempt

    PubMed Central

    Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Kendzor, Darla E.; Nguyen, Nga; Regan, Seann D.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Castro, Yessenia; Wetter, David W.; Businelle, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To explore the associations between shelter proximity and real-time affect during a specific smoking quit attempt among 22 homeless adults. Methods Affect was measured via 485 smartphone-based Ecological Momentary Assessments randomly administered during the weeks immediately before and after the quit day, and proximity to the shelter was measured via GPS. Adjusted linear mixed model regressions examined associations between shelter proximity and affect. Results Closer proximity to the shelter was associated with greater negative affect only during the post-quit attempt week (p = .008). All participants relapsed to smoking by one week post-quit attempt. Conclusions Among homeless smokers trying to quit, the shelter may be associated with unexpected negative affect/stress. Potential intervention applications are suggested. PMID:24629545

  20. Remote Mapping of River Gravel Interstitial Spaces Availability for Juvenile Salmon Sheltering (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, N.; Calsamiglila, A.; Dugdale, S. J.; Bérubé, F.

    2013-12-01

    Juvenile salmonid use interstitial gravel spaces to shelter from predators and adverse hydroclimatic conditions. Shelter availability is therefore a key habitat factor to consider in habitat quality mapping. Finstad et al. (2007) developed a method for the measurement of shelter availability in the field using PVC tubes of various diameter and length. The method, which involves probing the bed with the tubes, provides high quality measurements of shelter abundance and size distribution but it is laborious and exceedingly time consuming to apply at large spatial scales. We tested two different remote methods for estimating substrate shelter availability at a large number of sampled locations over a test gravel bed reach of the Restigouche river, an Atlantic salmon river of the Gaspésie peninsula, Québec, Canada. At each sampled location, Finstad's method was first used to measure "true" reference shelter characteristics. Then, the two remote methods were used to estimate shelter characteristics over the same sampled locations. The first remote method used Agisoft Photoscan to produce hi-resolution 3D models of river bed surfaces from close-range (<150 cm from the bed) digital images of the sampled bed areas. Various methods were developed and tested for extracting shelters from these models. The second remote method used high-resolution airborne imagery to extract textural properties of the images over the sampled locations and to calibrate relationships between texture values and shelter characteristics as measured with Finstad's method. In this presentation, the performance of these two methods is analysed with regards to their ability to provide adequate estimates of shelter availability over large spatial scales.

  1. When a house is not a home: exploring the meaning of shelter among chronically homeless older men.

    PubMed

    Elias, C J; Inui, T S

    1993-06-01

    This study explored the world of 35 chronically homeless older men in downtown Seattle, with special attention to their experience of shelter and its effect on health-seeking behavior. We found that their experience of shelter is intertwined with their perceptions of self and use of alcohol. For many, the public shelter provides safety, support, community, and an opportunity to regain sobriety--attributes of shelter often unattainable in single-room occupancy hotels--but only temporarily. PMID:8325528

  2. Solar energy utilization in a greenhouse/animal shelter combination

    SciTech Connect

    Spillman, C.K.; Greig, J.K.; Johnson, G.A.; Hartford, J.R.; Koch, B.A.; Hines, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Two greenhouses are being used at Kansas State Univesity to evaluate use of exhaust air from an animal shelter and its effect on greenhouse production. The control greenhouse is attached to the headquarters building and operated conventionally. The experimental house is attached to a swine finishing building and has air handling equipment to introduce hoghouse air to the greenhouse at 680 m/sup 3//h (400 cfm) or 1200 m/sup 3//h (700 cfm) and has a rock storage system with about 1 m/sup 3/ of rock for each 2 m/sup 2/ of greenhouse floor space. Cucumber, tomato, and broccoli plants in the experimental greenhouse have darker green foliage than plants in the control house regardless of nitrogen levels. The fall cucumber study indicated a 31 percent increase in number of marketable fruits from the experimental house. Marketable fruits from the experimental house weighed 40 percent more than those from the control house.

  3. Standard KDF0C4 Fallout Calculations for Buried Nuclear Detonations

    SciTech Connect

    Serduke, F J D

    2001-09-14

    The collateral damage caused by fallout from shallow-buried nuclear devices is of considerable interest. In this paper, we present results for ''standard'' calculations using the KDFOC4 fallout computer code. Results are presented for a parametric range of yields from 0.1 kt to 1 Mt in equally-spaced logarithmic increments and for emplacement depths of 5 meters in hard, dry rock and 20 meters in moist soil. We will see that for low yields, this emplacement depth has a marked influence on the shape of the fallout patterns but for the highest yields, the fallout patterns are insensitive to the emplacement medium and depth. We look at two categories of doses: (1) Those for which health effects begin to be serious and range upward to lethal, and (2) Doses that are politically very sensitive but for which any deleterious health effects are difficult to prove.

  4. Redistribution of fallout radionuclides in Enewetak Atoll lagoon sediments by callianassid bioturbation.

    PubMed

    McMurtry, G M; Schneider, R C; Colin, P L; Buddemeier, R W; Suchanek, T H

    The lagoon sediments of Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands contain a large selection of fallout radionuclides as a result of 43 nuclear weapon tests conducted there between 1948 and 1958. Studies of the burial of fallout radionuclides have been conducted on the islands and in several of the large craters, but studies of their vertical distribution have been limited to about the upper 20 cm of the lagoon sediments. We have found elevated fallout radionuclide concentrations buried more deeply in the lagoon sediments and evidence of burrowing into the sediment by several species of callianassid ghost shrimp (Crustacea: Thalassinidea) which has displaced highly radioactive sediment. The burrowing activities of callianassids, which are ubiquitous on the lagoon floor, facilitate radionuclide redistribution and complicate the fallout radionuclide inventory of the lagoon. PMID:3974699

  5. Modeling shelter-in-place including sorption on indoor surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Wanyu R.; Price, Phillip N.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Nazaroff, William W.; Loosmore, Gwen A.; Sugiyama, Gayle A.

    2003-11-01

    Intentional or accidental large-scale airborne toxic releases (e.g. terrorist attacks or industrial accidents) can cause severe harm to nearby communities. As part of an emergency response plan, shelter-in-place (SIP) can be an effective response option, especially when evacuation is infeasible. Reasonably tight building envelopes provide some protection against exposure to peak concentrations when toxic release passes over an area. They also provide some protection in terms of cumulative exposure, if SIP is terminated promptly after the outdoor plume has passed. The purpose of this work is to quantify the level of protection offered by existing houses, and the importance of sorption/desorption to and from surfaces on the effectiveness of SIP. We examined a hypothetical chlorine gas release scenario simulated by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC). We used a standard infiltration model to calculate the distribution of time dependent infiltration rates within each census tract. Large variation in the air tightness of dwellings makes some houses more protective than others. Considering only the median air tightness, model results showed that if sheltered indoors, the total population intake of non-sorbing toxic gas is only 50% of the outdoor level 4 hours from the start of the release. Based on a sorption/desorption model by Karlsson and Huber (1996), we calculated that the sorption process would further lower the total intake of the population by an additional 50%. The potential benefit of SIP can be considerably higher if the comparison is made in terms of health effects because of the non-linear acute effect dose-response curve of many chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial substances.

  6. Behavioral Responses Associated with a Human-Mediated Predator Shelter

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, Graeme; Cordes, Line S.; Hardy, Amanda R.; Angeloni, Lisa M.; Crooks, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Human activities in protected areas can affect wildlife populations in a similar manner to predation risk, causing increases in movement and vigilance, shifts in habitat use and changes in group size. Nevertheless, recent evidence indicates that in certain situations ungulate species may actually utilize areas associated with higher levels of human presence as a potential refuge from disturbance-sensitive predators. We now use four-years of behavioral activity budget data collected from pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) and elk (Cervus elephus) in Grand Teton National Park, USA to test whether predictable patterns of human presence can provide a shelter from predatory risk. Daily behavioral scans were conducted along two parallel sections of road that differed in traffic volume - with the main Teton Park Road experiencing vehicle use that was approximately thirty-fold greater than the River Road. At the busier Teton Park Road, both species of ungulate engaged in higher levels of feeding (27% increase in the proportion of pronghorn feeding and 21% increase for elk), lower levels of alert behavior (18% decrease for pronghorn and 9% decrease for elk) and formed smaller groups. These responses are commonly associated with reduced predatory threat. Pronghorn also exhibited a 30% increase in the proportion of individuals moving at the River Road as would be expected under greater exposure to predation risk. Our findings concur with the ‘predator shelter hypothesis’, suggesting that ungulates in GTNP use human presence as a potential refuge from predation risk, adjusting their behavior accordingly. Human activity has the potential to alter predator-prey interactions and drive trophic-mediated effects that could ultimately impact ecosystem function and biodiversity. PMID:24718624

  7. Behavioral responses associated with a human-mediated predator shelter.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Graeme; Cordes, Line S; Hardy, Amanda R; Angeloni, Lisa M; Crooks, Kevin R

    2014-01-01

    Human activities in protected areas can affect wildlife populations in a similar manner to predation risk, causing increases in movement and vigilance, shifts in habitat use and changes in group size. Nevertheless, recent evidence indicates that in certain situations ungulate species may actually utilize areas associated with higher levels of human presence as a potential refuge from disturbance-sensitive predators. We now use four-years of behavioral activity budget data collected from pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) and elk (Cervus elephus) in Grand Teton National Park, USA to test whether predictable patterns of human presence can provide a shelter from predatory risk. Daily behavioral scans were conducted along two parallel sections of road that differed in traffic volume--with the main Teton Park Road experiencing vehicle use that was approximately thirty-fold greater than the River Road. At the busier Teton Park Road, both species of ungulate engaged in higher levels of feeding (27% increase in the proportion of pronghorn feeding and 21% increase for elk), lower levels of alert behavior (18% decrease for pronghorn and 9% decrease for elk) and formed smaller groups. These responses are commonly associated with reduced predatory threat. Pronghorn also exhibited a 30% increase in the proportion of individuals moving at the River Road as would be expected under greater exposure to predation risk. Our findings concur with the 'predator shelter hypothesis', suggesting that ungulates in GTNP use human presence as a potential refuge from predation risk, adjusting their behavior accordingly. Human activity has the potential to alter predator-prey interactions and drive trophic-mediated effects that could ultimately impact ecosystem function and biodiversity. PMID:24718624

  8. Tephra fallout hazards at Quito International Airport (Ecuador)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volentik, Alain C. M.; Houghton, Bruce F.

    2015-06-01

    Tephra fallout is the most widespread hazard posed by explosive volcanic eruptions. The 2010 explosive eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland significantly exposed the vulnerability of aviation operations to volcanic ash. The presence of fine ash in the atmosphere forced authorities to close most of European airspace for almost a week. A worldwide study of airport operations disrupted by volcanic eruptions (Guffanti et al., Nat Hazards 51:287-302, 2009) showed significant past exposure to tephra fall of the old international airport (OUIO) in Quito, Ecuador. A new international airport, Mariscal Sucre International Airport (UIO), located 15 km due east to OUIO, started operations on February 20, 2013. Given its location close to the old airport, UIO is also at risk for tephra fallout in the future. We identified five volcanoes capable of producing tephra hazard at UIO. Three (Guagua Pichincha, Reventador, and Tungurahua) are currently active and have recently disrupted aviation operations in Ecuador. The other two (Cotopaxi and Pululagua) are not currently active, but any future eruption from these two volcanoes would probably be explosive, hence capable of producing tephra hazard to UIO. As eruption parameters and wind profiles cannot be forecast in advance, we used a probabilistic approach to quantify the probability of tephra accumulation exceeding 1 mm and 1 cm (regarded as non-conservative and conservative bounds for airport disruption) following an explosive eruption from each volcano. Each eruptive parameter was randomly sampled within a predefined distribution, and wind profiles are randomly sampled within a 5-year dataset. The probability of tephra accumulation reaching 1 mm and 1 cm at UIO is 14.3-19.9 and 2.5-5.8 %, respectively, for Cotopaxi; 17.5-19.9 and 7-7.7 %, respectively, for Guagua Pichincha; and 44.3-44.8 and 18.8-24.9 %, respectively, for Pululagua. According to our results, Reventador and Tungurahua are not likely to yield tephra

  9. 12 CFR 220.124 - Installment sale of tax-shelter programs as “arranging” for credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Installment sale of tax-shelter programs as....124 Installment sale of tax-shelter programs as “arranging” for credit. (a) The Board has been asked whether the sale by brokers and dealers of tax-shelter programs containing a provision that payment...

  10. Development of red oak seedlings using plastic shelters on hardwood sites in West Virginia. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.C.

    1993-04-01

    Plastic shelters were used to grow red oak seedlings on good-to-excellent Appalachian hardwood growing sites in north central West Virginia. Preliminary results indicate that shelters have the potential to stimulate development of red oak seedlingheight growth, especially if height growth continues once the seedling tops are above the 5-foot-tall shelters.

  11. When the dust settles: stable xenon isotope constraints on the formation of nuclear fallout.

    PubMed

    Cassata, W S; Prussin, S G; Knight, K B; Hutcheon, I D; Isselhardt, B H; Renne, P R

    2014-11-01

    Nuclear weapons represent one of the most immediate threats of mass destruction. In the event that a procured or developed nuclear weapon is detonated in a populated metropolitan area, timely and accurate nuclear forensic analysis and fallout modeling would be needed to support attribution efforts and hazard assessments. Here we demonstrate that fissiogenic xenon isotopes retained in radioactive fallout generated by a nuclear explosion provide unique constraints on (1) the timescale of fallout formation, (2) chemical fractionation that occurs when fission products and nuclear fuel are incorporated into fallout, and (3) the speciation of fission products in the fireball. Our data suggest that, in near surface nuclear tests, the presence of a significant quantity of metal in a device assembly, combined with a short time allowed for mixing with the ambient atmosphere (seconds), may prevent complete oxidation of fission products prior to their incorporation into fallout. Xenon isotopes thus provide a window into the chemical composition of the fireball in the seconds that follow a nuclear explosion, thereby improving our understanding of the physical and thermo-chemical conditions under which fallout forms. PMID:25014883

  12. Alimentary Tract Absorption (f1 Values) for Radionuclides in Local and Regional Fallout from Nuclear Tests

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Shawki; Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André; Melo, Dunstana; Beck, Harold

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents gastrointestinal absorption fractions (f1 values) for estimating internal doses from local and regional fallout radionuclides due to nuclear tests. The choice of f1 values are based on specific circumstances of weapons test conditions and a review of reported f1 values for elements in different physical and chemical states. Special attention is given to fallout from nuclear tests conducted at the Marshall Islands. We make a distinction between the f1 values for intakes of radioactive materials immediately after deposition (acute intakes) and intakes that occur in the course of months and years after deposition, following incorporation into terrestrial and aquatic foodstuffs (chronic intakes). Multiple f1 values for different circumstances where persons are exposed to radioactive fallout (e.g. local vs. regional fallout and coral vs. continental tests) are presented when supportive information is available. In some cases, our selected f1 values are similar to those adopted by the ICRP (e.g. iodine and most actinides). However, f1 values for cesium and strontium derived from urine bioassay data of the Marshallese population are notably lower than the generic f1 values recommended by ICRP, particularly for acute intakes from local fallout (0.4 and 0.05 for Cs and Sr, respectively. The f1 values presented here form the first complete set of values relevant to realistic dose assessments for exposure to local or regional radioactive fallout. PMID:20622554

  13. Alimentary tract absorption (f1 values) for radionuclides in local and regional fallout from nuclear tests.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Shawki A; Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André; Melo, Dunstana; Beck, Harold L

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents gastrointestinal absorption fractions (f1 values) for estimating internal doses from local and regional fallout radionuclides due to nuclear tests. The choice of f1 values are based on specific circumstances of weapons test conditions and a review of reported f1 values for elements in different physical and chemical states. Special attention is given to fallout from nuclear tests conducted at the Marshall Islands. We make a distinction between the f1 values for intakes of radioactive materials immediately after deposition (acute intakes) and intakes that occur in the course of months and years after deposition, following incorporation into terrestrial and aquatic foodstuffs (chronic intakes). Multiple f1 values for different circumstances where persons are exposed to radioactive fallout (e.g., local vs. regional fallout and coral vs. continental tests) are presented when supportive information is available. In some cases, our selected f1 values are similar to those adopted by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) (e.g., iodine and most actinides). However, f1 values for cesium and strontium derived from urine bioassay data of the Marshallese population are notably lower than the generic f1 values recommended by ICRP, particularly for acute intakes from local fallout (0.4 and 0.05 for Cs and Sr, respectively). The f1 values presented here form the first complete set of values relevant to realistic dose assessments for exposure to local or regional radioactive fallout. PMID:20622554

  14. Beyond eruptive scenarios: assessing tephra fallout hazard from Neapolitan volcanoes

    PubMed Central

    Sandri, Laura; Costa, Antonio; Selva, Jacopo; Tonini, Roberto; Macedonio, Giovanni; Folch, Arnau; Sulpizio, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of volcanic hazards is necessary for risk mitigation. Typically, hazard assessment is based on one or a few, subjectively chosen representative eruptive scenarios, which use a specific combination of eruptive sizes and intensities to represent a particular size class of eruption. While such eruptive scenarios use a range of representative members to capture a range of eruptive sizes and intensities in order to reflect a wider size class, a scenario approach neglects to account for the intrinsic variability of volcanic eruptions, and implicitly assumes that inter-class size variability (i.e. size difference between different eruptive size classes) dominates over intra-class size variability (i.e. size difference within an eruptive size class), the latter of which is treated as negligible. So far, no quantitative study has been undertaken to verify such an assumption. Here, we adopt a novel Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Analysis (PVHA) strategy, which accounts for intrinsic eruptive variabilities, to quantify the tephra fallout hazard in the Campania area. We compare the results of the new probabilistic approach with the classical scenario approach. The results allow for determining whether a simplified scenario approach can be considered valid, and for quantifying the bias which arises when full variability is not accounted for. PMID:27067389

  15. Global risk of radioactive fallout after nuclear reactor accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunkel, D.; Lelieveld, J.; Lawrence, M. G.

    2012-04-01

    Reactor core meltdowns of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents, using particulate 137Cs and gaseous 131I as proxies for the fallout. It appears that previously the occurrence of major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been underestimated. Using a global model of the atmosphere we compute that on average, in the event of a core melt of any nuclear power plant worldwide, more than 90 % of emitted 137Cs would be transported beyond 50 km and about 50 % beyond 1000 km distance. This corroborates that such accidents have large-scale and trans-boundary impacts. Although the emission strengths and atmospheric removal processes of 137Cs and 131I are quite different, the radioactive contamination patterns over land and the human deposition exposure are computed to be similar. High human exposure risks occur around reactors in densely populated regions, notably in southern Asia where a core melt can subject 55 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent decision by Germany to phase out its nuclear reactors will reduce the national risk, though a large risk will still remain from the reactors in neighbouring countries.

  16. Global risk of radioactive fallout after nuclear reactor accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelieveld, J.; Kunkel, D.; Lawrence, M. G.

    2011-11-01

    Reactor core meltdowns of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents, using particulate 137Cs and gaseous 131I as proxies for the fallout. It appears that previously the occurrence of major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been underestimated. Using a global model of the atmosphere we compute that on average, in the event of a core melt of any nuclear power plant worldwide, more than 90% of emitted 137Cs would be transported beyond 50km and about 50% beyond 1000 km distance. This corroborates that such accidents have large-scale and trans-boundary impacts. Although the emission strengths and atmospheric removal processes of 137Cs and 131I are quite different, the radioactive contamination patterns over land and the human deposition exposure are computed to be similar. High human exposure risks occur around reactors in densely populated regions, notably in southern Asia where a core melt can subject 55 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent decision by Germany to phase out its nuclear reactors will reduce the national risk, though a large risk will still remain from the reactors in neighbouring countries.

  17. Radiocaesium fallout behaviour in volcanic soils in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Sigurgeirsson, M A; Arnalds, O; Palsson, S E; Howard, B J; Gudnason, K

    2005-01-01

    The retention of 137Cs in various types of Andosols in Iceland was investigated. Soils were sampled at 29 sites with varying precipitation and environmental conditions. Samples were obtained from 0 to 5, 5 to 10, and 10 to 15 cm depths. The amount of radiocaesium present was quite variable, ranging between 300 and 4800 Bq m(-2) and correlated closely to total annual precipitation (r2=0.71). The majority of 137Cs, 82.7% on average, was retained in the uppermost 5 cm of the soil. The greatest penetration of 137Cs was observed for organic Histosols (76.3% in top 5 cm). The Icelandic Vitrisols (barren, poorly developed Andosols) are coarse grained with only 2-5% clay content and contain little organic matter (<1%). Yet these soils retained 74% of 137Cs in the top 5 cm. The results indicate that radiocaesium fallout is strongly retained by colloidal materials characteristic of Andosols, such as allophane and ferrihydrite. Most soils in Iceland are subject to severe and prolonged freezing and waterlogging; despite this, 137Cs is retained in the upper soil horizons and vertical migration is negligible in Icelandic Andosols. However, erosion and aeolian activity can markedly influence the amount and vertical distribution of radiocaesium in Icelandic soils. PMID:15571875

  18. The distribution of fallout {sup 137}Cs in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, A.; Mora, P.

    1996-08-01

    Baseline levels of {sup 137}Cs on different sites throughout the Costa Rican territory are presented in this study from local and undisturbed soils. They are believed to represent the fallout input to the land surface. Seventy samples were collected from September 1991 to December 1993, and analyzed by gamma spectroscopy. The territory was divided in three regions, Caribbean, Pacific, and Central, based on meteorological and geographical conditions to study spatial distribution of cesium. The results show a higher activity in the Caribbean region perhaps due to the wind influence and higher rain precipitation throughout the year. No relevant time variation of the activity levels of reach location was found. The highest value of 17.6 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} of {sup 137}Cs is compared with it generalized derived limit, being only 1.97% of the generalized derived limit value. The mean country activity value ranges from 0.4 to 17.8 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} with an average of 3.7 Bq kg{sup {minus}1}. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Beyond eruptive scenarios: assessing tephra fallout hazard from Neapolitan volcanoes.

    PubMed

    Sandri, Laura; Costa, Antonio; Selva, Jacopo; Tonini, Roberto; Macedonio, Giovanni; Folch, Arnau; Sulpizio, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of volcanic hazards is necessary for risk mitigation. Typically, hazard assessment is based on one or a few, subjectively chosen representative eruptive scenarios, which use a specific combination of eruptive sizes and intensities to represent a particular size class of eruption. While such eruptive scenarios use a range of representative members to capture a range of eruptive sizes and intensities in order to reflect a wider size class, a scenario approach neglects to account for the intrinsic variability of volcanic eruptions, and implicitly assumes that inter-class size variability (i.e. size difference between different eruptive size classes) dominates over intra-class size variability (i.e. size difference within an eruptive size class), the latter of which is treated as negligible. So far, no quantitative study has been undertaken to verify such an assumption. Here, we adopt a novel Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Analysis (PVHA) strategy, which accounts for intrinsic eruptive variabilities, to quantify the tephra fallout hazard in the Campania area. We compare the results of the new probabilistic approach with the classical scenario approach. The results allow for determining whether a simplified scenario approach can be considered valid, and for quantifying the bias which arises when full variability is not accounted for. PMID:27067389

  20. Fallout /sup 3/H ingestion in Akita, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Hisamatsu, S.; Takizawa, Y.; Abe, T.; Katsumata, T.

    1987-09-01

    To study fallout /sup 3/H ingestion in Japan, 16 separate food group samples were collected from Akita during 1985. The /sup 3/H concentration in free water and that in a tissue-bound form were determined separately. The average /sup 3/H concentration in the tissue-bound form was 2.2 Bq L-1, 1.7 times higher than in the free water of the food. The ingestions of /sup 3/H in the tissue-bound form and as free water in the diet were 0.60 Bq d-1 and 1.0 Bq d-1, respectively. Cereals represented the food group that contributed the most to the ingestion of tissue-bound /sup 3/H. Total /sup 3/H ingestion was estimated to be 4.1 Bq d-1. The contribution of the tissue-bound form to the total ingestion was 15%, considerably lower than reported for Italian diets. The ratio of /sup 3/H ingestion in the tissue-bound form to the free water form in the diet was similar to the ratio reported for New York City.

  1. Fallout plutonium in two oxic-anoxic environments

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, A.L.; Murray, J.W.; Schell, W.R.; Miller, L.G.

    1986-09-01

    The profiles of soluble fallout plutonium in two partially anoxic waters revealed minimum concentrations at the O/sub 2/-H/sub 2/S interface, indicating Pu removal onto particulate phases of Fe and other oxidized species that form during the redox cycle. In Saanich Inlet, an intermittently anoxic fjord in Vancouver Island, Canada, the concentration of soluble Pu in the anoxic zone was slightly less than in the oxygenated surface layer. In Soap Lake, a saline meromictic lake in eastern Washington State, Pu concentrations i the permanently anoxic zone were at least an order of magnitude higher than at the surface. Differences in the chemical characteristics of these two waters suggest important chemical species that influenced the observed Pu distribution. In the permanently anoxic zone of Soap Lake, high values of total alkalinity ranging from 940 to 1500 meq liter/sup -1/, sulfide species from 38 to 128 ..mu..M, dissolved organic carbon from 163 to 237 mg liter/sup -1/, and total dissolved solids from 80 to 140 ppt, all correlated with the observed high concentration of Pu. In Saanich Inlet, where total alkalinity ranged from 2.1 to 2.4 meq liter/sup -1/ and salinity from 25 to 32 per thousand and H/sub 2/S concentration in May 1981 showed a maximum of 8..mu..M, the observed Pu concentrations were significantly lower than for the Soap Lake monimolimnion.

  2. Dust fallout in Kuwait city: deposition and characterization.

    PubMed

    Al-Awadhi, Jasem M; Alshuaibi, Arafat A

    2013-09-01

    Dust fallouts in Kuwait city was monitored on monthly basis during the period from March 2011 to February 2012 at 10 locations. The results of this study reveal that: (1) monthly dust deposition rates ranged from 0.002 to 0.32 kg/m(2) with average deposition rate of 0.053 kg/m(2) and annual average deposition rate of 0.59 kg/m(2), ranking the first out of 56 dust deposition rates observed throughout the world; (2) on average, about 55.9% of the settled dust have fine to very fine sand fraction sizes, while silt and clay comprise an average of 37.4 and 1.4% of the total sample, respectively; (3) the concentrations for Zn and Mo out of 15 other elements analyzed from the dust were up to 11 times higher than their soil background values in Kuwait, while Pb and Ni were about seven times higher; (4) Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn show maximum enrichment relative to the upper continental crustal component (Mn); (5) Sr, Zr and Zn show highest concretions among all collected samples; and (6) quartz and calcite were the dominant minerals in the dust samples. The distribution of the heavy metals in dust seems to be controlled mainly by the land uses and the volume of traffic emissions. PMID:23722090

  3. Beyond eruptive scenarios: assessing tephra fallout hazard from Neapolitan volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandri, Laura; Costa, Antonio; Selva, Jacopo; Tonini, Roberto; Macedonio, Giovanni; Folch, Arnau; Sulpizio, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Assessment of volcanic hazards is necessary for risk mitigation. Typically, hazard assessment is based on one or a few, subjectively chosen representative eruptive scenarios, which use a specific combination of eruptive sizes and intensities to represent a particular size class of eruption. While such eruptive scenarios use a range of representative members to capture a range of eruptive sizes and intensities in order to reflect a wider size class, a scenario approach neglects to account for the intrinsic variability of volcanic eruptions, and implicitly assumes that inter-class size variability (i.e. size difference between different eruptive size classes) dominates over intra-class size variability (i.e. size difference within an eruptive size class), the latter of which is treated as negligible. So far, no quantitative study has been undertaken to verify such an assumption. Here, we adopt a novel Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Analysis (PVHA) strategy, which accounts for intrinsic eruptive variabilities, to quantify the tephra fallout hazard in the Campania area. We compare the results of the new probabilistic approach with the classical scenario approach. The results allow for determining whether a simplified scenario approach can be considered valid, and for quantifying the bias which arises when full variability is not accounted for.

  4. Cancer mortality and radioactive fallout in southwestern Utah.

    PubMed

    Machado, S G; Land, C E; McKay, F W

    1987-01-01

    Cancer mortality was compared between a three-county region in southwestern Utah and the remainder of Utah in an investigation of reported excess cancer risks associated with residence in southwestern Utah during the period of above-ground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. Because most of the fallout in southwestern Utah was deposited during 1953-1957, comparisons were limited to persons born before 1958, and deaths from leukemia and bone cancer during 1955-1980 and from other cancers during 1964-1980. There was no excess risk of cancer mortality in southwestern Utah, for single or grouped sites, with the single exception of leukemia which showed statistically significant odds ratios of 1.45 based on 62 deaths at all ages, and 2.84 based on nine deaths at ages 0-14. The finding for childhood leukemia was based on different time periods and geographic comparisons from those of two earlier studies in which no such excess was found. Mortality from all cancer sites combined was significantly lower in southwestern Utah than in the remainder of the state, even after adjustment for the higher proportion of (lower risk) Mormons in southwestern Utah. The present results, including the positive association for leukemia, are inconsistent with the high excess risks reported by Johnson (JAMA 1984;251:230-6) based on an interview survey of cancer incidence among long-term Mormon residents of southwestern Utah. PMID:3788954

  5. Criteria for Site Selection of Temporary Shelters after Earthquakes: a Delphi Panel

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Ahmad; Ardalan, Ali; Darvishi Boloorani, Ali; Haghdoost, AliAkbar; Hosseinzadeh-Attar, Mohammad Javad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: After a devastating earthquake, the site selection for the sheltering of earthquake victims is an important task. In order to generate a list of appropriate criteria for deciding on temporary sheltering site selection, we systematically combined the experience of experts and the findings of published documents in this study. Methods: Having explored published papers, we generated a list of criteria for the selection of the best location for temporary sheltering. In the next step, all criteria were presented to a group of experts in Iran and after a scientific discussion, the list was updated. In the last step, the final list of criteria was developed using the Delphi method in three rounds. Results: Based on our previous systematic review, 27 criteria were presented for sheltering site selection. Expert interviews added 12 more items to them. The Delphi process approved 21 criteria of all proposed ones. These items then grouped into four categories: land suitability, socio-cultural considerations, service availability and disaster risk reduction. Discussion: After an earthquake, our list of criteria may help the disaster team to select the best locations for temporary sheltering with minimum confusion. The consent of the earthquake victims and cost reduction of the operation would be the minimum benefits of using the appropriate criteria. These criteria also could be used by researchers to make objective and reproducible assessments of temporary sheltering site selection. Key words: Criteria, Earthquake, Model, Site selection, Temporary shelter, PMID:26693079

  6. Nutrition for homeless populations: shelters and soup kitchens as opportunities for intervention.

    PubMed

    Koh, Katherine A; Bharel, Monica; Henderson, David C

    2016-05-01

    Nutrition is a daily challenge for the homeless population in America. Homeless individuals suffer from a high prevalence of diseases related to poor diet, yet there has been little public health effort to improve nutrition in this population. Shelters and soup kitchens may have an untapped potential to impact food access, choice and quality. We offer ideas for intervention and lessons learned from ten shelters and soup kitchens around Greater Boston, MA, USA. By advancing food quality, education and policies in shelters and soup kitchens, the homeless population can be given an opportunity to restore its nutrition and health. PMID:26434381

  7. Hurricane Sandy's impact on the predisaster homeless and homeless shelter services in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Settembrino, Marc R

    2016-01-01

    Presently, there is little research on how people experiencing homelessness prepare for, respond to, and recover from disasters. Existing emergency management literature does not provide an understanding of how disasters affect homeless shelter services. The present study seeks to fill these gaps by examining how Hurricane Sandy impacted homeless shelters and their guests in New Jersey. Presenting findings from ethnographic research in Atlantic City and Hoboken, this study identifies several areas in which homeless shelters and their guests may be able to assist in emergency response and disaster recovery such as preparing meals for victims, sorting and processing donated items, and assisting victims in filing for emergency assistance. PMID:26963226

  8. Shelter crowding and increased incidence of acute respiratory infection in evacuees following the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake and tsunami.

    PubMed

    Kawano, T; Tsugawa, Y; Nishiyama, K; Morita, H; Yamamura, O; Hasegawa, K

    2016-03-01

    Although outbreaks of acute respiratory infection (ARI) at shelters are hypothesized to be associated with shelter crowding, no studies have examined this relationship. We conducted a retrospective study by reviewing medical records of evacuees presenting to one of the 37 clinics at the shelters in Ishinomaki city, Japan, during the 3-week period after the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake and tsunami in 2011. On the basis of a locally weighted scatter-plot smoothing technique, we categorized 37 shelters into crowded (mean space <5·5 m2/per person) and non-crowded (⩾5·5 m2) shelters. Outcomes of interest were the cumulative and daily incidence rate of ARI/10 000 evacuees at each shelter. We found that the crowded shelters had a higher median cumulative incidence rate of ARI [5·4/10 000 person-days, interquartile range (IQR) 0-24·6, P = 0·04] compared to the non-crowded shelters (3·5/10 000 person-days, IQR 0-8·7) using Mann-Whitney U test. Similarly, the crowded shelters had an increased daily incidence rate of ARI of 19·1/10 000 person-days (95% confidence interval 5·9-32·4, P < 0·01) compared to the non-crowded shelters using quasi-least squares method. In sum, shelter crowding was associated with an increased incidence rate of ARI after the natural disaster. PMID:26243450

  9. Estimates of exposure rates and fallout arrival times near the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.B. )

    1990-11-01

    One of the tasks of the Off-Site Radiation Exposure Review Project (ORERP) was to estimate doses to individuals resulting from exposure to fallout from nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Dose estimates are based on estimates of the exposure rate 12 h post-detonation (H + 12) and the time of fallout arrival from events producing discernible fallout at locations off the NTS. These estimates are derived from both published fallout patterns and survey meter readings taken by monitors in the field. Each fallout pattern is digitized, and kriging is used to interpolate estimates of exposure rate and arrival time onto a 10-km grid covering the contours of the pattern. These grid values are then used to calculate estimates at any location of interest within the pattern. Exposure rate is also estimated from the survey meter readings for a particular nuclear event by decay-correcting the measurements near a selected location to H + 12 and then aggregating them into one estimate. Estimates of discernible exposure rate and time of fallout arrival from 74 nuclear events at the NTS are contained in the Town Data Base. Estimates are given for 352 locations in Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah. Each record in the data base contains estimates for a specified event and location. The distribution of exposure rate is represented by a geometric mean and standard deviation; the distribution of fallout arrival time is represented by an arithmetic mean and standard deviation. A more extensive description and a listing of the Town Data Base are included in a separate report.

  10. Prediction of spatial variation in global fallout of 137Cs using precipitation.

    PubMed

    Pálsson, S E; Howard, B J; Wright, S M

    2006-08-31

    Deposition from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests (termed global fallout) has been shown to be proportional to the rate of precipitation. Here we describe methods for using precipitation and radionuclide deposition information for a reference site to estimate global fallout at other locations. These methods have been used to estimate global fallout in Iceland, identified during the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) by Wright et al. [Wright, S.M., Howard, B.J., Strand, P., Nylén, T., Sickel, M.A.K., 1999. Prediction of 137Cs deposition from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests within the Arctic. Environ Pollut 104, 131-143.] as one of the Arctic areas which received the highest global fallout, but where measurements of contamination were sparse, and difficult to obtain due to the remote and inaccessible terrain of much of the country. Measurements of global fallout 137Cs deposition have been made in Iceland at sites close to meteorological stations to ensure that precipitation data were of high quality. The AMAP modeling approach, based on measured precipitation and radionuclide deposition data, was applied using a reference monitoring station located close to Reykjavik. The availability of good precipitation data and locally based estimates of time dependent ratios of 137Cs deposition to precipitation during the fallout period gave a better correlation between predicted and measured 137Cs global fallout (r2=0.96) than that achieved using the much more heterogeneous set of data collected by AMAP over the whole of the Arctic. Having obtained satisfactory results with the model for a number of calibration sites alongside meteorological stations we then produced a map of estimated 137Cs deposition based on a model of estimated precipitation. This deposition map was then successfully validated (r2=0.85) for sites where 137Cs deposition was measured; the associated uncertainty in predictions was also estimated. PMID:16545432

  11. Fallout plume of submerged oil from Deepwater Horizon

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, David L.; Fisher, G. Burch; Bagby, Sarah C.; Nelson, Robert K.; Reddy, Christopher M.; Sylva, Sean P.; Woo, Mary A.

    2014-01-01

    The sinking of the Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico led to uncontrolled emission of oil to the ocean, with an official government estimate of ∼5.0 million barrels released. Among the pressing uncertainties surrounding this event is the fate of ∼2 million barrels of submerged oil thought to have been trapped in deep-ocean intrusion layers at depths of ∼1,000–1,300 m. Here we use chemical distributions of hydrocarbons in >3,000 sediment samples from 534 locations to describe a footprint of oil deposited on the deep-ocean floor. Using a recalcitrant biomarker of crude oil, 17α(H),21β(H)-hopane (hopane), we have identified a 3,200-km2 region around the Macondo Well contaminated by ∼1.8 ± 1.0 × 106 g of excess hopane. Based on spatial, chemical, oceanographic, and mass balance considerations, we calculate that this contamination represents 4–31% of the oil sequestered in the deep ocean. The pattern of contamination points to deep-ocean intrusion layers as the source and is most consistent with dual modes of deposition: a “bathtub ring” formed from an oil-rich layer of water impinging laterally upon the continental slope (at a depth of ∼900–1,300 m) and a higher-flux “fallout plume” where suspended oil particles sank to underlying sediment (at a depth of ∼1,300–1,700 m). We also suggest that a significant quantity of oil was deposited on the ocean floor outside this area but so far has evaded detection because of its heterogeneous spatial distribution. PMID:25349409

  12. Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelieveld, J.; Kunkel, D.; Lawrence, M. G.

    2012-05-01

    Major reactor accidents of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the cumulative, global risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents (the most severe ones on the International Nuclear Event Scale, INES 7), using particulate 137Cs and gaseous 131I as proxies for the fallout. Our results indicate that previously the occurrence of INES 7 major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been underestimated. Using a global model of the atmosphere we compute that on average, in the event of a major reactor accident of any nuclear power plant worldwide, more than 90% of emitted 137Cs would be transported beyond 50 km and about 50% beyond 1000 km distance before being deposited. This corroborates that such accidents have large-scale and trans-boundary impacts. Although the emission strengths and atmospheric removal processes of 137Cs and 131I are quite different, the radioactive contamination patterns over land and the human exposure due to deposition are computed to be similar. High human exposure risks occur around reactors in densely populated regions, notably in West Europe and South Asia, where a major reactor accident can subject around 30 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent decision by Germany to phase out its nuclear reactors will reduce the national risk, though a large risk will still remain from the reactors in neighbouring countries.

  13. Fallout plume of submerged oil from Deepwater Horizon.

    PubMed

    Valentine, David L; Fisher, G Burch; Bagby, Sarah C; Nelson, Robert K; Reddy, Christopher M; Sylva, Sean P; Woo, Mary A

    2014-11-11

    The sinking of the Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico led to uncontrolled emission of oil to the ocean, with an official government estimate of ∼ 5.0 million barrels released. Among the pressing uncertainties surrounding this event is the fate of ∼ 2 million barrels of submerged oil thought to have been trapped in deep-ocean intrusion layers at depths of ∼ 1,000-1,300 m. Here we use chemical distributions of hydrocarbons in >3,000 sediment samples from 534 locations to describe a footprint of oil deposited on the deep-ocean floor. Using a recalcitrant biomarker of crude oil, 17α(H),21β(H)-hopane (hopane), we have identified a 3,200-km(2) region around the Macondo Well contaminated by ∼ 1.8 ± 1.0 × 10(6) g of excess hopane. Based on spatial, chemical, oceanographic, and mass balance considerations, we calculate that this contamination represents 4-31% of the oil sequestered in the deep ocean. The pattern of contamination points to deep-ocean intrusion layers as the source and is most consistent with dual modes of deposition: a "bathtub ring" formed from an oil-rich layer of water impinging laterally upon the continental slope (at a depth of ∼ 900-1,300 m) and a higher-flux "fallout plume" where suspended oil particles sank to underlying sediment (at a depth of ∼ 1,300-1,700 m). We also suggest that a significant quantity of oil was deposited on the ocean floor outside this area but so far has evaded detection because of its heterogeneous spatial distribution. PMID:25349409

  14. Shelter recovery in urban Haiti after the earthquake: the dual role of social capital.

    PubMed

    Rahill, Guitele J; Ganapati, N Emel; Clérismé, J Calixte; Mukherji, Anuradha

    2014-04-01

    This paper documents the culture-specific understanding of social capital among Haitians and examines its benefits and downsides in post-disaster shelter recovery following the 12 January 2010 earthquake. The case study of shelter recovery processes in three socioeconomically diverse communities (Pétion-Ville, Delmas and Canapé Vert) in Port-au-Prince suggests that social capital plays dual roles in post-disaster shelter recovery of the displaced population in Haiti. On the one hand, it provides enhanced access to shelter-related resources for those with connections. On the other hand, it accentuates pre-existing inequalities or creates new inequalities among displaced Haitians. In some cases, such inequalities lead to tensions between the haves and have-nots and instigate violence among the displaced. PMID:24601933

  15. Listen to the Voices of Unwed Teenage Mothers in Malaysian Shelter Homes: An Explorative Study

    PubMed Central

    Saim, Nor Jana; Dufåker, Mona; Eriksson, Malin; Ghazinour, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative research aims to explore the daily life experiences of Malaysian unwed teenage mothers in shelter homes. The research is based on the thematic analysis of interviews with seventeen respondents aged from 12 to 18 years. Eight sub-themes described the experience of the unwed teenage mothers in the shelter home and led to three overall themes: rules and regulations, relationship with the staff and relationship with the other girls at the shelter home. The findings indicated that the shelter homes involved were not fulfilling the standard of the Malaysian national laws and United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. We strongly suggest that the authorities provide a clear guideline concerning the implementation of Malaysian national laws and United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. PMID:23985103

  16. Breaking and entering: predators invade the shelter of their prey and gain protection.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Felipe; Bernardo, Ana Maria Guimarães; Dias, Cleide Rosa; Sarmento, Renato Almeida; Pallini, Angelo; Venzon, Madelaine; Janssen, Arne

    2015-10-01

    Many herbivorous arthropods construct shelters on their host plant that offer protection against natural enemies. This has resulted in selection on natural enemies to enter these shelters, where they can feed on prey that are inaccessible for competing predators and parasitoids. The spider mite Tetranychus evansi produces a shelter consisting of a dense web that is impenetrable for most predators; the only known natural enemy that can penetrate the web and can forage efficiently on this pest is Phytoseiulus longipes. We show that this predator preferentially foraged and oviposited in the web of its prey. Moreover, intraguild predation on juveniles of these predators was significantly higher outside this web and in the less dense web of a closely related prey species (T. urticae) than inside the web of T. evansi. Although the production of shelters by herbivores may be profitable at first, their adapted natural enemies may reap the benefit in the end. PMID:26188859

  17. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in shelter and hunting dogs in Catalonia, Northeastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Ortuño, Anna; Scorza, Valeria; Castellà, Joaquim; Lappin, Mike

    2014-03-01

    To compare the prevalence of intestinal parasites in shelter and hunting dogs in Catalonia, Northeastern Spain, fresh faecal samples from 81 shelter dogs and 88 hunting dogs were collected and analysed by faecal flotation. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 71.6% in each population. In the shelter dog group, 67.9% of dogs were positive for intestinal protozoa and 9.8% were positive for helminths. In the hunting dog group, 20.4% of dogs were positive for intestinal protozoa and 63.6% were positive for helminths. A subset of Giardia-positive samples was evaluated by PCR; Giardia assemblages C or D were detected. These results suggest that comprehensive parasite control measures should be implemented in both shelter and hunting dogs in Catalonia. PMID:24445136

  18. Technology Learning Activities: Columbus Sailed the Ocean Blue, the Cellular Connection, Emergency Shelter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etchison, Cindy; Deal, Walter F., III

    1992-01-01

    Presents learning activities such as planning and building a sailboat, manufacturing cellular phone cases, and designing and building emergency shelters. Includes the context, the challenge, resources used, objectives, materials needed, and an evaluation. (JOW)

  19. Will Duct Tape and Plastic Really Work? Issues Related to Expedient Shelter-In-Place

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, J.H.

    2002-08-30

    Expedient sheltering involves the use of common materials to enhance the safety of a room inside a building against the impacts of a chemical plume. The central premise behind taping and sealing with duct tape and plastic is to reduce airflow into a room. This paper reviews issues associated with the use of expedient sheltering materials and the effectiveness of this strategy. Expedient sheltering provides additional protection to people sheltering in place beyond that provided by the house and by a safe room without expedient measures. The materials chosen for taping and sealing--duct tape and plastic--are appropriate because they effectively reduce infiltration and the materials should withstand a vapor challenge. Taping is essential to reduce air infiltration. Plastic sheeting is not a critical element for reducing air infiltration, but it makes sealing off large windows easier.

  20. A comparison of lightning and nuclear electromagnetic pulse response of tactical shelters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perala, R. A.; Rudolph, T. H.; Mckenna, P. M.

    1984-01-01

    The internal response (electromagnetic fields and cable responses) of tactical shelters is addressed. Tactical shelters are usually well-shielded systems. Apart from penetrations by signal and power lines, the main leakage paths to the interior are via seams and the environment control unit (ECU) honeycomb filter. The time domain in three-dimensional finite-difference technique is employed to determine the external and internal coupling to a shelter excited by nuclear electromagnetic pulses (NEMP) and attached lightning. The responses of interest are the internal electromagnetic fields and the voltage, current, power, and energy coupled to internal cables. Leakage through the seams and ECU filter is accomplished by their transfer impedances which relate internal electric fields to external current densities. Transfer impedances which were experimentally measured are used in the analysis. The internal numerical results are favorably compared to actual shelter test data under simulated NEMP illumination.

  1. 65. BUILDING 7223, BARRACKS (FORMER ANIMAL SHELTER). (Plan P702988, 24' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. BUILDING 7223, BARRACKS (FORMER ANIMAL SHELTER). (Plan P-702-988, 24' x 320', completed May 25, 1932, modified January 15, 1941). Fort McCoy photograph #A-6, undated. - Fort McCoy, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

  2. Listen to the voices of unwed teenage mothers in Malaysian shelter homes: an explorative study.

    PubMed

    Saim, Nor Jana; Dufåker, Mona; Eriksson, Malin; Ghazinour, Mehdi

    2013-09-01

    This qualitative research aims to explore the daily life experiences of Malaysian unwed teenage mothers in shelter homes. The research is based on the thematic analysis of interviews with seventeen respondents aged from 12 to 18 years. Eight sub-themes described the experience of the unwed teenage mothers in the shelter home and led to three overall themes: rules and regulations, relationship with the staff and relationship with the other girls at the shelter home. The findings indicated that the shelter homes involved were not fulfilling the standard of the Malaysian national laws and United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. We strongly suggest that the authorities provide a clear guideline concerning the implementation of Malaysian national laws and United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. PMID:23985103

  3. How cockroaches exploit tactile boundaries to find new shelters.

    PubMed

    Daltorio, Kathryn A; Mirletz, Brian T; Sterenstein, Andrea; Cheng, Jui Chun; Watson, Adam; Kesavan, Malavika; Bender, John A; Martin, Joshua; Ritzmann, Roy E; Quinn, Roger D

    2015-12-01

    Animals such as cockroaches depend on exploration of unknown environments, and their strategies may inspire robotic approaches. We have previously shown that cockroach behavior, with respect to shelters and the walls of an otherwise empty arena, can be captured with a stochastic state-based algorithm. We call this algorithm RAMBLER, randomized algorithm mimicking biased lone exploration in roaches. In this work, we verified and extended this model by adding a barrier in the previously used arena and conducted more cockroach experiments. In two arena configurations, our simulated model's path length distribution was similar to the experimental distribution (mean experimental path length 3.4 and 3.2 m, mean simulated path length 3.9 and 3.3 m). By analyzing cockroach behavior before, along, and at the end of the barrier, we have generalized RAMBLER to address arbitrarily complex 2D mazes. For biology, this is an abstract behavioral model of a decision-making process in the cockroach brain. For robotics, this is a strategy that may improve exploration for goals, especially in unpredictable environments with non-convex obstacles. Generally, cockroach behavior seems to recommend variability in the absence of planning, and following paths defined by walls. PMID:26495888

  4. Leaving Homelessness Behind: Housing Decisions among Families Exiting Shelter1

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Benjamin W.; Mayberry, Lindsay; Shinn, Marybeth; Khadduri, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Because homelessness assistance programs are designed to help families, it is important for policymakers and practitioners to understand how families experiencing homelessness make housing decisions, particularly when they decide not to use available services. This study explores those decisions using in-depth qualitative interviews with 80 families recruited in shelters across four sites approximately six months after they were assigned to one of four conditions (permanent housing subsidies, project-based transitional housing, community-based rapid re-housing, and usual care). Familiar neighborhoods near children’s schools, transportation, family and friends, and stability were important to families across conditions. Program restrictions on eligibility constrained family choices. Subsidized housing was the most desired intervention and families leased up at higher rates than in other studies of poor families. Respondents were least comfortable in and most likely to leave transitional housing. Uncertainty associated with community-based rapid re-housing generated considerable anxiety. Across interventions, many families had to make unhappy compromises, often leading to further moves. Policy recommendations are offered. PMID:25258503

  5. Fire alarm system/fire suppression system for mobile tactical shelters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, F. K.; Lecours, C. A.; Radcliff, O.

    1985-08-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a fire detection/suppression capability for DoD standard family mobile tactical shelters. The systems developed and tested provide complete protection during all employment conditions; in garrison use, storage, transportation, and deployed field conditions. The reports outlines the requirement and the test and evaluation program. Two manufacturers of detection systems and two manufacturers of suppression systems were identified and qualified to meet the fire protection requirements for mobile tactical shelters.

  6. New isotopic evidence of lead contamination in wheat grain from atmospheric fallout.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Chen, Tongbin; Lei, Mei; Zhou, Xiaoyong; Huang, Qifei; Ma, Chuang; Gu, Runyao; Guo, Guanghui

    2015-10-01

    Crops could accumulate trace metals by soil-root transfer and foliar uptake from atmospheric fallout, and an accurate assessment of pollution sources is a prerequisite for preventing heavy metal pollution in agricultural products. In this study, we examined Pb isotope rates to trace the sources of Pb in wheat grain grown in suburbs. Results showed that, even in zones with scarcely any air pollution spots, atmospheric fallout was still a considerable source of Pb accumulation in wheat. The concentration of Pb in wheat grain has poor correlation with that in farm soil. The Pb concentration in wheat grains with dust in bran coat was significantly higher than that in wheat grains, which indicates that Pb may accumulate by foliar uptake. The Pb isotope rate has obvious differences between the soil and atmospheric fallout, and scatter ratio is significantly closer between the wheat grain and atmospheric fallout. Atmospheric fallout is a more significant source of Pb concentration in wheat grains than in soil. As far as we know, this is the first study on the main sources of lead in grain crop (wheat) samples with isotope. This study aims to improve our understanding of the translocation of foliar-absorbed metals to nonexposed parts of plants. PMID:25982979

  7. Development of a new welfare assessment protocol for practical application in long-term dog shelters.

    PubMed

    Barnard, S; Pedernera, C; Candeloro, L; Ferri, N; Velarde, A; Dalla Villa, P

    2016-01-01

    In many European shelters, dogs may spend many years confined. A poor environment and inappropriate management may lead to a low quality of life. The absence of harmonised European regulatory frameworks defining the minimum requirements for shelter facilities makes the definition of welfare standards for kennelled dogs challenging. Here, a new protocol was developed and tested to help identify the main welfare issues for shelter dogs. Twenty-six indicators were identified including management, resource and animal based measures. Accuracy and interobserver reliability were checked between four assessors. The protocol was applied in 29 shelters (n=1308 dogs) in six European countries. Overall prevalence of poor health conditions was below 10%. Test-retest reliability and validity of the protocol were investigated with encouraging results. A logistic regression was carried out to assess the potential of the protocol as a tool to identify welfare hazards in shelter environments. Inappropriate space allowance, for example, was found to be a risk factor potentially affecting the animal's cleanliness, skin condition and body condition. The protocol was designed to be concise and easy to implement. Systematic data collection could help identify welfare problems that are likely to arise in certain shelter designs and thus determine improvement in animal care standards. PMID:26612859

  8. Stability of mineral matter in aqueous media of the Chernobyl Unit-4 Shelter: Thermodynamic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Sinitsyn, V.A.; Kurepin, V.A.; Shurpach, N.A.; Kulik, D.A.; Khodorivski, M.S.; Abramis, A.Y.; Kolyabina, I.L.

    1997-12-31

    A special geochemical environment exists within the Shelter (Sarcophagus) erected in 1986 over the destroyed Unit-4 of Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP). Based upon the available in situ and compositional data, thermodynamic models of solid-aqueous interactions were developed to clarify the leaching behavior of various materials within the Shelter. The Selektor-A code, based on a convex programming approach to Gibbs free energy minimization, was used for the calculations. A built-in flexible hybrid thermodynamic database for the system Na-K-Ca-Mg-Cl-S-N-H-O-Si-P-Fe-Al-Sr-Cs was extended with the critically selected and matched parameters for aqueous species and solid phases in the U-Zr-Si-O-H subsystem, secondary U-minerals, mineral phases of fully hydrated Portland cements and U-bearing zircons. Modeling results show that the Shelter Waters can selectively leach a significant quantity of U and Si from the fuel-containing masses, while Zr, Fe, Ca, Mg and some other components are rather insoluble. Serpentinite, assemblages of fully-hydrated phases of Portland cements, and oxidation products of steel structural elements are estimated to be sufficiently stable in the aqueous environment of the Shelter. Calculations also define some feasible pathways for secondary mineral formation from evaporation of Shelter water solutions and interactions between these waters with the mineral matter inside the Shelter.

  9. Service learning: Priority 4 Paws mobile surgical service for shelter animals.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Lynetta J; Ferguson, Nancy; Litster, Annette; Arighi, Mimi

    2013-01-01

    The increasing attention given to competencies needed to enter the workforce has revealed a need for veterinary students to gain more experience in performing small-animal elective surgery before graduation. In addition, guidelines for standards of care for shelter animals recommend that all dogs and cats should be spayed or neutered before adoption. Teaching surgical skills while serving the needs of local animal shelters represents an ideal service-learning opportunity. Following a pilot study and the benchmarking of other programs, an elective course in shelter medicine and surgery was created at Purdue University College of Veterinary Medicine (PVM) to allow senior DVM students an opportunity to spend 2 weeks on a mobile surgery unit (Priority 4 Paws) and 1 week at an animal shelter. With financial assistance from sponsors and donors, PVM purchased and equipped a mobile surgery unit, hired a full-time veterinarian and a registered veterinary technician, and established relationships with 12 animal shelters. From July 30, 2012, to March 22, 2013, 1,941 spays and neuters were performed with excellent postsurgical outcomes while training 33 veterinary students on rotation and 26 veterinary technician students. The program was well accepted by both students and the shelters being served. The Priority 4 Paws program is an example of an integrated, community-based service-learning opportunity that not only helps to improve the surgical skills of veterinary students but also helps to meet an identified community need. PMID:24113722

  10. A theory-based approach to understanding suicide risk in shelter-seeking women.

    PubMed

    Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Smith, Phillip N

    2015-04-01

    Women seeking shelter from intimate partner violence are at an increased risk for suicide ideation and attempts compared to women in the general population. Control-based violence, which is common among shelter-seeking women, may play a pivotal role in the development of suicide ideation and attempts. Current risk assessment and management practices for shelter-seeking women are limited by the lack of an empirically grounded understanding of increased risk in this population. We argue that in order to more effectively promote risk assessment and management, an empirically supported theory that is sensitive to the experiences of shelter-seeking women is needed. Such a theory-driven approach has the benefits of identifying and prioritizing targetable areas for intervention. Here, we review the evidence for the link between coercive control and suicide ideation and attempts from the perspective of Baumeister's escape theory of suicide. This theory has the potential to explain the role of coercive control in the development of suicide ideation and eventual attempts in shelter-seeking women. Implications for suicide risk assessment and prevention in domestic violence shelters are discussed. PMID:24415137

  11. Effectiveness of Urban Shelter-in-Place. II: ResidentialDistricts

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, W.R.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Price, P.N.; Gadgil, A.J.

    2006-12-01

    In the event of a short-term, large-scale toxic chemical release to the atmosphere, shelter-in-place (SIP) may be used as an emergency response to protect public health. We modeled hypothetical releases using realistic, empirical parameters to explore how key factors influence SIP effectiveness for single-family dwellings in a residential district. Four classes of factors were evaluated in this case-study: (a) time scales associated with release duration, SIP implementation delay, and SIP termination; (b) building air-exchange rates, including air infiltration and ventilation; (c) the degree of sorption of toxic chemicals to indoor surfaces; and (d) the shape of the dose-response relationship for acute adverse health effects. Houses with lower air leakage are more effective shelters, and thus variability in the air leakage of dwellings is associated with varying degrees of SIP protection in a community. Sorption on indoor surfaces improves SIP effectiveness by lowering the peak indoor concentrations and reducing the amount of contamination in the indoor air. Nonlinear dose-response relationships imply substantial reduction in adverse health effects from lowering the peak exposure concentration. However, if the scenario is unfavorable for sheltering (e.g. sheltering in leaky houses for protection against a nonsorbing chemical with a linear dose-response), the community must implement SIP without delay and exit from shelter when it first becomes safe to do so. Otherwise, the community can be subjected to even greater risk than if they did not take shelter indoors.

  12. Epidemiologic evaluation of multiple respiratory pathogens in cats in animal shelters.

    PubMed

    Bannasch, Michael J; Foley, Janet E

    2005-04-01

    Upper respiratory tract infection (URI) propagates readily within cats in shelters and often results in euthanasia of affected cats. In a case-control evaluation of 573 cats in eight shelters in California in 2001 and 2002, the prevalence of feline calicivirus (FCV) was from 13 to 36%, feline herpesvirus (FHV) was from 3 to 38%, and prevalence of Bordetella bronchiseptica, Chlamydophila felis, and Mycoplasma species was from 2 to 14%. Cats with URI tended to be housed in isolation, dehydrated, and younger than cats without URI, and infected with FHV, Mycoplasma species, FCV, or C felis. Shelters differed in the prevalence of pathogens and many cats appeared positive for infection after about 1 week of sheltering. It is helpful for shelters to understand the risk factors associated with URI in order to evaluate the costs and benefits of treatment and improve their procedures to decrease the incidence of URI within their facilities. Antiherpetics and antimycoplasmal drugs may be beneficial for individual animal care. Results document the utility of comprehensive URI surveillance and herd management for specific pathogens typical in that shelter. PMID:15771947

  13. Wind sheltering of a lake by a tree canopy or bluff topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markfort, Corey D.; Perez, Angel L. S.; Thill, James W.; Jaster, Dane A.; Porté-Agel, Fernando; Stefan, Heinz G.

    2010-03-01

    A model is developed to quantify the wind sheltering of a lake by a tree canopy or a bluff. The experiment-based model predicts the wind-sheltering coefficient a priori, without calibration, and is useful for one-dimensional (1-D) lake hydrodynamic and water quality modeling. The model is derived from velocity measurements in a boundary layer wind tunnel, by investigating mean velocity profiles and surface shear stress development downwind of two canopies and a bluff. The wind tunnel experiments are validated with field measurements over an ice-covered lake. Both wind tunnel and field experiments show that reduced surface shear stress extends approximately 50 canopy heights downwind from the transition. The reduction in total shear force on the water surface is parameterized by a wind-sheltering coefficient that is related to the reduction of wind-affected lake area. While all measurements are made on solid surfaces, the wind-sheltering coefficient is shown to be applicable to the lake surface. Although several canopy characteristics, such as its height, aerodynamic roughness, and its porosity affect the transition of velocity profiles and surface shear stress onto a lake, a relationship based on canopy height alone provides a sufficiently realistic estimate of the wind-sheltering coefficient. The results compare well with wind-sheltering coefficients estimated by calibration of lake water temperature profile simulations for eight lakes.

  14. Association between shelter crowding and incidence of sleep disturbance among disaster evacuees: a retrospective medical chart review study

    PubMed Central

    Kawano, Takahisa; Nishiyama, Kei; Morita, Hiroshi; Yamamura, Osamu; Hiraide, Atsuchi; Hasegawa, Kohei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We determined whether crowding at emergency shelters is associated with a higher incidence of sleep disturbance among disaster evacuees and identified the minimum required personal space at shelters. Design Retrospective review of medical charts. Setting 30 shelter-based medical clinics in Ishinomaki, Japan, during the 46 days following the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake and Tsunami in 2011. Participants Shelter residents who visited eligible clinics. Outcome measures Based on the result of a locally weighted scatter-plot smoothing technique assessing the relationship between the mean space per evacuee and cumulative incidence of sleep disturbance at the shelter, eligible shelters were classified into crowded and non-crowded shelters. The cumulative incidence per 1000 evacuees was compared between groups, using a Mann-Whitney U test. To assess the association between shelter crowding and the daily incidence of sleep disturbance per 1000 evacuees, quasi–least squares method adjusting for potential confounders was used. Results The 30 shelters were categorised as crowded (mean space per evacuee <5.0 m2, 9 shelters) or non-crowded (≥5.0 m2, 21 shelters). The study included 9031 patients. Among the eligible patients, 1079 patients (11.9%) were diagnosed with sleep disturbance. Mean space per evacuee during the study period was 3.3 m2 (SD, 0.8 m2) at crowded shelters and 8.6 m2 (SD, 4.3 m2) at non-crowded shelters. The median cumulative incidence of sleep disturbance did not differ between the crowded shelters (2.3/1000 person-days (IQR, 1.6–5.4)) and non-crowded shelters (1.9/1000 person-days (IQR, 1.0–2.8); p=0.20). In contrast, after adjusting for potential confounders, crowded shelters had an increased daily incidence of sleep disturbance (2.6 per 1000 person-days; 95% CI 0.2 to 5.0/1000 person-days, p=0.03) compared to that at non-crowded shelters. Conclusions Crowding at shelters may exacerbate sleep disruptions in disaster

  15. Live-in Care Workers in Sheltered Housing for Older Adults in Israel: The New Sheltered Housing Law.

    PubMed

    Iecovich, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Supportive housing schemes were historically aimed to provide group accommodation for older adults. With the aging of residents, facilities were required to enable them to receive care services in order to allow them to age in place. Thus, different countries and different facilities developed different models of housing with care, reflecting cultural and policy diversities. Despite all of the different models, there are many commonalities among the supportive housing schemes across countries. These include provision of dwelling units and care services provided by either the facility or by external agencies. The aims of this article are threefold: to describe the historical development of the ever-evolving supportive care housing phenomena; to point at variations in models of housing and care within the international context; and to present a new Israeli model that enables residents to privately hire live-in care workers to meet their care needs. This is a unique model in the international context that has not been reported before. The article describes the main ideas of the new model and discusses the challenges that it raises and pinpoints the unresolved issues associated with the presence of live-in care workers employed by residents of sheltered housing that should be addressed. PMID:26959294

  16. The Dose Rate Conversion Factors for Nuclear Fallout

    SciTech Connect

    Spriggs, G D

    2009-02-13

    In a previous paper, the composite exposure rate conversion factor (ECF) for nuclear fallout was calculated using a simple theoretical photon-transport model. The theoretical model was used to fill in the gaps in the FGR-12 table generated by ORNL. The FGR-12 table contains the individual conversion factors for approximate 1000 radionuclides. However, in order to calculate the exposure rate during the first 30 minutes following a nuclear detonation, the conversion factors for approximately 2000 radionuclides are needed. From a human-effects standpoint, it is also necessary to have the dose rate conversion factors (DCFs) for all 2000 radionuclides. The DCFs are used to predict the whole-body dose rates that would occur if a human were standing in a radiation field of known exposure rate. As calculated by ORNL, the whole-body dose rate (rem/hr) is approximately 70% of the exposure rate (R/hr) at one meter above the surface. Hence, the individual DCFs could be estimated by multiplying the individual ECFs by 0.7. Although this is a handy rule-of-thumb, a more consistent (and perhaps, more accurate) method of estimating the individual DCFs for the missing radionuclides in the FGR-12 table is to use the linear relationship between DCF and total gamma energy released per decay. This relationship is shown in Figure 1. The DCFs for individual organs in the body can also be estimated from the estimated whole-body DCF. Using the DCFs given FGR-12, the ratio of the organ-specific DCFs to the whole-body DCF were plotted as a function of the whole-body DCF. From these plots, the asymptotic ratios were obtained (see Table 1). Using these asymptotic ratios, the organ-specific DCFs can be estimated using the estimated whole-body DCF for each of the missing radionuclides in the FGR-12 table. Although this procedure for estimating the organ-specific DCFs may over-estimate the value for some low gamma-energy emitters, having a finite value for the organ-specific DCFs in the table is

  17. Elimination Behavior of Shelter Dogs Housed in Double Compartment Kennels

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Denae; Newbury, Sandra; Kass, Philip; Hurley, Kate

    2014-01-01

    For animals in confinement housing the housing structure has tremendous potential to impact well being. Dogs in animal shelters are often housed in one of two types of confinement housing – single kennels and rooms or double compartment kennels and rooms most often separated by a guillotine door. This study examines the effect of housing on the location of elimination behavior in dogs housed in double compartment kennels were the majority of the dogs were walked daily. One side of the kennel contained the food, water and bed and the other side was empty and available except during cleaning time. Location of urination and defecation was observed daily for 579 dogs housed in indoor double compartment kennels for a total of 4440 days of observation. There were 1856 days (41.9%) when no elimination was noted in the kennel. Feces, urine or both were observed in the kennel on 2584 days (58.1%). When elimination occurred in the kennel the probability of fecal elimination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 72.5% (95% CI 69.05% to 75.69%). The probability of urination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 77.4% (95% CI 74.33% to 80.07%). This study demonstrates the strong preference of dogs to eliminate away from the area where they eat, drink and sleep. Double compartment housing not only allows this – it allows staff the ability to provide safe, efficient, humane daily care and confers the added benefits of reducing risks for disease transmission for the individual dog as well as the population. PMID:24825357

  18. Respiratory viruses within homeless shelters in Marseille, France

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Homeless shelters are identified as places where humans are at high risk of acquiring respiratory disease. We previously reported the prevalence of the main respiratory diseases affecting a population of homeless in Marseille, France. Here, we investigated the prevalence of 10 respiratory viruses in a similar homeless population during 2 successive winter seasons. Findings Following a clinical examination, we collected nasal specimens from which the RT-PCR detection of 10 respiratory viruses was performed through snapshot investigations. Among the 265 patients included, 150 (56.6%) reported at least one respiratory symptom of which 13 (8.7%) had positive swabs for at least one respiratory virus, and 115 patients reported any respiratory symptom of which 10 (8.7%) had positive swabs for respiratory virus. Overall, 23 patients had positive swabs for at least one respiratory virus. Human rhinovirus (HRV) was the predominant virus (13 isolates) followed by enteroviruses (3), human metapneumovirus (2), human coronavirus OC43 (2), 229E virus (2) and human respiratory syncytial virus subtype B (1). Among the patients infected with HRV, 10 were collected during the same snapshot. Conclusions Although one half of the patients reported respiratory symptoms, the prevalence of respiratory viruses was within the range of that previously described in adult asymptomatic patients outside the homeless community. Most HRV-positive swabs were collected during the same snapshot suggesting a local outbreak. No influenza viruses were found despite the fact that one half of the patients were investigated during the peak of the seasonal influenza epidemic in Marseille. PMID:24499605

  19. The Shelter Experience: A Guide to Shelter Organization and Management for Groups Working Against Domestic Violence. Domestic Violence Monograph Series Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vapnar, Gretchen S.

    This manual describes the operation of a shelter facility for victims of domestic violence and is based on the program developed by the Community Crisis Center in Elgin, Illinois. The introduction discusses ways to organize concerned individuals; steps are then given for gathering information and resources, and acquiring real estate, equipment,…

  20. Comparison of Adding Treatment of PTSD During and After Shelter Stay to Standard Care in Residents of Battered Women's Shelters: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Dawn M; Johnson, Nicole L; Perez, Sara K; Palmieri, Patrick A; Zlotnick, Caron

    2016-08-01

    This study explored the acceptability, feasibility, and initial efficacy of an expanded version of a PTSD treatment developed for residents of battered women's shelters, Helping to Overcome PTSD through Empowerment (HOPE) in women who received standard shelter services (SSSs). A Phase I randomized clinical trial comparing HOPE + SSSs (n = 30) to SSSs (n = 30) was conducted. Primary outcome measures included the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (Blake et al., 1995) and the Revised Conflict Tactic Scales (Straus, Hamby, Boney-McCoy, & Sugarman, ). Participants were followed at 1-week, and 3- and 6-months posttreatment. Only 2 women dropped out of HOPE + SSS treatment. Latent growth curve analyses found significant treatment effects for PTSD from intimate partner violence (IPV) (β = -.007, p = .021), but not for future IPV (β = .002, p = .709) across follow-up points. Significant effects were also found for secondary outcomes of depression severity (β = -.006, p = .052), empowerment (β = .155, p = .022), and resource gain (β = .158, p = .036). Additionally, more women in HOPE + SSSs were employed at 3- and 6-month follow-up compared to those in SSSs only. Results showed the acceptability and feasibility of adding IPV-related treatment to standard services. They also suggested that HOPE may be a promising treatment for residents of battered women's shelters. Further research with a larger sample, utilizing more diverse shelter settings and a more rigorous control condition, is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:27459503

  1. "I Am Not a Shelter!": Stigma and Social Boundaries in Teachers' Accounts of Students' Experience in Separate "Sheltered" English Learner Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabach, Dafney Blanca

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how teachers interact with immigrant-origin youth in school-based contexts of reception that mediate youth's educational opportunities. One understudied context is sheltered instruction, where English learners (ELs) are placed into separate content-area courses to target their linguistic needs. This qualitative study…

  2. Comparison of Adding Treatment of PTSD During and After Shelter Stay to Standard Care in Residents of Battered Women’s Shelters: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Dawn M.; Johnson, Nicole L.; Perez, Sara K.; Palmieri, Patrick A.; Zlotnick, Caron

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the acceptability, feasibility, and initial efficacy of an expanded version of a PTSD treatment developed for residents of battered women’s shelters, Helping to Overcome PTSD through Empowerment (HOPE) in women who received standard shelter services (SSSs). A Phase I randomized clinical trial comparing HOPE + SSSs (n = 30) to SSSs (n = 30) was conducted. Primary outcome measures included the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (Blake et al., 1995) and the Revised Conflict Tactic Scales (Straus, Hamby, Boney-McCoy, & Sugarman, 1996). Participants were followed at 1-week, and 3- and 6-months posttreatment. Only 2 women dropped out of HOPE + SSS treatment. Latent growth curve analyses found significant treatment effects for PTSD from intimate partner violence (IPV) (β = −.007, p = .021), but not for future IPV (β = .002, p = .709) across follow-up points. Significant effects were also found for secondary outcomes of depression severity (β = −.006, p = .052), empowerment (β = .155, p = .022), and resource gain (β = .158, p = .036). Additionally, more women in HOPE + SSSs were employed at 3- and 6-month follow-up compared to those in SSSs only. Results showed the acceptability and feasibility of adding IPV-related treatment to standard services. They also suggested that HOPE may be a promising treatment for residents of battered women’s shelters. Further research with a larger sample, utilizing more diverse shelter settings and a more rigorous control condition, is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:27459503

  3. Fallout deposition in the Marshall Islands from Bikini and Enewetak nuclear weapons tests.

    PubMed

    Beck, Harold L; Bouville, André; Moroz, Brian E; Simon, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    Deposition densities (Bq m(-2)) of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in nuclear weapons testing fallout from tests conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls (1946-1958) have been estimated on a test-specific basis for 32 atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. A complete review of various historical and contemporary data, as well as meteorological analysis, was used to make judgments regarding which tests deposited fallout in the Marshall Islands and to estimate fallout deposition density. Our analysis suggested that only 20 of the 66 nuclear tests conducted in or near the Marshall Islands resulted in substantial fallout deposition on any of the 23 inhabited atolls. This analysis was confirmed by the fact that the sum of our estimates of 137Cs deposition from these 20 tests at each atoll is in good agreement with the total 137Cs deposited as estimated from contemporary soil sample analyses. The monitoring data and meteorological analyses were used to quantitatively estimate the deposition density of 63 activation and fission products for each nuclear test, plus the cumulative deposition of 239+240Pu at each atoll. Estimates of the degree of fractionation of fallout from each test at each atoll, as well as of the fallout transit times from the test sites to the atolls were used in this analysis. The estimates of radionuclide deposition density, fractionation, and transit times reported here are the most complete available anywhere and are suitable for estimations of both external and internal dose to representative persons as described in companion papers. PMID:20622548

  4. Fallout Deposition in the Marshall Islands from Bikini and Enewetak Nuclear Weapons Tests

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Harold L.; Bouville, André; Moroz, Brian E.; Simon, Steven L.

    2009-01-01

    Deposition densities (Bq m-2) of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in nuclear weapons testing fallout from tests conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls (1946-1958) have been estimated on a test-specific basis for all the 31 atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. A complete review of various historical and contemporary data, as well as meteorological analysis, was used to make judgments regarding which tests deposited fallout in the Marshall Islands and to estimate fallout deposition density. Our analysis suggested that only 20 of the 66 nuclear tests conducted in or near the Marshall Islands resulted in substantial fallout deposition on any of the 25 inhabited atolls. This analysis was confirmed by the fact that the sum of our estimates of 137Cs deposition from these 20 tests at each atoll is in good agreement with the total 137Cs deposited as estimated from contemporary soil sample analyses. The monitoring data and meteorological analyses were used to quantitatively estimate the deposition density of 63 activation and fission products for each nuclear test, plus the cumulative deposition of 239+240Pu at each atoll. Estimates of the degree of fractionation of fallout from each test at each atoll, as well as of the fallout transit times from the test sites to the atolls were used in this analysis. The estimates of radionuclide deposition density, fractionation, and transit times reported here are the most complete available anywhere and are suitable for estimations of both external and internal dose to representative persons as described in companion papers. PMID:20622548

  5. Historical overview of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing and estimates of fallout in the continental United States.

    PubMed

    Beck, Harold L; Bennett, Burton G

    2002-05-01

    From 1945 to 1980, over 500 weapons tests were conducted in the atmosphere at a number of locations around the world. These tests resulted in the release of substantial quantities of radioactive debris to the environment. Local, intermediate, and global fallout deposition densities downwind from test sites depended on the heights of bursts, the yields, and the half-lives and volatilities of the particular fission or activation products, as well as on the meteorological conditions. A number of national and international monitoring programs were established to trace the fallout through the atmosphere and biosphere. These programs included continuous monitoring of ground-level air, exposure rates, and deposition as well as periodic sampling of food, bone, water, soil, and stratospheric air. Although data for specific high-yield tests are still classified, the fission and fusion yields of the various tests and test series have been estimated and from this information the quantities of specific fission and activation products released into the atmosphere have been determined. The geographic and temporal variations in the fallout deposition of specific radionuclides based on both actual measurements and model calculations are discussed in this paper. A feasibility study to estimate the deposition density (deposition per unit area) of particular radionuclides from both Nevada Test Site and "global" fallout on a county-by-county scale for the continental United States is described. These deposition estimates provide a basis for reconstructing population exposure and dose. They support the feasibility of a more detailed evaluation of the population doses that resulted from fallout from atmospheric tests to document the experience fully and to report results more systematically and completely to the world community. The impact of weapons fallout will continue to be felt for years to come since a contaminant baseline has been imposed on the ambient radiation environment that

  6. Fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear disaster and congenital malformations in Europe.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, W

    2001-01-01

    Investigators estimate that the population exposure that resulted from the Chernobyl fallout is in the range of natural background radiation for most European countries. Given current radiobiologic knowledge, health effects-if any-would not be measurable with epidemiologic tools. In several independent reports, however, researchers have described isolated peaks in the prevalence of congenital malformations in the cohort conceived immediately after onset of the fallout. The consistency of the time pattern and the specific types of malformation raise concern about their significance. In this study, the author summarizes findings from Turkey, Belarus, Croatia, Finland, Germany, and other countries, and implications for radiation protection and public health issues are discussed. PMID:11958546

  7. Distribution of neptunium and plutonium in New Mexico lichen samples (Usnea arizonica) contaminated by atmospheric fallout

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Oldham, Jr., Warren J.; Hanson, Susan K.; Lavelle, Kevin B.; Miller, Jeffrey L.

    2015-08-30

    In this study, the concentrations of 237Np, 239Pu and 240Pu were determined in lichen samples (Usnea arizonica) that were collected from ten locations in New Mexico between 2011 and 2013 using isotope dilution inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS). The observed isotopic ratios for 237Np/239Pu and 240Pu/239Pu indicate trace contamination from global and regional fallout (e.g. Trinity test and atmospheric testing at the Nevada Test Site). The fact that actinide contamination is detected in recent lichen collections suggests continuous re-suspension of fallout radionuclides even 50 years after ratification of the Limited Test Ban Treaty.

  8. Development and validation of a new fallout transport method using variable spectral winds. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, A.T.

    1984-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and validate a fallout prediction method using variable transport calculations. The new method uses National Meteorological Center (NMC) spectral coefficients to compute wind vectors along the space- and time-varying trajectories of falling particles. The method was validated by comparing computed and actual cloud trajectories from a Mount St. Helens volcanic eruption and a high dust cloud. In summary, this research demonstrated the feasibility of using spectral coefficients for fallout transport calculations, developed a two-step smearing model to treat variable winds, and showed that uncertainties in spectral winds do not contribute significantly to the error in computed dose rate.

  9. Development of a Fuel Containing Material Removal and Waste Management Strategy for the Chernobyl Unit 4 Shelter

    SciTech Connect

    Tokarevsky, V. V.; Shibetsky, Y. A.; Leister, P.; Davison, W. R.; Follin, J. F.; McNair, J.; Lins, W.; Edler, G.

    2002-02-27

    A study was performed to develop a strategy for the removal of fuel-containing material (FCM) from the Chernobyl Unit 4 Shelter and for the related waste management. This study was performed during Phase 1 of the Shelter Implementation Plan (SIP) and was funded by the Chernobyl Shelter Fund. The main objective for Phase 2 of the SIP is to stabilize the Shelter and to construct a New Confinement (NC) by the year 2007. In addition, the SIP includes studies on the strategy and on the conceptual design implications of the removal of FCM from the Shelter. This is considered essential for the ultimate goal, the transformation of the Shelter into an environmentally safe system.

  10. Service quality and corporate social responsibility, influence on post-purchase intentions of sheltered employment institutions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao-Chien; Lin, Shih-Yen; Cheng, Chia-Hsin; Tsai, Chia-Ching

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of service quality and corporate social responsibility (CSR) on customer satisfaction, and customer satisfaction toward post-purchase intentions from sheltered employment institutions. Work experience plays an important role in career development for those people with intellectual disabilities. When they are not yet capable of obtaining a job in the open market, they must receive job training and daily care in sheltered employment institutions. If the sheltered employment institutions cannot operate properly, they will greatly affect intellectual disabilities. From the study of "Children Are Us Bakeries and Restaurants" sheltered employment institutions are one kind of food service business that has been found to request and improve service quality and execution of CSR. These are two main factors which can enhance brand value and create a good reputation for sheltered employment institutions. The questionnaire results indicate that perceived service quality has a positive relationship with customer satisfaction and the reliability dimension is the most important factor for customers to assess service quality. Meanwhile, correlation analysis shows that customer satisfaction regarding service quality influences post-purchase intentions, indicating that friendly and helpful employees can please customers and enhance their satisfaction level and also induce positive post-purchase intentions of consumers. Regarding the CSR of "Children Are Us Bakeries and Restaurants" sheltered employment institutions, the analysis reveals a statistical significance: the greater customer satisfaction of CSR, the higher the post-purchase intention. In addition, in the work, paired-sample t test analysis reveals there is a significant difference (p<.05) in service quality and CSR in terms of "perceived" and "expected" responses. In summary, since those with intellectual disabilities usually are enthusiastic at work and do their

  11. Needs assessment for remote systems technology at the Chornobyl Unit 4 shelter

    SciTech Connect

    Carteret, B.A.; Holliday, M.A.; Jones, E.D.

    1997-12-01

    The accident at Chornobyl Unit 4 on April 26, 1986, resulted in a series of unprecedented scientific and technical challenges. The reactor building was damaged extensively. Following the accident, immediate action was needed to seal off the gaping crater created by the accident, which was a continuing source of airborne contamination. Under extreme conditions, a structure called the {open_quotes}Shelter{close_quotes} was built over the remains of the reactor building. The Shelter, which was quickly completed in November 1986, was meant to provide immediate but temporary containment. Now, 11 years later, there are significant concerns about its structural integrity and projected life expectancy. The United States and other participating G-7 countries are supporting nuclear safety upgrade efforts in Eastern Europe with a primary focus on placing the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4 Shelter in a stable and environmentally acceptable condition. Application of remote systems technologies will play an important part in achieving the goals of this program. The G-7 nations have agreed to support these efforts, including the identification and development of remote system technologies for fuel removal. However at this time they have taken a firm stance against funding actual fuel removal activities. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology requested that a needs assessment be performed to evaluate the requirements for applying remote systems, including robotics, at the Shelter. This document is intended to be used to identify remote systems needs and requirements at the Shelter and to provide general information on the conditions in the Shelter that could impact the use of remote systems. This document is intended as a source of information to assist those who will be implementing the Shelter Implementation Plan tasks. The document provides background information and general guidance on the application of remote systems.

  12. Impacts of Habitat Complexity on Physiology: Purple Shore Crabs Tolerate Osmotic Stress for Shelter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGaw, I. J.

    2001-12-01

    Purple shore crabs, Hemigrapsus nudus (Crustacea: Decapoda), can survive indefinitely in salinities of 8 (25% SW), but also tolerate short-term exposure to salinities as low as 2. In the laboratory their salinity preference range, determined from choice chamber experiments, is 22-32 and they can discriminate between pairs of salinities separated by a difference of 2. These crabs show a strong positive thigmotaxis and a weak negative phototaxis and tend to choose environments with available shelter. The presence of shelter significantly alters the behaviour of this species. When shelter is available the salinity preference range is 10-32. Even in salinities below this preference range, the presence of shelter prolongs the time spent in the lower test salinities. This change in behaviour has implications on the crab's physiology: the haemolymph osmolality falls to lower levels when crabs remain in low salinity under shelters. In the field, H. nudus is found in creeks with salinities close to freshwater and they may remain in this salinity for up to 11 h, if there are rocks under which to shelter. An increase in habitat complexity increases the number of crabs that are found within the creek. These crabs in the low salinity environment have a lower haemolymph osmolality than crabs on the nearby open shore. In H. nudus the behavioural selection of a shelter appears to outweigh the physiological costs associated with osmotic regulation of the body fluids. Therefore, the distribution of H. nudus in estuaries may depend more on the availability of suitable habitats rather than the salinity tolerance of this species.

  13. Inconsistent identification of pit bull-type dogs by shelter staff.

    PubMed

    Olson, K R; Levy, J K; Norby, B; Crandall, M M; Broadhurst, J E; Jacks, S; Barton, R C; Zimmerman, M S

    2015-11-01

    Shelter staff and veterinarians routinely make subjective dog breed identification based on appearance, but their accuracy regarding pit bull-type breeds is unknown. The purpose of this study was to measure agreement among shelter staff in assigning pit bull-type breed designations to shelter dogs and to compare breed assignments with DNA breed signatures. In this prospective cross-sectional study, four staff members at each of four different shelters recorded their suspected breed(s) for 30 dogs; there was a total of 16 breed assessors and 120 dogs. The terms American pit bull terrier, American Staffordshire terrier, Staffordshire bull terrier, pit bull, and their mixes were included in the study definition of 'pit bull-type breeds.' Using visual identification only, the median inter-observer agreements and kappa values in pair-wise comparisons of each of the staff breed assignments for pit bull-type breed vs. not pit bull-type breed ranged from 76% to 83% and from 0.44 to 0.52 (moderate agreement), respectively. Whole blood was submitted to a commercial DNA testing laboratory for breed identification. Whereas DNA breed signatures identified only 25 dogs (21%) as pit bull-type, shelter staff collectively identified 62 (52%) dogs as pit bull-type. Agreement between visual and DNA-based breed assignments varied among individuals, with sensitivity for pit bull-type identification ranging from 33% to 75% and specificity ranging from 52% to 100%. The median kappa value for inter-observer agreement with DNA results at each shelter ranged from 0.1 to 0.48 (poor to moderate). Lack of consistency among shelter staff indicated that visual identification of pit bull-type dogs was unreliable. PMID:26403955

  14. Predicting Abused Women With Children Who Return to a Shelter: Development and Use of a Rapid Assessment Triage Tool.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Judith; Pennings, Jacquelyn; Liu, Fuqin; Gilroy, Heidi; Nava, Angeles; Maddoux, John A; Montalvo-Liendo, Nora; Paulson, René

    2016-02-01

    To develop a tool to predict risk for return to a shelter, 150 women with children, exiting a domestic violence shelter, were evaluated every 4 months for 24 months to determine risk factors for returning to a shelter. The study identified four risk factors, including danger for murder, woman's age (i.e., older women), tangible support (i.e., access to money, transportation), and child witness to verbal abuse of the mother. An easy to use, quick triage tool with a weighted score was derived, which can identify with 90% accuracy abused women with children most likely to return to shelters. PMID:26270386

  15. An Enriched Environment Promotes Shelter-Seeking Behaviour and Survival of Hatchery-Produced Juvenile European Lobster (Homarus gammarus)

    PubMed Central

    Aspaas, Stian; Grefsrud, Ellen Sofie; Fernö, Anders; Jensen, Knut Helge; Trengereid, Henrik; Agnalt, Ann-Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    The high loss of newly released hatchery-reared European lobster (Homarus gammarus) juveniles for stock enhancement is believed to be the result of maladaptive anti-predator behaviour connected to deprived stimuli in the hatchery environment. Our objective was to learn if an enriched hatchery environment enhances shelter-seeking behaviour and survival. In the “naïve” treatment, the juveniles were raised in single compartments without substrate and shelter whereas juveniles in the “exposed” treatment experienced substrate, shelter and interactions with conspecifics. Three experiments with increasing complexity were conducted. Few differences in shelter-seeking behaviour were found between treatments when one naïve or one exposed juvenile were observed alone. When observing interactions between one naïve and one exposed juvenile competing for shelter, naïve juveniles more often initiated the first aggressive encounter. The third experiment was set up to simulate a release for stock enhancement. Naïve and exposed juveniles were introduced to a semi-natural environment including substrate, a limited number of shelters and interactions with conspecifics. Shelter occupancy was recorded three times during a period of 35 days. Exposed juveniles occupied more shelters, grew larger and had higher survival compared with naïve juveniles. Our results demonstrate that experience of environmental complexity and social interactions increase shelter-seeking ability and survival in hatchery reared lobster juveniles. PMID:27560932

  16. Separating the effects of shelter from additional cage enhancements for group-housed BALB/cJ mice.

    PubMed

    Swetter, Brentt J; Karpiak, Christie P; Cannon, J Timothy

    2011-05-20

    Enrichment studies with rodents have demonstrated that cage enhancements can improve animal welfare and performance on common behavioral measures, but few studies have compared more than one type of enrichment or controlled for confounds, and some have revealed undesirable effects including increased aggression. We compared effects on male (n=51) and female (n=52) BALB/cJ mice of three common additions to a standard home cage: shelter, shelter+running wheel, and shelter+novel objects. Mice in all conditions lived in standard sized cages with 3-4 mice per cage. Males evidenced significant condition effects. Shelter increased longevity and maintained low levels of aggression. Adding a running wheel increased aggression over shelter alone, changed behavior in the elevated plus (EP) and open field (OF), and maintained the improved longevity seen in all shelter conditions. Novel objects impacted behavioral measures compared to the standard condition. An Igloo shelter without running wheel creates a very different home cage environment than the same shelter with the running wheel attached. Shelter, with positive impact on animal welfare, minimal effects on some common behavioral measures, and some positive effects on test variance, warrants consideration for routine inclusion with group-housed BALB/cJ males. PMID:21457758

  17. An Enriched Environment Promotes Shelter-Seeking Behaviour and Survival of Hatchery-Produced Juvenile European Lobster (Homarus gammarus).

    PubMed

    Aspaas, Stian; Grefsrud, Ellen Sofie; Fernö, Anders; Jensen, Knut Helge; Trengereid, Henrik; Agnalt, Ann-Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    The high loss of newly released hatchery-reared European lobster (Homarus gammarus) juveniles for stock enhancement is believed to be the result of maladaptive anti-predator behaviour connected to deprived stimuli in the hatchery environment. Our objective was to learn if an enriched hatchery environment enhances shelter-seeking behaviour and survival. In the "naïve" treatment, the juveniles were raised in single compartments without substrate and shelter whereas juveniles in the "exposed" treatment experienced substrate, shelter and interactions with conspecifics. Three experiments with increasing complexity were conducted. Few differences in shelter-seeking behaviour were found between treatments when one naïve or one exposed juvenile were observed alone. When observing interactions between one naïve and one exposed juvenile competing for shelter, naïve juveniles more often initiated the first aggressive encounter. The third experiment was set up to simulate a release for stock enhancement. Naïve and exposed juveniles were introduced to a semi-natural environment including substrate, a limited number of shelters and interactions with conspecifics. Shelter occupancy was recorded three times during a period of 35 days. Exposed juveniles occupied more shelters, grew larger and had higher survival compared with naïve juveniles. Our results demonstrate that experience of environmental complexity and social interactions increase shelter-seeking ability and survival in hatchery reared lobster juveniles. PMID:27560932

  18. Examining the utility of satellite-based wind sheltering estimates for lake hydrodynamic modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2014-01-01

    Satellite-based measurements of vegetation canopy structure have been in common use for the last decade but have never been used to estimate canopy's impact on wind sheltering of individual lakes. Wind sheltering is caused by slower winds in the wake of topography and shoreline obstacles (e.g. forest canopy) and influences heat loss and the flux of wind-driven mixing energy into lakes, which control lake temperatures and indirectly structure lake ecosystem processes, including carbon cycling and thermal habitat partitioning. Lakeshore wind sheltering has often been parameterized by lake surface area but such empirical relationships are only based on forested lakeshores and overlook the contributions of local land cover and terrain to wind sheltering. This study is the first to examine the utility of satellite imagery-derived broad-scale estimates of wind sheltering across a diversity of land covers. Using 30 m spatial resolution ASTER GDEM2 elevation data, the mean sheltering height, hs, being the combination of local topographic rise and canopy height above the lake surface, is calculated within 100 m-wide buffers surrounding 76,000 lakes in the U.S. state of Wisconsin. Uncertainty of GDEM2-derived hs was compared to SRTM-, high-resolution G-LiHT lidar-, and ICESat-derived estimates of hs, respective influences of land cover type and buffer width on hs are examined; and the effect of including satellite-based hs on the accuracy of a statewide lake hydrodynamic model was discussed. Though GDEM2 hs uncertainty was comparable to or better than other satellite-based measures of hs, its higher spatial resolution and broader spatial coverage allowed more lakes to be included in modeling efforts. GDEM2 was shown to offer superior utility for estimating hs compared to other satellite-derived data, but was limited by its consistent underestimation of hs, inability to detect within-buffer hs variability, and differing accuracy across land cover types. Nonetheless

  19. Rapid HIV Testing and Counseling for Residents in Domestic Violence Shelters

    PubMed Central

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Johnson, Dawn M.; Johnson, Nicole L.; Kadeba, Myriam T.; Mazurczyk, Jill; Zlotnick, Caron

    2015-01-01

    Over one million Americans live with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and roughly 20% of those living with HIV are unaware of their status. One way to decrease this epidemic is community-based rapid testing with high-risk populations. One high-risk population that has received limited attention is victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) who seek shelter. In an effort to gain foundational information to implement rapid HIV testing and counseling services in domestic violence shelters, the current study conducted a series of focus groups with 18 residents and 10 staff of local shelters from October 15th to December 12th, 2012. Participants provided valuable insight into how HIV rapid testing and counseling might be best implemented given the resources and constraints of shelter life. Despite identifying some potential barriers, most believed that the promise of quick results, the convenience and support afforded by the shelter venue, and the timing of the intervention at a point when women are making life changes would render the intervention acceptable to residents. Further insights are discussed in the article. PMID:25738795

  20. Effects of sheltering on physiology, immune function, behavior, and the welfare of dogs.

    PubMed

    Protopopova, Alexandra

    2016-05-15

    Approximately 4 million dogs live in animal shelters each year. However, understanding and measuring the welfare of these kenneled dogs presents a challenge. One way to determine welfare is by assessing how stay at the shelter influences physiology, immune function, and behavior of the dogs. Prior research, from all of these domains, has not resulted in clear conclusions on how the animal shelter influences the well-being of dogs. One robust finding is that, when placed into a kennel environment, dogs experience a spike in cortisol levels followed by a decrease to original at-home levels. Current evidence cannot differentiate between several proposed hypotheses that may be responsible for this pattern. In addition, very few studies have assessed the effects of kenneling on immune function of dogs, and of these, no consistent findings have emerged. However, this line of inquiry can have a large impact as infectious diseases are rampant in animal shelters. The ability of behavioral measures to inform us about the welfare of dogs is discussed by reviewing published and new data on the effects of kenneling on dog behavior. Prior research has suffered from a lack of consistent operational definitions when defining abnormal behavior in dogs, resulting in difficult to interpret results. Research on the well-being of individual dogs, rather than on group averages, may be a fruitful next step in determining and improving the welfare of dogs housed in shelters. PMID:26996275

  1. Timing and presence of an attachment person affect sensitivity of aggression tests in shelter dogs.

    PubMed

    Kis, A; Klausz, B; Persa, E; Miklósi, Á; Gácsi, M

    2014-02-22

    Different test series have been developed and used to measure behaviour in shelter dogs in order to reveal individuals not suitable for re-homing due to their aggressive tendencies. However, behavioural tests previously validated on pet dogs seem to have relatively low predictability in the case of shelter dogs. Here, we investigate the potential effects of (1) timing of the behaviour testing and (2) presence of a human companion on dogs' aggressive behaviour. In Study I, shelter dogs (n=25) showed more aggression when tested in a short test series two weeks after they had been placed in the shelter compared to their responses in the same test performed 1-2 days after arrival. In Study II, the occurrence of aggressive behaviour was more probable in pet dogs (n=50) in the presence than in the absence of their passive owner. We conclude that the sensitivity of aggression tests for shelter dogs can be increased by running the test in the presence of a caretaker, and after some period of acclimatisation to the new environment. This methodology could also provide better chances for successful adoption. PMID:24482210

  2. Shelter-Building Behavior and Natural History of Two Pyralid Caterpillars Feeding on Piper stipulaceum

    PubMed Central

    Abarca, Mariana; Boege, Karina; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Shelter-building behavior by caterpillars provides a mechanism of defense against predators, microenvironment enhancement, and in some cases nutritional benefits. This study provides a detailed description of the life cycle and shelter-building process of caterpillars, and identifies constraints and factors influencing this adaptive behavior in Lepidomys n. sp. near proclea Druce (Pyralidae: Chrysauginae), a tropical dry forest pyralid. Five macroscopic larval instars were detected during the life cycle, and activities performed during shelter-building were categorized and timed. Caterpillar predators were identified, and 20% of all collected larvae died due to attack by parasitoid wasps. Shelter-building behavior was found to be constrained by the ontogenetic stage of caterpillars and influenced by leaf size of the host plant, Piper stipulaceum Opiz (Piperales: Piperaceae). A similar pattern of shelter-building behavior exhibited by Tosale n. sp. near cuprealis larvae that coexisted in the same host plant is also described. Larvae of the second species were significantly less abundant than those of Lepidomys and hatched one month later in the rainy season, which could indicate some competitive interactions between these two pyralid species. PMID:25373186

  3. Sheltering Effect and Indirect Pathogenesis of Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Polymicrobial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yu-Ting; Kuo, Shu-Chen; Lee, Yi-Tzu; Chen, Chien-Pei; Lin, Shu-Wen; Shen, Li-Jiuan; Fung, Chang-Phone

    2014-01-01

    The role of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAb) in polymicrobial infection remains elusive. Having observed the ability of CRAb to shelter other susceptible bacteria from carbapenem killing, we sought to determine the factors contributing to this sheltering effect by transforming different recombinant plasmids into recipient A. baumannii cells. The sheltering effects of CRAb were reproduced in recipient A. baumannii cells that highly expressed carbapenem-hydrolyzing class D β-lactamases (CHDLs) through their associated strong promoter. With the use of Western blot analysis and a bioassay, the highly expressed CHDLs were found to be extracellularly released and led to hydrolysis of carbapenem. The level of extracellular CHDLs increased after challenge with a higher concentration of CHDL substrates, such as carbapenem and ticarcillin. This increased CHDL may, in part, be attributed to cell lysis, as indicated by the presence of extracellular gyrase. In the planktonic condition, the sheltering effect for the cocultured susceptible bacteria might represent an indirect and passive effect of the CRAb self-defense mechanism, because coculture with the susceptible pathogen did not augment the amount of the extracellular CHDLs. Polymicrobial infection caused by CRAb and a susceptible counterpart exerted higher pathogenicity than monomicrobial infection caused by either pathogen alone in mice receiving carbapenem therapy. This study demonstrated that CHDL-producing CRAb appears to provide a sheltering effect for carbapenem-susceptible pathogens via the extracellular release of CHDLs and, by this mechanism, can enhance the pathogenesis of polymicrobial infection in the presence of carbapenem therapy. PMID:24798276

  4. Using Radioactive Fallout Cesium (137Cs) to Distinguish Sediment Sources in an Agricultural Watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Radioactive fallout Cesium (Cs-137) has been used for quantifying sources of accumulating sediment in water bodies and to determine the rates and pattern of soil erosion. The objectives of this research are to use Cs-137 as a tracer to determine patterns of soil erosion and deposition of eroding soi...

  5. Graphic presentation of quarterly /sup 90/Sr fallout data, 1954-1982

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    This report graphically presents all of the precipitation and /sup 90/Sr deposition data for all stations operated as part of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's (EML) global fallout program since the initiation of the program in 1954. 3 references, 179 figures.

  6. VULNERABILITY OF HEADWATER CATCHMENT RESOURCES TO INCIDENCES OF 210PB EXCESS AND 137CS RADIONUCLIDE FALLOUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent identification of elevated excess 210Pb (≤302.6 mBq L-1) and 137Cs (≤ 111.3 mBq L-1) activity in drinking water wells up to 20 m depth indicates some transport of airborne radionuclide fallout beyond soils in the Shaker Village c...

  7. New insights on using fallout radionuclides to estimate soil redistribution rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fallout radionuclides such as 137Cs have been widely accepted and used in the past 40 years to provide quantitative soil redistribution estimates at a point scale. Recently their usefulness has been questioned by a few researchers challenging the validity of the key assumption that the spatial ...

  8. Using Fallout Cesium-137 to understand soil redistribution over agricultural landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While it is recognized that soil erosion is highly variable in space and time, studies of the redistribution of soil and soil organic carbon (SOC) within a field or watershed are limited. Our studies focus on the use of fallout Cesium-137 to understand pattern of soil and SOC movement on the landsca...

  9. Using fallout Cesium-137 to understand soil redistribution over agricultural landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While it is recognized that soil erosion is highly variable in space and time, studies of the redistribution of soil within a field or watershed are limited. Our studies focus on the use of fallout Cesium-137 to understand pattern of soil movement on the landscape. It is often assumed that eroding...

  10. Individual external exposures from Nevada Test Site fallout for Utah leukemia cases and controls.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, R D; Gren, D C; Simon, S L; Wrenn, M E; Hawthorne, H A; Lotz, T M; Stevens, W; Till, J E

    1990-11-01

    External gamma-ray exposures from fallout originating at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have been assigned to 6,507 individual subjects (1,177 leukemia cases and 5,330 control subjects) who died as Utah residents between 1952 and 1981. Leukemia cases were identified, confirmed, and classified by cell type from the Utah Cancer Registry, Utah State vital records, and medical records. Residential histories were obtained from the Deceased Membership File (DMF) of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS), supplemented by information from the LDS Church Census Records that were taken in 1950, 1955, and 1960-62. Control subjects were selected randomly within age strata from the DMF and were frequency-matched to the cases by age at death and for sex. Individual radiation exposures were assigned as a function of residence location and time interval for each residence during the fallout period (1951-1958) using geographic exposure data taken from the literature. Temporal distribution of exposure for subjects who resided in more than one locality or who were born or died during the fallout period was determined from data of other investigators. Calculated gamma-ray exposures for each place of residence were summed for each subject to yield the exposure to fallout from the NTS. PMID:2211126

  11. New technologies to improve the monitoring of tephra fallouts from Etna: the collaborative system Tefranet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronico, Daniele; Ferrari, Ferruccio; Merenda, Riccardo; Reitano, Danilo; Scollo, Simona; Cristaldi, Antonio; Lodato, Luigi; Mangiagli, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    During early December 2015, Mt. Etna (Italy) produced 4 paroxysmal events from the Voragine crater in just 3 days. This activity caused ash and lapilli fallout over a wide area extending from the volcanic slopes up to ~100 km from the volcano, affecting numerous villages and the cities of Messina and Reggio Calabria. Monitoring this kind of volcanic activity in order to know the dispersal of tephra fallout in quasi-real time can prove challenging, especially when several paroxysmal events follow each other as during these latest eruptions in December. To tackle similar recurring periods of frequent activity, which have occurred a number of times at Etna over recent years, we devised a collaborative system named Tefranet. The system is easy to use but at the same time designed to rapidly retrieve useful georeferenced information on tephra fallouts from Etna's explosive activity. Tefranet includes a mobile application and a web site, with particular attention to an administration backend tool, making owners of smartphones or other mobile devices participants. The system aims to involve citizens living not only in eastern Sicily (i.e. the area most affected by fallout based on the prevailing winds blowing on Etna), but also those resident at some distance, in areas potentially covered by tephra (more than 60-80 km from the volcano) and that are difficult to reach before the original amounts of tephra on the ground may become altered by anthropic (e.g. car traffic) and atmospheric (wind and rain) factors. The Tefranet community will be informed by the INGV specialists via mobile device in case explosive activity resumes, with users able to visualize all the tephra signals on a map in real time. All kinds of information concerning start/end of the tephra fallout, estimation of the clast dimensions, thickness of the deposit, level of tephra cover on the ground, will be welcomed, especially if accompanied by photos of the deposit and of the eruption plume. Here, we

  12. Exploration of the prevalence and correlates of substance use among sheltered adolescents in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Sookyung; Kim, Hae Sung; Kim, Haeryun; Sung, Kgu-taik

    2007-01-01

    Substance use among sheltered adolescents is very serious in South Korea--a nation in the process of rapid industrialization and urbanization. However, few studies have investigated substance use among the adolescents which is a growing concern of the changing society of this nation. This study examined the prevalence of substance use and explored risk factors that predict substance abuse by sheltered adolescents. Through a questionnaire survey of sheltered adolescents, data on substance use and the risk factors were collected. The sample of the adolescents included 44 (33.3%) males and 88 (67.2%) females; their mean age was 15.8 years (SD = 1.62). The results of a logistic regression analysis showed that alcohol expectancy, physical abuse, and peer pressure were all statistically significantly associated with substance abuse. Findings on the critical issues are expected to lead to the development of urgently needed prevention programs for the high-risk adolescents in South Korea. PMID:18047242

  13. Sheltered women's perceptions of their abusive marital relationship: Conflictual themes of dominance and submissiveness.

    PubMed

    Sommerfeld, Eliane; Shechory Bitton, Mally

    2016-07-01

    The Core Conflictual Relationship Themes (CCRT) approach was applied in order to examine the conflictual nature of sheltered women's perceptions of their marital relationship following domestic violence in Israel. Thirty-six sheltered women and 89 community-based women were compared. The CCRT method was useful in revealing that battered women, when thinking retrospectively about their relationships with their abusive partners, are concerned with conflictual themes of dominance and submissiveness. The sheltered women reported a desire to be more dominant and less submissive in their relationships with their abusive spouse, despite being less dominant than they wished in practice. These findings help clarify the emotional conflicts that battered women may be dealing with after leaving an abusive relationship and imply that interventions should promote their empowerment. PMID:26630374

  14. Appropriate care for shelter-based abused women: concept mapping with Dutch clients and professionals.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Irene E; Jansen, Carinda C J M; Christians, Milou G M; Wolf, Judith R L M

    2014-04-01

    We conducted a concept mapping exercise to gain insight into the perspectives held by abused women and professionals with regard to appropriate care in Dutch women's shelters. Three brainstorming sessions generated 92 statements that were then rated by 56 clients and 51 professionals. A total of 11 clusters were identified. The three most important clusters were "help with finding a safe house if necessary," "safety and suitable care for the children," and "a personalized, respectful approach." The most important statement was "take women seriously and treat them with respect." The mapping exercise identified key practice-based elements of intervention that should better accommodate the needs of shelter-based abused women. We have used these elements in developing a new intervention for shelter-based abused women in the Netherlands. PMID:24686124

  15. Chernobyl shelter implementation plan -- project development and planning: Setting the stage for progress

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.; Kreid, D.; DeFranco, W.

    1998-09-01

    On April 26, 1986, the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) experienced a devastating accident. This accident left much of the plant and its safety systems destroyed with widespread radioactive waste contamination from the damaged nuclear fuel. In the 6 months following the accident, heroic measures were taken to stabilize the situation and erect a temporary confinement shelter over the damaged unit 4. Since that time the shelter and the contained radioactive materials and debris have begun to deteriorate. Lack of funding and staff has allowed only minor improvements to occur on-site, resulting in an existing shelter that is unstable and deteriorating. International aid has been provided to develop a comprehensive plan for the safe and environmentally sound conversion of the damaged Chernobyl reactor. These efforts are being performed in conjunction with US experts, European experts, and local Chernobyl NPP personnel. This plan is discussed here.

  16. The social construction of anemia in school shelters for indigenous children in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Bernardo; Martínez-Andrade, Gloria; Klünder, Miguel; Carranco, Tania; Duque-López, Ximena; Ramos-Hernández, Rosa Isela; González-Unzaga, Marco; Flores-Hernández, Sergio; Martínez-Salgado, Homero

    2006-04-01

    Indigenous children in school shelters in Mexico suffer from anemia in spite of food that is subsidized, prepared, and served to them. Economically and biomedically centered strategies to reduce anemia have achieved only partial and short-term success. An interdisciplinary team investigated the food security system of the school shelters and collected data through interviews and participant observation. The analysis revealed that the children's nutrition depends on a frail chain of events in which a single link's failure can lead to nutritional insecurity. The authors conclude that the social actors involved in the process are mainly considering the economic aspects of nutrition, but anemia persists as a social construction of the faulty relationship between the institution that runs the shelters and the indigenous culture. The authors make suggestions for an intervention that empowers the community by involving it actively in solving the problem. PMID:16513993

  17. [Housing of dogs and cats in shelters and kennels in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Miccichè, S; Steiger, A

    2008-05-01

    The study deals with the situation regarding housing of dogs and cats in Swiss shelters and kennels. In shelters, dogs were mainly held inside a cubicle with a small outside yard. In kennels, housing of dogs took place mainly in inside rooms. Usually two or three dogs were kept together. Cats were held in rooms, with or without outside yards, mainly in groups; no establishment preferred exclusively the housing in cubicles. Shelters received on average 183 dogs and 262 cats each year. Among them, about a third were lost animals while the remaining ones were relinquished. The study highlights some possibilities for improvements and the great diversity of the establishments regarding their size, infrastructure, housing conditions and aims. PMID:18557025

  18. A needs-assessment and demographic survey of infection-control and disease awareness in western US animal shelters.

    PubMed

    Steneroden, Kay K; Hill, Ashley E; Salman, M D

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional needs-assessment survey was used to characterize animal shelters in a 6-state region in the western US and describe infection-control practices and disease awareness. Survey questions focused on shelter demographics, infection-control practices and policies, awareness and concern over infectious and zoonotic diseases, staff and volunteer training relating to infection-control and disease awareness, use of diagnostic tools, and isolation procedures and protocols. Fifty percent of shelters responded to the survey and represented a wide variety of shelter types, sizes and locations. The top-three diseases of concern to shelters were feline upper respiratory disease (FURD), canine parvovirus and ringworm. Concern over these diseases was greater in open-admission shelters (compared to limited admission or no-kill/sanctuary) (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.1-12.5) and in shelters with a desire for more zoonotic-disease training (OR=6.1, 95% CI 1.5-24.8) (compared to shelters desiring infectious-disease training, training on cleaning and disinfection or those who have no need for further training). In 45% of responding shelters many to most animals arrive with infectious diseases. Written protocols for preventive medicine exist in 88% of shelters, cleaning and disinfection protocols in 75%, specific disease protocols for outbreak situations in 36% and infection-control manuals in 15%. Veterinarians are in charge of infection-control in 6% of shelters. Approximately 45% of shelters vaccinate dogs and cats for rabies. Infectious-disease training is provided to 30% of staff and 35% of volunteers upon hire. Overall, volunteers received less training in infectious- and zoonotic-disease identification, prevention and control than staff members. Ninety percent of shelters said they would benefit from training in infectious and zoonotic disease. Results from this study can be used to assess and address needs in animal shelters relating to infection-control, infectious and

  19. Quantifying Atmospheric Fallout of Fukushima-derived Radioactive Isotopes in the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Trista; Dulai, Henrietta

    2016-04-01

    On March 11, 2011, several reactors at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant suffered damage and released the radioisotopes iodine-131, cesium-134, and cesium-137 into the atmosphere. A week later, these isotopes were detected in aerosols over the state of Hawaii and in milk samples analyzed from the Big Island. Because the detected levels were significantly below levels of health concern, the state did not attempt to quantify the deposition of these nuclides on the islands. This study estimated the magnitude of atmospheric fallout of cesium and iodine, and examined the patterns of cesium wet deposition with precipitation observed in March 2011. Mushroom and soil samples were collected along precipitation gradients on Oahu and the island of Hawaii and analyzed for cesium isotopes using gamma spectrometry. Fukushima-derived fallout was differentiated from historic nuclear weapons testing fallout by the presence of Cs-134, which has a shorter half-life of 2.06 years and the fact that Cs-134 and 137 were released from the severed power plant nearly in parity. We found that Fukushima-derived cesium was present in both mushrooms and soil and the soil inventories ranged 2.2-60.9 Bq/m2 for Cs-137 and 16.1-445.8 Bq/m2 for I-131. Additionally, we found that Fukushima-derived cesium inventories in soils were correlated with precipitation gradients. This research confirmed and quantified the presence of Fukushima-derived fallout in Hawaii, however the activities detected were orders of magnitude lower than fallout associated with the nuclear weapons testing in the Pacific.

  20. Seasonal shifts in shelter and microhabitat use of drymarchon couperi (eastern indigo snake) in Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyslop, N.L.; Cooper, R.J.; Meyers, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Drymarchon couperi (Eastern Indigo Snake), a threatened species of the southeastern Coastal Plain of the United States, has experienced population declines because of extensive habitat loss and degradation across its range. In Georgia and northern Florida, the species is associated with longleaf pine habitats that support Gopherus polyphemus (Gopher Tortoise) populations, the burrows of which D. couperi uses for shelter. The extent that D. couperi uses these burrows, in addition to the use of other underground shelters and the microhabitat features associated with these structures is largely unknown. From 2003 through 2004, we conducted a radiotelemetry study of D. couperi (n = 32) to examine use of shelters and microhabitat in Georgia. We used repeated measures regression on a candidate set of models created from a priori hypotheses using principal component scores, derived from analysis of microhabitat data to examine microhabitat use at underground shelters. Proportion of locations recorded underground did not differ seasonally or between sexes. In winter, we recorded >0.90 of underground locations at tortoise burrows. Use of these burrows was less pronounced in spring for males. Females used abandoned tortoise burrows more frequently than males year-round and used them on approximately 0.60 of their underground locations during spring. Microhabitat use at underground shelters was most influenced by season compared to sex, site, or body size. Females in spring and summer used more open microhabitat compared to males, potentially in response to gestation. Our results suggest that the availability of suitable underground shelters, especially G. polyphemus burrows, may be a limiting factor in the northern range of D. couperi, with important implications for its conservation. ?? 2009 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

  1. Dual-core mass-balance approach for evaluating mercury and210Pb atmospheric fallout and focusing to lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, P.C.; Fuller, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    Determining atmospheric deposition rates of mercury and other contaminants using lake sediment cores requires a quantitative understanding of sediment focusing. Here we present a novel approach that solves mass-balance equations for two cores algebraically to estimate contaminant contributions to sediment from direct atmospheric fallout and from watershed and in-lake focusing. The model is applied to excess 210Pb and Hg in cores from Hobbs Lake, a high-altitude lake in Wyoming. Model results for excess 210Pb are consistent with estimates of fallout and focusing factors computed using excess 210Pb burdens in lake cores and soil cores from the watershed and model results for Hg fallout are consistent with fallout estimated using the soil-core-based 210Pb focusing factors. The lake cores indicate small increases in mercury deposition beginning in the late 1800s and large increases after 1940, with the maximum at the tops of the cores of 16-20 ??g/m 2year. These results suggest that global Hg emissions and possibly regional emissions in the western United States are affecting the north-central Rocky Mountains. Hg fallout estimates are generally consistent with fallout reported from an ice core from the nearby Upper Fremont Glacier, but with several notable differences. The model might not work for lakes with complex geometries and multiple sediment inputs, but for lakes with simple geometries, like Hobbs, it can provide a quantitative approach for evaluating sediment focusing and estimating contaminant fallout.

  2. The Shelter Island Conferences Revisited: "Fundamental" Physics in the Decade 1975-1985

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweber, S. S.

    2016-04-01

    The focus of this broad historical overview of "the steady evolution of theoretical ideas" from Shelter Island I in 1947 to Shelter Island II in 1983 is some of the developments in "fundamental" physics after the establishment of the standard model, in particular, the adoption of the view that all present day field theories are "effective field theories" based on the gauge concept; taking seriously big bang cosmology, grand unified field theories (GUTs), and inflation; and the emergence of a new symbiosis of physics and mathematics.

  3. Research on upgrading structures for host and risk area shelters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tansley, R.S.; Cuzner, G.J.; Wilton, C.

    1982-09-01

    This report presents a summary of the work conducted during the first year of a five-year program. This research effort provides the engineering basis and guidance for the development of upgrading for host and risk area shelters. This investigation is in support of current Civil Defense planning based on a policy of crisis relocation, and includes investigative efforts related to glulam timber beams, concrete connections, punching strength of reinforced concrete slabs, and static/dynamic testing of prestressed concrete slabs. The results of this study are being used in the development of a prediction methodology for comparative selection of shelter spaces.

  4. [Reform steps toward networking sheltered workshops and the general labour market].

    PubMed

    Wendt, S

    2010-02-01

    Only 0.16% of disabled employees are enabled to change from sheltered workshops to the general labour market. At the same time the number of disabled employees in sheltered workshops is increasing more than anticipated. Investigations into the growing admissions to sheltered workshops resulted in recommendations to improve the practice of change over. More and more admissions of students having finished special schools could be reduced by improved cooperation between special schools and the local employment market. Special schools should offer suitable job trainings and support students to develop an understanding of the requirements of specific jobs and of their opportunities to develop their skills to do these jobs. In 2009, supported employment has been regulated in social security law, lasting up to three years and aimed at qualifying disabled youngsters for employment in the general labour market instead of entering sheltered workshops. The majority of admissions to sheltered workshops in the meantime concern people with psychological handicaps, with more than 30% however leaving the workshops later on. For this population, "virtual sheltered workshops" are offering more suitable means for reintegration in the general labour market, such as temporary employment in the general labour market or in occupations with small earnings. The personal budget for work is meant to be a model project within the German Länder, to transfer personal support from the sheltered workshop into the general labour market. The conference of German Länder Ministers of Social Affairs has been active since 2007 to develop a concept for reform of the social security law concerning integration assistance for disabled people, which in future is to concentrate on individual needs, removal of obstacles in the law to facilitate the transition from sheltered workshops into the general labour market. The "Deutsche Verein für öffentliche und private Fürsorge" (German association for public

  5. The Shelter Island Conferences Revisited: "Fundamental" Physics in the Decade 1975-1985

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweber, S. S.

    2016-03-01

    The focus of this broad historical overview of "the steady evolution of theoretical ideas" from Shelter Island I in 1947 to Shelter Island II in 1983 is some of the developments in "fundamental" physics after the establishment of the standard model, in particular, the adoption of the view that all present day field theories are "effective field theories" based on the gauge concept; taking seriously big bang cosmology, grand unified field theories (GUTs), and inflation; and the emergence of a new symbiosis of physics and mathematics.

  6. Excusable deficiency: staff perceptions of mothering at shelters for abused women.

    PubMed

    Peled, Einat; Dekel, Rachel

    2010-11-01

    This study examined how staff members in shelters for abused women perceive the women's mothering and the challenges when working with these mothers. Data were collected through focus group interviews with 30 workers at Israeli shelters for abused women. Findings revealed that workers typically held a "deficit perspective" when describing the residents' mothering skills. Most seemed committed to the notion of empowerment as a guiding framework for intervention with the women and made an effort to facilitate the women's choices and autonomy in spite of the obstacles. The study examined workers' perceptions from personal, professional, and sociocultural perspectives. PMID:21097960

  7. The Shelter Island Conferences Revisited: ``Fundamental'' Physics in the Decade 1975–1985

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweber, S. S.

    2016-04-01

    The focus of this broad historical overview of "the steady evolution of theoretical ideas" from Shelter Island I in 1947 to Shelter Island II in 1983 is some of the developments in "fundamental" physics after the establishment of the standard model, in particular, the adoption of the view that all present day field theories are "effective field theories" based on the gauge concept; taking seriously big bang cosmology, grand unified field theories (GUTs), and inflation; and the emergence of a new symbiosis of physics and mathematics.

  8. The effect of rain-out shelters on the microclimate of vegetation patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babel, Wolfgang; Schaller, Carsten; Hübner, Jörg; Kreyling, Jürgen; Jentsch, Anke; Thomas, Christoph; Foken, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    It is commonly expected that climate change will increase the probability of extreme weather events. The potential impact of such events on ecosystems can be explored with manipulation experiments at the field scale using rain-out shelters to simulate altered precipitation regimes and extreme droughts. Despite their economical use and ease of deployment it is known, however, that rain-out shelters not only exclude precipitation, but change the microclimate of the enclosed vegetation by modifying the radiation and wind regimes. We investigated the microclimatological impacts of rain-out shelter using a horizontal mobile measuring system (HMMS) as part of the EVENT II experiments at the University of Bayreuth in 2012. The EVENT II experiment explores the effects of extreme weather events (drought at different times in the year) as well as summer and winter warming in interaction with land-use intensity on the ecosystem performance of a semi-natural grassland community. The HMMS collected observations outside and inside the rain-out shelters moving along a set of tracks installed in a U-shape with a total sampling time of 10 min per lapse. The measurements were used to quantify the differences in radiation components, air temperature, and air moisture between within and outside the shelters. We explain the observed differences in terms of differences in external forcing variables related to common weather modes. The impact on evapotranspiration is explored by using the observations as input variables for the Penman-Monteith model to estimate actual evapotranspiration. The found differences were most pronounced for down-welling long- and short-wave radiation. Plant surface temperature, inferred from outgoing long-wave radiation, consistently increased inside the shelters and additional measurements with non-moving thermometers show that near-ground minimum temperatures inside the shelter can be up to 3-4 K higher than outside during clear-sky nights. Contrary to

  9. Global or local construction materials for post-disaster reconstruction? Sustainability assessment of 20 post-disaster shelter designs.

    PubMed

    Zea Escamilla, E; Habert, G

    2015-09-01

    This data article presents the life cycle inventories of 20 transitional shelter solutions. The data was gathered from the reports 8 shelter designs [1]; 10 post-disaster shelter designs [2]; the environmental impact of brick production outside of Europe [3]; and the optimization of bamboo-based post-disaster housing units for tropical and subtropical regions using LCA methodologies [4]. These reports include bill of quantities, plans, performance analysis, and lifespan of the studied shelters. The data from these reports was used to develop the Life Cycle Inventories (LCI). All the amounts were converted from their original units (length, volume and amount) into mass (kg) units and the transport distance into ton×km. These LCIs represent the production phases of each shelter and the transportation distances for the construction materials. Two types of distances were included, local (road) and international (freight ship), which were estimated based on the area of the country of study. Furthermore, the digital visualization of the shelters is presented for each of the 20 designs. Moreover, this data article presents a summary of the results for the categories Environment, Cost and Risk and the contribution to the environmental impact from the different building components of each shelter. These results are related to the article "Global or local construction materials for post-disaster reconstruction? Sustainability assessment of 20 post-disaster shelter designs"[5]. PMID:26217807

  10. The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol: A Tool for Teacher-Research Collaboration and Professional Development. Educational Practice Report 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Deborah J.; Echevarria, Jana

    A project to develop an explicit model of sheltered instruction that teachers can use to improve the academic success of their limited-English-proficient (LEP) students is described, focusing on the development of an observation tool for use in the study. The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) provides concrete examples of the…

  11. Cognitive Behavioral Treatment of PTSD in Residents of Battered Women's Shelters: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dawn M.; Zlotnick, Caron; Perez, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to explore the acceptability, feasibility, and initial efficacy of a new shelter-based treatment for victims of intimate partner violence (IPV; i.e., Helping to Overcome PTSD through Empowerment [HOPE]). Method: A Phase I randomized clinical trial comparing HOPE (n = 35) with standard shelter services (SSS) (n =…

  12. The Life History and Shelter Building Behavior of Vettius Coryna Coryna Hewitson, 1866 in Eastern Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae)

    PubMed Central

    Greeney, Harold F.; Warren, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    We describe all life-stages of Vettius coryna coryna Hewitson, 1866 in eastern Ecuador. The details of larval shelter structure and associated shelter building behavior are described and illustrated, as observed on two grass species (Poaceae). We provide brief observations on V. coryna adult behavior and a review of known life history information for other species of Vettius Godman, 1901. PMID:19613868

  13. The Perceived Impact of a Child Maltreatment Report from the Perspective of the Domestic Violence Shelter Worker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine domestic violence shelter workers' perceptions of child maltreatment reporting. A sample of 82 professionals from domestic violence shelters across the United States participated in a survey focusing on a variety of different types of reports and the frequency of both positive and negative outcomes arising…

  14. Global or local construction materials for post-disaster reconstruction? Sustainability assessment of 20 post-disaster shelter designs

    PubMed Central

    Zea Escamilla, E.; Habert, G.

    2015-01-01

    This data article presents the life cycle inventories of 20 transitional shelter solutions. The data was gathered from the reports 8 shelter designs [1]; 10 post-disaster shelter designs [2]; the environmental impact of brick production outside of Europe [3]; and the optimization of bamboo-based post-disaster housing units for tropical and subtropical regions using LCA methodologies [4]. These reports include bill of quantities, plans, performance analysis, and lifespan of the studied shelters. The data from these reports was used to develop the Life Cycle Inventories (LCI). All the amounts were converted from their original units (length, volume and amount) into mass (kg) units and the transport distance into ton×km. These LCIs represent the production phases of each shelter and the transportation distances for the construction materials. Two types of distances were included, local (road) and international (freight ship), which were estimated based on the area of the country of study. Furthermore, the digital visualization of the shelters is presented for each of the 20 designs. Moreover, this data article presents a summary of the results for the categories Environment, Cost and Risk and the contribution to the environmental impact from the different building components of each shelter. These results are related to the article “Global or local construction materials for post-disaster reconstruction? Sustainability assessment of 20 post-disaster shelter designs”[5] PMID:26217807

  15. Tracking Radioactive Fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident in Arctic Snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterberg, E. C.; Thompson, J.; Landis, J.; Albert, M. R.; Campbell, S. W.; Hawley, R. L.; Virginia, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    The March 11, 2011 magnitude 9.0 Tohoku, Japan earthquake produced a tsunami that inundated the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant and led to the accidental release of radioactive 131I, 132Te, 134Cs, and 137Cs to the atmosphere. The Japanese Nuclear Safety Commission estimates that 12,000 TBq of 137Cs were released to the atmosphere during the incident, which represents ~14% of the total estimated 137Cs emission from the Chernobyl disaster in April 1986. Measurements of airborne radiation collected at the Fukushima plant illustrate that >50% of the total emitted radiation was released on March 15 and 16 associated with explosions and fires at reactor units 1, 2, and 4, and 70% was emitted in the first 5 days of the event. The source of the radiation is thus well constrained in time and space, providing an opportunity to better understand long-range atmospheric transport processes from Asia to the Arctic, while also assessing the magnitude of the fallout in the Arctic. Here we describe the 137Cs and 134Cs fallout flux near Thule, Greenland (1700 m a.s.l.), at Summit (3200 m a.s.l.), Greenland, and within Denali National Park, Alaska (2400-3900 m a.s.l.) based on series of large-volume (5-15 l) snow pit samples collected in June and July, 2011. In addition to assessing the spatial variability of Fukushima fallout in the Arctic, the elevation range of samples allows for an analysis of any vertical heterogeneity in fallout transport and deposition. Major ion concentrations and stable water isotope ratios are used to confirm the seasonal timing of the Fukushima fallout horizon in the snowpack. Radiocesium was concentrated and isolated from the snow pit meltwater using the well-established ammonium phosphomolybdate (AMP) adsorption method, and 134Cs and 137Cs concentrations were measured using gamma spectrometry with a Canberra 3523 well-type intrinsic Ge-detector at the Dartmouth College Short-Lived Isotope Laboratory. NOAA HYPLIT atmospheric forward

  16. [Comparative analysis of the radionuclide composition in fallout after the Chernobyl and the Fukushima accidents].

    PubMed

    Kotenko, K V; Shinkarev, S M; Abramov, Iu V; Granovskaia, E O; Iatsenko, V N; Gavrilin, Iu I; Margulis, U Ia; Garetskaia, O S; Imanaka, T; Khoshi, M

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear accident occurred at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) (March 11, 2011) similarly to the accident at the Chernobyl NPP (April 26, 1986) is related to the level 7 of the INES. It is of interest to make an analysis of the radionuclide composition of the fallout following the both accidents. The results of the spectrometric measurements were used in that comparative analysis. Two areas following the Chernobyl accident were considered: (1) the near zone of the fallout - the Belarusian part of the central spot extended up to 60 km around the Chernobyl NPS and (2) the far zone of the fallout--the "Gomel-Mogilev" spot centered 200 km to the north-northeast of the damaged reactor. In the case of Fukushima accident the near zone up to about 60 km considered. The comparative analysis has been done with respect to refractory radionuclides (95Zr, 95Nb, 141Ce, 144Ce), as well as to the intermediate and volatile radionuclides 103Ru, 106Ru, 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs, 140La, 140Ba and the results of such a comparison have been discussed. With respect to exposure to the public the most important radionuclides are 131I and 137Cs. For the both accidents the ratios of 131I/137Cs in the considered soil samples are in the similar ranges: (3-50) for the Chernobyl samples and (5-70) for the Fukushima samples. Similarly to the Chernobyl accident a clear tendency that the ratio of 131I/137Cs in the fallout decreases with the increase of the ground deposition density of 137Cs within the trace related to a radioactive cloud has been identified for the Fukushima accident. It looks like this is a universal tendency for the ratio of 131I/137Cs versus the 137Cs ground deposition density in the fallout along the trace of a radioactive cloud as a result of a heavy accident at the NPP with radionuclides releases into the environment. This tendency is important for an objective reconstruction of 131I fallout based on the results of 137Cs measurements of soil samples carried out at

  17. Community shelter use in response to two benthic decapod predators in the Long Island Sound

    PubMed Central

    Reagan, Dugan; Crivello, Joseph F.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate community shelter effects of two invasive decapod species, Hemigrapsus sanguineus and Carcinus maenas, in the Long Island Sound (LIS), we deployed artificial shelters in the intertidal and immediate subtidal zones. These consisted of five groups during the summer: a control, a resident H. sanguineus male or female group, and a resident C. maenas male or female group. We quantified utilization of the shelters at 24 h by counting crabs and fish present. We found significant avoidance of H. sanguineus in the field by benthic hermit crabs (Pagurus spp.) and significant avoidance of C. maenas by the seaboard goby (Gobiosoma ginsburgi). The grubby (Myoxocephalus aenaeus) avoided neither treatment, probably since it tends to be a predator of invertebrates. H. sanguineus avoided C. maenas treatments, whereas C. maenas did not avoid any treatment. Seasonal deployments in the subtidal indicated cohabitation of a number of benthic species in the LIS, with peak shelter use corresponding with increased predation and likely reproductive activity in spring and summer for green crabs (C. maenas), hermit crabs (Pagurus spp.), seaboard gobies (G. ginsburgi), and grubbies (Myoxocephalus aenaeus). PMID:27547570

  18. Social Studies Excursions, K-3. Book One: Powerful Units on Food, Clothing, and Shelter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alleman, Janet; Brophy, Jere

    The first in a 3-volume series, this book presents instructional units on cultural universals for primary grade social studies. This volume focuses on food, clothing, and shelter, and includes information about how and why it was developed and suggestions about planning and implementing the units. Its content is elementary and familiar in that it…

  19. Female odours promote the activation of sheltered kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus males and modulate their orientation.

    PubMed

    Pontes, G; Zacharias, C A; Manrique, G; Lorenzo, M G

    2014-09-01

    The existence of a pheromone emitted during copulation has been reported for Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Stål. Adults possess one pair of metasternal glands (MGs) from which female R. prolixus release volatiles mainly at night. We investigated whether these volatiles emitted by adult R. prolixus can modulate sexual-related behaviours of opposite and/or same sex individuals. We first used a shelter bioassay to test if adult activity patterns can be affected by chemical signals emitted by opposite sex conspecifics. We observed that males left the shelter more frequently in the presence of females, showing higher activity and an increase of intrasexual copulation attempts. Females showed no shelter-related activation in the presence of male odours. Second, we used a locomotion compensator device to investigate whether females or males show oriented responses to odours emitted by adults. We found that males oriented towards air currents carrying female odours but females did not orient towards odours emitted by adults. Finally, we observed that males oriented towards the female MG compounds. Thus, a volatile chemical signal emitted by females from their MGs promoted the activation of sheltered males and modulated orientation to air currents. PMID:25855829

  20. Literacy, Education, and Inequality: Assimilation and Resistance Narratives from Families Residing at a Homeless Shelter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Mary M.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I draw on data from my qualitative dissertation study of the literacy practices of five families who resided in a homeless shelter to complicate the relationship between literacy, education, and inequality. Homelessness is examined through the lens of sponsorship to understand the differential access the families have to powerful…

  1. Institutional Discharges and Subsequent Shelter Use among Unaccompanied Adults in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metraux, Stephen; Byrne, Thomas; Culhane, Dennis P.

    2010-01-01

    This study empirically examines the link between homelessness and discharges from other institutions. An administrative record match was undertaken to determine rates of discharge from institutional care for 9,247 unaccompanied adult shelter users in New York City. Cluster analysis and multinomial logistic regression analysis was then used to…

  2. Questions and Answers Explaining the New Tax Rules Applicable to Tax-Sheltered Annuities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, David E.; Spuehler, Donald R.

    1991-01-01

    The Tax Reform Act of 1986 and subsequent legislation have radically altered the rules needed to maintain favorable tax status of tax-sheltered annuity plans for college employees. Application of the new rules is complex. Critical questions facing institutions and organizations are answered, and potential liabilities facing educational employers…

  3. 26 CFR 301.6111-1T - Questions and answers relating to tax shelter registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to tax shelter registration. 301.6111-1T Section 301.6111-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Information and Returns Returns and Records §...

  4. 77 FR 14378 - Family Violence Prevention and Services/Grants for Domestic Violence Shelters and Supportive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Family Violence Prevention and Services/Grants for Domestic Violence Shelters and Supportive Services/Grants to States AGENCY: Family and Youth... governs the proposed award of mandatory grants under the Family Violence Prevention and Services...

  5. Threats and Acts of Intimate Partner Violence Reported by Users at Norwegian Women's Shelters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsaker, Kjersti; Kristoffersen, Kjell; Moen, Bente E.; Baste, Valborg

    2011-01-01

    Women (n = 87) at women's shelters in Norway, a country of high welfare and gender equality, reported a multitude of severe threats and actual acts of physical, sexual and psychological violence. An individual threatening to kill his partner represented a significant increased risk for experiencing serious acts of violence, especially when the…

  6. Service Quality and Corporate Social Responsibility, Influence on Post-Purchase Intentions of Sheltered Employment Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chao-Chien; Lin, Shih-Yen; Cheng, Chia-Hsin; Tsai, Chia-Ching

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of service quality and corporate social responsibility (CSR) on customer satisfaction, and customer satisfaction toward post-purchase intentions from sheltered employment institutions. Work experience plays an important role in career development for those people with intellectual…

  7. Behavioural and physiological responses of shelter dogs to long-term confinement.

    PubMed

    Dalla Villa, Paolo; Barnard, Shanis; Di Fede, Elisa; Podaliri, Michele; Candeloro, Luca; Di Nardo, Antonio; Siracusa, Carlo; Serpell, James A

    2013-01-01

    In Italy, National Law (281/1991) prohibits euthanasia of shelter dogs if they are not dangerous or suffering seriously. Adoption rates in rescue shelters are often lower than entrance rates, leading inevitably to overcrowded facilities where animals are likely to spend the rest of their lives in kennels. In this situation, housing conditions (i.e. space provided, environmental, and social stimulation) may have an impact on canine welfare. In this research project, the effects of two different forms of housing (group- and pair housing) on long-term shelter dogs were compared using behavioural and physiological parameters. Observational data and saliva samples were collected from dogs exposed to both experimental settings; behaviour and cortisol concentration levels were used as welfare indicators. Pair housing offered fewer social and environmental stimuli and behavioural analysis showed a significant decrease in locomotor, exploratory, and social behaviour. Cortisol levels show that this parameter varied independently of housing conditions. Although this study found no evidence suggesting that one form of confinement reduced animal welfare more than the other (e.g. in terms of abnormal behaviour, or higher cortisol concentrations), the type of confinement did affect the expression of a variety of behaviours and these variations should not be ignored with respect to housing decisions for long-term shelter dogs. PMID:23888421

  8. Cyclone shelters and their locational suitability: an empirical analysis from coastal Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Bishawjit

    2014-07-01

    Bangladesh is one of the poorest and the most disaster-prone countries in Asia; it is important, therefore, to know how its disaster reduction strategies are organised and planned. Cyclone shelters comprise a widely acceptable form of infrastructural support for disaster management in Bangladesh. This paper attempts to analyse empirically their use during cyclones in a sample study area along the southwest coastal belt of the country. It shows how the location of a cyclone shelter can determine the social power structure in coastal Bangladesh. The results reveal that the establishment of cyclone shelters in the studied communities is determined by neither a right-based nor a demand-based planning approach; rather, their creation is dependent on the socio-political affluence of local-level decision-makers. The paper goes on to demonstrate that socially vulnerable households (defined, for example, by income or housing conditions) are afforded disproportionately less access to cyclone shelters as compared to less socially vulnerable households. PMID:24905715

  9. Cognitive Coaching: A Critical Phase in Professional Development to Implement Sheltered Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batt, Ellen G.

    2010-01-01

    This documentary account describes professional development for teachers in the USA serving culturally and linguistically diverse students. The purpose of the project was to monitor effectiveness of training in Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) and to assess the value of cognitive coaching. Quantitative and qualitative data sources…

  10. Community shelter use in response to two benthic decapod predators in the Long Island Sound.

    PubMed

    Hudson, David M; Reagan, Dugan; Crivello, Joseph F

    2016-01-01

    To investigate community shelter effects of two invasive decapod species, Hemigrapsus sanguineus and Carcinus maenas, in the Long Island Sound (LIS), we deployed artificial shelters in the intertidal and immediate subtidal zones. These consisted of five groups during the summer: a control, a resident H. sanguineus male or female group, and a resident C. maenas male or female group. We quantified utilization of the shelters at 24 h by counting crabs and fish present. We found significant avoidance of H. sanguineus in the field by benthic hermit crabs (Pagurus spp.) and significant avoidance of C. maenas by the seaboard goby (Gobiosoma ginsburgi). The grubby (Myoxocephalus aenaeus) avoided neither treatment, probably since it tends to be a predator of invertebrates. H. sanguineus avoided C. maenas treatments, whereas C. maenas did not avoid any treatment. Seasonal deployments in the subtidal indicated cohabitation of a number of benthic species in the LIS, with peak shelter use corresponding with increased predation and likely reproductive activity in spring and summer for green crabs (C. maenas), hermit crabs (Pagurus spp.), seaboard gobies (G. ginsburgi), and grubbies (Myoxocephalus aenaeus). PMID:27547570

  11. Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol[R] (SIOP[R]). What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The "Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol"[R] ("SIOP"[R]) is a framework for planning and delivering instruction in content areas such as science, history, and mathematics to English language learners as well as other students. The goal of "SIOP"[R] is to help teachers integrate academic language development into their lessons, allowing…

  12. Competition for shelter in a high-diversity system: structure use by large reef fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerry, J. T.; Bellwood, D. R.

    2016-03-01

    Competition among large reef fishes for shelter beneath tabular structures provides a rare opportunity to study competition in a species-rich environment. The system permits a detailed study of localised competition with major implications for coral reefs with respect to human impacts including climate change. Using underwater video cameras, this study examined competition among 30 species of large reef fishes (from nine families) for access to shelter provided by 26 tabular structures, which may be the highest reported diversity of vertebrates competing for a single resource. Mean concentrations of fishes under tabular structures were also among the highest biomass recorded on reefs (4.71 kg m-2). A generated dominance hierarchy for the occupation of shelter appeared to be primarily driven by the size of fishes. In contrast to previous studies, fishes higher in the hierarchy tended to exhibit the lowest levels of aggression. However, size difference between fishes was found to be strongly negatively correlated with the proportion of aggressive interactions ( R 2 = 0.971, P < 0.0001). The strong competition for the shade provided by these corals highlights concerns about future shifts in the structure of large reef fish communities as corals are lost. This is particularly concerning given the critical functional roles played by certain species of large reef fishes that utilise tabular structure for shelter and which occupy the lower ranks of the dominance hierarchy.

  13. Management of Bacterial Blight of Lilac Caused by Pseudomonas syringae by Growing Plants under Plastic Shelters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae causes some of the most economically-important bacterial diseases affecting woody perennials grown by the nursery industry in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. In this study, we evaluated a cultural control practice, placement of plants in plastic shelter...

  14. 38 CFR 21.144 - Vocational course in a sheltered workshop or rehabilitation facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sheltered workshop or rehabilitation facility. 21.144 Section 21.144 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Special Rehabilitation Services § 21.144 Vocational...

  15. 38 CFR 21.144 - Vocational course in a sheltered workshop or rehabilitation facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sheltered workshop or rehabilitation facility. 21.144 Section 21.144 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Special Rehabilitation Services § 21.144 Vocational...

  16. 38 CFR 21.144 - Vocational course in a sheltered workshop or rehabilitation facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sheltered workshop or rehabilitation facility. 21.144 Section 21.144 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Special Rehabilitation Services § 21.144 Vocational...

  17. 38 CFR 21.144 - Vocational course in a sheltered workshop or rehabilitation facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sheltered workshop or rehabilitation facility. 21.144 Section 21.144 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Special Rehabilitation Services § 21.144 Vocational...

  18. Multimodal Teacher Input and Science Learning in a Middle School Sheltered Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the results of an ethnographic research about the multimodal science discourse in a sixth-grade sheltered classroom involving English Language Learners (ELLs) only. Drawing from the perspective of multimodality, this study examines how science learning is constructed in science lectures through multiple semiotic resources,…

  19. Vocational Histories of Sheltered Workshop Employees Placed in Projects with Industry and Competitive Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickey, Michael; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Job placement histories of 73 mentally retarded sheltered workshop employees placed in Projects With Industry (PWI) or competitive jobs in calendar year 1978 were examined during a 30-month period. Job variables such as structure appear to be more important to job success than employee demographic variables such as IQ. (Author)

  20. 75 FR 46844 - Excise Taxes on Prohibited Tax Shelter Transactions and Related Disclosure Requirements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ...This document contains correcting amendments to IRS regulations providing guidance under 4965 of the Internal Revenue Code, relating to entity-level and manager-level excise taxes with respect to prohibited tax shelter transactions to which tax-exempt entities are parties; sections 6033(a)(2) and 6011(g), relating to certain disclosure obligations with respect to such transactions; and......

  1. An Investigation of Best Practices for Evacuating and Sheltering Individuals with Special Needs and Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities (NCEF) has conducted "a literature search and review to identify best practices in [school] building design for accommodating the evacuation and sheltering needs of individuals with special needs or…

  2. Validity of the Vocational Adaptation Rating Scale: Prediction of Mentally Retarded Workers' Placement in Sheltered Workshops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malgady, Robert G.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The validity of the Vocational Adaptation Rating Scale (VARS) for predicting placement of 125 mentally retarded workers in sheltered workshop settings was investigated. Results indicated low to moderate significant partial correlations with concurrent placement and one year follow-up placement (controlling IQ, age, and sex). (Author)

  3. 139. VIEW OF AGENA TRANSFER AREA SHELTER (117A), LSB (BLDG. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    139. VIEW OF AGENA TRANSFER AREA SHELTER (117A), LSB (BLDG. 770), FROM VEHICLE CHECKOUT AREA (117). STAINLESS STEEL FLOOR SQUARE BY LOCKER WAS LEVEL PEDESTAL. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  4. Sheltered Instruction for Students with Learning Disabilities Who Have Limited English Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echevarria, Jana

    1995-01-01

    Sheltered instruction is described as a content-driven teaching approach that provides access to the core curriculum using techniques that make lessons more understandable, such as a slower speech rate, controlled vocabulary, and hands-on activities. The goal is for the student to learn content material in a way that facilitates development of…

  5. Gimme Shelter! Investigating the Social Service Interface from the Standpoint of Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Naomi Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Using institutional ethnography, I demonstrate how one young man's efforts to find housing are shaped in relation to a complex institutional maze through which the immigration, child welfare, social assistance, and sheltering systems are linked. My goal is to show how a particular person's narrative can be used to illuminate the general…

  6. Relationship between age at gonadectomy and health problems in kittens adopted from shelters.

    PubMed

    Porters, N; Polis, I; Moons, C P H; Van de Maele, I; Ducatelle, R; Goethals, K; Duchateau, L; de Rooster, H

    2015-05-30

    Prepubertal gonadectomy (PPG) is promoted as a way of managing overpopulation in cats, but concerns about PPG and potential health issues still exist. The objective of the present study was to evaluate short-term and long-term health problems in cats subjected to PPG in comparison to gonadectomy at traditional age (TAG). In a prospective clinical trial, 800 shelter kittens aged between approximately 8 weeks and 12 weeks were recruited before adoption and randomly assigned to either the PPG group (gonadectomy performed immediately) or the TAG group (gonadectomy delayed until six months to eight months of age). Short-term health issues included mortality between when kittens arrived at the clinic and up to seven days after they returned to the shelter, as well as the occurrence of various other health issues arising in the first month following adoption. Kittens were followed-up until 24 months of age specifically for feline lower urinary tract disease, urethral obstruction (male cats), lameness, fractures and hypersensitivity disorders with dermatological presentation. In the short term, there were no significant differences between health problems in PPG and TAG kittens. Similarly, no significant differences were observed between treatment groups in terms of the type or number of health issues in the long term. In conclusion, there are no health-related contraindications to advocating PPG strategies in shelter cats. Ideally, PPG should be performed at the shelter facility itself as long as excellent infectious disease control and postoperative clinical observation before adoption are guaranteed. PMID:25820324

  7. Perceived Barriers to Optimum Nutrition among Congregate (Sheltered) Housing Residents in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahadevan, Meena; Hartwell, Heather; Feldman, Charles; Raines, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Malnutrition, secondary to decreased food intake, is a public health problem of epidemic proportions among older adults in the United States of America (USA). Compared to community-dwelling senior citizens, congregate (sheltered) housing residents are found to be frailer, with documented deficiencies in several major and minor…

  8. Remission of PTSD After Victims of Intimate Partner Violence Leave a Shelter

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Dawn M.; Zlotnick, Caron

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem associated with high rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Few longitudinal studies have investigated IPV-related PTSD and we know of only 1 longitudinal study to date that has explored IPV-related PTSD in residents of battered women’s shelters. The current report describes a prospective study of IPV-related PTSD in an initial sample of 147 residents of battered women’s shelters. Baseline correlates of remission of IPV-related PTSD (i.e., PTSD and IPV severity, loss of personal and social resources, cessation of abuse, reunion with abuser, and length of shelter stay) over a 6-month follow-up period were investigated. Although findings are consistent with prior research suggesting a natural recovery of PTSD in IPV-victims, they also show that a significant number (46.8%) of women exhibit chronic PTSD. Participants whose PTSD remitted over follow-up had at baseline less severe IPV-related PTSD (partial η2 = .104) and fewer loss of personal and social resources (partial η2 = .095), and were less likely to reunite with their abuser after leaving the shelter than participants with chronic PTSD (3.3% and 22.4%, respectively). Clinical implications and limitations of findings are discussed. PMID:22522736

  9. Reassessing Shelter Assistance in America. Volume I: Analysis and Findings. Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Sandra J.; Schnare, Ann B.

    The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)--through the explicit and implicit shelter allowance provided under Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), Supplemental Security Income (SSI), and General Assistance--spends at least $10 billion a year on housing assistance, or about as much as the Department of Housing and…

  10. Vulnerability Assessment of Selected Buildings Designated as Shelters: St. Kitts--Nevis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Tony

    Educational facilities in the Caribbean often serve roles as shelters during natural hazards, but they often sustain as much damage as other buildings. This study investigated the physical vulnerability of schools located on St. Kitts and Nevis to wind forces, torrential rain, and seismic forces in order to provide relevant local agencies with…

  11. Vulnerability Assessment of Selected Buildings Designated as Shelters: Antigua and Barbuda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Tony

    Educational facilities in the Caribbean often serve roles as shelters during natural hazards, but they often sustain as much damage as other buildings. This study investigated the physical vulnerability of schools located on Antigua and Barbuda to wind forces, torrential rain, and seismic forces in order to provide relevant local agencies with…

  12. Exploration of the Prevalence and Correlates of Substance Use among Sheltered Adolescents in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sookyung; Kim, Hae Sung; Kim, Haeryun; Sung, Kgu-taik

    2007-01-01

    Substance use among sheltered adolescents is very serious in South Korea--a nation in the process of rapid industrialization and urbanization. However, few studies have investigated substance use among the adolescents which is a growing concern of the changing society of this nation. This study examined the prevalence of substance use and explored…

  13. The Impact of Short-Term Counseling at a Domestic Violence Shelter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, John R.; Tamanini, Kevin; Pelletier-Walker, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Women who received counseling at a domestic violence shelter were evaluated with several measures to determine the impact of the services they received. Method: A pretest and posttest design using clinical measures for life functioning and coping ability along with posttest-only measures of satisfaction and helpfulness of service were…

  14. 2010-2011 Inventors Competition--Winners of the "Gimme Shelter" Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The number of entries to this year's "Tech Directions" Inventors Competition exceeded even the record set by the 2009-2010 contest--and gave engineer/inventor Harry T. Roman quite a judging challenge. This year's challenge called on students to propose designs for inexpensive, portable shelters that could be used by people made homeless by natural…

  15. Factors influencing efficacy of plastic shelters for control of bacterial blight of lilac

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plastic shelters are thought to manage bacterial blight by protecting plants from rain and/or frost. In February to April 2008 and 2009, we studied the contribution of frost protection to efficacy of this cultural control practice. Lilacs in 1-gallon pots were exposed to four treatments: 1) plants...

  16. A lifesaving model: teaching advanced procedures on shelter animals in a tertiary care facility.

    PubMed

    Spindel, Miranda E; MacPhail, Catriona M; Hackett, Timothy B; Egger, Erick L; Palmer, Ross H; Mama, Khursheed R; Lee, David E; Wilkerson, Nicole; Lappin, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    It is estimated that there are over 5 million homeless animals in the United States. While the veterinary profession continues to evolve in advanced specialty disciplines, animal shelters in every community lack resources for basic care. Concurrently, veterinary students, interns, and residents have less opportunity for practical primary and secondary veterinary care experiences in tertiary-care institutions that focus on specialty training. The two main goals of this project were (1) to provide practical medical and animal-welfare experiences to veterinary students, interns, and residents, under faculty supervision, and (2) to care for animals with medical problems beyond a typical shelter's technical capabilities and budget. Over a two-year period, 22 animals from one humane society were treated at Colorado State University Veterinary Medical Center. Initial funding for medical expenses was provided by PetSmart Charities. All 22 animals were successfully treated and subsequently adopted. The results suggest that collaboration between a tertiary-care facility and a humane shelter can be used successfully to teach advanced procedures and to save homeless animals. The project demonstrated that linking a veterinary teaching hospital's resources to a humane shelter's needs did not financially affect either institution. It is hoped that such a program might be used as a model and be perpetuated in other communities. PMID:19228908

  17. Learning in a Sheltered Internet Environment: The Use of WebQuests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects on learning in a sheltered Internet environment using so-called WebQuests in elementary school classrooms in the Netherlands. A WebQuest is an assignment presented together with a series of web pages to help guide children's learning. The learning gains and quality of the work of 229 sixth graders…

  18. 77 FR 13695 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel IN THE SHELTER; Invitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... the vessel IN THE SHELTER is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``The vessel is a 38 foot sailing catamaran owned by our sailing club. The vessel will be used for teaching sailing lessons and for sailboat charters in San Diego and Long Beach. Our sailing club owns a fleet of sailboats used to teach...

  19. 5 CFR 591.219 - How does OPM compute shelter price indexes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... indexes? 591.219 Section 591.219 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE...-Of-Living Allowances § 591.219 How does OPM compute shelter price indexes? (a) In addition to rental... price index for rental and/or rental equivalent units of comparable quality and size between the...

  20. 5 CFR 591.219 - How does OPM compute shelter price indexes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... indexes? 591.219 Section 591.219 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE...-Of-Living Allowances § 591.219 How does OPM compute shelter price indexes? (a) In addition to rental... price index for rental and/or rental equivalent units of comparable quality and size between the...

  1. 5 CFR 591.219 - How does OPM compute shelter price indexes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... indexes? 591.219 Section 591.219 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE...-Of-Living Allowances § 591.219 How does OPM compute shelter price indexes? (a) In addition to rental... price index for rental and/or rental equivalent units of comparable quality and size between the...

  2. 5 CFR 591.219 - How does OPM compute shelter price indexes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... indexes? 591.219 Section 591.219 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE...-Of-Living Allowances § 591.219 How does OPM compute shelter price indexes? (a) In addition to rental... price index for rental and/or rental equivalent units of comparable quality and size between the...

  3. The Provision of Children's Services Within Battered Women's Shelters: A Model Children's Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brancato, Debra Michel

    A three-fold exploratory study was conducted to examine the current literature regarding the effects of spousal abuse on observing children, evaluate children's programs within battered women's shelters, and propose a model children's program designed to meet children's needs. Based on the literature and the children's programs currently existing,…

  4. Effects of Instructional Art Projects on Children's Behavioral Responses and Creativity within an Emergency Shelter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Mary B.; Vandiver, Trish A.

    2003-01-01

    Compares the effects of instructional art projects on children's behavioral responses and creativity in a sample of children residing in an emergency shelter. Results reveal that children produced more formed expressions and creative/design elements and less chaotic discharge and stereotypic art through the art project that involved few…

  5. International Students' Perceptions of Shelter-in-Place Notifications: Implications for University Officials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Emergency notifications and shelter-in-place warnings on college and university campuses are generally issued in English and presuppose either a common shared language and culture or the adaptation of the warning system to a multilingual and multicultural social structure. This study examined the roles that language, culture, and emergency…

  6. The Association of Shelter Veterinarians' 2016 Veterinary Medical Care Guidelines for Spay-Neuter Programs.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Brenda; Bushby, Philip A; McCobb, Emily; White, Sara C; Rigdon-Brestle, Y Karla; Appel, Leslie D; Makolinski, Kathleen V; Wilford, Christine L; Bohling, Mark W; Eddlestone, Susan M; Farrell, Kelly A; Ferguson, Nancy; Harrison, Kelly; Howe, Lisa M; Isaza, Natalie M; Levy, Julie K; Looney, Andrea; Moyer, Michael R; Robertson, Sheilah Ann; Tyson, Kathy

    2016-07-15

    As community efforts to reduce the overpopulation and euthanasia of unwanted and unowned cats and dogs have increased, many veterinarians have increasingly focused their clinical efforts on the provision of spay-neuter services. Because of the wide range of geographic and demographic needs, a wide variety of spay-neuter programs have been developed to increase delivery of services to targeted populations of animals, including stationary and mobile clinics, MASH-style operations, shelter services, community cat programs, and services provided through private practitioners. In an effort to promote consistent, high-quality care across the broad range of these programs, the Association of Shelter Veterinarians convened a task force of veterinarians to develop veterinary medical care guidelines for spay-neuter programs. These guidelines consist of recommendations for general patient care and clinical procedures, preoperative care, anesthetic management, surgical procedures, postoperative care, and operations management. They were based on current principles of anesthesiology, critical care medicine, infection control, and surgical practice, as determined from published evidence and expert opinion. They represent acceptable practices that are attainable in spay-neuter programs regardless of location, facility, or type of program. The Association of Shelter Veterinarians envisions that these guidelines will be used by the profession to maintain consistent veterinary medical care in all settings where spay-neuter services are provided and to promote these services as a means of reducing sheltering and euthanasia of cats and dogs. PMID:27379593

  7. Predictors of change in mental health and distress among women attending a women's shelter

    PubMed Central

    Hoyeck, Patricia; Madden, Kim; Freeman, Clare; Scott, Taryn; Bhandari, Mohit

    2014-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is detrimental to mental health. The Domestic Violence Survivor Assessment (DVSA), which includes a mental health assessment, is often used to evaluate abuse survivors in a counseling situation. The DVSA seeks to outline the cognitive state of women as per the stages of change as they attempt to move toward a life with no IPV. Objective The objective of this study was to explore predictors of change in mental health and distress among women who entered a women's shelter more than once. Methods Women entering a women's shelter more than once over a 3-year period were assessed by a trained social worker using the DVSA. A logistic regression analysis examined relationships between the chosen characteristics and the participants’ mental health through the DVSA stages of change. Results We analyzed complete data for 94 women who entered the shelter a mean of 3.3 times (range 2–8) over a mean period of 16.1 days (range: 1–391). Thirty-six women (36/94; 38.3%) progressed through the stages. The average number of visits among women who progressed through the stages was 4. Our multivariable logistic regression showed women who had more visits to the shelter were almost twice as likely to progress through the stages compared to women who entered the shelter fewer times (OR=1.928; 95% CI=1.292–2.877; p=0.001). In the univariate analysis, only increased number of visits was significantly associated with progressing through the stages of change (OR=1.694; 95% CI=1.237–2.322; p=0.001). The other factors were not significantly associated with a change in mental health and distress (p>0.05). Conclusion Women who enter women's shelters more frequently may be more likely to progress through the DVSA mental health stages compared to other women. Women's shelters may be helpful in assisting progression through the stages of change, thereby improving their mental health after abuse. PMID:25279102

  8. Multifractal analysis of the 137Cs fallout pattern in Austria resulting from the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Pausch, G; Bossew, P; Hofmann, W; Steger, F

    1998-06-01

    The cumulative deposition of the 137Cs fallout in Austria resulting from the passage of the Chernobyl cloud has been investigated by applying correlation dimension and hyperbolic frequency distribution methods. For the analysis, a total of 1,881 deposition values were used, which were collected by the Federal Environmental Agency of Austria and the Federal Ministry of Health, representing all available measurements of 137Cs in soil made in Austria after the Chernobyl accident. From these data a hyperbolic exponent for the frequency distribution of 4.0 and a set of fractal correlation dimensions, which decrease from 1.426 +/- 0.022 (for the whole network) to 0.706 +/- 0.047 (for 137Cs values > or = 100 kBq m(-2)), were derived, thus confirming that the fallout pattern can be described as a multifractal. PMID:9600299

  9. Atmospheric lead fallout over the last century recorded in Gulf of Lions sediments (Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Miralles, J; Véron, A J; Radakovitch, O; Deschamps, P; Tremblay, T; Hamelin, B

    2006-11-01

    Six marine sediment cores from the Gulf of Lions continental slope (700-1700 m water depth) were analyzed for stable lead isotopes and (210)Pb geochronology in order to reconstruct lead atmospheric fallout pattern during the last century. The detrital lead contribution is 25 microg g(-1) and the mean sediment anthropogenic inventory is 110+/-7 microg cm(-2), a little bit higher than atmospheric deposition estimate. Anthropogenic lead accumulation in sediments peaked in early 1970s (1973+/-2) in agreement with lead emissions features. For the period 1986-1997, the sediment signal also reflect the decrease of atmospheric lead described by independent atmospheric fallout investigations. The anthropogenic Pb deposition in the late 1990s was similar to the 1950s deposition, attesting thus of the output of European environmental policies. PMID:16790252

  10. In-Kennel Behavior Predicts Length of Stay in Shelter Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Protopopova, Alexandra; Mehrkam, Lindsay Renee; Boggess, May Meredith; Wynne, Clive David Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Previous empirical evaluations of training programs aimed at improving dog adoption rates assume that dogs exhibiting certain behaviors are more adoptable. However, no systematic data are available to indicate that the spontaneous behavior of shelter dogs has an effect on adopter preference. The aim of the present study was to determine whether any behaviors that dogs exhibit spontaneously in the presence of potential adopters were associated with the dogs' length of stay in the shelter. A sample of 289 dogs was videotaped for 1 min daily throughout their stay at a county shelter. To account for differences in adopter behavior, experimenters varied from solitary passive observers to pairs of interactive observers. Dogs behaved more attentively to active observers. To account for adopter preference for morphology, dogs were divided into “morphologically preferred” and “non-preferred” groups. Morphologically preferred dogs were small, long coated, ratters, herders, and lap dogs. No theoretically significant differences in behavior were observed between the two different dog morphologies. When accounting for morphological preference, three behaviors were found to have a significant effect on length of stay in all dogs: leaning or rubbing on the enclosure wall (increased median length of stay by 30 days), facing away from the front of the enclosure (increased by 15 days), and standing (increased by 7 days). When combinations of behaviors were assessed, back and forth motion was found to predict a longer stay (increased by 24 days). No consistent behavioral changes were observed due to time spent at the shelter. These findings will allow shelters to focus behavioral modification efforts only on behaviors likely to influence adopters' choices. PMID:25551460

  11. Serologic markers for hepatitis B among Marshallese accidentally exposed to fallout radiation in 1954

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.H.; Fields, H.A.; Engle, J.R.; Hadler, S.C.

    1986-10-01

    At least one serologic marker of prior hepatitis B infection (hepatitis B surface antigen, antibody to surface antigen, or antibody to core antigen) was found in 91.7% of 314 Marshallese tested. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigenemia (3.3%) in a subpopulation that had resided on Rongelap Atoll at the time of accidental exposure to radioactive fallout from a thermonuclear test in 1954 did not differ significantly from the prevalence in a selected unexposed population (10.5%).

  12. Lichens as bioindicators of aerial fallout of heavy metals in Zaria, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Kapu, M.M. Ahmadu Bello Univ., Zaria ); Ipaye, M.M.; Ega, R.A.I.; Balarabe, M.L. ); Akanya, H.O. ); Schaeffer, D.J. )

    1991-09-01

    Lichens and other epiphytic cryptogams possess efficient ion-exchange mechanisms which enable many species to accumulate airborne metals and which probably contribute to their tolerating metals at concentrations high enough to cause death to other plant species. A direct relationship between the distribution pattern of lichens and the trace metal content of the surrounding air has been demonstrated. The present study used lichens to assess the aerial fallout of heavy metals from traffic in Zaria, northern Nigeria.

  13. Transfer of fallout radionuclides by Fukushima NPP accident from tree crown to forest ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onda, Y.; Kato, H.; Wakahara, T.; Kawamori, A.; Tsujimura, M.

    2011-12-01

    Radioactive contamination has been detected in Fukushima and the neighboring prefectures due to the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) following the earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011. The total deposition of radioactive materials in fallout samples for 137Cs ranged from 0.02to >10 M Bq/m2 for Cs-137. Experimental catchments have been established in Yamakiya district, Kawamata Town, Fukushima prefecture, located about 35 km from Fukushima power plant, and designated as the evacuated zone. Approximate Cs-137 fallout in this area is 200-600k Bq/m2. We established 3 forest sites: broad leaf tree forest and two Japanese cedar forest plantation (young and mature). In each site we installed towers of 8-12 meters. Using these towers, we sampled tree leaves, and measure Cs-137 and Cs-134 in the laboratory, and also we have measure Cs-137, Cs-134 content at various height in each forest using a portable High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector (Ortech; Detective-EX). We also measured the throughfall, stem flow and litter fall inside of the forest. In each site, we establish the 20 m x 20 m plot to monitor the changes of fallout radionuclides through time with the portable HPGe detector. The monitoring is now ongoing but we found significant amount of Cs-134 and Cs-137 has been trapped by cedar forest plantations especially young trees, but not so much in broad leaf trees. The trapped Cs-137 and Cs-134 is then washed by rainfall and found into throughfall. Therefore, in forest ecosystems, the fallout has been still ongoing, and and effective remediation method in forested area (especially cedar plantation) can be removing the trees.

  14. A Dynamic Approach to Monitoring Particle Fallout in a Cleanroom Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Radford L., III

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation discusses a mathematical model to monitor particle fallout in a cleanroom. "Cleanliness levels" do not lead to increases with regards to cleanroom type or time because the levels are not linear. Activity level, impacts the cleanroom class. The numerical method presented leads to a simple Class-hour formulation, that allows for dynamic monitoring of the particle using a standard air particle counter.

  15. Review of methods of dose estimation for epidemiological studies of the radiological impact of nevada test site and global fallout.

    PubMed

    Beck, Harold L; Anspaugh, Lynn R; Bouville, André; Simon, Steven L

    2006-07-01

    Methods to assess radiation doses from nuclear weapons test fallout have been used to estimate doses to populations and individuals in a number of studies. However, only a few epidemiology studies have relied on fallout dose estimates. Though the methods for assessing doses from local and regional compared to global fallout are similar, there are significant differences in predicted doses and contributing radionuclides depending on the source of the fallout, e.g. whether the nuclear debris originated in Nevada at the U.S. nuclear test site or whether it originated at other locations worldwide. The sparse historical measurement data available are generally sufficient to estimate external exposure doses reasonably well. However, reconstruction of doses to body organs from ingestion and inhalation of radionuclides is significantly more complex and is almost always more uncertain than are external dose estimates. Internal dose estimates are generally based on estimates of the ground deposition per unit area of specific radionuclides and subsequent transport of radionuclides through the food chain. A number of technical challenges to correctly modeling deposition of fallout under wet and dry atmospheric conditions still remain, particularly at close-in locations where sizes of deposited particles vary significantly over modest changes in distance. This paper summarizes the various methods of dose estimation from weapons test fallout and the most important dose assessment and epidemiology studies that have relied on those methods. PMID:16808609

  16. Automating the Coupling of ORIGEN with GADRAS via the Fallout Analysis Tool for National Technical Nuclear Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Monterial, Mateusz; Jodoin, Vincent J; Lefebvre, Jordan P; Peplow, Douglas E.; Hooper, David A

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear forensic teams will be deployed to collect and evaluate fallout samples on the ground in the scenario of a low-yield nuclear detonation in a heavily populated area. Quick non-destructive methods of predicting the quality of the sample before it is analyzed in detail are essential for efficient post-event collections. In this work, the process of exporting Defense Land Fallout Interpretive Code (DELFIC) results into Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) has been automated within the Fallout Analysis Tool. This coupling allows for the simulation of detector responses to fallout samples with varying degrees of fractionation. The degree to which the samples are fractionated depends on the location of the samples in the fallout field. In the following study, this phenomenon is examined, as its understanding is important to the investigation of debris distribution. The simulated detector spectra from GADRAS can be used to compare peak ratios of volatile-refractory isotope pairs in order to determine the degree of fractionation. Simulated fractionated fallout samples from DELFIC for a 10 kt, pure 235U fission surface burst were modeled for distances ranging to 256 km out from ground zero, and for times up to 1 week from detonation. The fractionation ratios, also known as r values, from isotope concentrations, photon lines and peak areas of four volatile-refractory pairs were calculated and compared. Fractionation prediction via the peak areas method was evaluated for each pair by comparing the results with the simulated radionuclide inventory.

  17. Comments on Strontium-90 in surface air in relation to stratospheric fallout

    SciTech Connect

    Rangarajan, C.; Eapen, C.D.

    1984-08-15

    The time variation of the spring peak of stratospheric fallout is examined with surface air data of Cs-137 concentrations from about 30 stations in the zone 9 to 75/sup 0/N and 80/sup 0/W to 115/sup 0/E. This study is likely to be more realistic than one derived from data confined to a particular meridian, such as the United States 80th meridian fallout sampling network. It is seen from an examination of the data that the spring peak of stratospheric fallout is progressively delayed with increasing latitude from 9 to 50/sup 0/N. At latitudes beyond 50/sup 0/N, no clear trend can be postulated due to limited data. The reason for this progressive delay in the appearance of the spring peak is likely to be due to changes in the circulation pattern, rather than variations in precipitation scavenging, as regions with different distribution of rainfall have the same progressive delay in the spring peak.

  18. Ash fallout scenarios at Vesuvius: Numerical simulations and implications for hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macedonio, G.; Costa, A.; Folch, A.

    2008-12-01

    Volcanic ash fallout subsequent to a possible renewal of the Vesuvius activity represents a serious threat to the highly urbanized area around the volcano. In order to assess the relative hazard we consider three different possible scenarios such as those following Plinian, Sub-Plinian, and violent Strombolian eruptions. Reference eruptions for each scenario are similar to the 79 AD (Pompeii), the 1631 AD (or 472 AD) and the 1944 AD Vesuvius events, respectively. Fallout deposits for the first two scenarios are modeled using HAZMAP, a model based on a semi-analytical solution of the 2D advection-diffusion-sedimentation equation. In contrast, fallout following a violent Strombolian event is modeled by means of FALL3D, a numerical model based on the solution of the full 3D advection-diffusion-sedimentation equation which is valid also within the atmospheric boundary layer. Inputs for models are total erupted mass, eruption column height, bulk grain-size, bulk component distribution, and a statistical set of wind profiles obtained by the NCEP/NCAR re-analysis. We computed ground load probability maps for different ash loadings. In the case of a Sub-Plinian scenario, the most representative tephra loading maps in 16 cardinal directions were also calculated. The probability maps obtained for the different scenarios are aimed to give support to the risk mitigation strategies.

  19. Synthetic fibers in atmospheric fallout: A source of microplastics in the environment?

    PubMed

    Dris, Rachid; Gasperi, Johnny; Saad, Mohamed; Mirande, Cécile; Tassin, Bruno

    2016-03-15

    Sources, pathways and reservoirs of microplastics, plastic particles smaller than 5mm, remain poorly documented in an urban context. While some studies pointed out wastewater treatment plants as a potential pathway of microplastics, none have focused on the atmospheric compartment. In this work, the atmospheric fallout of microplastics was investigated in two different urban and sub-urban sites. Microplastics were collected continuously with a stainless steel funnel. Samples were then filtered and observed with a stereomicroscope. Fibers accounted for almost all the microplastics collected. An atmospheric fallout between 2 and 355particles/m(2)/day was highlighted. Registered fluxes were systematically higher at the urban than at the sub-urban site. Chemical characterization allowed to estimate at 29% the proportion of these fibers being all synthetic (made with petrochemicals), or a mixture of natural and synthetic material. Extrapolation using weight and volume estimates of the collected fibers, allowed a rough estimation showing that between 3 and 10 tons of fibers are deposited by atmospheric fallout at the scale of the Parisian agglomeration every year (2500km(2)). These results could serve the scientific community working on the different sources of microplastic in both continental and marine environments. PMID:26787549

  20. Modeling transfer of 137Cs fallout in a large Finnish watercourse.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, R

    1990-10-01

    In the Finnish environment, lakes provide very important transfer pathways for various pollutants. In this study, a large watercourse was modeled using the dynamic compartment model DETRA. The model includes a fish model for roach, nonpredatory and predatory perches, and pike. Transfer of 137Cs fallout deposited onto the Kymijoki drainage area after the Chernobyl accident was calculated using the model. In the model, fallout was assumed to consist of a soluble and insoluble component, behaving differently in the environment. Model predictions were compared with measured concentrations. Lake Päijänne, the largest lake of the watercourse, was studied most extensively. Calculated concentrations in lake water were consistent with measured concentrations. However, calculated concentrations in fish were lower than measured concentrations. To test the model by using additional experimental data, transfer of nuclear weapons testing fallout was also calculated. The processes that cause the rather rapid removal of 137Cs from lake water need to be studied further using more detailed data. In the long term, runoff and resuspension of sedimentary material were considered to be important in causing concentrations in lake water. PMID:2398012

  1. Variations of 129I in the atmospheric fallout of Tokyo, Japan: 1963-2003.

    PubMed

    Toyama, Chiaki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Uchida, Yuka; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Aoyama, Michio; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2012-11-01

    Atmospheric fallout samples collected from Tokyo between 1963 and 2003 were analyzed using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in order to determine (129)I/(127)I ratios and to examine the deposition rate of (129)I and its secular variation in Tokyo. The (129)I/(127)I ratios in the atmosphere during 1963-1977 ranged from 1 × 10(-8) to 2 × 10(-8). This is roughly 4 orders of magnitude higher than pre-atomic levels, possibly due to atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The calculated monthly atmospheric deposition rates of (129)I differed from those produced by nuclear fallout of (90)Sr and (137)Cs, indicating that the variations in (129)I deposition are not influenced exclusively by either nuclear bomb testing or by the Chernobyl accident. After 1978, high (129)I depositions (up to 0.13 mBq/m(2)/month) were observed. The (129)I depositions started to increase markedly at the latter half of the 1970s. The secular variation of the estimated annual (129)I deposition in Tokyo showed a close relationship between the annual atmospheric discharge of (129)I from the Tokai Reprocessing plant. Therefore, the atmospheric fallout collected from Tokyo after the late 1970s is influenced primary by the (129)I discharge from the Tokai Reprocessing plant. PMID:22694935

  2. Observations of fallout from the Fukushima reactor accident in Cienfuegos, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Hernandez, Carlos M; Guillen-Arruebarrena, Aniel; Cartas-Aguila, Hector; Morera-Gomez, Yasser; Diaz-Asencio, Misael

    2012-05-01

    Following the recent accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan, radioactive contamination was observed near the reactor site. As a contribution towards the understanding of the worldwide impact of the accident, we collected fallout samples in Cienfuegos, Cuba, and examined them for the presence of above normal amounts of radioactivity. Gamma ray spectra measured from these samples showed clear evidence of fission products (131)I and (137)Cs. However, the fallout levels measured for these isotopes (135 ± 4.78 mBq m(-2) day(-1) for (131)I and 10.7 ± 0.38 mBq m(-2) day(-1)for (137)Cs) were very low and posed no health risk to the public. The doses received as consequence to the Fukushima fallout by the Cienfuegos population's (0.002 mSv per year) don't overcome the limit of dose (1 mSv per year) fixed for the public in Cuba. PMID:22310844

  3. Development and validation of a new fallout transport method using variable spectral winds

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, A.T.

    1984-01-01

    A new method was developed to incorporate variable winds into fallout transport calculations. The method uses spectral coefficients derived by the National Meteorological Center. Wind vector components are computed with the coefficients along the trajectories of falling particles. Spectral winds are used in the two-step method to compute dose rate on the ground, downwind of a nuclear cloud. First, the hotline is located by computing trajectories of particles from an initial, stabilized cloud, through spectral winds to the ground. The connection of particle landing points is the hotline. Second, dose rate on and around the hotline is computed by analytically smearing the falling cloud's activity along the ground. The feasibility of using spectral winds for fallout particle transport was validated by computing Mount St. Helens ashfall locations and comparing calculations to fallout data. In addition, an ashfall equation was derived for computing volcanic ash mass/area on the ground. Ashfall data and the ashfall equation were used to back-calculate an aggregated particle size distribution for the Mount St. Helens eruption cloud.

  4. Scoria Fallout Modeling and the 3 March 2015 VEI-2 Eruption of Villarica Volcano, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J.; Johnson, J. B.; Bowman, D. C.; Ronan, T.; Brand, B. D.

    2015-12-01

    In March 2015, Villarrica volcano erupted a spectacular 1.5 km lava fountain and 6-8 km plume, depositing a thin (several mm or cm) layer of scoria tens of km toward the east and southeast. We show results of numeric models (the advection-diffusion equation solver Tephra2, and particle-tracking models) informed by NOMADS atmospheric data used to model this fallout. Models show strong winds (up to 25 m/s) toward the east and southeast concentrating the narrow deposit in those directions, and the vertical variation of wind direction predicts particle sorting along the wind-transverse direction. Both of these were observed in the field. We discuss the challenges faced by fallout models of scoria: because of its irregular shapes, high and variable porosity, and propensity to break apart on impact, aerodynamic properties are difficult to assess by physical observations. This introduces ambiguity when comparing models to observations. Finally, we demonstrate how short-term hazard predictions can benefit from the integration of fallout models with weather forecasts up to several days in advance, and how hazard communication to the public can benefit from snapshots and animations showing zones subject to tephra fall and time delays from eruption to impact.

  5. Rain-Shelter Cultivation Modifies Carbon Allocation in the Polyphenolic and Volatile Metabolism of Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay Grapes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Li, Xiao-Xi; Han, Mei-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Fan; Li, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the biosynthesis of flavonoids and volatiles in grapes, with an aim of determining whether rain-shelter application could help to improve the sensory attributes and quality of grapes. Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay grapes, grown in the Huaizhuo basin region of northern China, were selected within two consecutive years. A rain-shelter roof was constructed using a colorless polyethylene (PE) film with a light transmittance of 80%. Results showed that rain-shelter treatment did not affect the accumulation of soluble solids during grape maturation. However, the allocation of assimilated carbon in phenolic and volatile biosynthetic pathways varied significantly, leading to alterations in polyphenolic and volatile profiles. The rain-shelter cultivation enhanced the concentration of flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) pathway, but reduced the level of flavonols and flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) pathway. In addition, the rain-shelter cultivation significantly enhanced the synthesis of fatty acid-derived volatiles, isoprene-derived terpenoids and amino acid-derived branched-chain aliphatics, but led to a decrease in the accumulation of isoprene-derived norisoprenoids and amino acid-derived benzenoids. Principal component analysis revealed some key compounds that differentiated the grapes cultivated under open-field and rain-shelter conditions. Moreover, the effect of the rain-shelter application on the accumulation of these compounds appeared to be vintage dependent. The alteration of their profiles caused by the rain-shelter treatment was significant in the vintage that received higher rainfall, which usually took place in the first rapid growth and veraison phases. PMID:27218245

  6. Rain-Shelter Cultivation Modifies Carbon Allocation in the Polyphenolic and Volatile Metabolism of Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay Grapes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Mei-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Fan; Li, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the biosynthesis of flavonoids and volatiles in grapes, with an aim of determining whether rain-shelter application could help to improve the sensory attributes and quality of grapes. Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay grapes, grown in the Huaizhuo basin region of northern China, were selected within two consecutive years. A rain-shelter roof was constructed using a colorless polyethylene (PE) film with a light transmittance of 80%. Results showed that rain-shelter treatment did not affect the accumulation of soluble solids during grape maturation. However, the allocation of assimilated carbon in phenolic and volatile biosynthetic pathways varied significantly, leading to alterations in polyphenolic and volatile profiles. The rain-shelter cultivation enhanced the concentration of flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3’5’-hydroxylase (F3’5’H) pathway, but reduced the level of flavonols and flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3’-hydroxylase (F3’H) pathway. In addition, the rain-shelter cultivation significantly enhanced the synthesis of fatty acid-derived volatiles, isoprene-derived terpenoids and amino acid-derived branched-chain aliphatics, but led to a decrease in the accumulation of isoprene-derived norisoprenoids and amino acid-derived benzenoids. Principal component analysis revealed some key compounds that differentiated the grapes cultivated under open-field and rain-shelter conditions. Moreover, the effect of the rain-shelter application on the accumulation of these compounds appeared to be vintage dependent. The alteration of their profiles caused by the rain-shelter treatment was significant in the vintage that received higher rainfall, which usually took place in the first rapid growth and veraison phases. PMID:27218245

  7. Effect of origin of radiocaesium on the transfer from fallout to reindeer meat.

    PubMed

    Ahman, B; Wright, S M; Howard, B J

    2001-10-20

    Data on radiocaesium contamination of reindeer from five regions in Sweden have been used, together with interpolated radiocaesium deposition data, to quantify spatial variation in transfer to reindeer meat and to consider how it changes with time in different areas. Since the regions were contaminated to different extents by global and Chernobyl fallout, it was also possible to determine the influence of the origin or age of radiocaesium fallout on the transfer to reindeer meat. The regions differed significantly with regard to transfer of radiocaesium to reindeer meat. In two regions in the North of Sweden, where there was less Chernobyl 137Cs, aggregated transfer coefficients (Tag), estimated for the main slaughter period in the first year after the Chernobyl fallout, were low (0.15 and 0.36 m2 kg(-1) in January-April). Average Tag values calculated for the winter period (January-April) in two regions in the middle of Sweden, where deposition from Chernobyl dominated (83 and 94%, respectively, of the total deposition), were 0.78 and 0.84 m2 kg(-1), respectively with a maximum Tag for an individual reindeer of 1.87 m2 kg(-1). There was a threefold increase in Tag values from early autumn to late winter reflecting the change in the reindeer diet from less contaminated vascular plants to more contaminated lichens. The decline of 137Cs in reindeer meat from 1986 to 2000 differed between regions with longer effective half-lives (Tef) in the northerly regions (11.0 and 7.1 years, respectively) with less Chernobyl fallout, and shorter half-lives in the other three regions (3.5-3.8 years). This observation, together with a lack of a decline in early autumn in the region with least Chernobyl fallout, supports the theory of a gradual, but reversible, fixation of radiocaesium in the soil over the mid-long term. The results suggest that both the extent of transfer of 137Cs to reindeer meat, and its subsequent decline with time, are affected by the differing origins of

  8. Projected lifetime cancer risks from exposure to regional radioactive fallout in the Marshall Islands.

    PubMed

    Land, Charles E; Bouville, André; Apostoaei, Iulian; Simon, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    Radioactive fallout from nuclear test detonations during 1946-1958 at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the Marshall Islands (MI) exposed populations living elsewhere in the MI archipelago. A comprehensive analysis, presented in seven companion papers, has produced estimates of tissue-specific radiation absorbed dose to MI residents at all historically inhabited atolls from internal (ingested) and external irradiation resulting from exposure to radioactive fallout, by calendar year, and by age of the population at time of exposure. The present report deals, for the first time, with the implications of these doses for cancer risk among exposed members of the MI population. Radiation doses differed by geographic location and year of birth, and radiation-related cancer risk depends upon age at exposure and age at observation for risk. Using dose-response models based on committee reports published by the National Research Council and the National Institutes of Health, we project that, during the lifetimes of members of the MI population potentially exposed to ionizing radiation from weapons test fallout deposited during the testing period (1948-1958) and from residual radioactive sources during the subsequent 12 y (1959-1970), perhaps 1.6% (with 90% uncertainty range 0.4% to 3.4%) of all cancers might be attributable to fallout-related radiation exposures. By sub-population, the projected proportion of cancers attributable to radiation from fallout from all nuclear tests conducted in the Marshall Islands is 55% (28% to 69%) among 82 persons exposed in 1954 on Rongelap and Ailinginae, 10% (2.4% to 22%) for 157 persons exposed on Utrik, and 2.2% (0.5% to 4.8%) and 0.8% (0.2% to 1.8%), respectively, for the much larger populations exposed in mid-latitude locations including Kwajalein and in southern locations including Majuro. By cancer type, point estimates of attributable risk varied, by location, between 12% and 95% for thyroid cancer, between 2% and 78% for leukemia, and

  9. PROJECTED LIFETIME CANCER RISKS FROM EXPOSURE TO REGIONAL RADIOACTIVE FALLOUT IN THE MARSHALL ISLANDS

    PubMed Central

    Land, Charles E.; Bouville, Andre; Apostoaei, Iulian; Simon, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive fallout from nuclear test detonations during 1946–1958 at Bikini and Enewetak atolls in the Marshall Islands (MI) exposed populations living elsewhere in the archipelago. A comprehensive analysis, presented in seven companion papers, has produced estimates of tissue-specific radiation absorbed dose to MI residents at all historically inhabited atolls from internal (ingested) and external radioactive components of fallout, by calendar year, and by age of the population at time of exposure. The present report deals, for the first time, with the implications of these doses on cancer risk among exposed members of the MI population. Radiation doses differed by geographic location and year of birth, and radiation-related cancer risk depends upon age at exposure and age at observation for risk. Using dose-response models based on committee reports published by the National Research Council and the National Institutes of Health, we project that, during the lifetimes of members of the MI population potentially exposed to ionizing radiation from weapons test fallout deposited during the testing period (1948–1958) and from residual radioactive sources during the subsequent 12 years (1959–1970), perhaps 1.6% (with 90% uncertainty range 0.4% and 3.4%) of all cancers might be attributable to fallout-related radiation exposures. The projected proportion of cancers attributable to radiation from fallout from all nuclear tests conducted in the Marshall Islands is 55% (28%–69%) among 82 persons exposed in 1954 on Rongelap and Ailinginae, 10% (2%–22%) for 157 persons exposed on Utrik, and 2% (0.5%–5%) and 1% (0.2%–2%), respectively, for the much larger populations exposed in mid-latitude locations including Kwajalein and in southern locations including Majuro. By cancer type, point estimates of attributable risk varied by location, between 12% and 95% for thyroid cancer, between 2% and 78% for leukemia, and between 1% and 55% for all cancers combined. The

  10. Predictions of dispersion and deposition of fallout from nuclear testing using the NOAA-HYSPLIT meteorological model.

    PubMed

    Moroz, Brian E; Beck, Harold L; Bouville, André; Simon, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    The NOAA Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT) was evaluated as a research tool to simulate the dispersion and deposition of radioactive fallout from nuclear tests. Model-based estimates of fallout can be valuable for use in the reconstruction of past exposures from nuclear testing, particularly where little historical fallout monitoring data are available. The ability to make reliable predictions about fallout deposition could also have significant importance for nuclear events in the future. We evaluated the accuracy of the HYSPLIT-predicted geographic patterns of deposition by comparing those predictions against known deposition patterns following specific nuclear tests with an emphasis on nuclear weapons tests conducted in the Marshall Islands. We evaluated the ability of the computer code to quantitatively predict the proportion of fallout particles of specific sizes deposited at specific locations as well as their time of transport. In our simulations of fallout from past nuclear tests, historical meteorological data were used from a reanalysis conducted jointly by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). We used a systematic approach in testing the HYSPLIT model by simulating the release of a range of particle sizes from a range of altitudes and evaluating the number and location of particles deposited. Our findings suggest that the quantity and quality of meteorological data are the most important factors for accurate fallout predictions and that, when satisfactory meteorological input data are used, HYSPLIT can produce relatively accurate deposition patterns and fallout arrival times. Furthermore, when no other measurement data are available, HYSPLIT can be used to indicate whether or not fallout might have occurred at a given location and provide, at minimum, crude quantitative estimates of the magnitude of the deposited activity. A variety of

  11. PREDICTIONS OF DISPERSION AND DEPOSITION OF FALLOUT FROM NUCLEAR TESTING USING THE NOAA-HYSPLIT METEOROLOGICAL MODEL

    PubMed Central

    Moroz, Brian E.; Beck, Harold L.; Bouville, André; Simon, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    The NOAA Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT) was evaluated as a research tool to simulate the dispersion and deposition of radioactive fallout from nuclear tests. Model-based estimates of fallout can be valuable for use in the reconstruction of past exposures from nuclear testing, particularly, where little historical fallout monitoring data is available. The ability to make reliable predictions about fallout deposition could also have significant importance for nuclear events in the future. We evaluated the accuracy of the HYSPLIT-predicted geographic patterns of deposition by comparing those predictions against known deposition patterns following specific nuclear tests with an emphasis on nuclear weapons tests conducted in the Marshall Islands. We evaluated the ability of the computer code to quantitatively predict the proportion of fallout particles of specific sizes deposited at specific locations as well as their time of transport. In our simulations of fallout from past nuclear tests, historical meteorological data were used from a reanalysis conducted jointly by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). We used a systematic approach in testing the HYSPLIT model by simulating the release of a range of particles sizes from a range of altitudes and evaluating the number and location of particles deposited. Our findings suggest that the quantity and quality of meteorological data are the most important factors for accurate fallout predictions and that when satisfactory meteorological input data are used, HYSPLIT can produce relatively accurate deposition patterns and fallout arrival times. Furthermore, when no other measurement data are available, HYSPLIT can be used to indicate whether or not fallout might have occurred at a given location and provide, at minimum, crude quantitative estimates of the magnitude of the deposited activity. A variety of

  12. Long-Term Consequences of Radioactive Fallout From Conflicts Involving Nuclear Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, S. L.; Bouville, A.

    2006-12-01

    This presentation will summarize past exposures of the public to radioactive fallout from nuclear testing and extrapolate to the possible fallout-related consequences from detonation of multiple warheads that might accompany international conflicts. Long-term consequences could be of three distinct types: (1) the abandonment of living areas that might be heavily contaminated; (2) the necessity to curtail use of particular agricultural products and foods, and (3) life-shortening due to increased rates of cancer and possibly some non-cancer diseases among the exposed populations. While the actual health and economic impact on the surviving public after such conflicts could vary tremendously depending on the number and sizes of explosions (fission yields), height of detonations, and the public's proximity to explosion sites, it is clear that multiple detonations would disperse radioactive products over large geographic areas. Our understanding of radioactive fallout is based on studies carried out for more than five decades on weapons testing fallout that originated from sites worldwide including Nevada, the Soviet Union, four locations in the Pacific, and elsewhere. Those studies have led to an understanding of the composition of radioactive fallout, of its radioactive qualities, and of its capacity to contaminate ground and agricultural products, as well as dwellings and workplaces located from a few km to tens of thousands of km from the explosion site. Though the most severe individual health consequences from exposure to fallout would most likely develop relatively close to the detonation sites (within a few hundred km), wide geographic distribution of fallout, well beyond the borders of the nations involved in the conflict, would affect much larger populations and would likely cause elevated cancer rates and cancer-related deaths among them for many decades following. While acute radiation symptoms (and even death) can result from very high short-term exposures

  13. Reliability of hybrid photovoltaic DC micro-grid systems for emergency shelters and other applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Schleith, Susan

    2014-10-01

    Improvement of energy efficiency in the SunSmart Schools Emergency Shelters requires new methods for optimizing the energy consumption within the shelters. One major limitation in current systems is the requirement of converting direct current (DC) power generated from the PV array into alternating current (AC) power which is distributed throughout the shelters. Oftentimes, this AC power is then converted back to DC to run certain appliances throughout the shelters resulting in a significant waste of energy due to DC to AC and then again AC to DC conversion. This paper seeks to extract the maximum value out of PV systems by directly powering essential load components within the shelters that already run on DC power without the use of an inverter and above all to make the system reliable and durable. Furthermore, additional DC applications such as LED lighting, televisions, computers and fans operated with DC brushless motors will be installed as replacements to traditional devices in order to improve efficiency and reduce energy consumption. Cost of energy storage technologies continue to decline as new technologies scale up and new incentives are put in place. This will provide a cost effective way to stabilize the energy generation of a PV system as well as to provide continuous energy during night hours. It is planned to develop a pilot program of an integrated system that can provide uninterrupted DC power to essential base load appliances (heating, cooling, lighting, etc.) at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) command center for disaster management. PV arrays are proposed to be installed on energy efficient test houses at FSEC as well as at private homes having PV arrays where the owners volunteer to participate in the program. It is also planned to monitor the performance of the PV arrays and functioning of the appliances with the aim to improve their reliability and durability. After a successful demonstration of the hybrid DC microgrid based emergency

  14. Planning Protective Action Decision-Making: Evacuate or Shelter-in-Place

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, J.H.

    2002-08-30

    Appropriate protective action recommendations or decisions (PARs/PADs) are needed to achieve maximum protection of a population at risk. The factors that affect protective action decisions are complex but fairly well documented. Protective action decisions take into account population distributions, projected or actual exposure to a chemical substance, availability of adequate shelters, evacuation time estimates, and other relevant factors. To choose in-place sheltering, there should be a reasonable assurance that the movement of people beyond their residence, workplace, or school will endanger the health and safety of the public more so than allowing them to remain in place. The decision to evacuate the public should be based on the reasonable assurance that the movement of people to an area outside of an affected area is in the best interest of their health and safety, and is of minimal risk to them. In reality, an evacuation decision is also a resource-dependent decision. The availability of transportation and other resources, including shelters, may factor heavily in the protective action decision-making process. All strategies to protect the health and safety of the public from a release of hazardous chemicals are explicitly considered during emergency decision making. Each institutional facility (such as hospitals, schools, day care centers, correctional facilities, assisted living facilities or nursing homes) in the community should be considered separately to determine what special protective actions may be necessary. Deciding whether to evacuate or to shelter-in-place is one of the most important questions facing local emergency planners responding to a toxic chemical release. That such a complex decision with such important potential consequences must be made with such urgency places tremendous responsibility on the planners and officials involved. Researchers have devoted considerable attention to the evacuation/shelter-in-place protection decision

  15. Analysis of actinides in an ombrotrophic peat core - evidence of post-depositional migration of fallout radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinto, Francesca; Hrnecek, Erich; Krachler, Michael; Shotyk, William; Steier, Peter; Winkler, Stephan R.

    2013-04-01

    Plutonium (239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, 242Pu) and uranium (236U, 238U) isotopes were analyzed in an ombrotrophic peat core from the Black Forest, Germany, representing the last 80 years of atmospheric deposition. The reliable determination of these isotopes at ultra-trace levels was possible using ultra-clean laboratory procedures and accelerator mass spectrometry. The 240Pu/239Pu isotopic ratios are constant along the core with a mean value of 0.19 ±0.02 (N = 32). This result is consistent with the acknowledged average 240Pu/239Pu isotopic ratio from global fallout in the Northern Hemisphere. The global fallout origin of Pu is confirmed by the corresponding 241Pu/239Pu (0.0012 ±0.0005) and 242Pu/239Pu (0.004 ± 0.001) isotopic ratios. The identification of the Pu isotopic composition characteristic for global fallout in peat layers pre-dating the period of atmospheric atom bomb testing (AD 1956 - AD 1980) is a clear evidence of the migration of Pu downwards the peat profile. The maximum of global fallout derived 236U is detected in correspondence to the age/depth layer of maximum stratospheric fallout (AD 1963). This finding demonstrates that the 236U bomb peak can be successfully used as an independent chronological marker complementing the 210Pb dating of peat cores. The profiles of the global fallout derived 236U and 239Pu are compared with those of 137Cs and 241Am. As typical of ombrothrophic peat, the temporal fallout pattern of 137Cs is poorly retained. Similarly like for Pu, post-depositional migration of 241Am in peat layers preceding the era of atmospheric nuclear tests is observed.

  16. Mediators of suicidal ideation within a sheltered sample of raped and battered women.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Terri L; Allen, Janice A; Hopper, Elizabeth; Maglione, Melissa L; McLaughlin, Dorcas; McCullough, Mary Ann; Jackson, Mary K; Brewer, Teresa

    2007-05-01

    The relationship between suicide attempts and the experience of intimate partner physical violence has been examined in recent literature. The present study extended this literature by examining the relationship between intimate partner rape and suicidal ideation in a sheltered sample of battered women. Fifty women were recruited from a regional shelter setting for battered women in a Midwestern city in the United States. Fifty-eight percent had experienced intimate partner rape. More than one-third of the sample confirmed experiencing suicidal ideation at least "some of the time" within the past week. Experiencing intimate partner rape was significantly associated with suicidal ideation and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Tests of mediation revealed that both PTSD and depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between intimate partner rape and suicidal ideation. PMID:17469001

  17. Virulent feline calicivirus disease in a shelter in Italy: a case description.

    PubMed

    Battilani, Mara; Vaccari, Francesca; Carelle, Maria Stella; Morandi, Federico; Benazzi, Cinzia; Kipar, Anja; Dondi, Francesco; Scagliarini, Alessandra

    2013-08-01

    Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a common pathogen of cats that is particularly widespread in multi-cat environments such as shelters and catteries. FCV infections are usually associated with acute, mild and self-limiting upper respiratory tract disease characterized by oral vesicles/ulcers. Recently, virulent systemic disease (VSD) associated with FCV infection has been reported in the USA and Europe. This paper describes a case of VSD affecting one adult, FIV infected cat ("Oscar") living in a shelter located in Northern Italy; the clinical, post-mortem and laboratory findings indicate that this is the first case of suspected FCV-VSD in this country. Similar to a previous report (Meyer et al., 2011), the disease affected only one cat, while others remained asymptomatic, despite their direct contact with "Oscar". Phylogenetic analysis identified unique features in the "Oscar" FCV isolate. The FIV infection of the patient might have favoured the generation of the virulent FCV strains in this cat. PMID:23433681

  18. Vocational and social learning of people with severe disabilities in sheltered employment.

    PubMed

    Brackhane, R

    1990-01-01

    In addition to prevocational centres for young people with disabilities about to enter the labour market and vocational training centres for older persons, the Federal Republic of Germany provides a network of sheltered workshops for those who are unable or unlikely to work under competitive conditions. This paper describes the programme for persons in the latter category, based on applications of learning theory, provided at the sheltered workshop in Detmold, Westphalia. It also reports various steps which have been taken to evaluate and refine the two-fold approach to training developed at this centre, based on job analysis and detailed appraisal of workers' social and psychological characteristics, and to apply that approach to persons with a wider range of disabilities. PMID:2149370

  19. Interactive effects of shelter and conspecific density shape mortality, growth, and condition in juvenile reef fish.

    PubMed

    Ford, John R; Shima, Jeffrey S; Swearer, Stephen E

    2016-06-01

    How landscape context influences density-dependent processes is important, as environmental heterogeneity can confound estimates of density dependence in demographic parameters. Here we evaluate 19 populations in a shoaling temperate reef fish (Trachinops caudimaculatus) metapopulation within a heterogeneous seascape (Port Phillip Bay, Australia) to show empirically that shelter availability and population density interact to influence juvenile mortality, growth and condition. Although heterogeneity in shelter availability obscured the underlying patterns of density dependence in different ways, the combination of habitat and its interaction with density were two to six times more important than density alone in explaining variation in demographic parameters for juveniles. These findings contradict many small-scale studies and highlight the need for landscape-scale observations of how density dependence interacts with resource availability and competition to better understand how demographic parameters influence the dynamics of metapopulations in heterogeneous environments. PMID:27459768

  20. A cross-sectional study of Tritrichomonas foetus infection in feral and shelter cats in Prince Edward Island, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Raab, Oriana; Greenwood, Spencer; Vanderstichel, Raphael; Gelens, Hans

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional study examined the occurrence of Tritrichomonas foetus, and other intestinal parasites, in feral and shelter cats in Prince Edward Island (PEI). Fecal samples were collected from 100 feral cats, 100 cats from the PEI Humane Society, and 5 cats from a private residence. The occurrence of T. foetus, based on fecal culture, was 0% in feral and shelter cats. A single positive sample was obtained from an owned Abyssinian cat that was imported to PEI. Intestinal parasites were identified via fecal flotation in 76% of feral cats and 39% of cats from the humane society. Feral cats had a higher incidence of Toxocara cati than cats from the humane society (P < 0.001), conversely, shelter cats had a higher incidence of Cystoisospora spp. (P < 0.001). These results suggest that while T. foetus is not of importance in feral and shelter cats in PEI, imported cats could serve as reservoirs. PMID:26933262

  1. A cross-sectional study of Tritrichomonas foetus infection in feral and shelter cats in Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    PubMed

    Raab, Oriana; Greenwood, Spencer; Vanderstichel, Raphael; Gelens, Hans

    2016-03-01

    A cross-sectional study examined the occurrence of Tritrichomonas foetus, and other intestinal parasites, in feral and shelter cats in Prince Edward Island (PEI). Fecal samples were collected from 100 feral cats, 100 cats from the PEI Humane Society, and 5 cats from a private residence. The occurrence of T. foetus, based on fecal culture, was 0% in feral and shelter cats. A single positive sample was obtained from an owned Abyssinian cat that was imported to PEI. Intestinal parasites were identified via fecal flotation in 76% of feral cats and 39% of cats from the humane society. Feral cats had a higher incidence of Toxocara cati than cats from the humane society (P < 0.001), conversely, shelter cats had a higher incidence of Cystoisospora spp. (P < 0.001). These results suggest that while T. foetus is not of importance in feral and shelter cats in PEI, imported cats could serve as reservoirs. PMID:26933262

  2. Earth sheltered bee wintering and solar honey house. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The construction and operation of an indoor wintering facility and a passive solar honey house are discussed. Goals for the project included both energy savings and financial savings for the beekeeping industry. The underground winter shelter provided a control temperature of approximately 46/sup 0/F in order to decrease both mortality rates and honey consumption rates of the bees. Three hundred square feet of glazing combined with wall insulation maintained comfortable work space temperatures for the ground level storage of honey. (BCS)

  3. Thermal performance trials on the habitability of private bushfire shelters: part 1.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Haberley, Benjamin J; Hoyle, David J R

    2015-08-01

    This communication is the first of two in which specifications for private bushfire shelters were evaluated during human trials. The purpose of this investigation (series 1) was to test the hypothesis that shelters capable of maintaining the internal environment at, or below, a modified discomfort index of 39 °C would prevent a deep-body temperature elevation of >2 °C. This was tested over 96 trials during which eight men and eight women were exposed at rest (60 min) to three regulated shelter conditions satisfying that standard: 40 °C and 70 % relative humidity, 45 °C and 50 % relative humidity and 50 °C and 30 % relative humidity. Subjects were tested twice in each condition following exercise- and heat-induced dehydration (2 % body mass reduction) and pre-heating to each of two deep-body thermal states (37.5 and 38.5 °C). Participants presented well rested and euhydrated, and pre-treatments successfully achieved the thermal and hydration targets prior to exposure. Auditory canal temperatures declined as exposures commenced, with subsequent rises of >0.5 °C not evident within any trial. However, each increment in air temperature elicited a significant elevation in the respective within-trial mean auditory canal temperature (37.4, 37.7 and 37.9 °C) and heart rate (103, 116 and 122 beats.min(-1)) when subjects were moderately hyperthermic (all P < 0.05). Nevertheless, on average, subjects successfully defended deep-body temperature at levels significantly below those associated with heat illness, and it was concluded that this thermal specification for bushfire shelters appeared adequate, providing the physical characteristics of the internal air remained stable. PMID:25336107

  4. Thermal performance trials on the habitability of private bushfire shelters: part 2.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Haberley, Benjamin J

    2015-08-01

    In the preceding communication, an investigation was described in which the thermal specifications for the design of private bushfire shelters were evaluated. Since those trials were undertaken with the thermal characteristics of the air clamped, survival uncertainty persisted if the internal ambient conditions were progressively changing, as would occur within an air-tight shelter. Therefore, two further investigations were performed. In the first, changes in the physical properties of air within an air-tight shelter simulator (1.2 m(3)), initially equilibrated to 43.7 °C and 42.3 % relative humidity, were studied when pre-heated, well-hydrated males were sealed inside (N = 16; 60 min; experimental series 2). Air temperature and humidity moved sigmoidally to 40.5 °C (standard deviation (SD), 0.5) and 90.1 % (SD, 2.1). Oxygen and carbon dioxide fractional concentrations changed reciprocally, with respective terminal averages of 16.7 % (SD, 0.8) and 3.94 % (SD, 0.72). Deep-body temperature rose beyond the tenth minute to a terminal mean of 39.3 °C (SD, 0.2). In the third experimental series, these air temperature and humidity changes were reproduced in trials commencing at two different thermal states (40 °C and 70 % relative humidity; 45 °C and 50 % relative humidity). Sixteen pre-heated and slightly dehydrated men and women were investigated. In neither condition did the auditory canal temperature of any individual change by more than 2 °C or exceed 40 °C. It may be concluded, within the limits of these experiments, that the recommended thermal and dimensional specifications for bushfire shelters can provide tenable conditions for healthy, young adults. PMID:25361703

  5. The determinants of transitions into sheltered accommodation in later life in England and Wales

    PubMed Central

    Vlachantoni, Athina; Maslovskaya, Olga; Evandrou, Maria; Falkingham, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background Population ageing is a global challenge and understanding the dynamics of living arrangements in later life and their implications for the design of appropriate housing and long-term care is a critical policy issue. Existing research has focused on the study of transitions into residential care in the UK. This paper investigates transitions into sheltered accommodation among older people in England and Wales between 1993 and 2008. Methods The study uses longitudinal data constructed from pooled observations across waves 2–18 of the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) data, focusing on individuals aged 65 and over who lived in private housing at baseline and who were observed for two consecutive time points. A discrete-time logistic regression model was used to examine the association of transitioning into sheltered accommodation with a range of demographic, health and socioeconomic predictors. Results Demographic (age, region), socioeconomic factors (housing tenure, having a washing machine) and contact with health professionals (number of visits to the general practitioner, start in use of health visitor) were significant determinants of an older person's move into sheltered accommodation. Conclusions Transitions into sheltered accommodation are associated with a range of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics as well as service use but not with health. Such results indicate that this type of housing option may be accessible by individuals with relatively good health, but may be limited to those who are referred by gatekeepers. Policymakers could consider making such housing option available to everyone, as well as providing incentives for building lifecourse-sensitive housing in the future. PMID:26896519

  6. Thermal performance trials on the habitability of private bushfire shelters: part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Nigel A. S.; Haberley, Benjamin J.

    2015-08-01

    In the preceding communication, an investigation was described in which the thermal specifications for the design of private bushfire shelters were evaluated. Since those trials were undertaken with the thermal characteristics of the air clamped, survival uncertainty persisted if the internal ambient conditions were progressively changing, as would occur within an air-tight shelter. Therefore, two further investigations were performed. In the first, changes in the physical properties of air within an air-tight shelter simulator (1.2 m3), initially equilibrated to 43.7 °C and 42.3 % relative humidity, were studied when pre-heated, well-hydrated males were sealed inside ( N = 16; 60 min; experimental series 2). Air temperature and humidity moved sigmoidally to 40.5 °C (standard deviation (SD), 0.5) and 90.1 % (SD, 2.1). Oxygen and carbon dioxide fractional concentrations changed reciprocally, with respective terminal averages of 16.7 % (SD, 0.8) and 3.94 % (SD, 0.72). Deep-body temperature rose beyond the tenth minute to a terminal mean of 39.3 °C (SD, 0.2). In the third experimental series, these air temperature and humidity changes were reproduced in trials commencing at two different thermal states (40 °C and 70 % relative humidity; 45 °C and 50 % relative humidity). Sixteen pre-heated and slightly dehydrated men and women were investigated. In neither condition did the auditory canal temperature of any individual change by more than 2 °C or exceed 40 °C. It may be concluded, within the limits of these experiments, that the recommended thermal and dimensional specifications for bushfire shelters can provide tenable conditions for healthy, young adults.

  7. Evaluation of a behavioral assessment tool for dogs relinquished to shelters.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Deborah L; Kruger, Katherine A; Serpell, James A

    2014-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate a shortened, 42-item version of the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ((S))) as a behavioral screening tool for dogs relinquished to animal shelters. In contrast to a previous finding, the current study found no consistent evidence that relinquishing owners gave unreliable or biased responses to the questionnaire depending on whether or not they believed that this information would be shared with shelter staff or used to evaluate dogs for adoption. Relinquishing owners' C-BARQ((S)) responses for items related to aggression and fear directed toward humans and other dogs correlated with independent subjective assessments of aggressiveness made by shelter staff (generalized linear mixed models, P<0.05, N=84 aggressive dogs, N=156 non-aggressive dogs). In addition, C-BARQ((S)) scores successfully discriminated between dogs based on their eventual outcomes (i.e., adoption or euthanasia; Generalized Linear Mixed Models, P<0.05, N=181 adopted, N=177 euthanized), indicating convergent validity. Follow-up surveys with a subset of adoptive owners (N=53) revealed significant correlations (after correction for multiple comparisons) between relinquishing and adoptive owners' C-BARQ((S)) ratings for 3 behavioral traits: stranger-directed aggression (rs=0.494, P<0.001), chewing inappropriate objects (rs=0.402, P<0.01), and urination when left alone (rs=0.421, P<0.01). Overall, the findings confirmed the value of this type of shelter intake survey instrument for screening owner-surrendered dogs for the presence of behavior problems. PMID:25457136

  8. Interspecific Competition for Shelters in Territorial and Gregarious Intertidal Grazers: Consequences for Individual Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Moisés A.; Navarrete, Sergio A.

    2012-01-01

    Experiments have shown that interspecific interactions within consumer guilds can alter patterns of distribution, abundance and size of species. Plastic behavioural responses can be modulated by agonistic interactions. In many cases, consumers compete for space and shelters, and these interactions change the manner in which they exploit food. This study investigates the consequences of competition in the spatial and temporal organization of behaviour of intertidal grazers, which share algal resources and the use of rock crevices while resting, but exhibit different body sizes, spatial behaviour and foraging modes. We evaluate interaction strength between small gregarious Siphonaria lessoni and the larger territorial keyhole limpet Fissurella crassa and between S. lessoni and the medium-size gregarious chiton Chiton granosus. Using field manipulations and artificial arenas in the laboratory, we tested whether the use of crevices, micro-spatial distribution and activity are modified by the density of conspecifics and the presence of heterospecifics. Our results show that small-scale spatial segregation observed in the field between S. lessoni and C. granosus result from species-specific differences in habitat use. In turn, we found evidence that spatial segregation between F. crassa and S. lessoni results from highly asymmetric interference competition in the use of shelters. The presence of F. crassa reduced the use of crevices and growth rates of S. lessoni. Effects on growth rates are assumed to result from exposure to harsh environmental conditions rather than food limitation. Thus, neither gregarious behaviour nor differences in activity were sufficient to prevent competition with the larger grazer. Our study illustrates the importance of competition for shelters, which results in behavioural changes of the smaller-sized species, and how these plastic responses can translate into differences in growth rates. Use of shelters can thus be modulated by environmental

  9. Transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) among cohabiting cats in two cat rescue shelters.

    PubMed

    Litster, Annette L

    2014-08-01

    Conflicting accounts have been published in the veterinary literature regarding transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) between cohabiting cats in mixed households, and the mechanics of possible casual transmission, if it occurs, are poorly understood. Similarly, there are conflicting reports of vertical transmission of FIV. The aim of the present study was to document the FIV serological status of cats taken into two rescue shelters. At rescue shelter 1 (Rescue 1), cats cohabited in a multi-cat household of FIV-negative and naturally-infected, FIV-positive cats. A study was performed that combined a retrospective review of records of FIV serological status at intake (Test 1) and prospective FIV serological testing (Tests 2 and 3). Retrospective records were analyzed at rescue shelter 2 (Rescue 2), where FIV-positive queens with litters of nursing kittens were taken into the shelter, before being rehomed. FIV serology was performed on all kittens after weaning. Initial test results (Test 1) for 138 cohabiting cats from Rescue 1 showed that there were 130 FIV-negative cats and eight FIV-positive cats (six male neutered and two female spayed). A second test (Test 2), performed in 45 of the FIV-negative and five of the FIV-positive cats at median 28 months after Test 1 (range, 1 month to 8.8 years) showed that results were unchanged. Similarly, a third test (Test 3), performed in four of the original FeLV-negative cats and one remaining FIV-positive cat at median 38 months after Test 1 (range, 4 months to 4 years), also showed that results were unchanged. These results show a lack of evidence of FIV transmission, despite years of exposure to naturally-infected, FIV-positive cats in a mixed household. At Rescue 2, records were available from five FIV-positive queens with 19 kittens. All 19 kittens tested FIV-negative, suggesting that vertical transmission had not occurred. PMID:24698667

  10. Thermal performance trials on the habitability of private bushfire shelters: part 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Nigel A. S.; Haberley, Benjamin J.; Hoyle, David J. R.

    2015-08-01

    This communication is the first of two in which specifications for private bushfire shelters were evaluated during human trials. The purpose of this investigation (series 1) was to test the hypothesis that shelters capable of maintaining the internal environment at, or below, a modified discomfort index of 39 °C would prevent a deep-body temperature elevation of >2 °C. This was tested over 96 trials during which eight men and eight women were exposed at rest (60 min) to three regulated shelter conditions satisfying that standard: 40 °C and 70 % relative humidity, 45 °C and 50 % relative humidity and 50 °C and 30 % relative humidity. Subjects were tested twice in each condition following exercise- and heat-induced dehydration (2 % body mass reduction) and pre-heating to each of two deep-body thermal states (37.5 and 38.5 °C). Participants presented well rested and euhydrated, and pre-treatments successfully achieved the thermal and hydration targets prior to exposure. Auditory canal temperatures declined as exposures commenced, with subsequent rises of >0.5 °C not evident within any trial. However, each increment in air temperature elicited a significant elevation in the respective within-trial mean auditory canal temperature (37.4, 37.7 and 37.9 °C) and heart rate (103, 116 and 122 beats.min-1) when subjects were moderately hyperthermic (all P < 0.05). Nevertheless, on average, subjects successfully defended deep-body temperature at levels significantly below those associated with heat illness, and it was concluded that this thermal specification for bushfire shelters appeared adequate, providing the physical characteristics of the internal air remained stable.

  11. Tuberculosis outbreak associated with a homeless shelter - Kane County, Illinois, 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    2012-03-23

    Despite the overall decline in tuberculosis (TB) incidence in the United States to a record low, outbreaks of TB among homeless persons continue to challenge TB control efforts. In January 2010, public health officials recognized an outbreak of TB after three overnight guests at a homeless shelter in Illinois received diagnoses of TB disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates with matching genotype patterns. As of September 2011, a total of 28 outbreak-associated cases involving shelter guests, dating back to 2007, had been recognized, indicating ongoing M. tuberculosis transmission. The subsequent investigation found that all patients were homeless and had been overnight shelter guests. Excess alcohol use was common (82%), and two bars emerged as additional sites of potential transmission. Patients with outbreak-associated TB were treated successfully for TB disease. To prevent future cases of TB, public health officials are implementing a program to offer 12 once-weekly doses of isoniazid and rifapentine under direct observation for treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in this high-risk population. Although the United States has made progress toward TB elimination, this outbreak demonstrates the vulnerability of homeless persons to outbreaks of TB, highlighting the need for aggressive and sustained TB control efforts. PMID:22437912

  12. Faecal corticosterone levels of dogs relinquished to a shelter in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Uetake, K.; Uchida, H.; Ishihara, J.; Kushima, S.; Tanaka, T.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the baseline level of faecal corticosterone in dogs relinquished to a shelter and compared changes in it caused by social events that dogs experienced. Faecal corticosterone was measured to assess the average stress levels of dogs that depend on the actual conditions of the shelter. One category of subject animals was dogs relinquished by their owner or stray dogs who were penned in a group (group RG) or caged individually due to their incompatibility (group RI), and the other category was demonstration dogs kept for dog training classes (group DT) and petting activities held in welfare facilities for the elderly and in elementary schools (group DP). While the number of dogs that were included in groups RG and RI fluctuated almost daily, the demonstration dogs were kept together for three months. The average level of faecal corticosterone was significantly higher in group RG than in groups DT and DP. The level of group RI was also relatively high, but the difference from the other three groups was not statistically significant. Faecal corticosterone concentrations of groups DT and DP rose somewhat from the baseline levels on the day after social service activities. The results of this study reaffirm that temporarily relinquished and socially unstable dogs especially suffer a certain level of stress in a shelter. PMID:26457191

  13. Observed occurrence of Tritrichomonas foetus and other enteric parasites in Australian cattery and shelter cats.

    PubMed

    Bissett, Sally A; Stone, Maria L; Malik, Richard; Norris, Jacqueline M; O'Brien, Carolyn; Mansfield, Caroline S; Nicholls, Julia M; Griffin, Alison; Gookin, Jody L

    2009-10-01

    Cattery-housed pedigree cats, located mostly within the USA, have the highest reported prevalence of Tritrichomonas foetus (T foetus) to date. This prospective, multi-institutional, cross sectional study examines the occurrence of T foetus and other enteric parasites in cattery-housed and shelter cats within Australia, where T foetus has only recently been identified. Faecal specimens were collected from 134 cats, including 82 cattery-housed pedigree cats and 52 shelter cats. Faecal examinations performed for most cats included concentration techniques, Snap Giardia test, culture in InPouch medium, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of T foetus ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) genes using species-specific primers. Observed occurrence of T foetus, Giardia species, Isospora species and Toxascaris leonina for cattery-housed cats (and catteries) were 0%, 7.4 (13.8)%, 10.9 (22.6)% and 1.6 (3.2)%, respectively. Observed occurrence of T foetus, Giardia species, Isospora species and hookworms for shelter cats were 0%, 11.5%, 9.8% and 4.9%, respectively. These results suggest the prevalence of T foetus in cattery-housed cats is currently much lower in Australia than in the USA, while Isospora and Giardia species infections are common. PMID:19285895

  14. Intertidal coarse woody debris: A spatial subsidy as shelter or feeding habitat for gastropods?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storry, Kristin A.; Weldrick, Christine K.; Mews, Malte; Zimmer, Martin; Jelinski, Dennis E.

    2006-01-01

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) in the intertidal region of rocky shores serves as a potential source of nutrients as well as habitat or refugia from predation, ecologically linking the adjacent marine and terrestrial habitats. In a series of field and laboratory experiments, the affinity of slow-moving motile intertidal gastropods to CWD either as food source or as shelter that increases habitat complexity was tested. In intertidal pools, CWD did not increase colonization by Littorina spp., while it did so in supratidal pools. Habitat complexity, brought about by algal cover and barnacles, was apparently sufficient in intertidal pools without woody debris, while the increase in habitat complexity by CWD increased the attractiveness of supratidal pools with little natural complexity to Littorina spp. Overall, however, comparison of pools containing woody debris and those containing artificial shelter provided evidence for CWD, and/or its biofilm, serving as food source rather than refugium per se. Similarly, Tegula funebralis chose CWD as food source rather than as shelter as indicated by comparison of autoclaved and unmanipulated woody debris. Further, both unfed and fed snails from a site where CWD was present significantly preferred CWD over macroalgae. Among snails from a site without woody debris, fed individuals showed no preference, while unfed snails significantly preferred macroalgae. From this, experience appears to be a factor that mediates the role of CWD. Overall, however, CWD appears to provide supplementary food to snails in the inter- and supratidal zone.

  15. Should cities invest in sheltering-in-place measures against chlorine truck attacks by terrorists?

    PubMed

    Barrett, Anthony Michael; Casman, Elizabeth A

    2013-05-01

    After an intentional release of chlorine in an office district, public responses such as sheltering-in-place could save many lives if rapid enough. However, previous work does not estimate how fast and effective such responses would be for several possible investments in attack detection, public alert, and building ventilation, nor whether such measures would be cost effective. We estimate public response times with investment options in place, and resulting changes in fatalities as well as system costs, including false alarm costs, and cost effectiveness in terms of cost per net death avoided. The measures do have life-saving potential, especially if all response times are at or near the lower limits of the ranges assumed in this article. However, due to uncertainties, it is not clear that responses would be rapid enough to save many people. In some cases total fatalities would increase, since sheltering after chlorine vapor has already entered buildings can increase occupants' chlorine exposure. None of the options considered have median cost per statistical life saved meeting a cost-effectiveness threshold of $6.5 million across all of the chlorine exposure dose-response and ingress-delay models considered here, even if there were one attack per year in the area covered by the system. Given these and other issues discussed in this article, at this point investments to improve sheltering-in-place capability appear not to be robust strategies for reducing fatalities from chlorine attack in an office district. PMID:23137062

  16. A cluster of Rickettsia rickettsii infection at an animal shelter in an urban area of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rozental, T; Ferreira, M S; Gomes, R; Costa, C M; Barbosa, P R A; Bezerra, I O; Garcia, M H O; Oliveira E Cruz, D M; Galliez, R; Oliveira, S; Brasil, P; Rezende, T; De Lemos, E R S

    2015-08-01

    Rickettsia rickettsii infection is being increasingly recognized as an important cause of fatal acute illness in Brazil, where this tick-borne disease is designated Brazilian spotted fever (BSF). In this study we report five fatal cases of BSF in employees of an animal shelter in an urban area in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro in southeast Brazil after a natural disaster on 11 January 2011. Four of the cases occurred from 27 January to 11 April 2011, while the fifth fatal case was identified in April 2012. Three cases were confirmed by molecular analysis and two by epidemiological linkage. An investigation of BSF was performed in the animal shelter, and blood samples were collected from 115 employees and 117 randomly selected dogs. The presence of high levels (1024-4096) of antibodies against spotted fever group rickettsiae was found in three (2·6%) employees and 114 (97·5%) dogs. These findings emphasize the need to consider BSF as a possible cause of undifferentiated febrile illness, especially dengue and leptospirosis, in patients occupationally exposed to dogs heavily infested by ticks, mainly working at kennels and animal shelters that have inadequate space for the animals housed and frequently providing an environment conducive to exposure to pathogens such as R. rickettsii. PMID:25483025

  17. Development of Logistics for Building Radiation Storm Shelters and Their Operational Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerro, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past three years NASA has been studying the operational effectiveness and astronaut protection efficacy of numerous radiation protection shelters for use in space exploration activities outside of earth's magnetosphere. The work presented was part of NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) RadWorks Storm Shelter project. This paper is a summary of the concept development activities of this third year. Fabricated items were integrated into mock up deep space habitat vehicle sections for operational evaluations. Two full scale human-in-loop simulations were designed, fabricated, and implemented through an Institutional Review Board approved solicited participant assessment process. Fabricated items are described, along with usage scenarios of two protection approaches. Existing ISS type logistics along with proposed variations of those logistics were used. Preliminary Discrete Event Simulation (DES) work is noted to be useful in quantifying and documenting operational performance measures for the two primary shelter methods, including some characterization of radiation dose accumulation over a mission timeline. The project also performed correlation analyses between effective radiation dose and the Risk of Exposure Induced Death (REID) to show that concept level work may be able to include such a performance metric in early stages of mission scenario habitat design trade space investigation.

  18. Use of chemical explosives for emergency solar flare shelter construction and other excavations on the Martian surface

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, R.D.; Blacic, J.D.; Pettitt, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    The necessity to shelter people on the Martian surface from solar flare particles at short notice and the need for long-term habitats with thick cosmic ray shielding suggests that explosives could be used effectively for excavation of such structures. Modern insensitive high explosives are safe, efficient, and reliable for rock breakage and excavation. Extensive Earth-bound experience leads us to propose several strategies for explosively-constructed shelters based on tunneling, cratering, and rock casting techniques.

  19. Estimates of fallout from Nevada weapons testing in the western United States based on gummed-film monitoring data

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, H.L.

    1984-10-01

    Estimates of /sup 137/Cs depositions from Nevada atmospheric nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site are presented for 25 sites in Nevada, Utah, California, Arizona, New Mexico, Idaho, Colorado, and Wyoming. These estimates are based primarily on a reappraisal of total beta deposition measured with gummed-film directly after the tests. Maps of the estimated /sup 137/Cs deposition at the gummed-film and other sites in the study region are presented to indicate the approximate fallout pattern for each test. The data presented provide reasonable estimates of the relative fallout at a given site from test to test, as well as the relative fallout from site to site for a given test. Absolute deposition estimates, although less certain, are nevertheless in excellent agreement with estimates from other sources. The data are intended for use in documenting which Nevada Test Site shots produced the observed fallout in a given area, thus allowing more accurate population dose estimates to be made from the results of an ongoing program of retrospective soil analyses. The data also provide valuable benchmarks for verifying meteorological model predictions of nuclear debris transport and deposition from individual tests, as well as an additional independent source of information on the general pattern and intensity of Nevada Test Site fallout in the western US. 43 references, 5 figures, 9 tables.

  20. A review of aerial radiological surveys of Nevada Test Site fallout fields 1951 through 1970

    SciTech Connect

    1987-12-01

    Aerial surveys of offsite fallout radiation fields from the Nevada Test Site began in the early 1950s and continued throughout the above-ground testing period. The results of the aerial surveys were used to support ground data in determining the extent of the fallout patterns. For the series of tests conducted in 1953 and 1955, the primary uncertainty of the results was knowing the location of the aircraft. Navigation was made from aeronautical charts of a scale 1:1,000,000, and errors in location of several miles were experienced. Another problem was that exposure rate readings made in the aircraft of 1 milliroentgen per hour or lower were not reliable. Exposure rate measurements above 1 milliroentgen per hour were more accurate, however, and are considered reliable to within a factor of two or three in predicting 3-foot exposure rate levels. For the 1957 series, the aircraft position data were quite accurate. Ground-level exposure rates predicted from aerial data obtained by the United States Geological Survey aircraft for the five-detector array were considered reliable to within +-40% or better for most of the surveys. When the single detector was used, the accuracy decreased to about a factor of two. Relative count rates obtained by the aircraft operated by the Atomic Energy Commission, Raw Materials Division, are probably valid, but quantitative determination of 3-foot exposure rates are not. The Aerial Radiological Monitoring System performed all the aerial surveys in the 1960s. However, the air-to-ground conversion factors used were too low. Using a corrected conversion factor, the predicted 3-foot exposure rates should be valid to +-40% in most fallout fields if all other parameters are considered. 40 refs., 30 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. European roe deer antlers as an environmental archive for fallout (236)U and (239)Pu.

    PubMed

    Froehlich, M B; Steier, P; Wallner, G; Fifield, L K

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic (236)U and (239)Pu were measured in European roe deer antlers hunted between 1955 and 1977 which covers and extends beyond the period of intensive nuclear weapons testing (1954-1962). The antlers were hunting trophies, and hence the hunting area, the year of shooting and the approximate age of each animal is given. Uranium and plutonium are known to deposit in skeletal tissue. Since antler histology is similar to bone, both elements were expected in antlers. Furthermore, roe deer shed their antlers annually, and hence antlers may provide a time-resolved environmental archive for fallout radionuclides. The radiochemical procedure is based on a Pu separation step by anion exchange (Dowex 1 × 8) and a subsequent U purification by extraction chromatography using UTEVA(®). The samples were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at the VERA facility (University of Vienna). In addition to the (236)U and (239)Pu concentrations, the (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotopic ratios were determined with a mean value of 0.172 ± 0.023 which is in agreement with the ratio of global fallout (∼0.18). Rather high (236)U/(238)U ratios of the order of 10(-6) were observed. These measured ratios, where the (236)U arises only from global fallout, have implications for the use of the (236)U/(238)U ratio as a fingerprint for nuclear accidents or releases from nuclear facilities. Our investigations have shown the potential to use antlers as a temporally resolved archive for the uptake of actinides from the environment. PMID:26119579

  2. Unexpected hazards from tephra fallouts at Mt Etna: The 23 November 2013 lava fountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronico, Daniele; Scollo, Simona; Cristaldi, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Hundreds of paroxysmal episodes and a few long-lasting ash-emissions eruptions make Mt. Etna, in Italy, one of the most productive basaltic volcanoes in the world over recent years. This frequent explosive activity certainly gives volcanologists plenty of stimulating scientific material for study. Volcanic hazard from tephra fallout associated with lava fountains is still an issue that has not been fully assessed, albeit having to face this scenario several times in 2013. The 23 November 2013 lava fountain was exceptionally intense despite the short duration of the paroxysmal phase (< 1 h). Abundant decimetric-sized bombs fell within the first 5-6 km from the vent, and a macroscopically thicker and coarser tephra deposit than usual formed between 5 and 25 km; in addition, ash was reported to fall up to distances of 400 km. The analysis of fallout deposit provided a total erupted mass of 1.3 ± 1.1 × 109 kg (for a mass eruption rate of 4.5 ± 3.6 × 105 kg/s), in agreement with the value of 2.4 × 109 kg estimated by modeling. Grain-size distribution of samples shows poor sorting at least up to 25 km from the vent. By comparing dispersal, sedimentological features and physical parameters of the fallout deposit with other lava fountains of Etna, the 23 November 2013 episode may well be one of the largest events of the 21st Century in terms of eruption column height, total erupted mass and mass eruption rate. Furthermore, the impact of tephra on the territory was so high as to make it opportune to introduce a distinction, within the class of lava fountains, between small- and large-scale episodes. This classification can be a starting point for hazard assessment and help prevent the hazards from large-scale lava fountains at Etna in the future.

  3. Estimation of the Adriatic Sea water turnover time using fallout 90Sr as a radioactive tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franić, Zdenko

    2005-08-01

    Systematic, long-term measurements, starting in 1963, of 90Sr activity concentrations in sea water have been performed at four locations (cities of Rovinj, Rijeka, Split and Dubrovnik) along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea. In addition, fallout samples were collected in the city of Zadar. 90Sr activity concentrations are in good correlation with the fallout activity, the coefficient of correlation being 0.72. After the nuclear moratorium on atmospheric nuclear bomb tests in 1960s, 90Sr activity concentrations in sea water exponentially dropped from 14.8 ± 2.4 Bq m -3 in 1963 to 2.0 ± 0.3 Bq m -3 in 2003. In the same period, the total annual 90Sr land surface deposit in Zadar fell by three orders of magnitude, from 713.3 Bq m -2 in 1963 to 0.4 Bq m -2 in 2003. Using strontium sea water and fallout data, a mathematical model was developed to describe the rate of change of 90Sr activity concentrations in the Adriatic Sea water and estimate its mean residence time in the Adriatic. By fitting the experimental data to a theoretically predicted curve, the mean residence time of 90Sr in the Adriatic Sea water was estimated to be approximately 3.4 ± 0.4 years, standard deviation being calculated by Monte Carlo simulations. As in physical oceanography 90Sr can be used as effective radioactive tracer of water mass transport, this value also reflects the upper limit for turnover time of the Adriatic Sea water. The turnover time of 3.4 years for the Adriatic Sea water is in reasonable agreement with the value which was estimated, by studying water flows through the Strait of Otranto, to be on the order of 1 year.

  4. Gamma-ray thermoluminescence measurements: a record of fallout deposition in Hiroshima?

    PubMed

    Egbert, Stephen D; Kerr, George D

    2012-05-01

    In certain Hiroshima neighborhoods, radiation measurements using thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) exceed what can be explained by the initial gamma-ray doses and uncertainties from the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02). This problem was not previously recognized as being isolated to certain parts of that city. The ratio between TLD measurements and DS02 dose calculations for gamma rays appear to grow larger than unity up to more than three with increasing ground range, but closer examination shows the excess TLD dose (0.1, 0.2, or possibly up to 0.8 Gray) is correlated with certain neighborhoods and could be due to radioactive fallout. At Nagasaki, the TLD measurements do not show this same excess, probably because there were no TLD measurements taken more than 800 m downwind (eastward) from the Nagasaki hypocenter, so that any small excess TLD dose was masked by larger initial gamma-ray doses of 25-80 Gray in the few downwind samples. The DS02 Report had noted many measurements lower than the DS02 calculation for several Nagasaki TLD samples, independent of ground range. This was explained as being the result of previously unaccounted urban shielding which was observed from Nagasaki pre-bomb aerial photos. However, the Hiroshima excess TLD dose issue was not resolved. If the excess TLD doses at Hiroshima are an indication of fallout, it may be possible to use additional TLD studies to make better estimates of the locations and radiation doses to survivors from the fallout after the bombings at both cities. PMID:22421931

  5. Transfer of 137Cs from Chernobyl debris and nuclear weapons fallout to different Swedish population groups.

    PubMed

    Rääf, C L; Hubbard, L; Falk, R; Agren, G; Vesanen, R

    2006-08-15

    Data from measurements on the body burden of (134)Cs, (137)Cs and (40)K in various Swedish populations between 1959 and 2001 has been compiled into a national database. The compilation is a co-operation between the Departments of Radiation Physics in Malmö and Göteborg, the National Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) and the Swedish Defense Research Agency (FOI). In a previous study the effective ecological half time and the associated effective dose to various Swedish populations due to internal contamination of (134)Cs and (137)Cs have been assessed using the database. In this study values of human body burden have been combined with data on the local and regional ground deposition of fallout from nuclear weapons tests (only (137)Cs) and Chernobyl debris (both (134)Cs and (137)Cs), which have enabled estimates of the radioecological transfer in the studied populations. The assessment of the database shows that the transfer of radiocesium from Chernobyl fallout to humans varies considerably between various populations in Sweden. In terms of committed effective dose over a 70 y period from internal contamination per unit activity deposition, the general (predominantly urban) Swedish population obtains 20-30 microSv/kBq m(-2). Four categories of populations exhibit higher radioecological transfer than the general population; i.) reindeer herders ( approximately 700 microSv/kBq m(-2)), ii.) hunters in the counties dominated by forest vegetation ( approximately 100 microSv/kBq m(-2)), iii.) rural non-farming populations living in sub-arctic areas (40-150 microSv/kBq m(-2)), and iv.) farmers ( approximately 50 microSv/kBq m(-2)). Two important factors determine the aggregate transfer from ground deposition to man; i.) dietary habits (intakes of foodstuff originating from natural and semi-natural ecosystems), and ii.) inclination to follow the recommended food restriction by the authorities. The transfer to the general population is considerably lower

  6. Toxoplasma antibodies and retinochoroiditis in the Marshall Islands and their association with exposure to radioactive fallout

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.H.; Kindermann, W.R.; Walls, K.W.; Heotis, P.M.

    1987-03-01

    Nearly universal serologic evidence of Toxoplasma gondii infection was found to have occurred by adulthood in 517 Marshallese tested in 1981-1982. The prevalence and incidence of retinal lesions compatible with toxoplasmosis were 3.9% and 273 cases/year/100,000 seropositive persons, respectively, thus indicating a significant public health problem. Seronegativity was significantly more common in a subgroup of Marshallese that had received 110-190 rads of total-body gamma radiation as a consequence of accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. Despite this finding there was no evidence of an increase in clinically significant lesions in exposed persons.

  7. The medical effects of radioactive fall-out: role of stable end-products?

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, B. A.; Cardarelli, J. C.; Boling, E. A.; Sinex, F. M.

    1981-01-01

    To summarize, from preliminary observations on the possible effects of radioactive fall-out, it may be inferred that in addition to the secondary products of ionizing irradiation per se, the stable end-products of the transmutation of certain radionuclides may adversely influence cellular metabolism, including mutagenesis. The discussion of the possible role of intracellular barium as an end-product of 137Cs decay is offered as an example of an unpredictable number of broad ecological, as well as the more limited medical, effects that may be of both clinical and climatological significance. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7281411

  8. Effectiveness of common shelter-in-place techniques in reducing ammonia exposure following accidental release.

    PubMed

    Tarkington, Brett; Harris, Angela J; Barton, Paul S; Chandler, Ben; Goad, Phillip T

    2009-04-01

    Shelter-in-place strategies such as remaining indoors; breathing through a damp cloth; sealing cracks in windows and doors using towels, duct tape, or plastic sheeting; and running a shower are often recommended by emergency response officials to protect against accidental or intentional release of hazardous airborne chemicals and biologicals. Similar recommendations have been made to and used by community members exposed to anhydrous ammonia after catastrophic release of ammonia gas due to a derailment or other accidents. Such incidents have resulted in fatalities and serious injury to exposed individuals; however, other individuals within the same area have escaped injury and, in many cases, sustained no injuries as a result of sheltering-in-place. Although there are some studies that have evaluated the effectiveness of remaining in the home or breathing through a damp cloth to reduce exposure to various agents, there have been no studies that directly address the efficacy of running the shower in reducing exposure to ammonia gas. The present study was designed to simulate sheltering-in-place inside a typical bathroom with the shower running. The effectiveness of breathing through a damp cloth was also evaluated using a CPR mannequin placed inside a chamber built to represent a typical household bathroom. Ammonia gas at 300 or 1000 ppm was added to the chamber until the concentration peaked and stabilized, then the shower was turned on and the ammonia gas concentration was continuously monitored. In the mannequin studies, using a damp cloth reduced exposure to ammonia gas by 2- to 18-fold. Turning on the shower was even more effective at reducing ammonia levels. After 27 min, the ammonia concentration in the chamber was reduced to 2% of the initial concentration, even though gas was being continuously added to the chamber. These results indicate that use of shelter-in-place strategies substantially reduces ammonia exposure and that by combining shelter

  9. Fluoride distribution and biological availability in the fallout from Mount St. Helens, 18 to 21 May 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Taves, D.R.

    1980-12-19

    Concentrations of fluoride in the ash fallout in central Washington from the 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens varied severalfold, but none are high enough to constitute any immediate hazard to animal life. The heaviest fallout (Moses Lake) contained 113 parts per million (ppm) of acid-labile fluoride, but of this only 11 ppm was water-soluble and 20 ppm was available to rats. The fluoride concentrations in the urine of cattle feeding for 4 days on hay contaminated with this ash were essentially normal. Samples of ash from other areas generally had higher concentrations of acid-labile fluoride but lower concentrations of water-soluble fluoride. The concentrations of water-soluble fluoride was inversely correlated with the coarseness of the fallout. 8 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  10. A numerical model for the analysis and evaluation of global 137Cs fallout.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Y; Morisawa, S; Inoue, Y

    1996-02-01

    Fallout 137Cs from atmospheric nuclear detonation tests has been monitored worldwide since the late 1950's. The deviation and the correlation among these monitoring data were analyzed, and their surface deposition characteristics were estimated by the compartment model developed in this research. In the analysis, the scale of space (i.e., size of each compartment) and the degree of detail (i.e., number of compartments) were statistically determined using the global distribution data of 137Cs. The mathematical model was evaluated by comparing the numerically stimulated results with the fallout monitoring data including the 137Cs concentration in sea water. The major findings obtained in this research include that the deposition pattern of 137Cs is dependent on the latitude zone but not on the longitude, the mathematical model is promising for evaluating the dynamic performance of 137Cs in global atmospheric environment and its surface deposition, 137Cs is accumulated more in both the surface and deep ocean water of the North Pacific Ocean and the North Atlantic Ocean than that of other oceans, the 137Cs inventory is decreasing after the peak time in 1965, and the 137Cs inventory in the deep ocean water is decreasing more slowly than that in the surface ocean water. PMID:8567283

  11. A numerical model for the analysis and evaluation of global {sup 137}Cs fallout

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, Y.; Morisawa, S.; Inoue, Y.

    1996-02-01

    Fallout {sup 137}Cs from atmospheric nuclear detonation test have been monitored worldwide since the late 1950`s. The deviation and the correlation among these monitoring data were analyzed, and their surface deposition characteristics were estimated by the compartment model developed in this research. In the analysis, the scale of space (i.e., size of each compartment) and the degree of detail (i.e., number of compartments) were statistically determined using the global distribution data of {sup 137}Cs. The mathematical model was evaluated by comparing the numerically simulated results with the fallout monitoring data including the {sup 137}Cs concentration in sea water. The major findings obtained in this research include that the deposition pattern of {sup 137}Cs is dependent on the latitude zone but not on the longitude, the mathematical model is promising for evaluating the dynamic performance of {sup 137}Cs in global atmospheric environment and its surface deposition, {sup 137}Cs is accumulated more in both the surface and deep ocean water of the North Pacific Ocean and the North Atlantic ocean than that of other oceans, the {sup 137}Cs inventory is decreasing after the peak time in 1965, and the {sup 137}Cs inventory in the deep ocean water is decreasing more slowly than that in the surface ocean water. 26 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1980-December 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.H.; Harper, J.A.; Rittmaster, R.S.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    This report updates, for 1980 through 1982, the results of continuing medical surveillance of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout in March 1954. The originally exposed Marshallese population comprised 64 persons on Rongelap Atoll who each received, on the average, an estimated 190 rads of absorbed external gamma radiation, 18 on Ailingnae Atoll who received 110 rads, and 159 on Utirik who received 11 rads. There were, in addition, 3 persons in utero on Rongelap, 1 person in utero on Ailingnae, and 8 persons in utero on Utirik who are considered exposed. The recipients of primary medical care include exposed and comparison populations as well as a rather large number of additional beneficiaries who are seen on a humanitarian basis of practical need and resource availability. In recent years, about 1400 people have been seen annually. This report, however, deals with four clearly defined groups: the remaining individuals who were exposed to radioactive fallout on Rongelap, Ailingnae, and Utirik in 1954 (including those in utero), and a comparison population of individuals from Rongelap who were unexposed. The number of persons now in each exposure category are 51, 12, 116, and 137, respectively. 100 references, 4 figures, 5 tables. (ACR)

  13. Self-shielding of fallout gamma rays by terrain roughness. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Herte, M.S.

    1991-02-28

    The study presents a first order calculation of the self-shielding of nuclear weapon fission fragment gamma rays by surface roughness (microscopic terrain irregularities). To simulate fallout particles, polymer microspheres were deposited on slides containing samples of soil, concrete and asphalt roofing shingles. Scanning electron microscopy was used to photographically map the surfaces. The thickness of surface irregularities at various angles was measured by converting the photographs to digital images. Measurements showed a dependence upon the surface type, but not upon particle size. Average values of the measurements were modelled using a homogeneous buried source. With this geometry, dose rates were calculated using the Monte Carlo transport code, MORSE. The MORSE calculations showed self-shielding due to roughness of not more than five percent for the soil samples and eight percent for the shingles. The 30 percent self-shielding used in The Effects of Nuclear Weapons for level terrain is six times as great. It is postulated the large attenuation formerly attributed to roughness may actually be an artifact of an incorrect global/local fallout partition.

  14. Ultrasound-Detected Thyroid Nodule Prevalence and Radiation Dose from Fallout

    PubMed Central

    Land, C. E.; Zhumadilov, Z.; Gusev, B. I.; Hartshorne, M. H.; Wiest, P. W.; Woodward, P. W.; Crooks, L. A.; Luckyanov, N. K.; Fillmore, C. M.; Carr, Z.; Abisheva, G.; Beck, H. L.; Bouville, A.; Langer, J.; Weinstock, R.; Gordeev, K. I.; Shinkarev, S.; Simon, S. L.

    2014-01-01

    Settlements near the Semipalatinsk Test Site (SNTS) in northeastern Kazakhstan were exposed to radioactive fallout during 1949–1962. Thyroid disease prevalence among 2994 residents of eight villages was ascertained by ultrasound screening. Malignancy was determined by cytopathology. Individual thyroid doses from external and internal radiation sources were reconstructed from fallout deposition patterns, residential histories and diet, including childhood milk consumption. Point estimates of individual external and internal dose averaged 0.04 Gy (range 0–0.65) and 0.31 Gy (0–9.6), respectively, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.46. Ultrasound-detected thyroid nodule prevalence was 18% and 39% among males and females, respectively. It was significantly and independently associated with both external and internal dose, the main study finding. The estimated relative biological effectiveness of internal compared to external radiation dose was 0.33, with 95% confidence bounds of 0.09–3.11. Prevalence of papillary cancer was 0.9% and was not significantly associated with radiation dose. In terms of excess relative risk per unit dose, our dose–response findings for nodule prevalence are comparable to those from populations exposed to medical X rays and to acute radiation from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings. PMID:18363427

  15. Fallout beryllium-7 as a soil and sediment tracer in river basins: current status and needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Alex; Blake, Will H.; Smith, Hugh G.; Mabit, Lionel; Keith-Roach, Miranda J.

    2013-04-01

    Beryllium-7 is a cosmogenic radionuclide formed in the upper atmosphere by cosmic ray spallation of nitrogen and oxygen. Its constant natural production and fallout via precipitation coupled with its ability to bind to soil particles have underpinned its application as a sediment tracer. The short half-life of beryllium-7 (53.3 days) lends itself to tracing sediment dynamics over short time periods, thus, enabling assessment of the effect of land use change upon soil redistribution. Although beryllium-7 has been widely applied as a tracer to date, there remain crucial gaps in understanding relating to the assumptions for its use. To further support the application of beryllium-7 as a tracer across a range of environments requires consideration of both the current strengths and shortcomings of the technique to direct research needs. Here we review research surrounding the assumptions underpinning beryllium-7 use as a tracer and identify key knowledge gaps relating to i) the effects of rain shadowing and vegetation interception upon beryllium-7 fallout uniformity at the hillslope-scale; ii) the effect of preferential flow pathways upon beryllium-7 depth distribution in soil and overland flow upon beryllium-7 inventory uniformity and iii) the potential for beryllium-7 desorption in saline and reducing environments. To provide continued support for the use of beryllium-7 as a hillslope and catchment-scale tracer, there is an urgent need to undertake further research to quantify the effect of these factors upon tracer estimates.

  16. Estimation of dose to human tissues from ingestion of foods exposed to fallout from nuclear weapons tests in Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Whicker, F.W. ); Kirchner, T.B. . Natural Resources Ecology Lab.)

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of the methodology developed to estimate the transport of radionuclides through agricultural ecosystems to persons of various ages, lifestyles, and geographic locations. The methodology, embodied in the computer code PATHWAY, was used to convert estimates of fallout deposition to time-dependent concentrations of radionuclides in food products, total intakes by people, and organ-specific doses from 21 radionuclides in fallout from 86 nuclear test events. A summary of model prediction uncertainties, an assessment of predictive accuracy, and a discussion of the relative importance of different exposure pathways is also provided. 14 refs.

  17. Risk Factors for Dog Relinquishment to a Los Angeles Municipal Animal Shelter

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Emily D.; Scotto, Jamie; Slater, Margaret; Weiss, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Low income has been reported to be a risk factor for dog relinquishment to shelters in the U.S. The majority of people with lower incomes, however, do not relinquish. Risk factors for relinquishment in a low socioeconomic region of Los Angeles were examined. Cost was associated with relinquishment, and most people were not aware of available assistance. Those who relinquished reported emotional attachment to the dog and higher perceived stress than a comparison group. The majority of reasons for relinquishment were likely solvable with assistance, highlighting an opportunity to provide community-specific alternatives to relinquishment. Abstract Dog relinquishment is a large component of shelter intake in the United States. Research has shown traits of the dog are associated with relinquishment as well as general characteristics of those relinquishing. Low income is often cited as a risk factor for relinquishment. The majority of people with lower incomes, however, do not relinquish. A group of people accessing a shelter in a low socioeconomic region of Los Angeles to relinquish their dogs was surveyed. This study examined risk factors for relinquishment, controlling for household income, compared to a group utilizing low cost spay/neuter services. A total of 76.9% of those relinquishing noted cost as a reason for relinquishment. Of participants in the relinquishment group, 80.7% reported not being aware of any services available to them. Most notable in the findings was that the odds of relinquishment were generally higher as the amount of perceived stress in the home in the past three months increased. The majority of people in both groups reported being emotionally attached to the dog. In this sample from a South Los Angeles community, the majority of reasons for relinquishment were likely solvable with assistance. These findings highlight an opportunity to assess community needs and provide community specific alternatives to relinquishment. PMID

  18. Changes in the acoustic environment alter the foraging and sheltering behaviour of the cichlid Amititlania nigrofasciata.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Kirsty Elizabeth; Kunc, Hansjoerg P

    2015-07-01

    Anthropogenic noise can affect behaviour across a wide range of species in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. However, behaviours might not be affected in isolation. Therefore, a more holistic approach investigating how environmental stressors, such as noise pollution, affect different behaviours in concert is necessary. Using tank-based noise exposure experiments, we tested how changes in the acoustic environment affect the behaviour of the cichlid Amatitlania nigrofasciata. We found that exposure to anthropogenic noise affected a couple of behaviours: an increase in sheltering was accompanied by a decrease in foraging. Our results highlight the multiple negative effects of an environmental stressor on an individual's behaviour. PMID:25937344

  19. Acceptance of HIV Antibody Testing Among Women in Domestic Violence Shelters

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliff, Tanya M.; Zlotnick, Caron; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Payne, Nanetta; Sly, Kaye; Flanigan, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine which factors derived from an adapted version of the Health Belief Model are associated with HIV testing among women at domestic violence shelters in the rural south (N = 112). Participants were administered self-report questionnaires to assess for test acceptance and were offered private and free HIV rapid testing. A logistic regression analysis was performed. Results indicated that higher perceived susceptibility and higher PTSD symptoms predicted a greater likelihood of HIV test acceptance. The most common reason given for not testing was a lack of time. Implications are discussed. PMID:26085820

  20. AmeriFlux US-SuS Maui Sugarcane Lee/Sheltered

    DOE Data Explorer

    Anderson, Ray [USDA-Agricultural Research Service, United States Salinity Laboratory, Contaminant Fate and Transport Unit; Wang, Dong [USDA - Agricultural Research Service, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, Water Management Research Unit

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-SuS Maui Sugarcane Lee/Sheltered. Site Description - Continuous, irrigated, sugarcane cultivation for >100 years. Practice is to grow plant sugarcane for 2 years, drydown, burn leaves, harvest cane, and then till and replant very shortly after harvest. First cycle of observations were from July 2011 to November 2012. Second cycle was from April 2013 to December 2013. Site differs from Sugarcane Windy and Sugarcane Middle in soil type and meteorology.