Science.gov

Sample records for 100-mm focal length

  1. Continuously variable focal length lens

    DOEpatents

    Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

    2013-12-17

    A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

  2. Variable focal length deformable mirror

    DOEpatents

    Headley, Daniel; Ramsey, Marc; Schwarz, Jens

    2007-06-12

    A variable focal length deformable mirror has an inner ring and an outer ring that simply support and push axially on opposite sides of a mirror plate. The resulting variable clamping force deforms the mirror plate to provide a parabolic mirror shape. The rings are parallel planar sections of a single paraboloid and can provide an on-axis focus, if the rings are circular, or an off-axis focus, if the rings are elliptical. The focal length of the deformable mirror can be varied by changing the variable clamping force. The deformable mirror can generally be used in any application requiring the focusing or defocusing of light, including with both coherent and incoherent light sources.

  3. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, David Lynn

    2011-08-01

    One embodiment of sighting optics according to the teachings provided herein may include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus, for a user, images of the front sight and the target.

  4. Crystal diffraction lens with variable focal length

    DOEpatents

    Smither, Robert K.

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus for altering the focal length of a focusing element o one of a plurality of pre-determined focal lengths by changing heat transfer within selected portions of the element by controlled quantities. Control over heat transfer is accomplished by manipulating one or more of a number of variables, including: the amount of heat or cold applied to surfaces; type of fluids pumped through channels for heating and cooling; temperatures, directions of flow and rates of flow of fluids; and placement of channels.

  5. Crystal diffraction lens with variable focal length

    DOEpatents

    Smither, R.K.

    1991-04-02

    A method and apparatus for altering the focal length of a focusing element of one of a plurality of pre-determined focal lengths by changing heat transfer within selected portions of the element by controlled quantities is disclosed. Control over heat transfer is accomplished by manipulating one or more of a number of variables, including: the amount of heat or cold applied to surfaces; type of fluids pumped through channels for heating and cooling; temperatures, directions of flow and rates of flow of fluids; and placement of channels. 19 figures.

  6. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images.

    PubMed

    Třebický, Vít; Fialová, Jitka; Kleisner, Karel; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject's facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm) affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males) participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males). Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM). Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits.

  7. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length and methods for sighting

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, David Lynn

    2011-08-16

    Sighting optics include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in a spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus for a user images of the front sight and the target.

  8. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images.

    PubMed

    Třebický, Vít; Fialová, Jitka; Kleisner, Karel; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject's facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm) affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males) participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males). Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM). Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits. PMID:26894832

  9. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images

    PubMed Central

    Třebický, Vít; Fialová, Jitka; Kleisner, Karel; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject’s facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm) affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males) participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males). Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM). Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits. PMID:26894832

  10. Microlenses with focal length controlled by chemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muric, B. D.; Panic, B. M.

    2012-05-01

    The influence of chemical processing on the optical properties of microlenses formed on a gelatin-sensitized layer was investigated. The gelatin is sensitized with tot'hema and eosin, irradiated with a Gaussian profile laser beam and subsequently chemically processed. Microlenses with a focal length of 400 μm were obtained after alcohol processing. Additionally, focal lengths could be controlled by varying the alum concentration, and lenses with focal length up to 1.2 mm were obtained. The microlenses become stable after alum processing. Their optical properties remain unchanged.

  11. Design and fabrication of long focal length microlens arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Hsin-Ta; Lin, Vinna; Hsieh, Jo-Lan; Su, Guo-Dung John

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we present microlens arrays (MLA) with long focal length (in millimeter range) based on thermal reflow process. The focal length of microlens is usually in the same order of lens diameter or several hundred microns. To extend focal length, we made a photoresist (SU-8) MLA covered by a Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film on a glass substrate. Because the refractive index difference between PDMS and photoresist interface is lower than that of air and MLA interface, light is less bended when passing through MLA and is focused at longer distance. Microlenses of diameters from 50 μm to 240 μm were successfully fabricated. The longest focal length was 2.1 mm from the microlens of 240 μm diameter. The numerical aperture (NA) was reduced 0.06, which is much lower than the smallest NA (~ 0.15) by regular thermal reflow processes. Cured PDMS has high transmittance and becomes parts of MLA without too much optical power loss. Besides, other focal lengths can be realized by modifying the refractive index different between two adjacent materials as described in this paper.

  12. Long Focal Length Large Mirror Fabrication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, H. E.

    2003-01-01

    The goals of this ambitious program are (1) to develop systems to make large superpolished optical mirrors, (2) to develop low scatter polishing techniques using centrifugal elutriation, (3) to develop a means of measuring scatter at any point on the mirror, (4) to polish a Hindle sphere to measure the optical figure of a one meter diameter convex mandrel, and (5) to fabricate low scatter, large adaptive optic graphite filled, cyanate ester replica transfer mirrors using these mandrels. Deliverables are a 30 cm diameter superpolished composite AO mirror. We fabricated a 1/3rd meter superpolished zerodur flat mandrel and with the support of our major subcontractor, Composite Mirror Applications Inc (CMA) we have demonstrated a 30 cm lightweight cyanate ester mirror with an rms microroughness between 0.6 and 0.8 nm and 8 faceplate influence function of 5 cm. The influence function was chosen to be comparable to the atmospheric correlation coefficient r(sub 0) which is about 5 cm at sea level. There was no print-thru of the graphite fibers in the cyanate ester surface (the bane of many previous efforts to use cyanate ester mirrors). Our subcontractor has devised a means for developing a 30-50 nm thick layer of graphite free pure ester resin on the surface of the mirrors. This graphite fiber filled material has a thermal expansion coefficient in the 10(exp -8) centimeter per Kelvin range (the same range of expansion coefficient as Zerodur and ULE glasses) and does not take up water and swell, so it is a nearly ideal mirror material in these areas. Unfortunately for these 0.8mm thick faceplates, the number of plies is not enough to result in isometric coverage. Isolated figure irregularities can appear, making it necessary to go to thicker faceplates. The influence function will then only approximate the length of r(sub 0), at higher altitudes or longer wavelengths. The influence function goes as the cube of the thickness, so we are now making a faceplate optimized for

  13. Design of a variable-focal-length optical system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricks, D.; Shannon, R. R.

    1984-01-01

    Requirements to place an entire optical system with a variable focal length ranging from 20 to 200 cm within a overall length somewhat less than 100 cm placed severe restrictions on the design of a zoom lens suitable for use on a comet explorer. The requirements of a wavelength range of 0.4 to 1.0 microns produced even greater limitations on the possibilities for a design that included a catadioptric (using mirrors and glass) front and followed by a zooming refractive portion. Capabilities available commercial zoom lenses as well as patents of optical systems are reviewed. Preliminary designs of the refractive optics zoom lens and the catadioptric system are presented and evaluated. Of the two, the latter probably has the best chance of success, so long as the shortest focal lengths are not really needed.

  14. Alignment techniques required by precise measurement of effective focal length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, T. D.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics of false color imagery produced by instrumentation on earth resource mapping satellites are examined. The spatial fidelity of the imagery is dependent upon the geometric accuracy (GA) and the band-to-band registration (BBR) with which the telescope instrument is assembled. BBR and GA require knowledge of telescope effective focal length (EFL) to one part in 10,000 in order that the next generation of earth mappers be able to carry out their missions. The basis for this level of precision is briefly considered, and a description is given of the means by which such precise EFL measurements have been carried out. Attention is given to accuracy requirements, the technique used to measure effective focal length, possible sources of error in the EFL measurement, approaches for eliminating errors, and the results of the efforts to control measurement errors in EFL determinations.

  15. Optofluidic lens with tunable focal length and asphericity

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Kartikeya; Murade, Chandrashekhar; Carreel, Bruno; Roghair, Ivo; Oh, Jung Min; Manukyan, Gor; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive micro-lenses enable the design of very compact optical systems with tunable imaging properties. Conventional adaptive micro-lenses suffer from substantial spherical aberration that compromises the optical performance of the system. Here, we introduce a novel concept of liquid micro-lenses with superior imaging performance that allows for simultaneous and independent tuning of both focal length and asphericity. This is achieved by varying both hydrostatic pressures and electric fields to control the shape of the refracting interface between an electrically conductive lens fluid and a non-conductive ambient fluid. Continuous variation from spherical interfaces at zero electric field to hyperbolic ones with variable ellipticity for finite fields gives access to lenses with positive, zero, and negative spherical aberration (while the focal length can be tuned via the hydrostatic pressure). PMID:25224851

  16. Exhaustive linearization for robust camera pose and focal length estimation.

    PubMed

    Penate-Sanchez, Adrian; Andrade-Cetto, Juan; Moreno-Noguer, Francesc

    2013-10-01

    We propose a novel approach for the estimation of the pose and focal length of a camera from a set of 3D-to-2D point correspondences. Our method compares favorably to competing approaches in that it is both more accurate than existing closed form solutions, as well as faster and also more accurate than iterative ones. Our approach is inspired on the EPnP algorithm, a recent O(n) solution for the calibrated case. Yet we show that considering the focal length as an additional unknown renders the linearization and relinearization techniques of the original approach no longer valid, especially with large amounts of noise. We present new methodologies to circumvent this limitation termed exhaustive linearization and exhaustive relinearization which perform a systematic exploration of the solution space in closed form. The method is evaluated on both real and synthetic data, and our results show that besides producing precise focal length estimation, the retrieved camera pose is almost as accurate as the one computed using the EPnP, which assumes a calibrated camera.

  17. Exhaustive linearization for robust camera pose and focal length estimation.

    PubMed

    Penate-Sanchez, Adrian; Andrade-Cetto, Juan; Moreno-Noguer, Francesc

    2013-10-01

    We propose a novel approach for the estimation of the pose and focal length of a camera from a set of 3D-to-2D point correspondences. Our method compares favorably to competing approaches in that it is both more accurate than existing closed form solutions, as well as faster and also more accurate than iterative ones. Our approach is inspired on the EPnP algorithm, a recent O(n) solution for the calibrated case. Yet we show that considering the focal length as an additional unknown renders the linearization and relinearization techniques of the original approach no longer valid, especially with large amounts of noise. We present new methodologies to circumvent this limitation termed exhaustive linearization and exhaustive relinearization which perform a systematic exploration of the solution space in closed form. The method is evaluated on both real and synthetic data, and our results show that besides producing precise focal length estimation, the retrieved camera pose is almost as accurate as the one computed using the EPnP, which assumes a calibrated camera. PMID:23969384

  18. A simple focal-length measurement technique for adaptive microlenses using z-scan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelaziez, Yasser; Banerjee, Partha P.

    2004-10-01

    A simple technique for focal length measurements of adaptive micro-lenses using z-scan is reported. Focal length is one of the most important parameters of any lens. The effective focal length is measured with reference to the principal points that are not easy to find especially for micro-lenses. In addition, variable focal length microlenses pose a different challenge that makes the process of determining their exact focal length a tedious and difficult process. Classical methods such as nodal slide and magnification have been used for focal length determination. Also, advanced Interference techniques such as Talbot, Moire, Digital Speckle, Zygo and Joint Fourier Transform were used for focal length measurements. These techniques require more elaborate setups and difficult to implement, especially for microlenses. Recently a power meter was used to find the focal length of an unknown lens. Most of the techniques mentioned above proof to be not simple for microlens characterization. The z-scan technique has been implemented, for quite sometimes, to characterize the third-order effects of a nonlinear optical material. The z-scan provides information on both the sign and magnitude of the non-linear refractive index and offer advantage of simplicity. We have used a regular lens to collimate and focus light unto the lens under test. By scanning the lens under test and measuring the on-axis intensity, one can find the focal length. This is because the on-axis intensity is proportional to the phase of the lens and therefore the focal length. In the case of an adaptive lens with its focal length is a function of the applied voltage, the scanning occurs for each voltage value that will correspond to the on-axis refractive index change and therefore the far field on-axis intensity. This described technique above is easy to implement and can achieve good accuracy due to the inherent sensitivity of the z-scan.

  19. 100 mm dynamic stencils pattern sub-micrometre structures.

    PubMed

    Savu, Veronica; Xie, Shenqi; Brugger, Juergen

    2011-07-01

    Dynamic stencil lithography uses a moving shadow-mask to draw patterns by having directionally evaporated material deposited through the stencil apertures onto the substrate. Sub-micrometre, two-dimensional patterning is demonstrated at full 100 mm wafer scale, with two examples emphasizing this technique's unique features. Structures having a width-modulated height below a certain aperture size are fabricated by moving the stencil according to a two-dimensional trajectory. Variable-period gratings are obtained by translating a row of apertures at different orientations with respect to the row's axis. Despite the long deposition sequences one could envision for a stencil in dynamic mode, the apertures' active life-time in the sub-micrometre domain remains limited by the material's accretion on the membrane, resulting in the eventual clogging of the openings. A novel solution to this problem containing a micro-heater embedded in the membrane is described and its effectiveness in preventing material from clogging the apertures is demonstrated. PMID:21674118

  20. Measurement of MODIS optics effective focal length, distortion, and modulation transfer function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurlow, Paul E.; Cline, Richard W.

    1993-08-01

    A combination MODIS optics characteristics, short back focal length, and relatively distorting optics, has required major revisions in techniques used earlier to characterize effective focal length (EFL) and modulation transfer function (MTF) in the thematic mapper (TM) project. This paper compares measurement approaches used to characterize TM optics and revised methodology intended to characterize MODIS optics at an integration and assembly level.

  1. Focal length measurement based on the wavefront difference method by a Fizeau interferometer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhongming; Gao, Zhishan; Dou, Jiantai; Wang, Xinxing

    2014-09-01

    A method for measuring the focal length of the lens by a Fizeau interferometer is proposed. Based on the Gaussian imaging equation and the longitudinal displacements of the object point and image point, a precise formula for focal length calculation is deduced. The longitudinal displacement of the object points is determined by the wavefront difference method with a subnanometer resolution. An experimental system for focal length measurements is set up to verify the principle. The sources of uncertainty in measurement are discussed. Both the positive and negative lens experimental results indicate that the measurement accuracy is less than 0.16% under normal experimental environment. PMID:25321352

  2. Short-focal-length compound refractive lenses for x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Dudchik, Y.I.; Kolchevsky, N.N.; Komarov, F.F.; Piestrup, M.A.; Cremer, J.T.; Gary, C.K.; Pantell, R.H.

    2005-08-15

    We have fabricated and tested short focal-length compound refractive lenses (CRLs) composed of micro-bubbles embedded in epoxy. The bubbles were formed in epoxy inside glass capillaries. The interface between the bubbles formed 90 to 196 spherical bi-concave microlenses reducing the overall focal length inversely by the number of lenses. When compared with CRLs manufactured using other methods, the micro-bubble lenses have shorter focal lengths, better imaging, and focusing qualities with higher transmissions and gains for moderate energy x-rays (e.g. 7-12 keV). We used beamline 2-3 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) to measure focal lengths between 100-150 mm and absorption apertures between 90 to 120 {micro}m. Transmission profiles were measured giving, for example, a peak transmission of 27% for a 130-mm focal length CRL at 8 keV. The focal-spot sizes were also measured yielding, for example, an elliptical spot of 5 x 14-{micro}m{sup 2} resulting from an approximate 80-fold demagnification of the 0.44 x 1.7 mm{sup 2} source. The measured gains in intensity over that of unfocused beam were between 9 and 26. Theoretical gain calculations that include spherical aberrations show that these values are reasonable. The micro-bubble technique opens a new opportunity for designing lenses in the 8-9 keV range with focal lengths less than 30-40 mm.

  3. Extending plasma channel of filamentation with a multi-focal-length beam.

    PubMed

    Hong, Zuofei; Zhang, Qingbin; Ali Rezvani, S; Lan, Pengfei; Lu, Peixiang

    2016-02-22

    We propose a novel scheme that lengthens the plasma channel in filamentation with a multi-focal-length beam. Instead of one focal length introduced by a conventional convex lens, the multi-focal-length beam modulated by a spatial light modulator (SLM) produces a filament in an extended range with limited but strictly manipulated laser energy. The results show that the scheme is capable of doubling the filament length compared to a single-lens scheme with a 2-mJ input pulse. The filament location and length can be simply tuned by altering the spatial amplitude and phase or employing higher energies. Furthermore, the extended filament length leads to the generation of a broadened continuum ranging from visible (VIS) to infrared (IR) domain. This versatile scheme offers an efficient tool for the development of a variety of applications involving ultrafast nonlinear optics. PMID:26907055

  4. Simplified model of an O-ring-driven liquid-filled lens for calculating focal length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chih-Wei; Shaw, Dein

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a mathematical model that could be used to obtain the approximate focal length of O-ring-driven liquid-filled lenses. An O-ring-driven liquid-filled lens is composed of a base plate, a glass-covered liquid reservoir, a pliable membrane, an O-ring, a spring, and three actuators. The movement of the ring changes the focal length or the focus position. In previous studies, the commercial software ANSYS was used to find the membrane deformation and ZEMAX was used to find the focal length. The procedures used in those previous studies are complicated and generally require considerable design work. The proposed mathematical method employs the principle of liquid volume conservation to simplify the calculations that approximate the focal length of the lens. The result is confirmed on ZEMAX to ensure that the method is practicable. Consequently, focal lengths of lenses with different ring thicknesses, radii, and squeezing depths to contact the membrane can be calculated immediately.

  5. Dynamic opto-VLSI lens and lenslet generation with programmable focal length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhenglin; Alameh, Kamal E.; Zheng, Rong; Ahderom, Selam

    2004-12-01

    In this paper we present and demonstrate a dynamic lens and lens array generation method with programmable focal length based on an Opto-VLSI processor. The Opto-VLSI is driven by computer generated algorithm to generate a discrete Fresnel lens phase hologram. By optimizing the phase hologram, lenses and lens arrays of different focal lengths ranging from 300mm to infinity can be realized. The optical axis of each lens element can be independently addressed to simultaneously focus and steer an optical beam within an angular range of +/-0.5°.

  6. Sb-based IR photodetector epiwafers on 100 mm GaSb substrates manufactured by MBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fastenau, Joel M.; Lubyshev, Dmitri; Qiu, Yueming; Liu, Amy W. K.; Koerperick, Edwin J.; Olesberg, Jon T.; Norton, Dennis

    2013-07-01

    Antimony-based materials continue to provide great interest for infrared photodetector and focal plane array imaging applications. Detector architectures include InAs/Ga(In)Sb strained-layer superlattices, which create a type-II band alignment that can be tailored to cover a wide range of the mid- and long-wavelength bands by varying the thickness and composition of the constituent materials, and bulk InAsSb-based XBn barrier designs. These materials can provide desirable detector features such as wider wavelength range, suppression of tunneling currents, improved quantum efficiency, and higher operating temperatures. In order to bring these advantages to market, a reliable manufacturing process must be established on large diameter substrates. We report our latest work on the molecular beam epitaxy growth of Sb-detector epiwafers on 100 mm diameter GaSb substrates in a multi-wafer production format. The growth process has been established to address the challenges of these demanding structures, including the large numbers of alternating thin layers and mixed group-V elements. Various characterization techniques demonstrate excellent surface morphology, crystalline structure quality, and optical properties of the epiwafers. The measured wafer-to-wafer consistency and cross-wafer uniformity demonstrate the potential for volume manufacturing.

  7. Polymer microlens with independent control of radius and focal length for an imaging fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraf, Mohammed; Chollet, Franck; Matham, Murukeshan; Yang, Chun

    2006-01-01

    Fabrication of microlens array using polymer reflow is beginning to be a mainstream process, whether the polymer is directly used or whether the spherical profile is transferred by plasma etching to a glass substrate as, for example, in some handphone cameras. The focus so far has been on uniformity and obtaining lenses with equal radius and equal focal length. Actually it is easy to show using a phenomenological model that the focal length is depending on the lens radius, and not much on the contact angle, an effect that can be traced to the line tension force. For a biomedical application we need to terminate a 600um diameter imaging fiber with a group of lenses of different diameters - but with similar focal length. We have devised a microfabrication process on a silicon wafer to produce the lens with variable diameter and identical focal length, while etching the silicon wafer has helped us producing a sheath to insert the optical fiber and mount the lenses on the optical fiber.

  8. A calibration technology for multi-camera system with various focal lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ruihua; Zhang, Jin; Deng, Huaxia; Yu, Liandong

    2016-01-01

    Calibration is the basis of three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction for machine vision technology. Nowadays, the most widely used calibration method among computer vision is the technique for binocular stereo measurement. However, binocular stereo vision has limited view field which is difficult to measure large-scale mechanical components synchronously. Thus, enlarging the view field is urgent in need for the large scale measurement. With the application of multi-camera system, the calibration for cameras with different focal lengths is required. In this paper, a method aiming at calibration problems for multi-camera system of different focal lengths is proposed. An imaging model for multi-camera system with various focal lengths is analyzed. The Harris corner detector is applied to determine the relationship between signal camera and checkerboard. Finally, the external parameters of different cameras can be obtained by the link with the checkerboard. The calibration results indicate that the calculation method used in this work can calibrate multi-camera with various focal lengths.

  9. Adhesive ligand tether length affects the size and length of focal adhesions and influences cell spreading and attachment

    PubMed Central

    Attwood, Simon J.; Cortes, Ernesto; Haining, Alexander William M.; Robinson, Benjamin; Li, Danyang; Gautrot, Julien; del Río Hernández, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Cells are known to respond to physical cues from their microenvironment such as matrix rigidity. Discrete adhesive ligands within flexible strands of fibronectin connect cell surface integrins to the broader extracellular matrix and are thought to mediate mechanosensing through the cytoskeleton-integrin-ECM linkage. We set out to determine if adhesive ligand tether length is another physical cue that cells can sense. Substrates were covalently modified with adhesive arginylglycylaspartic acid (RGD) ligands coupled with short (9.5 nm), medium (38.2 nm) and long (318 nm) length inert polyethylene glycol tethers. The size and length of focal adhesions of human foreskin fibroblasts gradually decreased from short to long tethers. Furthermore, we found cell adhesion varies in a linker length dependent manner with a remarkable 75% reduction in the density of cells on the surface and a 50% reduction in cell area between the shortest and longest linkers. We also report the interplay between RGD ligand concentration and tether length in determining cellular spread area. Our findings show that without varying substrate rigidity or ligand density, tether length alone can modulate cellular behaviour. PMID:27686622

  10. Adhesive ligand tether length affects the size and length of focal adhesions and influences cell spreading and attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attwood, Simon J.; Cortes, Ernesto; Haining, Alexander William M.; Robinson, Benjamin; Li, Danyang; Gautrot, Julien; Del Río Hernández, Armando

    2016-09-01

    Cells are known to respond to physical cues from their microenvironment such as matrix rigidity. Discrete adhesive ligands within flexible strands of fibronectin connect cell surface integrins to the broader extracellular matrix and are thought to mediate mechanosensing through the cytoskeleton-integrin-ECM linkage. We set out to determine if adhesive ligand tether length is another physical cue that cells can sense. Substrates were covalently modified with adhesive arginylglycylaspartic acid (RGD) ligands coupled with short (9.5 nm), medium (38.2 nm) and long (318 nm) length inert polyethylene glycol tethers. The size and length of focal adhesions of human foreskin fibroblasts gradually decreased from short to long tethers. Furthermore, we found cell adhesion varies in a linker length dependent manner with a remarkable 75% reduction in the density of cells on the surface and a 50% reduction in cell area between the shortest and longest linkers. We also report the interplay between RGD ligand concentration and tether length in determining cellular spread area. Our findings show that without varying substrate rigidity or ligand density, tether length alone can modulate cellular behaviour.

  11. Short focal length Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors for a hard x-ray nanoprobe

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Wenjun; Ice, Gene E.; Tischler, Jonathan Z.; Khounsary, Ali; Liu, Chian; Assoufid, Lahsen; Macrander, Albert T.

    2005-11-15

    We describe progress in the fabrication of short-focal-length total-external-reflection Kirkpatrick-Baez x-ray mirrors with ultralow figure errors. The short focal length optics produce nanoscale beams (<100 nm) on conventional ({approx}64 m long) beamlines at third generation synchrotron sources. The total-external reflection optics are inherently achromatic and efficiently focus a white (polychromatic) or a tunable monochromatic spectrum of x rays. The ability to focus independent of wavelength allows novel new experimental capabilities. Mirrors have been fabricated both by computer assisted profiling (differential polishing) and by profile coating (coating through a mask onto ultra-smooth surfaces). A doubly focused 85x95 nm{sup 2} hard x-ray nanobeam has been obtained on the UNICAT beamline 34-ID at the Advanced Photon Source. The performance of the mirrors, techniques for characterizing the spot size, and factors limiting focusing performance are discussed.

  12. Short Focal Length Kirkpatrick-Baez Mirrors for a Hard X-Ray Nanoprobe

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenjun; Ice, Gene E; Tischler, Jonathan Zachary; Khounsary, Ali; Liu, Chian; Assoufid, Lahsen; Macrander, Albert T.

    2005-01-01

    We describe progress in the fabrication of short-focal-length total-external-reflection Kirkpatrick-Baez x-ray mirrors with ultralow figure errors. The short focal length optics produce nanoscale beams (<100 nm) on conventional ({approx} 64 m long) beamlines at third generation synchrotron sources. The total-external reflection optics are inherently achromatic and efficiently focus a white (polychromatic) or a tunable monochromatic spectrum of x rays. The ability to focus independent of wavelength allows novel new experimental capabilities. Mirrors have been fabricated both by computer assisted profiling (differential polishing) and by profile coating (coating through a mask onto ultra-smooth surfaces). A doubly focused 85 x 95 nm{sup 2} hard x-ray nanobeam has been obtained on the UNICAT beamline 34-ID at the Advanced Photon Source. The performance of the mirrors, techniques for characterizing the spot size, and factors limiting focusing performance are discussed.

  13. Analysis and modeling of a thermal focal length in a corner-pumped composite slab laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q. H.; Liu, H.; Gao, S.; Christopher, D. M.; Gong, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    A simulation method was developed to calculate the thermal focal length for corner-pumped composite slab lasers. Traditional methods assume a uniform heat distribution or an exponential decay heat distribution to simplify the calculation, but the results do not agree well with experimental data for the thermal focal length, which affects the laser resonator design. In the current model, the heat distribution is obtained from the ray trace software Tracepro, which can accurately calculate the pump light absorption distribution in the gain medium. The simulation results with this method have a relative error of 4% compared to experimental results, which is much better than traditional methods with relative errors of 14% for corner-pumped composite slab lasers and demonstrates the effectiveness of this method for the development of new lasers.

  14. Focal length measurement of microlens-array by the clarity function of digital image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xianchang; Wu, Fan; Cao, Xuedong; Wu, Shibin; Zhang, Peng; Jing, Hongwei

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, a method for the focal length measurement of Microlens-array (MLA) is introduced. The measuring setup is composed by monochromatic, condenser, collimator, MLA, microscope and CCD sensor. An experiment was performed using a MLA whose focal length is about 8 mm and a GUI based on Matlab software was developed to analyze the image gathered at the vertex and the focus by the clarity of digital image processing technology. The measuring uncertainty of this method is about 0.8% and this method introduced in this paper can finish tens of microlens array measurement at a single shot. Compared with traditional technology for MLA measuring, this method not only has a preferable precision but also super efficiency.

  15. Focal length measurement based on Fresnel diffraction from a phase plate.

    PubMed

    Dashtdar, Masoomeh; Mohammad-Ali Hosseini-Saber, S

    2016-09-10

    A method based on the Fresnel diffraction of light from the phase step is introduced for measuring effective focal length (EFL) and back focal length (BFL) of optical imaging systems. It is shown that, as a transparent plane-parallel plate is illuminated at a boundary region by a monochromatic beam of light, Fresnel diffraction occurs because of the abrupt change in phase imposed by the finite change in refractive index at the plate boundary. Variation of the incident angle in a convergent (or divergent) beam of light causes the periodic intensity along the central fringe of the diffraction pattern. The measurement of the extrema position of the intensity distribution accurately provides the EFL and BFL. The technique is easy to apply and can measure a wide range of both positive and negative focal lengths. The measuring setup can be very compact with low mechanical and optical noises. As examples of this technique, the EFLs of five different lenses are experimentally obtained. The results are quite consistent with the values indicated by the lens manufacturer.

  16. Focal length measurement based on Fresnel diffraction from a phase plate.

    PubMed

    Dashtdar, Masoomeh; Mohammad-Ali Hosseini-Saber, S

    2016-09-10

    A method based on the Fresnel diffraction of light from the phase step is introduced for measuring effective focal length (EFL) and back focal length (BFL) of optical imaging systems. It is shown that, as a transparent plane-parallel plate is illuminated at a boundary region by a monochromatic beam of light, Fresnel diffraction occurs because of the abrupt change in phase imposed by the finite change in refractive index at the plate boundary. Variation of the incident angle in a convergent (or divergent) beam of light causes the periodic intensity along the central fringe of the diffraction pattern. The measurement of the extrema position of the intensity distribution accurately provides the EFL and BFL. The technique is easy to apply and can measure a wide range of both positive and negative focal lengths. The measuring setup can be very compact with low mechanical and optical noises. As examples of this technique, the EFLs of five different lenses are experimentally obtained. The results are quite consistent with the values indicated by the lens manufacturer. PMID:27661386

  17. Array of lenses with individually tunable focal-length based on transparent ion-implanted EAPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niklaus, Muhamed; Rosset, Samuel; Shea, Herbert

    2010-04-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of 2x2 arrays of mm-diameter PDMS lenses whose focal length can be electrically tuned. Dielectric elastomer actuators generally rely on carbon powder or carbon grease electrodes, which are not transparent, precluding the polymer actuator from also being a lens. However compliant electrodes fabricated by low-energy ion implantation are over 50% transparent in the visible, enabling the polymer lens to simultaneously be an actuator. We have developed a chip-scale process to microfabricate lens arrays, consisting of a molded socket bonded to a Pyrex chip supporting 4 membrane actuators. The actuators are interconnected via an incompressible fluid. The Pyrex chip has four through-holes, 1 to 3 mm in diameter, on which a 30 μm thick Polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) layer is bonded. The PDMS layer is implanted on both sides with 5 keV gold ions to define the transparent electrodes for EAP actuation. Applying a voltage to one of the lens/actuators leads to an area expansion and hence to a change in radius of curvature, varying the focal length. We report tuning the focal length from 4 mm to 8 mm at 1.7 kV, and present changes in optical transmission and membrane stiffness following gamma and proton irradiation.

  18. Focal length precise measurement method for optics system based on lunar imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, Yiyun; Li, Haichao

    2014-11-01

    In this paper an accurate measurement method for optics system based on the lunar imaging is presented, and this method has the following steps. Firstly, the optical imaging system observes the lunar and acquires the image on the ground or in orbit, and records the position and the time simultaneously, with which the distance to the lunar can be computed. Secondly, the initial region of the lunar in the acquired image is decided by the gray value threshold, and the Canny edge detection method with parabola fitting is used to acquire the sub-pixel image edge points. Thirdly, the extracted edge points are used to preliminary fit the lunar disc, and the lunar ring is formed based on the fitted lunar disc expanded two pixels, then the initial coarse fitting disc is acquired according to the maximum number of edge points located in the lunar ring. Fourthly, the sub-pixel lunar disk can be obtained via the least squares fitting on the base of the initial coarse fitting disc. At last, the focal length of the optical imaging system can be computed with the position relationship between the optical imaging system and the lunar. Experiments show that this method has the ability to focal length measurement with high accuracy and frequency. By the means of imaging to the lunar, taking advantage of the long distance, sub-pixel edge detection and fitting for the lunar disc diameter, etc, whether in the full lunar and the waning lunar - the focal length could be measured accurately. It has a wide application prospects both in the developing and in orbit operating stage for optical imaging system.

  19. Liquid Crystal Microlens Arrays With Switchable Positive and Negative Focal Lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yun-Hsing; Ren, Hongwen; Liang, Xiao; Wang, Haiying; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2005-09-01

    A flat microlens array whose focal length can be switched from positive to negative by electric field is demonstrated experimentally and confirmed by computer simulations. To generate the required gradient refractive index, an inhomogeneous electric field is created by a spherical indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrode which is imbedded in the top flat substrate. The bottom substrate has a planar ITO electrode on its inner surface. A thin polymeric layer is overcoated on top of the spherical ITO to create a flat surface. The disclination lines are eliminated. Because of the employed dual-frequency liquid crystal,the microlens array has fast response times.

  20. Variant of the anastigmatic telescope with three mirrors for back focal length.

    PubMed

    Herrera, J; Vázquez, S; Luna, E; Salas, L; Nuñez, J; Sohn, E; Ruiz, E

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, an optical design is presented for an anastigmatic telescope with back focal length corrected with exact ray tracing to eliminate spherical, coma, and astigmatism aberrations. The telescope is formed of three conical mirrors, two of them polished on the same substratum. The optical design is divided into three stages: we began the design obtaining the Gaussian parameters in a first-order solution; posteriorly, were obtained analytically the three mirrors' asphericity in a third-order design. The final design stage consists of the implementation of the Fermat's principle, the Abbe sine condition, and the Coddington equations for the exact correction for the three aforementioned aberrations. PMID:21532673

  1. The Modernization of a Long-Focal Length Fringe-Type Laser Velocimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, James F.; Lee, Joseph W.; Cavone, Angelo A.; Fletcher, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    A long-focal length laser velocimeter constructed in the early 1980's was upgraded using current technology to improve usability, reliability and future serviceability. The original, free-space optics were replaced with a state-of-the-art fiber-optic subsystem which allowed most of the optics, including the laser, to be remote from the harsh tunnel environment. General purpose high-speed digitizers were incorporated in a standard modular data acquisition system, along with custom signal processing software executed on a desktop computer, served as the replacement for the signal processors. The resulting system increased optical sensitivity with real-time signal/data processing that produced measurement precisions exceeding those of the original system. Monte Carlo simulations, along with laboratory and wind tunnel investigations were used to determine system characteristics and measurement precision.

  2. Optical system design of solar-blind UV target simulator with long focal length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Huo, Furong; Zheng, Liqin

    2014-11-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation of 200nm-300nm waveband from the sun is absorbed by atmosphere, which is often referred to the solar-blind region of the solar spectrum. Solar-blind characteristics of this waveband have important application value, especially in military fields. The application of solar-blind waveband has developed very rapidly, which is receiving more and more attention. Sometimes, to test the performance of a UV optical system, a standard solar-blind UV target simulator is needed as the UV light source. In this paper, an optical system of a solar-blind UV target simulator is designed with waveband 240nm-280nm. To simulate a far UV target, the focal length of this UV optical system needs to be long. Besides, different field of view (FOV) of the system should meet aplanatic condition. The optional materials are very few for UV optical systems, in which only CaF2 and JGS1 are commonly used. Various aberrations are difficult to be corrected. To save production cost and enhance the precision of fabrication and test, aspheric surfaces and binary elements are not adopted in the system. Moreover, doublet or triplet cannot be used in UV optical system considering possible cracking for different thermal expansion coefficients of different materials. After optimization, the system is composed of 4 lenses with focal length 500mm. MTF curves of different FOV coincide together. The maximum RMS radius of the optimized system has almost the same size as Airy disk, which proves the good image quality after system optimization. The aplanatic condition is met very well in this system. In the spot diagram, root mean square (RMS) radius changes from 3 microns to 3.6 microns, which has similar size with Airy disk and meets aplanatic condition very well. This optical system of solar-blind UV target simulator also has relatively loose tolerance data, which can prove the system is designed in an optimal state.

  3. Materials for intraocular lenses enabling photo-controlled tuning of focal length in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Träger, Jens; Heinzer, Jasmin; Kim, Hee-Cheol; Hampp, Norbert

    2007-07-01

    Typical postoperative complications in cataract surgery are that refractive power and curvature of the implanted intraocular lens (IOL) do not have optimum values, requiring the patient to wear viewing aids. This is mainly because biometric data relevant for calculation of the IOL's shape cannot be determined with the required precision. Hence, there is a need for methods to tune the focal length postoperatively in a non-invasive manner. We have developed polymers where we can induce a change in refractive index by linking or cleaving bonds between a su.ciently large number of side groups of the polymer main chain in a photoinduced cycloaddition or cycloreversion reaction, respectively. These photoreactions lead to a change in refractive index great enough to be interesting for the concept of in vivo tunable IOL's. The photochemical reaction can be triggered by a two-photon process (TPA) using a pulsed laser system, i.e. the energy required for bond breaking is provided by two photons in the visible range. This is important because light in the UV cannot induce undesired changes of the refractive index owing to the strong UV-absorption of the cornea. Undesired changes due to light in the visible range of the spectrum are unlikely to happen because photon density of sun light is much too low for TPA. Due to the excellent spatial resolution that can be achieved with two-photon processes one cannot only modify the refractive index of the entire lens but also selectively in well defined areas enabling to correct for aberrations such as astigmatism. Here, we present new polymers that do not only exhibit a photo induced change of refractive index great enough to induce a change of focal length of more than two diopters in a standard IOL. These new polymers have also significantly improved material properties with respect to the fabrication of the IOL and the TPA-sensitivities and the light energy required to induce the refractive index change.

  4. Tunable liquid crystal lens array by encapsulation with a photo-reactive polymer for short focal length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Se-Um; Lee, Sanghun; Na, Jun-Hee; Lee, Sin-Doo

    2014-02-01

    We demonstrated an electrically tunable liquid crystal (LC) lens array with a short focal length by self-encapsulation with a polymer layer of photo-reactive mesogens (RMs). The underlying concept relies primarily on the encapsulation of the LC with a thin curvilinear polymer layer in contact with air for the reduction of the focal length. The polymer-encapsulated (PE)-LC lens array was produced on a patterned substrate by selective wetting inscription through the phase separation of the LC and the RMs. In the field-off state, the focal length of the PE-LC lens was measured to be about 3 mm which is shorter than a conventional case by a factor of three (about 9 mm). The wettability inscription by ultraviolet light enables to build up any size of the LC lens in array over large-area without using a wet-chemical etching process for flexible optoelectronic and photonic applications.

  5. Manufacturing of 100mm diameter GaSb substrates for advanced space based applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, L. P.; Flint, J. P.; Meshew, G.; Trevethan, J.; Dallas, G.; Khoshakhlagh, A.; Hill, C. J.

    2012-01-01

    Engineered substrates such as large diameter (100mm) GaSb wafers need to be ready years in advance of any major shift in DoD and commercial technology, and typically before much of the rest of the materials and equipment for fabricating next generation devices. Antimony based III-V semiconductors are of significant interest for advanced applications in optoelectronics, high speed transistors, microwave devices, and photovoltaics. GaSb demand is increasing due to its lattice parameter matching of various ternary and quaternary III-V compounds, as their bandgaps can be engineered to cover a wide spectral range. For these stealth and spaced based applications, larger format IRFPAs benefit clearly from next generation starting substrates. In this study, we have manufactured and tested 100mm GaSb substrates. This paper describes the characterization process that provides the best possible GaSb material for advanced IRFPA and SLS epi growth. The analysis of substrate by AFM surface roughness, particles, haze, GaSb oxide character and desorption using XPS, flatness measurements, and SLS based epitaxy quality are shown. By implementing subtle changes in our substrate processing, we show that a Sb-oxide rich surface is routinely provided for rapid desorption. Post-MBE CBIRD structures on the 100mm ULD GaSb were examined and reveals a high intensity, 6.6nm periodicity, low (15.48 arcsec) FWHM peak distribution that suggests low surface strain and excellent lattice matching. The Ra for GaSb is a consistent ~0.2-4nm, with average batch wafer warp of ~4 μm to provide a clean, flat GaSb template critical for next generation epi growth.

  6. Ionization Measurements of SuperCDMS SNOLAB 100 mm Diameter Germanium Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Chagani, H.; Bauer, D.A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P.L.; Cabrera, B.; Cherry, M.; Silva, E.Do Couto e; Godfrey, G.G.; Hall, J.; Hansen, S.; Hasi, J.; Kelsey, M.; Kenney, C.J.; Mandic, V.; Nagasawa, D.; Novak, L.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Partridge, R.; Radpour, R.; Resch, R.; Sadoulet, B.; /UC, Berkeley /Stanford U. /SLAC /Stanford U. /Santa Clara U. /Minnesota U.

    2012-06-12

    Scaling cryogenic Germanium-based dark matter detectors to probe smaller WIMP-nucleon cross-sections poses significant challenges in the forms of increased labor, cold hardware, warm electronics and heat load. The development of larger crystals alleviates these issues. The results of ionization tests with two 100 mm diameter, 33 mm thick cylindrical detector-grade Germanium crystals are presented here. Through these results the potential of using such crystals in the Super Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (SuperCDMS) SNOLAB experiment is demonstrated.

  7. Modeling of a Variable Focal Length Flat Lens Using Left Handed Metamaterials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinert, Jason

    2004-01-01

    Left Handed Metamaterials (LHM) were originally purposed by Victor Veselago in1968. These substances would allow a flat structure to focus electromagnetic (EM) waves because they have a negative index of refraction. A similar structure made from conventional materials, those with a positive index of refraction, would disperse the waves. But until recently, these structures have been purely theoretical because substances with both a negative permittivity and negative permeability, material properties necessary for a negative index of refraction, do not naturally exist, Recent developments have produced a structure composed of an array of thin wires and split ring resonators that shows a negative index of refraction. area smaller than a square wavelength. How small the area is can be determined by how perfectly the lens is polished and how pure the substance is that composes the lens. These lenses must also be curved for focusing to occur. The focal length is determined by the curvature of the lens and the material. On the other hand, a flat structure made from LHM would focus light because of the effect of a negative index of refraction in Snell s law. The focal length could also be varied by simply adjusting the distance of the lens from the source of radiation. This could create many devices that are adjustable to different situations in fields such as biomedical imaging and communication. the software package XFDTD which solves Maxwell s equations in the frequency domain as well as the time domain. The program used Drude models of materials to simulate the effect of negative permittivity and negative permeability. Because of this, a LHM can be simulated as a solid block of material instead of an array of wires and split ring resonators. After a flat lens is formed, I am to examine the focusing effect of the lens and determine if a higher resolution flat lens can be developed. Traditional lenses made from conventional materials cannot focus an EM wave onto an My

  8. [The influence of camera-to-object distance and focal length on the representation of faces].

    PubMed

    Verhoff, Marcel A; Witzel, Carsten; Ramsthaler, Frank; Kreutz, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    When one thinks of the so-called barrel or wide-angle distortion, grotesquely warped faces may come to mind. For less extreme cases with primarily inconspicuous facial proportions, the question, however, still arises whether there may be a resulting impact on the identification of faces. In the first experiment, 3 test persons were photographed at a fixed camera-to-object distance of 2 m. In the second experiment, 18 test persons were each photographed at a distance of 0.5 m and 2.0 m. For both experiments photographs were taken from a fixed angle of view in alignment with the Frankfurt Plane. An isolated effect of the focal length on facial proportions could not be demonstrated. On the other hand, changes in the camera-to-object distance clearly influenced facial proportions and shape. A standardized camera-to-object distance for passport photos, as well as reconstruction of the camera-to-object distance from crime scene photos and the use of this same distance in taking photographs for comparison of suspects are called for. A proposal to refer to wide-angle distortion as the nearness effect is put forward. PMID:17879705

  9. CHIME monazite dating using FE-EPMA equipped with R=100 mm spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, K.; Shimizu, M.; Suzuki, K.; Sueoka, S.; Niwa, M.

    2015-12-01

    The age spectrum of detrital monazite grains is used to unravel the tectono-thermal history of the pre-Neogene terranes, which is required for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste on tectonically active Japanese Islands. The CHIME (Chemical Th-U-total Pb isochron method, Suzuki and Adachi, 1991) is best suited for dating of detrital monazite whose grains are not chronologically uniform. In the previous studies (eg, Suzuki, 2011), EPMA equipped with conventional R=140 mm spectrometers was used for measurement of U, Th and Pb. However the spectrometers have low count rate of measurement of Pb. The JEOL JXA-8530F FE-EPMA equipped with R=100 mm spectrometers has been applied for the CHIME monazite dating. The intrinsic responses of each of the R=100 mm spectrometers for PbMβ are around ten times higher than that of the R=140 mm spectrometer. The R=100 mm spectrometers permits obtaining high count rate, which enables us to shorten measurement time than before. As these spectrometers have peculiar spectral interference, the method reported by Amli and Griffin (1978) is applied for correction of the interference. In order to verify the dating using the FE-EPMA and the interference correction method, two distinct age groups of monazite were measured. The ages were 425±25 Ma for monazite from Cooma granite in southeastern Australia, which had dated by SHRIMP as 432.8 ± 3.5 Ma (Williams, 2001) and 67 ± 7 Ma for monazite of the Kojaku granite in southwestern Japan, which is corresponding to the LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon ages of 68.5 ± 0.7 Ma. These results indicate that the FE-EPMA and the interference correction method are useful for the CHIME monazite dating and for revealing the tectono-thermal history of the terranes. This study was carried out under a contract with Agency of Natural Resources and Energy(ANRE), part of Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) of Japan as part of its R&D supporting program for developing geological disposal technology.

  10. New 100 mm Gun Assembly Installation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory High Explosives Applications Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Vandersall, K S; Lee, R A; Chiao, P I; Garcia, F; Travis, J O; Forbes, J W

    2003-10-28

    A new 100mm gun assembly was recently installed and tested at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories located in the High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF). Thiot Ingenierie performed the design of the replacement barrel, based on improvements to the initial design. This design incorporated barrel and breech sections forged from CLARM series high-strength alloys obtained from Tecphy Corporation and machined by Manufacture de Forage. Part of the improvement of the design was implementing a laser alignment system for quick and accurate barrel alignment checks. This laser is also used to align the target assembly. This paper will detail the design changes incorporated into the installation, the testing process, and future direction of research for the new gun.

  11. Influence of the photoinduced focal length of a thin nonlinear material in the Z-scan technique.

    PubMed

    Reynoso Lara, Edmundo; Navarrete Meza, Zulema; Iturbe Castillo, M David; Treviño Palacios, Carlos G; Martí Panameño, Erwín; Arroyo Carrasco, M Luis

    2007-03-01

    In this paper the response purely refractive of a thin nonlinear material, in the z-scan technique experiment, is modeled as a lens with a focal length that is a function of some integer power of the incident beam radius. We demonstrate that different functional dependences of the photoinduced lens of a thin nonlinear material give typical z-scan curves with special features. The analysis is based on the propagation of Gaussian beams in the approximation of thin lens and small distortion for the nonlinear sample. We obtain that the position of the peak and valley, the transmittance near the focus and the transmittance far from the Rayleigh range depend on the functional dependence of the focal length. Special values of the power reproduce the results obtained for some materials under cw excitation. PMID:19532488

  12. A 3D fiber probe based on orthogonal micro focal-length collimation and fiber Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Jiwen; Li, Junying; Feng, Kunpeng; Tan, Jiubin; Zhang, Jian

    2016-07-01

    A 3D fiber probe is proposed for the precision measurement of micro parts with high aspect ratios. The probing system consists of two measuring systems: two mutually orthogonal micro focal-length collimation optical paths for the radial tactile probing measurement, and a matched fiber Bragg grating (FBG) pair interrogation system for the axial tactile probing measurement. The fiber probe consists of a fiber stylus and a probe tip, the fiber stylus works as a micro focal-length cylindrical lens, and the FBG inscribed in the fiber stylus works as a measuring FBG. The radial displacement of the probe tip is transformed into the centroid position shift of the two mutually orthogonal micro focal-length collimation optical paths; the axial displacement of the probe tip is transformed into the power ratio change of the matched FBG pair interrogation system. Experimental results indicate that the probe has a radial sensitivity of 71 pixel μm‑1 in both X and Y directions, and an axial sensitivity of 4.9% μm‑1 in Z direction; the probe can reach a radial resolution of 5 nm, and an axial resolution of 8 nm. The probe has a capability of decoupling the 3D tactility and it can be applied in the measurement of micro parts.

  13. Thermal considerations in the design of a long focal length, low f-number, long wave infrared imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Harvey M.

    2010-08-01

    Sensors operating in the 8-12 micron long wave infrared (LWIR) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum have long been used to extend the useful range of operating conditions beyond those of sensor systems operating in the visual spectral band. Infrared systems must cover widely varying fields-of-view (FOV) depending on application, at fast f/numbers compared to systems operating in the visible band. Typical FOVs for LWIR sensors run the gamut from < 1 degree to >50 degrees for large focal planes, necessitating the use of long focal lengths. When the focal length of the optics increases, the sensitivity to defocus caused by thermal effects also increases. Optical materials with useful transmission in the infrared region exhibit larger changes (> 400X) in refractive index with temperature (dN/dT) than optical glass. This in turn introduces larger changes in focus over temperature for infrared systems compared to comparable focal length visual systems. Thermal expansion and contraction of the materials also contribute to changes in system performance and the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is generally larger for infrared materials than for visual band optical glasses. The thermal performance problem is exacerbated with low f-numbers systems. The ability to detect targets having a small temperature difference from ambient is proportional to the light collecting ability of the optics, especially when uncooled detectors are used. It is typical to require f-numbers in the f/1 regime for the LWIR for uncooled applications. Methods have been developed to find optical designs with reduced thermal sensitivity for these applications.

  14. Smart polymers containing substituted coumarin side groups enable photo-induced tuning of focal length of intraocular lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schraub, Martin; Hampp, Norbert

    2011-03-01

    Over the past 100 years medicine evolved continuously, which can clearly be seen in the rising average of life expectancy. But as the population becomes older and older the number of old age diseases increases. Cataract is such an old age disease and worldwide the number one reason for blindness. Implantation of IOL's is up-to-date the only possibility to restore vision. In this study we present novel polymers containing derivatized coumarins in the side chains as smart materials for IOL manufacturing. These materials enable tuning of the focal length of an already implanted IOL by 2 diopters via photo induced dimerization and cleavage of the coumarin side groups respectively. The advantages of these new polymers are increased dimerization rates while decreasing the energy dose needed for photochemical dimerization of the coumarin side groups.

  15. Characterization of 100 mm Diameter 4H-Silicon Carbide CrystalsWith Extremely Low Basal Plane Dislocation Density

    SciTech Connect

    M Dudley; N Zhang; Y Zhang; B Raghothamachar; S Byrappa; G Choi; E Drachev; M Loboda

    2011-12-31

    Synchrotron White Beam X-ray Topography (SWBXT) studies are presented of basal plane dislocation (BPD) configurations and behavior in a new generation of 100mm diameter, 4H-SiC wafers with extremely low BPD densities (3-4 x 10{sup 2} cm{sup -2}). The conversion of non-screw oriented, glissile BPDs into sessile threading edge dislocations (TEDs) is observed to provide pinning points for the operation of single ended Frank-Read sources. In some regions, once converted TEDs are observed to re-convert back into BPDs in a repetitive process which provides multiple BPD pinning points.

  16. Polymers for refractive index change in intraocular lenses: a novel approach for photoinduced tuning of focal length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Träger, Jens; Kim, Hee-Cheol; Hampp, Norbert

    2006-02-01

    Before an intraocular lens (IOL) is implanted during cataract surgery, biometric data of the patient's eye have to be determined to calculate the thickness and shape of the IOL. In particular the postoperative anterior chamber depth is an important parameter to predict the correct shape of the IOL. This value, however, cannot be measured without significant uncertainities. We present a solution to this problem, describe novel polymers suitable for IOLs which refractive indices can be changed non-invasively in a photo-induced process. The focal length can be modified by about 2 D, which is sufficient to achive ideal acuteness of vision for almost all patients with implanted IOLs. The change in refractive index is accomplished by linking or cleaving bonds between a sufficiently large number of side groups of the polymer main chain in a photoinduced cyloaddition or cycloreversion, respectively. The photochemical reaction can also be triggered by a two-photon process (TPA) using a pulsed laser system, i.e. the energy required for bond breaking is provided by two photons in the visible range. Light in the UV as well as the visible range of the spectrum cannot induce undesired changes of the refractive index owing to the strong UV-absorption of the cornea and photon densities much too low for TPA, respectively. Due to the excellent spatial resolution that can be achieved with two-photon processes not only modification of the refractive index of the entire lens but also selectively in well defined areas is possible enabling the correction for aberrations such as astigmatism.

  17. Super-oscillatory focusing of circularly polarized light by ultra-long focal length planar lens based on binary amplitude-phase modulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Li, Yuyan; Yu, Anping; Wen, Zhongquan; Dai, Luru; Chen, Li; Zhang, Zhihai; Jiang, Senlin; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Xianyou; Lin, Feng

    2016-01-01

    In traditional optics, the focal spot size of a conventional lens is restricted to the diffraction limit 0.5λ/NA, where λ is the wavelength in vacuum and NA is the numerical aperture of the lens. Recently, various sub-diffraction focusing optical devices have been demonstrated, but they usually have short focal length and high numerical aperture. Moreover, they always suffer the problem of huge sidelobes near the focal spot and small field of view, especially when the focal spot size is less than the super-oscillation criteria 0.38λ/NA. To address the problem, here, we reported a far-field sub-diffraction point-focusing lens based on binary phase and amplitude modulation with ultra-long focal length 252.8 μm (399.5λ) and small numerical aperture 0.78, and experimentally demonstrated a super-oscillatory focusing of circularly polarized light with spot size 287 nm (0.454λ), smaller than the diffraction limit 0.64λ and the super-oscillation criterion 0.487λ. What's more, on the focal plane, in the measured area within the radius of 142λ, the largest sidelobe intensity is less than 26% of the central lobe intensity. Such ultra-long distance super-oscillatory focusing with small sidelobes and large field of view has great potential applications in far-field super-resolution microscopy, ultra-high-density optical storage and nano-fabrication. PMID:27353239

  18. Super-oscillatory focusing of circularly polarized light by ultra-long focal length planar lens based on binary amplitude-phase modulation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Li, Yuyan; Yu, Anping; Wen, Zhongquan; Dai, Luru; Chen, Li; Zhang, Zhihai; Jiang, Senlin; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Xianyou; Lin, Feng

    2016-01-01

    In traditional optics, the focal spot size of a conventional lens is restricted to the diffraction limit 0.5λ/NA, where λ is the wavelength in vacuum and NA is the numerical aperture of the lens. Recently, various sub-diffraction focusing optical devices have been demonstrated, but they usually have short focal length and high numerical aperture. Moreover, they always suffer the problem of huge sidelobes near the focal spot and small field of view, especially when the focal spot size is less than the super-oscillation criteria 0.38λ/NA. To address the problem, here, we reported a far-field sub-diffraction point-focusing lens based on binary phase and amplitude modulation with ultra-long focal length 252.8 μm (399.5λ) and small numerical aperture 0.78, and experimentally demonstrated a super-oscillatory focusing of circularly polarized light with spot size 287 nm (0.454λ), smaller than the diffraction limit 0.64λ and the super-oscillation criterion 0.487λ. What’s more, on the focal plane, in the measured area within the radius of 142λ, the largest sidelobe intensity is less than 26% of the central lobe intensity. Such ultra-long distance super-oscillatory focusing with small sidelobes and large field of view has great potential applications in far-field super-resolution microscopy, ultra-high-density optical storage and nano-fabrication. PMID:27353239

  19. Atmospheric pressure plasma chemical vapor deposition reactor for 100 mm wafers, optimized for minimum contamination at low gas flow rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Venu; Nair, Aswathi R.; Shivashankar, S. A.; Mohan Rao, G.

    2015-08-01

    Gas discharge plasmas used for thinfilm deposition by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) must be devoid of contaminants, like dust or active species which disturb the intended chemical reaction. In atmospheric pressure plasma systems employing an inert gas, the main source of such contamination is the residual air inside the system. To enable the construction of an atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) system with minimal contamination, we have carried out fluid dynamic simulation of the APP chamber into which an inert gas is injected at different mass flow rates. On the basis of the simulation results, we have designed and built a simple, scaled APP system, which is capable of holding a 100 mm substrate wafer, so that the presence of air (contamination) in the APP chamber is minimized with as low a flow rate of argon as possible. This is examined systematically by examining optical emission from the plasma as a function of inert gas flow rate. It is found that optical emission from the plasma shows the presence of atmospheric air, if the inlet argon flow rate is lowered below 300 sccm. That there is minimal contamination of the APP reactor built here, was verified by conducting an atmospheric pressure PECVD process under acetylene flow, combined with argon flow at 100 sccm and 500 sccm. The deposition of a polymer coating is confirmed by infrared spectroscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that the polymer coating contains only 5% of oxygen, which is comparable to the oxygen content in polymer deposits obtained in low-pressure PECVD systems.

  20. Determination of charge-carrier diffusion length in the photosensing layer of HgCdTe n-on-p photovoltaic infrared focal plane array detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Vishnyakov, A. V.; Stuchinsky, V. A. Brunev, D. V.; Zverev, A. V.; Dvoretsky, S. A.

    2014-03-03

    In the present paper, we propose a method for evaluating the bulk diffusion length of minority charge carriers in the photosensing layer of photovoltaic focal plane array (FPA) photodetectors. The method is based on scanning a strip-shaped illumination spot with one of the detector diodes at a low level of photocurrents j{sub ph} being registered; such scanning provides data for subsequent analysis of measured spot-scan profiles within a simple diffusion model. The asymptotic behavior of the effective (at j{sub ph} ≠ 0) charge-carrier diffusion length l{sub d} {sub eff} as a function of j{sub ph} for j{sub ph} → 0 inferred from our experimental data proved to be consistent with the behavior of l{sub d} {sub eff} vs j{sub ph} as predicted by the model, while the obtained values of the bulk diffusion length of minority carriers (electrons) in the p-HgCdTe film of investigated HgCdTe n-on-p FPA photodetectors were found to be in a good agreement with the previously reported carrier diffusion-length values for HgCdTe.

  1. An inversion formula for the exponential Radon transform in spatial domain with variable focal-length fan-beam collimation geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wen Junhai; Liang Zhengrong

    2006-03-15

    Inverting the exponential Radon transform has a potential use for SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) imaging in cases where a uniform attenuation can be approximated, such as in brain and abdominal imaging. Tretiak and Metz derived in the frequency domain an explicit inversion formula for the exponential Radon transform in two dimensions for parallel-beam collimator geometry. Progress has been made to extend the inversion formula for fan-beam and varying focal-length fan-beam (VFF) collimator geometries. These previous fan-beam and VFF inversion formulas require a spatially variant filtering operation, which complicates the implementation and imposes a heavy computing burden. In this paper, we present an explicit inversion formula, in which a spatially invariant filter is involved. The formula is derived and implemented in the spatial domain for VFF geometry (where parallel-beam and fan-beam geometries are two special cases). Phantom simulations mimicking SPECT studies demonstrate its accuracy in reconstructing the phantom images and efficiency in computation for the considered collimator geometries.

  2. An inversion formula for the exponential Radon transform in spatial domain with variable focal-length fan-beam collimation geometry

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Junhai; Liang, Zhengrong

    2006-01-01

    Inverting the exponential Radon transform has a potential use for SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) imaging in cases where a uniform attenuation can be approximated, such as in brain and abdominal imaging. Tretiak and Metz derived in the frequency domain an explicit inversion formula for the exponential Radon transform in two dimensions for parallel-beam collimator geometry. Progress has been made to extend the inversion formula for fan-beam and varying focal-length fan-beam (VFF) collimator geometries. These previous fan-beam and VFF inversion formulas require a spatially-variant filtering operation, which complicates the implementation and imposes a heavy computing burden. In this paper, we present an explicit inversion formula, in which a spatially-invariant filter is involved. The formula is derived and implemented in the spatial domain for VFF geometry (where parallel-beam and fan-beam geometries are two special cases). Phantom simulations mimicking SPECT studies demonstrate its accuracy in reconstructing the phantom images and efficiency in computation for the considered collimator geometries. PMID:16878581

  3. Fabrication of long-focal-length plano-convex microlens array by combining the micro-milling and injection molding processes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Kirchberg, Stefan; Jiang, Bing-Yan; Xie, Lei; Jia, Yun-Long; Sun, Lei-Lei

    2014-11-01

    A uniform plano-convex spherical microlens array with a long focal length was fabricated by combining the micromilling and injection molding processes in this work. This paper presents a quantitative study of the injection molding process parameters on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses. The variation of the injection process parameters, i.e., barrel temperature, mold temperature, injection speed, and packing pressure, was found to have a significant effect on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses, especially the barrel temperature. The filling-to-packing switchover point is also critical to the uniformity of the height of the microlenses. The optimal uniformity was achieved when the polymer melts completely filled the mold cavity, or even a little excessively filled the cavity, during the filling stage. In addition, due to the filling resistance, the practical filling-to-packing switchover point can vary with the change of the filling processing conditions and lead to a non-negligible effect on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses. Furthermore, the effect of injection speed on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses was analyzed in detail. The results indicated that the effect of injection speed on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses is mainly attributed to the two functions of injection speed: transferring the filling-to-packing switchover point and affecting the distribution of residual flow stress in the polymer melt. PMID:25402902

  4. Parametric Study on Pressureless Sintering of Nanosilver Paste to Bond Large-Area (≥100 mm2) Power Chips at Low Temperatures for Electronic Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Shancan; Mei, Yunhui; Li, Xin; Ning, Puqi; Lu, Guo-Quan

    2015-10-01

    We have developed a new kind of nanosilver paste by reducing the stress and strain of the drying process with the help of some organics to bond large-area (≥100 mm2) power chips without additional pressure. This new nanosilver paste contains nanoparticles and microparticles ranging from 0.02 μm to 2 μm. The effects of sintering temperature ( T), heating rate ( ν), and holding time for sintering ( t) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of sintered silver joints were investigated by the Taguchi method. The various factors were assigned to an L16 (43) orthogonal array. The experimental results showed that neck formation was strongly dependent on the increase of the sintering temperature, while prolonging the holding time and decreasing the heating rate were beneficial to neck growth. The pore size distribution ranged from 0.03 μm2 to 1.6 μm2, and the larger pores (0.8 μm2 to 1.6 μm2) were more irregular and clustered along the interstices between particles. The shear strength increased with increased sintering temperature, prolonged holding time, and decreased heating rate due to smaller pore size and a more homogeneous pore distribution. The fatigue and tensile behaviors of pressureless-sintered silver joints were also compared with those of soldered SAC305 joints.

  5. Platinum-coated probes sliding at up to 100 mm s-1 against coated silicon wafers for AFM probe-based recording technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Kwak, Kwang Joo

    2007-08-01

    One of the new alternative information storage technologies being researched is based on the probe-based recording technique. In one technique, a phase-change medium is used, and the phase change is accomplished by applying either a high or low magnitude of current which heats the interface to different temperatures. Tip wear is a serious concern. For wear protection of the phase-change chalcogenide medium with a silicon substrate, diamond-like carbon (DLC) film with various lubricant overcoats was deposited on the recording layer surface. Nanowear properties of platinum (Pt)-coated probes with high electrical conductivity have been investigated in sliding against the coated medium using an atomic force microscope (AFM). A silicon grating sample and software to deconvolute tip shape were used to characterize the change in the tip shape and evaluate the tip radius and its wear volume. The nanowear experiments were performed at sliding velocities ranging from 0.1 to 100 mm s-1. Pt-coated tips on the lubricant-coated DLC film surfaces showed less sensitivity to the velocity and the load as compared to the unlubricated DLC film surfaces. In wear life threshold experiments, the threshold reaches a smaller sliding distance at higher loads. In high-temperature experiments at 80 °C, the wear rate is higher compared to that at 20 °C. The results suggest that the wear mechanism at low velocity appears to be primarily adhesive and abrasive. At high velocity, an additional wear mechanism of the tribochemical reaction is important.

  6. Unilateral Isolated Proximal Femoral Focal Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Doğer, Emek; Köpük, Şule Y.; Çakıroğlu, Yiğit; Çakır, Özgür; Yücesoy, Gülseren

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To discuss a patient with a prenatal diagnosis of unilateral isolated femoral focal deficiency. Case. Antenatal diagnosis of unilateral isolated femoral focal deficiency was made at 20 weeks of gestation. The length of left femur was shorter than the right, and fetal femur length was below the fifth percentile. Proximal femoral focal deficiency was diagnosed. After delivery, the diagnosis was confirmed with skeletal radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging. In prenatal ultrasonographic examination, the early recognition and exclusion of skeletal dysplasias is important; moreover, treatment plans should be initiated, and valuable information should be provided to the family. PMID:23984135

  7. Strain states of AlN/GaN-stress mitigating layer and their effect on GaN buffer layer grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy on 100-mm Si(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Ravikiran, L.; Radhakrishnan, K.; Agrawal, M.; Dharmarasu, N.; Munawar Basha, S.

    2013-09-28

    The effect of strain states of AlN/GaN-stress mitigating layer (SML) on buried crack density and its subsequent influence on the residual stresses in GaN buffer layers grown using ammonia-molecular beam epitaxy on 100-mm Si(111) substrate has been investigated. Different stages involved in the formation of buried cracks, which are crack initialization, growth of relaxed AlN layer, and subsequent lateral over growth, are identified using in-situ curvature measurements. While the increase of GaN thickness in AlN/GaN-SML enhanced its compressive strain relaxation and resulted in reduced buried crack spacing, the variation of AlN thickness did not show any effect on the crack spacing. Moreover, the decrease in the crack spacing (or increase in the buried crack density) was found to reduce the residual compression in 1st and 2nd GaN layers of AlN/GaN-SML structure. The higher buried crack density relaxed the compressive strain in 1st GaN layer, which further reduced its ability to compensate the tensile stress generated during substrate cool down, and hence resulted in lower residual compressive stress in 2nd GaN layer.

  8. Growth and characterization of AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN double-heterojunction high-electron-mobility transistors on 100-mm Si(111) using ammonia-molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Ravikiran, L.; Radhakrishnan, K. Yiding, Lin; Ng, G. I.; Dharmarasu, N.; Agrawal, M.; Arulkumaran, S.; Vicknesh, S.

    2015-01-14

    To improve the confinement of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) heterostructures, AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN double heterojunction HEMT (DH-HEMT) heterostructures were grown using ammonia-MBE on 100-mm Si substrate. Prior to the growth, single heterojunction HEMT (SH-HEMT) and DH-HEMT heterostructures were simulated using Poisson-Schrödinger equations. From simulations, an AlGaN buffer with “Al” mole fraction of 10% in the DH-HEMT was identified to result in both higher 2DEG concentration (∼10{sup 13 }cm{sup −2}) and improved 2DEG confinement in the channel. Hence, this composition was considered for the growth of the buffer in the DH-HEMT heterostructure. Hall measurements showed a room temperature 2DEG mobility of 1510 cm{sup 2}/V.s and a sheet carrier concentration (n{sub s}) of 0.97 × 10{sup 13 }cm{sup −2} for the DH-HEMT structure, while they are 1310 cm{sup 2}/V.s and 1.09 × 10{sup 13 }cm{sup −2}, respectively, for the SH-HEMT. Capacitance-voltage measurements confirmed the improvement in the confinement of 2DEG in the DH-HEMT heterostructure, which helped in the enhancement of its room temperature mobility. DH-HEMT showed 3 times higher buffer break-down voltage compared to SH-HEMT, while both devices showed almost similar drain current density. Small signal RF measurements on the DH-HEMT showed a unity current-gain cut-off frequency (f{sub T}) and maximum oscillation frequency (f{sub max}) of 22 and 25 GHz, respectively. Thus, overall, DH-HEMT heterostructure was found to be advantageous due to its higher buffer break-down voltages compared to SH-HEMT heterostructure.

  9. Focal dystonia in musicians.

    PubMed

    Lie-Nemeth, Theresa J

    2006-11-01

    In conclusion, musicians' focal dystonia is a significant and potentially career-ending neurological condition of which physiatrists and other performing arts medicine clinicians should be aware. Pathology has been identified in the somatosensory cortex, and in the motor cortex and basal ganglia. Although advances have been made in the elucidating some of the pathologic changes in focal dystonia, better understanding is needed. Current treatments such as retraining, splinting, oral medications, and botulinum toxin injections are limited. Therefore, the ultimate goal for focal dystonia is to prevent this disabling disorder of instrumental musicians.

  10. Partial (focal) seizure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jacksonian seizure; Seizure - partial (focal); Temporal lobe seizure; Epilepsy - partial seizures ... Abou-Khalil BW, Gallagher MJ, Macdonald RL. Epilepsies. In: Daroff ... Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 101. ...

  11. Focal Plane Instrumentation of VERITAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, T.; McKay, R.; Sleege, G.; Petry, D.

    VERITAS is a new atmospheric Cherenkov imaging telescope array to detect very high energy gamma rays above 100 GeV. The array is located in southern Arizona, USA, at an altitude of 1270m above see level. The array currently consists of four 12 m telescopes, structurally resembling the Davis-Cotton design of the Whipple 10 m telescope. The VERITAS focal plane instruments are equipped with high-resolution (499 pixels) fast photo-multiplier-tube (PMT) cameras covering a 3.5 degree field of view with 0.148 degree pixel separation. Light concentrators reduce the dead-space between PMTs to 25% and shield the PMTs from ambient light. The PMTs are connected to high-speed pre-amplifiers improving the signal to noise ratio and allow single photoelectron measurements in situ at operating voltage. Current monitor circuits in the focus box provide real-time monitoring of the anode currents for each pixel and ambient conditions of the focus box. A charge injection system installed in the focus box allows daytime testing of the trigger and data acquisition system by injecting pulses of variable amplitude and length into pre-amplifier stage. A detailed description of the VERITAS focal plane instruments will be given in this presentation.

  12. SNAP focal plane

    SciTech Connect

    Lampton, Michael L.; Kim, A.; Akerlof, C.W.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Berkovitz, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers Jr., W.C.; Commins, E.D.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.E.; DiGennaro,R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.S.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.E.; Harvey, P.R.; Heetderks, H.D.; Holland, S.E.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.S.; Linder,E.V.; Loken, S.C.; Malina, R.; Massey, R.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.P.; Miquel, R.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto, E.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch,A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, G.

    2002-07-29

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square-degree field sensitive in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. We describe the requirements for the instrument suite and the evolution of the focal plane design to the present concept in which all the instrumentation--visible and near-infrared imagers, spectrograph, and star guiders--share one common focal plane.

  13. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Bassioukas, K; Danielides, V; Georgiou, I; Photos, E; Zagorianakou, P; Skevas, A

    2000-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck disease, is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by HPV 13 or HPV 32. In Caucasians there have been only a few cases reported. We present the first case in Greece in a young Caucasian girl in which HPV 13 was detected with PCR analysis. The patient was successfully treated with CO2 laser.

  14. [Focal infections in otorhinolaryngology].

    PubMed

    Pal'chun, V T

    2016-01-01

    This publication is focused on the mechanisms underlying the clinical course of acute focal infections concomitant with ENT pathology, factors responsible for their chronization and the development of complications. Also discussed are the methods for the early adequate conservative and surgical treatment of these conditions. Special emphasis is placed on the principles of management of chronic tonsillitis. PMID:26977559

  15. Focal and generalized alopecia.

    PubMed

    O'Dair, H A; Foster, A P

    1995-07-01

    Focal or generalized alopecia is defined as hair loss affecting the ventral, lateral, perineal, and dorsal aspects of the trunk of the cat, usually in a symmetric pattern. This may be attributable to failure of hair coat production, excess loss of hair due to self trauma, or excess shedding of whole hairs. Self trauma is the most common cause of hair loss and is associated particularly with flea allergy dermatitis. Other causes of hair loss are reviewed.

  16. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    López-Jornet, Pía; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio; Berdugo, Lucero

    2010-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a benign, asymptomatic disease. It appears as papules, principally on the lower lip, although it can also be found on the retro-commissural mucosa and tongue and, less frequently, on the upper lip, gingiva and palate. FEH is caused by human papillomavirus subtype 13 or 32. The condition occurs in many populations and ethnic groups. We present the clinical case of a 31-year-old male with lesions that clinically and histologically corresponded to FEH.

  17. Aberration-free short focal length x-ray lenses.

    PubMed

    Alianelli, Lucia; del Rio, Manuel Sánchez; Fox, Oliver J L; Korwin-Mikke, Katarzyna

    2015-12-01

    We treat the problem of defining the ideal x-ray refractive lens design for point focusing of low emittance x-ray beams at third- and fourth-generation synchrotron sources. The task is accomplished by using Fermat's principle to define a lens shape that is completely free from geometrical aberrations. Current microfabrication resolution limits are identified, and a design that tolerates the inherent fabrication imperfections is proposed. The refractive lens design delivers nanometer-sized focused x-ray beams and is compatible with current microfabrication techniques. PMID:26625057

  18. Bioluminescence microscopy using a short focal-length imaging lens.

    PubMed

    Ogoh, K; Akiyoshi, R; May-Maw-Thet; Sugiyama, T; Dosaka, S; Hatta-Ohashi, Y; Suzuki, H

    2014-03-01

    Bioluminescence from cells is so dim that bioluminescence microscopy is performed using an ultra low-light imaging camera. Although the image sensor of such cameras has been greatly improved over time, such improvements have not been made commercially available for microscopes until now. Here, we customized the optical system of a microscope for bioluminescence imaging. As a result, bioluminescence images of cells could be captured with a conventional objective lens and colour imaging camera. As bioluminescence microscopy requires no excitation light, it lacks the photo-toxicity associated with fluorescence imaging and permits the long-term, nonlethal observation of living cells. Thus, bioluminescence microscopy would be a powerful tool in cellular biology that complements fluorescence microscopy.

  19. Bioluminescence microscopy using a short focal-length imaging lens.

    PubMed

    Ogoh, K; Akiyoshi, R; May-Maw-Thet; Sugiyama, T; Dosaka, S; Hatta-Ohashi, Y; Suzuki, H

    2014-03-01

    Bioluminescence from cells is so dim that bioluminescence microscopy is performed using an ultra low-light imaging camera. Although the image sensor of such cameras has been greatly improved over time, such improvements have not been made commercially available for microscopes until now. Here, we customized the optical system of a microscope for bioluminescence imaging. As a result, bioluminescence images of cells could be captured with a conventional objective lens and colour imaging camera. As bioluminescence microscopy requires no excitation light, it lacks the photo-toxicity associated with fluorescence imaging and permits the long-term, nonlethal observation of living cells. Thus, bioluminescence microscopy would be a powerful tool in cellular biology that complements fluorescence microscopy. PMID:24386879

  20. Focal adhesions in osteoneogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, M.J.P; Dalby, M.J

    2010-01-01

    As materials technology and the field of tissue engineering advances, the role of cellular adhesive mechanisms, in particular the interactions with implantable devices, becomes more relevant in both research and clinical practice. A key tenet of medical device technology is to use the exquisite ability of biological systems to respond to the material surface or chemical stimuli in order to help develop next-generation biomaterials. The focus of this review is on recent studies and developments concerning focal adhesion formation in osteoneogenesis, with an emphasis on the influence of synthetic constructs on integrin mediated cellular adhesion and function. PMID:21287830

  1. [Focal epithelial hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Delgado, Yolanda; Torrelo, Antonio; Colmenero, Isabel; Zambrano, Antonio

    2005-12-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a benign proliferation of the oral mucosa with well defined clinical and histological characteristics. It has been associated with infection of the oral mucosa by types 13 and 32 of the human papillomavirus (HPV), and to a lesser extent, with other types. Its clinical course is variable, although it usually persists for months or years; cases with spontaneous resolution have been described, as have others with prolonged persistence. We present the case of an Ecuadorian boy whose visit was motivated by lesions in the oral mucosa consistent with a diagnosis of FEH, which were confirmed in the histological study, and in which HPV type 13 DNA was identified.

  2. [Focal epithelial hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Carlino, P; Di Felice, R; Fiore-Donno, G; Samson, J

    1991-05-01

    Five cases of "focal epithelial hyperplasia" (FEH) of the oral mucosa observed in Switzerland are reported. The patients were of Turkish and North African extraction. The lesions of FEH were multiple, painless, located at various sites of the oral mucosa including the tongue in the form of either soft papules or hard nodules. Evidence of a human papilloma virus origin was ascertained. Among the 1067 cases reported in the literature and reviewed for this study, this condition has been described to occur among American Indians, Eskimos and North African, also in Israeli and European cases the disorder was often reported in individuals of Turkish or North African extraction.

  3. [The focal renal lesions].

    PubMed

    Tuma, Jan

    2013-06-01

    The focal renal lesions are altogether common. Most frequently are found Columna Bertini hypertrophies (so called pseudotumors) and simple renal cysts. The role of sonography in the practice is to distinguish pseudotumors from real renal tumors, and simple renal cysts from complex cysts. The differentiation of complex renal cysts is possible with the help of the CEUS (= contrast enhanced ultrasound) and other imaging modalities such as CT or MRI. In these cases, the CEUS imaging agent has clear advantages over CT and MRI, because it is composed of gas bubbles, which are only slightly smaller than red blood cells and remains exclusively intravascularly while the CT and MRI contrast agents diffuse into the interstitial space without any real perfusion. The real tumors can be differentiated from certain focal non-tumorous changes based on the ultrasound and clinic. The further differentiation of individual kidney tumors and metastases using ultrasound, MRI, CT and CEUS is only partly possible. In all uncertain or unclear cases, therefore, an open or ultrasound-guided biopsy is useful.

  4. Variable-focal lens using electroactive polymer actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vunder, V.; Punning, A.; Aabloo, A.

    2011-03-01

    The paper describes a simple and cost-effective design and fabrication process of a liquid-filled variable-focal lens. The lens was made of soft polymer material, its shape and curvature can be controlled by hydraulic pressure. An electroactive polymer is used as an actuator. A carbon-polymer composite (CPC) was used. The device is composed of elastic membrane upon a circular lens chamber, a reservoir of liquid, and a channel between them. It was made of three layers of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), bonded using the partial curing technique. The channels and reservoir were filled with incompressible liquid after curing process. A CPC actuator was mechanically attached to reservoir to compress or decompress the liquid. Squeezing the liquid between the reservoir and the lens chamber will push the membrane inward or outward resulting in the change of the shape of the lens and alteration of its focal length. Depending on the pressure the lens can be plano-convex or plano-concave or even switch between the two configurations. With only a few minor modifications it is possible to fabricate bi-convex and bi-concave lenses. The lens with a 1 mm diameter and the focal length from infinity to 17 mm is reported. The 5x15mm CPC actuator with the working voltage of only up to +/-2.5 V was capable to alter the focal length within the full range of the focal length in 10 seconds.

  5. Asterixis in focal brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Degos, J D; Verroust, J; Bouchareine, A; Serdaru, M; Barbizet, J

    1979-11-01

    Asterixis was observed in 20 cases of focal brain lesions. Metabolic or toxic factors were excluded. An electromyogram study of asterixis was carried out in nine cases to establish the diagnosis. The site of the focal lesion was either parietal or mesencephalic and was always contralateral to the asterixis. "Focal asterixis" could result from a dysfunction of the sensorimotor integration in the parietal lobe and the midbrain.

  6. Positive focal shift of gallium nitride high contrast grating focusing reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shumin; Wang, Zhenhai; Liu, Qifa

    2016-09-01

    We design a type of metasurfaces capable of serving as a visible-light focusing reflector based on gallium nitride (GaN) high contrast gratings (HCGs). The wavefront of the reflected light is precisely manipulated by spatial variation of the grating periods along the subwavelength ridge array to achieve light focusing. Different from conventional negative focal shift effect, a positive focal shift is observed in such focusing reflectors. Detailed investigations of the influence of device size on the focusing performance, especially the focal length, are preformed via a finite element method . The results show that all performance parameters are greatly affected by the reflector size. A more concentrated focal point, or a better focusing capability, can be achieved by larger size. With increasing reflector size, the achieved focal length decreases and gradually approaches to the design, thus the corresponding positive focal shift decreases. Our results are helpful for understanding the visible-light control of the planar HCG-based focusing reflectors.

  7. Focal adhesion kinase

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Rebecca L; Baggerly, Keith A; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo N; Kang, Yu; Sanguino, Angela M; Thanapprapasr, Duangmani; Dalton, Heather J; Bottsford-Miller, Justin; Zand, Behrouz; Akbani, Rehan; Diao, Lixia; Nick, Alpa M; DeGeest, Koen; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Coleman, Robert L; Lutgendorf, Susan; Sood, Anil K

    2014-01-01

    This investigation describes the clinical significance of phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) at the major activating tyrosine site (Y397) in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells. FAK gene amplification as a mechanism for FAK overexpression and the effects of FAK tyrosine kinase inhibitor VS-6062 on tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis were examined. FAK and phospho-FAKY397 were quantified in tumor (FAK-T; pFAK-T) and tumor-associated endothelial (FAK-endo; pFAK-endo) cell compartments of EOCs using immunostaining and qRT-PCR. Associations between expression levels and clinical variables were evaluated. Data from The Cancer Genome Atlas were used to correlate FAK gene copy number and expression levels in EOC specimens. The in vitro and in vivo effects of VS-6062 were assayed in preclinical models. FAK-T and pFAK-T overexpression was significantly associated with advanced stage disease and increased microvessel density (MVD). High MVD was observed in tumors with elevated endothelial cell FAK (59%) and pFAK (44%). Survival was adversely affected by FAK-T overexpression (3.03 vs 2.06 y, P = 0.004), pFAK-T (2.83 vs 1.78 y, P < 0.001), and pFAK-endo (2.33 vs 2.17 y, P = 0.005). FAK gene copy number was increased in 34% of tumors and correlated with expression levels (P < 0.001). VS-6062 significantly blocked EOC and endothelial cell migration as well as endothelial cell tube formation in vitro. VS-6062 reduced mean tumor weight by 56% (P = 0.005), tumor MVD by 40% (P = 0.0001), and extraovarian metastasis (P < 0.01) in orthotopic EOC mouse models. FAK may be a unique therapeutic target in EOC given the dual anti-angiogenic and anti-metastatic potential of FAK inhibitors. PMID:24755674

  8. Small pixel oversampled IR focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulfield, John; Curzan, Jon; Lewis, Jay; Dhar, Nibir

    2015-06-01

    We report on a new high definition high charge capacity 2.1 Mpixel MWIR Infrared Focal Plane Array. This high definition (HD) FPA utilizes a small 5 um pitch pixel size which is below the Nyquist limit imposed by the optical systems Point Spread Function (PSF). These smaller sub diffraction limited pixels allow spatial oversampling of the image. We show that oversampling IRFPAs enables improved fidelity in imaging including resolution improvements, advanced pixel correlation processing to reduce false alarm rates, improved detection ranges, and an improved ability to track closely spaced objects. Small pixel HD arrays are viewed as the key component enabling lower size, power and weight of the IR Sensor System. Small pixels enables a reduction in the size of the systems components from the smaller detector and ROIC array, the reduced optics focal length and overall lens size, resulting in an overall compactness in the sensor package, cooling and associated electronics. The highly sensitive MWIR small pixel HD FPA has the capability to detect dimmer signals at longer ranges than previously demonstrated.

  9. Statistical earthquake focal mechanism forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, Yan Y.; Jackson, David D.

    2014-04-01

    Forecasts of the focal mechanisms of future shallow (depth 0-70 km) earthquakes are important for seismic hazard estimates and Coulomb stress, and other models of earthquake occurrence. Here we report on a high-resolution global forecast of earthquake rate density as a function of location, magnitude and focal mechanism. In previous publications we reported forecasts of 0.5° spatial resolution, covering the latitude range from -75° to +75°, based on the Global Central Moment Tensor earthquake catalogue. In the new forecasts we have improved the spatial resolution to 0.1° and the latitude range from pole to pole. Our focal mechanism estimates require distance-weighted combinations of observed focal mechanisms within 1000 km of each gridpoint. Simultaneously, we calculate an average rotation angle between the forecasted mechanism and all the surrounding mechanisms, using the method of Kagan & Jackson proposed in 1994. This average angle reveals the level of tectonic complexity of a region and indicates the accuracy of the prediction. The procedure becomes problematical where longitude lines are not approximately parallel, and where shallow earthquakes are so sparse that an adequate sample spans very large distances. North or south of 75°, the azimuths of points 1000 km away may vary by about 35°. We solved this problem by calculating focal mechanisms on a plane tangent to the Earth's surface at each forecast point, correcting for the rotation of the longitude lines at the locations of earthquakes included in the averaging. The corrections are negligible between -30° and +30° latitude, but outside that band uncorrected rotations can be significantly off. Improved forecasts at 0.5° and 0.1° resolution are posted at http://eq.ess.ucla.edu/kagan/glob_gcmt_index.html.

  10. Focal hyperhidrosis: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Haider, Aamir; Solish, Nowell

    2005-01-01

    Hyperhidrosis, a condition characterized by excessive sweating, can be generalized or focal. Generalized hyperhidrosis involves the entire body and is usually part of an underlying condition, most often an infectious, endocrine or neurologic disorder. Focal hyperhidrosis is idiopathic, occurring in otherwise healthy people. It affects 1 or more body areas, most often the palms, armpits, soles or face. Almost 3% of the general population, largely people aged between 25 and 64 years, experience hyperhidrosis. The condition carries a substantial psychological and social burden, since it interferes with daily activities. However, patients rarely seek a physician's help because many are unaware that they have a treatable medical disorder. Early detection and management of hyperhidrosis can significantly improve a patient's quality of life. There are various topical, systemic, surgical and nonsurgical treatments available with efficacy rates greater than 90%-95%.

  11. Focal hyperhidrosis: diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Haider, Aamir; Solish, Nowell

    2005-01-01

    HYPERHIDROSIS, A CONDITION CHARACTERIZED by excessive sweating, can be generalized or focal. Generalized hyperhidrosis involves the entire body and is usually part of an underlying condition, most often an infectious, endocrine or neurologic disorder. Focal hyperhidrosis is idiopathic, occurring in otherwise healthy people. It affects 1 or more body areas, most often the palms, armpits, soles or face. Almost 3% of the general population, largely people aged between 25 and 64 years, experience hyperhidrosis. The condition carries a substantial psychological and social burden, since it interferes with daily activities. However, patients rarely seek a physician's help because many are unaware that they have a treatable medical disorder. Early detection and management of hyperhidrosis can significantly improve a patient's quality of life. There are various topical, systemic, surgical and nonsurgical treatments available with efficacy rates greater than 90%–95%. PMID:15632408

  12. [Asterixis in focal brain lesions].

    PubMed

    Velasco, F; Gomez, J C; Zarranz, J J; Lambarri, I; Ugalde, J

    2004-05-01

    Asterixis is a motor control disorder characterized by the presence of abnormal movements of the lower limbs in the vertical plane during posture maintenance. Asterixis is usually bilateral and associated with toxic-metabolic metabolic encephalopathies. Unilateral asterixis is less frequent and it normally indicates focal brain damage. We report the cases of four patients (two males/two females), aged 57 to 83 years, suffering from uni or bilateral asterixis associated with focal brain damage. All patients underwent CT brain scan and a neurophysiological study (parietal EMG and/or PES). In addition, any toxic-metabolic cause that could be produced by this clinical phenomenon was ruled out with the appropriate testing. Unilateral asterixis is a clinical symptom that may indicate the presence of focal brain damage. Often, it is ignored or overlooked during routine neurological examinations. On the other hand, the presence of a bilateral asterixis is not always indicative of a toxic-metabolic encephalopathy.Rarely, such as in one of the cases herein presented, bilateral asterixis can also appear associated with structural brain lesions. Although asterixis diagnosis is fundamentally clinical, the neurophysiological study contributes to verify the diagnosis.

  13. MIPAS focal-plane optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokhove, Henk; Smorenburg, C.; Visser, H.

    1993-11-01

    The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) has been selected by ESA for the ENVISAT-Mission, scheduled for launch in 1998. The instrument will measure the concentration of a number of atmospheric trace gases in the earth atmosphere in a spectral region from 4.15 - 14.6 micrometers . Within this region measurements are performed with high spectral resolution. The MIPAS optical system consists of scan mirrors, a telescope, a Michelson interferometer, an afocal reducer and a focal plane assembly. TNO Institute of Applied Physics is involved in the design and development of the afocal reducer and the focal plane assembly. The beam reducing optics of the afocal reducer consist of 2 concave and one convex mirror. Both the housing and the mirrors are made of aluminum to ensure temperature invariance. The optics of the focal plane assembly consist of aluminum mirrors, dichroic beamsplitters and Ge lenses in front of the detectors. The optical/mechanical design is developed to the level that phase C2/D activities can start.

  14. Persistent Focal Behavior and Physical Activity Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erfle, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the proclivity and performance attributes of focal students across time and activities using data from 9,345 students. Three systematic focal behavior partitions are examined: Across activities, across time, and across activities and time. A student's performance is focal if it ends in 0 or 5 for push-ups and 0 for…

  15. ADAMTS-10 and -6 differentially regulate cell-cell junctions and focal adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Stuart A.; Mularczyk, Ewa J.; Singh, Mukti; Massam-Wu, Teresa; Kielty, Cay M.

    2016-01-01

    ADAMTS10 and ADAMTS6 are homologous metalloproteinases with ill-defined roles. ADAMTS10 mutations cause Weill-Marchesani syndrome (WMS), implicating it in fibrillin microfibril biology since some fibrillin-1 mutations also cause WMS. However little is known about ADAMTS6 function. ADAMTS10 is resistant to furin cleavage, however we show that ADAMTS6 is effectively processed and active. Using siRNA, over-expression and mutagenesis, it was found ADAMTS6 inhibits and ADAMTS10 is required for focal adhesions, epithelial cell-cell junction formation, and microfibril deposition. Either knockdown of ADAMTS6, or disruption of its furin processing or catalytic sites restores focal adhesions, implicating its enzyme activity acts on targets in the focal adhesion complex. In ADAMTS10-depleted cultures, expression of syndecan-4 rescues focal adhesions and cell-cell junctions. Recombinant C-termini of ADAMTS10 and ADAMTS6, both of which induce focal adhesions, bind heparin and syndecan-4. However, cells overexpressing full-length ADAMTS6 lack heparan sulphate and focal adhesions, whilst depletion of ADAMTS6 induces a prominent glycocalyx. Thus ADAMTS10 and ADAMTS6 oppositely affect heparan sulphate-rich interfaces including focal adhesions. We previously showed that microfibril deposition requires fibronectin-induced focal adhesions, and cell-cell junctions in epithelial cultures. Here we reveal that ADAMTS6 causes a reduction in heparan sulphate-rich interfaces, and its expression is regulated by ADAMTS10. PMID:27779234

  16. Crosstalk between focal adhesions and material mechanical properties governs cell mechanics and functions.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Sabato; Panzetta, Valeria; Embrione, Valerio; Netti, Paolo A

    2015-09-01

    Mechanical properties of materials strongly influence cell fate and functions. Focal adhesions are involved in the extremely important processes of mechanosensing and mechanotransduction. To address the relationship between the mechanical properties of cell substrates, focal adhesion/cytoskeleton assembly and cell functions, we investigated the behavior of NIH/3T3 cells over a wide range of stiffness (3-1000kPa) using two of the most common synthetic polymers for cell cultures: polyacrylamide and polydimethylsiloxane. An overlapping stiffness region was created between them to compare focal adhesion characteristics and cell functions, taking into account their different time-dependent behavior. Indeed, from a rheological point of view, polyacrylamide behaves like a strong gel (elastically), whereas polydimethylsiloxane like a viscoelastic solid. First, focal adhesion characteristics and dynamics were addressed in terms of material stiffness, then cell spreading area, migration rate and cell mechanical properties were correlated with focal adhesion size and assembly. Focal adhesion size was found to increase in the whole range of stiffness and to be in agreement in the overlapping rigidity region for the investigated materials. Cell mechanics directly correlated with focal adhesion lengths, whereas migration rate followed an inverse correlation. Cell spreading correlated with the substrate stiffness on polyacrylamide hydrogel, while no specific trend was found on polydimethylsiloxane. Substrate mechanics can be considered as a key physical cue that regulates focal adhesion assembly, which in turn governs important cellular properties and functions. PMID:26004223

  17. [Cutaneous myxoma (focal dermal mucinosis)].

    PubMed

    Senff, H; Kuhlwein, A; Jänner, M; Schäfer, R

    1988-09-01

    Two cases of cutaneous myxoma are presented. In case 1 the cutaneous myxoma was localized on the left thumb and clinically resembled a pyogenic granuloma. In case 2 it was found at the left nipple. The benign cutaneous tumor may herald a cardiac myxoma and other conditions. Thus, a cutaneous myxoma should be accepted as an indication for thorough investigation of the whole body at regular intervals. As there are neither clinically nor histologically adequate criteria for differentiation, cutaneous myxoma and focal dermal mucinosis can be considered as variants of a single entity.

  18. Focal epithelial hyperplasia: Heck disease.

    PubMed

    Cohen, P R; Hebert, A A; Adler-Storthz, K

    1993-09-01

    Two sisters of Mexican ancestry had focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH). The lesions on the oral mucosa of the older child were initially misinterpreted as representing sexual abuse. Microscopic evaluation of a hematoxylin and eosin-stained section from a lower lip papule demonstrated the histologic features of FEH. Although human papillomavirus (HPV) type 13 and HPV32 have been most consistently present in FEH lesions, types 6, 11, 13, and 32 were not detected in the paraffin-embedded tissue specimen of our patient using an in situ hybridization technique. The lesions persisted or recurred during management using destructive modalities; subsequently, they completely resolved spontaneously.

  19. Focal epithelial hyperplasia in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Axéll, T; Hammarström, L; Larsson, A

    1981-01-01

    A prevalence of 0.11% of focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) was found among 20,333 adult Swedes. There was no sex difference, the lesion was most prevalent in age groups above 45 years and the lesion was most frequent on the tongue. The frequency of FEH in 15,132 consecutive routine biopsies was 0.26%. Four FEH-cells were ultrastructurally examined. They exhibited a clear cytoplasm with scattered ribosomes, a peripheral condensation of tonofilaments, a central aggregation of chromatin clumps with loss of nuclear membrane and an accumulation of desmosome fragments. No viral particles could be identified in these FEH-cells.

  20. SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development

    SciTech Connect

    Bebek, C.; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bercovitz, J.; Bergstrom, L.; Berstein, G.P.; Bester, M.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Campbell, M.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.; Emmett, W.; Eriksson, M.; Fouchez,D.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Johnson, W.; Kadel, R.; Karcher,A.; Kim, A.; Kolbe, W.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureaux, J.; Lampton, M.; Lefevre, O.; Levi, M.; Levin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; Mazure, A.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Morgan, N.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Roe, N.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Prieto, E.; Rabinowitz,D.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Schubnell, M.; Sholl, M.; Smadja, G.; Smith, R.; Smoot, G.; Snyder, J.; Spadafora, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tarle,G.; Taylor, K.; Tilquin, A.; Tomasch, A.; Vincent, D.; von der Lippe, H.; Walder, J-P.; Wang, G.

    2003-07-07

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R&D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics.

  1. Multi-focal multiphoton lithography.

    PubMed

    Ritschdorff, Eric T; Nielson, Rex; Shear, Jason B

    2012-03-01

    Multiphoton lithography (MPL) provides unparalleled capabilities for creating high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) materials from a broad spectrum of building blocks and with few limitations on geometry, qualities that have been key to the design of chemically, mechanically, and biologically functional microforms. Unfortunately, the reliance of MPL on laser scanning limits the speed at which fabrication can be performed, making it impractical in many instances to produce large-scale, high-resolution objects such as complex micromachines, 3D microfluidics, etc. Previously, others have demonstrated the possibility of using multiple laser foci to simultaneously perform MPL at numerous sites in parallel, but use of a stage-scanning system to specify fabrication coordinates resulted in the production of identical features at each focal position. As a more general solution to the bottleneck problem, we demonstrate here the feasibility for performing multi-focal MPL using a dynamic mask to differentially modulate foci, an approach that enables each fabrication site to create independent (uncorrelated) features within a larger, integrated microform. In this proof-of-concept study, two simultaneously scanned foci produced the expected two-fold decrease in fabrication time, and this approach could be readily extended to many scanning foci by using a more powerful laser. Finally, we show that use of multiple foci in MPL can be exploited to assign heterogeneous properties (such as differential swelling) to micromaterials at distinct positions within a fabrication zone.

  2. Multi-focal multiphoton lithography.

    PubMed

    Ritschdorff, Eric T; Nielson, Rex; Shear, Jason B

    2012-03-01

    Multiphoton lithography (MPL) provides unparalleled capabilities for creating high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) materials from a broad spectrum of building blocks and with few limitations on geometry, qualities that have been key to the design of chemically, mechanically, and biologically functional microforms. Unfortunately, the reliance of MPL on laser scanning limits the speed at which fabrication can be performed, making it impractical in many instances to produce large-scale, high-resolution objects such as complex micromachines, 3D microfluidics, etc. Previously, others have demonstrated the possibility of using multiple laser foci to simultaneously perform MPL at numerous sites in parallel, but use of a stage-scanning system to specify fabrication coordinates resulted in the production of identical features at each focal position. As a more general solution to the bottleneck problem, we demonstrate here the feasibility for performing multi-focal MPL using a dynamic mask to differentially modulate foci, an approach that enables each fabrication site to create independent (uncorrelated) features within a larger, integrated microform. In this proof-of-concept study, two simultaneously scanned foci produced the expected two-fold decrease in fabrication time, and this approach could be readily extended to many scanning foci by using a more powerful laser. Finally, we show that use of multiple foci in MPL can be exploited to assign heterogeneous properties (such as differential swelling) to micromaterials at distinct positions within a fabrication zone. PMID:22282105

  3. Correcting length-frequency distributions for imperfect detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breton, André R.; Hawkins, John A.; Winkelman, Dana L.

    2013-01-01

    Sampling gear selects for specific sizes of fish, which may bias length-frequency distributions that are commonly used to assess population size structure, recruitment patterns, growth, and survival. To properly correct for sampling biases caused by gear and other sources, length-frequency distributions need to be corrected for imperfect detection. We describe a method for adjusting length-frequency distributions when capture and recapture probabilities are a function of fish length, temporal variation, and capture history. The method is applied to a study involving the removal of Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu by boat electrofishing from a 38.6-km reach on the Yampa River, Colorado. Smallmouth Bass longer than 100 mm were marked and released alive from 2005 to 2010 on one or more electrofishing passes and removed on all other passes from the population. Using the Huggins mark–recapture model, we detected a significant effect of fish total length, previous capture history (behavior), year, pass, year×behavior, and year×pass on capture and recapture probabilities. We demonstrate how to partition the Huggins estimate of abundance into length frequencies to correct for these effects. Uncorrected length frequencies of fish removed from Little Yampa Canyon were negatively biased in every year by as much as 88% relative to mark–recapture estimates for the smallest length-class in our analysis (100–110 mm). Bias declined but remained high even for adult length-classes (≥200 mm). The pattern of bias across length-classes was variable across years. The percentage of unadjusted counts that were below the lower 95% confidence interval from our adjusted length-frequency estimates were 95, 89, 84, 78, 81, and 92% from 2005 to 2010, respectively. Length-frequency distributions are widely used in fisheries science and management. Our simple method for correcting length-frequency estimates for imperfect detection could be widely applied when mark–recapture data

  4. Primary focal hyperhidrosis: diagnosis and management. .

    PubMed

    Wang, Rena; Solish, Nowell; Murray, Christian A

    2008-12-01

    Primary focal hyperhidrosis is a common and serious medical condition that causes considerable psychosocial morbidity. Diagnostic and effective management strategies can improve patients' quality of living dramatically.

  5. Optimal focal-plane restoration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichenbach, Stephen E.; Park, Stephen K.

    1989-01-01

    Image restoration can be implemented efficiently by calculating the convolution of the digital image and a small kernel during image acquisition. Processing the image in the focal-plane in this way requires less computation than traditional Fourier-transform-based techniques such as the Wiener filter and constrained least-squares filter. Here, the values of the convolution kernel that yield the restoration with minimum expected mean-square error are determined using a frequency analysis of the end-to-end imaging system. This development accounts for constraints on the size and shape of the spatial kernel and all the components of the imaging system. Simulation results indicate the technique is effective and efficient.

  6. Focal epithelial hyperplasia - an update.

    PubMed

    Said, Ahmed K; Leao, Jair C; Fedele, Stefano; Porter, Stephen R

    2013-07-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is an asymptomatic benign mucosal disease, which is mostly observed in specific groups in certain geographical regions. FEH is usually a disease of childhood and adolescence and is generally associated with people who live in poverty and of low socioeconomic status. Clinically, FEH is typically characterized by multiple, painless, soft, sessile papules, plaques or nodules, which may coalesce to give rise to larger lesions. Human papillomavirus (HPV), especially genotypes 13 and 32, have been associated and detected in the majority of FEH lesions. The clinical examination and social history often allow diagnosis, but histopathological examination of lesional tissue is usually required to confirm the exact diagnosis. FEH sometimes resolves spontaneously however, treatment is often indicated as a consequence of aesthetic effects or any interference with occlusion. There remains no specific therapy for FEH, although surgical removal, laser excision or possibly topical antiviral agents may be of benefit. There remains no evidence that FEH is potentially malignant.

  7. Treatment of focal dystonias with botulinum neurotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Benecke, Reiner; Blitzer, Andrew; Comella, Cynthia L.

    2016-01-01

    This is a review on the use of injections of botulinum toxin for the treatment of focal dystonias. Disorders covered include cranial dystonia, cervical dystonia, spasmodic dysphonia, and focal hand dystonia. Considered are clinical aspects, alternative treatment strategies and principles of use of botulinum toxin injections. PMID:19103214

  8. Focal brain inflammation and autism.

    PubMed

    Theoharides, Theoharis C; Asadi, Shahrzad; Patel, Arti B

    2013-04-09

    Increasing evidence indicates that brain inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric diseases. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by social and learning disabilities that affect as many as 1/80 children in the USA. There is still no definitive pathogenesis or reliable biomarkers for ASD, thus significantly curtailing the development of effective therapies. Many children with ASD regress at about age 3 years, often after a specific event such as reaction to vaccination, infection, stress or trauma implying some epigenetic triggers, and may constitute a distinct phenotype. ASD children respond disproportionally to stress and are also affected by food and skin allergies. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is secreted under stress and together with neurotensin (NT) stimulates mast cells and microglia resulting in focal brain inflammation and neurotoxicity. NT is significantly increased in serum of ASD children along with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). NT stimulates mast cell secretion of mtDNA that is misconstrued as an innate pathogen triggering an auto-inflammatory response. The phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene mutation, associated with the higher risk of ASD, which leads to hyper-active mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling that is crucial for cellular homeostasis. CRH, NT and environmental triggers could hyperstimulate the already activated mTOR, as well as stimulate mast cell and microglia activation and proliferation. The natural flavonoid luteolin inhibits mTOR, mast cells and microglia and could have a significant benefit in ASD.

  9. Early vision and focal attention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julesz, Bela

    1991-07-01

    At the thirty-year anniversary of the introduction of the technique of computer-generated random-dot stereograms and random-dot cinematograms into psychology, the impact of the technique on brain research and on the study of artificial intelligence is reviewed. The main finding-that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis), motion perception, and preattentive texture discrimination are basically bottom-up processes, which occur without the help of the top-down processes of cognition and semantic memory-greatly simplifies the study of these processes of early vision and permits the linking of human perception with monkey neurophysiology. Particularly interesting are the unexpected findings that stereopsis (assumed to be local) is a global process, while texture discrimination (assumed to be a global process, governed by statistics) is local, based on some conspicuous local features (textons). It is shown that the top-down process of "shape (depth) from shading" does not affect stereopsis, and some of the models of machine vision are evaluated. The asymmetry effect of human texture discrimination is discussed, together with recent nonlinear spatial filter models and a novel extension of the texton theory that can cope with the asymmetry problem. This didactic review attempts to introduce the physicist to the field of psychobiology and its problems-including metascientific problems of brain research, problems of scientific creativity, the state of artificial intelligence research (including connectionist neural networks) aimed at modeling brain activity, and the fundamental role of focal attention in mental events.

  10. Focal liver lesions found incidentally.

    PubMed

    Algarni, Abdullah A; Alshuhri, Abdullah H; Alonazi, Majed M; Mourad, Moustafa Mabrouk; Bramhall, Simon R

    2016-03-28

    Incidentally found focal liver lesions are a common finding and a reason for referral to hepatobiliary service. They are often discovered in patients with history of liver cirrhosis, colorectal cancer, incidentally during work up for abdominal pain or in a trauma setting. Specific points should considered during history taking such as risk factors of liver cirrhosis; hepatitis, alcohol consumption, substance exposure or use of oral contraceptive pills and metabolic syndromes. Full blood count, liver function test and tumor markers can act as a guide to minimize the differential diagnosis and to categorize the degree of liver disease. Imaging should start with B-mode ultrasound. If available, contrast enhanced ultrasound is a feasible, safe, cost effective option and increases the ability to reach a diagnosis. Contrast enhanced computed tomography should be considered next. It is more accurate in diagnosis and better to study anatomy for possible operation. Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance is the gold standard with the highest sensitivity. If doubt still remains, the options are biopsy or surgical excision. PMID:27028805

  11. Biostatistical evaluation of focal hepatic preneoplasia.

    PubMed

    Kopp-Schneider, Annette

    2003-01-01

    Qualitative analyses of focal hepatic preneoplasia are relatively easy and fast but hypothesis tests based on these analyses often lack statistical power. Evaluating focal hepatic preneoplasia quantitatively, on the other hand, requires more effort but is rewarded by an increased ability to detect differences between treatment groups and by the possibility to investigate the mechanism of a treatment under study. Due to the stereological problems inherent in the data a statistical analysis that concentrates on the evaluation of area fraction will provide clear results whereas the analysis of focal transection density and size distribution can produce misleading results. In addition, the area fraction is a valid variable even in the presence of confluent foci. The number and size distribution of focal transections in liver sections cannot be directly translated to the number and sizes of foci in the liver. As no general statements about the relationship between focal transection density and foci density as well as between focal transection size and foci size distribution can be made, there is need for a parametric mechanistic model to link the number and size distribution of focal transections to those of the underlying foci. The stereological problem therefore can be avoided by introducing a model for foci appearance and change of volume that then can be used to conclude whether the treatment induces foci and whether it changes their volume.

  12. Do focal colors look particularly "colorful"?

    PubMed

    Witzel, Christoph; Franklin, Anna

    2014-04-01

    If the most typical red, yellow, green, and blue were particularly colorful (i.e., saturated), they would "jump out to the eye." This would explain why even fundamentally different languages have distinct color terms for these focal colors, and why unique hues play a prominent role in subjective color appearance. In this study, the subjective saturation of 10 colors around each of these focal colors was measured through a pairwise matching task. Results show that subjective saturation changes systematically across hues in a way that is strongly correlated to the visual gamut, and exponentially related to sensitivity but not to focal colors.

  13. Advanced approaches to focal plane integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, R. D.; Smith, E. C., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Both visible and infrared focal plane assemblies have common architectural driving parameters which guide their design approaches. The key drivers for advanced focal plane assemblies (FPA) are: the detector type and performance required; the number of detector chips; the packaging density; and the geometry. The impact of these drivers is seen to determine the engineering compromises necessary to establish FPA design approach. Several new designs are discussed which show a range of applications from single detector assemblies to monolithic detector chips with on-chip signal processing. The main objective of many advanced designs is to integrate the focal plane components in order to reduce power and reduce the number of interconnections.

  14. Focal Cortical Dysplasia in Childhood Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Tarek; Bernier, Anne; Carmant, Lionel

    2016-05-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia is a common cause of medication resistant epilepsy. A better understanding of its presentation, pathophysiology and consequences have helped us improved its treatment and outcome. This paper reviews the most recent classification, pathophysiology and imaging findings in clinical research as well as the knowledge gained from studying genetic and lesional animal models of focal cortical dysplasia. This review of this recently gained knowledge will most likely help develop new research models and new therapeutic targets for patients with epilepsy associated with focal cortical dysplasia. PMID:27544467

  15. Primary focal hyperhidrosis: scope of the problem.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Dee Anna; Hebert, Adelaide A; Pariser, David M; Solish, Nowell

    2007-05-01

    Focal hyperhidrosis (HH) can cause debilitating reductions in the physical and emotional quality of life (QOL) of patients, which can result in numerous restrictions of a patient's personal and professional lifestyle and activities. A variety of treatment options are available for primary focal HH, including topical and oral agents, tap water iontophoresis (TWI), botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A), and surgery. Studies evaluating BTX-A (Botox) treatment for palmar, plantar, and facial HH reveal that BTX-A provides effective treatment of primary focal HH, with a reasonable duration of effect, and has a good safety profile. Physicians should understand the impact of focal HH and the need to stay abreast of the available treatment options to provide the best care for patients.

  16. An uncommon focal epithelial hyperplasia manifestation.

    PubMed

    dos Santos-Pinto, Lourdes; Giro, Elisa Maria Aparecida; Pansani, Cyneu Aguiar; Ferrari, Junia; Massucato, Elaine Maria Sgavioli; Spolidório, Luis Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare, contagious disease associated with infection of the oral mucosa by human papillomavirus types 13 or 32, characterized by multiple soft papules of the same color as the adjacent normal mucosa. It mainly affects the lower lip, buccal mucosa, and tongue. The purpose of this case report was to describe a rare verrucal lesion located in the upper gingiva that was clinically and histologically consistent with focal epithelial hyperplasia. PMID:19941767

  17. Treatment planning for prostate focal laser ablation in the face of needle placement uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Cepek, Jeremy Fenster, Aaron; Lindner, Uri; Trachtenberg, John; Davidson, Sean R. H.; Haider, Masoom A.; Ghai, Sangeet

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To study the effect of needle placement uncertainty on the expected probability of achieving complete focal target destruction in focal laser ablation (FLA) of prostate cancer. Methods: Using a simplified model of prostate cancer focal target, and focal laser ablation region shapes, Monte Carlo simulations of needle placement error were performed to estimate the probability of completely ablating a region of target tissue. Results: Graphs of the probability of complete focal target ablation are presented over clinically relevant ranges of focal target sizes and shapes, ablation region sizes, and levels of needle placement uncertainty. In addition, a table is provided for estimating the maximum target size that is treatable. The results predict that targets whose length is at least 5 mm smaller than the diameter of each ablation region can be confidently ablated using, at most, four laser fibers if the standard deviation in each component of needle placement error is less than 3 mm. However, targets larger than this (i.e., near to or exceeding the diameter of each ablation region) require more careful planning. This process is facilitated by using the table provided. Conclusions: The probability of completely ablating a focal target using FLA is sensitive to the level of needle placement uncertainty, especially as the target length approaches and becomes greater than the diameter of ablated tissue that each individual laser fiber can achieve. The results of this work can be used to help determine individual patient eligibility for prostate FLA, to guide the planning of prostate FLA, and to quantify the clinical benefit of using advanced systems for accurate needle delivery for this treatment modality.

  18. European dry spell length distributions, years 1951-2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, C.; Martínez, M. D.; Lana, X.; Burgueño, A.

    2013-11-01

    Daily precipitation records of 267 European rain gauges are considered to obtain dry spell length (DSL) series along the second half of the twentieth century. A dry spell consists of consecutive days with daily rain amount below a given threshold, R 0. Four DSL series are obtained for R 0 values equal to 0.1, 1.0, 5.0, and 10.0 mm/day, and their empirical distributions are properly fitted to different statistical models: Pearson type III (PE3), Weibull (WEI), generalised Pareto, (GPA) and lognormal distributions. The parameters of every model are estimated by L-moments, and the goodness of fit is assessed by quantifying discrepancies between empirical and theoretical distributions in the L-skewness-kurtosis diagrams. The most common best-fitting model is PE3, especially for 0.1 and 1.0 mm/day. Nevertheless, a few stations in southern Europe are better modelled by the WEI distribution. For 5.0 and 10.0 mm/day, the spatial distribution of the best-fitting model is more heterogeneous than for the lowest thresholds. While PE3 is still the preferred model for Western Europe, some DSL series are better fitted to WEI or GPA models. Maps of DSL average and standard deviation and expected lengths for return periods of 2, 5, 10, 25, and 50 years show some common features. Whereas for thresholds of 0.1 and 1.0 mm/day, a N-S gradient is detected, especially in Mediterranean areas; for 5.0 and 10.0 mm/day, a NW-SE gradient is observed in the Iberian Peninsula and a SW-NE gradient in the Scandinavian Peninsula. Then, the vicinity to Atlantic and Arctic Oceans and the Mediterranean Sea, as well as orographic features, are more determining factors than the latitude in patterns associated with the highest R 0 thresholds. Finally, a regional frequency analysis based on a clustering algorithm is attempted for the four thresholds R 0, with the PE3 model as the parent distribution for the largest clusters.

  19. Near-Field Imaging Based on High Resolution Focal Spot Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillers, G.; Campillo, M.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Roux, P.; Lecointre, A.; Vernon, F.

    2015-12-01

    The dense spatial wavefield sampling provided by modern seismological acquisitions allows the resolution of the near-field focal spot. The large-amplitude focal spot emerges from the superposition of a collapsing, time reversed wavefront. We discuss an imaging method that is based on high resolution reconstructions of the focal spot that is obtained from cross correlation. This approach exploits the dependence of the spot's shape on local properties of the propagation medium, i.e., the distance of the first zero crossing is proportional to the wave length. We construct noise correlation functions from data collected by a highly-dense Nodal array centered on the San Jacinto fault zone south of Anza. The focal spot can be obtained from the amplitude distributions at zero lag time. We repeat this analysis using each geophone location as the collapsing point to which the wave length estimate is related. The anisotropic intensity of the converging wavefields leads to distorted focal spots. In addition, strong body and fault zone waves that are associated with the complex fault zone structure prohibit the straightforward analysis of the spatially variable zero-lag time distributions. We discuss strategies to mute the influence of the wavefield anisotropy and the removal of the body and fault zone wave components for improved reconstructions of the symmetric surface wave focal spot. The overall consistency of the local wave speed estimates from the zero crossing and images obtained with more traditional far-field travel time inversions validates the near-field approach. We discuss causes for the remaining inconsistencies and compare limits of the resolution in both cases. At higher frequencies (>3 Hz) both methods reveal a heterogeneous velocity structure that exhibits pronounced low-velocity zones. In addition, near-field based images obtained at wave lengths that are too large for the application of far-field methods suggest a strong velocity contrast across the fault.

  20. NMDA receptor binding in focal epilepsies

    PubMed Central

    McGinnity, C J; Koepp, M J; Hammers, A; Riaño Barros, D A; Pressler, R M; Luthra, S; Jones, P A; Trigg, W; Micallef, C; Symms, M R; Brooks, D J; Duncan, J S

    2015-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate altered N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor availability in patients with focal epilepsies using positron emission tomography (PET) and [18F]GE-179, a ligand that selectively binds to the open NMDA receptor ion channel, which is thought to be overactive in epilepsy. Methods Eleven patients (median age 33 years, 6 males) with known frequent interictal epileptiform discharges had an [18F]GE-179 PET scan, in a cross-sectional study. MRI showed a focal lesion but discordant EEG changes in two, was non-localising with multifocal EEG abnormalities in two, and was normal in the remaining seven patients who all had multifocal EEG changes. Individual patient [18F]GE-179 volume-of-distribution (VT) images were compared between individual patients and a group of 10 healthy controls (47 years, 7 males) using Statistical Parametric Mapping. Results Individual analyses revealed a single cluster of focal VT increase in four patients; one with a single and one with multifocal MRI lesions, and two with normal MRIs. Post hoc analysis revealed that, relative to controls, patients not taking antidepressants had globally increased [18F]GE-179 VT (+28%; p<0.002), and the three patients taking an antidepressant drug had globally reduced [18F]GE-179 VT (−29%; p<0.002). There were no focal abnormalities common to the epilepsy group. Conclusions In patients with focal epilepsies, we detected primarily global increases of [18F]GE-179 VT consistent with increased NMDA channel activation, but reduced availability in those taking antidepressant drugs, consistent with a possible mode of action of this class of drugs. [18F]GE-179 PET showed focal accentuations of NMDA binding in 4 out of 11 patients, with difficult to localise and treat focal epilepsy. PMID:25991402

  1. Focal Plane Metrology for the LSST Camera

    SciTech Connect

    A Rasmussen, Andrew P.; Hale, Layton; Kim, Peter; Lee, Eric; Perl, Martin; Schindler, Rafe; Takacs, Peter; Thurston, Timothy; /SLAC

    2007-01-10

    Meeting the science goals for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) translates into a demanding set of imaging performance requirements for the optical system over a wide (3.5{sup o}) field of view. In turn, meeting those imaging requirements necessitates maintaining precise control of the focal plane surface (10 {micro}m P-V) over the entire field of view (640 mm diameter) at the operating temperature (T {approx} -100 C) and over the operational elevation angle range. We briefly describe the hierarchical design approach for the LSST Camera focal plane and the baseline design for assembling the flat focal plane at room temperature. Preliminary results of gravity load and thermal distortion calculations are provided, and early metrological verification of candidate materials under cold thermal conditions are presented. A detailed, generalized method for stitching together sparse metrology data originating from differential, non-contact metrological data acquisition spanning multiple (non-continuous) sensor surfaces making up the focal plane, is described and demonstrated. Finally, we describe some in situ alignment verification alternatives, some of which may be integrated into the camera's focal plane.

  2. Measuring Thermodynamic Length

    SciTech Connect

    Crooks, Gavin E

    2007-09-07

    Thermodynamic length is a metric distance between equilibrium thermodynamic states. Among other interesting properties, this metric asymptotically bounds the dissipation induced by a finite time transformation of a thermodynamic system. It is also connected to the Jensen-Shannon divergence, Fisher information, and Rao's entropy differential metric. Therefore, thermodynamic length is of central interestin understanding matter out of equilibrium. In this Letter, we will consider how to denethermodynamic length for a small system described by equilibrium statistical mechanics and how to measure thermodynamic length within a computer simulation. Surprisingly, Bennett's classic acceptance ratio method for measuring free energy differences also measures thermodynamic length.

  3. Focal Reducer for CQUEAN (Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Juhee; Chang, Seunghyuk; Pak, Soojong; Kim, Youngju; Park, Won-Kee; Im, Myungshin

    2013-08-01

    A focal reducer is developed for CQUEAN (Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse), which is a CCD imaging system on the 2.1 m Otto Struve telescope at the McDonald observatory. It allows CQUEAN to secure a wider field of view by reducing the effective focal length by a factor of three. The optical point spread function without seeing effects is designed to be within one pixel (0.283 arcsec) over the field of view of 4.82 arcmin × 4.82 arcmin in optimum wavelength ranges of 0.8-1.1 μm. In this paper, we describe and discuss the characteristics of optical design, the lens and barrel fabrications and the alignment processes.The observation results show that the image quality of the focal reducer confirms the expectations from the design.

  4. Measuring microfocus focal spots using digital radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, David A

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification (especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application); (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. When determining microfocus focal spot dimensions using unsharpness measurements both signal-to-noise (SNR) and magnification can be important. There is a maximum accuracy that is a function of SNR and therefore an optimal magnification. Greater than optimal magnification can be used but it will not increase accuracy.

  5. Solid-state curved focal plane arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Hoenk, Michael (Inventor); Jones, Todd (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to curved focal plane arrays. More specifically, the present invention relates to a system and method for making solid-state curved focal plane arrays from standard and high-purity devices that may be matched to a given optical system. There are two ways to make a curved focal plane arrays starting with the fully fabricated device. One way, is to thin the device and conform it to a curvature. A second way, is to back-illuminate a thick device without making a thinned membrane. The thick device is a special class of devices; for example devices fabricated with high purity silicon. One surface of the device (the non VLSI fabricated surface, also referred to as the back surface) can be polished to form a curved surface.

  6. Defocus compensation system of long focal aerial camera based on auto-collimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-ye; Zhao, Yu-liang; Xu, Zhao-lin

    2010-10-01

    Nowadays, novel aerial reconnaissance camera emphasizes on the shooting performance in high altitude or in long distance of oblique photography. In order to obtain the larger scale pictures which are easier for image interpretation, we need the camera has long focal length. But long focal length camera is easier to be influenced by environmental condition and lead to great change of lens' back focus which can result in the lens' resolution decreased greatly. So, we should do precise defocusing compensation to long focal aerial camera system. In order to realize defocusing compensation, a defocusing compensation system based on autocollimation is designed. Firstly, the reason which can lead to long focal camera's defocusing was discussed, then the factors such as changes of atmospheric pressure and temperature and oblique photographic distance were pointed out, and mathematical equation which could compute camera's defocusing amount was presented. Secondly, after camera's defocusing was analyzed, electro-optical autocollimation of higher automation and intelligent was adopted in the system. Before shooting , focal surface was located by electro-optical autocollimation focal detection mechanism, the data of airplane's height was imported through electronic control system. Defocusing amount was corrected by computing defocusing amount and the signal was send to focusing control motor. And an efficient improved mountain climb-searching algorithm was adopted for focal surface locating in the correction process. When confirming the direction of curve, the improved algorithm considered both twice focusing results and four points. If four points continue raised, the curve would be confirmed as rising direction. On the other hand, if four points continue decreased, the curve would be confirmed as decrease direction. In this way, we could avoid the local peak value appeared in two focusing steps. The defocusing compensation system consists of optical component and precise

  7. Actinic Granuloma with Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Phasukthaworn, Ruedee; Chanprapaph, Kumutnart; Vachiramon, Vasanop

    2016-01-01

    Actinic granuloma is an uncommon granulomatous disease, characterized by annular erythematous plaque with central clearing predominately located on sun-damaged skin. The pathogenesis is not well understood, ultraviolet radiation is recognized as precipitating factor. We report a case of a 52-year-old woman who presented with asymptomatic annular erythematous plaques on the forehead and both cheeks persisting for 2 years. The clinical presentation and histopathologic findings support the diagnosis of actinic granuloma. During that period of time, she also developed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The association between actinic granuloma and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis needs to be clarified by further studies. PMID:27293392

  8. Hybrid Extrinsic Silicon Focal Plane Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommerrenig, D. H.; Meinhardt, T.; Lowe, J.

    1981-02-01

    Large-area focal planes require mechanical assembly techniques which must be compatible with optical alignment, minimum deadspace, and cryogenic requirements in order to achieve optimum performance. Hybrid extrinsic silicon has been found particularly suitable for such an application. It will be shown that by choosing a large-area extrinsic silicon detector array which is hybrid-mated to a multiplicity of multiplexers a very cost-effective and high-density focal plane module can be assembled. Other advantages of this approach are inherent optical alignment and excellent performance.

  9. [Liver ultrasound: focal lesions and diffuse diseases].

    PubMed

    Segura Grau, A; Valero López, I; Díaz Rodríguez, N; Segura Cabral, J M

    2016-01-01

    Liver ultrasound is frequently used as a first-line technique for the detection and characterization of the most common liver lesions, especially those incidentally found focal liver lesions, and for monitoring of chronic liver diseases. Ultrasound is not only used in the Bmode, but also with Doppler and, more recently, contrast-enhanced ultrasound. It is mainly used in the diagnosis of diffuse liver diseases, such as steatosis or cirrhosis. This article presents a practical approach for diagnosis workup, in which the different characteristics of the main focal liver lesions and diffuse liver diseases are reviewed.

  10. [Antiperspirants for the therapy of focal hyperhidrosis].

    PubMed

    Streker, M; Kerscher, M

    2012-06-01

    In Europe often no clear distinction is made between deodorant and antiperspirant. Particularly in Germany, the labeling "deo" is used for both. Only antiperspirants are capable of influencing the activity of eccrine sweat glands. In the treatment of focal hyperhidrosis, the use of aluminum chloride solutions represents the first choice. The efficacy is well documented in a variety of studies. Subjective side effects include pruritus and - less often - irritant dermatitis, which can be treated symptomatically and usually does not require discontinuation of the treatment. Rare variants of focal hyperhidrosis like auriculotemporal syndrome, Ross syndrome and nevus sudoriferus also are suitable for treatment with topical aluminum chloride hexahydrate solutions. PMID:22653180

  11. Rasmussen's encephalitis presenting as focal cortical dysplasia.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, D J; Bergin, A; Rotenberg, A; Peters, J; Gorman, M; Poduri, A; Cryan, J; Lidov, H; Madsen, J; Harini, C

    2014-01-01

    Rasmussen's encephalitis is a rare syndrome characterized by intractable seizures, often associated with epilepsia partialis continua and symptoms of progressive hemispheric dysfunction. Seizures are usually the hallmark of presentation, but antiepileptic drug treatment fails in most patients and is ineffective against epilepsia partialis continua, which often requires surgical intervention. Co-occurrence of focal cortical dysplasia has only rarely been described and may have implications regarding pathophysiology and management. We describe a rare case of dual pathology of Rasmussen's encephalitis presenting as a focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and discuss the literature on this topic. PMID:25667877

  12. Extensive Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Zahra; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Noormohamadi, Robab

    2015-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck's disease is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by human papilloma virus especially subtypes 13 or 32. The frequency of this disease varies widely from one geographic region and ethnic groups to another. This paper reports an Iranian case of extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia. A 35-year-old man with FEH is described, in whom the lesions had persisted for more than 25 years. The lesion was diagnosed according to both clinical and histopathological features. Dental practitioner should be aware of these types of lesions and histopathological examination together and a careful clinical observation should be carried out for a definitive diagnosis.

  13. Computer Model Of Focal Plane Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thvedt, Tom A.; Willoughby, Charles T.; Salcido, Michael M.; Dereniak, Eustace L.

    1987-11-01

    This paper presents a computer program for simulation of an infrared focal plane array. Standard equations are used to support a menu driven program developed for an IBM personal computer. The terms and equations for each section are presented and samples of actual screen displays of a currently available device are also included. The program is intended to provide the user with a better capability to understand and to study the tradeoffs of fabrication parameters versus the focal plane array performance (i.e. CTE, both spatial and temporal dynamic range, MTF, and noise) used for an optical sensor system analysis. Only surface channel devices are considered in the simulation.

  14. Ambroxol-induced focal epileptic seizure.

    PubMed

    Lapenta, Leonardo; Morano, Alessandra; Fattouch, Jinane; Casciato, Sara; Fanella, Martina; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Di Bonaventura, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that in epileptic patients some compounds and different drugs used for the treatment of comorbidities can facilitate or provoke seizures, this evidence regarding a wide spectrum of pharmacological categories. The potential facilitating factors usually include direct toxic effects or pharmacological interactions of either active ingredients or excipients. We report the case of a patient with drug-resistant epilepsy who experienced focal epileptic seizures, easily and constantly reproducible, after each administration of a cough syrup. This is, to our knowledge, the first electroencephalogram-documented case of focal epileptic seizures induced by cough syrup containing ambroxol as active ingredient.

  15. Ambroxol-induced focal epileptic seizure.

    PubMed

    Lapenta, Leonardo; Morano, Alessandra; Fattouch, Jinane; Casciato, Sara; Fanella, Martina; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Di Bonaventura, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that in epileptic patients some compounds and different drugs used for the treatment of comorbidities can facilitate or provoke seizures, this evidence regarding a wide spectrum of pharmacological categories. The potential facilitating factors usually include direct toxic effects or pharmacological interactions of either active ingredients or excipients. We report the case of a patient with drug-resistant epilepsy who experienced focal epileptic seizures, easily and constantly reproducible, after each administration of a cough syrup. This is, to our knowledge, the first electroencephalogram-documented case of focal epileptic seizures induced by cough syrup containing ambroxol as active ingredient. PMID:24824664

  16. Focal myositis of the perioral musculature.

    PubMed

    Ellis, G L; Brannon, R B

    1979-10-01

    Focal myositis, a benign inflammatory pseudotumor, is a relatively newly defined clinicopathologic entity which arises as a rapidly enlarging swelling within an isolated skeletal muscle. It occurs most often in the lower extremity, and we are reporting what we believe to be the first cases of perioral involvement. There is no apparent age or sex preference. Focal myositis must be differentiated from neoplasm, nodular pseudosarcomatous fascilitis, proliferative myositis, myositis ossificans, polymyositis, and, in the oral region, salivary gland lesions and hypertrophic branchial myopathy. No lesions have recurred.

  17. Development of a hard x-ray focal plane compton polarimeter: a compact polarimetric configuration with scintillators and Si photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, T.; Vadawale, S. V.; Goyal, S. K.; Mithun, N. P. S.; Patel, A. R.; Shukla, R.; Ladiya, T.; Shanmugam, M.; Patel, V. R.; Ubale, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    X-ray polarization measurement of cosmic sources provides two unique parameters namely degree and angle of polarization which can probe the emission mechanism and geometry at close vicinity of the compact objects. Specifically, the hard X-ray polarimetry is more rewarding because the sources are expected to be intrinsically highly polarized at higher energies. With the successful implementation of Hard X-ray optics in NuSTAR, it is now feasible to conceive Compton polarimeters as focal plane detectors. Such a configuration is likely to provide sensitive polarization measurements in hard X-rays with a broad energy band. We are developing a focal plane hard X-ray Compton polarimeter consisting of a plastic scintillator as active scatterer surrounded by a cylindrical array of CsI(Tl) scintillators. The scatterer is 5 mm diameter and 100 mm long plastic scintillator (BC404) viewed by normal PMT. The photons scattered by the plastic scatterer are collected by a cylindrical array of 16 CsI(Tl) scintillators (5 mm × 5 mm × 150 mm) which are read by Si Photomultiplier (SiPM). Use of the new generation SiPMs ensures the compactness of the instrument which is essential for the design of focal plane detectors. The expected sensitivity of such polarimetric configuration and complete characterization of the plastic scatterer, specially at lower energies have been discussed in [11, 13]. In this paper, we characterize the CsI(Tl) absorbers coupled to SiPM. We also present the experimental results from the fully assembled configuration of the Compton polarimeter.

  18. The Relation of Focal Lesions to Cortical Thickness in Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Erin D; Zielinski, Brandon A; Goodrich-Hunsaker, Naomi; Black, Garrett M; Huff, B S Trevor; Christiansen, Zachary; Wood, Dawn-Marie; Abildskov, Tracy J; Dennis, Maureen; Taylor, H Gerry; Rubin, Kenneth; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2016-10-01

    In a sample of children with traumatic brain injury, this magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based investigation examined whether presence of a focal lesion uniquely influenced cortical thickness in any brain region. Specifically, the study explored the relation of cortical thickness to injury severity as measured by Glasgow Coma Scale score and length of stay, along with presence of encephalomalacia, focal white matter lesions or presence of hemosiderin deposition as a marker of shear injury. For comparison, a group of children without head injury but with orthopedic injury of similar age and sex were also examined. Both traumatic brain injury and orthopedic injury children had normally reduced cortical thickness with age, assumed to reflect neuronal pruning. However, the reductions observed within the traumatic brain injury sample were similar to those in the orthopedic injury group, suggesting that in this sample traumatic brain injury, per se, did not uniquely alter cortical thickness in any brain region at the group level. Injury severity in terms of Glasgow Coma Scale or longer length of stay was associated with greater reductions in frontal and occipitoparietal cortical thickness. However, presence of focal lesions were not related to unique changes in cortical thickness despite having a prominent distribution of lesions within frontotemporal regions among children with traumatic brain injury. Because focal lesions were highly heterogeneous, their association with cortical thickness and development appeared to be idiosyncratic, and not associated with group level effects.

  19. Complex source description of focal regions.

    PubMed

    Monzon, Cesar; Forester, Donald W; Moore, Peter

    2006-04-01

    Closed-form solutions of the two-dimensional homogeneous wave equation are presented that provide focal-region descriptions corresponding to a converging bundle of rays. The solutions do have evanescent wave content and can be described as a source-sink pair or particle-antiparticle pair, collocated in complex space, with the complex location being critical in the determination of beam shape and focal region size. The wave solutions are not plagued by singularities, have a finite energy, and have a limitation on how small the focal size can get, with a penalty for limiting small spot sizes in the form of impractically high associated reactive energy. The electric-field-defined spot-size limiting value is 0.35lambda x 0.35lambda, which is about 38% of the Poynting-vector-defined minimum spot size (0.8lambda x 0.4lambda) and corresponds to a condition related to the maximum possible beam angle. A multiple set of solutions is introduced, and the elementary solutions are used to produce new solutions via superposition, resulting in fields with chiral character or with increased depth of focus. We do not claim generality, as the size of focal regions exhibited by the closed-form solutions has a lower bound and hence is not able to account for Pendry's "ideal lens" scenario. PMID:16604758

  20. Dual band QWIP focal plane array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor); Choi, Kwong Kit (Inventor); Bandara, Sumith V. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) that provides two-color image sensing. Two different quantum wells are configured to absorb two different wavelengths. The QWIPs are arrayed in a focal plane array (FPA). The two-color QWIPs are selected for readout by selective electrical contact with the two different QWIPs or by the use of two different wavelength sensitive gratings.

  1. MTI Focal Plane Assembly Design and Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, M.; Rienstra, J.L.

    1999-06-17

    The focal plane assembly for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) consists of sensor chip assemblies, optical filters, and a vacuum enclosure. Sensor chip assemblies, composed of linear detector arrays and readout integrated circuits, provide spatial resolution in the cross-track direction for the pushbroom imager. Optical filters define 15 spectral bands in a range from 0.45 {micro}m to 10.7 {micro}m. All the detector arrays are mounted on a single focal plane and are designed to operate at 75 K. Three pairs of sensor chip assemblies (SCAs) are required to provide cross-track coverage in all 15 spectral bands. Each pair of SCAs includes detector arrays made from silicon, iridium antimonide, and mercury cadmium telluride. Read out integrated circuits multiplex the signals from the detectors to 18 separate video channels. Optical filter assemblies defining the spectral bands are mounted over the linear detector arrays. Each filter assembly consists of several filter strips bonded together side-by-side. The MTI focal plane assembly has been integrated with the rest of the payload and has undergone detailed testing and calibration. This paper includes representative test data for the various spectral bands and the overall performance of the focal plane assembly.

  2. Large Format Multicolor QWIP Focal Plane Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soibel, A.; Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Mumolo, J. M.; Ting, D. Z.; Hill, C. J.; Nguyen, J.

    2009-01-01

    Mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) multicolor focal plane array (FPA) cameras are essential for many DoD and NASA applications including Earth and planetary remote sensing. In this paper we summarize our recent development of large format multicolor QWIP FPA that cover MWIR and LWIR bands.

  3. Towards Dualband Megapixel QWIP Focal Plane Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Mumolo, J. M.; Hill, C. J.; Rafol, S. B.; Salazar, D.; Woolaway, J.; LeVan, P. D.; Tidrow, M. Z.

    2006-01-01

    Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024 x 1024 pixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes have been demonstrated with excellent imaging performance. The MWIR QWIP detector array has demonstrated a noise equivalent differential temperature (NEDT) of 17 mK at a 95 K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300 K background and the LWIR detector array has demonstrated a NEDT of 13 mK at a 70 K operating temperature with the same optical and background conditions as the MWIR detector array after the subtraction of system noise. Both MWIR and LWIR focal planes have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90 K and 70 K operating temperatures respectively, with similar optical and background conditions. In addition, we have demonstrated MWIR and LWIR pixel co-registered simultaneously readable dualband QWIP focal plane arrays. In this paper, we will discuss the performance in terms of quantum efficiency, NEDT, uniformity, operability, and modulation transfer functions of the 1024 x 1024 pixel arrays and the progress of dualband QWIP focal plane array development work.

  4. Complex source description of focal regions.

    PubMed

    Monzon, Cesar; Forester, Donald W; Moore, Peter

    2006-04-01

    Closed-form solutions of the two-dimensional homogeneous wave equation are presented that provide focal-region descriptions corresponding to a converging bundle of rays. The solutions do have evanescent wave content and can be described as a source-sink pair or particle-antiparticle pair, collocated in complex space, with the complex location being critical in the determination of beam shape and focal region size. The wave solutions are not plagued by singularities, have a finite energy, and have a limitation on how small the focal size can get, with a penalty for limiting small spot sizes in the form of impractically high associated reactive energy. The electric-field-defined spot-size limiting value is 0.35lambda x 0.35lambda, which is about 38% of the Poynting-vector-defined minimum spot size (0.8lambda x 0.4lambda) and corresponds to a condition related to the maximum possible beam angle. A multiple set of solutions is introduced, and the elementary solutions are used to produce new solutions via superposition, resulting in fields with chiral character or with increased depth of focus. We do not claim generality, as the size of focal regions exhibited by the closed-form solutions has a lower bound and hence is not able to account for Pendry's "ideal lens" scenario.

  5. Focal dermal hypoplasia: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Sahana M; Hiremagalore, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome) is a rare genetic multisystem disorder primarily involving the skin, skeletal system, eyes, and face. We report the case of an eight-month-old female child who presented with multiple hypopigmented atrophic macules along the lines of blaschko, skeletal anomalies, umbilical hernia, developmental delay, hypoplastic nails, syndactyly, and lobster claw deformity characteristic of Goltz syndrome. PMID:25657436

  6. Universities: A Focal Point for Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maidique, Modesto A.

    1988-01-01

    Higher education can act as a focal point of economic development. The most widely recognized type of economic development entails an association between a university, its research facilities, and private industry. An example of this partnership is the one between Stanford University and the industries in the "Silicon Valley." (MLW)

  7. Estimation of focal and extra-focal radiation profiles based on Gaussian modeling in medical linear accelerators.

    PubMed

    Anai, Shigeo; Arimura, Hidetaka; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Araki, Fujio; Matsuki, Takaomi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Yoshidome, Satoshi; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Honda, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Nobuo

    2011-07-01

    The X-ray source or focal radiation is one of the factors that can degrade the conformal field edge in stereotactic body radiotherapy. For that reason, it is very important to estimate the total focal radiation profiles of linear accelerators, which consists of X-ray focal-spot radiation and extra-focal radiation profiles. Our purpose in this study was to propose an experimental method for estimating the focal-spot and extra-focal radiation profiles of linear accelerators based on triple Gaussian functions. We measured the total X-ray focal radiation profiles of the accelerators by moving a slit in conjunction with a photon field p-type silicon diode. The slit width was changed so that the extra-focal radiation could be optimally included in the total focal radiation. The total focal radiation profiles of an accelerator at 4-MV and 10-MV energies were approximated with a combination of triple Gaussian functions, which correspond to the focal-spot radiation, extra-focal radiation, and radiation transmitted through the slit assembly. As a result, the ratios of the Gaussian peak value of the extra-focal radiation to that of the focal spot for 4 and 10 MV were 0.077 and 0.159, respectively. The peak widths of the focal-spot and extra-focal radiation profiles were 0.57 and 25.0 mm for 4 MV, respectively, and 0.60 and 22.0 mm for 10 MV, respectively. We concluded that the proposed focal radiation profile model based on the triple Gaussian functions may be feasible for estimating the X-ray focal-spot and extra-focal radiation profiles.

  8. Close Range Calibration of Long Focal Length Lenses in a Changing Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson, Stuart; MacDonald, Lindsay; Kyle, Stephen; Shortis, Mark R.

    2016-06-01

    University College London is currently developing a large-scale multi-camera system for dimensional control tasks in manufacturing, including part machining, assembly and tracking, as part of the Light Controlled Factory project funded by the UK Engineering and Physical Science Research Council. In parallel, as part of the EU LUMINAR project funded by the European Association of National Metrology Institutes, refraction models of the atmosphere in factory environments are being developed with the intent of modelling and eliminating the effects of temperature and other variations. The accuracy requirements for both projects are extremely demanding, so accordingly improvements in the modelling of both camera imaging and the measurement environment are essential. At the junction of these two projects lies close range camera calibration. The accurate and reliable calibration of cameras across a realistic range of atmospheric conditions in the factory environment is vital in order to eliminate systematic errors. This paper demonstrates the challenge of experimentally isolating environmental effects at the level of a few tens of microns. Longer lines of sight promote the use and calibration of a near perfect perspective projection from a Kern 75mm lens with maximum radial distortion of the order of 0.5m. Coordination of a reference target array, representing a manufactured part, is achieved to better than 0.1mm at a standoff of 8m. More widely, results contribute to better sensor understanding, improved mathematical modelling of factory environments and more reliable coordination of targets to 0.1mm and better over large volumes.

  9. Neandertal clavicle length

    PubMed Central

    Trinkaus, Erik; Holliday, Trenton W.; Auerbach, Benjamin M.

    2014-01-01

    The Late Pleistocene archaic humans from western Eurasia (the Neandertals) have been described for a century as exhibiting absolutely and relatively long clavicles. This aspect of their body proportions has been used to distinguish them from modern humans, invoked to account for other aspects of their anatomy and genetics, used in assessments of their phylogenetic polarities, and used as evidence for Late Pleistocene population relationships. However, it has been unclear whether the usual scaling of Neandertal clavicular lengths to their associated humeral lengths reflects long clavicles, short humeri, or both. Neandertal clavicle lengths, along with those of early modern humans and latitudinally diverse recent humans, were compared with both humeral lengths and estimated body masses (based on femoral head diameters). The Neandertal do have long clavicles relative their humeri, even though they fall within the ranges of variation of early and recent humans. However, when scaled to body masses, their humeral lengths are relatively short, and their clavicular lengths are indistinguishable from those of Late Pleistocene and recent modern humans. The few sufficiently complete Early Pleistocene Homo clavicles seem to have relative lengths also well within recent human variation. Therefore, appropriately scaled clavicular length seems to have varied little through the genus Homo, and it should not be used to account for other aspects of Neandertal biology or their phylogenetic status. PMID:24616525

  10. Stem length and canal filling in uncemented custom-made total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Sakai, T; Sugano, N; Nishii, T; Haraguchi, K; Ochi, T; Ohzono, K

    1999-01-01

    We reviewed 60 custom-made femoral components of two different lengths : 125 mm (group A) and 100 mm (group B), in order to investigate the relationship between stem length and canal filling in uncemented custom-made total hip arthroplasty. There were no statistical differences between the two groups in age, gender, height, body weight, canal flare index, or bowing angle of the femur. Postoperatively there was no statistical difference between the two groups in the proximal canal filling, but significant difference in the distal canal filling (75.5% vs 85.8% on the anteroposterior view and 76.0% vs 82.5% in the lateral view, P<0.001). The distal canal filling inversely correlated with the ratio of the proximal portion and the distal portion of the stem curvature on the lateral view (lateral curve ratio of the stem, P=0.002). We conclude that superior filling at both the proximal and the distal levels can be obtained by using 100-mm custom made components with a small lateral curve ratio. PMID:10591939

  11. Image reconstruction and image quality evaluation for a 64-slice CT scanner with z-flying focal spot

    SciTech Connect

    Flohr, T.G.; Stierstorfer, K.; Ulzheimer, S.; Bruder, H.; Primak, A.N.; McCollough, C.H.

    2005-08-15

    We present a theoretical overview and a performance evaluation of a novel z-sampling technique for multidetector row CT (MDCT), relying on a periodic motion of the focal spot in the longitudinal direction (z-flying focal spot) to double the number of simultaneously acquired slices. The z-flying focal spot technique has been implemented in a recently introduced MDCT scanner. Using 32x0.6 mm collimation, this scanner acquires 64 overlapping 0.6 mm slices per rotation in its spiral (helical) mode of operation, with the goal of improved longitudinal resolution and reduction of spiral artifacts. The longitudinal sampling distance at isocenter is 0.3 mm. We discuss in detail the impact of the z-flying focal spot technique on image reconstruction. We present measurements of spiral slice sensitivity profiles (SSPs) and of longitudinal resolution, both in the isocenter and off-center. We evaluate the pitch dependence of the image noise measured in a centered 20 cm water phantom. To investigate spiral image quality we present images of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom and patient scans. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the spiral SSPs shows only minor variations as a function of the pitch, measured values differ by less than 0.15 mm from the nominal values 0.6, 0.75, 1, 1.5, and 2 mm. The measured FWHM of the smallest slice ranges between 0.66 and 0.68 mm at isocenter, except for pitch 0.55 (0.72 mm). In a centered z-resolution phantom, bar patterns up to 15 lp/cm can be visualized independent of the pitch, corresponding to 0.33 mm longitudinal resolution. 100 mm off-center, bar patterns up to 14 lp/cm are visible, corresponding to an object size of 0.36 mm that can be resolved in the z direction. Image noise for constant effective mAs is almost independent of the pitch. Measured values show a variation of less than 7% as a function of the pitch, which demonstrates correct utilization of the applied radiation dose at any pitch. The product of image noise and square

  12. Myofilament length dependent activation

    SciTech Connect

    de Tombe, Pieter P.; Mateja, Ryan D.; Tachampa, Kittipong; Mou, Younss Ait; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C.

    2010-05-25

    The Frank-Starling law of the heart describes the interrelationship between end-diastolic volume and cardiac ejection volume, a regulatory system that operates on a beat-to-beat basis. The main cellular mechanism that underlies this phenomenon is an increase in the responsiveness of cardiac myofilaments to activating Ca{sup 2+} ions at a longer sarcomere length, commonly referred to as myofilament length-dependent activation. This review focuses on what molecular mechanisms may underlie myofilament length dependency. Specifically, the roles of inter-filament spacing, thick and thin filament based regulation, as well as sarcomeric regulatory proteins are discussed. Although the 'Frank-Starling law of the heart' constitutes a fundamental cardiac property that has been appreciated for well over a century, it is still not known in muscle how the contractile apparatus transduces the information concerning sarcomere length to modulate ventricular pressure development.

  13. Length Paradox in Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Roberto de A.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a thought experiment using a general analysis approach with Lorentz transformations to show that the apparent self-contradictions of special relativity concerning the length-paradox are really non-existant. (GA)

  14. Focal colors are universal after all

    PubMed Central

    Regier, Terry; Kay, Paul; Cook, Richard S.

    2005-01-01

    It is widely held that named color categories in the world's languages are organized around universal focal colors and that these focal colors tend to be chosen as the best examples of color terms across languages. However, this notion has been supported primarily by data from languages of industrialized societies. In contrast, recent research on a language from a nonindustrialized society has called this idea into question. We examine color-naming data from languages of 110 nonindustrialized societies and show that (i) best-example choices for color terms in these languages cluster near the prototypes for English white, black, red, green, yellow, and blue, and (ii) best-example choices cluster more tightly across languages than do the centers of category extensions, suggesting that universal best examples (foci) may be the source of universal tendencies in color naming. PMID:15923257

  15. Focal region fields of distorted reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buris, N. E.; Kauffman, J. F.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of the focal region fields scattered by an arbitrary surface reflector under uniform plane wave illumination is solved. The physical optics (PO) approximation is used to calculate the current induced on the reflector. The surface of the reflector is described by a number of triangular domain-wise 5th degree bivariate polynomials. A 2-dimensional Gaussian quadrature is employed to numerically evaluate the integral expressions of the scattered fields. No Freshnel or Fraunhofer zone approximations are made. The relation of the focal fields problem to surface compensation techniques and other applications are mentioned. Several examples of distorted parabolic reflectors are presented. The computer code developed is included, together with instructions on its usage.

  16. Extensive Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Zahra; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Noormohamadi, Robab

    2015-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck’s disease is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by human papilloma virus especially subtypes 13 or 32. The frequency of this disease varies widely from one geographic region and ethnic groups to another. This paper reports an Iranian case of extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia. A 35-year-old man with FEH is described, in whom the lesions had persisted for more than 25 years. The lesion was diagnosed according to both clinical and histopathological features. Dental practitioner should be aware of these types of lesions and histopathological examination together and a careful clinical observation should be carried out for a definitive diagnosis. PMID:26351501

  17. The Focal Plane Package for Solar B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Title, A.; Tsuneta, S.

    The Focal Plane Package (FPP) of the JAXA Solar B Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) combines an advanced version of Stokes Polarimeter, a tunable birefringent filter, and a set of narrow spectral filters. The Stokes Polarimeter and the filter systems can operate simultaneously allowing the construction of precise vector magnetograms and images in a range of spectral lines. Both the Stokes Polarimeter and the filter systems have controllable fields of view and cadence. A local correlation tracker in the FFP operates a high speed tip-tilt mirror to stabilize the image in all focal planes. The time sequences of precise vector magnetic maps uncompromised by seeing will enable new understanding of how flux emerges through and disappears from the solar surface. The tunable filter can measure the flows in the atmosphere from the lower photosphere through the Chromosphere enabling new insights in the magneto-hydrodynamics of magnetic evolution.

  18. Improvements of the Focal Plane of SASSYER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crump, Danielle; Heinz, Andreas; Winkler, Ryan; Frank, Daniel; Qian, Jing; Fetea, Mirela

    2007-10-01

    The Small Angle Separator System at Yale for Evaporation Residues (SASSYER) at Yale University is a gas-filled recoil separator, specializing in the investigation of the production and the structure of nuclei heavier than ^208Pb. New instrumentation for the focal plane of SASSYER under development at WNSL at Yale will replace the previous equipment with a compact chamber for double-sided silicon detectors (DSSD). Here we are reporting on improvements of the focal plane of SASSYER, including DSSD electronics, a detector cooling system, and ion optics tests. MUX-16 boards from MESYTEC, 16 channel multiplexed amplifiers, were tested and quantified. An alcohol cooling system, related to the DSSD, was characterized. The ion optics tests extracted effective magnetic rigidities of the separator. Results of the tests will be presented. This work was supported by the NSF grant PHY 0555665, Jeffress Fund J-809, and USDOE grant DE-FG02-91ER-40609.

  19. Isolation of focal contact membrane using saponin.

    PubMed

    Neyfakh, A A; Svitkina, T M

    1983-12-01

    The fragments of lower cell surface remained attached to the substrate after incubation of mouse or chick fibroblasts in 0.2% saponin solution and subsequent removal of cells under the action of shearing force. These fragments corresponded exactly to the cellular focal contacts seen by interference reflection microscopy. Ultrastructurally they were membrane fragments with typical three-layered structure. No cytoskeletal components were found in saponin-isolated focal contact membranes either by immunofluorescence or electron microscopy. Only one major cell-derived protein with an apparent molecular weight (MW) of 51 kD (chick embryo fibroblasts) or 47 kD (mouse embryo fibroblasts) remained on the substrate after saponin treatment and removal of cells.

  20. Talin determines the nanoscale architecture of focal adhesions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jaron; Wang, Yilin; Goh, Wah Ing; Goh, Honzhen; Baird, Michelle A; Ruehland, Svenja; Teo, Shijia; Bate, Neil; Critchley, David R; Davidson, Michael W; Kanchanawong, Pakorn

    2015-09-01

    Insight into how molecular machines perform their biological functions depends on knowledge of the spatial organization of the components, their connectivity, geometry, and organizational hierarchy. However, these parameters are difficult to determine in multicomponent assemblies such as integrin-based focal adhesions (FAs). We have previously applied 3D superresolution fluorescence microscopy to probe the spatial organization of major FA components, observing a nanoscale stratification of proteins between integrins and the actin cytoskeleton. Here we combine superresolution imaging techniques with a protein engineering approach to investigate how such nanoscale architecture arises. We demonstrate that talin plays a key structural role in regulating the nanoscale architecture of FAs, akin to a molecular ruler. Talin diagonally spans the FA core, with its N terminus at the membrane and C terminus demarcating the FA/stress fiber interface. In contrast, vinculin is found to be dispensable for specification of FA nanoscale architecture. Recombinant analogs of talin with modified lengths recapitulated its polarized orientation but altered the FA/stress fiber interface in a linear manner, consistent with its modular structure, and implicating the integrin-talin-actin complex as the primary mechanical linkage in FAs. Talin was found to be ∼97 nm in length and oriented at ∼15° relative to the plasma membrane. Our results identify talin as the primary determinant of FA nanoscale organization and suggest how multiple cellular forces may be integrated at adhesion sites. PMID:26283369

  1. Talin determines the nanoscale architecture of focal adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jaron; Wang, Yilin; Goh, Wah Ing; Goh, Honzhen; Baird, Michelle A.; Ruehland, Svenja; Teo, Shijia; Bate, Neil; Critchley, David R.; Davidson, Michael W.; Kanchanawong, Pakorn

    2015-01-01

    Insight into how molecular machines perform their biological functions depends on knowledge of the spatial organization of the components, their connectivity, geometry, and organizational hierarchy. However, these parameters are difficult to determine in multicomponent assemblies such as integrin-based focal adhesions (FAs). We have previously applied 3D superresolution fluorescence microscopy to probe the spatial organization of major FA components, observing a nanoscale stratification of proteins between integrins and the actin cytoskeleton. Here we combine superresolution imaging techniques with a protein engineering approach to investigate how such nanoscale architecture arises. We demonstrate that talin plays a key structural role in regulating the nanoscale architecture of FAs, akin to a molecular ruler. Talin diagonally spans the FA core, with its N terminus at the membrane and C terminus demarcating the FA/stress fiber interface. In contrast, vinculin is found to be dispensable for specification of FA nanoscale architecture. Recombinant analogs of talin with modified lengths recapitulated its polarized orientation but altered the FA/stress fiber interface in a linear manner, consistent with its modular structure, and implicating the integrin–talin–actin complex as the primary mechanical linkage in FAs. Talin was found to be ∼97 nm in length and oriented at ∼15° relative to the plasma membrane. Our results identify talin as the primary determinant of FA nanoscale organization and suggest how multiple cellular forces may be integrated at adhesion sites. PMID:26283369

  2. Editorial: Redefining Length

    SciTech Connect

    Sprouse, Gene D.

    2011-07-15

    Technological changes have moved publishing to electronic-first publication where the print version has been relegated to simply another display mode. Distribution in HTML and EPUB formats, for example, changes the reading environment and reduces the need for strict pagination. Therefore, in an effort to streamline the calculation of length, the APS journals will no longer use the printed page as the determining factor for length. Instead the journals will now use word counts (or word equivalents for tables, figures, and equations) to establish length; for details please see http://publish.aps.org/authors/length-guide. The title, byline, abstract, acknowledgment, and references will not be included in these counts allowing authors the freedom to appropriately credit coworkers, funding sources, and the previous literature, bringing all relevant references to the attention of readers. This new method for determining length will be easier for authors to calculate in advance, and lead to fewer length-associated revisions in proof, yet still retain the quality of concise communication that is a virtue of short papers.

  3. Equilibrium CO bond lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demaison, Jean; Császár, Attila G.

    2012-09-01

    Based on a sample of 38 molecules, 47 accurate equilibrium CO bond lengths have been collected and analyzed. These ultimate experimental (reEX), semiexperimental (reSE), and Born-Oppenheimer (reBO) equilibrium structures are compared to reBO estimates from two lower-level techniques of electronic structure theory, MP2(FC)/cc-pVQZ and B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2pd). A linear relationship is found between the best equilibrium bond lengths and their MP2 or B3LYP estimates. These (and similar) linear relationships permit to estimate the CO bond length with an accuracy of 0.002 Å within the full range of 1.10-1.43 Å, corresponding to single, double, and triple CO bonds, for a large number of molecules. The variation of the CO bond length is qualitatively explained using the Atoms in Molecules method. In particular, a nice correlation is found between the CO bond length and the bond critical point density and it appears that the CO bond is at the same time covalent and ionic. Conditions which permit the computation of an accurate ab initio Born-Oppenheimer equilibrium structure are discussed. In particular, the core-core and core-valence correlation is investigated and it is shown to roughly increase with the bond length.

  4. [Focal epithelial hyperplasia in lepromatous leprosy].

    PubMed

    Jacyk, W; Lechner, W

    1983-10-15

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia Heck (FEH) is most likely caused by human papilloma virus. It mainly occurs in children and young people showing no associated diseases. For the first time, we describe a case of FEH in a patient with lepromatous leprosy who due to persistent erythema nodosum leprosum has been treated with a lang-term glucocorticoid therapy. The question of the competence of lepromatous patients in resisting certain viral infections arises.

  5. Focal epithelial hyperplasia in a Turkish family.

    PubMed

    Gökahmetoğlu, Selma; Ferahbaş, Ayten; Canöz, Özlem

    2014-12-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a benign proliferative condition that is more frequently found in children of certain ethnic groups. Human papillomavirus (HPV) 13 and 32 genotypes has been consistently detected in these lesions. In this study a daughter, mother and father had FEH, and HPV 13 was shown by sequence analysis in the lesions of these patients. Cryotherapy was applied to the lesions and the lesions improved, but did not recover properly. In conclusion, HPV genotyping should be performed in FEH cases.

  6. Extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia: case report.

    PubMed

    Durso, Braz Campos; Pinto, José Marcelo Vargas; Jorge, Jacks; de Almeida, Oslei Paes

    2005-11-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a rare benign lesion caused by human papillomavirus subtype 13 or 32. The condition occurs in numerous populations and ethnic groups. A higher incidence in close communities and among family members indicates infectious pathogenesis. A 21-year-old woman with FEH is described, in whom the lesions had persisted for 10 years. A literature review is also presented, with emphasis on manifestations in the oral mucosa and histopathological features.

  7. The Kepler photometer focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argabright, V. S.; VanCleve, J. E.; Bachtell, E. E.; Hegge, M. J.; McArthur, S. P.; Dumont, F. C.; Rudeen, A. C.; Pullen, J. L.; Teusch, D. A.; Tennant, D. S.; Atcheson, P. D.

    2008-07-01

    The Kepler instrument is designed to detect Earth size planets in the "habitable zone" orbiting 9focal plane array resulting in ~13° diameter FOV, so that greater than 100,000 suitable stars in the FOV are continuously monitored over a three and a half year mission. Detection of planetary transits is made possible through 20 ppm differential photometry using pixel data from a focal plane array specifically developed for Kepler. The Kepler focal plane array is suspended above the primary mirror and consists of twenty one 2K x 2K Science CCD modules mounted on a curved Invar substrate with four output taps per module. Four fine guidance sensor (FGS) CCD modules are mounted to the corners of the Invar substrate to gather additional pointing information for the Attitude Control System in order to attain the required <2.5 milli-pixel pointing accuracy. A space staring radiator and a closed loop thermal control system maintains the CCD module temperatures at -85°C with <10mK thermal stability. Low noise electronics reads out both the Science and FGS CCD modules at a 3 MHz pixel rate. In order to achieve a 4-sigma detection of an Earth-sized planet orbiting a 12th magnitude Sun-like star, the overall noise budget allocates 150 e- to the read noise of each Science CCD module output. This paper discusses key elements of the Kepler focal plane array design, development, characterization and performance results.

  8. Substrate, focal adhesions, and actin filaments: a mechanical unit with a weak spot for mechanosensitive proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchenbüchler, David; Born, Simone; Kirchgeßner, Norbert; Houben, Sebastian; Hoffmann, Bernd; Merkel, Rudolf

    2010-05-01

    Mechanosensing is a vital prerequisite for dynamic remodeling of focal adhesions and cytoskeletal structures upon substrate deformation. For example, tissue formation, directed cell orientation or cell differentiation are regulated by such mechanosensing processes. Focal adhesions and the actin cytoskeleton are believed to be involved in these processes, but where mechanosensing molecules are located and how elastic substrate, focal adhesions and the cytoskeleton couple with each other upon substrate deformation still remains obscure. To approach these questions we have developed a sensitive method to apply defined spatially decaying deformation fields to cells cultivated on ultrasoft elastic substrates and to accurately quantify the resulting displacements of the actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesions, as well as the substrate. Displacement fields were recorded in live cell microscopy by tracking either signals from fluorescent proteins or marker particles in the substrate. As model cell type we used myofibroblasts. These cells are characterized by highly stable adhesion and force generating structures but are still able to detect mechanical signals with high sensitivity. We found a rigid connection between substrate and focal adhesions. Furthermore, stress fibers were found to be barely extendable almost over their whole lengths. Plastic deformation took place only at the very ends of actin filaments close to focal adhesions. As a result, this area became elongated without extension of existing actin filaments by polymerization. Both ends of the stress fibers were mechanically coupled with detectable plastic deformations on either site. Interestingly, traction force dependent substrate deformation fields remained mostly unaffected even when stress fiber elongations were released. These data argue for a location of mechanosensing proteins at the ends of actin stress fibers and describe, except for these domains, the whole system to be relatively rigid for tensile

  9. Focal plane scanner with reciprocating spatial window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Chengye (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A focal plane scanner having a front objective lens, a spatial window for selectively passing a portion of the image therethrough, and a CCD array for receiving the passed portion of the image. All embodiments have a common feature whereby the spatial window and CCD array are mounted for simultaneous relative reciprocating movement with respect to the front objective lens, and the spatial window is mounted within the focal plane of the front objective. In a first embodiment, the spatial window is a slit and the CCD array is one-dimensional, and successive rows of the image in the focal plane of the front objective lens are passed to the CCD array by an image relay lens interposed between the slit and the CCD array. In a second embodiment, the spatial window is a slit, the CCD array is two-dimensional, and a prism-grating-prism optical spectrometer is interposed between the slit and the CCD array so as to cause the scanned row to be split into a plurality of spectral separations onto the CCD array. In a third embodiment, the CCD array is two-dimensional and the spatial window is a rectangular linear variable filter (LVF) window, so as to cause the scanned rows impinging on the LVF to be bandpass filtered into spectral components onto the CCD array through an image relay lens interposed between the LVF and the CCD array.

  10. Mechanism of Focal Adhesion Kinase Mechanosensing

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Sebastian; Bullerjahn, Jakob Tómas; Bronowska, Agnieszka; Gräter, Frauke

    2015-01-01

    Mechanosensing at focal adhesions regulates vital cellular processes. Here, we present results from molecular dynamics (MD) and mechano-biochemical network simulations that suggest a direct role of Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) as a mechano-sensor. Tensile forces, propagating from the membrane through the PIP2 binding site of the FERM domain and from the cytoskeleton-anchored FAT domain, activate FAK by unlocking its central phosphorylation site (Tyr576/577) from the autoinhibitory FERM domain. Varying loading rates, pulling directions, and membrane PIP2 concentrations corroborate the specific opening of the FERM-kinase domain interface, due to its remarkably lower mechanical stability compared to the individual alpha-helical domains and the PIP2-FERM link. Analyzing downstream signaling networks provides further evidence for an intrinsic mechano-signaling role of FAK in broadcasting force signals through Ras to the nucleus. This distinguishes FAK from hitherto identified focal adhesion mechano-responsive molecules, allowing a new interpretation of cell stretching experiments. PMID:26544178

  11. Infrared fiber optic focal plane dispersers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Far infrared transmissive fiber optics as a component in the design of integrated far infrared focal plane array utilization is discussed. A tightly packed bundle of fibers is placed at the focal plane, where an array of infrared detectors would normally reside, and then fanned out in two or three dimensions to individual detectors. Subsequently, the detectors are multiplexed by cryogenic electronics for relay of the data. A second possible application is frequency up-conversion (v sub 1 + v sub 2 = v sub 3), which takes advantage of the nonlinear optical index of refraction of certain infrared transmissive materials in fiber form. Again, a fiber bundle is utilized as above, but now a laser of frequency v sub 1 is mixed with the incoming radiation of frequency v sub 1 within the nonlinear fiber material. The sum, v sub 2 is then detected by near infrared or visible detectors which are more sensitive than those available at v sub 2. Due to the geometrical size limitations of detectors such as photomultipliers, the focal plane dispersal technique is advantageous for imaging up-conversion.

  12. Prostate cancer recurrence after Focal Therapy: Treatment options.

    PubMed

    Hamid, S; Guillaumier, S; Shah, T; Arya, M; Ahmed, H U

    2016-07-01

    Focal therapy is a novel treatment option in localised prostate cancer with or without a visible lesion on MRI. Treatment for low to intermediate risk prostate cancer with focal therapy has demonstrated good short to medium term outcomes with fewer undesirable genitourinary side effects. This has made focal therapy more appealing to men who find the implications of radical treatment unacceptable or are unable to tolerate active surveillance. In this paper we review the literature for treatment options in prostate cancer recurrence post focal therapy. We also cover the different definitions of failure agreed upon in previous consensus meetings, as well as their implications on future management focal therapy patients. PMID:27416641

  13. Design of focal beam shaping system through irradiance and phase control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Meijie; Meuret, Youri; Vervaeke, Michael; Thienpont, Hugo; Duerr, Fabian

    2016-04-01

    Focal beam shaping (FBS), or laser beam shaping at focus, is required in many laser applications. The most common approach is to use a phase element and a Fourier transform lens to generate at the focal plane of the lens the desired irradiance pattern, usually a at-top. The shaping quality depends strongly on a dimensionless parameter β. In case of long focal length and/or small focal spot, the input laser beam should be sufficiently large in order to get a large β value for a satisfying shaping quality. Therefore additional beam expansions might be needed. In this work, we propose a different approach with two plano-aspheric lenses that allows to control both irradiance and phase at focus. The two lenses are designed by an extended ray mapping technique combined with a rigorous backward wave propagation method, so that diffraction effects around laser focus can be implemented in a reliable way. With the developed approach, the shaping quality is guaranteed without the possible need for extra beam expanders, which makes the system more compact. The advantage of our design approach is demonstrated in direct comparison with the conventional Fourier approach for the same design example to transform a Gaussian beam to have a circular flat-top irradiance pattern.

  14. A kinetic model for RNA-interference of focal adhesions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Focal adhesions are integrin-based cell-matrix contacts that transduce and integrate mechanical and biochemical cues from the environment. They develop from smaller and more numerous focal complexes under the influence of mechanical force and are key elements for many physiological and disease-related processes, including wound healing and metastasis. More than 150 different proteins localize to focal adhesions and have been systematically classified in the adhesome project (http://www.adhesome.org). First RNAi-screens have been performed for focal adhesions and the effect of knockdown of many of these components on the number, size, shape and location of focal adhesions has been reported. Results We have developed a kinetic model for RNA interference of focal adhesions which represents some of its main elements: a spatially layered structure, signaling through the small GTPases Rac and Rho, and maturation from focal complexes to focal adhesions under force. The response to force is described by two complementary scenarios corresponding to slip and catch bond behavior, respectively. Using estimated and literature values for the model parameters, three time scales of the dynamics of RNAi-influenced focal adhesions are identified: a sub-minute time scale for the assembly of focal complexes, a sub-hour time scale for the maturation to focal adhesions, and a time scale of days that controls the siRNA-mediated knockdown. Our model shows bistability between states dominated by focal complexes and focal adhesions, respectively. Catch bonding strongly extends the range of stability of the state dominated by focal adhesions. A sensitivity analysis predicts that knockdown of focal adhesion components is more efficient for focal adhesions with slip bonds or if the system is in a state dominated by focal complexes. Knockdown of Rho leads to an increase of focal complexes. Conclusions The suggested model provides a kinetic description of the effect of RNA

  15. Mappability and read length

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wentian; Freudenberg, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Power-law distributions are the main functional form for the distribution of repeat size and repeat copy number in the human genome. When the genome is broken into fragments for sequencing, the limited size of fragments and reads may prevent an unique alignment of repeat sequences to the reference sequence. Repeats in the human genome can be as long as 104 bases, or 105 − 106 bases when allowing for mismatches between repeat units. Sequence reads from these regions are therefore unmappable when the read length is in the range of 103 bases. With a read length of 1000 bases, slightly more than 1% of the assembled genome, and slightly less than 1% of the 1 kb reads, are unmappable, excluding the unassembled portion of the human genome (8% in GRCh37/hg19). The slow decay (long tail) of the power-law function implies a diminishing return in converting unmappable regions/reads to become mappable with the increase of the read length, with the understanding that increasing read length will always move toward the direction of 100% mappability. PMID:25426137

  16. The Pathogenesis of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Jefferson, J. Ashley; Shankland, Stuart J.

    2014-01-01

    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a histological pattern of injury on renal biopsy that can arise from a diverse range of causes and mechanisms. Although primary and secondary forms are described based on the underlying cause, there are many common factors that underlie the development of this segmental injury. In this review we will describe the currently accepted model for the pathogenesis of classic FSGS and review the data supporting this model. Although the podocyte is considered the major target of injury in FSGS, we will also highlight the contributions of other resident glomerular cells in the development of FSGS. PMID:25168829

  17. Characterization of DECam focal plane detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Diehl, H.Thomas; Angstadt, Robert; Campa, Julia; Cease, Herman; Derylo, Greg; Emes, John H.; Estrada, Juan; Kibik, Donna; Flaugher, Brenna L.; Holland, Steve E.; Jonas, Michelle; /Fermilab /Madrid, CIEMAT /LBL, Berkeley /Argonne /Pennsylvania U.

    2008-06-01

    DECam is a 520 Mpix, 3 square-deg FOV imager being built for the Blanco 4m Telescope at CTIO. This facility instrument will be used for the 'Dark Energy Survey' of the southern galactic cap. DECam has chosen 250 ?m thick CCDs, developed at LBNL, with good QE in the near IR for the focal plane. In this work we present the characterization of these detectors done by the DES team, and compare it to the DECam technical requirements. The results demonstrate that the detectors satisfy the needs for instrument.

  18. Ictal body turning in focal epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Mercan, Metin; Yıldırım, İrem; Akdemir, Özgür; Bilir, Erhan

    2015-03-01

    Despite the explanations of many lateralization findings, body turning in focal epilepsy has been rarely investigated. One of the aims of this study was to evaluate the role of ictal body turning in the lateralization of focal epilepsies. The records of 263 patients with focal epilepsy (temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), n=178; extratemporal lobe epilepsy (ETLE), n=85) who underwent prolonged video-EEG monitoring during presurgical epilepsy evaluation were reviewed. Preoperative findings (TLE, n=16; ETLE, n=6) and postoperative outcomes (TLE, n=7) of patients with focal epilepsy with ictal body turning were assessed. For the evaluation of ictal body turning, two definitions were proposed. Nonversive body turning (NVBT) was used to denote at least a 90° nonforced (without tonic or clonic component) rotation of the upper (shoulder) and lower (hip) parts of the body around the body axis for a minimum of 3s. Versive body turning (VBT) was used to denote at least a 90° forced (with tonic or clonic component) rotation of the upper (shoulder) and lower (hip) parts of the body around the body axis for a minimum of 3s. Nonversive body turning was observed in 6% (n=11) of patients with TLE and 2% (n=2) of patients with ETLE. For VBT, these ratios were 5% (n=8) and 7% (n=6) for patients with TLE and ETLE, respectively. Nonversive body turning was frequently oriented to the same side as the epileptogenic zone (EZ) in TLE and ETLE seizures (76% and 80%, respectively). If the amount of NVBT was greater than 180°, then it was 80% to the same side in TLE seizures. Versive body turning was observed in 86% of the TLE seizures, and 55% of the ETLE seizures were found to be contralateral to the EZ. When present with head turning, NVBT ipsilateral to the EZ and VBT contralateral to the EZ were more valuable for lateralization. In TLE seizures, a significant correlation was found between the head turning and body turning onsets and durations. Our study demonstrated that ictal body turning

  19. Focal-plane architectures and signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayadev, T. S.

    1991-11-01

    This paper discusses the relationship of focal plane architectures and signal processing functions currently used in infrared sensors. It then discusses the development of an algorithm derived from the models developed by biologists to explain the functions of insect eyes and the hardware realization of this algorithm using commercially available silicon chips. The conclusion of this study is that there are important lessons to be learned from the architecture of biological sensors, which may lead to new techniques in electro-optic sensor design.

  20. Numerically bridging lamellipodial and filopodial activity during cell spreading reveals a potentially novel trigger of focal adhesion maturation.

    PubMed

    Loosli, Y; Vianay, B; Luginbuehl, R; Snedeker, J G

    2012-05-01

    We present a novel approach to modeling cell spreading, and use it to reveal a potentially central mechanism regulating focal adhesion maturation in various cell phenotypes. Actin bundles that span neighboring focal complexes at the lamellipodium-lamellum interface were assumed to be loaded by intracellular forces in proportion to bundle length. We hypothesized that the length of an actin bundle (with the corresponding accumulated force at its adhesions) may thus regulate adhesion maturation to ensure cell mechanical stability and morphological integrity. We developed a model to test this hypothesis, implementing a "top-down" approach to simplify certain cellular processes while explicitly incorporating complexity of other key subcellular mechanisms. Filopodial and lamellipodial activities were treated as modular processes with functional spatiotemporal interactions coordinated by rules regarding focal adhesion turnover and actin bundle dynamics. This theoretical framework was able to robustly predict temporal evolution of cell area and cytoskeletal organization as reported from a wide range of cell spreading experiments using micropatterned substrates. We conclude that a geometric/temporal modeling framework can capture the key functional aspects of the rapid spreading phase and resultant cytoskeletal complexity. Hence the model is used to reveal mechanistic insight into basic cell behavior essential for spreading. It demonstrates that actin bundles spanning nascent focal adhesions such that they are aligned to the leading edge may accumulate centripetal endogenous forces along their length, and could thus trigger focal adhesion maturation in a force-length dependent fashion. We suggest that this mechanism could be a central "integrating" factor that effectively coordinates force-mediated adhesion maturation at the lamellipodium-lamellum interface. PMID:22453759

  1. Ultrasound elastographic techniques in focal liver lesions

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Clara Benedetta; Cavalcoli, Federica; Fraquelli, Mirella; Conte, Dario; Massironi, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Elastographic techniques are new ultrasound-based imaging techniques developed to estimate tissue deformability/stiffness. Several ultrasound elastographic approaches have been developed, such as static elastography, transient elastography and acoustic radiation force imaging methods, which include point shear wave and shear wave imaging elastography. The application of these methods in clinical practice aims at estimating the mechanical tissues properties. One of the main settings for the application of these tools has been liver stiffness assessment in chronic liver disease, which has been studied mainly using transient elastography. Another field of application for these techniques is the assessment of focal lesions, detected by ultrasound in organs such as pancreas, prostate, breast, thyroid, lymph nodes. Considering the frequency and importance of the detection of focal liver lesions through routine ultrasound, some studies have also aimed to assess the role that elestography can play in studying the stiffness of different types of liver lesions, in order to predict their nature and thus offer valuable non-invasive methods for the diagnosis of liver masses. PMID:26973405

  2. Characterization of the KATRIN Focal Plane Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodine, Laura; Leber, Michelle; Myers, Allan; Tolich, Kazumi; Vandevender, Brent; Wall, Brandon

    2008-10-01

    The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN) Experiment is a next generation tritium beta decay experiment designed to measure directly the electron neutrino mass with a sensitivity of 0.2 eV. In the experiment, electrons from tritium decay of a gaseous source are magnetically guided through analyzing solenoidal retarding electrostatic spectrometers and detected via a focal plane detector. The focal plane detector is a 90mm diameter, 500 micron thick monolithic silicon pin-diode array with 148 pixels. The diode contacts have a titanium nitride overlayer and are connected to preamplifiers via an array of spring-loaded pogo pins. This novel connection scheme minimizes backgrounds from radioactive materials near the detector, facilitates characterization and replacement of the detector wafer, but requires a unique mounting design. The force of the pins strains the silicon, possibly altering the detector properties and performance. Results on the mechanical, thermal and electrical performance of a prototype detector under stress from pogo pin readouts will be presented.

  3. Idiopathic focal epilepsies: the "lost tribe".

    PubMed

    Pal, Deb K; Ferrie, Colin; Addis, Laura; Akiyama, Tomoyuki; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Caraballo, Roberto; de Saint-Martin, Anne; Fejerman, Natalio; Guerrini, Renzo; Hamandi, Khalid; Helbig, Ingo; Ioannides, Andreas A; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Lal, Dennis; Lesca, Gaetan; Muhle, Hiltrud; Neubauer, Bernd A; Pisano, Tiziana; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Seegmuller, Caroline; Shibata, Takashi; Smith, Anna; Striano, Pasquale; Strug, Lisa J; Szepetowski, Pierre; Valeta, Thalia; Yoshinaga, Harumi; Koutroumanidis, Michalis

    2016-09-01

    The term idiopathic focal epilepsies of childhood (IFE) is not formally recognised by the ILAE in its 2010 revision (Berg et al., 2010), nor are its members and boundaries precisely delineated. The IFEs are amongst the most commonly encountered epilepsy syndromes affecting children. They are fascinating disorders that hold many "treats" for both clinicians and researchers. For example, the IFEs pose many of the most interesting questions central to epileptology: how are functional brain networks involved in the manifestation of epilepsy? What are the shared mechanisms of comorbidity between epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders? How do focal EEG discharges impact cognitive functioning? What explains the age-related expression of these syndromes? Why are EEG discharges and seizures so tightly locked to slow-wave sleep? In the last few decades, the clinical symptomatology and the respective courses of many IFEs have been described, although they are still not widely appreciated beyond the specialist community. Most neurologists would recognise the core syndromes of IFE to comprise: benign epilepsy of childhood with centro-temporal spikes or Rolandic epilepsy (BECTS/RE); Panayiotopoulos syndrome; and the idiopathic occipital epilepsies (Gastaut and photosensitive types). The Landau-Kleffner syndrome and the related (idiopathic) epilepsy with continuous spikes and waves in sleep (CSWS or ESES) are also often included, both as a consequence of the shared morphology of the interictal discharges and their potential evolution from core syndromes, for example, CSWS from BECTS. Atypical benign focal epilepsy of childhood also has shared electro-clinical features warranting inclusion. In addition, a number of less well-defined syndromes of IFE have been proposed, including benign childhood seizures with affective symptoms, benign childhood epilepsy with parietal spikes, benign childhood seizures with frontal or midline spikes, and benign focal seizures of adolescence. The

  4. Focal embolic cerebral ischemia in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Rui Lan; Jiang, Quan; Ding, Guangliang; Chopp, Michael; Zhang, Zheng Gang

    2015-01-01

    Animal models of focal cerebral ischemia are well accepted for investigating the pathogenesis and potential treatment strategies for human stroke. Occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) with an endovascular filament is a widely used model to induce focal cerebral ischemia. However, this model is not amenable to thrombolytic therapies. As thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) is a standard of care within 4.5 hours of human stroke onset, suitable animal models that mimic cellular and molecular mechanisms of thrombosis and thrombolysis of stroke are required. By occluding the MCA with a fibrin-rich allogeneic clot, we have developed an embolic model of MCA occlusion in the rat, which recapitulates the key components of thrombotic development and of thrombolytic therapy of rtPA observed from human ischemic stroke. The surgical procedures of our model can be typically completed within approximately 30 min and are highly adaptable to other strains of rats as well as mice for both genders. Thus, this model provides a powerful tool for translational stroke research. PMID:25741989

  5. ORFEUS focal plane instrumentation: The Berkeley spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Mark; Bowyer, Stuart

    1988-01-01

    A spectrograph for the ORFEUS mission that incorporates four varied line-space, spherically figured diffraction gratings was designed. The ORFEUS, a 1-m normal incidence telescope is equipped with 2 focal plane spectrographs. The Berkeley spectrograph was developed with an optimizing raytracing computer code. Each grating accepts the light from 20 percent of the aperture of the telescope primary mirror and has a unique set of characteristics to cover a sub-bandpass within the 390 to 1200 A spectral range. Two photon-counting detectors incorporating a time delay readout system are used to record the spectra from all four gratings simultaneously. The nominal design achieves a spectral resolution (FWHM) in excess of 5500 at all wavelengths within the bandpass. The resolution is limited primarily by the detector spatial resolution. The 1 sigma astigmatism of this design varies between 13 and 150 micrometer on the same focal surface. An independent, direct imaging system tracks the drift of the target within the spectrometer aperture and allows measurement of the misalignment between the telescope optical axis and that of the external star tracker. The resolution and astigmatism achievable with this design are superior to those of a standard Rowland spectrograph designed with the same constraints.

  6. Idiopathic focal epilepsies: the "lost tribe".

    PubMed

    Pal, Deb K; Ferrie, Colin; Addis, Laura; Akiyama, Tomoyuki; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Caraballo, Roberto; de Saint-Martin, Anne; Fejerman, Natalio; Guerrini, Renzo; Hamandi, Khalid; Helbig, Ingo; Ioannides, Andreas A; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Lal, Dennis; Lesca, Gaetan; Muhle, Hiltrud; Neubauer, Bernd A; Pisano, Tiziana; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Seegmuller, Caroline; Shibata, Takashi; Smith, Anna; Striano, Pasquale; Strug, Lisa J; Szepetowski, Pierre; Valeta, Thalia; Yoshinaga, Harumi; Koutroumanidis, Michalis

    2016-09-01

    The term idiopathic focal epilepsies of childhood (IFE) is not formally recognised by the ILAE in its 2010 revision (Berg et al., 2010), nor are its members and boundaries precisely delineated. The IFEs are amongst the most commonly encountered epilepsy syndromes affecting children. They are fascinating disorders that hold many "treats" for both clinicians and researchers. For example, the IFEs pose many of the most interesting questions central to epileptology: how are functional brain networks involved in the manifestation of epilepsy? What are the shared mechanisms of comorbidity between epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders? How do focal EEG discharges impact cognitive functioning? What explains the age-related expression of these syndromes? Why are EEG discharges and seizures so tightly locked to slow-wave sleep? In the last few decades, the clinical symptomatology and the respective courses of many IFEs have been described, although they are still not widely appreciated beyond the specialist community. Most neurologists would recognise the core syndromes of IFE to comprise: benign epilepsy of childhood with centro-temporal spikes or Rolandic epilepsy (BECTS/RE); Panayiotopoulos syndrome; and the idiopathic occipital epilepsies (Gastaut and photosensitive types). The Landau-Kleffner syndrome and the related (idiopathic) epilepsy with continuous spikes and waves in sleep (CSWS or ESES) are also often included, both as a consequence of the shared morphology of the interictal discharges and their potential evolution from core syndromes, for example, CSWS from BECTS. Atypical benign focal epilepsy of childhood also has shared electro-clinical features warranting inclusion. In addition, a number of less well-defined syndromes of IFE have been proposed, including benign childhood seizures with affective symptoms, benign childhood epilepsy with parietal spikes, benign childhood seizures with frontal or midline spikes, and benign focal seizures of adolescence. The

  7. Multiple molecular penumbras after focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Sharp, F R; Lu, A; Tang, Y; Millhorn, D E

    2000-07-01

    Though the ischemic penumbra has been classically described on the basis of blood flow and physiologic parameters, a variety of ischemic penumbras can be described in molecular terms. Apoptosis-related genes induced after focal ischemia may contribute to cell death in the core and the selective cell death adjacent to an infarct. The HSP70 heat shock protein is induced in glia at the edges of an infarct and in neurons often at some distance from the infarct. HSP70 proteins are induced in cells in response to denatured proteins that occur as a result of temporary energy failure. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is also induced after focal ischemia in regions that can extend beyond the HSP70 induction. The region of HIF induction is proposed to represent the areas of decreased cerebral blood flow and decreased oxygen delivery. Immediate early genes are induced in cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and other brain regions. These distant changes in gene expression occur because of ischemia-induced spreading depression or depolarization and could contribute to plastic changes in brain after stroke. PMID:10908035

  8. Can biologic treatment induce cutaneous focal mucinosis?

    PubMed Central

    Włodarczyk, Marcin; Sobolewska, Aleksandra; Sieniawska, Joanna; Rogowski-Tylman, Michał; Sysa-Jedrzejowska, Anna; Olejniczak-Staruch, Irmina; Narbutt, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Skin mucinosis is a rare skin disease which clinically manifests as firm papules and waxy nodules. We report a case of a 66-year-old female psoriatic patient who developed skin mucinosis during biological therapy. Because of a previous lack of response to the local and conventional systemic treatment of psoriasis, the patient received biological therapy (infliximab from June 2008 to May 2009 – initial clinical improvement and loss of treatment effectiveness in the 36th week of the therapy; adalimumab from June 2009 to January 2010 – lack effectiveness; ustekinumab from March 2012 to the present). Throughout 2 months we observed a manifestation of the skin mucinosis as well-demarcated, yellow and brown, papulo-nodular lesions of 5–10 mm in diameter, localized on the back. Histopathological examination with alcian blue staining demonstrated mucin deposits in the dermis. On the basis of clinical and histopathological findings, the diagnosis of cutaneous focal mucinosis was established. We present the case because of the extremely rare occurrence of the disease. Scarce literature and data suggest that there is an association between focal mucinosis and thyroid dysfunction, as well as possible adverse effects of biological therapy with TNF-α antagonists. PMID:25610359

  9. InAs/GaSb superlattices for advanced infrared focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehm, Robert; Walther, Martin; Schmitz, Johannes; Rutz, Frank; Fleißner, Joachim; Scheibner, Ralf; Ziegler, Johann

    2009-11-01

    We report on the development of high performance focal plane arrays for the mid-wavelength infrared spectral range from 3-5 μm (MWIR) on the basis of InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes. An investigation on the minority electron diffusion length with a set of six sample ranging from 190 to 1000 superlattice periods confirms that InAs/GaSb superlattice focal plane arrays achieve very high external quantum efficiency. This enabled the fabrication of a range of monospectral MWIR imagers with high spatial and excellent thermal resolution at short integration times. Furthermore, novel dual-color imagers have been developed, which offer advanced functionality due to a simultaneous, pixel-registered detection of two separate spectral channels in the MWIR.

  10. Vowel length in Farsi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shademan, Shabnam

    2001-05-01

    This study tests whether Farsi vowels are contrastive with respective to length. Farsi has a six-vowel system with three lax vowels and three tense vowels. Both traditional grammarians and modern linguists believe that Farsi tense vowels are longer than lax vowels, and that there are no vowel pairs that contrast only in length. However, it has been suggested that Farsi exhibits compensatory lengthening, which is triggered by the deletion of glottal consonants in coda position in informal speech (Darzi, 1991). As a result, minimal pairs such as [tar] and [tarh] should contrast only with respect to vowel length. A corpus of 90 words of the form CVC, CVCG, CVGC, and CVCC (where V=a vowel and G=a glottal consonant) was recorded, and durations of vowels in different contexts were measured and compared. Preliminary results show that lax vowel durations fall into three groups with CVCC longer than CVCG/CVGC, and the latter longer than CVC. It remains to be seen whether CVCG/CVGC words show compensatory lengthening when the glottal consonant is deleted.

  11. Quantitative measurement of acoustic pressure in the focal zone of acoustic lens-line focusing using the Schlieren method.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xueping; Cheng, Qian; Xu, Zheng; Qian, Menglu; Han, Qingbang

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes a theory and method for quantitative measurement of the acoustic lens-line focusing ultrasonic (ALLFU) field in its focal spot size and acoustic pressure using the Schlieren imaging technique. Using Fourier transformation, the relationship between the brightness of the Schlieren image and the acoustic pressure was introduced. The ALLFU field was simulated using finite element method and compared with the Schlieren acoustic field image. The measurement of the focal spot size was performed using the Schlieren method. The acoustic pressure in the focal zone of the ALLFU field and the transducer-transmitting voltage response were quantitatively determined by measuring the diffraction light fringe intensity. The results show that the brightness of the Schlieren image is a linear function of the acoustic intensity when the acousto-optic interaction length remains constant and the acoustic field is weak. PMID:27139646

  12. Deep Moonquake Focal Mechanisms: Recovery and Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapmeyer, Martin; Weber, Renee C.

    2011-01-01

    A defining characteristic of deep moonquakes is their tendency to occur with tidal periodicity, prompting previous studies to infer that they are related to the buildup and release of tidal stress within the Moon. In studies of tidal forcing, a key constraint is the focal mechanism: the fault parameters describing the type of failure moonquakes represent. The quality of the lunar seismic data and the limited source/receiver geometries of the Apollo seismic network prohibit the determination of deep moonquake fault parameters using first-motion polarities, as is typically done in terrestrial seismology. Without being able to resolve tidal stress onto a known failure plane, we can examine only gross qualities of the tidal stress tensor with respect to moonquake occurrence, so we cannot fully address the role of tidal stress in moonquake generation. We will examine the extent to which shear (S) and compression (P) wave amplitude ratios can constrain moonquake fault geometry by determining whether, for a given cluster, there exists a focal mechanism that can produce a radiation pattern consistent with the amplitudes measured by the Apollo instruments. Amplitudes are read in the ray coordinate frame, directly from seismograms for which the P and S arrivals are clearly identifiable on all long-period channels of the four Apollo stations. We apply an empirical station correction to account for site effects and the differences between P- and S-wave attenuation. Instead of focusing on the best fitting solution only, we formulate the inverse problem using a falsification criterion: all source orientations that do not reproduce the observed SV/P ratios within an error margin derived from the uncertainty of amplitude readings are rejected. All others are accepted as possible solutions. The inversion is carried out using an exhaustive grid search on a regular grid with predefined step size, encompassing all possible combinations of strike, dip and slip. To assess the

  13. Focal field interactions from cylindrical vector beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biss, David Paul

    In optical imaging there is always a push to improve image quality or find methods to gain new imaging information. This is apparent in the optical lithography and semiconductor inspection industries, where optical metrology and imaging systems are using larger numerical aperture systems and finding new imaging methods, such as immersion imaging, to shrink focal fields. At high numerical apertures, scalar diffraction theories break down and polarization effects play a large role in focal field interactions. With this interest in polarization, new models for local polarization effects are needed. Along with new models, cylindrically-symmetric polarized beams known as cylindrical vector (CV) beams, can provide new methods of imaging in this high NA regime. In this thesis, we examine the modeling of radially and azimuthally polarized beams focused at high numerical aperture in the presence of a planar interface. These focal fields are also modeled with primary spherical, coma, and astigmatism wavefront aberrations in the entrance pupil of the focusing system. Particular attention is given to the longitudinal field component generated by the focused radial beam, and the correlation between the magnetic and electric fields of radial and azimuthal beams. A scanning edge test using linearly polarized beams is modeled using a rigorous coupled wave (RCW) method and is compared to experimental data. The ability of the scanning edge test to predict spot asymmetry is investigated though the comparison of the RCW scanning edge model with free space vector diffraction theories. This RCW model is extended to include CV beam illumination and mode filtering of the system's exit pupil fields. This extension provides a model to accurately predict the performance of a dark-field imaging modality using radially and azimuthally polarized beams. Predictions from this model are compared to experimental results with attention given to defocus effects and the ability to accurately measure

  14. Physical Activity Performance of Focal Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erfle, Stephen E.; Gelbaugh, Corey M.

    2013-01-01

    Histograms of push-ups and curl-ups from a sample of more than 9,000 students show periodic spikes at five and 10 unit intervals. This article argues that these spikes are related to focal points, a game theoretic concept popularized by Nobel Laureate Thomas Schelling. Being focal on one test makes one more likely to be focal on the other. Focal…

  15. Evolution of the concept of focal therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Tsivian, Matvey; Abern, Michael R; Polascik, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    The landscape of prostate cancer has been rapidly evolving, and technological advances in imaging and biopsy tools offer novel approaches to focal therapy. In this dynamic environment, the role of focal therapy for prostate cancer is being shaped both by advances in technology and by reconsidering the epidemiological and outcomes data for available treatments. Here we focus on the evolution of the concept of focal therapy and its potential roles in the management of prostate cancer.

  16. Botulinum toxin physiology in focal hand and cranial dystonia.

    PubMed

    Karp, Barbara Illowsky

    2012-11-20

    The safety and efficacy of botulinum toxin for the treatment of focal hand and cranial dystonias are well-established. Studies of these adult-onset focal dystonias reveal both shared features, such as the dystonic phenotype of muscle hyperactivity and overflow muscle contraction and divergent features, such as task specificity in focal hand dystonia which is not a common feature of cranial dystonia. The physiologic effects of botulinum toxin in these 2 disorders also show both similarities and differences. This paper compares and contrasts the physiology of focal hand and cranial dystonias and of botulinum toxin in the management of these disorders.

  17. Deep Moonquake Focal Mechanisms: Recovery and Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Renee C.; Knapmeyer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A defining characteristic of deep moonquakes is their tendency to occur with tidal periodicity, prompting previous studies to infer that they are related to the buildup and release of tidal stress within the Moon [refs]. In studies of tidal forcing, a key constraint is the focal mechanism: the fault parameters describing the type of failure moonquakes represent. The quality of the lunar seismic data and the limited source/receiver geometries of the Apollo seismic network prohibit the determination of deep moonquake fault parameters using first-motion polarities, as is typically done in terrestrial seismology [ref]. Without being able to resolve tidal stress onto a known failure plane, we can examine only gross qualities of the tidal stress tensor with respect to moonquake occurrence, so we cannot fully address the role of tidal stress in moonquake generation.

  18. Smart trigger logic for focal plane arrays

    DOEpatents

    Levy, James E; Campbell, David V; Holmes, Michael L; Lovejoy, Robert; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kay, Randolph R; Cavanaugh, William S; Gurrieri, Thomas M

    2014-03-25

    An electronic device includes a memory configured to receive data representing light intensity values from pixels in a focal plane array and a processor that analyzes the received data to determine which light values correspond to triggered pixels, where the triggered pixels are those pixels that meet a predefined set of criteria, and determines, for each triggered pixel, a set of neighbor pixels for which light intensity values are to be stored. The electronic device also includes a buffer that temporarily stores light intensity values for at least one previously processed row of pixels, so that when a triggered pixel is identified in a current row, light intensity values for the neighbor pixels in the previously processed row and for the triggered pixel are persistently stored, as well as a data transmitter that transmits the persistently stored light intensity values for the triggered and neighbor pixels to a data receiver.

  19. Idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and HLA antigens.

    PubMed

    Gerbase-DeLima, M; Pereira-Santos, A; Sesso, R; Temin, J; Aragão, E S; Ajzen, H

    1998-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate a possible association between HLA class II antigens and idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). HLA-A, -B, -DR and -DQ antigens were determined in 19 Brazilian patients (16 white subjects and three subjects of Japanese origin) with biopsy-proven FSGS. Comparison of the HLA antigen frequencies between white patients and white local controls showed a significant increase in HLA-DR4 frequency among FSGS patients (37.7 vs 17.2%, P < 0.05). In addition, the three patients of Japanese extraction, not included in the statistical analysis, also presented HLA-DR4. In conclusion, our data confirm the association of FSGS with HLA-DR4 previously reported by others, thus providing further evidence for a role of genes of the HLA complex in the susceptibility to this disease. PMID:9698788

  20. Focal epithelial hyperplasia of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Morency, R; Laliberte, H; Delamarre, R

    1982-02-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) of the oral mucosa has been reported mainly among American Indians, Eskimos, and south Africans. Our investigation is the first among Canadian Indians and combines an epidemiological study of FEH in a Cree Indian population living in Fort Georges. P.Q., and a description of its histologic and ultrastructural features. The sample consists of 150 individuals divided into six age groups. The prevalence rate for all groups is 18.6%. Clinically the lesions are nodular, sessile, and tend to merge with the adjoining mucosa upon stretching. Histologically the hyperplasia is limited to the epithelium. E.M. shows papova-virus-like particles. Otolaryngologists' awareness of this lesion could possibly lead to its recognition on a larger scale.

  1. Focal cerebral lesions and painting abilities.

    PubMed

    Mazzucchi, Anna; Sinforiani, Elena; Boller, François

    2013-01-01

    Focal lesions such as strokes significantly affect painting production in the vast majority of artists. In particular, painters, when they resume painting, show changes in their painting style. In exceptional cases, there may be an apparent improvement in style, but in most cases, the changes represent nothing short of deterioration. This, however, varies according to the hemisphere affected. Painters with left-hemisphere lesions tend to show an inability to deal adequately with perspective and also tend to use simplified colors with fewer nuances. One often witnesses an evolution toward simpler, often "naïve" techniques, and at times rigid geometric repetitive features. Painters with right-hemisphere lesions also become unable to represent tridimensionality. In addition, their figures are often drawn in very summary fashion, with lack of coordination between volumes and space and a chromatic impoverishment; their main problem, however, is visuospatial, leading to neglect of the left side of the canvas.

  2. Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia of mandible.

    PubMed

    Cankaya, Abdülkadir Burak; Erdem, Mehmet Ali; Olgac, Vakur; Firat, Deniz Refia

    2012-09-03

    Fibro-osseous lesions are disturbances in bone metabolism in which normal bone is replaced by a connective tissue matrix that then gradually develops into cemento-osseous tissue. Typically, the lesion is asymptomatic and is detected on routine radiographic examination. Radiologically, this lesion has three stages of maturation: pure radiolucent, radiopaque/mixed radiolucent, and radiopaque appearance. During these stages the lesion can be misdiagnosed. In this case report a 69-year- old patient with a a complaint of painless swelling of the left mandibular molar and premolar area is presented along with a review of the differential diagnoses considered in order to reach a final diagnosis of focal cemento-osseous dysplasia.

  3. Decreased subcortical cholinergic arousal in focal seizures

    PubMed Central

    Motelow, Joshua E.; Li, Wei; Zhan, Qiong; Mishra, Asht M.; Sachdev, Robert N. S.; Liu, Geoffrey; Gummadavelli, Abhijeet; Zayyad, Zaina; Lee, Hyun Seung; Chu, Victoria; Andrews, John P.; Englot, Dario J.; Herman, Peter; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G.; Hyder, Fahmeed; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Impaired consciousness in temporal lobe seizures has a major negative impact on quality of life. The prevailing view holds that this disorder impairs consciousness by seizure spread to the bilateral temporal lobes. We propose instead that seizures invade subcortical regions and depress arousal, causing impairment through decreases rather than through increases in activity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a rodent model, we found increased activity in regions known to depress cortical function including lateral septum and anterior hypothalamus. Importantly, we found suppression of intralaminar thalamic and brainstem arousal systems and suppression of the cortex. At a cellular level, we found reduced firing of identified cholinergic neurons in the brainstem pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and basal forebrain. Finally, we used enzyme-based amperometry to demonstrate reduced cholinergic neurotransmission in both cortex and thalamus. Decreased subcortical arousal is a novel mechanism for loss of consciousness in focal temporal lobe seizures. PMID:25654258

  4. Length of stain dosimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueck, Dale E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Payload customers for the Space Shuttle have recently expressed concerns about the possibility of their payloads at an adjacent pad being contaminated by plume effluents from a shuttle at an active pad as they await launch on an inactive pad. As part of a study to satisfy such concerns a ring of inexpensive dosimeters was deployed around the active pad at the inter-pad distance. However, following a launch, dosimeters cannot be read for several hours after the exposure. As a consequence factors such as different substrates, solvent systems, and possible volatilization of HCl from the badges were studied. This observation led to the length of stain (LOS) dosimeters of this invention. Commercial passive LOS dosimeters are sensitive only to the extent of being capable of sensing 2 ppm to 20 ppm if the exposure is 8 hours. To map and quantitate the HCl generated by Shuttle launches, and in the atmosphere within a radius of 1.5 miles from the active pad, a sensitivity of 2 ppm HCl in the atmospheric gases on an exposure of 5 minutes is required. A passive length of stain dosimeter has been developed having a sensitivity rendering it capable of detecting a gas in a concentration as low as 2 ppm on an exposure of five minutes.

  5. Extended algorithm for the design of diffractive optical elements around the focal plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Rong; Shu, Fang-Jie; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Li, Yong-Ping

    2007-08-01

    We present a multiplane algorithm for three-dimensional uniform illumination. The large-diameter diffractive optical element simulated by this algorithm homogeneously concentrates more than 86.5% of the incident energy into a 200 μm length of columnar space around the focal plane. The intensity profile in the whole space is nearly flattop, and the beam's quality measured by the root mean square is less than 20.6%. The algorithm is very useful if a great deal of tolerance is required for the installation error of the optical system or if it is used for some particular application, such as uniform illumination on an incline plane.

  6. [Graphical recording of the state of the basal cerebral vessels and focal changes in the brain].

    PubMed

    Shuvaeva, L N

    1976-01-01

    A method of graphic registration of the length and diameter of vessels of basis cerebri is suggested. The registration is carried out on special cards--punch cards with due account of the structure of the circle of Willis, with subsequent collation of these indices with focal changes in the brain. The method is graphically clear and may be used in research work, as well as in the practice of a pathoanatomist in documentation of an autopsy report and for demonstrations in clinico-anatomical conferences. PMID:985143

  7. A novel autocollimating method for measuring the focal distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ershov, Alexandr G.

    2015-06-01

    A novel autocollimating method for measuring the focal distances is presented. It may be used for measuring the focal distances of lenses and single optical elements in the visible, infrared and ultraviolet range. The relative uncertainty of this method is about 0.1%. The limited uncertainty is over 0.03%.

  8. Focus in Grade 8: Teaching with Curriculum Focal Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schielack, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This book describes and illustrates learning paths for the mathematical concepts and skills of each grade 8 Focal Point as presented in Curriculum Focal Points for Prekindergarten through Grade 8 Mathematics. It includes representational supports for teaching and learning that can facilitate understanding, stimulate productive discussions about…

  9. Differences between diffuse and focal autoimmune pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Tabata, Taku; Kamisawa, Terumi; Takuma, Kensuke; Hara, Seiichi; Kuruma, Sawako; Inaba, Yoshihiko

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate differences in clinical features between diffuse- and focal-type autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). METHODS: Based on radiological findings by computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging, we divided 67 AIP patients into diffuse type (D type) and focal type (F type). We further divided F type into head type (H type) and body and/or tail type (B/T type) according to the location of enlargement. Finally, we classified the 67 AIP patients into three groups: D type, H type and B/T type. We compared the three types of AIP in terms of clinical, laboratory, radiological, functional and histological findings and clinical course. RESULTS: There were 34 patients with D-type, 19 with H-type and 14 with B/T-type AIP. Although obstructive jaundice was frequently detected in D-type patients (88%) and H-type patients (68%), no B/T-type patients showed jaundice as an initial symptom (P < 0.001). There were no differences in frequency of abdominal pain, but acute pancreatitis was associated more frequently in B/T-type patients (36%) than in D-type patients (3%) (P = 0.017). Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG)4 levels were significantly higher in D-type patients (median 309 mg/dL) than in B/T-type patients (133.5 mg/dL) (P = 0.042). Serum amylase levels in B/T-type patients (median: 114 IU/L) were significantly greater than in H-type patients (72 IU/L) (P = 0.049). Lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis (LPSP) was histologically confirmed in 6 D-type, 7 H-type and 4 B/T-type patients; idiopathic duct-centric pancreatitis was observed in no patients. Marked fibrosis and abundant infiltration of CD20-positive B lymphocytes with few IgG4-positive plasma cells were detected in 2 B/T-type patients. Steroid therapy was effective in all 50 patients (31 D type, 13 H type and 6 B/T type). Although AIP relapsed during tapering or after stopping steroids in 3 D-type and 3 H-type patients, no patients relapsed in B/T type. During follow-up, radiological features of 6 B

  10. [Color Doppler sonography of focal abdominal lesions].

    PubMed

    Licanin, Zoran; Lincender, Lidija; Djurović, V; Salihefendić, Nizama; Smajlović, Fahrudin

    2004-01-01

    Color Doppler sonography (CDS--spectral, color and power), harmonic imaging techniques (THI, PHI), possibility of 3D analysis of picture, usage of contrast agents, have raised the values of ultrasound as a diagnostic method to a very high level. THI--non-linear gray scale modality, is based on the processing of higher reflected frequencies, that has improved a picture resolution, which is presented with less artifacts and limiting effects of obesity and gases. Ultrasound contrast agents improve analysis of micro and macro circulation of the examined area, and with the assessment of velocity of supply in ROI (wash in), distribution and time of signal weakening (wash out), are significantly increasing diagnostic value of ultrasound. Besides the anatomical and topographic presentation of examined region (color, power), Color Doppler sonography gives us haemodynamic-functional information on vascularisation of that region, as well as on pathologic vascularisation if present. Avascular aspect of a focal pathologic lesion corresponds to a cyst or haematoma, while coloration and positive spectral curve discover that anechogenic lesions actually represents aneurysms, pseudoaneurysms or AVF. In local inflammatory lesion, abscess in an acute phase, CDS shows first increased, and then decreased central perfusion, while in a chronic phase, a pericapsular vascularisation is present. Contribution of CDS in differentiation of hepatic tumors (hemangioma, HCC and metastasis) is very significant. Central color dots along the peripheral blood vessels and the blush phenomenon are characteristics of capillary hemangioma, peritumoral vascular ring "basket" of HCC, and "detour" sign of metastasis. The central artery, RI from 0.45 to 0.60 and radial spreading characterize FNH. Hepatic adenoma is characterized by an intratumoral vein, and rarely by a vascular hallo. Further on, blood velocity in tumor defined by Color Doppler, distinguishes malignant from benign lesion, where 40 cm/s is a

  11. Mutations of DEPDC5 cause autosomal dominant focal epilepsies

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Saeko; Picard, Fabienne; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Noé, Eric; Achaz, Guillaume; Thomas, Pierre; Genton, Pierre; Mundwiller, Emeline; Wolff, Markus; Marescaux, Christian; Miles, Richard; Baulac, Michel; Hirsch, Edouard; Leguern, Eric; Baulac, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    The main familial focal epilepsies of childhood are autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, familial temporal lobe epilepsy and familial focal epilepsy with variable foci. A frameshift mutation in the DEPDC5 (DEP domain containing protein 5) gene was identified in a family with focal epilepsy with variable foci, by linkage analysis and exome sequencing. Subsequent pyrosequencing of DEPDC5 in a cohort of 15 additional families with focal epilepsies revealed four nonsense and one missense mutations. Our findings provided evidence for frequent (37%) loss-of-function mutations in DEPDC5 associated with a broad spectrum of focal epilepsies. The implication of a DEP domain (Dishevelled, Egl-10 and Pleckstrin domain)-containing protein that may be involved in membrane trafficking and/or G-protein signaling, opens new avenues for research. PMID:23542701

  12. Combined Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Tilt- and Focal Series

    SciTech Connect

    Dahmen, Tim; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre G; Lupini, Andrew R; Kubel, Christian; Slusallek, Phillip; De Jonge, Niels

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a combined tilt- and focal series is proposed as a new recording scheme for high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography. Three-dimensional (3D) data were acquired by mechanically tilting the specimen, and recording a through-focal series at each tilt direction. The sample was a whole-mount macrophage cell with embedded gold nanoparticles. The tilt focal algebraic reconstruction technique (TF-ART) is introduced as a new algorithm to reconstruct tomograms from such combined tilt- and focal series. The feasibility of TF-ART was demonstrated by 3D reconstruction of the experimental 3D data. The results were compared with a conventional STEM tilt series of a similar sample. The combined tilt- and focal series led to smaller missing wedge artifacts, and a higher axial resolution than obtained for the STEM tilt series, thus improving on one of the main issues of tilt series-based electron tomography.

  13. Curved focal plane extreme ultraviolet detector array for a EUV camera on CHANG E lander.

    PubMed

    Ni, Q; Song, K; Liu, S; He, L; Chen, B; Yu, W

    2015-11-30

    A novel curved focal plane extreme ultraviolet (EUV) detector array designed for a moon-based EUV camera is demonstrated. The curved focal plane detector array operating in a pulse-counting mode consists of a curved microchannel plate (MCP) stack and an induced charge wedge-strip anode (WSA). The curved MCP is fabricated by firstly thermally slumping of the MCPs, and then followed by optical polishing and core glass etching. By using this technology, curved MCPs with a length-to-diameter (L/D) ratio of 80:1 and a radius of curvature of 150 mm have been successfully achieved. The performance of the curved MCP detector is fully characterized in terms of the background noise, pulse height distribution, gain, image linearity and spatial resolution. It is measured that a spatial resolution of 7.13 lp/mm can be achieved with a background noise of less than 0.3 counts/cm2⋅s. The characterization results indicate that the curved focal plane detector can fulfill the requirements of the moon-based EUV camera. PMID:26698708

  14. Osteogenic lineage restriction by osteoprogenitors cultured on nanometric grooved surfaces: the role of focal adhesion maturation.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, John W; Roberts, Jemma N; Smith, Carol-Anne; Robertson, Mary; White, Kate; Biggs, Manus J; Oreffo, Richard O C; Dalby, Matthew J

    2014-02-01

    The differentiation of progenitor cells is dependent on more than biochemical signalling. Topographical cues in natural bone extracellular matrix guide cellular differentiation through the formation of focal adhesions, contact guidance, cytoskeletal rearrangement and ultimately gene expression. Osteoarthritis and a number of bone disorders present as growing challenges for our society. Hence, there is a need for next generation implantable devices to substitute for, or guide, bone repair in vivo. Cellular responses to nanometric topographical cues need to be better understood in vitro in order to ensure the effective and efficient integration and performance of these orthopedic devices. In this study, the FDA-approved plastic polycaprolactone was embossed with nanometric grooves and the response of primary and immortalized osteoprogenitor cells observed. Nanometric groove dimensions were 240 nm or 540 nm deep and 12.5 μm wide. Cells cultured on test surfaces followed contact guidance along the length of groove edges, elongated along their major axis and showed nuclear distortion; they formed more focal complexes and lower proportions of mature adhesions relative to planar controls. Down-regulation of the osteoblast marker genes RUNX2 and BMPR2 in primary and immortalized cells was observed on grooved substrates. Down-regulation appeared to directly correlate with focal adhesion maturation, indicating the involvement of ERK 1/2 negative feedback pathways following integrin-mediated FAK activation. PMID:24252447

  15. An empirical assessment of the focal species hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Lindenmayer, D B; Lane, P W; Westgate, M J; Crane, M; Michael, D; Okada, S; Barton, P S

    2014-12-01

    Biodiversity surrogates and indicators are commonly used in conservation management. The focal species approach (FSA) is one method for identifying biodiversity surrogates, and it is underpinned by the hypothesis that management aimed at a particular focal species will confer protection on co-occurring species. This concept has been the subject of much debate, in part because the validity of the FSA has not been subject to detailed empirical assessment of the extent to which a given focal species actually co-occurs with other species in an assemblage. To address this knowledge gap, we used large-scale, long-term data sets of temperate woodland birds to select focal species associated with threatening processes such as habitat isolation and loss of key vegetation attributes. We quantified co-occurrence patterns among focal species, species in the wider bird assemblage, and species of conservation concern. Some, but not all, focal species were associated with high levels of species richness. One of our selected focal species was negatively associated with the occurrence of other species (i.e., it was an antisurrogate)-a previously undescribed property of nominated focal species. Furthermore, combinations of focal species were not associated with substantially elevated levels of bird species richness, relative to levels associated with individual species. Our results suggest that although there is some merit to the underpinning concept of the FSA, there is also a need to ensure that actions are sufficiently flexible because management tightly focused on a given focal species may not benefit some other species, including species of conservation concern, such of which might not occur in species-rich assemblages.

  16. An empirical assessment of the focal species hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Lindenmayer, D B; Lane, P W; Westgate, M J; Crane, M; Michael, D; Okada, S; Barton, P S

    2014-12-01

    Biodiversity surrogates and indicators are commonly used in conservation management. The focal species approach (FSA) is one method for identifying biodiversity surrogates, and it is underpinned by the hypothesis that management aimed at a particular focal species will confer protection on co-occurring species. This concept has been the subject of much debate, in part because the validity of the FSA has not been subject to detailed empirical assessment of the extent to which a given focal species actually co-occurs with other species in an assemblage. To address this knowledge gap, we used large-scale, long-term data sets of temperate woodland birds to select focal species associated with threatening processes such as habitat isolation and loss of key vegetation attributes. We quantified co-occurrence patterns among focal species, species in the wider bird assemblage, and species of conservation concern. Some, but not all, focal species were associated with high levels of species richness. One of our selected focal species was negatively associated with the occurrence of other species (i.e., it was an antisurrogate)-a previously undescribed property of nominated focal species. Furthermore, combinations of focal species were not associated with substantially elevated levels of bird species richness, relative to levels associated with individual species. Our results suggest that although there is some merit to the underpinning concept of the FSA, there is also a need to ensure that actions are sufficiently flexible because management tightly focused on a given focal species may not benefit some other species, including species of conservation concern, such of which might not occur in species-rich assemblages. PMID:25048948

  17. Tohoku University Focal Plane Array Controller (TUFPAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, Takashi; Matsumoto, Daigo; Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Katsuno, Yuka; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tokoku, Chihiro; Asai, Ken'ichiro; Nishimura, Tetsuo

    2003-03-01

    TUFPAC (Tohoku University Focal Plane Array Controller) is an array control system originally designed for flexible control and efficient data acquisition of 2048 x 2048 HgCdTe (HAWAII-2) array. A personal computer operated by Linux OS controls mosaic HAWAII-2s with commercially available DSP boards installed on the PCI bus. Triggered by PC, DSP sends clock data to front-end electronics, which is isolated from the DSP board by photo-couplers. Front-end electronics supply powers, biases and clock signals to HAWAII2. Pixel data are read from four outputs of each HAWAII2 simultaneously by way of four channel preamps and ADCs. Pixel data converted to 16 bit digital data are stored in the frame memory on the DSP board. Data are processed in the memory when necessary. PC receives the frame data and stores it in the hard disk of PC in FITS format. A set of the DSP board and front-end electronics is responsible for controlling each HAWAII-2. One PC can operate eight mosaic arrays at most. TUFPAC is applicable to the control of CCDs with minor changes of front-end electronics.

  18. Causes and pathogenesis of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Fogo, Agnes B.

    2016-01-01

    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) describes both a common lesion in progressive kidney disease, and a disease characterized by marked proteinuria and podocyte injury. The initial injuries vary widely. Monogenetic forms of FSGS are largely due to alterations in structural genes of the podocyte, many of which result in early onset of disease. Genetic risk alleles in apolipoprotein L1 are especially prevalent in African Americans, and are linked not only to adult-onset FSGS but also to progression of some other kidney diseases. The recurrence of FSGS in some transplant recipients whose end-stage renal disease was caused by FSGS points to circulating factors in disease pathogenesis, which remain incompletely understood. In addition, infection, drug use, and secondary maladaptive responses after loss of nephrons from any cause may also cause FSGS. Varying phenotypes of the sclerosis are also manifest, with varying prognosis. The so-called tip lesion has the best prognosis, whereas the collapsing type of FSGS has the worst prognosis. New insights into glomerular cell injury response and repair may pave the way for possible therapeutic strategies. PMID:25447132

  19. Focal Atrial Tachycardia Surrounding the Anterior Septum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zulu; Ouyang, Jinge; Liang, Yanchun; Jin, Zhiqing; Yang, Guitang; Liang, Ming; Li, Shibei; Yu, Haibo

    2015-01-01

    Background— Focal atrial tachycardias (ATs) surrounding the anterior atrial septum (AAS) have been successfully ablated from the right atrial septum (RAS), the aortic cusps, and the aortic mitral junction. However, the strategy for mapping and ablation of AAS-ATs has not been well defined. Methods and Results— Of 227 consecutive patients with AT, 47 (20.7%; mean age, 56.3±11.6 years) with AAS-ATs were studied; among them, initial ablation was successful at RAS in only 5 of 14 patients and at noncoronary cusp (NCC) in 28 of 33 patients. In 45 of the 47 patients, the 46 of 48 AAS-ATs were eliminated at RAS in 8 patients, NCC in 35 patients (earliest activation time at NCC was later than that at RAS by 5–10 ms in 6 patients), and aortic mitral junction in 3 patients (all with negative P wave in lead aVL and positive P wave in the inferior leads), including 1 patient whose 2 ATs were eliminated separately from the NCC and the aortic mitral junction. Conclusions— Most of the ATs surrounding the AAS can be eliminated from within the NCC, which is usually the preferential ablation site. Ablation at the RAS and aortic mitral junction should be considered when supported by P-wave morphologies on surface ECG and results of activation mapping and ablation. PMID:25908691

  20. Mosaic near-infrared focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, Takashi; Itoh, Nobunari; Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Asai, Kenichirou; Shiraishi, Tadashi; Kimata, Masafumi

    1998-08-01

    To built a 3K X 3K pixel near-IR FPA, we have made a package and a multi-chip module for Mitsubishi 1040 X 1040 PtSi CSD, which is one of the largest SWIR FPAs. Mosaicing demands smallest gaps between chips to achieve a large fill-factor and controlled flatness to fit a camera focal plane. The package of 52-pin half-pitch PGA has been designed to be smaller than the bear chip. After the chip is glued on the package and wire-bonded, nine packages with the chip are arrayed in three by three on a multi chip module (MCM) of 6 cm X 6 cm area. The fill-factor of the imaging area is 89 percent. The package and MCM are made of AlN ceramic of high thermal conductivity. MCM, therefore, plays a role of an efficient heat sink. The surface of the package, with which the chip is in contact, has been polished with accurate flatness as well as MCM. As the result, the height of nine chips built on MCM are uniform within approximately 20 micrometers in 6 cm X 6 cm area. The mosaic array will be equipped in a near-IR camera for astronomical observations of a wide field view.

  1. Novel PORCN mutations in focal dermal hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Froyen, G; Govaerts, K; Van Esch, H; Verbeeck, J; Tuomi, M-L; Heikkilä, H; Torniainen, S; Devriendt, K; Fryns, J-P; Marynen, P; Järvelä, I; Ala-Mello, S

    2009-12-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH), Goltz or Goltz-Gorlin syndrome, is an X-linked dominant multisystem disorder characterized primarily by involvement of the skin, skeletal system and eyes. We screened for mutations in the PORCN gene in eight patients of Belgian and Finnish origin with firm clinical suspicion of FDH. First, we performed quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis to define the copy number at this locus. Next, we sequenced the coding regions and flanking intronic sequences of the PORCN gene. Three de novo mutations were identified in our patients with FDH: a 150-kb deletion removing six genes including PORCN, as defined by qPCR and X-array-CGH, and two heterozygous missense mutations; c.992T>G (p.L331R) in exon 11 and c.1094G>A (p.R365Q) in exon 13 of the gene. Both point mutations changed highly conserved amino acids and were not found in 300 control X chromosomes. The three patients in whom mutations were identified all present with characteristic dermal findings together with limb manifestations, which were not seen in our mutation-negative patients. The clinical characteristics of our patients with PORCN mutations were compared with the previously reported mutation-positive cases. In this report, we summarize the literature on PORCN mutations and associated phenotypes.

  2. Dynamic MEG imaging of focal neuronal sources

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.W.; Leahy R.M.; Mosher, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    We describe inverse methods for using the magnetoencephalogram (MEG) to image neural current sources associated with functional activation in the cerebral cortex. A Bayesian formulation is presented that is based on a Gibbs prior which reflects the sparse, focal nature of neural activation. The model includes a dynamic component so that we can utilize the full spatio-temporal data record to reconstruct a sequence of images reflecting changes in the current source amplitudes during activation. The model consists of the product of a binary field, representing the areas of activation in the cerebral cortex, and a time series at each site which represents the dynamic changes in the source amplitudes at the active sites. Our estimation methods are based on the optimization of three different functions of the posterior density. Each of these methods requires the estimation of a binary field which we compute using a mean field annealing method. We demonstrate and compare our methods in application to computer generated and experimental phantom data.

  3. Integrin Molecular Tension within Motile Focal Adhesions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuefeng; Sun, Jie; Xu, Qian; Chowdhury, Farhan; Roein-Peikar, Mehdi; Wang, Yingxiao; Ha, Taekjip

    2015-12-01

    Forces transmitted by integrins regulate many important cellular functions. Previously, we developed tension gauge tether (TGT) as a molecular force sensor and determined the threshold tension across a single integrin-ligand bond, termed integrin tension, required for initial cell adhesion. Here, we used fluorescently labeled TGTs to study the magnitude and spatial distribution of integrin tension on the cell-substratum interface. We observed two distinct levels of integrin tension. A >54 pN molecular tension is transmitted by clustered integrins in motile focal adhesions (FAs) and such force is generated by actomyosin, whereas the previously reported ∼40 pN integrin tension is transmitted by integrins before FA formation and is independent of actomyosin. We then studied FA motility using a TGT-coated surface as a fluorescent canvas, which records the history of integrin force activity. Our data suggest that the region of the strongest integrin force overlaps with the center of a motile FA within 0.2 μm resolution. We also found that FAs move in pairs and that the asymmetry in the motility of an FA pair is dependent on the initial FA locations on the cell-substratum interface.

  4. Terahertz detectors and focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogalski, A.; Sizov, F.

    2011-09-01

    Terahertz (THz) technology is one of emerging technologies that will change our life. A lot of attractive applications in security, medicine, biology, astronomy, and non-destructive materials testing have been demonstrated already. However, the realization of THz emitters and receivers is a challenge because the frequencies are too high for conventional electronics and the photon energies are too small for classical optics. As a result, THz radiation is resistant to the techniques commonly employed in these well established neighbouring bands. In the paper, issues associated with the development and exploitation of THz radiation detectors and focal plane arrays are discussed. Historical impressive progress in THz detector sensitivity in a period of more than half century is analyzed. More attention is put on the basic physical phenomena and the recent progress in both direct and heterodyne detectors. After short description of general classification of THz detectors, more details concern Schottky barrier diodes, pair braking detectors, hot electron mixers and field-effect transistor detectors, where links between THz devices and modern technologies such as micromachining are underlined. Also, the operational conditions of THz detectors and their upper performance limits are reviewed. Finally, recent advances in novel nanoelectronic materials and technologies are described. It is expected that applications of nanoscale materials and devices will open the door for further performance improvement in THz detectors.

  5. Acquired agraphia caused by focal brain damage.

    PubMed

    Anderson, S W; Saver, J; Tranel, D; Damasio, H

    1993-03-01

    Motor and linguistic aspects of writing were evaluated in 31 subjects with focal damage in 1 of 3 regions of the left hemisphere: (1) dorsolateral frontal lobe sparing primary motor cortex (group FL), (2) parietal lobe (group PL), or (3) temporal lobe (group TL). A standard procedure was used to evaluate writing for grapheme formation, spatial arrangement, spelling, word selection, grammar, and perseveration. It was predicted that agraphia would be observed in all 3 groups, and that the most severe impairments would be associated with frontal lobe damage, particularly in aspects of writing dependent on sequencing (grapheme formation, spelling, and grammar). It was found that agraphia was common in all groups, particularly in the acute epoch, and that all groups showed considerable recovery of writing by the chronic epoch. Few differences were found between groups. However, the FL group was impaired on spelling and grammar relative to the PL group in the acute epoch and impaired on grammar relative to the TL group in the chronic epoch. The findings are consistent with the notion that writing relies on a distributed neuroanatomical network, which acts in concert to link fragments of visuomotor activity with component linguistic elements.

  6. Antenna-coupled infrared focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Francisco Javier

    In this dissertation a new type of infrared focal plane array (IR FPA) was investigated, consisting of antenna-coupled microbolometers fabricated using electron-beam lithography. Four different antenna designs were experimentally demonstrated at 10-micron wavelength: dipole, bowtie, square-spiral, and log-periodic. The main differences between these antenna types were their bandwidth, collection area, angular reception pattern, and polarization. To provide pixel collection areas commensurate with typical IR FPA requirements, two configurations were investigated: a two-dimensional serpentine interconnection of individual IR antennas, and a Fresnel-zone-plate (FZP) coupled to a single-element antenna. Optimum spacing conditions for the two-dimensional interconnect were developed. Increased sensitivity was demonstrated using a FZP-coupled design. In general, it was found that the configuration of the antenna substrate material was critical for optimization of sensitivity. The best results were obtained using thin membranes of silicon nitride to enhance the thermal isolation of the antenna-coupled bolometers. In addition, choice of the bolometer material was also important, with the best results obtained using vanadium oxide. Using optimum choices for all parameters, normalized sensitivity (D*) values in the range of mid 108 [cm Hz /W] were demonstrated for antenna-coupled IR sensors, and directions for further improvements were identified. Successful integration of antenna-coupled pixels with commercial readout integrated circuits was also demonstrated.

  7. Digital-pixel focal plane array development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Matthew G.; Baker, Justin; Colonero, Curtis; Costa, Joe; Gardner, Tom; Kelly, Mike; Schultz, Ken; Tyrrell, Brian; Wey, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Since 2006, MIT Lincoln Laboratory has been developing Digital-pixel Focal Plane Array (DFPA) readout integrated circuits (ROICs). To date, four 256 × 256 30 μm pitch DFPA designs with in-pixel analog to digital conversion have been fabricated using IBM 90 nm CMOS processes. The DFPA ROICs are compatible with a wide range of detector materials and cutoff wavelengths; HgCdTe, QWIP, and InGaAs photo-detectors with cutoff wavelengths ranging from 1.6 to 14.5 μm have been hybridized to the same digital-pixel readout. The digital-pixel readout architecture offers high dynamic range, A/C or D/C coupled integration, and on-chip image processing with low power orthogonal transfer operations. The newest ROIC designs support two-color operation with a single Indium bump connection. Development and characterization of the two-color DFPA designs is presented along with applications for this new digital readout technology.

  8. Multiwavelength infrared focal plane array detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forrest, Stephen R. (Inventor); Olsen, Gregory H. (Inventor); Kim, Dong-Su (Inventor); Lange, Michael J. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A multiwavelength focal plane array infrared detector is included on a common substrate having formed on its top face a plurality of In.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x As (x.ltoreq.0.53) absorption layers, between each pair of which a plurality of InAs.sub.y P.sub.1-y (y<1) buffer layers are formed having substantially increasing lattice parameters, respectively, relative to said substrate, for preventing lattice mismatch dislocations from propagating through successive ones of the absorption layers of decreasing bandgap relative to said substrate, whereby a plurality of detectors for detecting different wavelengths of light for a given pixel are provided by removing material above given areas of successive ones of the absorption layers, which areas are doped to form a pn junction with the surrounding unexposed portions of associated absorption layers, respectively, with metal contacts being formed on a portion of each of the exposed areas, and on the bottom of the substrate for facilitating electrical connections thereto.

  9. Enabling Large Focal Plane Arrays Through Mosaic Hybridization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy M.; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Leong, Edward; Costen, Nicholas P.; Sharp, Elmer; Adachi, Tomoko; Benford, Dominic J.

    2012-01-01

    We have demonstrated advances in mosaic hybridization that will enable very large format far-infrared detectors. Specifically we have produced electrical detector models via mosaic hybridization yielding superconducting circuit paths by hybridizing separately fabricated sub-units onto a single detector unit. The detector model was made on a 100mm diameter wafer while four model readout quadrant chips were made from a separate 100mm wafer. The individually fabricated parts were hybridized using a flip-chip bonder to assemble the detector-readout stack. Once all of the hybridized readouts were in place, a single, large and thick silicon substrate was placed on the stack and attached with permanent epoxy to provide strength and a Coefficient of Thermal Expansion match to the silicon components underneath. Wirebond pads on the readout chips connect circuits to warm readout electronics; and were used to validate the successful superconducting electrical interconnection of the model mosaic-hybrid detector. This demonstration is directly scalable to 150 mm diameter wafers, enabling pixel areas over ten times the area currently available.

  10. Enabling Large Focal Plane Arrays Through Mosaic Hybridization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy M.; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Leong, Edward; Costen, Nick P.; Sharp, Elmer; Adachi, Tomoko; Benford, Dominic J.

    2012-01-01

    We have demonstrated advances in mosaic hybridization that will enable very large format far-infrared detectors. Specifically we have produced electrical detector models via mosaic hybridization yielding superconducting circuit patbs by hybridizing separately fabricated sub-units onto a single detector unit. The detector model was made on a 100mm diameter wafer while four model readout quadrant chips were made from a separate 100mm wafer. The individually fabric.ted parts were hybridized using a Suss FCI50 flip chip bonder to assemble the detector-readout stack. Once all of the hybridized readouts were in place, a single, large and thick silicon substrate was placed on the stack and attached with permanent epoxy to provide strength and a Coefficient of Thermal Expansion match to the silicon components underneath. Wirebond pads on the readout chips connect circuits to warm readout electronics; and were used to validate the successful superconducting electrical interconnection of the model mosaic-hybrid detector. This demonstration is directly scalable to 150 mm diameter wafers, enabling pixel areas over ten times the area currently available.

  11. Codes with Monotonic Codeword Lengths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, Julia

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the minimum average codeword length coding under the constraint that the codewords are monotonically nondecreasing in length. Bounds on the average length of an optimal monotonic code are derived, and sufficient conditions are given such that algorithms for optimal alphabetic codes can be used to find the optimal monotonic code. (six…

  12. [The evaluation of the end-ejection pressure-length relation as an index of regional contractility].

    PubMed

    Perlini, S; Meyer, T E; Bernardi, L; Soldà, P L; Calciati, A; Finardi, G; Foëx, P

    1992-08-01

    Although end-systolic pressure-length relationship (ESPLR) is now widely used as a regional substitute for the end-systolic pressure-volume relationship, there are some reservations about its use as an index of systolic performance. This study aimed at assessing whether by using end-ejection (zero aortic flow) as a definition of end-systole, ESPLR can be used to characterize myocardial performance independent of load, and if the choice of the region where to implant the sonomicrometers is critical. Ten anaesthetized dogs (16 +/- 2 kg) were instrumented with a left ventricular (LV) pressure micromanometer and an aortic flow probe. Sonomicrometers were implanted in the apical (L1) and the mid-ventricular (L2) regions of the anterior LV wall, and in the basal region of the lateral wall (L3). End-systolic pressure-length relationships were obtained during acute preload reduction induced by the inflation of a vena caval balloon. This evaluation was repeated after increasing end-diastolic pressure to 14-18 mmHg (delta PL), after increasing systolic pressure by 15 (delta P-I) and 25 mmHg (delta P-II) with graded descending aorta occlusion, and during dobutamine infusions at 2.5 (Db 2.5) and 5 micrograms/kg/min (Db5). End-systolic pressure-length relationships (r > 0.97; pressure range: 70-100 mmHg) were characterized by their slopes (Ees), the extrapolated intercept at zero pressure (L0) and the values of segment length at a pressure of 75 (L75) and 100 mmHg (L100). In all the myocardial regions studied by sonomicrometry, the increments in preload and afterload did not significantly shift ESPLR.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1486579

  13. The dispersion-focalization theory of sound systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Abry, Christian; Boë, Louis-Jean; Vallée, Nathalie; Ménard, Lucie

    2005-04-01

    The Dispersion-Focalization Theory states that sound systems in human languages are shaped by two major perceptual constraints: dispersion driving auditory contrast towards maximal or sufficient values [B. Lindblom, J. Phonetics 18, 135-152 (1990)] and focalization driving auditory spectra towards patterns with close neighboring formants. Dispersion is computed from the sum of the inverse squared inter-spectra distances in the (F1, F2, F3, F4) space, using a non-linear process based on the 3.5 Bark critical distance to estimate F2'. Focalization is based on the idea that close neighboring formants produce vowel spectra with marked peaks, easier to process and memorize in the auditory system. Evidence for increased stability of focal vowels in short-term memory was provided in a discrimination experiment on adult French subjects [J. L. Schwartz and P. Escudier, Speech Comm. 8, 235-259 (1989)]. A reanalysis of infant discrimination data shows that focalization could well be the responsible for recurrent discrimination asymmetries [J. L. Schwartz et al., Speech Comm. (in press)]. Recent data about children vowel production indicate that focalization seems to be part of the perceptual templates driving speech development. The Dispersion-Focalization Theory produces valid predictions for both vowel and consonant systems, in relation with available databases of human languages inventories.

  14. Focal Adhesion Induction at the Tip of a Functionalized Nanoelectrode

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Daniela E.; Bae, Chilman; Butler, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Cells dynamically interact with their physical micro-environment through the assembly of nascent focal contacts and focal adhesions. The dynamics and mechanics of these contact points are controlled by transmembrane integrins and an array of intracellular adaptor proteins. In order to study the mechanics and dynamics of focal adhesion assembly, we have developed a technique for the timed induction of a nascent focal adhesion. Bovine aortic endothelial cells were approached at the apical surface by a nanoelectrode whose position was controlled with a resolution of 10s of nanometers using changes in electrode current to monitor distance from the cell surface. Since this probe was functionalized with fibronectin, a focal contact formed at the contact location. Nascent focal adhesion assembly was confirmed using time-lapse confocal fluorescent images of red fluorescent protein (RFP) – tagged talin, an adapter protein that binds to activated integrins. Binding to the cell was verified by noting a lack of change of electrode current upon retraction of the electrode. This study demonstrates that functionalized nanoelectrodes can enable precisely-timed induction and 3-D mechanical manipulation of focal adhesions and the assay of the detailed molecular kinetics of their assembly. PMID:22247742

  15. Far-Infrared Focal Plane Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betz, A. L.; Boreiko, R. T.; Sivananthan, S.; Zhou, Y. D.

    The development of focal plane arrays has dramatically increased the sensitivity and efficiency of optical and infrared telescopes. The versatility of HgCdTe alloy technology has been demonstrated by detector arrays with cutoff wavelengths tailored between λc = 1-10 μm. Although the cutoff wavelength can theoretically be extended to infinity (zero gap) by increasing the HgTe mole fraction, the required accuracy of the alloy composition is difficult to achieve with conventional liquid-phase-epitaxy (LPE). The more recent technique of molecular-beam-epitaxy (MBE), on the other hand, provides the necessary precision, and detector arrays appear feasible out to λc = 100 μm. Although the alloy approach should work, an alternate device structure may prove superior. Rather than alloying HgTe and CdTe, one can deposit alternating layers of the two materials in a composite structure called a superlattice (SL). Because layer thickness (rather than alloy composition) determines the cutoff wavelength in a SL, this approach should prove easier for fabricating an Eg = 0.01 eV semiconductor. Photodiodes made from SL material should also have lower tunneling currents, which are the dominant source of noise in low gap devices. This talk will describe a NASA-funded project to develop HgCdTe detectors for FIR wavelengths. Work is now in progress on the fabrication of discrete detectors, with emphasis on the superlattice approach. Within 3 years we hope to have a 32 x 32 element array for λ = 50-60 μm. The ultimate goal is a 128 x 128 element array for λ = 50-100 μm that could be used on a SOFIA instrument.

  16. Deep ultraviolet (254 nm) focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicek, Erdem; Vashaei, Zahra; McClintock, Ryan; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2011-10-01

    We report the synthesis, fabrication and testing of a 320 × 256 focal plane array (FPA) of back-illuminated, solarblind, p-i-n, AlxGa1-xN-based detectors, fully realized within our research laboratory. We implemented a novel pulsed atomic layer deposition technique for the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) growth of crackfree, thick, and high Al composition AlxGa1-xN layers. Following the growth, the wafer was processed into a 320 × 256 array of 25 μm × 25 μm pixels on a 30 μm pixel-pitch and surrounding mini-arrays. A diagnostic mini-array was hybridized to a silicon fan-out chip to allow the study of electrical and optical characteristics of discrete pixels of the FPA. At a reverse bias of 1 V, an average photodetector exhibited a low dark current density of 1.12×10-8 A/cm2. Solar-blind operation is observed throughout the array with peak detection occurring at wavelengths of 256 nm and lower and falling off three orders of magnitude by 285 nm. After indium bump deposition and dicing, the FPA is hybridized to a matching ISC 9809 readout integrated circuit (ROIC). By developing a novel masking technology, we significantly reduced the visible response of the ROIC and thus the need for external filtering to achieve solar- and visible-blind operation is eliminated. This allowed the FPA to achieve high external quantum efficiency (EQE): at 254 nm, average pixels showed unbiased peak responsivity of 75 mA/W, which corresponds to an EQE of ~37%. Finally, the uniformity of the FPA and imaging properties are investigated.

  17. Scanning Characteristics of Metamirror Antennas With Subwavelength Focal Distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tcvetkova, Svetlana N.; Asadchy, Viktar S.; Tretyakov, Sergei A.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate beam scanning by lateral feed displacement in novel metasurface based reflector antennas with extremely short focal distances. Electric field distributions of the waves reflected from the antenna are studied numerically and experimentally for defocusing angles up to 24 degrees. The results show that despite extremely small focal distances, the scanning ability of metamirrors is similar to that of comparable reflectarrays. In addition to offering a possibility to realize extremely small focal distances, metamirror antennas are practically penetrable and invisible for any radiation outside of the operating frequency range.

  18. Thermal analysis of the DES camera focal plate.

    SciTech Connect

    Guarino, V.; High Energy Physics

    2008-02-13

    A design specification for the DES Camera focal plate is to keep the deformation of the plate to less than 30 microns under operating conditions. Figure 1 shows the assembly of the focal plate, the support bipods and support ring, and the copper braid assemblies. Several studies were done to examine the deformation of the focal plate under different thermal and structural constraints. Simple hand calculations were also performed as a check of the finite element model and results. The main goal of this analysis was to determine the deformation of the plate and to understand what thermal and structural conditions are causing the deformation.

  19. Intermediate filaments and the regulation of focal adhesion.

    PubMed

    Leube, Rudolf E; Moch, Marcin; Windoffer, Reinhard

    2015-02-01

    Focal adhesions are localized actin filament-anchoring signalling centres at the cell-extracellular matrix interface. The currently emerging view is that they fulfil an all-embracing coordinating function for the entire cytoskeleton. This review highlights the tight relationship between focal adhesions and the intermediate filament cytoskeleton. We summarize the accumulating evidence for direct binding of intermediate filaments to focal adhesion components and their mutual cross-talk through signalling molecules. Examples are presented to emphasize the high degree of complexity of these interactions equipping cells with a precisely controlled machinery for context-dependent adjustment of their biomechanical properties.

  20. Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia: review and a case report.

    PubMed

    Salem, Y M Y; Osman, Y I; Norval, E J G

    2010-10-01

    Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia is a benign fibro-osseous condition that can be seen in dentate and edentulous patients. It is an asymptomatic lesion and needs no treatment; however follow-up is essential due to the possibility that focal cemento-osseous dysplasia can progress to a condition called florid osseous dysplasia that involves multiple sites. A case report is presented here, along with a review of the differential diagnoses considered in order to reach a final diagnosis of focal cemento-osseous dysplasia.

  1. A practical approach to management of focal hand dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Dystonia can be focal, segmental, multifocal, generalized, or hemidystonia. Focal dystonia is localized to a specific part of the body. Overall upper limb is more commonly involved in focal dystonia than lower limb and since it starts from hand, focal hand dystonia (FHD) is a more accepted terminology. Writer's cramp and musician dystonia are commonest types of FHD. Typically this dystonia is task specific, but in some patients this specificity may be lost over a period of time. Segmental or generalized dystonia may also start as FHD, so a detailed clinical assessment is required, which should be supplemented by relevant investigations. Treatment includes oral medications, injection botulinum toxin, neurosurgery including neurostimulation, and rehabilitation. Role of injection botulinum toxin has been extensively studied in writer's cramp patients and found to be effective; however, selection of muscles and techniques of injection are crucial in getting best results. PMID:26019409

  2. Real-time focal stack compositing for handheld mobile cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solh, Mashhour

    2013-03-01

    Extending the depth of field using a single lens camera on a mobile device can be achieved by capturing a set of images each focused at a different depth or focal stack then combine these samples of the focal stack to form a single all-in-focus image or an image refocused at a desired depth of field. Focal stack compositing in real time for a handheld mobile camera has many challenges including capturing, processing power, handshaking, rolling shutter artifacts, occlusion, and lens zoom effect. In this paper, we describe a system for a real time focal stack compositing system for handheld mobile device with an alignment and compositing algorithms. We will also show all-in-focus images captured and processed by a cell phone camera running on Android OS.

  3. Focal Therapy of Prostate Cancer Using Irreversible Electroporation.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Massimo; Ahmed, Hashim U; Emberton, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Focal therapy is a novel strategy that attempts to enhance the therapeutic ratio of standard radical treatment in prostate cancer. Irreversible electroporation (IRE) has some inherent characteristics that may be ideal for focal therapy. Precise confined ablation in the treatment area obtained via nonthermal damage with potential for minimal toxicity to surrounding structures may lead to optimal treatment with improved preservation of continence and erectile function. Initial data of focal IRE of the prostate are encouraging although further assessment is awaited to confirm these findings using robust methodology. In this article, we provide a comprehensive step-by-step description of our technique to deliver focal IRE in selected men with localized prostate cancer located in a discrete area of the prostate.

  4. "Focal" Color Areas and the Development of Color Names

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heider, Eleanor Rosch

    1971-01-01

    Three experiments using 3- and 4-year-olds as subjects tested the hypothesis that focal colors are more salient than nonfocal colors for young children and are the areas to which color names initially become attached. (NH)

  5. Creation of identical multiple focal spots with prescribed axial distribution.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yanzhong; Zhan, Qiwen

    2015-01-01

    We present a scheme for the construction of coaxially equidistant multiple focal spots with identical intensity profiles for each individual focus and a predetermined number and spacing. To achieve this, the radiation field from an antenna is reversed and then gathered by high numerical aperture objective lenses. Radiation patterns from three types of line sources, i.e., the electric current, magnetic current and electromagnetic current distributions, with cosine-squared taper are respectively employed to generate predominately longitudinally polarized bright spots, azimuthally polarized doughnuts, and focal spots with a perfect spherically symmetric intensity distribution. The required illuminations at the pupil plane of a 4Pi focusing configuration for the creation of these identical multiple focal spots can be easily derived by solving the inverse problem of the antenna radiation field. These unique focal field distributions may find potential applications in laser direct writing and optical microscopy, as well as multiple-particle trapping, alignment, and acceleration along the optical axis. PMID:26424051

  6. Creation of identical multiple focal spots with prescribed axial distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yanzhong; Zhan, Qiwen

    2015-10-01

    We present a scheme for the construction of coaxially equidistant multiple focal spots with identical intensity profiles for each individual focus and a predetermined number and spacing. To achieve this, the radiation field from an antenna is reversed and then gathered by high numerical aperture objective lenses. Radiation patterns from three types of line sources, i.e., the electric current, magnetic current and electromagnetic current distributions, with cosine-squared taper are respectively employed to generate predominately longitudinally polarized bright spots, azimuthally polarized doughnuts, and focal spots with a perfect spherically symmetric intensity distribution. The required illuminations at the pupil plane of a 4Pi focusing configuration for the creation of these identical multiple focal spots can be easily derived by solving the inverse problem of the antenna radiation field. These unique focal field distributions may find potential applications in laser direct writing and optical microscopy, as well as multiple-particle trapping, alignment, and acceleration along the optical axis.

  7. Compact Focal Plane Assembly for Planetary Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Ari; Aslam, Shahid; Huang, Wei-Chung; Steptoe-Jackson, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    A compact radiometric focal plane assembly (FPA) has been designed in which the filters are individually co-registered over compact thermopile pixels. This allows for construction of an ultralightweight and compact radiometric instrument. The FPA also incorporates micromachined baffles in order to mitigate crosstalk and low-pass filter windows in order to eliminate high-frequency radiation. Compact metal mesh bandpass filters were fabricated for the far infrared (FIR) spectral range (17 to 100 microns), a game-changing technology for future planetary FIR instruments. This fabrication approach allows the dimensions of individual metal mesh filters to be tailored with better than 10- micron precision. In contrast, conventional compact filters employed in recent missions and in near-term instruments consist of large filter sheets manually cut into much smaller pieces, which is a much less precise and much more labor-intensive, expensive, and difficult process. Filter performance was validated by integrating them with thermopile arrays. Demonstration of the FPA will require the integration of two technologies. The first technology is compact, lightweight, robust against cryogenic thermal cycling, and radiation-hard micromachined bandpass filters. They consist of a copper mesh supported on a deep reactive ion-etched silicon frame. This design architecture is advantageous when constructing a lightweight and compact instrument because (1) the frame acts like a jig and facilitates filter integration with the FPA, (2) the frame can be designed so as to maximize the FPA field of view, (3) the frame can be simultaneously used as a baffle for mitigating crosstalk, and (4) micron-scale alignment features can be patterned so as to permit high-precision filter stacking and, consequently, increase the filter bandwidth and sharpen the out-of-band rolloff. The second technology consists of leveraging, from another project, compact and lightweight Bi0.87Sb0.13/Sb arrayed thermopiles

  8. Inflammatory pancreatic masses: problems in differentiating focal pancreatitis from carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, C.C.; Simeone, J.F.; Wittenberg, J.; Mueller, P.R.; Ferrucci, J.T. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The authors studied 19 patients with focal inflammatory masses of the pancreas over an 18-month period. In 13 cases, transhepatic cholangiography and/or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography were unsuccessful in differentiating pancreatitis from carcinoma. Eighteen patients had a history of alcohol abuse, and 12 had had pancreatitis previously. Pre-existing glandular injury appears to be a prerequisite to formation of focal inflammatory pancreatic masses.

  9. [Histoplasmin skin test and focal hemorrhagic chorioiditis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schildberg, P; Wessing, A; Eller, B

    1975-02-01

    A histoplasmin skin test was performed on 56 patients with focal hemorrhagic choroiditis. The test was negative in 53 choroiditis patients and positive in three patients. The three patients with posi-ive skin test had been living for a long time in the eastern part of the U.S.A. where histoplasma capsulatum occurs endemically. The results of this study suggest that the infection with histoplasmin capsulatum is not the cause of focal hemorrhagic choroiditis in our area.

  10. Thermomechanical architecture of the VIS focal plane for Euclid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martignac, Jérôme; Carty, Michaël.; Tourette, Thierry; Bachet, Damien; Berthé, Michel; Augueres, Jean-Louis; Amiaux, Jérôme; Fontignie, Jean; Horeau, Benoît; Renaud, Diana; Pottinger, Sabrina; Denniston, James; Winter, Berend; Guttridge, Phillip; Cole, Richard; Cropper, Mark; Niemi, Sami; Coker, John; Hunt, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    One of the main challenges for current and near future space experiments is the increase of focal plane complexity in terms of amount of pixels. In the frame work of the ESA Euclid mission to be launched in 2020, the Euclid Consortium is developing an extremely large and stable focal plane for the VIS instrument. CEA has developed the thermomechanical architecture of that Focal Plane taking into account all the very stringent performance and mission related requirements. The VIS Focal Plane Assembly integrates 36 CCDs (operated at 150K) connected to their front end electronics (operated at 280K) as to obtain one of the largest focal plane (˜0.6 billion pixels) ever built for space application after the GAIA one. The CCDs are CCD273 type specially designed and provided by the e2v company under ESA contract, front end electronics is studied and provided by MSSL. In this paper we first recall the specific requirements that have driven the overall architecture of the VIS-FPA and especially the solutions proposed to cope with the scientific needs of an extremely stable focal plane, both mechanically and thermally. The mechanical structure based on SiC material used for the cold sub assembly supporting the CCDs is detailed. We describe also the modular architecture concept that we have selected taking into account AIT-AIV and programmatic constraints.

  11. Recurrent Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis and Abatacept: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Alkandari, Omar; Nampoory, Narayanan; Nair, Prasad; Atta, Ahmed; Zakaria, Zakaria; Mossad, Ahmed; Yagan, Jude; Al-Otaibi, Torki

    2016-08-01

    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is a common cause of end-stage renal disease in children. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis recurrence in renal transplants is a challenging disease, and can cause graft dysfunction and loss. Different therapies exist with varying responses, from complete remission to resistance to all modes of treatment. Abatacept was recently introduced as a treatment for primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in native kidneys and in recurrent disease after transplant. We present a pediatric case with immunosuppression-resistant primary NPHS2-negative focal segmental glomerulosclerosis recur-rence after renal transplant. The standard therapy for recurrent focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (rituximab, plasmapheresis, high-dose cyclosporine, and corticosteroids) was tried but failed to induce remission. Abatacept (10 mg/kg) was given at 0, 2, and 4 weeks (total, 3 doses) with no good response. We conclude that abatacept may work in patients with B7-1-positive focal segmental glomerulosclerosis recurrence and its efficacy is uncertain in disease with B7-1-negative or unknown staining status. PMID:25432003

  12. [Localized prostate cancer Focal Therapy: "A la carte" Model].

    PubMed

    Linares Espinós, E; Barret, E; Sivaraman, A; Pérez-Reggeti, J I; Sánchez-Salas, R; Rozet, F; Galiano, M; Cathelineau, X

    2016-07-01

    Focal therapy has settled as an alternative to radical treatment in selected cases of localized prostate cancer. The selection of patients who are candidates for focal therapy is based on imaging diagnosis relying on multiparametric MRI and image fusion techniques. Thanks to the oncological results and safety profiles of initial series, various energy sources have been developed over the last years. The availability of multiple types of energy sources for focal therapy, commits us to evaluate what type of energy would be the optimal depending on patient's profile and type of lesion. A unique energy for focal therapy would be ideal, but facing the research of the various types of energy we must identify which one is recommended for each lesion. With the experience of our center in different approaches of focal therapy we propose the "A LA CARTE" MODEL based on localization of the lesion. We present the criteria the "a la carte" model is based on, supported by the published evidence on the use of different ablative therapies for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Lesion localization, technical characteristics of each type of energy, patient's profile and secondary effects must be considered in every choice of focal therapy. PMID:27416638

  13. mTOR signaling pathway genes in focal epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Baulac, S

    2016-01-01

    Focal epilepsies, where seizures initiate in spatially limited networks, are the most frequent epilepsy type, accounting for two-thirds of patients. Focal epilepsies have long been thought to be acquired disorders; several focal epilepsy syndromes are now proven to be (genetically heterogeneous) monogenic disorders. While earlier genetic studies have demonstrated a strong contribution of ion channel and neurotransmitter receptor genes, or synaptic secreted protein genes, later work has revealed a new class of genes encoding components of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signal transduction pathway. The mTOR pathway controls a myriad of biological processes among which cell growth and protein synthesis in response to several extracellular and intracellular. Recently, germline mutations have been found in genes encoding the components of the GATOR1 complex (DEPDC5, NPRL2, NPRL3), a repressor of mTORC1. These mutations are increasingly recognized as causing a wide and yet evolving spectrum of focal epilepsy syndromes, with and without cortical structural abnormalities (usually focal cortical dysplasia). Brain somatic mutations in the gene encoding mTOR (MTOR) have recently been linked to focal cortical dysplasia and other associated brain pathologies including hemimegalencephaly. This chapter reviews the genetics and neurobiology of DEPDC5, NPRL2, and NPRL3, and summarizes the clinical and molecular spectrum of GATOR1-related epilepsies. PMID:27323939

  14. IMPEDANCE OF FINITE LENGTH RESISTOR

    SciTech Connect

    KRINSKY, S.; PODOBEDOV, B.; GLUCKSTERN, R.L.

    2005-05-15

    We determine the impedance of a cylindrical metal tube (resistor) of radius a, length g, and conductivity {sigma}, attached at each end to perfect conductors of semi-infinite length. Our main interest is in the asymptotic behavior of the impedance at high frequency, k >> 1/a. In the equilibrium regime, , the impedance per unit length is accurately described by the well-known result for an infinite length tube with conductivity {sigma}. In the transient regime, ka{sup 2} >> g, we derive analytic expressions for the impedance and wakefield.

  15. Polyketide chain length control by chain length factor.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Khosla, Chaitan

    2003-10-22

    Bacterial aromatic polyketides are pharmacologically important natural products. A critical parameter that dictates product structure is the carbon chain length of the polyketide backbone. Systematic manipulation of polyketide chain length represents a major unmet challenge in natural product biosynthesis. Polyketide chain elongation is catalyzed by a heterodimeric ketosynthase. In contrast to homodimeric ketosynthases found in fatty acid synthases, the active site cysteine is absent from the one subunit of this heterodimer. The precise role of this catalytically silent subunit has been debated over the past decade. We demonstrate here that this subunit is the primary determinant of polyketide chain length, thereby validating its designation as chain length factor. Using structure-based mutagenesis, we identified key residues in the chain length factor that could be manipulated to convert an octaketide synthase into a decaketide synthase and vice versa. These results should lead to novel strategies for the engineered biosynthesis of hitherto unidentified polyketide scaffolds.

  16. 100 mm Engineered InP-on-Si Laminate Substrates for InP-based Multijunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Atwater, Harry

    2012-06-25

    The project focused on fabrication of InP/Si laminate substrates as templates for growth of InGaAsP/InGaAs and InAlAs/InGaAsP/InGaAs multijunction solar cells. InP/Si template substrates were developed and used as templates for InGaAs solar growth. A novel feature of the program was development of the virtual substrate template, which enables a substrate to be formed with a lattice constant intermediate between those of GaAs and InP. Large-area virtual substrate templates were formed by transfer and bonding of dislocation free InGaAs films wafer onto silicon substrates.

  17. Occurrence of daily precipitation sums ≥ 100 mm within the Lublin Region and their circulation determinants (1951-2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siwek, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    This paper includes the characteristics of precipitation ≥ 100.0 mm within the Lublin Region based on daily sums of precipitation collected in 1951-2000 from 57 weather posts and stations of the Polish Meteorology and Water Management Institute and Meteorological Observatory of Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin located in the centre of the city. During the analyzed period there were 11 such cases.

  18. Thermally induced changes in the focal distance of composite mirrors - Composites with a zero coefficient of thermal expansion of the radius of curvature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolgin, Benjamin P.

    1992-01-01

    Calculations are presented of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the radius of curvature of the reflector face sheets made of a quasi-isotropic composite. It is shown that, upon cooling, the change of the CTE of the focal distance of the mirror is equal to that of the radius of the curvature of the reflector face sheet. The CTE of the radius of the curvature of a quasi-isotropic composite face sheet depends on both the in-plane and the out-of-plane CTEs. The zero in-plane CTE of a face sheet does not guarantee mirrors with no focal length changes.

  19. Line Lengths and Starch Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Sandra E.

    1986-01-01

    Investigates readability of different line lengths in advertising body copy, hypothesizing a normal curve with lower scores for shorter and longer lines, and scores above the mean for lines in the middle of the distribution. Finds support for lower scores for short lines and some evidence of two optimum line lengths rather than one. (SKC)

  20. Precision Laser Annealing of Focal Plane Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, Daniel A.; DeRose, Christopher; Starbuck, Andrew Lea; Verley, Jason C.; Jenkins, Mark W.

    2015-09-01

    We present results from laser annealing experiments in Si using a passively Q-switched Nd:YAG microlaser. Exposure with laser at fluence values above the damage threshold of commercially available photodiodes results in electrical damage (as measured by an increase in photodiode dark current). We show that increasing the laser fluence to values in excess of the damage threshold can result in annealing of a damage site and a reduction in detector dark current by as much as 100x in some cases. A still further increase in fluence results in irreparable damage. Thus we demonstrate the presence of a laser annealing window over which performance of damaged detectors can be at least partially reconstituted. Moreover dark current reduction is observed over the entire operating range of the diode indicating that device performance has been improved for all values of reverse bias voltage. Additionally, we will present results of laser annealing in Si waveguides. By exposing a small (<10 um) length of a Si waveguide to an annealing laser pulse, the longitudinal phase of light acquired in propagating through the waveguide can be modified with high precision, <15 milliradian per laser pulse. Phase tuning by 180 degrees is exhibited with multiple exposures to one arm of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer at fluence values below the morphological damage threshold of an etched Si waveguide. No reduction in optical transmission at 1550 nm was found after 220 annealing laser shots. Modeling results for laser annealing in Si are also presented.

  1. MR imaging features of focal liver lesions in Wilson disease.

    PubMed

    Dohan, Anthony; Vargas, Ottavia; Dautry, Raphael; Guerrache, Youcef; Woimant, France; Hamzi, Lounis; Boudiaf, Mourad; Poujois, Aurelia; Faraoun, Sid Ahmed; Soyer, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    Hepatic involvement in Wilson disease (WD) manifests as a diffuse chronic disease in the majority of patients. However, in a subset of patients focal liver lesions may develop, presenting with a wide range of imaging features. The majority of focal liver lesions in patients with WD are benign nodules, but there are reports that have described malignant liver tumors or dysplastic nodules in these patients. Because of the possibility of malignant transformation of liver nodules, major concerns have been raised with respect to the management and follow-up of patients with WD in whom focal liver lesions have been identified. The assessment of liver involvement in patients with WD is generally performed with ultrasonography. However, ultrasonography conveys limited specificity so that magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is often performed to improve lesion characterization. This review was performed to illustrate the spectrum of MR imaging features of focal liver lesions that develop in patients with WD. It is assumed that familiarity with the MR imaging presentation of focal liver lesions in WD may help clarify the actual nature of hepatic nodules in patients with this condition. PMID:27116011

  2. MR imaging features of focal liver lesions in Wilson disease.

    PubMed

    Dohan, Anthony; Vargas, Ottavia; Dautry, Raphael; Guerrache, Youcef; Woimant, France; Hamzi, Lounis; Boudiaf, Mourad; Poujois, Aurelia; Faraoun, Sid Ahmed; Soyer, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    Hepatic involvement in Wilson disease (WD) manifests as a diffuse chronic disease in the majority of patients. However, in a subset of patients focal liver lesions may develop, presenting with a wide range of imaging features. The majority of focal liver lesions in patients with WD are benign nodules, but there are reports that have described malignant liver tumors or dysplastic nodules in these patients. Because of the possibility of malignant transformation of liver nodules, major concerns have been raised with respect to the management and follow-up of patients with WD in whom focal liver lesions have been identified. The assessment of liver involvement in patients with WD is generally performed with ultrasonography. However, ultrasonography conveys limited specificity so that magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is often performed to improve lesion characterization. This review was performed to illustrate the spectrum of MR imaging features of focal liver lesions that develop in patients with WD. It is assumed that familiarity with the MR imaging presentation of focal liver lesions in WD may help clarify the actual nature of hepatic nodules in patients with this condition.

  3. Hot spot liver scan in focal nodular hyperplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Piers, D.A.; Houthoff, H.J.; Krom, R.A.F.; Schuur, K.H.; Sikkens, H.; Weits, J.

    1980-12-01

    In scintigraphy of the liver with radiocolloid, space-occupying lesions generally are visualized as regions of decreased accumulation of radioactivity. Rarely focal areas of increased activity are depicted; most are related to altered vascular dynamics in the liver secondary to obstruction of the superior or inferior vena cava or the hepatic veins. There are reports of single cases of focally increased activity due to a hepatic hemangioma, hepatic venoocclusive disease, herniation of a part of the liver, and a liver hot spot found after radiocolloid injection via a malpositioned central venous catheter in one of the hepatic vein branches. In patients with focal nodular hyperplasia, liver scans with solitary defects as well as normal patterns are found. In some cases, increased uptake of colloid in the lesion has been documented. Pasquier and Dorta reported a patient with a palpable mass in the left liver lobe with increased accumulation of radioactivity on the radiocolloid liver scan. The histologic diagnosis was hamartoma, but reviewing the description and considering the confusion in the past concerning the nomenclature, this case is suggestive of focal nodular hyperplasia. We report a patient with focal nodular hyperplasia who had increased radiocolloid uptake in the lesion. The radionuclide studies are compared with angiography, sonography, and computed tomography. An explanation for the localized increased colloid accumulation based on histologic findings is suggested.

  4. Focal organizing pneumonia mimicking lung cancer: a surgeon's view.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhi; Pan, Youmin; Song, Chaoguo; Wei, Hao; Wu, Shimin; Wei, Xiang; Pan, Tiecheng; Li, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Focal organizing pneumonia is a unique form of organizing pneumonia. Little is known regarding its clinical and radiological feature, diagnosis, management, and outcome. Twenty patients with focal organizing pneumonia were investigated and compared with 40 patients with bronchogenic carcinoma. There were 38 men (63.3%) and 22 women (36.7%). The mean age was 55 ± 9.9 years. No specific feature in clinical and radiological manifestation was found to distinguish between focal organizing pneumonia and bronchogenic carcinoma. In patients with focal organizing pneumonia, wedge resection was performed in 12 cases and lobectomy in eight cases. Follow-up was complete with a median period of 26 months (range, 6 to 104 months). All patients were free from recurrence of organizing pneumonia. Clinical and radiologic findings of focal organizing pneumonia are nonspecific, and this unique form of organizing pneumonia is difficult to differentiate from lung cancer. Surgical resection allows both diagnosis and cure. However, considering the benign nature of this disease, major pulmonary resections should be avoided.

  5. Combined scanning transmission electron microscopy tilt- and focal series.

    PubMed

    Dahmen, Tim; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Lupini, Andrew R; Kübel, Christian; Slusallek, Philipp; de Jonge, Niels

    2014-04-01

    In this study, a combined tilt- and focal series is proposed as a new recording scheme for high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography. Three-dimensional (3D) data were acquired by mechanically tilting the specimen, and recording a through-focal series at each tilt direction. The sample was a whole-mount macrophage cell with embedded gold nanoparticles. The tilt-focal algebraic reconstruction technique (TF-ART) is introduced as a new algorithm to reconstruct tomograms from such combined tilt- and focal series. The feasibility of TF-ART was demonstrated by 3D reconstruction of the experimental 3D data. The results were compared with a conventional STEM tilt series of a similar sample. The combined tilt- and focal series led to smaller "missing wedge" artifacts, and a higher axial resolution than obtained for the STEM tilt series, thus improving on one of the main issues of tilt series-based electron tomography.

  6. Advanced simulation methods to detect resonant frequency stack up in focal plane design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Craig; Malone, Neil R.; Torres, Raymond; Fajardo, Armando; Vampola, John; Drechsler, William; Parlato, Russell; Cobb, Christopher; Randolph, Max; Chiourn, Surath; Swinehart, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Wire used to connect focal plane electrical connections to external electrical circuitry can be modeled using the length, diameter and loop height to determine the resonant frequency. The design of the adjacent electric board and mounting platform can also be analyzed. The combined resonant frequency analysis can then be used to decouple the different component resonant frequencies to eliminate the potential for metal fatigue in the wires. It is important to note that the nominal maximum stress values that cause metal fatigue can be much less than the ultimate tensile stress limit or the yield stress limit and are degraded further at resonant frequencies. It is critical that tests be done to qualify designs that are not easily simulated due to material property variation and complex structures. Sine wave vibration testing is a critical component of qualification vibration and provides the highest accuracy in determining the resonant frequencies which can be reduced or uncorrelated improving the structural performance of the focal plane assembly by small changes in design damping or modern space material selection. Vibration flow down from higher levels of assembly needs consideration for intermediary hardware, which may amplify or attenuate the full up system vibration profile. A simple pass through of vibration requirements may result in over test or missing amplified resonant frequencies that can cause system failure. Examples are shown of metal wire fatigue such as discoloration and microscopic cracks which are visible at the submicron level by the use of a scanning electron microscope. While it is important to model and test resonant frequencies the Focal plane must also be constrained such that Coefficient of Thermal expansion mismatches are allowed to move and not overstress the FPA.

  7. When Is Input Salient? An Exploratory Study of Sentence Location and Word Length Effects on Input Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Susanne E.

    2012-01-01

    Sentence position and word length have been claimed to contribute to the perceptual salience of words. The perceptual salience of words in turn is said to predict L2 developmental sequences. Data for such claims come from sentence repetition tasks that required perceptual re-encoding of input and that did not control for focal accent. We used a…

  8. Imaging techniques for prostate cancer: implications for focal therapy

    PubMed Central

    Turkbey, Baris; Pinto, Peter A.; Choyke, Peter L.

    2012-01-01

    The multifocal nature of prostate cancer has necessitated whole-gland therapy in the past; however, since the widespread use of PSA screening, patients frequently present with less-advanced disease. Many men with localized disease wish to avoid the adverse effects of whole-gland therapy; therefore, focal therapy for prostate cancer is being considered as a treatment option. For focal treatment to be viable, accurate imaging is required for diagnosis, staging, and monitoring of treatment. Developments in MRI and PET have brought more attention to prostate imaging and the possibility of improving the accuracy of focal therapy. In this Review, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of conventional methods for imaging the prostate, new developments for targeted imaging, and the possible role of image-guided biopsy and therapy for localized prostate cancer. PMID:19352394

  9. Focal epilepsy with ictal abdominal pain: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cerminara, Caterina; El Malhany, Nadia; Roberto, Denis; Curatolo, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Focal epilepsy with ictal abdominal pain is an unusual partial epilepsy characterized by paroxysmal episodes of abdominal or visceral pain, disturbance of awareness and electroencephalographic abnormalities. We describe a new case of ictal abdominal pain in which gastrointestinal complaints were the only manifestation of seizures and review the previously described pediatric patients. In our patient clinical findings, ictal EEG abnormalities, and a good response to antiepileptic drugs allowed us to make a diagnosis of focal epilepsy with ictal abdominal pain. This is a rare epileptic phenomenon that should be suspected in patients with unexplained paroxysmal abdominal pain and migraine-like symptoms. We suggest that, after the exclusion of more common etiologies, focal epilepsy with ictal abdominal pain should be considered in patients with paroxysmal abdominal pain and ictal EEG abnormalities. PMID:24321431

  10. LiteBIRD: Mission Overview and Focal Plane Layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, T.; Akiba, Y.; Arnold, K.; Borrill, J.; Chendra, R.; Chinone, Y.; Cukierman, A.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M.; Dominjon, A.; Elleflot, T.; Errard, J.; Fujino, T.; Fuke, H.; Goeckner-wald, N.; Halverson, N.; Harvey, P.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Hattori, M.; Hazumi, M.; Hill, C.; Hilton, G.; Holzapfel, W.; Hori, Y.; Hubmayr, J.; Ichiki, K.; Inatani, J.; Inoue, M.; Inoue, Y.; Irie, F.; Irwin, K.; Ishino, H.; Ishitsuka, H.; Jeong, O.; Karatsu, K.; Kashima, S.; Katayama, N.; Kawano, I.; Keating, B.; Kibayashi, A.; Kibe, Y.; Kida, Y.; Kimura, K.; Kimura, N.; Kohri, K.; Komatsu, E.; Kuo, C. L.; Kuromiya, S.; Kusaka, A.; Lee, A.; Linder, E.; Matsuhara, H.; Matsuoka, S.; Matsuura, S.; Mima, S.; Mitsuda, K.; Mizukami, K.; Morii, H.; Morishima, T.; Nagai, M.; Nagasaki, T.; Nagata, R.; Nakajima, M.; Nakamura, S.; Namikawa, T.; Naruse, M.; Natsume, K.; Nishibori, T.; Nishijo, K.; Nishino, H.; Nitta, T.; Noda, A.; Noguchi, T.; Ogawa, H.; Oguri, S.; Ohta, I. S.; Otani, C.; Okada, N.; Okamoto, A.; Okamoto, A.; Okamura, T.; Rebeiz, G.; Richards, P.; Sakai, S.; Sato, N.; Sato, Y.; Segawa, Y.; Sekiguchi, S.; Sekimoto, Y.; Sekine, M.; Seljak, U.; Sherwin, B.; Shinozaki, K.; Shu, S.; Stompor, R.; Sugai, H.; Sugita, H.; Suzuki, T.; Suzuki, A.; Tajima, O.; Takada, S.; Takakura, S.; Takano, K.; Takei, Y.; Tomaru, T.; Tomita, N.; Turin, P.; Utsunomiya, S.; Uzawa, Y.; Wada, T.; Watanabe, H.; Westbrook, B.; Whitehorn, N.; Yamada, Y.; Yamasaki, N.; Yamashita, T.; Yoshida, M.; Yoshida, T.; Yotsumoto, Y.

    2016-08-01

    LiteBIRD is a proposed CMB polarization satellite project to probe the inflationary B-mode signal. The satellite is designed to measure the tensor-to-scalar ratio with a 68 % confidence level uncertainty of σ _r<10^{-3}, including statistical, instrumental systematic, and foreground uncertainties. LiteBIRD will observe the full sky from the second Lagrange point for 3 years. We have a focal plane layout for observing frequency coverage that spans 40-402 GHz to characterize the galactic foregrounds. We have two detector candidates, transition-edge sensor bolometers and microwave kinetic inductance detectors. In both cases, a telecentric focal plane consists of approximately 2× 10^3 superconducting detectors. We will present the mission overview of LiteBIRD, the project status, and the TES focal plane layout.

  11. Bilaterally symmetric focal cortical dysplasia in a golden retriever dog.

    PubMed

    Casey, K M; Bollen, A W; Winger, K M; Vernau, K M; Dickinson, P J; Higgins, R J; Sisó, S

    2014-11-01

    A 10-year-old golden retriever dog was referred with a 24-h history of generalized seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain found no abnormalities on 3 mm transverse sections and the dog was subsequently humanely destroyed. Microscopically there was bilaterally symmetrical focal disorganization of cortical grey matter within the tips of the right and left suprasylvian gyri of the temporal cortex. The focal abnormal cortical lamination was characterized by loss of pyramidal neurons with abnormal, irregular, angular, remaining neurons occasionally forming clusters, surrounded by fibrillary astrogliosis and microgliosis and vascular proliferation. These histological findings are consistent with focal cortical dysplasia, a cerebral cortical malformation that causes seizures in people, but not reported previously in the dog. PMID:25246180

  12. Focal depth measurement of scanning helium ion microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Hongxuan; Itoh, Hiroshi; Wang, Chunmei; Zhang, Han; Fujita, Daisuke

    2014-07-14

    When facing the challenges of critical dimension measurement of complicated nanostructures, such as of the three dimension integrated circuit, characterization of the focal depth of microscopes is important. In this Letter, we developed a method for characterizing the focal depth of a scanning helium ion microscope (HIM) by using an atomic force microscope tip characterizer (ATC). The ATC was tilted in a sample chamber at an angle to the scanning plan. Secondary electron images (SEIs) were obtained at different positions of the ATC. The edge resolution of the SEIs shows the nominal diameters of the helium ion beam at different focal levels. With this method, the nominal shapes of the helium ion beams were obtained with different apertures. Our results show that a small aperture is necessary to get a high spatial resolution and high depth of field images with HIM. This work provides a method for characterizing and improving the performance of HIM.

  13. Focal brain atrophy in gastric bypass patients with cognitive complaints.

    PubMed

    Graff-Radford, Jonathan; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Trenerry, Max R; Ahlskog, J Eric; Jensen, Michael D; Jack, Clifford R; Josephs, Keith A

    2011-12-01

    Recently, we have identified a series of patients presenting with cognitive complaints after gastric bypass, without any identifiable etiology. We aimed to determine if focal brain atrophy could account for the complaints. A retrospective case series was performed to identify patients with cognitive complaints following gastric bypass who had a volumetric MRI. Voxel-based morphometry was used to assess patterns of grey matter loss in all 10 patients identified, compared to 10 age and gender-matched controls. All patients had undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery at a median age of 54 (range: 46-64). Cognitive complaints developed at a median age of 57 (52-69). Formal neuropsychometric testing revealed only minor deficits. No nutritional abnormalities were identified. Voxel-based morphometry demonstrated focal thalamic atrophy in the gastric bypass patients when compared to controls. Patients with cognitive complaints after gastric bypass surgery may have focal thalamic brain atrophy that could result in cognitive impairment.

  14. Variation of focal switch with spectrum of a broadband laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Biyu; Peng, Runwu; Xie, Haiqing; Zhang, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Effects of the spectrum on focal switch of a broadband laser in a dispersion dual-focus system are presented in this paper. The numerical results show that the two maximum intensities of the broadband laser on the z-axis vary when the central frequency of the broadband laser shifts and the spectrum shape changes, and the variations affect the generation of the focal switch. It is also found that difference of the two maximum intensities tends to increase when the absolute value of central wavelength increases. According to the results in this paper, the generation of the focal switch can be controlled by choosing the shift of the central frequency, the bandwidth, the distance between the two lenses, and the spectrum shape of the broadband laser.

  15. The cheating liver: imaging of focal steatosis and fatty sparing.

    PubMed

    Dioguardi Burgio, Marco; Bruno, Onorina; Agnello, Francesco; Torrisi, Chiara; Vernuccio, Federica; Cabibbo, Giuseppe; Soresi, Maurizio; Petta, Salvatore; Calamia, Mauro; Papia, Giovanni; Gambino, Angelo; Ricceri, Viola; Midiri, Massimo; Lagalla, Roberto; Brancatelli, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    Focal steatosis and fatty sparing are a frequent finding in liver imaging, and can mimic solid lesions. Liver regional variations in the degree of fat accumulation can be related to vascular anomalies, metabolic disorders, use of certain drugs or coexistence of hepatic masses. CT and MRI are the modalities of choice for the noninvasive diagnosis of hepatic steatosis. Knowledge of CT and MRI appearance of focal steatosis and fatty sparing is crucial for an accurate diagnosis, and to rule-out other pathologic processes. This paper will review the CT and MRI techniques for the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis and the CT and MRI features of common and uncommon causes of focal steatosis and fatty sparing.

  16. Definition of Magnetic Exchange Length

    SciTech Connect

    Abo, GS; Hong, YK; Park, J; Lee, J; Lee, W; Choi, BC

    2013-08-01

    The magnetostatic exchange length is an important parameter in magnetics as it measures the relative strength of exchange and self-magnetostatic energies. Its use can be found in areas of magnetics including micromagnetics, soft and hard magnetic materials, and information storage. The exchange length is of primary importance because it governs the width of the transition between magnetic domains. Unfortunately, there is some confusion in the literature between the magnetostatic exchange length and a similar distance concerning magnetization reversal mechanisms in particles known as the characteristic length. This confusion is aggravated by the common usage of two different systems of units, SI and cgs. This paper attempts to clarify the situation and recommends equations in both systems of units.

  17. Modular control of pointing beyond arm's length.

    PubMed

    Berret, Bastien; Bonnetblanc, François; Papaxanthis, Charalambos; Pozzo, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    Hand reaching and bipedal equilibrium are two important functions of the human motor behavior. However, how the brain plans goal-oriented actions combining target reaching with equilibrium regulation is not yet clearly understood. An important question is whether postural control and reaching are integrated in one single module or controlled separately. Here, we show that postural control and reaching motor commands are processed by means of a modular and flexible organization. Principal component and correlation analyses between pairs of angles were used to extract global and local coupling during a whole-body pointing beyond arm's length. A low-dimensional organization of the redundant kinematic chain allowing simultaneous target reaching and regulation of the center of mass (CoM) displacement in extrinsic space emerged from the first analysis. In follow-up experiments, both the CoM and finger trajectories were constrained by asking participants to reach from a reduced base of support with or without knee flexion, or by moving the endpoint along a predefined trajectory (straight or semicircular trajectories). Whereas joint covaried during free conditions and under equilibrium restrictions, it was decomposed in two task-dependent and task-independent modules, corresponding to a dissociation of arm versus legs, trunk, and head coordination, respectively, under imposed finger path conditions. A numerical simulation supported the idea that both postural and focal subtasks are basically integrated into the same motor command and that the CNS is able to combine or to separate the movement into autonomous functional synergies according to the task requirements.

  18. Differences in Membrane Properties in Simulated Cases of Demyelinating Neuropathies: Internodal Focal Demyelinations without Conduction Block

    PubMed Central

    Daskalova, M. S.; Alexandrov, A. S.

    2006-01-01

    The membrane properties (intracellular, extracellular, electrotonic potentials, strength-duration time constants, rheobasic currents and recovery cycles), which can now be measured in healthy subjects and patients with demyelinating neuropathies, are investigated in simulated cases of focal reduction (70%) of the myelin sheath in one, two and three successive internodal segments along the length of human motor fibres. The internodally focally demyelinated cases (termed as IFD1, IFD2 and IFD3, respectively) are simulated using our previous double cable model of the fibres. The results show that the intracellular potentials are with reduced amplitude and slowed conduction velocity in the vicinity of demyelinated segments, however the segmental conduction block is not achieved. The radial decline of the extracellular potential amplitudes slightly increases with the increase of the radial distance and demyelination. In contrast, the electrotonic potentials, strength-duration time constants and rheobases are normal. In the recovery cycles, the refractoriness, supernormality and less late subnormality are close to the normal, showing that the pathology is relatively minor. The obtained abnormalities in the potentials and excitability properties provide new information about the pathophysiology of the demyelinated human motor axons and can be observed in vivo in patients with acquired demyelinating neuropathies. PMID:19669452

  19. Differences in Membrane Properties in Simulated Cases of Demyelinating Neuropathies: Internodal Focal Demyelinations with Conduction Block

    PubMed Central

    Daskalova, M. S.; Alexandrov, A. S.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the membrane properties (potentials and axonal excitability indices) in the case of myelin wrap reduction (96%) in one, two and three consecutive internodes along the length of human motor nerve fibre. The internodally focally demyelinated cases (termed as IFD1, IFD2 and IFD3, respectively, with one, two and three demyelinated internodes are simulated using our previous double cable model of the fibre. The progressively greater increase of focal loss of myelin lamellae blocks the invasion of the intracellular potentials into the demyelinated zones. For all investigated cases, the radial decline of the extracellular potential amplitudes increases with the increase of the radial distance and demyelination, whereas the electrotonic potentials show a decrease in the slow part of the depolarizing and hyperpolarizing responses. The time constants are shorter and the rheobases higher for the IFD2 and IFD3 cases than for the normal case. In the recovery cycles, the same cases have less refractoriness, greater supernormality and less late subnormality than the normal case. The simulated membrane abnormalities can be observed in vivo in patients with demyelinating forms of Guillain-Barré syndrome. The study provides new information about the pathophysiology of acquired demyelinating neuropathies. PMID:19669456

  20. Beam control for LINC-NIRVANA: from the binocular entrance pupil to the combined focal plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertram, T.; Trowitzsch, J.; Herbst, T. M.; Ragazzoni, R.

    2012-07-01

    LINC-NIRVANA is the near-infrared interferometric imaging camera for the Large Binocular Telescope. Once operational, it will provide an unprecedented combination of angular resolution, sensitivity and field of view. To meet the tight requirements that result from long exposure interferometric imaging over a large field of view, active control beyond fringe tracking and adaptive optics has to be in place in the telescope and in the instrument domain. The incoming beams of the binocular telescope have to be controlled along the entire optical path, from the entrance pupil to the combined focal plane. The beams have to coincide in the focal plane of the science detector, their pointing origins, offsets, orientations, plate scales, and distortions have to match each other and must not change during the observation. Non-common path effects between AO and science channel, flexure and thermal effects have to be compensated and offioading requests from the adaptive optics and fringe tracking systems have to be arbitrated without introducing unwanted optical path length differences or changes in the geometry of the binocular entrance pupil. Beam Control aspects include pointing, co-pointing and field derotation, active optics and collimation control. In this presentation, the constraints for coherent imaging over a 1.5 arcminute field of view are discussed together with a concept for a distributed control scheme.

  1. Focal therapy in prostate cancer: the current situation

    PubMed Central

    Jácome-Pita, FX; Sánchez-Salas, R; Barret, E; Amaruch, N; Gonzalez-Enguita, C; Cathelineau, X

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most significant pathologies in the field of urology. The adoption of screening strategies and improvements in biopsies have resulted in an increase in early-stage tumour detection. Radical global therapies provide very good oncological results in localised prostate cancer. However, excess treatment in low- and, in some cases, intermediate-risk groups affects the quality of life of these patients. In the case of localised prostate cancer, focal therapies offer a minimally invasive option with good results with respect to established treatments. Although this is currently not a standard treatment, it represents the therapeutic approach with the greatest potential. This literature review has the following objectives: to define selection criteria for patients who are candidates for focal therapy, to assess the current situation and results of the different therapeutic options, and to define procedures in cases of recurrence and for follow-ups. We concluded that focal therapy is a viable therapeutic alternative for localised prostate cancer, specifically cryosurgery and high-intensity targeted ultrasound, which have acceptable oncologic results and a lower comorbidity compared with global treatments. Studies with a high level of scientific evidence are still needed to validate these results. Acquisition of evidence A search was carried out on the Medline (PubMed), EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane databases of all papers published before 31 July 2013. We included clinical studies and literature reviews that evaluated primary focal therapy for prostate cancer confirmed by biopsy and excluded focal rescue therapy studies. The keywords used were focal therapy and prostate cancer. Initially, we found 42 articles; 15 studies were excluded because they did not meet the minimum criteria for inclusion. A total of 1350 cases were treated throughout 27 studies. PMID:24944577

  2. Focal properties of a plane grating in a convergent beam.

    PubMed

    Hall, J T

    1966-06-01

    Focusing from a plane grating can be accomplished by using convergent radiation incident on the grating in such a manner that any incident angle alpha(n), the resulting diffraction angle beta(n), will be on the same side of the grating normal. The theory for the focal properties is developed by applying Fermat's principle of least time to selected terms resulting from a finite series expansion of the system's distance function. Derivations are given for finding the focal curve equation, astigmatism, and coma, of the most usable configuration of the optical components. Discussions of the aberrations disclose methods for eliminating the astigmatism and reducing the coma. PMID:20049009

  3. Focal stent collapse in a patient with systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Di Francesco, L; Finci, L; Reimers, B; Di Mario, C; Colombo, A

    1998-05-01

    We report a patient with systemic sclerosis having implantation of a 35 mm beStent with immediate success but developing angina at follow-up. A focal stent collapse with focal hyperplasia in and outside the stent was documented by ultrasound after 2 mos. A 14mm Palmaz-Schatz stent was successfully deployed into the collapsed beStent, with good 6-mo angiographic result. The stent collapse was probably due to unequal distribution of radial forces and possibly reactive hyperplasia in this unique patient with systemic sclerosis.

  4. Sonic boom focal zones due to tactical aircraft maneuvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotkin, Kenneth J.

    1990-10-01

    A study has been conducted of the focal zone 'superbooms' associated with tactical maneuvers of military supersonic aircraft. Focal zone footprints were computed for 21 tactical maneuvers: two for the SR-71 and 19 for fighters engaged in air combat maneuver (ACM) training. These footprints provide quantitative results which may be used for environmental planning. A key finding of this study is that focus factors and footprint areas for high-g fighter maneuvers are substantially smaller than those for gentle maneuvers associated with larger aircraft.

  5. [Two-dimensional echoencephalography in focal brain pathology].

    PubMed

    Shokurov, N N; Likhterman, L B

    1976-01-01

    Two-dimentional echoencephalographic examinations were conducted in 35 patients with focal lesions of the brain of different etiology. Normal tomoechoencephalogramme and ultrasonic semiotics of transverse sections of the brain in different pathology is described with reference to its nature and interrelationships with the meninges and brain matter (tumours, abscesses, emningeal and intracerebral haematomas, hydroma, brain confusion, intracranial foreign bodies). The authors believe that two-dimentional echoencephalography is a promising method of diagnosis, free of contraindications, combinding safety and promptness of the examination. direct visualization of focal pathology of the brain through an intact skull.

  6. Pixelated spectral filter for integrated focal plane array in the long-wave IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemme, S. A.; Boye, R. R.; Cruz-Cabrera, A. A.; Briggs, R. D.; Carter, T. R.; Samora, S.

    2010-04-01

    We present the design, fabrication, and characterization of a pixelated, hyperspectral arrayed component for Focal Plane Array (FPA) integration in the Long-Wave IR. This device contains tens of pixels within a single super-pixel which is tiled across the extent of the FPA. Each spectral pixel maps to a single FPA pixel with a spectral FWHM of 200nm. With this arrayed approach, remote sensing data may be accumulated with a non-scanning, "snapshot" imaging system. This technology is flexible with respect to individual pixel center wavelength and to pixel position within the array. Moreover, the entire pixel area has a single wavelength response, not the integrated linear response of a graded cavity thickness design. These requirements bar tilted, linear array technologies where the cavity length monotonically increases across the device.

  7. Persistence Length of Stable Microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Taviare; Mirigian, Matthew; Yasar, M. Selcuk; Ross, Jennifer

    2011-03-01

    Microtubules are a vital component of the cytoskeleton. As the most rigid of the cytoskeleton filaments, they give shape and support to the cell. They are also essential for intracellular traffic by providing the roadways onto which organelles are transported, and they are required to reorganize during cellular division. To perform its function in the cell, the microtubule must be rigid yet dynamic. We are interested in how the mechanical properties of stable microtubules change over time. Some ``stable'' microtubules of the cell are recycled after days, such as in the axons of neurons or the cilia and flagella. We measured the persistence length of freely fluctuating taxol-stabilized microtubules over the span of a week and analyzed them via Fourier decomposition. As measured on a daily basis, the persistence length is independent of the contour length. Although measured over the span of the week, the accuracy of the measurement and the persistence length varies. We also studied how fluorescently-labeling the microtubule affects the persistence length and observed that a higher labeling ratio corresponded to greater flexibility. National Science Foundation Grant No: 0928540 to JLR.

  8. The Focal Surface of the JEM-EUSO Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawasaki, Yoshiya

    2007-01-01

    Extreme Universe Space Observatory onboard JEM/EP (JEM-EUSO) is a space mission to study extremely high-energy cosmic rays. The JEM-EUSO instrument is a wide-angle refractive telescope in near-ultraviolet wavelength region to observe time-resolved atmospheric fluorescence images of the extensive air showers from the International Space Station. The focal surface is a spherical curved surface, and its area amounts to about 4.5 square m. The focal surface detector is covered with about 6,000 multi-anode photomultipliers (MAPMTs). The focal surface detector consists of Photo-Detector-Modules, each of which consists of 9 Elementary Cells (ECs). The EC contains 4 units of the MAPMTs. Therefore, about 1,500 ECs or about 160 PDMS are arranged on the whole of the focal surface of JEM- EUSO. The EC is a basic unit of the front-end electronics. The PDM is a, basic unit of the data acquisition system

  9. Unilateral asterixis: motor integrative dysfunction in focal vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Massey, E W; Goodman, J C; Stewart, C; Brannon, W L

    1979-08-01

    In three patients we found unilateral asterixis in limbs contralateral to a discrete lesion adjacent to the internal capsule. Etiology was vascular in each, with no metabolic or toxic disturbance. Unilateral asterixis bespeaks focal disease arising from lesions in the thalamus or internal capsule and is a sign of motor integrative dysfunction.

  10. Ischemia independent lesion evolution during focal stroke in rats.

    PubMed

    Woitzik, Johannes; Lassel, Elke; Hecht, Nils; Schneider, Ulf C; Schroeck, Helmut; Vajkoczy, Peter; Graf, Rudolf

    2009-07-01

    Lesion evolution during focal cerebral ischemia may depend on flow restrictions or on accumulation of toxic mediators within the infarct and expansion of these factors to the periinfarct region. So far, the precise contribution of flow dependent versus spreading-mediated impairment of viable periinfarct tissue has not been determined. Therefore, we measured lesion expansion, flow restrictions and glutamate distribution on serial brain sections at different time points after experimental focal ischemia. Permanent focal ischemia was induced by occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery in male rats and the flow reduction was subsequently measured at 1, 12 and 24 h using iodo[14C]antipyrine autoradiography. Additionally, the necrotic volume was determined on serial brain sections and the glutamate content was measured in tissue samples from adjacent microdissections. Twelve hours after focal ischemia no noteworthy viable areas with blood flow restrictions of 20-40 ml 100 g(-1) min(-1) existed but at 24 h the necrotic tissue exceeded the hemodynamically compromised region by 40 +/- 21 mm3 (24%). Furthermore, at 12 and 24 h the glutamate content was elevated in areas surrounding the infarct. Relevant flow restrictions are detectable only during early stages of infarct maturation, whereas the propagation of secondary factors may be the predominant mechanism for delayed infarct evolution.

  11. Spectrum of PORCN mutations in Focal Dermal Hypoplasia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Focal Dermal Hypoplasia (FDH), also known as Goltz syndrome (OMIM 305600), is a genetic disorder that affects multiple organ systems early in development. Features of FDH include skin abnormalities, (hypoplasia, atrophy, linear pigmentation, and herniation of fat through dermal defects); papillomas...

  12. Karyomegalic interstitial nephritis with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis: A rare association.

    PubMed

    Radha, S; Tameem, A; Rao, B S

    2014-03-01

    Karyomegalic interstitial nephritis (KIN) is a rare form of, progressive chronic interstitial nephritis. We present a case of KIN in a child, who was also found to have nephrotic syndrome because of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis on renal biopsy. To our knowledge, this is the first case of KIN associated with glomerulopathy.

  13. Karyomegalic interstitial nephritis with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis: A rare association

    PubMed Central

    Radha, S.; Tameem, A.; Rao, B. S.

    2014-01-01

    Karyomegalic interstitial nephritis (KIN) is a rare form of, progressive chronic interstitial nephritis. We present a case of KIN in a child, who was also found to have nephrotic syndrome because of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis on renal biopsy. To our knowledge, this is the first case of KIN associated with glomerulopathy. PMID:24701046

  14. Focal cone ERGs of rhodopsin Pro347Leu transgenic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Shinji; Koyasu, Toshiyuki; Kominami, Taro; Sakai, Takao; Kondo, Mineo; Yasuda, Shunsuke; Terasaki, Hiroko

    2013-10-18

    A rhodopsin P347L transgenic (Tg) rabbit, a model of retinitis pigmentosa, has been generated in our laboratory. The purpose of this study was to determine the properties of focal areas of the retina in this rabbit model during the course of retinal degeneration. To accomplish this, we recorded focal ERGs from wild-type (WT) and Tg rabbits at ages 3, 6, and 12 months. A 15° stimulus spot was used to elicit the focal ERGs from the center of the visual streak and from four surrounding areas. We found that the amplitudes of the focal cone ERG b-waves and oscillatory potentials (OPs) of the Tg rabbits in the five areas decreased progressively with increasing age and became almost non-recordable at 12 months. There were no significant regional differences in the b-waves of Tg rabbits recorded from the 5 areas. The amplitudes of the OPs were better preserved than the b-waves and the OPs/b-wave ratio was higher than that in WT rabbits at every recording area. The summed OPs amplitudes, which most likely originate from the amacrine and/or ganglion cells, recorded from the area superior to the optic disc was significantly larger than that from other areas at 3- and 6-months-old. This indicated that the inner retinal neurons were not altered equally after photoreceptor degeneration in this rabbit model.

  15. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia removed with CO2 laser.

    PubMed

    Luomanen, M

    1990-08-01

    A case of oral focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) treated with CO2 laser surgery is presented. Histological diagnosis is discussed. The association of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 32 with the lesions is demonstrated with DNA in situ hybridization technique. Laser surgery is suggested as a treatment of choice.

  16. Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck disease) associated with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Viraben, R; Aquilina, C; Brousset, P; Bazex, J

    1996-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) of the oral mucosa occurring in a HIV-infected man is described. Molecular biology disclosed an HPV-32 type in oral lesions. The association of FEH and AIDS is uncommon although many HPV subtypes may manifest during HIV infection.

  17. Infrared lens thermal effect: equivalent focal shift and calculating model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng-shuo; Shi, Zelin; Feng, Bin; Xu, Bao-shu

    2014-11-01

    It's well-know that the focal shift of infrared lens is the major factor in degeneration of imaging quality when temperature change. In order to figure out the connection between temperature change and focal shift, partial differential equations of thermal effect on light path are obtained by raytrace method, to begin with. The approximately solution of the PDEs show that focal shift is proportional to temperature change. And a formula to compute the proportional factor is given. In order to understand infrared lens thermal effect deeply, we use defocus by image plane shift at constant temperature to equivalently represent thermal effect on infrared lens. So equivalent focal shift (EFS) is defined and its calculating model is proposed at last. In order to verify EFS and its calculating model, Physical experimental platform including a motorized linear stage with built-in controller, blackbody, target, collimator, IR detector, computer and other devices is developed. The experimental results indicate that EFS make the image plane shift at constant temperature have the same influence on infrared lens as thermal effect and its calculating model is correct.

  18. Analysis of Rapid Multi-Focal Zone ARFI Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rosenzweig, Stephen; Palmeri, Mark; Nightingale, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging has shown promise for visualizing structure and pathology within multiple organs; however, because the contrast depends on the push beam excitation width, image quality suffers outside of the region of excitation. Multi-focal zone ARFI imaging has previously been used to extend the region of excitation (ROE), but the increased acquisition duration and acoustic exposure have limited its utility. Supersonic shear wave imaging has previously demonstrated that through technological improvements in ultrasound scanners and power supplies, it is possible to rapidly push at multiple locations prior to tracking displacements, facilitating extended depth of field shear wave sources. Similarly, ARFI imaging can utilize these same radiation force excitations to achieve tight pushing beams with a large depth of field. Finite element method simulations and experimental data are presented demonstrating that single- and rapid multi-focal zone ARFI have comparable image quality (less than 20% loss in contrast), but the multi-focal zone approach has an extended axial region of excitation. Additionally, as compared to single push sequences, the rapid multi-focal zone acquisitions improve the contrast to noise ratio by up to 40% in an example 4 mm diameter lesion. PMID:25643078

  19. Stromal myofibroblasts in focal reactive overgrowths of the gingiva.

    PubMed

    Damasceno, Leonardo Silveira; Gonçalves, Fernanda da Silva; Costa e Silva, Edson; Zenóbio, Elton Gonçalves; Souza, Paulo Eduardo Alencar; Horta, Martinho Campolina Rebello

    2012-01-01

    Focal reactive overgrowths are among the most common oral mucosal lesions. The gingiva is a significant site affected by these lesions, when triggered by chronic inflammation in response to microorganisms in dental plaque. Myofibroblasts are differentiated fibroblasts that actively participate in diseases characterized by tissue fibrosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of stromal myofibroblasts in the main focal reactive overgrowths of the gingiva: focal fibrous hyperplasia (FFH), peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF), pyogenic granuloma (PG), and peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG). A total of 10 FFHs, 10 POFs, 10 PGs, and 10 PGCGs from archival specimens were evaluated. Samples of gingival mucosa were used as negative controls for stromal myofibroblasts. Oral squamous cell carcinoma samples, in which stromal myofibroblasts have been previously detected, were used as positive controls. Myofibroblasts were identified by immunohistochemical detection of alpha smooth muscle actin (α-sma). Myofibroblast immunostaining was qualitatively classified as negative, scanty, or dense. Differences in the presence of myofibroblasts among FFH, POF, PG, and PGCG were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Stromal myofibroblasts were not detected in FFH, POF, PG, or PGCG. Consequently, no differences were observed in the presence of myofibroblasts among FFH, POF, PG, or PGCG (p > 0.05). In conclusion, stromal myofibroblasts were not detected in the focal reactive overgrowths of the gingiva that were evaluated, suggesting that these cells do not play a significant role in their pathogenesis.

  20. Extra focal convective suppressing solar collector. Final technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This progress report describes work done on the Extra Focal Convective Suppressing Solar Collector. The topics of the report include sensor refinement for the tracking electronics, tracking controller refinement, system optics evaluation, absorber system material evaluation and performance, tracking hardware evaluation and refinement, and full scale prototype construction and testing.

  1. The challenge of diagnosing focal hand dystonia in musicians

    PubMed Central

    Rosset-Llobet, J.; Candia, V.; Molas, S. Fàbregas i; Dolors Rosinés i Cubells, D.; Pascual-Leone, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose To most clinicians, medical problems in musicians, particularly those concerning focal hand dystonia, constitute an unfamiliar domain difficult to manage. The latter can importantly influence diagnostics and the course of treatment. The purpose of this study was to enlighten the issue and to identify possible problems in diagnosing musicians’ cramp within the Spanish medical community. Methods We used a brief questions’ catalog and clinical histories of 665 musicians seen at our clinic for performing artists. We analyzed patients’ diagnosis records in 87 cases of focal hand dystonia (13.1%). In so doing, we surveyed previous diagnoses and diverse treatments prescriptions prior to referral to our clinic. Results Referrals came primarily from orthopaedists and neurologists. The 52.9% arrived at our clinic without a diagnosis or a suspicion of suffering from focal dystonia. The most frequently attempted diagnoses other than musicians’ dystonia included nerve compression, tendonitis and trigger fingers. Commonly prescribed treatments included rest, various surgical procedures, physiotherapy and oral anti-inflammatory medication. Conclusions This data depicts the diagnostic challenges of medical professionals may encounter when confronted with musician’s focal dystonia. PMID:19473363

  2. Quantum-Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) Focal Plane Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, Murzy; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Ewin, Audrey J.; Hess, Larry A.; Hartmann, Thomas M.; La, Anh T.

    2012-01-01

    A paper describes the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), a QWIP-based instrument intended to supplement the Operational Land Imager (OLI) for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). The TIRS instrument is a far-infrared imager operating in the pushbroom mode with two IR channels: 10.8 and 12 microns. The focal plane will contain three 640x512 QWIP arrays mounted on a silicon substrate. The silicon substrate is a custom-fabricated carrier board with a single layer of aluminum interconnects. The general fabrication process starts with a 4-in. (approx.10-cm) diameter silicon wafer. The wafer is oxidized, a single substrate contact is etched, and aluminum is deposited, patterned, and alloyed. This technology development is aimed at incorporating three large-format infrared detecting arrays based on GaAs QWIP technology onto a common focal plane with precision alignment of all three arrays. This focal plane must survive the rigors of flight qualification and operate at a temperature of 43 K (-230 C) for five years while orbiting the Earth. The challenges presented include ensuring thermal compatibility among all the components, designing and building a compact, somewhat modular system and ensuring alignment to very tight levels. The multi-array focal plane integrated onto a single silicon substrate is a new application of both QWIP array development and silicon wafer scale integration. The Invar-based assembly has been tested to ensure thermal reliability.

  3. When Does Length Cause the Word Length Effect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalbert, Annie; Neath, Ian; Bireta, Tamra J.; Surprenant, Aimee M.

    2011-01-01

    The word length effect, the finding that lists of short words are better recalled than lists of long words, has been termed one of the benchmark findings that any theory of immediate memory must account for. Indeed, the effect led directly to the development of working memory and the phonological loop, and it is viewed as the best remaining…

  4. Dosimetry Modeling for Focal Low-Dose-Rate Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Qaisieh, Bashar; Mason, Josh; Bownes, Peter; Henry, Ann; Dickinson, Louise; Ahmed, Hashim U.; Emberton, Mark; Langley, Stephen

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Focal brachytherapy targeted to an individual lesion(s) within the prostate may reduce side effects experienced with whole-gland brachytherapy. The outcomes of a consensus meeting on focal prostate brachytherapy were used to investigate optimal dosimetry of focal low-dose-rate (LDR) prostate brachytherapy targeted using multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) and transperineal template prostate mapping (TPM) biopsy, including the effects of random and systematic seed displacements and interseed attenuation (ISA). Methods and Materials: Nine patients were selected according to clinical characteristics and concordance of TPM and mp-MRI. Retrospectively, 3 treatment plans were analyzed for each case: whole-gland (WG), hemi-gland (hemi), and ultra-focal (UF) plans, with 145-Gy prescription dose and identical dose constraints for each plan. Plan robustness to seed displacement and ISA were assessed using Monte Carlo simulations. Results: WG plans used a mean 28 needles and 81 seeds, hemi plans used 17 needles and 56 seeds, and UF plans used 12 needles and 25 seeds. Mean D90 (minimum dose received by 90% of the target) and V100 (percentage of the target that receives 100% dose) values were 181.3 Gy and 99.8% for the prostate in WG plans, 195.7 Gy and 97.8% for the hemi-prostate in hemi plans, and 218.3 Gy and 99.8% for the focal target in UF plans. Mean urethra D10 was 205.9 Gy, 191.4 Gy, and 92.4 Gy in WG, hemi, and UF plans, respectively. Mean rectum D2 cm{sup 3} was 107.5 Gy, 77.0 Gy, and 42.7 Gy in WG, hemi, and UF plans, respectively. Focal plans were more sensitive to seed displacement errors: random shifts with a standard deviation of 4 mm reduced mean target D90 by 14.0%, 20.5%, and 32.0% for WG, hemi, and UF plans, respectively. ISA has a similar impact on dose-volume histogram parameters for all plan types. Conclusions: Treatment planning for focal LDR brachytherapy is feasible. Dose constraints are easily met with a notable

  5. Multispectral Focal Plane Assembly for Satellite Remote Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Rienstra, J.; Ballard, M.

    1997-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories and several subsystem contractors are developing technologies applicable to multispectral remote sensing from space. A proof of concept multispectral sensor system is under development. The objective of building this sensor is to demonstrate and evaluate multispectral imaging technologies for various applications. The three major subsystems making up the sensor are the focal plane assembly (FPA), the cryocooler, and the telescope. This paper covers the focal plane assembly, which is the basis of the sensor system. The focal plane assembly includes sensor chip assemblies, optical filters, and a vacuum enclosure with cold shielding. Linear detector arrays provide spatial resolution in the cross-track direction for a pushbroom imager configuration. The optical filters define 15 spectral bands in a range from 0.45 microns to 10.7 microns. All the detector arrays are mounted on a single focal plane and are designed to operate at 75 K. No beam splitters are used. The four spectral bands covering the visible to near infrared have roughly 2400 pixels each, and the remaining 11 spectral bands have roughly 600 pixels each. The average total rate of multispectral data from the FPA is approximately 15.4 megapixels per second. At the time this paper is being written, the multispectral focal plane assembly is in the fabrication phase. A thermal/mechanical mockup has been built and tested for the vibration environment and to determine the thermal load. Some of the sensor chip assemblies and filters have been built and tested. Several notable features of the design are covered in the paper as well as preliminary test data.

  6. Focal Ablation of Prostate Cancer: Four Roles for MRI Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Graham; Bouley, Donna; Gill, Harcharan; Daniel, Bruce; Pauly, Kim Butts; Diederich, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There is currently a great deal of interest in the possible use of focal therapies for prostate cancer, since such treatments offer the prospect for control or cure of the primary disease with minimal side effects. Many forms of thermal therapy have been proposed for focal ablation of prostate cancer, including laser, high intensity ultrasound and cryotherapy. This review will demonstrate the important roles that MRI guidance can offer to such focal ablation, focusing on the use of high intensity ultrasonic applicators as an example of one promising technique. Materials and Methods Transurethral and interstitial high intensity ultrasonic applicators, designed specifically for ablation of prostate tissue were tested extensively in vivo in a canine model. The roles of MRI in positioning the devices, monitoring prostate ablation, and depicting ablated tissue were assessed using appropriate MRI sequences. Results MRI guidance provides a very effective tool for the positioning of ablative devices in the prostate, and thermal monitoring successfully predicted ablation of prostate tissue when a threshold of 52°C was achieved. Contrast enhanced MRI accurately depicted the distribution of ablated prostate tissue, which is resorbed at 30 days. Conclusions Guidance of thermal therapies for focal ablation of prostate cancer will likely prove critically dependent on MRI functioning in four separate roles. Our studies indicate that in 3 roles: device positioning; thermal monitoring of prostate ablation; and depiction of ablated prostate tissue, MR techniques are highly accurate and likely to be of great benefit in focal prostate cancer ablation. A fourth critical role, identification of cancer within the gland for targeting of thermal therapy, is more problematic at present, but will likely become practical with further technological advances. PMID:23587506

  7. Continuous lengths of oxide superconductors

    DOEpatents

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    2000-01-01

    A layered oxide superconductor prepared by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon. A continuous length of a second substrate ribbon is overlaid on the first substrate ribbon. Sufficient pressure is applied to form a bound layered superconductor precursor powder between the first substrate ribbon and the second substrate ribbon. The layered superconductor precursor is then heat treated to establish the oxide superconducting phase. The layered oxide superconductor has a smooth interface between the substrate and the oxide superconductor.

  8. Overview of bunch length measurements.

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, A. H.

    1999-02-19

    An overview of particle and photon beam bunch length measurements is presented in the context of free-electron laser (FEL) challenges. Particle-beam peak current is a critical factor in obtaining adequate FEL gain for both oscillators and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. Since measurement of charge is a standard measurement, the bunch length becomes the key issue for ultrashort bunches. Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques are presented in the context of using electromagnetic radiation over eight orders of magnitude in wavelength. In addition, the measurement of microbunching in a micropulse is addressed.

  9. Progress in Long Scale Length Laser-Plasma Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Glenzer, S H; Arnold, P; Bardsley, G; Berger, R L; Bonanno, G; Borger, T; Bower, D E; Bowers, M; Bryant, R; Buckman, S; Burkhart, S C; Campbell, K; Chrisp, M P; Cohen, B I; Constantin, G; Cooper, F; Cox, J; Dewald, E; Divol, L; Dixit, S; Duncan, J; Eder, D; Edwards, J; Erbert, G; Felker, B; Fornes, J; Frieders, G; Froula, D H; Gardner, S D; Gates, C; Gonzalez, M; Grace, S; Gregori, G; Greenwood, A; Griffith, R; Hall, T; Hammel, B A; Haynam, C; Heestand, G; Henesian, M; Hermes, G; Hinkel, D; Holder, J; Holdner, F; Holtmeier, G; Hsing, W; Huber, S; James, T; Johnson, S; Jones, O S; Kalantar, D; Kamperschroer, J H; Kauffman, R; Kelleher, T; Knight, J; Kirkwood, R K; Kruer, W L; Labiak, W; Landen, O L; Langdon, A B; Langer, S; Latray, D; Lee, A; Lee, F D; Lund, D; MacGowan, B; Marshall, S; McBride, J; McCarville, T; McGrew, L; Mackinnon, A J; Mahavandi, S; Manes, K; Marshall, C; Mertens, E; Meezan, N; Miller, G; Montelongo, S; Moody, J D; Moses, E; Munro, D; Murray, J; Neumann, J; Newton, M; Ng, E; Niemann, C; Nikitin, A; Opsahl, P; Padilla, E; Parham, T; Parrish, G; Petty, C; Polk, M; Powell, C; Reinbachs, I; Rekow, V; Rinnert, R; Riordan, B; Rhodes, M

    2003-11-11

    The first experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have employed the first four beams to measure propagation and laser backscattering losses in large ignition-size plasmas. Gas-filled targets between 2 mm and 7 mm length have been heated from one side by overlapping the focal spots of the four beams from one quad operated at 351 nm (3{omega}) with a total intensity of 2 x 10{sup 15} W cm{sup -2}. The targets were filled with 1 atm of CO{sub 2} producing of up to 7 mm long homogeneously heated plasmas with densities of n{sub e} = 6 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} and temperatures of T{sub e} = 2 keV. The high energy in a NIF quad of beams of 16kJ, illuminating the target from one direction, creates unique conditions for the study of laser plasma interactions at scale lengths not previously accessible. The propagation through the large-scale plasma was measured with a gated x-ray imager that was filtered for 3.5 keV x rays. These data indicate that the beams interact with the full length of this ignition-scale plasma during the last {approx}1 ns of the experiment. During that time, the full aperture measurements of the stimulated Brillouin scattering and stimulated Raman scattering show scattering into the four focusing lenses of 6% for the smallest length ({approx}2 mm). increasing to 12% for {approx}7 mm. These results demonstrate the NIF experimental capabilities and further provide a benchmark for three-dimensional modeling of the laser-plasma interactions at ignition-size scale lengths.

  10. Finite length Taylor Couette flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streett, C. L.; Hussaini, M. Y.

    1987-01-01

    Axisymmetric numerical solutions of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for flow between concentric rotating cylinders of finite length are obtained by a spectral collocation method. These representative results pertain to two-cell/one-cell exchange process, and are compared with recent experiments.

  11. Incubation length of dabbling ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells-Berlin, A. M.; Prince, H.H.; Arnold, T.W.

    2005-01-01

    We collected unincubated eggs from wild Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), Gadwall (A. strepera), Blue-winged Teal (A. discors), and Northern Shoveler (A. clypeata) nests and artificially incubated them at 37.5??C. Average incubation lengths of Mallard, Gadwall, and Northern Shoveler eggs did not differ from their wild-nesting counterparts, but artificially incubated Blue-winged Teal eggs required an additional 1.7 days to hatch, suggesting that wild-nesting teal incubated more effectively. A small sample of Mallard, Gadwall, and Northern Shoveler eggs artificially incubated at 38.3??C hatched 1 day sooner, indicating that incubation temperature affected incubation length. Mean incubation length of Blue-winged Teal declined by 1 day for each 11-day delay in nesting, but we found no such seasonal decline among Mallards, Gadwalls, or Northern Shovelers. There is no obvious explanation for the seasonal reduction in incubation length for Blue-winged Teal eggs incubated in a constant environment, and the phenomenon deserves further study. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2005.

  12. Seismic Hazard and Fault Length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, N. M.; Jackson, D. D.; Mualchin, L.

    2005-12-01

    If mx is the largest earthquake magnitude that can occur on a fault, then what is mp, the largest magnitude that should be expected during the planned lifetime of a particular structure? Most approaches to these questions rely on an estimate of the Maximum Credible Earthquake, obtained by regression (e.g. Wells and Coppersmith, 1994) of fault length (or area) and magnitude. Our work differs in two ways. First, we modify the traditional approach to measuring fault length, to allow for hidden fault complexity and multi-fault rupture. Second, we use a magnitude-frequency relationship to calculate the largest magnitude expected to occur within a given time interval. Often fault length is poorly defined and multiple faults rupture together in a single event. Therefore, we need to expand the definition of a mapped fault length to obtain a more accurate estimate of the maximum magnitude. In previous work, we compared fault length vs. rupture length for post-1975 earthquakes in Southern California. In this study, we found that mapped fault length and rupture length are often unequal, and in several cases rupture broke beyond the previously mapped fault traces. To expand the geologic definition of fault length we outlined several guidelines: 1) if a fault truncates at young Quaternary alluvium, the fault line should be inferred underneath the younger sediments 2) faults striking within 45° of one another should be treated as a continuous fault line and 3) a step-over can link together faults at least 5 km apart. These definitions were applied to fault lines in Southern California. For example, many of the along-strike faults lines in the Mojave Desert are treated as a single fault trending from the Pinto Mountain to the Garlock fault. In addition, the Rose Canyon and Newport-Inglewood faults are treated as a single fault line. We used these more generous fault lengths, and the Wells and Coppersmith regression, to estimate the maximum magnitude (mx) for the major faults in

  13. Welding arc length control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iceland, William F. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a welding arc length control system. The system includes, in its broadest aspects, a power source for providing welding current, a power amplification system, a motorized welding torch assembly connected to the power amplification system, a computer, and current pick up means. The computer is connected to the power amplification system for storing and processing arc weld current parameters and non-linear voltage-ampere characteristics. The current pick up means is connected to the power source and to the welding torch assembly for providing weld current data to the computer. Thus, the desired arc length is maintained as the welding current is varied during operation, maintaining consistent weld penetration.

  14. Softness Correlations Across Length Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivancic, Robert; Shavit, Amit; Rieser, Jennifer; Schoenholz, Samuel; Cubuk, Ekin; Durian, Douglas; Liu, Andrea; Riggleman, Robert

    In disordered systems, it is believed that mechanical failure begins with localized particle rearrangements. Recently, a machine learning method has been introduced to identify how likely a particle is to rearrange given its local structural environment, quantified by softness. We calculate the softness of particles in simulations of atomic Lennard-Jones mixtures, molecular Lennard-Jones oligomers, colloidal systems and granular systems. In each case, we find that the length scale characterizing spatial correlations of softness is approximately a particle diameter. These results provide a rationale for why localized rearrangements--whose size is presumably set by the scale of softness correlations--might occur in disordered systems across many length scales. Supported by DOE DE-FG02-05ER46199.

  15. Oral focal mucinosis: a rare case report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Ena, Sharma; Nadellamanjari; Chatterjeeanirban; Ramesh, Alampalli

    2013-07-01

    Oral focal mucinosis (OFM) is a rare soft tissue lesion of unknown etiology. Clinically, it is most commonly found on the gingiva and presents as a painless, sessile or pedunculated mass of the same colour as the surrounding mucosa. Histologically, it is characterized by focal myxoid degeneration of connective tissue. OFM occurs predominantly in adults during the fourth and fifth decade of life, although it has been reported infrequently in children and adolescents. Its diagnosis mainly relies on histological analysis and the treatment involves complete surgical excision. Its recurrence is unreported. The aim of this report of two cases is to describe the clinical and histological presentation and subsequent management of OFM. The cause of OFM remains unknown. The cases presented in this report bring OFM to the attention of anatomical pathologists while considering the differential diagnosis of myxoid lesions of the oral cavity.

  16. Focal Plane Phase Masks for PIAA: Design and Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, K.; Conway, J.; Belikov, R.; Guyon, O.

    2016-05-01

    The Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization Complex Mask Coronagraph (PIAACMC) is a coronagraph architecture for the direct detection of extrasolar planets, which can achieve close to the theoretical performance limit of any direct detection system. The primary components of a PIAACMC system are the Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) optics and the complex phase-shifting focal plane mask. PIAA optics have been produced and demonstrated with high coronagraph performance. In this paper, we describe the design process for the phase-shifting focal plane mask, and strategies for smoothing the mask profile. We describe the mask manufacturing process and show manufacturing results. Errors in the fabricated mask profile degrade the system performance, but we can recover performance by refining the manufacturing process and implementing wavefront control.

  17. How electrodiagnosis predicts clinical outcome of focal peripheral nerve lesions.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Lawrence R

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the electrodiagnostic (EDX) prognostic factors for focal traumatic and nontraumatic peripheral nerve injuries. Referring physicians and patients often benefit from general and nerve-specific prognostic information from the EDX consultant. Knowing the probable outcome from a nerve injury allows the referring physician to choose the best treatment options for his/her patients. Nerve injuries are variable in their mechanism, location, and pathophysiology. The general effects of the injuries on nerve and muscle are well known, but more research is needed for nerve-specific information. Several factors currently known to influence prognosis include: nature of the nerve trauma, amount of axon loss, recruitment in muscles supplied by the nerve, the extent of demyelination, and the distance to reinnervate functional muscles. This article reviews these general concepts and also nerve-specific EDX measures that predict outcome after focal neuropathies.

  18. Focal neuromyotonia as a presenting feature of lumbosacral radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Raut, Tushar Premraj; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Chaudhari, Tejendra Singh; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Singh, Maneesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Neuromyotonia is characterized by motor, sensory, and autonomic features along with characteristic electrophysiologic findings, resulting from hyperexcitability of the peripheral nerves. We describe the case of a 36-year-old man, who presented with the disabling symptoms suggestive of focal neuromyotonia involving both the lower limbs. His neurological examination revealed continuous rippling of both the calf muscles with normal power, reflexes, and sensory examination. Electrophysiology revealed spontaneous activity in the form of doublets, triplets, and neuromyotonic discharges along with the neurogenic motor unit potentials in bilateral L5, S1 innervated muscles. Magnetic resonance imaging lumbosacral spine revealed lumbar intervertebral disc protrusion with severe foraminal and spinal canal stenosis. Patient had good response to steroids and carbamazepine. The disabling focal neuromyotonia, occurring as a result of chronic active radiculopathy, brought the patient to medical attention. Patient responded to medical management. PMID:24339612

  19. Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease) in two Chinese females.

    PubMed

    Liu, N; Li, Y; Zhou, Y; Zeng, X

    2012-08-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia, or Heck's disease, is a relatively rare virus-induced benign disease. To the best of the authors' knowledge it has not been reported in an ethnic Chinese population. The authors report two cases of focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) in Chinese patients, which were clinically and histologically in accord with FEH. In particular, the lesions in one case were located on the gingival mucosa, which is rarely affected by FEH. DNA extracted from paraffin-embedded specimens from the two patients was tested for the presence of human papilloma virus followed by specific polymerase chain reaction testing for 16, 18, 13, and 32 subtypes in order to confirm the clinical diagnosis.

  20. Uncooled infrared focal plane array imaging in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Shuyu

    2015-06-01

    This article reviews the development of uncooled infrared focal plane array (UIFPA) imaging in China in the past decade. Sensors based on optical or electrical read-out mechanism were developed but the latter dominates the market. In resistive bolometers, VOx and amorphous silicon are still the two major thermal-sensing materials. The specifications of the IRFPA made by different manufactures were collected and compared. Currently more than five Chinese companies and institutions design and fabricate uncooled infrared focal plane array. Some devices have sensitivity as high as 30 mK; the largest array for commercial products is 640×512 and the smallest pixel size is 17 μm. Emphasis is given on the pixel MEMS design, ROIC design, fabrication, and packaging of the IRFPA manufactured by GWIC, especially on design for high sensitivities, low noise, better uniformity and linearity, better stabilization for whole working temperature range, full-digital design, etc.

  1. Design and alignment of the MIPAS focal plane system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smorenburg, C.; Visser, Huib; Moddemeijer, K.

    1996-08-01

    The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) is selected by ESA for the ENVISAT-mission, scheduled for launch in 1999. The instrument will measure the concentration of atmospheric trace gases in the earth atmosphere in a spectral region from 4.15 - 14.6 micrometers . MIPAS consists of scan mirrors, a telescope, a Michelson Interferometer, an optical reducer and a focal plane assembly. The optical reducer consists of a 2 concave and 1 convex mirror system. The focal plane assembly consists of a configuration of mirrors and dichroics, with which the spectral range is divided in 4 spectral bands. TNO Institute of Applied Physics has designed the optical/mechanical system and after manufacturing of the components has aligned the system with high accuracy. The design and alignment of this system is described.

  2. Image-guided focal therapy for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sankineni, Sandeep; Wood, Bradford J.; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush; Diaz, Annerleim Walton; Hoang, Anthony N.; Pinto, Peter A.; Choyke, Peter L.; Türkbey, Barış

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of routine prostate specific antigen screening has led to the discovery of many small and low-grade prostate cancers which have a low probability of causing mortality. These cancers, however, are often treated with radical therapies resulting in long-term side effects. There has been increasing interest in minimally invasive focal therapies to treat these tumors. While imaging modalities have improved rapidly over the past decade, similar advances in image-guided therapy are now starting to emerge—potentially achieving equivalent oncologic efficacy while avoiding the side effects of conventional radical surgery. The purpose of this article is to review the existing literature regarding the basis of various focal therapy techniques such as cryotherapy, microwave, laser, and high intensity focused ultrasound, and to discuss the results of recent clinical trials that demonstrate early outcomes in patients with prostate cancer. PMID:25205025

  3. Shallow gas cloud illumination analysis by the focal beam method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latiff, Abdul Halim Abdul

    2016-02-01

    This research will address the illumination issue of seismic data below a shallow gas cloud, also known as shallow gas accumulation. In general, poor and distorted seismic data underneath gas zones depend on four major factors; namely the velocity of the gas zones, the depth of the target reflector, the location of the source and the receiver during seismic acquisition, and the frequency of the seismic signals. These factors will be scrutinized in detail by using the focal beam method. The focal beam method incorporates the double focusing concept in order to obtain two important attributes for illumination analysis: (i) Resolution function beam, (ii) amplitude versus ray parameter (AVP) imprint, which is obtained by transforming the modelled data into the radon domain. Both illumination attributes are then applied to a gas-affected field in the Malaysia Basin. The results show well-defined illumination beneath the shallow anomalies and provide a better representation of the subsurface.

  4. Focal nodular hyperplasia with major sinusoidal dilatation: a misleading entity

    PubMed Central

    Laumonier, Hervé; Frulio, Nora; Laurent, Christophe; Balabaud, Charles; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette

    2010-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a benign liver lesion thought to be a non-specific response to locally increased blood flow. Although the diagnosis of FNH and hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) has made great progress over the last few years using modern imaging techniques, there are still in daily practice some difficulties concerning some atypical nodules. Here, the authors report the case of a 47-year-old woman with a single liver lesion thought to be, by imaging, an inflammatory HCA with major sinusoidal congestion. This nodule was revealed to be, at the microscopical level and after specific immunostaining and molecular analysis, an FNH with sinusoidal dilatation (so-called telangiectatic focal nodular hyperplasia). PMID:22798311

  5. Simultaneous imaging of multiple focal planes using a two-photon scanning microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amir, W.; Carriles, R.; Hoover, E. E.; Planchon, T. A.; Durfee, C. G.; Squier, J. A.

    2007-06-01

    Despite all the advances in nonlinear microscopy, all existing instruments are constrained to obtain images of one focal plane at a time. In this Letter we demonstrate a two-photon absorption fluorescence scanning microscope capable of imaging two focal planes simultaneously. This is accomplished by temporally demultiplexing the signal coming from two focal volumes at different sample depths. The scheme can be extended to three or more focal planes.

  6. Hospitalization length of insanity acquittees.

    PubMed

    Steadman, H J; Pasewark, R A; Hawkins, M; Kiser, M; Bieber, S

    1983-07-01

    Used step-wise multiple regression procedures to predict length of hospitalization of 225 defendants acquitted by reason of insanity in New York state. Of the 21 variables considered, only 9 (severity of offense, sex, marital status, days prior imprisonment, homicide offense, days previous civil hospitalization, educational level, race, number of victims) contributed to the significance of the regression equation. However, these accounted for but 11% of the observed variance.

  7. Growth, nutritional, and gastrointestinal aspects of focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz-Gorlin syndrome).

    PubMed

    Motil, Kathleen J; Fete, Mary; Fete, Timothy J

    2016-03-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in the PORCN gene located on the X-chromosome. In the present study, we characterized the pattern of growth, body composition, and the nutritional and gastrointestinal aspects of children and adults (n = 19) affected with this disorder using clinical anthropometry and a survey questionnaire. The mean birth length (P < 0.06) and weight (P < 0.001) z-scores of the participants were lower than the reference population. The mean head circumference (P < 0.001), height (length) (P < 0.001), weight (P < 0.01), and BMI (P < 0.05) for age z-scores of the participants were lower than the reference population. The height-for-age and weight-for-age z-scores of the participants did not differ significantly between birth and current measurements. Three-fourths of the group reported having one or more nutritional or gastrointestinal problems including short stature (65%), underweight (77%), oral motor dysfunction (41%), gastroesophageal reflux (24%), gastroparesis (35%), and constipation (35%). These observations provide novel clinical information about growth, body composition, and nutritional and gastrointestinal aspects of children and adults with FDH and underscore the importance of careful observation and early clinical intervention in the care of individuals affected with this disorder. PMID:27001925

  8. Universality of modulation length exponents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, Saurish; Seidel, Alexander; Nussinov, Zohar

    2012-02-01

    We study systems (classical or quantum) with general pairwise interactions. Our prime interest is in frustrated spin systems. First, we focus on systems with a crossover temperature T^* across which the correlation function changes from exhibiting commensurate to incommensurate modulations. We report on a new exponent, νL, characterizing the universal nature of this crossover. Near the crossover, the characteristic wave-vector k on the incommensurate side differs from that on the commensurate side, q by |k-q||T-T^*|^νL. We find, in general, that νL=1/2, or in some special cases, other rational numbers. We discuss applications to the axial next nearest neighbor Ising model, Fermi systems (with application to the metal to band insulator transition) and Bose systems. Second, we obtain a universal form of the high temperature correlation function in general systems. From this, we show the existence of a diverging correlation length in the presence of long range interactions. Such a correlation length tends to the screening length in the presence of screening. We also find a way of obtaining the pairwise interaction potentials in the high temperature phase from the correlation functions.

  9. Design study of the accessible focal plane telescope for shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The design and cost analysis of an accessible focal plane telescope for Spacelab is presented in blueprints, tables, and graphs. Topics covered include the telescope tube, the telescope mounting, the airlock plus Spacelab module aft plate, the instrument adapter, and the instrument package. The system allows access to the image plane with instrumentation that can be operated by a scientist in a shirt sleeve environment inside a Spacelab module.

  10. Stress tensor and focal mechanisms in the Dead Sea basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofstetter, A.; Dorbath, C.; Dorbath, L.; Braeuer, B.; Weber, M.

    2016-04-01

    We use the recorded seismicity, confined to the Dead Sea basin and its boundaries, by the Dead Sea Integrated Research (DESIRE) portable seismic network and the Israel and Jordan permanent seismic networks for studying the mechanisms of earthquakes in the Dead Sea basin. The observed seismicity in the Dead Sea basin is divided into nine regions according to the spatial distribution of the earthquakes and the known tectonic features. The large number of recording stations and the adequate station distribution allowed the reliable determinations of 494 earthquake focal mechanisms. For each region, based on the inversion of the observed polarities of the earthquakes, we determine the focal mechanisms and the associated stress tensor. For 159 earthquakes, out of the 494 focal mechanisms, we could determine compatible fault planes. On the eastern side, the focal mechanisms are mainly strike-slip mechanism with nodal planes in the N-S and E-W directions. The azimuths of the stress axes are well constrained presenting minimal variability in the inversion of the data, which is in agreement with the Eastern Boundary fault on the east side of the Dead Sea basin and what we had expected from the regional geodynamics. However, larger variabilities of the azimuthal and dip angles are observed on the western side of the basin. Due to the wider range of azimuths of the fault planes, we observe the switching of σ1 and σ2 or the switching of σ2 and σ3 as major horizontal stress directions. This observed switching of stress axes allows having dip-slip and normal mechanisms in a region that is dominated by strike-slip motion.

  11. X-ray focal spot locating apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Gilbert, Hubert W.

    1985-07-30

    An X-ray beam finder for locating a focal spot of an X-ray tube includes a mass of X-ray opaque material having first and second axially-aligned, parallel-opposed faces connected by a plurality of substantially identical parallel holes perpendicular to the faces and a film holder for holding X-ray sensitive film tightly against one face while the other face is placed in contact with the window of an X-ray head.

  12. Focal adhesion kinase is involved in mechanosensing during fibroblast migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, H. B.; Dembo, M.; Hanks, S. K.; Wang, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase localized at focal adhesions and is believed to mediate adhesion-stimulated effects. Although ablation of FAK impairs cell movement, it is not clear whether FAK might be involved in the guidance of cell migration, a role consistent with its putative regulatory function. We have transfected FAK-null fibroblasts with FAK gene under the control of the tetracycline repression system. Cells were cultured on flexible polyacrylamide substrates for the detection of traction forces and the application of mechanical stimulation. Compared with control cells expressing wild-type FAK, FAK-null cells showed a decrease in migration speed and directional persistence. In addition, whereas FAK-expressing cells responded to exerted forces by reorienting their movements and forming prominent focal adhesions, FAK-null cells failed to show such responses. Furthermore, FAK-null cells showed impaired responses to decreases in substrate flexibility, which causes control cells to generate weaker traction forces and migrate away from soft substrates. Cells expressing Y397F FAK, which cannot be phosphorylated at a key tyrosine site, showed similar defects in migration pattern and force-induced reorientation as did FAK-null cells. However, other aspects of F397-FAK cells, including the responses to substrate flexibility and the amplification of focal adhesions upon mechanical stimulation, were similar to that of control cells. Our results suggest that FAK plays an important role in the response of migrating cells to mechanical input. In addition, phosphorylation at Tyr-397 is required for some, but not all, of the functions of FAK in cell migration.

  13. Eyespot development on butterfly wings: the focal signal.

    PubMed

    French, V; Brakefield, P M

    1995-03-01

    The eyespot colour pattern on butterfly wings is specified in the early pupal epidermis by signals from a central "focus." In Bicyclus anynana we show that a small square of focal epidermis, grafted to a range of distal wing sites, induces eyespot formation in surrounding host tissue. Signaling is limited to the focus, and even an adjacent (parafocal) graft does not maintain its normal fate (of contributing to the eyespot) and does not influence its surroundings. Along the wing, there is an abrupt change in the epidermis, as a focus grafted to a proximal site provokes no host response. The results of several grafting experiments demonstrate that their different response properties are autonomous to small areas of the distal and proximal epidermis and that the nonresponding proximal tissue can nonetheless transmit the focal sign. The Bicyclus dorsal forewing has a small anterior and a large posterior eyespot, and we show that this results mainly from a difference in focal signals, not in the epidermal response. A grafted posterior focus induces a large eyespot, whereas an anterior focus induces a small eyespot. Furthermore, the anterior and posterior eyespots differ in proportions, and this difference also depends on the identity of the focus, not on the responding epidermis. Eyespots are specified over many cell diameters from the focus by a mechanism which could consist of one long-range signal, such as a morphogen gradient or of a cascade of short-range interactions initiated by the focus. Focal control of the difference in size and proportion between the anterior and posterior eyespot is more readily compatible with a gradient mechanism. Neither model, however, readily explains why the pattern induced by a grafted focus is smaller, but its peripheral gold annulus is broader than in the corresponding control eyespot. Also, there is no direct evidence for long-range gradients, in the butterfly wing or any other insect epithelium. PMID:7883067

  14. Precise annealing of focal plane arrays for optical detection

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, Daniel A.

    2015-09-22

    Precise annealing of identified defective regions of a Focal Plane Array ("FPA") (e.g., exclusive of non-defective regions of the FPA) facilitates removal of defects from an FPA that has been hybridized and/or packaged with readout electronics. Radiation is optionally applied under operating conditions, such as under cryogenic temperatures, such that performance of an FPA can be evaluated before, during, and after annealing without requiring thermal cycling.

  15. Focal mechanisms of recent earthquakes in the Southern Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong-Chan; Kim, Woohan; Chung, Tae Woong; Baag, Chang-Eob; Ree, Jin-Han

    2007-06-01

    We evaluate the stress field in and around the southern Korean Peninsula with focal mechanism solutions, using the data collected from 71 earthquakes (ML = 1.9-5.2) between 1999 and 2004. For this, the hypocentres were relocated and well-constrained fault plane solutions were obtained from the data set of 1270 clear P-wave polarities and 46 SH/P amplitude ratios. The focal mechanism solutions indicate that the prevailing faulting types in South Korea are strike-slip-dominant-oblique-slip faultings with minor reverse-slip component. The maximum principal stresses (σ1) estimated from fault-slip inversion analysis of the focal mechanism solutions show a similar orientation with E-W trend (269° -275°) and low-angle plunge (10° -25°) for all tectonic provinces in South Korea, consistent with the E-W trending maximum horizontal stress (σHmax) of the Amurian microplate reported from in situ stress measurements and earthquake focal mechanisms. The directions of the intermediate (σ2) and minimum (σ3) principal stresses of the Gyeongsang Basin are, however, about 90 deg off from those of the other tectonic provinces on a common σ2-σ3 plane, suggesting a permutation of σ2 and σ3. Our results incorporated with those from the kinematic studies of the Quaternary faults imply that NNW- to NE-striking faults (dextral strike-slip or oblique-slip with a reverse-slip component) are highly likely to generate earthquakes in South Korea.

  16. Eyespot development on butterfly wings: the focal signal.

    PubMed

    French, V; Brakefield, P M

    1995-03-01

    The eyespot colour pattern on butterfly wings is specified in the early pupal epidermis by signals from a central "focus." In Bicyclus anynana we show that a small square of focal epidermis, grafted to a range of distal wing sites, induces eyespot formation in surrounding host tissue. Signaling is limited to the focus, and even an adjacent (parafocal) graft does not maintain its normal fate (of contributing to the eyespot) and does not influence its surroundings. Along the wing, there is an abrupt change in the epidermis, as a focus grafted to a proximal site provokes no host response. The results of several grafting experiments demonstrate that their different response properties are autonomous to small areas of the distal and proximal epidermis and that the nonresponding proximal tissue can nonetheless transmit the focal sign. The Bicyclus dorsal forewing has a small anterior and a large posterior eyespot, and we show that this results mainly from a difference in focal signals, not in the epidermal response. A grafted posterior focus induces a large eyespot, whereas an anterior focus induces a small eyespot. Furthermore, the anterior and posterior eyespots differ in proportions, and this difference also depends on the identity of the focus, not on the responding epidermis. Eyespots are specified over many cell diameters from the focus by a mechanism which could consist of one long-range signal, such as a morphogen gradient or of a cascade of short-range interactions initiated by the focus. Focal control of the difference in size and proportion between the anterior and posterior eyespot is more readily compatible with a gradient mechanism. Neither model, however, readily explains why the pattern induced by a grafted focus is smaller, but its peripheral gold annulus is broader than in the corresponding control eyespot. Also, there is no direct evidence for long-range gradients, in the butterfly wing or any other insect epithelium.

  17. A Micro-Thermal Sensor for Focal Therapy Applications.

    PubMed

    Natesan, Harishankar; Hodges, Wyatt; Choi, Jeunghwan; Lubner, Sean; Dames, Chris; Bischof, John

    2016-02-26

    There is an urgent need for sensors deployed during focal therapies to inform treatment planning and in vivo monitoring in thin tissues. Specifically, the measurement of thermal properties, cooling surface contact, tissue thickness, blood flow and phase change with mm to sub mm accuracy are needed. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that a micro-thermal sensor based on the supported "3ω" technique can achieve this in vitro under idealized conditions in 0.5 to 2 mm thick tissues relevant to cryoablation of the pulmonary vein (PV). To begin with "3ω" sensors were microfabricated onto flat glass as an idealization of a focal probe surface. The sensor was then used to make new measurements of 'k' (W/m.K) of porcine PV, esophagus, and phrenic nerve, all needed for PV cryoabalation treatment planning. Further, by modifying the sensor use from traditional to dynamic mode new measurements related to tissue vs. fluid (i.e. water) contact, fluid flow conditions, tissue thickness, and phase change were made. In summary, the in vitro idealized system data presented is promising and warrants future work to integrate and test supported "3ω" sensors on in vivo deployed focal therapy probe surfaces (i.e. balloons or catheters).

  18. A Micro-Thermal Sensor for Focal Therapy Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natesan, Harishankar; Hodges, Wyatt; Choi, Jeunghwan; Lubner, Sean; Dames, Chris; Bischof, John

    2016-02-01

    There is an urgent need for sensors deployed during focal therapies to inform treatment planning and in vivo monitoring in thin tissues. Specifically, the measurement of thermal properties, cooling surface contact, tissue thickness, blood flow and phase change with mm to sub mm accuracy are needed. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that a micro-thermal sensor based on the supported “3ω” technique can achieve this in vitro under idealized conditions in 0.5 to 2 mm thick tissues relevant to cryoablation of the pulmonary vein (PV). To begin with “3ω” sensors were microfabricated onto flat glass as an idealization of a focal probe surface. The sensor was then used to make new measurements of ‘k’ (W/m.K) of porcine PV, esophagus, and phrenic nerve, all needed for PV cryoabalation treatment planning. Further, by modifying the sensor use from traditional to dynamic mode new measurements related to tissue vs. fluid (i.e. water) contact, fluid flow conditions, tissue thickness, and phase change were made. In summary, the in vitro idealized system data presented is promising and warrants future work to integrate and test supported “3ω” sensors on in vivo deployed focal therapy probe surfaces (i.e. balloons or catheters).

  19. Rituximab in adult minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kronbichler, Andreas; Bruchfeld, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of nephrotic syndrome due to minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis remains a challenge since steroid dependence, steroid resistance and a relapsing disease course exhibits a high cumulative steroid dosage. The necessity of using alternative steroid-sparing immunosuppressive agents with potential toxic side effects also restricts their long-term use. Rituximab, a monoclonal antibody targeting CD20, has been increasingly used in the therapy of difficult-to-treat nephrotic syndrome. A clinical response has been shown for patients with steroid-dependent or frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome, whereas the benefit seems to be limited in steroid-resistant patients, especially those with underlying focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. No potentially life-threatening adverse events have been observed in the treatment of adult minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis following rituximab administration. Since most reports are retrospective and evidence of efficacy is derived from small case series, more prospective trials in a controlled, randomized manner are highly desirable to delineate the use of rituximab or other B cell-depleting agents in steroid-dependent, frequently relapsing or steroid-resistant patients.

  20. Functional Interrogation of Adult Hypothalamic Neurogenesis with Focal Radiological Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daniel A.; Salvatierra, Juan; Velarde, Esteban; Wong, John; Ford, Eric C.; Blackshaw, Seth

    2013-01-01

    The functional characterization of adult-born neurons remains a significant challenge. Approaches to inhibit adult neurogenesis via invasive viral delivery or transgenic animals have potential confounds that make interpretation of results from these studies difficult. New radiological tools are emerging, however, that allow one to noninvasively investigate the function of select groups of adult-born neurons through accurate and precise anatomical targeting in small animals. Focal ionizing radiation inhibits the birth and differentiation of new neurons, and allows targeting of specific neural progenitor regions. In order to illuminate the potential functional role that adult hypothalamic neurogenesis plays in the regulation of physiological processes, we developed a noninvasive focal irradiation technique to selectively inhibit the birth of adult-born neurons in the hypothalamic median eminence. We describe a method for Computer tomography-guided focal irradiation (CFIR) delivery to enable precise and accurate anatomical targeting in small animals. CFIR uses three-dimensional volumetric image guidance for localization and targeting of the radiation dose, minimizes radiation exposure to nontargeted brain regions, and allows for conformal dose distribution with sharp beam boundaries. This protocol allows one to ask questions regarding the function of adult-born neurons, but also opens areas to questions in areas of radiobiology, tumor biology, and immunology. These radiological tools will facilitate the translation of discoveries at the bench to the bedside. PMID:24300415

  1. [A case of focal epilepsy manifesting multiple psychiatric auras].

    PubMed

    Ezura, Michinori; Kakisaka, Yosuke; Jin, Kazutaka; Kato, Kazuhiro; Iwasaki, Masaki; Fujikawa, Mayu; Aoki, Masashi; Nakasato, Nobukazu

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of epilepsy with multiple types of focal seizures that were misdiagnosed as psychiatric disorders. A 20-year-old female patient presented with a variety of episodes, including loss of consciousness, deja vu, fear, delusion of possession, violent movements, and generalized convulsions. Each of these symptoms appeared in a stereotypic manner. She was initially diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder and treated with psychoactive medications, which had no effect. Long-term video electroencephalography revealed that her episodes of violent movement with impaired consciousness and secondarily generalized seizure were epileptic events originating in the right hemisphere. High-field brain magnetic resonance imaging for detecting subtle lesions revealed bilateral lesions from periventricular nodular heterotopia. Her final diagnosis was right hemispheric focal epilepsy. Carbamazepine administration was started, which successfully controlled all seizures. The present case demonstrates the pitfall of diagnosing focal epilepsy when it presents with multiple types of psychiatric aura. Epilepsy should thus be included in differential diagnoses, considering the stereotypic nature of symptoms, to avoid misdiagnosis.

  2. A Micro-Thermal Sensor for Focal Therapy Applications

    PubMed Central

    Natesan, Harishankar; Hodges, Wyatt; Choi, Jeunghwan; Lubner, Sean; Dames, Chris; Bischof, John

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need for sensors deployed during focal therapies to inform treatment planning and in vivo monitoring in thin tissues. Specifically, the measurement of thermal properties, cooling surface contact, tissue thickness, blood flow and phase change with mm to sub mm accuracy are needed. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that a micro-thermal sensor based on the supported “3ω” technique can achieve this in vitro under idealized conditions in 0.5 to 2 mm thick tissues relevant to cryoablation of the pulmonary vein (PV). To begin with “3ω” sensors were microfabricated onto flat glass as an idealization of a focal probe surface. The sensor was then used to make new measurements of ‘k’ (W/m.K) of porcine PV, esophagus, and phrenic nerve, all needed for PV cryoabalation treatment planning. Further, by modifying the sensor use from traditional to dynamic mode new measurements related to tissue vs. fluid (i.e. water) contact, fluid flow conditions, tissue thickness, and phase change were made. In summary, the in vitro idealized system data presented is promising and warrants future work to integrate and test supported “3ω” sensors on in vivo deployed focal therapy probe surfaces (i.e. balloons or catheters). PMID:26916460

  3. Focal Point Inside the Vacuum Chamber for Solar Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Researchers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have designed, fabricated, and tested the first solar thermal engine, a non-chemical rocket engine that produces lower thrust but has better thrust efficiency than a chemical combustion engine. MSFC turned to solar thermal propulsion in the early 1990s due to its simplicity, safety, low cost, and commonality with other propulsion systems. Solar thermal propulsion works by acquiring and redirecting solar energy to heat a propellant. The 20- by 24-ft heliostat mirror (not shown in this photograph) has dual-axis control that keeps a reflection of the sunlight on an 18-ft diameter concentrator mirror, which then focuses the sunlight to a 4-in focal point inside the vacuum chamber. The focal point has 10 kilowatts of intense solar power. This photograph is a close-up view of a 4-in focal point inside the vacuum chamber at the MSFC Solar Thermal Propulsion Test facility. As part of MSFC's Space Transportation Directorate, the Propulsion Research Center serves as a national resource for research of advanced, revolutionary propulsion technologies. The mission is to move the Nation's capabilities beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of aircraft-like access to Earth orbit, rapid travel throughout the solar system, and exploration of interstellar space.

  4. Reduplicative paramnesia in patients with focal brain damage.

    PubMed

    Murai, T; Toichi, M; Sengoku, A; Miyoshi, K; Morimune, S

    1997-07-01

    Reduplicative paramnesia (RP) has drawn attention as a distinct behavioral syndrome caused by focal brain damage. To elucidate the pathogenesis of RP, we assessed its prevalence among patients with focal brain damage and followed those patients with typical RP. Seventy-seven patients with focal brain damage (47 with left hemispheric, 21 with right hemispheric, and 9 with bilateral damage) were assessed for the presence of RP using a questionnaire intended to elucidate this condition. Two patients showed typical RP for place, and four patients showed atypical RP (three for place and one for person); altogether, these six patients constituted 7.8% of the sample. In three patients, the lesions were situated in the right hemisphere; in two, the lesions were bilateral (right dominant); and in one, the lesions were in the left hemisphere, indicating the relative importance of right hemispheric damage and a possible contributory role of additional left hemispheric damage in RP. The case studies of patients with typical RP suggest the heterogeneity of the underlying cognitive factors in RP.

  5. Focal and abnormally persistent paralysis associated with congenital paramyotonia.

    PubMed

    Magot, Armelle; David, Albert; Sternberg, Damien; Péréon, Yann

    2014-01-01

    Mutations of the skeletal muscle voltage-gated sodium channel (NaV1.4) are an established cause of several clinically distinct forms of periodic paralysis and myotonia. Focal paresis has sometimes already been described. We report a case with atypical clinical manifestation comprising paramyotonia and cold-induced persistent and focal paralysis. A 27-year-old woman presented with paramyotonia congenita since her childhood. She experienced during her childhood one brief episode of generalised weakness. At the age of 27, she experienced a focal paresis lasting for several months. The known mutation p.Val1293Ile was found in the muscle sodium channel gene (SCN4A). Channel inactivation is involved in most Na(+) channelopathies. Fast inactivation is known to be responsible for the myotonia phenotype. We hypothesise that the V1293I mutation may also alter the slow inactivation in specific conditions, for example, prolonged cold exposure or prolonged and intensive exercise. This observation broadens the spectrum of clinical manifestations of this sodium channel mutation. PMID:24939454

  6. Focal brain atrophy in gastric bypass patients with cognitive complaints

    PubMed Central

    Graff-Radford, Jonathan; Whitwell, Jennifer L.; Trenerry, Max R.; Ahlskog, J. Eric; Jensen, Michael D.; Jack, Clifford R.; Josephs, Keith A.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we have noticed a series of patients presenting for cognitive complaints after gastric bypass, without any identifiable etiology. We set out to determine whether any focal brain atrophy could account for the complaints. A retrospective case series was performed to identify patients with cognitive complaints following gastric bypass that had a volumetric MRI. Voxel-based morphometry was used to assess patterns of grey matter loss in all 10 patients identified, compared to ten age and gender-matched controls. All patients had undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass at a median age of 54 (range: 46–64). Cognitive complaints began at a median age of 57 (52–69). Formal neuropsychometric testing revealed only minor deficits. No nutritional abnormalities were identified. Voxel-based morphometry demonstrated focal thalamic atrophy in the gastric bypass patients when compared to controls. Patients with cognitive complaints after gastric bypass surgery have focal thalamic brain atrophy that could account for the cognitive impairment. PMID:22088949

  7. Botulinum Toxin Treatment of Autonomic Disorders: Focal Hyperhidrosis and Sialorrhea.

    PubMed

    Hosp, Christine; Naumann, Markus K; Hamm, Henning

    2016-02-01

    Primary focal hyperhidrosis is a common autonomic disorder that significantly impacts quality of life. It is characterized by excessive sweating confined to circumscribed areas, such as the axillae, palms, soles, and face. Less frequent types of focal hyperhidrosis secondary to underlying causes include gustatory sweating in Frey's syndrome and compensatory sweating in Ross' syndrome and after sympathectomy. Approval of onabotulinumtoxinA for severe primary axillary hyperhidrosis in 2004 has revolutionized the treatment of this indication. Meanwhile further type A botulinum neurotoxins like abobotulinumtoxinA and incobotulinumtoxinA, as well as the type B botulinum neurotoxin rimabotulinumtoxinB are successfully used off-label for axillary and various other types of focal hyperhidrosis. For unexplained reasons, the duration of effect differs considerably at different sites. Beside hyperhidrosis, botulinum neurotoxin is also highly valued for the treatment of sialorrhea affecting patients with Parkinson's disease, cerebral palsy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, motor neuron disease, and other neurologic conditions. With correct dosing and application, side effects are manageable and transient. PMID:26866492

  8. Focal Hyperhidrosis Associated with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Dina; Madhwapathi, Vidya; Ladoyanni, Evmorfia

    2016-01-01

    Hyperhidrosis affects almost 3% of the population and is characterized by sweating that occurs in excess of that needed for normal thermoregulation. It can occur as a primary disease or secondary to underlying clinical conditions. Hyperhidrosis can stem from neurogenic sympathetic over activity involving normal eccrine glands. We report the interesting case of a 75-year-old male patient with a 6-month history of new onset secondary focal hyperhidrosis of buttocks, pelvis, and upper thighs. Each time his symptoms worsened he was found to have culture positive urine samples for Escherichia coli (E. coli). He underwent urological investigation and was found to have urethral strictures and cystitis. The hyperhidrosis improved each time his urinary tract infection (UTI) was treated with antibiotics and continued to remain stable with a course of prophylactic trimethoprim. We hypothesize that the patient's urethral strictures led to inhibition in voiding which in turn increased the susceptibility to UTIs. Accumulation of urine and increased bladder pressure in turn raised sympathetic nerve discharge leading to excessive sweating. We recommend that a urine dip form part of the routine assessment of patients presenting with new onset focal hyperhidrosis of pelvis, buttocks, and upper thighs. Timely urological referral should be made for all male patients with recurrent UTI. To the authors' knowledge, there have been no other reports of UTI-associated focal hyperhidrosis. PMID:27379188

  9. Focal Adhesion Assembly Induces Phenotypic Changes and Dedifferentiation in Chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyunjun; Lee, Mi Nam; Choung, Jin Seung; Kim, Sanghee; Choi, Byung Hyune; Noh, Minsoo; Shin, Jennifer H

    2016-08-01

    The expansion of autologous chondrocytes in vitro is used to generate sufficient populations for cell-based therapies. However, during monolayer culture, chondrocytes lose inherent characteristics and shift to fibroblast-like cells as passage number increase. Here, we investigated passage-dependent changes in cellular physiology, including cellular morphology, motility, and gene and protein expression, as well as the role of focal adhesion and cytoskeletal regulation in the dedifferentiation process. We found that the gene and protein expression levels of both the focal adhesion complex and small Rho GTPases are upregulated with increasing passage number and are closely linked to chondrocyte dedifferentiation. The inhibition of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) but not small Rho GTPases induced the loss of fibroblastic traits and the recovery of collagen type II, aggrecan, and SOX9 expression levels in dedifferentiated chondrocytes. Based on these findings, we propose a strategy to suppress chondrogenic dedifferentiation by inhibiting the identified FAK or Src pathways while maintaining the expansion capability of chondrocytes in a 2D environment. These results highlight a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of skeletal diseases and the generation of cartilage in tissue-engineering approaches. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1822-1831, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26661891

  10. Focal Cortical Dysplasia (FCD) lesion analysis with complex diffusion approach.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Jeny; Kannan, K; Kesavadas, C; Thomas, Bejoy

    2009-10-01

    Identification of Focal Cortical Dysplasia (FCD) can be difficult due to the subtle MRI changes. Though sequences like FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery) can detect a large majority of these lesions, there are smaller lesions without signal changes that can easily go unnoticed by the naked eye. The aim of this study is to improve the visibility of focal cortical dysplasia lesions in the T1 weighted brain MRI images. In the proposed method, we used a complex diffusion based approach for calculating the FCD affected areas. Based on the diffused image and thickness map, a complex map is created. From this complex map; FCD areas can be easily identified. MRI brains of 48 subjects selected by neuroradiologists were given to computer scientists who developed the complex map for identifying the cortical dysplasia. The scientists were blinded to the MRI interpretation result of the neuroradiologist. The FCD could be identified in all the patients in whom surgery was done, however three patients had false positive lesions. More lesions were identified in patients in whom surgery was not performed and lesions were seen in few of the controls. These were considered as false positive. This computer aided detection technique using complex diffusion approach can help detect focal cortical dysplasia in patients with epilepsy. PMID:19560319

  11. SIRTF Focal Plane Survey: A Pre-flight Error Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.; Brugarolas, Paul B.; Boussalis, Dhemetrios; Kang, Bryan H.

    2003-01-01

    This report contains a pre-flight error analysis of the calibration accuracies expected from implementing the currently planned SIRTF focal plane survey strategy. The main purpose of this study is to verify that the planned strategy will meet focal plane survey calibration requirements (as put forth in the SIRTF IOC-SV Mission Plan [4]), and to quantify the actual accuracies expected. The error analysis was performed by running the Instrument Pointing Frame (IPF) Kalman filter on a complete set of simulated IOC-SV survey data, and studying the resulting propagated covariances. The main conclusion of this study is that the all focal plane calibration requirements can be met with the currently planned survey strategy. The associated margins range from 3 to 95 percent, and tend to be smallest for frames having a 0.14" requirement, and largest for frames having a more generous 0.28" (or larger) requirement. The smallest margin of 3 percent is associated with the IRAC 3.6 and 5.8 micron array centers (frames 068 and 069), and the largest margin of 95 percent is associated with the MIPS 160 micron array center (frame 087). For pointing purposes, the most critical calibrations are for the IRS Peakup sweet spots and short wavelength slit centers (frames 019, 023, 052, 028, 034). Results show that these frames are meeting their 0.14" requirements with an expected accuracy of approximately 0.1", which corresponds to a 28 percent margin.

  12. Botulinum Toxin Treatment of Autonomic Disorders: Focal Hyperhidrosis and Sialorrhea.

    PubMed

    Hosp, Christine; Naumann, Markus K; Hamm, Henning

    2016-02-01

    Primary focal hyperhidrosis is a common autonomic disorder that significantly impacts quality of life. It is characterized by excessive sweating confined to circumscribed areas, such as the axillae, palms, soles, and face. Less frequent types of focal hyperhidrosis secondary to underlying causes include gustatory sweating in Frey's syndrome and compensatory sweating in Ross' syndrome and after sympathectomy. Approval of onabotulinumtoxinA for severe primary axillary hyperhidrosis in 2004 has revolutionized the treatment of this indication. Meanwhile further type A botulinum neurotoxins like abobotulinumtoxinA and incobotulinumtoxinA, as well as the type B botulinum neurotoxin rimabotulinumtoxinB are successfully used off-label for axillary and various other types of focal hyperhidrosis. For unexplained reasons, the duration of effect differs considerably at different sites. Beside hyperhidrosis, botulinum neurotoxin is also highly valued for the treatment of sialorrhea affecting patients with Parkinson's disease, cerebral palsy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, motor neuron disease, and other neurologic conditions. With correct dosing and application, side effects are manageable and transient.

  13. Achromatic Focal Plane Mask for Exoplanet Imaging Coronagraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Kevin Edward; Belikov, Ruslan; Guyon, Olivier; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Wilson, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in coronagraph technologies for exoplanet imaging have achieved contrasts close to 1e10 at 4 lambda/D and 1e-9 at 2 lambda/D in monochromatic light. A remaining technological challenge is to achieve high contrast in broadband light; a challenge that is largely limited by chromaticity of the focal plane mask. The size of a star image scales linearly with wavelength. Focal plane masks are typically the same size at all wavelengths, and must be sized for the longest wavelength in the observational band to avoid starlight leakage. However, this oversized mask blocks useful discovery space from the shorter wavelengths. We present here the design, development, and testing of an achromatic focal plane mask based on the concept of optical filtering by a diffractive optical element (DOE). The mask consists of an array of DOE cells, the combination of which functions as a wavelength filter with any desired amplitude and phase transmission. The effective size of the mask scales nearly linearly with wavelength, and allows significant improvement in the inner working angle of the coronagraph at shorter wavelengths. The design is applicable to almost any coronagraph configuration, and enables operation in a wider band of wavelengths than would otherwise be possible. We include initial results from a laboratory demonstration of the mask with the Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization coronagraph.

  14. The impact of focal spot size on clinical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorham, Sinead M.; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2009-02-01

    The physical assessment of the spatial resolution produced by broad and fine focal spot sizes has been well established. There is however an evident lack of study into the impact of focal spot selection on clinical image quality. While the excessive use of the fine focus has an impact on tube life, the benefit of its use in radiological imaging should be investigated. Cadaver images were produced in order to compare the 0.8mm and 1.8mm focal spot sizes. The range of radiographic projections assessed included the medio-lateral ankle, antero-posterior (AP) knee, AP thoracic spine and horizontal beam lateral (HBL) lumbar spine. Five clinicians analysed the images using a 1 - 4 visual grading analysis score against a reference image to assess the visibility of specific anatomical criteria. A Mann- Whitney U statistical test was employed to assess the results. No significant statistical differences between the scores for the broad and fine focus images were found, although a non-significant higher score in image quality was shown for the fine compared with the broad focus images with large object to detector distance. No difference in image quality was shown for examinations traditionally produced with a fine focus. The study results questions the wide spread usage of fine foci for specific examinations, particularly for extremity examinations. Current practice based on international guidelines can lead to a reduced life and increased cost with little clinical benefit.

  15. Neuronal polarity selection by topography-induced focal adhesion control.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Aldo; Cecchini, Marco; Serresi, Michela; Faraci, Paolo; Pisignano, Dario; Beltram, Fabio

    2010-06-01

    Interaction between differentiating neurons and the extracellular environment guides the establishment of cell polarity during nervous system development. Developing neurons read the physical properties of the local substrate in a contact-dependent manner and retrieve essential guidance cues. In previous works we demonstrated that PC12 cell interaction with nanogratings (alternating lines of ridges and grooves of submicron size) promotes bipolarity and alignment to the substrate topography. Here, we investigate the role of focal adhesions, cell contractility, and actin dynamics in this process. Exploiting nanoimprint lithography techniques and a cyclic olefin copolymer, we engineered biocompatible nanostructured substrates designed for high-resolution live-cell microscopy. Our results reveal that neuronal polarization and contact guidance are based on a geometrical constraint of focal adhesions resulting in an angular modulation of their maturation and persistence. We report on ROCK1/2-myosin-II pathway activity and demonstrate that ROCK-mediated contractility contributes to polarity selection during neuronal differentiation. Importantly, the selection process confined the generation of actin-supported membrane protrusions and the initiation of new neurites at the poles. Maintenance of the established polarity was independent from NGF stimulation. Altogether our results imply that focal adhesions and cell contractility stably link the topographical configuration of the extracellular environment to a corresponding neuronal polarity state. PMID:20304485

  16. Focal Hyperhidrosis Associated with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Madhwapathi, Vidya; Ladoyanni, Evmorfia

    2016-01-01

    Hyperhidrosis affects almost 3% of the population and is characterized by sweating that occurs in excess of that needed for normal thermoregulation. It can occur as a primary disease or secondary to underlying clinical conditions. Hyperhidrosis can stem from neurogenic sympathetic over activity involving normal eccrine glands. We report the interesting case of a 75-year-old male patient with a 6-month history of new onset secondary focal hyperhidrosis of buttocks, pelvis, and upper thighs. Each time his symptoms worsened he was found to have culture positive urine samples for Escherichia coli (E. coli). He underwent urological investigation and was found to have urethral strictures and cystitis. The hyperhidrosis improved each time his urinary tract infection (UTI) was treated with antibiotics and continued to remain stable with a course of prophylactic trimethoprim. We hypothesize that the patient's urethral strictures led to inhibition in voiding which in turn increased the susceptibility to UTIs. Accumulation of urine and increased bladder pressure in turn raised sympathetic nerve discharge leading to excessive sweating. We recommend that a urine dip form part of the routine assessment of patients presenting with new onset focal hyperhidrosis of pelvis, buttocks, and upper thighs. Timely urological referral should be made for all male patients with recurrent UTI. To the authors' knowledge, there have been no other reports of UTI-associated focal hyperhidrosis. PMID:27379188

  17. Macroscopic and Microscopic Capillary Length and Time Scales From Field Infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, I.; Sully, M. J.

    1987-08-01

    Estimates of characteristic times to approach steady state flow in multidimensional infiltration in the landscape depend on the magnitude and character of the capillary length scale λc and the associated capillary time scale tc. Here we derive relationships between λc and tc and readily measured field properties sorptivity S and hydraulic conductivity K or S at two supply heads. We explore the relations between λc and tc and other macroscopic and microscopic length, potential, and time scales. In addition, we show that the microscopic characteristic length λm associated with λc gives physically plausible estimates of flow-weighted mean pore dimensions. We contrast values of λc, tc, and λm for undisturbed field soils with those of repacked materials for water supply potentials close to zero. Large λm for the undisturbed surface soils are attributed to preferential flow. Data from here and elsewhere reveal no apparent trend of λc with soil texture, with most λc of the order of 100 mm. We suggest that the characteristic size of devices used to determine hydraulic properties of field soils should be greater than or equal to λc for representative measurements. The geometric mean time of approach to steady state flow when water is supplied at potentials near or greater than zero is found to be 1.7 hours. This value together with published results suggest that the time of approach to steady state flow from multidimensional cavities is of the order of 1 hour for many field situations.

  18. Length and refractive index measurement by Fourier transform interferometry and frequency comb spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balling, Petr; Mašika, Pavel; Křen, Petr; Doležal, Miroslav

    2012-09-01

    In this paper we describe the progress we have made in our simultaneous length measurement and the femtosecond comb interferometric spectroscopy in a conventional arrangement with a moving mirror. Scanning and detection over an interval longer than the distance between two consecutive pulses of the frequency comb allow for a spectral resolution of the individual frequency modes of the comb. Precise knowledge of comb mode frequency leads to a precise estimation of the spectral characteristics of inspected phenomena. Using the pulse train of the frequency comb allows for measurement with highly unbalanced lengths of interferometer arms, i.e. an absolute long distance measurement. Further, we present a non-contact (double sided) method of measurement of the length/thickness of plane-parallel objects (gauge blocks, glass samples) by combining the fs comb (white light) with single frequency laser interferometry. The position of a fringe packet is evaluated by estimating the stationary phase position for any wavelength in the spectral band used. The repeatability of this position estimation is a few nanometres regardless of whether dispersion of the arms is compensated (transform limited fringe packet ˜10 fringes FWHM) or highly different (fringe packet stretched to >200 fringes FWHM). The measurement of steel gauge block by this method was compared with the standard method, and deviation (+13 ± 12) nm for gauge blocks (2 to 100) mm was found. The measurement of low reflecting ceramic gauges or clear glass samples was also tested. In the case of glass, it becomes possible to measure simultaneously both the thickness and the refractive index (and dispersion) of flat samples.

  19. Intraplate stress field in South America from earthquake focal mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assumpção, Marcelo; Dias, Fábio L.; Zevallos, Ivan; Naliboff, John B.

    2016-11-01

    We present an updated compilation of earthquake focal mechanisms in Brazil together with focal mechanisms from the sub-Andean region (mainly from global CMT catalogs). All earthquakes in the sub-Andean region show reverse (majority) or strike-slip faulting mechanisms. Focal mechanisms in Brazil show reverse, strike-slip and normal faulting. Focal mechanisms of nearby earthquakes in the same tectonic environment were grouped and inverted for the stress tensor. In the sub-Andean region, stresses are compressional, as expected, with the principal major compression (S1) roughly E-W, on average. A slight rotation of S1 can be observed and is controlled by the orientation of the Andean plateau. In the sub-Andean region, the intermediate principal stress (S2) is also compressional (i.e., larger than the lithostatic pressure, Sv), a feature that is not always reproduced in numerical models published in the literature. In mid-plate South America stresses seem to vary in nature and orientation. In SE Brazil and the Chaco-Pantanal basins, S1 tends to be oriented roughly E-W with S2 approximately equal to S3. This stress pattern changes to purely compressional (both SHmax and Shmin larger than Sv) in the São Francisco craton. A rotation of SHmax from E-W to SE-NW is suggested towards the Amazon region. Along the Atlantic margin, the regional stresses are very much affected by coastal effects (due to continent/ocean spreading stresses as well as flexural effects from sediment load at the continental margin). This coastal effect tends to make SHmax parallel to the coastline and Shmin (usually S3) perpendicular to the coastline. Few breakout data and in-situ measurements are available in Brazil and are generally consistent with the pattern derived from the earthquake focal mechanisms. Although numerical models of global lithospheric stresses tend to reproduce the main large-scale features in most mid-plate areas, the S1 rotation from ∼E-W in SE Brazil to SE-NW in the Amazon

  20. CdTe focal plane detector for hard x-ray focusing optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seller, Paul; Wilson, Matthew D.; Veale, Matthew C.; Schneider, Andreas; Gaskin, Jessica; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Christe, Steven; Shih, Albert Y.; Gregory, Kyle; Inglis, Andrew; Panessa, Marco

    2015-08-01

    The demand for higher resolution x-ray optics (a few arcseconds or better) in the areas of astrophysics and solar science has, in turn, driven the development of complementary detectors. These detectors should have fine pixels, necessary to appropriately oversample the optics at a given focal length, and an energy response also matched to that of the optics. Rutherford Appleton Laboratory have developed a 3-side buttable, 20 mm x 20 mm CdTe-based detector with 250 μm square pixels (80x80 pixels) which achieves 1 keV FWHM @ 60 keV and gives full spectroscopy between 5 keV and 200 keV. An added advantage of these detectors is that they have a full-frame readout rate of 10 kHz. Working with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and Marshall Space Flight Center, 4 of these 1mm-thick CdTe detectors are tiled into a 2x2 array for use at the focal plane of a balloon-borne hard-x-ray telescope, and a similar configuration could be suitable for astrophysics and solar space-based missions. This effort encompasses the fabrication and testing of flightsuitable front-end electronics and calibration of the assembled detector arrays. We explain the operation of the pixelated ASIC readout and measurements, front-end electronics development, preliminary X-ray imaging and spectral performance, and plans for full calibration of the detector assemblies. Work done in conjunction with the NASA Centers is funded through the NASA Science Mission Directorate Astrophysics Research and Analysis Program.

  1. CdTe Focal Plane Detector for Hard X-Ray Focusing Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seller, Paul; Wilson, Matthew D.; Veale, Matthew C.; Schneider, Andreas; Gaskin, Jessica; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Christe, Steven; Shih, Albert Y.; Inglis, Andrew; Panessa, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The demand for higher resolution x-ray optics (a few arcseconds or better) in the areas of astrophysics and solar science has, in turn, driven the development of complementary detectors. These detectors should have fine pixels, necessary to appropriately oversample the optics at a given focal length, and an energy response also matched to that of the optics. Rutherford Appleton Laboratory have developed a 3-side buttable, 20 millimeter x 20 millimeter CdTe-based detector with 250 micrometer square pixels (80 x 80 pixels) which achieves 1 kiloelectronvolt FWHM (Full-Width Half-Maximum) @ 60 kiloelectronvolts and gives full spectroscopy between 5 kiloelectronvolts and 200 kiloelectronvolts. An added advantage of these detectors is that they have a full-frame readout rate of 10 kilohertz. Working with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and Marshall Space Flight Center, 4 of these 1 millimeter-thick CdTe detectors are tiled into a 2 x 2 array for use at the focal plane of a balloon-borne hard-x-ray telescope, and a similar configuration could be suitable for astrophysics and solar space-based missions. This effort encompasses the fabrication and testing of flight-suitable front-end electronics and calibration of the assembled detector arrays. We explain the operation of the pixelated ASIC readout and measurements, front-end electronics development, preliminary X-ray imaging and spectral performance, and plans for full calibration of the detector assemblies. Work done in conjunction with the NASA Centers is funded through the NASA Science Mission Directorate Astrophysics Research and Analysis Program.

  2. Curved-Focal-Plane Arrays Using Deformed-Membrane Photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikzad, Shouleh; Jones, Todd

    2004-01-01

    A versatile and simple approach to the design and fabrication of curved-focal-plane arrays of silicon-based photodetectors is being developed. This approach is an alternative to the one described in "Curved Focal-Plane Arrays Using Back- Illuminated High-Purity Photodetectors" (NPO-30566), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 10 (October 2003), page 10a. As in the cited prior article, the basic idea is to improve the performance of an imaging instrument and simplify the optics needed to obtain a given level of performance by making an image sensor (in this case, an array of photodetectors) conform to a curved focal surface, instead of designing the optics to project an image onto a flat focal surface. There is biological precedent for curved-focal-surface designs: retinas - the image sensors in eyes - conform to the naturally curved focal surfaces of eye lenses. The present approach is applicable to both front-side- and back-side-illuminated, membrane photodetector arrays and is being demonstrated on charge-coupled devices (CCDs). The very-large scale integrated (VLSI) circuitry of such a CCD or other array is fabricated on the front side of a silicon substrate, then the CCD substrate is attached temporarily to a second substrate for mechanical support, then material is removed from the back to obtain the CCD membrane, which typically has a thickness between 10 and 20 m. In the case of a CCD designed to operate in back-surface illumination, delta doping can be performed after thinning to enhance the sensitivity. This approach is independent of the design and method of fabrication of the front-side VLSI circuitry and does not involve any processing of a curved silicon substrate. In this approach, a third substrate would be prepared by polishing one of its surfaces to a required focal-surface curvature. A CCD membrane fabricated as described above would be pressed against, deformed into conformity with, and bonded to, the curved surface. The technique used to press and

  3. Evaluating localized prostate cancer and identifying candidates for focal therapy.

    PubMed

    Sartor, A Oliver; Hricak, Hedvig; Wheeler, Thomas M; Coleman, Jonathan; Penson, David F; Carroll, Peter R; Rubin, Mark A; Scardino, Peter T

    2008-12-01

    Can focal therapy successfully control prostate cancer? Also, if so, which patients should be considered eligible? With limited data available from relatively few patients, these questions are difficult to answer. At this writing, the most likely candidates for focal therapy are patients with low-risk, small-volume tumors, located in 1 region or sector of the prostate, who would benefit from early intervention. The difficulty lies in reliably identifying these men. The larger number of cores obtained in each needle biopsy session has increased both the detection of prostate cancer and the potential risk of overtreating many patients whose cancers pose very little risk to life or health. Urologists typically perform at least a 12-core template biopsy. Although the debate continues about the optimal template, laterally and peripherally directed biopsies have been shown to improve the diagnostic yield. However, as many as 25% of tumors arise anteriorly and can be missed with peripherally directed techniques. Prostate cancer tends to be multifocal, even in its earliest stages. However, the secondary cancers are usually smaller and less aggressive than the index cancer. They appear similar to the incidental cancers found in cystoprostatectomy specimens and appear to have little effect on prognosis in surgical series. When a single focus of cancer is found in 1 core, physicians rightly suspect that more foci of cancer are present in the prostate. Assessing the risk in these patients is challenging when determined by the biopsy data alone. To predict the presence of a very low-risk or "indolent" cancer, nomograms have been developed to incorporate clinical stage, Gleason grade, prostate-specific antigen levels, and prostate volume, along with the quantitative analysis of the biopsy results. Transperineal "mapping" or "saturation" biopsies have been advocated to detect cancers missed or underestimated by previous transrectal biopsies. This approach could provide the

  4. Telomere length in Hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Kitay-Cohen, Y; Goldberg-Bittman, L; Hadary, R; Fejgin, M D; Amiel, A

    2008-11-01

    Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures located at the termini of chromosomes that protect the chromosomes from fusion and degradation. Hepatocyte cell-cycle turnover may be a primary mechanism of telomere shortening in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, inducing fibrosis and cellular senescence. HCV infection has been recognized as potential cause of B-cell lymphoma and hepatocellular carcinoma. The present study sought to assess relative telomere length in leukocytes from patients with chronic HCV infection, patients after eradication of HCV infection (in remission), and healthy controls. A novel method of manual evaluation was applied. Leukocytes derived from 22 patients with chronic HCV infection and age- and sex-matched patients in remission and healthy control subjects were subjected to a fluorescence-in-situ protocol (DAKO) to determine telomere fluorescence intensity and number. The relative, manual, analysis of telomere length was validated against findings on applied spectral imaging (ASI) in a random sample of study and control subjects. Leukocytes from patients with chronic HCV infection had shorter telomeres than leukocytes from patients in remission and healthy controls. On statistical analysis, more cells with low signal intensity on telomere FISH had shorter telomeres whereas more cells with high signal intensity had longer telomeres. The findings were corroborated by the ASI telomere software. Telomere shortening in leukocytes from patients with active HCV infection is probably due to the lower overall telomere level rather than higher cell cycle turnover. Manual evaluation is an accurate and valid method of assessing relative telomere length between patients with chronic HCV infection and healthy subjects. PMID:18992639

  5. The NIST Length Scale Interferometer

    PubMed Central

    Beers, John S.; Penzes, William B.

    1999-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) interferometer for measuring graduated length scales has been in use since 1965. It was developed in response to the redefinition of the meter in 1960 from the prototype platinum-iridium bar to the wavelength of light. The history of the interferometer is recalled, and its design and operation described. A continuous program of modernization by making physical modifications, measurement procedure changes and computational revisions is described, and the effects of these changes are evaluated. Results of a long-term measurement assurance program, the primary control on the measurement process, are presented, and improvements in measurement uncertainty are documented.

  6. The Length of Time's Arrow

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Edward H.; Crooks, Gavin E.

    2008-08-21

    An unresolved problem in physics is how the thermodynamic arrow of time arises from an underlying time reversible dynamics. We contribute to this issue by developing a measure of time-symmetry breaking, and by using the work fluctuation relations, we determine the time asymmetry of recent single molecule RNA unfolding experiments. We define time asymmetry as the Jensen-Shannon divergencebetween trajectory probability distributions of an experiment and its time-reversed conjugate. Among other interesting properties, the length of time's arrow bounds the average dissipation and determines the difficulty of accurately estimating free energy differences in nonequilibrium experiments.

  7. NMR Measures of Heterogeneity Length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiess, Hans W.

    2002-03-01

    Advanced solid state NMR spectroscopy provides a wealth of information about structure and dynamics of complex systems. On a local scale, multidimensional solid state NMR has elucidated the geometry and the time scale of segmental motions at the glass transition. The higher order correlation functions which are provided by this technique led to the notion of dynamic heterogeneities, which have been characterized in detail with respect to their rate memory and length scale. In polymeric and low molar mass glass formers of different fragility, length scales in the range 2 to 4 nm are observed. In polymeric systems, incompatibility of backbone and side groups as in polyalkylmethacrylates leads to heteogeneities on the nm scale, which manifest themselves in unusual chain dynamics at the glass transition involving extended chain conformations. References: K. Schmidt-Rohr and H.W. Spiess, Multidimensional Solid-State NMR and Polymers,Academic Press, London (1994). U. Tracht, M. Wilhelm, A. Heuer, H. Feng, K. Schmidt-Rohr, H.W. Spiess, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2727 (1998). S.A. Reinsberg, X.H. Qiu, M. Wilhelm, M.D. Ediger, H.W. Spiess, J.Chem.Phys. 114, 7299 (2001). S.A. Reinsberg, A. Heuer, B. Doliwa, H. Zimmermann, H.W. Spiess, J. Non-Crystal. Solids, in press (2002)

  8. The influence of focal spot size, shape, emission profile and position on field coverage in a Gulmay D3300 Kilovoltage X-ray therapy unit.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Z; Fitchew, R

    2014-09-01

    An important characteristic of kilovoltage therapy is the narrow penumbra obtainable with a well designed collimator system. A graphical illustration of applicator geometry is used to show that undesirable penumbral broadening and consequent reduction of field coverage could result if the upper aperture in an applicator is smaller than a critical size or if the applicator is not sufficiently well aligned with the focal spot. This concept is applied in an investigation of the formation of penumbra in the Gulmay D3300, in which the influence of the focal spot size, shape and emission profile, obtained from an image of the focal spot produced using a pin-hole in a sheet of lead, is elucidated. The effective focal spot of the Varian X-ray tube was observed to be rectangular, significantly longer in the front-back direction (6 mm) than in the anode-cathode direction (3.5 mm) and quite non-uniform in emission intensity over its length, with pronounced hot-spots at each end. It is shown that this results in a penumbra which is slightly broadened in the front-back direction when the alignment is perfect, but significantly broadened asymmetrically even when the alignment just meets the manufacturer's stated tolerance. Consequently the alignment, which is performed with an alignment jig supplied by the manufacturer, needs to be very precise to obtain acceptable field coverage, which needs to be checked following an X-ray tube change.

  9. Intermittent rhythmic delta activity (IRDA) morphology cannot distinguish between focal and diffuse brain disturbances.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, M Y; Chistik, V; Chapman, J; Korczyn, A D

    1999-03-15

    IRDA (intermittent rhythmic delta activity) is an abnormal generalized EEG pattern that is not specific to any single etiology and can occur with diffuse or focal cerebral disturbances. To determine whether different electrographic features of IRDA and associated EEG findings can differentiate underlying focal from diffuse brain disturbances, we performed a blind analysis of 58 consecutive EEGs with an IRDA pattern, recorded from 1993 until 1996, in which we evaluated posterior background activity, focal slowing and IRDA characteristics (frequency, distribution, duration, symmetry and abundance). The clinical diagnosis, state of consciousness and CT brain findings were retrieved from the patients' hospital records. There were 58 patients (33 females; mean age, 58+/-21 years). Twelve (21%) had only focal brain lesions, while 46 (79%) had diffuse brain abnormalities, (15 diffuse structural, 19 metabolic abnormalities, 12 postictal). Normal consciousness and focal EEG slowing were more frequent in patients with focal abnormalities, however, this was not statistically significant. Of the patients with focal abnormality, 11 (92%) had normal posterior background activity either bilaterally (n=4) or contralateral to the focal lesion (n=7). Bilaterally normal posterior background activity was observed in about 30% in both groups. Bilaterally abnormal posterior background activity was apparent in one patient (8%) with focal brain lesion and in 31 patients (67%) with diffuse brain abnormalities (P<0.0001). There were no significant differences in IRDA electrographic features between the focal group and the group with diffuse brain disturbances. We conclude that IRDA morphology cannot distinguish between focal and diffuse brain abnormalities.

  10. Optimization of element length for imaging small volumetric reflectors with linear ultrasonic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, T. S.; Wilcox, P. D.; Nixon, A. D.

    2016-02-01

    A 3D ultrasonic simulation study is presented, aimed at understanding the effect of element length for imaging small volumetric flaws with linear arrays in ultrasonically noisy materials. The geometry of a linear array can be described by the width, pitch and total number of the elements along with the length perpendicular to imaging plane. This paper is concerned with the latter parameter, which tends to be ignored in array optimization studies and is often chosen arbitrarily for industrial array inspections. A 3D analytical model based on imaging a point target is described, validated and used to make calculations of relative Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) as a function of element length. SNR is found to be highly sensitive to element length with a 12dB variation observed over the length range investigated. It is then demonstrated that the optimal length can be predicted directly from the Point Spread Function (PSF) of the imaging system as well as the natural focal point of the array element from 2D beam profiles perpendicular to the imaging plane. This result suggests that the optimal length for any imaging position can be predicted without the need for a full 3D model and is independent of element pitch and the number of elements. Array element design guidelines are then described with respect to wavelength and extensions of these results are discussed for application to realistically-sized defects and coarse-grained materials.

  11. Dual-frequency ultrasound focal therapy for MRI-guided transurethral treatment of the prostate: Study in gel phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N'Djin, W. Apoutou; Mougenot, Charles; Kobelevskiy, Ilya; Ramsay, Elizabeth; Bronskill, Michael; Chopra, Rajiv

    2012-11-01

    Ultrasound thermal therapy of localized prostate cancer offers a minimally-invasive non-ionizing alternative [1-3] to surgery and radiotherapy. MRI-controlled transurethral ultrasound prostate therapy [4-6] has previously been investigated in a pilot human feasibility study [7], by treating a small sub-volume of prostate tissue. In this study, the feasibility of transurethral dual-frequency ultrasound focal therapy has been investigated in gel phantom. A database of pelvic anatomical models of human prostate cancer patients have been created using MR clinical images. The largest prostate boundary (47 cm3) was used to fabricate an anatomical gel phantom which included various MR characteristics to mimic prostate tissues, 4 localized tumors and surrounding prostate tissues. A 9-element transurethral ultrasound applicator working in dual-frequency mode (f = 4.6/14.5 MHz) was evaluated to heat: (i) the entire prostate volume (Full prostate treatment strategy), (ii) a prostate region restricted to tumors (Focal therapy). Acoustic power of each element and rotation rate of the device were adjusted in realtime based on MR-thermometry feedback control (nine thermal slices updated every 6.2s). Experiments have been performed using dual-frequency ultrasound exposures (surface Pmax: 20W.cm-2). (i) For full prostate heating, 7 elements of the device were used to cover the entire prostate length. The heating process was completed within 35 min. Ultrasound exposures at the fundamental frequency allowed full heating of the largest prostate radii (>18 mm), while exposures at the 3rd harmonic ensured homogeneous treatment of the smallest radii. Undertreated and overtreated regions represented respectively 2% and 17% of the prostate volume. (ii) For focal therapy, the target region was optimized to maintain safe regions in the prostate and to cover all tumor-mimics. Only 5 ultrasound elements were used to treat successfully all tumor-mimics within 26 min. Undertreated and

  12. Effects of random member length errors on the accuracy and internal loads of truss antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, W. H.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of random member length errors on the surface accuracy, the defocus, and the residual, internal loads of tetrahedral truss antenna reflectors have been studied analytically. The analytical procedure involves performing multiple, deterministic finite element structural analyses for a particular truss. For each analysis, the normally distributed, random member length errors are selected by random number generator. A best fit paraboloid analysis is used to determine a root mean square error and defocus from each analysis. The statistical properties of these quantities as well as the internal loads are calculated from the results of many independent analyses. Results indicate that the number of members in a tetrahedral truss antenna of a given diameter has a significant effect on surface accuracy, defocus and internal loads. It was also found that the member axial stiffnesses and antenna focal length have a very small effect on reflector surface accuracy.

  13. Stress tensor and focal mechanisms in the Dead Sea basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofstetter, A.; Dorbath, C.; Dorbath, L.; Braeuer, B.; Weber, M. H.

    2015-12-01

    We use the recorded seismicity, confined to the Dead Sea basin and its boundaries, by the Dead Sea Integrated Research (DESIRE) portable seismic network and the Israel and Jordan permanent seismic networks for studying the mechanisms of earthquakes that occurred in the Dead Sea basin. The observed seismicity in the Dead Sea basin was divided into 9 regions according to the spatial distribution of the earthquakes and the known tectonic features. The large number of recording stations and the good station distribution allowed the reliable determinations of 494 earthquake focal mechanisms. For each region, based on the inversion of the observed polarities of the earthquakes, we determine the focal mechanisms and the associated stress tensor. For 159 earthquakes out of the 494 mechanisms we could determine compatible fault planes. On the eastern side, the focal mechanisms are mainly strike-slip mechanism with nodal planes in the N-S and E-W directions. The azimuths of the stress axes are well constrained presenting minimal variability in the inversion of the data, which is in good agreement with the Arava fault on the eastern side of the Dead Sea basin and what we had expected from the regional geodynamics. However, larger variabilities of the azimuthal and dip angles are observed on the western side of the basin. Due to the wider range of azimuths of the fault planes, we observe the switching of sigma1 and sigma2 or the switching of sigma2 and sigma3as major horizontal stress directions. This observed switching of stress axes allows having dip-slip and normal mechanisms in a region that is dominated by strike-slip motion.

  14. Temperament and character properties of primary focal hyperhidrosis patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Primary focal hyperhidrosis is a health problem, which has negative effects on the patient's quality of life and significantly affects the patients’ daily activities, social and business life. The aim of this study is to evaluate temperament and character properties of patients diagnosed with primary focal hyperhidrosis. Methods Fifty-six primary focal hyperhidrosis (22.42 ± 7.80) and 49 control subjects (24.48 ± 5.17) participated in the study. Patients who met the diagnostic criteria for PFH were referred to psychiatry clinic where the subjects were evaluated through Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders-I and Temperament and Character Inventory. Results In order to examine the difference between the PFH and control group in terms of temperament and character properties, one-way Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was conducted. In terms of temperament properties, PFH group took significantly higher scores than control group in Fatigability and asthenia dimension. In terms of character properties, PFH group scored significantly lower than control group in Purposefulness , Resourcefulness , Self-Directedness and scored significantly higher than control group in Self-forgetfulness and Self-Transcendence. Conclusion Temperament and character features of PFH patients were different from healthy group and it was considered that these features were affected by many factors including genetic, biological, environmental, socio-cultural elements. During the follow-up of PFH cases, psychiatric evaluation is important and interventions, especially psychotherapeutic interventions can increase the chances of success of the dermatological treatments and can have a positive impact on the quality of life and social cohesion of chronic cases. PMID:23311945

  15. Kalman Filter for Calibrating a Telescope Focal Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Bryan; Bayard, David

    2006-01-01

    The instrument-pointing frame (IPF) Kalman filter, and an algorithm that implements this filter, have been devised for calibrating the focal plane of a telescope. As used here, calibration signifies, more specifically, a combination of measurements and calculations directed toward ensuring accuracy in aiming the telescope and determining the locations of objects imaged in various arrays of photodetectors in instruments located on the focal plane. The IPF Kalman filter was originally intended for application to a spaceborne infrared astronomical telescope, but can also be applied to other spaceborne and ground-based telescopes. In the traditional approach to calibration of a telescope, (1) one team of experts concentrates on estimating parameters (e.g., pointing alignments and gyroscope drifts) that are classified as being of primarily an engineering nature, (2) another team of experts concentrates on estimating calibration parameters (e.g., plate scales and optical distortions) that are classified as being primarily of a scientific nature, and (3) the two teams repeatedly exchange data in an iterative process in which each team refines its estimates with the help of the data provided by the other team. This iterative process is inefficient and uneconomical because it is time-consuming and entails the maintenance of two survey teams and the development of computer programs specific to the requirements of each team. Moreover, theoretical analysis reveals that the engineering/ science iterative approach is not optimal in that it does not yield the best estimates of focal-plane parameters and, depending on the application, may not even enable convergence toward a set of estimates.

  16. Focal-plane detector system for the KATRIN experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amsbaugh, J. F.; Barrett, J.; Beglarian, A.; Bergmann, T.; Bichsel, H.; Bodine, L. I.; Bonn, J.; Boyd, N. M.; Burritt, T. H.; Chaoui, Z.; Chilingaryan, S.; Corona, T. J.; Doe, P. J.; Dunmore, J. A.; Enomoto, S.; Formaggio, J. A.; Fränkle, F. M.; Furse, D.; Gemmeke, H.; Glück, F.; Harms, F.; Harper, G. C.; Hartmann, J.; Howe, M. A.; Kaboth, A.; Kelsey, J.; Knauer, M.; Kopmann, A.; Leber, M. L.; Martin, E. L.; Middleman, K. J.; Myers, A. W.; Oblath, N. S.; Parno, D. S.; Peterson, D. A.; Petzold, L.; Phillips, D. G.; Renschler, P.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Schwarz, J.; Steidl, M.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Thümmler, T.; Van Wechel, T. D.; VanDevender, B. A.; Vöcking, S.; Wall, B. L.; Wierman, K. L.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wüstling, S.

    2015-04-01

    The focal-plane detector system for the KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment consists of a multi-pixel silicon p-i-n-diode array, custom readout electronics, two superconducting solenoid magnets, an ultra high-vacuum system, a high-vacuum system, calibration and monitoring devices, a scintillating veto, and a custom data-acquisition system. It is designed to detect the low-energy electrons selected by the KATRIN main spectrometer. We describe the system and summarize its performance after its final installation.

  17. Steroid-responsive polyradiculopathy in association with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Andrew R.; Gamble, Paul; Pollock, Anne Marie; Joss, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    An 80-year-old woman presented with simultaneous increasing muscle weakness and nephrotic syndrome. A renal biopsy confirmed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Her neurological diagnosis best fitted with a Guillain–Barre-like syndrome. There have been several cases of FSGS in combination with both conventional and atypical Guillain–Barre syndrome (GBS). Our patient was treated with high-dose steroids and resolution of both nephrotic syndrome and neurological symptoms occurred over 6 months. This article reviews all previously published presentations of this nature and discusses putative mechanisms for the development of concurrent FSGS and GBS. PMID:26069832

  18. Focal plane array with modular pixel array components for scalability

    DOEpatents

    Kay, Randolph R; Campbell, David V; Shinde, Subhash L; Rienstra, Jeffrey L; Serkland, Darwin K; Holmes, Michael L

    2014-12-09

    A modular, scalable focal plane array is provided as an array of integrated circuit dice, wherein each die includes a given amount of modular pixel array circuitry. The array of dice effectively multiplies the amount of modular pixel array circuitry to produce a larger pixel array without increasing die size. Desired pixel pitch across the enlarged pixel array is preserved by forming die stacks with each pixel array circuitry die stacked on a separate die that contains the corresponding signal processing circuitry. Techniques for die stack interconnections and die stack placement are implemented to ensure that the desired pixel pitch is preserved across the enlarged pixel array.

  19. Focal plane detectors possible detector technologies for OWL/AIRWATCH

    SciTech Connect

    Flyckt, Esso

    1998-06-15

    New satellite-born projects OWL and AIRWATCH will need single-photon focal-plane detectors of a million pixels in a design which is optimized to the focusing optics and electronics at acceptable cost. We discuss different phototube possibilities and their pros and cons with crude cost estimates. We conclude that a multichannel-photomultiplier solution is safe. A better compromise may be to adapt a 6 or 9 inch X-ray image intensifier tube or develop a 12 inch image intensifier for detecting individual photons, and adapt the optics to have many mirror modules. The possibility of developing super-large-area phototubes is also discussed.

  20. Innovative focal plane design for large space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahn, Wilfried; Ferrari, Marc; Hugot, Emmanuel

    2016-07-01

    Future large drift-scan space telescopes, providing high angular resolution and sensitive observations, require long linear focal planes covering large fields of view. In order to reach higher on-earth spatial resolution while keeping a large field of view, the use of homothetic imaging systems is prohibitive for VIS/IR applications. Based on Integral Field Unit technology developed for ground based instrumentation, we present an innovative optical system reorganizing a 1D field of view on a 2D detector array. Such a solution presents a high gain in terms of volume and weight, allowing compact cryogenic systems for IR observations.

  1. Assembly and mechanosensory function of focal adhesions: experiments and models.

    PubMed

    Bershadsky, Alexander D; Ballestrem, Christoph; Carramusa, Letizia; Zilberman, Yuliya; Gilquin, Benoit; Khochbin, Saadi; Alexandrova, Antonina Y; Verkhovsky, Alexander B; Shemesh, Tom; Kozlov, Michael M

    2006-04-01

    Initial integrin-mediated cell-matrix adhesions (focal complexes) appear underneath the lamellipodia, in the regions of the "fast" centripetal flow driven by actin polymerization. Once formed, these adhesions convert the flow behind them into a "slow", myosin II-driven mode. Some focal complexes then turn into elongated focal adhesions (FAs) associated with contractile actomyosin bundles (stress fibers). Myosin II inhibition does not suppress formation of focal complexes but blocks their conversion into mature FAs and further FA growth. Application of external pulling force promotes FA growth even under conditions when myosin II activity is blocked. Thus, individual FAs behave as mechanosensors responding to the application of force by directional assembly. We proposed a thermodynamic model for the mechanosensitivity of FAs, taking into account that an elastic molecular aggregate subject to pulling forces tends to grow in the direction of force application by incorporating additional subunits. This simple model can explain a variety of processes typical of FA behavior. Assembly of FAs is triggered by the small G-protein Rho via activation of two major targets, Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) and the formin homology protein, Dia1. ROCK controls creation of myosin II-driven forces, while Dia1 is involved in the response of FAs to these forces. Expression of the active form of Dia1, allows the external force-induced assembly of mature FAs, even in conditions when Rho is inhibited. Conversely, downregulation of Dia1 by siRNA prevents FA maturation even if Rho is activated. Dia1 and other formins cap barbed (fast growing) ends of actin filaments, allowing insertion of the new actin monomers. We suggested a novel mechanism of such "leaky" capping based on an assumption of elasticity of the formin/barbed end complex. Our model predicts that formin-mediated actin polymerization should be greatly enhanced by application of external pulling force. Thus, the formin-actin complex

  2. Assembly and mechanosensory function of focal adhesions: experiments and models.

    PubMed

    Bershadsky, Alexander D; Ballestrem, Christoph; Carramusa, Letizia; Zilberman, Yuliya; Gilquin, Benoit; Khochbin, Saadi; Alexandrova, Antonina Y; Verkhovsky, Alexander B; Shemesh, Tom; Kozlov, Michael M

    2006-04-01

    Initial integrin-mediated cell-matrix adhesions (focal complexes) appear underneath the lamellipodia, in the regions of the "fast" centripetal flow driven by actin polymerization. Once formed, these adhesions convert the flow behind them into a "slow", myosin II-driven mode. Some focal complexes then turn into elongated focal adhesions (FAs) associated with contractile actomyosin bundles (stress fibers). Myosin II inhibition does not suppress formation of focal complexes but blocks their conversion into mature FAs and further FA growth. Application of external pulling force promotes FA growth even under conditions when myosin II activity is blocked. Thus, individual FAs behave as mechanosensors responding to the application of force by directional assembly. We proposed a thermodynamic model for the mechanosensitivity of FAs, taking into account that an elastic molecular aggregate subject to pulling forces tends to grow in the direction of force application by incorporating additional subunits. This simple model can explain a variety of processes typical of FA behavior. Assembly of FAs is triggered by the small G-protein Rho via activation of two major targets, Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) and the formin homology protein, Dia1. ROCK controls creation of myosin II-driven forces, while Dia1 is involved in the response of FAs to these forces. Expression of the active form of Dia1, allows the external force-induced assembly of mature FAs, even in conditions when Rho is inhibited. Conversely, downregulation of Dia1 by siRNA prevents FA maturation even if Rho is activated. Dia1 and other formins cap barbed (fast growing) ends of actin filaments, allowing insertion of the new actin monomers. We suggested a novel mechanism of such "leaky" capping based on an assumption of elasticity of the formin/barbed end complex. Our model predicts that formin-mediated actin polymerization should be greatly enhanced by application of external pulling force. Thus, the formin-actin complex

  3. Initiation, Propagation, and Termination of Partial (Focal) Seizures

    PubMed Central

    de Curtis, Marco; Avoli, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The neurophysiological patterns that correlate with partial (focal) seizures are well defined in humans by standard electroencephalogram (EEG) and presurgical depth electrode recordings. Seizure patterns with similar features are reproduced in animal models of partial seizures and epilepsy. However, the network determinants that support interictal spikes, as well as the initiation, progression, and termination of seizures, are still elusive. Recent findings show that inhibitory networks are prominently involved at the onset of these seizures, and that extracellular changes in potassium contribute to initiate and sustain seizure progression. The end of a partial seizure correlates with an increase in network synchronization, which possibly involves both excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms. PMID:26134843

  4. Focal thinning of the cerebral cortex in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sailer, Michael; Fischl, Bruce; Salat, David; Tempelmann, Claus; Schönfeld, Mircea Ariel; Busa, Evelina; Bodammer, Nils; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Dale, Anders

    2003-08-01

    Brain atrophy as determined by quantitative MRI can be used to characterize disease progression in multiple sclerosis. Many studies have addressed white matter (WM) alterations leading to atrophy, while changes of the cerebral cortex have been studied to a lesser extent. In vivo, the cerebral cortex has been difficult to study due to its complex structure and regional variability. Measurement of cerebral cortex thickness at different disease stages may provide new insights into grey matter (GM) pathology. In the present investigation, we evaluated in vivo cortical thickness and its relationship to disability, disease duration, WM T2 hyper-intense and T1 hypo-intense lesion volumes. High-resolution MRI brain scans were obtained in 20 patients with clinically definite multiple sclerosis and 15 age-matched normal subjects. A novel method of automated surface reconstruction yielded measurements of the cortical thickness for each subject's entire brain and computed cross-subject statistics based on the cortical anatomy. Statistical thickness difference maps were generated by performing t-tests between patient and control groups and individual thickness measures were submitted to analyses of variance to investigate the relationship between cortical thickness and clinical variables. The mean overall thickness of the cortical ribbon was reduced in multiple sclerosis patients compared with controls [2.30 mm (SD 0.14) versus 2.48 mm (SD 0.11)], showing a significant main effect of group (controls versus patients). In patients, we found significant main effects for disability, disease duration, T2 and T1 lesion volumes. The visualization of statistical difference maps of the cortical GM thickness on inflated brains across the cortical surface revealed a distinct distribution of significant focal thinning of the cerebral cortex in addition to the diffuse cortical atrophy. Focal cortical thinning in frontal [2.37 mm (SD 0.17) versus 2.73 mm (SD 0.25)] and in temporal [2.65 mm

  5. Laser beacon wave-front sensing without focal anisoplanatism.

    PubMed

    Buscher, D F; Love, G D; Myers, R M

    2002-02-01

    Wave-front sensing from artificial beacons is normally performed by formation of a focused spot in the atmosphere and sensing of the wave-front distortions produced during the beam's return passage. We propose an alternative method that senses the distortions produced during the outgoing path by forming an intensity pattern in the atmosphere that is then viewed from the ground. A key advantage of this method is that a parallel beam is used, and therefore the wave-front measurements will not suffer from the effects of focal anisoplanatism. We also envisage other geometries, all based on the concept of projecting a pupil pattern onto the atmosphere.

  6. Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia masquerading as a residual cyst.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Rajat; Sandhu, Simarpreet V; Bansal, Himanta; Behl, Rashi; Bhullar, Ramanpreet Kaur

    2012-04-01

    Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) is a benign fibroosseous condition that can be seen in dentulous and edentulous patients. It is an asymptomatic lesion and needs no treatment; however, follow-up is essential due to the possibility that it can progress to a condition called florid cemento-osseous dysplasia. We report a case of FCOD of mandible in a 25-year-old female. Clinically, the lesion resembled periapical pathosis of odontogenic origin. An attempt has been made to discuss the clinical and histopathologic features along with differential diagnosis of cemento-osseous dysplasia.

  7. Dendron avidity platforms with orthogonal focal point coupling site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNerny, Daniel Quinn

    This thesis explores the design and synthesis of bifunctional or modular platforms from poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrons. PAMAM dendrons with an orthogonal focal point are evaluated, testing several click chemistry reactions for high conversion and mild conditions. The orthogonal reaction chemistry used at the dendron focal point gives a precise 1:1 ratio of the attachment of multiple functionalities to a small molecular weight, chemically stable high avidity molecule. In the first component of the thesis, dendrons were synthesized with c(RGDyK) peptide on the surface to create a scaffold for cellular targeting and multivalent binding. Binary dendron-RGD conjugates were synthesized with a single imaging agent, therapeutic drug, or additional functionalized dendron at the focal point after a copper(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) click reaction. The targeted-dendron platform was shown to specifically target alphaVbeta3 integrin expressing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human glioblastoma cells (U87MG) in vitro via flow cytometry. Specific targeting of the dendron-RGD platform was further confirmed by confocal microscopy. Biological activity of the targeted drug conjugate was confirmed via XTT assay. The remainder of the thesis explores click chemistry reactions that do not require a metal catalyst, which may cause undesired toxicity for some biological applications. Thiol-based click chemistry, specifically the thiol-ene and thiol-yne reactions, is explored on dendron platforms. The thiol click reactions provide an improved efficiency, compared to CuAAC, by reaching quantitative conversion of the focal point in most cases. The thiol click reactions suffer from some setbacks: the need for a thermal or photoinitiator may prevent the conjugation of some functional ligands and the thiol chemistry is more prone to side reactions. Finally, strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloadditions are examined. The ring-strain click chemistry

  8. Geometry of area without length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Pei-Ming; Inami, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    To define a free string by the Nambu-Goto action, all we need is the notion of area, and mathematically the area can be defined directly in the absence of a metric. Motivated by the possibility that string theory admits backgrounds where the notion of length is not well defined but a definition of area is given, we study space-time geometries based on the generalization of a metric to an area metric. In analogy with Riemannian geometry, we define the analogues of connections, curvatures, and Einstein tensor. We propose a formulation generalizing Einstein's theory that will be useful if at a certain stage or a certain scale the metric is ill defined and the space-time is better characterized by the notion of area. Static spherical solutions are found for the generalized Einstein equation in vacuum, including the Schwarzschild solution as a special case.

  9. Focal contacts as mechanosensors: externally applied local mechanical force induces growth of focal contacts by an mDia1-dependent and ROCK-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Riveline, D; Zamir, E; Balaban, N Q; Schwarz, U S; Ishizaki, T; Narumiya, S; Kam, Z; Geiger, B; Bershadsky, A D

    2001-06-11

    The transition of cell-matrix adhesions from the initial punctate focal complexes into the mature elongated form, known as focal contacts, requires GTPase Rho activity. In particular, activation of myosin II-driven contractility by a Rho target known as Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) was shown to be essential for focal contact formation. To dissect the mechanism of Rho-dependent induction of focal contacts and to elucidate the role of cell contractility, we applied mechanical force to vinculin-containing dot-like adhesions at the cell edge using a micropipette. Local centripetal pulling led to local assembly and elongation of these structures and to their development into streak-like focal contacts, as revealed by the dynamics of green fluorescent protein-tagged vinculin or paxillin and interference reflection microscopy. Inhibition of Rho activity by C3 transferase suppressed this force-induced focal contact formation. However, constitutively active mutants of another Rho target, the formin homology protein mDia1 (Watanabe, N., T. Kato, A. Fujita, T. Ishizaki, and S. Narumiya. 1999. Nat. Cell Biol. 1:136-143), were sufficient to restore force-induced focal contact formation in C3 transferase-treated cells. Force-induced formation of the focal contacts still occurred in cells subjected to myosin II and ROCK inhibition. Thus, as long as mDia1 is active, external tension force bypasses the requirement for ROCK-mediated myosin II contractility in the induction of focal contacts. Our experiments show that integrin-containing focal complexes behave as individual mechanosensors exhibiting directional assembly in response to local force. PMID:11402062

  10. Basic mechanisms leading to focal emphysema in coal workers' pneumoconiosis

    SciTech Connect

    Rom, W.N. )

    1990-10-01

    Coal miners develop focal emphysema characterized by dilatation of second- and third-order respiratory bronchioles with coal mine dust-laden macrophages infiltrating the wall. A reticulin network with small amounts of collagen and atrophy of smooth muscle occurs. To evaluate the mechanisms of lung injury associated with this lesion, 17 long-term non- or ex-smoking West Virginia underground coal miners underwent bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and were compared to healthy nonsmoker and smoker controls. The coal miners had evidence of an alveolar macrophage-neutrophil alveolitis with a significant increase in neutrophils/microliter of epithelial lining fluid and an increased gallium lung scan index (206 +/- 26 units). Alveolar macrophages lavaged from coal miners spontaneously released exaggerated amounts of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide in vitro compared to nonsmoking controls. Coal workers had significantly elevated levels of neutrophil elastase in BAL fluid complexed with alpha 1-antitrypsin (P less than 0.01) and normal levels of alpha 1-antitrypsin. An accumulation of activated, dust-laden inflammatory cells with increased release of oxidants and elastase may contribute to the development of focal emphysema identified at postmortem in miners with coal workers' pneumoconiosis.

  11. Nonuniformity compensation for IR focal plane array sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkateswarlu, Ronda; Er, Meng H.; Gan, Yu H.; Fong, Yew C.

    1997-08-01

    Recent reports indicate that cooled and uncooled IR focal plane array sensors are progressing to a field-worthy level for commercial and defense applications. They offer higher sensitivity, amenability to signal processing and mechanical simplicity. However these sensors contain large detector-to- detector dark current (offset) and responsivity (gain) variations. These variations result in a severe problem called fixed pattern noise that can mask/distort the image obtained from the sensor. The correction process is generally termed as nonuniformity compensation. Conventional two-point compensation techniques are accurate enough, but require built-in controllable temperature references along with mechanical and electro-optical shutters. Therefore this compensation technique detracts the mechanical simplicity of using IR focal plane arrays. Scene-based nonuniformity techniques dispenses with the requirement of temperature references and shutters, but are not accurate enough for certain applications. This paper discusses two-point and scene-based nonuniformity compensation algorithms and proposes an empirical formula to automatically calculate the scene constants, which is an essential step towards practical applications. This paper reports the analyzed results of testing the algorithms on a number of IR images. A practical problem of 'artifacts' which arise when using scene-based nonuniformity compensation is also discussed. A common hardware scheme to implement both the algorithms is also presented in this paper.

  12. High operating temperature interband cascade focal plane arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Z.-B.; Godoy, S. E.; Kim, H. S.; Schuler-Sandy, T.; Montoya, J. A.; Krishna, S.

    2014-08-04

    In this paper, we report the initial demonstration of mid-infrared interband cascade (IC) photodetector focal plane arrays with multiple-stage/junction design. The merits of IC photodetectors include low noise and efficient photocarrier extraction, even for zero-bias operation. By adopting enhanced electron barrier design and a total absorber thickness of 0.7 μm, the 5-stage IC detectors show very low dark current (1.10 × 10{sup −7} A/cm{sup 2} at −5 mV and 150 K). Even with un-optimized fabrication and standard commercial (mis-matched) read-out circuit technology, infrared images are obtained by the 320 × 256 IC focal plane array up to 180 K with f/2.3 optics. The minimum noise equivalent temperature difference of 28 mK is obtained at 120 K. These initial results indicate great potential of IC photodetectors, particularly for high operating temperature applications.

  13. Implications of the focal beam profile in serial femtosecond crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Galli, Lorenzo; Chapman, Henry N.; Metcalf, Peter

    2015-05-12

    The photon density profile of an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) beam at the focal position is a critical parameter for serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX), but is difficult to measure because of the destructive power of the beam. A novel high intensity radiation induced phasing method (HIRIP) has been proposed as a general experimental approach for protein structure determination, but has proved to be sensitive to variations of the X-ray intensity, with uniform incident fluence desired for best performance. Here we show that experimental SFX data collected at the nano-focus chamber of the Coherent X-ray Imaging end-station at the Linac Coherent Light Source using crystals with a limited size distribution suggests an average profile of the X-ray beam that has a large variation of intensity. We propose a new method to improve the quality of high fluence data for HI-RIP, by identifying and removing diffraction patterns from crystals exposed to the low intensity region of the beam. The method requires crystals of average size comparable to the width of the focal spot.

  14. Zinc translocation accelerates infarction after mild transient focal ischemia.

    PubMed

    Lee, J-M; Zipfel, G J; Park, K H; He, Y Y; Hsu, C Y; Choi, D W

    2002-01-01

    Excess release of chelatable zinc (Zn(2+)) from central synaptic vesicles may contribute to the pathogenesis of selective neuronal cell death following transient forebrain ischemia, but a role in neurodegeneration after focal ischemia has not been defined. Adult male Long-Evans rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 30 min followed by reperfusion developed delayed cerebral infarction reaching completion 3 days after the insult. One day after the insult, many degenerating cerebral neurons exhibited increased intracellular Zn(2+), and some labeled with the antibody against activated caspase-3. I.c.v. administration of the Zn(2+) chelator, EDTA saturated with equimolar Ca(2+) (CaEDTA), 15 min prior to ischemia attenuated subsequent Zn(2+) translocation into cortical neurons, and reduced infarct volume measured 3 days after ischemia. Although the protective effect of CaEDTA at this endpoint was substantial (about 70% infarct reduction), it was lost when insult severity was increased (from 30 to 60 min MCAO), or when infarct volume was measured at a much later time point (14 days instead of 3 days after ischemia). These data suggest that toxic Zn(2+) translocation, from presynaptic terminals to post-synaptic cell bodies, may accelerate the development of cerebral infarction following mild transient focal ischemia.

  15. Antenna coupled detectors for 2D staring focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritz, Michael A.; Kolasa, Borys; Lail, Brian; Burkholder, Robert; Chen, Leonard

    2013-06-01

    Millimeter-wave (mmW)/sub-mmW/THz region of the electro-magnetic spectrum enables imaging thru clothing and other obscurants such as fog, clouds, smoke, sand, and dust. Therefore considerable interest exists in developing low cost millimeter-wave imaging (MMWI) systems. Previous MMWI systems have evolved from crude mechanically scanned, single element receiver systems into very complex multiple receiver camera systems. Initial systems required many expensive mmW integrated-circuit low-noise amplifiers. In order to reduce the cost and complexity of the existing systems, attempts have been made to develop new mmW imaging sensors employing direct detection arrays. In this paper, we report on Raytheon's recent development of a unique focal plane array technology, which operates broadly from the mmW through the sub-mmW/THz region. Raytheon's innovative nano-antenna based detector enables low cost production of 2D staring mmW focal plane arrays (mmW FPA), which not only have equivalent sensitivity and performance to existing MMWI systems, but require no mechanical scanning.

  16. Human Neuroma-in-Continuity Contains Focal Deficits in Myelination.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, Arie C; Tannemaat, Martijn R; van Duinen, Sjoerd G; Verhaagen, Joost; Malessy, Martijn J A; De Winter, Fred

    2015-09-01

    Functional recovery does not occur in 10% of patients with neonatal brachial plexus palsy. In these patients, resection of a neuroma-in-continuity (NIC) and surgical nerve reconstruction are required. The formation of a NIC seems to prohibit functional recovery, but the underlying biologic mechanisms for this failure are poorly understood. We systematically analyzed a large series of NIC tissue samples from 17 neonatal and 3 adult patients using an array of immunohistochemical techniques. In a large proportion of patients (74%), the NIC contained multiple focal globular areas with markedly diminished myelination. These focal myelin deficits (FMDs) contain Schwann cells that enwrap axons in an apparently normal configuration but do not form myelin. Biomathematical analysis of a 2-cm neuroma predicted a higher-than-95% probability that an axon would encounter 10 FMDs. Axon segments in FMDs also had disturbed nodes of Ranvier (i.e., FMDs contained significantly fewer clustered Na(v)1.6 channels and decreased Caspr and ankyrin G). These observations indicate that axons in NIC course through multiple FMDs and that this may be the pathobiologic basis for conduction blocks in patients with neonatal brachial plexus palsy. These observations indicate the need for novel strategies to promote functional recovery after neonatal brachial plexus palsy by improving myelination in the NIC.

  17. Performance characterization of a PIAA complex focal plane mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Kevin; Belikov, Ruslan; Guyon, Olivier; Pluzhnik, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    The Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization Complex Mask Coronagraph (PIAACMC) is an architecture for directly observing extrasolar planets, and can achieve performance near the theoretical limits for any direct-detection instrument. PIAACMC can be designed for centrally-obscured and segmented apertures, which is particularly useful for next-generation telescopes. The PIAACMC architecture includes aspheric PIAA optics, and a complex phase-shifting focal plane mask that provides a pi phase shift to a portion of the on-axis starlight. The phase-shifted starlight is forced to interfere destructively with the un-shifted starlight, causing the starlight to be eliminated, and allowing a region for high-contrast imaging near the star.The main challenge in designing the complex focal plane mask is to achieve deep contrast over a wide spectral band. Another challenge for the mask design is to avoid sharp features, which can be difficult to manufacture. We present a solution to the design challenge by dividing the mask into sections and optimizing the phase shift produced by each section. We also demonstrate a method to design the mask with a smooth profile. One remaining challenge is to measure the performance of the mask. We present a method to compute the phase profile of the mask based on measurements of the diffraction pattern. The computed phase profile is used to simulate the expected coronagraph performance.

  18. A model of task-specific focal dystonia.

    PubMed

    Altenmüller, Eckart; Müller, Dieter

    2013-12-01

    Task-specific focal dystonia is a task-specific movement disorder which manifests itself as a loss of voluntary motor control in extensively trained movements. The condition is most frequent in musicians. Until today, the aetiology of focal hand dystonia is not completely understood, but there is growing evidence for an abnormal cortical processing of sensory information, as well as degraded representation of motor functions. It was demonstrated that in the somatosensory cortex the topographical location of sensory inputs from individual fingers is corrupted. Occasionally, a change in sensory information of the hand may at least temporarily improve the condition. This phenomenon is called sensory trick. In this paper, we propose a model of encoding of sensory stimuli which could explain the task specificity of cortical representations of the fingers or other effectors in the context of dystonia. In the framework of this model a sensory stimulus is encoded as a signal vector of higher dimension. A part of its components directly represents the sensory stimulus, while the remaining components describe the context. This model does not only account for the task specificity, but may also explain some characteristics of the retraining process in this disorder.

  19. Prostate focused ultrasound focal therapy--imaging for the future.

    PubMed

    Rouvière, Olivier; Gelet, Albert; Crouzet, Sébastien; Chapelon, Jean-Yves

    2012-12-01

    Treatment of prostate cancer using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) focal therapy will become a reliable treatment option only if several conditions are fulfilled. These conditions concern patient selection, assessment of the tumour location and aggressiveness, evaluation of target tissue destruction, and detection of local recurrence or appearance of new tumours. Regarding patient selection, standard transrectal biopsies are not accurate enough and, although perineal template biopsies can detect tumours, they are invasive, expensive procedures, and there is a risk of incidental detection of insignificant cancers. In turn, multiparametric MRI is accurate for detecting and localizing high-grade (Gleason score ≥7) cancers and may provide non-invasive assessment of tumour aggressiveness. Moreover, contrast-enhanced imaging-ultrasonography or MRI-can assess post-HIFU tissue destruction and provide accurate detection of tumour recurrence, which is a key element for follow up. This Perspectives article will assess whether our current methods for cancer diagnosis, tissue targeting, and treatment follow up are accurate enough to allow the design of robust HIFU focal therapy protocols.

  20. Ambient and focal visual processing of naturalistic activity.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Michelle L; Zacks, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-01

    When people inspect a picture, they progress through two distinct phases of visual processing: an ambient, or exploratory, phase that emphasizes input from peripheral vision and rapid acquisition of low-frequency information, followed by a focal phase that emphasizes central vision, salient objects, and high-frequency information. Does this qualitative shift occur during dynamic scene viewing? If so, when? One possibility is that shifts to exploratory processing are triggered at subjective event boundaries. This shift would be adaptive, because event boundaries typically occur when activity features change and when activity becomes unpredictable. Here, we used a perceptual event segmentation task, in which people identified boundaries between meaningful units of activity, to test this hypothesis. In two studies, an eye tracker recorded eye movements and pupil size while participants first watched movies of actors engaged in everyday activities and then segmented them into meaningful events. Saccade amplitudes and fixation durations during the initial viewings suggest that event boundaries function much like the onset of a new picture during static picture presentation: Viewers initiate an ambient processing phase and then progress to focal viewing as the event progresses. These studies suggest that this shift in processing mode could play a role in the formation of mental representations of the current environment. PMID:27002550

  1. Brain polyphosphoinositide metabolism during focal ischemia in rat cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, T.N.; Liu, T.H.; Xu, J.; Hsu, C.Y.; Sun, G.Y. )

    1991-04-01

    Using a rat model of stroke, we examined the effects of focal cerebral ischemia on the metabolism of polyphosphoinositides by injecting {sup 32}Pi into both the left and right cortices. After equilibration of the label for 2-3 hours, ischemia induced a significant decrease (p less than 0.001) in the concentrations of labeled phosphatidyl 4,5-bisphosphates (66-78%) and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (64-67%) in the right middle cerebral artery cortex of four rats. The phospholipid labeling pattern in the left middle cerebral artery cortex, which sustained only mild ischemia and no permanent tissue damage, was not different from that of two sham-operated controls. However, when {sup 32}Pi was injected 1 hour after the ischemic insult, there was a significant decrease (p less than 0.01) in the incorporation of label into the phospholipids in both cortices of four ischemic rats compared with four sham-operated controls. Furthermore, differences in the phospholipid labeling pattern were observed in the left cortex compared with the sham-operated controls. The change in labeling pattern was attributed to the partial reduction in blood flow following ligation of the common carotid arteries. We provide a sensitive procedure for probing the effects of focal cerebral ischemia on the polyphosphoinositide signaling pathway in the brain, which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of tissue injury.

  2. Changes in Neurofilament and Microtubule Distribution following Focal Axon Compression

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Adam J.; Hogan, James D.; Rajbhandari, Labchan; Shrestha, Shiva; Venkatesan, Arun; Ramesh, K. T.

    2015-01-01

    Although a number of cytoskeletal derangements have been described in the setting of traumatic axonal injury (TAI), little is known of early structural changes that may serve to initiate a cascade of further axonal degeneration. Recent work by the authors has examined conformational changes in cytoskeletal constituents of neuronal axons undergoing traumatic axonal injury (TAI) following focal compression through confocal imaging data taken in vitro and in situ. The present study uses electron microscopy to understand and quantify in vitro alterations in the ultrastructural composition of microtubules and neurofilaments within neuronal axons of rats following focal compression. Standard transmission electron microscopy processing methods are used to identify microtubules, while neurofilament identification is performed using antibody labeling through gold nanoparticles. The number, density, and spacing of microtubules and neurofilaments are quantified for specimens in sham Control and Crushed groups with fixation at <1min following load. Our results indicate that the axon caliber dependency known to exist for microtubule and neurofilament metrics extends to axons undergoing TAI, with the exception of neurofilament spacing, which appears to remain constant across all Crushed axon diameters. Confidence interval comparisons between Control and Crushed cytoskeletal measures suggests early changes in the neurofilament spatial distributions within axons undergoing TAI may precede microtubule changes in response to applied loads. This may serve as a trigger for further secondary damage to the axon, representing a key insight into the temporal aspects of cytoskeletal degeneration at the component level, and suggests the rapid removal of neurofilament sidearms as one possible mechanism. PMID:26111004

  3. Abnormal sensorimotor processing in pianists with focal dystonia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Vanessa K; Bradshaw, John L; Nicholls, Michael E; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2004-01-01

    Focal dystonia is a task-specific sensorimotor disorder that is characterized by sustained muscle contractions, which may cause twisting, repetitive movements, or abnormal postures. In the current study, the contingent negative variation was recorded in a group of professional pianists with focal dystonia (musicians' cramp) and compared to pianist controls. The CNV is composed of an early stimulus processing component and a later response preparation component. The CNV can be elicited in tasks that require movement and nonmovement. A subtractive analysis with a nonmovement condition was used to minimize effects of the CNV not related to response preparation. The current results revealed no group differences for the early CNV (processing of stimulus properties). In contrast, a significant group difference was found in the late CNV (movement preparation) between patients and controls, with the patients showing significantly higher activation prior to movement. The current study demonstrates an increase in overall sensorimotor activity prior to movement in patients with musicians' cramp. This overexcitation of the cortex may be the result of a dysfunction in the globus pallidus, resulting in a lack of inhibition and/or an increase in excitation.

  4. Integrin activation and focal complex formation in cardiac hypertrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laser, M.; Willey, C. D.; Jiang, W.; Cooper, G. 4th; Menick, D. R.; Zile, M. R.; Kuppuswamy, D.

    2000-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by both remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and hypertrophic growth of the cardiocytes. Here we show increased expression and cytoskeletal association of the ECM proteins fibronectin and vitronectin in pressure-overloaded feline myocardium. These changes are accompanied by cytoskeletal binding and phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) at Tyr-397 and Tyr-925, c-Src at Tyr-416, recruitment of the adapter proteins p130(Cas), Shc, and Nck, and activation of the extracellular-regulated kinases ERK1/2. A synthetic peptide containing the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif of fibronectin and vitronectin was used to stimulate adult feline cardiomyocytes cultured on laminin or within a type-I collagen matrix. Whereas cardiocytes under both conditions showed RGD-stimulated ERK1/2 activation, only collagen-embedded cells exhibited cytoskeletal assembly of FAK, c-Src, Nck, and Shc. In RGD-stimulated collagen-embedded cells, FAK was phosphorylated only at Tyr-397 and c-Src association occurred without Tyr-416 phosphorylation and p130(Cas) association. Therefore, c-Src activation is not required for its cytoskeletal binding but may be important for additional phosphorylation of FAK. Overall, our study suggests that multiple signaling pathways originate in pressure-overloaded heart following integrin engagement with ECM proteins, including focal complex formation and ERK1/2 activation, and many of these pathways can be activated in cardiomyocytes via RGD-stimulated integrin activation.

  5. Application of cooled IR focal plane arrays in thermographic cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollheim, B.; Gaertner, M.; Dammass, G.; Krausz, M.

    2016-05-01

    The usage of cooled IR Focal Plane Array detectors in thermographic or radiometric thermal imaging cameras, respectively, leads to special demands on these detectors, which are discussed in this paper. For a radiometric calibration of wide temperature measuring ranges from -40 up to 2,000 °C, a linear and time-stable response of the photodiode array has to be ensured for low as well as high radiation intensities. The maximum detectable photon flux is limited by the allowed shift of the photodiode's bias that should remain in the linear part of the photodiode's I(V) curve even for the highest photocurrent. This limits the measurable highest object temperature in practice earlier than the minimum possible integration time. Higher temperature measuring ranges are realized by means of neutral or spectral filters. Defense and Security applications normally provide images at the given ambient temperature with small hot spots. The usage of radiometric thermal imagers for thermography often feature larger objects with a high temperature contrast to the background. This should not generate artifacts in the image, like pixel patterns or stripes. Further issues concern the clock regime or the sub-frame capabilities of the Read-Out-Circuit and the frame rate dependency of the signal. We will briefly describe the demands on the lens design for thermal imaging cameras when using cooled IR Focal Plane Array detectors with large apertures.

  6. Curved Focal Plane Wide Field of View Telescope Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayson, Timothy P.

    2002-12-01

    Ground-based surveillance of deep space has traditionally been the purview of optical telescope systems. Unlike their imaging counterparts, space surveillance telescopes emphasize wide field of view (FOV) over resolution, permitted the most rapid survey of the entire sky. At the same time there is a constant push to detect ever fainter objects, such as small pieces of space debris or small, distant asteroids. Unfortunately increased sensitivity requires very large aperture diameters, which when combined with the requirement for wide FOV results in very fast f/# telescopes. How far this set of requirements can be expanded is typically limited by large, complex, and costly corrector optics to flatten the wavefront. An alternative approach is to design the telescope to a curved focal plane. This is an approach that was once taken with film, but it has not been feasible with electronic focal plane arrays (FPA). A major break-through in FPA design may open up a new range of telescope design options. A new array fabrication technique now provides the ability to produce FPAs with a specified degree of curvature while preserving required electro-optical characteristics. This paper presents a design for a new space surveillance telescope utilizing these curved FPAs.

  7. Intracranial Cortical Calcifications in a Focal Epilepsy Patient with Pseudohypoparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ye Sel; Park, Jihyung; Park, Yoonkyung; Hwang, KyoungJin; Koo, Dae Lim; Kim, Daeyoung; Seo, Dae-Won

    2016-06-01

    Patients with chronic parathyroid dysfunction often have intracranial calcification in deep gray matter (GM) and subcortical white matter (WM) of their brain. Some of them are also epilepsy patients. Although cortical etiologies are main cause of epileptic seizure, cortical calcification has not been reported in these patients. We report a newly diagnosed focal epilepsy patient whose brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed intracranial calcifications in cortical as well as subcortical areas. Blood lab revealed that he had hypocalcemia due to pseudohypoparathyroidism. Video EEG monitoring revealed the ictal EEG mainly consist of polymorphic delta to theta waves with maximum at right temporal area followed by background attenuation and muscle artifacts. The interictal EEG showed multiple focal spike-wave discharges. After given oral calcium and calcitriol supplement, his calcium and phosphorous level normalized and he remains seizure free. This is the first case to show cortical calcification in a patient with pseudohypoparathyroidism. Cortical calcification could be an important measure of seizure burden in these patients and thus sophisticated imaging protocols should be used to visualize the extent of calcium deposits. PMID:27390678

  8. Infrared focal plane array modeling for aerospace and automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Alain; de Borniol, Eric; Guerineau, Nicolas; Cathala, Thierry; Yon, Jean-Jacques; Ouvrier-Buffet, Jean-Louis; Castelein, Pierre; Tronel, Robert; Bisotto, Sylvette; Destefanis, Gerard L.; Chamonal, Jean-Paul

    2004-08-01

    To simulate an Enhanced Vision System (EVS), CEA/LETI Infrared Laboratory has developed two behavioural models of infrared focal plane arrays : one in the Short Wave IR and the other in the Long Wave IR band. These Infrared Focal Plane Arrays (IRFPAs) models will be implemented on simulation platform aimed at evaluating the impact and use of infrared sensors in automotive and aeronautic applications. To be realistic, model parameters are extracted from electro-optical characterization of real components. The SWIR detector is calibrated with a 320x256 HgCdTe cooled FPA component from SOFRADIR, and the LWIR one with an uncooled micro-bolometer array from ULIS (a_Si technology from LETI). The flexibility of the models allows to simulate cameras based on these components and to forecast future ones based on different read-out circuit or detector technologies. In this paper we present the IRFPAs models, the main electro-optical characterization results and we compare some experimental measurements with simulations.

  9. Focal gap junction uncoupling and spontaneous ventricular ectopy.

    PubMed

    Gutstein, David E; Danik, Stephan B; Lewitton, Steve; France, David; Liu, Fangyu; Chen, Franklin L; Zhang, Jie; Ghodsi, Newsha; Morley, Gregory E; Fishman, Glenn I

    2005-09-01

    Genetic studies in the mouse have demonstrated that conditional cardiac-restricted loss of connexin43 (Cx43), the major ventricular gap junction protein, is highly arrhythmogenic. However, whether more focal gap junction remodeling, as is commonly seen in acquired cardiomyopathies, influences the propensity for arrhythmogenesis is not known. We examined electrophysiological properties and the frequency of spontaneous and inducible arrhythmias in genetically engineered chimeric mice derived from injection of Cx43-deficient embryonic stem cells into wild-type recipient blastocysts. Chimeric mice had numerous well-circumscribed microscopic Cx43-negative foci in their hearts, comprising approximately 15% of the total surface area as determined by immunohistochemical analysis. Systolic function in the chimeric mice was significantly depressed as measured echocardiographically (19.0% decline in fractional shortening compared with controls, P < 0.05) and by invasive hemodynamics (17.6% reduction in change of pressure over time, P < 0.01). Chimeras had significantly more spontaneous arrhythmic events than controls (P < 0.01), including frequent runs of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia in some of the chimeric mice. However, in contrast to mice with conditional cardiac-resricted loss of Cx43 in the heart, no sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias were observed. We conclude that focal areas of uncoupling in the myocardium increase the likelihood of arrhythmic triggers, but more widespread uncoupling is required to support sustained arrhythmias. PMID:15894579

  10. Focal gap junction uncoupling and spontaneous ventricular ectopy

    PubMed Central

    Gutstein, David E.; Danik, Stephan B.; Lewitton, Steve; France, David; Liu, Fangyu; Chen, Franklin L.; Zhang, Jie; Ghodsi, Newsha; Morley, Gregory E.; Fishman, Glenn I.

    2009-01-01

    Genetic studies in the mouse have demonstrated that conditional cardiac-restricted loss of connexin43 (Cx43), the major ventricular gap junction protein, is highly arrhythmogenic. However, whether more focal gap junction remodeling, as is commonly seen in acquired cardiomyopathies, influences the propensity for arrhythmogenesis is not known. We examined electrophysiological properties and the frequency of spontaneous and inducible arrhythmias in genetically engineered chimeric mice derived from injection of Cx43-deficient embryonic stem cells into wild-type recipient blastocysts. Chimeric mice had numerous well-circumscribed microscopic Cx43-negative foci in their hearts, comprising ~15% of the total surface area as determined by immunohistochemical analysis. Systolic function in the chimeric mice was significantly depressed as measured echocardiographically (19.0% decline in fractional shortening compared with controls, P < 0.05) and by invasive hemodynamics (17.6% reduction in change of pressure over time, P < 0.01). Chimeras had significantly more spontaneous arrhythmic events than controls (P < 0.01), including frequent runs of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia in some of the chimeric mice. However, in contrast to mice with conditional cardiac-resticted loss of Cx43 in the heart, no sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias were observed. We conclude that focal areas of uncoupling in the myocardium increase the likelihood of arrhythmic triggers, but more widespread uncoupling is required to support sustained arrhythmias. PMID:15894579

  11. Focal accumulation of defences at sites of fungal pathogen attack

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, William; Somerville, Shauna C.

    2008-01-01

    Plants resist attack by haustorium-forming biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic fungi through fortification of the cell wall to prevent penetration through the wall and the subsequent establishment of haustorial feeding structures by the fungus. While the existence of cell wall-based defences has been known for many years, only recently have the molecular components contributing to such defences been identified. Forward genetic screens identified Arabidopsis mutants impaired in penetration resistance to powdery mildew fungi that were normally halted at the cell wall. Several loci contributing to penetration resistance have been identified and a common feature is the striking focal accumulation of proteins associated with penetration resistance at sites of interaction with fungal appressoria and penetration pegs. The focal accumulation of defence-related proteins and the deposition of cell wall reinforcements at sites of attempted fungal penetration represent an example of cell polarization and raise many questions of relevance, not only to plant pathology but also to general cell biology. PMID:18703493

  12. Focal liver lesions: Practical magnetic resonance imaging approach

    PubMed Central

    Matos, António P; Velloni, Fernanda; Ramalho, Miguel; AlObaidy, Mamdoh; Rajapaksha, Aruna; Semelka, Richard C

    2015-01-01

    With the widespread of cross-sectional imaging, a growth of incidentally detected focal liver lesions (FLL) has been observed. A reliable detection and characterization of FLL is critical for optimal patient management. Maximizing accuracy of imaging in the context of FLL is paramount in avoiding unnecessary biopsies, which may result in post-procedural complications. A tremendous development of new imaging techniques has taken place during these last years. Nowadays, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in management of liver lesions, using a radiation-free technique and a safe contrast agent profile. MRI plays a key role in the non-invasive correct characterization of FLL. MRI is capable of providing comprehensive and highly accurate diagnostic information, with the additional advantage of lack of harmful ionizing radiation. These properties make MRI the mainstay for the noninvasive evaluation of focal liver lesions. In this paper we review the state-of-the-art MRI liver protocol, briefly discussing different sequence types, the unique characteristics of imaging non-cooperative patients and discuss the role of hepatocyte-specific contrast agents. A review of the imaging features of the most common benign and malignant FLL is presented, supplemented by a schematic representation of a simplistic practical approach on MRI. PMID:26261689

  13. Intracranial Cortical Calcifications in a Focal Epilepsy Patient with Pseudohypoparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ye Sel; Park, Jihyung; Park, Yoonkyung; Hwang, KyoungJin; Koo, Dae Lim; Kim, Daeyoung; Seo, Dae-Won

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic parathyroid dysfunction often have intracranial calcification in deep gray matter (GM) and subcortical white matter (WM) of their brain. Some of them are also epilepsy patients. Although cortical etiologies are main cause of epileptic seizure, cortical calcification has not been reported in these patients. We report a newly diagnosed focal epilepsy patient whose brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed intracranial calcifications in cortical as well as subcortical areas. Blood lab revealed that he had hypocalcemia due to pseudohypoparathyroidism. Video EEG monitoring revealed the ictal EEG mainly consist of polymorphic delta to theta waves with maximum at right temporal area followed by background attenuation and muscle artifacts. The interictal EEG showed multiple focal spike-wave discharges. After given oral calcium and calcitriol supplement, his calcium and phosphorous level normalized and he remains seizure free. This is the first case to show cortical calcification in a patient with pseudohypoparathyroidism. Cortical calcification could be an important measure of seizure burden in these patients and thus sophisticated imaging protocols should be used to visualize the extent of calcium deposits. PMID:27390678

  14. Radiometric infrared focal plane array imaging system for thermographic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, B. J.; Mccafferty, N.; Brown, R.; Tower, J. R.; Kosonocky, W. F.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes research performed under the Radiometric Infrared Focal Plane Array Imaging System for Thermographic Applications contract. This research investigated the feasibility of using platinum silicide (PtSi) Schottky-barrier infrared focal plane arrays (IR FPAs) for NASA Langley's specific radiometric thermal imaging requirements. The initial goal of this design was to develop a high spatial resolution radiometer with an NETD of 1 percent of the temperature reading over the range of 0 to 250 C. The proposed camera design developed during this study and described in this report provides: (1) high spatial resolution (full-TV resolution); (2) high thermal dynamic range (0 to 250 C); (3) the ability to image rapid, large thermal transients utilizing electronic exposure control (commandable dynamic range of 2,500,000:1 with exposure control latency of 33 ms); (4) high uniformity (0.5 percent nonuniformity after correction); and (5) high thermal resolution (0.1 C at 25 C background and 0.5 C at 250 C background).

  15. Unusual focal keratin expression in plexiform angiomyxoid myofibroblastic tumor

    PubMed Central

    Quero, Giuseppe; Musarra, Teresa; Carrato, Alfredo; Fici, Michelangelo; Martini, Maurizio; Dei Tos, Angelo Paolo; Alfieri, Sergio; Ricci, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Plexiform angiomyxoid myofibroblastic tumor (PAMT), also known as plexiform fibromyxoma, is a rare distinctive benign intramural tumor, typical of gastric antrum, commonly causing mucosal ulceration with upper gastrointestinal bleeding and anemia, effectively treated by complete surgical resection usually accomplished by distal gastrectomy. Methods and Results: We herein report a 47-year-old man presenting with a syncopal episode, regurgitation and epigastric discomfort, bearing a gastric antral myxoid plexiform tumor positive for α-smooth muscle actin, vimentin and, partially, for caldesmon, desmin, and CD10; CD117, DOG1, CD34, S100, CAM5.2, CK20, CK7, EMA, p53, CDX2, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, anaplastic lymphoma kinase, Melan-A, and HMB-45 were all negative. All these features are typical of PAMT. Of note, focal positivity for AE1/AE3 and pan-CK KL1 was also present. Conclusions: The finding of a focal keratin expression in PAMT contributes to enlarge the immunophenotypic spectrum of this tumor type and is relevant for avoiding presurgical misdiagnoses which could ultimately lead to inappropriate overtreatment of patients with PAMT. PMID:27428222

  16. RFTS-deleted DNMT1 enhances tumorigenicity with focal hypermethylation and global hypomethylation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bo-Kuan; Mei, Szu-Chieh; Brenner, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Site-specific hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes accompanied by genome-wide hypomethylation are epigenetic hallmarks of malignancy. However, the molecular mechanisms that drive these linked changes in DNA methylation remain obscure. DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), the principle enzyme responsible for maintaining methylation patterns is commonly dysregulated in tumors. Replication foci targeting sequence (RFTS) is an N-terminal domain of DNMT1 that inhibits DNA-binding and catalytic activity, suggesting that RFTS deletion would result in a gain of DNMT1 function. However, a substantial body of data suggested that RFTS is required for DNMT1 activity. Here, we demonstrate that deletion of RFTS alters DNMT1-dependent DNA methylation during malignant transformation. Compared to full-length DNMT1, ectopic expression of hyperactive DNMT1-ΔRFTS caused greater malignant transformation and enhanced promoter methylation with condensed chromatin structure that silenced DAPK and DUOX1 expression. Simultaneously, deletion of RFTS impaired DNMT1 chromatin association with pericentromeric Satellite 2 (SAT2) repeat sequences and produced DNA demethylation at SAT2 repeats and globally. To our knowledge, RFTS-deleted DNMT1 is the first single factor that can reprogram focal hypermethylation and global hypomethylation in parallel during malignant transformation. Our evidence suggests that the RFTS domain of DNMT1 is a target responsible for epigenetic changes in cancer. PMID:25485502

  17. RFTS-deleted DNMT1 enhances tumorigenicity with focal hypermethylation and global hypomethylation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bo-Kuan; Mei, Szu-Chieh; Brenner, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Site-specific hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes accompanied by genome-wide hypomethylation are epigenetic hallmarks of malignancy. However, the molecular mechanisms that drive these linked changes in DNA methylation remain obscure. DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), the principle enzyme responsible for maintaining methylation patterns is commonly dysregulated in tumors. Replication foci targeting sequence (RFTS) is an N-terminal domain of DNMT1 that inhibits DNA-binding and catalytic activity, suggesting that RFTS deletion would result in a gain of DNMT1 function. However, a substantial body of data suggested that RFTS is required for DNMT1 activity. Here, we demonstrate that deletion of RFTS alters DNMT1-dependent DNA methylation during malignant transformation. Compared to full-length DNMT1, ectopic expression of hyperactive DNMT1-ΔRFTS caused greater malignant transformation and enhanced promoter methylation with condensed chromatin structure that silenced DAPK and DUOX1 expression. Simultaneously, deletion of RFTS impaired DNMT1 chromatin association with pericentromeric Satellite 2 (SAT2) repeat sequences and produced DNA demethylation at SAT2 repeats and globally. To our knowledge, RFTS-deleted DNMT1 is the first single factor that can reprogram focal hypermethylation and global hypomethylation in parallel during malignant transformation. Our evidence suggests that the RFTS domain of DNMT1 is a target responsible for epigenetic changes in cancer.

  18. Determining the relationship between sleep architecture, seizure variables and memory in patients with focal epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Miller, Laurie A; Ricci, Monica; van Schalkwijk, Frank J; Mohamed, Armin; van der Werf, Ysbrand D

    2016-06-01

    Sleep has been shown to be important to memory. Both sleep and memory have been found to be abnormal in patients with epilepsy. In this study, we explored the effects that nocturnal epileptiform discharges and the presence of a hippocampal lesion have on sleep patterns and memory. Twenty-five patients with focal epilepsy who underwent a 24-hr ambulatory EEG also completed the Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ). The EEG record was scored for length of time spent in the various sleep stages, time spent awake after sleep onset, and rapid eye movement (REM) latency. Of these sleep variables, only REM latency differed when the epilepsy patients were divided on the bases of either presence/absence of nocturnal discharges or presence/absence of a hippocampal lesion. In both cases, presence of the abnormality was associated with longer latency. Furthermore, longer REM latency was found to be a better predictor of EMQ score than either number of discharges or presence of a hippocampal lesion. Longer REM latency was associated with a smaller percentage of time spent in slow-wave sleep in the early part of the night and may serve as a particularly sensitive marker to disturbances in sleep architecture. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26854742

  19. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service...

  20. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service...

  1. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service...

  2. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service...

  3. 7 CFR 51.610 - Midrib length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Midrib length. 51.610 Section 51.610 Agriculture... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.610 Midrib length. Midrib length of a branch means the distance between the point of attachment to the root and the first node....

  4. 7 CFR 51.610 - Midrib length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Midrib length. 51.610 Section 51.610 Agriculture... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.610 Midrib length. Midrib length of a branch means the distance between the point of attachment to the root and the first node....

  5. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b)...

  6. Friction coefficient of faults inferred from earthquake focal mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viganò, Alfio; Ranalli, Giorgio; Andreis, Daniele; Martin, Silvana; Rigon, Riccardo

    2013-04-01

    In earthquake mechanics and structural geology the static friction coefficient is usually assumed to have the laboratory value (μ = 0.6-0.8) according to the Coulomb-Byerlee's law. Estimates from deep boreholes and/or natural faults generally confirm this hypothesis but in some cases friction coefficients can be significantly lower, suggesting the existence of weak faults able to be activated by lower effective stress than theoretically expected. We apply a modified version of the method proposed by Yin and Ranalli (1995, Journal of Structural Geology, vol. 17, pp. 1327-1335), where the average friction coefficient of a set of n faults is estimated. This method is based on minimization of the sum of squares of the misfit ratios, where the misfit ratio of each fault is given dividing the misfit stress difference (i.e. the misfit between normalized stress difference and average normalized stress difference) by the average normalized stress difference. The normalized stress difference is defined as the critical stress difference divided by the effective overburden pressure, while the average stress difference is obtained considering the entire fault dataset. Input data are (i) the orientation of faults, (ii) the stress field orientation, and (iii) the stress ratio. The latter two must be independently estimated. A uniform stress field and a similar normalized critical stress difference for the fault dataset are assumed. The procedure has been extended to apply to fault plane solutions by considering both nodal planes of a set of n focal mechanisms and estimating the range of acceptable average friction coefficients from all possible combination of planes (2n number of combinations). The amount of calculation can be considerably reduced if independent information makes it possible to select which one of the nodal planes of each focal mechanism is the true fault plane (for example when aftershocks delineate the fault geometry at depth), resulting in only n combinations

  7. [Neuropsychological development in children with focal brain injury].

    PubMed

    Masi, G; Marcheschi, M; Brovedani, P; Pfanner, P

    1993-06-01

    The study of children with focal brain injury has important implications from a clinical and theoretical perspective. Clinical data on children with congenital or early acquired lesions indicates that the cognitive sequelae are different from those resulting from similar damage sustained in adulthood. These differences depend in part on the differential effect that damage has on ongoing developmental process and in part on the different recovery capacity of the Central Nervous System of the child. From a theoretical perspective, focal lesion data is important for analyzing the issues of early neuropsychological functioning (especially in terms of early hemispheric specialization) and of plasticity and recovery of function of the CNS. This review analyzes the possible causes of this heterogeneity, that seems in part dependent on the interindividual variability of early neuropsychological organization and in part related to methodological factors such subject inclusion criteria and nature of neuropsychological measures. The review also discusses the role during development of the principal inter and intrahemispheric recovery mechanisms (special attention is given to intrahemispheric mechanisms which have been considered in the past as less determinant with respect to interhemispheric mechanisms). Furthermore, the role of lesion side as a prognostic parameter is discussed, specifically in terms of the evidence of a differential recovery capacity of left hemisphere with respect to the right. Various hypotheses have been put forward as possible interpretations of these data (maturational gradient, different neuropsychological organization of the two hemispheres), yet evidence is still controversial. If one considers the prognostic parameter--age of lesion onset--recent evidence does not confirm the hypothesis that the earlier the lesion, the greatest the recovery of function. Rather, it seems that relating age of lesion onset to other parameters, such as lesion side or

  8. Mid-Wave and Long-Wave Infrared Dualband Megapixel QWIP Focal Plane Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Mumolo, J. M.; Hill, C. J.; Ting, D. Z.; Kurth, E.; Woolaway, J.; LeVan, P. D.; Tidrow, M. Z.

    2008-01-01

    Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024x1024 pixel InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs based quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes and a 320x256 pixel dual-band pixel co-registered simultaneous QWIP focal plane array have been demonstrated as pathfinders. In this paper, we discuss the development of 1024x1024 MWIR/LWIR dual-band pixel co-registered simultaneous QWIP focal plane array.

  9. Induction of focal adhesions and motility in Drosophila S2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Susana A; D'Ambrosio, Michael V; Vale, Ronald D

    2014-12-01

    Focal adhesions are dynamic structures that interact with the extracellular matrix on the cell exterior and actin filaments on the cell interior, enabling cells to adhere and crawl along surfaces. We describe a system for inducing the formation of focal adhesions in normally non-ECM-adherent, nonmotile Drosophila S2 cells. These focal adhesions contain the expected molecular markers such as talin, vinculin, and p130Cas, and they require talin for their formation. The S2 cells with induced focal adhesions also display a nonpolarized form of motility on vitronectin-coated substrates. Consistent with findings in mammalian cells, the degree of motility can be tuned by changing the stiffness of the substrate and was increased after the depletion of PAK3, a p21-activated kinase. A subset of nonmotile, nonpolarized cells also exhibited focal adhesions that rapidly assembled and disassembled around the cell perimeter. Such cooperative and dynamic fluctuations of focal adhesions were decreased by RNA interference (RNAi) depletion of myosin II and focal adhesion kinase, suggesting that this behavior requires force and focal adhesion maturation. These results demonstrate that S2 cells, a cell line that is well studied for cytoskeletal dynamics and readily amenable to protein manipulation by RNAi, can be used to study the assembly and dynamics of focal adhesions and mechanosensitive cell motility.

  10. Future directions in focal-plane signal processing for space-borne scientific imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossum, Eric R.

    1991-11-01

    The potential of focal-plane signal processing for space-borne scientific imagers is discussed. Significant improvement in image quality and consequent scientific return may be enabled through the utilization of focal-plane signal processing techniques. The possible application of focal-plane signal processing to readout noise reduction, cosmic ray circumvention, non-uniformity correction, and throughput enhancement is described. On-focal-plane analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion and micromotion stabilization are also discussed. It is the intention of this paper to stimulate further thought and efforts in this field.

  11. Calculation of focal positions in an optical head using a four-beam laser diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinoda, Masahisa; Kime, Kenjiro

    1998-10-01

    Calculation method for focal positions in a multi-beam optical head using a multi-beam laser diode is introduced. In this calculation model, focal positions were so calculated that a light source of each laser beam with a specific source height and an astigmatic difference was imaged by optical lenses and a beam shaping prism. Calculated results show that four focal positions are located each other with defocus along the optical axis due to the curvature of field of lenses. Astigmatic differences in focal spots caused by the laser diode characteristics can be decreased by almost zero with a displacement of a collimator lens along the optical axis.

  12. Experimental realization of a metamaterial detector focal plane array.

    PubMed

    Shrekenhamer, David; Xu, Wangren; Venkatesh, Suresh; Schurig, David; Sonkusale, Sameer; Padilla, Willie J

    2012-10-26

    We present a metamaterial absorber detector array that enables room-temperature, narrow-band detection of gigahertz (GHz) radiation in the S band (2-4 GHz). The system is implemented in a commercial printed circuit board process and we characterize the detector sensitivity and angular dependence. A modified metamaterial absorber geometry allows for each unit cell to act as an isolated detector pixel and to collectively form a focal plane array . Each pixel can have a dedicated microwave receiver chain and functions together as a hybrid device tuned to maximize the efficiency of detected power. The demonstrated subwavelength pixel shows detected sensitivity of -77 dBm, corresponding to a radiation power density of 27 nW/m(2), with pixel to pixel coupling interference below -14 dB at 2.5 GHz.

  13. Calibration methods for division-of-focal-plane polarimeters.

    PubMed

    Powell, S Bear; Gruev, Viktor

    2013-09-01

    Division-of-focal plane (DoFP) imaging polarimeters are useful instruments for measuring polarization information for a variety of applications. Recent advances in nanofabrication have enabled the practical manufacture of DoFP sensors for the visible spectrum. These sensors are made by integrating nanowire polarization filters directly with an imaging array, and size variations of the nanowires due to fabrication can cause the optical properties of the filters to vary up to 20% across the imaging array. If left unchecked, these variations introduce significant errors when reconstructing the polarization image. Calibration methods offer a means to correct these errors. This work evaluates a scalar and matrix calibration derived from a mathematical model of the polarimeter behavior. The methods are evaluated quantitatively with an existing DoFP polarimeter under varying illumination intensity and angle of linear polarization. PMID:24103976

  14. Uniformity compensation for high-quantum-efficiency focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horman, Stephen R.; Zurasky, Matthew W.; Talamonti, James J.; Hepfer, Kenneth C.

    1997-08-01

    NSWCDD has developed a new nonuniformity correction (NUC) technique that has been demonstrated to significantly reduce both fixed pattern and temporal noise in sensors using high quantum efficiency (QE) infrared (IR) staring focal plane arrays (FPA). Sensors using this technique have been shown to have good response in every pixel, i.e., there are no dead or anomalously noisy pixels anywhere in the field of view (FOV). This technique will also enable development of sensors with very small apertures as well as those which can dynamically trade off sensitivity, resolution and frame rate. In addition, effective yield of detector production will be enhanced, since these benefits can be obtained using arrays that would be rejected for most applications, were conventional NUC used. This technique has been demonstrated to work as specified through analysis of real time data. A high performance, concept demonstration sensor, is in the final stages of acceptance testing, with delivery planned for April 1997.

  15. Fixed Pattern Noise Compensation Techniques For Staring Infrared Focal Planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrison, C. L.; Foss, N. A.

    1980-10-01

    To utilize the full performance advantages of staring infrared imaging systems currently under development, it is necessary to compensate for the characteristic fixed pattern "noise" which is present at the output from these infrared focal planes. Since many of the applications for staring sensor systems require low power dissipation configurations, it is necessary to develop automatic nonuniformity compensation electronics which have much lower power dissipation requirements than conventional digital compensation techniques. This paper discusses the sources of the nonuniformities and describes the typical characteristics of elevated temperature staring arrays. An analysis is given which shows how detector/charge-coupled device electrical coupling techniques strongly influence the compensation implementation, and finally a review of circuit configurations for the compensation function will be given which shows that very low power dissipation circuitry can be developed which meets the performance power dissipation requirements.

  16. Uniformity compensation for high-quantum-efficiency focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horman, Stephen R.; Hepfer, Kenneth C.; Zurasky, Matthew W.

    1996-06-01

    NSWCDD has developed a new nonuniformity correction (NUC) technique that promises to significantly reduce both fixed pattern and temporal noise in sensors using high quantum efficiency (QE) infrared (IR) staring focal plane arrays (FPA). Sensors using this technique will also have good response in every pixel. There will be no dead or anomalously noisy pixels anywhere in the field of view (FOV). This technique will also enable development of sensors with very small apertures as well as those which can dynamically trade off sensitivity, resolution and frame rate. In addition, effective yield of detector production will be enhanced, since these benefits can be obtained using arrays that would be rejected for most applications, were conventional NUC used. This technique has been demonstrated to work as claimed through non-real time post-processing of field data. A high performance, concept demonstration sensor, is being developed, with delivery planned for August 1996.

  17. Thrombin exacerbates brain edema in focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Hua, Y; Wu, J; Keep, R F; Hoff, J T; Xi, G

    2003-01-01

    Thrombin contributes to edema formation after intracerebral hemorrhage. Recent studies suggest that thrombin may also play a role in ischemic brain damage. In the present study, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital. Middle cerebral artery (MCA) was occluded using the suture method. We found that brain thrombin activity was elevated after permanent MCA occlusion as was prothrombin messenger RNA expression. Intracerebral injection of a thrombin inhibitor, hirudin, reduced neurological deficits following cerebral ischemia. In contrast, intracerebral administration of exogenous thrombin (at a dose that is non-toxic to normal brain), markedly exacerbated brain edema after transient focal cerebral ischemia. These results indicate that extravascular thrombin inhibition may be a new therapeutic target for cerebral ischemia.

  18. Probing anterior segment kinetics with focally applied mydriatics.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, H J; Lustgarten, M

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of convectional flow and anterior segment configuration on drug kinetics. Mydriatics were applied focally at the limbus in order to produce sector dilation of the pupil. Subjects were tested with either tropicamide or phenylephrine, applied at the superior, temporal, inferior, or nasal limbus (or as a conventional drop). Changes in pupil form were analyzed by means of photography, digitization, and circular Fourier series representation. Both tropicamide and phenylephrine were found to produce sector dilation; however, phenylephrine was approximately twice as effective. Applications at the superior limbus were significantly less effective than applications at the inferior limbus. The results are interpreted in terms of anterior segment convectional flow, which is believed to play a substantial role in pharmacokinetics of the anterior segment. PMID:11765151

  19. Focal para-hisian atrial tachycardia with dual exits

    PubMed Central

    Lawrance Jesuraj, M.; Sharada, K.; Sridevi, C.; Narasimhan, C.

    2013-01-01

    Focal atrial tachycardias (AT) in the right atrium (RA) tend to cluster around the crista terminalis, coronary sinus (CS) region, tricuspid annulus, and para-hisian region. In most cases, the AT focus can be identified by careful activation mapping, and completely eliminated by radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation. However, RF ablation near the His bundle (HB) carries a risk of inadvertent damage to the atrioventricular (AV) conduction system. Here we describe a patient with an AT originating in the vicinity of the AV node, which was successfully ablated earlier from non-coronary aortic cusp (NCC), and recurred with an exit from para-hisian location. Respiratory excursions of the catheter were associated with migration to the area of HIs. This was successfully ablated during controlled apnoea, using 3D electroanatomic mapping. PMID:23993015

  20. Optical design of the Post Focal Relay of MAORY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombini, M.; Diolaiti, E.

    The Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics Relay (MAORY) for the European Extremely Large Telescope shall re-image the telescope focal plane for the client instruments installed on two exit ports. By means of natural and artificial (laser) reference sources for wavefront sensing, and of deformable mirrors for wavefront correction, MAORY shall be able to compensate the wavefront disturbances affecting the scientific observations, achieving high Strehl ratio and high sky coverage. The optical interfaces to the client instruments must replicate the telescope one while the volume allocation on the Nasmyth platform is under definition at the moment of this writing. We show the latest version of the optical design that matches the current requests and its optical performance. The laser guide stars channel, separated from the science path by means of a dichroic beam-splitter, is also presented.

  1. MEG-based imaging of focal neuronal current sources.

    PubMed

    Phillips, J W; Leahy, R M; Mosher, J C

    1997-06-01

    We describe a new approach to imaging neural current sources from measurements of the magnetoencephalogram (MEG) associated with sensory, motor, or cognitive brain activation. Many previous approaches to this problem have concentrated on the use of weighted minimum norm (WMN) inverse methods. While these methods ensure a unique solution, they do not introduce information specific to the MEG inverse problem, often producing overly smoothed solutions and exhibiting severe sensitivity to noise. We describe a Bayesian formulation of the inverse problem in which a Gibbs prior is constructed to reflect the sparse focal nature of neural current sources associated with evoked response data. We demonstrate the method with simulated and experimental phantom data, comparing its performance with several WMN methods.

  2. Optical-based spectral modeling of infrared focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouzali, Salima; Lefebvre, Sidonie; Rommeluère, Sylvain; Ferrec, Yann; Primot, Jérôme

    2016-07-01

    We adopt an optical approach in order to model and predict the spectral signature of an infrared focal plane array. The modeling is based on a multilayer description of the structure and considers a one-dimensional propagation. It provides a better understanding of the physical phenomena occurring within the pixels, which is useful to perform radiometric measurements, as well as to reliably predict the spectral sensitivity of the detector. An exhaustive model is presented, covering the total spectral range of the pixel response. A heuristic model is also described, depicting a complementary approach that separates the different optical phenomena inside the pixel structure. Promising results are presented, validating the models through comparison with experimental results. Finally, advantages and limitations of this approach are discussed.

  3. Characterising the Kepler Survey Completeness: First Full Focal Plane Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Jessie; Science Office, Kepler; Science Operations Center, Kepler

    2012-10-01

    The primary goal of the Kepler mission is to determine the frequency of Earth-size planets in the habitable zones of solar-like stars. The mission has published a growing catalogue of planet candidates, but there are two key attributes of the catalogue that we need to understand before we can determine the underlying planet population - the rate of false negatives (completeness) and the rate of false positives (reliability). I will discuss our efforts towards determining the completeness of the survey, in particular characterising the behaviour of the automated transit detection software. I will present results from the first characterisation of the software across the full focal plane. Kepler was selected as the 10th mission of the Discovery Program. Funding for this mission is provided by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate.

  4. Planck 2015 results. XII. Full focal plane simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Karakci, A.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Welikala, N.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-01

    We present the 8th full focal plane simulation set (FFP8), deployed in support of the Planck 2015 results. FFP8 consists of 10 fiducial mission realizations reduced to 18 144 maps, together with the most massive suite of Monte Carlo realizations of instrument noise and CMB ever generated, comprising 104 mission realizations reduced to about 106 maps. The resulting maps incorporate the dominant instrumental, scanning, and data analysis effects, and the remaining subdominant effects will be included in future updates. Generated at a cost of some 25 million CPU-hours spread across multiple high-performance-computing (HPC) platforms, FFP8 is used to validate and verify analysis algorithms and their implementations, and to remove biases from and quantify uncertainties in the results of analyses of the real data.

  5. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis recurrence in the renal allograft.

    PubMed

    Leca, Nicolae

    2014-09-01

    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) represents a common histologic pattern of glomerular injury associated with a multitude of disease mechanisms. The etiology of FSGS is often classified into primary (idiopathic) and secondary forms in response to genetic abnormalities, infections, toxins, and systemic disorders that lead to adaptive changes, glomerular hyperfiltration, and proteinuria. Our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms responsible for FSGS was substantially enhanced in recent years because of major advances in the cell biology of the podocyte and parietal epithelial cell. Recurrence of FSGS occurs mainly in its primary form and is only rarely described in secondary forms. The re-enactment of pathologic mechanisms of FSGS as recurrent disease after kidney transplantation represents a biologic experiment that can provide unique insight. Nonetheless, recurrent FSGS remains a notable clinical problem that correlates with poorer renal allograft outcomes. This is the focus of this particular review, concentrating on the most recent developments.

  6. Detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in focal epithelial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Garlick, J A; Calderon, S; Buchner, A; Mitrani-Rosenbaum, S

    1989-03-01

    Five focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) specimens from four patients were examined by Southern blot hybridization analysis to determine the specific human papillomavirus (HPV) types present. The histomorphologic features of these specimens were also evaluated and a broad variety of changes including koilocytes, mitosoid cells, ballooning cells and cells showing individual cell keratinization were noted. FEH lesions from the three patients sharing a familial relationship demonstrated HPV DNA sequences that were either the prototype HPV-13 or a very closely related HPV-13 subtype. These patients also showed similar clinical features. Lesional tissue from the other patient was found to harbor HPV DNA sequences similar to HPV-32. In view of these findings it is suggested that these specific HPV types are associated with the characteristic FEH histomorphology described.

  7. MEG-based imaging of focal neuronal current sources

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.W.; Leahy, R.M.; Mosher, J.C.

    1996-07-01

    We describe a new approach to imaging neuronal current sources from measurements of the magnetoencephalogram (MEG) associated with sensory, motor, or cognitive brain activation. Previous approaches to this problem have concentrated on the use of weighted minimum norm inverse methods. While these methods ensure a unique solution, they do not introduce information specific to the MEG inverse problem, often producing overly smoothed solutions and exhibiting severe sensitivity to noise. We describe a Bayesian formulation of the inverse problem in which a Gibbs prior is constructed to reflect the sparse focal nature of neuronal current sources associated with evoked response data. The prior involves a binary process indicating active sources and a continuous Gaussian process designating associated amplitudes. An estimate of the primary current source distribution for a specific data set is formed by maximizing over the posterior probability with respect to the binary and continuous variables.

  8. MEG-based imaging of focal neuronal current sources

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.W.; Leahy, R.M.; Mosher, J.C.

    1997-06-01

    The authors describe a new approach to imaging neural current sources from measurements of the magnetoencephalogram (MEG) associated with sensory, motor, or cognitive brain activation. Many previous approaches to this problem have concentrated on the use of weighted minimum norm (WMN) inverse methods. While these methods ensure a unique solution, they do not introduce information specific to the MEG inverse problem, often producing overly smoothed solutions and exhibiting severe sensitivity to noise. The authors describe a Bayesian formulation of the inverse problem in which a Gibbs prior is constructed to reflect the sparse focal nature of neural current sources associated with evoked response data. They demonstrate the method with simulated and experimental phantom data, comparing its performance with several WMN methods.

  9. Vision and Wide-Field Imagers with Curved Focal Planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arianpour, Ashkan

    This dissertation provides details regarding the implementation of curved-focal surface fiber coupled imaging for medical and wide-field applications. An optomechanical fluid-filled eye model with visual acuity better than 20/20 vision was design and characterized. A wearable telescopic contact lens was worn on the optomechanical eye model and the performance characterized. Measurements of the contact lens surfaces were modeled to quantify the impact of contact lens fabrication on end-result resolution. Separately, the limitations of the field of view in fiber coupled monocentric imaging are analyzed. This dissertation describes a novel technique to address this based on conformal micro-optics. The design, simulation, and fabrication of an embossed surface relief micro-prism that increases the field of view are demonstrated.

  10. Infrared focal plane detector modules for space applications at AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, Dominique; Hanna, Stefan; Thöt, Richard; Gassmann, Kai-Uwe; Haiml, Markus; Weber, Andreas; Haas, Luis-Dieter; Ziegler, Johann; Nothaft, Hans-Peter; Fick, Wolfgang

    2012-09-01

    In the framework of this paper, AIM presents the actual status of some of its currently ongoing focal plane detector module developments for space applications covering the spectral range from the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) to the long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) and very-long-wavelength infrared (VLWIR), where both imaging and spectroscopy applications will be addressed. In particular, the integrated detector cooler assemblies for a mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) push-broom imaging satellite mission, for the German hyperspectral satellite mission EnMAP will be elaborated. Additionally dedicated detector modules for LWIR/VLWIR sounding, providing the possibility to have two different PVs driven by one ROIC will be addressed.

  11. Magnetic Resonance Image-Guided Focal Prostate Ablation.

    PubMed

    Nour, Sherif G

    2016-09-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer (other than skin cancer) in American men, with one in seven men being diagnosed with this disease during his lifetime. The estimated number of new prostate cancer cases in 2016 is 180,890. For the first time, imaging has become the center of the search for contained, intraglandular, small-volume, and unifocal disease, and an increasing number of academic institutions as well as private practices are implementing programs for prostate multiplanar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as parts of their routine offerings. This article reviews the role of MRI-guided focal prostate ablation, as well as opportunities for further growth in this minimally invasive therapy of prostate cancer. PMID:27582608

  12. Focal dermal hypoplasia: ultrastructural abnormalities of the connective tissue.

    PubMed

    del Carmen Boente, María; Asial, Raúl A; Winik, Beatriz C

    2007-02-01

    We followed over 10 years three girls with focal dermal hypoplasia syndrome. The histopathological changes demonstrated at the optical level an hypoplastic dermis with thin and scarce collagen bundles and a marked diminution of elastic fibers. Mature adipose tissue was found scattered within the papillary and reticular dermis. No alterations in the basal membrane were observed by immunocytochemical or ultrastructural techniques. Ultrastructurally, in the skin-affected areas, loosely arranged collagen bundles composed of few fibrils were seen scattered in the extracellular matrix. Scarce elastic fibers of normal morphology were also observed. Fibroblasts were smaller, oval-shaped, and diminished in number with a poorly developed cytoplasm. In these fibroblasts, the most conspicuous feature was a remarkable and irregular thickening of the nuclear fibrous lamina. Taking into account that a common link between all laminopaties may be a failure of stem cells to regenerate mesenchymal tissue, this failure would induce the dermal hypoplasia observed in our patients presenting Goltz syndrome.

  13. Focal surfaces of offset dual-reflector antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sletten, C. J.; Shore, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    An analytical technique is described for finding the best focal surfaces for offset-fed dual-reflector antennas. A ray tracing procedure traces the loci of rays incident on the main reflector onto a plane or 'screen' situated perpendicular to a central ray of the antenna system. Given, then, by computer graphics, the best feed locations for azimuth and elevation plane patterns, an aperture diffraction method is used which can compute the sidelobe levels and beamwidths resulting from aperture phase errors on scanned or multibeam patterns. High-magnification Cassegrain or Gregorian antennas, with tilt angles optimised according to Japanese criteria, produce excellent radiation diagrams many beamwidths from the central, unaberrated pattern direction.

  14. Strained layer superlattice focal plane array having a planar structure

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jin K; Carroll, Malcolm S; Gin, Aaron; Marsh, Phillip F; Young, Erik W; Cich, Michael J

    2012-10-23

    An infrared focal plane array (FPA) is disclosed which utilizes a strained-layer superlattice (SLS) formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5 epitaxially grown on a GaSb substrate. The FPA avoids the use of a mesa structure to isolate each photodetector element and instead uses impurity-doped regions formed in or about each photodetector for electrical isolation. This results in a substantially-planar structure in which the SLS is unbroken across the entire width of a 2-D array of the photodetector elements which are capped with an epitaxially-grown passivation layer to reduce or eliminate surface recombination. The FPA has applications for use in the wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m.

  15. Large area III-V infrared focal planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Ting, D. Z.; Hill, C. J.; Nguyen, J.; Soibel, A.; Rafol, S. B.; Keo, S. A.; Mumolo, J. M.; Lee, M. C.; Liu, J. K.; Yang, B.; Liao, A.

    2011-05-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory is actively developing the III-V based infrared detector and focal plane arrays (FPAs) for remote sensing and imaging applications. Currently, we are working on Superlattice detectors, multi-band quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs), and quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIPs) technologies suitable for high pixel-pixel uniformity and high pixel operability large area imaging arrays. In this paper, we will discuss the demonstration of long-wavelength 1 K × 1 K QDIP FPA, 1 K × 1K QWIP FPA, the first demonstration of the megapixel-simultaneously-readable and pixel-co-registered dual-band QWIP FPA, and demonstration of the first mid-wave and long-wave 1K × 1K superlattice FPA. In addition, we will discuss the advantages of III-V material system in the context of large format infrared FPAs.

  16. Third-generation intelligent IR focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulfield, H. John; Jack, Michael D.; Pettijohn, Kevin L.; Schlesselmann, John D.; Norworth, Joe

    1998-03-01

    SBRC is at the forefront of industry in developing IR focal plane arrays including multi-spectral technology and '3rd generation' functions that mimic the human eye. 3rd generation devices conduct advanced processing on or near the FPA that serve to reduce bandwidth while performing needed functions such as automatic target recognition, uniformity correction and dynamic range enhancement. These devices represent a solution for processing the exorbitantly high bandwidth coming off large area FPAs without sacrificing systems sensitivity. SBRC's two-color approach leverages the company's HgCdTe technology to provide simultaneous multiband coverage, from short through long wave IR, with near theoretical performance. IR systems that are sensitive to different spectral bands achieve enhanced capabilities for target identification and advanced discrimination. This paper will provide a summary of the issues, the technology and the benefits of SBRC's third generation smart and two-color FPAs.

  17. Integration of IR focal plane arrays with massively parallel processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esfandiari, P.; Koskey, P.; Vaccaro, K.; Buchwald, W.; Clark, F.; Krejca, B.; Rekeczky, C.; Zarandy, A.

    2008-04-01

    The intent of this investigation is to replace the low fill factor visible sensor of a Cellular Neural Network (CNN) processor with an InGaAs Focal Plane Array (FPA) using both bump bonding and epitaxial layer transfer techniques for use in the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) interceptor seekers. The goal is to fabricate a massively parallel digital processor with a local as well as a global interconnect architecture. Currently, this unique CNN processor is capable of processing a target scene in excess of 10,000 frames per second with its visible sensor. What makes the CNN processor so unique is that each processing element includes memory, local data storage, local and global communication devices and a visible sensor supported by a programmable analog or digital computer program.

  18. Mediastinal and retroperitoneal teratoma with focal gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chang, Y-L; Wu, C-T; Lee, Y-C

    2006-09-01

    We report an unusual case of gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma arising in a giant posterior mediastinal mature cystic teratoma extending into the retroperitoneum, which was treated by complete excision with a good outcome for more than 2 years. Teratomas with malignant transformation are rare non-germ cell malignant tumors arising from a preexisting mature teratoma. Histological examination revealed that the cyst wall was composed of mature ectodermal, mesodermal, and endodermal elements. Neoplastic glands with a cribriform pattern were found in a small, solid nodule. Strong cytokeratin 20 cytoplasmic immunostaining of the tumor cells supported the diagnosis of gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma. In this report, we describe the potential aggressiveness of a giant mature cystic teratoma with adenocarcinoma and suggest that complete surgical resection without adjuvant chemotherapy be considered as a therapy in the treatment of teratoma with focal malignant transformation.

  19. Blocked impurity band hybrid infrared focal plane arrays for astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, D. B.; Seib, D. H.; Stetson, S. B.; Herter, T.; Rowlands, N.

    1989-01-01

    High-performance infrared hybrid focal plane arrays using 10- x 50-element Si:As blocked-impurity-band (BIB) detectors (cutoff wavelength = 28 microns) and matching switched MOSFET multiplexers have been developed and characterized for space astronomy. Use of impurity-band-conduction technology provides detectors which are nuclear-radiation-hard and free of the many anomalies associated with conventional silicon photoconductive detectors. Emphasis in the present work is on recent advances in detector material quality which have led to significantly improved detector and hybrid characteristics. Results demonstrating increased quantum efficiency (particularly at short-wavelength infrared), obtained by varying the BIB detector properties (infrared active layer thickness and arsenic doping profile), are summarized. Measured read noise and dark current for different temperatures are reported. The hybrid array performance achieved demonstrates that BIB detectors are well suited for use in astronomical instrumentation.

  20. Nanotopographical modification: a regulator of cellular function through focal adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, Manus Jonathan Paul; Richards, R. Geoff; Dalby, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    As materials technology and the field of biomedical engineering advances, the role of cellular mechanisms, in particular adhesive interactions with implantable devices, becomes more relevant in both research and clinical practice. A key tenet of medical device design has evolved from the exquisite ability of biological systems to respond to topographical features or chemical stimuli, a process that has led to the development of next-generation biomaterials for a wide variety of clinical disorders. In vitro studies have identified nanoscale features as potent modulators of cellular behavior through the onset of focal adhesion formation. The focus of this review is on the recent developments concerning the role of nanoscale structures on integrin-mediated adhesion and cellular function with an emphasis on the generation of medical constructs with regenerative applications. PMID:20138244

  1. Direct simulation Monte Carlo method with a focal mechanism algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachman, Asep Nur; Chung, Tae Woong; Yoshimoto, Kazuo; Yun, Sukyoung

    2015-01-01

    To simulate the observation of the radiation pattern of an earthquake, the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is modified by implanting a focal mechanism algorithm. We compare the results of the modified DSMC method (DSMC-2) with those of the original DSMC method (DSMC-1). DSMC-2 shows more or similarly reliable results compared to those of DSMC-1, for events with 12 or more recorded stations, by weighting twice for hypocentral distance of less than 80 km. Not only the number of stations, but also other factors such as rough topography, magnitude of event, and the analysis method influence the reliability of DSMC-2. The most reliable result by DSMC-2 is obtained by the best azimuthal coverage by the largest number of stations. The DSMC-2 method requires shorter time steps and a larger number of particles than those of DSMC-1 to capture a sufficient number of arrived particles in the small-sized receiver.

  2. Biomechanical abnormalities in musicians with occupational cramp/focal dystonia.

    PubMed

    Wilson, F R; Wagner, C; Hömberg, V

    1993-01-01

    Occupational factors and peripheral injuries are frequently implicated in the development of hand cramps and the syndrome of persistent manual incoordination among musicians and others most commonly given a diagnosis of focal limb dystonia. In an attempt to gain insight into the character and influence of risk factors in the evolution of this disorder, the authors conducted detailed evaluations of 33 individuals who responded to a questionnaire sent to university- and conservatory-level music schools in Germany in September 1989. Response was invited from any musician with complaints of impaired hand control. Of the 33 individuals accepted for evaluation, 18 were musicians who met clinical criteria for the diagnosis of occupational cramp/focal dystonia (OC/FD). Nineteen of the original 33 subjects underwent a quantitative biochemical assessment, comparing active and passive ranges of motion at all joints below the shoulder with those for cohorts of unimpaired musicians, matched for gender and musical instrument. Of the 19 tested biomechanically, 14 had OC/FD and the remaining five had either persistent pain or nonspecific movement idiosyncracies interfering with playing. Compared with the matched groups of normals, no consistent biomechanical abnormality was found in the non-OC/FD group; in the OC/FD group two thirds had marked limitation of passive and/or active abduction range between the central digits of both hands. Based on detailed training and performance histories in these subjects, the authors conclude that a specific biomechanical condition in the hand can interfere with certain high-speed digital movements required in musical instrument performance. Unintended muscle synergies, postures, and movement patterns can develop as attempts are made to increase the speed and fluency of such movements. As rehearsal is intensified, degraded movements are stabilized ("programmed"). In this situation, OC/FD appears to represent an aberrant outcome of normal motor

  3. Requirement of focal adhesion kinase in branching tubulogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei-Chun; Kopec, Anna K; Tang, Ming-Jer

    2009-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that alpha3beta1 integrins are essential to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-independent branching tubulogenesis in Mardin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells. However, the involvement of integrin downstream signaling molecules remains unclear. In the present study, we successfully isolated cell lines possessing different tubulogenic potentials from the MDCK cells; cyst clones (CA4, CA6) forming cystic structures when cultured in 0.3% type I collagen gel and mass clones (M610, M611, M612) forming aggregated masses. Cyst clones maintained cystic structure in 0.1% collagen gel, whereas mass clones spontaneously developed into tubules. Both clones exhibited various morphologies when cultured on a dish: cyst clones formed aggregated islands, while mass clones were more scattered and exhibited higher migration capacity. Among several focal adhesion machinery proteins examined, only the expression and phosphorylation level of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in mass clones was higher than in cyst clones, while other proteins showed no obvious differences. However, overexpression of wild type FAK in CA6 cells did not facilitate branching tubule formation in 0.1% collagen gel. Targeted decrease in the expression level of FAK in M610 cells with the application of antisense cDNA resulted in a marked reduction of branching tubule formation in 0.1% collagen gel and showed a down-regulation of fibronectin assembly, which is known to promote tubulogenesis. In contrast, overexpression of wild type FAK in CA6 cells had no effect on fibronectin assembly. Taken together, our data demonstrates that FAK is required, but not sufficient for HGF-independent branching tubulogenesis in MDCK cells. PMID:19272169

  4. Focal Experimental Injury Leads to Widespread Gene Expression and Histologic Changes in Equine Flexor Tendons

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Else; Dart, Andrew J.; Mondori, Takamitsu; Horadogoda, Neil; Jeffcott, Leo B.; Little, Christopher B.; Smith, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    It is not known how extensively a localised flexor tendon injury affects the entire tendon. This study examined the extent of and relationship between histopathologic and gene expression changes in equine superficial digital flexor tendon after a surgical injury. One forelimb tendon was hemi-transected in six horses, and in three other horses, one tendon underwent a sham operation. After euthanasia at six weeks, transected and control (sham and non-operated contralateral) tendons were regionally sampled (medial and lateral halves each divided into six 3cm regions) for histologic (scoring and immunohistochemistry) and gene expression (real time PCR) analysis of extracellular matrix changes. The histopathology score was significantly higher in transected tendons compared to control tendons in all regions except for the most distal (P ≤ 0.03) with no differences between overstressed (medial) and stress-deprived (lateral) tendon halves. Proteoglycan scores were increased by transection in all but the most proximal region (P < 0.02), with increased immunostaining for aggrecan, biglycan and versican. After correcting for location within the tendon, gene expression for aggrecan, versican, biglycan, lumican, collagen types I, II and III, MMP14 and TIMP1 was increased in transected tendons compared with control tendons (P < 0.02) and decreased for ADAMTS4, MMP3 and TIMP3 (P < 0.001). Aggrecan, biglycan, fibromodulin, and collagen types I and III expression positively correlated with all histopathology scores (P < 0.001), whereas lumican, ADAMTS4 and MMP14 expression positively correlated only with collagen fiber malalignment (P < 0.001). In summary, histologic and associated gene expression changes were significant and widespread six weeks after injury to the equine SDFT, suggesting rapid and active development of tendinopathy throughout the entire length of the tendon. These extensive changes distant to the focal injury may contribute to poor functional outcomes and re

  5. Focal experimental injury leads to widespread gene expression and histologic changes in equine flexor tendons.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Else; Jacobsen, Else; Dart, Andrew J; Mondori, Takamitsu; Horadogoda, Neil; Jeffcott, Leo B; Little, Christopher B; Smith, Margaret M

    2015-01-01

    It is not known how extensively a localised flexor tendon injury affects the entire tendon. This study examined the extent of and relationship between histopathologic and gene expression changes in equine superficial digital flexor tendon after a surgical injury. One forelimb tendon was hemi-transected in six horses, and in three other horses, one tendon underwent a sham operation. After euthanasia at six weeks, transected and control (sham and non-operated contralateral) tendons were regionally sampled (medial and lateral halves each divided into six 3 cm regions) for histologic (scoring and immunohistochemistry) and gene expression (real time PCR) analysis of extracellular matrix changes. The histopathology score was significantly higher in transected tendons compared to control tendons in all regions except for the most distal (P ≤ 0.03) with no differences between overstressed (medial) and stress-deprived (lateral) tendon halves. Proteoglycan scores were increased by transection in all but the most proximal region (P < 0.02), with increased immunostaining for aggrecan, biglycan and versican. After correcting for location within the tendon, gene expression for aggrecan, versican, biglycan, lumican, collagen types I, II and III, MMP14 and TIMP1 was increased in transected tendons compared with control tendons (P < 0.02) and decreased for ADAMTS4, MMP3 and TIMP3 (P < 0.001). Aggrecan, biglycan, fibromodulin, and collagen types I and III expression positively correlated with all histopathology scores (P < 0.001), whereas lumican, ADAMTS4 and MMP14 expression positively correlated only with collagen fiber malalignment (P < 0.001). In summary, histologic and associated gene expression changes were significant and widespread six weeks after injury to the equine SDFT, suggesting rapid and active development of tendinopathy throughout the entire length of the tendon. These extensive changes distant to the focal injury may contribute to poor functional outcomes and re

  6. Focal experimental injury leads to widespread gene expression and histologic changes in equine flexor tendons.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Else; Jacobsen, Else; Dart, Andrew J; Mondori, Takamitsu; Horadogoda, Neil; Jeffcott, Leo B; Little, Christopher B; Smith, Margaret M

    2015-01-01

    It is not known how extensively a localised flexor tendon injury affects the entire tendon. This study examined the extent of and relationship between histopathologic and gene expression changes in equine superficial digital flexor tendon after a surgical injury. One forelimb tendon was hemi-transected in six horses, and in three other horses, one tendon underwent a sham operation. After euthanasia at six weeks, transected and control (sham and non-operated contralateral) tendons were regionally sampled (medial and lateral halves each divided into six 3 cm regions) for histologic (scoring and immunohistochemistry) and gene expression (real time PCR) analysis of extracellular matrix changes. The histopathology score was significantly higher in transected tendons compared to control tendons in all regions except for the most distal (P ≤ 0.03) with no differences between overstressed (medial) and stress-deprived (lateral) tendon halves. Proteoglycan scores were increased by transection in all but the most proximal region (P < 0.02), with increased immunostaining for aggrecan, biglycan and versican. After correcting for location within the tendon, gene expression for aggrecan, versican, biglycan, lumican, collagen types I, II and III, MMP14 and TIMP1 was increased in transected tendons compared with control tendons (P < 0.02) and decreased for ADAMTS4, MMP3 and TIMP3 (P < 0.001). Aggrecan, biglycan, fibromodulin, and collagen types I and III expression positively correlated with all histopathology scores (P < 0.001), whereas lumican, ADAMTS4 and MMP14 expression positively correlated only with collagen fiber malalignment (P < 0.001). In summary, histologic and associated gene expression changes were significant and widespread six weeks after injury to the equine SDFT, suggesting rapid and active development of tendinopathy throughout the entire length of the tendon. These extensive changes distant to the focal injury may contribute to poor functional outcomes and re

  7. Comparing Linkage Designs Based on Land Facets to Linkage Designs Based on Focal Species

    PubMed Central

    Brost, Brian M.; Beier, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Least-cost modeling for focal species is the most widely used method for designing conservation corridors and linkages. However, these designs depend on today's land covers, which will be altered by climate change. We recently proposed an alternative approach based on land facets (recurring landscape units of relatively uniform topography and soils). The rationale is that corridors with high continuity of individual land facets will facilitate movement of species associated with each facet today and in the future. Conservation practitioners might like to know whether a linkage design based on land facets is likely to provide continuity of modeled breeding habitat for species needing connectivity today, and whether a linkage for focal species provides continuity and interspersion of land facets. To address these questions, we compared linkages designed for focal species and land facets in three landscapes in Arizona, USA. We used two variables to measure linkage utility, namely distances between patches of modeled breeding habitat for 5–16 focal species in each linkage, and resistance profiles for focal species and land facets between patches connected by the linkage. Compared to focal species designs, linkage designs based on land facets provided as much or more modeled habitat connectivity for 25 of 28 species-landscape combinations, failing only for the three species with the most narrowly distributed habitat. Compared to land facets designs, focal species linkages provided lower connectivity for about half the land facets in two landscapes. In areas where a focal species approach to linkage design is not possible, our results suggest that conservation practitioners may be able to implement a land facets approach with some confidence that the linkage design would serve most potential focal species. In areas where focal species designs are possible, we recommend using the land facet approach to complement, rather than replace, focal species approaches. PMID

  8. Blaschko Linear Enamel Defects – A Marker for Focal Dermal Hypoplasia: Case Report of Focal Dermal Hypoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Gysin, Stefan; Itin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) is a rare genetic skin disorder. The inheritance of FDH or Goltz-Gorlin syndrome is X-linked dominant and the disease is associated with a PORCN gene mutation. This gene plays a key role in the Wnt pathway, which has an impact on embryonic development. Every tissue derived from meso- and ectoderm can be affected. Patients suffer from cutaneous, ocular, osseous, oral and dental defects. The skin and dental alterations manifest along the Blaschko lines. We present a woman (born in 1962) suffering from FDH with congenital skin changes and Blaschko linear enamel defects. Typical symptoms (e.g. fat herniations, scoliosis, syndactyly, microphthalmia, caries and alopecia) plus vertical grooving of all teeth gave a first indication. Molecular genetic testing confirmed the definitive diagnosis of FDH. We hypothesize that, in the context of typical skin changes, visible Blaschko lines on the teeth in the form of vertical grooves are almost pathognomonic for FDH. PMID:26078738

  9. Evidence for an actin-containing cytoplasmic precursor of the focal contact and the timing of incorporation of vinculin at the focal contact

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of F-actin and vinculin in chicken embryo fibroblasts has been examined by nitrobenzoxadiazol (NBD)-phallacidin and indirect immunofluorescent staining, respectively, and related to the process of focal contact formation by recording the motility of the cell with differential interference contrast (DIC) or interference reflection microscopy (IRM) before fixation for staining. Linear cytoplasmic precursors of the focal contact, present within unattached lamellipodia, stained intensely with NBD-phallacidin. Without exception new focal contacts, 8 s and older at fixation, were associated with either a longer F-actin rib in the lamellipodium or, in older contacts, an F-actin structure of similar dimensions to the contact. This change in distribution of F-actin over the new contacts was accounted for by the segregation of the structural precursor into an attached part over the focal contact and a separate motile part. These results show that F- actin accumulates in the precursor adjacent to areas of the membrane competent to form the focal contact, and are consistent with the interpretation that this F-actin contributes to the initial adhesion plaque associated with the new contact. Vinculin was essentially absent from motile lamellipodia, showed no preferential association with F- actin rich precursors or very young focal contacts, but accumulated over new contacts during a 90-s period. Therefore, the association of F- actin with the membrane that precedes and persists in the initial focal contact is independent of vinculin, and the role of vinculin in development of the focal contact remains unclear. PMID:3121637

  10. Correlation between Focal Nodular Low Signal Changes in Hoffa's Fat Pad Adjacent to Anterior Femoral Cartilage and Focal Cartilage Defect Underlying This Region and Its Possible Implication

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Wuey Min

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. This study investigates the association between focal nodular mass with low signal in Hoffa's fat pad adjacent to anterior femoral cartilage of the knee (FNMHF) and focal cartilage abnormality in this region. Method. The magnetic resonance fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition sequence (MR FIESTA) sagittal and axial images of the B1 and C1 region (described later) of 148 patients were independently evaluated by two reviewers and categorized into four categories: normal, FNMHF with underlying focal cartilage abnormality, FNMHF with normal cartilage, and cartilage abnormality with no FNMHF. Results. There was a significant association (p = 0.00) between FNMHF and immediate adjacent focal cartilage abnormality with high interobserver agreement. The absence of focal nodular lesions next to the anterior femoral cartilage has a very high negative predictive value for chondral injury (97.8%). Synovial biopsy of focal nodular lesion done during arthroscopy revealed some fibrocollagenous tissue and no inflammatory cells. Conclusion. We postulate that the FNMHF adjacent to the cartilage defects is a form of normal healing response to the cartilage damage. One patient with FHMHF and underlying cartilage abnormality was rescanned six months later. In this patient, the FNMHF disappeared and normal cartilage was observed in the adjacent region which may support this theory. PMID:27213085

  11. A study on reducing of the focal spot size using spatial filtering and phase apodization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savelyev, D.

    2016-08-01

    The resizing of focal spot using an annular diaphragm with phase jump in the scalar paraxial case was investigated numerically. Due to the apodization optical system, we succeeded in reducing the size of the focal spot in 2.3 times.

  12. Surgically intractable epilepsy associated with focal cortical dysplasia and congenital cutaneous hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Brzezinski, Anna; Cruz, Vincent B; Prayson, Richard A

    2014-11-01

    We describe a 6-month-old girl with medically intractable seizures, multiple congenital hemangiomas, and developmental delay. The patient underwent two surgical resections. Pathological findings at both the first and second resections were consistent with focal cortical dysplasia. The literature was reviewed on focal cortical dysplasia associated with cutaneous hemangiomas.

  13. Fast focal zooming scheme for direct drive fusion implemented by inserting KD2PO4 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Zheqiang; Hu, Xiaochuan; Zhang, Bin

    2016-06-01

    The highly required uniformity of target in direct-drive fusion is difficult to achieve and maintain during the entire laser fusion implosion. To mitigate the increasing nonuniformity, the fast focal zooming scheme implemented by inserting an electro-optic (EO) crystal in the front end of beamline has been proposed. Functioning as a phase plate, the specifically designed EO crystal may add the induced spherical wavefront to the laser beam and alter its focusing characteristics. However, in order to zoom out the focal spot by half, the required voltage for KD2PO4 (DKDP) with single pair of electrodes is relatively high. In order to decrease the voltage while maintaining the zooming performance, the DKDP cylinder with multi pairs of electrodes has been presented. The continuous phase plate (CPP) is designed according to both the injected beam and the output field. However, the conventional CPP is designed based on the assumption of an injected beam without wavefront distortion, which would zoom in the focal spot variation in the focal zooming scheme. In order to zoom out the focal spot, a redesigned CPP has been proposed by adding a spherical wavefront to the phase variation of the conventional CPP and further optimizing. On the basis, the focusing characteristics of laser beam during the fast focal zooming process have been analyzed. Results indicate that the focal spot size decreases with the increasing voltage on DKDP crystal, meanwhile the uniformity maintains high during the focal zooming process.

  14. Focal shift for a gaussian beam by an aperture written in terms of matrix optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xuanhui; Wang, Shaomin; Ronchi, Laura

    1992-05-01

    The focal shift in a gaussian beam focussed by an optical system with an aperture is generalized by applying Collin's diffraction integral. By this implementation, the field distribution on axis is given. The method may be useful to determine the focal shift of a thin lens and of an optical focusing system as well.

  15. Diffusion length and solar cell efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, D.; Wahlich, R.; Bachmaier, A.

    The diffusion length of the minority carriers of a solar cell defines the appropriate technology which should be applied for the solar cell fabrication. Back surface techniques only pay off if the diffusion length is long enough. Monocrystalline material with different lifetime killing defects was investigated and an experimental correlation between the diffusion length measured on the unprocessed wafer and the efficiency of the finished cell could be established.

  16. Controlling Arc Length in Plasma Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iceland, W. F.

    1986-01-01

    Circuit maintains arc length on irregularly shaped workpieces. Length of plasma arc continuously adjusted by control circuit to maintain commanded value. After pilot arc is established, contactor closed and transfers arc to workpiece. Control circuit then half-wave rectifies ac arc voltage to produce dc control signal proportional to arc length. Circuit added to plasma arc welding machines with few wiring changes. Welds made with circuit cleaner and require less rework than welds made without it. Beads smooth and free of inclusions.

  17. Measuring Crack Length in Coarse Grain Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan A.; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2010-01-01

    Due to a coarse grain structure, crack lengths in precracked spinel specimens could not be measured optically, so the crack lengths and fracture toughness were estimated by strain gage measurements. An expression was developed via finite element analysis to correlate the measured strain with crack length in four-point flexure. The fracture toughness estimated by the strain gaged samples and another standardized method were in agreement.

  18. Mutations in DEPDC5 cause familial focal epilepsy with variable foci.

    PubMed

    Dibbens, Leanne M; de Vries, Boukje; Donatello, Simona; Heron, Sarah E; Hodgson, Bree L; Chintawar, Satyan; Crompton, Douglas E; Hughes, James N; Bellows, Susannah T; Klein, Karl Martin; Callenbach, Petra M C; Corbett, Mark A; Gardner, Alison E; Kivity, Sara; Iona, Xenia; Regan, Brigid M; Weller, Claudia M; Crimmins, Denis; O'Brien, Terence J; Guerrero-López, Rosa; Mulley, John C; Dubeau, Francois; Licchetta, Laura; Bisulli, Francesca; Cossette, Patrick; Thomas, Paul Q; Gecz, Jozef; Serratosa, Jose; Brouwer, Oebele F; Andermann, Frederick; Andermann, Eva; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Pandolfo, Massimo; Berkovic, Samuel F; Scheffer, Ingrid E

    2013-05-01

    The majority of epilepsies are focal in origin, with seizures emanating from one brain region. Although focal epilepsies often arise from structural brain lesions, many affected individuals have normal brain imaging. The etiology is unknown in the majority of individuals, although genetic factors are increasingly recognized. Autosomal dominant familial focal epilepsy with variable foci (FFEVF) is notable because family members have seizures originating from different cortical regions. Using exome sequencing, we detected DEPDC5 mutations in two affected families. We subsequently identified mutations in five of six additional published large families with FFEVF. Study of families with focal epilepsy that were too small for conventional clinical diagnosis with FFEVF identified DEPDC5 mutations in approximately 12% of families (10/82). This high frequency establishes DEPDC5 mutations as a common cause of familial focal epilepsies. Shared homology with G protein signaling molecules and localization in human neurons suggest a role of DEPDC5 in neuronal signal transduction.

  19. Description of focal liver lesions with Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI

    PubMed Central

    CARAIANI, COSMIN-NICOLAE; DAN, MARIAN; FENESAN, DIANA-IOANA; BADEA, RADU

    2015-01-01

    Imaging procedures play a fundamental role in the therapeutic management of focal liver lesions. The goals of imaging are to detect and correctly characterize focal liver lesions. This review highlights the performances of newer, liver-specific, contrast media in the diagnosis of focal liver lesions, particularly Gd-EOB-DTPA (Primovist), the most frequently used liver specific contrast media. It has been shown, in different papers, that Gd-EOB-DTPA has better performances compared to either triphasic contrast enhanced computed tomography or dynamic MRI in both detection and characterization of hepatocellular carcinoma on the cirrhotic liver. Therefore liver MRI with Primovist is considered, in many centers, the “state-of-the-art” imaging examination of the liver before surgery or liver transplantation. Gd-EOB-DTPA is also useful in the differential diagnosis of benign hypervascular focal liver lesions such as adenomas or focal nodular hyperplasias. PMID:26733231

  20. Perfusion Imaging of Focal Cortical Dysplasia Using Arterial Spin Labeling: Correlation With Histopathological Vascular Density

    PubMed Central

    Wintermark, Pia; Lechpammer, Mirna; Warfield, Simon K.; Kosaras, Bela; Takeoka, Masanori; Poduri, Annapurna; Madsen, Joseph R.; Bergin, Ann M.; Whalen, Stephen; Jensen, Frances E.

    2016-01-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia is the most common malformation of cortical development, causing intractable epilepsy. This study investigated the relationship between brain perfusion and microvessel density in 7 children with focal cortical dysplasia. The authors analyzed brain perfusion measurements obtained by magnetic resonance imaging of 2 of the children and the microvessel density of brain tissue specimens obtained by epilepsy surgery on all of the children. Brain perfusion was approximately 2 times higher in the area of focal cortical dysplasia compared to the contralateral side. The microvessel density was nearly double in the area of focal cortical dysplasia compared to the surrounding cortex that did not have morphological abnormalities. These findings suggest that hyperperfusion can be related to increased microvessel density in focal cortical dysplasia rather than only to seizures. Further investigations are needed to determine the relationship between brain perfusion, microvessel density, and seizure activity. PMID:23696629

  1. System and method for generating a deselect mapping for a focal plane array

    SciTech Connect

    Bixler, Jay V; Brandt, Timothy G; Conger, James L; Lawson, Janice K

    2013-05-21

    A method for generating a deselect mapping for a focal plane array according to one embodiment includes gathering a data set for a focal plane array when exposed to light or radiation from a first known target; analyzing the data set for determining which pixels or subpixels of the focal plane array to add to a deselect mapping; adding the pixels or subpixels to the deselect mapping based on the analysis; and storing the deselect mapping. A method for gathering data using a focal plane array according to another embodiment includes deselecting pixels or subpixels based on a deselect mapping; gathering a data set using pixels or subpixels in a focal plane array that are not deselected upon exposure thereof to light or radiation from a target of interest; and outputting the data set.

  2. The vector effective length of slot antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunsch, A. D.

    1991-05-01

    A suitable definition for the vector effective length of an arbitrary slot receiving antenna placed in a large conducting plane is presented, and a general formula is obtained for its derivation. To derive the definition and formula is, the effective length of a general wire antenna is derived, and then an analogous method is applied to the slot problem. The relationship of the slot's effective length to that for a flat strip wire antenna driven by a specified current is obtained. Formulas for the lengths of some specific common slot antennas are derived from the general expression. The current sampling property of a small straight slot is discussed.

  3. Generalizations of Brandl's theorem on Engel length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quek, S. G.; Wong, K. B.; Wong, P. C.

    2013-04-01

    Let n < m be positive integers such that [g,nh] = [g,mh] and assume that n and m are chosen minimal with respect to this property. Let gi = [g,n+ih] where i = 1,2,…,m-n. Then π(g,h) = (g1,…,gm-n) is called the Engel cycle generated by g and h. The length of the Engel cycle is m-n. A group G is said to have Engel length r, if all the length of the Engel cycles in G divides r. In this paper we discuss the Brandl's theorem on Engel length and give some of its generalizations.

  4. Pi Bond Orders and Bond Lengths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herndon, William C.; Parkanyi, Cyril

    1976-01-01

    Discusses three methods of correlating bond orders and bond lengths in unsaturated hydrocarbons: the Pauling theory, the Huckel molecular orbital technique, and self-consistent-field techniques. (MLH)

  5. Multiple path length dual polarization interferometry.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Paul D; Swann, Marcus J; Waigh, Thomas A; Schedin, Fred; Lu, Jian R

    2009-06-22

    An optical sensor for quantitative analysis of ultrathin films and adsorbed layers is described. Quantification of both layer thickness and refractive index (density) can be made for in situ and ex-situ coated films. With the use of two polarizations, in situ measurements are made via one path length in a young's interferometer arrangement while ex-situ measurements use multiple path lengths. The multiple path length young's interferometer arrangement is embodied in a solid state waveguide configuration called the multiple path length dual polarization interferometer (MPL-DPI). The technique is demonstrated with ultrathin layers of poly(methylmethacrylate) and human serum albumin.

  6. Local hyperthermia with MR-guided focused ultrasound: spiral trajectory of the focal point optimized for temperature uniformity in the target region.

    PubMed

    Salomir, R; Palussière, J; Vimeux, F C; de Zwart, J A; Quesson, B; Gauchet, M; Lelong, P; Pergrale, J; Grenier, N; Moonen, C T

    2000-10-01

    The objective of hyperthermia treatment is to deliver a similar therapeutic thermal dose throughout the target volume within a minimum amount of time. We describe a noninvasive approach to this goal based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided focused ultrasound (FUS) with a spherical transducer that can be moved along two directions inside the bed of a clinical MR imager and that has an adjustable focal length in the third dimension. Absorption of FUS gives rise to a highly localized thermal buildup, which then spreads by heat diffusion and blood perfusion. A uniform temperature within a large target volume can be obtained using a double spiral trajectory of the transducer focal point together with constant and maximum FUS power. Differences between the real and target temperatures during the first spiral are evaluated in real time with temperature MRI and corrected for during the second spiral trajectory employing FUS focal point velocity modulation. Once a uniform temperature distribution is reached within the entire volume, FUS heating is applied only at the region's boundaries to maintain the raised temperature levels. Heat conduction, together with the design and timing of the trajectories, therefore ensures a similar thermal dose for the entire target region. Good agreement is obtained between theory and experimental results in vitro on gel phantoms, ex vivo on meat samples, and in vivo on rabbit thigh muscle. Edema in muscle was visible 1 hour after hyperthermia as a spatially uniform rise of the signal intensity in T(2)-weighted images. PMID:11042639

  7. Research of aerial camera focal pane micro-displacement measurement system based on Michelson interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shu-juan; Zhao, Yu-liang; Li, Shu-jun

    2014-09-01

    The aerial camera focal plane in the correct position is critical to the imaging quality. In order to adjust the aerial camera focal plane displacement caused in the process of maintenance, a new micro-displacement measuring system of aerial camera focal plane in view of the Michelson interferometer has been designed in this paper, which is based on the phase modulation principle, and uses the interference effect to realize the focal plane of the micro-displacement measurement. The system takes He-Ne laser as the light source, uses the Michelson interference mechanism to produce interference fringes, changes with the motion of the aerial camera focal plane interference fringes periodically, and records the periodicity of the change of the interference fringes to obtain the aerial camera plane displacement; Taking linear CCD and its driving system as the interference fringes picking up tool, relying on the frequency conversion and differentiating system, the system determines the moving direction of the focal plane. After data collecting, filtering, amplifying, threshold comparing, counting, CCD video signals of the interference fringes are sent into the computer processed automatically, and output the focal plane micro displacement results. As a result, the focal plane micro displacement can be measured automatically by this system. This system uses linear CCD as the interference fringes picking up tool, greatly improving the counting accuracy and eliminated the artificial counting error almost, improving the measurement accuracy of the system. The results of the experiments demonstrate that: the aerial camera focal plane displacement measurement accuracy is 0.2nm. While tests in the laboratory and flight show that aerial camera focal plane positioning is accurate and can satisfy the requirement of the aerial camera imaging.

  8. Focal spot motion of linear accelerators and its effect on portal image analysis.

    PubMed

    Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Brand, Bob; van Herk, Marcel

    2003-06-01

    The focal spot of a linear accelerator is often considered to have a fully stable position. In practice, however, the beam control loop of a linear accelerator needs to stabilize after the beam is turned on. As a result, some motion of the focal spot might occur during the start-up phase of irradiation. When acquiring portal images, this motion will affect the projected position of anatomy and field edges, especially when low exposures are used. In this paper, the motion of the focal spot and the effect of this motion on portal image analysis are quantified. A slightly tilted narrow slit phantom was placed at the isocenter of several linear accelerators and images were acquired (3.5 frames per second) by means of an amorphous silicon flat panel imager positioned approximately 0.7 m below the isocenter. The motion of the focal spot was determined by converting the tilted slit images to subpixel accurate line spread functions. The error in portal image analysis due to focal spot motionwas estimated by a subtraction of the relative displacement of the projected slit from the relative displacement of the field edges. It was found that the motion of the focal spot depends on the control system and design of the accelerator. The shift of the focal spot at the start of irradiation ranges between 0.05-0.7 mm in the gun-target (GT) direction. In the left-right (AB) direction the shift is generally smaller. The resulting error in portal image analysis due to focal spotmotion ranges between 0.05-1.1 mm for a dose corresponding to two monitor units (MUs). For 20 MUs, the effect of the focal spot motion reduces to 0.01-0.3 mm. The error in portal image analysis due to focal spot motion can be reduced by reducing the applied dose rate.

  9. The Novel Diagnostic Biomarkers for Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Nafar, Mohsen; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Rutishuser, Dorothea; Zubarev, Roman A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a glomerular injury with various pathogenic mechanisms. Urine proteome panel might help in noninvasive diagnosis and better understanding of pathogenesis of FSGS. Method. We have analyzed the urine sample of 11 biopsy-proven FSGS subjects, 8 healthy controls, and 6 patients with biopsy-proven IgA nephropathy (disease controls) by means of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS). Multivariate analysis of quantified proteins was performed by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS). Results. Of the total number of 389 proteins, after multivariate analysis and additional filter criterion and comparing FSGS versus IgA nephropathy and healthy subjects, 77 proteins were considered as putative biomarkers of FSGS. CD59, CD44, IBP7, Robo4, and DPEP1 were the most significant differentially expressed proteins. These proteins are involved in pathogenic pathways: complement pathway, sclerosis, cell proliferation, actin cytoskeleton remodeling, and activity of TRPC6.There was complete absence of DPEP1 in urine proteome of FSGS subjects compared with healthy and disease controls. DPEP1 acts via leukotrienes on TRPC6 and results in increased podocyte motility and proteinuria. Conclusion. The results suggest a panel of candidate biomarkers for noninvasive diagnosis of FSGS, while complete absence of DPEP1 might represent a novel marker of FSGS. PMID:24790760

  10. Microtubules Regulate Focal Adhesion Dynamics through MAP4K4

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Jiping; Xie, Min; Gou, Xuewen; Lee, Philbert; Schneider, Michael D; Wu, Xiaoyang

    2014-01-01

    Disassembly of focal adhesions (FAs) allows cell retraction and integrin detachment from the ECM, processes critical for cell movement. Growth of MT (microtubule) can promote FA turnover by serving as tracks to deliver proteins essential for FA disassembly. The molecular nature of this FA “disassembly factor”, however, remains elusive. By quantitative proteomics, we identified MAP4K4 (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4) as a FA regulator that associates with MTs. Conditional knockout (cKO) of MAP4K4 in skin stabilizes FAs and impairs epidermal migration. By exploring underlying mechanisms, we further show that MAP4K4 associates with EB2, a MT binding protein, and IQSEC1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) specific for Arf6, whose activation promotes integrin internalization. Together, our findings provide critical insights into FA disassembly, suggesting that MTs can deliver MAP4K4 toward FAs through EB2, where MAP4K4 can in turn activate Arf6 via IQSEC1 and enhance FA dissolution. PMID:25490267

  11. Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) Focal Plane Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuss, D. T.; Ali, A.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J.; Bennett, C. L.; Colazo, F.; Denis, K. L.; Dünner, R.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Eimer, J.; Fluxa, P.; Gothe, D.; Halpern, M.; Harrington, K.; Hilton, G.; Hinshaw, G.; Hubmayr, J.; Iuliano, J.; Marriage, T. A.; Miller, N.; Moseley, S. H.; Mumby, G.; Petroff, M.; Reintsema, C.; Rostem, K.; U-Yen, K.; Watts, D.; Wagner, E.; Wollack, E. J.; Xu, Z.; Zeng, L.

    2016-08-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) will measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background to search for and characterize the polarized signature of inflation. CLASS will operate from the Atacama Desert and observe ˜ 70 % of the sky. A variable-delay polarization modulator provides modulation of the polarization at ˜ 10 Hz to suppress the 1/ f noise of the atmosphere and enable the measurement of the large angular scale polarization modes. The measurement of the inflationary signal across angular scales that spans both the recombination and reionization features allows a test of the predicted shape of the polarized angular power spectra in addition to a measurement of the energy scale of inflation. CLASS is an array of telescopes covering frequencies of 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. These frequencies straddle the foreground minimum and thus allow the extraction of foregrounds from the primordial signal. Each focal plane contains feedhorn-coupled transition-edge sensors that simultaneously detect two orthogonal linear polarizations. The use of single-crystal silicon as the dielectric for the on-chip transmission lines enables both high efficiency and uniformity in fabrication. Integrated band definition has been implemented that both controls the bandpass of the single-mode transmission on the chip and prevents stray light from coupling to the detectors.

  12. Research on focal nodular hyperplasia with MSCT and postprocessing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan-Jian; Fan, Wei-Jun; Yuan, Zhi-Dong; Liu, Peng-Cheng; Wang, Chun-Rong; Yan, Wei-Qiang; Wang, Su-Mei; Chen, Jun-Hui; Liu, Zheng

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate and evaluate the pathological features and diagnostic value of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) with multi-section spiral computed tomography (MSCT) and postprocessing. METHODS: A total of 25 patients with FNH who had undergone MSCT and postprocessing were included in the investigation. All patients had been pathologically or clinically confirmed with FNH. A number of 75 cases of hepatic carcinomas, hemangiomas and adenomas were randomly selected at a same period for a comparative study. RESULTS: There was a single focus in 22 cases and multiple foci in 3 cases. On the plain scan, 17 lesions showed hypodensity, 7 isodensity and 4 hyperdensity (the case with fatty liver). With contrast, 28 lesions were enhanced evenly or in the nodules in the arterial phase; 13 lesions still showed hyperdensity, 11 lesions isodensity and 4 lesions hypodensity in the parenchymatous phase; in the delayed phase only 5 lesions showed hyperdensity but 9 lesions showed isodensity or slight hypodensity and 14 lesions showed hypodensity. Twelve lesions of 28 had central asteroid scars. Thickened feeding arteries in postprocessing were seen in 24 lesions, and were integrated into the parenchymatous lesions with a gradual and smooth course. On the contrary, there were no artery penetrated into the lesion found in any of comparative hepatic tumors. CONCLUSION: Doctors could make a correct diagnosis and differentiation of FNH on evaluation of the characteristic appearance on MSCT with postprocessing. PMID:19824121

  13. Focal Targeting of the Bacterial Envelope by Antimicrobial Peptides.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Rafi; Veleba, Mark; Kline, Kimberly A

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are utilized by both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. AMPs such as the human beta defensins, human neutrophil peptides, human cathelicidin, and many bacterial bacteriocins are cationic and capable of binding to anionic regions of the bacterial surface. Cationic AMPs (CAMPs) target anionic lipids [e.g., phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and cardiolipins (CL)] in the cell membrane and anionic components [e.g., lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA)] of the cell envelope. Bacteria have evolved mechanisms to modify these same targets in order to resist CAMP killing, e.g., lysinylation of PG to yield cationic lysyl-PG and alanylation of LTA. Since CAMPs offer a promising therapeutic alternative to conventional antibiotics, which are becoming less effective due to rapidly emerging antibiotic resistance, there is a strong need to improve our understanding about the AMP mechanism of action. Recent literature suggests that AMPs often interact with the bacterial cell envelope at discrete foci. Here we review recent AMP literature, with an emphasis on focal interactions with bacteria, including (1) CAMP disruption mechanisms, (2) delocalization of membrane proteins and lipids by CAMPs, and (3) CAMP sensing systems and resistance mechanisms. We conclude with new approaches for studying the bacterial membrane, e.g., lipidomics, high resolution imaging, and non-detergent-based membrane domain extraction. PMID:27376064

  14. Phagocytosis executes delayed neuronal death after focal brain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Neher, Jonas J; Emmrich, Julius V; Fricker, Michael; Mander, Palwinder K; Théry, Clotilde; Brown, Guy C

    2013-10-22

    Delayed neuronal loss and brain atrophy after cerebral ischemia contribute to stroke and dementia pathology, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Phagocytic removal of neurons is generally assumed to be beneficial and to occur only after neuronal death. However, we report herein that inhibition of phagocytosis can prevent delayed loss and death of functional neurons after transient brain ischemia. Two phagocytic proteins, Mer receptor tyrosine kinase (MerTK) and Milk fat globule EGF-like factor 8 (MFG-E8), were transiently up-regulated by macrophages/microglia after focal brain ischemia in vivo. Strikingly, deficiency in either protein completely prevented long-term functional motor deficits after cerebral ischemia and strongly reduced brain atrophy as a result of inhibiting phagocytosis of neurons. Correspondingly, in vitro glutamate-stressed neurons reversibly exposed the "eat-me" signal phosphatidylserine, leading to their phagocytosis by microglia; this neuronal loss was prevented in the absence of microglia and reduced if microglia were genetically deficient in MerTK or MFG-E8, both of which mediate phosphatidylserine-recognition. Thus, phagocytosis of viable neurons contributes to brain pathology and, surprisingly, blocking this process is strongly beneficial. Therefore, inhibition of specific phagocytic pathways may present therapeutic targets for preventing delayed neuronal loss after transient cerebral ischemia.

  15. Multiple lesions of cutaneous focal mucinosis in a teenager.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Claudia; Fowler, Ashley; Gandhi, Mona Y

    2007-01-01

    A 19-year-old Hispanic woman presented to our clinic with a chief complaint of multiple pink papules on her face (Figure 1). The lesions were asymptomatic, had appeared several years before her consultation, and had remained stable in size. Similar lesions on her trunk and extremities had spontaneously resolved before presentation. She had no significant medical history and was not on any medications. Cutaneous examination was remarkable for a few scattered, well-demarcated, slightly raised pink papules and plaques with no scale, ranging from 0.5 to 1 cm in diameter. The lesions were distributed on the right cheek, right temple, left lower eyelid, and neck area. The rest of the cutaneous examination was unremarkable. A punch biopsy was performed from a lesion near the left premandibular area. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of the biopsy specimen revealed superficial perivascular dermatitis with a slight increase in the number of fibroblasts (Figure 2). Colloidal iron staining was diffusely positive with replacement of collagen with mucinous material in the dermal layer (Figure 3). Laboratory values for a complete blood cell count, metabolic panel, serum protein electrophoresis, urine protein electrophoresis, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and antinuclear antibody were within normal limits. The patient was diagnosed with cutaneous focal mucinosis. Because of cosmetic concerns, the patient declined surgical excision and intralesional corticosteroid injections. A 4-month trial of topical tacrolimus 0.1% ointment was ineffective. PMID:17975357

  16. Abnormal Movement Preparation in Task-Specific Focal Hand Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Scheef, Lukas; Bewersdorff, Malte; Schild, Hans H.; Klockgether, Thomas; Boecker, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Electrophysiological and behavioral studies in primary dystonia suggest abnormalities during movement preparation, but this crucial phase preceding movement onset has not yet been studied specifically with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To identify abnormalities in brain activation during movement preparation, we used event-related fMRI to analyze behaviorally unimpaired sequential finger movements in 18 patients with task-specific focal hand dystonia (FHD) and 18 healthy subjects. Patients and controls executed self-initiated or externally cued prelearnt four-digit sequential movements using either right or left hands. In FHD patients, motor performance of the sequential finger task was not associated with task-related dystonic posturing and their activation levels during motor execution were highly comparable with controls. On the other hand reduced activation was observed during movement preparation in the FHD patients in left premotor cortex / precentral gyrus for all conditions, and for self-initiation additionally in supplementary motor area, left mid-insula and anterior putamen, independent of effector side. Findings argue for abnormalities of early stages of motor control in FHD, manifesting during movement preparation. Since deficits map to regions involved in the coding of motor programs, we propose that task-specific dystonia is characterized by abnormalities during recruitment of motor programs: these do not manifest at the behavioral level during simple automated movements, however, errors in motor programs of complex movements established by extensive practice (a core feature of FHD), trigger the inappropriate movement patterns observed in task-specific dystonia. PMID:24167610

  17. MTF comparisons between mesa and planar focal plane detector structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perley, Mitchell; Wehner, Justin; Buell, Dave; Micali, Jason; McCorkle, Joe; Rehfield, Mark; Williams, Dave; Dixon, Andrew; Malone, Neil

    2013-09-01

    Raytheon Vision Systems (RVS) has developed scanning, high-speed (<3klps), all digital, with on-chip Analog-to-Digital Conversion (ADC), mid-wave infrared (MWIR 3-5mm) focal plane arrays (FPA) with excellent modulation transfer function (MTF) performance. Using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) data and detailed models of the mesa geometry, RVS modeled the predicted detector MTF performance of detectors. These detectors have a mesa structure and geometry for improved MTF performance compared to planar HgCdTe and InSb detector structures and other similar detector structures such as nBn. The modeled data is compared to measured MTF data obtained from edge spread measurements and shows good agreement, Figure 1. The measured data was obtained using a custom advanced test set with 1µm precision alignment and automatic data acquisition for report generation in less than five minutes per FPA. The measured MTF values of 83 unique parts, Figure 2, had a standard deviation of 0.0094 and a mean absolute deviation of 0.0066 at half Nyquist frequency, showing excellent process repeatability and a design that supports high MTF with good repeatability.

  18. Functional focal retrograde amnesia: lost access to abstract autobiographical knowledge?

    PubMed

    Stracciari, Andrea; Mattarozzi, Katia; Fonti, Cristina; Guarino, Maria

    2005-10-01

    We describe three patients exhibiting an acute reversible amnesia characterised by an impaired recollection of past events with preserved anterograde memory, thus consistent with a focal retrograde amnesia (FRA). This occurred after variable events: state of fugue, road accident, post-traumatic headache. Retrograde amnesia affected autobiographical memory so severely as to cover all of the patients' lives and to erase knowledge of their own identity. The retrieval of public events was variably affected, ranging from normality to severe impairment. No lesions were found on neuroimaging, and neurophysiological findings were unimpressive. FRA subsided in a few days, leaving a gap for the onset. The hypothesis of a psychogenic amnesia is considered, but overcoming the organic/psychogenic dichotomy the episodes appear as examples of "functional" memory inhibition, potentially triggered by different conditions, including events classifiable as psychic trauma. The clinical and neuropsychological traits of functional FRA are discussed. According to a current theory of autobiographical memory, the memory profile may be explained by a lost access to abstract autobiographical knowledge. Given some analogies with the more common transient global amnesia, a mechanism of spreading depression may also be hypothesised for functional FRA. PMID:16191819

  19. NBR1 enables autophagy-dependent focal adhesion turnover

    PubMed Central

    Kenific, Candia M.; Stehbens, Samantha J.; Goldsmith, Juliet; Leidal, Andrew M.; Faure, Nathalie; Ye, Jordan; Wittmann, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is a catabolic pathway involving the sequestration of cellular contents into a double-membrane vesicle, the autophagosome. Although recent studies have demonstrated that autophagy supports cell migration, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Using live-cell imaging, we uncover that autophagy promotes optimal migratory rate and facilitates the dynamic assembly and disassembly of cell-matrix focal adhesions (FAs), which is essential for efficient motility. Additionally, our studies reveal that autophagosomes associate with FAs primarily during disassembly, suggesting autophagy locally facilitates the destabilization of cell-matrix contact sites. Furthermore, we identify the selective autophagy cargo receptor neighbor of BRCA1 (NBR1) as a key mediator of autophagy-dependent FA remodeling. NBR1 depletion impairs FA turnover and decreases targeting of autophagosomes to FAs, whereas ectopic expression of autophagy-competent, but not autophagy-defective, NBR1 enhances FA disassembly and reduces FA lifetime during migration. Our findings provide mechanistic insight into how autophagy promotes migration by revealing a requirement for NBR1-mediated selective autophagy in enabling FA disassembly in motile cells. PMID:26903539

  20. Non-invasive treatment options for focal cortical dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    WANG, TING-TING; ZHOU, DONG

    2016-01-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) presents a strong clinical challenge especially for the treatment of the associated epilepsy. Epilepsy in FCD is often treatment-resistant and constitutes 50% of treatment-resistant cases. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have been widely used in the treatment of FCD. However, evidence to suggest their specific effect on the treatment of FCD remains to be established. In view of this resistance, several alternative treatments have been suggested. Although treatment currently involves surgical management, non-invasive treatments have been identified. The aim of the present review, was to assess non-invasive management strategies including, i) mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, ii) ketogenic diet (KD), and iii) vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). In addition, we discussed the literature available regarding the use of AEDs in FCD. Experiments conducted with mammals detailing rapamycin gene mutations in FCD have produced vital information for exploring treatment options using mTOR inhibitors. Of note is the importance of KD in children with FCD. This diet has been shown to modify disease progression by attenuating chromatin modification, a master regulator for gene expression and functional adaptation of the cell. FCD has also been studied widely with neurostimulation techniques. The outcomes of these techniques have been found to be variable. For widespread dysplasias, VNS has been shown to produce responder rates of >50%. Nevertheless, non-invasive cranial nerve stimulation techniques such as transcutaneous VNS and non-invasive VNS are gaining better patient compatibility, albeit their efficacy remains to be established. PMID:27168769