Science.gov

Sample records for 100-n sewage lagoon

  1. State Waste Discharge Permit application, 100-N Sewage Lagoon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Since the influent to the sewer lagoon is domestic waste water, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used. Although the 100-N Sewage Lagoon is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. The 100-N Sewage Lagoon serves the 100-N Area and other Hanford Site areas by receiving domestic waste from two sources. A network of sanitary sewer piping and lift stations transfers domestic waste water from the 100-N Area buildings directly to the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Waste is also received by trucks that transport domestic waste pumped from on site septic tanks and holding tanks. Three ponds comprise the 100-N Sewage Lagoon treatment system. These include a lined aeration pond and stabilization pond, as well as an unlined infiltration pond. Both piped-in and trucked-in domestic waste is discharged directly into the aeration pond.

  2. Lockport Sewage Lagoon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, John

    1995-01-01

    Describes a student initiated stewardship project that resulted in the transformation of a sewage lagoon near the school into a place to study nature. Contains a list of 20 things that discourage a successful stewardship project. (LZ)

  3. 13. Sewage treatment lagoon, drainage control at center left, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Sewage treatment lagoon, drainage control at center left, looking south - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  4. Central Facilities Area Sewage Lagoon Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Mark R. Cole

    2013-12-01

    The Central Facilities Area (CFA), located in Butte County, Idaho, at the Idaho National Laboratory has an existing wastewater system to collect and treat sanitary wastewater and non-contact cooling water from the facility. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell #1 has a surface area of 1.7 acres, Cell #2 has a surface area of 10.3 acres, and Cell #3 has a surface area of 0.5 acres. If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a 73.5-acre land application site that uses a center-pivot irrigation sprinkler system. As flows at CFA have decreased in recent years, the amount of wastewater discharged to the land application site has decreased from 13.64 million gallons in 2004 to no discharge in 2012 and 2013. In addition to the decreasing need for land application, approximately 7.7 MG of supplemental water was added to the system in 2013 to maintain a water level and prevent the clay soil liners in the cells from drying out and “cracking.” The Idaho National Laboratory is concerned that the sewage lagoons and land application site may be oversized for current and future flows. A further concern is the sustainability of the large volumes of supplemental water that are added to the system according to current operational practices. Therefore, this study was initiated to evaluate the system capacity, operational practices, and potential improvement alternatives, as warranted.

  5. Spreading lagooned sewage sludge on farm land: A case history

    SciTech Connect

    Robson, C.M.; Sommers, L.E.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes the development of a project involving the application of approximately 265,000 cubic meters of lagooned sewage sludge from a metropolitan area on privately-owned farm land in an adjacent, rural county. The sludge application project was initiated to enable use of the land occupied by the lagoons for expansion of the sewage treatment plant. The procedures developed will be valuable to those proposing to practice land disposal of stabilized sludge as part of the Nation`s resource conservation program.

  6. Lagoon Seepage Testing Report for Central Facilities Area (CFA) Sewage Lagoons at Idaho National Laboratory, Butte County, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Bridger Morrison

    2014-09-01

    J-U-B ENGINEERS, Inc. (J-U-B) performed seepage tests on the CFA Wastewater Lagoons 1, 2, and 3 between August 26th and September 22nd, 2014. The lagoons were tested to satisfy the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) Rules (IDAPA 58.01.16) that require all lagoons be tested at a frequency of every 10 years and the Compliance Activity CA-141-03 in the DEQ Wastewater Reuse Permit for the CFA Sewage Treatment Plant (LA-000141-03). The lagoons were tested to determine if the average seepage rates are less than 0.25 in/day, the maximum seepage rate allowed for lagoons built prior to April 15, 2007. The average seepage rates were estimated for each lagoon and are given in Table-ES1. The average seepage rates for Lagoons 1 and 2 are less than the allowable seepage rate of 0.25 in/day. Lagoon 1 and 2 passed the seepage test and will not have to be tested again until the year 20241. However, the average seepage rate for Lagoon 3 appears to exceed the allowable seepage rate of 0.25 in/day which means the potential source for the excessive leakage should be investigated further.

  7. Municipal sewage treatment: Lagoons (ponds). (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and storage of municipal wastewater and sewage in lagoons. Lagoon design, operation, and associated equipment for pretreatment, treatment, and storage techniques are discussed. Many citations describe the water treatment facilities of specific cities, and provide evaluations of the operations at those sites. Industrial and other non-municipal wastewater treatment lagoons are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Municipal sewage treatment: Lagoons (ponds). (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and storage of municipal wastewater and sewage in lagoons. Lagoon design, operation, and associated equipment for pretreatment, treatment, and storage techniques are discussed. Many citations describe the water treatment facilities of specific cities, and provide evaluations of the operations at those sites. Industrial and other non-municipal wastewater treatment lagoons are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Determining the footprint of sewage discharges in a coastal lagoon in South-Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Cravo, Alexandra; Fernandes, Denise; Damião, Tânia; Pereira, Catarina; Reis, Margarida P

    2015-07-15

    Ria Formosa is a highly productive lagoon in South-Western Europe, supporting 90% of Portuguese clam production. Decreases in shellfish production have been ascribed to deterioration of water quality due to sewage discharges. Nevertheless, a thorough study considering their impact on the whole lagoon system has been missing. This work determined the sewage footprint from the major sewage treatment plants (STP) regarding eutrophication and microbial contamination within a two-year monitoring program. This focused on salinity, oxygen, nutrients, chlorophyll-a and faecal coliforms. Areas closer to sewage discharges showed an evident impact with maximum effects detected at the major STP. However, globally, the Ria Formosa did not show clear eutrophication problems due to high tidal flushing. Ammonium, oxygen, chlorophyll-a and faecal coliforms, unlike the other parameters, showed no seasonality. Microbiological contamination was of great concern and public health issues could be avoided by settling shellfish beds at least 500 m away from discharge points. PMID:26013590

  10. Water hyacinths for upgrading sewage lagoons to meet advanced wastewater treatment standards, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    Field tests using water hyacinths as biological filtration agents were conducted in the Mississippi gulf coast region. The plants were installed in one single cell and one multiple cell sewage lagoon systems. Water hyacinths demonstrated the ability to maintain BOD5 and total suspended solid (TSS) levels within the Environmental Protection Agency's prescribed limits of 30 mg/lBOD5 and 30 mg/l TSS. A multiple cell sewage lagoon system consisting of two aerated and one water hyacinth covered cell connected in series demonstrated the ability to maintain BOD5 and TSS levels below 30 mg/l year-round. A water hyacinth covered lagoon with a surface area of 0.28 hectare containing a total volume of 6.8 million liters demonstrated the capacity to treat 437,000 to 1,893,000 liters of sewage influent from 2.65 hectares of aerated lagoons daily and produce an effluent that met or exceeded standards year-round.

  11. Project summary: Spreading lagooned sewage sludge on farm land: A case history

    SciTech Connect

    Robson, C.M.; Sommers, L.E.

    1995-06-01

    The City of Indianapolis, Indiana, was required to construct advanced wastewater treatment facilities at the existing Belmont Wastewater Treatment Plant. The most cost effective site for these new treatment facilities was the 10 sludge lagoons containing 420,000 cubic meters (111 million gallons) of digested sewage sludge stored for up to 50 years. The project consisted of the following major tasks: (1) obtaining approval from regulatory agencies; (2) obtaining cooperation of landowners and farmers; (3) removing, transporting, and applying the lagooned sludge to soil; and (4) monitoring the impact on crops.

  12. Water Hyacinths for Upgrading Sewage Lagoons to Meet Advanced Wastewater Treatment Standards, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Water hyacinths, Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Solms, have demonstrated the ability to function as an efficient and inexpensive final filtration system in a secondary domestic sewage lagoon during a three month test period. These plants reduced the suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demanding substances, and other chemical parameters to levels below the standards set by the state pollution control agency. The water hyacinth-covered secondary lagoon utilized in this experiment had a surface area of 0.28 hectare (0.70 acre) with a total capacity of 6.8 million liters (1.5 million gallons), receiving an inflow of 522,100 liters (115,000 gallons) per day from a 1.1 hectare (3.8 acre) aerated primary sewage lagoon. These conditions allowed a retention time of 14 to 21 days depending on the water hyacinth evapotranspiration rates. The desired purity of final sewage effluent can be controlled by the water hyacinth surface area, harvest rate, and the retention time.

  13. Removal of selected pharmaceuticals, personal care products and artificial sweetener in an aerated sewage lagoon.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M Ehsanul; Cloutier, Frédéric; Arcieri, Carlo; McInnes, Mark; Sultana, Tamanna; Murray, Craig; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2014-07-15

    A sewage lagoon serving the small municipality of Lakefield in Ontario, Canada was monitored in the summer, fall and winter to determine removals of carbamazepine, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, triclosan, sucralose, HHCB and AHTN. Concentrations of these compounds in untreated and treated wastewater were estimated by deploying POCIS and SPMD passive samplers in the sewage lagoon. Passive samplers were also deployed at several points upstream and downstream of the point of discharge from the lagoon into the Otonabee River. LC-MS/MS and GC-MS were utilized to determine the concentrations of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and sucralose, an artificial sweetener. Among PPCPs sampled by POCIS, the highest estimated concentration in untreated wastewater was ibuprofen sampled during the fall, at an estimated concentration of 60.3 ng/L. The estimated average concentration of sucralose was 13.6 ng/L in the untreated wastewaters. Triclosan, HHCB and AHTN in SPMDs were highest during fall season, at 30, 1677 and 109 ng/L, respectively. For all compounds except gemfibrozil, carbamazepine and sucralose, removals were highest in the summer (83.0 to 98.8%) relative to removals in the fall (48.4 to 91.4%) and winter (14.0 to 78.3%). Finally, the estimated concentrations of carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, triclosan and HHCB were compared with predicted values obtained through application of the WEST® modeling tool, with a new model based on the River Water Quality Model No. 1 and extended with dynamic mass balances describing the fate of chemicals of emerging concern subject to a variety of removal pathways. The model was able to adequately predict the fate of these four compounds in the lagoon in summer and winter, but the model overestimated removals of three of the four test compounds in the fall sampling period. This lagoon was as effective at removing PPCPs as many conventional WWTPs, but removals were better during the summer

  14. Environmental Assessment for the sewage lagoon system: Area 5, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The DOE Nevada Operations Office prepared an environmental assessment (EA), (DOE/EA-1026), to evaluate the potential impacts of constructing a sanitary waste sewage lagoon system in Area 5 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The proposed system would replace an existing septic system. Based on the information and analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action would not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 USC 4321 et seq.). Therefore, an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required and DOE is issuing this FONSI.

  15. FACTORS AFFECTING PHYTOPLANKTON DISTRIBUTION IN A DOUBLE-CELL SEWAGE LAGOON (1) (2).

    PubMed

    DeNoyelles, F

    1967-12-01

    The distribution of phyioplankton in a double-cell sewage lagoon at Hallam, Nebraska, was studied in relation to physical, chemical, and biological factors during the summer and fall of 1965. Sixteen species of algae were recorded in the first and more organically rich of the two physically similar ponds, with 28 species recorded in the second pond. Population sizes were always greater in the first pond due to reduced grazing during the summer and large quantities of ammonia-nitrogen during the fall. The dominant algal species in both ponds on nearly all sampling dates was Ankistrodesmus falcatus v. acicularis. Declines in this population occurred with high organic pollution and heavy grazing. Both ponds had severe reductions in algal numbers during late October due to heavy grazing by the rotifer Brachionus. The distribution of phytoplankton in the Hallam ponds is compared to that of other sewage ponds in the United States, and the general pattern which emerged is discussed. PMID:27065027

  16. Compiled data on the vascular aquatic plant program, 1975 - 1977. [for sewage lagoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R.

    1977-01-01

    The performance of a single cell, facultative sewage lagoon was significantly improved with the introduction of vascular aquatic plants. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) was the dominant plant from April to November; duckweed (Lemna spp.) and (Spirodela spp.) flourished from December to March. This 2 ha lagoon received approximately 475 cu m/day of untreated sewage and has a variable COD sub 5 loading rate of 22-30 kg/ha/day. During the first 14 months of operation with aquatic plants, the average influent BOD sub 5 was reduced by 95% from 110 mg/l to an average of 5 mg/l in the effluent. The average influent suspended solids were reduced by 90% from 97 mg/l to 10 mg/l in the effluent. Significant reductions in nitrogen and phosphorus were effected. The monthly kjeldahl nitrogen for influent and effluent averaged 12.0 and 3.4 mg/l, respectively, a reduction of 72%. The total phosphorus was reduced on an average of 56% from 3.7 mg/l influent to 1.6 mg/l effluent.

  17. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV Operations Office

    1999-05-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense. The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO, CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. A CAU consists of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons. Corrective Action Unit 232 consists of CAS 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon, located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The Area 25 Sewage Lagoons (Figure 1-2) (IT, 1999b) are located approximately 0.3 mi south of the Test Cell 'C' (TCC) Facility and were used for the discharge of sanitary effluent from the TCC facility. For purposes of this discussion, this site will be referred to as either CAU 232 or the sewage lagoons.

  18. Effects of cadmium on the performance and microbiology of laboratory-scale lagoons treating domestic sewage.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, J L; Bohatier, J; Pépin, D

    1999-06-01

    Two experiments were performed to assess the impact of cadmium on the sewage lagoon wastewater treatment process. For each one, three laboratory-scale pilot plants with one tank receiving the same raw effluent were used; one plant served as control and the other two were contaminated once only with cadmium. In the first study, the effects of a shock load of two concentrations of cadmium chloride (60 and 300 micrograms/l) on the plant performance, microbial populations (protists and bacteria) and enzyme activities were determined. Initially, most of the performance parameters were affected concentration-dependently. A reduction in the protist population density and some influence on the total bacterial population were observed, and the potential enzymatic activities were also modified. A second experiment with a lower cadmium concentration (30 micrograms/l), supplied as chloride or sulphate, still perturbed most of the parameters studied, and the effects of the two cadmium salts were identical.

  19. Corrective action plan for CAU No. 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 404. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range. CAU 404 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CAS): the Roller Coaster Lagoons (CAS No TA-03-001-TA-RC) and the North Disposal Trench (CAS No TA-21-001-TA-RC). A site map of the lagoons and trench is provided. The Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons are comprised of two unlined lagoons that received liquid sanitary waste in 1963 from the Operation Roller Coaster Man Camp and debris from subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. The North Disposal Trench was excavated in approximately 1963 and received solid waste and debris from the man camp and subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. A small hydrocarbon spill occurred during the 1995 Voluntary Corrective Action (VCA) activities in an area associated with the North Disposal Trench CAS.

  20. Effects of rainfalls variability and physical-chemical parameters on enteroviruses in sewage and lagoon in Yopougon, Côte d'Ivoire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momou, Kouassi Julien; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Traoré, Karim Sory; Akré, Djako Sosthène; Dosso, Mireille

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the variability of the content of nutrients, oxidizable organic and particulate matters in raw sewage and the lagoon on the effect of rainfall. Then evaluate the impact of these changes in the concentration of enteroviruses (EVs) in waters. The sewage samples were collected at nine sampling points along the channel, which flows, into a tropical lagoon in Yopougon. Physical-chemical parameters (5-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Suspended Particulate Matter, Total Phosphorus, Orthophosphate, Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen and Nitrate) as well as the concentration of EV in these waters were determined. The average numbers of EV isolated from the outlet of the channel were 9.06 × 104 PFU 100 ml-1. Consequently, EV was present in 55.55 and 33.33 % of the samples in the 2 brackish lagoon collection sites. The effect of rainfall on viral load at the both sewage and brackish lagoon environments is significant correlate (two-way ANOVA, P < 0.05). Furthermore, in lagoon environment, nutrients (Orthophosphate, Total Phosphorus), 5-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand and Suspended Particulate Matter were significant correlated with EVs loads (P < 0.05 by Pearson test). The overall results highlight the problem of sewage discharge into the lagoon and correlation between viral loads and water quality parameters in sewage and lagoon.

  1. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    USDOE /NV

    1999-05-01

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office; the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; and the U. S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 232 consists of Corrective Action Site 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon. Corrective Action Unit 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, received sanitary effluent from four buildings within the Test Cell ''C'' Facility from the mid-1960s through approximately 1996. The Test Cell ''C'' Facility was used to develop nuclear propulsion technology by conducting nuclear test reactor studies. Based on the site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, herbicides, gamma emitting radionuclides, isotopic plutonium, isotopic uranium, and strontium-90. A detailed conceptual site model is presented in Section 3.0 and Appendix A of this Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The conceptual model serves as the basis for the sampling strategy. Under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the Corrective Action Investigation Plan will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for approval. Field work will be conducted following approval of the plan. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the Corrective Action Decision Document.

  2. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office

    1999-12-23

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, CAU 232 is comprised of Corrective Action Site 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon. This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's (DOE/NV's) recommendation that no corrective action is deemed necessary for CAU 232. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report have been combined into one report because sample data collected during the July 1999 corrective action investigation (CAI) activities disclosed no evidence of contamination at the site. Contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) addressed during the CAI included total volatile organic compounds, total semivolatile organic compounds, total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total pesticides, total herbicides, total petroleum hydrocarbons (gasoline and diesel/oil range), polychlorinated biphenyls, isotopic uranium, isotopic plutonium, strontium-90, and gamma-emitting radionuclides. The data confirmed that none of the COPCs identified exceeded preliminary action levels outlined in the CAIP; therefore, no corrective actions were necessary for CAU 232. After the CAI, best management practice activities were completed and included installation of a fence and signs to limit access to the lagoons, cementing Manhole No. 2 and the diverter box, and closing off influent and effluent ends of the sewage lagoon piping. As a result of the CAI, the DOE/NV recommended that: (1) no further actions were required; (2) no Corrective Action Plan would be required; and (3) no use restrictions were required to be placed on the CAU.

  3. Lagoon Seepage Testing Procedures for Central Facilities Area (CFA) Sewage Lagoons at Idaho National Laboratory Butte County, Idaho April 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Giesbrecht

    2014-05-01

    The lagoon seepage testing procedures are documented herein as required by the Wastewater Rules (IDAPA 58.01.16.493). The Wastewater Rules and Wastewater Reuse Permit LA-000141-03 require that the procedure used for performing a seepage test be approved by IDEQ prior to conducting the seepage test. The procedures described herein are based on a seepage testing plan that was developed by J-U-B ENGINEERS, Inc. (J-U-B) and has been accepted by several IDEQ offices for lagoons in Idaho.

  4. Nitrogen Species in Soil, Sediment, and Ground Water at a Former Sewage-Treatment Wastewater Lagoon: Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, Island County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, S.E.; Dinicola, R.S.; Huffman, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    The potential for contamination of ground water from remnant sewage sludge in re-graded sediments of a deconstructed sewage-treatment lagoon was evaluated. Ground-water levels were measured in temporary drive-point wells, and ground-water samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients and other water-quality characteristics. Composite soil and sediment samples were collected and analyzed for organic carbon and nitrogen species. Multiple lines of evidence, including lack of appreciable organic matter in sediments of the former lagoon, agronomic analysis of nitrogen, the sequestration of nitrogen in the developing soils at the former lagoon, and likely occurrence of peat deposits within the aquifer material, suggest that the potential for substantial additions of nitrogen to ground water beneath the former sewage lagoon resulting from remnant sewage sludge not removed from the former lagoon are small. Concentrations of nitrogen species measured in ground-water samples were small and did not exceed the established U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant levels for nitrate (10 milligrams per liter). Concentrations of nitrate in ground-water samples were less than the laboratory reporting limit of 0.06 milligram per liter. Seventy to 90 percent of the total nitrogen present in ground water was in the ammonia form with a maximum concentration of 7.67 milligrams per liter. Concentrations of total nitrogen in ground water beneath the site, which is the sum of all forms of nitrogen including nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, and organic nitrogen, ranged from 1.15 to 8.44 milligrams per liter. Thus, even if all forms of nitrogen measured in ground water were converted to nitrate, the combined mass would be less than the maximum contaminant level. Oxidation-reduction conditions in ground water beneath the former sewage lagoon were reducing. Given the abundant supply of ambient organic carbon in the subsurface and in ground water at the former lagoon, any

  5. Presence and hazards of nutrients and emerging organic micropollutants from sewage lagoon discharges into Dead Horse Creek, Manitoba, Canada.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Jules C; Anderson, Julie C; Low, Jennifer E; Cardinal, Pascal; MacKenzie, Scott D; Beattie, Sarah A; Challis, Jonathan K; Bennett, Renee J; Meronek, Stephanie S; Wilks, Rebecca P A; Buhay, William M; Wong, Charles S; Hanson, Mark L

    2013-02-15

    Nutrient enrichment and loadings of pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals into freshwater systems are common concerns, especially for water bodies receiving wastewater inputs. In the rural communities of Morden and Winkler of Manitoba, Canada, sewage lagoons discharge their wastewater directly into Dead Horse Creek, a small tributary of the Red River that empties into Lake Winnipeg. This lagoon approach to managing rural wastewaters is common across the North American Prairies. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the hazards of lagoon treatment releases at this model site. This was done by characterizing the nutrients, organic micropollutants (i.e., pesticides, pharmaceuticals) and standard water quality parameters in the creek prior to and following lagoon discharge events over a number of years (2009-2011). Measured concentrations of nutrients were compared to regulatory expectations and micropollutants were assessed using hazard quotients. As expected, concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus species were greatest in sites downstream of the sewage outfall immediately following discharge events. Pharmaceutical and agricultural chemicals were detected at concentrations between 0.5 and 90 ng/L. Detection frequencies and concentrations matched typical use patterns. Those compounds used predominately for human medicine were detected at downstream sites following discharge events, while those used in an agricultural setting were detected at relatively consistent levels over time at sites both upstream and downstream of the outfall location. Hazard quotients calculated for micropollutants of interest indicated minimal toxicological risk to aquatic biota in the creek, with only erythromycin and diazinon presenting a potential concern to aquatic algae and invertebrates. Concentrations of nutrients exceeded Canadian guideline thresholds during release, but returned to background levels once discharges ceased. Therefore, it is advisable that wastewater treatment and

  6. Drying kinetics and stabilization of sewage sludge in lagoon in hot climate.

    PubMed

    Idris, A; Yen, O B; Hamid, M H A; Baki, A M

    2002-01-01

    A sludge lagoon has been adopted as a simple and cost effective method for dewatering of sludge. The processes occurring in a sludge lagoon include thickening, dewatering, storage and stabilization; all happening simultaneously. The objective of this study is to determine the dewatering and drying rates at pilot-scale which occur in a lagoon having different design configurations. Two types of sludge lagoons with different initial sludge depth (0.75 m and 0.375 m) were investigated to measure the drying behavior and drying efficiency. The first design is a sludge lagoon with a clay bottom where the dewatering mechanisms are decanting supernatant and evaporation. The second design is a sludge lagoon installed with a sand and underdrains system, where the dewatering mechanisms are filtration or draining and evaporation. Sludge drying kinetic models with high fitness were plotted to describe the sludge drying behavior. Drying of sludge in a sludge lagoon with a clay bottom can best be described by an exponential function. Whereas, drying of sludge in a sludge lagoon with sand and underdrains system followed a logarithmic function. A lagoon designed with sand and underdrains system and having shallower sludge depth was the most efficient. The reduction in volatile solids was lower than 4% during the study period. The drying process proceeded with an increase in dryness and decline in pH value. PMID:12448479

  7. Drying kinetics and stabilization of sewage sludge in lagoon in hot climate.

    PubMed

    Idris, A; Yen, O B; Hamid, M H A; Baki, A M

    2002-01-01

    A sludge lagoon has been adopted as a simple and cost effective method for dewatering of sludge. The processes occurring in a sludge lagoon include thickening, dewatering, storage and stabilization; all happening simultaneously. The objective of this study is to determine the dewatering and drying rates at pilot-scale which occur in a lagoon having different design configurations. Two types of sludge lagoons with different initial sludge depth (0.75 m and 0.375 m) were investigated to measure the drying behavior and drying efficiency. The first design is a sludge lagoon with a clay bottom where the dewatering mechanisms are decanting supernatant and evaporation. The second design is a sludge lagoon installed with a sand and underdrains system, where the dewatering mechanisms are filtration or draining and evaporation. Sludge drying kinetic models with high fitness were plotted to describe the sludge drying behavior. Drying of sludge in a sludge lagoon with a clay bottom can best be described by an exponential function. Whereas, drying of sludge in a sludge lagoon with sand and underdrains system followed a logarithmic function. A lagoon designed with sand and underdrains system and having shallower sludge depth was the most efficient. The reduction in volatile solids was lower than 4% during the study period. The drying process proceeded with an increase in dryness and decline in pH value.

  8. Use of deep water lagoons for reducing sewage toxicity prior to wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, J.R.; Zuiderveen, J.A.; Belcher, B.; McGinley, P.; Birge, W.J.

    1994-12-31

    Investigations were conducted to determine the effectiveness of deep lagoons as a means of wastewater pretreatment. A lagoon system associated with a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was selected for study and parameters identified for monitoring included toxicity, metals, total suspended solids (TSS) and ammonia. This system included two lagoons, with 7--15 day hydraulic retention times, fed sequentially with untreated water. Toxicity and other parameters were measured for raw influent water, the two lagoon outfalls, and the final WWTP effluent. In seven-day chronic tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia, the NOEC of influent water was as low as 20%, and 100% mortality occurred at 40%. Outfall from the first deep water lagoon showed reduced toxicity. The NOEC was > 50% but complete mortality occurred in undiluted effluent. Further reduction in toxicity occurred in the second lagoon. Its undiluted effluent had no effect on survival, but did markedly reduce fecundity. The final effluent discharged from the treatment plant affected neither survival nor fecundity. Results of this investigation support the use of deep water lagoons as an effective and economical means of pretreating wastewater. This approach offers promise for municipal waters, industrial effluents and stormwater runoff.

  9. Use of deep water lagoons for reducing sewage toxicity prior to wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, J.R.; Zuiderveen, J.A.; Belcher, B.; McGinley, P.; Birge, W.J.

    1995-12-31

    Investigations were conducted to determine the effectiveness of deep lagoons as a means of minimizing toxicity and reducing wastewater parameters. A lagoon system associated with a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was selected for study and parameters identified for monitoring included toxicity, metal concentrations, total suspended solids (TSS) and ammonia. This system included two lagoons, with 7--15 day hydraulic retention times, which received municipal waste. Toxicity and other parameters were measured for raw influent water, the two lagoon outfalls, and the final WWTP effluent. In a definitive seven-day chronic test with Ceriodaphnia dubia, the NOEC of influent water was 20%, and the IC{sub 50} for reproduction was 22.3%. Outfall from the first deep water lagoon showed reduced toxicity. The NOEC and IC{sub 50} were 80 and 71.8%, respectively. Further reduction in toxicity occurred in the second lagoon. The NOEC was 80% and the IC{sub 50} was 75.9. The final effluent discharged from the treatment plant affected neither survival nor fecundity. A 7-day embryo larval test conducted with Pimephales promelas yielded similar results. NOEC values increased through the lagoon system and were 2.5, 40.0, 40.0 and 100%, respectively. Acute TIE procedures implicated both metals and ammonia as primary toxicants. In all tests a sequential reduction in toxicity was observed through the lagoons. Results of this investigation support the use of deep water lagoons as an effective and economical means of pretreating wastewater. This approach offers promise for municipal waters, industrial effluents and stormwater runoff.

  10. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada with ROTC 1, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    1998-09-01

    This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Comective Action Unit (CAU) 404. CAU 404 consists of the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons (Corrective Action Site [CAS] TA-03-O01-TA-RC) and the North Disposal Trench (CAS TA-21-001-TA-RC). The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest ofLas Vegas, Nevada. . The sewage lagoons received ~quid sanitary waste horn the Operation Roller Coaster Man Camp in 1963 and debris from subsequent range and construction cleanup activities. The debris and ordnance was subsequently removed and properly dispos~, however, pesticides were detected in soil samples born the bottom of the lagoons above the U,S. Environmental Protection Agency Region IX Prelimimuy Remediation Goals (EPA 1996). . The North Disposal Trench was excavated in 1963. Debris from the man camp and subsequent range and construction cleanup activities was placed in the trench. Investigation results indicated that no constituents of concern were detected in soil samples collected from the trench. Remedial alternative proposed in the Comctive Action Decision Document (CADD) fm the site was “Covering” (DOE, 1997a). The Nevada Division of”Enviromnental Protection (NDEP)-approved Correction Action Plan (CAP) proposed the “Covering” niethodology (1997b). The closure activities were completed in accorhce with the approwil CAP and consisted of baclctllling the sewage lagoons and disposal trench, constructing/planting an engineered/vegetative cover in the area of the sewage lagoons and dikposal trencQ installing a perimeter fence and signs, implementing restrictions on fi~e use, and preparing a Post-Closure Monitoring Plan. “ Since closure activities. for CAU 404 have been completed in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection-approved CAP (DOE, 1997b) as documented in this Closure Report, the U.S. Department of

  11. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. S. Tobiason

    2001-07-01

    This Closure Report (CR) describes the remediation activities performed and the results of verification sampling conducted at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230, Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and CAU 320, Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box. The CAU is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). The CAU is located in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (Figure 1) and consists of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 22-03-01- Sewage Lagoon (CAU 230); and 22-99-01- Strainer Box (CAU 320). Included with CAS 22-99-01 is a buried Imhoff tank and a sludge bed. These CAUs will be collectively referred to in this plan as the Area 22 Sewage Lagoons site. Site characterization activities were done during September 1999. Characterization of the manholes associated with the septic system leading to the Imhoff tank was done during March 2000. The results of the characterization presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) indicated that only the sludge bed (CAS 22-99-01) contained constituents of concern (COC) above action levels and required remediation (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 2000a).

  12. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of membrane filtration process adapted for water treatment of aerated sewage lagoons.

    PubMed

    Cano, Grégory; Mouahid, Adil; Carretier, Emilie; Guasp, Pascal; Dhaler, Didier; Castelas, Bernard; Moulin, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to apply the membrane bioreactor technology in an oxidation ditch in submerged conditions. This new wastewater filtration process will benefit rural areas (<5,000 population equivalent) subject to chronic water shortages by reusing this water for irrigation of green areas. For this purpose, the membranes developed without support are immersed in an aeration well and work in suction mode. The development of the membrane without support and more precisely the performance of spacers are approached by computational fluid dynamics in order to provide the best compromise between pressure drop/flow velocity and permeate flux. The numerical results on the layout and the membrane modules' geometry in the aeration well indicate that the optimal configuration is to install the membranes horizontally on three levels. Membranes should be connected to each other to a manifold providing a total membrane area of 18 m². Loss rate compared to the theoretical throughput is relatively low (less than 3%). Preliminary data obtained by modeling the lagoon provide access to its hydrodynamics, revealing that recirculation zones can be optimized by making changes in the operating conditions. The experimental validation of these results and taking into account the aeration in the numerical models are underway. PMID:25633942

  13. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of membrane filtration process adapted for water treatment of aerated sewage lagoons.

    PubMed

    Cano, Grégory; Mouahid, Adil; Carretier, Emilie; Guasp, Pascal; Dhaler, Didier; Castelas, Bernard; Moulin, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to apply the membrane bioreactor technology in an oxidation ditch in submerged conditions. This new wastewater filtration process will benefit rural areas (<5,000 population equivalent) subject to chronic water shortages by reusing this water for irrigation of green areas. For this purpose, the membranes developed without support are immersed in an aeration well and work in suction mode. The development of the membrane without support and more precisely the performance of spacers are approached by computational fluid dynamics in order to provide the best compromise between pressure drop/flow velocity and permeate flux. The numerical results on the layout and the membrane modules' geometry in the aeration well indicate that the optimal configuration is to install the membranes horizontally on three levels. Membranes should be connected to each other to a manifold providing a total membrane area of 18 m². Loss rate compared to the theoretical throughput is relatively low (less than 3%). Preliminary data obtained by modeling the lagoon provide access to its hydrodynamics, revealing that recirculation zones can be optimized by making changes in the operating conditions. The experimental validation of these results and taking into account the aeration in the numerical models are underway.

  14. Addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2000-05-18

    This document is an addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, DOE/NV-582-Rev. 0. This addendum provides the requested documentation that supports the assertion that contamination above levels of concern does not exist in the abandoned sewer lines. This addendum summarizes the results of the manhole investigation conducted during March 2000. Results of the manhole investigation indicate that no changes to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report are necessary and all other sections of the document shall remain unchanged.

  15. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. S. Tobiason

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the strategy and methodology to close the Area 22 Sewage Lagoons site. The CAU will be closed following state and federal regulations and the FFACO (1996). Site characterization was done during September 1999, Soil samples were collected using a direct-push method and a backhoe. Soil samples were collected from the sludge bed, sewage lagoons, strainer box, and Imhoff tank areas. Characterization of the manholes associated with the septic system leading to the Imhoff tank was done during March 2000. The results of the characterization were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (DOE/NV, 2000). Soil sample results indicated that the only constituent of concern (COC) detected above Preliminary Action Levels (PALs) was total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as diesel-range organics. This COC was detected in three samples from the sludge bed at concentrations up to 580 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). This exceeds the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) regulatory action level for TPH of 100 mg/kg (Nevada Administrative Code, 1996). Excavation of the area during characterization uncovered asphalt debris, four safety poles, and strands of barbed wire. The TPH-impacted soil and debris will be removed and disposed in the NTS Area 6 Hydrocarbon Landfill.

  16. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    US DOE /Nevada Operations Office

    1999-06-10

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operation Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230/320 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 230 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 22-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; while CAU 320 consists of CAS 22-99-01, Strainer Box. These CAUs are referred to as CAU 230/320 or the Sewage Lagoons Site. The Sewage Lagoons Site also includes an Imhoff tank, sludge bed, and associated buried sewer piping. Located in Area 22, the site was used between 1951 to 1958 for disposal of sanitary sewage effluent from the historic Camp Desert Rock Facility at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada. Based on site history, the contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and radionuclides. Vertical migration is estimated to be less than 12 feet below ground surface, and lateral migration is limited to the soil immediately adjacent to or within areas of concern. The proposed investigation will involve a combination of field screening for VOCs and TPH using the direct-push method and excavation using a backhoe to gather soil samples for analysis. Gamma spectroscopy will also be conducted for waste management purposes. Sampling locations will be biased to suspected worst-case areas including the nearby sludge bed, sewage lagoon inlet(s) and outlet(s), disturbed soil surrounding the lagoons, surface drainage channel south of the lagoons, and the area near the Imhoff tank. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  17. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Air port Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    1999-06-10

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operation Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230/320 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 230 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 22-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; while CAU 320 consists of CAS 22-99-01, Strainer Box. These CAUs are referred to as CAU 230/320 or the Sewage Lagoons Site. The Sewage Lagoons Site also includes an Imhoff tank, sludge bed, and associated buried sewer piping. Located in Area 22, the site was used between 1951 to 1958 for disposal of sanitary sewage effluent from the historic Camp Desert Rock Facility at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada. Based on site history, the contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and radionuclides. Vertical migration is estimated to be less than 12 feet below ground surface, and lateral migration is limited to the soil immediately adjacent to or within areas of concern. The proposed investigation will involve a combination of field screening for VOCs and TPH using the direct-push method and excavation using a backhoe to gather soil samples for analysis. Gamma spectroscopy will also be conducted for waste management purposes. Sampling locations will be biased to suspected worst-case areas including the nearby sludge bed, sewage lagoon inlet(s) and outlet(s), disturbed soil surrounding the lagoons, surface drainage channel south of the lagoons, and the area near the Imhoff tank. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  18. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Campbell

    2001-06-01

    Post-closure monitoring requirements for the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench (Corrective Action Unit [CAW 404]) (Figure 1) are described in Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404, Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, report number DOE/NV--187. The Closure Report (CR) was submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on September 11, 1998. Permeability results of soils adjacent to the engineered cover and a request for closure of CAU 404 were transmitted to the NDEP on April 29, 1999. The CR (containing the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan) was approved by the NDEP on May 18, 1999. Post-closure monitoring at CAU 404 consists of the following: (1) Site inspections done twice a year to evaluate the condition of the unit; (2) Verification that the site is secure; (3) Notice of any subsidence or deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the unit; (4) Remedy of any deficiencies within 90 days of discovery; and (5) Preparation and submittal of an annual report. Site inspections were conducted on June 19, 2000, and November 21, 2000. The site inspections were conducted after completion of the revegetation activities (October 30, 1997) and NDEP approval of the CR (May 18, 1999). All site inspections were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan in the NDEP-approved CR. This report includes copies of inspection checklists, photographs, recommendations, and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and copies of the inspection photographs are found in Attachment C.

  19. Ground-water flow and quality beneath sewage-sludge lagoons, and a comparison with the ground-water quality beneath a sludge-amended landfill, Marion County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bobay, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    The groundwater beneath eight sewage sludge lagoons, was studied to characterize the flow regime and to determine whether leachate had infiltrated into the glacio-fluvial sediments. Groundwater quality beneath the lagoons was compared with the groundwater quality beneath a landfill where sludge had been applied. The lagoons and landfills overlie outwash sand and gravel deposits separated by discontinuous clay layers. Shallow groundwater flows away from the lagoons and discharges into the White River. Deep groundwater discharges to the White River and flows southwest beneath Eagle Creek. After an accumulation of at least 2 inches of precipitation during 1 week, groundwater flow is temporarily reversed in the shallow aquifer, and all deep flow is along a relatively steep hydraulic gradient to the southwest. The groundwater is predominantly a calcium bicarbonate type, although ammonium accounts for more than 30% of the total cations in water from three wells. Concentrations of sodium, chloride, sulfate, iron, arsenic, boron, chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, and methylene-blue-active substances indicate the presence of leachate in the groundwater. Concentrations of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc were less than detection limits. The concentrations of 16 of 19 constituents or properties of groundwater beneath the lagoons are statistically different than groundwater beneath the landfill at the 0.05 level of significance. Only pH and concentrations of dissolved oxygen and bromide are higher in groundwater beneath the landfill than beneath the lagoons

  20. Distribution of anionic and nonionic surfactants in a sewage-impacted Mediterranean coastal lagoon: inputs and seasonal variations.

    PubMed

    Traverso-Soto, Juan M; Lara-Martín, Pablo A; González-Mazo, Eduardo; León, Víctor M

    2015-01-15

    In this work we have monitored the seasonal inputs, occurrence and distribution of the world's most widely used surfactants (linear alkylbenzene sulfonates, LAS, nonylphenol polyethoxylates, NPEOs, and alcohol polyethoxylates, AEOs) in Mar Menor lagoon (SE Spain) and its main tributary (El Albujón) for the first time. Concentration of target compounds was determined in both surface waters and sediments after solid phase extraction and pressurized liquid extraction, respectively, followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). There were significant differences in surfactant fluxes from El Albujón towards Mar Menor depending on the season and the day of the week, with maximum estimated annual inputs being detected for LAS (406 kg) and their metabolites, sulfophenyl carboxylic acids (482 kg). Average concentrations of surfactants in the lagoon were between 44 and 1665 μg/kg in sediment, and between 0.3 and 63 μg/L in water. These levels were significantly higher for samples collected near the shore than for those measured inside the lagoon itself. Overall, the occurrence and distribution of surfactants in the system could be explained due to a combination of different sources (surface and groundwater inputs, treated and untreated wastewater effluents, towns, ports, etc.) and simultaneous in-situ physicochemical and biological processes, with an special emphasis on degradation during warmer months. PMID:25046983

  1. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-04-20

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230, Area 22 Sewage Lagoons, and CAU 320, Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Referred to as CAU 230/320, both CAUs are located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and comprise two Corrective Action Sites (CASs), 22-03-01 (Sewage Lagoons) and 22-99-01 (Strainer Box). The Area 22 Sewage Lagoons site also includes a buried Imhoff Tank, sludge bed, and associated sewer piping. A September 1999 corrective action investigation identified the only contaminant of concern above preliminary action levels at this CAU (i.e., total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics). During this same investigation, three Corrective Action Objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate exposure to subsurface debris and contaminated soil. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations in Area 22 of the NTS, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls, and Alternative 3 - Excavation and Removal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Alternative 3 was chosen on technical merit as the preferred alternative for CAU 230/320. This alternative was judged to meet all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the buried debris and contaminated soils at both of the CASs within Area 22.

  2. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320. Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Appenzeller, Janet

    2000-04-20

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230, Area 22 Sewage Lagoons, and CAU 320, Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Referred to as CAU 230/320, both CAUs are located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and comprise two Corrective Action Sites (CASs), 22-03-01 (Sewage Lagoons) and 22-99-01 (Strainer Box). The Area 22 Sewage Lagoons site also includes a buried Imhoff Tank, sludge bed, and associated sewer piping. A September 1999 corrective action investigation identified the only contaminant of concern above preliminary action levels at this CAU (i.e., total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics). During this same investigation, three Corrective Action Objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate exposure to subsurface debris and contaminated soil. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations in Area 22 of the NTS, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls, and Alternative 3 - Excavation and Removal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Alternative 3 was chosen on technical merit as the preferred alternative for CAU 230/320. This alternative was judged to meet all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the buried debris and contaminated soils at both of the CASs within Area 22.

  3. A simple flow balance model for engineering design and daily operational use of sewage treatment lagoons at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, F.T.; Bielawski, J.P.

    1994-07-01

    Thirteen waste-water lagoon treatment sites currently exist on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These treatment and disposal sites were originally subjected to engineering criteria which were acceptable to the state of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). New requirements which mandate the implementation of a methodology which would protect the groundwater at each facility were recently established by the NDEP, even though vadose zones are anticipated to be several hundred feet in depth at all locations. A simple, but useful, near-surface hydrological and atmospheric flow balance model was constructed to aid in these and any future assessments. The major features of the model are: infiltration through the bottom and wetted sides of the treatment lagoon or disposal basin; evaporation from the surface of the treatment or disposal lagoon; time variant influent flow rates; and instantaneous time rate of change of volume of waste-water in the treatment or disposal lagoon. The underlying lagoon/basin geometry is that of an inverted frustum of a right tetrahedron whose wall slopes and bottom dimensions are user specified.

  4. 100-N Area underground storage tank closures

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, C.A.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the removal/characterization actions concerning underground storage tanks (UST) at the 100-N Area. Included are 105-N-LFT, 182-N-1-DT, 182-N-2-DT, 182-N-3-DT, 100-N-SS-27, and 100-N-SS-28. The text of this report gives a summary of remedial activities. In addition, correspondence relating to UST closures can be found in Appendix B. Appendix C contains copies of Unusual Occurrence Reports, and validated sampling data results comprise Appendix D.

  5. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    2009-02-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the September 1998, Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the modification of the UR for CAS TA-03-001-TARC Roller Coaster Lagoons. This UR was established as part of Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective actions and was based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since this UR was established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, this UR was re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This reevaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the UR) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to modify the UR for CAS TA-03

  6. Central Facilities Area Sewage Lagoon Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Giesbrecht, Alan

    2015-03-01

    The Central Facilities Area (CFA) located in Butte County, Idaho at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has an existing wastewater system to collect and treat sanitary wastewater and non contact cooling water from the facility. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell 1 has a surface area of 1.7 acres, Cell 2 has a surface area of 10.3 acres, and Cell 3 has a surface area of 0.5 acres. If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a 73.5 acre land application site that utilizes a center pivot irrigation sprinkler system. The purpose of this current study is to update the analysis and conclusions of the December 2013 study. In this current study, the new seepage rate and influent flow rate data have been used to update the calculations, model, and analysis.

  7. Industrial waste treatment: Lagoons (ponds). (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and storage of wastewaters in lagoons. Lagoon design, operation, associated equipment, and pretreatment processes are discussed. Included in the references are treatment of wastewaters from breweries, tanneries, paper mills, agricultural operations, and other industrial operations. Descriptions and evaluations of specific facilities are provided. Municipal water and sewage treatment lagoons are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 118 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Macroalgae, nutrient cycles, and pollutants in the lagoon of Venice

    SciTech Connect

    Sfriso, A.; Pavoni, B.; Marcomini, A.; Orio, A.A. )

    1992-12-01

    The Lagoon of Venice is a wide, shallow coastal basin that extends for about 50 km along the northwest coast of the Adriatic Sea. The lagoon has been substantially modified through the actions of man over the last century through the artificial control of the hydraulic dynamics of the lagoon including the construction of channels to facilitate navigation. The lagoon is subjected to considerable pollutant loading through the drainage of land under cultivation, municipal sewage, and industrial effluents. In this paper are reported the results of observations designed to document recent changes in macroalgal species composition, seasonal cycles of primary producers and nutrient levels, and the effects of the macroalgal community on concentrations of organic and inorganic pollutants. The dominant macroalgae in the lagoon was Ulva rigida, and the levels of plant nutrients and pollutants were influenced by the seasonal cycles of the macroalgal community. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Aquifer Tube Sampling Along the 100-N Area Shoreline

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, Michael J.; Valenta, Michelle M.

    2007-08-14

    This report contains citrate data for groundwaters received from the 100-N Area. On April 4, 2007, 7 water samples were received from the 100-N Area for citrate analysis. The analyses for this project were performed at the 325 building located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The analyses were performed according to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) approved procedures. The data sets include the sample identification numbers, analytical results, estimated quantification limits (EQL) and quality control data.

  10. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A million gallon-a-day sewage treatment plant in Huntington Beach, CA converts solid sewage to activated carbon which then treats incoming waste water. The plant is scaled up 100 times from a mobile unit NASA installed a year ago; another 100-fold scale-up will be required if technique is employed for widespread urban sewage treatment. This unique sewage-plant employed a serendipitous outgrowth of a need to manufacture activated carbon for rocket engine insulation. The process already exceeds new Environmental Protection Agency Standards Capital costs by 25% compared with conventional secondary treatment plants.

  11. Lagoons and Oxidation Ponds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers lagoons and oxidation ponds, and it includes some areas such as improving the effluents from ponds, stabilization ponds, aerated lagoons, and oxidation ditches. A list of 36 references is also presented. (HM)

  12. Crustacean zooplankton in aerated wastewater treatment lagoons as a potential feedstock for biofuel.

    PubMed

    Kring, Stefanie A; Xia, Xiaoyan; Powers, Susan E; Twiss, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Zooplankton biomass productivity was estimated for two 64,000 m3 (1.7 ha) facultative aerated wastewater treatment lagoons to evaluate potential biodiesel production from zooplankton biomass. Lagoons were monitored bi-weekly during summer 2010. Lipid accumulated by crustacean zooplankton was considered the most efficient means by which to collect lipid produced by phytoplankton owing to the greater ease in the collection of these organisms (>0.153mm) compared with unicellular algae (size <0.06 mm). In terms of biomass, the cladoceran Daphnia and the copepod Cyclops were the dominant zooplankton in these hypereutrophic lagoons, while unicellular chlorophytes dominated the phytoplankton community. Secondary productivity of these lagoons (250 g of dry weight m(-2) yr(-1)) is comparable to the secondary productivity of other sewage lagoons. The potential biodiesel production for one lagoon was estimated to be 0.04 +/- 0.02 L m(-2) yr(-1), which results in a total of 1120 +/- 560 L from two lagoons. This study showed that there are organisms present in wastewater lagoons, besides algae, that can serve as a biofuel feedstock. Additionally, this research expands the current knowledge of facultative aerated wastewater lagoon ecology and waste stream-derived biofuel. Future research should include complete life cycle and economic analyses to determine if harvesting zooplankton from wastewater lagoons is a sustainable endeavour. PMID:24350451

  13. Crustacean zooplankton in aerated wastewater treatment lagoons as a potential feedstock for biofuel.

    PubMed

    Kring, Stefanie A; Xia, Xiaoyan; Powers, Susan E; Twiss, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Zooplankton biomass productivity was estimated for two 64,000 m3 (1.7 ha) facultative aerated wastewater treatment lagoons to evaluate potential biodiesel production from zooplankton biomass. Lagoons were monitored bi-weekly during summer 2010. Lipid accumulated by crustacean zooplankton was considered the most efficient means by which to collect lipid produced by phytoplankton owing to the greater ease in the collection of these organisms (>0.153mm) compared with unicellular algae (size <0.06 mm). In terms of biomass, the cladoceran Daphnia and the copepod Cyclops were the dominant zooplankton in these hypereutrophic lagoons, while unicellular chlorophytes dominated the phytoplankton community. Secondary productivity of these lagoons (250 g of dry weight m(-2) yr(-1)) is comparable to the secondary productivity of other sewage lagoons. The potential biodiesel production for one lagoon was estimated to be 0.04 +/- 0.02 L m(-2) yr(-1), which results in a total of 1120 +/- 560 L from two lagoons. This study showed that there are organisms present in wastewater lagoons, besides algae, that can serve as a biofuel feedstock. Additionally, this research expands the current knowledge of facultative aerated wastewater lagoon ecology and waste stream-derived biofuel. Future research should include complete life cycle and economic analyses to determine if harvesting zooplankton from wastewater lagoons is a sustainable endeavour.

  14. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In the early 1970's, National Space Technology Laboratories discovered that water hyacinths literally thrive on sewage; they absorb and digest nutrients and minerals from wastewater, converting sewage effluents to clean water. They offer a means of purifying water at a fraction of the cost of a conventional sewage treatment plant, and provide a bonus value in byproducts. Hyacinths must be harvested at intervals; the harvested plants are used as fertilizers, high-protein animal feed and a source of energy. Already serving a number of small towns, the "aquaculture" technique has significantly advanced with its adoption by a major U.S. city.

  15. Storm-water characterization and lagoon sediment analysis, Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Garland, J.G.; Vaughn, R.W.; Scott, P.T.

    1990-08-01

    Sampling was conducted in the wastewater treatment lagoons and stormwater runoff at Grand Forks AFB. The base was concerned about whether the unlined lagoons were creating a potential groundwater contamination problem and whether their stormwater runoff met North Dakota state stream standards. Lagoon sediment did not contain Extraction Procedure hazardous chemicals. Stormwater runoff exceeded state standards for boron, phosphates, and phenols and contained trace levels of methylene chloride. Characterization of lagoon influent showed it to be generally representative of domestic sewage, but also contained trace levels of boron, phenols, toluene, cyanide, chloroform, methylene chloride and ethyl benzene.

  16. Brazil The Duck Lagoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of Brazil covers an area of about 298 kilometers x 358 kilometers, and was captured by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on December 27, 2001. The 'Lagoa dos Patos', in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, translates to 'the Duck Lagoon'. It was named by 16th century Jesuit settlers, who asked the King of Spain to grant them title to the lagoon so that they could breed ducks. The King consented, but revoked his edict when he discovered that the 'duck-pond' (measuring about 14,000 square kilometers) was one of the largest lagoonal systems in the world. Note the sediment plume emanating from the southern end of the lagoon. Sailors in the 16th century imagined this outlet to be the mouth of a large river. Early Portuguese explorers mistook the entrance to the lagoon for the mouth of a great river and called it the Rio Grande. A series of wave-like points and curls form 'cusps' on the inner shores of the lagoon. The lagoon's characteristics change with short-term tide-induced cyclic perturbations, and with longer term large scale meteorological conditions. The distinctive wavelike 'cusps' along the inner shores result from the circulation, erosion and accumulation of sediments driven by wind and tidal action. The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) circulation affects precipitation amount and continental runoff, thereby changing the contents of the lagoon waters. High rainfall and increased freshwater discharge during El Nino events correspond with elevated dissolved nutrient concentrations and increased phytoplankton growth. La Nina years are dry and the associated low rainfall reduces the freshwater recharge to the lagoon, causing an increase in salinity. Occasional blooms of toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), have been registered in the lagoon when nutrient concentrations are elevated. A number of reeds and grasses are important to the lagoon estuary, including widgeon grass

  17. Modulation of sex ratios in Daphnia magna following multigenerational exposure to sewage treatment plant effluents.

    PubMed

    Baer, K N; McCoole, M D; Overturf, M D

    2009-07-01

    The influence of sewage treatment plant effluents on sex ratios in Daphnia magna was investigated. Female daphnids were acclimated for several generations to effluents from a municipal sewage treatment plant and a residential oxidation lagoon and then placed under conditions to maximize male offspring production. Both effluents resulted in a statistically significant decrease in male production and a shift in male broods from earlier broods to later broods near the end of the adult life cycle. For example, sex ratios in control daphnids ranged from 0.43 to 0.67 in broods 3-4 compared with 0.0-0.13 in daphnids exposed to the residential oxidation lagoon. Secondary sexual characteristics of both sexes were statistically significantly increased by the sewage lagoon effluent but not the municipal effluent. These preliminary results suggest that alteration in timing of sexual determination due to exposure to sewage treatment plant effluents could severely impact the survival of daphnid populations. PMID:19193438

  18. Brazil: Duck Lagoon

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... in the lagoon during spring and summer. Although the lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) is found in some parts of Rio Grande do Sul, the Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii), is not distributed within the image area (it is ...

  19. Comparative oceanography of coastal lagoons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kjerfve, Bjorn

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis that physical lagoon characteristics and variability depend on the channel connecting the lagoon to the adjacent coastal ocean is evaluated. The geographical, hydrological, and oceanographic characteristics of 10 lagoon systems are described and analyzed; these oceanographic features are utilized to classify the lagoon systems. Choked lagoons (Laguna Joyuda, Coorong, Lake St.Lucia, Gippsland Lakes, Lake Songkla/Thale Luang/Thale Noi, and Lagoa dos Patos) are prevalent on coasts with high wave energy and low tidal range; restricted lagoons (Lake Pontchartrain and Laguna de Terminos) are located on low/medium wave energy coasts with a low tidal range; and leaky lagoons (Mississippi Sound and Belize Lagoon/Chetumal Bay) are connected to the ocean by wide tidal passes that transmit oceanic effects into the lagoon with a minimum of resistance. The data support the hypothesis that the nature of the connecting channel controls system functions.

  20. First steps of ecological restoration in Mediterranean lagoons: Shifts in phytoplankton communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leruste, A.; Malet, N.; Munaron, D.; Derolez, V.; Hatey, E.; Collos, Y.; De Wit, R.; Bec, B.

    2016-10-01

    Along the French Mediterranean coast, a complex of eight lagoons underwent intensive eutrophication over four decades, mainly related to nutrient over-enrichment from continuous sewage discharges. The lagoon complex displayed a wide trophic gradient from mesotrophy to hypertrophy and primary production was dominated by phytoplankton communities. In 2005, the implementation of an 11 km offshore outfall system diverted the treated sewage effluents leading to a drastic reduction of anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen and phosphorus into the lagoons. Time series data have been examined from 2000 to 2013 for physical, chemical and biological (phytoplankton) variables of the water column during the summer period. Since 2006, total nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations as well as chlorophyll biomass strongly decreased revealing an improvement in lagoon water quality. In summertime, the decline in phytoplankton biomass was accompanied by shifts in community structure and composition that could be explained by adopting a functional approach by considering the common functional traits of the main algal groups. These phytoplankton communities were dominated by functional groups of small-sized and fast-growing algae (diatoms, cryptophytes and green algae). The trajectories of summer phytoplankton communities displayed a complex response to changing nutrient loads over time. While diatoms were the major group in 2006 in all the lagoons, the summer phytoplankton composition in hypertrophic lagoons has shifted towards green algae, which are particularly well adapted to summertime conditions. All lagoons showed increasing proportion and occurrence of peridinin-rich dinophytes over time, probably related to their capacity for mixotrophy. The diversity patterns were marked by a strong variability in eutrophic and hypertrophic lagoons whereas phytoplankton community structure reached the highest diversity and stability in mesotrophic lagoons. We observe that during the re

  1. Project Work Plan 100-N Area Strontium-90 Treatability Demonstration Project: Phytoremediation Along the 100-N Columbia River Riparian Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Ainsworth, Calvin C.

    2006-04-30

    The 100-N Area Innovative Treatment and Remediation Demonstration (ITRD) identified phyto¬remediation as a potential technology both for the removal of 90Sr from the soil of the riparian zone and as a filter for groundwater along the Columbia River. Recent greenhouse and growth chamber studies have demonstrated the viability of phytoextraction to remove 90Sr from this area’s soil/water; in conjunction with monitored natural attenuation and an apatite barrier the process would make an effective treatment for remediation of the 100-N Area 90Sr plume. All activities associated with the 100-NR-1 and 100-NR-2 Operable Units of the Hanford 100-N Area have had, and continue to have, significant regulatory and stakeholder participation. Beginning in 1998 with the ITRD process, presentations to the ITRD TAG were heavily attended by EPA, Washington State Department of Ecology, and stakeholders. In addition, three workshops have been held to receive regulatory and stakeholder feedback on monitored natural attenuation, the apatite barrier, and phytoremediation; these were held in Richland in August 2003, December 2004, and August 2005. The apatite injection treatability test plan (DOE 2005) describes phytoremediation as a technology to be evaluated during the March 2008 evaluation milestone as described in the Tri-Party Agreement change request (M-16-06-01 Change Control Form). If, during this evaluation milestone, phytoremediation is favorably evaluated it would be incorporated into the treatability test plan. The phytoremediation treatability test described in this proposal is strongly supported by the Washington State Department of Ecology.

  2. Odor control in lagoons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X L; Yan, S; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2013-07-30

    Lagoons are widely used in rural area for wastewater treatment; however, the odor problem has hampered its application. The root of odor emission from lagoons varies from one to another. The key of controlling the odor is to find out the cause and accordingly provide strategies. Various physical, chemical, and biological methods have been reported and applied for odor control. Physical technologies such as masking, capturing and sorption are often employed to mitigate the pressure from compliant while not to cut off the problem. Chemical technologies which act rapidly and efficiently in odor control, utilize chemicals to damage the odorant production root or convert odorant to odorless substances. Biological methods such as aeration, biocover and biofiltration control the odor by enhancing aerobic condition or developing methanogens in lagoon, and biologically decomposing the odorants. Comparing to physical and chemical methods, biological methods are more feasible.

  3. Hanford Site 100-N Area In Situ Bioremediation of UPR-100-N-17, Deep Petroleum Unplanned Release - 13245

    SciTech Connect

    Saueressig, Daniel G.

    2013-07-01

    In 1965 and 1966, approximately 303 m{sup 3} of Number 2 diesel fuel leaked from a pipeline used to support reactor operations at the Hanford Site's N Reactor. N Reactor was Hanford's longest operating reactor and served as the world's first dual purpose reactor for military and power production needs. The Interim Action Record of Decision for the 100-N Area identified in situ bioremediation as the preferred alternative to remediate the deep vadose zone contaminated by this release. A pilot project supplied oxygen into the vadose zone to stimulate microbial activity in the soil. The project monitored respiration rates as an indicator of active biodegradation. Based on pilot study results, a full-scale system is being constructed and installed to remediate the vadose zone contamination. (authors)

  4. Coordination of groundwater activities in the 100 N Area

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    The initiation of the N Springs Expedited Response Action (ERA) in the 100 N Area will affect the groundwater monitoring networks of two Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) units. The 1301-N and 325-N facilities are treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) units that have been monitored under RCRA since 1987. In September 1994, the Washington State Department of Ecology issued an action memorandum, instructing the US Department of Energy (DOE) to take the action. The planned pump-and-treat system will preclude meeting the specific objectives of interim-status RCRA groundwater monitoring representative samples and detect adverse impacts of the TSD units on. However, under RCRA final-status requirements, which will be implemented in 1999, corrective action for groundwater contamination will probably be required. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has declared parity between RCRA corrective action and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 remedial action decisions. The 1301-N and 1325-N facilities are still in interim-status and therefore are not in the category of ``RCRA corrective action.`` However, DOE`s position is that parity exists between RCRA and the ERA because RCRA corrective action will almost certainly be required in the future.

  5. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Stennis Space Center's aquaculture research program has led to an attractive wastewater treatment for private homes. The system consists of a septic tank or tanks for initial sewage processing and a natural secondary treatment facility for further processing of septic tanks' effluent, consisting of a narrow trench, which contains marsh plants and rocks, providing a place for microorganisms. Plants and microorganisms absorb and digest, thus cleansing partially processed wastewater. No odors are evident and cleaned effluent may be discharged into streams or drainage canals. The system is useful in rural areas, costs about $1,900, and requires less maintenance than mechanical systems.

  6. Lagoon-sea exchanges, nutrient dynamics and water quality management of the Ria Formosa (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Alice; Mudge, Stephen M.

    2005-02-01

    Historical data from the Ria Formosa lagoon are classified according to the EEA 2001 guidelines to provide a frame of reference to evaluate the effect of management during the implementation of the environmental legislative Directives. Water samples from the Ria Formosa lagoon were significantly enriched in nitrogen (NH 4+ NO 2- and NO 3-) with respect to the adjacent coastal waters indicating that inputs from sewage, agricultural runoff and benthic fluxes were not fully assimilated within the lagoon. Tidal flushing was insufficient in the inner areas of the lagoon to remove or effectively dilute these inputs. Enrichment was most severe close to the urban centres of Faro and Olhão, as well as in the Gilão Estuary and the shallow extremities. Dissolved oxygen undersaturation (mean 75% during daylight hours) was associated with the area close to the sewage outlets of Faro. In the shallow west end of the lagoon during summer, dissolved oxygen supersaturation reached 140% during the day but fell to 50% at night. Classification using the EEA (2001) guidelines suggests the system is "poor" or "bad" with respect to phosphate concentrations for the majority of the year and "poor" in nitrogen contamination during the autumn rainy period. Due to the high overall nitrogen load in the lagoon, there is a net export to the coastal waters, especially during November and December, and phosphate only becomes limiting briefly during the spring bloom (April). Therefore, substantial phytoplankton populations may be supported year-round in the lagoon. The consequences of water quality deterioration in the Ria Formosa would negatively affect the lagoon as a regional resource, important for its ecological, economic and recreational value. The industries most affected would be tourism, fisheries and aquaculture. Management options include Urban Waste Water Treatment, dredging, artificial inlets, limits on urban development and changes in agricultural practices.

  7. Enteric viruses in a mangrove lagoon, survival and shellfish incidence

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez de Cardona, I.; Bermudez, M.; Billmire, E.; Hazen, T.C.

    1988-12-31

    Mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) were screened for enteric viruses. For 18 months oysters were collected from Cano Boqueron, a tropical mangrove lagoon on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. This popular tourist resort has two primary sewage treatment plants which service 158 single family cabanas. In spite of the heavy seasonal input of sewage to Cano Boqueron and high densities of fecal coliform bacteria, enteric viruses were not detected in shellfish meat. Because no viruses were detected in the oysters, a virus survival study was performed. Poliovirus type 1 was placed in diffusion chambers in situ at two sites in Cano Boqueron. More than 95% of the poliovirus inactivation occurred within 24 h. Virus inactivation was significantly different by site, indicating different inactivation rates within the lagoon. Chamber studies done simultaneously with Escherichia coli did not reveal differences between sites. It is suggested that the sewage effluent had an antiviral effect in the absence of an antibacterial effect. This study demonstrates the importance for establishing microbial contamination standards for shellfish growing waters in the tropics based upon in situ studies with tropical species, e.g. mangrove oyster.

  8. Geochemical behavior of heavy metals in differents environments in Rodrigo de Freitas lagoon - RJ/Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Estefan M; Baptista Neto, José A; Fernandez, Marcos A; McAlister, John; Smith, Bernard

    2011-06-01

    The accelerated urbanisation without a planning, brought several environmental problems to Rio de Janeiro coastal zone, especially in areas such as Rodrigo de Freitas lagoon, which receives a great amount of untreated sewage every day. To assess the nature, potentially sources and extent of heavy metal pollution in the lagoon, sediments from the surrounding streets, from the entrance of the main canal that drains to the lagoon and from the bottom of the lagoon were collected and analysed by a modified selective extraction procedure in order to study the geochemical partitioning and bioavailability of Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni and Pb in these three compartments. The present study verified an increase in the Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations in the north of the Rodrigo de Freitas lagoon. Despite the different levels of oxidation between the sediments accumulated in the streets and in the bottom of the lagoon, the geochemical partitioning of the heavy metals did not show any pattern of variation for the metals, except for the element Cu. No concentrations were found in the soluble phase of samples collected in the surfacial sediments of the lagoon, suggesting no bioavailability of heavy metals. PMID:21670872

  9. Sludge-Drying Lagoons: a Potential Significant Methane Source in Wastewater Treatment Plants.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuting; Ye, Liu; van den Akker, Ben; Ganigué Pagès, Ramon; Musenze, Ronald S; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-02-01

    "Sludge-drying lagoons" are a preferred sludge treatment and drying method in tropical and subtropical areas due to the low construction and operational costs. However, this method may be a potential significant source of methane (CH4) because some of the organic matter would be microbially metabolized under anaerobic conditions in the lagoon. The quantification of CH4 emissions from lagoons is difficult due to the expected temporal and spatial variations over a lagoon maturing cycle of several years. Sporadic ebullition of CH4, which cannot be easily quantified by conventional methods such as floating hoods, is also expected. In this study, a novel method based on mass balances was developed to estimate the CH4 emissions and was applied to a full-scale sludge-drying lagoon over a three year operational cycle. The results revealed that processes in a sludge-drying lagoon would emit 6.5 kg CO2-e per megaliter of treated sewage. This would represent a quarter to two-thirds of the overall greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs). This work highlights the fact that sludge-drying lagoons are a significant source of CH4 that adds substantially to the overall GHG footprint of WWTPs despite being recognized as a cheap and energy-efficient means of drying sludge. PMID:26642353

  10. Sludge-Drying Lagoons: a Potential Significant Methane Source in Wastewater Treatment Plants.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuting; Ye, Liu; van den Akker, Ben; Ganigué Pagès, Ramon; Musenze, Ronald S; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-02-01

    "Sludge-drying lagoons" are a preferred sludge treatment and drying method in tropical and subtropical areas due to the low construction and operational costs. However, this method may be a potential significant source of methane (CH4) because some of the organic matter would be microbially metabolized under anaerobic conditions in the lagoon. The quantification of CH4 emissions from lagoons is difficult due to the expected temporal and spatial variations over a lagoon maturing cycle of several years. Sporadic ebullition of CH4, which cannot be easily quantified by conventional methods such as floating hoods, is also expected. In this study, a novel method based on mass balances was developed to estimate the CH4 emissions and was applied to a full-scale sludge-drying lagoon over a three year operational cycle. The results revealed that processes in a sludge-drying lagoon would emit 6.5 kg CO2-e per megaliter of treated sewage. This would represent a quarter to two-thirds of the overall greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs). This work highlights the fact that sludge-drying lagoons are a significant source of CH4 that adds substantially to the overall GHG footprint of WWTPs despite being recognized as a cheap and energy-efficient means of drying sludge.

  11. Sewage Monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Every U.S. municipality must determine how much waste water it is processing and more importantly, how much is going unprocessed into lakes and streams either because of leaks in the sewer system or because the city's sewage facilities were getting more sewer flow than they were designed to handle. ADS Environmental Services, Inc.'s development of the Quadrascan Flow Monitoring System met the need for an accurate method of data collection. The system consists of a series of monitoring sensors and microcomputers that continually measure water depth at particular sewer locations and report their findings to a central computer. This provides precise information to city managers on overall flow, flow in any section of the city, location and severity of leaks and warnings of potential overload. The core technology has been expanded upon in terms of both technical improvements, and functionality for new applications, including event alarming and control for critical collection system management problems.

  12. Lagoon Restoration Project: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This project is a multiyear effort focusing on energy flow in the Palace of Fine Arts lagoon just outside the Exploratorium in San Francisco. Phase 1 was a pilot study to determine the feasibility of improving biological energy flow through the small freshwater lagoon, using the expertise and resources of an environmental artist in collaboration with museum biologists and arts department staff. The primary outcome of Phase 1 is an experimental fountain exhibit inside the museum designed by public artist Laurie Lundquist with Exploratorium staff. This fountain, with signage, functions both as a model for natural aeration and filtration systems and as a focal point for museum visitors to learn about how biological processes cycle energy through aquatic systems. As part of the study of the lagoon`s health, volunteers continued biweekly bird consus from March through September, 1994. The goal was to find out whether the poor water quality of the lagoon is affecting the birds. Limited dredging was undertaken by the city Parks and Recreation Department. However, a more peermanent solution to the lagoon`s ecological problems would require an ambitious redesign of the lagoon.

  13. Reduction of Cryptosporidium and Giardia by sewage treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Lim, Y A L; Wan Hafiz, W I; Nissapatorn, V

    2007-06-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are two important pathogenic parasites that have caused many waterborne outbreaks which affected hundreds of thousands of people. Contamination from effluent discharged by sewage treatment plants have been implicated in previous waterborne outbreaks of Cryptosporidium and Giardia. This study evaluated the reduction of Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts in two sewage treatment plants (STPA and STPB) in Malaysia which employed different treatment processes for a period of a year. Raw sewage influents and treated sewage effluents were concentrated by repeated centrifugation, subjected to sucrose density flotation and concentrated to a minimal volume depending upon the levels of contaminating debris. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were enumerated using epifluorescence microscopy. The parasite concentrations in raw sewage were 18-8480 of Giardia cysts/litre and 1-80 of Cryptosporidium oocysts/litre. In treated sewage, the concentration of parasites ranged from 1-1462 cysts/litre and 20-80 oocysts/ litre for Giardia and Cryptosporidium respectively. Statistical analysis showed that sewage treatment process which employed extended aeration could reduce the concentration of Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts significantly but treatment process which encompasses aerated lagoon could only reduce the concentration of Giardia cysts but not Cryptosporidium oocysts significantly. This phenomenon is of great concern in areas whereby effluent of sewage treatment plants is discharged into the upstream of rivers that are eventually used for abstraction of drinking water. Therefore, it is important that wastewater treatment authorities rethink the relevance of Cryptosporidium and Giardia contamination levels in wastewater and watersheds and to develop countermeasures in wastewater treatment plants. Further epidemiological studies on the occurrence and removal of pathogenic organisms from excreta and sewage are also recommended, in order

  14. Fingerprints of lagoonal life: Migration of the marine flatfish Solea solea assessed by stable isotopes and otolith microchemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierking, Jan; Morat, Fabien; Letourneur, Yves; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille

    2012-06-01

    The commercially important marine flatfish common sole (Solea solea) facultatively uses NW Mediterranean lagoons as nurseries. To assess the imprint left by the lagoonal passage, muscle carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) isotope values of S. solea juveniles caught in Mauguio lagoon in spring (shortly after arrival from the sea) and in autumn (before the return to the sea) were compared with values of juveniles from adjacent coastal marine nurseries. In addition, in the lagoon, sole otolith stable isotope (C and oxygen (O)) and elemental (11 elements) composition in spring and autumn, and the stable isotope composition (C and N) of organic matter sources in autumn, were determined. Overall, our data indicate that a distinct lagoonal signature existed. Specifically, lagoon soles showed a strong enrichment in muscle tissue 15N (>6‰) compared to their coastal relatives, likely linked to sewage inputs (see below), and a depletion in 13C (1-2‰), indicative of higher importance of 13C depleted terrestrial POM in the lagoon compared to coastal nurseries. In addition, over the time spent in the lagoon, sole otolith δ13C and δ18O values and otolith elemental composition changed significantly. Analysis of the lagoon sole foodweb based on C and N isotopes placed sediment particulate organic matter (POM) at the base. Seagrasses, formerly common but in decline in Mauguio lagoon, played a minor role in the detritus cycle. The very strong 15N enrichment of the entire foodweb (+7 to +11‰) compared to little impacted lagoons and coastal areas testified of important human sewage inputs. Regarding the S. solea migration, the analysis of higher turnover and fast growth muscle tissue and metabolically inert and slower growth otoliths indicated that soles arrived at least several weeks prior to capture in spring, and that no migrations took place in summer. In the autumn, the high muscle δ15N value acquired in Mauguio lagoon would be a good marker of recent return to the sea, whereas

  15. Circulation in Enewetak Atoll lagoon

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, M.; Smith, S.V.; Stroup, E.D.

    1981-11-01

    Currents at Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands, were measured on the reef margins, in the channels, and in the lagoon. Lagoon circulation is dominated by wind-driven downwind surface flow and an upwind middepth return flow. This wind-driven flow has the characteristics of an Ekman spiral in an enclosed sea. Lagoon flushing is accomplished primarily by surf-driven water input over the windward (eastern) reefs and southerly drift out the South Channel. Mean water residence time is 1 month, while water entering the northern portion of the atoll takes about 4 months to exit.

  16. Treatment efficacy of algae-based sewage treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Durga Madhab; Chanakya, H N; Ramachandra, T V

    2013-09-01

    Lagoons have been traditionally used in India for decentralized treatment of domestic sewage. These are cost effective as they depend mainly on natural processes without any external energy inputs. This study focuses on the treatment efficiency of algae-based sewage treatment plant (STP) of 67.65 million liters per day (MLD) capacity considering the characteristics of domestic wastewater (sewage) and functioning of the treatment plant, while attempting to understand the role of algae in the treatment. STP performance was assessed by diurnal as well as periodic investigations of key water quality parameters and algal biota. STP with a residence time of 14.3 days perform moderately, which is evident from the removal of total chemical oxygen demand (COD) (60 %), filterable COD (50 %), total biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (82 %), and filterable BOD (70 %) as sewage travels from the inlet to the outlet. Furthermore, nitrogen content showed sharp variations with total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) removal of 36 %; ammonium N (NH4-N) removal efficiency of 18 %, nitrate (NO3-N) removal efficiency of 22 %, and nitrite (NO2-N) removal efficiency of 57.8 %. The predominant algae are euglenoides (in facultative lagoons) and chlorophycean members (maturation ponds). The drastic decrease of particulates and suspended matter highlights heterotrophy of euglenoides in removing particulates.

  17. Benthic foraminifera distribution in a tourist lagoon in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a response to anthropogenic impacts.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Claudia Gutterres; Batista, Daniele Silva; Baptista Neto, José Antonio; Ghiselli, Renato Olindo

    2011-10-01

    Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon, located in the Rio de Janeiro City, receives several types of polluted discharges. The knowledge of the sediment microfauna correlated with heavy metal and organic matter concentrations could supply important data about the conditions of the lagoon. The benthic foraminiferal assemblage presented larger diversity and more abundant samples in the lagoon entrance than in the inner area. The Ammonia tepida - Elphidium excavatum foraminiferal assemblage is characterized by dwarf, corroded and weak organisms. Agglutinated species were found only near the entrance. Low abundance values and sterility of five samples in the inner area (north/northeast) can be caused by high levels of heavy metals and organic matter. A. tepida shows negative correlation with increasing heavy metals values. PAHs and coprostanol high indexes, and the absence or low presence of microfauna in samples around the lagoon margin confirm illegal flows from gas stations and domestic sewage. PMID:21871637

  18. Occurrence and removal of pharmaceutical and hormone contaminants in rural wastewater treatment lagoons.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolin; Zheng, Wei; Kelly, Walton R

    2013-02-15

    Rural communities in the United States usually use a series of aerated lagoons to treat domestic wastewater. Effluents from these systems are typically discharged to receiving watersheds, which leads to a potential transfer of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and steroid hormones from sanitary sewage to the environment. The primary objectives of this study are to identify and quantify PPCPs and steroid hormones in rural sewage treatment lagoons, to investigate the removal efficiency of these emerging contaminants in the treatment processes, and to monitor their occurrence in the surrounding watershed. In this study, a method has been developed to analyze thirteen PPCPs and eight steroid hormones in various water samples. Among all of the PPCPs considered, ten chemicals were detected in sewage influents, lagoon waters of different treatment stages, or effluents at concentrations in the ng/L to low μg/L range. Three hormones were observed in the influents at total concentrations as high as 164 ng/L, but no hormone residues were detected in the effluents. This indicates that the aerated lagoons may effectively remove hormone contaminants. With the exception of carbamazepine, removal rates for the other detected PPCPs were relatively high in the range of 88 to 100% in September with average air temperature equal to 20 °C. However, the removal efficiency of nine PPCPs in the rural wastewater treatment plant exhibited large temporal variability. The concentrations of PPCPs in the lagoon waters and effluents collected in November, with average air temperature equal to 4.4 °C, were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those samples collected in September. Occurrence of these PPCP contaminants in the surrounding watershed was also monitored. The discharge of effluents significantly elevated the PPCP concentrations in the receiving creek and increased their occurrence in the adjacent river. PMID:23314119

  19. Occurrence and removal of pharmaceutical and hormone contaminants in rural wastewater treatment lagoons.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolin; Zheng, Wei; Kelly, Walton R

    2013-02-15

    Rural communities in the United States usually use a series of aerated lagoons to treat domestic wastewater. Effluents from these systems are typically discharged to receiving watersheds, which leads to a potential transfer of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and steroid hormones from sanitary sewage to the environment. The primary objectives of this study are to identify and quantify PPCPs and steroid hormones in rural sewage treatment lagoons, to investigate the removal efficiency of these emerging contaminants in the treatment processes, and to monitor their occurrence in the surrounding watershed. In this study, a method has been developed to analyze thirteen PPCPs and eight steroid hormones in various water samples. Among all of the PPCPs considered, ten chemicals were detected in sewage influents, lagoon waters of different treatment stages, or effluents at concentrations in the ng/L to low μg/L range. Three hormones were observed in the influents at total concentrations as high as 164 ng/L, but no hormone residues were detected in the effluents. This indicates that the aerated lagoons may effectively remove hormone contaminants. With the exception of carbamazepine, removal rates for the other detected PPCPs were relatively high in the range of 88 to 100% in September with average air temperature equal to 20 °C. However, the removal efficiency of nine PPCPs in the rural wastewater treatment plant exhibited large temporal variability. The concentrations of PPCPs in the lagoon waters and effluents collected in November, with average air temperature equal to 4.4 °C, were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those samples collected in September. Occurrence of these PPCP contaminants in the surrounding watershed was also monitored. The discharge of effluents significantly elevated the PPCP concentrations in the receiving creek and increased their occurrence in the adjacent river.

  20. Mosquito Lagoon environmental resources inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provancha, Jane A.; Hall, Carlton R.; Oddy, Donna M.

    1992-01-01

    This document provides a synopsis of biotic and abiotic data collected in the Mosquito Lagoon area in relation to water quality. A holistic ecological approach was used in this review to allow for summaries of climate, land use, vegetation, geohydrology, water quality, fishes, sea turtles, wading birds, marine mammals, invertebrates, shellfish, and mosquito control. The document includes a bibliographic database list of 157 citations that have references to the Mosquito Lagoon, many of which were utilized in development of the text.

  1. 1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TANKS AT SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT, BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TANKS AT SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT, BUILDING 304, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Sewage Plant & Tanks, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  2. 33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lagoon Pond. 117.600 Section 117.600 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon...

  3. 33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lagoon Pond. 117.600 Section 117.600 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon...

  4. 33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lagoon Pond. 117.600 Section 117.600 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon...

  5. 33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lagoon Pond. 117.600 Section 117.600 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon...

  6. 33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lagoon Pond. 117.600 Section 117.600 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon...

  7. Metagenomes of Mediterranean Coastal Lagoons

    PubMed Central

    Ghai, Rohit; Hernandez, Claudia Mella; Picazo, Antonio; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ininbergs, Karolina; Díez, Beatriz; Valas, Ruben; DuPont, Christopher L.; McMahon, Katherine D.; Camacho, Antonio; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Coastal lagoons, both hypersaline and freshwater, are common, but still understudied ecosystems. We describe, for the first time, using high throughput sequencing, the extant microbiota of two large and representative Mediterranean coastal lagoons, the hypersaline Mar Menor, and the freshwater Albufera de Valencia, both located on the south eastern coast of Spain. We show there are considerable differences in the microbiota of both lagoons, in comparison to other marine and freshwater habitats. Importantly, a novel uncultured sulfur oxidizing Alphaproteobacteria was found to dominate bacterioplankton in the hypersaline Mar Menor. Also, in the latter prokaryotic cyanobacteria were almost exclusively comprised by Synechococcus and no Prochlorococcus was found. Remarkably, the microbial community in the freshwaters of the hypertrophic Albufera was completely in contrast to known freshwater systems, in that there was a near absence of well known and cosmopolitan groups of ultramicrobacteria namely Low GC Actinobacteria and the LD12 lineage of Alphaproteobacteria. PMID:22778901

  8. Metagenomes of Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    PubMed

    Ghai, Rohit; Hernandez, Claudia Mella; Picazo, Antonio; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ininbergs, Karolina; Díez, Beatriz; Valas, Ruben; DuPont, Christopher L; McMahon, Katherine D; Camacho, Antonio; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Coastal lagoons, both hypersaline and freshwater, are common, but still understudied ecosystems. We describe, for the first time, using high throughput sequencing, the extant microbiota of two large and representative Mediterranean coastal lagoons, the hypersaline Mar Menor, and the freshwater Albufera de Valencia, both located on the south eastern coast of Spain. We show there are considerable differences in the microbiota of both lagoons, in comparison to other marine and freshwater habitats. Importantly, a novel uncultured sulfur oxidizing Alphaproteobacteria was found to dominate bacterioplankton in the hypersaline Mar Menor. Also, in the latter prokaryotic cyanobacteria were almost exclusively comprised by Synechococcus and no Prochlorococcus was found. Remarkably, the microbial community in the freshwaters of the hypertrophic Albufera was completely in contrast to known freshwater systems, in that there was a near absence of well known and cosmopolitan groups of ultramicrobacteria namely Low GC Actinobacteria and the LD12 lineage of Alphaproteobacteria.

  9. Metals in some lagoons of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, F G; Sharma, V K; Alexander, V H; Frausto, C A

    1995-02-01

    The concentrations of metals, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined in some lagoons to establish the level of metal pollution. The lagoons studied were Alvarado lagoon, Veracruz; San Andres lagoon, Tamaulipas; and Terminos lagoon, Campeche. The concentrations were determined in water, oyster (Crassostrea virginica), and sediments. Metals were accumulated in either oysters or sediments. Cu and Zn were higher in oysters and Fe and Mn were higher in sediments. The results in water samples were compared with the limit established by the Secretaria de Ecologia and Desarrollo Urbano Report and briefly discussed.

  10. Metals in some lagoons of Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez, F G; Sharma, V K; Alexander, V H; Frausto, C A

    1995-01-01

    The concentrations of metals, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined in some lagoons to establish the level of metal pollution. The lagoons studied were Alvarado lagoon, Veracruz; San Andres lagoon, Tamaulipas; and Terminos lagoon, Campeche. The concentrations were determined in water, oyster (Crassostrea virginica), and sediments. Metals were accumulated in either oysters or sediments. Cu and Zn were higher in oysters and Fe and Mn were higher in sediments. The results in water samples were compared with the limit established by the Secretaria de Ecologia and Desarrollo Urbano Report and briefly discussed. PMID:7621796

  11. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  12. Bioremediation Well Borehole Soil Sampling and Data Analysis Summary Report for the 100-N Area Bioremediation Project

    SciTech Connect

    D. A. Gamon

    2009-09-28

    The purpose of this report is to present data and findings acquired during the drilling and construction of seven bioremediation wells in the 100-N Area in conjunction with remediation of the UPR-100-N-17 petroleum waste site.

  13. Bellechester, Minnesota, USA, lagoon collapses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, E. C.; Broberg, J. S.; Kehren, A. R.; Graziani, M. M.; Turri, W. L.

    1993-12-01

    Bellechester, Minnesota, is a small community of approximately 155 residents located on the county line between Goodhue and Wabasha counties in southeast Minnesota's karst region. Bellechester is served by a 21-year-old wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) consisting of three waste-stabilization ponds. On 28 April 1992 six sinkholes were discovered to have drained cell 2 of the WWTF resulting in the loss of approximately 8.7×106 1 of partially treated effluent and about 600 m3 of soil into previously undetected subsurface voids of unknown dimensions. In the week following the collapse, approximately 200 water wells located within a 5-km radius of the WWTF were sampled in an after-the-fact, emergency sampling program. Twelve samples with elevated fecal coliform levels, 18 samples with nitrate-nitrogen greater than the 10 mg/1 standard, and no samples with elevated chlorides were found. However, the elevated levels could not be unambiguously attributed to the WWTF collapse. This is the third WWTF to fail by sinkhole collapse in southeast Minnesota since 1974. All three collapsed lagoons have been located in similar geomorphic and stratigraphic settings. However, at least two lagoons have collapsed in the adjacent area in northeast Iowa, and these lagoons are located at different stratigraphic positions. Twenty-two WWTFs constructed in southeast Minnesota's karst region in the last 25 years have been identified as subject to potential sinkhole collapse. An unknown but significant number of manure storage lagoons, flood control structures, etc., have also been constructed in the karst region and are at risk. Public agencies are beginning to develop plans to deal with the risk associated with existing and future waste lagoons in this environment. The critical hydrogeologic parameters that can be used to prioritize the risk of collapse at existing facilities include: (1) the lithology of the first bedrock beneath each lagoon, (2) the thickness of surficial materials

  14. Anthropogenic organic contaminants in water, sediments and benthic organisms of the mangrove-fringed Segara Anakan Lagoon, Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Nordhaus, Inga; Jennerjahn, Tim C; Khrycheva, Polina; Sivatharshan, Yoganathan; Yuwono, Edy; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2011-04-01

    Segara Anakan, a mangrove-fringed coastal lagoon in Indonesia, has a high diversity of macrobenthic invertebrates and is increasingly affected by human activities. We found > 50 organic contaminants in water, sediment and macrobenthic invertebrates from the lagoon most of which were polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Composition of PACs pointed to petrogenic contamination in the eastern lagoon. PACs mainly consisted of alkylated PAHs, which are more abundant in crude oil than parent PAHs. Highest total PAC concentration in sediment was above reported toxicity thresholds for aquatic invertebrates. Other identified compounds derived from municipal sewage and also included novel contaminants like triphenylphosphine oxide. Numbers of stored contaminants varied between species which is probably related to differences in microhabitat and feeding mode. Most contaminants were detected in Telescopium telescopium and Polymesoda erosa. Our findings suggest that more attention should be paid to the risk potential of alkylated PAHs, which has hardly been addressed previously. PMID:21414637

  15. Nutrient-rich saltwater and its influence on the phytoplankton of the patos lagoon estuary, Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, Paulo Cesar; Hartmann, Carlos; Odebrecht, Clarisse

    Five cruises carried out in the main navigation channel of the Patos Lagoon estuary, southern Brazil, between June and December 1989, showed high concentrations of ammonium (up to 3.0 μM), nitrate (up to 13.0 μM), and phosphate (up to 3.0 μM) in the surface saltwater close to the lagoon's mouth. High values of chlorophyll a were also measured in euhaline waters. The influence of nutrient-rich saltwater on phytoplankton production was found in a sequence of weekly measurements conducted at a shallow fixed station between September and November 1989. Peaks of carbon uptake coincided with high nitrate concentration measured during the intrusion of saltwater. Possible causes for the positive relationship between salinity and nutrients such as sewage input, sediment resuspension and return of previously exported estuarine water to the lagoon are discussed.

  16. Anthropogenic organic contaminants in water, sediments and benthic organisms of the mangrove-fringed Segara Anakan Lagoon, Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Nordhaus, Inga; Jennerjahn, Tim C; Khrycheva, Polina; Sivatharshan, Yoganathan; Yuwono, Edy; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2011-04-01

    Segara Anakan, a mangrove-fringed coastal lagoon in Indonesia, has a high diversity of macrobenthic invertebrates and is increasingly affected by human activities. We found > 50 organic contaminants in water, sediment and macrobenthic invertebrates from the lagoon most of which were polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Composition of PACs pointed to petrogenic contamination in the eastern lagoon. PACs mainly consisted of alkylated PAHs, which are more abundant in crude oil than parent PAHs. Highest total PAC concentration in sediment was above reported toxicity thresholds for aquatic invertebrates. Other identified compounds derived from municipal sewage and also included novel contaminants like triphenylphosphine oxide. Numbers of stored contaminants varied between species which is probably related to differences in microhabitat and feeding mode. Most contaminants were detected in Telescopium telescopium and Polymesoda erosa. Our findings suggest that more attention should be paid to the risk potential of alkylated PAHs, which has hardly been addressed previously.

  17. Methane in Sediments From Three Tropical, Coastal Lagoons on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, B.; Paytan, A.; Miller, L.; Herrera-Silveira, J.

    2002-12-01

    Tropical wetlands are significant sources of methane (CH4) to the atmosphere, and the majority of research on methane flux and cycling in the tropics has been conducted in fresh-water wetlands and lakes. However, several previous studies have shown that tropical coastal ecosystems can produce significant methane flux to the atmosphere despite the presence of moderate to marine salinities. Information regarding methane cycling within the sediments is crucial to understanding how natural and anthropogenic changes may influence these systems. We measured methane concentrations in sediments from two tropical coastal lagoons during different seasons, as well as in a third, heavily polluted, lagoon (Terminos) during the rainy season. These three lagoons, Celestun, Chelem, and Terminos, have similar vegetation, seasonal temperature and rainfall patterns, and substrate geology, but very different levels of ground water discharge and pollution. Methane concentrations in Celestun and Terminos lagoon showed high spatial variability(> 0.001 to 5 mmol kg-1 wet sediment), while sediments in Chelem Lagoon, which has near marine salinities and little sewage discharge, showed much lower variability of methane concentrations. Methane concentrations in Celestun sediments displayed two predominant patterns: some profiles contained a peak in methane concentration (1 to 2 mmole methane kg-1 wet sediment) between 5 and 15 cm below the surface while the other sediment profiles instead displayed a steady or monotonic increase in methane concentration with depth to approximately 0.025-0.080 mmol kg-1 at 10-15cm below surface followed by stable methane concentrations to the bottom of the cores (20-45 cm below the surface). A subsurface peak in methane concentrations was also found in some locations in Chelem, however, the concentrations were much lower than those measured in Celestun. Previous studies have shown that sewage pollution may drastically increase methane production in tropical

  18. Spectral gamma-ray logging for the 100-N Area, Hanford, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Szwartz, G.J.

    1996-10-02

    The objective of this effort was to delineate the vertical distribution and concentration of anthropogenic radionuclides in the subsurface surrounding nine boreholes in the 100-N Area available for geophysical logging with the Radionuclide Logging System (RLS). Cesium was defined in eight boreholes, and the ninth hole was found to not contain any such radionuclides.

  19. 100-N Area Decision Unit Target Analyte List Development for Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Ovink, R.

    2012-09-18

    This report documents the process used to identify source area target analytes in support of the 100-N Area remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) addendum to the Integrated 100 Area Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan (DOE/RL-2008-46, Rev. 0).

  20. Assessing confinement in coastal lagoons.

    PubMed

    Canu, Donata Melaku; Solidoro, Cosimo; Umgiesser, Georg; Cucco, Andrea; Ferrarin, Christian

    2012-11-01

    Measures of transport scale in aquatic systems can contribute to the formulation of definitions of indicators of the system's ecological properties. This paper addresses confinement, a specific transport scale proposed by biological scientists as a parameter that can capture and synthesize the principal properties that determine the spatial structure of biological communities in transitional environments. Currently, there is no direct experimental measure of confinement. In this study, a methodology based on the accumulation rate within a lagoon of a passive tracer of marine origin is proposed, the influences of different factors in the calculation of confinement are analyzed, and general recommendations are derived. In particular, we analyze the spatial and the temporal variability of confinement and its sensitivity to the seasonal variability of climatic forcing, the inputs from rivers and the parameterization of the tidal exchanges. The Lagoon of Venice is used as a case study.

  1. 100-N Area Strontium-90 Treatability Demonstration Project: Food Chain Transfer Studies for Phytoremediation Along the 100-N Columbia River Riparian Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, Robert J.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Driver, Crystal J.

    2009-04-01

    Strontium-90 (90Sr) exceeds the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s drinking water standards for groundwater (8 picocuries/L) by as much as a factor of 1000 at several locations within the Hanford 100-N Area and along the 100-N Area Columbia River shoreline). Phytoextraction, a managed remediation technology in which plants or integrated plant/rhizosphere systems are employed to phytoextract and/or sequester 90Sr, is being considered as a potential remediation system along the riparian zone of the Columbia River as part of a treatment train that includes an apatite barrier to immobilize groundwater transport of 90Sr. Phytoextraction would employ coyote willow (Salix exigua) to extract 90Sr from the vadose zone soil and aquifer sediments (phytoextraction) and filter 90Sr (rhizofiltration) from the shallow groundwater along the riparian zone of the Columbia River. The stem and foliage of coyote willows accumulating 90Sr may present not only a mechanism to remove the contaminant but also can be viewed as a source of nutrition for natural herbivores, therefore becoming a potential pathway for the isotope to enter the riparian food chain. Engineered barriers such as large and small animal fencing constructed around the field plot will control the intrusion of deer, rodents, birds, and humans. These efforts, however, will have limited effect on mobile phytophagous insects. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the potential for food chain transfer by insects prior to placement of the remediation technology at 100-N. Insect types include direct consumers of the sap or liquid content of the plants vascular system (xylem and phloem) by aphids as well as those that would directly consume the plant foliage such as the larvae (caterpillars) of Lepidoptera species. Heavy infestations of aphids feeding on the stems and leaves of willows growing in 90Sr-contaminated soil can accumulate a small amount (~0.15 ± 0.06%) of the total label removed from the soil by

  2. Tissue lesions of tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum): relationship to sewage effluents.

    PubMed

    Rose, F L

    1978-09-29

    A population of facultative neotenous tiger salamanders (A. tigrinum) inhabiting a sewage lagoon at Reese AFB, Hurlwood, Texas, was found to have an exceptionally high rate of spontaneous tissue lesions. The population is composed of an estimated 28,000 large, reproductively mature larvae that are restricted to the lagoon. Only about 17% of the population metamorphoses normally. In contrast, tiger salamanders from uncontaminated lagoons in the same general vicinity metamorphose normally; however, no neoplasms were discovered in larvae sampled from the nonsewage lagoosn. N-nitrosamine analyses of water and tissue samples of larvae were negative. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon analyses revealed traces of benzo[a]pyrene in the sludge; however, perylene, a constituent of jet fuel, was found in high concentration (300 ppb). These results indicate tat preylene, which was previously found not be tumorigenic to mice and rats, should be retested as a possible agent for nonmammalian species. PMID:280184

  3. Trace element dating by 210Pb: Application to an estuarine lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, V. L. B.; Hazin, C. A.; Lima, R. A.

    2007-09-01

    The Lagoa Olho D'Água (Pernambuco, Brazil), is a 3.75 km 2 lagoon which receives freshwater from both the Atlantic Ocean and Jaboatão River. The lagoon is under severe degradation process caused by pollutants released from industrial facilities and by the discharge of untreated domestic sewage. This contamination can be traced by analyzing sediments, which are the ultimate sink of pollutants that are derived from anthropogenic activities. The 210Pb dating method is the principal technique for characterizing sediments on a time scale spanning over the last 100-150 years. The objective of this study was to trace the time evolution of metal contaminants in sediments and its correlation with the industrial history of the area.

  4. Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, D.; Norville, C. )

    1991-07-01

    The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

  5. Identifying nutrient sources to three lagoons at Ofu and Olosega, American Samoa using δ15N of benthic macroalgae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, Virginia H.; Kroeger, Kevin D.; Fenner, Douglas; Craig, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Degradation of nearshore habitats is a serious problem in some areas of American Samoa, such as in Pago Pago Harbor on Tutuila Island, and is a smaller but chronic problem in other areas. Sedimentation, pollution, nutrient enrichment from surface runoff or groundwater, and trampling are the major factors causing the changes (Peshut and Brooks, 2005). On the outer islands of Ofu and Olosega (Manu’a Islands; Fig. 1), there is an interesting contrast between relatively pristine lagoon habitats not far from comparatively degraded lagoon habitats. To’aga lagoon on the southeast side of Ofu Island (Fig. 1) has clear waters, a high diversity of corals and fishes, no human habitations, and an undeveloped watershed with no streams. To’aga lagoon is within the boundaries of the National Park of American Samoa and is the site of long-term research on coral reef resilience and global climate change. Only 3 km to the east of To’aga is a degraded lagoon that fronts Olosega Village. The Olosega lagoon is similar in size but has significantly less live coral than To’aga, and blooms of filamentous algae have been reported to cover the Olosega lagoon/reef flat bottom (unpublished data, PC; Fig. 2). The islands are influenced by the same regional-scale and biogeochemical regimes, and both islands are remnants of a volcanic caldera (Craig, 2005). Thus, local factors operating on the scale of a kilometer or less are thought to be driving the differences observed between lagoons. Land disturbance is limited to a road linking the villages, the clearing of vegetation for buildings, and two village dump sites located on the narrow strip of land between the steep slopes of the islands and the shoreline; there is no industry or associated pollution on either island. Cesspools are used for sewage disposal. Nutrient enrichment (from cesspools) of groundwater and the lagoon, as well as trampling during gleaning of reef organisms, are possible factors affecting the spatial relief

  6. Bages-Sigean and Canet-St Nazaire lagoons (France): physico-chemical characteristics and contaminant concentrations (Cu, Cd, PCBs and PBDEs) as environmental quality of water and sediment.

    PubMed

    Vouvé, Florence; Buscail, Roselyne; Aubert, Dominique; Labadie, Pierre; Chevreuil, Marc; Canal, Christophe; Desmousseaux, Marion; Alliot, Fabrice; Amilhat, Elsa; Faliex, Elisabeth; Paris-Palacios, Séverine; Biagianti-Risbourg, Sylvie

    2014-02-01

    Environmental characteristics in water and sediments of two contrasted coastal Mediterranean lagoons, Bages-Sigean and Canet-St Nazaire, were measured over a three season survey. The urban pollution (treatment plant discharges) is very important in Canet-St Nazaire lagoon reflecting untreated sewages, while in Bages-Sigean, the northern part appears more impacted due to larger anthropogenic inputs. Dissolved Cd concentrations are on the whole similar in both lagoons, whereas Cu concentrations are by far higher in lagoon Canet-St Nazaire. Cu concentrations appear to be highly dependent on dissolved organic carbon whereas salinity seems to control Cd variations. Concerning the sediments, the confined northern part of lagoon Bages-Sigean shows organic carbon and total nitrogen enrichment whereas lipid concentrations are much higher in the Canet-St Nazaire lagoon. Cu complexation seems to be strongly related to organic matter as evidenced by the two significant positive relationships, on one hand between Cu and organic carbon, and on the other hand, between Cu and lipids. On the contrary, Cd concentrations appear to be mainly controlled by carbonates. PCBs and PBDEs were detected only in sediments and show relatively low concentrations compared to similar lagoon environments. Regarding the sediment quality guidelines, Cd, Cu and PCBs in both lagoons did not exceed any Probable Effect Concentration (PEC).

  7. Biogeochemical responses to nutrient inputs in a Cuban coastal lagoon: runoff, anthropogenic, and groundwater sources.

    PubMed

    González-De Zayas, R; Merino-Ibarra, M; Soto-Jiménez, M F; Castillo-Sandoval, F S

    2013-12-01

    Laguna Larga, a coastal lagoon in central Cuba, has been heavily altered by tourism infrastructure construction and sewage disposal. We hypothesize that this has decreased the circulation and caused eutrophication of the lagoon. To assess this, 12 bimonthly samplings were carried out in 2007-2008. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, nutrients and nitrogen, and phosphorous fractions (inorganic, organic, and total) were determined. Water and salt budgets, as well as biogeochemical fluxes of nitrogen and phosphorus were calculated using the LOICZ budget model for the three sections of the lagoon identified by morphological constrains and salinity patterns. Laguna Larga is a choked lagoon with restricted water circulation, low exchange, and high residence times that vary significantly along its sections. Residence time was estimated to be 0.1-0.7 years for the inner section and 1-9 days for the outer one. High levels of total nitrogen (annual means 126-137 μM, peaks up to 475 μM) and phosphorus (2.5-4.4 μM, peaks up to 14.5 μM) are evidence of eutrophication of Laguna Larga. During 2007, an average precipitation year, Laguna Larga exported water (703 m(3) d(-1)) and was a source of nitrogen (9.026 mmol m(-2) d(-1)) and phosphorus (0.112 mmol m(-2) d(-1)) to the adjacent sea. δ(15)N determinations in the seagrass Thalassia testudinum (-1.83 to +3.02 ‰) differed significantly between sites in the lagoon and offshore reference sites located W of the inlet, but were similar to those located E of the inlet. δ(15)N determinations in the seaweed Penicillus dumetosus (+1.02 to +4.2) did not show significant differences. PMID:23856810

  8. Hanford 100N Area Apatite Emplacement: Laboratory Results of Ca-Citrate-PO4 Solution Injection and Sr-90 Immobilization in 100N Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, James E.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Moore, Robert C.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Williams, Mark D.; Girvin, Donald C.; McKinley, James P.; Truex, Michael J.; Phillips, Jerry L.

    2007-10-01

    This report summarizes laboratory scale studies investigating the remediation of Sr-90 by Ca-citrate-PO4 solution injection/infiltration to support field injection activities in the Hanford 100N area. This study is focused on experimentally testing whether this remediation technology can be effective under field scale conditions to mitigate Sr-90 migration 100N area sediments into the Columbia River. Sr-90 is found primarily adsorbed to sediments by ion exchange (99% adsorbed, < 1% in groundwater) in the upper portion of the unconfined aquifer and lower vadose zone. Although primarily adsorbed, Sr-90 is still considered a high mobility risk as it is mobilized by seasonal river stage increases and by plumes of higher ionic strength relative to groundwater. This remediation technology relies upon the Ca-citrate-PO4 solution forming apatite precipitate [Ca6(PO4)10(OH)2], which incorporates some Sr-90 during initial precipitation and additionally slowly incorporates Sr-90 by solid phase substitution for Ca. Sr substitution occurs because Sr-apatite is thermodynamically more stable than Ca-apatite. Once the Sr-90 is in the apatite structure, Sr-90 will decay to Y-90 (29.1 y half-life) then Zr-90 (64.1 h half-life) without the potential for migration into the Columbia River. For this technology to be effective, sufficient apatite needs to be emplaced in sediments to incorporate Sr and Sr-90 for 300 years (~10 half-lives of Sr-90), and the rate of incorporation needs to exceed the natural groundwater flux rate of Sr in the 100N area. A primary objective of this study is to supply an injection sequence to deliver sufficient apatite into subsurface sediments that minimizes initial mobility of Sr-90, which occurs because the injection solution has a higher ionic strength compared to groundwater. This can be accomplished by sequential injections of low, then high concentration injection of Ca-citrate-PO4 solutions. Assessment of low concentration Ca-citrate-PO4, citrate-PO4

  9. Aerated Lagoons. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lorri

    This student manual contains the textual material for a unit which focuses on the structural and operationally unique features of aerated lagoons. Topic areas discussed include: (1) characteristics of completely mixed aerated lagoons; (2) facultative aerated lagoons; (3) aerated oxidation ponds; (4) effects of temperature on aerated lagoons; (5)…

  10. High performance aerated lagoon systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, L.

    1999-08-01

    At a time when less money is available for wastewater treatment facilities and there is increased competition for the local tax dollar, regulatory agencies are enforcing stricter effluent limits on treatment discharges. A solution for both municipalities and industry is to use aerated lagoon systems designed to meet these limits. This monograph, prepared by a recognized expert in the field, provides methods for the rational design of a wide variety of high-performance aerated lagoon systems. Such systems range from those that can be depended upon to meet secondary treatment standards alone to those that, with the inclusion of intermittent sand filters or elements of sequenced biological reactor (SBR) technology, can also provide for nitrification and nutrient removal. Considerable emphasis is placed on the use of appropriate performance parameters, and an entire chapter is devoted to diagnosing performance failures. Contents include: principles of microbiological processes, control of algae, benthal stabilization, design for CBOD removal, design for nitrification and denitrification in suspended-growth systems, design for nitrification in attached-growth systems, phosphorus removal, diagnosing performance.

  11. Basic Sewage Treatment Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to introduce operators to the fundamentals of sewage plant operation. The course consists of lecture-discussions and hands-on activities. Each of the lessons has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that topic. Areas covered in…

  12. Plumbing and Sewage Disposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

    This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine enlisted personnel with the principles of plumbing and sewage disposal used by Marine Hygiene Equipment Operators to perform their mission. The course contains three study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the…

  13. Sedimentation in lagoon waters (Case study on Segara Anakan Lagoon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, Lilik Kartika; Adrianto, Luky; Soewardi, Kadarwan; Atmadipoera, Agus S.; Hilmi, Endang

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to demonstrate the effect of sedimentation on waters area that serves as an advocate for life. It is included in the category to be wary considering these conditions will reduce the quality of life and threaten the life and survival of endemic biota. Observations rate of sedimentation since April 2014 until March 2015 performed at 6 stations that are considered to represent the condition of the lagoon. The observations for rate of sedimentation was conducted twice in a month for one year. Oceanographic parameters was taken by CTD (Conductivity, Temperature, and Depth) sensor in two seasons, at the height of the rainy season, March 2014 and August 2014. Results showed that the aquatic area more narrow characterized by changes in the outside line of the island visible on the image observation for two decades.

  14. Tracer studies on an aerated lagoon.

    PubMed

    Broughton, Alistair; Shilton, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The city of Palmerston North, New Zealand, has two aerated lagoons as its secondary treatment facility. Interest about treatment efficiency led to an investigation into the hydraulics in the second lagoon to determine if further optimisation was viable. A tracer study using rhodamine WT was undertaken to ascertain the stimulus response output. Samples were also taken at 24 points within the lagoon to determine the tracer concentration profile throughout the lagoon. The mean residence time was determined to be 39.9 h compared with a theoretical residence time of 55.4 h. Peak concentration of the tracer at the outlet occurred at 0.44 of the mean residence time. The results of the tracer study pointed to 28% of volume being dead space. A subsequent sludge survey indicated that 26% of the design volume of the lagoon was filled with sludge. While the curved geometry of the lagoon did not appear to impact the hydraulics the fact that the first aerator is confined in a relatively smaller area will have locally boosted the mixing energy input in this inlet zone. From interpretation of the tracer response and the tracer distribution profiles it appears that the aerators are mixing the influent into the bulk flow effectively in the front end of the lagoon and that there was no evidence of any substantive short-circuiting path of concentrated tracer around to the outlet. The tracer distribution profiles gave direct insight as to how the tracer was being transported within the pond and should be used more often when conducting tracer studies. Comparison with the literature indicated that the lagoon's hydraulic efficiency was on par with a baffled pond system and it would be expected that addition of several baffles to the lagoon would provide minimal further improvement. PMID:22277219

  15. Distribution of coliphages against four e. Coli virotypes in hospital originated sewage sample and a sewage treatment plant in bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Alam, Muntasir; Farzana, Tasmia; Ahsan, Chowdhury Rafiqul; Yasmin, Mahmuda; Nessa, Jamalun

    2011-06-01

    The distribution of coliphages infecting different Escherichia coli virotypes (EHEC, EIEC, EPEC, ETEC) and an avirulent strain (K-12) in sewage system of a hospital and a sewage treatment plant (STP) was investigated by culture-based agar overlay methods. Coliphages were found in all the samples except stool dumping site in the sewage system of the hospital and lagoon of the STP. Bacteriophage count (pfu/ml) infecting E. coli strains showed the following ascending pattern (EHEC < EIEC < EPEC < ETEC < E coli K-12) in all the collected samples except one. Phages capable of infecting avirulent E. coli K-12 strains were present in the highest number among all the examined locations. Phages specific for E. coli K-12 presented high diversity in plaque size on the bacterial lawn. Virulent E. coli specific coliphages rarely produced plaques with diameter of 1-2 mm or over. Conventional agar overlay method was found to be not satisfactory for phage community analysis from primary stool dumping site of the hospital, probably due to the presence of high concentration of antimicrobial substances. The gradual decrease seen in the five groups of coliphage quantity with the ongoing treatment process and then the absolute absence of coliphages in the outlet of the examined treatment plant is indicative of the usefulness of the treatment processes practiced there. PMID:22654163

  16. Evolutionary resilience and complex lagoon systems.

    PubMed

    Davoudi, Simin; Zaucha, Jacek; Brooks, Elizabeth

    2016-10-01

    The present study applies an evolutionary resilience framework to complex socioecological systems in the coastal regions in Europe with a particular focus on lagoons. Despite their variations, lagoons share common challenges in achieving effective and sustainable ways of governing and managing economic, social, and environmental uncertainties. Our aim is to demonstrate that building resilience involves planning not only for recovery from shocks but also for cultivating preparedness and seeking potential transformative opportunities that emerge from change. The framework consists of 4 dimensions: persistence, adaptability, transformability, and preparedness. To illustrate how this 4-dimensional framework can be applied to the specific context of lagoons, we draw on examples of good and poor practices from the 10 lagoons studied as part of the ARCH project. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:711-718. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:27427389

  17. Evolutionary resilience and complex lagoon systems.

    PubMed

    Davoudi, Simin; Zaucha, Jacek; Brooks, Elizabeth

    2016-10-01

    The present study applies an evolutionary resilience framework to complex socioecological systems in the coastal regions in Europe with a particular focus on lagoons. Despite their variations, lagoons share common challenges in achieving effective and sustainable ways of governing and managing economic, social, and environmental uncertainties. Our aim is to demonstrate that building resilience involves planning not only for recovery from shocks but also for cultivating preparedness and seeking potential transformative opportunities that emerge from change. The framework consists of 4 dimensions: persistence, adaptability, transformability, and preparedness. To illustrate how this 4-dimensional framework can be applied to the specific context of lagoons, we draw on examples of good and poor practices from the 10 lagoons studied as part of the ARCH project. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:711-718. © 2016 SETAC.

  18. Sewage sludge treatment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, John J. (Inventor); Mueller, William A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Raw sewage may be presently treated by mixing screened raw sewage with activated carbon. The mixture is then allowed to stand in a first tank for a period required to settle the suspended matter to the bottom of the tank as a sludge. Thereafter, the remaining liquid is again mixed with activated carbon and the mixture is transferred to a secondary settling tank, where it is permitted to stand for a period required for the remaining floating material to settle as sludge and for adsorption of sewage carbon as well as other impurities to take place. The sludge from the bottom of both tanks is removed and pyrolyzed to form activated carbon and ash, which is mixed with the incoming raw sewage and also mixed with the liquid being transferred from the primary to the secondary settling tank. It has been found that the output obtained by the pyrolysis process contains an excess amount of ash. Removal of this excess amount of ash usually also results in removing an excess amount of carbon thereby requiring adding carbon to maintain the treatment process. By separately pyrolyzing the respective sludges from the first and second settling tanks, and returning the separately obtained pyrolyzed material to the respective first and second tanks from which they came, it has been found that the adverse effects of the excessive ash buildup is minimized, the carbon yield is increased, and the sludge from the secondary tank can be pyrolyzed into activated carbon to be used as indicated many more times than was done before exhaustion occurs.

  19. 2014 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Mike

    2015-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2013, through October 31, 2014. The report contains, as applicable, the following information; Site description; Facility and system description; Permit required monitoring data and loading rates; Status of compliance conditions and activities; and Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. The current permit expires on March 16, 2015. A permit renewal application was submitted to Idaho Department of Environmental Quality on September 15, 2014. During the 2014 permit year, no wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant and therefore, no effluent flow volumes or samples were collected from wastewater sampling point WW-014102. Seepage testing of the three lagoons was performed between August 26, 2014 and September 22, 2014. Seepage rates from Lagoons 1 and 2 were below the 0.25 inches/day requirement; however, Lagoon 3 was above the 0.25 inches/day. Lagoon 3 has been isolated and is being evaluated for future use or permanent removal from service.

  20. Fragrances as new contaminants in the Venice lagoon.

    PubMed

    Vecchiato, Marco; Cremonese, Simone; Gregoris, Elena; Barbaro, Elena; Gambaro, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo

    2016-10-01

    Fragrance Materials (FMs) are omnipresent components of household and Personal Care Products (PCPs). In spite of their widespread use, little is known about their environmental occurrence. We selected 17 among the longest-lasting and most stable fragrance ingredients that are commercially available, namely: Amberketal, Ambrofix, Amyl Salicylate, Benzyl Salicylate, Bourgeonal, Dupical, Hexyl Salicylate, Isobutavan, Lemonile, Mefranal, Myraldene, Okoumal, Oranger Crystals, Pelargene, Peonile, Tridecene-2-Nitrile, Ultravanil. A new analytical method was developed to quantify FMs in water samples and it was applied to perform the first study about the distribution of these compounds in the surface waters of the city of Venice and its lagoon. Total FMs concentrations range from about 30ngL(-1) to more than 10μgL(-1) in polluted canals during the low tide. Sewage discharges were supposed to be the main sources of the selected FMs in the environment. Salicylates, oestrogenic and allergenic compounds, were in general the most abundant and widespread components. This study reports for the first time the detection of most of the selected FMs in surface waters and represent the first step to understand their environmental fate. PMID:27267717

  1. Prevalence and transmission of antimicrobial resistance among Aeromonas populations from a duckweed aquaculture based hospital sewage water recycling system in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mokhlasur; Huys, Geert; Kühn, Inger; Rahman, Motiur; Möllby, Roland

    2009-10-01

    In order to investigate the influence of a duckweed aquaculture based hospital sewage water recycling plant on the prevalence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance, we made use of an existing collection of 1,315 Aeromonas isolates that were previously typed by the biochemical fingerprinting PhP-AE system. In these treatment plant, hospital raw sewage water is first collected in a settlement pond (referred to as sewage water in this study) and is then transferred to a lagoon, where the duckweed (Lemnaceae) is grown (referred to as lagoon). The duckweed is harvested and used as feed for the fish in a separate pond (referred to as fish pond). From this collection, representatives of 288 PhP types were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing for eight antimicrobials by broth microdilution method. The overall resistance rates among Aeromonas isolates from the treatment plant were highest for ampicillin (87%) and erythromycin (79%) followed by cephalothin (58%), nalidixic acid (52%), streptomycin (51%), tetracycline (31%), chloramphenicol (13%) and gentamicin (8%). A significantly lower prevalence of antibiotic resistance was found in Aeromonas from environmental control water, patient stool samples, duckweed and fish compared to sewage water isolates. The prevalence of resistance in the sewage water was not significantly reduced compared to the lagoon water and fish pond. Throughout the treatment system, the frequencies of resistant strains were found to diminish during the sewage water purification process, i.e. in the lagoon where sewage water is used to grow the duckweed. However, the frequency of resistant strains again increased in the fish pond where sewage grown duckweed is used for aquaculture. Among the selected isolates, two multiresistant clonal groups of Aeromonas caviae HG4 were identified that exhibited indistinguishable PhP and amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprints and shared a common plasmid of approximately 5 kb

  2. Prevalence and transmission of antimicrobial resistance among Aeromonas populations from a duckweed aquaculture based hospital sewage water recycling system in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mokhlasur; Huys, Geert; Kühn, Inger; Rahman, Motiur; Möllby, Roland

    2009-10-01

    In order to investigate the influence of a duckweed aquaculture based hospital sewage water recycling plant on the prevalence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance, we made use of an existing collection of 1,315 Aeromonas isolates that were previously typed by the biochemical fingerprinting PhP-AE system. In these treatment plant, hospital raw sewage water is first collected in a settlement pond (referred to as sewage water in this study) and is then transferred to a lagoon, where the duckweed (Lemnaceae) is grown (referred to as lagoon). The duckweed is harvested and used as feed for the fish in a separate pond (referred to as fish pond). From this collection, representatives of 288 PhP types were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing for eight antimicrobials by broth microdilution method. The overall resistance rates among Aeromonas isolates from the treatment plant were highest for ampicillin (87%) and erythromycin (79%) followed by cephalothin (58%), nalidixic acid (52%), streptomycin (51%), tetracycline (31%), chloramphenicol (13%) and gentamicin (8%). A significantly lower prevalence of antibiotic resistance was found in Aeromonas from environmental control water, patient stool samples, duckweed and fish compared to sewage water isolates. The prevalence of resistance in the sewage water was not significantly reduced compared to the lagoon water and fish pond. Throughout the treatment system, the frequencies of resistant strains were found to diminish during the sewage water purification process, i.e. in the lagoon where sewage water is used to grow the duckweed. However, the frequency of resistant strains again increased in the fish pond where sewage grown duckweed is used for aquaculture. Among the selected isolates, two multiresistant clonal groups of Aeromonas caviae HG4 were identified that exhibited indistinguishable PhP and amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprints and shared a common plasmid of approximately 5 kb

  3. Quantification of Sterol and Triterpenol Biomarkers in Sediments of the Cananéia-Iguape Estuarine-Lagoonal System (Brazil) by UHPLC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Bataglion, Giovana Anceski; Koolen, Hector Henrique Ferreira; Weber, Rolf Roland; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira

    2016-01-01

    Sterols and triterpenols present in sedimentary cores from 12 stations along the Cananéia-Iguape estuarine-lagoonal system were investigated by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Ten sterols and three triterpenols were identified and quantified, indicating both natural and anthropogenic sources. The relative distributions of sterol and triterpenol showed that the study area is submitted to organic matter (OM) from the Ribeira de Iguape River, seawater, surrounding vegetation, and plankton production. The contribution of these sources depends on the region of the estuarine-lagoonal system and the depth of sediment. Regarding anthropogenic sources, only the samples submitted to freshwater flow from the Ribeira de Iguape River presented concentration of coprostanol higher than the threshold value and diagnostic ratios, coprostanol/(coprostanol + cholestanol) and coprostanol/cholesterol, that indicate moderate contamination by domestic sewage in that area of the estuarine-lagoonal system. Therefore, the approach used herein identified the OM sources and its transport along the Cananéia-Iguape estuarine-lagoonal system (Brazil), which is a complex of lagoonal channels located in a United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Biosphere Reserve. PMID:27087811

  4. Sewage treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Fassbender, Alex G.

    1995-01-01

    The invention greatly reduces the amount of ammonia in sewage plant effluent. The process of the invention has three main steps. The first step is dewatering without first digesting, thereby producing a first ammonia-containing stream having a low concentration of ammonia, and a second solids-containing stream. The second step is sending the second solids-containing stream through a means for separating the solids from the liquid and producing an aqueous stream containing a high concentration of ammonia. The third step is removal of ammonia from the aqueous stream using a hydrothermal process.

  5. The Patos Lagoon summertime circulation and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moller, Osmar O.; Lorenzzentti, Joa˜o. A.; Stech, JoséL.; Math, Mauricio M.

    1996-03-01

    The main aspects of the summertime circulation and dynamics of the Patos Lagoon, a system located in southern Brazil and considered as one of the world's largest choked coastal lagoons, are studied through the analysis of time series of wind stress, water level and freshwater discharge, combined with the results of a barotropic circulation model. The longitudinal wind component has been verified as the main driving force, generating a set-up/set-down mechanism of oscillation with the nodal line in the midlagoon area. The period of this oscillation coincides with the passages of frontal systems for this region. The sea breeze acts as a secondary effect, being clearly observed in the northern part of the lagoon. Freshwater discharge is expected to cause variations in water level on the seasonal band and to a lesser degree in the 8-15 day time-scale. The tidal signal is of importance only near the exit to the ocean, being strongly reduced in the interior of the lagoon. Model results suggest a wind set-up momentum balance in the longitudinal direction in the deeper parts of the lagoon; near the margins, the longitudinal momentum balance is mostly of frictional form, with the wind stress being balanced by the bottom friction. In the lateral direction, a geostrophic balance is verified in both regions. The wind forced circulation is characterized by the presence of several cells with downwind velocity near the margins and upwind return flow occurring in the central areas.

  6. Report to Congress: Municipal Wastewater Lagoon Study. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    This report presents the results of the Municipal Wastewater Lagoon Study performed by the USEPA in response to Section 3018 of RCRA and Sec. 246 of the Hazardous and Solid Waste amendments of 1984. The objectives are to determine: number and size of municipal lagoons; types and quantities of waste contained in such lagoons; the extent to which such waste has been or may be released from such lagoons and contaminates ground water; and available alternatives for preventing or controlling such releases.

  7. Masterplan to safeguard Venice and to restore the lagoon and conterminous areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Claudio; Gallo, Alba; Nadimi-Goki, Mandana; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2015-04-01

    Venice and its lagoon constitute a complex system, well known all over the world for the peculiarity of the town and for the fragility of the lagoon ecosystem with its delicate equilibrium. The whole system has been, and is currently, affected by human activities (industry, agriculture, settlements, tourism) that impact severely the ecosystem. Discharge from the agricultural drainage basin affects particularly the area North of the city of Venice; the central and southern areas, instead, receive important pollutant inputs from the industrial zone of Porto Marghera since the early'50s. Additional sources of pollution are domestic sewage and waste disposal from the urban area, that is visited by more than 10M people every year. As a consequence of the increasing land contamination, significant amounts of contaminants (both organic and inorganic) are accumulated in soils of the borderline, in water and in lagoon sediments, which constitute a potential source of secondary pollution. Results of surveys carried out in recent years in the whole area show that contaminants concentration increased from the beginning of the industrial activities until the '90s, when Porto Marghera declined. Most of contaminants have concentrations above the background levels. The highest metal levels were found in an area between Porto Marghera and the city of Venice, where both industrial and urban sewage are discharged, provoking environmental and human health hazard. In order to safeguard the city of Venice, and to restore its lagoon and conterminous areas, a Master Plan of intervention has been developed since the early 2000s. The land currently interested by environmental analysis and/or restoration covers approximately 1350ha; 78% of these (1100ha) proved variously contaminated, with 85% of sites overcoming the National Reference Values. Contamination, besides being diffused, is quite complex, involving the co-existence of several contaminant families (PAH, PCB, dioxin, heavy metals

  8. Groundwater contaminant plume maps and volumes, 100-K and 100-N Areas, Hanford Site, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Kenneth H.

    2016-09-27

    This study provides an independent estimate of the areal and volumetric extent of groundwater contaminant plumes which are affected by waste disposal in the 100-K and 100-N Areas (study area) along the Columbia River Corridor of the Hanford Site. The Hanford Natural Resource Trustee Council requested that the U.S. Geological Survey perform this interpolation to assess the accuracy of delineations previously conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors, in order to assure that the Natural Resource Damage Assessment could rely on these analyses. This study is based on previously existing chemical (or radionuclide) sampling and analysis data downloaded from publicly available Hanford Site Internet sources, geostatistically selected and interpreted as representative of current (from 2009 through part of 2012) but average conditions for groundwater contamination in the study area. The study is limited in scope to five contaminants—hexavalent chromium, tritium, nitrate, strontium-90, and carbon-14, all detected at concentrations greater than regulatory limits in the past.All recent analytical concentrations (or activities) for each contaminant, adjusted for radioactive decay, non-detections, and co-located wells, were converted to log-normal distributions and these transformed values were averaged for each well location. The log-normally linearized well averages were spatially interpolated on a 50 × 50-meter (m) grid extending across the combined 100-N and 100-K Areas study area but limited to avoid unrepresentative extrapolation, using the minimum curvature geostatistical interpolation method provided by SURFER®data analysis software. Plume extents were interpreted by interpolating the log-normally transformed data, again using SURFER®, along lines of equal contaminant concentration at an appropriate established regulatory concentration . Total areas for each plume were calculated as an indicator of relative environmental damage. These plume

  9. Inverse-dispersion technique for assessing lagoon gas emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measuring gas emissions from treatment lagoons and storage ponds poses challenging conditions for existing micrometeorological techniques because of non-ideal wind conditions, such as those induced by trees and crops surrounding the lagoons, and lagoons with dimensions too small to establish equilib...

  10. Nutrient-Chlorophyll Relationships in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Indian River Lagoon is a highly diverse estuary located along Florida’s Atlantic coast. The system is made up of the main stem and two side-lagoons: the Banana River and Mosquito Lagoon. We segmented the main stem into three sections based on spatial trends in water quality ...

  11. Facultative Lagoons. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lorri

    The textual material for a unit on facultative lagoons is presented in this student manual. Topic areas discussed include: (1) loading; (2) microbial theory; (3) structure and design; (4) process control; (5) lagoon start-up; (6) data handling and analysis; (7) lagoon maintenance (considering visual observations, pond structure, safety, odor,…

  12. Survey of radiological contaminants in the near-shore environment at the Hanford Site 100-N Area reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Van Verst, S.P.; Albin, C.L.; Patton, G.W.; Blanton, M.L.; Poston, T.M.; Cooper, A.T.; Antonio, E.J.

    1998-09-01

    Past operations at the Hanford Site 100-N Area reactor resulted in the release of radiological contaminants to the soil column, local groundwater, and ultimately to the near-shore environment of the Columbia River. In September 1997, the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) and the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) initiated a special study of the near-shore vicinity at the Hanford Site`s retired 100-N Area reactor. Environmental samples were collected and analyzed for radiological contaminants ({sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, and gamma/ emitters), with both the WDOH and SESP analyzing a portion of the samples. Samples of river water, sediment, riverbank springs, periphyton, milfoil, flying insects, clam shells, and reed canary grass were collected. External exposure rates were also measured for the near-shore environment in the vicinity of the 100-N Area. In addition, samples were collected at background locations above Vernita Bridge.

  13. Sewage contamination of sediments from two Portuguese Atlantic coastal systems, revealed by fecal sterols.

    PubMed

    Rada, Jesica P A; Duarte, Armando C; Pato, Pedro; Cachada, Anabela; Carreira, Renato S

    2016-02-15

    Fecal sterols in sediments were used to assess the degree of sewage contamination in Ria de Aveiro lagoon and Mondego River estuary for the first time. Coprostanol, the major fecal sterol, averaged 1.82 ± 4.12 μg g(-1), with maxima of 16.6 μg g(-1). The northwestern sector of the Ria and a marina at Mondego estuary showed the highest level of sewage contamination. This scenario was confirmed by several diagnostic ratios based on fecal sterols and other phytosterols. Our data revealed that in spite of the improvements achieved in the last decades, there is still a need for control the organic inputs into the aquatic environment in the studied regions. PMID:26778497

  14. Groundwater contaminant plume maps and volumes, 100-K and 100-N Areas, Hanford Site, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Kenneth H.

    2016-09-27

    This study provides an independent estimate of the areal and volumetric extent of groundwater contaminant plumes which are affected by waste disposal in the 100-K and 100-N Areas (study area) along the Columbia River Corridor of the Hanford Site. The Hanford Natural Resource Trustee Council requested that the U.S. Geological Survey perform this interpolation to assess the accuracy of delineations previously conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors, in order to assure that the Natural Resource Damage Assessment could rely on these analyses. This study is based on previously existing chemical (or radionuclide) sampling and analysis data downloaded from publicly available Hanford Site Internet sources, geostatistically selected and interpreted as representative of current (from 2009 through part of 2012) but average conditions for groundwater contamination in the study area. The study is limited in scope to five contaminants—hexavalent chromium, tritium, nitrate, strontium-90, and carbon-14, all detected at concentrations greater than regulatory limits in the past.All recent analytical concentrations (or activities) for each contaminant, adjusted for radioactive decay, non-detections, and co-located wells, were converted to log-normal distributions and these transformed values were averaged for each well location. The log-normally linearized well averages were spatially interpolated on a 50 × 50-meter (m) grid extending across the combined 100-N and 100-K Areas study area but limited to avoid unrepresentative extrapolation, using the minimum curvature geostatistical interpolation method provided by SURFER®data analysis software. Plume extents were interpreted by interpolating the log-normally transformed data, again using SURFER®, along lines of equal contaminant concentration at an appropriate established regulatory concentration . Total areas for each plume were calculated as an indicator of relative environmental damage. These plume

  15. The dissipation of phosphorus in sewage and sewage effluents.

    PubMed

    Collingwood, R W

    Of the 41 kt of phosphorus reaching the sewage works in England and Wales 15 kt is removed in sewage sludge and the remainder is disposed of to rivers. 60% of the sewage sludge is now used as fertilizer and this proportion will no doubt increase in the future. The total use of sewage sludge, however, represents only about 5% of the current annual usage of artificial phosphorus fertilizer. At present there is no general economic incentive to make better use of the phosphorus in effluents. Phosphorus removal is expensive--about 2--3 pence/m3. If all the sewage effluents in England and Wales were to be so treated the cost would be about 100--150 million pounds annually, that is about 50% of the present costs of sewage treatment. In certain cases, but rarely in the UK, phosphate is removed, not to conserve phosphorus but to minimize the problems it creates in the environment. The phosphorus removed has little value as fertilizer. Alternative methods of using the phosphorus in effluents by the production and harvesting of crops of algae or aquatic plants have so far proved uneconomic. However, these methods need to be reviewed periodically as they may in the future become economically more attractive, especially in warmer climates where plant growth can be maintained throughout the year. PMID:357121

  16. Exploring new issues for coastal lagoons monitoring and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaertner-Mazouni, Nabila; De Wit, Rutger

    2012-12-01

    Coastal lagoons are productive and highly vulnerable ecosystems, but their management is still problematic mostly because they constitute transitional interface between terrestrial and marine domains. The "4th European Conference on Coastal Lagoon Research - Research and Management for the conservation of coastal lagoon ecosystems, South North comparisons", was focused on the scientific research on coastal lagoons and the management for their conservation and sustainable use. Selected contributions were considered in this special issue of Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science "Research and Management for the conservation of coastal lagoon ecosystems" as they deal with three important aspects for coastal lagoons management: (1) the design of monitoring programmes using biological compartments, (2) the ecosystem functioning and the impacts of perturbations and (3) ecosystem trajectories particularly after ecosystem restoration. Here we introduce the selected papers published in this issue, place these contributions in the perspective of the science-management interface and discuss new issues for coastal lagoon management.

  17. Evidence of North Africa's green revolution preserved in sedimentary organic matter deposited in three coastal lagoons.

    PubMed

    Oczkowski, Autumn J; Flower, Roger J; Thompson, Julian R; Ayache, Fethi; Ahmed, Mahmoud H; Ramdani, Mohamed; Turner, Simon

    2011-07-01

    Because of longer residence times and limited mixing in coastal lagoons, the impacts of anthropogenic nutrient loading to lagoon food webs are often more pronounced than in other coastal ecosystems. For these reasons, many lagoons also provide an excellent environment for the deposition and accumulation of organic matter (OM). Sediment cores were retrieved from three North African lagoons to provide records of recent environmental changes. We measured percentage nitrogen (%N), nitrogen stable isotope values (delta15N), and percentage organic matter (%OM), and we used radiometric dating techniques (210Pb, 137Cs) to examine the evidence for the intensification of upstream agricultural practices in sediment cores from Lake Manzala (Egypt), Ghar El Melh Lagoon (Tunisia), and Lagune de Nador (Morocco). With the exception of one core collected near a sewage outfall, sediments from Lake Manzala clearly reflected the impact of agricultural intensification following completion of the Aswan High Dam and delta barrages in the mid-1960s to early 1970s. Both %N and %OM more than doubled in three Manzala sediment cores, and delta15N values declined from 5 per thousand to < 1 per thousand. These changes reflect the increasing use of synthetic fertilizers (delta15N approximately 0 per thousand) from the 1960s to the present. Sediments from Ghar El Melh show a similar trend, with %N more than tripling, %OM increasing by 50%, and delta15N declining from 6 per thousand to 2 per thousand since 1965. These changes are consistent with the increasing use of water from a nearby river for crop irrigation and agricultural fertilizer use. Lagune de Nador receives relatively little agricultural drainage water, and core data did not show the same trends as Manzala and Ghar El Melh. Overall, the sediment core data from these systems reflect environmental shifts in the quantity, quality, and isotope signature of the deposited organic matter and confirm the concerns of local scientists and

  18. Evidence of North Africa's green revolution preserved in sedimentary organic matter deposited in three coastal lagoons.

    PubMed

    Oczkowski, Autumn J; Flower, Roger J; Thompson, Julian R; Ayache, Fethi; Ahmed, Mahmoud H; Ramdani, Mohamed; Turner, Simon

    2011-07-01

    Because of longer residence times and limited mixing in coastal lagoons, the impacts of anthropogenic nutrient loading to lagoon food webs are often more pronounced than in other coastal ecosystems. For these reasons, many lagoons also provide an excellent environment for the deposition and accumulation of organic matter (OM). Sediment cores were retrieved from three North African lagoons to provide records of recent environmental changes. We measured percentage nitrogen (%N), nitrogen stable isotope values (delta15N), and percentage organic matter (%OM), and we used radiometric dating techniques (210Pb, 137Cs) to examine the evidence for the intensification of upstream agricultural practices in sediment cores from Lake Manzala (Egypt), Ghar El Melh Lagoon (Tunisia), and Lagune de Nador (Morocco). With the exception of one core collected near a sewage outfall, sediments from Lake Manzala clearly reflected the impact of agricultural intensification following completion of the Aswan High Dam and delta barrages in the mid-1960s to early 1970s. Both %N and %OM more than doubled in three Manzala sediment cores, and delta15N values declined from 5 per thousand to < 1 per thousand. These changes reflect the increasing use of synthetic fertilizers (delta15N approximately 0 per thousand) from the 1960s to the present. Sediments from Ghar El Melh show a similar trend, with %N more than tripling, %OM increasing by 50%, and delta15N declining from 6 per thousand to 2 per thousand since 1965. These changes are consistent with the increasing use of water from a nearby river for crop irrigation and agricultural fertilizer use. Lagune de Nador receives relatively little agricultural drainage water, and core data did not show the same trends as Manzala and Ghar El Melh. Overall, the sediment core data from these systems reflect environmental shifts in the quantity, quality, and isotope signature of the deposited organic matter and confirm the concerns of local scientists and

  19. 17 β-estradiol and 17 α-ethinylestradiol mineralization in sewage sludge and biosolids.

    PubMed

    Rose, Karin P; Farenhorst, Annemieke; Claeys, Anne; Ascef, Bruna

    2014-01-01

    biosolid. This suggests that sewage sludges in municipal lagoons and pre-treatment holding lagoons are a more favorable media for mineralization of EE2, whereas biosolids in post-treatment storage lagoons are a more favorable media for the mineralization of E2. The presence of ciprofloxacin will have no impact on the potential E2 or EE2 mineralization rates in these cases. PMID:25190562

  20. Do human activities affect the picoplankton structure of the Ahe atoll lagoon (Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia)?

    PubMed

    Bouvy, Marc; Dupuy, Christine; Pagano, Marc; Barani, Aude; Charpy, Loic

    2012-01-01

    The spatial variations of the picoplankton (photoautotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms) in the Ahe atoll lagoon were studied in May and October 2008 to assess whether they were affected by human activities along the atoll. Spatial patterns were studied using 10 sampling stations chosen according to the location of the anthropogenic activities (pearl farming, harbor). Experiments were also carried out to determine whether bacterial growth, with or without predators, was limited by inorganic (N and P) substrates. The results showed that heterotrophic bacterioplankton abundance was superior to the photoautotrophic organisms, especially in May. Significant increases in bacterial abundance were observed in May after 24 h incubation with +P and +N (but not in October). All samples complied with the quality levels for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) defined by the European Union and there was no evidence that human sewage had any impact on picoplankton over the whole atoll. PMID:22306310

  1. Do human activities affect the picoplankton structure of the Ahe atoll lagoon (Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia)?

    PubMed

    Bouvy, Marc; Dupuy, Christine; Pagano, Marc; Barani, Aude; Charpy, Loic

    2012-01-01

    The spatial variations of the picoplankton (photoautotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms) in the Ahe atoll lagoon were studied in May and October 2008 to assess whether they were affected by human activities along the atoll. Spatial patterns were studied using 10 sampling stations chosen according to the location of the anthropogenic activities (pearl farming, harbor). Experiments were also carried out to determine whether bacterial growth, with or without predators, was limited by inorganic (N and P) substrates. The results showed that heterotrophic bacterioplankton abundance was superior to the photoautotrophic organisms, especially in May. Significant increases in bacterial abundance were observed in May after 24 h incubation with +P and +N (but not in October). All samples complied with the quality levels for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) defined by the European Union and there was no evidence that human sewage had any impact on picoplankton over the whole atoll.

  2. Sources of fecal indicator bacteria to groundwater, Malibu Lagoon and the near-shore ocean, Malibu, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John A.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Burton, Carmen A.; Van De Werfhorst, Laurie; Holden, Patricia A.; Dubinsky, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) used to treat residential and commercial sewage near Malibu, California have been implicated as a possible source of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) to Malibu Lagoon and the near-shore ocean. For this to occur, treated wastewater must first move through groundwater before discharging to the Lagoon or ocean. In July 2009 and April 2010, δ18O and δD data showed that some samples from water-table wells contained as much as 70% wastewater; at that time FIB concentrations in those samples were generally less than the detection limit of 1 Most Probable Number (MPN) per 100 milliliters (mL). In contrast, Malibu Lagoon had total coliform, Escherichia coli, and enterococci concentrations as high as 650,000, 130,000, and 5,500 MPN per 100 mL, respectively, and as many as 12% of samples from nearby ocean beaches exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency single sample enterococci standard for marine recreational water of 104 MPN per 100 mL. Human-associated Bacteroidales, an indicator of human-fecal contamination, were not detected in water from wells, Malibu Lagoon, or the near-shore ocean. Similarly, microarray (PhyloChip) data show Bacteroidales and Fimicutes Operational Taxanomic Units (OTUs) present in OWTS were largely absent in groundwater; in contrast, 50% of Bacteroidales and Fimicutes OTUs present in the near-shore ocean were also present in gull feces. Terminal-Restriction Length Fragment Polymorphism (T-RFLP) and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) data showed that microbial communities in groundwater were different and less abundant than communities in OWTS, Malibu Lagoon, or the near-shore ocean. However, organic compounds indicative of wastewater (such as fecal sterols, bisphenol-A and cosmetics) were present in groundwater having a high percentage of wastewater and were present in groundwater discharging to the ocean. FIB in the near-shore ocean varied with tides, ocean swells, and waves. Movement of water from

  3. Mercury Concentrations in Coastal Sediment from Younger Lagoon, Central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohn, R. A.; Ganguli, P. M.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Richardson, C. M.; Merckling, J.; Johnson, C.; Flegal, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    Younger Lagoon Reserve, located in northern Monterey Bay, is one of the few relatively undisturbed wetlands that remain along the Central Coast of California. This lagoon system provides protected habitat for more than 100 bird species and for populations of fish, mammals, and invertebrates. Total mercury (HgT) concentrations in water within Younger Lagoon appear to vary with rainfall conditions and range from about 5-15 pM. These concentrations are similar to HgT in water from six nearby lagoon systems. However, Younger Lagoon contains elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (~1 mM) and monomethylmercury (MMHg, ~1 pM) relative to our comparison lagoon sites (DOC < 0.5 mM and MMHg < 0.5 pM). We attribute Younger Lagoon's high DOC and MMHg to its restricted connection to the ocean and minor riverine contribution. Coastal lagoons in this region typically form at the mouth of streams. They behave as small estuaries during the wet season when surface water discharge keeps the mouth of the stream open to the ocean, and then transition into lagoons in the dry season when a sand berm develops and effectively cuts off surface water exchange. At Younger Lagoon, the sand berm remains intact throughout the year, breaching only during particularly high tides or intense rain events. Therefore, the lagoon's connection to nearshore seawater is primarily via surface water - groundwater interaction through the sand berm. Because Younger Lagoon is largely isolated from a surface water connection with the ocean, runoff from upgradient urban and agricultural land has an enhanced impact on water (and presumably sediment) quality. As a result, the lagoon is eutrophic and experiences annual algal blooms. Groundwater surveys suggest surface water, groundwater, and coastal seawater are hydraulically connected at Younger Lagoon, and mixing among these water masses appears to influence water geochemistry. To date, no chemical analyses have been conducted on sediment from Younger

  4. [Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy of CDOM from Yundang Lagoon and its indication for organic pollution].

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Jian-Fu; Guo, Wei-Dong; Deng, Xun; Zhang, Zhi-Ying; Xu, Jing; Huang, Ling-Feng

    2010-06-01

    Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMs) combined with absorption spectroscopy were applied to study the optical properties of CDOM samples from highly-polluted Yundang Lagoon in Xiamen in order to demonstrate the feasibility of using these spectral properties as a tracer of the degree of organic pollution in similar polluted coastal waters. Surface water samples were collected from 13 stations 4 times during April and May, 2008. Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) model was used to resolve the EEMs of CDOM. Five separate fluorescent components were identified, including two humic-like components (C1: 240, 325/422 nm; C5: 260, 380/474 nm), two protein-like components (C2: 225, 275/350 nm; C4: 240, 300/354 nm) and one xenobiotic-like component (C3: 225/342 nm), which could be used as a good tracer for the input of the anthropogenic organic, pollutants. The concentrations of component C3 and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) are much higher near the inlet of sewage discharge, demonstrating that the discharge of surrounding sewage is a major source of organic pollutants in Yundang Lagoon. CDOM absorption coefficient alpha (280) and the score of humic-like component C1 showed significant linear relationships with COD(Mn), and a strong positive correlation was also found between the score of protein-like component C2 and BOD5. This suggested that the optical properties of CDOM may provide a fast in-situ way to monitor the variation of the water quality in Yundang Lagoon and that of similar polluted coastal waters. PMID:20707146

  5. [Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy of CDOM from Yundang Lagoon and its indication for organic pollution].

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Jian-Fu; Guo, Wei-Dong; Deng, Xun; Zhang, Zhi-Ying; Xu, Jing; Huang, Ling-Feng

    2010-06-01

    Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMs) combined with absorption spectroscopy were applied to study the optical properties of CDOM samples from highly-polluted Yundang Lagoon in Xiamen in order to demonstrate the feasibility of using these spectral properties as a tracer of the degree of organic pollution in similar polluted coastal waters. Surface water samples were collected from 13 stations 4 times during April and May, 2008. Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) model was used to resolve the EEMs of CDOM. Five separate fluorescent components were identified, including two humic-like components (C1: 240, 325/422 nm; C5: 260, 380/474 nm), two protein-like components (C2: 225, 275/350 nm; C4: 240, 300/354 nm) and one xenobiotic-like component (C3: 225/342 nm), which could be used as a good tracer for the input of the anthropogenic organic, pollutants. The concentrations of component C3 and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) are much higher near the inlet of sewage discharge, demonstrating that the discharge of surrounding sewage is a major source of organic pollutants in Yundang Lagoon. CDOM absorption coefficient alpha (280) and the score of humic-like component C1 showed significant linear relationships with COD(Mn), and a strong positive correlation was also found between the score of protein-like component C2 and BOD5. This suggested that the optical properties of CDOM may provide a fast in-situ way to monitor the variation of the water quality in Yundang Lagoon and that of similar polluted coastal waters.

  6. Marine sewage disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, D.W.

    1981-03-03

    An activated sludge marine sewage disposal apparatus is described that includes an aeration chamber immediately adjacent to a flooded settling tank, rising above a disinfectant chamber and a holding chamber disposed around the lower part of the tank. Flow from the aeration chamber to the settling tank is through a port in the common wall between the aeration chamber and settling tank, and up inside a pond separated from the rest of the tank by a downwardly flaring baffle of skirt depending from the top of the tank. A single shimmer at the center of the area at the top of the pond picks up floating solids and returns them to the top of the aeration chamber. A vent disposed directly over the shimmer continuously draws off air and gas to the aeration chamber. A sludge return line picks up heavy solids for the bottom of the tank and returns them to the top of the aeration chamber through a riser located in the aeration chamber. Liquid in the settling tank flows out through a submerged perforated pipe into a standpipe in the aeration chamber, with is located centrally in the aeration chamber, and overflows through an inverted U tube, vented to the aeration chamber, the tube connecting to a downcomer sending the liquid back through the common wall to the disinfectant compartment. When sufficient volume of fluid accumulates in the disinfectant compartment, it overflows into a holding tank, from which it emerges via a port.

  7. Natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbon inputs to sediments of Patos Lagoon Estuary, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Patricia Matheus; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Castelao, Renato Menezes; Del Rosso, Clarissa; Fillmann, Gilberto; Zamboni, Ademilson Josemar

    2005-01-01

    The Patos Lagoon Estuary, southern Brazil, is an area of environmental interest not only because of tourism, but also because of the presence of the second major port of Brazil, with the related industrial and shipping activities. Thus, potential hydrocarbon pollution was examined in this study. Sediment samples were collected at 10 sites in the estuary, extracted, and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS for composition and concentration of the following organic geochemical markers: normal and isoprenoid alkanes, petroleum biomarkers, linear alkylbenzenes (LABs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The total concentrations varied from 1.1 to 129.6 microg g(-1) for aliphatic hydrocarbons, from 17.8 to 4510.6 ng g(-1) for petroleum biomarkers, from 3.2 to 1601.9 ng g(-1) for LABs, and from 37.7 to 11,779.9 ng g(-1) for PAHs. Natural hydrocarbons were mainly derived from planktonic inputs due to a usual development of blooms in the estuary. Terrestrial plant wax compounds prevailed at sites located far from Rio Grande City and subject to stronger currents. Anthropogenic hydrocarbons are related to combustion/pyrolysis processes of fossil fuel, release of unburned oil products and domestic/industrial waste outfalls. Anthropogenic hydrocarbon inputs were more apparent at sites associated with industrial discharges (petroleum distributor and refinery), shipping activities (dry docking), and sewage outfalls (sewage). The overall concentrations of anthropogenic hydrocarbons revealed moderate to high hydrocarbon pollution in the study area. PMID:15607781

  8. Lagoons and oxidation ponds. [Wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    George, D.B.

    1982-06-01

    A review of the literature on waste stabilization pond systems is presented. Factors such as wastewater temperature, and levels of heavy metals that affect the stability of the lagoons and oxidation ponds, and methods to upgrade stabilization pond effluent to meet state and federal effluent requirements are discussed. Model simulations utilized to predict the treatment efficiency of various waste stabilization pond geometries, and inlet and outlet configurations are reviewed. (KRM)

  9. Organotin speciation in Bizerte lagoon (Tunisia).

    PubMed

    Mzoughi, N; Lespes, G; Bravo, M; Dachraoui, M; Potin-Gautier, M

    2005-10-15

    For the first time, organotins have been assessed in samples collected from Bizerte lagoon, in Tunisia, during two seasons (summer and winter). The organotin distribution was studied in marine sediments and mussels tissues of this lagoon. Butyl-, phenyl- and octyltins were determined using a rapid speciation analytical method based on one-step ethylation/extraction with sodium tetraethylborate in aqueous phase. Simultaneously to the ethylation, the extraction was performed by either liquid/liquid extraction (LLE) or head-space solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). Gas chromatography with pulsed flame photometric detection (GC-PFPD) was used to perform quantitative determination. The technique has been validated using biological and sediment reference materials. The different samples from Bizerte lagoon were found to be moderately contaminated, especially by butyltins. This pollution was attributed to industrial activities, which are very important in this area. Organotins appeared accumulated in both sediments and mussels, while significant degradations of triorganotins to monosubstituted ones was observed in water. PMID:16198682

  10. Wetland vegetation in Manzala lagoon, Nile Delta coast, Egypt: Rapid responses of pollen to altered nile hydrology and land use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernhardt, C.E.; Stanley, J.-D.; Horton, B.P.

    2011-01-01

    The pollen record in a sediment core from Manzala lagoon on the Nile delta coastal margin of Egypt, deposited from ca. AD 1860 to 1990, indicates rapid coastal wetland vegetation responses to two primary periods of human activity. These are associated with artificially altered Nile hydrologic regimes in proximal areas and distal sectors located to ???1200 km south of Manzala. Freshwater wetland plants that were dominant, such as Typha and Phragmites, decreased rapidly, whereas in the early 1900s, brackish water wetland species (e.g., Amaranthaceae) increased. This change occurred after closure of the Aswan Low Dam in 1902. The second major modification in the pollen record occurred in the early 1970s, after Aswan High Dam closure from 1965 to 1970, when Typha pollen abundance increased rapidly. Massive population growth occurred along the Nile during the 130 years represented by the core section. During this time, the total volume of lagoon water decreased because of conversion of wetland areas to agricultural land, and input of organic-rich sediment, sewage (municipal, agricultural, industrial), and fertilizer in Manzala lagoon increased markedly. Although the wetland plant community has continued to respond to increasingly intensified and varied human-induced pressures in proximal sectors, the two most marked changes in Manzala pollen best correlate with distal events (i.e., closure of the two dams at Aswan). The study also shows that the two major vegetation changes in Manzala lagoon each occurred less than 10 years after closure upriver of the Low and High dams that markedly altered the Nile regime from Upper Egypt to the coast. ?? 2011, the Coastal Education & Research Foundation (CERF).

  11. Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, D.; Norville, C.

    1991-07-01

    The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

  12. Hydrogen Sulfide Emissions from Sow Farm Lagoons across Climates Zones.

    PubMed

    Grant, Richard H; Boehm, Matthew T; Lawrence, Alfred J; Heber, Albert J

    2013-11-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (HS) emissions were measured periodically over the course of 2 yr at three sow waste lagoons representing humid mesothermal (North Carolina, NC), humid microthermal (Indiana, IN), and semiarid (Oklahoma, OK) climates. Emissions were determined using a backward Lagrangian stochastic model in conjunction with line-sampled HS concentrations and measured turbulence. The median annual sow-specific (area-specific) lagoon emissions at the OK farm were approximately 1.6 g head [hd] d (5880 µg m s), whereas those at the IN and NC sow farms were 0.035 g hd d (130 µg m s), and 0.041 g hd d (260 µg m s), respectively. Hydrogen sulfide emissions generally increased with wind speed. The daily HS emissions from the OK lagoon were greatest during the first half of the year and decreased as the year progressed. Emissions were episodic at the NC and IN lagoons. The generally low emissions at the NC and IN lagoons were probably a result of significant populations of purple sulfur bacteria maintained in the humid mesothermal and humid microthermal climates. Most of the large HS emission events at the NC and IN lagoons appeared to be a result of either precipitation events or liquid pump-out events. The high emissions at the OK lagoon in a semiarid climate were largely a result of high wind speeds enhancing both lagoon and air boundary layer mixing. The climate (air temperature, winds, and precipitation) appeared to influence the HS emissions from lagoons.

  13. Sewage treatment method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Engelmann, J.A.

    1982-07-13

    A method and apparatus for treating sewage and converting the sewage into organic fertilizer which utilizes equipment for converting the solid material of the sewage into patties and a mixing apparatus for mixing the patties with bulking agents. The mixture of patties and bulking agents is stored in a pile and subjected to a supply of air to enhance the self-combustion or oxidation of the organic material in the patties. The bulking agents provide the patty-bulking agent mixture with air passages and pockets and minimize compaction of the patties. The selfcombustion of the patties continues until the organic material is burned out, leaving a residual ash. A shaker separator having an elongated longitudinal perforated member is reciprocated to separate the ash from the bulking agents. The ash is collected and utilized as organic fertilizer. The bulking agents are recycled back to the mixing apparatus.

  14. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The device must be designed for efficient removal of nearly all of the liquid and solids in the sewage...

  15. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159.307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise...

  16. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The device must be designed for efficient removal of nearly all of the liquid and solids in the sewage...

  17. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159.307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise...

  18. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The device must be designed for efficient removal of nearly all of the liquid and solids in the sewage...

  19. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159.307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise...

  20. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159.307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise...

  1. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159.307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise...

  2. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The device must be designed for efficient removal of nearly all of the liquid and solids in the sewage...

  3. Patterns of seasonal variation in lagoonal macrozoobenthic assemblages (Mellah lagoon, Algeria).

    PubMed

    Magni, Paolo; Draredja, Brahim; Melouah, Khalil; Como, Serena

    2015-08-01

    In coastal lagoons, many studies indicated that macrozoobenthic assemblages undergo marked temporal fluctuations as related to the strong environmental variability of these systems. However, most of these studies have not assessed the seasonal patterns of these fluctuations and none of them has investigated the consistency of this variation in different areas within the same lagoon system. In this study, we assessed patterns of variation at multiple temporal (date, season and year) scales in two different areas in the coastal lagoon of Mellah (northeast Algeria). These areas (hereafter Shore and Center) are representative of two different environments typically found in coastal lagoons. The Shore (water depth of about 1.5-2 m) is characterized by relatively higher hydrodynamics, sand to silty-sand sediments and the presence of vegetation (Ruppia maritima), the Center (water depth of about 3-3.5 m) is characterized by mud to sandy-mud, organic-enriched sediments due to fine particle accumulation. Results showed two distinct patterns of seasonal variation in Shore and Center assemblages for two consecutive years. In Shore, species richness (S), total abundance (N) and the abundance of several dominant taxa were highest in summer and/or autumn. This pattern can be related to the local environmental conditions maintaining relatively well oxidized conditions, while increasing food availability, and favoring the recruitment of species and individuals in summer/autumn. On the contrary in Center, S was lowest in summer and autumn, and N and the abundance of fewer dominant taxa were lowest in summer. In Center, the bivalve Loripes lucinalis showed a 10-fold increase from summer to autumn in both years, likely related to the lagoon's hydrodynamics favoring larval transport and settlement in the central sector of the lagoon. Overall, the seasonal variation found in Center followed a regression/recovery pattern typical of opportunistic assemblages occurring in confined

  4. Patterns of seasonal variation in lagoonal macrozoobenthic assemblages (Mellah lagoon, Algeria).

    PubMed

    Magni, Paolo; Draredja, Brahim; Melouah, Khalil; Como, Serena

    2015-08-01

    In coastal lagoons, many studies indicated that macrozoobenthic assemblages undergo marked temporal fluctuations as related to the strong environmental variability of these systems. However, most of these studies have not assessed the seasonal patterns of these fluctuations and none of them has investigated the consistency of this variation in different areas within the same lagoon system. In this study, we assessed patterns of variation at multiple temporal (date, season and year) scales in two different areas in the coastal lagoon of Mellah (northeast Algeria). These areas (hereafter Shore and Center) are representative of two different environments typically found in coastal lagoons. The Shore (water depth of about 1.5-2 m) is characterized by relatively higher hydrodynamics, sand to silty-sand sediments and the presence of vegetation (Ruppia maritima), the Center (water depth of about 3-3.5 m) is characterized by mud to sandy-mud, organic-enriched sediments due to fine particle accumulation. Results showed two distinct patterns of seasonal variation in Shore and Center assemblages for two consecutive years. In Shore, species richness (S), total abundance (N) and the abundance of several dominant taxa were highest in summer and/or autumn. This pattern can be related to the local environmental conditions maintaining relatively well oxidized conditions, while increasing food availability, and favoring the recruitment of species and individuals in summer/autumn. On the contrary in Center, S was lowest in summer and autumn, and N and the abundance of fewer dominant taxa were lowest in summer. In Center, the bivalve Loripes lucinalis showed a 10-fold increase from summer to autumn in both years, likely related to the lagoon's hydrodynamics favoring larval transport and settlement in the central sector of the lagoon. Overall, the seasonal variation found in Center followed a regression/recovery pattern typical of opportunistic assemblages occurring in confined

  5. Integrated ferroelectric stacked MIM capacitors with 100 nF/mm(2) and 90 V breakdown as replacement for discretes.

    PubMed

    Roest, Aarnoud; Mauczok, Rüdiger; Reimann, Klaus; van Leuken-Peters, Linda; Klee, Mareike

    2009-03-01

    This paper shows for the first time integrated thin film ferroelectric metal-insulator-metal capacitors on silicon with a record high capacitance density above 100 nF/mm(2) combined with a breakdown voltage of 90 V and a lifetime exceeding 10 years at 85 degrees C and 5 V. The high capacitance density was obtained by a combination of material optimizations resulting in a dielectric constant of 1600, and stacking of capacitors. The reliability of these ferroelectric capacitors was studied in detail with accelerated lifetime testing. The high performance of the integrated capacitors in this paper shows great potential for applications demanding high capacitance densities combined with electrostatic discharge protection.

  6. New RAD-Hard STRH3260L6 Bipolar And STRH100N10 Mosfet Power Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camonita, Giuseppe; Pintacuda, Francesco

    2011-10-01

    This article describes two new power discrete components from STMicroelectronics, specifically offered for Space applications. The STRH3260L6 is a double bipolar rad-hard transistor in an SMD package that houses two complementary devices, one NPN and one PNP. The STRH100N10 is an N-channel rad-hard power MOSFET, the first that is ESCC qualified and available in Europe without procurement restrictions. The purpose of this writing is to give details about the devices' main features, characterization for static, dynamic and radiation performances.

  7. Seasonal hydrochemical variation in a tropical coastal lagoon (Açu Lagoon, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Chagas, G G; Suzuki, M S

    2005-11-01

    Hydrochemical conditions in the Açu Lagoon are described using spatial and temporal variations of various limnological variables (water temperature, dissolved oxygen, electric conductivity, total alkalinity, carbon dioxide, dissolved and total nutrients (N, P and Si), and chlorophyll a). Collected data was used in order to understand the structure and functioning of an enclosed coastal lagoon strongly influenced by climatic conditions. Water samples were collected monthly (November 1999-December 2000) in five sampling stations established along the lagoon. A decreasing spatial gradient of electrical conductivity was observed beginning from a sand bar region between the lagoon and the sea in the direction of the sweet-water input area. The positive correlation observed between the pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) values, and the negative one observed between pH values and those of carbon dioxide (CO2), evidenced coupled biological processes, e.g., primary production and decomposition. Both spatial and temporal variation of dissolved nutrients showed fast increase and decrease in the beginning of summer, suggesting that nutrient input resulting from rainfall stimulates phytoplankton production, as reflected by chlorophyll a concentration increase.

  8. Are coastal lagoons physically or biologically controlled ecosystems? Revisiting r vs. K strategies in coastal lagoons and estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Marcos, Concepción; Pérez-Ruzafa, Isabel María; Pérez-Marcos, María

    2013-11-01

    Environmental stress influences biological assemblages, with species responding to stress by adopting particular life-history strategies (e.g., r vs. K). Coastal lagoons and estuaries are considered naturally stressed and physically controlled systems with frequent environmental disturbances and fluctuations. At the same time, their transitional nature (between terrestrial, freshwater and marine) makes them especially vulnerable to human impacts and land and freshwater inputs. As a result, it is hypothesised that residents of coastal lagoons would display characteristics of r-selected species. The r-strategy involves increased reproductive effort through early reproduction, small and numerous offspring with a large dispersive capability, short lifespan and small adult body size. Together, these traits provide a selective advantage in such unpredictable or short-lived environments. Alternatively, immigrants to coastal lagoons should mostly be K-strategists, with a competitive advantage over the r-strategists, at least on a temporary time scale. These hypotheses were explored using a dataset from 73 Atlanto-Mediterranean sites: 27 estuaries, 42 coastal lagoons and 4 from the sea, obtained from published sources. A detailed analysis of the distributions of the different resident fish species according to lagoon characteristics indicated that in lagoons with a higher marine influence the families Gobiidae, Blenniidae and Syngnathidae were common, while lagoons with freshwater influence are characterized by Cyprinidae and other freshwater species. In analyzing the biological strategies of lagoon species we found that fish assemblages inhabiting marine influenced lagoons were characterized by solitary, necto-benthonic sedentary species. These species are often hermaphroditic, with benthic broods and many exhibit brooding behaviour. This suggests that marine influenced lagoons are dominated by K-strategist species, while r-strategy species will be more common in

  9. Clipperton, a possible future for atoll lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpy, L.; Rodier, M.; Couté, A.; Perrette-Gallet, C.; Bley-Loëz, C.

    2010-09-01

    Closure of the Clipperton Island atoll (10°17' N 109°13' W), now a meromictic lake, is estimated to have occurred between 1839 and 1849. It was still closed in 2005. Brackish waters in the upper layer (0-10 m) were oxygenated, while saline waters in the deep layer (>20 m) were anoxic. Allowing for the methodological difficulties of earlier measurements, the physical characteristics of the lagoon did not seem to have changed significantly since the last expedition (1980). The intermediate layer between brackish and saline waters was characterized by a strong density gradient and a temperature inversion of up to 1.6°C. Microbial activity, water exchange between the deep layer and surrounding oceanic waters and the geothermal flux hypothesis are discussed. The low DIN and SRP concentrations observed in the upper layer, despite high nutrient input by seabird droppings, reflect the high nutrient uptake by primary producers as attested by the elevated overall gross primary production (6.6 g C m-2 day-1), and high suspended photosynthetic biomass (2.23 ± 0.23 μg Chl a l-1) and production (263 ± 27 μg C l-1 day-1). Phytoplankton composition changed in 67 years with the advent of new taxa and the disappearance of previously recorded species. The freshwater phytoplanktonic community comprised 43 taxa: 37 newly identified during the expedition and 6 previously noted; 16 species previously found were not seen in 2005. The closure of the lagoon, combined with the positive precipitation-evaporation budget characteristic of the region, has induced drastic changes in lagoon functioning compared with other closed atolls.

  10. Toward homogenization of Mediterranean lagoons and their loss of hydrodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrarin, Christian; Bajo, Marco; Bellafiore, Debora; Cucco, Andrea; De Pascalis, Francesca; Ghezzo, Michol; Umgiesser, Georg

    2014-08-01

    Lagoons are considered to be the most valuable systems of the Mediterranean coastal area, with crucial ecological, historical, economical, and social relevance. Climate change strongly affects coastal areas and can deeply change the status of transitional areas like lagoons. Herein we investigate the hydrological response of 10 Mediterranean lagoons to climate change by means of numerical models. Our results suggest that Mediterranean lagoons amplify the salinity and temperature changes expected for the open sea. Moreover, numerical simulations indicate that there will be a general loss of intralagoon and interlagoon variability of their physical properties. Therefore, as a result of climate change, we see on Mediterranean lagoons an example of a common process that in future may effect many coastal environments: that of homogenization of the physical characteristics with a tendency toward marinization.

  11. Hanford 100-N Area In Situ Apatite and Phosphate Emplacement by Groundwater and Jet Injection: Geochemical and Physical Core Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, James E.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Williams, Mark D.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Phillips, Jerry L.

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate emplacement of phosphate into subsurface sediments in the Hanford Site 100-N Area by two different technologies: groundwater injection of a Ca-citrate-PO4 solution and water-jet injection of sodium phosphate and/or fish-bone apatite. In situ emplacement of phosphate and apatite adsorbs, then incorporates Sr-90 into the apatite structure by substitution for calcium. Overall, both technologies (groundwater injection of Ca-citrate-PO4) and water-jet injection of sodium phosphate/fish-bone apatite) delivered sufficient phosphate to subsur¬face sediments in the 100-N Area. Over years to decades, additional Sr-90 will incorporate into the apatite precipitate. Therefore, high pressure water jetting is a viable technology to emplace phosphate or apatite in shallow subsurface sediments difficult to emplace by Ca-citrate-PO4 groundwater injections, but further analysis is needed to quantify the relevant areal extent of phosphate deposition (in the 5- to 15-ft distance from injection points) and cause of the high deposition in finer grained sediments.

  12. Denitrification in anaerobic lagoons used to treat swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Hunt, P G; Matheny, T A; Ro, K S; Vanotti, M B; Ducey, T F

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic lagoons are commonly used for the treatment of swine wastewater. Although these lagoons were once thought to be relatively simple, their physical, chemical, and biological processes are very complex. This study of anaerobic lagoons had two objectives: (i) to quantify denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) and (ii) to evaluate the influence of lagoon characteristics on the DEA. The DEA was measured by the acetylene inhibition method. Wastewater samples and physical and chemical measurements were taken from the wastewater column of nine anaerobic swine lagoons from May 2006 to May 2009. These lagoons were typical for anaerobic swine lagoons in the Carolinas relative to their size, operation, and chemical and physical characteristics. Their mean value for DEA was 87 mg N2O-N m(-3) d(-1). In a lagoon with 2-m depth, this rate of DEA would be compatible with 1.74 kg N ha(-1) d(-1) When nonlimiting nitrate was added, the highest DEA was compatible with 4.38 kg N ha(-1) d(-1) loss. Using stepwise regression for this treatment, the lagoon characteristics (i.e., soluble organic carbon, total nitrogen, temperature, and NO3-N) provided a final step model R2 of 0.69. Nitrous oxide from incomplete denitrification was not a significant part of the system nitrogen balance. Although alternate pathways of denitrification may exist within or beneath the wastewater column, this paper documents the lack of sufficient denitrification enzyme activity within the wastewater column of these anaerobic lagoons to support large N2 gas losses via classical nitrification and denitrification.

  13. Sludge Lagoons. Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Ronald M.

    This lesson describes three different types of sludge lagoons: (1) drying lagoons; (2) facultative lagoons; and (3) anaerobic lagoons. Normal operating sequence and equipment are also described. The lesson is designed to be used in sequence with the complete Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166 or as an independent lesson. The instructor's…

  14. Nutrient composition of Kansas swine lagoons and hoop barn manure.

    PubMed

    DeRoucheys, J M; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Murphy, J P

    2002-08-01

    A total of 312 samples in two experiments were analyzed to determine mean nutrient concentrations of swine lagoons and hoop barns in Kansas. First, in a retrospective study (Exp. 1), we obtained 41 sample analyses from the Kansas Department of Agriculture of sow, nursery, wean-to-finish, finish, and farrow-to-finish operations in 1999. The average total N concentration was 899 ppm (SD = 584 ppm), while the total P concentration was 163 ppm (SD = 241 ppm). In an attempt to reduce the variation, we conducted a prospective experiment standardizing collection procedure, laboratory techniques, phase of production, and season of year to more accurately determine the nutrient concentrations of swine lagoons in Kansas. In Exp. 2, we used 236 lagoon and 35 hoop barn manure samples taken in 2000 from Kansas swine operations to determine the impacts of production phase and season of the year on nutrient concentration. The different operations with swine lagoons were: 1) sow; 2) nursery; 3) wean-to-finish; 4) finish; and 5) farrow-to-finish, with a total of 9, 8, 7, 10, and 8 lagoons sampled from each phase of production, respectively. The total N and P concentrations from lagoons were 1,402 and 204 ppm, respectively, averaged over all samples. Concentrations of total N were higher in wean-to-finish and finishing lagoons (P < 0.05) compared with sow and farrow-to-finish lagoons. Lagoon analyses also revealed that N concentrations decreased (linear, P < 0.05) during the summer and fall compared with winter and early spring. The concentration of P was greater (P < 0.05) for wean-to-finish compared with farrow-to-finish lagoons. Phosphorus concentrations for all lagoons increased (quadratic, P < 0.05) from February until June, but then declined steady throughout the remainder of the year. Average total N and P in hoop barns were 8,678 and 4,364 ppm, respectively. No seasonal changes in N and P concentrations were observed in manure from hoop barns. Season and type of production

  15. Impact of cross-reef water fluxes on lagoon dynamics: a simple parameterization for coral lagoon circulation model, with application to the Ouano Lagoon, New Caledonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevalier, Cristele; Sous, Damien; Devenon, Jean-Luc; Pagano, Marc; Rougier, Gilles; Blanchot, Jean

    2015-11-01

    This manuscript presents a combined experimental and numerical study of the impact of cross-reef fluxes on coral reef lagoon dynamics. The selected field site is the Ouano Lagoon (New Caledonia Island, France) in the South Western Pacific Ocean. Measurements of wave transformation above the reef and current profiles through passages and reef openings have been carried out during a 3-month survey. Data analysis reveals the preponderant roles played by both tides and waves on the lagoon dynamics. Based on field data, a simple parameterization of cross-reef fluxes is implemented in a coastal lagoon circulation model and a satisfactory agreement is found between parameterized model and field results. The model is thus used as a numerical experimental tool in order to analyse the cross-reef flows' possible influence on a narrow lagoon dynamics. The results highlight the importance of cross-reef fluxes induced by wave breaking over the reef barrier on the whole lagoon circulation and water properties.

  16. Metals in sediments of San Andres lagoon, Tamaulipas, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Vazquez, F.G.; Aguilera, L.G. ); Sharma, V.K. )

    1994-03-01

    Heavy metal pollution in water is generally associated with industrial and municipal discharges into rivers, estuaries and lagoons. Once metals are in the water column, they may be taken up by organisms, deposited in the sediments or remain for some period in the water itself. The deposition rate in sediments depends on, among other factors, metal concentration in surface sediments. The concentrations of heavy metals in sediments of coastal, estuarine and lagoon environments have been determined by many workers. For the past several years, we have been interested in determining trace and heavy metal concentrations in the lagoons in Mexico to establish the levels of metal pollution. The work reported here is the completion of our ongoing study in San Andres lagoon. San Andres lagoon is located north of two industrial ports, Tampico and Altamira. In this industrial zone, the basins of the Panuco and Tamesi Rivers are localized and have industrial effluent throughout the year. All these activities and the input of the Tigre River, which runs through an agricultural and cattle-raising region, may affect the biogeochemistry of the San Andres lagoon. In the present work, we report concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn and Pb in sediments of San Andres lagoon. The measurements were made in different seasons; Rain-84 (August-September 1984); North (October-December 1984); Dry (April 1985); and Rain-85 (April-June 1985). 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  17. Multi-centennial scale precipitation and following lagoon ecosystem fluctuation in the Holocene reconstructed by East Korean Lagoon sediment analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuki, K.; Yang, D. Y.; Lim, J.; Nahm, W. H.; Nakanishi, T.; Seto, K.; Otsuka, M.; Kashima, K.

    2014-12-01

    There are lagoons in the northern east coast of the South Korea, which were formed during the transgression period in the early Holocene. These lagoons shrank about 5-30 % during the first half of 20 century due to terrestrial sediment input from soil erosion in reclamation lands. However, buried lagoonal sediments record Holocene climate change. In this study, multi-centennial scale paleo-climate and paleo-ecosystem change were investigated by analysis of this buried and present lagoon deposits. Based on the diatom assemblage analysis of the sediment in the lagoon Maeho where it is the east coast lagoons in Korea, this lagoon was formed about 8,400 years ago, and halophilic diatoms showed high peaks at three times within the last 8,400 years. Timings of these peaks were well coincident with the high-sea level periods reported in the western Japan. It is considered that sea-level of the east coast in Korea also showed high at three times during the mid-late Holocene, and then, salinity of the lagoon increased in these periods. Except for such sea-level dependent change, salinity of the lagoon Maeho showed the multi-centennial (200 or 400 years) scale periodic variation. Magnetic susceptibility (MS) also showed the clear 400 years periodicity in the mid-late Holocene. When the MS showed high value, oligohalobous diatoms showed high value. However, halophilic diatoms and number of total diatom valves increased when the MS showed low value. This correspondence probably indicates that magnetic minerals flew into the lagoon with river fresh water, and then volume of fresh water inflow has changed with 400 years cycles. Such MS cycle was also confirmed in the sediments of other lagoons. Change of fresh water inflow should be not local event, was a part of regional environmental change. These results probably indicate that the precipitation on the northeastern South Korea has changed by the 400 years cycle. On the basis of lagoon bottom sediment, it made clear that the

  18. Microbiological monitoring of bivalves from the Ria Formosa Lagoon (south coast of Portugal): a 20 years of sanitary survey.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Catarina; Soares, Florbela

    2012-02-01

    The microbiological pollution of coastal waters is a major problem, especially in shellfish areas. This article shows the faecal contamination in bivalves from the Ria Formosa Lagoon (south coast of Portugal) along 20 years (1990-2009). The highest values of Escherichia coli in bivalves were obtained during the 90s, related with the discharge of untreated wastewaters and agricultural runoff. In the 2000s contamination levels decreased, with 83% of the population already served by new or remodelled sewage treatment plants. The highest levels were found in bivalves close to the largest city, where punctual and diffuse contamination sources still exist. Bivalves from the less impacted site showed the lowest contamination, an area with more water renewal. Seasonally, the highest levels were in autumn and winter, due to the runoff of waters from rainfall. These were opposite to those in spring and summer, when the highest temperatures and salinity showed a bactericidal effect. PMID:22197556

  19. Microbiological monitoring of bivalves from the Ria Formosa Lagoon (south coast of Portugal): a 20 years of sanitary survey.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Catarina; Soares, Florbela

    2012-02-01

    The microbiological pollution of coastal waters is a major problem, especially in shellfish areas. This article shows the faecal contamination in bivalves from the Ria Formosa Lagoon (south coast of Portugal) along 20 years (1990-2009). The highest values of Escherichia coli in bivalves were obtained during the 90s, related with the discharge of untreated wastewaters and agricultural runoff. In the 2000s contamination levels decreased, with 83% of the population already served by new or remodelled sewage treatment plants. The highest levels were found in bivalves close to the largest city, where punctual and diffuse contamination sources still exist. Bivalves from the less impacted site showed the lowest contamination, an area with more water renewal. Seasonally, the highest levels were in autumn and winter, due to the runoff of waters from rainfall. These were opposite to those in spring and summer, when the highest temperatures and salinity showed a bactericidal effect.

  20. Temperature variability in a shallow, tidally isolated coral reef lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCabe, R. M.; Estrade, P.; Middleton, J. H.; Melville, W. K.; Roughan, M.; Lenain, L.

    2010-12-01

    Temperature data collected in the shallow, tidally isolated reef flat/lagoon of Lady Elliot Island off Queensland, Australia, show marked variability under solar and tidal forcing. Sea level drops below the height of the protective lagoon rim for a few hours during low tide, effectively isolating the remaining water. Because the lagoon is shallow, its temperature change (from diurnal solar forcing and cooling) is amplified. We develop a simple analytical model to predict the time evolution of mean lagoon temperature, beginning with a well-mixed control volume. This approach highlights the asymmetric flood/ebb physics of tidally isolated lagoons. After discussing the response of this model, we compare it with results from two idealized numerical simulations that illustrate differing aspects of lagoon temperature variability under "potential flow" and "prevailing current" situations. The conceptual model captures the essence of lagoon temperature variability and underscores the importance of solar-lunar phasing. However, because of the well-mixed assumption, it cannot reproduce sudden temperature transitions associated with new incoming water masses. Observations show that a slowly progressing thermal wave inundates the lagoon on rising tides. This wave is similar to our "potential flow" simulation in that it is approximately radially symmetric. On the other hand, it appears to advectively replace resident lagoon water, similar to our "prevailing current" simulations. We attempt to account for this behavior with a simple "frontal" modification to our conceptual model. Results show that this frontal model is able to capture the sudden temperature transitions present in the data and offers improved predictive capabilities over the well-mixed model.

  1. 1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT (BLDG. 769) SOUTH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT (BLDG. 769) SOUTH OF STORAGE SHED (BLDG 773). SECURITY FENCE EAST OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Sewage Treatment Plant, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  2. Composition and method for the treatment of sewage

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, J.

    1981-01-20

    Sewage treatment composition formed by combination of triancontanol with an organic soil improvement agent derived by digestion of milch cow excrement and method of treating sewage are described to reduce sludge by addition of the composition to the sewage.

  3. Biological Hazards in Sewage and Wastewater Treatment Plants

    MedlinePlus

    Biological Hazards in Sewage and Wastewater Treatment Plants Hazard Alert During construction and maintenance of sewage and ... Careful work habits can help protect you. Some Biological Hazards That May Be in Sewage Or Wastewater ...

  4. Sewers, sewage treatment, sludge: damage without end.

    PubMed

    Rockefeller, Abby A

    2002-01-01

    It is in the nature of sewering and sewage treatment to compound environmental problems in the process of moving sewage and in attempting to remove from sewage the pollutants it carries. Spreading sewage sludge on land is but the latest in the compounding of environmental damage from sewerage. This practice must be banned and there must be a federal reorientation of all technology dealing with human excreta and the waste materials from industry and society that now are carried away by sewers. The reorientation must center on biologically based on-site pollution prevention and resource recycling technologies mandated through a revised Clean Water Act. PMID:17208779

  5. Sewers, sewage treatment, sludge: damage without end.

    PubMed

    Rockefeller, Abby A

    2002-01-01

    It is in the nature of sewering and sewage treatment to compound environmental problems in the process of moving sewage and in attempting to remove from sewage the pollutants it carries. Spreading sewage sludge on land is but the latest in the compounding of environmental damage from sewerage. This practice must be banned and there must be a federal reorientation of all technology dealing with human excreta and the waste materials from industry and society that now are carried away by sewers. The reorientation must center on biologically based on-site pollution prevention and resource recycling technologies mandated through a revised Clean Water Act.

  6. Biomass, litterfall and decomposition rates for the fringed rhizophora mangle forest lining the Bon Accord Lagoon, Tobago.

    PubMed

    Juman, Rahanna A

    2005-05-01

    The mangrove forest that fringes the Bon Accord Lagoon measures 0.8 km(2) and is dominated by red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle). This forest forms the landward boundary of the Buccoo Reef Marine Park in Southwest Tobago, and is part of a mangrove-seagrass-coral reef continuum. Biomass and productivity, as indicated by litterfall rates, were measured in seven 0.01 ha monospecific plots from February 1998 to February 1999, and decomposition rates were determined. Red mangrove above-ground biomass ranged between 2.0 and 25.9 kg (dry wt.) m(-2). Mean biomass was 14.1+/-8.1 kg (dry wt.) m(-2) yielding a standing crop of 11 318+/-6 488 t. Litterfall rate varied spatially and seasonally. It peaked from May to August (4.2-4.3 g dry wt. m(-2) d(-1)) and was lowest from October to December (2.3-2.8 g dry wt. m(-2) d(-1)). Mean annual litterfall rate was 3.4+/-0.9 g dry wt. m(-2) d(-1). Leaf degradation rates ranged from 0.3% loss d(-1) in the upper intertidal zone to 1% loss d(-1) at a lower intertidal site flooded by sewage effluent. Mean degradation rate was 0.4+/-1% loss d(-1) . The swamp produces 2.8 t dry wt. of litterfall and 12 kg dry wt. of decomposed leaf material daily. Biomass and litterfall rates in Bon Accord Lagoon were compared to five similar sites that also participate in the Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity Programme (CARICOMP). The Bon Accord Lagoon mangrove swamp is a highly productive fringed-forest that contributes to the overall productivity of the mangrove-seagrass-reef complex. PMID:17465160

  7. White pelicans swim in the lagoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    White pelicans search for a meal in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. The habitat of white pelicans are marshy lakes along the Pacific and Texas coasts, wintering chiefly in coastal lagoons such as this one. They often capture fish cooperatively, forming a long line, beating their wings and driving the prey into shallow water. The 92,000-acre refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  8. Is the Venice Lagoon Noisy? First Passive Listening Monitoring of the Venice Lagoon: Possible Effects on the Typical Fish Community.

    PubMed

    Bolgan, Marta; Picciulin, Marta; Codarin, Antonio; Fiorin, Riccardo; Zucchetta, Matteo; Malavasi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Three passive listening surveys have been carried out in two of the three Venice lagoon tide inlets and inside the Venice island. The spectral content and the intensity level of the underwater noise as well as the presence or absence of Sciaena umbra and the distribution of its different sound patterns have been investigated in all the recording sites. The passive listening proved to be successful in detecting S. umbra drumming sounds in both Venice lagoon tide inlets. Our results indicate that the spectral content and the level of underwater noise pollution in the Venice lagoon could affect fish acoustic communication. PMID:26610947

  9. Self-generated morphology in lagoon reefs

    PubMed Central

    Hamblin, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    The three-dimensional form of a coral reef develops through interactions and feedbacks between its constituent organisms and their environment. Reef morphology therefore contains a potential wealth of ecological information, accessible if the relationships between morphology and ecology can be decoded. Traditionally, reef morphology has been attributed to external controls such as substrate topography or hydrodynamic influences. Little is known about inherent reef morphology in the absence of external control. Here we use reef growth simulations, based on observations in the cellular reefs of Western Australia’s Houtman Abrolhos Islands, to show that reef morphology is fundamentally determined by the mechanical behaviour of the reef-building organisms themselves—specifically their tendency to either remain in place or to collapse. Reef-building organisms that tend to remain in place, such as massive and encrusting corals or coralline algae, produce nodular reefs, whereas those that tend to collapse, such as branching Acropora, produce cellular reefs. The purest reef growth forms arise in sheltered lagoons dominated by a single type of reef builder, as in the branching Acropora-dominated lagoons of the Abrolhos. In these situations reef morphology can be considered a phenotype of the predominant reef building organism. The capacity to infer coral type from reef morphology can potentially be used to identify and map specific coral habitat in remotely sensed images. More generally, identifying ecological mechanisms underlying other examples of self-generated reef morphology can potentially improve our understanding of present-day reef ecology, because any ecological process capable of shaping a reef will almost invariably be an important process in real time on the living reef. PMID:26175962

  10. Self-generated morphology in lagoon reefs.

    PubMed

    Blakeway, David; Hamblin, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    The three-dimensional form of a coral reef develops through interactions and feedbacks between its constituent organisms and their environment. Reef morphology therefore contains a potential wealth of ecological information, accessible if the relationships between morphology and ecology can be decoded. Traditionally, reef morphology has been attributed to external controls such as substrate topography or hydrodynamic influences. Little is known about inherent reef morphology in the absence of external control. Here we use reef growth simulations, based on observations in the cellular reefs of Western Australia's Houtman Abrolhos Islands, to show that reef morphology is fundamentally determined by the mechanical behaviour of the reef-building organisms themselves-specifically their tendency to either remain in place or to collapse. Reef-building organisms that tend to remain in place, such as massive and encrusting corals or coralline algae, produce nodular reefs, whereas those that tend to collapse, such as branching Acropora, produce cellular reefs. The purest reef growth forms arise in sheltered lagoons dominated by a single type of reef builder, as in the branching Acropora-dominated lagoons of the Abrolhos. In these situations reef morphology can be considered a phenotype of the predominant reef building organism. The capacity to infer coral type from reef morphology can potentially be used to identify and map specific coral habitat in remotely sensed images. More generally, identifying ecological mechanisms underlying other examples of self-generated reef morphology can potentially improve our understanding of present-day reef ecology, because any ecological process capable of shaping a reef will almost invariably be an important process in real time on the living reef.

  11. Self-generated morphology in lagoon reefs.

    PubMed

    Blakeway, David; Hamblin, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    The three-dimensional form of a coral reef develops through interactions and feedbacks between its constituent organisms and their environment. Reef morphology therefore contains a potential wealth of ecological information, accessible if the relationships between morphology and ecology can be decoded. Traditionally, reef morphology has been attributed to external controls such as substrate topography or hydrodynamic influences. Little is known about inherent reef morphology in the absence of external control. Here we use reef growth simulations, based on observations in the cellular reefs of Western Australia's Houtman Abrolhos Islands, to show that reef morphology is fundamentally determined by the mechanical behaviour of the reef-building organisms themselves-specifically their tendency to either remain in place or to collapse. Reef-building organisms that tend to remain in place, such as massive and encrusting corals or coralline algae, produce nodular reefs, whereas those that tend to collapse, such as branching Acropora, produce cellular reefs. The purest reef growth forms arise in sheltered lagoons dominated by a single type of reef builder, as in the branching Acropora-dominated lagoons of the Abrolhos. In these situations reef morphology can be considered a phenotype of the predominant reef building organism. The capacity to infer coral type from reef morphology can potentially be used to identify and map specific coral habitat in remotely sensed images. More generally, identifying ecological mechanisms underlying other examples of self-generated reef morphology can potentially improve our understanding of present-day reef ecology, because any ecological process capable of shaping a reef will almost invariably be an important process in real time on the living reef. PMID:26175962

  12. Surface Water Quality Survey of Northern Indian River Lagoon from Sebastian Inlet to Mosquito Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, R. J.; Webb, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    Following news of an emerging brown tide algal bloom in the northern Indian River Lagoon (IRL), researchers sought to gain insight into the surface water quality in the IRL, as well as the extent of the algae coverage. A Portable SeaKeeper from YSI, mounted to a personal watercraft-based coastal profiling system, autonomously collected and analyzed the surface water. The system operates by recording sample data every 12 seconds while continuously underway at speeds up to and greater than 50 km/hr. The researchers covered a transect that started at Sebastian Inlet and followed a zig-zag path extending up through the Haulover Canal and into the Mosquito Lagoon. The survey path covered 166.7 km, and collected 2248 samples. Along the way stops were made at water quality stations used by the Saint John's River Water Management District, so that the data collected can be incorporated into ongoing monitoring efforts. The system analyzed the surface water for dissolved oxygen, pH, chlorophyll-a, salinity, temperature, turbidity, refined fuels, and CDOM. In the two days following the lagoon survey, the inlets at Port Canaveral and Sebastian were also surveyed for tidal currents and hydrography. The IRL transect survey data recorded evidence of the southern extent of the algae bloom in both chlorophyll-a and pH levels. Visual evidence of the bloom was striking as the water in the northern IRL turned a milk chocolaty brown color. Chlorophyll-a levels in the two inlets suggested bloom activity at these locations; however this bloom was different. This oceanic bloom was a result of a persistent upwelling event along the East Florida shelf, and the color was a paler green-yellow. The near-synoptic nature of the comprehensive lagoon survey, conducted in just over 7 hours, allows researchers to obtain a better understanding of water quality in coastal lagoons. Elevated levels of salinity, temperature, and refined fuels in the northern IRL indicate a low exchange rate and absence

  13. Mercury methylation and demethylation in Hg-contaminated lagoon sediments (Marano and Grado Lagoon, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, Mark E.; Poitras, Erin N.; Covelli, Stefano; Faganeli, Jadran; Emili, Andrea; Žižek, Suzana; Horvat, Milena

    2012-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) transformation activities and sulfate (SO42-) reduction were studied in sediments of the Marano and Grado Lagoons in the Northern Adriatic Sea region as part of the "MIRACLE" project. The lagoons, which are sites of clam (Tapes philippinarum) farming, have been receiving excess Hg from the Isonzo River for centuries. Marano Lagoon is also contaminated from a chlor-alkali plant. Radiotracer methods were used to measure mercury methylation (230Hg, 197Hg), methylmercury (MeHg) demethylation (14C-MeHg) and SO42- reduction (35S) in sediment cores collected in autumn, winter and summer. Mercury methylation rate constants ranged from near zero to 0.054 day-1, generally decreased with depth, and were highest in summer. Demethylation rate constants were much higher than methylation reaching values of ˜0.6 day-1 in summer. Demethylation occurred via the oxidative pathway, except in winter when the reductive pathway increased in importance in surficial sediments. Sulfate reduction was also most active in summer (up to 1600 nmol mL-1 day-1) and depth profiles reflected seasonally changing redox conditions near the surface. Methylation and demethylation rate constants correlated positively with SO42- reduction and pore-water Hg concentrations, and inversely with Hg sediment-water partition coefficients indicating the importance of SO42- reduction and Hg dissolution on Hg cycling. Hg transformation rates were calculated using rate constants and concentrations of Hg species. In laboratory experiments, methylation was inhibited by amendments of the SO42--reduction inhibitor molybdate and by nitrate. Lagoon sediments displayed a dynamic seasonal cycle in which Hg dissolution in spring/summer stimulated Hg methylation, which was followed by a net loss of MeHg in autumn from demethylation. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) tended to be responsible for methylation of Hg and the oxidative demethylation of MeHg. However, during winter in surficial sediments, iron

  14. VISTA Stares Deeply into the Blue Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-01-01

    This new infrared image of the Lagoon Nebula was captured as part of a five-year study of the Milky Way using ESO's VISTA telescope at the Paranal Observatory in Chile. This is a small piece of a much larger image of the region surrounding the nebula, which is, in turn, only one part of a huge survey. Astronomers are currently using ESO's Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) to scour the Milky Way's central regions for variable objects and map its structure in greater detail than ever before. This huge survey is called VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) [1]. The new infrared image presented here was taken as part of this survey. It shows the stellar nursery called the Lagoon Nebula (also known as Messier 8, see eso0936), which lies about 4000-5000 light-years away in the constellation of Sagittarius (the Archer). Infrared observations allow astronomers to peer behind the veil of dust that prevents them from seeing celestial objects in visible light. This is because visible light, which has a wavelength that is about the same size as the dust particles, is strongly scattered, but the longer wavelength infrared light can pass through the dust largely unscathed. VISTA, with its 4.1-metre diameter mirror - the largest survey telescope in the world - is dedicated to surveying large areas of the sky at near-infrared wavelengths deeply and quickly. It is therefore ideally suited to studying star birth. Stars typically form in large molecular clouds of gas and dust, which collapse under their own weight. The Lagoon Nebula, however, is also home to a number of much more compact regions of collapsing gas and dust, called Bok globules [2]. These dark clouds are so dense that, even in the infrared, they can block the starlight from background stars. But the most famous dark feature in the nebula, for which it is named, is the lagoon-shaped dust lane that winds its way through the glowing cloud of gas. Hot, young stars, which give off intense

  15. VISTA Stares Deeply into the Blue Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-01-01

    This new infrared image of the Lagoon Nebula was captured as part of a five-year study of the Milky Way using ESO's VISTA telescope at the Paranal Observatory in Chile. This is a small piece of a much larger image of the region surrounding the nebula, which is, in turn, only one part of a huge survey. Astronomers are currently using ESO's Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) to scour the Milky Way's central regions for variable objects and map its structure in greater detail than ever before. This huge survey is called VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) [1]. The new infrared image presented here was taken as part of this survey. It shows the stellar nursery called the Lagoon Nebula (also known as Messier 8, see eso0936), which lies about 4000-5000 light-years away in the constellation of Sagittarius (the Archer). Infrared observations allow astronomers to peer behind the veil of dust that prevents them from seeing celestial objects in visible light. This is because visible light, which has a wavelength that is about the same size as the dust particles, is strongly scattered, but the longer wavelength infrared light can pass through the dust largely unscathed. VISTA, with its 4.1-metre diameter mirror - the largest survey telescope in the world - is dedicated to surveying large areas of the sky at near-infrared wavelengths deeply and quickly. It is therefore ideally suited to studying star birth. Stars typically form in large molecular clouds of gas and dust, which collapse under their own weight. The Lagoon Nebula, however, is also home to a number of much more compact regions of collapsing gas and dust, called Bok globules [2]. These dark clouds are so dense that, even in the infrared, they can block the starlight from background stars. But the most famous dark feature in the nebula, for which it is named, is the lagoon-shaped dust lane that winds its way through the glowing cloud of gas. Hot, young stars, which give off intense

  16. 1. Oblique view: east side, from Condado Lagoon Beach on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Oblique view: east side, from Condado Lagoon Beach on southeast (context) - Puente Guillermo Esteves, Spanning San Antonio Channel at PR-25 (Juan Ponce de Leon Avenue), San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  17. Nutrient removal from swine lagoon effluent by duckweed

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, B.A.; Cheng, J.; Classen, J.; Stomp, A.M.

    2000-04-01

    Three duckweed geographic isolates were grown on varying concentrations of swine lagoon effluent in a greenhouse to determine their ability to remove nutrients from the effluent. Duckweed biomass was harvested every other day over a 12-day period. Duckweed biomass production, nutrient loss from the swine lagoon effluent, and nutrient content of duckweed biomass were used to identify effluent concentrations/geographic isolate combinations that are effective in terms of nutrient utilization from swine lagoon effluent and production of healthy duckweed biomass. When Lemna minor geographic isolate 8627 was grown on 50% swine lagoon effluent, respective losses of TKN, NH{sub 3}-N, TP, OPO{sub 4}-P, TOC, K, Cu, and Zn were 83, 100, 49, 31, 68, 21, 28 and 67%.

  18. ANALYSIS OF SWINE LAGOONS AND GROUND WATER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method was developed for analysis of low levels of natural (estradiol, estrone, estriol) and synthetic (ethynylestradiol) estrogens in ground water and swine waste lagoon effluent. The method includes solid phase extraction of the estrogens, preparation of pentafluorobenzyl der...

  19. ANALYSIS OF SWINE LAGOONS AND GROUND WATER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method was developed for analysis of low levels of natural (estradiol, estrone, estriol) and synthetic (ethinyl estradiol) estrogens in ground water and swine waste lagoon effluent. The method includes solid phase extraction of the estrogens, preparation of pentafluorobenzyl de...

  20. Major Geomagnetic Storms (Dst less than or equal to -100 nT) Generated by Corotating Interaction Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, I. G.; Webb, D. F.; Zhang, J.; Berdichevsky, B. D.; Biesecker, D. A.; Kasper, J. C.; Kataoka, R.; Steinberg, J. T.; Thompson, B. J.; Wu, C.-C.; Zhukov, A. N.

    2006-01-01

    Seventy-nine major geomagnetic storms (minimum Dst less than or equal to -100 nT) observed in 1996 to 2004 were the focus of a Living with a Star Coordinated Data-Analysis Workshop (CDAW) in March, 2005. In 9 cases, the storm driver appears to have been purely a corotating interaction region (CIR) without any contribution from coronal mass ejection-related material (interplanetary coronal mass ejections, ICMEs). These storms were generated by structures within CIRs located both before and/or after the stream interface that included persistently southward magnetic fields for intervals of several hours. We compare their geomagnetic effects with those of 159 CIRs observed during 1996 - 2005. The major storms form the extreme tail of a continuous distribution of CIR geoeffectiveness which peaks at Dst approx. -40 nT but is subject to a prominent seasonal variation of - 40 nT which is ordered by the spring and fall equinoxes and the solar wind magnetic field direction towards or away from the Sun. The O'Brien and McPherron [2000] equations, which estimate Dst by integrating the incident solar wind electric field and incorporating a ring current loss term, largely account for the variation in storm size. They tend to underestimate the size of the larger CIR-associated storms by Dst approx. 20 nT. This suggests that injection into the ring current may be more efficient than expected in such storms. Four of the nine major storms in 1996 - 2004 occurred during a period of less than three solar rotations in September - November, 2002, also the time of maximum mean IMF and solar magnetic field intensity during the current solar cycle. The maximum CIR-storm strength found in our sample of events, plus additional 23 probable CIR-associated Dst less than or equal to -100 nT storms in 1972 - 1995, is (Dst = -161 nT). This is consistent with the maximum storm strength (Dst approx. -180 nT) expected from the O'Brien and McPherron equations for the typical range of solar wind

  1. Tidal dynamics in a frictionally dominated tropical lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenorio-Fernandez, L.; Gomez-Valdes, J.; Marino-Tapia, I.; Enriquez, C.; Valle-Levinson, A.; Parra, S. M.

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the dynamics of tidal propagation inside a tropical lagoon. Sea surface elevation (inside) and current profiles (at the inlet) were examined over 60 days at the Chelem lagoon, which is a branched tropical lagoon located in the northern Yucatan Peninsula. Tides were predominantly diurnal with a wavelength at least 20 times longer than the total length of the basin. Spatial variations of sea surface elevation and the longitudinal transport were described in each branch by applying a linear analytical model and the results were compared to observations. Results showed that the coastal lagoon was highly frictional. The tidal signal was attenuated between 30% and 40% toward the lagoon heads, a result of the balance between pressure gradient and frictional forces. A causeway that chokes the western side of the lagoon allowed the propagation of the diurnal signal toward the west head of the basin but damped the semidiurnal signal. The causeway acted as a hydraulic low-pass filter, as in natural choked systems. The causeway's filter effect was included in the analytical model by optimizing the frictional parameters.

  2. BY-PRODUCTS FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE

    PubMed Central

    Weston, Robert Spurr

    1920-01-01

    Economy and conservation have worked for years at the problem of profit from sewage. Mr. Weston notes that many American cities have potential by-products enough to make recovery worth trying. English cities have found the American Miles process profitable. It will at least lessen the cost of sewage disposal. PMID:18010306

  3. Sewage Disposal in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayotamuno, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    This survey of the Port Harcourt, Nigeria, sewage disposal system exemplifies sewage disposal in the developing world. Results reveal that some well-constructed and maintained drains, as well as many open drains and septic tanks, expose women and children to the possibility of direct contact with parasitic organisms and threaten water resources.…

  4. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section 159.85 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The...

  5. My Town, My Creek, My Sewage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodburn, John H.

    1972-01-01

    After summarizing the ecology of polluted streams as well as the technology and biology of sewage treatment methods, and considering the economic and social aspects of introducing advanced sewage treatment, comments on the role of biology teachers in providing public information are made. (AL)

  6. Pathways of priority pesticides in sediments of coastal lagoons: The case study of Óbidos Lagoon, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Pinto, M I; Vale, C; Sontag, G; Noronha, J P

    2016-05-15

    This study reports the concentrations of the priority pesticides (PPs) in 14 surface sediments and 21 layers of a sediment core from Óbidos Lagoon, a shallow Portuguese coastal lagoon. Results show that the PPs are confined to the upper part of the lagoon that receives most of the inputs from surface runoff of the surrounding agricultural fields and from small tributaries. Past and recent applied PPs were registered in sediments, aluminum normalized concentrations varying between 0.05×10(-7) and 6.85×10(-7). The PP risk assessment based on sediment quality guidelines like the "Probable Effect Level" (PEL) shows no biological effects in either sediments or aquatic organisms of Óbidos Lagoon, except for dieldrin, lindane, DDT, heptachlor epoxide and its parent compound heptachlor. PMID:27021267

  7. Pathways of priority pesticides in sediments of coastal lagoons: The case study of Óbidos Lagoon, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Pinto, M I; Vale, C; Sontag, G; Noronha, J P

    2016-05-15

    This study reports the concentrations of the priority pesticides (PPs) in 14 surface sediments and 21 layers of a sediment core from Óbidos Lagoon, a shallow Portuguese coastal lagoon. Results show that the PPs are confined to the upper part of the lagoon that receives most of the inputs from surface runoff of the surrounding agricultural fields and from small tributaries. Past and recent applied PPs were registered in sediments, aluminum normalized concentrations varying between 0.05×10(-7) and 6.85×10(-7). The PP risk assessment based on sediment quality guidelines like the "Probable Effect Level" (PEL) shows no biological effects in either sediments or aquatic organisms of Óbidos Lagoon, except for dieldrin, lindane, DDT, heptachlor epoxide and its parent compound heptachlor.

  8. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1986-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

  9. Occurrence and removal of pharmaceutically active compounds in sewage treatment plants with different technologies.

    PubMed

    Ying, Guang-Guo; Kookana, Rai S; Kolpin, Dana W

    2009-08-01

    Occurrence of eight selected pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs; caffeine, carbamazepine, triclosan, gemfibrozil, diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and naproxen) were investigated in effluents from fifteen sewage treatment plants (STPs) across South Australia. In addition, a detailed investigation into the removal of these compounds was also carried out in four STPs with different technologies (Plant A: conventional activated sludge; plant B: two oxidation ditches; plant C: three bioreactors; and plant D: ten lagoons in series). The concentrations of these compounds in the effluents from the fifteen STPs showed substantial variations among the STPs, with their median concentrations ranging from 26 ng/L for caffeine to 710 ng/L for carbamazepine. Risk assessment based on the "worst case scenario" of the monitoring data from the present study suggested potential toxic risks to aquatic organisms posed by carbamazepine, triclosan and diclofenac associated with such effluent discharge. With the exception of carbamazepine and gemfibrozil, significant concentration decreases between influent and effluent were observed in the four STPs studied in more detail. Biodegradation was found to be the main mechanism for removing concentrations from the liquid waste stream for the PhACs within the four STPs, while adsorption onto sludge appeared to be a minor process for all target PhACs except for triclosan. Some compounds (e.g. gemfibrozil) exhibited variable removal efficiencies within the four STPs. Plant D (10 lagoons in series) was least efficient in the removal of the target PhACs; significant biodegradation of these compounds only occurred from the sixth or seventh lagoon.

  10. Occurrence and removal of pharmaceutically active compounds in sewage treatment plants with different technologies.

    PubMed

    Ying, Guang-Guo; Kookana, Rai S; Kolpin, Dana W

    2009-08-01

    Occurrence of eight selected pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs; caffeine, carbamazepine, triclosan, gemfibrozil, diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and naproxen) were investigated in effluents from fifteen sewage treatment plants (STPs) across South Australia. In addition, a detailed investigation into the removal of these compounds was also carried out in four STPs with different technologies (Plant A: conventional activated sludge; plant B: two oxidation ditches; plant C: three bioreactors; and plant D: ten lagoons in series). The concentrations of these compounds in the effluents from the fifteen STPs showed substantial variations among the STPs, with their median concentrations ranging from 26 ng/L for caffeine to 710 ng/L for carbamazepine. Risk assessment based on the "worst case scenario" of the monitoring data from the present study suggested potential toxic risks to aquatic organisms posed by carbamazepine, triclosan and diclofenac associated with such effluent discharge. With the exception of carbamazepine and gemfibrozil, significant concentration decreases between influent and effluent were observed in the four STPs studied in more detail. Biodegradation was found to be the main mechanism for removing concentrations from the liquid waste stream for the PhACs within the four STPs, while adsorption onto sludge appeared to be a minor process for all target PhACs except for triclosan. Some compounds (e.g. gemfibrozil) exhibited variable removal efficiencies within the four STPs. Plant D (10 lagoons in series) was least efficient in the removal of the target PhACs; significant biodegradation of these compounds only occurred from the sixth or seventh lagoon. PMID:19657534

  11. Occurrence and removal of pharmaceutically active compounds in sewage treatment plants with different technologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ying, Guang-Guo; Kookana, Rai S.; Kolpin, Dana W.

    2009-01-01

    Occurrence of eight selected pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs; caffeine, carbamazepine, triclosan, gemfibrozil, diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and naproxen) were investigated in effluents from fifteen sewage treatment plants (STPs) across South Australia. In addition, a detailed investigation into the removal of these compounds was also carried out in four STPs with different technologies (Plant A: conventional activated sludge; plant B: two oxidation ditches; plant C: three bioreactors; and plant D: ten lagoons in series). The concentrations of these compounds in the effluents from the fifteen STPs showed substantial variations among the STPs, with their median concentrations ranging from 26 ng/L for caffeine to 710 ng/L for carbamazepine. Risk assessment based on the "worst case scenario" of the monitoring data from the present study suggested potential toxic risks to aquatic organisms posed by carbamazepine, triclosan and diclofenac associated with such effluent discharge. With the exception of carbamazepine and gemfibrozil, significant concentration decreases between influent and effluent were observed in the four STPs studied in more detail. Biodegradation was found to be the main mechanism for removing concentrations from the liquid waste stream for the PhACs within the four STPs, while adsorption onto sludge appeared to be a minor process for all target PhACs except for triclosan. Some compounds (e.g. gemfibrozil) exhibited variable removal efficiencies within the four STPs. Plant D (10 lagoons in series) was least efficient in the removal of the target PhACs; significant biodegradation of these compounds only occurred from the sixth or seventh lagoon.

  12. Escherichia coli pollution in a Baltic Sea lagoon: a model-based source and spatial risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Schippmann, Bianca; Schernewski, Gerald; Gräwe, Ulf

    2013-07-01

    Tourism around the Oder (Szczecin) Lagoon, at the southern Baltic coast, has a long tradition, is an important source of income and shall be further developed. Insufficient bathing water quality and frequent beach closings, especially in the Oder river mouth, hamper tourism development. Monitoring data gives only an incomplete picture of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria sources, spatial transport patterns, risks and does neither support an efficient bathing water quality management nor decision making. We apply a 3D ocean model and a Lagrangian particle tracking model to analyse pollution events and to obtain spatial E. coli pollution maps based on scenario simulations. Model results suggests that insufficient sewage treatment in the city of Szczecin is the major source of faecal pollution, even for beaches 20km downstream. E. coli mortality rate and emission intensity are key parameters for concentration levels downstream. Wind and river discharge play a modifying role. Prevailing southwestern wind conditions cause E. coli transport along the eastern coast and favour high concentration levels at the beaches. Our simulations indicate that beach closings in 2006 would not have been necessary according to the new EU-Bathing Water Quality Directive (2006/7/EC). The implementation of the new directive will, very likely, reduce the number of beach closings, but not the risk for summer tourists. Model results suggest, that a full sewage treatment in Szczecin would allow the establishment of new beaches closer to the city (north of Dabie lake). PMID:23337127

  13. Nutrient inputs to a Lagoon through submarine groundwater discharge: The case of Laoye Lagoon, Hainan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Tao; Du, Jinzhou; Moore, Willard S.; Zhang, Guosen; Su, Ni; Zhang, Jing

    2013-02-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) with inputs of nutrients in certain regions may play a significant role in controlling water quality in the coastal regions. In this paper, we have determined four naturally occurring radium isotope (223Ra, 224Ra, 226Ra and 228Ra) activities and nutrient concentrations in surface water, coastal groundwater and river water in the mixing zone of Laoye Lagoon to estimate the fluxes of SGD by several models. The activities of the four radium isotopes of ground water were considerably greater than those in surface water samples. Using a 224Ra/228Ra activity ratio (AR) model, we estimated the average lagoon water age to be 3.2 days, which was comparable with the flushing time of 4.0 days. Based on the excess radium isotopes and the water age of the lagoon, the estimated fluxes of SGD (in 106 m3/d) ranged from 2.64 to 5.32 with an average of 4.11. Moreover, we used Si balance to evaluate the flux of SGD (4.8 × 106 m3/d) which was close to the result calculated by radium. The SGD-derived nutrient fluxes (in mol/d) were DIN = 1.7 × 105, PO43 - = 5.2 × 102, and SiO3 = 5.3 × 104. Furthermore, we applied the biogeochemical budget approach using SiO3 as a tracer to evaluate the impact of SGD. The differences between the results estimated by radium and SiO3 may indicate different pathways for the input of nutrients.

  14. 33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with this section. There must be no sewage or sewage-treating chemicals remaining on surfaces or in... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test....

  15. 33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with this section. There must be no sewage or sewage-treating chemicals remaining on surfaces or in... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test....

  16. 33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with this section. There must be no sewage or sewage-treating chemicals remaining on surfaces or in... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test....

  17. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... existing or planned capacity to adequately treat such collected sewage. Replacement or major rehabilitation... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sewage collection system. 35.925-13... Sewage collection system. That, if the project involves sewage collection system work, such work (a)...

  18. 33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with this section. There must be no sewage or sewage-treating chemicals remaining on surfaces or in... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test....

  19. 33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with this section. There must be no sewage or sewage-treating chemicals remaining on surfaces or in... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test....

  20. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... existing or planned capacity to adequately treat such collected sewage. Replacement or major rehabilitation... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sewage collection system. 35.925-13... Sewage collection system. That, if the project involves sewage collection system work, such work (a)...

  1. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: Financial viability case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinwood, Jean F.; Kotler, Jiri

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1) Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. 2) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs. 3) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs.

  2. Metagenomics-based analysis of viral communities in dairy lagoon wastewater.

    PubMed

    Alhamlan, F S; Ederer, M M; Brown, C J; Coats, E R; Crawford, R L

    2013-02-15

    Microbial populations, especially those of viruses, are poorly studied in dairy wastewater treatment operations. Here we report signature nucleic acid metagenomic sequences obtained by pyrosequencing viromes of virus-like particles that were extracted from two dairy waste treatment lagoons. The lagoons are operated in series, with Lagoon I being used as the primary stage and Lagoon II as the secondary stage of wastewater treatment. An average of 2000 sequences was obtained from each lagoon. More than 300 signatures from each lagoon matched sequences in the virus database of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). We utilized a bioinformatics approach and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to characterize the viral diversity and presence of potential viral pathogens within the lagoons. Our results showed differences in viral community compositions between Lagoon I and Lagoon II, suggesting that the viral community changes significantly in the transition of water between the two lagoons. Furthermore, the diverse viral community in the lagoon samples contained signature sequences of a variety of bacterial, plant, and animal viruses. Bacteriophage sequences dominated the viral community metagenomes in both lagoons. Ultimately these results can be used to identify viral bioindicators to rapidly assess wastewater treatment quality and the potential impacts of dairy operations on watersheds. Our viral metagenomic sequences have been submitted to GenBank (GPID 65805) and can provide insight into the composition and structure of viral communities within wastewaters of dairy lagoon systems.

  3. Influence of Groundwater Seepage on Water Quality and Ecological Health of the Ria Formosa Lagoon, Southern Portugal (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontar, A. Y.; Newton, A.

    2009-12-01

    Groundwater seepage from coastal aquifers has recently been recognized as an overlooked major source of nutrients (N, P) and contaminants to the coastal environment (Biddanda et al., 2009; Fear, Paerl and Braddy, 2007; Kluge et al., 2007; Kroeger and Charette, 2008). Nutrient and contaminants concentrations in groundwater are often much higher than those in river water, compensating for the lower flux of groundwater relative to the lagoon surface water. The Ria Formosa is a coastal lagoon located in the south of Portugal (Algarve, Faro) and surrounded by an intensely farmed area. We hypothesize that water quality and ecological health of the Ria Formosa environments are influenced by past and on-going contamination of terrestrial groundwaters with nutrients from fertilizer, sewage and industry. According to Leote, Ibanhez and Rocha (2005) estimated submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the lagoon to be 3.6 m3 day-1 per linear meter of coastline with freshwater contributions (per volume) ranging from 10% to 50%. SGD as an important nutrient source to the Ria Formosa, estimating annual loads of 36.2 mol (0.507 kg) of Nitrogen, 1.1 mol (0.034 kg) of Phosphorus and 18.6 mol (0.522 kg) of Silicon per meter of coastline. Based on these results, it was suggested that SGD is a potential contributor to the observed nutrification status of the Ria Formosa lagoon. We are testing the following two hypotheses: (1) Anthropogenically impacted sites of the Ria Formosa having higher concentration of inorganic nutrients in groundwater will be characterized by higher density of Aquatic Invasive Species (AIS) distribution, and higher chlorophyll and phycocyanin concentration, oxygen demand, and sediment organic carbon than the pristine site; (2) Anthropogenically impacted sites of the Ria Formosa having higher concentration of contaminants in groundwater will be characterized by lower AIS dispersal and colonization, and lower chlorophyll and phycocyanin concentration, oxygen

  4. Microalgae cultured by sewage and organic constituents.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kenichiro; Uchida, Tsutomu

    2013-10-01

    The microalgae could be multiplied by supplying only sewage influent or effluent without any additional microalgal stock or nutrient salt. In a semicontinuous culture, the N:P weight ratios consumed were 14:1 and 18:1 for the sewage influent and effluent, respectively. The total cell number and green algae ratio of microalgae cultivated by semicontinuous culture exceeded those of batch culture. No cyanobacterial cells were observed in the semicontinuous culture using the sewage effluent. The organic components in the cultured microalgae using sewage effluent, eluted by n-hexane, were determined. The ratio of unsaturated fatty acid exceeded that of saturated fatty acid, which was possibly attributable to the fluidity of the cell membrane. The squalene was also obtained by the culture using sewage alone, free of any external stock or nutrient salt. The higher heating value of the microalgae of semicontinuous culture using the sewage influent was 25 MJ kg(-1), corresponding to the heating value of lignite and showing the potential of the sewage culture microalgae as a means of power generation and combustion aid.

  5. Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion of Sewage Sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yoshizo; Nojima, Tomoyuki; Kakuta, Akihiko; Moritomi, Hiroshi

    A conceptual design of an energy recovering system from sewage sludge was proposed. This system consists of a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, a gas turbine, and a heat exchanger for preheating of combustion air. Thermal efficiency was estimated roughly as 10-25%. In order to know the combustion characteristics of the sewage sludge under the elevated pressure condition, combustion tests of the dry and wet sewage sludge were carried out by using laboratory scale pressurized fluidized bed combustors. Combustibility of the sewage sludge was good enough and almost complete combustion was achieved in the combustion of the actual wet sludge. CO emission and NOx emission were marvelously low especially during the combustion of wet sewage sludge regardless of high volatile and nitrogen content of the sewage sludge. However, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was very high. Hence, almost all nitrogen oxides were emitted as the form of N2O. From these combustion tests, we judged combustion of the sewage sludge with the pressurized fluidized bed combustor is suitable, and the conceptual design of the power generation system is available.

  6. The freshwater artisanal fishery of Patos Lagoon.

    PubMed

    Ceni, G; Fontoura, N F; Cabral, H N

    2016-07-01

    In this study data relative to the fishery in the freshwater area of the Patos Lagoon are analysed, and the dynamics, fishing gears used and catches evaluated. The results reveal the existence of two fishery strategies: forbidden mesh size gillnets (FMG; <35 mm; square measure) and allowed mesh size gillnets (AMG; ≥35 mm; square measure). In total, 31 species were caught (AMG = 27 and FMG = 24), but selectivity due to mesh size was significant (P < 0·001). The FMG may be very harmful since it captures individuals of most species below size at first maturity, including the target species, the armoured catfish Loricariichthys anus (61% of the total catch). In addition, this gear is used throughout the year, including the closed season (CS; November to January), when the target species is reproducing. Target species for the AMG are larger in size, comprising mainly the mullet Mugil liza, the marine catfish Genidens barbus and the whitemouth croaker Micropogonias furnieri. AMS gillnets were not used during the CS. The use of FMG reveals the need for effective fishery law enforcement and the need for additional studies to assess the status of populations of the exploited species. PMID:27250698

  7. The freshwater artisanal fishery of Patos Lagoon.

    PubMed

    Ceni, G; Fontoura, N F; Cabral, H N

    2016-07-01

    In this study data relative to the fishery in the freshwater area of the Patos Lagoon are analysed, and the dynamics, fishing gears used and catches evaluated. The results reveal the existence of two fishery strategies: forbidden mesh size gillnets (FMG; <35 mm; square measure) and allowed mesh size gillnets (AMG; ≥35 mm; square measure). In total, 31 species were caught (AMG = 27 and FMG = 24), but selectivity due to mesh size was significant (P < 0·001). The FMG may be very harmful since it captures individuals of most species below size at first maturity, including the target species, the armoured catfish Loricariichthys anus (61% of the total catch). In addition, this gear is used throughout the year, including the closed season (CS; November to January), when the target species is reproducing. Target species for the AMG are larger in size, comprising mainly the mullet Mugil liza, the marine catfish Genidens barbus and the whitemouth croaker Micropogonias furnieri. AMS gillnets were not used during the CS. The use of FMG reveals the need for effective fishery law enforcement and the need for additional studies to assess the status of populations of the exploited species.

  8. Effect of biodegradation on the consolidation properties of a dewatered municipal sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    O'Kelly, Brendan C

    2008-01-01

    The effect of biodegradation on the consolidation characteristics of an anaerobically digested, dewatered municipal sewage sludge was studied. Maintained-load oedometer consolidation tests that included measurement of the pore fluid pressure response were conducted on moderately degraded sludge material and saturated bulk samples that had been stored under static conditions and allowed to anaerobically biodegrade further (simulating what would happen in an actual sewage sludge monofill or lagoon condition). Strongly degraded sludge material was produced after a storage period of 13 years at ambient temperatures of 5-15 degrees C, with the total volatile solids reducing from initially 70% to 55%. The sludge materials were highly compressible, although impermeable for practical purposes. Primary consolidation generally occurred very slowly, which was attributed to the microstructure of the solid phase, the composition and viscosity of the pore fluid, ongoing biodegradation and the high organic contents. The coefficient of primary consolidation values decreased from initially about 0.35m2/yr to 0.003-0.03m2/yr with increasing effective stress (sigmav'=3-100kPa). Initially, the strongly degraded sludge material was slightly more permeable, although both the moderately and strongly degraded materials became impermeable for practical purposes (k=10(-9)-10(-12)m/s) below about 650% and 450% water contents, respectively. Secondary compression became more dominant with increasing effective stress with a mean secondary compression index (Calphae) value of 0.9 measured for both the moderately and strongly degraded materials. PMID:17936608

  9. Microwave Supported Treatment of Sewage Sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janíček, František; Perný, Milan; Šály, Vladimír; Giemza, Markus; Hofmann, Peter

    2016-07-01

    This work is focused on microwave treatment of sewage sludge. The aim of our experiments was to investigate the impact of microwave radiation upon different sewage sludge parameters such as concentration of nitrates and nitrites, phosphates, COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), SVI (Sludge Volume Index) and the microscopic structure of sludge. The experiments with microwave irradiation of sewage sludge indicate that moderate microwave power causes visible effects on the chemical, physical and biological properties of the sludge. The calculation of profitability and energy efficiency is also presented.

  10. Deodorization of sewage sludge-derived oils

    SciTech Connect

    Sawatzky, H.; Giddings, T.; Farnand, B.

    1993-07-06

    A method is described for treating a sewage sludge-derived oil comprising the steps of: (A) providing sewage sludge-derived oil having the following elemental composition: Nitrogen: about 2% to about 8%; Oxygen: about 3% to about 12%; Sulphur: about 0.1 % to about 4%; Hydrogen: about 8% to about 11%; Carbon: about 86.9% to about 65%; (B) distilling said sewage sludge-derived oil to a temperature of about 150 C. to remove water and volatile organic compounds; and (C) circulating a gas consisting essentially of carbon dioxide therethrough.

  11. Fine and coarse components in surface sediments from Bikini Lagoon

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V. E., LLNL

    1997-01-01

    In 1979, 21 years after the moratorium on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands, surface sediment samples (to depths of 2 and 4 cm) were collected from 87 locations in the lagoon of Bikini Atoll, one of the two sites in the Marshall Islands used by the United States to test nuclear devices from 1946 through 1958. The main purpose for the collections was to map the distribution of long-lived man-made radionuclides associated with the bottom material. In addition the samples were processed to estimate the fraction of fine and coarse components to show, by comparison, what modifications occurred in the composition since the sediments were first described in samples collected before testing in 1946. Nuclear testing produced more finely divided material that is now found in the surface sediment layer over large areas of the lagoon and especially in regions of the lagoon and reef adjacent to test sites. The 5 cratering events alone at Bikini Atoll redistributed sufficient material to account for the higher inventory of fine material found over the surface 4 cm of the sediment of the lagoon. Although the fraction of fine material in the bottom sediments was altered by the nuclear events, the combined processes of formation, transport and deposition were not sufficiently dynamic to greatly change the general geographical features of the major sedimentary components over most of the lagoon floor.

  12. Dynamic modelling of nitrification in an aerated facultative lagoon.

    PubMed

    Houweling, Dwight; Kharoune, Lynda; Escalas, Antoni; Comeau, Yves

    2008-01-01

    Faced with the need to improve ammonia removal from lagoon wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) operated in Quebec, Canada, mechanistic modelling has been proposed as a tool for explaining the seasonal nitrification phenomenon and to evaluate optimization and upgrade scenarios. A lagoon model that includes a modified activated sludge biokinetic model and that assumes completely mixed conditions in the water column and sediments has been applied to simulate 3 years of consecutive effluent data for a lagoon from the Drummondville WWTP. Successful prediction of results from this plant indicates that the seasonal nitrification is determined by temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations, hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the water column and washout driven by a well-mixed water column. Results also indicate that sediments contribute to the ammonia load in the lagoon effluent, particularly in spring and early summer. Sensitivity analyses performed with the model indicate that the nitrification period could be prolonged by increasing DO concentrations in the lagoon and that bioaugmentation would be particularly effective in spring and early summer. Limitations of the model are discussed, as well as ways to improve the hydraulic model.

  13. Phytoplankton assemblages in lateral lagoons of a large tropical reservoir.

    PubMed

    Ferrareze, M; Nogueira, M G

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to analyse the composition and ecological attributes of the phytoplankton assemblages in four lateral lagoons and in the main channel of Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River, SE Brazil). Fieldwork was carried out in September and November/2004 and January, March, May and August/2005. A total of 283 taxa was identified. Zygnemaphyta was the most specious group, followed by Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta. Higher richness, abundance and biomass were observed in the lagoons when compared with the river-reservoir sampling point, especially during the rainy period. Cryptophyceae and Bacillariophyceae dominated numerically. Cryptomonas brasiliensis Castro, Bicudo and Bicudo was the main species of the phytoplankton in terms of abundance and frequency of occurrence. The dynamics of the most important taxa are discussed and the results showed that the phytoplankton assemblages are mainly influenced by meteorological factors and nutrient availability (the main driving forces). Correlation analyses indicated that the assemblage abundance was limited by nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus). The phytoplankton abundance influenced positively the zooplankton abundance, what indicates the prevalence of bottom-up control routes in the lateral lagoons system. The results validate the hypotheses that lateral lagoons have a prominent ecological role on the phytoplankton diversity, as already previously demonstrated for fish and zooplankton. Therefore, the incorporation of the lateral lagoons in environmental programmes should be a target strategy for the conservation of the regional aquatic biota, minimising the negative impact of the dam.

  14. Geochemical characterization of seaplane lagoon sediments, Alameda Naval Air Station

    SciTech Connect

    Bono, A; Carroll, S; Esser, B; Luther, G W; O'Day, P; Randall, S

    1999-08-16

    Our objective in the characterization of sediments from Seaplane Lagoon at the Alameda Naval Air Station (NAS) was to determine the geochemical interactions that control the partitioning of cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc between the sediments and the porewaters. Our approach was to collect several cores at the east outfall location of the Seaplane Lagoon. We determined the porewater chemistry by (1) making in situ micro-electrode measurements, (2) extracting porewaters, and (3) modeling geochemical reactions. We determined the sediment chemistry by measuring (1) elemental abundance, (2) mineralogy, and (3) trace-element speciation. This information should help the US Navy determine the long-term hazard of the sediments if they are left in place and the short-term hazard if they are dredged. We did not fully examine the geochemistry of sediments from the West Beach Landfill Wetlands site, because these sediments were distinct from the Seaplane Lagoon sediments. Our initial motivation for studying the Landfill Wetlands site was to determine the trace-element geochemistry in Seaplane Lagoon sediments that had been dredged and then disposed in the Landfill Wetlands. Unfortunately, the location of these dredged sediments is unknown. The cores we sampled were not from the Seaplane Lagoon.

  15. Flow characteristics of the raw sewage for the design of sewage-source heat pump systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Wu, Yuebin; Sun, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The flow characteristics of raw sewage directly affect the technical and economic performance of sewage-source heat pump systems. The purpose of this research is to characterize the flow characteristics of sewage by experimental means. A sophisticated and flexible experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. Then the flow characteristics of the raw sewage were studied through laboratorial testing and theoretical analyses. Results indicated that raw sewage could be characterized as a power-law fluid with the rheological exponent n being 0.891 and the rheological coefficient k being 0.00175. In addition, the frictional loss factor formula in laminar flow for raw sewage was deduced by theoretical analysis of the power-law fluid. Furthermore, an explicit empirical formula for the frictional loss factor in turbulent flow was obtained through curve fitting of the experimental data. Finally, the equivalent viscosity of the raw sewage is defined in order to calculate the Reynolds number in turbulent flow regions; it was found that sewage had two to three times the viscosity of water at the same temperature. These results contributed to appropriate parameters of fluid properties when designing and operating sewage-source heat pump systems.

  16. Flow characteristics of the raw sewage for the design of sewage-source heat pump systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Wu, Yuebin; Sun, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The flow characteristics of raw sewage directly affect the technical and economic performance of sewage-source heat pump systems. The purpose of this research is to characterize the flow characteristics of sewage by experimental means. A sophisticated and flexible experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. Then the flow characteristics of the raw sewage were studied through laboratorial testing and theoretical analyses. Results indicated that raw sewage could be characterized as a power-law fluid with the rheological exponent n being 0.891 and the rheological coefficient k being 0.00175. In addition, the frictional loss factor formula in laminar flow for raw sewage was deduced by theoretical analysis of the power-law fluid. Furthermore, an explicit empirical formula for the frictional loss factor in turbulent flow was obtained through curve fitting of the experimental data. Finally, the equivalent viscosity of the raw sewage is defined in order to calculate the Reynolds number in turbulent flow regions; it was found that sewage had two to three times the viscosity of water at the same temperature. These results contributed to appropriate parameters of fluid properties when designing and operating sewage-source heat pump systems. PMID:24987735

  17. Nutrient-Chlorophyll Relationships in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida(SEERS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Indian River Lagoon is a highly diverse estuary located along Florida’s Atlantic coast. The system is made up of the main stem and two side-lagoons: the Banana River and Mosquito Lagoon. We segmented the main stem into three sections based on spatial trends in water quality ...

  18. Spring and Summer Proliferation of Floating Macroalgae in a Mediterranean Coastal Lagoon (Tancada Lagoon, Ebro Delta, NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez, M.; Comín, F. A.

    2000-08-01

    During the last 10 years, a drastic change in the structure of the community of primary producers has been observed in Tancada Lagoon (Ebro Delta, NE Spain). This consisted of a decrease in the abundance of submerged rooted macrophyte cover and a spring and summer increase in floating macroalgae. Two spatial patterns have been observed. In the west part of the lagoon, Chaetomorpha linum Kützing, dominated during winter and decreased progressively in spring when Cladophora sp. reached its maximum development. In the east part of the lagoon, higher macroalgal diversity was observed, together with lower cover in winter and early spring. Cladophora sp., Gracilaria verrucosa Papenfuss and Chondria tenuissima Agardh, increased cover and biomass in summer. Maximum photosynthetic production was observed in spring for G. verrucosa (10·9 mg O 2 g -1 DW h -1) and C. tenuissima (19·0 mg O 2 g -1 DW h -1) in contrast with Cladophora sp. (15·9 mg O 2 g -1 DW h -1) and Chaetomorpha linum (7·2 mg O 2 g -1 DW h -1) which reached maximum production in summer. Increased conductivity from reduced freshwater inflow, and higher water temperatures during periods of lagoon isolation, mainly in summer, were the main physical factors associated with an increase in floating macroalgal biomass across the lagoon. Reduced nitrogen availability and temperature-related changes in carbon availability during summer were related to a decrease in abundance of C. linum and increases in G. verrucosa and Cladophora sp.

  19. Investigation of the possible sources of heavy metal contamination in lagoon and canal water in the tannery industrial area in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, Mohammad Amir Hossain; Suruvi, Nahid I; Dampare, Samuel B; Islam, M A; Quraishi, Shamshad B; Ganyaglo, Samuel; Suzuki, Shigeyuki

    2011-04-01

    This study evaluated the heavy metal pollution level of tannery effluent-affected lagoon and canal water in the southwestern Dhaka, Bangladesh. The measured physicochemical parameters (electrical conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, pH, SO²⁻₄, PO³⁻₄, Cl-, and NO⁻₃) and metals (As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were subjected to principal component (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analyses, and examining correlation matrix as well in order to explain the behavior and sources of the parameters/metals. The mean concentrations of the heavy metals in the lagoon and canal water were very high and, in most cases, exceeded the standard limits recommended by the Bangladesh Government. The following elemental associations were obtained from PCA and CA: Ca-Cd-Cr-Fe-K-Mn-Pb-Zn, Co-Cu-Ni, and As, which could be linked to anthropogenic sources (i.e., processes of the tannery and paint industries with some contributions from the municipal waste system). Potassium, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn, As, and Cd occurred as important anthropogenic markers in the lagoons and lower part of the canal. Copper, Co, and Ni were importantly distributed in the lower part of the canal, which also received metal inputs from the municipal waste and other industrial sources, including paint industry. GIS-based factor score maps, generated to show the spatial controls of the major processes affecting surface water hydrochemistry, suggest that the activities of paint and tannery industries and municipal sewage are pervasive processes in the area, whereas the contribution from pesticides (used for tanning and disinfecting hides) has localized effects. This study has provided the evidence that effluents discharged from the tannery and auxiliary industries and urban sewage system are the main sources of heavy metal pollution in the lagoon and canal water systems in the Hazaribagh area of southwestern Dhaka. The high mean concentrations (in mg/l) of Cr (5.27), Pb (0.81), As (0.59), and

  20. LANDSAT imagery of the Venetian Lagoon: A multitemporal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alberotanza, L.; Zandonella, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The use of LANDSAT multispectral scanner images from 1975 to 1979 to determine pollution dispersion in the central basin of the lagoon under varying tidal conditions is described. Images taken during the late spring and representing both short and long range tidal dynamics were processed for partial haze removal and removal of residual striping. Selected spectral bands were correlated to different types of turbid water. The multitemporal data was calibrated, classified considering sea truth data, and evaluated. The classification differentiated tide diffusion, algae belts, and industrial, agricultural, and urban turbidity distributions. Pollution concentration is derived during the short time interval between inflow and outflow and from the distance between the two lagoon inlets and the industrial zones. Increasing pollution of the lagoon is indicated.

  1. A Family Physician's Guide to Sewage Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Connop, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    The potential environmental and personal health effects from the agricultural uses of domestic sewage sludge may increasingly require the guidance of the family physician, especially in farming communities. This article summarizes the potential health hazards and outlines the tripartite risk phenomenon—hazard identification, risk assessment, and social evaluation. For the agricultural use of dewatered sewage sludge, strict adherence to regulated procedures should not increase risk beyond that of agriculture generally. Confirmation by prospective epidemiological studies is recommended. PMID:21283298

  2. Lightweight aggregate from flyash and sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Nechvatal, T.M.; Heian, G.A.

    1991-10-15

    This patent describes a method of treating flyash and sewage sludge. It comprises: mixing flyash with sewage sludge having a high fuel value; agglomerating the mixture; drying the agglomerated mixture; heating the agglomerated mixture to a temperature less than the melting point of the mixture in a rotary kiln using the agglomerated mixture as the principal source of fuel in the kiln to form a porous nodular product; and recovering the nodular product from the kiln.

  3. Clean and Efficient Utilization of Sewage Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Zamansky, Vladimir; Rizeq, George

    2002-09-12

    This is the Final Report for the DOE SBIR Phase II project (Grant No. DE-FG03-98ER82573). This report summarizes accomplishments and results for the entire program. In this program an innovative technology has been devised for transforming sewage sludge into a high quality fuel and recovering its energy content. The technology being developed is generally applicable to nearly all municipal sewage sludge management facilities and coal-fired boilers. It will provide economic and environmental benefits.

  4. Eutrophication Process on Coastal Lagoons of North of Sinaloa, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobedo-Urias, D.; Martinez-Lopez, A.

    2007-05-01

    Coastal ecosystems in the Gulf of California support diverse and important fisheries and are reservoirs of great biological diversity. In northern Sinaloa, population growth and development, as well as increased use of these natural systems for recreation, has substantially increased the pressure placed upon marine resources. Discharge of untreated wastewaters generated by diverse human activities has been notably altered its health and integrity, principally along the lagoon's eastern shore In the late 60s, agriculture moved into a dominant role in coastal northern Sinaloa. The coastal plain encompasses more than 200,000 hectares under cultivation that now introduces large amounts of organic material, pesticides, heavy metals, and fertilizers into the lagoon systems of Topolobampo and San Ignacio-Navachiste-Macapule System at drainage discharge points and a minor grade in Colorado Lagoon. These lagoons are shallow and exhibit low water quality, lost of lagoon depth, presence of toxic substances (heavy metals) near the discharge points of wastewaters, and presence of harmful algal blooms. With the aim of evaluate the nutrients loadings (wastewaters, groundwaters) and their effects on the coastal lagoons of north of Sinaloa, the preliminary analysis of the physical, chemical and biologic variables data series are analyzed. From 1987-2007 eutrophication process is identified in Topolobampo Complex show increase tendency in annual average concentrations of DIN (Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen= NO2+NO3) from 0.5 μ M in 1987 to 2.7 μ M in 2006. Trophic Index (TRIX) values, low nutrient ratios (N: P and N: Si) and the phytoplanktonic community structure support this result. Preliminary results of nutrients loadings show a mayor contribution of wastewaters into the coastal zone.

  5. Optical researches for cyanobacteria bloom monitoring in Curonian Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirshin, Evgeny A.; Budylin, Gleb B.; Yakimov, Boris P.; Voloshina, Olga V.; Karabashev, Genrik S.; Evdoshenko, Marina A.; Fadeev, Victor V.

    2016-04-01

    Cyanobacteria bloom is a great ecological problem of Curonian Lagoon and Baltic Sea. The development of novel methods for the on-line control of cyanobacteria concentration and, moreover, for prediction of bloom spreading is of interest for monitoring the state of ecosystem. Here, we report the results of the joint application of hyperspectral measurements and remote sensing of Curonian Lagoon in July 2015 aimed at the assessment of cyanobacteria communities. We show that hyperspectral data allow on-line detection and qualitative estimation of cyanobacteria concentration, while the remote sensing data indicate the possibility of cyanobacteria bloom detection using the spectral features of upwelling irradiation.

  6. HYDROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE COASTAL LAGOONS AT HUGH TAYLOR BIRCH STATE RECREATION AREA, FORT LAUDERDALE, FLORIDA: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    The author presents initial results of an ongoing study of Southeast Florida coastal lagoon lakes. Objectives include presenting environmental conditions within and adjacent to the lagoons under a variety of hydrologic conditions and to determine water-quality changes in ground water and surface water and how these changes in water quality affect lagoonal biological communities within the lagoons.

  7. A new sampler for stratified lagoon chemical and microbiological assessments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A water column sampler was needed to study stratification of nutrients and bacteria in a swine manure lagoon. Conventional samplers yielded shallow samples near the bank or required a boat. These limitations prompted development of a new sampler to collect at multiple depths with minimal disturbanc...

  8. Antibiotic resistant bacterial profiles of anaerobic swine lagoon effluent.

    PubMed

    Brooks, J P; McLaughlin, M R

    2009-01-01

    Although land application of swine (Sus scrofa) manure lagoon effluent is a common and effective method of disposal, the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, both pathogenic and commensal can complicate already understood issues associated with its safe disposal. The aim of this study was to assess antibiotic resistance in swine lagoon bacteria from sow, nursery, and finisher farms in the southeastern United States. Effluents from 37 lagoons were assayed for the presence of Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, Listeria, and Salmonella. Antibiotic resistance profiles were determined by the Kirby-Bauer swab method for 12 antibiotics comprising eight classes. Statistical analyses indicated that farm type influenced the amount and type of resistance, with nurseries and sow farms ranking as most influential, perhaps due to use of more antibiotic treatments. Finisher farms tended to have the least amount of antibiotic class resistance, signaling an overall healthier market pig, and less therapeutic or prophylactic antibiotic use. Many bacterial isolates were resistant to penicillin, cephalosporin, and tetracycline class antibiotics, while nearly all were susceptible to quinolone antibiotics. It appeared that swine farm type had a significant association with the amount of resistance associated with bacterial genera sampled from the lagoons; nurseries contributed the largest amount of bacterial resistance.

  9. LAGOON WATER FROM CONFINED ANIMAL FEED OPERATIONS AND AMPHIBIAN DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory


    Lagoon Water from Confined Animal Feed Operations and Amphibian Development. Dumont, J. N.* and Slagle, S., Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, and Hutchins, S. R., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (NRMRL/SPRD), Ada, OK. There is some evidence that confined anima...

  10. Holocene carbonate sedimentation in Aitutaki Lagoon, Cook Islands, South Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, B.M.; Hein, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    Aitutaki, an almost-atoll in the Southern Cook Islands, is characterized by a shallow enclosed lagoon. Sediment distribution within the lagoon can be broadly placed into three sedimentary-bathymetric provinces. (1) A low-relief reef rim (< 2 m deep), including sand flats and washover fans, is comprised mostly of clean sand and gravel. (2) The majority of the lagoon floor, which lies between 3 and 6 m water depth, is dominated by sand and silt; coral-algal patch reefs are common with densities greater than 500 reefs/km/sup 2/. Sediment commonly is coarser grained near the patch reefs. (3) Enclosed and elongate-sinuous topographic lows (basins) up to 10 m deep are marked by coral-algal reef growth along their margins. These features are typically narrow, less than 100 m wide, and are U-shaped in cross section and infilled by carbonate and terrigenous muds. High-resolution continuous seismic profiling and limited drilling indicate that differences in thickness of Holocene sediment result from primary irregularities in the pre-Holocene basement surface. Aitutaki was formed by late Miocene volcanism, with a post-edifice building mid-Pleistocene (0.77 Ma) volcanic episode. Two islets within the lagoon are also of volcanic origin, and sinuous coral ridges which extend for several kilometers probably developed on Quaternary lava flows. The coral ridges and meandering enclosed basins appear to be unique to Aitutaki in the Cook Islands.

  11. In Situ Monitoring of Malodors in a Swine Waste Lagoon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An apparatus for the in situ quantification of malodorous compounds from animal wastewater was developed that employed a submersible magnetic stir plate and stir bar sorbtive extraction using polydimethylsiloxane-coated stir bars. Prior to deployment of the apparatus in a hog waste lagoon, experime...

  12. Distribution and stability of eelgrass beds at Izembek Lagoon, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, D.H.; Markon, C.J.; Douglas, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    Spatial change in eelgrass meadows, Zostera marina L., was assessed between 1978 and 1987 and between 1987 and 1995 at Izembek Lagoon, Alaska. Change in total extent was evaluated through a map to map comparison of data interpreted from a 1978 Landsat multi-spectral scanner image and 1987 black and white aerial photographs. A ground survey in 1995 was used to assess spatial change from 1987. Eelgrass beds were the predominant vegetation type in the lagoon, comprising 44-47% (15000-16000 ha) of the total area in 1978 and 1987. Izembek Lagoon contains the largest bed of seagrass along the Pacific Coast of North America and largest known single stand of eelgrass in the world. There was a high degree of overlap in the spatial distribution of eelgrass among years of change detection. The overall net change was a 6% gain between, 1978 and 1987 and a <1% gain between 1987 and 1995. The lack of significant change in eelgrass cover suggests that eelgrass meadows in Izembek Lagoon have been stable during the 17-year period of our study.

  13. Aerated Lagoons. Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lorri

    This unit (which consists of a single lesson) describes the structural and operationally unique features of aerated lagoons. In addition, special troubleshooting and maintenance problems are discussed. The instructor's guide for the unit includes: (1) an overview of the lesson; (2) lesson plan; (3) lecture outline (keyed to a set of slides used…

  14. Facultative Lagoons. Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lorri

    This instructor's guide contains materials needed to teach a two-lesson unit on the structure and components of facultative lagoons, the biological theory of their operation, and factors affecting their operation. Control testing recommendations, maintenance guidelines, and troubleshooting hints are also provided. These materials include: (1) an…

  15. A Field Study Training Program on Wastewater Lagoon Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water and Wastewater Technical School, Neosho, MO.

    This publication is a text and reference manual for operating personnel of both large and small wastewater lagoon systems with support from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). As a text, this inservice training manual is intended to be used in a correspondence course wherein the trainee or operator would read and study each chapter before…

  16. Flushing of Bowden Reef lagoon, Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolanski, Eric; King, Brian

    1990-12-01

    Field and numerical studies were undertaken in 1986 and 1987 of the water circulation around and over Bowden Reef, a 5-km long kidney-shaped coral reef lagoon system in the Great Barrier Reef. In windy conditions, the flushing of the lagoon was primarily due to the intrusion into the lagoon of topographically induced tidal eddies generated offshore. In calm weather, such eddies did not prevail and lagoon flushing was much slower. The observed currents at sites a few kilometres apart in inter-reefal waters, have a significant horizontal shear apparently due to the complex circulation in the reef matrix. Under such conditions, sensitivity tests demonstrate the importance of including this shear in the specification of open boundary conditions of numerical models of the hydrodynamics around reefs. Contrary to established practice, the water circulation around a coral reef should not be modelled by assuming reefs are hydrodynamically isolated from surrounding ones. Little improvement appears likely in the reliability of reef-scale numerical models until the inter-reefal shear can be reliably incorporated in such models.

  17. Aspects of fish conservation in the upper Patos Lagoon basin.

    PubMed

    Fontoura, N F; Vieira, J P; Becker, F G; Rodrigues, L R; Malabarba, L R; Schulz, U H; Möller, O O; Garcia, A M; Vilella, F S

    2016-07-01

    The Patos Lagoon basin is a large (201 626 km(2) ) and complex drainage system in southern Brazil. The lagoon is 250 km long and 60 km wide, covering an area of 10 360 km(2) . The exchange of water with the Atlantic Ocean occurs through a 0·8 km wide and 15 m deep inlet, fixed by 4 km long jetties, at the southernmost part of the Patos Lagoon. The estuarine area is restricted to its southern portion (10%), although the upper limit of saline waters migrates seasonally and year to year, influenced by the wind regime and river discharge. The known number of recorded limnetic fish species is 200, but this number is expected to increase. A higher endemism is observed in fish species occurring in upper tributaries. The basin suffers from the direct impact of almost 7 million inhabitants, concentrated in small to large cities, most with untreated domestic effluents. There are at least 16 non-native species recorded in natural habitats of the Patos Lagoon basin, about half of these being from other South American river basins. Concerning the fishery, although sport and commercial fisheries are widespread throughout the Patos Lagoon basin, the lagoon itself and the estuarine area are the main fishing areas. Landing statistics are not available on a regular basis or for the whole basin. The fishery in the northern Patos Lagoon captures 31 different species, nine of which are responsible for most of the commercial catches, but only three species are actually sustaining the artisanal fishery: the viola Loricariichthys anus: 455 kg per 10 000 m(2) gillnet per day, the mullet Mugil liza: 123 kg per 10 000 m(2) gillnet per day and the marine catfish Genidens barbus: 50 kg per 10 000 m(2) gillnet per day. A decline of the fish stocks can be attributed to inadequate fishery surveillance, which leads to overfishing and mortality of juveniles, or to decreasing water quality because of urban and industrial activities and power production. Global climatic changes also represent a

  18. Aspects of fish conservation in the upper Patos Lagoon basin.

    PubMed

    Fontoura, N F; Vieira, J P; Becker, F G; Rodrigues, L R; Malabarba, L R; Schulz, U H; Möller, O O; Garcia, A M; Vilella, F S

    2016-07-01

    The Patos Lagoon basin is a large (201 626 km(2) ) and complex drainage system in southern Brazil. The lagoon is 250 km long and 60 km wide, covering an area of 10 360 km(2) . The exchange of water with the Atlantic Ocean occurs through a 0·8 km wide and 15 m deep inlet, fixed by 4 km long jetties, at the southernmost part of the Patos Lagoon. The estuarine area is restricted to its southern portion (10%), although the upper limit of saline waters migrates seasonally and year to year, influenced by the wind regime and river discharge. The known number of recorded limnetic fish species is 200, but this number is expected to increase. A higher endemism is observed in fish species occurring in upper tributaries. The basin suffers from the direct impact of almost 7 million inhabitants, concentrated in small to large cities, most with untreated domestic effluents. There are at least 16 non-native species recorded in natural habitats of the Patos Lagoon basin, about half of these being from other South American river basins. Concerning the fishery, although sport and commercial fisheries are widespread throughout the Patos Lagoon basin, the lagoon itself and the estuarine area are the main fishing areas. Landing statistics are not available on a regular basis or for the whole basin. The fishery in the northern Patos Lagoon captures 31 different species, nine of which are responsible for most of the commercial catches, but only three species are actually sustaining the artisanal fishery: the viola Loricariichthys anus: 455 kg per 10 000 m(2) gillnet per day, the mullet Mugil liza: 123 kg per 10 000 m(2) gillnet per day and the marine catfish Genidens barbus: 50 kg per 10 000 m(2) gillnet per day. A decline of the fish stocks can be attributed to inadequate fishery surveillance, which leads to overfishing and mortality of juveniles, or to decreasing water quality because of urban and industrial activities and power production. Global climatic changes also represent a

  19. Sand mining and morphometric dynamics along Ologe Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaddeus, D.; Odunuga, S.

    2015-04-01

    The study focuses on the sand mining activities and morphometric dynamics of Ologe Lagoon, in Lagos, Nigeria. It determines the sand mining activities and morphometric dynamics of Ologe Lagoon catchment area, the quantity of sand mined per unit time, and the extent of environmental degradation due to the continuous sand mining activities. Topographic maps of the 1985 and 2013 Ikonos satellite imagery were used to identify the morphometric dynamics of the area. Two hypotheses were generated to determine if there are significant differences between the means of the sampled population that lost properties due to flooding, and to determine if there was a correlation between building subsidence and loss of property; it was tested using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with a correlation coefficient at 0.05 α significance level. The results of geometric measurement of the Ologe Lagoon between the two years interval show that perimeter width and circularity of the basin had reduced and shrunk, while the form factor remains the same at 0.15 km2. The basin elongation increased significantly by 0.01 km2, thus, increasing the rate at which water will be supplied to the lagoon. The ration of the form factor of 0.69/0.5 is close to the unity value R1, which shows a higher peak runoff; the values of the circularity ratio of 3.94/3.13 indicates circularity. This shows that the basin is circular time. The impact of the geometry indicates the development of mud flats and sandy bars, particularly at the lower portion of the lagoon; there is also modification of sediment deposition. The anthropogenic activity of sand mining causes destruction of the riparian forest around the lagoon. There is no significant difference in the means of sampled respondents regarding loss properties due to flooding, while there is a correlation between building subsidence and loss of life. It is recommended that a road map should be developed and implemented by the relevant agency of the government to guide

  20. A 3500-year record of Hg and Pb contamination in a mediterranean sedimentary archive (the Pierre Blanche Lagoon, France).

    PubMed

    Elbaz-Poulichet, F; Dezileau, L; Freydier, R; Cossa, D; Sabatier, P

    2011-10-15

    A sediment core encompassing 3500 years of continuous sedimentation has been collected from a coastal lagoon located on the southwestern French Mediterranean coast. Lead concentrations and stable isotopes show that the sediments have recorded the three major periods of Pb pollution: the Etruscan-Greek-Roman period (650 BC to AD 50), the medieval period (AD 650 to AD 1450), and the modern period (from around AD 1850 to the present). These periods were separated by low pollution periods during the Dark Ages (between AD 50 and 650) and during the 16th century. From the end of the 19th century to the 1960s, Pb pollution increased exponentially. Coal combustion was the major source of Pb in the lagoon in the second half of the 20th century. Both the decrease in coal consumption and the ban on leaded gasoline resulted in a decrease in Pb pollution by a factor of 1.5 between 1973 and 1995. From 1991, sewage treatment plants and incinerators could be the major source of Pb. The average baseline Hg concentration from 1525 BC to AD 900 was 0.017 ± 0.003 μg g⁻¹ (n = 54). The Hg concentrations profile shows three major peaks: in AD 1150, AD 1660, and AD 1969, with the concentrations being respectively 8, 5, and 34 times higher than the baseline levels. The medieval peak (AD 1150) is attributed the medical use of Hg in the town of Montpellier and/or the burning of soil and vegetation. Noticeable Hg pollution was also detected during the 17th century in relation to gold and silver amalgamation in Europe. From the end of the 19th century, Hg concentrations increased exponentially until 1969. This modern pollution is attributed to the burning of coal. PMID:21879750

  1. Influence of CDOM and particle composition on ocean color of the Eastern New Caledonia Lagoon during the CALIOPE cruises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupouy, Cécile; Röttgers, Rüdiger; Tedetti, Marc; Martias, Chloe; Murakami, Hiroshi; Doxaran, David; Lantoine, Francois; Rodier, Martine; Favareto, Luciane; Kampel, Milton; Goutx, Madeleine; Frouin, Robert J.

    2014-11-01

    Ocean color of tropical lagoons is dependent on bathymetry and bottom type, as well as input of coastal living and mineral particles and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). The New Caledonia lagoon lies in the Southwestern Tropical Pacific around 21° 30'S and 166° 30'E, with a great marine biodiversity in UNESCO Heritage coral reefs, benthic sea grass, and benthic communities. They are largely connected to the open ocean in the southern and eastern parts, but only by narrow passes in the southwest part. The trophic state is linked to spatial variations in flushing times. High run offs due to rain carrying abundant chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and particle loads may greatly impact the functioning of ecosystems while rivers and sewage effluents may induce localized impacts. Two oceanographic cruises (CALIOPE 1 in 2011 and CALIOPE 2 in 2014) were carried out off the Eastern Coast of New Caledonia during a calm dry period and during high winds, respectively. Multi- and hyper-spectral marine reflectance was measured with a SIMBADA instrument and a TRIOS radiometer system, together with inherent optical properties (total and CDOM absorption coefficients with a PSICAM, in situ absorption and scattering with an AC9, backscattering with a Hydroscat-6). Fluorescence of CDOM (EEM/PARAFAC) was measured on collected 0.2 μm filtered samples. In 2014, Satlantic and FieldSpec hyper-spectral radiometers were available for in-water profiling of upwelling radiance and downwelling irradiance and above-water reflectance measurements, respectively. Inherent and apparent optical data from the two cruises are compared and used to estimate ocean color algorithms performance and evaluate a Linear Matrix Inversion method, providing tools for remote sensing on this highly under-sampled coastal region of New Caledonia.

  2. Distribution of Escherichia coli in a coastal lagoon (Venice, Italy): Temporal patterns, genetic diversity and the role of tidal forcing.

    PubMed

    Perini, L; Quero, G M; García, E Serrano; Luna, G M

    2015-12-15

    Despite its worldwide importance as fecal indicator in aquatic systems, little is known about the diversity of Escherichia coli in the environment and the factors driving its spatial distribution. The city of Venice (Italy), lying at the forefront of a large European lagoon, is an ideal site to study the mechanisms driving the fate of fecal bacteria, due to the huge fluxes of tourists, the city's unique architecture (causing poor efficiency of sewages treatment), and the long branching network of canals crossing the city. We summarize the results of a multi-year investigation to study the temporal dynamics of E. coli around the city, describe the population structure (by assigning isolates to their phylogenetic group) and the genotypic diversity, and explore the role of environmental factors in determining its variability. E. coli abundance in water was highly variable, ranging from being undetectable up to 10(4) Colony Forming Units (CFU) per 100 ml. Abundance did not display significant relationships with the water physico-chemical variables. The analysis of the population structure showed the presence of all known phylogroups, including extra-intestinal and potentially pathogenic ones. The genotypic diversity was very high, as likely consequence of the heterogeneous input of fecal bacteria from the city, and showed site-specific patterns. Intensive sampling during the tidal fluctuations highlighted the prominent role of tides, rather than environmental variables, as source of spatial variation, with a more evident influence in water than sediments. These results, the first providing information on the genetic properties, spatial heterogeneity and influence of tides on E. coli populations around Venice, have implications to manage the fecal pollution, and the associated waterborne disease risks, in coastal cities lying in front of lagoons and semi-enclosed basins. PMID:26402879

  3. Reclamation of acid waters using sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Davison, W; Reynolds, C S; Tipping, E; Needham, R F

    1989-01-01

    An exhausted sand quarry which had filled with acid water (pH 3) from the oxidation of pyrite was treated with calcium hydroxide to neutralize the water (pH 8), and sewage sludge to prevent further ingress of acid. The water remained neutral for 2 years, an appreciable quantity of base being generated by the reduction of sulphate to sulphide in the anoxic sediment formed by the sewage sludge. After this time the water reverted to acid conditions, chiefly because the lake was too shallow to retain the sewage sludge over a sufficiently large area of its bed. Incubation experiments showed that the sewage sludge had a large capacity for sulphate reduction, which was equally efficient in acid or neutral waters and that the areal rate of consumption was sufficiently fast to neutralize all incoming acid, if at least 50% of the lake bed was covered with sludge. Throughout the course of the field investigations there was no foul smell and the lake was quickly colonized by phytoplankton, macrophytes and insects. Although nutrients associated with the sewage sludge stimulated photosynthesis and so caused the generation of additional organic matter, they were exhausted within two years. To ensure permanent reclamation, phosphate fertilizer could be added once the initial supply has been consumed. Neutralization removed trace metals from the system, presumably due to formation of insoluble oxyhydroxide and carbonates. The solubility of aluminium was apparently controlled by a basic aluminium sulphate (jurbanite).

  4. Nitrification and denitrification gene abundances in swine wastewater anaerobic lagoons.

    PubMed

    Ducey, Thomas F; Shriner, Anthony D; Hunt, Patrick G

    2011-01-01

    Although anaerobic lagoons are used globally for livestock waste treatment, their detailed microbial cycling ofN is only beginning to become understood. Within this cycling, nitrification can be performed by organisms that produce the enzyme ammonia monooxygenase. For denitrification, the reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide can be catalyzed by two forms of nitrite reductases, and N,O can be reduced by nitrous oxide reductase encoded by the gene nosZ The objectives of this investigation were to (i) quantify the abundance of the amoA, nirK, nirS, and nosZ genes; (ii) evaluate the influence of environmental conditions on their abundances; and (iii) evaluate their abundance relative to denitrification enzyme activity (DEA). Samples were analyzed via real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and collected from eight typical, commercial anaerobic, swine wastewater lagoons located in the Carolinas. The four genes assayed in this study were present in all eight lagoons. Their abundances relative to total bacterial populations were 0.04% (amoA), 1.33% (nirS), 5.29% (nirK), and 0.27% (nosZ). When compared with lagoon chemical characteristics, amoA and nirK correlated with several measured variables. Neither nirS nor nosZ correlated with any measured environmental variables. Although no gene measured in this study correlated with actual or potential DEA, nosZ copy numbers did correlate with the disparity between actual and potential DEA. Phylogenetic analysis ofnosZdid not reveal any correlations to DEA rates. As with other investigations, analyses of these genes provide useful insight while revealing the underlying greater complexity of N cycling within swine waste lagoons. PMID:21520768

  5. Nitrification and denitrification gene abundances in swine wastewater anaerobic lagoons.

    PubMed

    Ducey, Thomas F; Shriner, Anthony D; Hunt, Patrick G

    2011-01-01

    Although anaerobic lagoons are used globally for livestock waste treatment, their detailed microbial cycling ofN is only beginning to become understood. Within this cycling, nitrification can be performed by organisms that produce the enzyme ammonia monooxygenase. For denitrification, the reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide can be catalyzed by two forms of nitrite reductases, and N,O can be reduced by nitrous oxide reductase encoded by the gene nosZ The objectives of this investigation were to (i) quantify the abundance of the amoA, nirK, nirS, and nosZ genes; (ii) evaluate the influence of environmental conditions on their abundances; and (iii) evaluate their abundance relative to denitrification enzyme activity (DEA). Samples were analyzed via real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and collected from eight typical, commercial anaerobic, swine wastewater lagoons located in the Carolinas. The four genes assayed in this study were present in all eight lagoons. Their abundances relative to total bacterial populations were 0.04% (amoA), 1.33% (nirS), 5.29% (nirK), and 0.27% (nosZ). When compared with lagoon chemical characteristics, amoA and nirK correlated with several measured variables. Neither nirS nor nosZ correlated with any measured environmental variables. Although no gene measured in this study correlated with actual or potential DEA, nosZ copy numbers did correlate with the disparity between actual and potential DEA. Phylogenetic analysis ofnosZdid not reveal any correlations to DEA rates. As with other investigations, analyses of these genes provide useful insight while revealing the underlying greater complexity of N cycling within swine waste lagoons.

  6. Water sources, mixing and evaporation in the Akyatan lagoon, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lécuyer, C.; Bodergat, A.-M.; Martineau, F.; Fourel, F.; Gürbüz, K.; Nazik, A.

    2012-12-01

    Akyatan lagoon, located southeast of Turkey along the Mediterranean coast, is a choked and hypersaline lagoon, and hosts a large and specific biodiversity including endangered sea turtles and migrating birds. Physicochemical properties of this lagoon were investigated by measuring temperature, salinity, and hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of its waters at a seasonal scale during years 2006 and 2007. Winter and spring seasons were dominated by mixing processes between freshwaters and Mediterranean seawater. The majority of spring season waters are formed by evapoconcentration of brackish water at moderate temperatures of 22 ± 2 °C. During summer, hypersaline waters result from evaporation of seawater and brackish waters formed during spring. Evaporation over the Akyatan lagoon reaches up to 76 wt% based on salinity measurements and operated with a dry (relative humidity of 0.15-0.20) and hot (44 ± 6 °C) air. These residual waters were characterized by the maximal seasonal isotopic enrichment in both deuterium and 18O relative to VSMOW. During autumn, most lagoonal waters became hypersaline and were formed by evaporation of waters that had isotopic compositions and salinities close to that of seawater. These autumnal hypersaline waters result from an air humidity close to 0.45 and an atmospheric temperature of evaporation of 35 ± 5 °C, which are responsible for up to 71 wt% of evaporation, with restricted isotopic enrichments relative to VSMOW. During the warm seasons, the combination of air humidity, wind velocity and temperature were responsible for a large kinetic component in the total isotopic fractionation between water liquid and water vapour.

  7. Atmospheric input of organic pollutants to the Venice Lagoon.

    PubMed

    Rossini, P; De Lazzari, A; Guerzoni, S; Molinaroli, E; Rampazzo, G; Zancanaro, A

    2001-01-01

    The atmospheric deposition of dioxins and furans (PCDD-Fs), dioxin-like polychlorobyphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was determined in the Lagoon of Venice. Sampling was carried out monthly, for a total of 13 months (July 1998-July 1999) using "bulk" samplers (passive collectors of wet and dry depositions) at four sites, inside the lagoon and close to its edge. Calculated PCDD-F loadings to the Lagoon turned out to be quite homogeneous, their range being approximately 10-20 ng m-2 y-1, whereas in the station located close to the industrial zone of Porto Marghera the value was approximately 50 ng m-2 y-1. PCB deposition in the industrial fallout sampling site and in the city centre of Venice was approximately 2500 ng m-2 y-1, that is, almost five times higher than the values measured at the northern and southern lagoon stations. HCB annual loading (approximately 8000 ng m-2 y-1) was almost six times higher in the industrial zone than in the other sites (approximately 1500 ng m-2 y-1). PAH loadings in the city centre of Venice and at Porto Marghera were 314 and 389 micrograms m-2 y-1, respectively. The amount of 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents (TEQ) of PCDD-Fs and PCBs in the Venice and Porto Marghera bulk depositions was compared with the guideline value of 15 pg m-2 d-1 for dioxins in depositions proposed by De Fré et al. (1998). Moreover, as some of the effects which drive the risk assessment of dioxin-like compounds were also observed after exposure to other molecules, the TEQs of PAHs and HCB were also calculated: nine out of 13 samples exceeded the guideline value. Lastly, an atmospheric emission source related to vinyl chloride monomer production, which may affect atmospheric deposition on the whole Lagoon, is reported in the industrial zone of Porto Marghera.

  8. JPL Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) for sewage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) was developed for sewage treatment and is being applied to a one-million gallon per day sewage treatment pilot plant in Orange County California. Activities reported include pyrolysis and activation of carbon-sewage sludge, and activated carbon treatment of sewage to meet ocean discharge standards. The ACTS Sewage treatment operations include carbon-sewage treatment, primary and secondary clarifiers, gravity (multi-media) filter, filter press dewatering, flash drying of carbon-sewage filter cake, and sludge pyrolysis and activation. Tests were conducted on a laboratory scale, 10,000 gallon per day demonstration plant and pilot test equipment. Preliminary economic studies are favorable to the ACTS process relative to activated sludge treatment for a 175,000,000 gallon per day sewage treatment plant.

  9. 12. Sewage Ejector Pumps, view to the southwest. These pumps ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Sewage Ejector Pumps, view to the southwest. These pumps are connected to sewage treatment tanks. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  10. 1. EXTERIOR CONTEXT VIEW OF BUILDING 620, THE SEWAGE EJECTOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR CONTEXT VIEW OF BUILDING 620, THE SEWAGE EJECTOR, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Sewage Ejector, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  11. Management of sewage sludge and ash containing radioactive materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Bachmaier, J. T.; Aiello, K.; Bastian, R. K.; Cheng, J.-J.; Chiu, W. A.; Goodman, J.; Hogan, R.; Jones, A. R.; Kamboj, S.; Lenhart, T.; Ott, W. R.; Rubin, A. B.; Salomon, S. N.; Schmidt, D. W.; Setlow, L. W.; Yu, C.; Wolbarst, A. B.; Environmental Science Division; Middlesex County Utilities Authority; U.S. EPA; N.J. Dept of Environmental Protection; NRC

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 50% of the seven to eight million metric tonnes of municipal sewage sludge produced annually in the US is reused. Beneficial uses of sewage sludge include agricultural land application, land reclamation, forestry, and various commercial applications. Excessive levels of contaminants, however, can limit the potential usefulness of land-applied sewage sludge. A recently completed study by a federal inter-agency committee has identified radioactive contaminants that could interfere with the safe reuse of sewage sludge. The study found that typical levels of radioactive materials in most municipal sewage sludge and incinerator ash do not present a health hazard to sewage treatment plant workers or to the general public. The inter-agency committee has developed recommendations for operators of sewage treatment plants for evaluating measured or estimated levels of radioactive material in sewage sludge and for determining whether actions to reduce potential exposures are appropriate.

  12. Investigation of the Strontium-90 Contaminant Plume along the Shoreline of the Columbia River at the 100-N Area of the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Patton, Gregory W.; Hartman, Mary J.; Spane, Frank A.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Gilmore, Tyler J.; Mackley, Rob D.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Clayton, Ray E.

    2007-10-01

    Efforts are underway to remediate strontium-laden groundwater to the Columbia River at the 100-N Area of the Hanford Site. Past practices of the 100-N reactor liquid waste disposal sites has left strontium-90 sorbed onto sediments which is a continuing source of contaminant discharge to the river. The Remediation Task of the Science and Technology Project assessed the interaction of groundwater and river water at the hyporheic zone. Limited data have been obtained at this interface of contaminant concentrations, geology, groundwater chemistry, affects of river stage and other variables that may affect strontium-90 release. Efforts were also undertaken to determine the extent, both laterally and horizontally, of the strontium-90 plume along the shoreline and to potentially find an alternative constituent to monitor strontium-90 that would be more cost effective and could possibly be done under real time conditions. A baseline of strontium-90 concentrations along the shoreline was developed to help assess remediation technologies.

  13. Biodegradation of Sewage Wastewater Using Autochthonous Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dhall, Purnima; Kumar, Rita; Kumar, Anil

    2012-01-01

    The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids), and TSS (total suspended solids) was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature) to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated that consortium in the ratio of 1 : 2 (effluent : biomass) at 200 rpm, 35°C is capable of effectively reducing the pollutional load of the sewage wastewaters, in terms of COD, BOD, TSS, and MLSS within the desired discharge limits, that is, 32 mg/L, 8 mg/L, 162 mg/L, and 190 mg/L. The use of such specific consortia can overcome the inefficiencies of the conventional biological treatment facilities currently operational in sewage treatment plants. PMID:22272181

  14. Wastes to Resources: Appropriate Technologies for Sewage Treatment and Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Stephen P.

    Appropriate technology options for sewage management systems are explained in this four-chapter report. The use of appropriate technologies is advocated for its health, environmental, and economic benefits. Chapter 1 presents background information on sewage treatment in the United States and the key issues facing municipal sewage managers.…

  15. Biogeochemical responses of shallow coastal lagoons to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, A.; Newton, A.; Tett, P.; Fernandes, T.

    2009-04-01

    The importance of climate change and global warming in the near future is becoming consensual within the scientific community (e.g. Kerr et al., 2008; Lloret et al., 2008). The surface temperature and sea level have increased during the last few years in the northern hemisphere (IPCC, 2007). Predictions for future changes include an increase of surface temperature and sea level for Europe. Moreover, the global warming phenomenon will also change the hydrological cycle and increase precipitation in northern and central Europe (IPCC, 2007). Sea level rise already threatens to overwhelm some lagoons, such as Venice and Moroccan lagoons (Snoussi et al., 2008). Shallow coastal lagoons are some of the most vulnerable systems that will be impacted by these changes (Eisenreich, 2005). Environmental impacts on coastal lagoons include an increase of water turbidity and therefore light attenuation. If these effects are strong enough, the lighted bottoms of shallow lagoons may loose a significant part of the benthic algal community. These communities are highly productive and are essential to control nutrient dynamics of the system by uptaking large amounts of nutrients both from the water column and from the sediments. A decrease in benthic algal communities and photosynthetic oxygen production will also contribute to increasing the vulnerability of the lagoons to hypoxia and anoxia. The flux of nutrients such as phosphate from the sediments may increase dramatically, further disrupting the nutrient balance and condition and promoting cyanobacterial blooms. Microbial activity is temperature dependent, therefore, the increase of temperature will increase the concentrations of ammonium within sediments. The release of phosphate and silicate will also increase with temperature. Coastal lagoons are valuable ecosystems and may be severely impacted, both ecologically and economically, by global change. Shallow coastal lagoons should be considered as sentinel systems and should be

  16. An integrated Pan-European perspective on coastal Lagoons management through a mosaic-DPSIR approach.

    PubMed

    Dolbeth, Marina; Stålnacke, Per; Alves, Fátima L; Sousa, Lisa P; Gooch, Geoffrey D; Khokhlov, Valeriy; Tuchkovenko, Yurii; Lloret, Javier; Bielecka, Małgorzata; Różyński, Grzegorz; Soares, João A; Baggett, Susan; Margonski, Piotr; Chubarenko, Boris V; Lillebø, Ana I

    2016-01-01

    A decision support framework for the management of lagoon ecosystems was tested using four European Lagoons: Ria de Aveiro (Portugal), Mar Menor (Spain), Tyligulskyi Liman (Ukraine) and Vistula Lagoon (Poland/Russia). Our aim was to formulate integrated management recommendations for European lagoons. To achieve this we followed a DPSIR (Drivers-Pressures-State Change-Impacts-Responses) approach, with focus on integrating aspects of human wellbeing, welfare and ecosystem sustainability. The most important drivers in each lagoon were identified, based on information gathered from the lagoons' stakeholders, complemented by scientific knowledge on each lagoon as seen from a land-sea perspective. The DPSIR cycles for each driver were combined into a mosaic-DPSIR conceptual model to examine the interdependency between the multiple and interacting uses of the lagoon. This framework emphasizes the common links, but also the specificities of responses to drivers and the ecosystem services provided. The information collected was used to formulate recommendations for the sustainable management of lagoons within a Pan-European context. Several common management recommendations were proposed, but specificities were also identified. The study synthesizes the present conditions for the management of lagoons, thus analysing and examining the activities that might be developed in different scenarios, scenarios which facilitate ecosystem protection without compromising future generations. PMID:26776151

  17. An integrated Pan-European perspective on coastal Lagoons management through a mosaic-DPSIR approach.

    PubMed

    Dolbeth, Marina; Stålnacke, Per; Alves, Fátima L; Sousa, Lisa P; Gooch, Geoffrey D; Khokhlov, Valeriy; Tuchkovenko, Yurii; Lloret, Javier; Bielecka, Małgorzata; Różyński, Grzegorz; Soares, João A; Baggett, Susan; Margonski, Piotr; Chubarenko, Boris V; Lillebø, Ana I

    2016-01-18

    A decision support framework for the management of lagoon ecosystems was tested using four European Lagoons: Ria de Aveiro (Portugal), Mar Menor (Spain), Tyligulskyi Liman (Ukraine) and Vistula Lagoon (Poland/Russia). Our aim was to formulate integrated management recommendations for European lagoons. To achieve this we followed a DPSIR (Drivers-Pressures-State Change-Impacts-Responses) approach, with focus on integrating aspects of human wellbeing, welfare and ecosystem sustainability. The most important drivers in each lagoon were identified, based on information gathered from the lagoons' stakeholders, complemented by scientific knowledge on each lagoon as seen from a land-sea perspective. The DPSIR cycles for each driver were combined into a mosaic-DPSIR conceptual model to examine the interdependency between the multiple and interacting uses of the lagoon. This framework emphasizes the common links, but also the specificities of responses to drivers and the ecosystem services provided. The information collected was used to formulate recommendations for the sustainable management of lagoons within a Pan-European context. Several common management recommendations were proposed, but specificities were also identified. The study synthesizes the present conditions for the management of lagoons, thus analysing and examining the activities that might be developed in different scenarios, scenarios which facilitate ecosystem protection without compromising future generations.

  18. Toxicity of contaminants in lagoons and pannes of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, R.; Speelman, J.; Stewart, P.M.

    1995-12-31

    Contaminants in water and sediments of lagoons and pannes were 2--90 times greater at sites adjacent to slag and coal piles than those at reference sites. One site (Lagoon-US5) had sediments with very high concentrations of toxic organics (e.g. naphthalene, phenanthrene, dibenzofuran). Although analyses indicated a gradient of contaminant concentration with distance from their sources, toxicity assays were somewhat equivocal. With the exception of less reproduction in Ceriodaphnia at one lagoon site (US3 = 0.55 of reference), survival of fathead minnows and reproduction in Ceriodaphnia in lagoon and panne waters varied independently of the contaminant concentration. In fact, there was better Ceriodaphnia reproduction in water from two contaminated sites (Lagoon-US5, Panne-WP1) than in water from reference sites. Fathead minnow survival, Ceriodaphnia survival, Ceriodaphnia reproduction, amphipod survival, and amphipod growth varied among sites in toxicity assays with sediments, 100% mortality of fatheads at Lagoon-US5, 100% mortality of Ceriodaphnia at Lagoon-US3, and less survival of fathead minnows at Lagoon-US3 indicate possible toxicity from contaminants in sediments at these sites. Of all organisms and end-points tested, Ceriodaphnia survival seemed to be most closely associated with concentrations of contaminants in lagoon water and sediments. Amphipod survival also varied with contaminants in sediments, however, survival in sediments of contaminated sites ranged only from 0.90--0.93 of reference sites. Although the results are not consistent among organisms, toxicity assays indicate that sediments from the lagoon site with the highest contaminants (Lagoon-US5) and possibly those from another contaminated lagoon site (Lagoon-US3) could be toxic to aquatic organisms. Water and sediments from contaminated panne sites do not appear to be toxic to aquatic test organisms.

  19. Interannual and cyclone-driven variability in phytoplankton communities of a tropical coastal lagoon.

    PubMed

    Srichandan, Suchismita; Kim, Ji Yoon; Kumar, Abhishek; Mishra, Deepak R; Bhadury, Punyasloke; Muduli, Pradipta R; Pattnaik, Ajit K; Rastogi, Gurdeep

    2015-12-15

    One of the main challenges in phytoplankton ecology is to understand their variability at different spatiotemporal scales. We investigated the interannual and cyclone-derived variability in phytoplankton communities of Chilika, the largest tropical coastal lagoon in Asia and the underlying mechanisms in relation to environmental forcing. Between July 2012 and June 2013, Cyanophyta were most prolific in freshwater northern region of the lagoon. A category-5 very severe cyclonic storm (VSCS) Phailin struck the lagoon on 12th October 2013 and introduced additional variability into the hydrology and phytoplankton communities. Freshwater Cyanophyta further expanded their territory and occupied the northern as well as central region of the lagoon. Satellite remote sensing imagery revealed that the phytoplankton biomass did not change much due to high turbidity prevailing in the lagoon after Phailin. Modeling analysis of species-salinity relationship identified specific responses of phytoplankton taxa to the different salinity regime of lagoon.

  20. Interannual and cyclone-driven variability in phytoplankton communities of a tropical coastal lagoon.

    PubMed

    Srichandan, Suchismita; Kim, Ji Yoon; Kumar, Abhishek; Mishra, Deepak R; Bhadury, Punyasloke; Muduli, Pradipta R; Pattnaik, Ajit K; Rastogi, Gurdeep

    2015-12-15

    One of the main challenges in phytoplankton ecology is to understand their variability at different spatiotemporal scales. We investigated the interannual and cyclone-derived variability in phytoplankton communities of Chilika, the largest tropical coastal lagoon in Asia and the underlying mechanisms in relation to environmental forcing. Between July 2012 and June 2013, Cyanophyta were most prolific in freshwater northern region of the lagoon. A category-5 very severe cyclonic storm (VSCS) Phailin struck the lagoon on 12th October 2013 and introduced additional variability into the hydrology and phytoplankton communities. Freshwater Cyanophyta further expanded their territory and occupied the northern as well as central region of the lagoon. Satellite remote sensing imagery revealed that the phytoplankton biomass did not change much due to high turbidity prevailing in the lagoon after Phailin. Modeling analysis of species-salinity relationship identified specific responses of phytoplankton taxa to the different salinity regime of lagoon. PMID:26611863

  1. Assessment of the environmental impact of artificial effluent lagoon in Jiayuguan City of China.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yuan-sheng; Luan, Zhao-kun; Barber, C; Williamson, D

    2003-07-01

    An artificial effluent lagoon for storing wastewater were excavated in Jiayuguan City since 1994. As a part of a demonstration project of Sino-Australia cooperation, an assessment of the environmental impact of the lagoon was carried out. The assessment was based on field and laboratory tests and predictive model. The main impacts from the lagoon site are likely to be on the groundwater system, and, to a lesser extent, on ambient air quality in the vicinity. Currently it is expected that groundwater is being polluted with effluent from the effluent lagoon. Air pollution (odor nuisance) is mainly caused by untreated effluent in the irrigation channel. The impact of high total dissolved salt (TDS) on groundwater is likely to be significant in the long run if the lagoon is continuously used. There is, consequently, no likelihood of contamination of surface water system, particularly of the city water supply system, from infiltration of effluent at the lagoon.

  2. Photosynthetic pigments of Zoster a noltii and Ruppia cirrhosa in some Albanian lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ylli, Arjana; Babani, Fatbardha; Stamo, Iliriana

    2010-01-01

    In the coastal lagoons of Adriatic Sea Zostera noltii and Ruppia cirrhosa are plants with seeds and flowers, that colonizes the sandy bottom of lagoons. They are capable to produce oxygen with very weak light. Characterization of photosynthetic pigments of eelgrass Zostera noltii and Ruppia cirrhosa, were performed during the period 2002-2008 in some Adriatic lagoons: Kune-Vaini, Patog, Karavasta and Narta. Dynamics of chlorophylls and carotenoids during the vegetation period of these plants were characterized. As a result, the chlorophyll content of Zoostera noltii taken from the Kune- Vain lagoon is higher than at plants collected from the other lagoons. The photosynthetic pigment content of the Zostera noltii plants is higher than of Ruppia cirrhosa. The differences on the distribution of these species in the analyzed lagoons are represented in this presentation.

  3. Spatial and temporal distribution of cyanobacteria in Batticaloa Lagoon.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jalaldeen Mohamed; Vinobaba, Periyathamby; Kularatne, Ranil Kavindra Asela; Ellawala Kankanamge, Champika

    2016-09-01

    The necessity to understand the relationship between cyanobacterial species abundance and water quality variations in coastal lagoons is crucial to develop strategies to prevent further cyanobacterial proliferation. This paper evaluates the relationship between water quality variations on the distribution of cyanobacteria during a 12-month period in Batticaloa Lagoon (Sri Lanka) using Redundancy analysis and Pearson correlations. Drastic variations in pH, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO) and total phosphorus (TP) levels were reported, but not turbidity and NO3(-). This brackish waterbody is hypereutrophic (TP levels>0.1mg/L). The cyanobacterial community contained 13 genera and 22 species. NO3(-), TP and turbidity levels positively influenced cyanobacterial abundance during all seasons indicating that nutrient (largely phosphorus) and sediment entry control is highly crucial along with periodic monitoring of cyanobacterial growth. PMID:27593288

  4. The performance of biomass-based AMBI in lagoonal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Mistri, Michele; Munari, Cristina

    2015-10-15

    We studied the performance of the AZTI Marine Biotic Index AMBI manipulating input data collected from lagoonal ecosystems. Our data set consisted of macrofaunal abundance and biomass counts gathered at a variety of sites at which the disturbance status was known. Input data were also manipulated using a set of transformations of increasing severity. Biotic indices were calculated using raw and transformed abundance, biomass and production. Among the three categories of AMBI-based indices, medium transformation of data gave the highest correlation with pressures. However, increasing the severity of transformation generally resulted in a decrease of the correlation with environmental factors. The relative importance of ecological groups changed when using abundance or biomass, sometimes leading to an improved ecological status classification. Being biomass and production more ecologically relevant than abundance, using them to derive AMBI-based new indices seems intriguing, at least in lagoonal waters, where the community is naturally disturbed and dominated by opportunists. PMID:26219686

  5. An integrated physical and biological model for anaerobic lagoons.

    PubMed

    Wu, Binxin; Chen, Zhenbin

    2011-04-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that integrates physical and biological processes for anaerobic lagoons is presented. In the model development, turbulence is represented using a transition k-ω model, heat conduction and solar radiation are included in the thermal model, biological oxygen demand (BOD) reduction is characterized by first-order kinetics, and methane yield rate is expressed as a linear function of temperature. A test of the model applicability is conducted in a covered lagoon digester operated under tropical climate conditions. The commercial CFD software, ANSYS-Fluent, is employed to solve the integrated model. The simulation procedures include solving fluid flow and heat transfer, predicting local resident time based on the converged flow fields, and calculating the BOD reduction and methane production. The simulated results show that monthly methane production varies insignificantly, but the time to achieve a 99% BOD reduction in January is much longer than that in July.

  6. Home Sewage Disposal. Special Circular 212.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This circular provides current information for homeowners who must repair or replace existing on-lot sewage disposal systems. Site requirements, characteristics and preparation are outlined for a variety of alternatives such as elevated sand mounds, sand-lined beds and trenches, and oversized absorption area. Diagrams indicating construction…

  7. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1985-08-30

    This invention relates generally to the dewatering of sludge, and more particularly to the dewatering of a sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50 to 80% in the form of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water.

  8. Digested sewage sludge gasification in supercritical water.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yunbo; Wang, Chang; Chen, Hongmei; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming; Pang, Daoxiong; Lu, Pei

    2013-04-01

    Digested sewage sludge gasification in supercritical water was studied. Influences of main reaction parameters, including temperature (623-698 K), pressure (25-35 Mpa), residence time (10-15 min) and dry matter content (5-25 wt%), were investigated to optimize the gasification process. The main gas products were methane, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and traces of ethene, etc. Results showed that 10 wt% dry matter content digested sewage sludge at a temperature of 698 K and residence time of 50 min, with a pressure of 25 MPa, were the most favorable conditions for the sewage sludge gasification and carbon gasification efficiencies. In addition, potassium carbonate (K2CO3) was also employed as the catalyst to make a comparison between gasification with and without catalyst. When 2.6 g K2CO3 was added, a gasification efficiency of 25.26% and a carbon gasification efficiency of 20.02% were achieved, which were almost four times as much as the efficiencies without catalyst. K2CO3 has been proved to be effective in sewage sludge gasification.

  9. Utilization of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge in agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Petrik, Milivoj

    1954-01-01

    The author reviews the agricultural use of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge from two points of view: the purely agricultural and the sanitary. Knowledge of the chemistry and bacteriology of human faecal matter is still rather scant, and much further work has to be done to find practical ways of digesting night-soil in a short time into an end-product of high fertilizing value and free of pathogens, parasites, and weeds. More is known about sewage and sewage sludge, but expert opinion is not unanimous as to the manner or the value of their use in agriculture. The author reviews a number of studies and experiments made in many countries of the world on the content, digestion, composting, agricultural value, and epidemiological importance of sewage and sewage sludge, but draws from these the conclusion that the chemistry, biology, and bacteriology of the various methods of treatment and use of waste matter need further investigation. He also considers that standards of quality might be set up for sludge and effluents used in agriculture and for water conservation. PMID:13160760

  10. A new sampler for stratified lagoon chemical and microbiological assessments.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, M R; Brooks, J P; Adeli, A

    2014-07-01

    A sampler was needed for a spatial and temporal study of microbial and chemical stratification in a large swine manure lagoon that was known to contain zoonotic bacteria. Conventional samplers were limited to collections of surface water samples near the bank or required a manned boat. A new sampler was developed to allow simultaneous collection of multiple samples at different depths, up to 2.3 m, without a manned boat. The sampler was tethered for stability, used remote control (RC) for sample collection, and accommodated rapid replacement of sterile tubing modules and sample containers. The sampler comprised a PVC pontoon with acrylic deck and watertight enclosures, for a 12 VDC gearmotor, to operate the collection module, and vacuum system, to draw samples into reusable autoclavable tubing and 250-mL bottles. Although designed primarily for water samples, the sampler was easily modified to collect sludge. The sampler held a stable position during deployment, created minimal disturbance in the water column, and was readily cleaned and sanitized for transport. The sampler was field tested initially in a shallow fresh water lake and subsequently in a swine manure treatment lagoon. Analyses of water samples from the lagoon tests showed that chemical and bacterial levels, pH, and EC did not differ between 0.04, 0.47, and 1.0 m depths, but some chemical and bacterial levels differed between winter and spring collections. These results demonstrated the utility of the sampler and suggested that future manure lagoon studies employ fewer or different depths and more sampling dates. PMID:24549945

  11. Numerical modeling of the Patos Lagoon coastal plume, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, W. C.; Fernandes, E. H.; Monteiro, I. O.; Möller, O. O.

    2009-03-01

    The Southern Brazilian Shelf (SBS) is a freshwater-influenced region, but studies on the dynamics of coastal plumes are sparse and lack in space-time resolution. Studies on the dynamics of the Patos Lagoon plume are even more limited. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of the principal physical forcing for the formation and behavior of the Patos Lagoon coastal plume. The study is carried out through 3D numerical modeling experiments and empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis. Results showed that the amount of freshwater is the principal physical forcing controlling the plume formation. The Coriolis effect enhances the northward transport over the shelf, while the tidal effects contribute to intensify horizontal and vertical mixing, which are responsible for spreading the freshwater over the shelf. The wind effect, on the other hand, is the main mechanism controlling the behavior of the Patos Lagoon coastal plume over the inner SBS in synoptic time scales. Southeasterly and southwesterly winds contribute to the northeastward displacement of the plume, breaking the vertical stratification of the inner continental shelf. Northeasterly and northwesterly winds favor ebb conditions in the Patos Lagoon, contributing to the southwestward displacement of the plume enhancing the vertical stratification along and across-shore. The EOF analysis reveals two modes controlling the variability of the plume on the surface. The first mode (explaining 70% of the variability) is associated to the southwestward transportation of the plume due to the dominance of north quadrant winds, while the second mode (explaining 19% of the variability) is associated to the intermittent migration of the plume northeastward due to the passage of frontal systems over the area. Large scale plumes can be expected during winter and spring months, and are enhanced during El Niño events.

  12. Statistical characterization of spatiotemporal sediment dynamics in the Venice lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carniello, Luca; D'Alpaos, Andrea; Botter, Gianluca; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Characterizing the dynamics of suspended sediment is crucial when investigating the long-term evolution of tidal landscapes. Here we apply a widely tested mathematical model which describes the dynamics of cohesive and noncohesive sediments, driven by the combined effect of tidal currents and wind waves, using 1 year long time series of observed water levels and wind data from the Venice lagoon. The spatiotemporal evolution of the computed suspended sediment concentration (SSC) is analyzed on the basis of the "peak over threshold" theory. Our analysis suggests that events characterized by high SSC can be modeled as a marked Poisson process over most of the lagoon. The interarrival time between two consecutive over threshold events, the intensity of peak excesses, and the duration are found to be exponentially distributed random variables over most of tidal flats. Our study suggests that intensity and duration of over threshold events are temporally correlated, while almost no correlation exists between interarrival times and both durations and intensities. The benthic vegetation colonizing the central southern part of the Venice lagoon is found to exert a crucial role on sediment dynamics: vegetation locally decreases the frequency of significant resuspension events by affecting spatiotemporal patterns of SSCs also in adjacent areas. Spatial patterns of the mean interarrival of over threshold SSC events are found to be less heterogeneous than the corresponding patterns of mean interarrivals of over threshold bottom shear stress events because of the role of advection/dispersion processes in mixing suspended sediments within the lagoon. Implications for long-term morphodynamic modeling of tidal environments are discussed.

  13. Validation of Numerical Shallow Water Models for Tidal Lagoons

    SciTech Connect

    Eliason, D.; Bourgeois, A.

    1999-11-01

    An analytical solution is presented for the case of a stratified, tidally forced lagoon. This solution, especially its energetics, is useful for the validation of numerical shallow water models under stratified, tidally forced conditions. The utility of the analytical solution for validation is demonstrated for a simple finite difference numerical model. A comparison is presented of the energetics of the numerical and analytical solutions in terms of the convergence of model results to the analytical solution with increasing spatial and temporal resolution.

  14. Taphonomy of coral reefs from Southern Lagoon of Belize

    SciTech Connect

    Westphall, M.J.; Ginsburg, R.N.

    1985-02-01

    The Southern Lagoon of the Belize barrier complex, an area of some 600 km/sup 2/, contains a tremendous number of lagoon reefs, which range in size from patches several meters across to rhomboidal-shaped structures several kilometers in their long dimension. These lagoon reefs are remarkable because they have Holocene sediment accumulations in excess of 13 m consisting almost entirely of coral debris and lime mud and sand, and rise up to 30 m above the surrounding lagoon floor with steeply sloping sides (50-80/sup 0/), yet are totally uncemented. The reef-building biota and their corresponding deposits were studied at a representative reef, the rhomboidal complex of Channel Cay. As with many of the reefs in this area, the steeply sloping flanks of Channel Cay are covered mainly by the branched staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis and ribbonlike and platy growth of Agaricia spp. The living corals are not cemented to the substrate, but are merely intergrown. Fragmented pieces of corals accumulate with an open framework below the living community; this open framework is subsequently infilled by lime muds and sands produced mainly from bioerosion. Results from probing and coring suggest that the bafflestone fabric of coral debris and sediment extends at least 13 m into the subsurface. Radiocarbon-age estimates indicate these impressive piles of coral rubble and sediment have accumulated in the past 9000 yr (giving a minimum accumulation rate of 1.4 m/1000 yr) and illustrate the potential for significant carbonate buildups without the need for early lithification.

  15. Species-Specific Identification of Human Adenoviruses in Sewage.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Magdalena; Krzysztoszek, Arleta; Witek, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Human adenovirus (HAdV) diversity in sewage was assessed by species-specific molecular methods. Samples of raw sewage were collected in 14 sewage disposal systems from January to December 2011, in Poland. HAdVs were detected in 92.1% of the analysed sewage samples and was significantly higher at cities of over 100 000 inhabitants. HAdV DNA was detected in sewage during all seasons. The most abundant species identified were HAdV-F (average 89.6%) and -A (average 19.6%), which are associated with intestine infections. Adenoviruses from B species were not detected. The result of the present study demonstrate that human adenoviruses are consistently present in sewage in Poland, demonstrating the importance of an adequate treatment before the disposal in the environment. Multiple HAdV species identified in raw sewage provide new information about HAdV circulation in the Polish population. PMID:26094312

  16. Geoelectrical signals of geologic and hydrologic processes in a fringing reef lagoon setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Befus, Kevin M.; Cardenas, M. Bayani; Tait, Douglas R.; Erler, Dirk V.

    2014-09-01

    Coastal groundwater may discharge into nearshore and offshore waters forced by terrestrial fluxes, controlled by local geology, and modulated by the hydrodynamics of littoral water. We investigated the electrical signature of these features with a dense, multiscale network of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys in the Muri Lagoon of Rarotonga, Cook Islands. The ERT surveys spanned from onshore to 400 m into the lagoon and used standard electrodes on land and across the foreshore, submerged electrodes in the shallow subtidal zone, and floating electrodes towed throughout the reef lagoon by a boat. ERT surveys on land mapped a typical freshwater lens underlain by a saltwater wedge, but with possible deviations from the classical model due to an adjacent tidal creek. Further inland, ERT surveys imaged a layer of lava flow deposits that is potentially a confining hydrogeologic unit; this unit was used to constrain the expected electrical resistivity of these deposits below the lagoon. ERT surveys across the intertidal zone and into the lagoon indicated fresh groundwater and porewater salinity patterns consistent with previous small-scale studies including the seaward extension of fresh groundwater pathways to the lagoon. Electrical resistivity (ER) variations in the lagoon subsurface highlighted heterogeneities in the lagoon structure that may focus submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) through previously unknown buried lava flow deposits in the lagoon. A transition to higher ER values near the reef crest is consistent with the ER signature of porosity reduction due to ongoing differential cementation of reef deposits across the lagoon. The imaged coastal hydrostratigraphic heterogeneity may thus control terrestrial and marine porewater mixing, support SGD, and provide the pathways for groundwater and the materials it transports into the lagoon. This hydrogeophysical investigation highlighted the spatial heterogeneity of submarine coastal geology and its

  17. Helminth communities in eels Anguilla anguilla from Adriatic coastal lagoons in Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Cave, D; Berrilli, F; De Liberato, C; Orecchia, P; Kennedy, C R

    2001-03-01

    The composition and diversity of the total and intestinal component and infra-communities were determined in eels Anguilla anguilla from three shallow lagoons on the Adriatic coast of Italy to determine whether the helminth communities would differ in composition and structure from those in eels from lagoons on the Tyrrhenian coast. The lagoons differed in respect of their management regimes and the extent of freshwater influx. Both freshwater and marine species of helminths were found in the eels in all three lagoons, but the freshwater component was richer in Valle Figheri. A suite of three digenean eel specialist species occurred in all three lagoons, of which any two members dominated each community. This conferred a high degree of similarity between the communities of the three lagoons. The same three species also dominated helminth communities in eels in lagoons along the Tyrrhenian coast of Italy, and compositional similarity levels were similar within and between western and eastern groups. Species richness was higher in the component communities of the eels of the Adriatic lagoons when compared to the Tyrrhenian ones, but diversity and dominance indices were of a similar order of magnitude and range. Intestinal helminth communities were richer and more diverse in two of the Adriatic lagoons because the proportion of eels with zero or one helminth species was, unusually, in the minority. It was nevertheless concluded that infracommunity structure was similar in eels from both western and eastern lagoons and that the hypothesis that it would differ in Adriatic lagoons could not be supported. The findings provide further evidence of the similarity in composition and structure of helminth communities in eels from coastal lagoons throughout Europe.

  18. Reduction of estrogenic activity of municipal wastewater by aerated lagoon treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Bringolf, Robert B; Summerfelt, Robert C

    2003-01-01

    The estrogenic activity of municipal wastewater in aerated lagoon treatment facilities was evaluated using plasma concentrations of vitellogenin (Vtg) in male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Caged fathead minnows were exposed for 10 to 12 d in three lagoons that are connected in series at each of 10 municipal wastewater treatment facilities in central Iowa, USA, during October and November 2000. Fathead minnows held in the laboratory served as unexposed controls. Pooled (n = 4-10 fish) plasma Vtg, quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), was 1,702 +/- 670 (mean +/- standard error [SE]) microg/ml in the first lagoons (n = 9), 0.94 +/- 0.36 microg/ml in the second lagoons (n = 10), and 0.04 +/- 0.02 microg/ml in the third lagoons (n = 8). Differences in mean fish plasma Vtg concentration among lagoons were highly significant (p < 0.001). The mean concentration of plasma Vtg in fish in the third lagoons was not significantly different (p = 0.990) from that of the control fish (0.04 +/- 0.02 microg/ml). Plasma Vtg concentrations of fish in the first lagoons were inversely correlated with wastewater retention time in the lagoons (p = 0.002, r = -0.877). Water temperatures of the final effluents during the study ranged from 9 to 12 degrees C. General treatment efficiency of lagoons has been shown to be dependent on temperature, so the potential exists for decreased removal of estrogenic activity when water temperatures are lower (e.g., winter months) than the present study. In conclusion, wastewater entering aerated lagoon systems was estrogenic to fish, but with serial passage through the lagoons, the estrogenic activity decreased to a level that was not sufficient to induce vitellogenesis in male fathead minnows in a 10- to 12-d exposure.

  19. Saline landfill leachate disposal in facultative lagoons for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Orta de Velasquez, M T; Monje-Ramirez, I; Yañez Noguez, I

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of disposing of saline landfill leachates in a Facultative Lagoon Wastewater Treatment Plant (FLWTP). The FLWTP is near a landfill and presents two characteristics: a wastewater influent with low organic matter, and high lagoon salinity due to the soil characteristics. These characteristics made the FLWTP a viable candidate to evaluate the feasibility of adding landfill leachates to the wastewater influent. Different mixtures of leachate with raw wastewater using volumetric ratios of 4%, 6%, and 10% (v/v) were evaluated in facultative lagoon reactors (FLRs). A 10% concentration of leachates in raw wastewater increased BOD5 and COD in the influent from 45 to 110 mg L(-1) and from 219 to 711 mg L(-1), respectively. It was found that the increase in salinity given by the raw wastewater and leachate mixture did not inhibit algae diversity. The types of algae present were Microcystis sp., Merismopedia sp., Euglena sp., Scenedesmus sp., Chlorella, Diatomea and Anacystis sp. However, decreased algae densities were observed, as measured by the decrease in chlorophyll concentration. The results showed that a 100% leachate concentration combined with wastewater did not upset biological treatment in the FLRs. Mean removal efficiencies for BOD5 and COD were 75% and 35%, respectively, giving a final BOD5 lower than 25 mg L(-1). There was also a significant decrease in the leachate heavy metal content when diluted with raw wastewater as result of natural precipitation.

  20. On the circulation in the Puerto Morelos fringing reef lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coronado, C.; Candela, J.; Iglesias-Prieto, R.; Sheinbaum, J.; López, M.; Ocampo-Torres, F. J.

    2007-03-01

    For a period of 22 months beginning in September 2003, an array of four current profilers were deployed on the Puerto Morelos fringing reef lagoon, a microtidal Caribbean environment characterised by the influence of the Yucatan Current (YC) and a Trade Wind regime. The dataset includes water currents, bottom pressure, and surface waves complemented with coastal meteorological data and surface currents from an acoustic Doppler current profiler moored 12 km offshore. Normal circulation conditions consisted of a surface wave-induced flow entering the lagoon over a shallow reef flat and strong flows exiting through northern and southern channels. This wave induced flow was modulated by a low-frequency sea level change related to a geostrophic response to the YC variability offshore, with tidal and direct wind forcing playing additional minor roles. Under extended summer low-wave height conditions, together with a decrease in sea level from the intensification of the offshore current, the exchange of the lagoon with the adjacent ocean was drastically reduced. Under normal wave conditions ( H S = 0.8 ± 0.4 m, mean ± SD), water residence time was on average 3 h, whereas during Hurricane Ivan’s extreme swell ( H S = 6 m) it decreased to 0.35 h.

  1. The ecology of Mugu Lagoon, California: An estuarine profile

    SciTech Connect

    Onuf, C.P.

    1987-06-01

    Mugu Lagoon is significant as one of the least disturbed and best protected estuaries in southern California; thus this small estuarine system can serve as a baseline model for the region. This report summarizes and synthesizes scientific data on the ecological structure and functioning of the estuary, including discussions of climate, hydrology, geology, physiography, biotic assemblages, and ecological processes and interactions. The estuary exhibits extreme variability in freshwater inputs, being at times totally marine and at other times flushed by stormwater runoff from the watershed. Major storms in 1978 and 1980 resulted in sedimentation that drastically altered benthic communities and resulted in changes in the distribution of submerged aquatic vegetation and benthos, and fish and shorebird use of these food resources. Mugu Lagoon is part of a naval base and therefore not subject to the development pressures facing many other southern California estuaries. Storm-produced sedimentation remains a management concern, as well as closure of the mouth of the lagoon due to littoral drift of sand along the barrier spit.

  2. Preparation of biochar from sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, Aurora; María Méndez, Ana; Gascó, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    Biomass waste materials appropriate for biochar production include crop residues (both field residues and processing residues such as nut shells, fruit pits, bagasse, etc), as well as yard, food and forestry wastes, and animal manures. Biochar can and should be made from biomass waste materials and must not contain unacceptable levels of toxins such as heavy metals which can be found in sewage sludge and industrial or landfill waste. Making biochar from biomass waste materials should create no competition for land with any other land use option—such as food production or leaving the land in its pristine state. Large amounts of agricultural, municipal and forestry biomass are currently burned or left to decompose and release CO2 and methane back into the atmosphere. They also can pollute local ground and surface waters—a large issue for livestock wastes. Using these materials to make biochar not only removes them from a pollution cycle, but biochar can be obtained as a by-product of producing energy from this biomass. Sewage sludge is a by-product from wastewater treatment plants, and contains significant amounts of heavy metals, organic toxins and pathogenic microorganisms, which are considered to be harmful to the environment and all living organisms. Agricultural use, land filling and incineration are commonly used as disposal methods. It was, however, reported that sewage sludge applications in agriculture gives rise to an accumulation of harmful components (heavy metals and organic compounds) in soil. For this reason, pyrolysis can be considered as a promising technique to treat the sewage sludge including the production of fuels. The objective of this work is to study the advantages of the biochar prepared from sewage sludge.

  3. Prevention of sewage pollution by stabilization ponds.

    PubMed

    Lakshminarayana, J S

    1975-01-01

    Water is polluted when it constitutes a health hazard or when its usefulness is impaired. The major sources of water pollution are municipal, manufacturing, mining, steam, electric power, cooling and agricultural. Municipal or sewage pollution forms a greater part of the man's activity and it is the immediate need of even smaller communities of today to combat sewage pollution. It is needless to stress that if an economic balance of the many varied services which a stream or a body of water is called upon to render is balanced and taken into consideration one could think of ending up in a wise management programme. In order to eliminate the existing water pollutional levels of the natural water one has to think of preventive and treatment methods. Of the various conventional and non-conventional methods of sewage treatment known today, in India, where the economic problems are complex, the waste stabilization ponds have become popular over the last two decades to let Public Health Engineers use them with confidence as a simple and reliable means of treatment of sewage and certain industrial wastes, at a fraction of the cost of conventional waste treatment plants used hitherto. A waste stabilization pond makes use of natural purification processes involved in an ecosystem through the regulating of such processes. The term "waste stabilization pond" in its simplest form is applied to a body of water, artificial or natural, employed with the intention of retaining sewage or organic waste waters until the wastes are rendered stable and inoffensive for discharge into receiving waters or on land, through physical, chemical and biological processes commonly referred to as "self-purification" and involving the symbiotic action of algae and bacteria under the influence of sunlight and air. Organic matter contained in the waste is stabilized and converted in the pond into more stable matter in the form of algal cells which find their way into the effluent and hence the term

  4. Risk factors for colonization of E. coli in Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Adam M; Bossart, Gregory D; Mazzoil, Marilyn; Fair, Patricia A; Reif, John S

    2011-01-01

    Opportunistic pathogens related to degradation in water quality are of concern to both wildlife and public health. The objective of this study was to identify spatial, temporal, and environmental risk factors for E. coli colonization among Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), FL between 2003 and 2007. Age, gender, capture location, coastal human population density, proximity of sewage treatment plants, number of septic tanks, cumulative precipitation 48 hrs and 30 days prior to capture, salinity, and water temperature were analyzed as potential risk factors. Highest E. coli colonization rates occurred in the northern segments of the IRL. The risk of E. coli colonization was the highest among the youngest individuals, in counties with the highest cumulative rainfall 48 hrs and in counties with the highest number of septic systems during the year of capture. The prevalence of colonization was the highest during 2004, a year during which multiple hurricanes hit the coast of Florida. Septic tanks, in combination with weather-related events suggest a possible pathway for introduction of fecal coliforms into estuarine ecosystems. The ability of E. coli and related bacteria to act as primary pathogens or cause opportunistic infections adds importance of these findings. PMID:21977048

  5. Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls and DDT in water and sediment of the Indian River Lagoon, Florida - 1977 to 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.C.; Johnson, R.S.; Bricker, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Water and sediment samples collected during 1977 to 1978 from the Indian River lagoon between Vero Beach, Indian River County, and Fort Pierce, Saint Lucie County, Florida were analyzed for PCBs and DDT. Sample locations were chosen on the basis of proximity to major tributaries, sewage outfalls, or municipal area. Concentrations in water samples were below 0.01 ppB sigma DDT and 0.5 ppB PCBs. Small amounts of PCBs and DDT were found in most sediment samples, ranging from less than 1.0 ppB to 0.63 ppM Aroclor 1254 and from less than 0.1 ppB to 0.081 ppM sigma DDT. Samples from the Taylor Creek tributary and from the Fort Pierce power plant and municipal docking area contained higher PCB concentrations than did samples from other locations. DDT and PCB levels in most samples indicate little contamination by these compounds of the Indian River Waterway between Vero Beach and Fort Pierce.

  6. Risk factors for colonization of E. coli in Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Adam M; Bossart, Gregory D; Mazzoil, Marilyn; Fair, Patricia A; Reif, John S

    2011-01-01

    Opportunistic pathogens related to degradation in water quality are of concern to both wildlife and public health. The objective of this study was to identify spatial, temporal, and environmental risk factors for E. coli colonization among Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), FL between 2003 and 2007. Age, gender, capture location, coastal human population density, proximity of sewage treatment plants, number of septic tanks, cumulative precipitation 48 hrs and 30 days prior to capture, salinity, and water temperature were analyzed as potential risk factors. Highest E. coli colonization rates occurred in the northern segments of the IRL. The risk of E. coli colonization was the highest among the youngest individuals, in counties with the highest cumulative rainfall 48 hrs and in counties with the highest number of septic systems during the year of capture. The prevalence of colonization was the highest during 2004, a year during which multiple hurricanes hit the coast of Florida. Septic tanks, in combination with weather-related events suggest a possible pathway for introduction of fecal coliforms into estuarine ecosystems. The ability of E. coli and related bacteria to act as primary pathogens or cause opportunistic infections adds importance of these findings.

  7. Fate of indicator endocrine disrupting chemicals in sewage during treatment and polishing for non-potable reuse.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Mike; Kumar, Anu; Shareef, Ali; Doan, Hai; Stuetz, Richard; Kookana, Rai

    2010-01-01

    The removal and fate of several indicator endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) at two large municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Adelaide South Australia was investigated. Non-estrogens included the non-ionic surfactant breakdown compounds nonyl phenol mono- and di-ethoxylates, 4-t-octylphenol and 4-nonyl phenol; and, the plasticizer bisphenol A. Estrogens included 17β-estradiol; estrone; and, 17α-ethynylestradiol. Effluent from Bolivar WWTP is polished using stabilisation lagoons followed by coagulation, dissolved air flotation/filtration and chlorination for non-potable reuse. Biosolids from both plants is applied to agricultural land as a soil conditioner. Non-estrogen indicator EDCs were detected at the highest concentration in sewage, effluent and sludge but estrogen indicator EDCs contributed the greatest potential for estrogenicity. The fate of indicator EDCs at various treatment stages is complex and includes biochemical modification/transformation and/or partitioning to either solid or liquid phases. Activated sludge treatment was an important removal barrier achieving moderate-high removal of predicted and YES (a yeast screen assay) measured estrogen equivalent values (EEq). Combined polishing treatment achieved high removal of candidate EDCs (97%). Mass balance indicates that the largest source of estrogenicity discharged from both WWTPs investigated is digested sludge which accounts for 18 and 22% respectively of the combined predicted and YES measured EEq measured in sewage at the two WWTPs. PMID:20861558

  8. An integrated Pan-European perspective on coastal Lagoons management through a mosaic-DPSIR approach

    PubMed Central

    Dolbeth, Marina; Stålnacke, Per; Alves, Fátima L.; Sousa, Lisa P.; Gooch, Geoffrey D.; Khokhlov, Valeriy; Tuchkovenko, Yurii; Lloret, Javier; Bielecka, Małgorzata; Różyński, Grzegorz; Soares, João A.; Baggett, Susan; Margonski, Piotr; Chubarenko, Boris V.; Lillebø, Ana I.

    2016-01-01

    A decision support framework for the management of lagoon ecosystems was tested using four European Lagoons: Ria de Aveiro (Portugal), Mar Menor (Spain), Tyligulskyi Liman (Ukraine) and Vistula Lagoon (Poland/Russia). Our aim was to formulate integrated management recommendations for European lagoons. To achieve this we followed a DPSIR (Drivers-Pressures-State Change-Impacts-Responses) approach, with focus on integrating aspects of human wellbeing, welfare and ecosystem sustainability. The most important drivers in each lagoon were identified, based on information gathered from the lagoons’ stakeholders, complemented by scientific knowledge on each lagoon as seen from a land-sea perspective. The DPSIR cycles for each driver were combined into a mosaic-DPSIR conceptual model to examine the interdependency between the multiple and interacting uses of the lagoon. This framework emphasizes the common links, but also the specificities of responses to drivers and the ecosystem services provided. The information collected was used to formulate recommendations for the sustainable management of lagoons within a Pan-European context. Several common management recommendations were proposed, but specificities were also identified. The study synthesizes the present conditions for the management of lagoons, thus analysing and examining the activities that might be developed in different scenarios, scenarios which facilitate ecosystem protection without compromising future generations. PMID:26776151

  9. Composition and abundance of zooplankton community of an impacted estuarine lagoon in Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, L R; Costa, I S; Eskinazi-Sant'anna, E M

    2012-02-01

    Guaraíras Lagoon is a shallow coastal lagoon subject to intense human impacts, including shrimp aquaculture, urban expansion and agricultural activities, and is therefore vulnerable to eutrophication. With the aim of detecting the effects of human-mediated disturbance and environmental change in the lagoon, a spatial-temporal study was conducted in order to assess the actual ecological status of the lagoon and the species composition and density of the mesozooplankton, highlighting copepod assemblages. Algal biomass (chlorophyll-a) and total phosphorus concentration indicated that the lagoon is a meso-eutrophic coastal system in the inner part, and is oligotrophic in the areas influenced by the marine waters. High salinities were recorded in the lagoon, characterizing the lagoon as a coastal-marine ecosystem, rather than true estuarine. Mesozooplankton abundance fluctuated widely and showed marked spatial heterogeneity. The copepod assemblage was characterized by a coastal/estuarine group dominated by Oithona spp., Acartia lilljeborgi and Parvocalanus crassirostris in the inner areas of the lagoon, and a marine group characterized by the copepods Paracalanus quasimodo, Calanopia americana, Corycaeus (C.) speciosus and Monstrilloida in the area of marine influence. Thus, the spatial variability in the distribution of mesozooplankton species can be ascribed to the presence of a horizontal gradient of salinity and trophic conditions. Overall, the results showed that spatial variation in the water physicochemical characteristics of Guarairas Lagoon have significant effects on the structure and repartition of the mesozooplankton assemblages, which may potentially affect the functioning and biodiversity of this coastal ecosystem.

  10. Spatiotemporal variation of bacterial community composition and possible controlling factors in tropical shallow lagoons.

    PubMed

    Laque, Thaís; Farjalla, Vinicius F; Rosado, Alexandre S; Esteves, Francisco A

    2010-05-01

    Bacterial community composition (BCC) has been extensively related to specific environmental conditions. Tropical coastal lagoons present great temporal and spatial variation in their limnological conditions, which, in turn, should influence the BCC. Here, we sought for the limnological factors that influence, in space and time, the BCC in tropical coastal lagoons (Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil). The Visgueiro lagoon was sampled monthly for 1 year and eight lagoons were sampled once for temporal and spatial analysis, respectively. BCC was evaluated by bacteria-specific PCR-DGGE methods. Great variations were observed in limnological conditions and BCC on both temporal and spatial scales. Changes in the BCC of Visgueiro lagoon throughout the year were best related to salinity and concentrations of NO (3) (-) , dissolved phosphorus and chlorophyll-a, while changes in BCC between lagoons were best related to salinity and dissolved phosphorus concentration. Salinity has a direct impact on the integrity of the bacterial cell, and it was previously observed that phosphorus is the main limiting nutrient to bacterial growth in these lagoons. Therefore, we conclude that great variations in limnological conditions of coastal lagoons throughout time and space resulted in different BCCs and salinity and nutrient concentration, particularly dissolved phosphorus, are the main limnological factors influencing BCC in these tropical coastal lagoons.

  11. Assessing the impact of animal waste lagoon seepage on the geochemistry of an underlying shallow aquifer.

    PubMed

    McNab, Walt W; Singleton, Michael J; Moran, Jean E; Esser, Brad K

    2007-02-01

    Evidence of seepage from animal waste holding lagoons at a dairy facility in the San Joaquin Valley of California is assessed in the context of a process geochemical model that addresses reactions associated with the formation of the lagoon water as well as reactions occurring upon the mixture of lagoon water with underlying aquifer material. Comparison of model results with observed concentrations of NH4+, K+, PO4(3-), dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, Ca2+, Mg2+, SO4(2-), Cl-, and dissolved Ar in lagoon water samples and groundwater samples suggests three key geochemical processes: (i) off-gassing of significant quantities of CO2 and CH4 during mineralization of manure in the lagoon water, (ii) ion exchange reactions that remove K+ and NH4+ from seepage water as it migrates into the underlying anaerobic aquifer material, and (iii) mineral precipitation reactions involving phosphate and carbonate minerals in the lagoon water in response to an increase in pH as well as in the underlying aquifer from elevated Ca2+ and Mg2+ levels generated by ion exchange. Substantial off-gassing from the lagoons is further indicated by dissolved argon concentrations in lagoon water samples that are below atmospheric equilibrium. As such, Ar may serve as a unique tracer for lagoon water seepage since under-saturated Ar concentrations in groundwater are unlikely to be influenced by any processes other than mechanical mixing.

  12. The effect of floods on sediment contamination in a microtidal coastal lagoon: the lagoon of Lesina, Italy.

    PubMed

    D'Adamo, Raffaele; Specchiulli, Antonietta; Cassin, Daniele; Botter, Margherita; Zonta, Roberto; Fabbrocini, Adele

    2014-10-01

    The effects on the microtidal lagoon of Lesina of runoff and the discharge of water and material from agricultural activities were investigated combining chemical analyses of pollutants [11 metals and 16 priority polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs)], determination of organic matter and grain size, and performance of innovative ecotoxicological tests. For metals, enrichment factors >3 for arsenic, nickel, and copper (Cu) were observed in the eastern zone of the lagoon, which is affected by nearby urban activities with discharge of water and domestic waste and by agricultural input with waters rich in fertilizers. Cu was correlated with no other metal, and its high concentrations (≤77 µg g(-1)) may result from the use of Cu-based fungicides in vineyards. Total PAHs (2,230 ± 3,150 ng g(-1)) displayed a wide range of concentrations with hot spots near freshwater inputs from the part of the catchment area exploited for wheat crops. Pyrolitic contamination also emerged, with higher-mass PAH congeners, such as asphalt, bitumen or coal, usually present in higher fractions as the dominant components. Ecotoxicological evaluations recorded moderate to high toxicity levels; the innovative MOT test bioassay showed good discriminatory ability because it identified a lagoon area whose inputs mainly depend on agricultural activities and which is impacted by metals rather than PAHs. Floods during periods of heavy rain and the discharge of water and material from agricultural activities may impact vulnerable systems, such as the lagoon of Lesina, where the presence of hot spots with remarkably high pollution values was observed.

  13. Groundwater and porewater as a major source of alkalinity to a fringing coral reef lagoon (Muri Lagoon, Cook Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyronak, T.; Santos, I. R.; Erler, D. V.; Eyre, B. D.

    2012-11-01

    To better predict how ocean acidification will affect coral reefs, it is important to understand how biogeochemical cycles on reefs alter carbonate chemistry over various temporal and spatial scales. This study quantifies the contribution of fresh groundwater discharge (as traced by radon) and shallow porewater exchange (as quantified from advective chamber incubations) to total alkalinity (TA) dynamics on a fringing coral reef lagoon along the southern Pacific island of Rarotonga over a tidal and diel cycle. Benthic alkalinity fluxes were affected by the advective circulation of water through permeable sediments, with net daily flux rates of carbonate alkalinity ranging from -1.55 to 7.76 mmol m-2 d-1, depending on the advection rate. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) was a source of TA to the lagoon, with the highest flux rates measured at low tide, and an average daily TA flux of 1080 mmol m-2 d-1. Both sources of TA were important on a reef wide basis, although SGD acted solely as a delivery mechanism of TA to the lagoon, while porewater advection was either a sink or source of TA dependant on the time of day. On a daily basis, groundwater can contribute approximately 70% to 80% of the TA taken up by corals within the lagoon. This study describes overlooked sources of TA to coral reef ecosystems that can potentially alter water-column carbonate chemistry. We suggest that porewater and groundwater fluxes of TA should be taken into account in ocean acidification models in order to properly address changing carbonate chemistry within coral reef ecosystems.

  14. Depositional history and fault-related studies, Bolinas Lagoon, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berquist, Joel R.

    1978-01-01

    Studies of core sediments and seismic reflection profiles elucidate the structure and depositional history of Bolinas Lagoon, Calif., which covers 4.4 km 2 and lies in the San Andreas fault zone at the southeast corner of the Point Reyes Peninsula 20 km northwest of San Francisco. The 1906 trace of the San Andreas fault crosses the west side of the lagoon and was determined from (1) tectonically caused salt-marsh destruction indicated by comparison of 1854 and 1929 U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey (U.S.C. & G.S.) topographic surveys, (2) formation of a tidal channel along the border of destroyed salt marshes, and (3) azimuths of the trend of the fault measured in 1907. Subsidence in the lagoon of 30 cm occurred east of the San Andreas fault in 1906. Near the east shore, seismic-reflection profiling indicates the existence of a graben fault that may connect to a graben fault on the Golden Gate Platform. Comparison of radiocarbon dates on shells and plant debris from boreholes drilled on Stinson Beach spit with a relative sea-level curve constructed for southern San Francisco Bay indicates 5.8 to more than 17.9 m of tectonic subsidence of sediments now located 33 m below mean sea level. Cored sediments indicate a marine transgression dated at 7770?65 yrs B.P. overlying freshwater organic-rich lake deposits. Fossil pollen including 2 to 8 percent Picea (spruce) indicate a late Pleistocene (?)-Early Holocene climate, cooler, wetter, and foggier than at present. Above the transgression are discontinuous and interfingering sequences of transgressive-regressive marine, estuarine, and barrier sediments that reflect rapid lateral and vertical shifts of successive depositional environments. Fossil megafauna indicate (1) accumulation in a protected, shallow-water estuary or bay, and (2) that the lagoon was probably continuously shallow and never a deep-water embayment. Analysis of grain-size parameters, pollen frequencies, and organic remains from a core near the north end of

  15. Groundwater and porewater as major sources of alkalinity to a fringing coral reef lagoon (Muri Lagoon, Cook Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyronak, T.; Santos, I. R.; Erler, D. V.; Eyre, B. D.

    2013-04-01

    To better predict how ocean acidification will affect coral reefs, it is important to understand how biogeochemical cycles on reefs alter carbonate chemistry over various temporal and spatial scales. This study quantifies the contribution of shallow porewater exchange (as quantified from advective chamber incubations) and fresh groundwater discharge (as traced by 222Rn) to total alkalinity (TA) dynamics on a fringing coral reef lagoon along the southern Pacific island of Rarotonga over a tidal and diel cycle. Benthic alkalinity fluxes were affected by the advective circulation of water through permeable sediments, with net daily flux rates of carbonate alkalinity ranging from -1.55 to 7.76 mmol m-2 d-1, depending on the advection rate. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) was a source of TA to the lagoon, with the highest flux rates measured at low tide, and an average daily TA flux of 1080 mmol m-2 d-1 at the sampling site. Both sources of TA were important on a reef-wide basis, although SGD acted solely as a delivery mechanism of TA to the lagoon, while porewater advection was either a sink or source of TA dependent on the time of day. This study describes overlooked sources of TA to coral reef ecosystems that can potentially alter water column carbonate chemistry. We suggest that porewater and groundwater fluxes of TA should be taken into account in ocean acidification models in order to properly address changing carbonate chemistry within coral reef ecosystems.

  16. High Prevalence of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in Swedish Sewage

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, Aina; Kühn, Inger; Franklin, Anders; Möllby, Roland

    2002-01-01

    In Europe the use of the growth promoter avoparcin is considered to have selected for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Sweden ceased using avoparcin in 1986, and only occasional cases of VRE from hospitals have been reported since 1995. Within the framework of a European study, samples from urban raw sewage, treated sewage, surface water, and hospital sewage in Sweden (n = 118) were screened for VRE. Surprisingly, VRE were isolated from 21 of 35 untreated sewage samples (60%), from 5 of 14 hospital sewage samples (36%), from 6 of 32 treated sewage samples (19%), and from 1 of 37 surface water samples. Thirty-five isolates from 33 samples were further characterized by geno- and phenotyping, MIC determination, and PCR analysis. Most isolates (30 of 35) carried the vanA gene, and the majority (24 of 35) of the isolates were Enterococcus faecium. Most of the VRE were multiresistant. The typing revealed high diversity of the isolates. However, one major cluster with seven identical or similar isolates was found. These isolates came from three different sewage treatment plants and were collected at different occasions during 1 year. All VRE from hospital sewage originated from one of the two hospitals studied. That hospital also had vancomycin consumption that was 10-fold that of the other. We conclude that VRE were commonly found in sewage samples in Sweden. The origin might be both healthy individuals and individuals in hospitals. Possibly, antimicrobial drugs or chemicals released into the sewage system may sustain VRE in the system. PMID:12039740

  17. Modeling sewage leakage to surrounding groundwater and stormwater drains.

    PubMed

    Ly, Duy Khiem; Chui, Ting Fong May

    2012-01-01

    Underground sewage pipe systems deteriorate over time resulting in cracks and joint defects. Sewage thus leaks out and contaminates the surrounding groundwater and the surface water in stormwater drains. Many studies have investigated the problem of sewage leakage but no published studies, to the best knowledge of the authors, have examined the hydrologic interactions between leaky sewage pipes, groundwater and stormwater drains. This study numerically models such interactions using generic conditions in Singapore. It first develops accurate representations of weep holes and leaky sewage pipes, and further shows the long-term and short-term system responses to rainfall events. Some of the implications include: (1) quality of water seeping into the drains tends to be low in dry years; (2) complete contaminant attenuation after pipe rehabilitation takes several years; (3) responses to rainfall events at weep holes are immediate but the effects on sewage leakage might only show up a few days later. The simulation results allow us to better understand the local-scale migration of sewage leakage from a sewage pipe to nearby stormwater drains. With calibrations and verifications with local field data, the modeling framework would be applicable and beneficial to the sewage leakage monitoring and sewage pipe rehabilitation worldwide.

  18. Cold Vacuum Drying facility sanitary sewage collection system design description (SYS 27)

    SciTech Connect

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-07-02

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) sanitary sewage collection system. The sanitary sewage collection system provides collection and storage of effluents and raw sewage from the CVDF to support the cold vacuum drying process. This system is comprised of a sanitary sewage holding tank and pipes for collection and transport of effluents to the sanitary sewage holding tank.

  19. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sewage sludge. 503.7 Section 503.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503.7 Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge. Any person who prepares sewage sludge shall ensure that...

  20. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sewage sludge. 503.7 Section 503.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503.7 Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge. Any person who prepares sewage sludge shall ensure that...

  1. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sewage sludge. 503.7 Section 503.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503.7 Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge. Any person who prepares sewage sludge shall ensure that...

  2. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sewage sludge. 503.7 Section 503.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503.7 Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge. Any person who prepares sewage sludge shall ensure that...

  3. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sewage sludge. 503.7 Section 503.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503.7 Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge. Any person who prepares sewage sludge shall ensure that...

  4. Freshwater inflows and seasonal forcing strongly influence macrofaunal assemblages in Mediterranean coastal lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado, Patricia; Caiola, Nuno; Ibáñez, Carles

    2014-06-01

    Coastal lagoons of the Ebro Delta (Catalonia, Spain) are part of the Ebro Delta Natural Park managed by regional government authorities. Coastal lagoons have persistently received freshwater inputs from the Ebro River from May to November that have altered their natural ecology and hydrological cycle. In this study, we evaluate the seasonal effect of contrasting salinity regimes (polyhaline in the Tancada lagoon, mesohaline in the Encanyissada and oligohaline in the Clot lagoon) on the composition, abundance, species richness, alpha diversity and biomass of benthic macrofauna communities, and we assess the relative contribution of local environmental variables to the observed patterns. Additional sampling was conducted in the largest lagoon (Encanyissada) in order to assess variability at lower spatial scale. At both spatial scales (i.e., among-lagoon and within-lagoon), species richness and diversity tended to increase at higher salinities, particularly in summer. At the assemblage level, significantly different groupings were also found among lagoons and among zones of the Encanyissada lagoon, with more distinctive differences also in summer. Environmental factors accounted for up to 56-60% of the variation in macrofaunal assemblages at both spatial scales, with salinity and temperature accounting for the largest contributions (approx. 14% and 10%, respectively), whereas biomass was mostly controlled by temperature and nutrients. Distinctive oxygen and organic matter levels across the lagoons were also associated with the freshwater influx and displayed significant contributions to observed patterns. Our study shows that the low salinity regime and/or other factors related to long-term inputs of freshwater shape the community of macrofauna within the lagoons, a central trophic resource for most of the local species of fish and aquatic birds. Restoration of these systems to their natural hydrological functioning without further inputs of freshwater and higher

  5. On the applicability of the tidal prism - inlet area relationship to Northern Adriatic Sea lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanon, Luana; D'Alpaos, Andrea; D'Alpaos, Luigi

    2013-04-01

    The tidal prism-inlet area relationship, well-known as the "O'Brien-Jarrett-Marchi law", relates inlet cross-sectional area to its tidal prism (water volume flowing through the considered inlet during a characteristic tidal cycle), thus embodying the complex relation between the channel morphological characteristics and the related hydrodynamic features. Our work is mainly focused on the correct application of this relationship to the lagoons of the Northern Adriatic Sea, in order to analyse the applicability of the above recalled law to lagoons characterized by a dynamic behaviour, with non-negligible effects of tidal propagation. In particular, we integrate the dataset collected by Jarrett (1976) with the data concerning the Venice lagoon and the Delta Po lagoons. First, we investigate the modifications in tidal prism and inlet area induced by the most invasive anthropic interventions carried out within Venice lagoon during the last two centuries. To this purpose, we use a fully-coupled 2D finite element hydrodynamic model to analyse the hydrodynamic behaviour of five morphological configurations representative of the lagoon morphological evolution from 1811 to 2003. The analysis shows that the lagoons characterized by a quasi-static hydrodynamic behaviour, such as Delta Po lagoons and the more recent morphological configurations of Venice lagoon, are better described by the O'Brien-Jarrett-Marchi relationship when compared to the past morphological configurations of Venice lagoon, which are characterized by a dynamic behaviour. Finally, we compare the results obtained by analysing natural lagoons with those obtained by considering data collected within laboratory physical models, and critically discuss them on the basis of theoretical interpretations of the tidal prism-inlet area relationship recently proposed by several authors. This application highlights the need to compare data on the basis of a "modified tidal prism" which takes into account the "scale

  6. Measurement of seepage losses and chemical export from waste lagoons at animal feeding operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, J. M.; DeSutter, T. M.

    2001-05-01

    Whole-lagoon seepage rates were measured from 20 lagoons in Kansas using water balance techniques. Study sites included cattle feedlots, swine facilities, and one dairy. Seepage rates ranged from 0.2 mm/day to 2.4 mm/day with and overall average of 1.2 mm/day. Analysis of lagoon effluent (58 samples from 38 sites) indicated large differences in lagoon chemistry between locations. Ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N), which accounted for over 99 percent of the soluble nitrogen, ranged from 10 ppm to 3500 ppm. On average, nitrogen concentrations in swine lagoons were about five times higher than those at cattle feedlots. The chemical flux density (flux boundary condition) was estimated from the seepage rate and the corresponding waste chemistry data from each lagoon. Results showed that ammonium-N export was between 0.02 and 1.06 kg NH4-N m-2 yr^{-1} with an overall average of about 0.3 kg NH4-N m^{-2} yr^{-1}$ . Similar data are available for other soluble compounds. Soil cores were collected beneath eight lagoons that had been operated from 12 to 25 years. Results showed that NH4-N was strongly adsorbed by the soil clay particles and that nitrogen concentrations often decreased to background levels at 3 m beneath the lagoon. Other ions, such as chloride, penetrated to much lower depths at all locations. The 'reservoir' of NH4-N that exists beneath older lagoons could convert to nitrate and move to lower depths after lagoon closure. Data suggest that the properties if the soil beneath lagoons, the concentration of the waste, the seepage rate, and the depth to groundwater are the crucial factors that affect the risk of groundwater contamination.

  7. Hydrology and Salt Balance in a Large, Hypersaline Coastal Lagoon: Lagoa de Araruama, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjerfve, Björn; Schettini, C. A. F.; Knoppers, Bastiaan; Lessa, Guilherme; Ferreira, H. O.

    1996-06-01

    Lagoa de Araruama in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is a hypersaline coastal lagoon as a result of semi-arid climate conditions, a small drainage basin and a choked entrance channel. The lagoon has been continuously hypersaline for at least 4·5 centuries, but the mean salinity has varied substantially. It has recently decreased from 57 to 52 as indicated by density (salinity) measurements between 1965 and 1990. Analysis of more than 20 years of salinity time series data, in addition to monthly lagoon cruises to measure the spatial salinity distribution, indicate that the lagoon salinity largely fluctuates in response to the difference between evaporation and precipitation. The major factor explaining the long-term trend of decreasing salinity in the lagoon is the constant pumping of 1 m 3s -1of freshwater to the communities surrounding the lagoon from an adjacent watershed, and subsequent discharge of this water into Lagoa de Araruama. The net salt budget is primarily a balance between the advective import of salt from the coastal ocean and eddy diffusive export of salt to the ocean, although the extensive mining of salt from the lagoon during past decades is also a small but significant contribution to the salt budget. The flushing half-life is proposed as a useful time scale of water exchange, is calculated based on a combination of hydrological and tidal processes, and is excellent for comparison of lagoons and assessing water quality changes. The flushing half-life measures 83·5 days for Lagoa de Araruama, considerably longer than for most other coastal lagoons. The proposed dredging of a second ocean channel to Lagoa de Araruama is probably not a good idea. It is likely to accelerate the decrease of lagoon salinity and somewhat improve the lagoon water exchange. At the same time, this will eliminate the apparent buffering capacity provided by the hypersaline environment, and thus may potentially cause water quality problems.

  8. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: FINAL REPORT: DEVELOPMENT OF OPTIMUM TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR WASTEWATER LAGOONS PHASE II - SOLVENT EXTRACTION LABORATORY TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Army surveyed innovative treatment techniques for restoration of hazardous waste lagoons and selected solvent extraction as cost-effective restoration for further study. This treatability study focuses on treatment of organic (explosive) contaminated lagoon sediments w...

  9. Efficiency of hepatitis A virus removal in six sewage treatment plants from central Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ouardani, Imen; Manso, Carmen F; Aouni, Mahjoub; Romalde, Jesús L

    2015-12-01

    The efficiency of six Tunisian sewage treatment plants (STP) for the removal of hepatitis A virus (HAV) from wastewater was analysed in order to evaluate the potential risk for human health linked to reuse or discharge of treated wastewater into the environment. The STP utilize different biological wastewater treatments including primary treatment, which involves the physical removal of organic and inorganic solids, and secondary treatment that involves different processes, such as activated sludge or lagoon. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and conventional RT-PCR were used for the analysis of the 325 wastewater samples (163 raw and 162 treated) obtained. Results revealed highest contamination in west-central of Tunisia in raw wastewater with 62.96 % of samples positive for HAV and predominance during winter and autumn, whereas east-central region showed 50.62 % of positive samples with high prevalence from winter through summer. The quantitative analysis revealed a range between 4.29 × 10(1) and 1.24 × 10(5) RNA copies/mL in treated wastewater, showing clearly the inefficiency for total removal of HAV regardless of the treatment method used. The vast majority of HAV sequences belonged to the sub-genotype IA, except one that was assigned to sub-genotype IB. PMID:26286509

  10. Land application of sewage sludge: physicochemical and microbial response.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajeev Pratap; Singh, Pooja; Ibrahim, M Hakimi; Hashim, Rokiah

    2011-01-01

    In the present review, we address the effects of sewage sludge amendment on soil physicochemical properties and on soil microbial biomass. Sewage sludge is a by-product of sewage treatment processes and is increasingly applied to agricultural lands as a source of fertilizer, and as an alternative to conventional means of disposal. The particular characteristics of sewage sludge depend upon the quality of sewage from which it is made, and the type of treatment processes through which it passes. Sewage sludge may substitute for inorganic fertilizers because it is rich in organic and inorganic plant nutrients. However, the presence of potentially toxic metals and pathogens in sewage sludge often restricts its uses. Ground water and food chain contamination resulting from sewage sludge amendment is one major concern worldwide. The health of soils is represented by a composite of their physical, chemical and biological properties. Amending soil with sewage sludge modifies the physicochemical and biological properties of soils. Perhaps the central constituent of soil that is important in the context of sewage sludge amendment is microbial biomass. Soil microbial biomass, the key living part of the soil, is very closely associated with the content of organic matter that exists in arable agricultural soils. When sewage sludge is land-applied, soil enzyme activities may be directly or indirectly affected by the presence of heavy metals. In several studies, results have shown that sewage sludge amendment increased soil microbial and soil enzyme activities; however, reduction in soil enzyme activity has also been reported. When incubation periods of sewage sludge were longer, heavy metal bioavailability increased. Soil pathogenic activity has also been reported to increase as a result of land application of sewage sludges. The level of pathogens in treated sewage sludge (biosolids) depends on the processes used to treat wastewater and sewage sludge. Agricultural application

  11. Land application of sewage sludge: physicochemical and microbial response.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajeev Pratap; Singh, Pooja; Ibrahim, M Hakimi; Hashim, Rokiah

    2011-01-01

    In the present review, we address the effects of sewage sludge amendment on soil physicochemical properties and on soil microbial biomass. Sewage sludge is a by-product of sewage treatment processes and is increasingly applied to agricultural lands as a source of fertilizer, and as an alternative to conventional means of disposal. The particular characteristics of sewage sludge depend upon the quality of sewage from which it is made, and the type of treatment processes through which it passes. Sewage sludge may substitute for inorganic fertilizers because it is rich in organic and inorganic plant nutrients. However, the presence of potentially toxic metals and pathogens in sewage sludge often restricts its uses. Ground water and food chain contamination resulting from sewage sludge amendment is one major concern worldwide. The health of soils is represented by a composite of their physical, chemical and biological properties. Amending soil with sewage sludge modifies the physicochemical and biological properties of soils. Perhaps the central constituent of soil that is important in the context of sewage sludge amendment is microbial biomass. Soil microbial biomass, the key living part of the soil, is very closely associated with the content of organic matter that exists in arable agricultural soils. When sewage sludge is land-applied, soil enzyme activities may be directly or indirectly affected by the presence of heavy metals. In several studies, results have shown that sewage sludge amendment increased soil microbial and soil enzyme activities; however, reduction in soil enzyme activity has also been reported. When incubation periods of sewage sludge were longer, heavy metal bioavailability increased. Soil pathogenic activity has also been reported to increase as a result of land application of sewage sludges. The level of pathogens in treated sewage sludge (biosolids) depends on the processes used to treat wastewater and sewage sludge. Agricultural application

  12. Integrated odour modelling for sewage treatment works.

    PubMed

    Gostelow, P; Parsons, S A; Lovell, M

    2004-01-01

    Odours from sewage treatment works are a significant source of environmental annoyance. There is a need for tools to assess the degree of annoyance caused, and to assess strategies for mitigation of the problem. This is the role of odour modelling. Four main stages are important in the development of an odour problem. Firstly, the odorous molecules must be formed in the liquid phase. They must then transfer from the liquid to the gaseous phase. They are then transported through the atmosphere to the population surrounding the odour source, and are then perceived and assessed by that population. Odour modelling as currently practised tends to concentrate on the transportation of odorants through the atmosphere, with the other areas receiving less attention. Instead, odour modelling should consider each stage in an integrated manner. This paper describes the development of integrated odour models for annoyance prediction. The models describe the liquid-phase transformations and emission of hydrogen sulphide from sewage treatment processes. Model output is in a form suitable for integration with dispersion models, the predictions of which can in turn be used to indicate the probability of annoyance. The models have been applied to both hypothetical and real sewage treatment works cases. Simulation results have highlighted the potential variability of emission rates from sewage treatment works, resulting from flow, quality and meteorological variations. Emission rate variations can have significant effects on annoyance predictions, which is an important finding, as they are usually considered to be fixed and only meteorological variations are considered in predicting the odour footprint. Areas for further development of integrated odour modelling are discussed, in particular the search for improved links between analytical and sensory measurements, and a better understanding of dose/response relationships for odour annoyance.

  13. Hydrogen utilization by clostridia in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Ohwaki, K; Hungate, R E

    1977-06-01

    A sporeformer morphologically different but physiologically similar to Clostridium aceticum Wieringa was isolated from sewage sludge. It used large amounts of H2 and CO2, converting them chiefly to acetic acid. Growth occurs anaerobically on yeast extract alone, but after the nutrients in yeast extract are used, growth continues at a reduced rate, supported by the conversion of the gases to acetate. PMID:879782

  14. Recovery potential of German sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Oliver; Adam, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Incineration of sewage sludge is expected to increase in the future due to growing concerns about the direct use of sludge in agriculture. Sewage sludge is the pollutant sink of wastewater treatment and thus loaded with contaminants that might pose environmental hazards. Incineration degrades organic pollutants efficiently, but since the ash is currently mostly disposed of, all valuable component like phosphorus (P) and technologically relevant metals present in the sewage sludge ash (SSA) are removed from the economic cycle entirely. We conducted a complete survey of SSA from German mono-incineration facilities and determined the theoretical recovery potential of 57 elements. German SSA contains up to 19,000 t/a P which equals approximately 13% of phosphorus applied in the German agriculture in form of phosphate rock based mineral fertilizers. Thus, SSA is an important secondary resource of P. However, its P-solubility in ammonium citrate solution, an indicator for the bioavailability, is only about 26%. Treatment of SSA is recommended to enhance P bioavailability and remove heavy metals before it is applied as fertilizer. The recovery potential for technologically relevant metals is generally low, but some of these elements might be recovered efficiently in the course of P recovery exploiting synergies. PMID:25697389

  15. Estrogens from sewage in coastal marine environments.

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Shannon; Atkinson, Marlin J; Tarrant, Ann M

    2003-01-01

    Estrogens are ancient molecules that act as hormones in vertebrates and are biologically active in diverse animal phyla. Sewage contains natural and synthetic estrogens that are detectable in streams, rivers, and lakes. There are no studies reporting the distribution of steroidal estrogens in marine environments. We measured estrogens in sewage, injection-well water, and coastal tropical and offshore tropical water in the Pacific Ocean, western Atlantic Ocean, and Caribbean Sea. Concentrations of unconjugated estrone ranged from undetectable (< 40 pg/L) in the open ocean to nearly 2,000 pg/L in Key West, Florida, and Rehoboth Bay, Delaware (USA); estrone concentrations were highest near sources of sewage. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steroid conjugates in seawater samples indicated that polar conjugates comprise one-half to two-thirds of "total estrone" (unconjugated plus conjugated) in Hawaiian coastal samples. Adsorption to basalt gravel and carbonate sand was less than 20% per week and indicates that estrogens can easily leach into the marine environment from septic fields and high-estrogen groundwater. Of 20 sites (n = 129 samples), the mean values from 12 sites were above the threshold concentration for uptake into coral, indicating that there is a net uptake of anthropogenic steroidal estrogen into these environments, with unknown impacts. PMID:12676611

  16. Apparatus for the treatment of sewage

    SciTech Connect

    Kinzer, J.

    1980-12-09

    An apparatus is described for treating sewage to obtain substantially complete organic matter substrate and biological sludge oxidation prior to effluent discharge in a treatment system comprising a series of treatment chambers in a single unit; each treatment chamber has a generally circular peripheral crosssectional configuration, conduit means in each treatment chamber for directing the flow of mixed liquor in each chamber, and gas supply means for supplying an oxygen containing gas to each treatment chamber so as to cause a continuous flow pattern of mixed liquor in the treatment chamber. Inlet means are provided for supplying raw sewage to the first treatment chamber of the series. Outlet means are provided for withdrawing clarified effluent from the last treatment chamber of the series. Fluid communication means are described for providing fluid communication between an intermediate top portion of each successive treatment chamber of the series. The system is preferably designed to provide environments suitable for microorganism growth and development through sewage organic matter consumption in the first treatment of the series, microorganism population maintenance in the next successive treatment chamber of the series and microorganism autodigestion in latter treatment chambers of the series, thereby providing an effluent substantially free of digestable organic matter and biological sludge.

  17. Urban energy mining from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Kwon, E E; Yi, H; Kwon, H H

    2013-01-01

    This work showed that sewage sludge could be a strong candidate for biodiesel production. High lipid content (18-20%) with C(16-18)-carbon range was experimentally identified and measured. These lipids from sewage sludge were converted into biodiesel via the transesterification reaction with MgO-CaO/Al(2)O(3) derived from magnesium slag, and biodiesel conversion was ~98%. The experimental work enabled explaining that temperature is the main driving force for the transesterification reaction, which can be enhanced in the presence of CO(2). This also enables combination of esterification of free fatty acids and transesterification of triglycerides into a single process within 1 min in the temperature range of 350-500°C. Sewage sludge residue after extracting lipids was also a good feedstock for recovering energy via thermo-chemical processes. The impact of CO(2) co-feed on the pyrolysis/gasification process of SS residue was also investigated in this work. The CO(2) injected into the thermo-chemical process remarkably increased the generation of CO by a factor of 2. Moreover, the introduction of CO(2) into the pyrolysis/gasification process enabled reducing condensable hydrocarbons (tar) by expediting cracking; thus, utilizing CO(2) as chemical feedstock for the gasification process not only leads to higher thermal efficiency but also has environmental benefits. PMID:23017593

  18. Estrogens from sewage in coastal marine environments.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Shannon; Atkinson, Marlin J; Tarrant, Ann M

    2003-04-01

    Estrogens are ancient molecules that act as hormones in vertebrates and are biologically active in diverse animal phyla. Sewage contains natural and synthetic estrogens that are detectable in streams, rivers, and lakes. There are no studies reporting the distribution of steroidal estrogens in marine environments. We measured estrogens in sewage, injection-well water, and coastal tropical and offshore tropical water in the Pacific Ocean, western Atlantic Ocean, and Caribbean Sea. Concentrations of unconjugated estrone ranged from undetectable (< 40 pg/L) in the open ocean to nearly 2,000 pg/L in Key West, Florida, and Rehoboth Bay, Delaware (USA); estrone concentrations were highest near sources of sewage. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steroid conjugates in seawater samples indicated that polar conjugates comprise one-half to two-thirds of "total estrone" (unconjugated plus conjugated) in Hawaiian coastal samples. Adsorption to basalt gravel and carbonate sand was less than 20% per week and indicates that estrogens can easily leach into the marine environment from septic fields and high-estrogen groundwater. Of 20 sites (n = 129 samples), the mean values from 12 sites were above the threshold concentration for uptake into coral, indicating that there is a net uptake of anthropogenic steroidal estrogen into these environments, with unknown impacts. PMID:12676611

  19. Recovery potential of German sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Oliver; Adam, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Incineration of sewage sludge is expected to increase in the future due to growing concerns about the direct use of sludge in agriculture. Sewage sludge is the pollutant sink of wastewater treatment and thus loaded with contaminants that might pose environmental hazards. Incineration degrades organic pollutants efficiently, but since the ash is currently mostly disposed of, all valuable component like phosphorus (P) and technologically relevant metals present in the sewage sludge ash (SSA) are removed from the economic cycle entirely. We conducted a complete survey of SSA from German mono-incineration facilities and determined the theoretical recovery potential of 57 elements. German SSA contains up to 19,000 t/a P which equals approximately 13% of phosphorus applied in the German agriculture in form of phosphate rock based mineral fertilizers. Thus, SSA is an important secondary resource of P. However, its P-solubility in ammonium citrate solution, an indicator for the bioavailability, is only about 26%. Treatment of SSA is recommended to enhance P bioavailability and remove heavy metals before it is applied as fertilizer. The recovery potential for technologically relevant metals is generally low, but some of these elements might be recovered efficiently in the course of P recovery exploiting synergies.

  20. Survival of Salmonella enterica in aerated and nonaerated wastewaters from dairy lagoons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella is the most commonly identified foodborne pathogen in produce, meat and poultry. Cattle are known reservoirs of Salmonella and the pathogen excreted in feces end up in manure flush lagoons. Salmonella enterica survival was monitored in wastewater from on-site holding lagoons equipped with...

  1. Decline of phosphorus, copper, and zinc in anaerobic lagoon columns receiving pretreated influent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Confined swine production generates large volumes of wastewater typically stored and treated in anaerobic lagoons. These lagoons usually require a sludge management plan for their maintenance consisting of regular sludge removal by mechanical agitation and pumping followed by land application at agr...

  2. Removal of Estrogenic Compounds in Dairy Waste Lagoons by Ferrate (VI): Oxidation/Coagulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ferrate(VI) was used to break down and/or remove steroidal estrogens (SE) from dairy waste lagoon effluent (DWLE). Dairy lagoon sites were sampled for estrogenic content (EC) and assayed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Effects of varying...

  3. Induction of Purple Sulfur Bacterial Growth in Dairy Wastewater Lagoons by Circulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: To determine if circulation of diary wastewater induces the growth of phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria (PSB). Methods and Results: Two dairy wastewater lagoons that were similar in size, geographic location, number and type of cattle loading the lagoons were chosen. The only obvious diffe...

  4. Sludge reduction and water quality improvement in anaerobic lagoons through influent pre-treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Confined swine production generates large volumes of wastewater typically stored and treated in anaerobic lagoons. These lagoons may require cleanup and closure measures in the future. In practice, liquid and sludge need to be removed by pumping, usually at great expense of energy, and land applied ...

  5. Plant growth and elemental uptake by floating vegetation on a single stage swine wastewater lagoon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods are needed for utilizing nutrients contained within animal wastewater lagoons. One potential method for removing nutrients is to have vegetation growing on the lagoon. A study was conducted from 2005-2008 to determine the feasibility of growing vegetation on floating platforms on a single ...

  6. Developing a model for the mercury cycle in the Marano-Grado Lagoon (Italy)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Marano-Grado Lagoon is a wetland system of about 160 km2 located in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Italy) between the Tagliamento and the Isonzo River mouths. The lagoon morphology and biogeochemistry are primarily controlled by the exchange with the Adriatic Sea and, to a lesser...

  7. Using floating vegetation to remove nutrients from an anaerobic swine wastewater lagoon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods are needed for utilizing nutrients contained within animal wastewater lagoons. One potential method for removing nutrients is to have vegetation growing in the lagoon. A study was conducted from 2005-2007 to determine the feasibility of growing vegetation on floating platforms on a single ...

  8. Improving estimates of N and P loads in irrigation water from swine manure lagoons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The implementation of nutrient management plans (NMPs) for confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) requires recording N and P loads from land-applied manure, including nutrients applied in irrigation water from manure treatment lagoons. By regulation, lagoon irrigation water nutrient records in ...

  9. The Defense Committees of Sleepy Lagoon: A Convergent Struggle against Fascism, 1942-1944

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barajas, Frank P.

    2006-01-01

    The Sleepy Lagoon Defense Committee originated as an ad hoc committee and evolved to a broad-based movement for legal justice on behalf of seventeen youth convicted of murder and assault charges in connection with the Sleepy Lagoon case in Los Angeles in January 1943. This essay chronicles the multidimensional organizing to shift public opinion in…

  10. 75 FR 53960 - Chignik Lagoon Power Utility; Notice of Declaration of Intention and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Chignik Lagoon Power Utility; Notice of Declaration of Intention and... Lagoon Power Utility. e. Name of Project: Packers Creek Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The proposed Packers Creek Hydroelectric Project will be located on Packers Creek, near the community of Chignik...

  11. Influence of nutrient input on the trophic state of a tropical brackish water lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, D.; Patra, Sivaji; Muduli, Pradipta R.; Vardhan, K. Vishnu; R, Abhilash K.; Robin, R. S.; Subramanian, B. R.

    2015-07-01

    Ecosystem level changes in water quality and biotic communities in coastal lagoons have been associated with intensification of anthropogenic pressures. In light of incipient changes in Asia's largest brackish water lagoon (Chilika, India), an examination of different dissolved nutrients distribution and phytoplankton biomass, was conducted through seasonal water quality monitoring in the year 2011. The lagoon showed both spatial and temporal variation in nutrient concentration, mostly altered by freshwater input, regulated the chlorophyll distribution as well. Dissolved inorganic N:P ratio in the lagoon showed nitrogen limitation in May and December, 2011. Chlorophyll in the lagoon varied between 3.38 and 17.66 mg m -3. Spatially, northern part of the lagoon showed higher values of DIN and chlorophyll during most part of the year, except in May, when highest DIN was recorded in the southern part. Statistical analysis revealed that dissolved NH-N and urea could combinedly explain 43% of Chlorophyll- a (Chl- a) variability which was relatively higher than that explained by NO-N and NO-N (12.4%) in lagoon water. Trophic state index calculated for different sectors of the lagoon confirmed the inter-sectoral and inter-seasonal shift from mesotrophic to eutrophic conditions largely depending on nutrient rich freshwater input.

  12. Increased bioavailability of mercury in the lagoons of Lomb, Togo: the possible role of dredging.

    PubMed

    Gnandi, Kissao; Han, Seunghee; Rezaie-Boroon, M Hassan; Porrachia, Magali; Deheyn, Dimitri D

    2011-02-01

    Surface sediments of the lagoons of Lomé, Togo, were analyzed for mercury, methylmercury, and trace elements. Concentrations were greater than typical for natural lagoon sediments, and with greater variability within the Eastern lagoon compared to the Western one. The Eastern lagoon is larger and has been dredged in the past, while the Western lagoon, which also receives major waste inputs, has not been dredged and shows less tidal flushing. Accordingly, one naturally believes that the Eastern lagoon is cleaner and probably safe to use due to its natural resources, including fishes to eat. Unexpectedly, we describe here that mercury methylation was greater in the Eastern lagoon, indicating increased bioavailability of mercury, as probably facilitated by past dredging that decreased solid-phase retention of inorganic mercury. Urbanization has historically been more developed in the southern part of the lagoons, which is still reflected in contamination levels of sediment despite dredging, probably because sources of contamination are still more important there today. Such urban contamination emphasizes the need to regulate waste discharges and possible airborne contamination in growing cities of developing countries, and implements environmental and public health monitoring, especially in relation to misbelieves systematically associated with the cleansing effect of dredging activity.

  13. Microbial community analysis of swine wastewater anaerobic lagoons by next-generation DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ducey, Thomas F; Hunt, Patrick G

    2013-06-01

    Anaerobic lagoons are a standard practice for the treatment of swine wastewater. This practice relies heavily on microbiological processes to reduce concentrated organic material and nutrients. Despite this reliance on microbiological processes, research has only recently begun to identify and enumerate the myriad and complex interactions that occur in this microbial ecosystem. To further this line of study, we utilized a next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology to gain a deeper insight into the microbial communities along the water column of four anaerobic swine wastewater lagoons. Analysis of roughly one million 16S rDNA sequences revealed a predominance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) classified as belonging to the phyla Firmicutes (54.1%) and Proteobacteria (15.8%). At the family level, 33 bacterial families were found in all 12 lagoon sites and accounted for between 30% and 50% of each lagoon's OTUs. Analysis by nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) revealed that TKN, COD, ORP, TSS, and DO were the major environmental variables in affecting microbial community structure. Overall, 839 individual genera were classified, with 223 found in all four lagoons. An additional 321 genera were identified in sole lagoons. The top 25 genera accounted for approximately 20% of the OTUs identified in the study, and the low abundances of most of the genera suggests that most OTUs are present at low levels. Overall, these results demonstrate that anaerobic lagoons have distinct microbial communities which are strongly controlled by the environmental conditions present in each individual lagoon.

  14. Improving N and P estimates for swine manure lagoon irrigation water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient management plans (NMPs) for confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) require a record of N and P loads from manure land-applications, including irrigation with lagoon water. Mississippi regulations require nutrient records for lagoon irrigation water be based on at least one annual analy...

  15. Changes in sludge accumulation of anaerobic swine lagoons receiving pretreated influent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the changes in sludge depth and volume of anaerobic swine lagoon in North Carolina after six years of applying treatment to the liquid flushed manure prior to entering the lagoon. The farm had seven swine barns with a permitted capacity of 5,145 head feeder to finish (735 head/b...

  16. Project summary. PERSISTENCE OF PATHOGENS IN LAGOON-STORED SLUDGE (EPA/600/S2-89/015)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project objective was to investigate pathogen inactlvation in lagoon-stored municipal sludges. The in-field lagoons were located in Louisiana (New Orleans) and in Texas (Port Aransas), both semitropical areas of the United States. Each lagoon was filled with 7.56 mL of ...

  17. Evidence of North Africa’s Green Revolution Preserved in Sedimentary Organic Matter Deposited in Three Coastal Lagoons.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of longer residence times and limited mixing in coastal lagoons, the impacts of anthropogenic nutrient loading to lagoon food webs are often more pronounced than in other coastal ecosystems. For these reasons, many lagoons also provide an excellent environment for the dep...

  18. Water Hyacinths and Alligator Weeds for Final Filtration of Sewage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.; Gordon, J.

    1976-01-01

    The potential of water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxerides) (Mart.) Griesb. as secondary and tertiary filtration systems for domestic sewage was demonstrated. These two vascular aquatic plants reduced the suspended solids, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, BOD sub 5, and total organic carbon levels in domestic sewage from 60 percent to 98 percent within a two week period. These plants grown in domestic sewage were also free of toxic levels of trace heavy metals.

  19. Seagrass-sediment feedbacks in shallow coastal lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, J. A.; D'Odorico, P.; McGlathery, K.; Wiberg, P.

    2009-12-01

    Shallow coastal lagoons are environments where a delicate equilibrium exists between water quality and sea grass cover. Seagrass cover limits the resuspension of bed sediments thereby favoring a clearer water column. These conditions allow for the penetration of adequate levels of light, which in turn, is fundamental for the survival of seagrass. It is still unclear what role this positive feedback may play in the dynamics and restoration of seagrass communities. Positive feedbacks are often associated with the existence of bistable dynamics in ecosystems. In this specific case a bare and a fully vegetated sediment bed could be both stable states of the system. This study develops a one dimensional hydrodynamic model of vegetation-sediment-water flow interactions to investigate the strengths of positive feedbacks between sea grass cover, stabilization of bed sediments, turbidity of the water column, and the existence of a favorable light environment for seagrasses. The model is applied to Hog Island Bay, a shallow coastal lagoon on the eastern shore of Virginia. The effects of temperature, eutrophication, and bed grain size on bistability of seagrass ecosystems in the lagoon are explored. The results indicate that under typical conditions, seagrass is stable in water depths < 2.2 m (51% of the bay bottom deep enough for seagrass growth) and bistable conditions exist for depths of 2.2 - 3.6 m (23% of bay) where the preferred state depends in initial seagrass cover. The remaining 26% of the bay is too deep to sustain seagrass. Decreases in sediment size and increases in water temperature and degree of eutrophication shift the bistable range to shallower depths, with more of the bay bottom unable to sustain seagrass.

  20. Sedimentary lipid biogeochemistry of an hypereutrophic alkaline lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimalt, J. O.; Yruela, I.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.; Toja, J.; de Leeuw, J. W.; Albaigés, J.

    1991-09-01

    A detailed study of the lipid composition of sedimentary and water particulate samples of a dilute alkaline lake (Santa Olalla Lagoon, Guadalquivir Delta, southwestern Spain) has allowed the identification and quantitation of about 300 compounds reflecting predominant inputs of organic matter and very early diagenetic processes. These lipids, dominated by fatty acids (80-86%), account for up to 0.25% wt. of dry sediment which is consistent with the high eutrophic conditions of the lagoon and suggests a good preservation of the originally produced organic matter. However, the primary lipid compounds, mainly from cyanobacterial origin, are strongly modified. The C30-C32, 1,13- and 1,15-diols constitute the only major group that can be attributed directly to these organisms. The predominant lipids, including the fatty acids, are indicative of intense microbial reworking, namely contributions from gram-positive and gram-negative eubacteria and methanogens. Conversely, the higher plant lipids are better preserved and dominate the aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction. Hydrogenation and dehydration are two major transformation processes in the sedimentary system being reflected in the transformation of sterols into 5α(H)- and 5β(H)-stanols and sterenes, and 17β(H),21β(H)-hopan-22-ol into diploptene. Oxidation in the water column seems to involve the partial transformation of sterols into steroid ketones, phytol into 5,9,13-trimethyltetradecanoic acid and two isomeric 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-17-hexadecanolides, and, possibly, tetrahymanol into gammacer-3-one. Adiantone and bishomohopanoic acid probably result from the partial oxydation of extended polyhydroxyhopanes or the C30-C33 hydroxyhopanes found in the lagoon waters.

  1. Sedimentary lipid biogeochemistry of an hypereutrophic alkaline lagoon

    SciTech Connect

    Grimalt, J.O.; Albaiges, J. ); Yruela, I.; Saizjimenez, C. ); Toja, J. ); Leeuw, J.W. De. )

    1991-09-01

    A detailed study of the lipid composition of sedimentary and water particulate samples of a dilute alkaline lake (Santa Olalla Lagoon, Guadalquivir Delta, southwestern Spain) has allowed the identification and quantitation of about 300 compounds reflecting predominant inputs of organic matter and very early diagenetic processes. These lipids, dominated by fatty acids (80-86%), account for up to 0.25% wt. of dry sediment which is consistent with the high eutrophic conditions of the lagoon and suggests a good preservation of the originally produced organic matter. However, the primary lipid compounds, mainly from cyanobacterial origin, are strongly modified. The C{sub 30}-C{sub 32}, 1,13- and 1,15-diols constitute the only major group that can be attributed directly to these organisms. The predominant lipids, including the fatty acids, are indicative of intense microbial reworking, namely contributions from gram-positive and gram-negative eubacteria and methanogens. Conversely, the higher plant lipids are better preserved and dominate the aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction. Hydrogenation and dehydration are two major transformation processes in the sedimentary system being reflected in the transformation of sterols into 5{alpha}(H)- and 5{beta}(H)-stanols and sterenes, and 17{beta}(H), 21{beta}(H)-hopan-22-ol into diploptene. Oxidation in the water column seems to involve the partial transformation of sterols into steroid ketones, phytol into 5,9,13-trimethyltetradecanoic acid and two isomeric 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-17-hexadecanolides, and, possibly, tetrahymanol into gammacer-3-one. Adiantone and bishomohopanoic acid probably result from the partial oxydation of extended polyhydroxyhopanes or the C{sub 30}-C{sub 33} hydroxyhopanes found in the lagoon waters.

  2. Rhodoliths and coralliths of Muri Lagoon, Rarotonga, Cook Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scoffin, Terence P.; Stoddart, David R.; Tudhope, Alexander W.; Woodroffe, Colin

    1985-09-01

    Free-living massive and branching spheroidal growths (about 5 cm diameter) of calcareous red algae (rhodoliths) and corals (coralliths) occur in abundance on the sea bed of shallow Muri Lagoon on Rarotonga's reef flat. The rhodoliths are composed of one or more species of Neogoniolithon, Lithophyllum, Tenarea, and Porolithon; the coralliths are Pavona varians (Verrill) and Porites lutea (Milne-Edwards and Haime). Muri Lagoon is the only area on Rarotonga's reef flat that is sheltered by reef islands from ocean waves. The tidal currents, which are predominantly unidirectional in Muri Lagoon, are concentrated by the reef islands into channels through which sand and gravel sediment is regularly transported. However, these prevailing currents do not normally roll the rhodoliths and coralliths. The results of field experiments on the pick-up velocity of the various types of spheroidal structure, combined with observations on growth histories of massive coralliths as revealed by the non-concentric nature of skeletal density banding, indicate that the rhodoliths and coralliths may remain static for periods up to several months yet maintain a complete envelope of living tissue. This downward survival may depend on the strong currents. Not only is the water flushing through the upper millimetre or so of the sediment substrate, but it is also capable of moving the sand and gravel grains which laterally support the rhodoliths and coralliths so that no one point of a spheroidal structure is in direct contact with the substrate for a fatal length of time. Massive rhodoliths have a high preservation potential as discrete spheroidal structures; in contrast, branching rhodoliths and coralliths are prone to fragmentation, and massive coralliths grow into stable microatolls. We conclude that a similar assemblage of rhodoliths, coralliths and microatolls in the fossil record may be indicative of the former existence of contemporary reef flat islands.

  3. Winter-summer nutrient composition linkage to algae-produced toxins in shellfish at a eutrophic coastal lagoon (Óbidos lagoon, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Patrícia; Botelho, Maria João; Cabrita, Maria Teresa; Vale, Carlos; Moita, Maria Teresa; Gonçalves, Célia

    2012-10-01

    The current work examines the linkage of pronounced winter-summer fluctuations on the nutrient composition with phytoplankton assemblages and mussel toxicity produced by the presence of toxic dinoflagellates. The work was performed at the Óbidos lagoon, a coastal eutrophic ecosystem that is permanently connected to an area characterized by frequent upwelling episodes. The lagoon and adjoining coastal area exhibit recurrent incidents of diarrhetic and paralytic shellfish poisoning. The conclusions are based on: (1) inorganic and organic nutrients at five sites of the lower, middle and upper Óbidos lagoon, and inorganic nutrients at two sites of the adjacent coastal area; biannual campaigns were performed in winter and summer between 2006 and 2010; (2) phytoplankton assemblages at three sites of the lagoon (located at lower and upper areas) in winter and summer of 2009; (3) algae-derived toxicity of wild mussels from the lower lagoon and coastal area, on a 1-2 week time scale, over 2006 and 2009. Nutrient molar ratios in Óbidos lagoon contrast between winter and summer. The lower median ratios DIN:P (31 and 0.8) and Si:P (11 and 3.3) in summer reflect the excess of phosphate. Excess was mainly attributed to phosphorus regeneration in sediments of the upper lagoon with accentuated symptoms of eutrophication. Dissolved organic nitrogen and dissolved organic phosphorus were also higher in summer, particularly in this area. No significant winter-summer differences were recorded for nutrient ratios in the adjacent coastal area. Phytoplankton assemblages pointed to a winter-summer contrast characterized by a shift of non-siliceous-based phytoplankton to diatoms. The toxic dinoflagellate species (Gymnodinium catenatum, Dinophysis cf. acuminata and Dinophysis acuta), presumably imported from the adjacent coast following upwelling episodes in summer, were observed in the lower lagoon. In summer of the two surveyed years, toxins produced by dinoflagellates occurred in

  4. A summary of preliminary studies of sedimentation and hydrology in Bolinas Lagoon, Marin County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ritter, John R.

    1970-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is investigating sedimentary and hydrologic conditions in Bolinas Lagoon, a 1,100-acre lagoon 15 miles northwest of San Francisco. The program began in May 1967 and will continue into 1970. Only the study results analyzed before June 1968 are summarized in the report. Two series of measurements of suspended-sediment load and water discharge in the lagoon inlet showed that much of the suspended sediment is sand and that the average velocity was as much as 4.7 feet per second. Littoral drift near the inlet was generally toward the inlet, whereas farther from the inlet the pattern is irregular. Circulation velocities in the lagoon decrease rapidly away from the inlet, but probably remain high enough to erode bottom sediment along the channels. In most of the lagoon median size of bottom sediment was fine sand. Sediment was derived chiefly from Monterey Shale.

  5. Survival of Salmonella enterica in Aerated and Nonaerated Wastewaters from Dairy Lagoons

    PubMed Central

    Ravva, Subbarao V.; Sarreal, Chester Z.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella is the most commonly identified foodborne pathogen in produce, meat and poultry. Cattle are known reservoirs of Salmonella and the pathogen excreted in feces ends up in manure flush lagoons. Salmonella enterica survival was monitored in wastewater from on-site holding lagoons equipped or not with circulating aerators at two dairies. All strains had poor survival rates and none proliferated in waters from aerated or settling lagoons. Populations of all three Salmonella serovars declined rapidly with decimal reduction times (D) of <2 days in aerated microcosms prepared from lagoon equipped with circulators. Populations of Salmonella decreased significantly in aerated microcosms (D = 4.2 d) compared to nonaerated waters (D = 7.4 d) and in summer (D = 3.4 d) compared to winter (D = 9.0 d). We propose holding the wastewater for sufficient decimal reduction cycles in lagoons to yield pathogen-free nutrient-rich water for crop irrigations and fertilization. PMID:25358096

  6. Survival of Salmonella enterica in aerated and nonaerated wastewaters from dairy lagoons.

    PubMed

    Ravva, Subbarao V; Sarreal, Chester Z

    2014-11-01

    Salmonella is the most commonly identified foodborne pathogen in produce, meat and poultry. Cattle are known reservoirs of Salmonella and the pathogen excreted in feces ends up in manure flush lagoons. Salmonella enterica survival was monitored in wastewater from on-site holding lagoons equipped or not with circulating aerators at two dairies. All strains had poor survival rates and none proliferated in waters from aerated or settling lagoons. Populations of all three Salmonella serovars declined rapidly with decimal reduction times (D) of <2 days in aerated microcosms prepared from lagoon equipped with circulators. Populations of Salmonella decreased significantly in aerated microcosms (D = 4.2 d) compared to nonaerated waters (D = 7.4 d) and in summer (D = 3.4 d) compared to winter (D = 9.0 d). We propose holding the wastewater for sufficient decimal reduction cycles in lagoons to yield pathogen-free nutrient-rich water for crop irrigations and fertilization. PMID:25358096

  7. Survival of Salmonella enterica in aerated and nonaerated wastewaters from dairy lagoons.

    PubMed

    Ravva, Subbarao V; Sarreal, Chester Z

    2014-10-29

    Salmonella is the most commonly identified foodborne pathogen in produce, meat and poultry. Cattle are known reservoirs of Salmonella and the pathogen excreted in feces ends up in manure flush lagoons. Salmonella enterica survival was monitored in wastewater from on-site holding lagoons equipped or not with circulating aerators at two dairies. All strains had poor survival rates and none proliferated in waters from aerated or settling lagoons. Populations of all three Salmonella serovars declined rapidly with decimal reduction times (D) of <2 days in aerated microcosms prepared from lagoon equipped with circulators. Populations of Salmonella decreased significantly in aerated microcosms (D = 4.2 d) compared to nonaerated waters (D = 7.4 d) and in summer (D = 3.4 d) compared to winter (D = 9.0 d). We propose holding the wastewater for sufficient decimal reduction cycles in lagoons to yield pathogen-free nutrient-rich water for crop irrigations and fertilization.

  8. The role of benthic macrophytes and their associated macroinvertebrate community in coastal lagoon resistance to eutrophication.

    PubMed

    Lloret, Javier; Marín, Arnaldo

    2009-12-01

    Eutrophication is widely recognised as one of the major menaces to coastal environments, particularly enclosed bays and lagoons. Although there is a general understanding of the consequences of eutrophication in these systems, there is a lack of sufficient knowledge concerning biotic feedbacks that influence eutrophication patterns and the resistance capacity of coastal environments. In this paper, the isotope ratios of main producers and consumers of a Mediterranean lagoon were examined in order to elucidate the fate of anthropogenic inputs from the main watercourse flowing into the lagoon. The results of the study of stable isotope data in the Mar Menor lagoon reflected that the whole benthic community plays an important role as a natural 'filter' that removes excess nutrients from the water column and stores them in the sediments, thereby enhancing lagoon resistance to eutrophication.

  9. Algal fossils from a late precambrian, hypersaline lagoon.

    PubMed

    Oehler, D Z; Oehler, J H; Stewart, A J

    1979-07-27

    Organically preserved algal microfossils from the Ringwood evaporite deposit in the Gillen Member of the Bitter Springs Formation (late Precambrian of central Australia) are of small size, low diversity, and probable prokaryotic affinities. These rather primitive characteristics appear to reflect the stressful conditions that prevailed in a periodically stagnant, hypersaline lagoon. This assemblage (especially in comparison with the much more diverse assemblages preserved in the Loves Creek Member of the same formation) illustrates the potential utility of Proterozoic microbiotas for basin analysis and local stratigraphic correlation and demonstrates the need to base evolutionary considerations and Precambrian intercontinental biostratigraphy on biotas that inhabited less restricted environments.

  10. Sewage pollution: mitigation is key for coral reef stewardship.

    PubMed

    Wear, Stephanie L; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2015-10-01

    Coral reefs are in decline worldwide, and land-derived sources of pollution, including sewage, are a major force driving that deterioration. This review presents evidence that sewage discharge occurs in waters surrounding at least 104 of 112 reef geographies. Studies often refer to sewage as a single stressor. However, we show that it is more accurately characterized as a multiple stressor. Many of the individual agents found within sewage, specifically freshwater, inorganic nutrients, pathogens, endocrine disrupters, suspended solids, sediments, and heavy metals, can severely impair coral growth and/or reproduction. These components of sewage may interact with each other to create as-yet poorly understood synergisms (e.g., nutrients facilitate pathogen growth), and escalate impacts of other, non-sewage-based stressors. Surprisingly few published studies have examined impacts of sewage in the field, but those that have suggest negative effects on coral reefs. Because sewage discharge proximal to sensitive coral reefs is widespread across the tropics, it is imperative for coral reef-focused institutions to increase investment in threat-abatement strategies for mitigating sewage pollution. PMID:25959987

  11. Sewage pollution: mitigation is key for coral reef stewardship.

    PubMed

    Wear, Stephanie L; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2015-10-01

    Coral reefs are in decline worldwide, and land-derived sources of pollution, including sewage, are a major force driving that deterioration. This review presents evidence that sewage discharge occurs in waters surrounding at least 104 of 112 reef geographies. Studies often refer to sewage as a single stressor. However, we show that it is more accurately characterized as a multiple stressor. Many of the individual agents found within sewage, specifically freshwater, inorganic nutrients, pathogens, endocrine disrupters, suspended solids, sediments, and heavy metals, can severely impair coral growth and/or reproduction. These components of sewage may interact with each other to create as-yet poorly understood synergisms (e.g., nutrients facilitate pathogen growth), and escalate impacts of other, non-sewage-based stressors. Surprisingly few published studies have examined impacts of sewage in the field, but those that have suggest negative effects on coral reefs. Because sewage discharge proximal to sensitive coral reefs is widespread across the tropics, it is imperative for coral reef-focused institutions to increase investment in threat-abatement strategies for mitigating sewage pollution.

  12. The economics of the disposal of sewage and trade effluents*

    PubMed Central

    Townend, C. B.

    1959-01-01

    In this review of the economics of the disposal of sewage and trade wastes, the author touches on all aspects of the subject, from the annual costs of sewerage and sewage-disposal services in England and Wales, and what he terms the “uneconomics” of pollution of natural waters, to the financing of capital expenditure on the construction of new sewage works and equipment and on alterations to existing works. He discusses the purposes and relative costs of the various processes in the treatment of domestic sewage and outlines the special problems involved in the disposal of trade wastes. PMID:13839093

  13. Characteristics of sewage sludge and distribution of heavy metal in plants with amendment of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jia-yin; Chen, Ling; Zhao, Jian-fu; Ma, Na

    2006-01-01

    In order to better understand land application of sewage sludge, the characterization of heavy metals and organic pollutants were investigated in three different sewage sludges in Shanghai City, China. It was found that the total concentrations of Cd in all of sewage sludge and total concentrations of Zn in Jinshan sewage sludge, as well as those of Zn, Cu, and Ni in Taopu sludge are higher than Chinese regulation limit of pollutants for sludge to be used in agriculture. Leachability of Hg in all of studied samples and that of Cd in Taopu sewage sludge exceed the limit values of waste solid extraction standard in China legislation. Based on the characteristics for three kinds of sewage sludge, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of soil amended with Quyang sewage sludge on the accumulation of heavy metal by Begonia semperflorens-hybr; Ophiopogon japonicus (L.F.) Ker-Gaw; Loropetalum chindense-var. rubrum; Dendranthema morifolium; Viola tricolor; A ntirrhinum majus; Buxus radicans Sieb; Viburnum macrocephalum; Osmanthus fragrans Lour; Cinnamomum camphora siebold and Ligustrum lucidum ait. Results showed that 8 species of plant survived in the amended soil, and moreover they flourished as well as those cultivated in the control soil. The heavy metal concentration in plants varied with species, As, Pb, Cd and Cr concentration being the highest in the four herbaceous species studied, particularly in the roots of D. morifolium. These plants, however, did not show accumulator of As, Pb, Cd and Cr. The highest concentration of Ni and Hg was found in the roots of D. morifolium, followed by the leaves of B. semperflorens-hybr. Levels of Zn and Cu were much higher in D. morifolium than in the other plant species. D. morifolium accumulated Ni, Hg, Cu and Zn, which may contribute to the decrease of heavy metal contents in the amended soil. Treatment with sewage sludge did not significantly affect the uptake of heavy metals by the L. chindense-var. rubrum

  14. Characteristics of sewage sludge and distribution of heavy metal in plants with amendment of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jia-yin; Chen, Ling; Zhao, Jian-fu; Ma, Na

    2006-01-01

    In order to better understand land application of sewage sludge, the characterization of heavy metals and organic pollutants were investigated in three different sewage sludges in Shanghai City, China. It was found that the total concentrations of Cd in all of sewage sludge and total concentrations of Zn in Jinshan sewage sludge, as well as those of Zn, Cu, and Ni in Taopu sludge are higher than Chinese regulation limit of pollutants for sludge to be used in agriculture. Leachability of Hg in all of studied samples and that of Cd in Taopu sewage sludge exceed the limit values of waste solid extraction standard in China legislation. Based on the characteristics for three kinds of sewage sludge, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of soil amended with Quyang sewage sludge on the accumulation of heavy metal by Begonia semperflorens-hybr; Ophiopogon japonicus (L.F.) Ker-Gaw; Loropetalum chindense-var. rubrum; Dendranthema morifolium; Viola tricolor; A ntirrhinum majus; Buxus radicans Sieb; Viburnum macrocephalum; Osmanthus fragrans Lour; Cinnamomum camphora siebold and Ligustrum lucidum ait. Results showed that 8 species of plant survived in the amended soil, and moreover they flourished as well as those cultivated in the control soil. The heavy metal concentration in plants varied with species, As, Pb, Cd and Cr concentration being the highest in the four herbaceous species studied, particularly in the roots of D. morifolium. These plants, however, did not show accumulator of As, Pb, Cd and Cr. The highest concentration of Ni and Hg was found in the roots of D. morifolium, followed by the leaves of B. semperflorens-hybr. Levels of Zn and Cu were much higher in D. morifolium than in the other plant species. D. morifolium accumulated Ni, Hg, Cu and Zn, which may contribute to the decrease of heavy metal contents in the amended soil. Treatment with sewage sludge did not significantly affect the uptake of heavy metals by the L. chindense-var. rubrum

  15. Vibrio trends in the ecology of the Venice lagoon.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Shamsur; Martino, Maria Elena; Cardazzo, Barbara; Facco, Pierantonio; Bordin, Paola; Mioni, Renzo; Novelli, Enrico; Fasolato, Luca

    2014-04-01

    Vibrio is a very diverse genus that is responsible for different human and animal diseases. The accurate identification of Vibrio at the species level is important to assess the risks related to public health and diseases caused by aquatic organisms. The ecology of Vibrio spp., together with their genetic background, represents an important key for species discrimination and evolution. Thus, analyses of population structure and ecology association are necessary for reliable characterization of bacteria and to investigate whether bacterial species are going through adaptation processes. In this study, a population of Vibrionaceae was isolated from shellfish of the Venice lagoon and analyzed in depth to study its structure and distribution in the environment. A multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) was developed on the basis of four housekeeping genes. Both molecular and biochemical approaches were used for species characterization, and the results were compared to assess the consistency of the two methods. In addition, strain ecology and the association between genetic information and environment were investigated through statistical models. The phylogenetic and population analyses achieved good species clustering, while biochemical identification was demonstrated to be imprecise. In addition, this study provided a fine-scale overview of the distribution of Vibrio spp. in the Venice lagoon, and the results highlighted a preferential association of the species toward specific ecological variables. These findings support the use of MLSA for taxonomic studies and demonstrate the need to consider environmental information to obtain broader and more accurate bacterial characterization. PMID:24487545

  16. Temporal changes of a macrobenthic assemblage in harsh lagoon sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Como, Serena; Magni, Paolo

    2009-08-01

    An opportunistic macrobenthic assemblage was studied from 2001 to 2003 in a central area of the Cabras lagoon (western Sardinia, Italy), known to be affected by environmental disturbances (i.e. organic over-enrichment of sediments, and episodic events of hypoxia/anoxia and sulphide development). We identified recurrent seasonal changes in this macrobenthic assemblage, with a general impoverishment in summer and a recovery in winter/spring. The nereids Neanthes succinea and Hediste diversicolor were found to replace the spionid Polydora ciliata as the most dominant species in the summer for 3 consecutive years. Occasional, unsynchronized appearances of small-sized deposit feeders, such as Tubificidae, Capitella cf. capitata, chironomid larvae and Hydrobia spp., were observed in winter/spring. We suggest that these changes are driven by the interplay of environmental conditions (worse in summer) with numerous biotic factors. This includes different tolerance levels of taxa to low oxygen concentrations and sulphides, variability in larval supply and post-larval transport, as well as competition for space and food between and within different functional groups, and facilitation through animal bioturbation and sediment reoxidation. A conceptual model is proposed to demonstrate how environmental conditions and biotic interactions may control the benthic assemblage in such a harsh lagoon environment.

  17. Estuarine and lagoon biodiversity and their natural goods and services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basset, A.; Elliott, M.; West, R. J.; Wilson, J. G.

    2013-11-01

    Assessing and monitoring ecosystem quality status and service provision of aquatic ecosystems is an increasingly important area of scientific, socio-economical and political interest. Contributions from two related meetings organized by the Estuarine & Coastal Sciences Association (ECSA) and the Euro-Mediterranean Lagoon Federation (EUROMEDLAG) address this area of interest in estuaries and lagoons, dominant types of transitional waters, by an integration of holistic and reductionistic approaches. In this context, we synthesise the key points raised by the contributions given at the two meetings to emphasise that transitional waters have emergent properties, which support their classification as an aquatic realm different from both freshwater and marine ones. They provide crucial ecosystem services, such as food provision and support for nutrient cycling, whose value and underlying mechanisms have been addressed with particular reference to estuarine ecosystems. The experimental studies show the mechanistic relationships and the responses of ecosystem functions and biodiversity to contrasting/changing environmental conditions with human activities as key drivers affecting both biodiversity conservation and ecosystem service provision.

  18. Radioactivity in municipal sewage and sludge.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, J E; Fenner, F D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the environmental consequences of discharges of radioactivity from a large medical research facility into municipal sewage, specifically 131I activity in sewage sludge, and the radiation exposures to workers and the public when sludges are incinerated. METHODS: The authors measured radioactivity levels in the sludge at the Ann Arbor, Michigan, Waste Water Treatment Plant following radioiodine treatments of two patients at the University of Michigan hospital complex and performed a series of calculations to estimate potential radiation doses due to releases of 131I from incineration of sewage sludge. RESULTS: Approximately 1.1% of the radioactive 131I administered therapeutically to patients was measured in the primary sludge. Radiation doses from incineration of sludge were calculated to be 0.048 millirem (mrem) for a worker during a period in which the incinerator filtration system failed, a condition that could be considered to represent maximum exposure conditions, for two nine-hour days. Calculated results for a more typically exposed worker (with the filtration system in operation and a 22-week period of incineration) yielded a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.066 mrem. If a worker were exposed to both conditions during the period of incineration, the dose was calculated to be 0.11 mrem. For a member of the public, the committed effective dose equivalent was calculated as 0.003 mrem for a 22-week incineration period. Exposures to both workers and the public were a very small fraction of a typical annual dose (about 100 mrem excluding radon, or 300 mrem with radon) due to natural background radiation. Transport time to the treatment plant for radioiodine was found to be much longer than that of a normal sewage, possibly due to absorption of iodine by organic material in the sewer lines. The residence time of radioiodine in the sewer also appears to be longer than expected. CONCLUSION: 131I in land-applied sludge presents few

  19. A Bayesian network model for assessing natural estrogen fate and transport in a swine waste lagoon.

    PubMed

    Lee, Boknam; Kullman, Seth W; Yost, Erin; Meyer, Michael T; Worley-Davis, Lynn; Williams, C Michael; Reckhow, Kenneth H

    2014-10-01

    Commercial swine waste lagoons are regarded as a major reservoir of natural estrogens, which have the potential to produce adverse physiological effects on exposed aquatic organisms and wildlife. However, there remains limited understanding of the complex mechanisms of physical, chemical, and biological processes that govern the fate and transport of natural estrogens within an anaerobic swine lagoon. To improve lagoon management and ultimately help control the offsite transport of these compounds from swine operations, a probabilistic Bayesian network model was developed to assess natural estrogen fate and budget and then compared against data collected from a commercial swine field site. In general, the model was able to describe the estrogen fate and budget in both the slurry and sludge stores within the swine lagoon. Sensitivity analysis within the model demonstrated that the estrogen input loading from the associated barn facility was the most important factor in controlling estrogen concentrations within the lagoon slurry storage, whereas the settling rate was the most significant factor in the lagoon sludge storage. The degradation reactions were shown to be minor in both stores based on prediction of average total estrogen concentrations. Management scenario evaluations demonstrated that the best possible management options to reduce estrogen levels in the lagoon are either to adjust the estrogen input loading from swine barn facilities or to effectively enhance estrogen bonding with suspended solids through the use of organic polymers or inorganic coagulants. PMID:24798317

  20. Mercury in lagoons: An overview of the importance of the link between geochemistry and biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faganeli, Jadran; Hines, Mark E.; Covelli, Stefano; Emili, Andrea; Giani, Michele

    2012-11-01

    Shallow-water lagoons, which are common features along coastlines, are important sites for elemental cycling in this environmentally-sensitive terrestrial-marine interface. Factors governing mercury (Hg) cycling in these lagoons are poorly characterized, but critical to understanding the links between sources and higher trophic levels, that are ultimately vectors of human exposure in lagoon environments. This article discusses the processes controlling the fate of Hg from various sources, including methylation of Hg, demethylation of methylmercury, and benthic fluxes of Hg species in three of the most thoroughly studied lagoons worldwide, namely Thau (France), Venice (Italy) and Marano and Grado (Italy). Although each lagoon system experiences differences in sources of Hg and details of how Hg is transformed and transported, Hg in each system is strongly affected by biogeochemical transformations of other elements, especially redox sensitive, microbially important elements such as sulphur, iron and manganese, and their interaction with organic matter. The shallow nature of lagoons and the rapid rates of microbially mediated organic matter decomposition result in seasonally dynamic processes that influence Hg bioavailability. Despite considerable work to date, the current understanding of Hg dynamics in lagoon ecosystems, through Hg distribution, MeHg production and degradation, and trophic transfer, is still limited and more research is needed to link all subparts into a general coherent picture.

  1. Metal concentrations in digestive gland and mantle of Sepia officinalis from two coastal lagoons of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Patrícia; Raimundo, Joana; Vale, Carlos; Kadar, Eniko

    2009-01-15

    Concentrations of both essential (Fe, Cu, Zn) and non essential (Cd, Hg and Pb) metals were measured in the digestive gland and mantle of female cephalopods Sepia officinalis captured in two distinct lagoons in Portugal: Aveiro Lagoon, with a history of anthropogenic and industrial pollution, and Formosa Lagoon receiving urban effluents. We provide evidence for the following: (1) the digestive gland is the main target organ for both essential and non essential metals, frequently containing concentrations few orders of magnitude higher as compared to mantle; the sole exception from this was the Hg that is equally distributed in the two tissues; (2) unexpectedly, the higher levels of metals were found in animals captured in the less polluted lagoon, except for Cd whose bioavailability in Aveiro lagoon might be related to industrial sources, while the influence of Cd speciation in local pray composition should not be ruled out (3) size influenced metal concentration in different way: smaller individuals accumulated significantly more Cu, while Hg concentrations showed the opposite trend; (4) Cd is positively correlated to Zn and Cu in digestive gland of specimens collected in spring in Aveiro Lagoon, and no relationship was found in Formosa Lagoon; (5) the molar ratios Cd:Zn and Cd:Cu in digestive gland increased with body weight in specimens from Aveiro area, both ratios becoming particularly higher in older individuals. Metal-specific accumulation patterns in both mantle and digestive gland at the two sites are discussed in the light of their toxicological implications. PMID:19010515

  2. A study on the impact of climate change on conservation of lagoon environment in coastland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Tsai, C.

    2008-12-01

    Global climate change results in an increase in extreme hydrological events and sea level rises, which in turn causes the inundation in the coastal lowland. According to research results, the wave and velocity are decreased in the lagoon of coastland. The lagoon can not only prevent erosion by wave but also protect the coast. However, because the occurrence of the extreme precipitation events becomes more frequent and more rainfall is induced, the soil erosion becomes severer in the watershed. Accordingly, the sediments increase in the lagoon and its area decreases. The sediments that are carried to the lagoon from upstream result in an increase in the speed of sediment deposition. Thus, the sediment deposition gives an impact on conservation of lagoon environment in coastland and safety of the prevention of flooding. The purpose of this study is to develop the estuary landform transition model and the physiographic soil erosion-deposition model, by which we can analyze the phenomena of hydraulics and soil depositions during the period of storm and storm surge in the lagoon. The models are applied to improve the analysis not only for inundation of drainage system but also that for the impact of exceptional hydrological events due to climate change on the lagoon area.

  3. The role of connectivity and hydrodynamic conditions in the configuration of ichthyoplankton assemblages in coastal lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Quispe, Jhoni I.; Umgiesser, Georg; Ghezzo, Michol; De Pascalis, Francesca; Marcos, Concepción

    2014-05-01

    Fish assemblages in coastal lagoons are constituted by species with different gilds and life stories including estuarine residents but also a high percentage of marine stragglers and marine migrants. Previous studies showed that different ichthyoplancton assemblages can be identified inside a lagoon, depending on hydrological conditions, but at the same time a high spatial and temporal variability haven observed. The proposed models to explain lagoon assemblages configuration based on probabilities of colonization from the open sea involves an important stochastic component and introduces some randomness that could lead to that high spatial and temporal variability at short and long-term scales. In this work we analyze the relationship between ichthyoplankton assemblages in the Mar Menor lagoon and the adjacent open sea in the framework of the hydrodynamics of the lagoon and connectivity between sampling stations using hydrodynamic models. The results, show a complex interaction between the different factors that lead to a highly variable system with high accumulated richness and diversity of species, and a large proportion of occasional visitors and stragglers suggesting that the mechanisms of competitive lottery can play an important role in the maintenance of communities of coastal lagoons , where environmental variability occurs in a system with strong differences in colonization rates and connectivity, not only with the open sea, but also between locations within the lagoon.

  4. Modeling interaction of fluid and salt in an aquifer/lagoon system.

    PubMed

    Fujinawa, Katsuyuki; Iba, Takahiro; Fujihara, Yohichi; Watanabe, Tsugihiro

    2009-01-01

    To simulate the dynamic interaction between a saline lagoon and a ground water system, a numerical model for two-dimensional, variable-density, saturated-unsaturated, and coupled flow and solute transport (saltwater intrusion by finite elements and characteristics [SIFEC]) was modified to allow the volume of water and mass of salt in the lagoon to vary with each time step. The modified SIFEC allows the stage of a lagoon to vary in accordance with a functional relation between the stage and water volume of the lagoon, and also allows the salt concentration of the lagoon to vary in accordance with the salt budget of the lagoon including chemical precipitation and dissolution of salt. The updated stage and salt concentration of the lagoon are in turn used as transient boundary conditions for the coupled flow and solute transport model. The utility of the modified model was demonstrated by applying it to the eastern Mediterranean coastal region of Turkey for assessing impacts of climate change on the subsurface environment under scenarios of sea level rise, increased evaporation, and decreased precipitation.

  5. A Bayesian network model for assessing natural estrogen fate and transport in a swine waste lagoon.

    PubMed

    Lee, Boknam; Kullman, Seth W; Yost, Erin; Meyer, Michael T; Worley-Davis, Lynn; Williams, C Michael; Reckhow, Kenneth H

    2014-10-01

    Commercial swine waste lagoons are regarded as a major reservoir of natural estrogens, which have the potential to produce adverse physiological effects on exposed aquatic organisms and wildlife. However, there remains limited understanding of the complex mechanisms of physical, chemical, and biological processes that govern the fate and transport of natural estrogens within an anaerobic swine lagoon. To improve lagoon management and ultimately help control the offsite transport of these compounds from swine operations, a probabilistic Bayesian network model was developed to assess natural estrogen fate and budget and then compared against data collected from a commercial swine field site. In general, the model was able to describe the estrogen fate and budget in both the slurry and sludge stores within the swine lagoon. Sensitivity analysis within the model demonstrated that the estrogen input loading from the associated barn facility was the most important factor in controlling estrogen concentrations within the lagoon slurry storage, whereas the settling rate was the most significant factor in the lagoon sludge storage. The degradation reactions were shown to be minor in both stores based on prediction of average total estrogen concentrations. Management scenario evaluations demonstrated that the best possible management options to reduce estrogen levels in the lagoon are either to adjust the estrogen input loading from swine barn facilities or to effectively enhance estrogen bonding with suspended solids through the use of organic polymers or inorganic coagulants.

  6. [Environmental impacts of sewage treatment system based on emergy analysis].

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Li, Yuan-Wei; Zhang, Hong; Zhao, Min; Deng, Shi-Huai

    2013-02-01

    "Integrated sewage treatment system" (ISTS) consists of sewage treatment plant system and their products (treated water and dewatered sludge) disposal facilities, which gives a holistic view of the whole sewage treatment process. During its construction and operation, ISTS has two main impacts on the environment, i.e., the consumption of resources and the damage of discharged pollutants on the environment, while the latter was usually ignored by the previous researchers when they assessed the impacts of wastewater treatment system. In order to more comprehensively understanding the impacts of sewage treatment on the environment, an analysis was made on the ISTS based on the theories of emergy analysis, and, in combining with ecological footprint theory, the sustainability of the ISTS was also analyzed. The results showed that the emergy of the impacts of water pollutants on the environment was far larger than that of the impacts of air pollutants, and NH3-N was the main responsible cause. The emergy consumption of ISTS mainly came from the emergy of wastewater and of local renewable resources. The "sewage treatment plant system + landfill system" had the highest emergy utilization efficiency, while the "sewage treatment plant system + reclaimed water reuse system + incineration system" had the lowest one. From the aspect of environmental sustainability, the "sewage treatment plant system + reclaimed water reuse system + landfill system" was the best ISTS, while the "sewage treatment plant system + incineration system" was the worst one.

  7. [Assessing environmental and economical benefits of integrated sewage treatment systems].

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-rong; Zhang, Xiao-hong; Zhang, Hang-bin; Pan, Heng-yu; Liu, Qiang

    2015-08-01

    Sewage treatment, treated water treatment and sludge treatment are three basic units of an integrated sewage treatment system. This work assessed the influence of reusing or discharge of treated water and sludge landfill or compost on the sustainability of an integrated sewage treatment system using emergy analysis and newly proposed emergy indicators. This system's value included its environmental benefits and the products. Environmental benefits were the differences of the environmental service values before and after sewage treatment. Due to unavailability of data of the exchanged substance and energy in the internal system, products' values were attained by newly proposed substitution values. The results showed that the combination of sewage treatment, treated water reuse and sludge landfill had the strongest competitiveness, while the combination of sewage treatment, treated water reuse and earthworm compost was the most sustainable. Moreover, treated water reuse and earthworm compost were helpful for improving the sustainability of the integrated sewage treatment system. The quality of treated water and local conditions should be also considered when implementing the treated water reuse or discharge. The resources efficiency of earthworm compost unit needed to be further improved. Improved emergy indices were more suitable for integrated sewage treatment systems. PMID:26685613

  8. Credit PSR. Northeast and southwest facades of Sewage Pumping Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit PSR. Northeast and southwest facades of Sewage Pumping Station (Building 4330). Building retains its World War II construction materials and character. In the background at the extreme left is Building 4305 (Unicon Portable Hangar) - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Sewage Pumping Station, Southwest of E Street, Boron, Kern County, CA

  9. Microwave-induced pyrolysis of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, J A; Inguanzo, M; Pis, J J

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes a new method for pyrolyzing sewage sludge using a microwave furnace. It was found that if just the raw wet sludge is treated in the microwave, only drying of the sample takes place. However, if the sludge is mixed with a small amount of a suitable microwave absorber (such as the char produced in the pyrolysis itself) temperatures of up to 900 degrees C can be achieved, so that pyrolysis takes place rather than drying. Microwave treatments were also compared with those carried out in a conventional electric furnace, as well as the characteristics of their respective carbonaceous solid residues.

  10. Phenology of cryptomonads and the CRY1 lineage in a coastal brackish lagoon (Vistula Lagoon, Baltic Sea).

    PubMed

    Piwosz, Kasia; Kownacka, Janina; Ameryk, Anetta; Zalewski, Mariusz; Pernthaler, Jakob

    2016-08-01

    Cryptomonadales have acquired their plastids by secondary endosymbiosis. A novel clade-CRY1-has been discovered at the base of the Cryptomonadales tree, but it remains unknown whether it contains plastids. Cryptomonadales are also an important component of phytoplankton assemblages. However, they cannot be readily identified in fixed samples, and knowledge on dynamics and distribution of specific taxa is scarce. We investigated the phenology of the CRY1 lineage, three cryptomonadales clades and a species Proteomonas sulcata in a brackish lagoon of the Baltic Sea (salinity 0.3-3.9) using fluorescence in situ hybridization. A newly design probe revealed that specimens of the CRY1 lineage were aplastidic. This adds evidence against the chromalveolate hypothesis, and suggests that the evolution of cryptomonadales' plastids might have been shorter than is currently assumed. The CRY1 lineage was the most abundant cryptomonad clade in the lagoon. All of the studied cryptomonads peaked in spring at the most freshwater station, except for P. sulcata that peaked in summer and autumn. Salinity and concentration of dissolved inorganic nitrogen most significantly affected their distribution and dynamics. Our findings contribute to the ecology and evolution of cryptomonads, and may advance understanding of evolutionary relationships within the eukaryotic tree of life. PMID:27136192

  11. Comparative bioaccumulation of trace metals using six filter feeder organisms in a coastal lagoon ecosystem (of the central-east Gulf of California).

    PubMed

    Jara-Marini, M E; Tapia-Alcaraz, J N; Dumer-Gutiérrez, J A; García-Rico, L; García-Hernández, J; Páez-Osuna, F

    2013-02-01

    The Tobari Lagoon, located in the central-east coast of the Gulf of California, receives effluents from the Yaqui Valley, one of the most extensive agricultural areas of México. The Tobari Lagoon also receives effluents from nearby shrimp farms and untreated municipal sewage. Surface sediment samples and six different species of filter feeders (Crassostrea corteziensis, Crassostrea gigas, Chione gnidia, Anadara tuberculosa, Chione fluctifraga, and Fistulobalanus dentivarians) were collected during the dry and the rainy seasons and analyzed to determine concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). Seasonal variations in metal concentrations in sediment were evident, especially for Cd, Cu, Hg, and Zn. The total and bioavailable concentrations of the five metals are not elevated in comparison to other areas around the world. The percentages of bioavailable respect to total concentrations of the metals varied from 0.6 % in Hg to 50.2 % for Cu. In the organisms, Hg showed the lowest concentrations (ranged from 0.22 to 0.65 μg/g) while Zn showed the highest (ranged from 36.6 to 1,702 μg/g). Linear correlations between the levels of Cu, Pb, and Zn in the soft tissues of C. fluctifraga and C. gnidia, and A. tuberculosa and C. gnidia were found. Seasonal and interspecies variations in the metal levels in filter feeders were found; F. dentivarians, C. corteziensis, and C. gigas exhibited the highest levels, could be used as biomonitors of metals contamination in this area. PMID:22527455

  12. Comparative bioaccumulation of trace metals using six filter feeder organisms in a coastal lagoon ecosystem (of the central-east Gulf of California).

    PubMed

    Jara-Marini, M E; Tapia-Alcaraz, J N; Dumer-Gutiérrez, J A; García-Rico, L; García-Hernández, J; Páez-Osuna, F

    2013-02-01

    The Tobari Lagoon, located in the central-east coast of the Gulf of California, receives effluents from the Yaqui Valley, one of the most extensive agricultural areas of México. The Tobari Lagoon also receives effluents from nearby shrimp farms and untreated municipal sewage. Surface sediment samples and six different species of filter feeders (Crassostrea corteziensis, Crassostrea gigas, Chione gnidia, Anadara tuberculosa, Chione fluctifraga, and Fistulobalanus dentivarians) were collected during the dry and the rainy seasons and analyzed to determine concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). Seasonal variations in metal concentrations in sediment were evident, especially for Cd, Cu, Hg, and Zn. The total and bioavailable concentrations of the five metals are not elevated in comparison to other areas around the world. The percentages of bioavailable respect to total concentrations of the metals varied from 0.6 % in Hg to 50.2 % for Cu. In the organisms, Hg showed the lowest concentrations (ranged from 0.22 to 0.65 μg/g) while Zn showed the highest (ranged from 36.6 to 1,702 μg/g). Linear correlations between the levels of Cu, Pb, and Zn in the soft tissues of C. fluctifraga and C. gnidia, and A. tuberculosa and C. gnidia were found. Seasonal and interspecies variations in the metal levels in filter feeders were found; F. dentivarians, C. corteziensis, and C. gigas exhibited the highest levels, could be used as biomonitors of metals contamination in this area.

  13. Toxic metals in Venics lagoon sediments: Model, observation, an possible removal

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, A.; Molinaroli, E.

    1994-11-01

    We have modeled the distribution of nine toxic metals in the surface sediments from 163 stations in the Venice lagoon using published data. Three entrances from the Adriatic Sea control the circulation in the lagoon and divide it into three basins. We assume, for purposes of modeling, that Porto Marghera at the head of the Industrial Zone area is the single source of toxic metals in the Venice lagoon. In a standing body of lagoon water, concentration of pollutants at distance x from the source (C{sub 0}) may be given by C=C{sub 0}e{sup -kx} where k is the rate constant of dispersal. We calculated k empirically using concentrations at the source, and those farthest from it, that is the end points of the lagoon. Average k values (ppm/km) in the lagoon are: Zn 0.165, Cd 0.116, Hg 0.110, Cu 0.105, Co 0.072, Pb 0.058, Ni 0.008, Cr (0.011) and Fe (0.018 percent/km), and they have complex distributions. Given the k values, concentration at source (C{sub 0}), and the distance x of any point in the lagoon from the source, we have calculated the model concentrations of the nine metals at each sampling station. Tides, currents, floor morphology, additional sources, and continued dumping perturb model distributions causing anomalies (observed minus model concentrations). Positive anomalies are found near the source, where continued dumping perturbs initial boundary conditions, and in areas of sluggish circulation. Negative anomalies are found in areas with strong currents that may flush sediments out of the lagoon. We have thus identified areas in the lagoon where higher rate of sediment removal and exchange may lesson pollution. 41 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Genesis, distribution, and dynamics of lagoon marl extrusions along the Curonian Spit, southeast Baltic Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, Alexander; Zhamoida, Vladimir; Ryabchuk, Daria; Buynevich, Ilya; Sivkov, Vadim; Dorokhov, Dmitry; Bitinas, Albertas; Pupienis, Donatas

    2016-04-01

    The unique geological process of extrusion of lagoon marl from beneath the massive migrating sand dunes is characteristic for large segments of the Curonian Spit - a ~100-km-long sandy barrier that separates the Curonian Lagoon from the Baltic Sea. The exposures of a composite set of Holocene organic sediments such as gyttja, clayey gyttja, and gyttja clay, commonly referred to as "lagoon marl", are common along the northern half of the lagoon coast of the spit. These outcrops of lagoon marl rise up to 3-4 m above the lagoon level and were formed by extrusion from their 7-8 m in situ depth beneath the present regional water table. New detailed investigations of the Baltic Sea bottom along the southern half of the Curonian Spit using side-scan sonar, multibeam echosounder, seismic imaging, sediment sampling, and video observations allowed identification and mapping of a unique underwater landscape formed by extensive outcrops of laminated and folded lagoon marl at water depths of 5-15 m. The combined onshore-offshore database indicates that the relict lagoon marl was deformed, compacted, and dehydrated by a massive dune-covered coastal barrier migrating landward (retrograding) over these sediments during the Litorina Sea transgression in a processes termed "dune tectonics". Spatial analysis of structures of the relict sediments traced in offshore geophysical data help constrain the rates of the southeastly migration of the dune massif. A conceptual dynamic model is presented to explain the present occurrence of marl exposures above the regional water table, as well as the occurrence of relict lagoon marl extrusions (diapirs) on the underwater marine slope of the Curonian Spit. This research was funded by a RFBR project 13-05-90711 and RSF project 14-37-00047 «Geoenvironmental conditions of marine management of natural recourses of the Russian sector of South-Eastern Baltic».

  15. Composition and abundance of zooplankton community of an impacted estuarine lagoon in Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, L R; Costa, I S; Eskinazi-Sant'anna, E M

    2012-02-01

    Guaraíras Lagoon is a shallow coastal lagoon subject to intense human impacts, including shrimp aquaculture, urban expansion and agricultural activities, and is therefore vulnerable to eutrophication. With the aim of detecting the effects of human-mediated disturbance and environmental change in the lagoon, a spatial-temporal study was conducted in order to assess the actual ecological status of the lagoon and the species composition and density of the mesozooplankton, highlighting copepod assemblages. Algal biomass (chlorophyll-a) and total phosphorus concentration indicated that the lagoon is a meso-eutrophic coastal system in the inner part, and is oligotrophic in the areas influenced by the marine waters. High salinities were recorded in the lagoon, characterizing the lagoon as a coastal-marine ecosystem, rather than true estuarine. Mesozooplankton abundance fluctuated widely and showed marked spatial heterogeneity. The copepod assemblage was characterized by a coastal/estuarine group dominated by Oithona spp., Acartia lilljeborgi and Parvocalanus crassirostris in the inner areas of the lagoon, and a marine group characterized by the copepods Paracalanus quasimodo, Calanopia americana, Corycaeus (C.) speciosus and Monstrilloida in the area of marine influence. Thus, the spatial variability in the distribution of mesozooplankton species can be ascribed to the presence of a horizontal gradient of salinity and trophic conditions. Overall, the results showed that spatial variation in the water physicochemical characteristics of Guarairas Lagoon have significant effects on the structure and repartition of the mesozooplankton assemblages, which may potentially affect the functioning and biodiversity of this coastal ecosystem. PMID:22437380

  16. Rural sewage treatment processing in Yongjia County, Zhejiang Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. H.; Kuan, T. H.

    2016-08-01

    Issues regarding water pollution in rural areas of China have garnered increased attention over the years. Further discussion on the circumstances and results of existing domestic sewage treatment methods may serve as an appropriate reference in solving these important issues. This article explored the current conditions of water contamination in rural areas of China, introduced the characteristics and effects of applicable sewage treatment technology, and summarized the results of the planning, installation, and operation of rural sewage treatment facilities in Yongjia County in Zhejiang Province. However, relying on a single technical design rule is not adequate for solving the practical problems that these villages face. Instead, methods of planning rural sewage treatment should be adapted to better suit local conditions and different residential forms. It is crucial, ultimately, for any domestic sewage treatment system in a rural area to be commissioned, engineered, and maintained by a market-oriented professional company.

  17. Occupational hepatitis B virus infection in sewage workers.

    PubMed

    Arvanitidou, M; Constantinidis, T C; Doutsos, J; Mandraveli, K; Katsouyannopoulos, V

    1998-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study the employees of a Sewage Company were tested for hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers--HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc--to determine the prevalence of HBV infection and assess the risk of exposed sewage workers becoming infected, so as to evaluate the necessity for appropriate vaccination. The overall prevalence of HBV markers was 43.9% and 6.6% of the employees were HBsAg carriers. In the univariate analysis the prevalence of past and current infection was significantly associated with exposure to sewage (p < 0.001), age (p < 0.001) and with educational level (p < 0.001). However, the logistic regression analysis confirmed that only exposure to sewage was independently associated with positivity for HBV infection (p < 0.001). Workers exposed to sewage should therefore be considered for vaccination against hepatitis B virus.

  18. Vitrification as an alternative to landfilling of tannery sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Celary, Piotr; Sobik-Szołtysek, Jolanta

    2014-12-01

    Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with flotation sewage sludge, and 45% v/v and 5% v/v, respectively, for precipitation sewage sludge. These combinations allowed for obtaining products with negligible heavy metal leaching levels and hardness similar to commercial glass, which suggests they could be potentially used as construction aggregate substitutes. Incineration of sewage sludge before the vitrification process lead to

  19. Ship traffic and shoreline erosion in the Lagoon of Venice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpa, Gian Marco; Zaggia, Luca; Lorenzetti, Giuliano; Manfè, Giorgia; Parnell, Kevin; Molinaroli, Emanuela; Rapaglia, John; Gionta, Sofia

    2016-04-01

    A study based on the analysis of a historical sequence of aerial photographs and satellite images combined with in situ measurements revealed an unprecedented shoreline regression on the side of a major waterway in the Venice Lagoon, Italy. The study considered long and short-term recession rates caused by ship-induced depression wakes in an area which was reclaimed at the end of the '60 for the expansion of the nearby Porto Marghera Industrial Zone and never used since then. The GIS analysis performed with the available imagery shows an average retreat of about 4 m yr-1 in the period between 1965 and 2015. Field measurements carried out between April 2014 and January 2015 also revealed that the shoreline's regression still proceed with a speed comparable to the long-term average regardless of the distance from the navigation channel and is not constant through time. Periods of high water levels determined by astronomical tide or storm surges, more common in the winter season, are characterized by faster regression rates. The retreat proceeds by collapse of slabs of the reclaimed muddy soil after erosion and removal of the underlying original salt marsh sediments and is a discontinuous process in time and space depending on morphology, intrinsic propertiesand vegetation cover of the artificial deposits. Digitalization of historical maps and new bathymetric surveys made in April 2015 allowed for the reconstruction of two digital terrain models for both past and present situations. The two models have been used to calculate the total volume of sediment lost during the period between 1970 and 2015. The results of this study shows as ship-channel interactions can dominate the morphodynamics of a waterway and its margins and permitted to better understand how this part of the Venice Lagoon reacted to the pressure of human activities in the post-industrial period. Evaluation of the temporal and spatial variation of shoreline position is also crucial to predict future

  20. Quality requirements for irrigation with sewage water

    SciTech Connect

    Bouwer, H.; Idelovitch, E. )

    1987-11-01

    Irrigation is an excellent use for sewage effluent because it is mostly water with nutrients. For small flows, the effluent can be used on special, well-supervised sewage farms, where forage, fiber, or seed crops are grown that can be irrigated with standard primary or secondary effluent. Large-scale use of the effluent requires special treatment so that it meets the public health, agronomic, and aesthetic requirements for unrestricted use. Crops in the unrestricted-use category include those that are consumed raw or brought raw into the kitchen. Most state or government standards deal only with public health aspects, and prescribe the treatment processes or the quality parameters that the effluent must meet before it can be used to irrigate a certain category of crops. However, agronomic aspects related to crops and soils must also be taken into account. Quality parameters to be considered include bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens; total salt content and sodium adsorption ratio of the water; nitrogen; phosphorus; chloride and chlorine; bicarbonate; heavy metals, boron, and other trace elements; pH; and synthetic organics. 23 refs., 9 tabs.

  1. Microwave oxidation treatment of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kwang V; Srinivasan, Asha; Liao, Ping H; Bailey, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Microwave-oxidation treatment of sewage sludge using various oxidants was studied. Two treatment schemes with a combination of hydrogen peroxide and ozone were examined: hydrogen peroxide and ozone were introduced into the sludge simultaneously, followed by microwave heating. The other involved the ozonation first, and then the resulting solution was subjected to microwave and hydrogen peroxide treatment. The set with ozonation followed by hydrogen peroxide plus microwave heating yielded higher soluble materials than those of the set with hydrogen peroxide plus ozone first and then microwave treatment. No settling was observed for all treatments in the batch operation, except ozone/microwave plus hydrogen peroxide set at 120°C. The pilot-scale continuous-flow 915 MHz microwave study has demonstrated that microwave-oxidation process is feasible for real-time industrial application. It would help in providing key data for the design of a full-scale system for treating sewage sludge and the formulation of operational protocols.

  2. [The occurrence of Yersinia enterocolitica in sewage].

    PubMed

    Ziegert, E; Diesterweg, I

    1990-01-01

    Using a modified cold enrichment procedure Yersinia spp. were detected in 90.6% out of 32 raw waste water samples obtained within one year from two municipal sewage treatment plants. Moreover Yersinia were isolated from 50% of 6 effluent samples. Altogether 118 Yersinia strains were isolated and typed biochemically and serologically. 69 out of these isolates belonged to Yersinia enterocolitica, 60 strains to biotype 1, and 9 to biotype 4, serotype 0:3, 8 strains Yersinia enterocolitica serotype 0:3, biotype 4, considered to be a causative agent in human enteritis, harboured an 48 MD plasmid. The remaining isolates were identified as Yersinia frederiksenii (24 strains), Yersinia intermedia (22 strains) and Yersinia kristensenii (3 strains). The frequency of the isolation of Y. enterocolitica serotype 0:3, biotype 4 from sewage showed the same seasonal dependence as known from strains of human origin. In contrast to this, such dependence could not be found among other serovars of Y. enterocolitica and related species.

  3. Complete survey of German sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Oliver; Grabner, Angela; Adam, Christian

    2014-10-21

    The amount of sewage sludge produced worldwide is expected to further increase due to rising efforts in wastewater treatment. There is a growing concern against its direct use as fertilizer due to contamination of the sludge with heavy metals and organic pollutants. Incinerating the sludge degrades organic compounds almost completely and concentrates heavy metals and phosphorus. However, the sewage sludge ash (SSA) is almost completely disposed of and with it all resources are removed from the economic cycle. Comprehensive knowledge of the composition of SSA is crucial to assess the resource recovery potentials. We conducted a survey of all SSA emerging in Germany and determined the respective mass fractions of 57 elements over a period of one year. The median content of phosphorus was 7.9%, indicating an important recovery potential. Important trace elements were Zn (2.5 g/kg), Mn (1.3 g/kg), and Cu (0.9 g/kg). Mass fractions of technology metals such as V, Cr, Ga, Nb, and rare earths were comparatively low. Considering the possible use of SSA as secondary raw material for fertilizer production it should be noted that its Cd and U content (2.7 mg/kg and 4.9 mg/kg respectively) is significantly lower than that of rock phosphate based mineral fertilizers.

  4. Cogeneration plant serves Prague sewage works

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The new cogeneration plant at the sewage works in Prague, Czech Republic, was commissioned in June of this year. The plant is based on three gas engine modules from Deutz MWM-Gastechnik, which supply power and heat from the sewage gas. Also installed was a central plant control system (CPCS) for automation of the power plant, including long-term data storage for operation optimization. The gas engines are equipped with an individual total electronic management system (TEM) that optimizes engine operation and heat transfer. The TEM system also serves for safety monitoring of the relevant modules. Data communication between the TEM system and the CPCS is realized via a serial interface. The CPCS can thus test the availability of the individual heat generators and, depending on the condition of an individual module, switch over to another. With due consideration to environmental protection, Deutz MWM-Gastechnik guarantees NO{sub x} emissions of less than 500 mg/Nm{sup 3} (at 5% O{sub 2}) and CO emissions of less than 650 mg/Nm{sup 3}. The plant operator has also encapsulated the three gas engine modules in soundproofing enclosures in order to reduce noise emissions from 105 down to 78 dB(A).

  5. X-616 Chromium Sludge Lagoons pictorial overview, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant uses large quantities of water for process cooling. The X-616 Liquid Effluent Control Facility was placed in operation in December 1976 to treat recirculation cooling water blowdown from the process cooling system. A chromium-based corrosion inhibitor was used in the cooling water system. A chromium sludge was produced in a clarifier to control chromium levels in the water. Chromium sludge produced by this process was stored in two surface impoundments called the X-616 Chromium Sludge Lagoons. The sludge was toxic due to its chromium concentration and therefore required treatment. The sludge was treated, turning it into a sanitary waste, and buried in an Ohio EPA approved landfill. The plant's process cooling water system has changed to a more environmentally acceptable phosphate-based inhibitor. Closure activities at X-616 began in August 1990, with all construction activities completed in June 1991, at a total cost of $8.0 million.

  6. 33 CFR 159.315 - Sewage and graywater discharge record book.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Whether the effluent is treated or untreated sewage, graywater, or a sewage and graywater mixture and type... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sewage and graywater discharge... by Cruise Vessel Operations § 159.315 Sewage and graywater discharge record book. (a) While...

  7. 33 CFR 159.315 - Sewage and graywater discharge record book.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Whether the effluent is treated or untreated sewage, graywater, or a sewage and graywater mixture and type... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sewage and graywater discharge... by Cruise Vessel Operations § 159.315 Sewage and graywater discharge record book. (a) While...

  8. 33 CFR 159.315 - Sewage and graywater discharge record book.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Whether the effluent is treated or untreated sewage, graywater, or a sewage and graywater mixture and type... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sewage and graywater discharge... by Cruise Vessel Operations § 159.315 Sewage and graywater discharge record book. (a) While...

  9. 33 CFR 159.315 - Sewage and graywater discharge record book.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Whether the effluent is treated or untreated sewage, graywater, or a sewage and graywater mixture and type... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sewage and graywater discharge... by Cruise Vessel Operations § 159.315 Sewage and graywater discharge record book. (a) While...

  10. 33 CFR 159.315 - Sewage and graywater discharge record book.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Whether the effluent is treated or untreated sewage, graywater, or a sewage and graywater mixture and type... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sewage and graywater discharge... by Cruise Vessel Operations § 159.315 Sewage and graywater discharge record book. (a) While...

  11. Cytochrome P450, acetylcholinesterase and gonadal histology for evaluating contaminant exposure levels in fishes from a highly eutrophic brackish ecosystem: the Orbetello Lagoon, Italy.

    PubMed

    Corsi, I; Mariottini, M; Sensini, C; Lancini, L; Focardi, S

    2003-02-01

    Biochemical markers and ovarian histology were investigated in prespawning females of grass goby (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus) and grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) collected, respectively, in late spring and summer 2000 in four sites of a highly eutrophic brackish ecosystem of central Italy, the Orbetello Lagoon. Exposure to chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons was evaluated in fish livers by the somatic liver index (SLI) and by measuring 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and benzo(a)pyrene monooxygenase (BaPMO) activities. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was measured in brain and gills to evaluate exposure to organophosphates (OPs) and carbamates (CBs). The gonad somatic index (GSI) was used to confirm ovarian maturation and ovarian histology was investigated as a potential biomarker for environmental effects. Samples from the Western Basin, near a sewage treatment plant (STP) off the town of Orbetello, showed higher SLI values and higher EROD and BaPMO activities than those collected from the Ansedonia Canal (AC) in the Eastern Basin (p<0.05) and respect to those from reference sites: the Albegna River (AR) Delta for grass goby and the Nassa Canal (NC), connected with the sea, for grey mullet both located in the Western Basin as well. Low brain AChE activity was observed in both species from the reference sites (AR and NC) in association with the presence of anomalies in developing oocytes: unexpectedly small in grass goby and irregular disintegrated cytoplasm in grey mullet. The results indicate that the Western Basin is more polluted than the Eastern Basin particularly in the Orbetello where the sewage treatment plant may be a source of aromatic and chlorinated compounds while the Albegna River and the Nassa Canal may be sources of OPs and CBs. PMID:12586116

  12. ANALYSIS OF LAGOON SAMPLES FROM DIFFERENT CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS FOR ESTROGENS AND ESTROGEN CONJUGATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations CAFOs) have been identified as potentially important sources for the release of estrogens into the environment, information is lacking on the concentrations of estrogens in whole lagoon effluents (including suspended solids)which ar...

  13. Problems and Alternatives of Settlement Lagoons for Mine Water Treatment System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Kil

    2015-04-01

    A field test and computational flow analysis were conducted to identify the structural problems with existing settlement lagoons and to propose effective alternatives. When it comes to existing settlement lagoons without any specifically designed internal structure, mine water flows along a specific route while other regions remained stagnant. Such a flow pattern along a specific region causes a significant reduction in retention time as well as the ineffective use of the space in a settlement lagoon. When applying the modified settlement lagoon design proposed in this study, the flow distribution of mine drainage became uniform and the time taken for mine drainage to reach the outlet was improved by as much as 360 times and the exchange efficiency was significantly enhanced from 14.5% to 82.7%.

  14. Taxonomic diversity and structure of the molluscan fauna in Oualidia lagoon (Moroccan Atlantic coast).

    PubMed

    El Asri, F; Zidane, H; Maanan, M; Tamsouri, M; Errhif, A

    2015-08-01

    The spatial distribution of the molluscan fauna of Oualidia lagoon (Moroccan Atlantic coast) was studied during winter 2013. Samples were collected from 43 stations over the whole of the lagoon. Twenty-eight taxa (19 species of gastropods, 7 species of bivalves, 1 species of polyplacophora, and 1 species of cephalopod) were listed, 21 of which are newly reported for Oualidia lagoon. Four taxa, Hydrobia sp. (78.29%), followed by Abra alba (13.99 ), Nassarius pfeifferi (5.07%), and Cerastoderma edule (1.32%), were accounted for 98% of the total abundance. A classification analysis used to characterize the lagoon on the basis of molluscs showed the existence of three main clusters from downstream to upstream: a Nassarius pfeifferi community, a Hydrobia sp.-Abra alba community and a Hydrobia sp.-Cerastoderma edule community. PMID:26231976

  15. Taxonomic diversity and structure of the molluscan fauna in Oualidia lagoon (Moroccan Atlantic coast).

    PubMed

    El Asri, F; Zidane, H; Maanan, M; Tamsouri, M; Errhif, A

    2015-08-01

    The spatial distribution of the molluscan fauna of Oualidia lagoon (Moroccan Atlantic coast) was studied during winter 2013. Samples were collected from 43 stations over the whole of the lagoon. Twenty-eight taxa (19 species of gastropods, 7 species of bivalves, 1 species of polyplacophora, and 1 species of cephalopod) were listed, 21 of which are newly reported for Oualidia lagoon. Four taxa, Hydrobia sp. (78.29%), followed by Abra alba (13.99 ), Nassarius pfeifferi (5.07%), and Cerastoderma edule (1.32%), were accounted for 98% of the total abundance. A classification analysis used to characterize the lagoon on the basis of molluscs showed the existence of three main clusters from downstream to upstream: a Nassarius pfeifferi community, a Hydrobia sp.-Abra alba community and a Hydrobia sp.-Cerastoderma edule community.

  16. The contribution of benthic macrofauna to the nutrient filter in coastal lagoons.

    PubMed

    Lloret, Javier; Marín, Arnaldo

    2011-12-01

    Human activities in coastal areas have increased the occurrence of eutrophication events, especially in vulnerable ecosystems such as coastal lagoons. Although we have a general knowledge of the consequences of eutrophication in these ecosystems, some efforts need to be made to understand biotic feedbacks that could modify the response of the environment to nutrient enrichment. The plant-mediated 'coastal filter' is one of the main factors that determine lagoonal efficiency in processing excess nutrients. In this context, the present paper examined the relative contribution of benthic macrofauna to the 'coastal filter' of a Mediterranean lagoon. The analysis of macrofaunal assemblages in the Mar Menor lagoon led to a clear differentiation between shallow areas of net nutrient recycling and exportation and deeper areas of net retention. These differences enhance nutrient removal from the water column, thus increasing the ecosystem's resistance to eutrophication.

  17. Identification of Comamonas testosteroni as an androgen degrader in sewage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Lung; Wang, Chia-Hsiang; Yang, Fu-Chun; Ismail, Wael; Wang, Po-Hsiang; Shih, Chao-Jen; Wu, Yu-Ching; Chiang, Yin-Ru

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported the masculinization of freshwater wildlife exposed to androgens in polluted rivers. Microbial degradation is a crucial mechanism for eliminating steroid hormones from contaminated ecosystems. The aerobic degradation of testosterone was observed in various bacterial isolates. However, the ecophysiological relevance of androgen-degrading microorganisms in the environment is unclear. Here, we investigated the biochemical mechanisms and corresponding microorganisms of androgen degradation in aerobic sewage. Sewage samples collected from the Dihua Sewage Treatment Plant (Taipei, Taiwan) were aerobically incubated with testosterone (1 mM). Androgen metabolite analysis revealed that bacteria adopt the 9, 10-seco pathway to degrade testosterone. A metagenomic analysis indicated the apparent enrichment of Comamonas spp. (mainly C. testosteroni) and Pseudomonas spp. in sewage incubated with testosterone. We used the degenerate primers derived from the meta-cleavage dioxygenase gene (tesB) of various proteobacteria to track this essential catabolic gene in the sewage. The amplified sequences showed the highest similarity (87–96%) to tesB of C. testosteroni. Using quantitative PCR, we detected a remarkable increase of the 16S rRNA and catabolic genes of C. testosteroni in the testosterone-treated sewage. Together, our data suggest that C. testosteroni, the model microorganism for aerobic testosterone degradation, plays a role in androgen biodegradation in aerobic sewage. PMID:27734937

  18. Benthic biogeochemical cycling of mercury in two contaminated northern Adriatic coastal lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covelli, Stefano; Emili, Andrea; Acquavita, Alessandro; Koron, Neža; Faganeli, Jadran

    2011-10-01

    Previous research recognized most of the Northern Adriatic coastal lagoon environments as contaminated by mercury (Hg) from multiple anthropogenic sources. Among them, the Pialassa Baiona (P.B.) Lagoon, located near the city of Ravenna (Italy), received between 100 and 200 tons of Hg, generated by an acetaldehyde factory in the period 1957-1977. Further east, the Grado Lagoon has been mainly affected by a long-term Hg input from the Idrija mine (western Slovenia) through the Isonzo River since the 16th century. Hg cycling at the sediment-water interface (SWI) of the two lagoons was investigated and compared by means of an in situ benthic chamber, estimating diffusive Hg and Methyl-Hg fluxes in the summer season. Major chemical features in porewaters (Fe, Mn, H 2S, dissolved inorganic (DIC) and organic carbon (DOC), nutrients) and in the solid phase (C org, N and S) were also explored to understand the general biogeochemical conditions of the system in response to benthic respiration. The daily integrated flux for the methylated Hg form was extremely low in P.B. Lagoon, accounting for only 7% of the corresponding flux calculated for the Grado Lagoon. Despite a higher sedimentary Hg content in the P.B. Lagoon (14.4-79.0 μg g -1) compared to the Grado Lagoon (10.7-12.5 μg g -1), the in situ fluxes of Hg in the two experimental sites appeared similar. A selective sequential extraction procedure was applied to the solid phase, showing that the stable crystalline mineral phase cinnabar (HgS) is the predominant Hg fraction (about 50%) in the Grado Lagoon surface sediments. Conversely, Hg mobilization and sequestration in the P.B. Lagoon is related to the extremely anoxic redox conditions of the system where the intense sulfate reduction, by the release of sulfur and the formation of sulfides, limits the metal recycling at the SWI and its availability for methylation processes. Thus, the environmental conditions at the SWI in the P.B. Lagoon seem to represent a natural

  19. The Patos Lagoon hydrodynamics during an El Niño event (1998)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, E. H. L.; Dyer, K. R.; Moller, O. O.; Niencheski, L. F. H.

    2002-07-01

    TELEMAC-2D, a two-dimensional depth-averaged finite element flow model, has been chosen for modelling the hydrodynamics of the Patos Lagoon during the 1998 El Niño event. The model is initially calibrated against measurements carried out between 20 and 29/10/98, and good agreement is achieved between measured and predicted longitudinal velocities. Model validation is carried out by comparing measurements and predictions for one reference station in the estuarine area for the period between 23/05 and 06/06/98. Results indicate an excellent agreement between measurements and predictions, and the model is considered calibrated and validated for the Patos Lagoon hydrodynamics. A study of the Patos Lagoon hydrodynamics under the El Niño extreme conditions shows that the local and non-local wind effects associated with the freshwater discharge at the top of the lagoon promote longitudinal and lateral set-up/set-down mechanisms that influence the circulation. Results indicate that velocities in the lagoon and estuary during the extreme conditions observed in the El Niño period are much stronger than the normal periods. The response of the Patos Lagoon entrance to the local and non-local forcing is studied for the first time in terms of the inflow and outflow of water in the system. Results indicate that during the 1998 El Niño event the non-local forcing dominated, promoting exchanges that represent around 7% of the lagoon initial volume in the simulation. Strong freshwater discharges at the top of the lagoon combined with pressure gradients due to changes in elevation generated by the local and non-local wind favours the predominant seawards flow at the mouth, with outflows in the order of 5000 m3 s-1. The strong outflow observed during the El Niño extreme flow conditions generates huge plumes of freshwater into the adjacent coastal area.

  20. The attenuation of tidal and subtidal oscillations in the Patos Lagoon estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, E. H. L.; Mariño-Tapia, I.; Dyer, K. R.; Möller, O. O.

    The single, long and narrow channel that usually connects choked coastal lagoons to the ocean can serve as a natural hydraulic low-pass filter that reduces or eliminates tidal and subtidal effects inside the lagoon. This study proposes an alternative method of estimating the attenuation of the tidal and subtidal oscillations throughout the Patos Lagoon estuary. The attenuation is estimated for conditions of contrasting river runoff and weather (summer and winter). A high-pass/low-pass filter (fast fourier transformation technique - FFT) is applied to time series of sea-surface elevation (SSE) measured at the mouth of the Patos Lagoon. The resulting high-frequency (tidal) and low-frequency (subtidal) signals are used in independent simulations to force the TELEMAC-2D model. Attenuation of the tidal and subtidal signals throughout the estuary is estimated by applying cross-spectral analysis between the model-generated SSE time series at different locations throughout the estuary and the filtered SSE time series measured at the mouth. Results from the proposed method suggest that: (1) the low-frequency (subtidal) oscillations are less attenuated and propagate further than the high-frequency (tidal) oscillations in the Patos Lagoon estuary; (2) the filtering capability of the Patos Lagoon estuary is expected to follow a seasonal pattern, although further investigations on an interannual time scale are recommended in order to confirm this hypothesis; (3) the influence of the oceanic boundary processes on the SSE dynamics of the lagoon is restricted to the lower estuary. Further inland, the local forcing generated by the wind and freshwater input is likely to be the main forcing effect controlling the dynamics of the system. The proposed method proved to be an efficient and alternative way of estimating the attenuation of energy in the tidal and subtidal bands throughout the access channel of a choked coastal lagoon located in an area of reduced tidal influence.

  1. Stage-specific distribution models can predict eel (Anguilla anguilla) occurrence during settlement in coastal lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, C.; Zucchetta, M.; Capoccioni, F.; Gravina, M. F.; Franzoi, P.; Ciccotti, E.

    2016-03-01

    Eel (Anguilla anguilla) is a catadromous fish species typical of Mediterranean coastal lagoons, that currently suffers from several anthropogenic and natural impacts. These are thought to be the cause of a stock-wide decline that this panmictic species is facing, in inland and coastal waters of Europe and North Africa. The decline affects both adult phases and recruitment, i.e. glass eel arrival to coastal waters and their ascent to inland waters. Quantitative features of eel recruitment reflect a transoceanic global scale, but also depend on local environmental conditions, the latter also affecting settlement dynamics in transitional waters. There is only little information on the dynamics of these two processes in coastal lagoons, notwithstanding the paramount importance of both in sustaining local stocks abundance and their demographic structure for this typical but also economically important inhabitant of Mediterranean lagoons, habitats that constitute an important share of the eel distribution area. The present study aims, therefore, to clarify space and time dynamics of local scale recruitment and of settlement in a coastal lagoon in the Mediterranean area, also by setting up a specific methodological approach. For this purpose, data from field surveys in combination with Species Distribution Models (SDMs) have been used in order to relate distribution of eel juvenile stages to the environmental conditions within the lagoon. Specifically, models were calibrated to quantify the relationship between presence of juvenile eel and the main environmental drivers, with the aim of identifying potential habitats for eel settlement within the lagoon. Results gained by modelling suggest certain spatial and temporal colonization patterns for the juvenile eel in the Fogliano lagoon, a typical Mediterranean coastal lake. The modelling approach has therefore proved to be a useful tool for predicting habitats for eel recruitment at the local scale and settlement, because

  2. An evaluation of the USEPA calculations of greenhouse gas emissions from anaerobic lagoons.

    PubMed

    Lory, John A; Massey, R E; Zulovich, J M

    2010-01-01

    On 10 Apr. 2009, USEPA proposed and on 30 Oct. 2009 USEPA finalized reporting thresholds for a wide range of human-derived sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) as a first step in establishing emission limits in the United States. The only on-farm source category that required monitoring under the proposed and final rule was methane (CH(4)) and nitrous oxide (NO(2)) emissions from manure storage facilities. Our objective was to assess, through a literature review, the methodology used by USEPA to estimate current CH(4) emissions from uncovered anaerobic lagoons and the proposed methodology for reporting those emissions under the proposed rule. A review of the performance of uncovered anaerobic lagoons indicates that they are more effective at degrading volatile solids (VS) than predicted using parameters provided by USEPA that had been developed for anaerobic digesters. We also documented errors in the USEPA- and International Panel on Climate Change-estimated methane conversion factors for uncovered anaerobic lagoons. We suggest estimating CH(4) emissions from anaerobic lagoons based on VS degraded in the lagoon and B' (m(3) CH(4) generated kg(-1) VS destroyed). Our estimate of CH(4) released from uncovered anaerobic lagoons indicated the regulatory operation size threshold could be at least 65% smaller than predicted by USEPA in the proposed rule. Our calculated estimate of CH(4) emissions was substantially greater than the few estimates of CH(4) loss based on direct measurements on uncovered anaerobic lagoons. More research is needed before it will be possible to provide definitive estimates of CH(4) loss from uncovered anaerobic lagoons.

  3. Seagrasses and sediment response to the changing physical forcing in a coastal lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo da Silva, J.; Duck, R. W.; Pereira, M. J.; Catarino, J. B.

    2003-04-01

    The Ria de Aveiro is an estuary - coastal lagoon system connected to the Atlantic Ocean by a channel with a cross-sectional area that has steadily increased over more than one century. Local ocean tides, with amplitudes of 1-3 m, are today transmitted to the lagoon by the single, engineered inlet channel and propagate to the end of the lagoon channels as a damped progressive wave. The natural channel connecting the lagoon to the ocean evolved during historical times, moving southward and reducing its cross-section. The natural evolution was reverted in 1808 by opening the new inlet channel that has since been protected by breakwaters and deepened by dredging. This controlled evolution has caused an increase in the tidal prism associated with a larger tidal oscillation inside the lagoon. The change in tidal amplitude has important effects on the lagoon ecosystem, which are related to the increase in tidal currents, water level and salinity of the water. The pollution load reaching the lagoon from its catchment area is now, however, more readily flushed to the ocean. Most affected by the change are mudflat and intertidal areas, including the old salt-pans, some showing signs of erosion while others accumulate sediment that is transported in suspension by the strong tidal currents. Important indicators of ecosystem change are the seagrass beds. Until 1980 large areas of the lagoon bed were covered by seagrasses (Zostera, Ruppia, Potamogeton), which were collected in large quantities for use in agriculture. After 1980, the collection declined and the seagrass beds became sediment-covered. This resulted in a large decrease in the area of seagrasses in spite of the decline in the quantity collected. Our results show a pattern in the change of the seagrass populations that can be related to the changes in the physical forcing associated with tidal wave propagation. A parallel change in sediment texture was also observed.

  4. The Dynamics of Mercury Speciation and Transport at a Central California Coastal Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguli, P. M.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Dimova, N. T.; Merckling, J.; Kehrlein, N. C.; Hohn, R. A.; Richardson, C. M.; Johnson, C. D.; Fisher, A. T.; Lamborg, C. H.; Flegal, A. R., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated spatial and temporal trends in total mercury and monomethylmercury (MMHg) in groundwater, lagoon water, and nearshore seawater to assess the drivers of MMHg production in a coastal lagoon system. Many West Coast streams transition from estuarine to lagoon conditions in the dry season when a sand berm develops at the stream mouth, restricting surface water exchange with the ocean. Because lagoons accumulate nutrients from their upstream watershed they are susceptible to eutrophication, which can promote the growth of anaerobic bacteria. In nearshore settings, these bacteria are primarily responsible for producing MMHg, a bioaccumulative neurotoxin. We found that MMHg concentrations in lagoon water (1 - 5 pM) were higher than in groundwater (0.2 - 1 pM) and coastal seawater (0.1 - 0.6 pM). Groundwater depth profiles combined with subsurface resistivity images suggest MMHg in lagoon water was transported through the sand berm to adjacent seawater. MMHg in seawater and groundwater followed similar trends, providing additional evidence of groundwater-surface water interaction. MMHg in groundwater directly below the lagoon was consistently higher where dissolved oxygen and NO3- decreased, implying MMHg production by anaerobic bacteria. Over a ~7-hour period we observed a 0.6 pM decrease in groundwater MMHg (1 to 0.4 pM) that coincided with a decrease in water temperature (16.5 to 13 °C). We hypothesize that microbial activity, and consequently MMHg production, were enhanced in warmer water. Because coastal lagoons support intricate food webs and serve as nurseries for a variety of organisms, processes that influence mercury speciation and transport in these ecosystems may have a disproportionate impact on nearshore mercury biogeochemical cycling.

  5. Ecological risk assessment of pesticide residues in coastal lagoons of Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fernando P; Villeneuve, Jean-Pierre; Cattini, Chantal; Tolosa, Immaculada; Montenegro-Guillén, S; Lacayo, Martha; Cruz, Adela

    2002-10-01

    A detailed investigation on the contamination with chlorinated hydrocarbons and organophosphorous pesticides of the coastal lagoon system of Chinandega district, Nicaragua, allowed the identification of contaminant sources and lagoon areas currently more contaminated. The discharge of rivers into the lagoons is the main transport pathway of pesticide residues; whereas atmospheric depositions are likely to be the main pathway for the introduction of PCBs into the lagoons. Analysis of water samples indicates widespread contamination with soluble organophosphorous compounds, such as dichlorvos, up to 410 ng L(-1), diazinon, up to 150 ng L(-1), and chlorpyrifos, up to 83 ng L(-1). Analyses of suspended matter for low solubility organochlorine (OC) compounds revealed very high concentrations of toxaphene, up to 17,450 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw), total DDTs up to 478 ng g(-1), Aroclor 1254, up to 119 ng g(-1) (dw), and lower concentrations for other compounds. Lagoon sediments contain high concentrations also of toxaphene, from 7.9 to 6,900 ng g(-1) (dw), and DDTs, from 1.5 to 321 ng g(-1) (dw), and lower concentrations of chlorpyrifos, hexachlorocyclohexanes, chlordane and other residues. Concentrations of OCs in soft tissues of clams are statistically correlated with the concentrations of the same compounds in bottom sediments, indicating that sediments are a source of contaminants to biota. In some areas of the lagoon system, concentration of residues in sediments are far above recommended threshold guideline values for protection of aquatic life, and may cause acute and chronic toxic effects on more sensitive aquatic species. Despite the ban on the use of toxaphene and DDT, residues of these compounds are still entering the lagoons due to erosion of, and leaching from, agriculture soils in the region. Measures for protection of the lagoon ecosystem are discussed.

  6. The life cycle impact assessment applied to a coastal lagoon: the case of the Slimane lagoon (Tunisia) by the study of seasonal variations of the aquatic eutrophication potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadj Amor, R.; Quaranta, G.; Gueddari, F.; Million, D.; Clauer, N.

    2008-05-01

    The life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is a standard tool for the study of the environmental impact on a system including all activities in connection with manufacturing a product or detailing a service, from extraction of raw materials to disposal of final waste. Here, the system is not only anthropogenic, but also includes both natural behaviours and pollution aspects from human activity: it is a coastal lagoon with varied activities and waste disposals nearby. This stagnant zone is highly subjected to solar exposure and tends to dryness during summer, thus offering ideal conditions to algal proliferation. We have taken into account the trophic state of the lagoon assessed by the LCIA methodology, on the basis of the aquatic eutrophication potential (AEP). We have considered the concentrations of the phosphorus and nitrogen compounds for the calculation of the AEP and their spatial and temporal variations in the lagoon. The results show that the AEP of the phosphorus exceeds systematically the AEP of nitrogen and that the contents of both are systematically higher in summer than in winter. Nitrogen is the limiting factor for the algae growth. Ammonia and phosphates are the most important nutrients for the AEP in summer, whereas nitrates dominate in winter. In addition, the spatial and temporal variations of the N and P nutrients of the surface waters allow to distinguish three areas in the lagoon: a transition zone between the sea- and the lagoon waters; a zone reflecting directly the influence of the O. Bey creek- and the treated-waste waters and one representing the most isolated part of the lagoon and consequently the less contaminated by nutrient inputs.

  7. Inhibition of microbial metabolism in anaerobic lagoons by selected sulfonamides, tetracyclines, lincomycin, and tylosin tartrate.

    PubMed

    Loftin, Keith A; Henny, Cynthia; Adams, Craig D; Surampali, Rao; Mormile, Melanie R

    2005-04-01

    Antibiotics are used to maintain healthy livestock and to promote weight gain in concentrated animal feed operations. Antibiotics rarely are metabolized completely by livestock and, thus, are often present in livestock waste and in waste-treatment lagoons. The introduction of antibiotics into anaerobic lagoons commonly used for swine waste treatment has the potential for negative impacts on lagoon performance, which relies on a consortium of microbes ranging from fermentative microorganisms to methanogens. To address this concern, the effects of eight common veterinary antibiotics on anaerobic activity were studied. Anaerobic microcosms, prepared from freshly collected lagoon slurries, were amended with individual antibiotics at 10 mg/L for the initial screening study and at 1, 5, and 25 mg/L for the dose-response study. Monitored metabolic indicators included hydrogen, methane, and volatile fatty acid concentrations as well as chemical oxygen demand. The selected antibiotics significantly inhibited methane production relative to unamended controls, thus indicating that antibiotics at concentrations commonly found in swine lagoons can negatively impact anaerobic metabolism. Additionally, historical antibiotic usage seems to be a potential factor in affecting methane production. Specifically, less inhibition of methane production was noted in samples taken from the lagoon with a history of multiple-antibiotic use.

  8. Rates of sediment supply and sea-level rise in a large coastal lagoon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, R.A.; Ward, G.H.; White, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    Laguna Madre, Texas, is 3-7 km wide and more than 190 km long, making it one of the longest lagoons in the world. The lagoon encompasses diverse geologic and climatic regions and it is an efficient sediment trap that accumulates clastic sediments from upland, interior, and oceanic sources. The semi-arid climate and frequent tropical cyclones historically have been responsible for the greatest volume of sediment influx. On an average annual basis, eolian transport, tidal exchange, storm washover, mainland runoff, interior shore erosion, and authigenic mineral production introduce approximately one million m3 of sediments into the lagoon. Analyses of these sediment transport mechanisms and associated line sources and point sources of sediment provide a basis for: (1) estimating the long-term average annual sediment supply to a large lagoon; (2) calculating the average net sedimentation rate; (3) comparing introduced sediment volumes and associated aggradation rates with observed relative sea-level change; and (4) predicting future conditions of the lagoon. This comparison indicates that the historical average annual accumulation rate in Laguna Madre (<1 mm/yr) is substantially less than the historical rate of relative sea-level rise (~4 mm/yr). Lagoon submergence coupled with erosion of the western shore indicates that Laguna Madre is being submerged slowly and migrating westward rather than filling, as some have suggested.

  9. Taxonomical and numerical comparison of epipelic algae from Balik and Uzun lagoon, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gonulol, Arif; Ersanli, Elif; Baytut, Ozgur

    2009-09-01

    The epipelic algae of Balik lagoon and Uzun lagoon were investigated from May 2003 to December 2004. A total of 106 taxa were identified. Of these, 85 were found in Balik lagoon and 78 were found in Uzun lagoon. Water temperature of the lagoons ranged from 6.5 to 24.5 degrees C during the sampling period. Conductivity hardness, dissolved oxygen an pH values varied between 0.70 and 8.00 mS, 26.00 and 86.60 degrees f, 3.50 and 9.00 mg l(-1) and 7.82 and 8.70 respectively. Nitrite nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, chloride, phosphate phosphorus and sulphate concentrations in the water were also measured and ranged from 0.01 to 0.14, 0.01 to 0.24, 2.41 to 48.70, 0.01 to 0.12 and 54.00 to 104.40 mg l(-1) respectively Species richness (d), diversity (Shannon - Weaver, H') and evennes (J') were calculated for epipelic algae and the findings showed similar oscillations throughout the research period. Cluster analyses and multidimensional scaling (MDS) revealed a similar distribution pattern of epipelic algal flora in both lagoons.

  10. Self-powered wastewater treatment for the enhanced operation of a facultative lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, Timothy; Babauta, Jerome T.; Atci, Erhan; Tang, Nghia; Orellana, Josue; Heo, Deukhyoun; Beyenal, Haluk

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this study was to harness the redox gradients in facultative lagoons using a lagoon microbial fuel cell (LMFC) to enhance autonomously the delivery of oxygen to the lagoon through aeration and mixing by operating an air pump. To enhance the usability of the low power generated by the LMFC, a power management system (PMS) was used to harvest power continually while only operating the air pump intermittently. Here we demonstrate the LMFC as an alternative energy source for self-powered wastewater treatment systems by treating both artificial wastewater and dairy wastewater in large laboratory-scale simulated lagoons. For comparison, we also used a lagoon treatment system without self-aeration. We show that the integrated LMFC and PMS system was able to improve chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal time by 21% for artificial wastewater and by 54% for dairy wastewater. The LMFC-PMS wastewater treatment system operated for over a year and proved to be robust and provide a measure of sustainability. The LMFC-PMS combination offers an innovative and low-tech approach to increasing the capacity of lagoons for rural communities. We believe that the technology developed in this research is the first step towards providing sustainable self-powered wastewater treatment systems.

  11. Cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in Mugil cephalus from seven coastal lagoons of NW Mexico.

    PubMed

    Frías-Espericueta, Martin G; Osuna-López, J Isidro; Jiménez-Vega, Martha A; Castillo-Bueso, Daniel; Muy-Rangel, Maria D; Rubio-Carrasco, Werner; López-López, Gabriel; Izaguirre-Fierro, Gildardo; Voltolina, Domenico

    2011-11-01

    The increasing order of the mean concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Zn in the tissues of Mugil cephalus of seven coastal lagoons of Sinaloa State (NW Mexico) was liver > gills > muscle, while for Pb it was gills > muscle ≥ liver. There were no differences between the mean concentrations of Cd and Pb of the three tissues determined in the samples of the seven lagoons and, although there were some significant differences, there was no indication of a latitude-related trend in the distribution of Cu and Zn: the Cu content of the muscle tended to be higher in the northern than in the southern lagoons, although in the case of the gills the highest and lowest mean values indicated an opposite trend, with the highest and lowest values in one southern and one northern lagoon. In the case of the liver, there were no differences and no indication of a regional trend. There were no differences in the mean Zn contents of muscle and gills; in the case of the liver, one of the lagoons of the central part of the state had a significantly higher value than one of the southern lagoons and all the rest had similar values. In addition, there was no clear indication of season-related differences in any of the three tissues. According to our results, the metal contents of the muscle of this species are not of concern for human health, since the allowable ingestion would be in the order of 0.9 kg/day.

  12. Dissipation of wave energy and turbulence in a shallow coral reef lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhi-Cheng; Lenain, Luc; Melville, W. Kendall; Middleton, Jason H.; Reineman, Benjamin; Statom, Nicholas; McCabe, Ryan M.

    2012-03-01

    Simultaneous in situ measurements of waves, currents and turbulence are presented to describe dissipation rates of wave energy and turbulent kinetic energy in the windward coral reef-lagoon system at Lady Elliot Island (LEI), Australia. The dissipation of wave energy in the lagoon is tidally modulated and strongly correlates with frictional dissipation due to the presence of the extremely rough bottom boundary. The observed turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) dissipation rate, ɛ, in this wave-dominated lagoon is much larger than recently reported values for unidirectional flows over natural fringing coral reefs. The correlation between the wave dissipation and ɛ is examined. The average rate of dissipation induced by the rough turbulent flow was estimated directly from the observed ɛ coupled with both a depth-integrated approach and with a bottom boundary layer scaling. Rates of TKE dissipation estimated using the two approaches approximate well, within a factor of 1.5 to 2.4, to the surface-wave energy dissipation rate. The wave dissipation and friction factor in the lagoon can be described by a spectral wave-frictional model with a bottom roughness length scale that is approximately constant across the lagoon. We also present estimates of dissipation induced by the canopy drag force of the coral heads. The dissipation in this case is enhanced and becomes more significant for the total energy dissipation when the water depth in the lagoon is comparable to the height of the coral heads.

  13. Nutrient budgets and trophic state in a hypersaline coastal lagoon: Lagoa de Araruama, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Marcelo F. L.; Kjerfve, Björn; Knoppers, Bastiaan; Landim de Souza, Weber F.; Damasceno, Raimundo N.

    2003-08-01

    Lagoa de Araruama in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is a hypersaline lagoon with salinity varying spatially from 45 to 56. We collected water samples during monthly cruises throughout the lagoon, and along the streams feeding the system, from April 1991 to March 1992. Nutrients and other water quality parameters exhibited great spatial and temporal variations. Mass balance calculations indicate large amounts of anthropogenic nutrient inputs. The data indicate that the lagoon currently is oligotrophic but is in a state of transition to become a mesotrophic system. Molar dissolved inorganic nitrogen:dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIN/DIP) varied between 2.2:1 and 659:1 with a volume-weighted average of 22:1. The high DIN/DIP ratio contrasts with that found in nearby lagoons, suggesting that phytoplankton primary production is limited by phosphorus in Lagoa de Araruama. The major loss of DIP is apparently driven by biological assimilation and diagenic reactions in the sediments. Calculations indicate that the lagoon is slightly net autotrophic at +0.9 mol C m -2 yr -1. This suggests that the biomass of the primary producers is restricted by phosphorus availability. Phosphorus retention in the sediment and the hypersaline state of the lagoon prevent changes in autotrophic communities and the formation of eutrophic conditions.

  14. Living in a coastal lagoon environment: photosynthetic and biochemical mechanisms of key marine macroalgae.

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, Marta; Korbee, Nathalie; Pérez-Ruzafa, Isabel María; Marcos, Concepción; Figueroa, Félix L; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel

    2014-10-01

    The physiological status of Cystoseira compressa, Padina pavonica and Palisada tenerrima was studied by in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence, pigment content, stoichiometry (C:N), accumulation of UV photoprotectors and antioxidant activity; comparing their photosynthetic response in a coastal lagoon (Mar Menor) and in Mediterranean coastal waters. In general, the specimens reached their highest ETRmax in spring in the Lagoon, but in summer in the Mediterranean, coinciding with their maximum biomass peak. The species exhibited a dynamic photoinhibition. Except C. compressa, they showed a lower decrease in Fv/Fm and higher recovery rates in the Mediterranean populations when exposed to high irradiance. The higher salinity and temperature of the lagoon could impair the photoprotection mechanisms. The acclimation to lagoon environments is species-specific and involves complex regulatory mechanisms. The results underline the importance of N in repair, avoidance, quenching and scavenging mechanisms. In general, Lagoon specimens showed higher pigment concentration. Although xanthophylls play important photo-protective and antioxidant roles, the observed trend is more likely to be explained by the higher temperatures reached in the lagoon compared to Mediterranean. Therefore the studied photosynthetic and biochemical mechanisms can be effective not only for high irradiance, but also for higher temperatures in a climate change scenario, but are highly dependent on nutrient availability.

  15. Phytoplankton community dynamics in an intermittently open hypereutrophic coastal lagoon in southern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, Susana; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Gamito, Sofia

    2015-12-01

    Phytoplankton community' dynamics were studied in Salgados coastal lagoon in order to evaluate the effects of excessive organic loads and also physical stress caused by the irregular opening of the lagoon. Salgados is a hypereutrophic intermittently open coastal lagoon, which received freshwater inputs from small rivers and from a wastewater treatment plant. Cyanophyceae dominated the phytoplankton communities most of the time; Bacillariophyceae became the main taxonomic group in winter when the lagoon was closed; Chlorophyceae was the major class in early summer; pico-nano flagellate algae accounted for a high percentage of total phytoplankton during spring. Potentially harmful taxa were observed during most of the sampling periods, forming blooms and accounting for a considerable percentage of total phytoplankton abundance. A strong differentiation among dry and wet seasons could be noticed. The dry season was dominated by Microsystis aeruginosa, Rhodomonas sp., pico-nano flagellate algae, Cyclotella spp. and Planktothrix sp., while the wet season, although still with the presence of Microsystis aeruginosa, was dominated by Dolichospermum spiroides. The best environmental variables explaining stations patterns and based on phytoplankton taxa were days of isolation, pH, and salinity. Temperature, cumulative rain and total phosphorus were also related with species and stations patterns. The high nutrient load in Salgados lagoon promoted the development and persistence of harmful algae blooms. Proper management of coastal lagoons involves not only the control of direct discharges of nutrients, but also of other factors, including water level and communication with the sea.

  16. Sustainability assessment of traditional fisheries in Cau Hai lagoon (South China Sea).

    PubMed

    Marconi, Michele; Sarti, Massimo; Marincioni, Fausto

    2010-01-01

    Overfishing and progressive environmental degradation of the Vietnamese Cau Hai coastal lagoon appear to be threatening the ecological integrity and water quality of the largest estuarine complex of Southeast Asia. This study assessed the relationships between the density of traditional fisheries and organic matter sedimentary contents in Cau Hai lagoon. Data revealed that the density of stake traps (the most common fishing gear used in this lagoon), decreasing hydrodynamic energy in shallow water, causes the accumulation of a large fraction of organic matter refractory to degradation. The relationship between biopolymeric carbon (a proxy of availability of organic matter) and stake traps density fits a S-shape curve. The logistic equation calculated a stake traps density of 90 m of net per hectare, as the threshold over which maximum accumulation of organic matter occurs in Cau Hai. With such level of stake trap density, and assuming a theoretical stationary status of the lagoon, the time necessary for the system to reach hypoxic conditions has been calculated to be circa three weeks. We recommend that this density threshold should not be exceeded in the Cau Hai lagoon and that further analyses of organic loads in the sediment should be conducted to monitor the trophic conditions of this highly eutrophicated lagoon.

  17. Plasma chemical gasification of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Balgaranova, Janetta

    2003-02-01

    The possibility for plasma gasification of sewage sludge is investigated. Water steam is used as the plasma generating gas and as a chemical reagent. The experiments are carried out at a sludge to water steam ratio of 1 to 1.5 by weight, and at a plasma torch temperature of up to 2600 degrees C. The calculated average temperature in the reactor after mixing with the sludge particles is up to 1700 degrees C. Proximate and ultimate analyses of the sludge are given. The resulting gases are analysed by gas chromatography. High calorific gas containing mainly carbon monoxide (48% volume) and hydrogen (46% volume), as well as glass-like slag, is obtained. No water-soluble substances are detected within it. The amount of carbon dioxide produced is under 4% mass. No hydrocarbons are observed within the gas. The investigated process is environmentally safe, compact and shows a high rate of conversion.

  18. Thixotropic behaviour of thickened sewage sludge

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work is a description of the rheological behaviour of thickened sewage sludge. The sample of thickened sludge was collected from the wastewater treatment plant, where pressure flotation unit is used for a process of thickening. The value of dry matter of collected sample was 3.52%. Subsequently the sample was diluted and the rheological properties of individual samples were obtained. Several types of rheological tests were used for the determination of the sample. At first the hysteresis loop test was performed. The next test was focused on the time-dependency, i.e. measurement of dependence of dynamic viscosity on the time at constant shear rate. Further dependence dynamic viscosity on the temperature was performed. Then the activation energy was obtained from measured values. Finally, the hysteresis areas were counted and measured values were evaluated with use of Herschel-Bulkley mathematical model. PMID:24860659

  19. Insight into biological phosphate recovery from sewage.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yuanyao; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Liu, Yiwen; Zhang, Xinbo; Guo, Jianbo; Ni, Bing-Jie; Chang, Soon Woong; Nguyen, Dinh Duc

    2016-10-01

    The world's increasing population means that more food production is required. A more sustainable supply of fertilizers mainly consisting of phosphate is needed. Due to the rising consumption of scarce resources and limited natural supply of phosphate, the recovery of phosphate and their re-use has potentially high market value. Sewage has high potential to recover a large amount of phosphate in a circular economy approach. This paper focuses on utilization of biological process integrated with various subsequent processes to concentrate and recycle phosphate which are derived from liquid and sludge phases. The phosphate accumulation and recovery are discussed in terms of mechanism and governing parameters, recovery efficiency, application at plant-scale and economy. PMID:27434305

  20. Radiofrequency-oxidation treatment of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Asha; Young, Chris; Liao, Ping H; Lo, Kwang V

    2015-12-01

    A novel thermal-chemical treatment technology using radiofrequency heating and oxidants (hydrogen peroxide, ozone and a combination of both) was used for the treatment of sewage sludge. This was to evaluate the process effectiveness on cell disintegration and nutrient release of sludge, physical property changes such as particle size distribution, dewaterability and settleability, and their inter-relationships. The effectiveness of treatment processes was in the following order, from the most to least: thermal-oxidation process, oxidation process and thermal process. The thermal-oxidation process greatly increased cell disintegration and nutrient release, improved settleability, and decreased particle sizes. The treatment scheme involving ozone addition followed by hydrogen peroxide and radiofrequency heating yielded the highest soluble chemical oxygen demand, volatile fatty acids, ammonia and metals, while proffering the shortest capillary suction time and excellent settling properties. PMID:26233925

  1. Insight into biological phosphate recovery from sewage.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yuanyao; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Liu, Yiwen; Zhang, Xinbo; Guo, Jianbo; Ni, Bing-Jie; Chang, Soon Woong; Nguyen, Dinh Duc

    2016-10-01

    The world's increasing population means that more food production is required. A more sustainable supply of fertilizers mainly consisting of phosphate is needed. Due to the rising consumption of scarce resources and limited natural supply of phosphate, the recovery of phosphate and their re-use has potentially high market value. Sewage has high potential to recover a large amount of phosphate in a circular economy approach. This paper focuses on utilization of biological process integrated with various subsequent processes to concentrate and recycle phosphate which are derived from liquid and sludge phases. The phosphate accumulation and recovery are discussed in terms of mechanism and governing parameters, recovery efficiency, application at plant-scale and economy.

  2. Thixotropic behaviour of thickened sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Trávníček, Petr; Junga, Petr

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work is a description of the rheological behaviour of thickened sewage sludge. The sample of thickened sludge was collected from the wastewater treatment plant, where pressure flotation unit is used for a process of thickening. The value of dry matter of collected sample was 3.52%. Subsequently the sample was diluted and the rheological properties of individual samples were obtained. Several types of rheological tests were used for the determination of the sample. At first the hysteresis loop test was performed. The next test was focused on the time-dependency, i.e. measurement of dependence of dynamic viscosity on the time at constant shear rate. Further dependence dynamic viscosity on the temperature was performed. Then the activation energy was obtained from measured values. Finally, the hysteresis areas were counted and measured values were evaluated with use of Herschel-Bulkley mathematical model. PMID:24860659

  3. Raw Sewage Harbors Diverse Viral Populations

    PubMed Central

    Cantalupo, Paul G.; Calgua, Byron; Zhao, Guoyan; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Wier, Adam D.; Katz, Josh P.; Grabe, Michael; Hendrix, Roger W.; Girones, Rosina; Wang, David; Pipas, James M.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT At this time, about 3,000 different viruses are recognized, but metagenomic studies suggest that these viruses are a small fraction of the viruses that exist in nature. We have explored viral diversity by deep sequencing nucleic acids obtained from virion populations enriched from raw sewage. We identified 234 known viruses, including 17 that infect humans. Plant, insect, and algal viruses as well as bacteriophages were also present. These viruses represented 26 taxonomic families and included viruses with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), positive-sense ssRNA [ssRNA(+)], and dsRNA genomes. Novel viruses that could be placed in specific taxa represented 51 different families, making untreated wastewater the most diverse viral metagenome (genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples) examined thus far. However, the vast majority of sequence reads bore little or no sequence relation to known viruses and thus could not be placed into specific taxa. These results show that the vast majority of the viruses on Earth have not yet been characterized. Untreated wastewater provides a rich matrix for identifying novel viruses and for studying virus diversity. Importance At this time, virology is focused on the study of a relatively small number of viral species. Specific viruses are studied either because they are easily propagated in the laboratory or because they are associated with disease. The lack of knowledge of the size and characteristics of the viral universe and the diversity of viral genomes is a roadblock to understanding important issues, such as the origin of emerging pathogens and the extent of gene exchange among viruses. Untreated wastewater is an ideal system for assessing viral diversity because virion populations from large numbers of individuals are deposited and because raw sewage itself provides a rich environment for the growth of diverse host species and thus their viruses. These studies suggest that

  4. Assessing hog lagoon waste contamination in the Cape Fear Watershed using Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Arfken, Ann M; Song, Bongkeun; Mallin, Michael A

    2015-09-01

    Hog lagoons can be major sources of waste and nutrient contamination to watersheds adjacent to pig farms. Fecal source tracking methods targeting Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes in pig fecal matter may underestimate or fail to detect hog lagoon contamination in riverine environments. In order to detect hog lagoon wastewater contamination in the Cape Fear Watershed, where a large number of hog farms are present, we conducted pyrosequencing analyses of Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes in hog lagoon waste and identified new hog lagoon-specific marker sequences. Additional pyrosequencing analyses of Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes were conducted with surface water samples collected at 4 sites during 5 months in the Cape Fear Watershed. Using an operational taxonomic unit (OTU) identity cutoff value of 97 %, these newly identified hog lagoon markers were found in 3 of the river samples, while only 1 sample contained the pig fecal marker. In the sample containing the pig fecal marker, there was a relatively high percentage (14.1 %) of the hog lagoon markers and a low pig fecal marker relative abundance of 0.4 % in the Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA gene sequences. This suggests that hog lagoon contamination must be somewhat significant in order for pig fecal markers to be detected, and low levels of hog lagoon contamination cannot be detected targeting only pig-specific fecal markers. Thus, new hog lagoon markers have a better detection capacity for lagoon waste contamination, and in conjunction with a pig fecal marker, provide a more comprehensive and accurate detection of hog lagoon waste contamination in susceptible watersheds. PMID:26189016

  5. Assessing hog lagoon waste contamination in the Cape Fear Watershed using Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Arfken, Ann M; Song, Bongkeun; Mallin, Michael A

    2015-09-01

    Hog lagoons can be major sources of waste and nutrient contamination to watersheds adjacent to pig farms. Fecal source tracking methods targeting Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes in pig fecal matter may underestimate or fail to detect hog lagoon contamination in riverine environments. In order to detect hog lagoon wastewater contamination in the Cape Fear Watershed, where a large number of hog farms are present, we conducted pyrosequencing analyses of Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes in hog lagoon waste and identified new hog lagoon-specific marker sequences. Additional pyrosequencing analyses of Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes were conducted with surface water samples collected at 4 sites during 5 months in the Cape Fear Watershed. Using an operational taxonomic unit (OTU) identity cutoff value of 97 %, these newly identified hog lagoon markers were found in 3 of the river samples, while only 1 sample contained the pig fecal marker. In the sample containing the pig fecal marker, there was a relatively high percentage (14.1 %) of the hog lagoon markers and a low pig fecal marker relative abundance of 0.4 % in the Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA gene sequences. This suggests that hog lagoon contamination must be somewhat significant in order for pig fecal markers to be detected, and low levels of hog lagoon contamination cannot be detected targeting only pig-specific fecal markers. Thus, new hog lagoon markers have a better detection capacity for lagoon waste contamination, and in conjunction with a pig fecal marker, provide a more comprehensive and accurate detection of hog lagoon waste contamination in susceptible watersheds.

  6. Application of sewage sludge compost on highway embankments.

    PubMed

    Pengcheng, Gao; Xinbao, Tang; Yanan, Tong; Yingxu, Chen

    2008-01-01

    More and more sewage sludge is being produced in China. Safe and economical methods for sewage sludge disposal should be found considering the increase in sewage treatment. In order to verify the feasibility of sludge disposal on newly built highway embankments, five treatments (0, 15, 30, 60 and 120 tons ha(-1)) of sewage sludge compost (SSC) were added to a silty-clay embankment soil on the Xi-Huang highway. The results showed that amendment with SSC increased soil available N, available P, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, and water content, and decreased soil bulk density. Application of SSC enhanced ryegrass growth and reduced runoff and soil erosion. Heavy metal losses from sediments in runoff remained constant or decreased relative to the control until a rate of 60 tons ha(-1) was exceeded, when heavy metal losses appeared to increase.

  7. TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sewage samples from seven locations in the United States were analyzed for Escherichia coli isolates which were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT). The prevalence rate of SXT resistant organisms varied between the different geographical locales. The majority of th...

  8. Depletion of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors during sewage sludge composting.

    PubMed

    Vasskog, Terje; Bergersen, Ove; Anderssen, Trude; Jensen, Einar; Eggen, Trine

    2009-11-01

    Sewage and sewage sludge is known to contain pharmaceuticals, and since sewage sludge is often used as fertilizer within agriculture, the reduction of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) Citalopram, Sertraline, Paroxetine, Fluvoxamine and Fluoxetine during composting has been investigated. Sewage sludge was spiked with the SSRIs before the composting experiment started, and the concentration of the SSRIs in the sludge during a 21 day composting period was measured by liquid phase microextraction (LPME) and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All the SSRIs had a significant decrease in concentration during the composting process. The highest reduction rates were measured for Fluoxetine and Paroxetine and the lowest for Citalopram. In addition three out of four known SSRI metabolites were found in all the samples, and two of them showed a significant increase in concentration during the composting period. PMID:19595585

  9. Method for treating sewage to produce a fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Leen, C.

    1983-03-29

    A method is disclosed for treating sewage in which the combustible components of the sewage are separated from the sewage and utilized as a primary fuel. Scum is collected, preferably by skimming, from screened sewage. This scum comprises oils, greases, fats, water and intermixed solid material. The collected scum is then transferred to a separation tank. The scum is maintained within the tank in a quiescent and substantially nonagitated state for at least twelve hours, during which the combustible oils, greases, fats and the like are rendered separable from the other components of the scum. The scum is then conveyed from the tank to a processing unit where the fats, oils, greases and the like are separated from the water and solid material remaining in the scum. The resulting product is a combustible product and can be used as a primary fuel.

  10. Sandis irradiator for dried sewage solids. Final safety analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.

    1980-07-01

    Analyses of the hazards associated with the operation of the Sandia irradiator for dried sewage solids, as well as methods and design considerations to minimize these hazards, are presented in accordance with DOE directives.

  11. 38. COMMISSARY STORES #2 HOLD, LOOKING TOWARDS STARBOARD WITH SEWAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. COMMISSARY STORES #2 HOLD, LOOKING TOWARDS STARBOARD WITH SEWAGE TANK IN BACKGROUND. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  12. CISOCUR - Hydrodynamic circulation in the Curonian Lagoon inferred through stable isotope measurements and numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umgiesser, Georg; Razinkovas-Baziukas, Arturas; Barisevičiūtė, Ruta; Baziukė, Dalia; Ertürk, Ali; Gasiūnaitė, Jovita; Gulbinskas, Saulius; Lubienė, Irma; Maračkinaite, Jurgita; Petkuvienė, Jolita; Pilkaitytė, Renata; Ruginis, Tomas; Zemlys, Petras; Žilius, Mindaugas

    2013-04-01

    The spatial pattern of the hydrodynamic circulation of the Curonian lagoon, the largest European coastal lagoon, is still little understood. In absence of automatic current registration data all the existing models relied mostly on such data as water levels leaving high level of uncertainty. Here we present CISOCUR, a new project financed by the European Social Fund under the Global Grant measure. The project applies a new methodology that uses the carbon stable isotope (SI) ratio of C12 and C13 that characterize different water sources entering the lagoon and may be altered by internal kinetic processes. Through the tracing of these isotope ratios different water masses can be identified. This gives the possibility to validate several hypotheses of water circulation and validate hydrodynamic models. In particular it will be possible to 1) trace water masses entering the lagoon through the Nemunas and the Klaipeda strait; 2) test the hypothesis of sediment transport mechanisms inside the lagoon; 3) evaluate the importance of physical forcing on the lagoon circulation. The use of a hydrodynamic finite element model, coupled with the SI method, will allow for a realistic description of the transport processes inside the Curonian lagoon. So the main research goal is to apply the stable isotope tracers and a finite element model to determine the circulation patterns in the Curonian lagoon. Overall, the project will develop according to 4 main phases: 1) A pilot study to measure the isotope composition of different carbon compounds (dissolved and suspended) in different water bodies that feed water into the central lagoon. Through this pilot study the optimal study sites for the seasonal campaign will be identified as well. 2) Seasonal field campaigns in the monitoring stations identified in phase 1 to measure the carbon isotope ratio. 3) Development of a model that describes the kinetics of carbon isotopes and its transformation. 4) Application of a hydrodynamic model

  13. Temporal Variability of Carbon and Nutrient Budgets from a Tropical Lagoon in Chiku, Southwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, J.-J.; Kuo, F.

    2002-05-01

    Biogeochemical processes and budgets of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus from the semi-enclosed Chiku Lagoon were constructed through periodic observations and modelling. During the investigation, samples were mostly collected bimonthly, and hydrochemical properties, inorganic and organic nutrients (DIN, DON, DIP, DOP, Dsi (dissolved silica)) and organic carbon (DOC, POC) from waters associated with the lagoon were measured. The water exchange time of Chiku Lagoon ranges from 1·0 d (June 1997) to 8·5 d (January 1997) with an annual mean of 5·0 d. The residence time of nutrients varies with water exchange time, and is about 2-5 d longer than the water exchange time. Terrestrial inputs and lagoon distributions of nutrients varied in time and space based on the time scale of sampling. Thus, carbon and nutrient budgets were prepared for each sampling period and then combined to form annual budgets, which differed significantly from those modelled from annual means of various parameters. The annual removal of terrestrial nutrient inputs to the lagoon system is 69·4, 47·0, 27·7 and 42·0%, respectively, for DIN, DON, DIP and DOP. Consequently, the nonconservative flux of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (ΔDIP) from the lagoon is around -0·1 mole m-2 yr-1, that is equivalent to an internal organic carbon sink of 11 mol C m-2 yr-1. This organic carbon budget indicates that the lagoon is an autotrophic system where photosynthesis exceeds respiration (p-r> 0). This carbon sink is one of largest reported from world's lagoons, and its large size may result from the abundant nutrients in the lagoon. However, although the Chiku Lagoon is estimated to remove 4·7 mol C m-2 yr-1 carbonate through oyster calcification, it emits an equivalent amount of CO2 into the system. Despite net nitrogen fixation being observed during some periods, denitrification exceeds nitrogen fixation throughout the period of observation [(nfix-denit)=-1·4 mole N m-2 yr-1].

  14. Impacts of climate change on water resources in watersheds of four European lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanova, Anastassi; Hesse, Cornelia; Krysanova, Valentina

    2014-05-01

    The hydrologic impacts of projected climate change were assessed for the drainage areas of four European lagoons: the Ria de Aveiro lagoon in Portugal, the Mar Menor lagoon in Spain, the Vistula lagoon in Poland and Kaliningrad region and the Tyligulski lagoon in Ukraine. The eco-hydrological model SWIM (Soil and Water Integrated Model) was applied to each of the four case study areas individually, considering basin-specific characteristics and management settings. All four watersheds were calibrated and validated towards river discharge at one or more gauges, reaching satisfactory to very good modelling results, depending on the quality and availability of input data (i.e. observed climate and discharge data). For the assessment of climate change impacts we forced the four model set-ups with scenario data from the ENSEMBLES project. Therefore a set of 15 climate scenarios, all running until the end of the 21st century, was applied to SWIM for one reference and three future periods of 30 years each. We evaluated the long-term changes of total freshwater inflow to the four lagoons and compared the results considering average trends and uncertainties induced by the different climate scenarios. The comparison not only shows differences in the magnitude of potential impacts among the four regions but also differences in the direction of change. In Spain and Portugal an average decrease in discharge of about -5% and -15% can be expected, while at the same time the total inflow to the Vistula and the Tyligulski lagoon is projected to increase by 18% and 20% on average by the end of the century. The agreement of climate projections among scenarios is varies between regions and in consequence the uncertainty in model outputs also differs between the four case studies. In the watershed of the Tyligulski lagoon the projected changes in river discharge vary between -70% and 120%, whereas the results for the Ria de Aveiro lagoon range between -1% and -27% for the last three

  15. Vitrification as an alternative to landfilling of tannery sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Celary, Piotr Sobik-Szołtysek, Jolanta

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • The possibility of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge was investigated. • Glass cullet was substituted with different wastes of mineral character. • Component ratio in the processed mixtures was optimized. • Environmental safety of the acquired vitrificates was verified. • An alternative management approach of usually landfilled waste was presented. - Abstract: Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with

  16. Parasite communities of the neotropical cormorant Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Gmelin) (Aves, Phalacrocoracidae) from two coastal lagoons in Guerrero state, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Violante-González, Juan; Monks, Scott; Gil-Guerrero, Salvador; Rojas-Herrera, Agustín; Flores-Garza, Rafael; Larumbe-Morán, Edvino

    2011-11-01

    The parasite community structure of the neotropical cormorant, Phalacrocorax brasilianus, from two lagoons (Coyuca and Tres Palos) from Guerrero state, México, was examined. Fourteen species of adult helminths (6,391 individuals) from 48 cormorants were identified: 9 digeneans, 1 acanthocephalan, 1 cestode, and 3 nematodes. A total of 11 species were collected in Coyuca Lagoon and 12 in Tres Palos Lagoon. Nine species co-occurred in cormorants of both lagoons but, with the exception of Contracaecum multipapillatum and Drepanocephalus olivaceus, species were not equally common in both lagoons. The prevalence values of six species of helminth and the mean abundance of four species varied significantly between lagoons, and C. multipapillatum was numerically dominant in both lagoons. The qualitative similarity between the two communities at the component level was 64%. All cormorants examined were infected, and parasite species richness was 3-5 in Coyuca and 4-9 in Tres Palos lagoon. The results indicate that both communities presented a similar structure at the component level, probably because the cormorants of both lagoons feed on the same species of fish and thus acquire almost the same species of parasites. Differences observed at the infracommunity level were attributed to variations in the degree of dominance of the particular species.

  17. Parasite communities of the neotropical cormorant Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Gmelin) (Aves, Phalacrocoracidae) from two coastal lagoons in Guerrero state, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Violante-González, Juan; Monks, Scott; Gil-Guerrero, Salvador; Rojas-Herrera, Agustín; Flores-Garza, Rafael; Larumbe-Morán, Edvino

    2011-11-01

    The parasite community structure of the neotropical cormorant, Phalacrocorax brasilianus, from two lagoons (Coyuca and Tres Palos) from Guerrero state, México, was examined. Fourteen species of adult helminths (6,391 individuals) from 48 cormorants were identified: 9 digeneans, 1 acanthocephalan, 1 cestode, and 3 nematodes. A total of 11 species were collected in Coyuca Lagoon and 12 in Tres Palos Lagoon. Nine species co-occurred in cormorants of both lagoons but, with the exception of Contracaecum multipapillatum and Drepanocephalus olivaceus, species were not equally common in both lagoons. The prevalence values of six species of helminth and the mean abundance of four species varied significantly between lagoons, and C. multipapillatum was numerically dominant in both lagoons. The qualitative similarity between the two communities at the component level was 64%. All cormorants examined were infected, and parasite species richness was 3-5 in Coyuca and 4-9 in Tres Palos lagoon. The results indicate that both communities presented a similar structure at the component level, probably because the cormorants of both lagoons feed on the same species of fish and thus acquire almost the same species of parasites. Differences observed at the infracommunity level were attributed to variations in the degree of dominance of the particular species. PMID:21503640

  18. Sequestration of Sr-90 Subsurface Contamination in the Hanford 100-N Area by Surface Infiltration of a Ca-Citrate-Phosphate Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, James E.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Oostrom, Martinus; Moore, R. C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Williams, Mark D.; Zhong, Lirong; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; McKinley, James P.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Covert, Matthew A.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Garcia, Ben J.

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a method to emplace apatite precipitate in the 100N vadose zone, which results in sorption and ultimately incorporation of Sr-90 into the apatite structure. The Ca-citrate-PO4 solution can be infiltrated into unsaturated sediments to result in apatite precipitate to provide effective treatment of Sr-90 contamination. Microbial redistribution during solution infiltration and a high rate of citrate biodegradation for river water microbes (water used for solution infiltration) results in a relatively even spatial distribution of the citrate biodegradation rate and ultimately apatite precipitate in the sediment. Manipulation of the Ca-citrate-PO4 solution infiltration strategy can be used to result in apatite precipitate in the lower half of the vadose zone (where most of the Sr-90 is located) and within low-K layers (which are hypothesized to have higher Sr-90 concentrations). The most effective infiltration strategy to precipitate apatite at depth (and with sufficient lateral spread) was to infiltrate a high concentration solution (6 mM Ca, 15 mM citrate, 60 mM PO4) at a rapid rate (near ponded conditions), followed by rapid, then slow water infiltration. Repeated infiltration events, with sufficient time between events to allow water drainage in the sediment profile can be used to buildup the mass of apatite precipitate at greater depth. Low-K heterogeneities were effectively treated, as the higher residual water content maintained in these zones resulted in higher apatite precipitate concentration. High-K zones did not receive sufficient treatment by infiltration, although an alternative strategy of air/surfactant (foam) was demonstrated effective for targeting high-K zones. The flow rate manipulation used in this study to treat specific depths and heterogeneities are not as easy to implement at field scale due to the lack of characterization of heterogeneities and difficulty tracking the wetting front over a large

  19. The distribution of salinity and main forcing effects in the Berre lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, Bernard; Alekseenko, Elena; Chen, Paul Gang; Kharif, Christian; Kotarba, Richard; Fougere, Dominique

    2014-05-01

    The results from previous studies in lagoons and well mixed estuaries indicate that salt transport is primarily in response to advection associated with freshwater outflow, tidal diffusion, and to shear effects arising from spatial correlations of vertical and especially transverse deviations in salinity and current speed (Smith, 1994). Therefore, the inflow of fresh and salt water into coastal lagoons is an important factor influencing the structure and function of lagoonal ecosystems worldwide (Lirman et al., 2007). The predominance of marine or freshwater inflow leads to the different ecosystems. Among several lagoons located along the Mediterranean shore of France, the Berre lagoon has been under intense anthropogenic pressure for several decades (Delpy et al., 2012). Moreover, the salinity level of the Berre lagoon was varying dramatically from the 19th century up to now. In this work, a special attention is focused on the salinity variation in the Berre lagoon due to the three dominant abiotic forcing mechanisms, i.e., incoming sea tide, runoff from a hydropower and a strong wind. Four different model scenarios were considered in order to examine the impact of each forcing mechanism or combined effects, i.e. : (a) tide only, (b) runoff only, (c) combined tide and runoff, and (d) an N-NW wind, tide and runoff together. Numerical modeling and interpretation of numerical results are based on three-dimensional hydrodynamic model MARS3D. It is found that the strongest negative impact is related to the huge hydropower runoffs, inducing the desalinization of the surface and subsurface waters not only in the centre of the lagoon, but also in the entire water column in the coastal seagrass recolonization zones. In the absence of wind, the huge inputs of freshwater from the hydropower lead to a haline stratification and thus, to anoxic conditions, making most of the lagoon unproductive. On the contrary, strong winds play a positive role on the salinity level of the

  20. Oceanographic effects of the 1992 Point Loma sewage pipe spill

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, R.; Ciccateri, A.; Dougherty, K.; Gacek, L.; Lane, S.; Liponi, K.; Leeds, R.; Walsh, F. )

    1992-01-01

    Early in early 1992, 180 million gallons of advanced primarily treated sewage emptied into 10 meters of water from the broken Point Loma sewage pipe, San Diego. For about two months a sewage boil about the size of a football field existed at the surface and within the Point Loma kelp bed. Sampling and observations taken during the spill indicated the surface waters at the spill site were grayish and smelling of sewage. The sewage water had mixed with the marine waters reducing salinity to about one-half normal (or 15 ppt.). The sediment load of the sewage coated the blades of the giant kelp and the kelp was limp and withdrawn from the surface. At the site of the main boil the kelp appeared to have dropped to the bottom. Sediments on the bottom in the boil area were mainly coarse sands as compared to the surrounding sandy-muds. Preliminary results using laboratory analysis suggest: one month into the spill no infauna were observed in the sediments or planktons in the water of the boil area, but were in the surrounding sediments and water; the observed phytoplankton were dominated by dinoflagellates and suggested red tide conditions surrounding the boil. The site has been monitored monthly since the spill to observe further impact and recovery.

  1. Indirect methods of dried sewage sludge contamination assessments.

    PubMed

    Werle, Sebastian; Dudziak, Mariusz; Grübel, Klaudiusz

    2016-07-28

    Thermal conversion (combustion, co-combustion, gasification and pyrolysis) appears to be the most promising alternative for sewage sludge management in the future. Nevertheless, safe and ecological usage of sewage sludge as a fuel requires information about their contamination. The aim of this paper is to present the photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) as a good method for contamination assessments of dried sewage sludge. Two types of granular sewage sludge: Sewage sludge 1 (SS1) taken from Polish wastewater treatment plant operating in the mechanical-biological system and sewage sludge 2 (SS2) taken from mechanical-biological-chemical wastewater treatment plant with phosphorus precipitation were analysed. The spectrophotometer FTIR Nicolet 6700 equipped with photoacoustic cell (Model 300, MTEC, USA) was used. The comparison with the most popular analytical methods (GC-MS) was also done. The results of PAS studies confirm the difference between the SS1 and SS2 which is in agreement with the GC-MS analysis. Higher absorbance was observed at each wavelength characteristics for the oscillator of chemical moieties for the SS1 with respect to the SS2. PMID:27149560

  2. Marshall Islands Fringing Reef and Atoll Lagoon Observations of the Tohoku Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Murray; Becker, Janet M.; Merrifield, Mark A.; Song, Y. Tony

    2014-12-01

    The magnitude 9.0 Tohoku earthquake on 11 March 2011 generated a tsunami which caused significant impacts throughout the Pacific Ocean. A description of the tsunami within the lagoons and on the surrounding fringing reefs of two mid-ocean atoll islands is presented using bottom pressure observations from the Majuro and Kwajalein atolls in the Marshall Islands, supplemented by tide gauge data in the lagoons and by numerical model simulations in the deep ocean. Although the initial wave arrival was not captured by the pressure sensors, subsequent oscillations on the reef face resemble the deep ocean tsunami signal simulated by two numerical models, suggesting that the tsunami amplitudes over the atoll outer reefs are similar to that in deep water. In contrast, tsunami oscillations in the lagoon are more energetic and long lasting than observed on the reefs or modelled in the deep ocean. The tsunami energy in the Majuro lagoon exhibits persistent peaks in the 30 and 60 min period bands that suggest the excitation of closed and open basin normal modes, while energy in the Kwajalein lagoon spans a broader range of frequencies with weaker, multiple peaks than observed at Majuro, which may be associated with the tsunami behavior within the more irregular geometry of the Kwajalein lagoon. The propagation of the tsunami across the reef flats is shown to be tidally dependent, with amplitudes increasing/decreasing shoreward at high/low tide. The impact of the tsunami on the Marshall Islands was reduced due to the coincidence of peak wave amplitudes with low tide; however, the observed wave amplitudes, particularly in the atoll lagoon, would have led to inundation at different tidal phases.

  3. Reconstruction of historic sea ice conditions in a sub-Arctic lagoon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petrich, Chris; Tivy, Adrienne C.; Ward, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Historical sea ice conditions were reconstructed for Izembek Lagoon, Bering Sea, Alaska. This lagoon is a crucial staging area during migration for numerous species of avian migrants and a major eelgrass (Zostera marina) area important to a variety of marine and terrestrial organisms, especially Pacific Flyway black brant geese (Branta bernicla nigricans). Ice cover is a common feature of the lagoon in winter, but appears to be declining, which has implications for eelgrass distribution and abundance, and its use by wildlife. We evaluated ice conditions from a model based on degree days, calibrated to satellite observations, to estimate distribution and long-term trends in ice conditions in Izembek Lagoon. Model results compared favorably with ground observations and 26 years of satellite data, allowing ice conditions to be reconstructed back to 1943. Specifically, periods of significant (limited access to eelgrass areas) and severe (almost complete ice coverage of the lagoon) ice conditions could be identified. The number of days of severe ice within a single season ranged from 0 (e.g., 2001) to ≥ 67 (e.g., 2000). We detected a slight long-term negative trend in ice conditions, superimposed on high inter-annual variability in seasonal aggregate ice conditions. Based on reconstructed ice conditions, the seasonally cumulative number of significant or severe ice days correlated linearly with mean air temperature from January until March. Further, air temperature at Izembek Lagoon was correlated with wind direction, suggesting that ice conditions in Izembek Lagoon were associated with synoptic-scale weather patterns. Methods employed in this analysis may be transferable to other coastal locations in the Arctic.

  4. The Unare lagoon - A recent example of sequence stratigraphic control in reservoir patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Bejarano, C. )

    1993-02-01

    The Unare lagoon constitutes a barred coastal lagoon formed during the Holocene transgression on a moderate wave energy, microtidal coast. An extensive surface sampling and core drill program has been carried out in the lagoon in order to develop a reservoir sedimentology and sequence stratigraphic model applicable to similar subsurface deposits. During the rapid Halocene sea level rise, more than 70 m of fluvial and delta plain sediments have aggraded behind the landward stepping coastal barrier. These sediments are truncated seaward by a transgressive wave ravinement surface, and are capped by widespread lagoonal muds which accumulated between 8300 and 7250 yBP. These muds constitute the Holocene Maximum Flooding Surface which preceded the onset of the post Holocene stillstand (c. 500[approximately] yBP), probably as a result of the high rate of sediment supply and the confined nature of the lagoon which acted as an efficient sediment trap. During the post Holocene stillstand, a fluvial-dominated delta has prograded across the lagoon and attained the coastal barrier. This delta constitutes a Highstand Systems Tract. The major reservoir sands comprise distributary channel meanderbelts and the transgressive barrier. The channels form sand ribbons 5-7 m thick, and up to 2 km wide. The barrier and shoreface sands forms a strike-elongate deposits less than 5 m thick, up to 150-600 m wide, and 5-10 km long. The lagoonal facies of the Maximum Flooding Surface form a good reservoir seal overlying the aggrading transgressive fluvial and delta plain sands and muds.

  5. Resistance of polychaete species and trait patterns to simulated species loss in coastal lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulwetter, Sarah; Papageorgiou, Nafsika; Koulouri, Panayota; Fanini, Lucia; Chatzinikolaou, Eva; Markantonatou, Vasiliki; Pavloudi, Christina; Chatzigeorgiou, Georgios; Keklikoglou, Kleoniki; Vasileiadou, Katerina; Basset, Alberto; Pinna, Maurizio; Rosati, Ilaria; Reizopoulou, Sofia; Nicolaidou, Artemis; Arvanitidis, Christos

    2015-04-01

    The loss of species is known to have negative impacts on the integrity of ecosystems, but the details of this relationship are still far from being fully understood. This study investigates how the distribution patterns of polychaete species and their associated biological trait patterns in six Mediterranean coastal lagoons change under computationally simulated scenarios of random species loss. Species were progressively removed from the full polychaete assemblage and the similarity between the full assemblage and the reduced matrices of both species and trait patterns was calculated. The results indicate the magnitude of changes that might follow species loss in the real world, and allow consideration of the resistance of the system's functional capacity to loss of species, expressed through the species' biological traits as an approximation to functioning. Comparisons were made between the changes in the distribution of species and of traits, as well as between the six different lagoons. While the change of species and trait patterns was strongly correlated within most lagoons, different lagoons showed distinctly different patterns. In disturbed lagoons, the dominance of one or few species was the major driver for the observed patterns and the loss of these species caused extreme changes. Less disturbed lagoons were less susceptible to extreme changes and had a greater resistance towards species loss. Species richness appears to be less important for the ability of the lagoons to buffer changes, instead the initial composition of the assemblage and the identity of the lost species determine the response of the system and our ability to predict changes of the assemblage's functional potential.

  6. Chasing boundaries and cascade effects in a coupled barrier - marshes - lagoon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo Trueba, J.; Mariotti, G.

    2015-12-01

    Low-lying coasts are often characterized by barriers islands, shore-parallel stretches of sand separated from the mainland by marshes and lagoons. We built an exploratory numerical model to examine the morphological feedbacks within an idealized barrier - marshes -lagoon system and predict its evolution under projected rates of sea level rise and sediment supply to the backbarrier environment. Our starting point is a recently developed morphodynamic model, which couples shoreface evolution and overwash processes in a dynamic framework. As such, the model is able to capture dynamics not reproduced by morphokinematic models, which advect geometries without specific concern to processes. These dynamics include periodic barrier retreat due to time lags in the shoreface response to barrier overwash, height drowning due to insufficient overwash fluxes as sea level rises, and width drowning, which occurs when the shoreface response rate is insufficient to maintain the barrier geometry during overwash-driven landward migration. We extended the model by coupling the barrier model with a model for the evolution of the marsh platform and the boundary between the marsh and the adjacent lagoon. The coupled model explicitly describes marsh edge processes and accounts for the modification of the wave regime associated with lagoon width (fetch). Model results demonstrate that changes in factors that are not typically associated with the dynamics of coastal barriers, such as the lagoon width and the rate of export/import of sediments from and to the lagoon, can lead to previously unidentified complex responses of the coupled system. In particular, a wider lagoon in the backbarrier, and/or a reduction in the supply of muddy sediments to the backbarrier, can increase barrier retreat rates and even trigger barrier drowning. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of incorporating backbarrier dynamics in models that aim at predicting the response of barrier systems.

  7. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in coastal lagoons of the pacific coast of Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, F P; Montenegro-Guillen, S; Villeneuve, J; Cattini, C; Bartocci, J; Lacayo, M; Cruz, A

    1999-02-01

    A screening for persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons was carried out in December 1995 in the main coastal lagoons on the Pacific side of Nicaragua, where most of the country's agriculture and pesticide use has been taking place for decades. Results for a wide range of organochlorine pesticides in lagoon sediments show levels that generally were very low in Estero Real, Estero Padre Ramos, and estuary of San Juan del Sur. For example, total DDTs in these lagoons averaged 4.5 +/- 3.4 ng g-1 dry weight, which may be considered a baseline level for the region. Other compounds such as HCHs, BHC, endosulfan, heptachlor, endrin, toxaphene, and aroclors were present in concentrations even lower, generally below 1 ng g-1 dry weight. However, sediments of the Esteros Naranjo-Paso Caballos system at Chinandega district contained pesticide residues in much higher levels, attaining maximum values of 1,420 ng g-1 and 270 ng g-1 dry weight, respectively, for toxaphene and total DDTs. Other compounds such as aroclors, chlordane, endosulfan, and dieldrin were also present in the sediments of this lagoon system, but in lower concentrations. The very high concentrations of toxaphene and DDTs in this lagoon are a result of the intensive use of these pesticides in cotton growing in the district of Chinandega. Due to the long environmental half-lives of these compounds (t(1/2) > 10 years in temperate soils), their concentrations in lagoon sediments will likely remain high for years to come. Based on these results, the development of the new shrimp farming activities in the Pacific coastal lagoons should be restricted to selected areas.

  8. Hydrologic characteristics of lagoons at San Juan, Puerto Rico, during an October 1974 tidal cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Ellis, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    Flow and water-quality changes were studied during a period of intense rainfall in the San Juan Lagoon system. The study covered a 25-hour period beginning 0900 hours 22 October, 1974. Precipitation during the study period averaged 70 millimeters. Sampling stations were located at Boca de Cangrejos, the main ocean outlet; Canal Pinones between Laguna de Pinones and Laguna La Torrecilla; Canal Suarez between Laguna San Jose, connects to Laguna La Torrecilla; and Cano de Martin Pena between Laguna San Jose and Bahia de San Juan. In addition water-elevation recording gages were installed at each lagoon. Water samples from the canal stations were analyzed for organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus species, and suspended sediment. Specific-conductance measurements were used with the chemical data to estimate the runoff contributions of nutrients. Runoff into the lagoon, system during the study period was about 2.8 million cubic meters, or about 70 percent of the average precipitation. The runoff contributed chemical loadings to the lagoons of 95,000 kilograms total-organic carbon; 2,700 kilograms of total phosphorus; and 10,000 kilograms of total Khjeldhal nitrogen. A comparison with a prior study during which there was no significant rain, show that dry-period loadings are less than 10 percent of the wet-period loadings. At the end of the study period the system had not reached equilibrium, and the lagoons retained 80 percent of the water inflows from 50 to 90 percent of the chemical loads. Nearly 95 percent of the water outflows occurred at the Boca de Cangrejos sea outlet. The three lagoons and interconnecting canals form a very complex hydraulic system that is difficult to study using traditional techniques. A model of the system will facilitate management to improve the quality of water in the lagoons.

  9. Preparing sewage sludge for land application or surface disposal: A guide for preparers of sewage sludge on the monitoring, record keeping, and reporting requirements of the federal standards for the use of disposal of sewage sludge, 40 CFR part 503

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The document focuses on the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements that apply to persons who prepare sewage sludge or a material derived from sewage sludge. It defines persons who prepare sewage sludge and then summarizes their general responsibilities. USEPA promulgated at 40 CFR Part 503 Phase 1 of the risk-based regulations that govern the final use or disposal of sewage sludge. The intent of the Federal program is to ensure that the use or disposal of sewage sludge occurs in a way that protects both human health and the environment. The Part 503 regulation establishes general requirements, pollutant limits, operational standards, and management practices, as well as monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements. These requirements apply to sewage sludge that is land applied, placed on a surface disposal site, or incinerated in a sewage sludge-only incinerator.

  10. Evolution of an intermittent lagoon-barrier system with rising sea level: observations and projections from the Muni-Pomadze lagoon, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies-Vollum, Sian

    2016-04-01

    Intermittently closed lagoon-barrier systems are a transitory environment between land and sea that are influenced by fluvial and marine processes as well as human activities. Fluvial processes dominate most of the time, when the barrier is closed. However, when the barrier is breached an ephemeral connection between the lagoon and the ocean develops and estuarine-like conditions ensue. As sea level rises, the evolution of these systems from intermittently closed to open is dependent on multiple processes including barrier breaching, fragmentation and overwashing. Human intervention, often to prevent flooding, also has an impact. The Muni-Pomadze lagoon in central Ghana is a small, intermittently closed lagoon-barrier system that supports a local fishing community. A beach-barrier separates the lagoon from the ocean, impounding river water and sediment behind it for most of the year. At the end of a rainy season the barrier may be breached, either naturally or by human intervention to prevent flooding of dwellings on the barrier. Field observation, digital mapping and GIS analysis of the shoreline has enabled an understanding of how the barrier is evolving with rising sea level. The shore face of the barrier has shifted landwards with an average retreat rate of 0.22 m/yr. Small washover fans, developed at low points along the lagoon side of the barrier have developed. However, aerial photos reveal that these fans have remained stable since 1972 (earliest available air photos). The small size and stability of these fans suggests that overwashing is not an important factor in the evolution of the barrier and that the barrier is being eroded rather not moving landward. Erosion is particularly prevalent at the breach end of the barrier with an average rate of loss of 3 metres per year and palm trees that were providing stability to the barrier have been washed away. Unconsolidated sands forming a transient, spit-like feature have replaced the stable barrier, which

  11. Review of solutions for 3D hydrodynamic modeling applied to aquaculture in South Pacific atoll lagoons.

    PubMed

    Andréfouët, S; Ouillon, S; Brinkman, R; Falter, J; Douillet, P; Wolk, F; Smith, R; Garen, P; Martinez, E; Laurent, V; Lo, C; Remoissenet, G; Scourzic, B; Gilbert, A; Deleersnijder, E; Steinberg, C; Choukroun, S; Buestel, D

    2006-10-01

    A workshop organized in French Polynesia in November 2004 allowed reviewing the current methods to model the three-dimensional hydrodynamic circulation in semi-enclosed atoll lagoons for aquaculture applications. Mollusk (e.g. pearl oyster, clam) aquaculture is a major source of income for South Pacific countries such as French Polynesia or Cook Islands. This aquaculture now requires a better understanding of circulation patterns to improve the spatial use of the lagoons, especially to define the best area to set larvae collectors. The pelagic larval duration of the relevant species (<20 days) and the size of the semi-closed lagoons (few hundreds of km2) drive the specifications of the model in terms of the spatial and temporal scale. It is considered that, in contrast with fish, mollusk larvae movements are limited and that their cycle occurs completely in the lagoon, without an oceanic stage. Atolls where aquaculture is productive are generally well-bounded, or semi-closed, without significant large and deep openings to the ocean. Nevertheless part of the lagoon circulation is driven by oceanic water inputs through the rim, ocean swells, tides and winds. Therefore, boundary conditions of the lagoon system are defined by the spatial structure of a very shallow rim (exposition and number of hoas), the deep ocean swell climate, tides and wind regimes. To obtain a realistic 3D numerical model of lagoon circulation with adequate forcing, it is thus necessary to connect in an interdisciplinary way a variety of methods (models, remote sensing and in situ data collection) to accurately represent the different components of the lagoon system and its specific boundary conditions. We review here the current methods and tools used to address these different components for a hypothetical atoll of the Tuamotu Archipelago (French Polynesia), representative of the semi-closed lagoons of the South Pacific Ocean. We hope this paper will serve as a guide for similar studies

  12. Mud deposit formation on the open coast of the larger Patos Lagoon-Cassino Beach system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinzon, S. B.; Winterwerp, J. C.; Nogueira, R.; de Boer, G. J.

    2009-03-01

    This paper proposes an explanation of the mud deposits on the inner Shelf of Cassino Beach, South Brazil, by using computational modeling. These mud deposits are mainly formed by sediments delivered from Patos Lagoon, a coastal lagoon connected to the Shelf, next to Cassino Beach. The deposits are characterized by (soft) mud layers of about 1 m thick and are found between the -5 and -20 isobaths. Two hydrodynamic models of the larger Patos Lagoon-Cassino Beach system were calibrated against water elevation measured for a 5 months period, and against currents and salinity measured for a week period. The circulation patterns and water exchange through the mouth were analyzed as a function of local and remote wind effects, and river discharges. The remote wind effect mainly governs the quantity of water exchange with the Lagoon through its effect on mean sea level as a result of Ekman dynamics, while river discharges are important for the salinity of the exchanged water masses. Local winds augment the export-import rates by set-up and set-down within the Lagoon, but their effects are much smaller than those of the remote wind. Currents patterns on the inner Shelf during water outflow revealed a recirculation zone south of the Lagoon, induced by the local geometry and bathymetry of the system. This recirculation zone coincides with observed locations of mud deposition. Water, hence suspended sediment export occurs when remote and local winds are from the N-E, which explains why fine sediment deposits are mainly found south of the Lagoon's breakwater. A sensitivity analysis with the numerical model quantified the contribution of the various mechanisms driving the transport and fate of the fine suspended sediments, i.e. the effects of remote and local wind, of the astronomical tide, of river discharge and fresh-salt water-induced density currents, and of earth rotation. It is concluded that gravitational circulation and earth rotation affects the further dispersion of

  13. Biodiversity patterns of macrophyte and macroinvertebrate communities in two lagoons of Western Greece.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyttis, G.; Reizopoulou, S.; Papastergiadou, E.

    2012-04-01

    Aquatic macrophytes and benthic macroinvertebrates were studied seasonally (Spring, Autumn, Summer) between the years 2009 - 2011 in two coastal lagoons (Kotychi and Prokopos) located in Peloponnese, Greece, in order to investigate spatial and temporal biodiversity trends related to hydrological processes (degree of confinement, nitrates, phosphates, chl-a, total suspended materials, light irradiance, pH, salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen). Kotychi lagoon presents a better communication with the sea, while Prokopos has a high degree of confinement. Both ecosystems seasonally receive freshwater input from streams. The submerged aquatic macrophytes constituted a major component of the ecosystems studied. In total, 22 taxa of aquatic macrophytes (angiosperms and macroalgae), 16 taxa for Kotychi (2 Rhodophyta, 8 Chlorophyta, 5 Magnoliophyta, 1 Streptophyta) and 14 taxa for Prokopos (1 Rhodophyta, 5 Chlorophyta, 5 Magnoliophyta, 3 Streptophyta) were found. Ruppia cirrhosa, and Potamogeton pectinatus were dominant in both lagoons. Kotychi lagoon was also dominated by Zostera noltii and Prokopos by Zannichellia pallustris ssp. pedicellata, while the biomass of aquatic species peaked during the summer periods, in both lagoons. The total number of macroinvertebrates found in the lagoons was 28 taxa for Kotychi and 19 for Prokopos. Chironomidae were dominant in both lagoons, while Kotychi was also dominated by Lekanesphaera monodi and Monocorophium insidiosum, and Prokopos by Ostracoda and Lekanesphaera monodi. Benthic diversity ranged from 1.33 to 2.57 in Kotychi and from 0.67 to 2.48 in Prokopos. Species richness, diversity, and abundance of benthic macroinvertebrates were strongly related to aquatic vegetation and to the degree of communication with the marine environment. Moreover, species richness and abundance of both macrophytes and macroinvertebrates were mainly dependent on depth, temperature, pH and concentration of total suspended materials (TSM). Results

  14. [Species and size composition of fishes in Barra de Navidad lagoon, Mexican central Pacific].

    PubMed

    González-Sansón, Gaspar; Aguilar-Betancourt, Consuelo; Kosonoy-Aceves, Daniel; Lucano-Ramírez, Gabriela; Ruiz-Ramírez, Salvador; Flores-Ortega, Juan Ramón; Hinojosa-Larios, Angel; de Asís Silva-Bátiz, Francisco

    2014-03-01

    Coastal lagoons are considered important nursery areas for many coastal fishes. Barra de Navidad coastal lagoon (3.76km2) is important for local economy as it supports tourism development and artisanal fisheries. However, the role of this lagoon in the dynamics of coastal fish populations is scarcely known. Thus, the objectives of this research were: to characterize the water of the lagoon and related weather conditions, to develop a systematic list of the ichthyofauna, and to estimate the proportion of juveniles in the total number of individuals captured of most abundant species. Water and fish samples were collected between March 2011 and February 2012. Physical and chemical variables were measured in rainy and dry seasons. Several fishing gears were used including a cast net, beach purse seine and gillnets of four different mesh sizes. Our results showed that the lagoon is most of the time euhaline (salinity 30-40ups), although it can be mixopolyhaline (salinity 18-30ups) during short periods. Chlorophyll and nutrients concentrations suggested eutrophication in the lagoon. Mean water temperature changed seasonally from 24.9 degrees C (April, high tide) to 31.4 degrees C (October, low tide). Considering ichthyofauna species, a total of 36 448 individuals of 92 species were collected, 31 of them adding up to 95% of the total of individuals caught. Dominant species were Anchoa spp. (44.6%), Diapterus peruvianus (10.5%), Eucinostomus currani (8.1%), Cetengraulis mysticetus (7.8%), Mugil curema (5.2%) and Opisthonema libertate (4.5%). The lagoon is an important juvenile habitat for 22 of the 31 most abundant species. These included several species of commercial importance such as snappers (Lutjanus argentiventris, L. colorado and L. novemfasciatus), snook (Centropomus nigrescens) and white mullet (Mugil curema). Other four species seem to use the lagoon mainly as adults. This paper is the first contribution on the composition of estuarine ichthyofauna in Jalisco

  15. Modelling water discharges and nutrient inputs into a Mediterranean lagoon (Thau, France). Impact on phytoplankton production.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plus, M.; La Jeunesse, I.; Bouraoui, F.

    2003-04-01

    The lagoon of Thau (French Mediterranean coast), is a large (75 km2) and rather deep coastal lagoon (mean depth 4 m), connected to the sea by its two extremities (residence time: about 3 months). Besides its ecological interest as a breeding and transit zone for some sea fish species, the lagoon has a notable economic importance due to shellfish cultivation with an annual oyster production of about 15 000 tons. This considerable production depends to a large extent on nutrient inputs into the ecosystem, supplied mainly from fresh water. The catchment area is about 280 Km2, including agriculture (mainly vineyards), industrial activities and urban waste. Due to the low water renewal and to the intensive shellfish farming activities the Thau lagoon is particularly sensitive to any modification in watershed outputs. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of watershed outputs on the lagoon ecosystem. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model) has been applied to the Thau lagoon catchment area in order to simulate water discharges and nutrients (ammonium, nitrate, and phosphates) inputs into the lagoon on a 10 years period (1989-1999). The model has been calibrated and validated using measured data available for the two main rivers of the watershed, representing about 50% of total freshwater inputs. The model predictions compared favourably with the measurements concerning water quantity as well as major water quality determinants (ammonium, nitrate, phosphates, and suspended matter). Then, several scenarios (e. g. changes in agricultural practices) have been run and the simulated results were used as forcing variables in a lagoon ecosystem model, previously developed for Thau. The latter is a three-dimensional model coupling both hydrodynamical and biological processes. The following state variables are simulated in the model biological part: ammonia, nitrates, phytoplankton, zooplankton, detritus, oyster biodeposits and oxygen. In addition to the inputs

  16. Solar and Interplanetary Sources of Major Geomagnetic Storms (Dst less than or equal to -100 nT) During 1996 - 2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, J.; Richardson, I.; Webb, D. F.; Gopalswamy, N.; Huttunen, E.; Kasper, J.; Nitta, N.; Poomvises, W.; Thompson, B. J.; Wu, C.-C.; Yashiro, S.; Zhukov, A.

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of an investigation of the sequence of events from the Sun to the Earth that ultimately led to the 88 major geomagnetic storms (defined by minimum Dst less than or equal to -100 nT) that occurred during 1996 - 2005. The results are achieved through cooperative efforts that originated at the Living with a Star (LWS) Coordinated Data- Analysis Workshop (CDAW) held at George Mason University in March 2005. Based on careful examination of the complete array of solar and in-situ solar wind observations, we have identified and characterized, for each major geomagnetic storm, the overall solar-interplanetary (solar-IP) source type, the time, velocity and angular width of the source coronal mass ejection (CME), the type and heliographic location of the solar source region, the structure of the transient solar wind flow with the storm-driving component specified, the arrival time of shock/disturbance, and the start and ending times of the corresponding IP CME (ICME). The storm-driving component, which possesses a prolonged and enhanced southward magnetic field (B(sub s)) may be an ICME, the sheath of shocked plasma (SH) upstream of an ICME, a corotating interaction region (CIR), or a combination of these structures. We classify the Solar-IP sources into three broad types: (1) S-type, in which the storm is associated with a single ICME and a single CME at the Sun; (2) M-type, in which the storm is associated with a complex solar wind flow produced by multiple interacting ICMEs arising from multiple halo CMEs launched from the Sun in a short period; (3) C-type, in which the storm is associated with a CIR formed at the leading edge of a high speed stream originating from a solar coronal hole (CH). For the 88 major storms, the S-type, M-type and C-type events number 53 (60%): 24 (27%) and 11 (13%), respectively. For the 85 events for which the surface source regions could be investigated, 54 (63%) of the storms originated in solar active regions, 10 (12

  17. Comprehensive assessment of hormones, phytoestrogens, and estrogenic activity in an anaerobic swine waste lagoon.

    PubMed

    Yost, Erin E; Meyer, Michael T; Dietze, Julie E; Meissner, Benjamin M; Worley-Davis, Lynn; Williams, C Michael; Lee, Boknam; Kullman, Seth W

    2013-12-01

    In this study, the distribution of steroid hormones, phytoestrogens, and estrogenic activity was thoroughly characterized within the anaerobic waste lagoon of a typical commercial swine sow operation. Three independent rounds of sampling were conducted in June 2009, April 2010, and February 2011. Thirty-seven analytes in lagoon slurry and sludge were assessed using LC/MS-MS, and yeast estrogen screen was used to determine estrogenic activity. Of the hormone analytes, steroidal estrogens were more abundant than androgens or progesterone, with estrone being the predominant estrogen species. Conjugated hormones were detected only at low levels. The isoflavone metabolite equol was by far the predominant phytoestrogen species, with daidzein, genistein, formononetin, and coumestrol present at lower levels. Phytoestrogens were often more abundant than steroidal estrogens, but contributed minimally toward total estrogenic activity. Analytes were significantly elevated in the solid phases of the lagoon; although low observed log KOC values suggest enhanced solubility in the aqueous phase, perhaps due to dissolved or colloidal organic carbon. The association with the solid phase, as well as recalcitrance of analytes to anaerobic degradation, results in a markedly elevated load of analytes and estrogenic activity within lagoon sludge. Overall, findings emphasize the importance of adsorption and transformation processes in governing the fate of these compounds in lagoon waste, which is ultimately used for broadcast application as a fertilizer. PMID:24144340

  18. A numerical study of circulation in a coastal reef-lagoon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Ryan J.; Falter, James L.; Monismith, Stephen G.; Atkinson, Marlin J.

    2009-06-01

    A coupled wave-circulation numerical model was used to simulate the distribution of wave energy, as well as the circulation induced by wave breaking, wind, and tidal forcing, within a coral reef system in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. Modeled wave, current, and wave setup fields were compared with field measurements collected on the forereef, reef flat, and reef channels and in the lagoon over a 4-week period. The predicted wave height transformation across the reef-lagoon system was in good agreement with field observations, using single-parameter (spatially uniform) values to describe both wave-breaking and frictional dissipation. The spatial distribution of the resulting wave setup field drove a persistent wave-driven flow across the reef flat that returned to the ocean through two deeper channels in the reef. Both the magnitude and direction of these currents were well described using a spatially uniform hydraulic roughness length scale. Notably, the model lends support to field observations that setup within the coastally bounded lagoon was a substantial fraction of the maximum setup on the reef (˜60-80%), which generated relatively weak cross-reef wave-driven flows (˜10-20 cm s-1) compared with reefs having mostly unbounded lagoons (e.g., many atolls and barrier reefs). Numerical experiments conducted using Lagrangian particle tracking revealed that residence times within Kaneohe Bay are extremely heterogeneous, typically ranging from <1 day on the reef to >1 month within its sheltered southern lagoon.

  19. Chemistry and distribution of trace elements in the Patos lagoon, South Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baisch, Paulo Roberto; Wasserman, Julio Cesar

    This chapter reports a thorough study of the geochemistry of some metals in the sediments of the Patos lagoon, one of the biggest coastal lagoons in the world (and the biggest in Brazil). After a screening study of the sediments, which considered the granulometry, organic carbon, organic nitrogen and sulphur contents, Pb, Cu, Zn and Cr concentrations of more than 100 samples collected all over the system, the relationships between these variables were considered in order to explain their distribution. The distribution of metals within different granulometric fractions was also studied. Finally a sequential extraction procedure was performed in selected samples to provide information on the geochemical partitioning of the metals in the sediments. The absence of direct anthropogenic sources of metals to the lagoon was established. The main source of metals is the Guaiba system (northern portion), whose material is spread all over the lagoon and can be concentrated in the areas where physico-chemical parameters are favourable. The Camaquã river also constitutes a significant source of Cu and Pb for the southern portion of the Patos Lagoon, originating from the mining of metallic sulphides.

  20. Management strategies to optimise sustainable clam ( Tapes philippinarum) harvests in Barbamarco Lagoon, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spillman, C. M.; Hamilton, D. P.; Imberger, J.

    2009-01-01

    Barbamarco Lagoon is a small lagoon adjoining the Northern Adriatic Sea and is the site of a commercially valuable clam ( Tapes philippinarum) fishery. A three-dimensional (3D) coupled hydrodynamic-ecological model was applied to the lagoon with the objective of assessing impacts on clam food supply, commercial harvests and water quality of different clam rearing strategies, lagoon morphologies and flow regimes. Harvest and net growth to seeding ratios, total harvest value, clearance efficiencies and clam satiety were used to quantify the commercial success of different management strategies, while bottom dissolved oxygen concentrations were used as an indicator of ecosystem health. Increasing exchange with the Northern Adriatic Sea or increasing freshwater inputs into the lagoon improved clam food supply and increased both harvest production and ecosystem health in model simulations of the system. Results indicated that the high spatial and temporal variability of clam production and water quality responses must be considered for a holistic assessment of the outcomes of strategies in the context of ecological and production carrying capacity.

  1. Analysis of Lagoonal Ecosystems in the Po River Delta Associated with Intensive Aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, Yu. I.; Sorokin, P. Yu.; Ravagnan, G.

    1999-03-01

    Observations on structure and functioning of coastal lagoon ecosystems experiencing a high level of eutrophication impact were accomplished in three lagoons of Ca'Pisani integrated within an experimental aquaculture enterprise variously fertilized by waste effluents discharged from and intensive fish culture plant. During August and early September an extremely dense bloom of dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarensewas recorded in these lagoons with the density of phytoplankton up to 190 g m -3of wet biomass, and primary production 2 to 6 mg Cl -1 day -1. The diel dissolved oxygen fluctuations in water column during the bloom reached 15-20 mg O 2 l -1. The wet biomass of bacterioplankton in the lagoons attained 5-9 g m -3. The microzooplankton was dominated by ciliates with biomass 1 to 19 g m -3. The daytime mesozooplankton was dominated by calanoid copepods with a biomass 0·05-0·25 g m -3, while the biomass of the demersal zooplankton at night attained 2 to 14 g m -3. In the lagoon of Ocaro, the phototrophic plankton was dominated by the symbiotic ciliate Mesodinium.The labile sulphides content in the upper layer of the bottom attained over 1 g S dm -3of wet silt. The rate of microbial sulphate reduction was 5-10 mg S dm -3day -1. The data are generalized within the energy balance in these specific anthropogenically transformed pelagic communities.

  2. Comprehensive assessment of hormones, phytoestrogens, and estrogenic activity in an anaerobic swine waste lagoon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yost, Erin E.; Meyer, Michael T.; Dietze, Julie E.; Meissner, Benjamin M.; Williams, Mike; Worley-Davis, Lynn; Lee, Boknam; Kullman, Seth W.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the distribution of steroid hormones, phytoestrogens, and estrogenic activity was thoroughly characterized within the anaerobic waste lagoon of a typical commercial swine sow operation. Three independent rounds of sampling were conducted in June 2009, April 2010, and February 2011. Thirty-seven analytes in lagoon slurry and sludge were assessed using LC/MS-MS, and yeast estrogen screen was used to determine estrogenic activity. Of the hormone analytes, steroidal estrogens were more abundant than androgens or progesterone, with estrone being the predominant estrogen species. Conjugated hormones were detected only at low levels. The isoflavone metabolite equol was by far the predominant phytoestrogen species, with daidzein, genistein, formononetin, and coumestrol present at lower levels. Phytoestrogens were often more abundant than steroidal estrogens, but contributed minimally towards total estrogenic activity. Analytes were significantly elevated in the solid phases of the lagoon; although low observed log KOC values suggest enhanced solubility in the aqueous phase, perhaps due to dissolved or colloidal organic carbon. The association with the solid phase, as well as recalcitrance of analytes to anaerobic degradation, results in a markedly elevated load of analytes and estrogenic activity within lagoon sludge. Overall, findings emphasize the importance of adsorption and transformation processes in governing the fate of these compounds in lagoon waste, which is ultimately used for broadcast application as a fertilizer.

  3. Quantification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae in French Mediterranean coastal lagoons

    PubMed Central

    Cantet, Franck; Hervio-Heath, Dominique; Caro, Audrey; Le Mennec, Cécile; Monteil, Caroline; Quéméré, Catherine; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne; Colwell, Rita R.; Monfort, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae are human pathogens. Little is known about these Vibrio spp. in the coastal lagoons of France. The purpose of this study was to investigate their incidence in water, shellfish and sediment of three French Mediterranean coastal lagoons using the most probable number-polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR). In summer, the total number of V. parahaemolyticus in water, sediment, mussels and clams collected from the three lagoons varied from 1 to >1.1 × 103 MPN/l, 0.09 to 1.1 × 103 MPN/ml, 9 to 210 MPN/g and 1.5 to 2.1 MPN/g, respectively. In winter, all samples except mussels contained V. parahaemolyticus, but at very low concentrations. Pathogenic (tdh- or trh2-positive) V. parahaemolyticus were present in water, sediment and shellfish samples collected from these lagoons. The number of V. vulnificus in water, sediment and shellfish samples ranged from 1 to 1.1 × 103 MPN/l, 0.07 to 110 MPN/ml and 0.04 to 15 MPN/g, respectively, during summer. V. vulnificus was not detected during winter. V. cholerae was rarely detected in water and sediment during summer. In summary, results of this study highlight the finding that the three human pathogenic Vibrio spp. are present in the lagoons and constitute a potential public health hazard. PMID:23770313

  4. Measurement and modeling of hydrogen sulfide lagoon emissions from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation.

    PubMed

    Rumsey, Ian C; Aneja, Viney P

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emissions were determined from an anaerobic lagoon at a swine concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) in North Carolina. Measurements of H2S were made continuously from an anaerobic lagoon using a dynamic flow-through chamber for ∼ 1 week during each of the four seasonal periods from June 2007 through April 2008. H2S lagoon fluxes were highest in the summer with a flux of 3.81 ± 3.24 μg m(-2) min(-1) and lowest in the winter with a flux of 0.08 ± 0.09 μg m(-2) min(-1). An air-manure interface (A-MI) mass transfer model was developed to predict H2S manure emissions. The accuracy of the A-MI mass transfer model in predicting H2S manure emissions was comprehensively evaluated by comparing the model predicted emissions to the continuously measured lagoon emissions using data from all four seasonal periods. In comparison to this measurement data, the A-MI mass transfer model performed well in predicting H2S fluxes with a slope of 1.13 and an r(2) value of 0.60, and a mean bias value of 0.655 μg m(-2) min(-1). The A-MI mass transfer model also performed fairly well in predicting diurnal H2S lagoon flux trends. PMID:24387076

  5. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages and trace element contents from the lagoons of Orbetello and Lesina.

    PubMed

    Frontalini, Fabrizio; Coccioni, Rodolfo; Bucci, Carla

    2010-11-01

    The Italian marginal areas of Orbetello and Lesina lagoons have been investigated in order to assess the response of benthic foraminifera to the trace element contents in the sediments. The investigated lagoons are deeply affected by high values of trace elements. The lagoon of Orbetello shows the highest values of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Hg, whereas the lagoon of Lesina exhibits the highest values of As. On the basis of the trace element contents, both lagoons can be considered from moderately to strongly polluted. Biotic and abiotic factors have been investigated with multivariate technique of statistical analysis. On the basis of the trace element content, the cluster analysis reveals the occurrence of three main clusters. These natural groupings are also confirmed by the principal component analysis. The comparison of trace element concentration patterns with the Foraminiferal Abnormality Index shows a possible influence of these pollutants on the benthic foraminiferal assemblages. Generally, the highest concentrations of trace elements in the investigated areas are remarkably mirrored by the highest percentages of deformed specimens.

  6. Quantification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae in French Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    PubMed

    Cantet, Franck; Hervio-Heath, Dominique; Caro, Audrey; Le Mennec, Cécile; Monteil, Caroline; Quéméré, Catherine; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne; Colwell, Rita R; Monfort, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae are human pathogens. Little is known about these Vibrio spp. in the coastal lagoons of France. The purpose of this study was to investigate their incidence in water, shellfish and sediment of three French Mediterranean coastal lagoons using the most probable number-polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR). In summer, the total number of V. parahaemolyticus in water, sediment, mussels and clams collected from the three lagoons varied from 1 to >1.1 × 10³ MPN/l, 0.09 to 1.1 × 10³ MPN/ml, 9 to 210 MPN/g and 1.5 to 2.1 MPN/g, respectively. In winter, all samples except mussels contained V. parahaemolyticus, but at very low concentrations. Pathogenic (tdh- or trh2-positive) V. parahaemolyticus were present in water, sediment and shellfish samples collected from these lagoons. The number of V. vulnificus in water, sediment and shellfish samples ranged from 1 to 1.1 × 10³ MPN/l, 0.07 to 110 MPN/ml and 0.04 to 15 MPN/g, respectively, during summer. V. vulnificus was not detected during winter. V. cholerae was rarely detected in water and sediment during summer. In summary, results of this study highlight the finding that the three human pathogenic Vibrio spp. are present in the lagoons and constitute a potential public health hazard.

  7. Investigation of residence time and groundwater flux in Venice Lagoon: comparing radium isotope and hydrodynamic models.

    PubMed

    Rapaglia, John; Ferrarin, Christian; Zaggia, Luca; Moore, Willard S; Umgiesser, Georg; Garcia-Solsona, Ester; Garcia-Orellana, Jordi; Masqué, Pere

    2010-07-01

    The four naturally-occurring isotopes of radium were coupled with a previously evaluated hydrodynamic model to determine the apparent age of surface waters and to quantify submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the Venice Lagoon, Italy. Mean apparent age of water in the Venice Lagoon was calculated using the ratio of 224Ra to 228Ra determined from 30 monitoring stations and a mean pore water end member. Average apparent age was calculated to be 6.0 d using Ra ratios. This calculated age was very similar to average residence time calculated for the same period using a hydrodynamic model (5.8 d). A mass balance of Ra was accomplished by quantifying each of the sources and sinks of Ra in the lagoon, with the unknown variable being attributed to SGD. Total SGD were calculated to be 4.1 +/- 1.5, 3.8 +/- 0.7, 3.0 +/- 1.3, and 3.5 +/- 1.0 x 10(10) L d(-1) for (223,224,226, 228)Ra, respectively, which are an order of magnitude larger than total mean fluvial discharge into the Venice Lagoon (3.1 x 10(9) L d(-1)). The SGD as a source of nutrients in the Venice Lagoon is also discussed and, though significant to the nutrient budget, is likely to be less important as the dominant control on SGD is recirculated seawater rather than freshwater.

  8. Comprehensive assessment of hormones, phytoestrogens, and estrogenic activity in an anaerobic swine waste lagoon.

    PubMed

    Yost, Erin E; Meyer, Michael T; Dietze, Julie E; Meissner, Benjamin M; Worley-Davis, Lynn; Williams, C Michael; Lee, Boknam; Kullman, Seth W

    2013-12-01

    In this study, the distribution of steroid hormones, phytoestrogens, and estrogenic activity was thoroughly characterized within the anaerobic waste lagoon of a typical commercial swine sow operation. Three independent rounds of sampling were conducted in June 2009, April 2010, and February 2011. Thirty-seven analytes in lagoon slurry and sludge were assessed using LC/MS-MS, and yeast estrogen screen was used to determine estrogenic activity. Of the hormone analytes, steroidal estrogens were more abundant than androgens or progesterone, with estrone being the predominant estrogen species. Conjugated hormones were detected only at low levels. The isoflavone metabolite equol was by far the predominant phytoestrogen species, with daidzein, genistein, formononetin, and coumestrol present at lower levels. Phytoestrogens were often more abundant than steroidal estrogens, but contributed minimally toward total estrogenic activity. Analytes were significantly elevated in the solid phases of the lagoon; although low observed log KOC values suggest enhanced solubility in the aqueous phase, perhaps due to dissolved or colloidal organic carbon. The association with the solid phase, as well as recalcitrance of analytes to anaerobic degradation, results in a markedly elevated load of analytes and estrogenic activity within lagoon sludge. Overall, findings emphasize the importance of adsorption and transformation processes in governing the fate of these compounds in lagoon waste, which is ultimately used for broadcast application as a fertilizer.

  9. Blooms of Single Bacterial Species in a Coastal Lagoon of the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Piccini, Claudia; Conde, Daniel; Alonso, Cecilia; Sommaruga, Ruben; Pernthaler, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    We investigated seasonal differences in community structure and activity (leucine incorporation) of the planktonic bacterial assemblage in the freshwater and brackish-water zones of a shallow coastal lagoon of the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. Alphaproteobacteria formed the dominant microbial group in both zones throughout the sampling period. After an intrusion of marine water, members of the SAR11 lineage became abundant in the brackish-water zone. These bacteria were apparently distributed over the lagoon during the following months until they constituted almost 30% of all prokaryotic cells at both sampling sites. At the first sampling date (March 2003) a single alphaproteobacterial species unrelated to SAR11, Sphingomonas echinoides, dominated the microbial assemblages in both zones of the lagoon concomitantly with a bloom of filamentous cyanobacteria. Pronounced maxima of leucine incorporation were observed once in each zone of the lagoon. In the freshwater zone, this highly active microbial assemblage was a mix of the typical bacteria lineages expected in aquatic systems. By contrast, a single bacterial genotype with >99% similarity to the facultative pathogen gammaproteobacterial species Stenotrophomonas maltophilia formed >90% of the bacterial assemblage (>107 cell ml−1) in the brackish-water zone at the time point of highest bacterial leucine incorporation. Moreover, these bacteria were equally dominant, albeit less active, in the freshwater zone. Thus, the pelagic zone of the studied lagoon harbored repeated short-term blooms of single bacterial species. This finding may have consequences for environmental protection. PMID:17021206

  10. Using an Integrated Approach to Assess the Sediment Quality of an Mediterranean Lagoon, the Bizerte Lagoon (Tunisia).

    PubMed

    Barhoumi, Badreddine; Elbarhoumi, Anis; Clérandeau, Christelle; Al-Rawabdeh, Abdulla M; Atyaoui, Atef; Touil, Soufiane; Driss, Mohamed Ridha; Cachot, Jérôme

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigates the quality of surface sediments from the Bizerte lagoon (North Tunisia) using an integrated approach including chemical contaminant analysis, bioassays and sediment quality guidelines (SQGs). Sediment samples were collected at 9 sites and analyzed for eight heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Fe and Mn). PAHs, PCBs, OCPs were measured previously in the same sediment samples. Our results indicated that the highest concentrations of metals were found near urban areas due to the municipial and industrial wastewater discharges. Sediment pollution assessment was carried out using geoaccumulation index and enrichment factor, which indicate a widespread pollution by Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn in the studied sediments. For bioassays, aqueous and organic extracts were used to assess toxicity and genotoxicity in sediments by using Microtox(®) and SOS Chromotest, respectively. Toxicity levels were compared to metallic and organic pollutants contents. Our results highlight differences in the pattern of responses between the different assays and show no correlation with all the studied contaminants, emphasizing the influence of other contaminants not analyzed in the present study. Based on SQGs, the results of toxicity assessment indicated that adverse effects caused by Ni and Zn would be expected frequently. Nickel was found to have the highest predicted acute toxicity, followed by Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu and Cr. There was no significant relationship between sediment toxicity calculated from heavy metal concentrations (SQG approach) and those measured with bioassays. These findings support the use of integrated approachs for evaluating the environmental risks of sediments.

  11. Benthic flux measurements of Hg species in a northern Adriatic lagoon environment (Marano and Grado Lagoon, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emili, Andrea; Acquavita, Alessandro; Koron, Neža; Covelli, Stefano; Faganeli, Jadran; Horvat, Milena; Žižek, Suzana; Fajon, Vesna

    2012-11-01

    As part of the "MIRACLE" project, the biogeochemical cycling of mercury (Hg) at the sediment-water interface was studied in the field in the Marano and Grado Lagoon (Northern Adriatic Sea). Seasonal investigations were conducted at selected experimental sites, where Manila Clams (Tapes philippinarum) were previously seeded. Measurements were performed seasonally during three campaigns, using two benthic chambers, one transparent and one dark, to evaluate the effect of light on Hg cycling. Total dissolved Hg (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and dissolved gaseous Hg (DGM) species were considered. Diurnal benthic fluxes were found to significantly exceed the diffusive fluxes at all stations. The assessment of the annual recycling of Hg species from sediments to the water column showed that up to 99% of MeHg is recycled annually to the water column, while Hg recycling ranges from 30 to 60%. MeHg poses the higher risk for potential bioaccumulation in clams, but it is partially mitigated by Hg reduction, which seems to be an important process leading to evasion losses of Hg from these environments. Estimated benthic fluxes suggest that Hg recycling at the sediment-water interface is more active in the Grado sector. Hence, based on the estimated release of MeHg from sediments, it is suggested that the western sector seems to be more suitable for clam farming and the extension of rearing activities.

  12. Using an Integrated Approach to Assess the Sediment Quality of an Mediterranean Lagoon, the Bizerte Lagoon (Tunisia).

    PubMed

    Barhoumi, Badreddine; Elbarhoumi, Anis; Clérandeau, Christelle; Al-Rawabdeh, Abdulla M; Atyaoui, Atef; Touil, Soufiane; Driss, Mohamed Ridha; Cachot, Jérôme

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigates the quality of surface sediments from the Bizerte lagoon (North Tunisia) using an integrated approach including chemical contaminant analysis, bioassays and sediment quality guidelines (SQGs). Sediment samples were collected at 9 sites and analyzed for eight heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Fe and Mn). PAHs, PCBs, OCPs were measured previously in the same sediment samples. Our results indicated that the highest concentrations of metals were found near urban areas due to the municipial and industrial wastewater discharges. Sediment pollution assessment was carried out using geoaccumulation index and enrichment factor, which indicate a widespread pollution by Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn in the studied sediments. For bioassays, aqueous and organic extracts were used to assess toxicity and genotoxicity in sediments by using Microtox(®) and SOS Chromotest, respectively. Toxicity levels were compared to metallic and organic pollutants contents. Our results highlight differences in the pattern of responses between the different assays and show no correlation with all the studied contaminants, emphasizing the influence of other contaminants not analyzed in the present study. Based on SQGs, the results of toxicity assessment indicated that adverse effects caused by Ni and Zn would be expected frequently. Nickel was found to have the highest predicted acute toxicity, followed by Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu and Cr. There was no significant relationship between sediment toxicity calculated from heavy metal concentrations (SQG approach) and those measured with bioassays. These findings support the use of integrated approachs for evaluating the environmental risks of sediments. PMID:27146821

  13. Socio-economic appraisal of fishing community in Pulicat lagoon, south east coast of India: case study.

    PubMed

    Devi, V Vandhana; Krishnaveni, M

    2012-10-01

    Assessment of socio-economic issues of fishing community is an important aspect in framing a strategy for the preservation of eco-systems which leads to sustainable lagoon management. The present investigation analyses the current potential socio-economic status of the fishing community of Pulicat lagoon, the second largest lagoon in India. The socio-economic indicators considered in the study include demography, economic aspects, social aspects and occupation details. The relevant details were collected from 300 fisher folk family by conducting field survey through a well prepared questionnaire in the villages around Pulicat lagoon. The data analysis was done using Statistical Program for Social Sciences (SPSS) to assess the adequacy and precision of the collected data. The important and encouraging socio-economic indicators identified from the field survey for effective lagoon management includes significant presence of younger generation in the region; affinity and self-belongingness of fisher folk towards the lake; better economic status and moderate education level; appreciable fishing income and affinity towards fishing profession. It is emphasized to motivate the fisher folk to improve their work attitude for betterment in economic status. The pertinent lagoon issues, comprising seasonal variation, local fishing issues, pollution from industries, water intake to thermal power plant which directly or indirectly affects the socio-economic status of fishing community, also need much emphasis while proposing sustainable lagoon management system. The information and observation from this study will be very helpful in formulating management policies on the conservation of the Pulicat lagoon ecosystem.

  14. Temporal flux and spatial dynamics of nutrients, fecal indicators, and zoonotic pathogens in anaerobic swine manure lagoon water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine (Sus scrofa domestica) manure management in confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in the Mid-South US involves anaerobic lagoons. Lagoon effluent is used to irrigate and fertilize crops. Nutrients and bacteria in effluent have been sporadically characterized, but annual temporal changes...

  15. International Symposium on Coastal Lagoons. (Bordeaux, France, September 8-14, 1981). Unesco Technical Papers in Marine Science 43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    Lagoons and their characteristic coastal bay-mouth bars represent 15 percent of the world coastal zone. They are among the most productive ecosystems in the biosphere, this productivity resulting from the interplay of ocean and continent. An International Symposium on Coastal Lagoons (ISCOL) was held to: assess the state of knowledge in the…

  16. Enhanced stabilization of digested sludge during long-term storage in anaerobic lagoons.

    PubMed

    Lukicheva, Irina; Pagilla, Krishna; Tian, Guanglong; Cox, Albert; Granato, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    The goal of this work was to study changes in anaerobically stored digested sludge under different lengths of storage time to evaluate the quality of final product biosolids. The analyses of collected data suggest the organic matter degradation occurrence in the anaerobic environment of the lagoon approximately within the first year. After that, the degradation becomes very slow, which is likely caused by unfavorable environmental conditions. The performance of lagoon aging of digested sludge was also compared to the performance of lagoon aging of anaerobically digested and dewatered sludge. It was concluded that both of these processes result in biosolids of comparative quality and that the former provides more economical solution to biosolids handling by eliminating the need for mechanical dewatering. PMID:24851324

  17. Hydrogeochemistry Of A Modern Dolomite-Forming Lagoon System, Cabo Frio-RJ, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, N. F.; Walter, L. M.

    2004-12-01

    Two hypersaline, dolomite-forming lagoons near Cabo Frio, Brazil, and associated ground- and surface waters were sampled in a comparative sediment and fluid geochemical (solutes, stable isotopes) investigation. Although microbial mediation via sulfate reducers has been invoked to explain dolomite formation in these lagoons, we showed that dolomites are associated with sulfide oxidation (Moreira et al., 2004). Sulfide oxidation is thought to promote dolomite formation by causing undersaturation for competing carbonate phases such as Mg-calcite. Herein, we consider the larger hydrogeologic and temporal setting to further elucidate hydrogeochemical and geochemical constraints on rates and mechanisms of dolomite formation in the two lagoons. The lagoons, Brejo do Espinho (BE) and Lagoa Vermelha (LV), are shallow marginal marine systems flanked by quartz sand dunes separating them from Atlantic open seawater to the south and from Araruama lagoon, a large, hypersaline water body, to the north. In both lagoons, about 1 m of high Mg-calcite and dolomite mud has accumulated over the last 5,000 years on an underlying aquifer composed of highly permeable, quartz-rich coquinas. BE has a proximal relation to recharge from Araruama lagoon, while LV is more closely associated with meteoric recharge from lacustrine and riverine systems. BE is shallower, at 0.5 m water depth, than LV (2 m), permitting BE waters to remain oxic. Oxygen isotope values and chloride mass balances of pore waters and of fluids sampled from shallow ground water wells identify the different water and solute sources the lagoons. BE overlying brines and pore waters appear to be produced by evapoconcentration of Araruama source brines and meteoric precipitation. In contrast, LV derives from evapoconcentrated seawater mixed with regional lake and ground water sources. We envision a scenario in which dense, Mg-SO4-rich brines from Araruama migrate along a permeable flowpath in limited contact with the atmosphere

  18. Metagenomic analysis of microbiota structure evolution in phytoremediation of a swine lagoon wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jianfeng; Song, Zhaofeng; Wang, Liang; Zhu, Jun

    2016-11-01

    Pytoremediation was studied in this project to treat swine manure lagoon wastewater characteristic of high concentrations of organic carbon, ammonium (N) and phosphorus (P). The impacts of introducing exogenous microalgae Chlorella into the lagoon wastewater on the removal of major nutrients and the transformation of the native wastewater microbiota structure were explored under two phytoremediation modes (shake flask and CO2-air bubbling). The results showed that the inoculation of microalgae could significantly enhance N and P removal. Metagenomic analysis of the native microbiota composition in the wastewater affected by algae inoculation revealed that a substantial population of algicidal bacteria was developed in the shake flask system, while in the CO2-air bubbling system, a niche for more mutualistic bacteria was created, which benefited the maximal algal growth with the simultaneous optimal N and P removal. To our knowledge, this study presents, the first reported case of applying metagenomic approach to a phytoremediation system treating real swine lagoon wastewater. PMID:27518033

  19. Identification of pollution of Tapeng Lagoon from neighbouring rivers using multivariate statistical method.

    PubMed

    Liao, Shao-Wei; Gau, Hwa-Sheng; Lai, Wen-Liang; Chen, Jen-Jeng; Lee, Chang-Gai

    2008-07-01

    This work investigated water samples collected from Tapeng Lagoon and three neighbouring rivers (the Kaoping River, Tungkang River and Lingbeng River) in Taiwan, Republic of China. Canonical discriminant analysis was applied to identify the source of pollution in neighbouring rivers outside Tapeng Lagoon. The two constructed discriminant functions showed a marked contribution to all discriminant variables, and the total nitrogen, algae, dissolved oxygen and total phosphate were combined as the nutrient effect factor. The recognition capacities of the two discriminant functions were 95.6% and 4.4%, respectively. The water quality in the Kaoping River most strongly controlled the water quality in Tapeng Lagoon. Disassembling the oyster frames and fishery boxes had improved the water quality markedly. The methodology and results provide useful information concerning watershed management and may be applicable to other basins with similar properties that are experiencing similar coastal environmental issues. PMID:17482340

  20. A checklist of metazoan parasites of fish from Tres Palos Lagoon, Guerrero, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Violante-González, Juan; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma Leopoldina; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F

    2007-12-01

    An extensive survey of helminth parasites in fish species from Tres Palos Lagoon, in Guerrero, Mexico, resulted in identification of 39 metazoan parasite species (37 helminth and 2 crustaceans) in 13 fish species (n = 1,498). Specimen collection in this coastal lagoon was done between April 2000 and November 2003. Digenean species (18, 8 adult and 10 metacercariae) dominated the parasite fauna. The most widespread species of parasite were: Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda), Pseudoacanthostomum panamense, Austrodiplostomum compactum, Ascocotye (Phagicola) longa (Digenea), Neoechinorhynchus golvani (Acanthocephala), Ergasilus sp. (Copepoda), and Argulus sp. (Branchiura). Parasite fauna species composition exhibited a clear freshwater influence as 56.4% (22 of 39) of the identified species have a freshwater distribution in Mexico. For 32 of the parasite species, this report constitutes the first geographical host record for Tres Palos Lagoon, Guerrero, Mexico.