Science.gov

Sample records for 100-year flood elevation

  1. Base (100-year) flood elevations for selected sites in Livingston County, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southard, Rodney E.; Richards, Joseph M.

    2002-01-01

    The primary criteria for community participation in the National Flood Insurance Program is the adoption and enforcement of floodplain management requirements that minimize the potential for flood damages to existing and proposed development in flood-hazard areas. This report provides base flood elevations (BFE) for a 100-year recurrence-interval flood for use in the management and regulation of 18 flood-hazard areas designated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency as approximate Zone A areas in Livingston County, Missouri. The one-dimensional surface-water flow models HEC-RAS and Water-Surface PROfile (WSPRO) were used to compute base (100-year) flood elevations for 18 Zone A sites. The HEC-RAS model was used at BFE sites 1 to 6, 9, 10, and 15 to 18. The WSPRO model was used at BFE sites 7, 8, and 11 to 14. The 18 sites are all located in Livingston County, Missouri, at U.S., State, or County road crossings, and the base flood elevation was determined at the upstream side of each crossing. The base (100-year) flood elevations for BFE 1, 2, and 3 on Shoal Creek at Dawn and Shoal Creek Drainage Ditch near Dawn are 701.0, 701.0, and 696.5 feet, respectively. The base (100-year) flood elevations for BFE 4 and 5 on Indian Branch near Sampsel and a tributary to Indian Branch near Sampsel are 711.7 and 755.4 feet, respectively. Site BFE 6 is located on Honey Creek near Farmersville and the base (100-year) flood elevation for this site is 730.8 feet. One site (BFE 7) is located on No Creek near Farmersville. The base (100-year) flood elevation for this site is 731.3 feet. Site BFE 8 is located on Crooked Creek near Chillicothe and the base (100-year) elevation is 716.4 feet. One site (BFE 9) is located on a tributary to Coon Creek at Chillicothe. The base (100-year) flood elevation for this site is 734.9 feet. Two sites (BFE 10 and 11) are located on Blackwell Branch at Chillicothe. The base (100-year) flood elevation for BFE 10 is 738.9 feet and for BFE 11 is 701

  2. Base (100-year) flood elevations for selected sites in Marion County, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southard, Rodney E.; Wilson, Gary L.

    1998-01-01

    The primary requirement for community participation in the National Flood Insurance Program is the adoption and enforcement of floodplain management requirements that minimize the potential for flood damages to new construction and avoid aggravating existing flooding conditions. This report provides base flood elevations (BFE) for a 100-year recurrence flood for use in the management and regulation of 14 flood-hazard areas designated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency as approximate Zone A areas in Marion County, Missouri. The one-dimensional surface-water flow model, HEC-RAS, was used to compute the base (100-year) flood elevations for the 14 Zone A sites. The 14 sites were located at U.S., State, or County road crossings and the base flood elevation was determined at the upstream side of each crossing. The base (100-year) flood elevations for BFE 1, 2, and 3 on the South Fork North River near Monroe City, Missouri, are 627.7, 579.2, and 545.9 feet above sea level. The base (100-year) flood elevations for BFE 4, 5, 6, and 7 on the main stem of the North River near or at Philadelphia and Palmyra, Missouri, are 560.5, 539.7, 504.2, and 494.4 feet above sea level. BFE 8 is located on Big Branch near Philadelphia, a tributary to the North River, and the base (100-year) flood elevation at this site is 530.5 feet above sea level. One site (BFE 9) is located on the South River near Monroe City, Missouri. The base (100-year) flood elevation at this site is 619.1 feet above sea level. Site BFE 10 is located on Bear Creek near Hannibal, Missouri, and the base (100-year) elevation is 565.5 feet above sea level. The four remaining sites (BFE 11, 12, 13, and 14) are located on the South Fabius River near Philadelphia and Palmyra, Missouri. The base (100-year) flood elevations for BFE 11, 12, 13, and 14 are 591.2, 578.4, 538.7, and 506.9 feet above sea level.

  3. 100-Year Flood-It's All About Chance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Jr., Robert R.; Dinicola, Karen

    2010-01-01

    In the 1960's, the United States government decided to use the 1-percent annual exceedance probability (AEP) flood as the basis for the National Flood Insurance Program. The 1-percent AEP flood was thought to be a fair balance between protecting the public and overly stringent regulation. Because the 1-percent AEP flood has a 1 in 100 chance of being equaled or exceeded in any 1 year, and it has an average recurrence interval of 100 years, it often is referred to as the '100-year flood'. The term '100-year flood' is part of the national lexicon, but is often a source of confusion by those not familiar with flood science and statistics. This poster is an attempt to explain the concept, probabilistic nature, and inherent uncertainties of the '100-year flood' to the layman.

  4. Technique for estimating depths of 100-year floods in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flippo, Herbert N., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Techniques are developed for estimating 100-year flood depths in natural channels of unregulated Pennsylvania streams that drain less than 2,200 square miles. Equations and graphs are presented relating the depth of the 100-year flood above median stage and drainage area in five defined hydrologic areas in the State. Another graph defines the relation between drainage area and median depth of flow over the low point of riffles. Thus 100-year depths on riffles can be estimated by summing depth values derived from two simple relations.

  5. Water-surface profile and flood boundaries for the computed 100-year flood, Muddy Creek, Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Omang, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    Hydrologic and hydraulic evaluations of Muddy Creek were made to determine the magnitude of the 100-year flood and the extent of flooding that would occur as the result of this flood. Forty-three cross sections were surveyed and 14 cross sections were synthesized along a 6.7-mile reach of Muddy Creek. Data from the surveys were used to calculate the water-surface flood elevation at each cross section using a computer program (WSPRO) developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The water-surface profile of the computed 100-year flood elevations was then drawn. The profile shows the streambed elevation and the location of one bridge, one culvert, and cross sections. The computed 100-year flood elevation at each cross section was used to delineate the width of the flood plain at that section. Flood boundaries between cross sections were interpolated using contour lines on topographic maps.

  6. Water-surface profile and flood boundaries for the computed 100-year flood, Rosebud Creek, Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Omang, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Hydrologic and hydraulic evaluations of Rosebud Creek were made to determine the magnitude of the 100-year flood and the extent of flooding that would occur as the result of this flood. The magnitude of the 100-year flood was determined to range from 2,620 to 3,980 ft3/s, depending on location. Field surveys were made at 149 cross sections along a 39-mile reach of Rosebud Creek. An additional 33 cross sections along the same reach were synthesized. Data from the surveys were used to calculate the water-surface elevation at each cross section using a computer program (WSPRO) developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The water-surface profile of the computed 100-year flood elevations was then drawn. The profile also shows the streambed elevation and the location of the bridges and cross sections. The computed 100-year flood elevation at each cross section was used to delineate the width of the flood plain at that section. Flood boundaries between cross sections were interpolated using contour lines on topographic maps.

  7. Flood boundaries and water-surface profile for the computed 100-year flood, Swift Creek at Afton, Wyoming, 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rankl, James G.; Wallace, Joe C.

    1989-01-01

    Flood flows on Swift Creek near Afton, Wyoming, were analyzed. Peak discharge with an average recurrence interval of 100 years was computed and used to determine the flood boundaries and water surface profile in the study reach. The study was done in cooperation with Lincoln County and the Town of Afton to determine the extent of flooding in the Town of Afton from a 100-year flood on Swift Creek. The reach of Swift Creek considered in the analysis extends upstream from the culvert at Allred County Road No. 12-135 to the US Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station located in the Bridger National Forest , a distance of 3.2 miles. Boundaries of the 100-year flood are delineated on a map using the computed elevation of the flood at each cross section, survey data, and a 1983 aerial photograph. The computed water surface elevation for the 100-year flood was plotted at each cross section, then the lateral extent of the flood was transferred to the flood map. Boundaries between cross sections were sketched using information taken from the aerial photograph. Areas that are inundated, but not part of the active flow, are designated on the cross sections. (Lantz-PTT)

  8. Water-surface profile and flood boundaries for the computed 100-year flood, Lame Deer Creek, Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Omang, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    Hydrologic and hydraulic evaluations of Lame Deer Creek were made to determine the magnitude of the 100-year flood and the extent of flooding that would occur as the result of this flood. SixtY-six cross sections were Surveyed and 25 cross sections were synthesized along a 9.5-mile reach of Lame Deer Creek. Data from the surveys were used to calculate the water-surface elevation at each cross section using a computer program (WSPRO) developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The water-surface profile of the computed 100-year flood elevations was then drawn. The profile shows the streambed elevation and the location of the bridge, culverts, and cross sections. The computed 100-year flood elevation at each cross section was used to delineate the width of the flood plain at that section. Flood boundaries between cross sections were interpolated using contour lines on topographic maps.

  9. Technique for estimating depth of 100-year floods in Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gamble, Charles R.; Lewis, James G.

    1977-01-01

    Preface: A method is presented for estimating the depth of the loo-year flood in four hydrologic areas in Tennessee. Depths at 151 gaging stations on streams that were not significantly affected by man made changes were related to basin characteristics by multiple regression techniques. Equations derived from the analysis can be used to estimate the depth of the loo-year flood if the size of the drainage basin is known.

  10. Water-surface profile and flood boundaries for the computed 100-year flood, Big Muddy Creek, Fort Peck Indian Reservation and adjacent area, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Omang, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    Hydrologic and hydraulic evaluations of Big Muddy Creek were made to determine the magnitude of the 100-year flood and the extent of flooding that would occur as the result of this flood. The magnitude of the 100-year flood was determined to range from 13,600 to 20,400 ft3/s, depending on location. Field surveys were made at 39 cross sections along a 41-mile reach of Big Muddy Creek. An additional two cross sections along the same reach were synthesized. Data from the surveys were used to calculate the water-surface elevation at each cross section using a computer program (WSPRO) developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The water-surface profile of the computed 100-year flood elevations was then drawn. The profile also shows the streambed elevation and the location of the bridges and cross sections. The computed 100-year flood elevation at each cross section was used to delineate the width of the flood plain at that section. Flood boundaries between cross sections were interpolated using contour lines on topographic maps.

  11. Flood risk management in the Thames Estuary looking ahead 100 years.

    PubMed

    Lavery, Sarah; Donovan, Bill

    2005-06-15

    The River Thames tidal defences have provided protection against the increasing threat of tidal flooding from the North Sea for more than 2000 years. The flood of 1953 was the catalyst for the construction of the current system of River Thames tidal defences, which includes the Thames Barrier, and has provided one of the best standards of flood defence in the UK for over 20 years. Substantial growth is planned through "Thames Gateway", a regeneration initiative of the United Kingdom government. These new developments will fundamentally change the developed footprint in the Thames Estuary flood-plain, and will be in place for at least the next 100 years. This presents a challenge of planning future defence against a background of uncertainty over climate and other environmental change, while ensuring that correct decisions are made concerning the nature and location of new building in the tidal flood-plain. Through its "Thames Estuary 2100" project, the Environment Agency is developing a long-term strategy for flood risk management in the estuary. Implementation of major construction works on the River Thames could commence from around 2015. Alternatively, it may be decided that minimum works are undertaken to provide security and major investment is delayed until uncertainties over climate change have abated. Whatever long-term option is chosen, this must be preceded by a period of collaboration with the Thames Gateway developments to ensure appropriate and sustainable flood defences are incorporated in new riverside construction. PMID:16191661

  12. A technique for estimating heights reached by the 100-year flood on unregulated, nontidal streams in North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coble, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    A method for estimating the heights reached by floods having a recurrence interval of 100 years is defined for nontidal streams with unregulated flows in North Carolina. The flood heights are the vertical distance between stream stage at median discharge (50 percent duration) and the 100-year flood stage and are defined for streams draining areas between 1 and 10,000 square miles for each of the three physiographic areas in the State. An illustrated example of how the method can be used in conjunction with topographic maps to estimate flood heights and delineate inundated areas by interpolation is given.

  13. Combining Neural Networks with Existing Methods to Estimate 1 in 100-Year Flood Event Magnitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newson, A.; See, L.

    2005-12-01

    Over the last fifteen years artificial neural networks (ANN) have been shown to be advantageous for the solution of many hydrological modelling problems. The use of ANNs for flood magnitude estimation in ungauged catchments, however, is a relatively new and under researched area. In this paper ANNs are used to make estimates of the magnitude of the 100-year flood event (Q100) for a number of ungauged catchments. The data used in this study were provided by the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology's Flood Estimation Handbook (FEH), which contains information on catchments across the UK. Sixteen catchment descriptors for 719 catchments were used to train an ANN, which was split into a training, validation and test data set. The goodness-of-fit statistics on the test data set indicated good model performance, with an r-squared value of 0.8 and a coefficient of efficiency of 79 percent. Data for twelve ungauged catchments were then put through the trained ANN to produce estimates of Q100. Two other accepted methodologies were also employed: the FEH statistical method and the FSR (Flood Studies Report) design storm technique, both of which are used to produce flood frequency estimates. The advantage of developing an ANN model is that it provides a third figure to aid a hydrologist in making an accurate estimate. For six of the twelve catchments, there was a relatively low spread between estimates. In these instances, an estimate of Q100 could be made with a fair degree of certainty. Of the remaining six catchments, three had areas greater than 1000km2, which means the FSR design storm estimate cannot be used. Armed with the ANN model and the FEH statistical method the hydrologist still has two possible estimates to consider. For these three catchments, the estimates were also fairly similar, providing additional confidence to the estimation. In summary, the findings of this study have shown that an accurate estimation of Q100 can be made using the catchment descriptors of

  14. Caspian tern reproduction in the Saginaw Bay ecosystem following a 100-year flood event

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, James P.; Auman, Heidi J.; Kurita, Hiroko; Ludwig, Matthew E.; Campbell, Loraine M.; Giesy, John P.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Jones, Paul; Yamashita, Nobu; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Tatsukawa, Ryo

    1993-01-01

    In the 2 years that followed the 100-year flood incident of September 1986 in the Saginaw River/Bay ecosystem, the reproduction of Caspian terns collapsed and then slowly recovered. Egg viability and fledging rates of hatched chicks were drastically depressed in 1987 and 1988. Eggs from clutches laid later in the year were less viable and chicks hatched from these eggs displayed wasting syndromes and deformities. The post-flood rate of deformities in hatched chicks in 1987–1989 was 163-fold greater than background rates for this population in 1962–1967. Embryonic abnormalities and deformities were found in many embryos recovered from dead eggs. Recently published data on planar toxic chemicals from samples of forage fish, tern eggs, and chicks from water birds nesting in the bay implicate planar dioxin-like PCBs 77 and 126 as the sources of these severe bioeffects. The planar PCB congeners accounted for >98% of TCDD-EQ toxicity in the tern eggs, and several were present at levels near or at the LD95 levels each for chicken eggs. Actual TCDD was about 1% of the TCDD-EQ toxicity. Very rapid buildup rates of PCBs were measured in tern eggs. The calculated toxic potency of PCB recovered from tern eggs was about 15-fold greater than parent aroclor 1242 PCB. Smaller tern species were projected to be much more at risk than the larger Caspian tern due to greater standard metabolic rates. The study supports the view that sediment disturbance and sediment banks of toxic chemicals are major threats to upper trophic level fish-eating species.

  15. Simulation of water-surface elevations for a hypothetical 100-year peak flow in Birch Creek at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Berenbrock, C.; Kjelstrom, L.C.

    1997-10-01

    Delineation of areas at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory that would be inundated by a 100-year peak flow in Birch Creek is needed by the US Department of Energy to fulfill flood-plain regulatory requirements. Birch Creek flows southward about 40 miles through an alluvium-filled valley onto the northern part of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental laboratory site on the eastern Snake River Plain. The lower 10-mile reach of Birch Creek that ends in Birch Creek Playa near several Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory facilities is of particular concern. Twenty-six channel cross sections were surveyed to develop and apply a hydraulic model to simulate water-surface elevations for a hypothetical 100-year peak flow in Birch Creek. Model simulation of the 100-year peak flow (700 cubic feet per second) in reaches upstream from State Highway 22 indicated that flow was confined within channels even when all flow was routed to one channel. Where the highway crosses Birch Creek, about 315 cubic feet per second of water was estimated to move downstream--115 cubic feet per second through a culvert and 200 cubic feet per second over the highway. Simulated water-surface elevation at this crossing was 0.8 foot higher than the elevation of the highway. The remaining 385 cubic feet per second flowed southwestward in a trench along the north side of the highway. Flow also was simulated with the culvert removed. The exact location of flood boundaries on Birch Creek could not be determined because of the highly braided channel and the many anthropogenic features (such as the trench, highway, and diversion channels) in the study area that affect flood hydraulics and flow. Because flood boundaries could not be located exactly, only a generalized flood-prone map was developed.

  16. Comparison of the 2-, 25-, and 100-year recurrence interval floods computed from observed data with the 1995 urban flood-frequency estimating equations for Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Inman, Ernest J.

    1997-01-01

    Flood-frequency relations were computed for 28 urban stations, for 2-, 25-, and 100-year recurrence interval floods and the computations were compared to corresponding recurrence interval floods computed from the estimating equations from a 1995 investigation. Two stations were excluded from further comparisons or analyses because neither station had a significant flood during the period of observed record. The comparisons, based on the student's t-test statistics at the 0.05 level of significance, indicate that the mean residuals of the 25- and 100-year floods were negatively biased by 26.2 percent and 31.6 percent, respectively, at the 26 stations. However, the mean residuals of the 2-year floods were 2.5 percent lower than the mean of the 2-year floods computed from the equations, and were not significantly biased. The reason for this negative bias is that the period of observed record at the 26 stations was a relatively dry period. At 25 of the 26 stations, the two highest simulated peaks used to develop the estimating equations occurred many years before the observed record began. However, no attempt was made to adjust the estimating equations because higher peaks could occur after the period of observed record and an adjustment to the equations would cause an underestimation of design floods.

  17. Determination of 100-year floodplain elevations at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    McLin, S.G.

    1992-08-01

    Under existing permit requirements. the US Environmental Protection Agency stipulates that facilities regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act must delineate all 100-yr floodplain elevations within their boundaries. At Los Alamos these floodplains are located within ungaged watersheds that drain Pajarito Plateau. This report documents the floodplain computational mapping procedure and, along with supporting maps, is untended to satisfy this permit requirement.

  18. Determination of the 100-year flood plain on Upper Three Runs and selected tributaries, and the Savannah River at the Savannah River site, South Carolina, 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanier, T.H.

    1996-01-01

    The 100-year flood plain was determined for Upper Three Runs, its tributaries, and the part of the Savannah River that borders the Savannah River Site. The results are provided in tabular and graphical formats. The 100-year flood-plain maps and flood profiles provide water-resource managers of the Savannah River Site with a technical basis for making flood-plain management decisions that could minimize future flood problems and provide a basis for designing and constructing drainage structures along roadways. A hydrologic analysis was made to estimate the 100-year recurrence- interval flow for Upper Three Runs and its tributaries. The analysis showed that the well-drained, sandy soils in the head waters of Upper Three Runs reduce the high flows in the stream; therefore, the South Carolina upper Coastal Plain regional-rural-regression equation does not apply for Upper Three Runs. Conse- quently, a relation was established for 100-year recurrence-interval flow and drainage area using streamflow data from U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations on Upper Three Runs. This relation was used to compute 100-year recurrence-interval flows at selected points along the stream. The regional regression equations were applicable for the tributaries to Upper Three Runs, because the soil types in the drainage basins of the tributaries resemble those normally occurring in upper Coastal Plain basins. This was verified by analysis of the flood-frequency data collected from U.S. Geological Survey gaging station 02197342 on Fourmile Branch. Cross sections were surveyed throughout each reach, and other pertinent data such as flow resistance and land-use were col- lected. The surveyed cross sections and computed 100-year recurrence-interval flows were used in a step-backwater model to compute the 100-year flood profile for Upper Three Runs and its tributaries. The profiles were used to delineate the 100-year flood plain on topographic maps. The Savannah River forms the southwestern border

  19. 76 FR 62329 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations... 46715-46716 was printed incorrectly. It was corrected and appears below: * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) Depth in feet above Flooding source(s) Location of referenced ground...

  20. 75 FR 5930 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... published on May 26, 2009, at 74 FR 24729. The table for Ransom County, North Dakota, and Incorporated Areas... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY...% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the...

  1. 75 FR 59188 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  2. 75 FR 43479 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  3. 76 FR 43968 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  4. 76 FR 66887 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  5. 76 FR 19005 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  6. 75 FR 5929 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... published on September 8, 2009, at 74 FR 46047. The table for Carroll County, Arkansas, and Incorporated... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY...% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the...

  7. 75 FR 67310 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ...Comments are requested on the proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities listed in the table below. The purpose of this notice is to seek general information and comment regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream locations in the table below. The BFEs and modified......

  8. Flood elevations for the Soleduck River at Sol Duc Hot Springs, Clallam County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Elevations and inundation areas of a 100-year flood of the Soleduck River, Washington, were determined by the U.S. Geological Survey for the area in the vicinity of the Sol Duc Hot Springs resort, a public facility in the Olympic National Park that under Federal law must be located beyond or protected from damage by a 100-year flood. Results show that most flooding could be eliminated by raising parts of an existing dike. In general, little flood damage is expected, except at the southern end of an undeveloped airstrip that could become inundated and hazardous due to flow from a tributary. The airstrip is above the 100-year flood of the Soleduck River.

  9. 75 FR 3885 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations... locations above. Please refer to the revised Flood Insurance Rate Map located at the community...

  10. 76 FR 13570 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... notice provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 74 FR 47169. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, effective.... Specifically, it addresses the flooding source South Creek. DATES: Comments are to be submitted on or...

  11. 77 FR 15664 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ..., Kentucky'' addressed the flooding sources Little River (backwater effects from Lake Barkley) and Little... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 76 FR 46701. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, and...

  12. 76 FR 70403 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... that the community is required either to adopt or to show evidence of having in effect in order to... Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) for the proposed BFEs for each community is available for inspection at...

  13. 75 FR 55515 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... that the community is required either to adopt or to show evidence of having in effect in order to... Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) for the proposed BFEs for each community is available for inspection at...

  14. 76 FR 73537 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... recordkeeping requirements. Accordingly, 44 CFR part 67 is proposed to be amended as follows: PART 67-- 1. The....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p....

  15. 76 FR 50443 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations Correction In proposed rule document 2011-16640 appearing on pages 39063 through 39067 in the issue...

  16. 76 FR 43966 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 75 FR 31342. The... rule published at 75 FR 31342, in the June 3, 2010, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published a... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations...

  17. 76 FR 12308 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations Correction In proposed rule document 2011-2281 beginning on page 5769 in the issue of Wednesday, February...

  18. 77 FR 18766 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations... located on the stream reach between the referenced locations above. Please refer to the revised...

  19. 75 FR 28497 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This final rule involves no policies that... 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.11 0 2... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations...

  20. 76 FR 8330 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations Correction In proposed rule document 2011-1061, appearing on pages 3590-3595, in the issue of...

  1. 76 FR 61279 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations Correction In rule document 2011-15507, beginning on page 36373, in the issue of Wednesday June 22, 2011,...

  2. 76 FR 61070 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations Correction In proposed rule document 2010-31549 appearing on pages 78664-78666 in the issue of December...

  3. 44 CFR 67.4 - Proposed flood elevation determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Note: For references to FR pages showing lists of flood elevation determinations, see the List of CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Proposed flood elevation..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS...

  4. 44 CFR 67.4 - Proposed flood elevation determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Note: For references to FR pages showing lists of flood elevation determinations, see the List of CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Proposed flood elevation..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS...

  5. 44 CFR 67.4 - Proposed flood elevation determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Note: For references to FR pages showing lists of flood elevation determinations, see the List of CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Proposed flood elevation..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS...

  6. 44 CFR 67.4 - Proposed flood elevation determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Note: For references to FR pages showing lists of flood elevation determinations, see the List of CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Proposed flood elevation..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS...

  7. 44 CFR 67.4 - Proposed flood elevation determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Note: For references to FR pages showing lists of flood elevation determinations, see the List of CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Proposed flood elevation..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS...

  8. 10. VIEW OF THE SOUTH ELEVATION AND THE FLOOD GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF THE SOUTH ELEVATION AND THE FLOOD GATE ON THE PRESSURE CULVERT, LOOKING NORTH. - Wyoming Valley Flood Control System, Woodward Pumping Station, East of Toby Creek crossing by Erie-Lackawanna Railroad, Edwardsville, Luzerne County, PA

  9. [100 years of ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Nover, A

    1982-12-16

    100 years ago ophthalmology was already an own special sector of medicine. In 1850, when Hermann von Helmholtz invented the ophthalmoscope, the beginning of modern ophthalmology was established. The "Ophthalmologische Gesellschaft" was founded in 1863. From thereon major advances in all divisions of ophthalmology were achieved. Some outstanding personalities and highlights are mentioned.

  10. Tuskegee: 100 Years Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Renelda

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the history and accomplishments of Tuskegee Institute over the past 100 years. Highlights the role played by Booker T. Washington, and W. E. B. DuBois; discusses the career of the school's retiring president, Luther Foster. Provides information on the new president, Dr. Benjamin Payton, and discusses future directions for the college. (APM)

  11. 76 FR 43965 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... FR 70944. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations... buildings. Correction In the proposed rule published at 73 FR 70944, in the November 24, 2008, issue of the... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation...

  12. 78 FR 29696 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Lake County, Illinois, and Incorporated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... rulemaking at 76 FR 39063, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more flooding sources in... Flood Insurance Study report, featuring no new flood hazard analysis and unchanged base flood elevations... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations...

  13. 77 FR 55787 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Hampden County, MA, and Incorporated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... proposed rulemaking at 74 FR 46047, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more flooding... affected community's local newspaper following issuance of a revised preliminary Flood Insurance Rate...

  14. 75 FR 47751 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ...). Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Atlantic Ocean, Bonny Eagle Pond, Casco Bay... ``Cumberland County, Maine, and Incorporated Areas'' addressed the following flooding sources: Atlantic Ocean... Jurisdictions) Atlantic Ocean Along the shoreline at +8 +12 Town of Cape Elizabeth. the intersection...

  15. 75 FR 50955 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... addresses the following flooding sources: Atlantic Ocean, Bonny Eagle Pond, Cape Porpoise Harbor, Cleaves... County, Maine (All Jurisdictions)'' addressed the following flooding sources: Atlantic Ocean, Cape..., Maine (All Jurisdictions) Atlantic Ocean Along the shoreline, at +11 +12 City of Biddeford, Town...

  16. 75 FR 18073 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... communities where modification of the Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) is appropriate because of new scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will be calculated from the... new scientific or technical data. The modifications are made pursuant to section 201 of the...

  17. 75 FR 18090 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... communities where modification of the Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) is appropriate because of new scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will be calculated from the... new scientific or technical data. The modifications are made pursuant to section 201 of the...

  18. Elevated view of city from incline Johnstown Local Flood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevated view of city from incline - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  19. 77 FR 66790 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Madison County, AL and Incorporated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... rulemaking at 76 FR 21695, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more flooding sources in... newspaper following issuance of a revised preliminary Flood Insurance Rate Map and Flood Insurance...

  20. 78 FR 75542 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Fayette County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... rulemaking at 75 FR 61377, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more flooding sources in... Fayette County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions) AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION... proposed rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Fayette County, Pennsylvania...

  1. 78 FR 28779 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Armstrong County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... proposed rulemaking at 75 FR 67304, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more flooding... Armstrong County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions) AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION... proposed rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Armstrong County, Pennsylvania...

  2. 78 FR 28780 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Beaver County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... rulemaking at 75 FR 61377, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more flooding sources in... Beaver County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions) AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION... proposed rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Beaver County, Pennsylvania...

  3. 77 FR 66791 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Allegheny County, PA (All Jurisdictions)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... proposed rulemaking at 76 FR 72661, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more flooding... Allegheny County, PA (All Jurisdictions) AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Proposed... rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Allegheny County, Pennsylvania...

  4. 78 FR 28780 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Greene County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... rulemaking at 76 FR 26978, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more flooding sources in... Greene County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions) AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION... proposed rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Greene County, Pennsylvania...

  5. 76 FR 12665 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... notice provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 74 FR 47169... rule published at 74 FR 47169, in the September 15, 2009, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published... Areas. Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Hungry Hollow Gulch, Ice House...

  6. 77 FR 50665 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... notice provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 75 FR 55515... rule published at 75 FR 55515, in the September 13, 2010, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published... addresses the flooding sources Allegheny River, East Sandy Creek, and Sugar Creek. DATES: Comments are to...

  7. 77 FR 67324 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 76 FR 73537. The...). Specifically, it addresses the flooding sources Big Run, Little Loyalsock Creek, Loyalsock Creek, and Muncy... In the proposed rule published at 76 FR 73537, in the November 29, 2011, issue of the...

  8. 76 FR 26982 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 73 FR 70944. The.... Specifically, it addresses the flooding source Licking River (Cave Run Lake). DATES: Comments are to be...- 1021, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and...

  9. 77 FR 67325 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 76 FR 70397. The.... Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Baraboo River, Devil's Lake Tributary (backwater effects from Baraboo River), Hay Creek (backwater effects from Baraboo River), Little Baraboo...

  10. 78 FR 22222 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... published at 75 FR 55515 and 77 FR 73394. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location... buildings. Correction In the proposed rule published at 75 FR 55515 in the September 13, 2010, issue of the... were subsequently published at 77 FR ] 73394 in the December 10, 2012, issue of the Federal...

  11. 78 FR 14738 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... published at 75 FR 62061 and at 77 FR 55785. The table provided here represents the flooding sources... In the proposed rule published at 75 FR 62061, in the October 7, 2010, issue of the Federal Register... published at 77 FR 55785 in the September 11, 2012 issue of the Federal Register under the authority of...

  12. 76 FR 50443 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... Atlantic Ocean, to be used in lieu of that published on June 20, 2008. In the correction published at 74 FR..., Accord Brook, Atlantic Ocean, Bear Swamp, Doggett Brook, Fall Brook, French Stream, Great Quittacas Pond... Incorporated Areas'' addressed the flooding source Atlantic Ocean. That table contained inaccurate...

  13. 76 FR 9714 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... In the proposed rule published at 76 FR 1121, in the January 7, 2011, issue of the Federal Register... previously published proposed rule at 76 FR 1121. (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance No. 97.022, ``Flood... location approximately 216 feet downstream of Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway should have been...

  14. 75 FR 64165 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    .... Interested lessees and owners of real property are encouraged to review the proof Flood Insurance Study and... Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order....C. 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44...

  15. 78 FR 9831 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... and owners of real property are encouraged to review the proof Flood Insurance Study and FIRM... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132... et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3...

  16. 77 FR 66785 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... combines all three notices to be used in lieu of the information published at 73 FR 4144, 75 FR 59192 and 76 FR 46705. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced... rule published 76 FR 46705, in the August 3, 2011 issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published a...

  17. 77 FR 51744 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... buildings. Correction In the proposed rule published at 74 FR 66602, in the December 16, 2009, issue of the... proposed rule at 74 FR 66602. (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance No. 97.022, ``Flood Insurance... may submit comments, identified by Docket No. FEMA-B- 1083, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief,...

  18. 76 FR 45215 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 74 FR 55168. The... rule published at 74 FR 55168, in the October 27, 2009, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published a.... Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Dry Run Creek, Illinois River, and Kickapoo...

  19. 77 FR 51743 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 75 FR 78654. The... for the contents in those buildings. Correction In the proposed rule published at 75 FR 78654, in the... addresses the flooding sources Newmarket Creek, Newmarket Creek Tributary, Stoney Run, Stoney Run-...

  20. 76 FR 19018 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... corresponding preliminary Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) for the proposed BFEs for each community is available for inspection at the community's map repository. The respective addresses are listed in the table... FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables published under the authority of Sec....

  1. 76 FR 70397 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... community's map repository. The respective addresses are listed in the table below. You may submit comments... with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42 U.S.C. 4104, and 44 CFR 67.4(a....S.C. 601- 612, a regulatory flexibility analysis is not required. Executive Order 12866,...

  2. 77 FR 49360 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42 U.S.C. 4104, and 44 CFR part 67. FEMA has developed criteria....S.C. 601- 612, a regulatory flexibility analysis is not required. Regulatory Classification. This... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order...

  3. 75 FR 62057 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... County. Approximately 1 mile None +342 downstream of State Highway 274. Duck Creek Approximately 925 feet... 75142. (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance No. 97.022, ``Flood Insurance.'') Dated: September...

  4. 76 FR 26981 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 76 FR 8978. The... buildings. Corrections In the proposed rule published at 76 FR 8978, in the February 16, 2011, issue of the.... Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Cache Creek, Cache Creek Left Bank Overflow,...

  5. Morphological Analyses and Simulated Flood Elevations in a Watershed with Dredged and Leveed Stream Channels, Wheeling Creek, Eastern Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherwood, James M.; Huitger, Carrie A.; Ebner, Andrew D.; Koltun, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    -sectional area, the mean percentage differences between the measured and estimated values were -16.0 and -11.2, respectively. The predominantly negative bias in differences between the measured and estimated values indicates that bankfull mean depths and cross-sectional areas in studied reaches generally are smaller than the regional trend. This may be an indication of channel filling and over widening or it may reflect insufficient representation in the regional dataset of basins with characteristics like that of Wheeling Creek. Step-backwater models were constructed for four previously dredged reaches to determine the height of levees required to contain floods with recurrence intervals of 2, 10, 50, and 100 years. Existing levees (all of which are uncertified) were found to contain the 100-year flood at only 20 percent of the surveyed cross sections. At the other 80 percent of the surveyed cross sections, levee heights would have to be raised an average of 2.5 feet and as much as 6.3 feet to contain the 100-year flood. Step-backwater models also were constructed for three undredged reaches to assess the impacts of selected dredging and streambed aggradation scenarios on water-surface elevations corresponding to the 2-, 10-, 50-, and 100-year floods. Those models demonstrated that changes in water-surface elevations associated with a given depth of dredging were proportionately smaller for larger floods due to the fact that more of the flood waters are outside of the main channel. For example, 2.0 feet of dredging in the three study reaches would lower the water-surface elevation an average of 1.30 feet for the 2-year flood and 0.64 feet for the 100-year flood.

  6. 78 FR 27 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs are made final for the communities listed below. The BFEs and modified BFEs are the basis for the floodplain management measures that each community is required either to... Rate Map (FIRM) showing BFEs and modified BFEs for each community. This date may be obtained...

  7. 78 FR 14700 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs are made final for the communities listed below. The BFEs and modified BFEs are the basis for the floodplain management measures that each community is required either to... Rate Map (FIRM) showing BFEs and modified BFEs for each community. This date may be obtained...

  8. 78 FR 29654 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs are made final for the communities listed below. The BFEs and modified BFEs are the basis for the floodplain management measures that each community is required either to... Rate Map (FIRM) showing BFEs and modified BFEs for each community. This date may be obtained...

  9. 78 FR 14697 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs are made final for the communities listed below. The BFEs and modified BFEs are the basis for the floodplain management measures that each community is required either to... Rate Map (FIRM) showing BFEs and modified BFEs for each community. This date may be obtained...

  10. 78 FR 21273 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs are made final for the communities listed below. The BFEs and modified BFEs are the basis for the floodplain management measures that each community is required either to... Rate Map (FIRM) showing BFEs and modified BFEs for each community. This date may be obtained...

  11. 76 FR 8906 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs are made final for the communities listed below. The BFEs and modified BFEs are the basis for the floodplain management measures that each community is required either to... Rate Map (FIRM) showing BFEs and modified BFEs for each community. This date may be obtained...

  12. 78 FR 21272 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs are made final for the communities listed below. The BFEs and modified BFEs are the basis for the floodplain management measures that each community is required either to... Rate Map (FIRM) showing BFEs and modified BFEs for each community. This date may be obtained...

  13. 78 FR 33991 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs are made final for the communities listed below. The BFEs and modified BFEs are the basis for the floodplain management measures that each community is required either to... Rate Map (FIRM) showing BFEs and modified BFEs for each community. This date may be obtained...

  14. 77 FR 74142 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... buildings. Correction In the proposed rule published at 75 FR 29238 and 76 FR 62006, in the May 25, 2010 and... elevations, and communities affected for Iron County, Utah, and Incorporated Areas. Specifically, it... of 44 CFR 67.4. The tables, entitled ``Iron County, Utah, and Incorporated Areas'' addressed...

  15. 75 FR 61358 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    .... These modified elevations have been published in newspapers of local circulation and ninety (90) days... Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order....C. 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44...

  16. 44 CFR 67.3 - Establishment and maintenance of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD). 67.3 Section 67.3 Emergency Management and... MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS FROM PROPOSED FLOOD ELEVATION DETERMINATIONS § 67.3 Establishment and maintenance of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD). The Federal...

  17. 44 CFR 67.3 - Establishment and maintenance of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD). 67.3 Section 67.3 Emergency Management and... MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS FROM PROPOSED FLOOD ELEVATION DETERMINATIONS § 67.3 Establishment and maintenance of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD). The Federal...

  18. 44 CFR 67.3 - Establishment and maintenance of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD). 67.3 Section 67.3 Emergency Management and... MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS FROM PROPOSED FLOOD ELEVATION DETERMINATIONS § 67.3 Establishment and maintenance of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD). The Federal...

  19. 44 CFR 67.3 - Establishment and maintenance of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD). 67.3 Section 67.3 Emergency Management and... MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS FROM PROPOSED FLOOD ELEVATION DETERMINATIONS § 67.3 Establishment and maintenance of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD). The Federal...

  20. 44 CFR 67.3 - Establishment and maintenance of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD). 67.3 Section 67.3 Emergency Management and... MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS FROM PROPOSED FLOOD ELEVATION DETERMINATIONS § 67.3 Establishment and maintenance of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD). The Federal...

  1. NETL: The First 100 Years

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-21

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory celebrates 100 years of innovative energy technology development. NETL has been a leader in energy technology development. This video takes a look back at the many accomplishments over the past 100 years. These advances benefit the American people, enhance our nation's energy security and protect our natural resources.

  2. 77 FR 76998 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Nobles County, MN, and Incorporated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... proposed rulemaking at 76 FR 23528, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more flooding... Nobles County, MN, and Incorporated Areas AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS....

  3. 77 FR 59767 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132... seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 65 Changes in Flood Elevation...

  4. 77 FR 20727 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 65 Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations Correction In rule document 2011-33772 appearing on pages 423-425 in the issue of Thursday, January 5,...

  5. 76 FR 79090 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... and Review, 58 FR 51735. ] Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This interim rule involves no policies..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 65.4 0 2. The tables... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 65 Changes in Flood Elevation...

  6. 77 FR 20727 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 65 Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations Correction In rule document 2011-25157 appearing on pages 60748-60751 in the issue of Friday, September...

  7. 77 FR 55785 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... FR 62061. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations... rule published at 75 FR 62061, in the October 7, 2010, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published a... 977 feet None +815 upstream of Spruce Street. Little Schuylkill River Approximately 1,750 None...

  8. 75 FR 81889 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This interim rule involves no policies..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 65.4 The tables published... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 65 Changes in Flood Elevation...

  9. 76 FR 20553 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This interim rule involves no policies..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 65.4 The tables published... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 65 Changes in Flood Elevation...

  10. 76 FR 20556 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This interim rule involves no policies..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 65.4 0 2. The tables... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 65 Changes in Flood Elevation...

  11. 76 FR 20554 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132... seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 65 Changes in Flood Elevation...

  12. 76 FR 43601 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This interim rule involves no policies..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 65.4 . 0 2. The tables... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 65 Changes in Flood Elevation...

  13. 76 FR 20551 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This interim rule involves no policies..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 65.4 0 2. The tables... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 65 Changes in Flood Elevation...

  14. 76 FR 43603 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132... seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 65 Changes in Flood Elevation...

  15. 77 FR 1887 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This interim rule involves no policies... Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 65.4 0 2. The tables published... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 65 Changes in Flood Elevation...

  16. 77 FR 31216 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132... seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 65 Changes in Flood Elevation...

  17. 78 FR 8416 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132... seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 65 Changes in Flood Elevation...

  18. 76 FR 26941 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132... seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 65 Changes in Flood Elevation...

  19. 75 FR 81887 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132.... 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 65 Changes in Flood Elevation...

  20. 77 FR 12746 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 65 Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations Correction In rule document 2012-488 appearing on pages 1887-1889 in the issue of Thursday, January 12,...

  1. 77 FR 423 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132... seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 65 Changes in Flood Elevation...

  2. 75 FR 81892 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132... et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 65 Changes in Flood Elevation...

  3. 77 FR 1884 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p.376... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 65 Changes in Flood Elevation...

  4. Elevated methylmercury concentrations and loadings during flooding in Minnesota rivers.

    PubMed

    Balogh, Steven J; Swain, Edward B; Nollet, Yabing H

    2006-09-01

    Previous studies have identified flooded landscapes (e.g., wetlands, impoundments) as sites of elevated methylmercury (MeHg) production. Here we report MeHg and total Hg (THg) concentrations and mass loadings in rivers in Minnesota during major flooding episodes in the summer of 2002. Frequent intense precipitation events throughout the summer resulted in extraordinarily wet conditions in east-central and northwestern Minnesota. Streamflow remained at record-setting high levels in many rivers and streams in these regions for several weeks. We observed high concentrations of MeHg (>1.4 ng/L) accompanied by high MeHg/THg ratios (0.39 to 0.50) in the Roseau River in northwestern Minnesota and in the Elk and Rum Rivers in east-central Minnesota. Very high MeHg mass loadings were observed in the Mississippi River just upstream of Minneapolis on July 17 (51 g MeHg/day) and July 23 (42 g MeHg/day), when MeHg concentrations at this site were 0.89 and 0.99 ng/L, respectively. The elevated MeHg concentrations in the Roseau River were associated with low dissolved oxygen and high dissolved reactive phosphorus concentrations, both of which are characteristic of anoxic waters. These rivers drain landscapes containing varying amounts of wetlands, and some of the MeHg discharged is thought to have been flushed from anoxic wetland soils. In addition, the flooding of vast areas of normally dry land surfaces probably also resulted in increased MeHg production, adding to the quantities of MeHg exported from these watersheds. Changing climate patterns are expected to result in more frequent heavy precipitation and flooding events in Minnesota. Our results suggest that as flooding and wet conditions in this region increase, the production of MeHg and its export from terrestrial areas to surface waters will increase also.

  5. 44 CFR 65.12 - Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed encroachments. 65.12 Section 65.12... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF...

  6. 44 CFR 65.12 - Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed encroachments. 65.12 Section 65.12... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF...

  7. 44 CFR 65.12 - Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed encroachments. 65.12 Section 65.12... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF...

  8. 44 CFR 65.12 - Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed encroachments. 65.12 Section 65.12... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF...

  9. 44 CFR 65.12 - Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed encroachments. 65.12 Section 65.12... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF...

  10. 77 FR 55787 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Clay County, FL, and Incorporated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... rulemaking at 76 FR 62006, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more flooding sources in... Clay County, FL, and Incorporated Areas AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION... proposed rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Clay County, Florida, and...

  11. 44 CFR 66.3 - Establishment of community case file and flood elevation study docket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... case file and flood elevation study docket. 66.3 Section 66.3 Emergency Management and Assistance... National Flood Insurance Program CONSULTATION WITH LOCAL OFFICIALS § 66.3 Establishment of community case file and flood elevation study docket. (a) A file shall be established for each community at the...

  12. 44 CFR 66.3 - Establishment of community case file and flood elevation study docket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... case file and flood elevation study docket. 66.3 Section 66.3 Emergency Management and Assistance... National Flood Insurance Program CONSULTATION WITH LOCAL OFFICIALS § 66.3 Establishment of community case file and flood elevation study docket. (a) A file shall be established for each community at the...

  13. 44 CFR 66.3 - Establishment of community case file and flood elevation study docket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... case file and flood elevation study docket. 66.3 Section 66.3 Emergency Management and Assistance... National Flood Insurance Program CONSULTATION WITH LOCAL OFFICIALS § 66.3 Establishment of community case file and flood elevation study docket. (a) A file shall be established for each community at the...

  14. 44 CFR 66.3 - Establishment of community case file and flood elevation study docket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... case file and flood elevation study docket. 66.3 Section 66.3 Emergency Management and Assistance... National Flood Insurance Program CONSULTATION WITH LOCAL OFFICIALS § 66.3 Establishment of community case file and flood elevation study docket. (a) A file shall be established for each community at the...

  15. 44 CFR 66.3 - Establishment of community case file and flood elevation study docket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... case file and flood elevation study docket. 66.3 Section 66.3 Emergency Management and Assistance... National Flood Insurance Program CONSULTATION WITH LOCAL OFFICIALS § 66.3 Establishment of community case file and flood elevation study docket. (a) A file shall be established for each community at the...

  16. 46 CFR 174.080 - Flooding on self-elevating and surface type units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flooding on self-elevating and surface type units. 174... Drilling Units § 174.080 Flooding on self-elevating and surface type units. (a) On a surface type unit or... superstructure deck where superstructures are fitted must be assumed to be subject to simultaneous flooding....

  17. 46 CFR 174.080 - Flooding on self-elevating and surface type units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flooding on self-elevating and surface type units. 174... Drilling Units § 174.080 Flooding on self-elevating and surface type units. (a) On a surface type unit or... superstructure deck where superstructures are fitted must be assumed to be subject to simultaneous flooding....

  18. 46 CFR 174.080 - Flooding on self-elevating and surface type units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flooding on self-elevating and surface type units. 174... Drilling Units § 174.080 Flooding on self-elevating and surface type units. (a) On a surface type unit or... superstructure deck where superstructures are fitted must be assumed to be subject to simultaneous flooding....

  19. Wilson's disease, 100 years later….

    PubMed

    Trocello, J-M; Broussolle, E; Girardot-Tinant, N; Pelosse, M; Lachaux, A; Lloyd, C; Woimant, F

    2013-12-01

    Texts published, in 1912, 100 years ago, by Sir K. Wilson on his eponymous disease in Brain, The Lancet and La Revue Neurologique highlight the relevance of his descriptions in the light of the current knowledge. Wilson's invocation of an "unknown toxin" appears today as a prophetic intuition as the presence of excess copper in the liver was mentioned for the first time a year later whereas the role of copper in this disease was not described until 1929. Progress has been made to better understand the physiology of Wilson's disease (WD). The ATP7B gene implicated in WD is located on chromosome 13 and more than 500 mutations and 100 polymorphisms have been to date identified. The phenotypic expression is highly variable, even within a family. This can partly be explained by environmental factors as nutrition. Modulator genes are also involved in the phenotypic expression of the disease. Most of symptoms observed in WD have already been described in detail by Wilson in 1912, but subsequent progress was made over the following 100 years, helping the physician diagnose WD. Hepatic and neurological symptoms are the most frequent expressions of the disease. Other extrahepatic features include renal manifestations, osteoarticular disorders, myocardial abnormalities, endocrine disturbances, realizing a multisystemic disease. The diagnosis of the disease is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, biological, radiological and genetic data and new tools (Brain MRI, relative exchangeable copper…) allow reducing delay to diagnosis. Therapeutic findings have also changed the disease prognosis. Treatment is based on the use of copper chelators to promote copper excretion from the body (D-penicillamine and Triethylenetetramine) and zinc salts to reduce copper absorption. Tetratiomolybdate appears to be a promising treatment. While significant progress has been made during this century, many physiological aspects of this disease remain unknown and require further research to

  20. Wilson's disease, 100 years later….

    PubMed

    Trocello, J-M; Broussolle, E; Girardot-Tinant, N; Pelosse, M; Lachaux, A; Lloyd, C; Woimant, F

    2013-12-01

    Texts published, in 1912, 100 years ago, by Sir K. Wilson on his eponymous disease in Brain, The Lancet and La Revue Neurologique highlight the relevance of his descriptions in the light of the current knowledge. Wilson's invocation of an "unknown toxin" appears today as a prophetic intuition as the presence of excess copper in the liver was mentioned for the first time a year later whereas the role of copper in this disease was not described until 1929. Progress has been made to better understand the physiology of Wilson's disease (WD). The ATP7B gene implicated in WD is located on chromosome 13 and more than 500 mutations and 100 polymorphisms have been to date identified. The phenotypic expression is highly variable, even within a family. This can partly be explained by environmental factors as nutrition. Modulator genes are also involved in the phenotypic expression of the disease. Most of symptoms observed in WD have already been described in detail by Wilson in 1912, but subsequent progress was made over the following 100 years, helping the physician diagnose WD. Hepatic and neurological symptoms are the most frequent expressions of the disease. Other extrahepatic features include renal manifestations, osteoarticular disorders, myocardial abnormalities, endocrine disturbances, realizing a multisystemic disease. The diagnosis of the disease is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, biological, radiological and genetic data and new tools (Brain MRI, relative exchangeable copper…) allow reducing delay to diagnosis. Therapeutic findings have also changed the disease prognosis. Treatment is based on the use of copper chelators to promote copper excretion from the body (D-penicillamine and Triethylenetetramine) and zinc salts to reduce copper absorption. Tetratiomolybdate appears to be a promising treatment. While significant progress has been made during this century, many physiological aspects of this disease remain unknown and require further research to

  1. [100 years' of clinical electrocardiography].

    PubMed

    Bergovec, Mijo

    2003-01-01

    In 1903 Willem Einthoven published in Pflügers Arch his classic article on the investigation of human electrocardiogram by his string galvanometer. Many historians of medicine, Einthoven also marked that publication as the beginning of clinical electrocardiography. Many investigators like Galvani, Manteucci, Kölliker, Müller, Lipmann, Waller, Ader, Einthoven, Lewis, Wilson and others participated in creation and development of electrocardiogram. From that time electrocardiogram quickly became, and has remained the most essential diagnostic laboratory tool in investigation of heart diseases. The aim of this article is to remind us of the beginning of this part of cardiology 100 years ago. PMID:15209030

  2. 77 FR 66791 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Yakima County, WA, and Incorporated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... proposed rulemaking at 76 FR 73537, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more flooding... be published in the Federal Register and in the affected community's local newspaper. Authority: 42...

  3. 77 FR 66791 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Wicomico County, MD, and Incorporated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... proposed rulemaking at 75 FR 5909, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more flooding..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B- 1085, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch,...

  4. Validating Flood Mapping Products Using a Digital Elevation Model Comparison Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayne, J.

    2014-12-01

    This preliminary study assessed the validity of a pixel analysis elevation comparison technique and determined necessary steps for improvement. The pixel analysis sought to assess the probability of a flood occurring in a particular area by comparing the spatial extent of flood mapping products to the local elevation. The method was developed to determine if the physical relationship between elevation and floods as shown in satellite images is accurately represented in a flood mapping product. The data incorporated in this study are raster digital elevation model (DEM) tiles, a scene from Landsat 5 during a flood period, and a scene from the NASA DEVELOP Flood Disasters Team Flood Product. Pixels representing flooded areas were compared to the elevation height pixels using horizontal transect lines to create pixel value profiles across a 727 km transect of Vietnam and Cambodia. The elevation model comparison validates the Flood Product by depicting water presence in alignment with areas of low elevation. Initial findings indicate that the technique can be used to improve the assessment of flood mapping products in transects less than 10 km. Future research will focus on streamlining the pixel analysis process to yield comprehensive results for larger areas.

  5. 77 FR 55784 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... buildings. Correction In the proposed rule published at 75 FR 19320, in the April 14, 2010, issue of the... the flooding source name previously published proposed rule at 75 FR 19320. (Catalog of Federal... flooding source name should have read Taylors Creek instead of Taylors Branch. DATES: Comments...

  6. 76 FR 3596 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for York County, Maine (All Jurisdictions)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... published August 18, 2010, at 75 FR 50955 is withdrawn. ADDRESSES: The docket for this withdrawn rulemaking... proposed rulemaking at 75 FR 50955, proposing flood elevation determinations along multiple flooding... York County, Maine (All Jurisdictions) AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION:...

  7. 46 CFR 174.080 - Flooding on self-elevating and surface type units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.080 Flooding on self-elevating and surface type units. (a) On a surface type unit...

  8. 46 CFR 174.080 - Flooding on self-elevating and surface type units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.080 Flooding on self-elevating and surface type units. (a) On a surface type unit...

  9. Elevations and discharges produced by a simulated flood wave on the lower Sabine River, Louisiana and Texas, caused by a theoretical dam failure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neely, Braxtel L.; Stiltner, Gloria J.

    1979-01-01

    The Toledo Bend Reservoir is located on the lower Sabine River between Louisiana and Texas. Two mathematical models were coupled to calculate the flood wave that would result from the theoretical failure of 25 percent of Toledo Bend Dam and route the wave downstream to Orange, Tex. Computations assumed failure (1) at the peak of the 100-year flood when discharge of the Sabine River is 102,000 cubic feet per second and (2) when the average discharge is 10,000 cubic feet per second. Two techniques were used in the dam-break model. The method of characteristics was used to propagate the shock wave following dam failure. The linear implicit finite-difference solution was used to route the flood wave following shock wave dissipation. The magnitude of the flow was determined for Burkeville, Bon Wier, Ruliff, and Orange, Tex., along the lower Sabine River. For these sites, respectively, the following peak elevations were calculated: 119, 82, 31, and 13 feet for the 100-year flood and 110, 75, 27, and 9 feet for the average discharge. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Channel geometry, flood elevations, and flood maps, lower Toutle and Cowlitz rivers, Washington, June 1980 to May 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lombard, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    The volcanic eruption of Mount St. Helens on May 18, 1980, triggered mudflows that deposited upwards of 15 ft of sediment in the channels of the lower Toutle and Cowlitz Rivers. The major population areas along the lower Cowlitz River (Kelso, Longview,Lexington, and Castle Rock) were not flooded, but the channel capacity of the river was seriously reduced and the potential for unusually high flood elevations from fall and winter storms was an obvious concern. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers began dredging operations in June 1980 to alleviate the flood hazard. Surveys to monitor the effect of changes to the channel and flood plains that resulted from dredging and additional sediment inflow from the upper Toutle River basin were started in June 1980 and continued until May 11, 1981, when dredging operations on the Cowlitz River had been completed. (USGS)

  11. 44 CFR 65.5 - Revision to special hazard area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation determinations. 65.5 Section 65.5 Emergency... HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.5 Revision to special hazard area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation...

  12. 44 CFR 65.5 - Revision to special hazard area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation determinations. 65.5 Section 65.5 Emergency... HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.5 Revision to special hazard area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation...

  13. 44 CFR 65.5 - Revision to special hazard area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation determinations. 65.5 Section 65.5 Emergency... HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.5 Revision to special hazard area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation...

  14. 76 FR 58411 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132... et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR... be used to calculate flood insurance premium rates for new buildings and their contents. DATES:...

  15. 77 FR 50626 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132... seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR... be used to calculate flood insurance premium rates for new buildings and their contents. DATES:...

  16. 75 FR 18072 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132... standards of Executive Order 12988. List of Subjects in 44 CFR Part 65 Flood insurance, Floodplains... et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3...

  17. Productivity responses of Acer rubrum and Taxodium distichum seedlings to elevated CO2 and flooding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vann, C.D.; Megonigal, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 are expected to increase photosynthetic rates of C3 tree species, but it is uncertain whether this will result in an increase in wetland seedling productivity. Separate short-term experiments (12 and 17 weeks) were performed on two wetland tree species, Taxodium distichum and Acer rubrum, to determine if elevated CO2 would influence the biomass responses of seedlings to flooding. T. distichum were grown in replicate glasshouses (n = 2) at CO2 concentrations of 350 or 700 ppm, and A. rubrum were grown in growth chambers at CO2 concentrations of 422 or 722 ppm. Both species were grown from seed. The elevated CO2 treatment was crossed with two water table treatments, flooded and non-flooded. Elevated CO2 increased leaf-level photosynthesis, whole-plant photosynthesis, and trunk diameter of T. distichum in both flooding treatments, but did not increase biomass of T. distichum or A. rubrum. Flooding severely reduced biomass, height, and leaf area of both T. distichum and A. rubrum. Our results suggest that the absence of a CO2-induced increase in growth may have been due to an O2 limitation on root production even though there was a relatively deep (??? 10 cm) aerobic soil surface in the non-flooded treatment. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hydrologic analysis of a flood based on a new Digital Elevation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio, M.; Mori, M.

    2015-06-01

    These The present study aims to simulate the hydrologic processes of a flood, based on a new, highly accurate Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The DEM is provided by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT) of Japan, and has a spatial resolution of five meters. It was generated by the new National Project in 2012. The Hydrologic Engineering Center - Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) is used to simulate the hydrologic process of a flood of the Onga River in Iizuka City, Japan. A large flood event in the typhoon season in 2003 caused serious damage around the Iizuka City area. Precise records of rainfall data from the Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System (AMeDAS) were input into the HEC-HMS. The estimated flood area of the simulation results by HEC-HMS was identical to the observed flood area. A watershed aggregation map is also generated by HEC-HMS around the Onga River.

  19. Convergence: Human Intelligence The Next 100 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fluellen, Jerry E., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    How might human intelligence evolve over the next 100 years? This issue paper explores that idea. First, the paper summarizes five emerging perspectives about human intelligence: Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences theory, Robert Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence, Ellen Langer's mindfulness theory, David Perkins' learnable…

  20. 76 FR 72961 - Flood Hazard Determinations (Including Flood Elevation Determinations)-Change in Notification and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... determinations made in the National Flood Insurance Program.'' See 39 FR 12031 (Apr. 2, 1974). No further....'' See 39 FR 26904 (July 24, 1974). There were no other comments addressing part 1917, and the preamble... note was added to section 67.4 in 1989, stating ``Note: For references to FR pages showing lists...

  1. 77 FR 61559 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Fairbanks North Star Borough, Alaska, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... September 15, 2009 and May 25, 2010, FEMA published a proposed rulemaking at 74 FR 47169 and 75 FR 29296... North Star Borough, Alaska, and Incorporated Areas AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS... its proposed rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Fairbanks North Star...

  2. Flood damage analysis: uncertainties for first floor elevation yielded from LiDAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodoque, Jose Maria; Aroca-Jimenez, Estefania; Guardiola-Albert, Carolina; Eguibar, Miguel Angel

    2016-04-01

    The use of high resolution ground-base light detection and ranging (LiDAR) datasets provide the spatial density and vertical precisión to obtain Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) highly accurate. As a result, reliability of flood damage analysis has been improved significantly, as accuracy of hydrodinamic model is increased. Additionally, an important error reduction also takes place in estimating first floor elevation, which is a critical parameter to determine structural and content damages in buildings. However, justlike any discrete measurement technique, LiDAR data contain object space ambiguities, especially in urban areas where the presence of buildings and the floodplain determines a highly complex landscape that is largely corrected by using data ancillory information based on breaklines. Here, we provide an uncertainty assessment based on: a) improvement of DEMs to be used in flood damage based on adding breaklines as ancillary information; b) geostatistical estimation of errors in DEMs; c) implementing a 2D hydrodynamic model considering the 500 yr flood return period; and d) determining first floor elevation uncertainty. As main conclusion of this study, worth to outline the need of processing raw LiDAR in order to generate efficient and high-quality DEMs that minimize the uncertainty of determining first-floor elevation and, as a result, reliability of flood damage assessment is increased.

  3. 78 FR 78808 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Pierce County, Washington, and Incorporated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ..., and Incorporated Areas. DATES: The proposed rule published December 6, 2007, at 72 FR 68784, corrected April 16, 2012, at 77 FR 22551, is withdrawn effective December 27, 2013. ADDRESSES: You may submit... proposed rulemaking at 72 FR 68784, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more...

  4. [100 years since the death of Helmholtz].

    PubMed

    Fodor, F; Karin, H

    1995-01-01

    In September 1994, we celebrated 100 years since Hermann von Helmholtz died. Inventor of the ophthalmoscope, professor in physiology since he was 30 (at Königsberg), Helmholtz also contributed to the development of thermodynamics, hydrodynamics, electrodynamics, he made studies on muscular contraction, music, theory, accommodation mechanisms. He also revealed that the interpretation of sounds is done at the level of resonators--represented by perilympha and basilar lamellae which enter in vibration accordingly with the respective sound frequency.

  5. Remembering Robert Goddard's vision 100 years later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, David P.

    “Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness” —such are the goals of most of us.Yet a few always exist who feel called by a higher purpose. Society often owes them a great deal.Robert Hutchins Goddard, whose work made spaceflight possible, found his vision 100 years ago this October as a youth of 17. His family was staying on the farm of a relative, when he was asked to trim the branches of a cherry tree behind the barn.

  6. 100 years of photometry and radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardis, Jonathan E.

    2001-06-01

    Measurement of light is an old subject, though the past 100 years have seen significant advances. 100 years ago, photometry - the art and science of measuring light as it is perceived by people - had the greater technological importance. Even today SI (the metric system) retains a base unit for photometry, the candela. However, early work at NBS included pivotal projects in the field of radiometry - the measurement of the physical characteristics of light. These included the validation of Planck's newly-minted theory of blackbody radiation, determining the radiation constants with good accuracy, and the definitive analysis of the spectral responsivity of human vision, so as to relate photometry to radiometry. This latter work has only increased in importance over the past 75 years as the definition of the candela has changed and improved. Today, NIST makes radiometric, and hence photometric measurements, with unprecedented precision. Cryogenic radiometers based on the principle of electrical substitution measure optical flux with uncertainties of 0.02%. Additional facilities enable measurement of spectral responsivity, spectral radiance, and spectral irradiance. Novel detectors, such as light-traps, allow the best accuracy to be transferred from the primary standards to routinely-used instruments and to calibration customers. Filtered detectors are used to realize photometric scales, radiation temperature scales, and other specialized measurements. Indeed, the story of the metrology of light is the story of continuous improvement, both driven by and enabled by advances in technology. We touch upon some of these as a prelude to the other talks in this Conference.

  7. The Importance of Precise Digital Elevation Models (DEM) in Modelling Floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, Gokben; Akyurek, Zuhal

    2016-04-01

    Digital elevation Models (DEM) are important inputs for topography for the accurate modelling of floodplain hydrodynamics. Floodplains have a key role as natural retarding pools which attenuate flood waves and suppress flood peaks. GPS, LIDAR and bathymetric surveys are well known surveying methods to acquire topographic data. It is not only time consuming and expensive to obtain topographic data through surveying but also sometimes impossible for remote areas. In this study it is aimed to present the importance of accurate modelling of topography for flood modelling. The flood modelling for Samsun-Terme in Blacksea region of Turkey is done. One of the DEM is obtained from the point observations retrieved from 1/5000 scaled orthophotos and 1/1000 scaled point elevation data from field surveys at x-sections. The river banks are corrected by using the orthophotos and elevation values. This DEM is named as scaled DEM. The other DEM is obtained from bathymetric surveys. 296 538 number of points and the left/right bank slopes were used to construct the DEM having 1 m spatial resolution and this DEM is named as base DEM. Two DEMs were compared by using 27 x-sections. The maximum difference at thalweg of the river bed is 2m and the minimum difference is 20 cm between two DEMs. The channel conveyance capacity in base DEM is larger than the one in scaled DEM and floodplain is modelled in detail in base DEM. MIKE21 with flexible grid is used in 2- dimensional shallow water flow modelling. The model by using two DEMs were calibrated for a flood event (July 9, 2012). The roughness is considered as the calibration parameter. From comparison of input hydrograph at the upstream of the river and output hydrograph at the downstream of the river, the attenuation is obtained as 91% and 84% for the base DEM and scaled DEM, respectively. The time lag in hydrographs does not show any difference for two DEMs and it is obtained as 3 hours. Maximum flood extents differ for the two DEMs

  8. [100 years physical therapy and rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Heipertz, W

    2001-10-01

    Physical medicine and rehabilitation received powerful impulses from orthopaedic surgery, which organizes its pragmatic and scientific interests since 100 years in its own association. A point of breakthrough was reached at the beginning of the 20th century, when progress in surgical and conservative orthopaedics enabled a comprehensive rehabilitation of physically disabled. On the other hand, the professionalisation of care for the handicapped (Krüppelfürsorge) has decisively supported the advancement of orthopaedics. Next to the storming development of orthopaedic surgery step by step the scientific foundations and clear indications for physiotherapy were achieved. The strategy of treatment was adapted to the increasingly active approach to orthopaedic ailments and traumata. This relates as well to wide ranges of rehabilitation and developed the training of specialists. Orthopaedic surgeons were significantly involved in this development as well as the framing of legal regulations safeguarding the entitlement of the disabled.

  9. Delineation of Flood Prone Areas using Digital Elevation Models: Scale Dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Leo, M.; Manfreda, S.; Sole, A.; Fiorentino, M.

    2009-04-01

    The delineation of the areas subject to flood inundations raises complex problems regarding the definition of hydrological forcing and the parametrization of models for flood wave propagation (e.g., Horritt & Bates, 2000, 2002). The increasing availability of new technologies for the measurement of surface elevation (eg GPS, SAR interferometry, radar and laser altimetry) led to an increase in the attraction of DEM-based procedures for the delineation of floodplains. In recent years, much effort has gone into the identification of flood prone areas through the use of hydrological and hydraulic studies carried out by River Basin Authorities (public institutions dedicated to river basins management). These studies are generally based on topographic surveys and numerical modelling for the flood wave propagation providing an enormous database rarely used for post processing. Manfreda et al. (2006) have recently used the technical documentation, produced during the definition of Hydrogeological Management Plan by the River Basin Authorities, to define a synthetic procedure for the delineation of flood inundation exposure. The relevance of such techniques lies in the ability to characterize, at least at first approximation, portions of the territory where is not possible to run expensive hydrological-hydraulic simulations. The development of simplified methodologies is taken further in the present study to investigate the relationship between areas exposed to flood inundation and the geomorphologic characteristics of the terrain (contributing area, local slope of the surface, curvature, TOPMODEL topographic index) showing a strong correlation with the TOPMODEL topographic index. Manfreda et al. (2006) also defined a new expression of the topographical index more suited to the task of delineating flood exposure directly from a DEM analysis. This permitted the definition of a fast procedure for the calculation of flood inundation areas using a threshold level (ITms) to

  10. The Psychoanalytic Review: 100 years of history.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Alan J

    2013-02-01

    This paper is written in celebration of the centenary of The Psychoanalytic Review and aims to bring to life its entire history-100 years of publication. Almost as old as psychoanalysis itself, established by Jelliffe and White as a nonorthodox journal, and guided by all its subsequent editors, the Review has maintained its original mission: to serve as an open venue for all psychoanalytic perspectives, "a free forum for all." But the history of the Review is not without controversy. Freud made no original contributions to the Review. The paper unveils the Review's, rich history by looking briefly into the lives of some of its editors, the circumstances surrounding the creation of the Review (including pertinent correspondence between Freud and Brill and between Freud and Jelliffe), the years (with their engrossing politics) that followed the establishment of the Review until its merger with the journal Psychoanalysis (the official journal of NPAP), and the years that followed the merger to the present, including some of the important events that reshaped psychoanalysis. The role of the Review in promoting and reflecting almost the entire evolution of psychoanalysis is illustrated throughout. PMID:23421656

  11. Nursing--the next 100 years.

    PubMed

    Collins, S M

    1981-05-01

    This paper sets the scene for future patterns of nursing and nursing education and traces the ways in which the nursing profession has reached the present position. It illustrates the development of nursing over the past 100 years, and examines the key influences which have affected, and are likely to continue to affect, nursing, namely: the Government, the Law and the State; wars and disasters; scientific and technological advances; and people. No attempt has been made to predict or to crystal-gaze, yet the emphasis is firmly placed on the need to plan, to think and to recognize the trends that may determine the future of nursing. Research and education are seen as the tools that will enable nurses to adapt their function to the changing needs of society, whilst preserving the essential or central role of caring. The tapestry--the pattern or web of social relationships, that formed the professional nurse in the Victorian and Edwardian eras, and in the first and second World Wars--presents an unfinished canvas. The present generation of nurses are responsible for continuing to develop that tapestry for future decades, within the framework of the changing social scene of the present day.

  12. 44 CFR 65.5 - Revision to special hazard area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (a) Data requirements for topographic changes. In many areas of special flood hazard (excluding V... area of special flood hazard of a structure or parcel of land that has been elevated by the placement.... FEMA's determination to exclude a legally defined parcel of land or a structure from the area...

  13. 44 CFR 65.5 - Revision to special hazard area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... (a) Data requirements for topographic changes. In many areas of special flood hazard (excluding V... area of special flood hazard of a structure or parcel of land that has been elevated by the placement.... FEMA's determination to exclude a legally defined parcel of land or a structure from the area...

  14. Perspectives on open access high resolution digital elevation models to produce global flood hazard layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, Christopher; Smith, Andrew; Bates, Paul; Neal, Jeffrey; Trigg, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Global flood hazard models have recently become a reality thanks to the release of open access global digital elevation models, the development of simplified and highly efficient flow algorithms, and the steady increase in computational power. In this commentary we argue that although the availability of open access global terrain data has been critical in enabling the development of such models, the relatively poor resolution and precision of these data now limit significantly our ability to estimate flood inundation and risk for the majority of the planet's surface. The difficulty of deriving an accurate 'bare-earth' terrain model due to the interaction of vegetation and urban structures with the satellite-based remote sensors means that global terrain data are often poorest in the areas where people, property (and thus vulnerability) are most concentrated. Furthermore, the current generation of open access global terrain models are over a decade old and many large floodplains, particularly those in developing countries, have undergone significant change in this time. There is therefore a pressing need for a new generation of high resolution and high vertical precision open access global digital elevation models to allow significantly improved global flood hazard models to be developed.

  15. 100 Years of the Physics of Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luginsland, John

    2013-10-01

    The Child-Langmuir Law (CL), discovered 100 years ago, gives the maximum current that can be transported across a planar diode in the steady state. As a quintessential example of the impact of space-charge shielding near a charged surface, it is central to the studies of high current diodes, such as high power microwave sources, vacuum microelectronics, electron and ion sources, and high current drivers used in high-energy density physics experiments. CL remains a touchstone of fundamental sheath physics, including contemporary studies of nano-scale quantum diodes and plasmonic devices. Its solid state analog is the Mott-Gurney law, governing the maximum charge injection in solids, such as organic materials and other dielectrics, which is important to energy devices, such as solar cells and light-emitting diodes. This paper reviews the important advances in the physics of diodes since the discovery of CL, including virtual cathode formation and extension of CL to multiple dimensions, to the quantum regime, and to ultrafast processes. We will review the influence of magnetic fields, multiple species in bipolar flow, electromagnetic and time dependent effects in both short pulse and high frequency THz limits, and single electron regimes. Transitions from various emission mechanisms (thermionic, field, and photo-emission) to the space charge limited state (CL) will be addressed, especially highlighting important simulation and experimental developments in selected contemporary areas of study. This talk will stress the fundamental physical links between the physics of beams to limiting currents in other areas, such as low temperature plasmas, laser plasmas, and space propulsion. Also emphasized is the role of non-equilibrium phenomena associated with materials and plasmas in close contact. Work supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  16. A technique for estimating flood heights on small streams in the city of Charlotte and Mecklenburg County, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddins, William H.; Jackson, N.M., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A method for estimating the height reached by floods having recurrence intervals of 10, 20, and 100 years is defined for unregulated streams in Charlotte and Mecklenburg County draining areas of less than 1.0 square mile. Flood heights, defined as the vertical distance between the streambed at riffles and the floodwater surface, can be used to estimate flood elevations on small streams where flood profiles and flood inundation maps are not available. An illustrative example is given of how the method can be used with streambed elevation data and topographic maps to estimate flood elevations and delineate inundated areas.

  17. Development of a Flood-Warning System and Flood-Inundation Mapping for the Blanchard River in Findlay, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitehead, Matthew T.; Ostheimer, Chad J.

    2009-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps of the Blanchard River in Findlay, Ohio, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Findlay, Ohio. The maps, which correspond to water levels at the USGS streamgage at Findlay (04189000), were provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into a Web-based flood-warning system that can be used in conjunction with NWS flood-forecast data to show areas of predicted flood inundation associated with forecasted flood-peak stages. The USGS reestablished one streamgage and added another on the Blanchard River upstream of Findlay. Additionally, the USGS established one streamgage each on Eagle and Lye Creeks, tributaries to the Blanchard River. The stream-gage sites were equipped with rain gages and multiple forms of telemetry. Data from these gages can be used by emergency management personnel to determine a course of action when flooding is imminent. Flood profiles computed by means of a step-backwater model were prepared and calibrated to a recent flood with a return period exceeding 100 years. The hydraulic model was then used to determine water-surface-elevation profiles for 11 flood stages with corresponding streamflows ranging from approximately 2 to 100 years in recurrence interval. The simulated flood profiles were used in combination with digital elevation data to delineate the flood-inundation areas. Maps of Findlay showing flood-inundation areas overlain on digital orthophotographs are presented for the selected floods.

  18. Floods

    MedlinePlus

    Floods are common in the United States. Weather such as heavy rain, thunderstorms, hurricanes, or tsunamis can ... is breached, or when a dam breaks. Flash floods, which can develop quickly, often have a dangerous ...

  19. Hydrologic, Hydraulic, and Flood Analyses of the Blackberry Creek Watershed, Kendall County, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Straub, Timothy D.; Soong, David T.; Hamblen, Christopher S.

    2007-01-01

    Results of the hydrologic model, flood-frequency, hydraulic model, and flood-hazard analysis of the Blackberry Creek watershed in Kendall County, Illinois, indicate that the 100-year and 500-year flood plains cover approximately 3,699 and 3,762 acres of land, respectively. On the basis of land-cover data for 2003, most of the land in the flood plains was cropland and residential land. Although many acres of residential land were included in the flood plain, this land was mostly lawns, with 25 homes within the 100-year flood plain, and 41 homes within the 500-year flood plain in the 2003 aerial photograph. This report describes the data collection activities to refine the hydrologic and hydraulic models used in an earlier study of the Kane County part of the Blackberry Creek watershed and to extend the flood-frequency analysis through water year 2003. The results of the flood-hazard analysis are presented in graphical and tabular form. The hydrologic model, Hydrological Simulation Program - FORTRAN (HSPF), was used to simulate continuous water movement through various land-use patterns in the watershed. Flood-frequency analysis was applied to an annual maximum series to determine flood quantiles in subbasins for flood-hazard analysis. The Hydrologic Engineering Center- River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) hydraulic model was used to determine the 100-year and 500-year flood elevations, and the 100-year floodway. The hydraulic model was calibrated and verified using observations during three storms at two crest-stage gages and the U.S. Geological Survey streamflowgaging station near Yorkville. Digital maps of the 100-year and 500-year flood plains and the 100-year floodway for each tributary and the main stem of Blackberry Creek were compiled.

  20. Cane Creek flood-flow characteristics at State Route 30 near Spencer, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gamble, Charles R.

    1983-01-01

    The Tennessee Department of Transportation has constructed a new bridge and approaches on State Route 30 over Cane Creek near Spencer, Tennessee. The old bridge and its approaches were fairly low, permitting considerable flow over the road during high floods. The new bridge and its approaches are considerably higher, causing different flow conditions at the site. Analysis of the effects of the new bridge, as compared to the old bridge, on floods of the magnitude of the May 27, 1973, flood is presented. The May 27, 1973, flood was greater than a 100-year flood. Analysis of the 50- and 100-year floods for the new bridge are also presented. Results of the study indicate that the new construction will increase the water-surface elevation for a flood equal to the May 27, 1973, flood by approximately 1 foot upstream from bridge. (USGS)

  1. 44 CFR 65.6 - Revision of base flood elevation determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... new discharge estimates. (6) Any computer program used to perform hydrologic or hydraulic analyses in... control and/or the regulation of flood plain lands. For computer programs adopted by non-Federal agencies..., tested, and accepted by that agency for purposes of design of flood control structures or flood...

  2. 44 CFR 65.6 - Revision of base flood elevation determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... new discharge estimates. (6) Any computer program used to perform hydrologic or hydraulic analyses in... control and/or the regulation of flood plain lands. For computer programs adopted by non-Federal agencies..., tested, and accepted by that agency for purposes of design of flood control structures or flood...

  3. 44 CFR 65.6 - Revision of base flood elevation determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... new discharge estimates. (6) Any computer program used to perform hydrologic or hydraulic analyses in... control and/or the regulation of flood plain lands. For computer programs adopted by non-Federal agencies..., tested, and accepted by that agency for purposes of design of flood control structures or flood...

  4. 44 CFR 65.6 - Revision of base flood elevation determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... new discharge estimates. (6) Any computer program used to perform hydrologic or hydraulic analyses in... control and/or the regulation of flood plain lands. For computer programs adopted by non-Federal agencies..., tested, and accepted by that agency for purposes of design of flood control structures or flood...

  5. 44 CFR 65.6 - Revision of base flood elevation determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... new discharge estimates. (6) Any computer program used to perform hydrologic or hydraulic analyses in... control and/or the regulation of flood plain lands. For computer programs adopted by non-Federal agencies..., tested, and accepted by that agency for purposes of design of flood control structures or flood...

  6. Parallel Priority-Flood depression filling for trillion cell digital elevation models on desktops or clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Richard

    2016-11-01

    Algorithms for extracting hydrologic features and properties from digital elevation models (DEMs) are challenged by large datasets, which often cannot fit within a computer's RAM. Depression filling is an important preconditioning step to many of these algorithms. Here, I present a new, linearly scaling algorithm which parallelizes the Priority-Flood depression-filling algorithm by subdividing a DEM into tiles. Using a single-producer, multi-consumer design, the new algorithm works equally well on one core, multiple cores, or multiple machines and can take advantage of large memories or cope with small ones. Unlike previous algorithms, the new algorithm guarantees a fixed number of memory access and communication events per subdivision of the DEM. In comparison testing, this results in the new algorithm running generally faster while using fewer resources than previous algorithms. For moderately sized tiles, the algorithm exhibits ∼60% strong and weak scaling efficiencies up to 48 cores, and linear time scaling across datasets ranging over three orders of magnitude. The largest dataset on which I run the algorithm has 2 trillion (2×1012) cells. With 48 cores, processing required 4.8 h wall-time (9.3 compute-days). This test is three orders of magnitude larger than any previously performed in the literature. Complete, well-commented source code and correctness tests are available for download from a repository.

  7. Simulation of Flood Profiles for Fivemile Creek at Tarrant, Alabama, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, K.G.; Hedgecock, T.S.

    2007-01-01

    A one-dimensional step-backwater model was used to simulate flooding conditions for Fivemile Creek at Tarrant, Alabama. The 100-year flood stage published in the current flood insurance study for Tarrant by the Federal Emergency Management Agency was significantly exceeded by the March 2000 and May 2003 floods in this area. A peak flow of 14,100 cubic feet per second was computed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the May 2003 flood in the vicinity of Lawson Road. Using this estimated peak flow, flood-plain surveys with associated roughness coefficients, and the surveyed high-water profile for the May 2003 flood, a flow model was calibrated to closely match this known event. The calibrated model was then used to simulate flooding for the 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year recurrence interval floods. The results indicate that for the 100-year recurrence interval, the flood profile is about 2.5 feet higher, on average, than the profile published by the Federal Emergency Management Agency. The absolute maximum and minimum difference is 6.80 feet and 0.67 foot, respectively. All water-surface elevations computed for the 100-year flood are higher than those published by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, except for cross section H. The results of this study provide the community with flood-profile information that can be used for existing flood-plain mitigation, future development, and safety plans for the city.

  8. Improved mapping of flood extent and flood depth using space based SAR data in combination with very high resolution digital elevation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwenzner, H.

    2009-04-01

    Due to their capability to present a synoptic view of the spatial extent of floods, remote sensing technology, and especially synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems, have been successfully applied for flood mapping and monitoring applications during the past decades. However, the quality and accuracy of the flood masks and derived flood parameters highly depend on the geometric precision of the satellite data as well as on the classification accuracy of the derived water mask. The incorporation of high resolution elevation data from LiDAR measurements for example can help to improve the plausibility and reliability of the flood masks. On the basis of the improved flood masks more sophisticated parameters such as inundation depth can be derived. A cross section approach is presented that allows the dynamic fitting of the position of the flood mask profiles according to the underlying terrain information from the DEM. The method was tested on the River Severn (UK), for which TerraSAR-X stripmap data with 3 meters pixel spacing acquired during the 2007 summer flood are used in combination with a LiDAR DEM of 2 meters pixel size. Initially, the cross sections were established perpendicularly to the major flow direction along the 7 km reach of the River Severn. The profile spacing was set to 50 meters. For each cross section profile the water level was extracted at the position of the left and the right border of the flood. On the basis of the longitudinal profile, which contains the sequence of all cross section profiles, a moving average was applied on the water levels in order to get a smooth water surface and to reduce single outliers. However, in case of obvious irregularities in the water levels illustrated in the longitudinal profile and caused by misclassification the respective cross-sections had to be excluded from further analysis. It must be taken into account, that the approach is mainly affected by possible classification errors in the dimension of more

  9. Swiss Re Global Flood Hazard Zones: Know your flood risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinukollu, R. K.; Castaldi, A.; Mehlhorn, J.

    2012-12-01

    Floods, among all natural disasters, have a great damage potential. On a global basis, there is strong evidence of increase in the number of people affected and economic losses due to floods. For example, global insured flood losses have increased by 12% every year since 1970 and this is expected to further increase with growing exposure in the high risk areas close to rivers and coastlines. Recently, the insurance industry has been surprised by the large extent of losses, because most countries lack reliable hazard information. One example has been the 2011 Thailand floods where millions of people were affected and the total economic losses were 30 billion USD. In order to assess the flood risk across different regions and countries, the flood team at Swiss Re based on a Geomorphologic Regression approach, developed in house and patented, produced global maps of flood zones. Input data for the study was obtained from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) elevation data, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) and HydroSHEDS. The underlying assumptions of the approach are that naturally flowing rivers shape their channel and flood plain according to basin inherent forces and characteristics and that the flood water extent strongly depends on the shape of the flood plain. On the basis of the catchment characteristics, the model finally calculates the probability of a location to be flooded or not for a defined return period, which in the current study was set to 100 years. The data is produced at a 90-m resolution for latitudes 60S to 60N. This global product is now used in the insurance industry to inspect, inform and/or insure the flood risk across the world.

  10. Estimated 100-year peak flows and flow volumes in the Big Lost River and Birch Creek at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Kjelstrom, L.C.; Berenbrock, C.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to provide estimates of the 100-year peak flows and flow volumes that could enter the INEL area from the Big Lost River and Brich Creek are needed as input data for models that will be used to delineate the extent of the 100-year flood plain at the INEL. The methods, procedures and assumptions used to estimate the 100-year peak flows and flow volumes are described in this report.

  11. Progress of Cometary Science in the Past 100 Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Zdenek

    1999-01-01

    Enormous strides made by cometary science during the 20th century defy any meaningful comparison of its state 100 years ago and now. The great majority of the subfields enjoying much attention nowadays did not exist in the year 1900. Dramatic developments, especially in the past 30-50 years, have equally affected observational and theoretical studies of comets. The profound diversification of observing techniques has been documented by the ever widening limits on the electromagnetic spectrum covered. While the time around 1900 marked an early period of slow and painful experimentation with photographic methods in cometary studies, observations of comets from the x-ray region to the radio waves have by now become routine. Many of the new techniques, and all those involved with the wavelengths shorter than about 300 nm, were made possible by another major breakthrough of this century - observing from space. Experiments on dedicated Earth-orbiting satellites as well as several deep-space probes have provided fascinating new information on the nature and makeup of comets. In broader terms, much of the progress has been achieved thanks to fundamental discoveries and major advances in electronics, whose applications resulted in qualitatively new instruments (e.g. radiotelescopes) and sensors or detectors (e.g. CCD arrays). The most universal effect on the entire cometary science, from observing to data handling to quantitative interpretations, has been, as in any other branch of science, due to the introduction of electronic computers, with their processing capabilities not only unheard of, but literally unimaginable, in the age of classical desk calculators. As if all this should not be enough, the today's generations of comet scientists have, in addition, been blessed with nature's highly appreciated cooperation. Indeed, in the span of a dozen years, between 1985 and 1997, we were privileged to witness four remarkable cometary events: (i) a return of Halley

  12. Simulation of Flood Profiles for Catoma Creek near Montgomery, Alabama, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, K.G.; Hedgecock, T.S.

    2008-01-01

    A one-dimensional step-backwater model was used to simulate flooding conditions for Catoma Creek near Montgomery, Alabama. A peak flow of 50,000 cubic feet per second was computed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the March 1990 flood at the Norman Bridge Road gaging station. Using this estimated peak flow, flood-plain surveys with associated roughness coefficients, and surveyed high-water marks for the March 1990 flood, a flow model was calibrated to closely match the known event. The calibrated model then was used to simulate flooding for the 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year recurrence-interval floods. The 100-year flood stage for the Alabama River also was computed in the vicinity of the Catoma Creek confluence using observed high-water profiles from the 1979 and 1990 floods and gaging-station data. The results indicate that the 100-year flood profile for Catoma Creek within the 15-mile study reach is about 2.5 feet higher, on average, than the profile published by the Federal Emergency Management Agency. The maximum and minimum differences are 6.0 feet and 0.8 foot, respectively. All water-surface elevations computed for the 100-year flood are higher than those published by the Federal Emergency Management Agency. The 100-year flood stage computed for the Alabama River in the vicinity of the Catoma Creek confluence was about 4.5 feet lower than the elevation published by the Federal Emergency Management Agency. The results of this study provide the community with flood-profile information that can be used for flood-plain mitigation, future development, and safety plans for the city.

  13. Spring wheat gliadins: Have they changed in 100 years?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There have been many hard red spring (HRS) wheat cultivars released in North Dakota during the last 100 years. These cultivars have been improved for various characteristics such as, adaptation to weather conditions, high yield, and good milling and baking quality. The objectives of this study wer...

  14. 100 Years of Commitment to Children: Change and Continuity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rima

    The Foundation for Child Development (FCD) is the oldest philanthropy in the nation focused on improving the life prospects of children. This booklet, produced for FCD's centennial, describes the organization's origins and changes during the past 100 years. The booklet's sections, which include photographs, quotes, and a timeline, are: (1) "The…

  15. Women in July Fourth Cartoons: A 100-Year Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Katherine; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Analyzes the dominance, appearance, and role of women as depicted in newspaper Independence Day political cartoons over a 100-year period. Concludes that woman's place has gradually broadened to include activities beyond wife and mother. Indicates a resistance to changing norms and difficulty in coping with emerging ones. (JMF)

  16. Elevation of the March - April 2010 flood high water in selected river reaches in central and eastern Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zarriello, Phillip J.; Bent, Gardner C.

    2011-01-01

    A series of widespread, large, low-pressure systems in southern New England in late February through late March 2010 resulted in record, or near record, rainfall and runoff. The total rainfall in the region during this period ranged from about 17 to 25 inches, which coupled with seasonal low evaporation, resulted in record or near record peak flows at 13 of 37 streamgages in central and eastern Massachusetts. The highest record peaks generally occurred in southeastern Massachusetts in late March - early April; at most other streamgages, the peak was in mid-March. Determination of the flood-peak high-water elevation is a critical part of the recovery operations and post-flood analysis for improving future flood-hazard maps and flood-management practices. High-water marks (HWMs) were identified by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from April 13 through May 10, 2010, and by a consultant for Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation (MADCR) after peak flows in mid-March and again in late March - early April. HWMs were identified at 25 river reaches in 7 designated Massachusetts Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs (EEA) basins by the USGS and at 8 river reaches in 2 designated EEA basins by MADCR. The USGS identified 293 HWMs at 152 sites. A site may have more than one HWM, typically upstream and downstream from a bridge. The MADCR identified 133 HWMs; of these, 98 are at unique locations, and 29 of the 133 HWMs were visited once following the mid-March peak and again following the late March peak. The HWMs identified by the USGS and MADCR covered about 300 river miles, determined from the upstream and downstream HWMs (about 230 and 70 river miles, respectively). Elevation of HWMs was later determined to a standard vertical datum (NAVD 88) using the Global Navigation Satellite System and survey grade Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers along with standard optical surveying equipment.

  17. Impacts of elevation data spatial resolution on two-dimensional dam break flood simulation and consequence assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Judi, David R; Mcpherson, Timothy N; Burian, Steven J

    2009-01-01

    A grid resolution sensitivity analysis using a two-dimensional flood inundation model has been presented in this paper. Simulations for 6 dam breaches located randomly in the United States were run at 10,30,60,90, and 120 meter resolutions. The dams represent a range of topographic conditions, ranging from 0% slope to 1.5% downstream of the dam. Using 10 meter digital elevation model (DEM) simulation results as the baseline, the coarser simulation results were compared in terms of flood inundation area, peak depths, flood wave travel time, daytime and nighttime population in flooded area, and economic impacts. The results of the study were consistent with previous grid resolution studies in terms of inundated area, depths, and velocity impacts. The results showed that as grid resolution is decreased, the relative fit of inundated area between the baseline and coarser resolution decreased slightly. This is further characterized by increasing over prediction as well as increasing under prediction with decreasing resolution. Comparison of average peak depths showed that depths generally decreased as resolution decreased, as well as the velocity. It is, however, noted that the trends in depth and velocity showed less consistency than the inundation area metrics. This may indicate that for studies in which velocity and depths must be resolved more accurately (urban environments when flow around buildings is important in the calculation of drag effects), higher resolution DEM data should be used. Perhaps the most significant finding from this study is the perceived insensitivity of socio-economic impacts to grid resolution. The difference in population at risk (PAR) and economic cost generally remained within 10% of the estimated impacts using the high resolution DEM. This insensitivity has been attributed to over estimated flood area and associated socio-economic impacts compensating for under estimated flooded area and associated socio-economic impacts. The United

  18. Elevation trends and shrink-swell response of wetland soils to flooding and drying

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, Donald R.; Perez, Brian C.; Segura, Bradley D.; Lynch, James C.

    2011-01-01

    Given the potential for a projected acceleration in sea-level rise to impact wetland sustainability over the next century, a better understanding is needed of climate-related drivers that influence the processes controlling wetland elevation. Changes in local hydrology and groundwater conditions can cause short-term perturbations to marsh elevation trends through shrink—swell of marsh soils. To better understand the magnitude of these perturbations and their impacts on marsh elevation trends, we measured vertical accretion and elevation dynamics in microtidal marshes in Texas and Louisiana during and after the extreme drought conditions that existed there from 1998 to 2000. In a Louisiana marsh, elevation was controlled by subsurface hydrologic fluxes occurring below the root zone but above the 4 m depth (i.e., the base of the surface elevation table benchmark) that were related to regional drought and local meteorological conditions, with marsh elevation tracking water level variations closely. In Texas, a rapid decline in marsh elevation was related to severe drought conditions, which lowered local groundwater levels. Unfragmented marshes experienced smaller water level drawdowns and more rapid marsh elevation recovery than fragmented marshes. It appears that extended drawdowns lead to increased substrate consolidation making it less resilient to respond to future favorable conditions. Overall, changes in water storage lead to rapid and large short-term impacts on marsh elevation that are as much as five times greater than the long-term elevation trend, indicating the importance of long-term, high-resolution elevation data sets to understand the prolonged effects of water deficits on marsh elevation change.

  19. Potential hazards from flood in part of the Chalone Creek and Bear Valley drainage basins, Pinnacles National Monument, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, Robert W.

    1995-01-01

    Areas of Chalone Creek and Bear Valley drainage basins in Pinnacles National Monument, California, are subject to frontal storms that can cause major flooding from November to April in areas designated for public use. To enhance visitor safety and to protect cultural and natural resources, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service studied flood-hazard potentials within the boundaries of the Pinnacles National Monument. This study area extends from about a quarter of a mile north of Chalone Creek Campground to the mouth of Bear Valley and from the east monument entrance to Chalone Creek. Historical data of precipitation and floodflow within the monument area are sparse to nonexistent, therefore, U.S. Soil Conservation Service unit-hydrograph procedures were used to determine the magnitude of a 100-year flood. Because of a lack of specific storm-rainfall data, a simulated storm was applied to the basins using a digital-computer model developed by the Soil Conservation Service. A graphical relation was used to define the regionally based maximum flood for Chalone Creek and Bear Valley. Water-surface elevations and inundation areas were determined using a conventional step-backwater program. Flood-zone boundaries were derived from the computed water-surface elevations. The 100-year flood plain for both streams would be inundated at all points by the regional maximum flood. Most of the buildings and proposed building sites in the monument area are above the elevation of the 100-year flood, except the proposed building sites near the horse corral and the east monument entrance. The 100-year flood may cause reverse flow through a 12-inch culvert embedded in the embankment of Old Pinnacles Campground Road in the center of Chalone Creek Campground. The likelihood of this occurring is dependant upon the amount of aggradation that occurs upstream; therefore, the campground area also is considered to be within the 100-year flood zone.

  20. An efficient variant of the Priority-Flood algorithm for filling depressions in raster digital elevation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guiyun; Sun, Zhongxuan; Fu, Suhua

    2016-05-01

    Depressions are common features in raster digital elevation models (DEMs) and they are usually filled for the automatic extraction of drainage networks. Among existing algorithms for filling depressions, the Priority-Flood algorithm substantially outperforms other algorithms in terms of both time complexity and memory requirement. The Priority-Flood algorithm uses a priority queue to process cells. This study proposes an efficient variant of the Priority-Flood algorithm, which considerably reduces the number of cells processed by the priority queue by using region-growing procedures to process the majority of cells not within depressions or flat regions. We present three implementations of the proposed variant: two-pass implementation, one-pass implementation and direct implementation. Experiments are conducted on thirty DEMs with a resolution of 3m. All three implementations run faster than existing variants of the algorithm for all tested DEMs. The one-pass implementation runs the fastest and the average speed-up over the fastest existing variant is 44.6%.

  1. Delineation of flooding within the upper Mississippi River Basin, 1993-flood of June 29-September 18, 1993, in Iowa City and vicinity, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaap, Bryan D.; Harvey, Craig A.

    1995-01-01

    The hydrologic investigations atlas shows the areas in and around Iowa City, Iowa, that were flooded by the Iowa River in 1993. This map also depicts the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) 100-year flood boundaries. The drainage basin of the Iowa River at Iowa City received well over 100 percent of normal rainfall in June, July, and August, 1993. At the Cedar Rapids airport, located about 20 miles north-northwest of Iowa City, July rainfall was 414 percent of normal. The discharges at U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations on the Iowa River upstream of Coralville Reservoir, just downstream from Coralville Reservoir, and at Iowa City are shown. A profile of the maximum water-surface elevations of the 1993 flood in Iowa City and vicinity is higher than the FEMA 100-year flood profile. The water-surface elevation of Coralville Reservoir is shown from June 29-September 18, 1993.

  2. Analytical model of sea level elevation during a storm: Support for coastal flood risk assessment associated with cyclone passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maia, Natan Zambroni; Calliari, Lauro Julio; Nicolodi, João Luiz

    2016-08-01

    Sea level oscillations are a result of continuous astronomic, oceanographic, and atmospheric interactions on different time and intensity scales. Thus, the collective action of forcing factors such as tide, wind, atmospheric pressure, and wave action may lead to elevated sea levels during cyclone events over the continental shelf, abruptly impacting adjacent coasts. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential risks of sea level rise and coastal flooding associated with the passage of cyclones in southern Brazil. An analytical model was developed based on extreme storm events from 1997 to 2008. The model identifies the impact of each forcing factor during temporary sea level rise. Through the development of a digital terrain model, it was possible to identify the areas most vulnerable to flooding by superimposing the terrain model onto calculated sea levels. During storm events, sea level elevations ranged from 2 to 5 m and show wind as the major forcing factor, followed by swells waves, astronomical tide and finally atmospheric pressure.

  3. Continuous hydrologic simulation and flood-frequency, hydraulic, and flood-hazard analysis of the Blackberry Creek watershed, Kane County, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soong, David T.; Straub, Timothy D.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    Results of hydrologic model, flood-frequency, hydraulic model, and flood-hazard analysis of the Blackberry Creek watershed in Kane County, Illinois, indicate that the 100-year and 500-year flood plains range from approximately 25 acres in the tributary F watershed (a headwater subbasin at the northeastern corner of the watershed) to almost 1,800 acres in Blackberry Creek main stem. Based on 1996 land-cover data, most of the land in the 100-year and 500-year flood plains was cropland, forested and wooded land, and grassland. A relatively small percentage of urban land was in the flood plains. The Blackberry Creek watershed has undergone rapid urbanization in recent decades. The population and urbanized lands in the watershed are projected to double from the 1990 condition by 2020. Recently, flood-induced damage has occurred more frequently in urbanized areas of the watershed. There are concerns about the effect of urbanization on flood peaks and volumes, future flood-mitigation plans, and potential effects on the water quality and stream habitats. This report describes the procedures used in developing the hydrologic models, estimating the flood-peak discharge magnitudes and recurrence intervals for flood-hazard analysis, developing the hydraulic model, and the results of the analysis in graphical and tabular form. The hydrologic model, Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF), was used to perform the simulation of continuous water movements through various patterns of land uses in the watershed. Flood-frequency analysis was applied to an annual maximum series to determine flood quantiles in subbasins for flood-hazard analysis. The Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) hydraulic model was used to determine the 100-year and 500-year flood elevations, and to determine the 100-year floodway. The hydraulic model was calibrated and verified using high water marks and observed inundation maps for the July 17-18, 1996, flood event. Digital

  4. Rich versus poor: equality in nursing care 100 years ago.

    PubMed

    The question relating to the importance of the equality of nursing care the rich and poor should receive was raised in a very interesting article in the BJN 100 years ago. Miss EA Stevenson, Late Lady Superintendent of the Sutherland Benefit Nursing Association, highlighted some of the key factors. For example, there was the foundation and growth of organizations for the preservation of health and the cure of disease, the increasing role which the metropolitan and provincial hospitals made, and the foundation of Queen Victoria's institute for providing trained nurses for the sick and poor in their own homes.

  5. Palama Settlement: 100 years of serving a neighborhood's needs.

    PubMed

    Rath, P

    1995-11-01

    The founding of Palama Settlement brought to those who might not be able to afford it public health nurses for maternal care and nutrition, well-baby clinics, tuberculosis clinics, medical and dental clinics, and eventually major support of medical needs during and after the attack on Pearl Harbor. Palama Settlement celebrates its centennial year with many of its early functions assumed by state and private organizations, but it is prepared to enter the next 100 years of service to the community. Palama was founded by James Arthur Rath with the purpose of serving the community; many people today remember their childhood and Palama Settlement.

  6. Flood of December 25, 1987, in Millington, Tennessee and vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, James G.; Gamble, Charles R.

    1989-01-01

    Intense rainfall totaling 9.2 in. in a 12-hour period on December 24-25, 1987, and 14.8 in for the period December 24-27 caused record floods in Millington, Tennessee and vicinity. The peak discharge of Big Creek at Raleigh-Millington Road was almost twice the discharge of the 100-year flood discharge and that of Loosahatchie River near Arlington was about equal to the 50-year flood discharge. The inundated area and flood elevations are depicted on a map of Millington, Tennessee and vicinity. Water surface profiles for the peak of December 25, 1987, for Loosahatchie River, Big Creek, Royster Creek, North Fork Creek, Casper Creek, and an unnamed tributary to Big Creek are shown. Flood damages and cleanup costs for this record flood have been estimated at about $9.2 million. (USGS)

  7. Updating flood maps efficiently using existing hydraulic models, very-high-accuracy elevation data, and a geographic information system; a pilot study on the Nisqually River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Joseph L.; Haluska, Tana L.; Kresch, David L.

    2001-01-01

    A method of updating flood inundation maps at a fraction of the expense of using traditional methods was piloted in Washington State as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Urban Geologic and Hydrologic Hazards Initiative. Large savings in expense may be achieved by building upon previous Flood Insurance Studies and automating the process of flood delineation with a Geographic Information System (GIS); increases in accuracy and detail result from the use of very-high-accuracy elevation data and automated delineation; and the resulting digital data sets contain valuable ancillary information such as flood depth, as well as greatly facilitating map storage and utility. The method consists of creating stage-discharge relations from the archived output of the existing hydraulic model, using these relations to create updated flood stages for recalculated flood discharges, and using a GIS to automate the map generation process. Many of the effective flood maps were created in the late 1970?s and early 1980?s, and suffer from a number of well recognized deficiencies such as out-of-date or inaccurate estimates of discharges for selected recurrence intervals, changes in basin characteristics, and relatively low quality elevation data used for flood delineation. FEMA estimates that 45 percent of effective maps are over 10 years old (FEMA, 1997). Consequently, Congress has mandated the updating and periodic review of existing maps, which have cost the Nation almost 3 billion (1997) dollars. The need to update maps and the cost of doing so were the primary motivations for piloting a more cost-effective and efficient updating method. New technologies such as Geographic Information Systems and LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) elevation mapping are key to improving the efficiency of flood map updating, but they also improve the accuracy, detail, and usefulness of the resulting digital flood maps. GISs produce digital maps without manual estimation of inundated areas between

  8. Floods on Yahara River, Lake Mendota to Lake Kegonsa, Dane County, Wisconsin, 1971

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmstrom, Barry K.; Lawrence, Carl L.

    1971-01-01

    The profile and an approximate outline of the flooded area for the regional (100-year) flood has been determined for a 21.3-mile reach of the Yahara River, Dane County, Wisconsin, from State Highway 113 at the head of Lake Mendota downstream to the dam at the outlet of Lake Kegonsa. The reach consists principally of lake surface, which results in large amounts of flood-storage volume. The regional-flood profile ranges from 1.7 feet to 3.1 feet above normal low-water elevation.

  9. Quality control of the RMS US flood model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankowfsky, Sonja; Hilberts, Arno; Mortgat, Chris; Li, Shuangcai; Rafique, Farhat; Rajesh, Edida; Xu, Na; Mei, Yi; Tillmanns, Stephan; Yang, Yang; Tian, Ye; Mathur, Prince; Kulkarni, Anand; Kumaresh, Bharadwaj Anna; Chaudhuri, Chiranjib; Saini, Vishal

    2016-04-01

    The RMS US flood model predicts the flood risk in the US with a 30 m resolution for different return periods. The model is designed for the insurance industry to estimate the cost of flood risk for a given location. Different statistical, hydrological and hydraulic models are combined to develop the flood maps for different return periods. A rainfall-runoff and routing model, calibrated with observed discharge data, is run with 10 000 years of stochastic simulated precipitation to create time series of discharge and surface runoff. The 100, 250 and 500 year events are extracted from these time series as forcing for a two-dimensional pluvial and fluvial inundation model. The coupling of all the different models which are run on the large area of the US implies a certain amount of uncertainty. Therefore, special attention is paid to the final quality control of the flood maps. First of all, a thorough quality analysis of the Digital Terrain model and the river network was done, as the final quality of the flood maps depends heavily on the DTM quality. Secondly, the simulated 100 year discharge in the major river network (600 000 km) is compared to the 100 year discharge derived using extreme value distribution of all USGS gauges with more than 20 years of peak values (around 11 000 gauges). Thirdly, for each gauge the modelled flood depth is compared to the depth derived from the USGS rating curves. Fourthly, the modelled flood depth is compared to the base flood elevation given in the FEMA flood maps. Fifthly, the flood extent is compared to the FEMA flood extent. Then, for historic events we compare flood extents and flood depths at given locations. Finally, all the data and spatial layers are uploaded on geoserver to facilitate the manual investigation of outliers. The feedback from the quality control is used to improve the model and estimate its uncertainty.

  10. Cryptic loss of montane avian richness and high community turnover over 100 years.

    PubMed

    Tingley, Morgan W; Beissinger, Steven R

    2013-03-01

    Although there are numerous examples of individual species moving up in elevation and poleward in latitude in response to 20th century climate change, how communities have responded is less well understood and requires fully accounting for changes in species-specific detectability over time, which has been neglected in past studies. We use a hierarchical Bayesian occupancy model to examine bird species richness change and turnover along three elevation gradients surveyed 80-100 years apart in the Sierra Nevada of California, USA. Richness declined over the 20th century across all elevations. Turnover was greatest at the highest and the lowest elevations. These findings were only apparent, however, after species' detectability was incorporated into measures of species richness. Further partitioning of species richness changes by elevational life zone showed that numbers of low- and high-elevation species declined, without a concurrent expansion by mid-elevation species. Our results provide empirical evidence for biodiversity loss in protected montane areas during the 20th century and highlight the importance of accounting for detectability in comparisons of species richness over time.

  11. Methods for estimating peak discharge and flood boundaries of streams in Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, B.E.; Lindskov, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    Equations for estimating 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year peak discharges and flood depths at ungaged sites in Utah were developed using multiple-regression techniques. Ratios of 500- to 100-year values also were determined. The peak discharge equations are applicable to unregulated streams and the flood depth equations are applicable to the unregulated flow in natural stream channels. The flood depth data can be used to approximate flood prone areas. Drainage area and mean basin elevation are the two basin characteristics needed to use these equations. The standard error of estimate ranges from 38% to 74% for the 100-year peak discharge and from 23% to 33% for the 100-year flood depth. Five different flood mapping methods are described. Streams are classified into four categories as a basis for selecting a flood mapping method. Procedures for transferring flood depths obtained from the regression equations to a flood boundary map are outlined. Also, previous detailed flood mapping by government agencies and consultants is summarized to assist the user in quality control and to minimize duplication of effort. Methods are described for transferring flood frequency data from gaged to ungaged sites on the same stream. Peak discharge and flood depth frequency relations and selected basin characteristics data, updated through the 1980 water year, are tabulated for more than 300 gaging stations in Utah and adjoining states. In addition, weighted estimates of peak discharge relations based on the station data and the regression estimates are provided for each gaging station used in the regression analysis. (Author 's abstract)

  12. Opening the 100-Year Window for Time-Domain Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grindlay, Jonathan; Tang, Sumin; Los, Edward; Servillat, Mathieu

    2012-04-01

    The large-scale surveys such as PTF, CRTS and Pan-STARRS-1 that have emerged within the past 5 years or so employ digital databases and modern analysis tools to accentuate research into Time Domain Astronomy (TDA). Preparations are underway for LSST which, in another 6 years, will usher in the second decade of modern TDA. By that time the Digital Access to a Sky Century @ Harvard (DASCH) project will have made available to the community the full sky Historical TDA database and digitized images for a century (1890-1990) of coverage. We describe the current DASCH development and some initial results, and outline plans for the ``production scanning'' phase and data distribution which is to begin in 2012. That will open a 100-year window into temporal astrophysics, revealing rare transients and (especially) astrophysical phenomena that vary on time-scales of a decade. It will also provide context and archival comparisons for the deeper modern surveys.

  13. Famines in the last 100 years: implications for diabetes.

    PubMed

    de Rooij, Susanne R; Roseboom, Tessa J; Painter, Rebecca C

    2014-10-01

    Overnutrition is a major cause of diabetes. The contrary situation of undernutrition has also been suggested to increase the risk of the disease. Especially undernutrition during prenatal life has been hypothesized to program the structure and physiology of the fetus in such a way that it is more prone to develop diabetes in later life. Famines over the last 100 years have provided historical opportunities to study later-life health consequences of poor nutritional circumstances in early life. The majority of studies based on famine exposure during prenatal life clearly show that diabetes risk is increased. Postnatal famine exposure in childhood, adolescence, or young adulthood also seems to raise risk for diabetes, although prenatal famine effects seem to be more substantial. These study results not only have implications for the consequences of famines still happening but also for pregnancies complicated by factors mimicking poor nutritional situations.

  14. Revisiting the 100 Year Old Radioactivity Lectures of Frederick Soddy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampton, Christine

    2008-04-01

    Between 1908 and 1922, Frederick Soddy, MA., FRS (Dr. Lee`s Professor of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Univ. of Oxford) published four editions of a compendium of his experimental lectures delivered at the University of Glasgow, under the title ``The Interpretation of Radium, and the Structure of the Atom''. Professor Soddy taught his students about `radium writing' and the emanation of radium. He presented a radium clock designed by Professor Strutt; showed students `Pleochroic Halos'; and described the separation of `ionium' from its isotope, thorium. The process of constructing a cohesive logic to empirical observations of this newly discovered phenomenon of radioactivity was a challenging one. Some aspects did not stand the test of time. However, revisiting these lectures after 100 years gives us fascinating insight into the mental processes of the early pioneers in radioactivity.

  15. 100 years of sedimentation study by the USGS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glysson, G. Douglas

    1989-01-01

    On January 15, 1889, the U.S. Geological Survey began collecting sediment data on the Rio Grande at Embudo, New Mexico. During the past 100 years the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Resources Division (WRD) has collected daily sediment data at more than 1,200 sites. Projects have addressed the problems associated with reservoir construction, agricultural irrigation projects, energy production, and transport and deposition of pollutants sorbed to sediments. The Survey has been active as a charter member of the Federal Interagency Sediment Project and currently has three full-time hydrologists working on the project. The WRD's sediment-research projects have covered a wide variety of subjects from the fundamental theories of resistance to flow and sediment transport in alluvial channels to lunar erosion mechanisms.

  16. Sea-Level Rise and Flood Potential along the California Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delepine, Q.; Leung, C.

    2013-12-01

    Sea-level rise is becoming an ever-increasing problem in California. Sea-level is expected to rise significantly in the next 100 years, which will raise flood elevations in coastal communities. This will be an issue for private homeowners, businesses, and the state. One study suggests that Venice Beach could lose a total of at least $440 million in tourism spending and tax dollars from flooding and beach erosion if sea level rises 1.4 m by 2100. In addition, several airports, such as San Francisco International Airport, are located in coastal regions that have flooded in the past and will likely be flooded again in the next 30 years, but sea-level rise is expected to worsen the effects of flooding in the coming decades It is vital for coastal communities to understand the risks associated with sea-level rise so that they can plan to adapt to it. By obtaining accurate LiDAR elevation data from the NOAA Digital Coast Website (http://csc.noaa.gov/dataviewer/?keyword=lidar#), we can create flood maps to simulate sea level rise and flooding. The data are uploaded to ArcGIS and contour lines are added for different elevations that represent future coastlines during 100-year flooding. The following variables are used to create the maps: 1. High-resolution land surface elevation data - obtained from NOAA 2. Local mean high water level - from USGS 3. Local 100-year flood water level - from the Pacific Institute 4. Sea-level rise projections for different future dates (2030, 2050, and 2100) - from the National Research Council The values from the last three categories are added to represent sea-level rise plus 100-year flooding. These values are used to make the contour lines that represent the projected flood elevations, which are then exported as KML files, which can be opened in Google Earth. Once these KML files are made available to the public, coastal communities will gain an improved understanding of how flooding and sea-level rise might affect them in the future

  17. Slope restoration for a 100-year old canal

    SciTech Connect

    Skaggs, R.L.; Lewis, S.W.; Liebersbach, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    Turlock Irrigation District (TID) is located in the northern portion of the fertile San Joaquin Valley of California. TID`s primary water supply is conveyed from the 100-year-old LaGrange Diversion Dam via their historic Upper Main Canal. The original canal was constructed by excavating into slate bedrock for the uphill (cut) bank, and constructing unmortared rock walls and rock fill for the downhill (fill) embankment; the excavation was then lined with concrete. Soil fill raises of the downhill embankment over the last 30 years have reduced the slope stability to unacceptable levels in the steepest embankment areas. In March of 1994, two surficial slides prompted investigation of the long term embankment stability in the Warehouse Slide Area. Based on results of analysis for various stabilization scenarios, TID chose a stabilization method which included: (1) excavation of an access bench below the existing canal, (2) installation of steel pipe piles through the existing rock fill and into the bedrock, (3) construction of a mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) retaining wall and (4) construction of a soil-cement canal roadway pavement. The design was chosen by the owner because of cost competitiveness compared to other design alternatives and because the construction sequence allowed uninterrupted use of the canal. By using local river cobble for the MSE wall facing material, TID met the desired 50-year design life of the repair while maintaining the area`s historic visual features.

  18. The history of atrial fibrillation: the last 100 years.

    PubMed

    Prystowsky, Eric N

    2008-06-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) has had a rich history that has touched the careers of many of the great clinicians and investigators of the 20th century. More recently, there has been an explosion of research into various aspects of the mechanisms and therapy for AF, as evidenced by over 8,000 publications on AF from 2000 to 2007. A century of research and clinical observations, coupled with modern investigative technologies, has enabled modern investigators to have their own "fantastic voyage" as they travel beyond the cell borders into the ionic mechanisms responsible for AF and its many atrial perturbations. One can only imagine the satisfaction of Wenckebach, MacKenzie, and Lewis if they could see how their seeds of wisdom have grown into such sturdy ideas, or how delighted Scherf would be to learn that his ectopic focus theory for AF has been given new life. This paper on 100 years of AF was initially prepared for presentation as the Plenary Lecture at the AFib Summit for Heart Rhythm 2007 in Denver, Colorado. I have tried to provide the reader with some of the most important observations on AF, realizing that it would be impossible to include all or even most of the major research done during this time frame. I apologize to my many colleagues whose research has helped us to understand better the clinical and basic aspects of AF, yet who could not be cited for lack of space.

  19. Pedernales oilfield, eastern Venezuela: The first 100 years

    SciTech Connect

    Gluyas, J.; Oliver, J.; Wilson, W.

    1996-08-01

    Petroleum seeps and surface tar mats attracted oil explorers to Pedernales in eastern Venezuela 100 years ago. Commercial production from the Pedernales Field was established by Creole in 1933. In three production periods, broken by WWII and the end of the Creole-Texaco refining contract, Creole and Lagoven produced about 60 MMSTB from about 60 wells in about 60 years. Peak production was in the late 1950s, when the field delivered 12,000 BOPD. Production was stopped in 1986. In March 1993, BP Venezuela acquired the license to reactivate Pedernales on behalf of Lagoven, and BP`s first well in the field was drilled in August 1994. A second was completed in early 1995. The production from each well was sufficiently encouraging for commerciality to be declared in March 1995. Phase 1 of the field reactivation demanded a production rate of 11,500 BOPD. As of now (September, 1995) six wells, including one gas disposal well, have been completed. Wells have been placed using a combination of old well data and mapping based on a close spaced 2D seismic survey shot in early 1994. Results from these first few wells indicate that the required production rate will be achieved despite severely depleted reservoir pressures. This paper tells the story of reactivation and re-evaluation of one of eastern Venezuela`s oldest oilfields.

  20. Overuse syndrome in musicians--100 years ago. An historical review.

    PubMed

    Fry, H J

    Overuse syndrome in musicians was extensively reported 100 years ago. The clinical features and results of treatment, which were recorded in considerable detail, match well the condition that is described today. The medical literature that is reviewed here extends from 1830 to 1911 and includes 21 books and 54 articles from the English language literature, apart from two exceptions; however, the writers of the day themselves reviewed French, German and Italian literature on the subject. The disorder was said to result from the overuse of the affected parts. Two theories of aetiology, not necessarily mutually exclusive, were argued. The central theory regarded the lesion as being in the central nervous system, the peripheral theory implied a primary muscle disorder. No serious case was put forward for a psychogenic origin, though emotional factors were believed to aggravate the condition. Advances in musical instrument manufacture--particularly the development of the concert piano and the clarinet--may have played a part in the prevalence of overuse syndrome in musicians. Total rest from the mechanical use of the hand was the only effective treatment recorded.

  1. Colloquium: 100 years of mass spectrometry: Perspectives and future trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Simon; Jjunju, Fred P. M.; Taylor, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is widely regarded as the most sensitive and specific general purpose analytical technique. More than a century has passed for MS since the ground-breaking work of Nobel laureate Sir Joseph John Thomson in 1913. This Colloquium aims to (1) give an historical overview of the major instrumentation achievements that have driven mass spectrometry forward in the past century, including those leading up to the initial work of Thomson, (2) provide the nonspecialist with an introduction to MS, and (3) highlight some key applications of MS and explore the current and future trends. Because of the vastness of the subject area and quality of the manifold research efforts that have been undertaken over the last 100 years, which have contributed to the foundations and subsequent advances in mass spectrometry, it should be understood that not all of the key contributions may have been included in this Colloquium. Mass spectrometry has embraced a multitude of scientific disciplines and to recognize all of the achievements is an impossible task, such has been the diverse impact of this invaluable technique. Scientific progress is usually made via the cumulative effort of a large number of researchers; the achievements reported herein are only a representation of that effort.

  2. 78 FR 52954 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  3. 78 FR 52953 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  4. 78 FR 5820 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  5. 78 FR 5821 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  6. 78 FR 21143 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  7. River bed Elevation Changes and Increasing Flood Hazards in the Nisqually River at Mount Rainier National Park, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halmon, S.; Kennard, P.; Beason, S.; Beaulieu, E.; Mitchell, L.

    2006-12-01

    Mount Rainier, located in Southwestern Washington, is the most heavily glaciated volcano of the Cascade Mountain Range. Due to the large quantities of glaciers, Mount Rainier also has a large number of braided rivers, which are formed by a heavy sediment load being released from the glaciers. As sediment builds in the river, its bed increases, or aggrades,its floodplain changes. Some contributions to a river's increased sediment load are debris flows, erosion, and runoff, which tend to carry trees, boulders, and sediment downstream. Over a period of time, the increased sediment load will result in the river's rise in elevation. The purpose of this study is to monitor aggradation rates, which is an increase in height of the river bed, in one of Mount Rainier's major rivers, the Nisqually. The studied location is near employee offices and visitor attractions in Longmire. The results of this study will also provide support to decision makers regarding geological hazard reduction in the area. The Nisqually glacier is located on the southern side of the volcano, which receives a lot of sunlight, thus releasing large amounts of snowmelt and sediment in the summer. Historical data indicate that several current features which may contribute to future flooding, such as the unnatural uphill slope to the river, which is due to a major depositional event in the late 1700s where 15 ft of material was deposited in this area. Other current features are the glaciers surrounding the Nisqually glacier, such as the Van Trump and Kaultz glaciers that produced large outbursts, affecting the Nisqually River and the Longmire area in 2001, 2003, and 2005. In an effort to further explore these areas, the research team used a surveying device, total station, in the Nisqually River to measure elevation change and angles of various positions within ten cross sections along the Longmire area. This data was then put into GIS for analyzation of its current sediment level and for comparison to

  8. Integration of SRTM DEM and Hydraulic Analysis for Flood Response Planning.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervez, M.; Asante, K. O.; Smith, J. L.; Verdin, J. P.; Rowland, J.

    2006-12-01

    The ability to delineate potential flood inundation areas is one of the most important requirements for flood response planning. Historical hydrologic records and high-resolution topographic data are essential to model flood inundation and to map areas at risk of inundation. For Afghanistan, historical hydrologic data enable the analysis of flood frequency, but the accurate delineation of flood inundation zones is limited by the lack of high- resolution elevation data. This study has developed a method for coupling hydraulic analysis and Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to delineate flood risk maps of the Helmand and Kabul drainage basins in Afghanistan. Land surface elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) were used to create an area-elevation profile with respect to the rivers that flow into these two basins. Using the profile, we computed cross-sectional area and wetted perimeter for each 1-m increment in elevation. Manning's equation was applied to compute river discharge for each 1-m increment in water level using cross-sectional area, wetted perimeter and slope of the respective river reach. Results for the gauged river reaches were compared with 25, 50, and 100-year return period floods based on a flood frequency from the historical stream flow data, and associated depths of water were estimated for each return period flood. Peak flows at gauge stations were extrapolated to ungauged river reaches based on upstream drainage area. The estimated depths of water for each river reach were used as thresholds to identify areas subject to flood inundation, using the SRTM Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with respect to the rivers. The resulting flood inundation polygons were combined in a GIS with roads, infrastructure, settlements, and higher resolution satellite imagery to identify potential hazards due to flooding, and provide detailed information for flood response planning.

  9. Estimated flood frequency and corresponding water-surface elevations at the confluence of the Potomac and Shenandoah rivers, Harpers Ferry, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doheny, E.J.; Fisher, G.T.

    2000-01-01

    The Harpers Ferry National Historical Park is located at the confluence of the Shenandoah and Potomac Rivers in Harpers Ferry, West Virginia and has historically been affected by flooding from both rivers. Because the drainage areas of both rivers are large and drain geographically separate regions, either river may contribute individually to flooding, or the combination of flows may be the source of flooding. Previous flood-frequency analyses have been conducted at U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations upstream on the Potomac River at Shepherdstown, West Virginia and on the Shenandoah River at Millville, West Virginia.; and downstream on the Potomac River at Point of Rocks, Maryland. A flood-frequency analysis for Harpers Ferry can be expected to fall within the streamflows and recurrence intervals predicted at the surrounding stations. The prediction of corresponding water-surface elevations at Harpers Ferry is difficult, however, because of differences in rainfall distribution across the two regions and the timing of the peaks on both rivers.

  10. Flood of July 1-5, 1978 on the Kickapoo River, southwestern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, Peter E.; Hannuksela, J.S.; Danchuk, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Kickapoo River valley in southwestern Wisconsin had a devastating flood ($10 million estimated damages) during July 1-5, 1978. The flash flooding was caused by intense storms on June 30 through July 2. Total rainfall accumulation ranged from 5.8 inches near Ontario to 9.5 inches at La Farge. The resulting flood equaled or exceeded the largest ones recorded since the 1850 's and equaled or exceeded the 100-year flood frequency at the U.S. Geological Survey 's streamflow gages at La Farge and Steuben. Elevation and delineation of the flood are shown on photo mosaics developed from black and white aerial photographs. The 100-mile reach from Wauzeka to Wilton is shown. A summary of the storm conditions causing the flood and an analysis of the rainfall totals, as prepared by the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, are also included. (USGS)

  11. Flood of May 2006 in York County, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Gregory J.; Kempf, Joshua P.

    2008-01-01

    A stalled low-pressure system over coastal New England on Mother's Day weekend, May 13-15, 2006, released rainfall in excess of 15 inches. This flood (sometimes referred to as the 'Mother's Day flood') caused widespread damage to homes, businesses, roads, and structures in southern Maine. The damage to public property in York County was estimated to be $7.5 million. As a result of these damages, a presidential disaster declaration was enacted on May 25, 2006, for York County, Maine. Peak-flow recurrence intervals for eight of the nine streams studied were calculated to be greater than 500 years. The peak-flow recurrence interval of the remaining stream was calculated to be between a 100-year and a 500-year interval. This report provides a detailed description of the May 2006 flood in York County, Maine. Information is presented on peak streamflows and peak-flow recurrence intervals on nine streams, peak water-surface elevations for 80 high-water marks at 25 sites, hydrologic conditions before and after the flood, comparisons with published Flood Insurance Studies, and places the May 2006 flood in context with historical floods in York County. At sites on several streams, differences were observed between peak flows published in the Flood Insurance Studies and those calculated for this study. The differences in the peak flows from the published Flood Insurance Studies and the flows calculated for this report are within an acceptable range for flows calculated at ungaged locations, with the exception of those for the Great Works River and Merriland River. For sites on the Mousam River, Blacksmith Brook, Ogunquit River, and Cape Neddick River, water-surface elevations from Flood Insurance Studies differed with documented water-surface elevations from the 2006 flood.

  12. Effects of proposed highway embankment modifications on water-surface elevations in the lower Pearl River flood plain near Slidell, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, J.J.; Schuck-Kolben, R. E.

    1987-01-01

    Major flooding in the lower Pearl River basin in recent years has caused extensive damage to homes and highways in the area. In 1980 and 1983, Interstate Highway 10 and U.S. Highway 190 were overtopped. In 1983, the Interstate Highway 10 crossing was seriously damaged by the flood. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development, Office of Highways, used a two-dimensional finite-element surface-water flow model to evaluate the effects the proposed embankment modifications at Interstate Highway 10 and U.S. Highway 90 on the water-surface elevations in the lower Pearl River flood plain near Slidell, Louisiana. The proposed modifications that were considered for the 1983 flood are: (1) Removal of all highway embankments, the natural condition, (2) extension of the West Pearl River bridge by 1,000 feet at U.S. Highway 90, (3) construction of a new 250-foot bridge opening in the U.S. Highways 190 and 90, west of the intersection of the highways. The proposed highway bridge modifications also incorporated lowering of ground-surface elevations under the new bridges to sea level. The modification that provided the largest reduction in backwater, about 35 percent, was a new bridge in Interstate Highway 10. The modification of the West Pearl River bridge at U.S. Highway 90 and replacement of the bridge in U.S. Highway 190 provide about a 25% reduction in backwater each. For the other modification conditions that required structural modifications, maximum backwater computed on the west side of the flood plain ranges from 0.0 to 0.8 foot and on the east side from 0.0 to 0.6 foot. Results show that although backwater is greater on the west side of the flood plain than on the east side, upstream of highway embankments, backwater decreases more rapidly in the upstream direction on the west side of the flood plain than on the east side. Analysis of the proposed modifications indicates that backwater would still occur on

  13. Global change and water resources in the next 100 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, M. C.; Hirsch, R. M.

    2010-03-01

    in the first half of the 20th century. Decreased summer runoff affects water supply for agriculture, domestic water supply, cooling needs for thermoelectric power generation, and ecosystem needs. In addition to the reduced volume of streamflow during warm summer months, less water results in elevated stream temperature, which also has significant effects on cooling of power generating facilities and on aquatic ecosystem needs. We are now required to include fish and other aquatic species in negotiation over how much water to leave in the river, rather than, as in the past, how much water we could remove from a river. Additionally, we must pay attention to the quality of that water, including its temperature. This is driven in the US by the Endangered Species Act and the Clean Water Act. Furthermore, we must now better understand and manage the whole hydrograph and the influence of hydrologic variability on aquatic ecosystems. Man has trimmed the tails off the probability distribution of flows. We need to understand how to put the tails back on but can’t do that without improved understanding of aquatic ecosystems. Sea level rise presents challenges for fresh water extraction from coastal aquifers as they are compromised by increased saline intrusion. A related problem faces users of ‘run-of-the-river’ water-supply intakes that are threatened by a salt front that migrates further upstream because of higher sea level. We face significant challenges with water infrastructure. The U.S. has among the highest quality drinking water in the world piped to our homes. However, our water and sewage treatment plants and water and sewer pipelines have not had adequate maintenance or investment for decades. The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates that there are up to 3.5M illnesses per year from recreational contact with sewage from sanitary sewage overflows. Infrastructure investment needs have been put at 5 trillion nationally. Global change and water resources

  14. Preliminary estimate of possible flood elevations in the Columbia River at Trojan Nuclear Power Plant due to failure of debris dam blocking Spirit Lake, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, D.L.; Laenen, Antonius

    1984-01-01

    Failure of the debris dam, blocking the outflow of Spirit Lake near Mount St. Helens, could result in a mudflow down the Toutle and Cowlitz Rivers into the Columbia River. Flood elevations at the Trojan Nuclear Power Plant on the Columbia River, 5 mi upstream from the Cowlitz River, were simulated with a hydraulic routing model. The simulations are made for four Columbia River discharges in each of two scenarios, one in which Columbia River floods coincide with a mudflow and the other in which Columbia River floods follow a mudflow sediment deposit upstream from the Cowlitz River. In the first scenario, Manning 's roughness coefficients for clear water and for mudflow in the Columbia River are used; in the second scenario only clear water coefficients are used. The grade elevation at the power plant is 45 ft above sea level. The simulated elevations exceed 44 ft if the mudflow coincides with a Columbia River discharge that has a recurrence interval greater than 10 years (610,000 cu ft/sec); the mudflow is assumed to extend downstream from the Cowlitz River to the mouth of the Columbia River, and Manning 's roughness coefficients for a mudflow are used. The simulated elevation is 32 ft if the mudflow coincides with a 100-yr flood (820,000 cu ft/sec) and clear-water Manning 's coefficients are used throughout the entire reach of the Columbia River. The elevations exceed 45 ft if a flow exceeding the 2-yr peak discharge in the Columbia River (410,000 cu ft/sec) follows the deposit of 0.5 billion cu yd of mudflow sediment upstream of the Cowlitz River before there has been any appreciable scour or dredging of the deposit. In this simulation it is assumed that: (1) the top of the sediment deposited in the Columbia River is at an elevation of 30 ft at the mouth of the Cowlitz River, (2) the surface elevation of the sediment deposit decreases in an upstream direction at a rate of 2.5 ft/mi, and (3) clear water Manning 's coefficients apply to the entire modeled reach of

  15. Flood of April 2007 in Southern Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    Up to 8.5 inches of rain fell from April 15 through 18, 2007, in southern Maine. The rain - in combination with up to an inch of water from snowmelt - resulted in extensive flooding. York County, Maine, was declared a presidential disaster area following the event. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), determined peak streamflows and recurrence intervals at 24 locations and peak water-surface elevations at 63 sites following the April 2007 flood. Peak streamflows were determined with data from continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations where available and through hydraulic models where station data were not available. The flood resulted in peak streamflows with recurrence intervals greater than 100 years throughout most of York County, and recurrence intervals up to 50 years in Cumberland County. Peak flows for selected recurrence intervals varied from less than 10 percent to greater than 100 percent different than those in the current FEMA flood-insurance studies due to additional data or newer regression equations. Water-surface elevations observed during the April 2007 flood were bracketed by elevation profiles in FEMA flood-insurance studies with the same recurrence intervals as the recurrence intervals bracketing the observed peak streamflows at seven sites, with higher elevation-profile recurrence intervals than streamflow recurrence intervals at six sites, and with lower elevation-profile recurrence intervals than streamflow recurrence intervals at one site. The April 2007 flood resulted in higher peak flows and water-surface elevations than the flood of May 2006 in coastal locations in York County, and lower peak flows and water-surface elevations than the May 2006 flood further from the coast and in Cumberland County. The Mousam River watershed with over 13 dams and reservoirs was severely impacted by both events. Analyses indicate that the April 2007 peak streamflows in the Mousam River watershed

  16. Delineation of flooding within the upper Mississippi River Basin, flood of July 10 and 27, 1993, in Kansas City Missouri, and Kansas City, Kansas, and vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Charles A.; Clement, Ralph W.; Studley, Seth E.

    1997-01-01

    During spring and summer 1993, record flooding inundated many of the stream and river valleys in the upper Mississippi and the Missouri River Basins. The flooding was the result of widespread and numerous intense thunderstorms that, together with saturated soils, produced large volumes of runoff. The magnitude of flooding exceeded the 100-year discharge values (1-percent chance of exceedance in any given year) at many streamflow-gaging stations in Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. The flooding was unusual because of its long duration and widespread severe damage. The Mississippi and the Missouri Rivers were above flood stage for more than 1 month at several locations along their lengths. Millions of acres of agricultural and urban lands were inundated for weeks, and unofficial damage estimates exceeded $10 billion in the flooded States (Parrett and others, 1993),During summer 1993, large parts of Kansas City, Missouri, and Kansas City, Kansas, and vicinity were flooded from overflows of the Missouri and the Kansas Rivers and numerous smaller tributaries, This report provides flood-peak elevation data and delineates the arcalcktent of the 1993 floods in the Kansas City metropolitan area for July 10 and 27, 1993 (fig. 1A, sheet 1: B, sheet 2: C, sheet 3). The 1993 flood elevations and extent of flooding are compared with flood-plain boundaries defined by Flood Insurance Studies conducted by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) for cities and counties in the area (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 1975–95).This report is one of a series of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigations that document the effects of the 1993 flooding of the upper Mississippi and the Missouri River Basins and that improve the technical base from which flood-plain management decisions can be made by other agencies.

  17. Simulated and observed 2010 flood-water elevations in selected river reaches in the Moshassuck and Woonasquatucket River Basins, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zarriello, Phillip J.; Straub, David E.; Westenbroek, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    Heavy persistent rains from late February through March 2010 caused severe flooding and set, or nearly set, peaks of record for streamflows and water levels at many long-term U.S. Geological Survey streamgages in Rhode Island. In response to this flood, hydraulic models were updated for selected reaches covering about 33 river miles in Moshassuck and Woonasquatucket River Basins from the most recent approved Federal Emergency Management Agency flood insurance study (FIS) to simulate water-surface elevations (WSEs) from specified flows and boundary conditions. Reaches modeled include the main stem of the Moshassuck River and its main tributary, the West River, and three tributaries to the West River—Upper Canada Brook, Lincoln Downs Brook, and East Branch West River; and the main stem of the Woonasquatucket River. All the hydraulic models were updated to Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) version 4.1.0 and incorporate new field-survey data at structures, high-resolution land-surface elevation data, and flood flows from a related study. The models were used to simulate steady-state WSEs at the 1- and 2-percent annual exceedance probability (AEP) flows, which is the estimated AEP of the 2010 flood in the Moshassuck River Basin and the Woonasquatucket River, respectively. The simulated WSEs were compared to the high-water mark (HWM) elevation data obtained in these basins in a related study following the March–April 2010 flood, which included 18 HWMs along the Moshassuck River and 45 HWMs along the Woonasquatucket River. Differences between the 2010 HWMs and the simulated 2- and 1-percent AEP WSEs from the FISs and the updated models developed in this study varied along the reach. Most differences could be attributed to the magnitude of the 2- and 1-percent AEP flows used in the FIS and updated model flows. Overall, the updated model and the FIS WSEs were not appreciably different when compared to the observed 2010 HWMs along the

  18. Biomass, photosynthesis and water use efficiency of woody swamp species subjected to flooding and elevated water temperature.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Kenneth W.; Donovan, Lisa A.; Stumpff, Nancy J.; Sherrod, K. C.

    1986-12-01

    Seedlings of water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica L.), bald cypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Richard) and button bush (Cephalanthus occidentalis L.) and cuttings of black willow (Salix nigra Marshall) were established in pots and included in a complete factorial experiment with three water temperatures (maximums of about 30, 35 or 40 degrees C) and three water levels (maximum flood depth was 6 cm above soil level). Flooding for 3 months at 30 degrees C reduced dry weight of roots and shoots in all species except water tupelo. At 40 degrees C, however, flooding significantly reduced growth of water tupelo as well as the other species. High water temperatures reduced stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rates in water tupelo and black willow, but not in the other species. In combination with flooding, high temperature reduced water use efficiency in all species except button bush and most sharply in water tupelo.

  19. Estimated flood peak discharges on Twin, Brock, and Lightning creeks, Southwest Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, May 8, 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tortorelli, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The flash flood in southwestern Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, May 8, 1993, was the result of an intense 3-hour rainfall on saturated ground or impervious surfaces. The total precipitation of 5.28 inches was close to the 3-hour, 100-year frequency and produced extensive flooding. The most serious flooding was on Twin, Brock, and Lightning Creeks. Four people died in this flood. Over 1,900 structures were damaged along the 3 creeks. There were about $3 million in damages to Oklahoma City public facilities, the majority of which were in the three basins. A study was conducted to determine the magnitude of the May 8, 1993, flood peak discharge in these three creeks in southwestern Oklahoma City and compare these peaks with published flood estimates. Flood peak-discharge estimates for these creeks were determined at 11 study sites using a step-backwater analysis to match the flood water-surface profiles defined by high-water marks. The unit discharges during peak runoff ranged from 881 cubic feet per second per square mile for Lightning Creek at SW 44th Street to 3,570 cubic feet per second per square mile for Brock Creek at SW 59th Street. The ratios of the 1993 flood peak discharges to the Federal Emergency Management Agency 100-year flood peak discharges ranged from 1.25 to 3.29. The water-surface elevations ranged from 0.2 foot to 5.9 feet above the Federal Emergency Management Agency 500-year flood water-surface elevations. The very large flood peaks in these 3 small urban basins were the result of very intense rainfall in a short period of time, close to 100 percent runoff due to ground surfaces being essentially impervious, and the city streets acting as efficient conveyances to the main channels. The unit discharges compare in magnitude to other extraordinary Oklahoma urban floods.

  20. Floods of July 12, 1972, March 19, 1979, and June 15, 1991, in the Turkey River Basin, northeast Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eash, D.A.; Koppensteiner, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    Water-surface-elevation profiles and peak discharges for the floods of July 12, 1972, March 19, 1979, and June 15, 1991, in the Turkey River Basin, northeast Iowa, are presented in this report. The profiles illustrate the 1979 and 1991 floods along the Turkey River in Fayette and Clayton Counties and along the Volga River in Clayton County; the 1991 flood along Roberts Creek in Clayton County and along Otter Creek in Fayette County; and the 1972 flood along the Turkey River in Winneshiek and Fayette Counties. Watersurface elevations for the flood of March 19,1979, were collected by the Iowa Natural Resources Council. The June 15, 1991, flood on the Turkey River at Garber (station number 05412500) is the largest known flood-peak discharge at the streamflow-gaging station for the period 1902-95. The peak discharge for June 15, 1991, of 49,900 cubic feet per second was 1.4 times larger than the 100-year recurrence-interval discharge. The report provides information on flood stages and discharges and floodflow frequencies for streamflow-gaging stations in the Turkey River Basin using flood information collected during 1902-95. Information on temporary bench marks and reference points established in the Turkey River Basin during 1981, 1992, and 1996 also is included in the report. A flood history describes rainfall conditions for floods that occurred during 1922, 1947, 1972, 1979, and 1991.

  1. 78 FR 5822 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  2. 77 FR 18846 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  3. 77 FR 18844 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  4. 77 FR 18841 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  5. 78 FR 5826 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  6. 78 FR 5824 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  7. 78 FR 49278 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  8. 78 FR 21143 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  9. 77 FR 18839 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  10. 77 FR 18842 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  11. 77 FR 18835 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  12. 78 FR 49277 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  13. 77 FR 18837 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  14. Hydrologic data for floods of July 1978 in Southeast Minnesota and Southwest Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Latkovich, V.J.

    1979-01-01

    Intense storms of July 1978 caused floods of historical significance in southeast Minnesota and southwest Wisconsin. Local, State, and Federal officials need data and information to evaluate, coordinate, and manage programs concerned with floods and flood losses. Because of a need to document stream discharges, elevations, and sediment concentrations, current-meter and indirect measurements were made at 34 gaging stations during or immediately after the floods. This report summarizes some of the hydrologic data collected. Peak discharges of record occurred at 20 gaging stations. Frequency of peak discharge equaled or exceeded the 100-year recurrence interval at 11 stations. The Federal Benchmark gaging station on the North Fork Whitewater River was destroyed. Five people died as a result of the floods, and property damages were estimated to exceed $114 million. Thirty-three counties were officially declared disaster areas.

  15. Flooding studies of proposed repository locations in the Palo Duro Basin of the Texas Panhandle

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-04-01

    This report contains the results of flooding studies of those stream channels that drain the proposed locations of a high-level nuclear-waste repository in Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties, Texas. Included are computations of the flood hydrographs and water surface profiles of the 100-year, 500-year, and probable maximum floods for Palo Duro Creek, Tule Creek, and Pleasant Draw. The hydrographs were produced according to the method of the Soil Conservation Service for ungaged watersheds, and the computations were made with computer programs developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers. The flood hydrographs were computed with the HEC-1 Flood Hydrograph Package and the water surface elevations with the HEC-2 Water Surface Profiles program. 76 refs., 19 figs., 16 tabs.

  16. 78 FR 52946 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal... or modification of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundaries or zone designations, or the regulatory floodway (hereinafter referred to as flood...

  17. 77 FR 59953 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal... or modification of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundaries or zone designations, or the regulatory floodway (hereinafter referred to as flood...

  18. 78 FR 35300 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal... or modification of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundaries or zone designations, or the regulatory floodway (hereinafter referred to as flood...

  19. 78 FR 35305 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal... or modification of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundaries or zone designations, or the regulatory floodway (hereinafter referred to as flood...

  20. 78 FR 52955 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal... or modification of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundaries or zone designations, or the regulatory floodway (hereinafter referred to as flood...

  1. 78 FR 21136 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal... or modification of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundaries or zone designations, or the regulatory floodway (hereinafter referred to as flood...

  2. 77 FR 59950 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal... or modification of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundaries or zone designations, or the regulatory floodway (hereinafter referred to as flood...

  3. 78 FR 52943 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal... or modification of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundaries or zone designations, or the regulatory floodway (hereinafter referred to as flood...

  4. From Anzac to Afghanistan: have 100 years taught us nothing about the devastation of war?

    PubMed

    Carragee, Eugene J

    2015-12-01

    Commentary On: Atkinson Brigadier (Ret'd) RN, Fraser RD. 100 years-Anzac, Vietnam to now. Spine J 2015:15:2454-6 (in this issue). Robertson PA. Gallipoli 100 years on: a New Zealand perspective. Spine J 2015:15:2457-8 (in this issue).

  5. From Anzac to Afghanistan: have 100 years taught us nothing about the devastation of war?

    PubMed

    Carragee, Eugene J

    2015-12-01

    Commentary On: Atkinson Brigadier (Ret'd) RN, Fraser RD. 100 years-Anzac, Vietnam to now. Spine J 2015:15:2454-6 (in this issue). Robertson PA. Gallipoli 100 years on: a New Zealand perspective. Spine J 2015:15:2457-8 (in this issue). PMID:26698028

  6. Optimization of the resolution of remotely sensed digital elevation model to facilitate the simulation and spatial propagation of flood events in flat areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karapetsas, Nikolaos; Skoulikaris, Charalampos; Katsogiannos, Fotis; Zalidis, George; Alexandridis, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The use of satellite remote sensing products, such as Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), under specific computational interfaces of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has fostered and facilitated the acquisition of data on specific hydrologic features, such as slope, flow direction and flow accumulation, which are crucial inputs to hydrology or hydraulic models at the river basin scale. However, even though DEMs of different resolution varying from a few km up to 20m are freely available for the European continent, these remotely sensed elevation data are rather coarse in cases where large flat areas are dominant inside a watershed, resulting in an unsatisfactory representation of the terrain characteristics. This scientific work aims at implementing a combing interpolation technique for the amelioration of the analysis of a DEM in order to be used as the input ground model to a hydraulic model for the assessment of potential flood events propagation in plains. More specifically, the second version of the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM2), which has an overall accuracy of around 20 meters, was interpolated with a vast number of aerial control points available from the Hellenic Mapping and Cadastral Organization (HMCO). The uncertainty that was inherent in both the available datasets (ASTER & HMCO) and the appearance of uncorrelated errors and artifacts was minimized by incorporating geostatistical filtering. The resolution of the produced DEM was approximately 10 meters and its validation was conducted with the use of an external dataset of 220 geodetic survey points. The derived DEM was then used as an input to the hydraulic model InfoWorks RS, whose operation is based on the relief characteristics contained in the ground model, for defining, in an automated way, the cross section parameters and simulating the flood spatial distribution. The plain of Serres, which is located in the downstream part of the Struma/Strymon transboundary river basin shared

  7. Flood of September 2008 in Northwestern Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fowler, Kathleen K.; Kim, Moon H.; Menke, Chad D.; Arvin, Donald V.

    2010-01-01

    During September 12-15, 2008, rainfall ranging from 2 to more than 11 inches fell on northwestern Indiana. The rainfall resulted in extensive flooding on many streams within the Lake Michigan and Kankakee River Basins during September 12-18, causing two deaths, evacuation of hundreds of residents, and millions of dollars of damage to residences, businesses, and infrastructure. In all, six counties in northwestern Indiana were declared Federal disaster areas. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgages at four locations recorded new record peak streamflows as a result of the heavy rainfall. Peak-gage-height data, peak-streamflow data, annual exceedance probabilities, and recurrence intervals are tabulated in this report for 10 USGS streamgages in northwestern Indiana. Recurrence intervals of flood-peak streamflows were estimated to be greater than 100 years at six streamgages. Because flooding was particularly severe in the communities of Munster, Dyer, Hammond, Highland, Gary, Lake Station, Hobart, Schererville, Merrillville, Michiana Shores, and Portage, high-water-park data collected after the flood were tabulated for those communities. Flood peak inundation maps and water-surface profiles for selected streams were made in a geographic information system by combining high-water-mark data with the highest resolution digital elevation model data available.

  8. First Airswot Interferometric Radar Water Surface Elevations and Flooded Inundation Extent from the Sacramento River and Edwards AFB Wetland Complex, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitcher, L. H.; Smith, L. C.; Gleason, C. J.; Baney, O. N.; Chu, V. W.; Bennett, M. M.; Pavelsky, T.; Sadowy, G. A.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's forthcoming Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission aims to quantify global freshwater fluxes from space using Ka-band interferometric radar. AirSWOT is the airborne calibration/validation instrument for SWOT with first-pass data collected over the Sacramento River in May 2013 and a wetland complex on Edwards AFB (Piute Ponds) in May 2014. Here, AirSWOT elevation and coherence data are compared with high resolution airborne imagery and concurrent in-situ field mappings of inundation area and water surface elevation. For the Sacramento River, AirSWOT water surface elevations are compared with field-surveyed elevations collected using a high precision GPS Lagrangian river drifter escorted down 30 km of river length. Additionally, field mapped river shorelines are compared with shorelines extracted from AirSWOT coherence data. For the Piute Ponds, we use an exhaustive field mapping of inundation extent and flooded vegetation to assess the ability of AirSWOT coherence and backscatter to map shorelines in a complex lake and wetland environment containing varying vegetation and soil moisture conditions.

  9. Simulations of Flooding on Pea River and Whitewater Creek in the Vicinity of the Proposed Elba Bypass at Elba, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedgecock, T. Scott

    2003-01-01

    A two-dimensional finite-element surface-water model was used to study the effects of proposed modifications to the State Highway 203 corridor (proposed Elba Bypass/relocated U.S. Highway 84) on water-surface elevations and flow distributions during flooding in the Pea River and Whitewater Creek Basins at Elba, Coffee County, Alabama. Flooding was first simulated for the March 17, 1990, flood, using the 1990 flood-plain conditions to calibrate the model to match measured data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers after the flood. After model calibration, the effects of flooding were simulated for four scenarios: (1) floods having the 50- and 100-year recurrence intervals for the existing flood-plain, bridge, highway, and levee conditions; (2) floods having the 50- and 100-year recurrence intervals for the existing flood-plain and levee conditions with the State Highway 203 embankment and bridge removed; (3) floods having the 50- and 100-year recurrence intervals for the existing flood-plain, bridge, and highway conditions with proposed modifications (elevating) to the levee; and (4) floods having the 50- and 100-year recurrence intervals for the proposed conditions reflecting the Elba Bypass and modified levee. The simulation of floodflow for the Pea River and Whitewater Creek flood of March 17, 1990, in the study reach compared closely to flood profile data obtained after the flood. The flood of March 17, 1990, had an estimated peak discharge of 58,000 cubic feet per second at the gage (just below the confluence) and was estimated to be between a 50-year and 100-year flood event. The estimated peak discharge for Pea River and Whitewater Creek was 40,000 and 42,000 cubic feet per second, respectively. Simulation of floodflows for the 50-year flood (51,400 cubic feet per second) at the gage for existing flood-plain, bridge, highway, and levee conditions indicated that about 31 percent of the peak flow was conveyed by the State

  10. Flood hazard assessment of the Hoh River at Olympic National Park ranger station, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, D.L.; Pierson, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    Federal regulations require buildings and public facilities on Federal land to be located beyond or protected from inundation by a 100-year flood. Flood elevations, velocities and boundaries were determined for the occurrence of a 100-year flood through a reach, approximately 1-mi-long, of the Hoh River at the ranger station complex in Olympic National Park. Flood elevations, estimated by step-backwater analysis of the 100-year flood discharge through 14 channel and flood-plain cross sections of the Hoh River, indicate that the extent of flooding in the vicinity of buildings or public facilities at the ranger station complex is likely to be limited mostly to two historic meander channels that lie partly within loop A of the public campground and that average flood depths of about 2 feet or less would be anticipated in these channels. Mean flow velocities at the cross sections, corresponding to the passage of a 100-year flood, ranged from about 5 to over 11 ft/sec. Flooding in the vicinity of either the visitors center or the residential and maintenance areas is unlikely unless the small earthen dam at the upstream end of Taft Creek were to fail. Debris flows with volumes on the order of 100 to 1,000 cu yards could be expected to occur in the small creeks that drain the steep valley wall north of the ranger station complex. Historic debris flows in these creeks have generally traveled no more than about 100 yards out onto the valley floor. The potential risk that future debris flows in these creeks might reach developed areas within the ranger station complex is considered to be small because most of the developed areas within the complex are situated more than 100 yards from the base of the valley wall. Landslides or rock avalanches originating from the north valley wall with volumes potentially much larger than those for debris flows could have a significant impact on the ranger station complex. The probability that such landslides or avalanches may occur is

  11. Technique for estimating depth of floods in Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gamble, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimates of flood depths are needed for design of roadways across flood plains and for other types of construction along streams. Equations for estimating flood depths in Tennessee were derived using data for 150 gaging stations. The equations are based on drainage basin size and can be used to estimate depths of the 10-year and 100-year floods for four hydrologic areas. A method also was developed for estimating depth of floods having recurrence intervals between 10 and 100 years. Standard errors range from 22 to 30 percent for the 10-year depth equations and from 23 to 30 percent for the 100-year depth equations. (USGS)

  12. The protection of Canfranc Internation Railway Sattion against natural risks. Analysis and evaluation of its effectiveness 100 years later.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabregas, S.; Hurtado, R.; Mintegui, J.

    2012-04-01

    In the late XIXth century and early XXth century, the international railway station in Canfranc "Los Arañones" is built in the Central Pyrenees of Huesca in Spain, along the border between France and Spain. Just after starting the construction of the huge station (250 m long), it was found that natural hazards such as flash floods, landslides, falling blocks and avalanches affected it and compromised the safety of users and infrastructures.Quickly, hydrological restoration works were carried out along "Los Arañones" gorgers basins to reduce joint residual risks. Longitudinal and transversal dams for floods, a large reforestation work to prevent against falling blocks, erosion, flooding and regarding avalanches stone walls were built, as well as benches of grit, snow rakes, and "empty dams", which were created as experimental structures to dissipate the energy of the avalanche in the track zone and wich do not exist anywhere else in the world. All the works were carried out mainly by hand, with materials such as stone, cement and iron. Over 2,500,000 holes were made for planting more than 15 different species of trees, and more than 400,000 tons of stone were moved to build more than 12 different kinds of control measures.It is essential to emphasize the empirical nature of these works and Canfranc's function as a "laboratory or field tests", with most of its structures still effective 100 years after its construction. The works involved about 30% of the total cost of the station in the early XX century. Nowadays to have an "equivalent protection" with the current technology, around 100 million euro should be invested. It is also necessary to validate the current effectiveness of such works, its maintenance task and the protective role of the forest.

  13. Flood Risk in Megadelta Coastal Cities: Lessons From New Orleans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, R. E.; Muir-Wood, R.; Grossi, P.

    2007-05-01

    The flood hazard posed by storm surges to the city of New Orleans is increasing for three reasons. First, as a result of the city's location on thick deposits of recent delta sediments along the edge of an oceanic basin, it is sinking at geologically rapid rates. Second, over the last decade, global sea level has increased as a result of climate change and is projected to continue to rise in the future. And third, the level of Atlantic basin hurricane activity has also increased, with the biggest increase for the strongest storms (with the largest surges), particularly in and around the Gulf of Mexico. The future flood risk in New Orleans has been explored using stochastic hurricane and storm surge generation models. Levels of risk have been determined at different geographical locations within the city today, and have been estimated for the future based on likely changes in the flood hazard. The study has also incorporated vulnerability and breaching models to determine the probabilities of failure and likely breach size, relative to the height of the storm surge outside, for each section of the flood defences that protect the city. Flood maps of relative risk throughout the region were developed from high resolution digital elevation maps, showing expected flood depths at various return periods. For example, the map for the 100-year return flood shows the extent of flooding that is expected on average once every 100 years, corresponding to an annual exceedance probability of one per cent. Additionally, four locations within the city of New Orleans were chosen for a more detailed study of predicted flood depth return periods, using the simple metric of the modeled return period of first flooding from a storm surge. The study shows that while the risk of flooding from storm surges can be reduced by the repair and enhancement of flood defences, the risk will begin to rise again as soon as improvements stop. The situation in New Orleans raises wider questions about

  14. Flooding and Flood Management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, K.N.; Fallon, J.D.; Lorenz, D.L.; Stark, J.R.; Menard, Jason; Easter, K.W.; Perry, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Floods result in great human disasters globally and nationally, causing an average of $4 billion of damages each year in the United States. Minnesota has its share of floods and flood damages, and the state has awarded nearly $278 million to local units of government for flood mitigation projects through its Flood Hazard Mitigation Grant Program. Since 1995, flood mitigation in the Red River Valley has exceeded $146 million. Considerable local and state funding has been provided to manage and mitigate problems of excess stormwater in urban areas, flooding of farmlands, and flood damages at road crossings. The cumulative costs involved with floods and flood mitigation in Minnesota are not known precisely, but it is safe to conclude that flood mitigation is a costly business. This chapter begins with a description of floods in Minneosta to provide examples and contrasts across the state. Background material is presented to provide a basic understanding of floods and flood processes, predication, and management and mitigation. Methods of analyzing and characterizing floods are presented because they affect how we respond to flooding and can influence relevant practices. The understanding and perceptions of floods and flooding commonly differ among those who work in flood forecasting, flood protection, or water resource mamnagement and citizens and businesses affected by floods. These differences can become magnified following a major flood, pointing to the need for better understanding of flooding as well as common language to describe flood risks and the uncertainty associated with determining such risks. Expectations of accurate and timely flood forecasts and our ability to control floods do not always match reality. Striving for clarity is important in formulating policies that can help avoid recurring flood damages and costs.

  15. Floods of June 17, 1990, and July 9, 1993, along Squaw Creek and the South Skunk River in Ames, Iowa, and vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Einhellig, R.F.; Eash, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    Water-surface-elevation profiles and peak discharges for the floods of June 17, 1990, and July 9, 1993, along Squaw Creek and the South Skunk River, in Ames, Iowa, are presented in this report. The maximum flood-peak discharge of 24,300 cubic feet per second for the streamflow-gaging station on Squaw Creek at Ames, Iowa (station number 05470500) occurred on July 9, 1993. This discharge was 80 percent larger than the 100-year recurrence-interval discharge and exceeded the previous record flood-peak discharge of June 17, 1990, by 94 percent. The July 9, 1993, flood-peak discharge of 26,500 cubic feet per second on the South Skunk River below Squaw Creek (station number 05471000) was also a peak of record, exceeding the previous record flood-peak discharge of June 27, 1975, by 80 percent, and the 100-year recurrence-interval discharge by 60 percent. A flood history describes rainfall conditions for floods that occurred during 1990 and 1993. The report also includes information on flood stages and discharges and floodflow frequencies for the active gaging stations in the vicinity of Ames, Iowa, and on temporary bench marks and reference points in the Squaw Creek and South Skunk River Basins near Ames, Iowa.

  16. Flood of June 7-9, 2008, in Central and Southern Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morlock, Scott E.; Menke, Chad D.; Arvin, Donald V.; Kim, Moon H.

    2008-01-01

    On June 6-7, 2008, heavy rainfall of 2 to more than 10 inches fell upon saturated soils and added to already high streamflows from a wetter than normal spring in central and southern Indiana. The heavy rainfall resulted in severe flooding on many streams within the White River Basin during June 7-9, causing three deaths, evacuation of thousands of residents, and hundreds of millions of dollars of damage to residences, businesses, infrastructure, and agricultural lands. In all, 39 Indiana counties were declared Federal disaster areas. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgages at nine locations recorded new record peak streamflows for the respective periods of record as a result of the heavy rainfall. Recurrence intervals of flood-peak streamflows were estimated to be greater than 100 years at five streamgages and 50-100 years at two streamgages. Peak-gage-height data, peak-streamflow data, and recurrence intervals are tabulated for 19 USGS streamgages in central and southern Indiana. Peak-streamflow estimates are tabulated for four ungaged locations, and estimated recurrence intervals are tabulated for three ungaged locations. The estimated recurrence interval for an ungaged location on Haw Creek in Columbus was greater than 100 years and for an ungaged location on Hurricane Creek in Franklin was 50-100 years. Because flooding was particularly severe in the communities of Columbus, Edinburgh, Franklin, Paragon, Seymour, Spencer, Martinsville, Newberry, and Worthington, high-water-mark data collected after the flood were tabulated for those communities. Flood peak inundation maps and water-surface profiles for selected streams were made in a geographic information system by combining the high-water-mark data with the highest-resolution digital elevation model data available.

  17. A Tri-centennial Portrait. Minorities and Women 100 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerard, Paul

    1976-01-01

    Suggests that during the next 100 years, progress for women, blacks, the Spanish surnamed, American Indians, and all other minorities--including the poor and the elderly--will depend on how willing they are to coalesce with each other. (Author)

  18. What Would You Look Like If You Were 100 Years Old?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Hugh

    1998-01-01

    Describes a project inspired by the 100th day of school in which first-grade students created a self-portrait of themselves at 100 years old and wrote an accompanying essay. States that the students drew wrinkles on the faces, age-appropriate clothing, gray or white hair, and even glasses as a finishing touch. (CMK)

  19. 100 Years of Cotton Production, Harvesting and Ginning Systems Engineering: 1907 - 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) celebrated its centennial year during 2007. As part of the ASABE centennial, the authors were asked to describe agricultural engineering accomplishments in U.S. cotton production, harvesting and ginning over the past 100 years. ...

  20. Determining the Optimum Post Spacing of LIDAR-Derived Elevation Data in Varying Terrain for Flood Hazard Mapping Purposes in North Carolina and Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berglund, Judith; Davis, Bruce; Estep, Lee

    2004-01-01

    The major flood events in the United States in the past few years have made it apparent that many floodplain maps being used by State governments are outdated and inaccurate. In response, many Stated have begun to update their Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Digital Flood Insurance Rate Maps. Accurate topographic data is one of the most critical inputs for floodplain analysis and delineation. Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) altimetry is one of the primary remote sensing technologies that can be used to obtain high-resolution and high-accuracy digital elevation data suitable for hydrologic and hydraulic (H&H) modeling, in part because of its ability to "penetrate" various cover types and to record geospatial data from the Earth's surface. However, the posting density or spacing at which LIDAR collects the data will affect the resulting accuracies of the derived bare Earth surface, depending on terrain type and land cover type. For example, flat areas are thought to require higher or denser postings than hilly areas to capture subtle changes in the topography that could have a significant effect on flooding extent. Likewise, if an area has dense understory and overstory, it may be difficult to receive LIDAR returns from the Earth's surface, which would affect the accuracy of that bare Earth surface and thus would affect flood model results. For these reasons, NASA and FEMA have partnered with the State of North Carolina and with the U.S./Mexico Foundation in Texas to assess the effect of LIDAR point density on the characterization of topographic variation and on H&H modeling results for improved floodplain mapping. Research for this project is being conducted in two areas of North Carolina and in the City of Brownsville, Texas, each with a different type of terrain and varying land cover/land use. Because of various project constraints, LIDAR data were acquired once at a high posting density and then decimated to coarser postings or densities. Quality

  1. Flood characteristics for the New River in the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, J.B.; Cunningham, M.K.

    1994-01-01

    The frequency and magnitude of flooding of the New River in the New River Gorge National River was studied. A steady-state, one-dimensional flow model was applied to the study reach. Rating curves, cross sections, and Manning's roughness coefficients that were used are presented in this report. Manning's roughness coefficients were evaluated by comparing computed elevations (from application of the steady-state, one-dimensional flow model) to rated elevations at U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging stations and miscellaneous-rating sites. Manning's roughness coefficients ranged from 0.030 to 0.075 and varied with hydraulic depth. The 2-, 25-, and 100-year flood discharges were esti- mated on the basis of information from flood- insurance studies of Summers County, Fayette County, and the city of Hinton, and flood-frequency analysis of discharge records for the USGS streamflow-gaging stations at Hinton and Thurmond. The 100-year discharge ranged from 107,000 cubic feet per second at Hinton to 150,000 cubic feet per second at Fayette.

  2. Flood-inundation maps for the Tippecanoe River at Winamac, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menke, Chad D.; Bunch, Aubrey R.

    2015-09-25

    For this study, flood profiles were computed for the Tippecanoe River reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relations at the Tippecanoe River streamgage, in combination with the current (2014) Federal Emergency Management Agency flood-insurance study for Pulaski County. The calibrated hydraulic model was then used to determine nine water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bankfull to the highest stage of the current stage-discharge rating curve. The 1-percent annual exceedance probability (AEP) flood stage (flood with recurrence intervals within 100 years) has not been determined yet for this streamgage location. The rating has not been developed for the 1-percent AEP because the streamgage dates to only 2001. The simulated water-surface profiles were then used with a geographic information system (GIS) digital elevation model (DEM, derived from Light Detection and Ranging [lidar]) in order to delineate the area flooded at each water level. The availability of these maps, along with Internet information regarding current stage from the USGS streamgage 03331753, Tippecanoe River at Winamac, Ind., and forecast stream stages from the NWS AHPS, provides emergency management personnel and residents with information that is critical for flood response activities such as evacuations and road closures, as well as for post-flood recovery efforts.

  3. Floods of June 2012 in northeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czuba, Christiana R.; Fallon, James D.; Kessler, Erich W.

    2012-01-01

    During June 19–20, 2012, heavy rainfall, as much as 10 inches locally reported, caused severe flooding across northeastern Minnesota. The floods were exacerbated by wet antecedent conditions from a relatively rainy spring, with May 2012 as one of the wettest Mays on record in Duluth. The June 19–20, 2012, rainfall event set new records in Duluth, including greatest 2-day precipitation with 7.25 inches of rain. The heavy rains fell on three major watersheds: the Mississippi Headwaters; the St. Croix, which drains to the Mississippi River; and Western Lake Superior, which includes the St. Louis River and other tributaries to Lake Superior. Widespread flash and river flooding that resulted from the heavy rainfall caused evacuations of residents, and damages to residences, businesses, and infrastructure. In all, nine counties in northeastern Minnesota were declared Federal disaster areas as a result of the flooding. Peak-of-record streamflows were recorded at 13 U.S. Geological Survey streamgages as a result of the heavy rainfall. Flood-peak gage heights, peak streamflows, and annual exceedance probabilities were tabulated for 35 U.S. Geological Survey streamgages. Flood-peak streamflows in June 2012 had annual exceedance probabilities estimated to be less than 0.002 (0.2 percent; recurrence interval greater than 500 years) for five streamgages, and between 0.002 and 0.01 (1 percent; recurrence interval greater than 100 years) for four streamgages. High-water marks were identified and tabulated for the most severely affected communities of Barnum (Moose Horn River), Carlton (Otter Creek), Duluth Heights neighborhood of Duluth (Miller Creek), Fond du Lac neighborhood of Duluth (St. Louis River), Moose Lake (Moose Horn River and Moosehead Lake), and Thomson (Thomson Reservoir outflow near the St. Louis River). Flood-peak inundation maps and water-surface profiles were produced for these six severely affected communities. The inundation maps were constructed in a

  4. Floods of September 2010 in Southern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellison, Christopher A.; Sanocki, Chris A.; Lorenz, David L.; Mitton, Gregory B.; Kruse, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    During September 22-24, 2010, heavy rainfall ranging from 3 inches to more than 10 inches caused severe flooding across southern Minnesota. The floods were exacerbated by wet antecedent conditions, where summer rainfall totals were as high as 20 inches, exceeding the historical average by more than 4 inches. Widespread flooding that occurred as a result of the heavy rainfall caused evacuations of hundreds of residents, and damages in excess of 64 million dollars to residences, businesses, and infrastructure. In all, 21 counties in southern Minnesota were declared Federal disaster areas. Peak-of-record streamflows were recorded at nine U.S. Geological Survey and three Minnesota Department of Natural Resources streamgages as a result of the heavy rainfall. Flood-peak gage heights, peak streamflows, and annual exceedance probabilities were tabulated for 27 U.S. Geological Survey and 5 Minnesota Department of Natural Resources streamgages and 5 ungaged sites. Flood-peak streamflows in 2010 had annual exceedance probabilities estimated to be less than 0.2 percent (recurrence interval greater than 500 years) at 7 streamgages and less than 1 percent (recurrence interval greater than 100 years) at 5 streamgages and 4 ungaged sites. High-water marks were identified and tabulated for the most severely affected communities of Faribault along the Cannon and Straight Rivers, Owatonna along the Straight River and Maple Creek, Pine Island along the North Branch and Middle Fork Zumbro River, and Zumbro Falls along the Zumbro River. The nearby communities of Hammond, Henderson, Millville, Oronoco, Pipestone, and Rapidan also received extensive flooding and damage but were not surveyed for high-water marks. Flood-peak inundation maps and water-surface profiles for the four most severely affected communities were constructed in a geographic information system by combining high-water-mark data with the highest resolution digital elevation model data available. The flood maps and

  5. Flood-plain delineation for Difficult Run Basin, Fairfax County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soule, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    Water-surface profiles of the 25-year and 100-year floods and maps on which the 25-, 50-, and 100-year flood boundaries are delineated for streams in the Difficult Run basin in Fairfax County, Virginia. The techniques used in the computation of the flood profiles and delineation of flood boundaries are presented. Difficult Run heads at about 500 ft. elevation near the city of Fairfax and discharges into the Potomac River at about 70 feet above mean sea level. Stream channel slopes are fairly steep, the main channel of Difficult Run has an average fall of about 25 feet per mile. Stream channels are well defined with established flood plains covered in most cases with trees and dense brush. Development within the basin has been gradual and mostly residential. In 1965 most of the development was in the area of Fairfax City and the town of Vienna and imperviousness for the basin at that time was computed to be less than 1 percent. Since 1965 considerable additional residential development has taken place within the basin in the Vienna and Reston areas and ultimate development with an overall imperviousness of 30 percent is anticipated with higher percentages of imperviousness near centers of anticipated development. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Assessment of coastal flood risk in a changing climate along the northern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilskie, M. V.; Hagen, S. C.; Passeri, D. L.; Alizad, K.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal regions around the world are susceptible to a variety of natural disasters causing extreme inundation. It is anticipated that the vulnerability of coastal cities will increase due to the effects of climate change, and in particular sea level rise (SLR). We have developed a novel framework to construct a physics-based storm surge model that includes projections of coastal floodplain dynamics under climate change scenarios. Numerous experiments were conducted and it was concluded that a number of influencing factors, other than SLR, should be included in future assessments of coastal flooding under climate change; e.g., shoreline changes, barrier island morphology, salt marsh migration, and population dynamics. These factors can significantly affect the path, pattern, and magnitude of flooding depths and inundation along the coastline (Bilskie et al., 2014; Passeri et al., 2014). Using these factors, a storm surge model of the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) representing present day conditions is modified to characterize the future outlook of the landscape. This adapted model is then used to assess flood risk in terms of the 100-year floodplain surface under SLR scenarios. A suite of hundreds of synthetic storms, derived by JPM-OS (Joint Probability Method - Optimum Sampling), are filtered to obtain the storms necessary to represent the statistically determined 100-year floodplain. The NGOM storm surge model is applied to simulate the synthetic storms and determine, for each storm, the flooding surface and depth, for four SLR scenarios for the year 2100 as prescribed by Parris et al. (2012). The collection of results facilitate the estimation of water surface elevation vs. frequency curves across the floodplain and the statistically defined 100-year floodplain is extracted. This novel method to assess coastal flooding under climate change can be performed across any coastal region worldwide, and results provide awareness of regions vulnerable to extreme

  7. Flood of June 26-29, 2006, Mohawk, Delaware, and Susquehanna River Basins, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suro, Thomas P.; Firda, Gary D.; Szabo, Carolyn O.

    2009-01-01

    A stalled frontal system caused tropical moisture to be funneled northward into New York, causing severe flooding in the Mohawk, Delaware, and Susquehanna River basins during June 26-29, 2006. Rainfall totals for this multi-day event ranged from 2 to 3 inches to greater than 13 inches in southern New York. The storm and flooding claimed four lives in New York, destroyed or damaged thousands of homes and businesses, and closed hundreds of roads and highways. Thousands of people evacuated their homes as floodwaters reached new record elevations at many locations within the three basins. Twelve New York counties were declared Federal disaster areas, more than 15,500 residents applied for disaster assistance, and millions of dollars in damages resulted from the flooding. Disaster-recovery assistance for individuals and businesses adversely affected by the floods of June 2006 reached more than $227 million. The National Weather Service rainfall station at Slide Mountain recorded storm totals of more than 8 inches of rainfall, and the stations at Walton and Fishs Eddy, NY, recorded storm totals of greater than 13 inches of rainfall. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) stream-gaging stations at Mohawk River at Little Falls, West Branch Delaware River at Hale Eddy, and Susquehanna River at Vestal, NY, among others, recorded peak discharges of 35,000 ft3/s, 43,400 ft3/s, and 119,000 ft3/s respectively, with greater than 100-year recurrence intervals. The peak water-surface elevation 21.47 ft and the peak discharge 189,000 ft3/s recorded on June 28, 2006, at the Delaware River at Port Jervis stream-gaging station were the highest recorded since the flood of August 1955. At the Susquehanna River at Conklin, NY, stream-gaging station, which has been in operation since 1912, the peak water-surface elevation 25.02 ft and peak discharge 76,800 ft3/s recorded on June 28, 2006, exceeded the previous period-of-record maximums that were set during the flood of March 1936. Documented

  8. Creating Long Term Income Streams for the 100 Year Starship Study Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvester, A. J.

    Development and execution of long term research projects are very dependent on a consistent application of funding to maximize the potential for success. The business structure for the 100 Year Starship Study project should allow for multiple income streams to cover the expenses of the research objectives. The following examples illustrate the range of potential avenues: 1) affiliation with a charitable foundation for creating a donation program to fund a long term endowment for research, 2) application for grants to fund initial research projects and establish the core expertise of the research entity, 3) development of intellectual property which can then be licensed for additional revenue, 4) creation of spinout companies with equity positions retained by the lab for funding the endowment, and 5) funded research which is dual use for the technology goals of the interstellar flight research objectives. With the establishment of a diversified stream of funding options, then the endowment can be funded at a level to permit dedicated research on the interstellar flight topics. This paper will focus on the strategy of creating spinout companies to create income streams which would fund the endowment of the 100 Year Starship Study effort. This technique is widely used by universities seeking to commercially develop and market technologies developed by university researchers. An approach will be outlined for applying this technique to potentially marketable technologies generated as a part of the 100 Year Starship Study effort.

  9. Fascia Research Congress evidence from the 100 year perspective of Andrew Taylor Still.

    PubMed

    Findley, Thomas W; Shalwala, Mona

    2013-07-01

    More than 100 years ago A.T. Still MD founded osteopathic medicine, and specifically described fascia as a covering, with common origins of layers of the fascial system despite diverse names for individual parts. Fascia assists gliding and fluid flow and is highly innervated. Fascia is intimately involved with respiration and with nourishment of all cells of the body, including those of disease and cancer. This paper reviews information presented at the first three International Fascia Research Congresses in 2007, 2009 and 2012 from the perspective of Dr Still, that fascia is vital for organism's growth and support, and it is where disease is sown.

  10. Acute Torsion of the Gallbladder in a 100-Year-Old Female Patient

    PubMed Central

    Taha, Assad M.; Welling, Richard E.

    1985-01-01

    Torsion of the gallbladder is rare. However, the surgeon should be aware of it and that unusual presentations in the elderly make early diagnosis very difficult. A 100-year-old white female presented with right-sided abdominal pain and was found to have acute torsion of the gallbladder. The clinical picture, diagnostic tests, and operative findings are outlined. Serial evaluations of the patient's condition and a high index of suspicion are essential elements for prompt recognition and early surgical management. PMID:3999156

  11. Cherishing the past: 100 years of nursing education at the American University of Beirut.

    PubMed

    Huijer, Huda Abu-Saad; Balian, Sossy A; Arevian, Mary

    2006-10-01

    This article describes the foundation and the development of nursing education at the American University of Beirut, the first professional school in the country and the region, across 100 years (1905-2005). It talks about the early years, pioneering achievements (1905-1940), the school's leadership in nursing from 1940 to 1976, the war years from 1976 to 1993, and postwar global vision (1993-2005). Furthermore, it gives special tribute to the dedication and hard work of the founders, Ms. Jane Elizabeth Van Zandt and Ms. Mary Bliss Dale, and all the directors whose endeavors and wisdom have helped the development of the school from diploma to bachelor and master's programs.

  12. 100 years of Epilepsia: landmark papers and their influence in neuropsychology and neuropsychiatry.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Bruce

    2010-07-01

    As part of the 2009 International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Centenary Celebration, a special symposium was dedicated to Epilepsia (100 Years of Epilepsia: Landmark Papers and Their Influence). The Associate Editors were asked to identify a particularly salient and meaningful paper in their areas of expertise. From the content areas of neuropsychology and neuropsychiatry two very interesting papers were identified using quite different ascertainment techniques. One paper addressed the problem of psychosis in temporal lobe epilepsy, whereas the other represents the first paper to appear in Epilepsia presenting quantitative assessment of cognitive status in epilepsy. These two papers are reviewed in detail and placed in historical context.

  13. Flood-frequency characteristics of Wisconsin streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, John F.; Krug, William R.

    2003-01-01

    Flood-frequency characteristics for 312 gaged sites on Wisconsin streams are presented for recurrence intervals of 2 to 100 years using flood-peak data collected through water year 2000. Equations of the relations between flood-frequency and drainage-basin characteristics were developed by multiple-regression analyses. Flood-frequency characteristics for ungaged sites on unregulated, rural streams can be estimated by use of these equations. The state was divided into five areas with similar physiographic characteristics. The most significant basin characteristics are drainage area, main-channel slope, soil permeability, storage, rainfall intensity, and forest cover. The standard error of prediction for the equation for the 100-year flood discharge ranges from 22 to 44 percent in the state. A graphical method for estimating flood-frequency characteristics of regulated streams was developed from the relation of discharge and drainage area. Graphs for the major regulated streams are presented.

  14. Extreme climatic events drive mammal irruptions: regression analysis of 100-year trends in desert rainfall and temperature

    PubMed Central

    Greenville, Aaron C; Wardle, Glenda M; Dickman, Chris R

    2012-01-01

    Extreme climatic events, such as flooding rains, extended decadal droughts and heat waves have been identified increasingly as important regulators of natural populations. Climate models predict that global warming will drive changes in rainfall and increase the frequency and severity of extreme events. Consequently, to anticipate how organisms will respond we need to document how changes in extremes of temperature and rainfall compare to trends in the mean values of these variables and over what spatial scales the patterns are consistent. Using the longest historical weather records available for central Australia – 100 years – and quantile regression methods, we investigate if extreme climate events have changed at similar rates to median events, if annual rainfall has increased in variability, and if the frequency of large rainfall events has increased over this period. Specifically, we compared local (individual weather stations) and regional (Simpson Desert) spatial scales, and quantified trends in median (50th quantile) and extreme weather values (5th, 10th, 90th, and 95th quantiles). We found that median and extreme annual minimum and maximum temperatures have increased at both spatial scales over the past century. Rainfall changes have been inconsistent across the Simpson Desert; individual weather stations showed increases in annual rainfall, increased frequency of large rainfall events or more prolonged droughts, depending on the location. In contrast to our prediction, we found no evidence that intra-annual rainfall had become more variable over time. Using long-term live-trapping records (22 years) of desert small mammals as a case study, we demonstrate that irruptive events are driven by extreme rainfalls (>95th quantile) and that increases in the magnitude and frequency of extreme rainfall events are likely to drive changes in the populations of these species through direct and indirect changes in predation pressure and wildfires. PMID:23170202

  15. Solar wind variations in the 60-100 year period range: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feynman, J.

    1983-01-01

    The evidence for and against the reality of a solar wind variation in the period range of 60-100 years is reexamined. Six data sets are reviewed; sunspot numbers, geomagnetic variations, two auroral data sets and two (14)C data sets. These data are proxies for several different aspects of the solar wind and the presence or absence of 60-100 year cyclic behavior in a particular data set does not necessarily imply the presence or absence of this variation in other sets. It was concluded that two different analyses of proxy data for a particular characteristic of the heliospheric solar wind yielded conflicting results. This conflict can be resolved only by future research. It is also definitely confirmed that proxy data for the solar wind in the ecliptic at 1 A.U. undergo a periodic variation with a period of approximately 87 years. The average amplitude and phase of this variation as seen in eleven cycles of proxy data are presented.

  16. Morphological response of songbirds to 100 years of landscape change in North America.

    PubMed

    Desrochers, A

    2010-06-01

    Major landscape changes caused by humans may create strong selection pressures and induce rapid evolution in natural populations. In the last 100 years, eastern North America has experienced extensive clear-cutting in boreal areas, while afforestation has occurred in most temperate areas. Based on museum specimens, I show that wings of several boreal forest songbirds and temperate songbirds of non-forest habitats have become more pointed over the last 100 years. In contrast, wings of most temperate forest and early-successional boreal forests species have become less pointed over the same period. In contrast to wing shape, the bill length of most species did not change significantly through time. These results are consistent with the "habitat isolation hypothesis", i.e., songbirds evolved in response to recent changes in the amount of available habitat and associated implications for mobility. Rapid morphological evolution may mitigate, without necessarily preventing, negative consequences of habitat loss caused by humans through direct exploitation or climate change.

  17. Simulations of flooding on Tchoutacabouffa River at State Highways 15 and 67 at D'Iberville, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winters, Karl E.

    2000-01-01

    A two-dimensional finite-element surface-water model was used to simulate the effects of the proposed State Highways 15 and 67 relocation on water-surface elevations and flow distributions for the 100-year flood on the Tchoutacabouffa River at D?Iberville, Mississippi. The Mississippi Department of Transportation plans to relocate State Highways 15 and 67 by removing a portion of the existing four-lane highway and constructing a four-lane facility upstream of the existing alignment. The proposed alignment is located on the northern floodplain and will tie into the existing highway about 1,000 feet north of the dual State Highways 15 and 67 bridges. The proposed alignment will intercept flows that cross the existing highway during large floods. Seven scenarios were simulated for the 100-year flood, including four proposed alternative configurations for drainage structures. The model grid was developed by using surveyed floodplain cross sections and channel bathymetry data obtained by using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler, in combination with a global positioning system. The model was calibrated and verified by using surveyed flood profiles through the study reach and flood discharge measurements obtained at the State Highways 15 and 67 crossing. Model parameters were adjusted so that the computed water-surface profiles agreed closely with the surveyed flood profiles. Computed water-surface differentials across the proposed alignment near the northern edge of the floodplain for the four alternatives proposed by the Mississippi Department of Transportation ranged from 1.4 to 2.6 feet. Much lower differentials were computed in the vicinity of the main-channel bridge. The computed water-surface elevation at McCully Drive, upstream of the proposed alignment, was 17.3 feet for existing conditions. Computed water-surface elevations at McCully Drive for the proposed alternatives ranged from 17.3 to 17.8 feet.

  18. Floods in Indiana, June-August 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gold, Robert L.; Wolcott, Stephen W.

    1980-01-01

    This report documents rainstorms and resultant floods in central and southern Indiana during the summer of 1979. Major flooding was caused by three storms, one in June and two in July 1979, centered primarily in central and southern Indiana. Peak discharge exceeded the 100-year recurrence interval at 16 sites in this area. State Civil Defense officials estimated that almost 50-million dollars damage was attributable to the July floods. Hydrologic data have been tabulated for streamflow sites in the areas of flooding. Reservoir storage volumes, observation-well data, rainfall totals, and discharge hydrographs are presented to show the intensity and time of the storms and resultant floods. (USGS)

  19. Epic Flooding in Georgia, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gotvald, Anthony J.; McCallum, Brian E.

    2010-01-01

    Metropolitan Atlanta-September 2009 Floods * The epic floods experienced in the Atlanta area in September 2009 were extremely rare. Eighteen streamgages in the Metropolitan Atlanta area had flood magnitudes much greater than the estimated 0.2-percent (500-year) annual exceedance probability. * The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) reported that 23 counties in Georgia were declared disaster areas due to this flood and that 16,981 homes and 3,482 businesses were affected by floodwaters. Ten lives were lost in the flood. The total estimated damages exceed $193 million (H.E. Longenecker, Federal Emergency Management Agency, written commun., November 2009). * On Sweetwater Creek near Austell, Ga., just north of Interstate 20, the peak stage was more than 6 feet higher than the estimated peak stage of the 0.2-percent (500-year) flood. Flood magnitudes in Cobb County on Sweetwater, Butler, and Powder Springs Creeks greatly exceeded the estimated 0.2-percent (500-year) floods for these streams. * In Douglas County, the Dog River at Ga. Highway 5 near Fairplay had a peak stage nearly 20 feet higher than the estimated peak stage of the 0.2-percent (500-year) flood. * On the Chattahoochee River, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gage at Vinings reached the highest level recorded in the past 81 years. Gwinnett, De Kalb, Fulton, and Rockdale Counties also had record flooding. South Georgia March and April 2009 Floods * The March and April 2009 floods in South Georgia were smaller in magnitude than the September floods but still caused significant damage. * No lives were lost in this flood. Approximately $60 million in public infrastructure damage occurred to roads, culverts, bridges and a water treatment facility (Joseph T. McKinney, Federal Emergency Management Agency, written commun., July 2009). * Flow at the Satilla River near Waycross, exceeded the 0.5-percent (200-year) flood. Flows at seven other stations in South Georgia exceeded the 1-percent (100-year) flood.

  20. Effects of urban flood-detention reservoirs on peak discharges in Gwinnett County, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, G.W.; Inman, E.J.

    1994-01-01

    from 1 to 38 percent for the 2-year recurrence interval, from 1 to 37 percent for the l O-year recurrence interval, and from 3 to 31 percent for the 100-year recurrence interval. In this study of six basins, several factors influenced the effect of flood-detention reservoirs on peak discharges downstream. The contributing drainage area, the maximum storage capacity, the outflow-structure capacity, and the elevation-to-storage relation of the flood-detention reservoir affected peak discharges in several basins. The location in the drainage basin and number of flood-detention reservoirs affected peak discharges in some basins.

  1. 100 years of Pb deposition and transport in soils in Champaign, Illinois, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Y.

    2003-01-01

    In Illinois, atmospheric deposition is one major source of heavy metal inputs to agricultural land. The atmospheric Pb deposition and transport record in agricultural soils in Champaign, Illinois, was established by studying surface and subsurface soil samples collected during the past 100 years from the Morrow Plots on the campus of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The Pb content in the soil samples was measured and the Ph deposition fluxes were calculated. The Pb content in surface soils increased sharply in the first half of the 20th century, and stayed invariant since. The maximum Pb flux from the atmosphere was estimated to be 27 (??14) ??g cm-2 yr-1 around 1940. The major pollution source for this increase probably was residential coal burning. It was estimated that in 50 yr, more than 50% of the Pb input had been lost from the surface soils.

  2. The Reissner Canard: The first all-metal airplane 100 years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Egon

    2012-10-01

    In 1912 Professor Hans Reissner of the Technical University Aachen built a canard-type aeroplane, the world-wide first completely out of metal: although the Reissner Canard initiated a new technology with the Junkers J1 the first to follow in 1915 and 1000 more until now, little is known about the very first steps way back in Aachen. This paper tries to recapture some details of the developments 100 years ago with the aid of early publications and photographs and shed some light on the first wing fabricated out of a corrugated aluminum sheet mounted at the tail of the braced-steel-pipe fuselage to earn its airworthiness in Berlin Johannisthal in 1912.

  3. Sustainable Foods and Medicines Support Vitality, Sex and Longevity for a 100-Year Starship Expedition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, M. R.

    Extended space flight requires foods and medicines that sustain crew health and vitality. The health and therapeutic needs for the entire crew and their children for a 100-year space flight must be sustainable. The starship cannot depend on resupply or carry a large cargo of pharmaceuticals. Everything in the starship must be completely recyclable and reconstructable, including food, feed, textiles, building materials, pharmaceuticals, vaccines, and medicines. Smart microfarms will produce functional foods with superior nutrition and sensory attributes. These foods provide high-quality protein and nutralence (nutrient density), that avoids obesity, diabetes, and other Western diseases. The combination of functional foods, lifestyle actions, and medicines will support crew immunity, energy, vitality, sustained strong health, and longevity. Smart microfarms enable the production of fresh medicines in hours or days, eliminating the need for a large dispensary, which eliminates concern over drug shelf life. Smart microfarms are adaptable to the extreme growing area, resource, and environmental constraints associated with an extended starship expedition.

  4. PREFACE: Spanish Relativity Meeting (ERE 2014): almost 100 years after Einstein's revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdá-Durán, P.; Font, J. A.; Ibáñez, J. M.; Lledó, M. A.; Navarro-Salas, J.; Olmo, G. J.

    2015-04-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the international scientific conference ''Spanish Relativity Meeting (ERE 2014): almost 100 years after Einstein's revolution''. The conference was devoted to discussing the current state-of-the-art of a wide variety of topics of research in the fields of Gravitation and General Relativity in the ''pre-centennial'' year of General Relativity. The name of the conference was chosen to highlight the importance of the upcoming one hundredth anniversary of Einstein's theory of General Relativity, officially established by the Internal Society on General Relativity and Gravitation in November 25th, 2015. In particular, the conference was organized along three main lines of present-day research and applications of the theory, namely, Relativistic Astrophysics, Mathematical Relativity, and the interface between Gravitation and Quantum Field Theory.

  5. Tree rings record 100 years of hydrologic change within a wetland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yanosky, Thomas M.; Kappel, William M.

    1997-01-01

    Hydrology and tree growth were investigated within a small wetland in the Tully Valley of central New York, about 20 miles south of Syracuse. In late 1994 it was noted that some wetland trees were dying, and local residents reported that flow of a small stream draining the wetland seemingly increased and became more brackish since the mid to late 1980s. The wetland is about 3 miles north of an extensive salt mining operation known to have degraded local water quality, but no effects of mining had been confirmed previously near the wetland. The oldest wetland trees started to grow before the onset of mining in 1889, and thus tree-ring studies were undertaken not only to investi-gate recent hydrologic change within the wetland, but also to search for evidence of any other changes during the last 100 years.

  6. Élie Metchnikoff (1845-1916): celebrating 100 years of cellular immunology and beyond.

    PubMed

    Underhill, David M; Gordon, Siamon; Imhof, Beat A; Núñez, Gabriel; Bousso, Philippe

    2016-10-01

    The year 2016 marks 100 years since the death of Élie Metchnikoff (1845-1916), the Russian zoologist who pioneered the study of cellular immunology and who is widely credited with the discovery of phagocytosis, for which he was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1908. However, his long scientific career spanned many disciplines and has had far-reaching effects on modern immunology beyond the study of phagocytosis. In this Viewpoint article, five leading immunologists from the fields of phagocytosis, macrophage biology, leukocyte migration, the microbiota and intravital imaging tell Nature Reviews Immunology how Metchnikoff's work has influenced past, present and future research in their respective fields.

  7. 100-year DASCH Light Curves of Kepler Planet-Candidate Host Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Sumin; Sasselov, Dimitar; Grindlay, Jonathan; Los, Edward; Servillat, Mathieu

    2013-07-01

    We present 100 year light curves of Kepler planet-candidate host stars from the Digital Access to a Sky Century at Harvard (DASCH) project. 261 out of 997 host stars have at least 10 good measurements on DASCH scans of the Harvard plates. 109 of them have at least 100 good measurements, including 70% (73 out of 104) of all host stars with g <= 13 mag, and 44% (100 out of 228) of all host stars with g <= 14 mag. Our typical photometric uncertainty is ~0.1-0.15 mag. No variation is found at 3σ level for these host stars, including 21 confirmed or candidate hot Jupiter systems which might be expected to show enhanced flares from magnetic interactions between dwarf primaries and their close and relatively massive planet companions.

  8. 100 Years of British military neurosurgery: on the shoulders of giants.

    PubMed

    Roberts, S A G

    2015-01-01

    Death from head injuries has been a feature of conflicts throughout the world for centuries. The burden of mortality has been variously affected by the evolution in weaponry from war-hammers to explosive ordnance, the influence of armour on survivability and the changing likelihood of infection as a complicating factor. Surgery evolved from haphazard trephination to valiant, yet disjointed, neurosurgery by a variety of great historical surgeons until the Crimean War of 1853-1856. However, it was events initiated by the Great War of 1914-1918 that not only marked the development of modern neurosurgical techniques, but our approach to military surgery as a whole. Here the author describes how 100 years of conflict and the input and intertwining relationships between the 20th century's great neurosurgeons established neurosurgery in the United Kingdom and beyond. PMID:26292388

  9. Long term (>100 years) Carbon Sequestration in California Coastal Salt Marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, L. N.; MacDonald, G. M.; Holmquist, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal salt marsh ecosystems rank as one of the ecosystems which sequester the most carbon (C) in the world (Chmura, 2003; Mcleod et al., 2011). California hosts multiple small marsh ecosystems outside of the San Francisco Bay that are limited in geographic extent but still contribute significantly to global soil C. This study evaluates 11 marsh sites along the California coast for annual soil C sequestration rates using 14C, 137Cs, and 210Pb chronologies. Estimates of carbon sequestration for California over the past 100 years from this study average at 49 g C m-2 yr-1. Long term estimates of soil C generally are lower because of natural decomposition of organic C, but this study indicates a persistence of high C storage capacity for coastal marsh systems. These estimates provide valuable insight into the long term capacity for coastal salt marshes to mitigate climate change through sequestration of C.

  10. Élie Metchnikoff (1845-1916): celebrating 100 years of cellular immunology and beyond.

    PubMed

    Underhill, David M; Gordon, Siamon; Imhof, Beat A; Núñez, Gabriel; Bousso, Philippe

    2016-10-01

    The year 2016 marks 100 years since the death of Élie Metchnikoff (1845-1916), the Russian zoologist who pioneered the study of cellular immunology and who is widely credited with the discovery of phagocytosis, for which he was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1908. However, his long scientific career spanned many disciplines and has had far-reaching effects on modern immunology beyond the study of phagocytosis. In this Viewpoint article, five leading immunologists from the fields of phagocytosis, macrophage biology, leukocyte migration, the microbiota and intravital imaging tell Nature Reviews Immunology how Metchnikoff's work has influenced past, present and future research in their respective fields. PMID:27477126

  11. 100+ years of instrumental seismology: the example of the ISC-GEM Global Earthquake Instrumental Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storchak, Dmitry; Di Giacomo, Domenico

    2015-04-01

    Systematic seismological observations of earthquakes using seismic instruments on a global scale began more than 100 years ago. Since then seismologists made many discoveries about the Earth interior and the physics of the earthquakes, also thanks to major developments in the seismic instrumentation deployed around the world. Besides, since the establishment of the first global networks (Milne and Jesuit networks), seismologists around the world stored and exchanged the results of routine observations (e.g., picking of arrival times, amplitude-period measurements, etc.) or more sophisticated analyses (e.g., moment tensor inversion) in seismological bulletins/catalogues. With a project funded by the GEM Foundation (www.globalquakemodel.org), the ISC and the Team of International Experts released a new global earthquake catalogue, the ISC-GEM Global Instrumental Earthquake Catalogue (1900 2009) (www.isc.ac.uk/iscgem/index.php), which, differently from previous global seismic catalogues, has the unique feature of covering the entire period of instrumental seismology with locations and magnitude re-assessed using modern approaches for the global earthquakes selected for processing (in the current version approximately 21,000). During the 110 years covered by the ISC-GEM catalogue many seismological developments occurred in terms of instrumentation, seismological practice and knowledge of the physics of the earthquakes. In this contribution we give a brief overview of the major milestones characterizing the last 100+ years of instrumental seismology that were relevant for the production of the ISC-GEM catalogue and the major challenges we faced to obtain a catalogue as homogenous as possible.

  12. Flood study of the Suncook River in Epsom, Pembroke, and Allenstown, New Hampshire, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    On May 15, 2006, a breach in the riverbank caused an avulsion in the Suncook River in Epsom, NH. The breach in the riverbank and subsequent avulsion changed the established flood zones along the Suncook River; therefore, a new flood study was needed to reflect this change and aid in flood recovery and restoration. For this flood study, the hydrologic and hydraulic analyses for the Suncook River were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency. This report presents water-surface elevations and profiles determined using the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers one-dimensional Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System model, also known as HEC-RAS. Steady-state water-surface profiles were developed for the Suncook River from its confluence with the Merrimack River in the Village of Suncook (in Allenstown and Pembroke, NH) to the upstream corporate limit of the town of Epsom, NH (approximately 15.9 river miles). Floods of magnitudes that are expected to be equaled or exceeded once on the average during any 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, or 500-year period (recurrence interval) were modeled using HEC-RAS. These flood events are referred to as the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year floods and have a 50-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, and 0.2-percent chance, respectively, of being equaled or exceeded during any year. The 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year flood events are important for flood-plain management, determination of flood-insurance rates, and design of structures such as bridges and culverts. The analyses in this study reflect flooding potentials that are based on existing conditions in the communities of Epsom, Pembroke, and Allenstown at the time of completion of this study (2009). Changes in the 100-year recurrence-interval flood elevation from the 1979 flood study were typically less than 2 feet with the exception of a location 900 feet upstream from the avulsion that, because of backwater from the dams in the

  13. Flood-prone areas of Jacksonville, Duval County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Richard B.; Causey, Lawson V.; Tucker, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Floods in the consolidated city of Jacksonville, Duval County, Florida, are caused directly by rainfall which, when combined with storm driven tides, causes rivers or other bodies of water to flood the low lying parts of the county. This map report supplies information on areas subject to floods of 100-year frequency; the information will permit evaluation of alternative uses of such areas. The extent of the 100-year flood is shown on the large-scale map accompanying the report. Also included is an index map showing sections of Duval County where more detailed information on the 100-year flood can be obtained. The major flood of record in the county occurred in 1964 when Hurricane Dora crossed the area. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Flood of July 12-13, 2004, Burlington and Camden Counties, South-Central New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Protz, Amy R.; Reed, Timothy J.

    2006-01-01

    Intense rainfall inundated south-central New Jersey on July 12-13, 2004, causing major flooding with heavy property, road, and bridge damage in Burlington and Camden Counties. Forty-five dams were topped or damaged, or failed completely. The affected areas were in the Rancocas Creek, Cooper River, and Pennsauken Creek Basins. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) documented peak stream elevations and flows at 56 selected sites within the affected area. With rainfall totals averaging more than 6 inches throughout the three basins, peak-of-record flood elevations and streamflows occurred at all but one USGS stream gage, where the previous record was tied. Flood-frequency recurrence-intervals ranged from 30 to greater than 100 years and maximum streamflow per square mile ranged from 13.9 to 263 cubic feet per second per square mile (ft3/s/mi2). Peak streamflow at USGS stream gages surrounding the affected basins are associated with considerably lower recurrence intervals and demonstrate the limited extent of the flood. A high tide of about 1 foot above monthly mean high tide did not contribute to high-water conditions. Low ground-water levels prior to the rainfall helped to mitigate flooding in the affected basins. Compared with historical floods in the Rancocas Creek Basin during 1938-40, the July 2004 flood had greater streamflow, but lower stream elevations. Property damage from the event was estimated at $50 million. Governor James E. McGreevy declared a State of Emergency in Burlington and Camden Counties on July 13, 2004. After assessment of the damage by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), President George W. Bush declared Burlington and Camden Counties disaster areas on July 16, 2004.

  15. Potential flood and debris hazards at Cottonwood Cove, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Clark County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moosburner, Otto

    1981-01-01

    At Cottonwood Cove, Nevada, most of the existing dikes at the recreation sites are effective in diverting and routing floodflows, up to and including the 100-year flood, away from people and facilities. The dikes across Ranger Residence Wash and Access Road Wash at the mouth divert floods up to the 50-year recurrence interval away from residential areas. Flow and debris damage in protected areas will be relatively minor minor for floods including the 100-year flood, whereas damage caused by sediment deposition at the mouths of the washes near Lake Mohave could be significant for floods equal to or less than the 100-year flood. The extreme flood, a flood meteorologically and hydrologically possible but so rare as to preclude a frequency estimate, could cause great damage and possible loss of life. The present dikes would be topped or breached by such flooding. (USGS)

  16. Flood of July 9-11, 1993, in the Raccoon River basin, west-central Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eash, D.A.; Koppensteiner, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    Water-surface-elevation profiles and peak discharges for the flood of July 9-11, 1993, in the Raccoon River Basin, west-central Iowa, are presented in this report. The profiles illustrate the 1993 flood along the Raccoon, North Raccoon, South Raccoon, and Middle Raccoon Rivers and along Brushy and Storm Creeks in the west-central Iowa counties of Carroll, Dallas, Greene, Guthrie, and Polk. Water-surface-elevation profiles for the floods of June 1947, March 1979, and June 29- July 1, 1986, in the Raccoon River Basin also are included in the report for comparative purposes. The July 9-11, 1993, flood is the largest known peak discharge at gaging stations Brushy Creek near Templeton (station number 05483318) 19,000 cubic feet per second, Middle Raccoon River near Bayard (station number 05483450) 27,500 cubic feet per second, Middle Raccoon River at Panora (station number 05483600) 22,400 cubic feet per second, South Raccoon River at Redfield (station number 05484000) 44,000 cubic feet per second, and Raccoon River at Van Meter (station number 05484500) 70,100 cubic feet per second. The peak discharges were, respectively, 1.5, 1.3, 1.1,1.2, and 1.3 times larger than calculated 100-year recurrence-interval discharges. The report provides information on flood stages and discharges and floodflow frequencies for streamflow-gaging stations in the Raccoon River Basin using flood information collected through 1996. A flood history summarizes rainfall conditions and damages for floods that occurred during 1947, 1958, 1979, 1986, 1990, and 1993. Information on temporary bench marks and reference points established in the Raccoon River Basin during 1976-79 and 1995-97 also is included in the report.

  17. Use of documentary sources on past flood events for flood risk management and land planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cœur, Denis; Lang, Michel

    2008-09-01

    The knowledge of past catastrophic events can improve flood risk mitigation policy, with a better awareness against risk. As such historical information is usually available in Europe for the past five centuries, historians are able to understand how past society dealt with flood risk, and hydrologists can include information on past floods into an adapted probabilistic framework. In France, Flood Risk Mitigation Maps are based either on the largest historical known flood event or on the 100-year flood event if it is greater. Two actions can be suggested in terms of promoting the use of historical information for flood risk management: (1) the development of a regional flood data base, with both historical and current data, in order to get a good feedback on recent events and to improve the flood risk education and awareness; (2) the commitment to keep a persistent/perennial management of a reference network of hydrometeorological observations for climate change studies.

  18. [From the regional hospital to the Clinical Center in Sarajevo--100 years of work and development].

    PubMed

    Konjhodzić, F

    1994-01-01

    In the course of the past 100 years of the Regional Hospital, the Clinical Centre now experienced a number of organizational, functional and technological changes. There 6 striking periods: 1. Period of the Regional Hospital in Sarajevo, 1894-1918; 2. General State Hospital, 1919-1940; 3. World War 2, 1941-1945; 4. Clinical Hospital of the Medical Faculty in Sarajevo, 1946-1974; 5. University Medical Centre in Sarajevo, 1974-1992; 6. Clinical Centre of University in Sarajevo, since 1992 to the present days. From the modest building like pavilions, the Regional Hospital in Sarajevo became a modern Clinical Centre, 40 units, Institute of Research Work and the developed secondary and terciary health protection, except cardiosurgery. The Clinical Centre and its staff are the true heroes of the war, who succeed in the past two years to extend over a million of helps, nearly 20,000 surgical operations, over 1,5 million of diagnostic treatments, more than 100,000 psychotherapeutical treatments, more than 3,000 deliveries, etc. All that was performed in the extra-ordinary difficult circumstances, without electricity, the damaged equipment, reduced medical staff and shortage of the medical materials and drugs. The Clinical Centre was awarded by the UN for humanity and human rights, 1983 and the Humanist of the Year in B&H in 1993.

  19. Revisiting extreme storms of the past 100 years for future safety of large water management infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Hossain, Faisal

    2016-07-01

    Historical extreme storm events are widely used to make Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) estimates, which form the cornerstone of large water management infrastructure safety. Past studies suggest that extreme precipitation processes can be sensitive to land surface feedback and the planetary warming trend, which makes the future safety of large infrastructures questionable given the projected changes in land cover and temperature in the coming decades. In this study, a numerical modeling framework was employed to reconstruct 10 extreme storms over CONUS that occurred during the past 100 years, which are used by the engineering profession for PMP estimation for large infrastructures such as dams. Results show that the correlation in daily rainfall for such reconstruction can range between 0.4 and 0.7, while the correlation for maximum 3-day accumulation (a standard period used in infrastructure design) is always above 0.5 for post-1948 storms. This suggests that current numerical modeling and reanalysis data allow us to reconstruct big storms after 1948 with acceptable accuracy. For storms prior to 1948, however, reconstruction of storms shows inconsistency with observations. Our study indicates that numerical modeling and data may not have advanced to a sufficient level to understand how such old storms (pre-1948) may behave in future warming and land cover conditions. However, the infrastructure community can certainly rely on the use of model reconstructed extreme storms of the 1948-present period to reassess safety of our large water infrastructures under assumed changes in temperature and land cover.

  20. Rainfall and drought in equatorial east Africa during the past 1,100 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschuren, Dirk; Laird, Kathleen R.; Cumming, Brian F.

    2000-01-01

    Knowledge of natural long-term rainfall variability is essential for water-resource and land-use management in sub-humid regions of the world. In tropical Africa, data relevant to determining this variability are scarce because of the lack of long instrumental climate records and the limited potential of standard high-resolution proxy records such as tree rings and ice cores. Here we present a decade-scale reconstruction of rainfall and drought in equatorial east Africa over the past 1,100 years, based on lake-level and salinity fluctuations of Lake Naivasha (Kenya) inferred from three different palaeolimnological proxies: sediment stratigraphy and the species compositions of fossil diatom and midge assemblages. Our data indicate that, over the past millennium, equatorial east Africa has alternated between contrasting climate conditions, with significantly drier climate than today during the `Medieval Warm Period' (~ AD 1000-1270) and a relatively wet climate during the `Little Ice Age' (~ AD 1270-1850) which was interrupted by three prolonged dry episodes. We also find strong chronological links between the reconstructed history of natural long-term rainfall variation and the pre-colonial cultural history of east Africa, highlighting the importance of a detailed knowledge of natural long-term rainfall fluctuations for sustainable socio-economic development.

  1. Migration and health in Southern Africa: 100 years and still circulating

    PubMed Central

    Lurie, Mark N.; Williams, Brian G.

    2014-01-01

    Migration has deep historical roots in South and Southern Africa and to this day continues to be highly prevalent and a major factor shaping South African society and health. In this paper we examine the role of migration in the spread of two diseases nearly 100 years apart: tuberculosis following the discovery of gold in 1886 and HIV in the early 1990s. Both cases demonstrate the critical role played by human migration in the transmission and subsequent dissemination of these diseases to rural areas. In both cases, migration acts to assemble in one high-risk environment thousands of young men highly susceptible to new diseases. With poor living and working conditions, these migration destinations act as hot-spots for disease transmission. Migration of workers back to rural areas then serves as a highly efficient means of disseminating these diseases to rural populations. We conclude by raising some more recent questions examining the current role of migration in Southern Africa. PMID:24653964

  2. 100 years of relativity. Space-time structure: Einstein and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashtekar, Abhay

    2005-11-01

    Thanks to Einstein's relativity theories, our notions of space and time underwent profound revisions about a 100 years ago. The resulting interplay between geometry and physics has dominated all of fundamental physics since then. This volume contains contributions from leading researchers, worldwide, who have thought deeply about the nature and consequences of this interplay. The articles take a long-range view of the subject and distill the most important advances in broad terms, making them easily accessible to non-specialists. The first part is devoted to a summary of how relativity theories were born (J. Stachel). The second part discusses the most dramatic ramifications of general relativity, such as black holes (P. Chrusciel and R. Price), space-time singularities (H. Nicolai and A. Rendall), gravitational waves (P. Laguna and P. Saulson), the large scale structure of the cosmos (T. Padmanabhan); experimental status of this theory (C. Will) as well as its practical application to the GPS system (N. Ashby). The last part looks beyond Einstein and provides glimpses into what is in store for us in the 21st century. Contributions here include summaries of radical changes in the notions of space and time that are emerging from quantum field theory in curved space-times (Ford), string theory (T. Banks), loop quantum gravity (A. Ashtekar), quantum cosmology (M. Bojowald), discrete approaches (Dowker, Gambini and Pullin) and twistor theory (R Penrose).

  3. [Advances in the development of new vaccines against tuberculosis. 100 years after the introduction of BCG].

    PubMed

    Krysztopa-Grzybowska, Katarzyna; Lutyńska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The BCG vaccine used in the world for nearly 100 years protects children against the most severe forms of tuberculosis, but its effectiveness in preventing the most commonly occurring tuberculosis and the one burdened with the highest risk of transmission in adults is very diverse. Contraindications for BCG vaccination include HIV infection and other conditions of immunosuppression. Tuberculosis is a global problem difficult to control because of three main reasons: poor diagnostics in developing countries, long-term therapy or discontinuation of treatment resulting in the emergence of drug-resistant mycobacteria, and the availability of a TB vaccine which only protects children from the most severe forms of tuberculosis. BCG has little to no efficacy in preventing the most common adult pulmonary TB. The development of a more effective vaccine against tuberculosis is undoubtedly still a public health priority in order to improve control of the disease throughout the world. Elimination of TB as a global public health goal by 2050 is particularly ambitious and its achievement depends on the development and application of new intervention measures and newly designed vaccines. Currently, 14 newly developed products are undergoing clinical trials. These include a prophylactic vaccine capable of replacing the current BCG, booster vaccines to increase the effects of BCG, and therapeutic vaccines. The aim of the study is to present the current state of knowledge on cutting-edge research into new vaccines against tuberculosis, their efficacy, immunogenicity and potential use in the future.

  4. Delineation of flooding within the upper Mississippi River Basin-flood of June 18 through August 4, 1993, in Des Moines and vicinity, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaap, Bryan D.

    1996-01-01

    This hydrologic investigations atlas shows the areas in and near Des Moines, Iowa, that were flooded by the Des Moines and the Raccoon Rivers and Walnut, Fourmile, and Beaver Creeks from June 18 through August 4, 1993. This map also depicts the Federal Emergency Management Agency 100-year flood boundaries. The area drained by the Des Moines River upstream from Des Moines received more than 100 percent of normal rainfall in May, June, and July, 1993. At Boone, which is located about 35 miles north-northeast of Des Moines, July rainfall was 424 percent of normal. The discharges at streamflow- gaging stations on the Des Moines River near Stratford, downstream from Saylorville Lake, and at Des Moines are shown. The cumulative discharge for inflow-gaging stations in the Des Moines area and discharge for the Des Moines River below the Raccoon River at Des Moines from July 8 through 21, 1993, are shown. The water-surface elevations of Saylorville Lake from June 18 through August 4, 1993, are shown. Profiles of the maximum water- surface elevations of the Des Moines and Raccoon Rivers during the 1993 flood in Des Moines and vicinity are higher than the respective Federal Emergency Management Agency 100- and 500-year flood profiles.

  5. Flood plain analysis for Petris, , Troas, and Monoros, tia watersheds, the Arad department, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Győri, M.-M.; Haidu, I.

    2012-04-01

    The present study sets out to determine the flood plains corresponding to flood discharges having 10, 50 and 100 year recurrence intervals on the Monoroštia, Petriš and Troaš Rivers, located in Western Romania, the Arad department. The data of the study area is first collected and pre-processed in ArcGIS. It consists of land use data, soil data, the DEM, stream gauges' and meteorological stations' locations, on the basis of which the watersheds' hydrologic parameters' are computed using the Geospatial Hydrologic Modelling Extension (HEC Geo-HMS). HEC Geo-HMS functions as an interface between ArcGIS and HEC-HMS (Hydrologic Engineering Centre- Hydrologic Modelling System) and converts the data collected and generated in ArcGIS to data useable by HEC-HMS. The basin model component in HEC-HMS represents the physical watershed. It facilitates the effective rainfall computation on the basis of the input hyetograph, passing the results to a transform function that converts the excess precipitation into runoff at the subwatersheds' outlet. This enables the estimation and creation of hydrographs for the ungauged watersheds. In the present study, the results are achieved through the SCS CN loss method and the SCS Unit hydrograph transform method. The simulations use rainfall data that is registered at the stations situated in the catchments' vicinity, data that spans over two decades (1989-2009) and which allows the rainfall hyetographs to be determined for the above mentioned return periods. The model will be calibrated against measured streamflow data from the gauging stations on the main rivers, leading to the adjustment of watershed parameters, such as the CN parameter. As the flood discharges for 10, 50 and 100 year return periods have been determined, the profile of the water surface elevation along the channel will be computed through a steady flow analysis, with HEC-RAS (Hydrologic Engineering Centre- River Analysis System). For each of the flood frequencies, a

  6. Hydrology, geomorphology, and flood profiles of Lemon Creek, Juneau, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Host, Randy H.; Neal, Edward G.

    2005-01-01

    Lemon Creek near Juneau, Alaska has a history of extensive gravel mining, which straightened and deepened the stream channel in the lower reaches of the study area. Gravel mining and channel excavation began in the 1940s and continued through the mid-1980s. Time sequential aerial photos and field investigations indicate that the channel morphology is reverting to pre-disturbance conditions through aggradation of sediment and re-establishment of braided channels, which may result in decreased channel conveyance and increased flooding potential. Time sequential surveys of selected channel cross sections were conducted in an attempt to determine rates of channel aggradation/degradation throughout three reaches of the study area. In order to assess flooding potential in the lower reaches of the study area the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System model was used to estimate the water-surface elevations for the 2-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year floods. A regionally based regression equation was used to estimate the magnitude of floods for the selected recurrence intervals. Forty-two cross sections were surveyed to define the hydraulic characteristics along a 1.7-mile reach of the stream. High-water marks from a peak flow of 1,820 cubic feet per second, or about a 5-year flood, were surveyed and used to calibrate the model throughout the study area. The stream channel at a bridge in the lower reach could not be simulated without violating assumptions of the model. A model without the lower bridge indicates flood potential is limited to a small area.

  7. The Archives of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism: Documenting 100 Years of Carnegie Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, S. J.

    2005-12-01

    The archives of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism (DTM) of the Carnegie Institution of Washington document more than a century of geophysical and astronomical investigations. Primary source materials available for historical research include field and laboratory notebooks, equipment designs, plans for observatories and research vessels, scientists' correspondence, and thousands of expedition and instrument photographs. Yet despite its history, DTM long lacked a systematic approach to managing its documentary heritage. A preliminary records survey conducted in 2001 identified more than 1,000 linear feet of historically-valuable records languishing in dusty, poorly-accessible storerooms. Intellectual control at that time was minimal. With support from the National Historical Publications and Records Commission, the "Carnegie Legacy Project" was initiated in 2003 to preserve, organize, and facilitate access to DTM's archival records, as well as those of the Carnegie Institution's administrative headquarters and Geophysical Laboratory. Professional archivists were hired to process the 100-year backlog of records. Policies and procedures were established to ensure that all work conformed to national archival standards. Records were appraised, organized, and rehoused in acid-free containers, and finding aids were created for the project web site. Standardized descriptions of each collection were contributed to the WorldCat bibliographic database and the AIP International Catalog of Sources for History of Physics. Historic photographs and documents were digitized for online exhibitions to raise awareness of the archives among researchers and the general public. The success of the Legacy Project depended on collaboration between archivists, librarians, historians, data specialists, and scientists. This presentation will discuss key aspects (funding, staffing, preservation, access, outreach) of the Legacy Project and is aimed at personnel in observatories, research

  8. 100 years of California’s water rights system: patterns, trends and uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grantham, Theodore E.; Viers, Joshua H.

    2014-08-01

    For 100 years, California’s State Water Resources Control Board and its predecessors have been responsible for allocating available water supplies to beneficial uses, but inaccurate and incomplete accounting of water rights has made the state ill-equipped to satisfy growing societal demands for water supply reliability and healthy ecosystems. Here, we present the first comprehensive evaluation of appropriative water rights to identify where, and to what extent, water has been dedicated to human uses relative to natural supplies. The results show that water right allocations total 400 billion cubic meters, approximately five times the state’s mean annual runoff. In the state’s major river basins, water rights account for up to 1000% of natural surface water supplies, with the greatest degree of appropriation observed in tributaries to the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers and in coastal streams in southern California. Comparisons with water supplies and estimates of actual use indicate substantial uncertainty in how water rights are exercised. In arid regions such as California, over-allocation of surface water coupled with trends of decreasing supply suggest that new water demands will be met by re-allocation from existing uses. Without improvements to the water rights system, growing human and environmental demands portend an intensification of regional water scarcity and social conflict. California’s legal framework for managing its water resources is largely compatible with needed reforms, but additional public investment is required to enhance the capacity of the state’s water management institutions to effectively track and regulate water rights.

  9. An epidemiological review of changes in meningococcal biology during the last 100 years

    PubMed Central

    Abio, Anne; Neal, Keith R; Beck, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to assess changes in trends of meningococcal disease and strain diversity of Neisseria meningitidis in Europe, South America, and Africa over the last 100 years. Methods Healthcare databases and sources of grey literature were searched in 2012 and records were screened against the protocol eligibility criteria using a three-stage sifting process. Studies included in the review were subject to data extraction. Results were summarised using a narrative approach. Results Serogroup A was the dominant cause of invasive meningococcal disease in Europe before and during World Wars I and II. Whilst serogroup B has been dominant from the 1970s in Europe and the 1980s in South America, outbreaks have emerged associated with serogroups W135 and Y in the twenty-first century. There has been a shift in the age groups affected by invasive meningococcal disease with an increase in incidence among the elderly associated with serogroup Y and a decline in serogroup C among adolescent populations. Recent outbreaks of serogroup W135 have occurred in some countries in South America. The epidemiological trend of invasive meningococcal disease has remained largely static across Africa and dominated by serogroup A although recently serogroups X and W135 have accounted for a large proportion of morbidity and mortality. Conclusion The epidemiology of N. meningitidis has been dynamic in Europe and South America especially over the last 30 years. Routine vaccination with serogroup C vaccines has led to reduced carriage and incidence of invasive meningococcal disease and herd immunity. PMID:24392681

  10. To Humbly Go: Guarding Against Perpetuating Models of Colonization in the 100-Year Starship Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, W. R.

    Past patterns of exploration, colonization and exploitation on Earth continue to provide the predominant paradigms that guide many space programs. Any project of crewed space exploration, especially of the magnitude envisioned by the 100-Year Starship Study, must guard against the hubris that may emerge among planners, crew, and others associated with the project, including those industries and bureaucracies that will emerge from the effort. Maintaining a non-exploitative approach may be difficult in consideration of the century of preparatory research and development and the likely multigenerational nature of the voyage itself. Starting now with mission dreamers and planners, the purpose of the voyage must be cast as one of respectful learning and humble discovery, not of conquest (either actual or metaphorical) or other inappropriate models, including military. At a minimum, the Study must actively build non-violence into the voyaging culture it is beginning to create today. References to exploitive colonization, conquest, destiny and other terms from especially American frontier mythology, while tempting in their propagandizing power, should be avoided as they limit creative thinking about alternative possible futures. Future voyagers must strive to adapt to new environments wherever possible and be assimilated by new worlds both biologically and behaviorally rather than to rely on attempts to recreate the Earth they have left. Adaptation should be strongly considered over terraforming. This paper provides an overview of previous work linking the language of colonization to space programs and challenges the extension of the myth of the American frontier to the Starship Study. It argues that such metaphors would be counter-productive at best and have the potential to doom long-term success and survival by planting seeds of social decay and self-destruction. Cautions and recommendations are suggested.

  11. Influence of elevated carbon dioxide and temperature on belowground carbon allocation and enzyme activities in tropical flooded soil planted with rice.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, P; Roy, K S; Neogi, S; Manna, M C; Adhya, T K; Rao, K S; Nayak, A K

    2013-10-01

    Changes in the soil labile carbon fractions and soil biochemical properties to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and temperature reflect the changes in the functional capacity of soil ecosystems. The belowground root system and root-derived carbon products are the key factors for the rhizospheric carbon dynamics under elevated CO2 condition. However, the relationship between interactive effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on belowground soil carbon accrual is not very clear. To address this issue, a field experiment was laid out to study the changes of carbon allocation in tropical rice soil (Aeric Endoaquept) under elevated CO2 and elevated CO2 + elevated temperature conditions in open top chambers (OTCs). There were significant increase of root biomass by 39 and 44 % under elevated CO2 and elevated CO2 + temperature compared to ambient condition, respectively. A significant increase (55 %) of total organic carbon in the root exudates under elevated CO2 + temperature was noticed. Carbon dioxide enrichment associated with elevated temperature significantly increased soil labile carbon, microbial biomass carbon, and activities of carbon-transforming enzyme like β-glucosidase. Highly significant correlations were noticed among the different soil enzymes and soil labile carbon fractions.

  12. Climate Simulation and Flood Risk Analysis for 2008-40 for Devils Lake, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2008-01-01

    generated future duration of the current wet period. On the basis of the simulations, and assuming ice-free conditions and calm wind, the Devils Lake flood elevation for an annualized flood risk of 1 percent (analogous to a ?100-year? riverine flood) was estimated to be 1,454.6 feet for a 10-year time horizon (2008---?17). Therefore, without adjusting for wind or ice, a residence near Devils Lake at elevation 1,454.6 feet has the same chance of being flooded sometime during the next 10 years as a residence at the edge of the 100-year flood plain along a river. Adjusting for the effects of wind or ice, which will increase the flood elevations for many locations near the lakes, was not within the scope of this study.

  13. Popular myths about flooding in Western Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    Floods are the most destructive natural hazard in the Nation, causing more deaths and financial loss in the 20th century than any other natural disaster. The most significant 20 riverine floods of the 20th century for which data are available have killed more than 1,843 people and caused more than $50 billion (uninflated) in damages (Perry, 2000). One of the most common means of describing the severity of a flood is a comparison to the "100-year flood." In the last decade, increasing attention has been paid to the fact that some regions, notably the Pacific Northwest, have experienced numerous so-called "100-year" floods in the span of a few years. Part of the confusion stems from the statistical nature of the "100-year flood" (Greene, 1996); however, another part of the confusion is the fact that the statistics are calculated for specific sites (streamgages) on specific rivers, rather than for a region as a whole. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey have begun to investigate how the likelihood of flooding may be determined on a regional basis (Troutman and Karlinger, 2003).

  14. 78 FR 21138 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...) Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundaries or zone designations, and/or the regulatory floodway (hereinafter referred to as flood hazard determinations) as...

  15. 77 FR 59949 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...) Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundaries or zone designations, and/or the regulatory floodway (hereinafter referred to as flood hazard determinations) as...

  16. 78 FR 35298 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...) Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundaries or zone designations, and/or the regulatory floodway (hereinafter referred to as flood hazard determinations) as...

  17. 78 FR 35307 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...) Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundaries or zone designations, and/or the regulatory floodway (hereinafter referred to as flood hazard determinations) as...

  18. 78 FR 35302 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...) Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundaries or zone designations, and/or the regulatory floodway (hereinafter referred to as flood hazard determinations) as...

  19. 78 FR 34116 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...) Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundaries or zone designations, and/or the regulatory floodway (hereinafter referred to as flood hazard determinations) as...

  20. 78 FR 21141 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...) Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundaries or zone designations, and/or the regulatory floodway (hereinafter referred to as flood hazard determinations) as...

  1. 78 FR 48880 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ...New or modified Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundaries or zone designations, and/or the regulatory floodway (hereinafter referred to as flood hazard determinations) as shown on the indicated Letter of Map Revision (LOMR) for each of the communities listed in the table below are finalized. Each LOMR revises the Flood......

  2. The 1965 Mississippi River flood in Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwob, Harian H.; Myers, Richard E.

    1965-01-01

    Flood data compiled for the part of the River along the eastern border include flood discharges, flood elevations, and the frequency of floods of varying magnitudes. They also include the daily or more frequent stage and discharge data for both the Mississippi River and the downstream gaging stations on Iowa tributaries for the period March-May 1965. Sufficient data are presented to permit studied for preparation of plans for protective works and plans for zoning or for flood plain regulation.

  3. Infrared survey of 50 buildings constructed during 100 years: thermal performances and damage conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ljungberg, Sven-Ake

    1995-03-01

    Different building constructions and craftsmanship give rise to different thermal performance and damage conditions. The building stock of most industrial countries consists of buildings of various age, and constructions, from old historic buildings with heavy stone or wooden construction, to new buildings with heavy or light concrete construction, or modern steel or wooden construction. In this paper the result from a detailed infrared survey of 50 buildings from six Swedish military camps is presented. The presentation is limited to a comparison of thermal performance and damage conditions of buildings of various ages, functions, and constructions, of a building period of more than 100 years. The result is expected to be relevant even to civilian buildings. Infrared surveys were performed during 1992-1993, with airborne, and mobile short- and longwave infrared systems, out- and indoor thermography. Interpretation and analysis of infrared data was performed with interactive image and analyzing systems. Field inspections were carried out with fiber optics system, and by ocular inspections. Air-exchange rate was measured in order to quantify air leakages through the building envelope, indicated in thermograms. The objects studied were single-family houses, barracks, office-, service-, school- and exercise buildings, military hotels and restaurants, aircraft hangars, and ship factory buildings. The main conclusions from this study are that most buildings from 1880 - 1940 have a solid construction with a high quality of craftsmanship, relatively good thermal performance, due to extremely thick walls, and adding insulation at the attic floor. From about 1940 - 1960 the quality of construction, thermal performance and craftsmanship seem to vary a lot. Buildings constructed during the period of 1960 - 1990 have in general the best thermal performance due to a better insulation capacity, however, also one finds here the greatest variety of problems. The result from this

  4. The Hunterian Neurosurgical Laboratory: the first 100 years of neurosurgical research.

    PubMed

    Sampath, P; Long, D M; Brem, H

    2000-01-01

    Modern neurosurgery has long had a strong laboratory foundation, and much of this tradition can be traced to the Hunterian Neurosurgical Laboratory of the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Founded with the basic goals of investigating the causes and symptoms of disease and establishing the crucial role that surgeons may play in the treatment of disease, the Hunterian laboratory has adhered to these tenets, despite the dramatic changes in neurosurgery that have occurred in the last 100 years. Named for the famous English surgeon John Hunter (1728-1793), the Hunterian laboratory was conceived by William Welch and William Halsted as a special laboratory for experimental work in surgery and pathology. In 1904, Harvey Cushing was appointed by Halsted to direct the laboratory. With the three primary goals of student education, veterinary surgery that stressed surgical techniques, and meticulous surgical and laboratory record-keeping, the laboratory was quite productive, introducing the use of physiological saline solutions, describing the anatomic features and function of the pituitary gland, and establishing the field of endocrinology. In addition, the original development of hanging drop tissue culture, fundamental investigations into cerebrospinal fluid, and countless contributions to otolaryngology by Samuel Crowe all occurred during this "crucible" period. In 1912, Cushing was succeeded by Walter Dandy, whose work on experimental hydrocephalus and cerebrospinal fluid circulation led to the development of pneumoencephalography. The early days of neurosurgery evolved with close ties to general surgery, and so did the Hunterian laboratory. After Dandy began devoting his time to clinical work, general surgeons (first Jay McLean and then, in 1922, Ferdinand Lee) became the directors of the laboratory. Between 1928 and 1942, more than 150 original articles were issued from the Hunterian laboratory; these articles described significant advances in surgery, including pioneering

  5. Flood Risk and Global Change: Future Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra-Llobet, A.

    2014-12-01

    Global flood risk is increasing in response to population growth in flood-prone areas, human encroachment into natural flood paths (exacerbating flooding in areas formerly out of harm's way), and climate change (which alters variables driving floods). How will societies respond to and manage flood risk in coming decades? Analysis of flood policy evolution in the EU and US demonstrates that changes occurred in steps, in direct response to disasters. After the flood produced by the collapse of Tous Dam in 1982, Spain initiated a systematic assessment of areas of greatest flood risk and civil protection response. The devastating floods on the Elbe and elsewhere in central Europe in 2002 motivated adoption of the EU Floods Directive (2007), which requires member states to develop systematic flood risk maps (now due) and flood risk management plans (due in 2015). The flooding of New Orleans by Hurricane Katrina in 2005 resulted in a nationwide levee-safety assessment and improvements in communicating risk, but overall less fundamental change in US flood management than manifest in the EU since 2007. In the developing world, large (and increasing) concentrations of populations in low-lying floodplains, deltas, and coasts are increasingly vulnerable, and governments mostly ill-equipped to implement fundamental changes in land use to prevent future increases in exposure, nor to develop responses to the current threats. Even in the developed world, there is surprisingly little research on how well residents of flood-prone lands understand their true risk, especially when they are 'protected' by '100-year' levees. Looking ahead, researchers and decision makers should prioritize improvements in flood risk perception, river-basin-scale assessment of flood runoff processes (under current and future climate and land-use conditions) and flood management alternatives, and bridging the disconnect between national and international floodplain management policies and local land

  6. Flood discharges and hydraulics near the mouths of Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek in the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, studied the frequency and magnitude of flooding near the mouths of five tributaries to the New River in the New River Gorge National River. The 100-year peak discharge at each tributary was determined from regional frequency equations. The 100-year discharge at Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek was 3,400 cubic feet per second, 640 cubic feet per second, 8,200 cubic feet per second, 7,100 cubic feet per second, and 9,400 cubic feet per second, respectively. Flood elevations for each tributary were determined by application of a steady-state, one-dimensional flow model. Manning's roughness coefficients for the stream channels ranged from 0.040 to 0.100. Bridges that would be unable to contain the 100-year flood within the bridge opening included: the State Highway 82 bridge on Wolf Creek, the second Fayette County Highway 25 bridge upstream from the confluence with New River on Dunloup Creek, and an abandoned log bridge on Mill Creek.

  7. The flood of December 1982 and the 100- and 500-year flood on the Buffalo River, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neely, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    Flood profiles, peak discharges, and stages were determined for the December 1982, the 100-year, and the 500-year floods at 17 sites along the Buffalo River, Arkansas. Typical synthetic stage hydrographs for the 100- and 500-year floods were determined for each site. Flow duration data for gaging stations at St. Joe and Rush are shown. The average velocity of the water for the 100- and 500-year floods is shown for each site. Approximate flood boundaries delineating the 100- and 500-year floods are shown for Ponca, Steel Creek, Pruitt, St. Joe, and Buffalo Point. (Author 's abstract)

  8. Climatic variability and flood frequency of the Santa Cruz River, Pima County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, Robert H.; Betancourt, Julio L.

    1992-01-01

    Past estimates of the 100-year flood for the Santa Cruz River at Tucson, Arizona, range from 572 to 2,780 cubic meters per second. An apparent increase in flood magnitude during the past two decades raises concern that the annual flood series is nonstationary in time. The apparent increase is accompanied by more annual floods occurring in fall and winter and fewer in summer. This greater mixture of storm types that produce annual flood peaks is caused by a higher frequency of meridional flow in the upper-air circulation and increased variance of ocean-atmosphere conditions in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Estimation of flood frequency on the Santa Cruz River is complicated because climate affects the magnitude and frequency of storms that cause floods. Mean discharge does not change significantly, but the variance and skew coefficient of the distribution of annual floods change with time. The 100-year flood during El Niffo-Southern Oscillation conditions is 1,300 cubic meters per second, more than double the value for other years. The increase is mostly caused by an increase in recurvature of dissipating tropical cyclones into the Southwestern United States during El Niffo-Southern Oscillation conditions. Flood frequency based on hydroclimatology was determined by combining populations of floods caused by monsoonal storms, frontal systems, and dissipating tropical cyclones. For 1930-59, annual flood frequency is dominated by monsoonal floods, and the estimated 100-year flood is 323 cubic meters per second. For 1960-86, annual flood frequency at recurrence intervals of greater than 10 years is dominated by floods caused by dissipating tropical cyclones, and the estimated 100-year flood is 1,660 cubic meters per second. For design purposes, 1,660 cubic meters per second might be an appropriate value for the 100-year flood at Tucson, assuming that climatic conditions during 1960-86 are representative of conditions expected in the immediate future.

  9. Modeling Flood Plain Hydrology and Forest Productivity of Congaree Swamp, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    tupelo (Nyssa aquatica), green ash (Fraxinus pennslyvanica), laurel oak (Quercus laurifolia), swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii), and sycamore (Plantanus occidentalis) within Congaree Swamp in highand low-elevation sites characteristic of shorter and longer flood duration and related to upriver flood controls and dam operation. Ring counts and dating indicated that all loblolly pine trees and nearly all baldcypress collections in this study are postsettlement recruits and old-growth cohorts, dating from 100 to 300 years in age. Most hardwood species and trees cored for age analysis were less than 100 years old, demonstrating robust growth and high site quality. Growth chronologies of loblolly pine and baldcypress exhibited positive and negative inflections over the last century that corresponded with climate history and residual effects of Hurricane Hugo in 1989. Stemwood production on average was less for trees and species on sites with longer flood retention and hydroperiod affected more by groundwater seepage and site elevation than river floods. Water level data provided evidence that stream regulation and operations of the Saluda Dam (post-1934) have actually increased the average daily water stage in the Congaree River. There was no difference in tree growth response by species or hydrogeomorphic setting to predam and postdam flood conditions and river stage. Climate-growth analysis showed that long-term growth variation is controlled more by spring/ summer temperatures in loblolly pine and by spring/summer precipitation in baldcypress than flooding history.

  10. RASOR flood modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, Joost; Buckman, Lora; Bachmann, Daniel; Visser, Martijn; Tollenaar, Daniel; Vatvani, Deepak; Kramer, Nienke; Goorden, Neeltje

    2015-04-01

    Decision making in disaster management requires fast access to reliable and relevant information. We believe that online information and services will become increasingly important in disaster management. Within the EU FP7 project RASOR (Rapid Risk Assessment and Spatialisation of Risk) an online platform is being developed for rapid multi-hazard risk analyses to support disaster management anywhere in the world. The platform will provide access to a plethora of GIS data that are relevant to risk assessment. It will also enable the user to run numerical flood models to simulate historical and newly defined flooding scenarios. The results of these models are maps of flood extent, flood depths and flow velocities. The RASOR platform will enable to overlay historical event flood maps with observations and Earth Observation (EO) imagery to fill in gaps and assess the accuracy of the flood models. New flooding scenarios can be defined by the user and simulated to investigate the potential impact of future floods. A series of flood models have been developed within RASOR for selected case study areas around the globe that are subject to very different flood hazards: • The city of Bandung in Indonesia, which is prone to fluvial flooding induced by heavy rainfall. The flood hazard is exacerbated by land subsidence. • The port of Cilacap on the south coast of Java, subject to tsunami hazard from submarine earthquakes in the Sunda trench. • The area south of city of Rotterdam in the Netherlands, prone to coastal and/or riverine flooding. • The island of Santorini in Greece, which is subject to tsunamis induced by landslides. Flood models have been developed for each of these case studies using mostly EO data, augmented by local data where necessary. Particular use was made of the new TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurement) product from the German Aerospace centre (DLR) and EADS Astrium. The presentation will describe the flood models and the

  11. ANNUS MIRABILIS. PHYSICS OF OUR DAYS: Geometry and Physics after 100 Years of Einstein's Relativity (5-8 April 2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braginsky, Vladimir B.

    2005-06-01

    As part of the celebration of the World Year of Physics, the Conference "Geometry and Physics after 100 Years of Einstein's Relativity" was held in Golm, near Potsdam, Germany, on April 5-8, 2005. The Conference was organized by the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (also known as the Albert Einstein Institute), which is celebrating its 10th anniversary in 2005. Conference participants discussed progress made in theoretical and experimental research during the 100 years since the publication of Einstein's famous papers in 1905, the year which has gone down in history as 'Albert Einstein's ANNUS MIRABILIS'.

  12. The Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iceland, Charles

    2015-04-01

    As population growth and economic growth take place, and as climate change accelerates, many regions across the globe are finding themselves increasingly vulnerable to flooding. A recent OECD study of the exposure of the world's large port cities to coastal flooding found that 40 million people were exposed to a 1 in 100 year coastal flood event in 2005, and the total value of exposed assets was about US 3,000 billion, or 5% of global GDP. By the 2070s, those numbers were estimated to increase to 150 million people and US 35,000 billion, or roughly 9% of projected global GDP. Impoverished people in developing countries are particularly at risk because they often live in flood-prone areas and lack the resources to respond. WRI and its Dutch partners - Deltares, IVM-VU University Amsterdam, Utrecht University, and PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency - are in the initial stages of developing a robust set of river flood and coastal storm surge risk measures that show the extent of flooding under a variety of scenarios (both current and future), together with the projected human and economic impacts of these flood scenarios. These flood risk data and information will be accessible via an online, easy-to-use Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer. We will also investigate the viability, benefits, and costs of a wide array of flood risk reduction measures that could be implemented in a variety of geographic and socio-economic settings. Together, the activities we propose have the potential for saving hundreds of thousands of lives and strengthening the resiliency and security of many millions more, especially those who are most vulnerable. Mr. Iceland will present Version 1.0 of the Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer and provide a preview of additional elements of the Analyzer to be released in the coming years.

  13. Regional flood probabilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troutman, B.M.; Karlinger, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    The T-year annual maximum flood at a site is defined to be that streamflow, that has probability 1/T of being exceeded in any given year, and for a group of sites the corresponding regional flood probability (RFP) is the probability that at least one site will experience a T-year flood in any given year. The RFP depends on the number of sites of interest and on the spatial correlation of flows among the sites. We present a Monte Carlo method for obtaining the RFP and demonstrate that spatial correlation estimates used in this method may be obtained with rank transformed data and therefore that knowledge of the at-site peak flow distribution is not necessary. We examine the extent to which the estimates depend on specification of a parametric form for the spatial correlation function, which is known to be nonstationary for peak flows. It is shown in a simulation study that use of a stationary correlation function to compute RFPs yields satisfactory estimates for certain nonstationary processes. Application of asymptotic extreme value theory is examined, and a methodology for separating channel network and rainfall effects on RFPs is suggested. A case study is presented using peak flow data from the state of Washington. For 193 sites in the Puget Sound region it is estimated that a 100-year flood will occur on the average every 4,5 years.

  14. Changes in bottom-surface elevations in three reservoirs on the lower Susquehanna River, Pennsylvania and Maryland, following the January 1996 flood; implications for nutrient and sediment loads to Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langland, Michael J.; Hainly, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    The Susquehanna River drains about 27,510 square miles in New York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland, contributes nearly 50 percent of the freshwater discharge to the Chesapeake Bay, and contributes nearly 66 percent of the annual nitrogen load, 40 percent of the phosphorus load, and 25 percent of the suspended-sediment load from non-tidal parts of the Bay during a year of average streamflow. A reservoir system formed by three hydroelectric dams on the lower Susquehanna River is currently trapping a major part of the phosphorus and suspended-sediment loads from the basin and, to a lesser extent, the nitrogen loads. In the summer of 1996, the U. S. Geological Survey collected bathymetric data along 64 cross sections and 40 bottom-sediment samples along 14 selected cross sections in the lower Susquehanna River reservoir system to determine the remaining sediment-storage capacity, refine the current estimate of when the system may reach sediment-storage capacity, document changes in the reservoir system after the January 1996 flood, and determine the remaining nutrient mass in Conowingo Reservoir. Results from the 1996 survey indicate an estimated total of 14,800,000 tons of sediment were scoured from the reservoir system from 1993 (date of previous bathymetric survey) through 1996. This includes the net sediment change of 4,700,000 tons based on volume change in the reservoir system computed from the 1993 and 1996 surveys, the 6,900,000 tons of sediment deposited from 1993 through 1996, and the 3,200,000 tons of sediment transported into the reservoir system during the January 1996 flood. The January 1996 flood, which exceeded a 100-year recurrence interval, scoured about the same amount of sediment that normally would be deposited in the reservoir system during a 4- to 6-year period. Concentrations of total nitrogen in bottom sediments in the Conowingo Reservoir ranged from 1,500 to 6,900 mg/kg (milligrams per kilogram); 75 percent of the concentrations were between 3

  15. Floods on Yahara River, Lake Kegonsa dam to county line, Dane County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Carl L.; Holmstrom, Barry K.

    1972-01-01

    The regional flood is defined by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources as a flood having an average frequency of occurrence of-once in 100 years and "which is representative of large floods known to have occurred generally in Wisconsin and reasonably characteristics of what can be expected to occur on a particular stream."

  16. [Progress and tradition. 100 years of the congress held by the German Society of Urology: Vienna 1907-Berlin 2007].

    PubMed

    Rathert, P

    2007-09-01

    The history of the German Urological Society and their congress reflects the scientific medical achievements of the last 100 years as well as the political and social structure of the twentieth century with the fantastic medical progress and the tremendous catastrophes. The congress in Berlin in 2007 once again links the urological society with the congress in Vienna of 1907.

  17. Flood Assessment at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site and the Proposed Hazardous Waste Storage Unit, DOE/Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Schmeltzer, J. S.; Millier, J. J.; Gustafson, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    A flood assessment at the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) and the proposed Hazardous Waste Storage Unit (HWSU) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was performed to determine the 100-year flood hazard at these facilities. The study was conducted to determine whether the RWMS and HWSU are located within a 100-year flood hazard as defined by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and to provide discharges for the design of flood protection.

  18. Modeling the Emergent Impacts of Harvesting Acadian Forests over 100+ Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luus, K. A.; Plug, L. J.

    2007-12-01

    Harvesting strategies and policies for Acadian forest in Nova Scotia, Canada, presently are set using Decision Support Models (DSMs) that aim to maximize the long-term (>100y) value of forests through decisions implemented over short time horizons (5-80 years). However, DSMs typically are aspatial, lack ecological processes and do not treat erosion, so the long-term (>100y) emergent impacts of the prescribed forestry decisions on erosion and vegetation in Acadian forests remain poorly known. To better understand these impacts, we created an equation-based model that simulates the evolution of a ≥4 km2 forest in time steps of 1 y and at a spatial resolution of 3 m2, the footprint of a single mature tree. The model combines 1) ecological processes of recruitment, competition, and mortality; 2) geomorphic processes of hillslope erosion; 3) anthropic processes of tree harvesting, replanting, and road construction under constraints imposed by regulations and cost/benefit ratio. The model uses digital elevation models, parameters (where available), and calibration (where measurements are not available) for conditions presently found in central Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. The model is unique because it 1) deals with the impacts of harvesting on an Acadian forest; and 2) vegetation and erosion are coupled. The model was tested by comparing the species-specific biomass of long-term (40 y) forest plot data to simulated results. At the spatial scale of individual 1 ha plots, model predictions presently account for approximately 50% of observed biomass changes through time, but predictions are hampered by the effects of serendipitous "random" events such as single tree windfall. Harvesting increases the cumulative erosion over 3000 years by 240% when compared to an old growth forest and significantly suppresses the growth of Balsam Fir and Sugar Maple. We discuss further tests of the model, and how it might be used to investigate the long-term sustainability of the

  19. Estimating Non-stationary Flood Risk in a Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, X.; Cohn, T. A.; Stedinger, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Flood risk is usually described by a probability distribution for annual maximum streamflow which is assumed not to change with time. Federal, state and local governments in the United States are demanding guidance on flood frequency estimates that account for climate change. If a trend exists in peak flow series, ignoring it could result in large quantile estimator bias, while trying to estimate a trend will increase the flood quantile estimator's variance. Thus the issue is, what bias-variance tradeoff should we accept? This paper discusses approaches to flood frequency analysis (FFA) when flood series have trends. GCMs describe how annual runoff might vary over sub-continental scales, but this information is nearly useless for FFA in small watersheds. A LP3 Monte Carlo analysis and a re-sampling study of 100-year flood estimation (25- and 50-year projections) compares the performance of five methods: FFA as prescribed in national guidelines (Bulletin 17B), assumes the flood series is stationary and follows a log-Pearson type III (LP3) distribution; Fitting a LP3 distribution with time-varying parameters that include future trends in mean and perhaps variance, where slopes are assumed known; Fitting a LP3 distribution with time-varying parameters that capture future trends in mean and perhaps variance, where slopes are estimated from annual peak flow series; Employing only the most recent 30 years of flood records to fit a LP3 distribution; Applying a safety factor to the 100-year flood estimator (e.g. 25% increase). The 100-year flood estimator of method 2 has the smallest log-space mean squared error, though it is unlikely that the true trend would be known. Method 3 is only recommended over method 1 for large trends (≥ 0.5% per year). The 100-year flood estimators of method 1, 4, and 5 often have poor accuracy. Clearly, flood risk assessment will be a challenge in an uncertain world.

  20. Scenario-based tsunami risk assessment using a static flooding approach and high-resolution digital elevation data: An example from Muscat in Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Bastian; Hoffmann, Gösta; Reicherter, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of tsunami risk and vulnerability is essential to establish a well-adapted Multi Hazard Early Warning System, land-use planning and emergency management. As the tsunami risk for the coastline of Oman is still under discussion and remains enigmatic, various scenarios based on historical tsunamis were created. The suggested inundation and run-up heights were projected onto the modern infrastructural setting of the Muscat Capital Area. Furthermore, possible impacts of the worst-case tsunami event for Muscat are discussed. The approved Papathoma Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment Model was used to model the structural vulnerability of the infrastructure for a 2 m tsunami scenario, depicting the 1945 tsunami and a 5 m tsunami in Muscat. Considering structural vulnerability, the results suggest a minor tsunami risk for the 2 m tsunami scenario as the flooding is mainly confined to beaches and wadis. Especially traditional brick buildings, still predominant in numerous rural suburbs, and a prevalently coast-parallel road network lead to an increased tsunami risk. In contrast, the 5 m tsunami scenario reveals extensively inundated areas and with up to 48% of the buildings flooded, and therefore consequently a significantly higher tsunami risk. We expect up to 60000 damaged buildings and up to 380000 residents directly affected in the Muscat Capital Area, accompanied with a significant loss of life and damage to vital infrastructure. The rapid urbanization processes in the Muscat Capital Area, predominantly in areas along the coast, in combination with infrastructural, demographic and economic growth will additionally increase the tsunami risk and therefore emphasizes the importance of tsunami risk assessment in Oman.

  1. Effects of flood controls proposed for West Branch Brandywine Creek, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-four-hour rainfall, distributed over time according to the U.S. Soil Conservation Service type II rainfall distribution, was used as input to calibrated rainfall-runoff models of three subbasins in the West Branch Brandywine Creek watershed. The effects of four proposed flood controls were evaluated by using these rainfalls to simulate discharge hydrographs with and without the flood controls and comparing the simulated peak discharges. In the Honey Brook subbasin, 2-, 10-, and 100-year flood-discharge hydrographs were generated for station West Branch Brandywine Creek at Coatesville. For the 2- and 10-year floods, proposed flood controls would reduce the peak discharge from 1 to 8 percent. The combination of all three flood controls proposed for the Coatesville subbasin would reduce the 100-year peak discharge 44 percent. In the Modena subbasin, 2-, 10-, and 100-year flood-discharge hydrographs were generated for station West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena. A flood control proposed for Sucker Run, a tributary, would reduce the peak discharge of Sucker Run at State Route 82 by 22, 25, and 27 percent and the peak discharge of West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena by 10, 6, and less than 1 percent for the 2-, 10-, and 100-year floods, respectively. For the 2- and 10- year floods, flood control proposed for the Coatesville subbasin would have little effect on the peak discharge of West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena. For the 100-year flood, the combination of all three flood controls proposed for the Coatesville subbasin would reduce the peak discharge at Modena 25 percent. When flood control in the Modena subbasin was combined with flood control in the Coatesville subbasin, the 10-percent reduction in the 2-year flood peak of West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena was due almost entirely to flood control in the Modena subbasin. For the 10-year flood, flood control in the Modena subbasin would reduce the peak discharge 6 percent, and any single flood

  2. Assessing trends in organochlorine concentrations in Lake Winnipeg fish following the 1997 red river flood

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, A.R.; Stern, G.A.; Lockhart, W.L.; Kidd, K.A.; Salki, A.G.; Stainton, M.P.; Koczanski, K.; Rosenberg, G.B.; Savoie, D.A.; Billeck, B.N.; Wilkinson, Philip M.; Muir, D.C.G.

    2003-01-01

    As we move toward the virtual elimination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment our understanding of how short-term variability affects long-term trends of POPs in natural populations will become increasingly more important. In this study we report short-term trends in organochlorine (OC) levels in fish from Lake Winnipeg in the months and years following the 1997 100-year flood of the Red River ecosystem. Our goal was to understand the effects of an episodic event on OC levels in benthic and pelagic invertebrates and in fish. Despite elevated loading of OCs into the south basin of Lake Winnipeg during the flood there were no differences in OC levels of surface sediments or emergent mayflies. After adjusting for differences in lipid content and length among sample times, we did find significant increases in total DDT (??DDT) and total polychlorinated biphenyl (??PCB) post-flood (March 1999) in top predators including walleye and burbot. Significant increases were also observed in OC concentrations of zooplankton and yellow perch (> 2 fold in ??PCB, ??DDT, total chlordane (??CHL), total chlorobenzenes (??CBZ)) and walleye (1.4 fold ??PCB) over a 2-month period in the summer following the flood. Analysis of specific congener patterns over time suggest that the major changes in fish OC levels pre- and post-flood did not appear to be linked to transport of new compounds into the Lake during the flood, but to species shifts within the plankton community. Our results indicate that short-term variation (???2 months) in OC distributions within biota may be equal to or greater than those resulting from episodic events such as spring floods.

  3. Impact of elevated CO2 and temperature on soil C and N dynamics in relation to CH4 and N2O emissions from tropical flooded rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, P; Roy, K S; Neogi, S; Dash, P K; Nayak, A K; Mohanty, S; Baig, M J; Sarkar, R K; Rao, K S

    2013-09-01

    A field experiment was carried out to investigate the impact of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) (CEC, 550 μmol mol(-1)) and elevated CO2+elevated air temperature (CECT, 550 μmol mol(-1) and 2°C more than control chamber (CC)) on soil labile carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools, microbial populations and enzymatic activities in relation to emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) in a flooded alluvial soil planted with rice cv. Naveen in open top chambers (OTCs). The labile soil C pools, namely microbial biomass C, readily mineralizable C, water soluble carbohydrate C and potassium permanganate oxidizable C were increased by 27, 23, 38 and 37% respectively under CEC than CC (ambient CO2, 394 μmol mol(-1)). The total organic carbon (TOC) in root exudates was 28.9% higher under CEC than CC. The labile N fractions were also increased significantly (29%) in CEC than CC. Methanogens and denitrifier populations in rhizosphere were higher under CEC and CECT. As a result, CH4 and N2O-N emissions were enhanced by 26 and 24.6% respectively, under CEC in comparison to open field (UC, ambient CO2, 394 μmol mol(-1)) on seasonal basis. The global warming potential (GWP) was increased by 25% under CEC than CC. However, emissions per unit of grain yield under elevated CO2 and temperature were similar to those observed at ambient CO2. The stimulatory effect on CH4 and N2O emissions under CEC was linked with the increased amount of soil labile C, C rich root exudates, lowered Eh, higher Fe(+2) concentration and increased activities of methanogens and extracellular enzymes.

  4. Quantification of uncertainties in the 100-year flow at an ungaged site near a gaged station and its application in Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Huidae; Bones, Emma

    2016-08-01

    The Federal Emergency Management Agency has introduced the concept of the "1-percent plus" flow to incorporate various uncertainties in estimation of the 100-year or 1-percent flow. However, to the best of the authors' knowledge, no clear directions for calculating the 1-percent plus flow have been defined in the literature. Although information about standard errors of estimation and prediction is provided along with the regression equations that are often used to estimate the 1-percent flow at ungaged sites, uncertainty estimation becomes more complicated when there is a nearby gaged station because regression flows and the peak flow estimate from a gage analysis should be weighted to compute the weighted estimate of the 1-percent flow. In this study, an equation for calculating the 1-percent plus flow at an ungaged site near a gaged station is analytically derived. Also, a detailed process is introduced for calculating the 1-percent plus flow for an ungaged site near a gaged station in Georgia as an example and a case study is performed. This study provides engineers and practitioners with a method that helps them better assess flood risks and develop mitigation plans accordingly.

  5. Pakistan Flooding

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Flooding in Pakistan     View Larger Image In late July 2010, flooding caused by heavy monsoon rains began in several regions of Pakistan, ... and Aug 11, 2010 Images:  Pakistan Flood location:  Asia thumbnail:  ...

  6. 44 CFR 64.3 - Flood Insurance Maps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... special flood hazards without water surface elevations determined, and with velocity, that is inundated by... elevations determined and with velocity, that is inundated by tidal floods (coastal high hazard area) V0 Area... (3) ft. and with velocity B, X Areas of moderate flood hazards or areas of future-conditions...

  7. 44 CFR 64.3 - Flood Insurance Maps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... special flood hazards without water surface elevations determined, and with velocity, that is inundated by... elevations determined and with velocity, that is inundated by tidal floods (coastal high hazard area) V0 Area... (3) ft. and with velocity B, X Areas of moderate flood hazards or areas of future-conditions...

  8. Flood control failure: San Lorenzo River, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griggs, Gary B.; Paris, Lance

    1982-09-01

    The San Lorenzo River on the central California coast was the site of a major US Army Corps of Engineers flood control project in 1959. By excavating the channel below its natural grade and constructing levees, the capacity of the river was increased in order to contain approximately the 100 year flood. Production and transport of large volumes of sediment from the river's urbanizing watershed has filled the flood control project with sand and silt. The natural gradient has been re-established, and flood protection has been reduced to containment of perhaps the 30 year flood. In order for the City of Santa Cruz, which is situated on the flood plain, to be protected from future flooding,it must either initiate an expensive annual dredging program, or replan and rebuild the inadequately designed flood control channel. It has become clear, here and elsewhere, that the problem of flooding cannot simply be resolved by engineering. Large flood control projects provide a false sense of security and commonly produce unexpected channel changes.

  9. 100 Years of Science

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, Dick

    2004-07-07

    The last half-century has seen enormous strides in many scientific and technical areas. In fundamental physics previously unrelated fields like weak interactions and electromagnetism have been linked. Cosmology has been probed back to the Big Bang. Computing and communications have moved from minor topics to subjects that dominate the economy. The structure of DNA has been untangled. We may be on the threshold of understanding the origin of life and even discovering life elsewhere in the universe. Several of these diverse topics such as cosmology and fundamental physics are already profoundly coupled. Remarkably, ties exist between all of these subjects. These ties will be reviewed in light of opportunities ahead in the next decades.

  10. Hydro-geological process chain for building a flood scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longoni, Laura; Brambilla, Davide; Papini, Monica; Ivanov, Vladislav; Radice, Alessio

    2015-04-01

    Flash-flood events in mountain environments are often related to the transport of large amounts of sediment from the slopes through the stream network. As a consequence, significant morphological changes may occur in rivers during a single, short-duration event, with possibly significant effect on the water elevation. An appropriate hazard evaluation would therefore require the thorough modelling of the flood-related phenomena and of their interconnection. In this context, this work is focused on an attempt of integrated modelling of event-scale water and sediment transport processes for a reference case-study of the Mallero basin in the Italian Alps. The area of the catchments is about 320 square km, the main stream being almost 25 km long and having slopes in the range from 1 to 40 %. A town (Sondrio) is present at the downstream end of the river. In 1987, Sondrio was at risk of inundation due to a combined effect of relatively high discharge and aggradation of the river bed up to 5 m (almost equal to the bankfull depth in the in-town reach). A 100-year flood scenario was produced including (i) a sediment supply model, (ii) a one-dimensional, hydro-morphologic model of the river bed evolution, and (iii) an estimation of the outflowing discharge at river sections where the bank elevation was exceeded by water. Rainfall-runoff transformation was not included into the modelling chain as the 100-year water hydrograph was already available from previous studies. For the sediment production model, a downscaling in time of the Gavrilovic equation was attempted using rainfall estimation from depth-duration-frequency curves, which furnished values in reasonable agreement with some available data. The hydro-morphologic model, based on the Saint-Venant and Exner equations, was preliminarily calibrated against data for bed aggradation measured in 1987. A point of separation was chosen at an appropriate location in the basin, and the sediment yield estimated upstream of this

  11. 100 years of Drosophila research and its impact on vertebrate neuroscience: a history lesson for the future

    PubMed Central

    Bellen, Hugo J; Tong, Chao; Tsuda, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Discoveries in fruit flies have greatly contributed to our understanding of neuroscience. The use of an unparalleled wealth of tools, many of which originated between 1910–1960, has enabled milestone discoveries in nervous system development and function. Such findings have triggered and guided many research efforts in vertebrate neuroscience. After 100 years, fruit flies continue to be the choice model system for many neuroscientists. The combinational use of powerful research tools will ensure that this model organism will continue to lead to key discoveries that will impact vertebrate neuroscience. PMID:20383202

  12. Water availability and flood hazards in the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, Frank J.; Oster, E.A.

    1979-01-01

    The rock formations of the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument area are aquifers that can be expected to yield less than 10 gallons of water per minute to wells. The most permeable of the geologic units is the alluvium that occurs at low elevations along the John Day River and most of the smaller streams. Wells in the alluvial deposits can be expected to yield adequate water supplies for recreational areas; also, wells completed in the underlying bedrock at depths ranging from 50 to 200 feet could yield as much as 10 gallons per minute. Pumping tests on two unused wells indicated yields of 8 gallons per minute and 2 gallons per minute. Nine of the ten springs measured in and near the monument area in late August of 1978 were flowing 0.2 to 30 gallons per minute. Only the Cant Ranch spring and the Johnny Kirk Spring near the Sheep Rock unit had flows exceeding 6 gallons per minute. Chemical analyses of selected constituents of the ground water indicated generally low concentrations of dissolved minerals. Although cloudbursts in the Painted Hills unit could generate a flood wave on the valley floors, flood danger can be reduced by locating recreational sites on high ground. The campground in Indian Canyon of the Clarno unit is vulnerable to cloudburst flooding. About 80 percent of the proposed campground on the John Day River in the Sheep Rock unit is above the estimated level of 1-percent chance flood (100-year flood) of the river. The 1-percent chance flood would extend about 120 feet from the riverbank into the upstream end of the campground. (USGS).

  13. 11. VIEW OF FLOOD GATE FOR THE PRESSURE CULVERT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF FLOOD GATE FOR THE PRESSURE CULVERT AND THE SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Wyoming Valley Flood Control System, Woodward Pumping Station, East of Toby Creek crossing by Erie-Lackawanna Railroad, Edwardsville, Luzerne County, PA

  14. Flood of March 1997 in southern Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, K.S.; Vivian, S.A.; Diam, F.J.; Crecelius, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    Rainfall amounts of up to 12 inches produced by thunderstorms during March 1-2, 1997 resulted in severe flooding throughout much of southern Ohio. Eighteen counties were declared Federal and State disaster areas. Cost estimates of damage in Ohio from the flooding are nearly $180 million. About 6,500 residences and more than 800 businesses were affected by flooding. Nearly 20,000 persons were evacuated, and 5 deaths were attributed to the flooding. Record peak stage and streamflow were recorded at U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging stations on Ohio Brush Creek near West Union and Shade River near Chester. The peak streamflow at these two locations exceeded the estimate of the 100-year-recurrence- interval peak streamflow. The recurrence intervals of peak stream flow at selected USGS streamflow gaging stations throughout southern Ohio ranged from less than 2 years to greater than 100 years. The most severe flooding in the State was generally confined to areas within 50 to 70 miles of the Ohio River. Many communities along the Ohio River experienced the worst flooding in more than 30 years.

  15. Flood frequency analysis of historical flood data under stationary and non-stationary modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, M. J.; Botero, B. A.; López, J.; Francés, F.; Díez-Herrero, A.; Benito, G.

    2015-01-01

    analysis using documentary data (plus gauged record) improved the estimates of the probabilities of rare floods (return intervals of 100 year and higher). Under non-stationary modelling flood occurrence associated with an exceedance probability of 0.01 (i.e. return period of 100 year) has changed over the last 500 year due to decadal and multi-decadal variability of the NAO. Yet, frequency analysis under stationary models was successful on providing an average discharge around which value flood quantiles estimated by non-stationary models fluctuate through time.

  16. Development of flood profiles and flood-inundation maps for the Village of Killbuck, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostheimer, Chad J.

    2013-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a reach of Killbuck Creek near the Village of Killbuck, Ohio, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Holmes County, Ohio. The inundation maps depict estimates of the areal extent of flooding corresponding to water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage Killbuck Creek near Killbuck (03139000) and were completed as part of an update to Federal Emergency Management Agency Flood-Insurance Study. The maps were provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into a Web-based flood-warning system that can be used in conjunction with NWS flood-forecast data to show areas of predicted flood inundation associated with forecasted flood-peak stages. The digital maps also have been submitted for inclusion in the data libraries of the USGS interactive Flood Inundation Mapper. Data from the streamgage can be used by emergency-management personnel, in conjunction with the flood-inundation maps, to help determine a course of action when flooding is imminent. Flood profiles for selected reaches were prepared by calibrating a steady-state step-backwater model to an established streamgage rating curve. The step-backwater model then was used to determine water-surface-elevation profiles for 10 flood stages at the streamgage with corresponding streamflows ranging from approximately the 50- to 0.2-percent annual exceedance probabilities. The computed flood profiles were used in combination with digital elevation data to delineate flood-inundation areas.

  17. Floods of May and June 2008 in Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchmiller, Robert C.; Eash, David A.

    2010-01-01

    An unusually wet winter and spring of 2007 to 2008 resulted in extremely wet antecedent conditions throughout most of Iowa. Rainfall of 5 to 15 inches was observed in eastern Iowa during May 2008, and an additional 5 to 15 inches of rain was observed throughout most of Iowa in June. Because of the severity of the May and June 2008 flooding, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with other Federal, State, and local agencies, has summarized the meteorological and hydrological conditions leading to the flooding, compiled flood-peak stages and discharges, and estimated revised flood probabilities for 62 selected streamgages. Record peak discharges or flood probabilities of 1 percent or smaller (100-year flooding or greater) occurred at more than 60 streamgage locations, particularly in eastern Iowa. Cedar Rapids, Decorah, Des Moines, Iowa City, Mason City, and Waterloo were among the larger urban areas affected by this flooding. High water and flooding in small, headwater streams in north-central and eastern Iowa, particularly in June, combined and accumulated in large, mainstem rivers and resulted in flooding of historic proportions in the Cedar and Iowa Rivers. Previous flood-peak discharges at many locations were exceeded by substantial amounts, in some cases nearly doubling the previous record peak discharge at locations where more than 100 years of streamflow record are available.

  18. Effects of flooding upon woody vegetation along parts of the Potomac River flood plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yanosky, T.M.

    1982-01-01

    A two-part study along the Potomac River flood plain near Washington, D.C., was undertaken to investigate the effects of flooding upon woody vegetation. Floods abrade bark, damage branches and canopies, and often uproot trees. The first study was of vegetation in five monumented flood-plain plots which differed in the frequency and severity of floodflow over a 10-year period. Basal area and survival of trees appears to be related to velocity of floodflow, which in turn is related to flood magnitude and channel shape. However, the effects of flooding also depend on the nature of the flood-plain surface and size and growth habit of vegetation. In the second study, a catastrophic flood after Hurricane Agnes in June 1972 was found to cause large-scale changes in the age, form, and species composition of flood-plain forest below Great Falls, Va. The impact of the flood depended primarily on the flow regime of the river; destruction was greatest in areas exposed to the maximum flood foce, and minimal at sheltered locations. Age determinations from dead trunks and surviving trees suggest that most trees in severely damaged areas started to grow since the last great flood, which occurred in 1952. Trees along sheltered reaches survived several previous catastrophic floods. In addition, species varied in ability to withstand damage from the Hurricane Agnes flood. Least likely to recover were species growing on infrequently flooded surfaces, which may explain, in part, their absence at lower flood-plain elevations. (USGS)

  19. Spatio-temporal analysis of rainfall trends over a maritime state (Kerala) of India during the last 100 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Archana; Ajith Joseph, K.; Nair, K. S.

    2014-05-01

    Kerala, a maritime state of India is bestowed with abundant rainfall which is about three times the national average. This study is conducted to have a better understanding of rainfall variability and trend at regional level for this state during the last 100 years. It is found that the rainfall variation in northern and southern regions of Kerala is large and the deviation is on different timescales. There is a shifting of rainfall mean and variability during the seasons. The trend analysis on rainfall data over the last 100 years reveals that there is a significant (99%) decreasing trend in most of the regions of Kerala especially in the month of January, July and November. The annual and seasonal trends of rainfall in most regions of Kerala are also found to be decreasing significantly. This decreasing trend may be related to global anomalies as a result of anthropogenic green house gas (GHG) emissions due to increased fossil fuel use, land-use change due to urbanisation and deforestation, proliferation in transportation associated atmospheric pollutants. We have also conducted a study of the seasonality index (SI) and found that only one district in the northern region (Kasaragod) has seasonality index of more than 1 and that the distribution of monthly rainfall in this district is mostly attributed to 1 or 2 months. In rest of the districts, the rainfall is markedly seasonal. The trend in SI reveals that the rainfall distribution in these districts has become asymmetric with changes in rainfall distribution.

  20. Over 100 years of environmental change recorded by foraminifers and sediments in Mobile Bay, Alabama, Gulf of Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterman, Lisa E.; Smith, Christopher G.

    2012-12-01

    The marine microfauna of Mobile Bay has been profoundly influenced by the development and expansion of the primary shipping channel over the last ˜100 years. Foraminifers and sediments from seven box cores with excess lead-210 chronology document that channel dredging and spoil disposal have altered circulation, reduced estuarine mixing, changed sedimentation patterns, and caused a faunal turnover within the bay. Beginning in the late 1800s, changes in estuarine mixing allowed for greater low-pH freshwater influence in the bay, and ultimately began environmental changes that resulted in the loss of calcareous foraminifers. By the early 1900s, box cores throughout Mobile Bay record a ˜100-year trend of increasing calcareous test dissolution that continues to the present. Since the completion of the current shipping channel in the 1950s, restricted tidal flushing and increased terrestrial organic matter, documented by carbon-to-nitrogen ratios, stimulated an increase in agglutinated foraminiferal densities. However, in deeper areas of the bay, hypoxic water has negatively impacted the marine microfauna. Comparisons of the present-day foraminiferal assemblage with foraminifers collected in the early 1970s indicate that the continued biologic loss of calcareous foraminifers in the bay has allowed the introduction of a new agglutinated foraminiferal species into the bay.

  1. An application of a flood risk analysis system for impact analysis of a flood control plan in a river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Dushmanta; Herath, Srikantha; Musiake, Katumi

    2006-04-01

    An application of a flood risk analysis system is presented for the analysis on the impact of a proposed flood control plan in the Ichinomiya river basin, Chiba Prefecture, Japan. The system consists of two main modules: a physically based distributed hydrological model for flood inundation and a geographical information system (GIS)-based raster model for flood loss estimation. In the system, the grid-based distributed hydrological model simulates surface flood inundation parameters for user-specified spatial and temporal resolutions. At the end of each time step the simulated flood parameters in each grid are transferred to the GIS-based model for economic loss estimation. The proposed flood control plan consisted of three structural measures. These measures were then incorporated into the system to analyze their impacts on the reduction of flood inundation and resulting economic impacts for 50-year and 100-year return-period rainfall scenarios in the basin. From the analyses, it was found that the proposed flood control plan can reduce flood inundation in the basin for 50-year and 100-year return-period rainfalls to a great extent, and the resulting urban and agriculture damage in the basin can be reduced by over 70%.

  2. Flood profiles in the Calapooya Creek basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friday, John

    1982-01-01

    Water-surface profiles were computed for a 19.4-mile reach of Calapooya Creek in Douglas County, Oregon. The data will enable the county to evaluate flood hazards in the floodprone areas in the reach. Profiles for floods having recurrence intervals of 2, 10, 50, 100, and 500 years are shown in graphic and tabular form. A floodway, allowing encroachment of the 100-year floods, was designed with a maximum 1.0-foot surcharge limitation. A profile for a flood that occurred in November 1961 is also presented. All data were derived from a digital computer model developed for the study.

  3. Runoff models and flood frequency statistics for design flood estimation in Austria - Do they tell a consistent story?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogger, M.; Kohl, B.; Pirkl, H.; Viglione, A.; Komma, J.; Kirnbauer, R.; Merz, R.; Blöschl, G.

    2012-08-01

    SummaryDesign floods for a given location at a stream can be estimated by a number of approaches including flood frequency statistics and the design storm method. If applied to the same catchment the two methods often yield quite different results. The aim of this paper is to contribute to understanding the reasons for these differences. A case study is performed for 10 alpine catchments in Tyrol, Austria, where the 100-year floods are estimated by (a) flood frequency statistics and (b) an event based runoff model. To identify the sources of the differences of the two methods, the 100-year floods are also estimated by (c) Monte Carlo simulations using a continuous runoff model. The results show that, in most catchments, the event based model gives larger flood estimates than flood frequency statistics. The reasons for the differences depend on the catchment characteristics and different rainfall inputs that were applied. For catchments with a high storage capacity the Monte Carlo simulations indicate a step change in the flood frequency curve when a storage threshold is exceeded which is not captured by flood frequency statistics. Flood frequency statistics therefore tends to underestimate the floods in these catchments. For catchments with a low storage capacity or significant surface runoff, no step change occurs, but in three catchments the design storms used were larger than those read from the IDF (intensity duration frequency) curve leading to an overestimation of the design floods. Finally, also the correct representation of flood dominating runoff components was shown to influence design flood results. Geologic information on the catchments was essential for identifying the reasons for the mismatch of the flood estimates.

  4. Peak Discharge, Flood Profile, Flood Inundation, and Debris Movement Accompanying the Failure of the Upper Reservoir at the Taum Sauk Pump Storage Facility near Lesterville, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rydlund, Paul H.

    2006-01-01

    The Taum Sauk pump-storage hydroelectric power plant located in Reynolds County, Missouri, uses turbines that operate as pumps and hydraulic head generated by discharging water from an upper to a lower reservoir to produce electricity. A 55-acre upper reservoir with a 1.5- billion gallon capacity was built on top of Proffit Mountain, approximately 760 feet above the floodplain of the East Fork Black River. At approximately 5:16 am on December 14, 2005, a 680-foot wide section of the upper reservoir embankment failed suddenly, sending water rushing down the western side of Proffit Mountain and emptying into the floodplain of East Fork Black River. Flood waters from the upper reservoir flowed downstream through Johnson's Shut-Ins State Park and into the lower reservoir of the East Fork Black River. Floods such as this present unique challenges and opportunities to analyze and document peak-flow characteristics, flood profiles, inundation extents, and debris movement. On December 16, 2005, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data were collected and used to support hydraulic analyses, forensic failure analyses, damage extent, and mitigation of future disasters. To evaluate the impact of sedimentation in the lower reservoir, a bathymetric survey conducted on December 22 and 23, 2005, was compared to a previous bathymetric survey conducted in April, 2005. Survey results indicated the maximum reservoir capacity difference of 147 acre-feet existed at a pool elevation of 730 feet. Peak discharge estimates of 289,000 cubic feet per second along Proffit Mountain and 95,000 cubic feet per second along the East Fork Black River were determined through indirect measurement techniques. The magnitude of the embankment failure flood along the East Fork Black River was approximately 4 times greater than the 100-year flood frequency estimate of 21,900 cubic feet per second, and approximately 3 times greater than the 500-year flood frequency estimate of 30,500 cubic feet per second

  5. Are Geodetically and Geologically Constrained Vertical Deformation Models Compatible With the 100-Year Coastal Tide Gauge Record in California?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith-Konter, B. R.; Sandwell, D. T.

    2006-12-01

    Sea level change has been continuously recorded along the California coastline at several tide gauge stations for the past 50-100 years. These stations provide a temporal record of sea level change, generally attributed to post-glacial rebound and ocean climate phenomena. However, geological processes, including displacements from large earthquakes, have also been shown to produce sea level variations. Furthermore, the vertical tectonic response to interseismic strain accumulation in regions of major fault bends has been shown to produce uplift and subsidence rates consistent with sea level trends. To investigate the long-term extent and implication of tectonic deformation on sea level change, we compare time series data from California tide gauge stations to model estimates of vertical displacements produced by earthquake cycle deformation. Using a 3-D semi-analytic viscoelastic model, we combine geologic slip rates, geodetic velocities, and historical seismic data to simulate both horizontal and vertical deformation of the San Andreas Fault System. Using this model, we generate a time-series of vertical displacements spanning the 100-year sea level record and compare this to tide gauge data provided by the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL). Comparison between sea level data and a variety of geologically and geodetically constrained models confirms that the two are highly compatible. Vertical displacements are largely controlled by interseismic strain accumulation, however displacements from major earthquakes are also required to explain varying trends in the sea level data. Models based on elastic plate thicknesses of 30-50km and viscosities of 7x10^1^8-2x10^1^9 Pa-s produce vertical displacements at tide-gauge locations that explain long-term trends in the sea level record to a high degree of accuracy at nearly all stations. However, unmodeled phenomena are also present in the sea level data and require further inspection.

  6. The History of Parenting Practices: An Overview! Events, Policies and Theories That Have Influenced Parenting Practices over the Last 100 Years. [Videotape and Worksheets].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    Noting that parenting is a learned experience and that the source of information on parenting has changed considerably over the last 100 years, this videotape examines the history of parent education over the past 100 years, highlighting events influencing family life, policies and legislation to assist families, and parenting theories for each…

  7. Quantifying the combined effects of multiple extreme floods on river channel geometry and on flood hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Mingfu; Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Wright, Nigel G.; Sleigh, P. Andy; Staines, Kate E. H.

    2016-07-01

    Effects of flood-induced bed elevation and channel geometry changes on flood hazards are largely unexplored, especially in the case of multiple floods from the same site. This study quantified the evolution of river channel and floodplain geometry during a repeated series of hypothetical extreme floods using a 2D full hydro-morphodynamic model (LHMM). These experiments were designed to examine the consequences of channel geometry changes on channel conveyance capacity and subsequent flood dynamics. Our results revealed that extreme floods play an important role in adjusting a river channel to become more efficient for subsequent propagation of floods, and that in-channel scour and sediment re-distribution can greatly improve the conveyance capacity of a channel for subsequent floods. In our hypothetical sequence of floods the response of bed elevation was of net degradation, and sediment transport successively weakened even with floods of the same magnitude. Changes in river channel geometry led to significant impact on flood hydraulics and thereby flood hazards. We found that flood-induced in-channel erosion can disconnect the channel from its floodplain resulting in a reduction of floodwater storage. Thus, the frequency and extent of subsequent overbank flows and floodplain inundation decreased, which reduced downstream flood attenuation and increased downstream flood hazard. In combination and in summary, these results suggest that changes in channel capacity due to extreme floods may drive changes in flood hazard. The assumption of unchanging of river morphology during inundation modelling should therefore be open to question for flood risk management.

  8. Climate factor for small-basin flood frequency

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lichty, R.W.; Karlinger, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    A climate factor, CT, (T = 2-, 25-, and 100-year recurrence intervals) that delineates regional trends in small-basin flood frequency was derived using data from 71 long-term rainfall record sites. Values of CT at these sites were developed by a regression analysis that related rainfall-runoff model estimates of T-year floods to a sample set of 50 model calibrations. CT was regionalized via kriging to develop maps depicting its geographic variation for a large part of the United States east of the 105th meridian. Kriged estimates of CT and basin-runoff characteristics were used to compute regionalized T-year floods for 200 small drainage basins. Observed T-year flood estimates also were developed for these sites. Regionalized floods are shown to account for a large percentage of the variability in observed flood estimates with coefficients of determination ranging from 0.89 for 2-year floods to 0.82 for 100-year floods. The relative importance of the factors comprising regionalized flood estimates is evaluated in terms of scale (size of drainage area), basin-runoff characteristics (rainfall-runoff model parameters), and climate (CT).

  9. Ontogeny of a flood plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, J.A.; Pizzuto, J.E.; Meade, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    The ontogeny of five flood-plain segments is described for a period of 18 yr following a major flood in 1978 on the Powder River in southeastern Montana. The flood plains developed on relatively elevated sand and gravel deposits left within the channel by the 1978 flood. In cross section, the flood plains resemble benches with well-developed natural levees. Flood-plain growth occurred as sediment was draped onto preexisting surfaces in layers of sand and mud a few centimeters to decimeters thick, resulting in some lateral, but mostly vertical accretion. Annual and biannual measurements indicated that, as the flood-plain segments grew upward, the annual rate of vertical accretion decreased as the partial duration recurrence interval for the threshold or bankfull discharge increased from 0.16 to 1.3 yr. It is clear that a constant recurrence interval for overbank flow cannot be meaningfully assigned to this type of flood-plain ontogeny. These flood plains did not grow on migrating point bars, and vertical accretion at least initially occurred within the channel, rather than across the valley flat during extensive overbank flows. Sediments of these flood plains define narrow, elongated stratigraphic units that border the active channel and onlap older flood-plain deposits. These characteristics are considerably different from those of many facies models for meandering river deposits. Facies similar to those described in this paper are likely to be preserved, thereby providing important evidence in the geologic record for episodes of periodic channel expansion by ancient rivers.

  10. Flood of June 18, 1978, on Honey Creek tributary at Thornville, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webber, Earl E.; Mayo, Ronald I.

    1980-01-01

    A high-intensity summer rain estimated at 8 inches in 2 hours caused flooding on a small stream near Thornville, Ohio, destroying a culvert and highway fill on State Highway 188. Computation of peak discharges of 3,250 cubic feet per second above and 4,050 cubic feet per second below the culvert indicates a greater than 100-year flood. (USGS)

  11. Aboveground and belowground legacies of native Sami land use on boreal forest in northern Sweden 100 years after abandonment.

    PubMed

    Freschet, Grégoire T; Ostlund, Lars; Kichenin, Emilie; Wardle, David A

    2014-04-01

    Human activities that involve land-use change often cause major transformations to community and ecosystem properties both aboveground and belowground, and when land use is abandoned, these modifications can persist for extended periods. However, the mechanisms responsible for rapid recovery vs. long-term maintenance of ecosystem changes following abandonment remain poorly understood. Here, we examined the long-term ecological effects of two remote former settlements, regularly visited for -300 years by reindeer-herding Sami and abandoned -100 years ago, within an old-growth boreal forest that is considered one of the most pristine regions in northern Scandinavia. These human legacies were assessed through measurements of abiotic and biotic soil properties and vegetation characteristics at the settlement sites and at varying distances from them. Low-intensity land use by Sami is characterized by the transfer of organic matter towards the settlements by humans and reindeer herds, compaction of soil through trampling, disappearance of understory vegetation, and selective cutting of pine trees for fuel and construction. As a consequence, we found a shift towards early successional plant species and a threefold increase in soil microbial activity and nutrient availability close to the settlements relative to away from them. These changes in soil fertility and vegetation contributed to 83% greater total vegetation productivity, 35% greater plant biomass, and 23% and 16% greater concentrations of foliar N and P nearer the settlements, leading to a greater quantity and quality of litter inputs. Because decomposer activity was also 40% greater towards the settlements, soil organic matter cycling and nutrient availability were further increased, leading to likely positive feedbacks between the aboveground and belowground components resulting from historic land use. Although not all of the activities typical of Sami have left visible residual traces on the ecosystem after

  12. Aboveground and belowground legacies of native Sami land use on boreal forest in northern Sweden 100 years after abandonment.

    PubMed

    Freschet, Grégoire T; Ostlund, Lars; Kichenin, Emilie; Wardle, David A

    2014-04-01

    Human activities that involve land-use change often cause major transformations to community and ecosystem properties both aboveground and belowground, and when land use is abandoned, these modifications can persist for extended periods. However, the mechanisms responsible for rapid recovery vs. long-term maintenance of ecosystem changes following abandonment remain poorly understood. Here, we examined the long-term ecological effects of two remote former settlements, regularly visited for -300 years by reindeer-herding Sami and abandoned -100 years ago, within an old-growth boreal forest that is considered one of the most pristine regions in northern Scandinavia. These human legacies were assessed through measurements of abiotic and biotic soil properties and vegetation characteristics at the settlement sites and at varying distances from them. Low-intensity land use by Sami is characterized by the transfer of organic matter towards the settlements by humans and reindeer herds, compaction of soil through trampling, disappearance of understory vegetation, and selective cutting of pine trees for fuel and construction. As a consequence, we found a shift towards early successional plant species and a threefold increase in soil microbial activity and nutrient availability close to the settlements relative to away from them. These changes in soil fertility and vegetation contributed to 83% greater total vegetation productivity, 35% greater plant biomass, and 23% and 16% greater concentrations of foliar N and P nearer the settlements, leading to a greater quantity and quality of litter inputs. Because decomposer activity was also 40% greater towards the settlements, soil organic matter cycling and nutrient availability were further increased, leading to likely positive feedbacks between the aboveground and belowground components resulting from historic land use. Although not all of the activities typical of Sami have left visible residual traces on the ecosystem after

  13. Regime Shifts in Shallow Lakes: Responses of Cyanobacterial Blooms to Watershed Agricultural Phosphorus Loading Over the Last ~100 Years.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermaire, J. C.; Taranu, Z. E.; MacDonald, G. K.; Velghe, K.; Bennett, E.; Gregory-Eaves, I.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid changes in ecosystem states have occurred naturally throughout Earth's history. However, environmental changes that have taken place since the start of the Anthropocene may be destabilizing ecosystems and increasing the frequency of regime shifts in response to abrupt changes in external drivers or local intrinsic dynamics. To evaluate the relative influence of these forcers and improve our understanding of the impact of future change, we examined the effects of historical catchment phosphorus loading associated with agricultural land use on lake ecosystems, and whether this caused a shift from a stable, clear-water, regime to a turbid, cyanobacteria-dominated, state. The sedimentary pigments, diatom, and zooplankton (Cladocera) records from a currently clear-water shallow lake (Roxton Pond) and a turbid-water shallow lake (Petit lac Saint-François; PSF) were examined to determine if a cyanobacteria associated pigment (i.e. echinenone) showed an abrupt non-linear response to continued historical phosphorus load index (determined by phosphorus budget) over the last ~100 years. While PSF lake is presently in the turbid-water state, pigment and diatom analyses indicated that both lakes were once in the clear-water state, and that non-linear increases in catchment phosphorus balance resulted in an abrupt transition to cyanobacteria dominated states in each record. These results show that phosphorus loading has resulted in state shifts in shallow lake ecosystems that has been recorded across multiple paleolimnological indicators preserved in the sedimentary record.

  14. 75 FR 23642 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables..., confluence with Walker Unincorporated Areas Branch. of St. Francois County. At St. Joe Drive....... None +701... Farmington corporate limits. Walker Branch Approximately 600 feet None +685 Unincorporated Areas of...

  15. 76 FR 49676 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order....C. 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR..., MI 48476. Cape Girardeau County, Missouri, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1089 Apple...

  16. 77 FR 73396 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 75 FR 29219. The... buildings. Corrections In the proposed rule published at 75 FR 29219, in the May 25, 2010, issue of the... may submit comments, identified by Docket No. FEMA-B- 1089, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief,...

  17. 77 FR 46994 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... proposed rule published at 76 FR 8965 in the February 16, 2011, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA... inspection at the Public Works Department, 1089 Old Highway 61 North, Cleveland, MS 38732. City of...

  18. 78 FR 48813 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132... et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR... Butler County, Kentucky, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1089 Barren River (Backwater...

  19. 76 FR 8965 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... Department, 1089 Old Highway 61 North, Cleveland, MS 38732. City of Rosedale Maps are available...

  20. 76 FR 39011 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order....C. 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR..., North Baltimore, OH 45872. Grant County, Wisconsin, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.:...

  1. 76 FR 76060 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order....C. 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR..., Michigan (All Jurisdictions) Docket No.: FEMA-B-1089 Alward Drain At the confluence with +615...

  2. 75 FR 29296 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... miles +581 +582 upstream of the confluence with Marble Creek. Kentucky River Tributary 2 From the... upstream of the confluence with the Kentucky River. Marble Creek (Backwater effects from From...

  3. 77 FR 57066 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 75 FR 28511. The... rule published at 75 FR 28511, in the May 21, 2010, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published a...), Log Creek (backwater effects from Green River), Mud River (backwater effects from Green River),...

  4. 75 FR 68714 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ... CONTACT: Roy E. Wright, Deputy Director, Risk Analysis Division, Federal Insurance and Mitigation... (e-mail) roy.e.wright@dhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Federal Emergency Management Agency... ] Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive...

  5. 76 FR 50918 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order....C. 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR..., 555 Walnut Street, Abilene, TX 79601. Unincorporated Areas of Jones County Maps are available...

  6. 75 FR 67317 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... the intersection of Powell Road and Mars Road (at Junction 13NK0240). Spring Hill Lakes...

  7. 77 FR 3625 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order....C. 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR... upstream of the intersection of Powell Road and Mars Road (at Junction 13NK0240). Spring Hill...

  8. 76 FR 8986 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... County. Approximately 1.8 miles None +229 upstream of Southeast Flaming Geyser Road. Kelsey Creek At...

  9. 76 FR 23528 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... Outlet and Snell Creek confluence. Lake Marion Creek Outlet At the Lake Marion None +67 Unincorporated Areas of Creek and Snell Creek Polk County. confluence. At the Lake Marion None +68 confluence....

  10. 75 FR 60013 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    .... Approximately 0.75 mile None +549 upstream of the water treatment plant dam. Stoney Creek Just upstream of....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p....

  11. 77 FR 21485 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    .... Street/Hungry Hollow Road. Approximately 0.75 mile + 549 upstream of the water treatment plant dam... Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order....C. 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44...

  12. 75 FR 8814 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This final rule involves no policies that... 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.11 0 2... Cincinnatus. downstream of Route 23. Approximately 1.6 mile +1053 upstream of Telephone Road. Otter...

  13. 75 FR 44155 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order....C. 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR...) Modified Coffee County, Alabama, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1053 Beaverdam...

  14. 76 FR 46716 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 75 FR 31373. The... rule published at 75 FR 31373, in the June 3, 2010, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published a... upstream of Prospect Street. Unnamed Tributary Number 3 Approximately 250 feet None +1376 City of...

  15. 77 FR 73324 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132... et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR... Wildflower Way to the west. Ponding Area Area bound by Cinnamon +45 Unincorporated Areas of Avenue to...

  16. 76 FR 46705 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... south, and Wildflower Way to the west. Ponding Area Area bound by Cinnamon None +45 Unincorporated...

  17. 78 FR 10066 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132.... 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3... of the Bass Slough (Upper Reach) confluence. Clay Hole Pond Entire shoreline............

  18. 77 FR 66737 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132.... 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3... upstream of Birch Creek Road. Black Mingo Creek At the upstream side of +14 Unincorporated Areas of...

  19. 76 FR 45485 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 74 FR 12804. The... contents in those buildings. Corrections In the proposed rule published at 74 FR 12804, in the March 25... Ohio River), Sugar Creek (backwater effects from Ohio River), Sugarcamp Creek (backwater effects...

  20. 77 FR 41323 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132... et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR... Big Rock Creek and East Branch Big Rock Creek confluence). Duffin Drain At the Sugar Grove Branch...

  1. 76 FR 45488 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... notice provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 73 FR 55469... Rule published at 73 FR 55469 in the September 25, 2008, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published... (backwater effects from Ohio River), Sugar Creek (backwater effects from Ohio River), Tiger Ditch...

  2. 77 FR 22551 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... rule published at 72 FR 68784, in the December 6, 2007, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published a...), East Fork Clear Creek, East Fork Clear Creek (west stem), Fennel Creek, Gig Harbor, Lacamas Creek, Mashel River, Meeker Ditch, Morey Creek, North Fork Clover Creek, North Fork Clover Creek Tributary...

  3. 77 FR 73398 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 75 FR 5909. The... rule published at 75 FR 5909, in the February 5, 2010, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published a...), Deer Creek (backwater effects from Green River), East Fork Deer Creek Tributary 1 (backwater...

  4. 77 FR 73393 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 75 FR 5909. The... rule published at 75 FR 5909, in the February 5, 2010, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published a..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B- 1085, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch,...

  5. 75 FR 31342 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... +390 Town of Lithium, effects from Mississippi River). with the Mississippi Unincorporated Areas River... At the Cape Girardeau +370 +368 Town of Lithium, County boundary. Unincorporated Areas of...

  6. 76 FR 76055 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order....C. 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR... Datum. + North American Vertical Datum. Depth in feet above ground. Mean Sea Level, rounded to...

  7. 75 FR 29246 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... of State None +2352 Highway 19. * National Geodetic Vertical Datum. + North American Vertical Datum... No. 20 (River Mile 347.4). * National Geodetic Vertical Datum. + North American Vertical Datum....

  8. 76 FR 35119 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order....C. 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR... Drive +164 * National Geodetic Vertical Datum. + North American Vertical Datum. Depth in feet...

  9. 76 FR 272 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order....C. 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR... +236 Road. * National Geodetic Vertical Datum. + North American Vertical Datum. Depth in feet...

  10. 77 FR 30220 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132... et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR... mile +5,250 upstream of the Arkansas River confluence. * National Geodetic Vertical Datum. +...

  11. 76 FR 50920 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order....C. 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, ] 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR... 925 feet + 530 downstream of Waketa Drive. South Big Creek Tributary Approximately 750 feet +...

  12. 77 FR 76998 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 75 FR 29219. The...), Big Bull Creek (backwater effects from Green River), Big Reedy Creek (backwater effects from Green... In the proposed rule published at 75 FR 29219, in the May 25, 2010, issue of the Federal...

  13. 75 FR 59634 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order....C. 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR... upstream of Shurtleff Avenue. * National Geodetic Vertical Datum. + North American Vertical Datum. Depth...

  14. 76 FR 35111 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order....C. 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR... Geodetic Vertical Datum. + North American Vertical Datum. Depth in feet above ground. Mean Sea...

  15. 75 FR 6600 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables.... * National Geodetic Vertical Datum. + North American Vertical Datum. Depth in feet above ground. Mean Sea... Geodetic Vertical Datum. + North American Vertical Datum. Depth in feet above ground. Mean Sea...

  16. 76 FR 39800 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376.... Approximately 0.5 mile None +95 upstream of South 4th Street Extension (State Route 1112). Cokey Swamp At the.... Approximately 70 feet +119 +118 downstream of the railroad. Cokey Swamp Tributary At the Cokey Swamp +89...

  17. 76 FR 40670 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR... Tributary to Black Creek Tributary confluence. Bloomery Swamp Approximately 500 feet +103 +102 City of Wilson, upstream of the Unincorporated Areas Bloomery Swamp of Wilson County. Tributary 2 confluence....

  18. 75 FR 68738 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... Carolina, and Incorporated Areas Cokey Swamp Approximately 90 feet +106 +107 City of Rocky Mount... None +91 upstream of Hunting Lodge Drive. Little Cokey Swamp Approximately 250 feet +92 +93 City...

  19. 78 FR 36098 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... 510 North Broadway, 4th Floor, Billings, MT 59101. Unincorporated Areas of Yellowstone County Maps are available for inspection at 217 North 27th Street, Billings, MT 59101. (Catalog of Federal Domestic... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order...

  20. 75 FR 31368 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... Billings Maps are available for inspection at 510 North Broadway, 4th Floor, Billings, MT 59101..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... Incorporated Areas Cove Creek Approximately 200 feet +3373 +3375 City of Billings, upstream of...

  1. 76 FR 26976 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1193, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal... Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, Federal....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p....

  2. 78 FR 10072 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    .... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal... and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This final rule involves no policies that..., 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.11 0 2....

  3. 76 FR 3531 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation... Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order....C. 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44...

  4. 75 FR 75949 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1161, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal... Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, Federal....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p....

  5. 75 FR 75941 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1164, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal... Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, Federal....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p....

  6. 76 FR 43637 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 74 FR 12799. The... River), Butler Branch (backwater effects from Cumberland River), Cumberland River, McFarland Creek (backwater effects from Cumberland River), Meredith Creek (backwater effects from Cumberland River),...

  7. 75 FR 19320 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1110, to Kevin C. Long, Acting Chief, Engineering Management Branch... Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Mitigation Directorate, Federal Emergency Management Agency, 500 C..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The...

  8. 75 FR 75945 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1168, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal... Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, Federal....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p....

  9. 76 FR 46715 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 75 FR 29290. The... Patuxent River, Marley Creek, Midway Branch, Patapsco River, Patuxent River, Sawmill Creek, and Severn Run..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B- 1101, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch,...

  10. 75 FR 29253 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1097, to Kevin C. Long, Acting Chief, Engineering Management Branch... Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Mitigation Directorate, Federal Emergency Management Agency, 500 C..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The...

  11. 78 FR 9598 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132... et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3...

  12. 76 FR 3590 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1171, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal... Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, Federal....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p....

  13. 76 FR 26978 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1190, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal... Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, Federal....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p....

  14. 75 FR 29258 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1125, to Kevin C. Long, Acting Chief, Engineering Management Branch... Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Mitigation Directorate, Federal Emergency Management Agency, 500 C..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The...

  15. 75 FR 29264 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1112, to Kevin C. Long, Acting Chief, Engineering Management Branch... Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Mitigation Directorate, Federal Emergency Management Agency, 500 C..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The...

  16. 76 FR 43923 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order... FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.11 0 2. The tables published under the authority of Sec.... Good Ditch South of Angola Road near +633 Village of Holland. Holland Park Boulevard. South of...

  17. 77 FR 73394 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... notice provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 75 FR 55515... rule published at 75 FR 55515, in the September 13, 2010, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published... intersection of Plantation Drive and Cypress Lane. Approximately 0.3 mile None + 1095 upstream of...

  18. 76 FR 46701 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1207, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal... Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, Federal..., Civil Justice Reform. This proposed rule meets the applicable standards of Executive Order 12988....

  19. 78 FR 6745 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132... 13132. Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. This final rule meets the applicable standards...

  20. 75 FR 78647 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1163, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal... Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, Federal..., Civil Justice Reform. This proposed rule meets the applicable standards of Executive Order 12988....

  1. 77 FR 74610 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132... 13132. Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. This final rule meets the applicable standards...

  2. 76 FR 73534 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1230, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal...: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration..., Civil Justice Reform. This proposed rule meets the applicable standards of Executive Order 12988....

  3. 78 FR 6743 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132... 13132. Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. This final rule meets the applicable standards...

  4. 76 FR 21693 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 72 FR 73732. The... rule published at 72 FR 73732, in the December 28, 2007, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published..., Root River, Sorenson Creek, Union Grove Industrial Tributary, Unnamed Tributary No. 18 to Kilbourn...

  5. 76 FR 59361 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... East Split 1 At the upstream side of None +1493 Town of Surprise, Skinner Road. Unincorporated Areas...

  6. 75 FR 34381 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This final rule involves no policies that... 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.11 0 2.... Horse Tavern Brook At the upstream side of +132 City of Bridgeport, Town Park Avenue. of...

  7. 77 FR 50667 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 75 FR 29246. The... rule published at 75 FR 29246, in the May 25, 2010, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published a.... Approximately 400 feet None +770 upstream of Mindi Court. Lake Erie Entire coastline in the None +577 Borough...

  8. 78 FR 43825 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132... et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR... County. approximately 0.93 mile upstream of the confluence with Knoblick Creek. Deer Creek...

  9. 75 FR 62751 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ..., FL 34139. City of Marco Island Maps are available for inspection at 50 Bald Eagle Drive, Marco Island....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p....

  10. 75 FR 23608 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This final rule involves no policies that... 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.11 0 2... the intersection of Southeast 3rd Avenue and South Whitaker Road. Playa Lake 23 Approximately...

  11. 75 FR 77762 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order....C. 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR... County Road 179A. Wrights Creek Just downstream of Adolph +88 Unincorporated Areas of Whitaker...

  12. 75 FR 78926 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order....C. 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR... inspection at 268 Whitaker Avenue, Hamilton, OH 45011. (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance No....

  13. 77 FR 21000 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... heading, the following text should read as set forth below: Township of Antrim Maps are available for inspection at the Antrim Township Municipal Building, 10655 Antrim Church Road, Greencastle, PA...

  14. 77 FR 66555 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation... 12866 of September 30, ] 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132... et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3...

  15. 77 FR 21476 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132... et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3...

  16. 76 FR 56724 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... Docket No. FEMA-B-1214, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, Federal Emergency Management..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The...

  17. 76 FR 54134 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order....C. 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR... Approximately 3.3 miles +476 City of Berger, City of downstream of the New Haven, City of confluence with...

  18. 76 FR 36373 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order....C. 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR.... Little Berger Creek (backwater effects From the confluence with +515 Unincorporated Areas of...

  19. 75 FR 29268 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. ] Sec. 67.4 2. The tables.... approximately 0.74 mile upstream of the confluence with Brushy Fork. Little Berger Creek (Backwater From the... upstream of the Gasconade County. confluence with Little Berger Creek in Franklin County. Approximately...

  20. 76 FR 39063 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... Northwest and Hanover Road Northwest. Kirtland Detention Pond Entire shoreline....... None +5359 City...

  1. 76 FR 50952 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376.... Owl Creek (backwater effects from From approximately 0.78 +539 +542 Unincorpo rated Areas...

  2. 76 FR 26968 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376.... Route 126 East, Grayson, LA 71435. Clay County, Missouri, and Incorporated Areas Brushy Creek... Clay County. County boundary. At the most upstream None +1045 Clinton County boundary. Cates Branch...

  3. 76 FR 62006 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... Clay County, Florida, and Incorporated Areas Black Creek Tributary 1 Approximately 0.6 mile None +9 Unincorporated Areas of downstream of Russell Clay County. Road. Approximately 0.5 mile None +24 upstream...

  4. 77 FR 21471 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order....C. 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR... inspection at the Chisago County Government Center, 313 North Main Street, Center City, MN 55012. ]...

  5. 76 FR 72627 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order....C. 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR...-1130 Alimagnet Lake Entire shoreline within +959 City of Apple Valley. Dakota County. Cannon River...

  6. 75 FR 62048 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... Lake Entire shoreline within None +959 City of Apple Valley. Dakota County. Keller Lake Entire shoreline within None +936 City of Apple Valley. Dakota County. * National Geodetic Vertical Datum. +...

  7. 76 FR 50960 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... +76 +75 upstream of Apple Tree Road. Bear Creek At the upstream side of +84 +83 Unincorpo rated Areas... Tributary 2 Approximately 0.6 mile None +60 Town of Winterville, upstream of Red Forbes Unincorporated...

  8. 76 FR 50446 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... contents in those buildings. Corrections In the proposed rule published at 75 FR 31347, in the June 3, 2010... published proposed rule at 75 FR 31347. This proposed rule also is opening a comment period for Rowell Creek... of 1988, in the previously published proposed rule at 75 FR 31347. In addition, this proposed rule...

  9. 75 FR 31347 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ...; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables published under the... Creek. City of Neptune Beach. Approximately 1,100 None +7 feet upstream of Cutlass Drive. Hopkins Creek Tributary 1 At the confluence with None +4 City of Jacksonville Hopkins Creek Beach, City of...

  10. 76 FR 1093 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order....C. 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR... Missouri River Approximately 3,000 feet +574 City of Lupus, upstream of the Cole Unincorporated Areas...

  11. 76 FR 20606 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... Environmental Policy Act. This proposed rule is categorically excluded from the requirements of 44 CFR part 10, Environmental Consideration. An environmental impact assessment has not been prepared. Regulatory Flexibility....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p....

  12. 76 FR 14359 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... rule published at 75 FR 61377, in the October 5, 2010, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published a... descriptions for these BFEs in the previously published proposed rule at 75 FR 61377. (Catalog of Federal... description for the proposed BFE of 1,032 feet, referenced to the North American Vertical Datum of...

  13. 76 FR 13569 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... rule published at 75 FR 68744, in the November 9, 2010, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published a... listing the location descriptions for these BFEs in the previously published proposed rule at 75 FR 68744... for the proposed BFE of 1,290 feet, referenced to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988,...

  14. 75 FR 23600 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This final rule involves no policies that... 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.11 0 2... Street, Palmyra, MO 63461. Custer County, Montana, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1020...

  15. 78 FR 36099 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132... et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR...). confluence to Muhlenberg County. approximately 0.4 mile upstream of Green River Haul Road. Opossum...

  16. 75 FR 69892 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order....C. 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR... 64850. Buffalo County, Nebraska, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1061 Airport Draw At...

  17. 77 FR 45262 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132... et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR... 60410. Village of Dwight Maps are available for inspection at the Dwight Public Services Complex,...

  18. 76 FR 53082 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... downstream side None +1230 of the Akers Pond Dam. Moose Brook At the Androscoggin +794 +793 Town of Gorham. River confluence. Approximately 840 feet None +1128 upstream of Jimtown Road. Moose Brook Split At...

  19. 78 FR 78993 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ...-B-1239, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation....gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal... (SRP) is available to communities in support of the appeal resolution process. SRPs are...

  20. 75 FR 77598 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1167, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal... Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, Federal..., Environmental Consideration. An environmental impact assessment has not been prepared. Regulatory...