Science.gov

Sample records for 100-year flood elevation

  1. Base (100-year) flood elevations for selected sites in Livingston County, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southard, Rodney E.; Richards, Joseph M.

    2002-01-01

    The primary criteria for community participation in the National Flood Insurance Program is the adoption and enforcement of floodplain management requirements that minimize the potential for flood damages to existing and proposed development in flood-hazard areas. This report provides base flood elevations (BFE) for a 100-year recurrence-interval flood for use in the management and regulation of 18 flood-hazard areas designated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency as approximate Zone A areas in Livingston County, Missouri. The one-dimensional surface-water flow models HEC-RAS and Water-Surface PROfile (WSPRO) were used to compute base (100-year) flood elevations for 18 Zone A sites. The HEC-RAS model was used at BFE sites 1 to 6, 9, 10, and 15 to 18. The WSPRO model was used at BFE sites 7, 8, and 11 to 14. The 18 sites are all located in Livingston County, Missouri, at U.S., State, or County road crossings, and the base flood elevation was determined at the upstream side of each crossing. The base (100-year) flood elevations for BFE 1, 2, and 3 on Shoal Creek at Dawn and Shoal Creek Drainage Ditch near Dawn are 701.0, 701.0, and 696.5 feet, respectively. The base (100-year) flood elevations for BFE 4 and 5 on Indian Branch near Sampsel and a tributary to Indian Branch near Sampsel are 711.7 and 755.4 feet, respectively. Site BFE 6 is located on Honey Creek near Farmersville and the base (100-year) flood elevation for this site is 730.8 feet. One site (BFE 7) is located on No Creek near Farmersville. The base (100-year) flood elevation for this site is 731.3 feet. Site BFE 8 is located on Crooked Creek near Chillicothe and the base (100-year) elevation is 716.4 feet. One site (BFE 9) is located on a tributary to Coon Creek at Chillicothe. The base (100-year) flood elevation for this site is 734.9 feet. Two sites (BFE 10 and 11) are located on Blackwell Branch at Chillicothe. The base (100-year) flood elevation for BFE 10 is 738.9 feet and for BFE 11 is 701

  2. Base (100-year) flood elevations for selected sites in Marion County, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southard, Rodney E.; Wilson, Gary L.

    1998-01-01

    The primary requirement for community participation in the National Flood Insurance Program is the adoption and enforcement of floodplain management requirements that minimize the potential for flood damages to new construction and avoid aggravating existing flooding conditions. This report provides base flood elevations (BFE) for a 100-year recurrence flood for use in the management and regulation of 14 flood-hazard areas designated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency as approximate Zone A areas in Marion County, Missouri. The one-dimensional surface-water flow model, HEC-RAS, was used to compute the base (100-year) flood elevations for the 14 Zone A sites. The 14 sites were located at U.S., State, or County road crossings and the base flood elevation was determined at the upstream side of each crossing. The base (100-year) flood elevations for BFE 1, 2, and 3 on the South Fork North River near Monroe City, Missouri, are 627.7, 579.2, and 545.9 feet above sea level. The base (100-year) flood elevations for BFE 4, 5, 6, and 7 on the main stem of the North River near or at Philadelphia and Palmyra, Missouri, are 560.5, 539.7, 504.2, and 494.4 feet above sea level. BFE 8 is located on Big Branch near Philadelphia, a tributary to the North River, and the base (100-year) flood elevation at this site is 530.5 feet above sea level. One site (BFE 9) is located on the South River near Monroe City, Missouri. The base (100-year) flood elevation at this site is 619.1 feet above sea level. Site BFE 10 is located on Bear Creek near Hannibal, Missouri, and the base (100-year) elevation is 565.5 feet above sea level. The four remaining sites (BFE 11, 12, 13, and 14) are located on the South Fabius River near Philadelphia and Palmyra, Missouri. The base (100-year) flood elevations for BFE 11, 12, 13, and 14 are 591.2, 578.4, 538.7, and 506.9 feet above sea level.

  3. Discharge, gage height, and elevation of 100-year floods in the Hudson River basin, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Archer, Roger J.

    1978-01-01

    The flood discharge that may be expected to be equaled or exceeded on the average of once in 100 years (100-year flood) was computed by the log-Pearson Type-III frequency relation for 72 stations in the Hudson River basin. These discharges and, where available, their corresponding gage height and elevation above mean sea level are presented in tabular form. A short explanation of computation methods is included. The data are to be used as part of a federally funded study of the water resources and related land resources of the Hudson River basin. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. 100-Year Flood-It's All About Chance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Jr., Robert R.; Dinicola, Karen

    2010-01-01

    In the 1960's, the United States government decided to use the 1-percent annual exceedance probability (AEP) flood as the basis for the National Flood Insurance Program. The 1-percent AEP flood was thought to be a fair balance between protecting the public and overly stringent regulation. Because the 1-percent AEP flood has a 1 in 100 chance of being equaled or exceeded in any 1 year, and it has an average recurrence interval of 100 years, it often is referred to as the '100-year flood'. The term '100-year flood' is part of the national lexicon, but is often a source of confusion by those not familiar with flood science and statistics. This poster is an attempt to explain the concept, probabilistic nature, and inherent uncertainties of the '100-year flood' to the layman.

  5. Flood boundaries and water-surface profile for the computed 100-year flood, Swift Creek at Afton, Wyoming, 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rankl, James G.; Wallace, Joe C.

    1989-01-01

    Flood flows on Swift Creek near Afton, Wyoming, were analyzed. Peak discharge with an average recurrence interval of 100 years was computed and used to determine the flood boundaries and water surface profile in the study reach. The study was done in cooperation with Lincoln County and the Town of Afton to determine the extent of flooding in the Town of Afton from a 100-year flood on Swift Creek. The reach of Swift Creek considered in the analysis extends upstream from the culvert at Allred County Road No. 12-135 to the US Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station located in the Bridger National Forest , a distance of 3.2 miles. Boundaries of the 100-year flood are delineated on a map using the computed elevation of the flood at each cross section, survey data, and a 1983 aerial photograph. The computed water surface elevation for the 100-year flood was plotted at each cross section, then the lateral extent of the flood was transferred to the flood map. Boundaries between cross sections were sketched using information taken from the aerial photograph. Areas that are inundated, but not part of the active flow, are designated on the cross sections. (Lantz-PTT)

  6. Water-surface profile and flood boundaries for the computed 100-year flood, Lame Deer Creek, Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Omang, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    Hydrologic and hydraulic evaluations of Lame Deer Creek were made to determine the magnitude of the 100-year flood and the extent of flooding that would occur as the result of this flood. SixtY-six cross sections were Surveyed and 25 cross sections were synthesized along a 9.5-mile reach of Lame Deer Creek. Data from the surveys were used to calculate the water-surface elevation at each cross section using a computer program (WSPRO) developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The water-surface profile of the computed 100-year flood elevations was then drawn. The profile shows the streambed elevation and the location of the bridge, culverts, and cross sections. The computed 100-year flood elevation at each cross section was used to delineate the width of the flood plain at that section. Flood boundaries between cross sections were interpolated using contour lines on topographic maps.

  7. Technique for estimating depth of 100-year floods in Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gamble, Charles R.; Lewis, James G.

    1977-01-01

    Preface: A method is presented for estimating the depth of the loo-year flood in four hydrologic areas in Tennessee. Depths at 151 gaging stations on streams that were not significantly affected by man made changes were related to basin characteristics by multiple regression techniques. Equations derived from the analysis can be used to estimate the depth of the loo-year flood if the size of the drainage basin is known.

  8. Areas subject to inundation by the 100-year flood in Avra Valley, Pima County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roeske, R.H.

    1978-01-01

    Avra Valley in Pima County, Arizona, is sparsely populated and is used mainly for agriculture and cattle grazing; however, its proximity to Tucson makes it desirable for urban development. Administrators and planners concerned with future land development may use the map report to determine the approximate areas that are subject to inundation by the 100-year flood. Avra Valley is drained mainly by Brawley Wash; Blanco Wash drains the west side of the valley. Most of the natural drainage system consists of small braided channels bordered by narrow bands of dense vegetation, which cause floodwater to spread over wide areas of shallow depths. During the 100-year flood, the areas inundated by Brawley and Blanco Washes may join in several places. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. Combining Neural Networks with Existing Methods to Estimate 1 in 100-Year Flood Event Magnitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newson, A.; See, L.

    2005-12-01

    Over the last fifteen years artificial neural networks (ANN) have been shown to be advantageous for the solution of many hydrological modelling problems. The use of ANNs for flood magnitude estimation in ungauged catchments, however, is a relatively new and under researched area. In this paper ANNs are used to make estimates of the magnitude of the 100-year flood event (Q100) for a number of ungauged catchments. The data used in this study were provided by the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology's Flood Estimation Handbook (FEH), which contains information on catchments across the UK. Sixteen catchment descriptors for 719 catchments were used to train an ANN, which was split into a training, validation and test data set. The goodness-of-fit statistics on the test data set indicated good model performance, with an r-squared value of 0.8 and a coefficient of efficiency of 79 percent. Data for twelve ungauged catchments were then put through the trained ANN to produce estimates of Q100. Two other accepted methodologies were also employed: the FEH statistical method and the FSR (Flood Studies Report) design storm technique, both of which are used to produce flood frequency estimates. The advantage of developing an ANN model is that it provides a third figure to aid a hydrologist in making an accurate estimate. For six of the twelve catchments, there was a relatively low spread between estimates. In these instances, an estimate of Q100 could be made with a fair degree of certainty. Of the remaining six catchments, three had areas greater than 1000km2, which means the FSR design storm estimate cannot be used. Armed with the ANN model and the FEH statistical method the hydrologist still has two possible estimates to consider. For these three catchments, the estimates were also fairly similar, providing additional confidence to the estimation. In summary, the findings of this study have shown that an accurate estimation of Q100 can be made using the catchment descriptors of

  10. Caspian tern reproduction in the Saginaw Bay ecosystem following a 100-year flood event

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, James P.; Auman, Heidi J.; Kurita, Hiroko; Ludwig, Matthew E.; Campbell, Loraine M.; Giesy, John P.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Jones, Paul; Yamashita, Nobu; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Tatsukawa, Ryo

    1993-01-01

    In the 2 years that followed the 100-year flood incident of September 1986 in the Saginaw River/Bay ecosystem, the reproduction of Caspian terns collapsed and then slowly recovered. Egg viability and fledging rates of hatched chicks were drastically depressed in 1987 and 1988. Eggs from clutches laid later in the year were less viable and chicks hatched from these eggs displayed wasting syndromes and deformities. The post-flood rate of deformities in hatched chicks in 1987–1989 was 163-fold greater than background rates for this population in 1962–1967. Embryonic abnormalities and deformities were found in many embryos recovered from dead eggs. Recently published data on planar toxic chemicals from samples of forage fish, tern eggs, and chicks from water birds nesting in the bay implicate planar dioxin-like PCBs 77 and 126 as the sources of these severe bioeffects. The planar PCB congeners accounted for >98% of TCDD-EQ toxicity in the tern eggs, and several were present at levels near or at the LD95 levels each for chicken eggs. Actual TCDD was about 1% of the TCDD-EQ toxicity. Very rapid buildup rates of PCBs were measured in tern eggs. The calculated toxic potency of PCB recovered from tern eggs was about 15-fold greater than parent aroclor 1242 PCB. Smaller tern species were projected to be much more at risk than the larger Caspian tern due to greater standard metabolic rates. The study supports the view that sediment disturbance and sediment banks of toxic chemicals are major threats to upper trophic level fish-eating species.

  11. Simulation of water-surface elevations for a hypothetical 100-year peak flow in Birch Creek at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Berenbrock, C.; Kjelstrom, L.C.

    1997-10-01

    Delineation of areas at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory that would be inundated by a 100-year peak flow in Birch Creek is needed by the US Department of Energy to fulfill flood-plain regulatory requirements. Birch Creek flows southward about 40 miles through an alluvium-filled valley onto the northern part of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental laboratory site on the eastern Snake River Plain. The lower 10-mile reach of Birch Creek that ends in Birch Creek Playa near several Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory facilities is of particular concern. Twenty-six channel cross sections were surveyed to develop and apply a hydraulic model to simulate water-surface elevations for a hypothetical 100-year peak flow in Birch Creek. Model simulation of the 100-year peak flow (700 cubic feet per second) in reaches upstream from State Highway 22 indicated that flow was confined within channels even when all flow was routed to one channel. Where the highway crosses Birch Creek, about 315 cubic feet per second of water was estimated to move downstream--115 cubic feet per second through a culvert and 200 cubic feet per second over the highway. Simulated water-surface elevation at this crossing was 0.8 foot higher than the elevation of the highway. The remaining 385 cubic feet per second flowed southwestward in a trench along the north side of the highway. Flow also was simulated with the culvert removed. The exact location of flood boundaries on Birch Creek could not be determined because of the highly braided channel and the many anthropogenic features (such as the trench, highway, and diversion channels) in the study area that affect flood hydraulics and flow. Because flood boundaries could not be located exactly, only a generalized flood-prone map was developed.

  12. Flood dynamics in urbanised landscapes: 100 years of climate and humans’ interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofia, G.; Roder, G.; Dalla Fontana, G.; Tarolli, P.

    2017-01-01

    Raising interest in the interaction between humans and climate drivers to understand the past and current development of floods in urbanised landscapes is of great importance. This study presents a regional screening of land-use, rainfall regime and flood dynamics in north-eastern Italy, covering the timeframe 1900–2010. This analysis suggests that, statistically, both climate and land-use have been contributing to a significant increase of the contribution of short duration floods to the increase in the number of flooded locations. The analysis also suggests that interaction arises, determining land-use dynamics to couple with climatic changes influencing the flood aggressiveness simultaneously. Given that it is not possible to control the climatic trend, an effective disaster management clearly needs an integrated approach to land planning and supervision. This research shows that land management and planning should include the investigation of the location of the past and future social and economic drivers for development, as well as past and current climatic trends.

  13. Flood dynamics in urbanised landscapes: 100 years of climate and humans’ interaction

    PubMed Central

    Sofia, G.; Roder, G.; Dalla Fontana, G.; Tarolli, P.

    2017-01-01

    Raising interest in the interaction between humans and climate drivers to understand the past and current development of floods in urbanised landscapes is of great importance. This study presents a regional screening of land-use, rainfall regime and flood dynamics in north-eastern Italy, covering the timeframe 1900–2010. This analysis suggests that, statistically, both climate and land-use have been contributing to a significant increase of the contribution of short duration floods to the increase in the number of flooded locations. The analysis also suggests that interaction arises, determining land-use dynamics to couple with climatic changes influencing the flood aggressiveness simultaneously. Given that it is not possible to control the climatic trend, an effective disaster management clearly needs an integrated approach to land planning and supervision. This research shows that land management and planning should include the investigation of the location of the past and future social and economic drivers for development, as well as past and current climatic trends. PMID:28079147

  14. Determination of 100-year floodplain elevations at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    McLin, S.G.

    1992-08-01

    Under existing permit requirements. the US Environmental Protection Agency stipulates that facilities regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act must delineate all 100-yr floodplain elevations within their boundaries. At Los Alamos these floodplains are located within ungaged watersheds that drain Pajarito Plateau. This report documents the floodplain computational mapping procedure and, along with supporting maps, is untended to satisfy this permit requirement.

  15. 76 FR 50446 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY..., FEMA published in the Federal Register a proposed rule that included an erroneous Base Flood Elevation...) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the National Flood...

  16. Determination of the 100-year flood plain on Upper Three Runs and selected tributaries, and the Savannah River at the Savannah River site, South Carolina, 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanier, T.H.

    1996-01-01

    The 100-year flood plain was determined for Upper Three Runs, its tributaries, and the part of the Savannah River that borders the Savannah River Site. The results are provided in tabular and graphical formats. The 100-year flood-plain maps and flood profiles provide water-resource managers of the Savannah River Site with a technical basis for making flood-plain management decisions that could minimize future flood problems and provide a basis for designing and constructing drainage structures along roadways. A hydrologic analysis was made to estimate the 100-year recurrence- interval flow for Upper Three Runs and its tributaries. The analysis showed that the well-drained, sandy soils in the head waters of Upper Three Runs reduce the high flows in the stream; therefore, the South Carolina upper Coastal Plain regional-rural-regression equation does not apply for Upper Three Runs. Conse- quently, a relation was established for 100-year recurrence-interval flow and drainage area using streamflow data from U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations on Upper Three Runs. This relation was used to compute 100-year recurrence-interval flows at selected points along the stream. The regional regression equations were applicable for the tributaries to Upper Three Runs, because the soil types in the drainage basins of the tributaries resemble those normally occurring in upper Coastal Plain basins. This was verified by analysis of the flood-frequency data collected from U.S. Geological Survey gaging station 02197342 on Fourmile Branch. Cross sections were surveyed throughout each reach, and other pertinent data such as flow resistance and land-use were col- lected. The surveyed cross sections and computed 100-year recurrence-interval flows were used in a step-backwater model to compute the 100-year flood profile for Upper Three Runs and its tributaries. The profiles were used to delineate the 100-year flood plain on topographic maps. The Savannah River forms the southwestern border

  17. 76 FR 50443 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster...

  18. 76 FR 13570 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY...) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42...

  19. 76 FR 43966 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster...

  20. 76 FR 46716 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster...

  1. 76 FR 13571 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY...) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42...

  2. 75 FR 5930 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY...% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

  3. 76 FR 58436 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  4. 75 FR 5925 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  5. 75 FR 43479 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  6. 75 FR 34415 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  7. 76 FR 66887 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  8. 75 FR 23642 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for ] the reach described by the downstream and...

  9. 75 FR 78650 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... Docket No. FEMA-B-1159] Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management...-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities listed in the table... regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream locations in the...

  10. 76 FR 59960 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  11. 76 FR 23528 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  12. 75 FR 59192 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  13. 76 FR 19007 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  14. 76 FR 73534 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  15. 76 FR 40670 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  16. 75 FR 5909 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  17. 76 FR 19005 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  18. 75 FR 59184 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  19. 76 FR 62006 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  20. 75 FR 59188 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  1. 76 FR 13569 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY..., FEMA published in the Federal Register a proposed rule that included erroneous Base Flood Elevation... Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in...

  2. 76 FR 43968 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  3. 75 FR 78647 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  4. 76 FR 46701 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  5. 75 FR 31368 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and...

  6. Flow and sediment processes in a cutoff meander of the Danube Delta during 100-year recurrent flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jugaru Tiron, L.; Le Coz, J.; Provansal, M.; Dutu, F.

    2009-04-01

    River training operations, such as meander cutoff, initiated for navigational purposes often lead to dramatic changes in the streamwise profiles (Hooke, 1986, Kesel, 2003; Kiss et al., 2007). Meander correction affects both the hydraulic and morphodynamical behavior of the modified branches that sedimentation occurs in time, while newly built canals usually experience degradation (Jugaru et. al, 2006). This study reports and analyzes new data on the hydrological and sedimentary processes at work during a morphogenic flood in a large modified meander (the Mahmudia meander) of the St. George branch, the southern branch of the Danube Delta. The 100-year recurrent flood that occurred in 2006 offered an exceptional opportunity for scanning different cross sections of the Mahmudia meander system by means of the emerging Doppler profiler (aDcp) technology in order to analyze the impact on sedimentation and dynamic processes in the study area. The Mahmudia study site corresponds to a vast natural meander which was cut off in 1984-1988 by an artificial canal opened to shipping. The meander correction accelerated fluxes through the artificial canal and dramatically enhanced deposition in the former meander. After his formation, the cutoff meander acted as sediment storage locations, essentially removing channel and point bar sediments from the active sediment budget of the main channel (Popa, 1997). During the one-hundred-year recurrent flood in April 2006, bathymetry, flow velocity and discharge data were acquired across several sections of both natural and artificial channels with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (aDcp Workhorse Sentinel 600 kHz, Teledyne RDI) in order to investigate the distribution of the flow and sediment and his impact on sedimentation in a channelized reach and its adjacent cutoff. The contrasting hydro-sedimentary processes at work in both channels and bifurcation/confluence nodal points are analyzed from the measured flux distribution

  7. 77 FR 46972 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  8. 77 FR 3625 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  9. 75 FR 23608 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  10. 75 FR 5894 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  11. 75 FR 78926 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  12. 75 FR 59095 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  13. 77 FR 76929 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  14. 77 FR 74610 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  15. 75 FR 78617 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  16. 77 FR 6980 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  17. 75 FR 77762 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  18. 78 FR 33991 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  19. 77 FR 41323 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  20. 78 FR 6745 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  1. 78 FR 27 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  2. 75 FR 23600 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  3. 75 FR 23595 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  4. 75 FR 34381 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  5. 78 FR 6743 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  6. 77 FR 46980 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  7. 77 FR 6976 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  8. 78 FR 5738 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  9. 75 FR 43418 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  10. 76 FR 46715 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed determinations of Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), in accordance with section 110...

  11. 77 FR 22551 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY...) publishes proposed determinations of Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), in accordance with section 110...

  12. 76 FR 19018 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Docket ID FEMA-2011-0002 Proposed Flood...: Comments are requested on the proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE... general information and comment regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach...

  13. 76 FR 13572 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) publishes proposed determinations of Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the National Flood Insurance...

  14. 77 FR 46994 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY...) publishes proposed determinations of Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), in accordance with section 110...

  15. 77 FR 76998 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... (FEMA) publishes proposed determinations of Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), in accordance...

  16. 77 FR 67324 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... (FEMA) publishes proposed determinations of Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), in accordance...

  17. 77 FR 74142 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... Docket No. FEMA-B-1100 and FEMA-B-1222] Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency... Management Agency (FEMA) publishes proposed determinations of Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP),...

  18. 77 FR 67325 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY...) publishes proposed determinations of Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), in accordance with section 110...

  19. 77 FR 49367 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the ] National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the...

  20. 76 FR 73537 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ...Comments are requested on the proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities listed in the table below. The purpose of this proposed rule is to seek general information and comment regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream locations in the table below. The BFEs and......

  1. Flood elevations for the Soleduck River at Sol Duc Hot Springs, Clallam County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Elevations and inundation areas of a 100-year flood of the Soleduck River, Washington, were determined by the U.S. Geological Survey for the area in the vicinity of the Sol Duc Hot Springs resort, a public facility in the Olympic National Park that under Federal law must be located beyond or protected from damage by a 100-year flood. Results show that most flooding could be eliminated by raising parts of an existing dike. In general, little flood damage is expected, except at the southern end of an undeveloped airstrip that could become inundated and hazardous due to flow from a tributary. The airstrip is above the 100-year flood of the Soleduck River.

  2. CoSMoS Southern California v3.0 Phase 1 (100-year storm) flood hazard projections: Los Angeles, San Diego and Orange counties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick; Erikson, Li; Foxgrover, Amy; O'Neill, Andrea; Herdman, Liv

    2015-01-01

    The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes detailed predictions (meter-scale) over large geographic scales (100s of kilometers) of storm-induced coastal flooding and erosion for both current and future sea-level rise (SLR) scenarios. CoSMoS v3.0 for Southern California shows projections for future climate scenarios (sea-level rise and storms) to provide emergency responders and coastal planners with critical storm-hazards information that can be used to increase public safety, mitigate physical damages, and more effectively manage and allocate resources within complex coastal settings. Phase I data for Southern California include flood-hazard information for the coast from the Mexican Border to Pt. Conception for a 100-year storm scenario. Data are complete for the information presented but are considered preliminary; changes may be reflected in the full data release (Phase II) in summer 2016.

  3. 76 FR 3531 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ...Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs are made final for the communities listed below. The BFEs and modified BFEs are the basis for the floodplain management measures that each community is required either to adopt or to show evidence of being already in effect in order to qualify or remain qualified for participation in the National Flood Insurance Program...

  4. 75 FR 3885 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations... locations above. Please refer to the revised Flood Insurance Rate Map located at the community...

  5. 44 CFR 67.4 - Proposed flood elevation determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Proposed flood elevation..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS FROM PROPOSED FLOOD ELEVATION DETERMINATIONS § 67.4 Proposed flood elevation determination. The...

  6. 44 CFR 67.4 - Proposed flood elevation determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Proposed flood elevation..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS FROM PROPOSED FLOOD ELEVATION DETERMINATIONS § 67.4 Proposed flood elevation determination. The...

  7. 44 CFR 67.4 - Proposed flood elevation determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Proposed flood elevation..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS FROM PROPOSED FLOOD ELEVATION DETERMINATIONS § 67.4 Proposed flood elevation determination. The...

  8. 44 CFR 67.4 - Proposed flood elevation determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Proposed flood elevation..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS FROM PROPOSED FLOOD ELEVATION DETERMINATIONS § 67.4 Proposed flood elevation determination. The...

  9. 44 CFR 67.4 - Proposed flood elevation determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Proposed flood elevation..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS FROM PROPOSED FLOOD ELEVATION DETERMINATIONS § 67.4 Proposed flood elevation determination. The...

  10. 76 FR 50443 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations Correction In proposed rule document 2011-16640 appearing on pages 39063 through 39067 in the issue...

  11. 76 FR 61279 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations Correction In rule document 2011-15507, beginning on page 36373, in the issue of Wednesday June 22, 2011,...

  12. 76 FR 61295 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations Correction In proposed rule document 2011-21709 appearing on pages 53082-53086 in the issue of August...

  13. 77 FR 18766 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations... located on the stream reach between the referenced locations above. Please refer to the revised...

  14. 76 FR 12308 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations Correction In proposed rule document 2011-2281 beginning on page 5769 in the issue of Wednesday, February...

  15. 75 FR 35670 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 65 Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations... communities where modification of the Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) is appropriate because of new scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will be calculated from...

  16. 76 FR 76052 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 65 Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations... communities where modification of the Base (1% annual-chance) Flood ] Elevations (BFEs) is appropriate because of new scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will be calculated from...

  17. 75 FR 29195 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 65 Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations... communities where modification of the Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) is appropriate because of new scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will be calculated from...

  18. 75 FR 81892 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... Agency 44 CFR Part 65 [Docket ID FEMA-2010-0003] Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY...) Flood Elevations (BFEs) are finalized for the communities listed below. These modified BFEs will be used to calculate flood insurance premium rates for new buildings and their contents. DATES: The...

  19. 76 FR 21660 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... communities where modification of the Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) is appropriate because of new scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will be calculated from the... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 65 Changes in Flood Elevation...

  20. 76 FR 21662 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... communities where modification of the Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) is appropriate because of new scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will be calculated from the... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 65 Changes in Flood Elevation...

  1. 10. VIEW OF THE SOUTH ELEVATION AND THE FLOOD GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF THE SOUTH ELEVATION AND THE FLOOD GATE ON THE PRESSURE CULVERT, LOOKING NORTH. - Wyoming Valley Flood Control System, Woodward Pumping Station, East of Toby Creek crossing by Erie-Lackawanna Railroad, Edwardsville, Luzerne County, PA

  2. 76 FR 16722 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    .... Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Deener Creek, Gum Creek Flooding Effects, Little Red... following flooding sources: Gum Creek Flooding Effects, Little Red River, Overflow Creek Tributary, Red Cut... Rocky Branch confluence. Gum Creek Flooding Effects Just upstream of None +213 Unincorporated Areas...

  3. 76 FR 45215 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    .... Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Dry Run Creek, Illinois River, and Kickapoo Creek... affected for that flooding source. In addition, it did not include the flooding sources Dry Run Creek and... County, Illinois, and Incorporated Areas Dry Run Creek At the downstream side None +481 City of...

  4. 75 FR 47751 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ...). Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Atlantic Ocean, Bonny Eagle Pond, Casco Bay... ``Cumberland County, Maine, and Incorporated Areas'' addressed the following flooding sources: Atlantic Ocean... Jurisdictions) Atlantic Ocean Along the shoreline at +8 +12 Town of Cape Elizabeth. the intersection...

  5. 77 FR 73394 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ...). Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Baker Run, Little Shenango River, Munnell Run, Neshannock Creek, Otter Creek, Sawmill Run, Shenango River, and Wolf Creek. DATES: Comments are to be... Jurisdictions)'' addressed the following flooding sources: Baker Run, Little Shenango River, Munnell...

  6. 76 FR 26982 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    .... Specifically, it addresses the flooding source Licking River (Cave Run Lake). DATES: Comments are to be... Incorporated Areas,'' addressed the flooding source Licking River (Cave Run Lake). That table contained... (Cave Run Lake)....... At the Buck Creek None +765 City of Frenchburg, confluence. Unincorporated...

  7. 78 FR 8089 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... flooding sources Big Run, Little Loyalsock Creek, Loyalsock Creek, and Muncy Creek. DATES: Comments are to..., Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions)'' addressed the flooding sources Big Run, Little Loyalsock Creek, Loyalsock... County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions) Big Run At the Muncy Creek +968 +965 Township of...

  8. 77 FR 73396 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    .... Specifically, it addresses the following flooding ] sources: Dry Run, Dry Run Tributary 1 (backwater effects from Dry Run), Hall Branch (backwater effects from Eagle Creek), Lane Run, McCracken Creek (backwater... County, Kentucky, and Incorporated Areas'' addressed the following flooding sources: Dry Run, Dry...

  9. 78 FR 22221 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    .... Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Pea Branch and Reedy Branch. DATES: Comments are to... Areas'' did not address the flooding sources Pea Branch and Reedy Branch. That table omitted information..., and Incorporated Areas Pea Branch At the Tranters Creek +15 +14 Unincorporated areas of...

  10. 76 FR 26981 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    .... Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Cache Creek, Cache Creek Left Bank Overflow, and Cache Creek Right Bank Overflow. DATES: Comments are to be submitted on or before August 8, 2011... ``Unincorporated Areas of Yolo County, California'' addressed the flooding source Cache Creek Settling Basin....

  11. 77 FR 66788 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ...). Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Demarest Kill, East Branch Hackensack River, Golf... Jurisdictions)'' addressed the following flooding sources: Demarest Kill, East Branch Hackensack River, Golf... (MSL) Effective Modified Rockland County, New York (All Jurisdictions) Demarest Kill At the West...

  12. 76 FR 21693 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    .... Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Bartlett Branch, Chicory Creek, East/West Canal... Incorporated Areas'' addressed the following flooding sources: Bartlett Branch, Chicory Creek, East/West Canal..., Chicory Creek, Kilbourn Road Ditch, Lamparek Creek, Nelson Creek, Pike River, Sorenson Creek,...

  13. 77 FR 51744 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... for the Town of Livonia in Pointe Coupee Parish, Louisiana. The flooding source name of Bayou Fordoche... upstream of I-190 should have been listed as Bayou Grosse Tete. DATES: Comments pertaining to the Bayou... Coupee Parish, Louisiana, and Incorporated Areas'' addressed several flooding sources, including...

  14. 76 FR 12665 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... Areas. Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Hungry Hollow Gulch, Ice House Creek, Ice House Creek Tributary A, Riggs Gulch, Spearfish Creek, and Unnamed Tributary to Higgins Gulch... Incorporated Areas'' addressed the following flooding sources: Hungry Hollow Gulch, Ice House Creek, Ice...

  15. 77 FR 44497 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... communities where modification of the Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) is appropriate because of new scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will be calculated from the modified BFEs for new buildings and their contents. ] DATES: These modified BFEs are currently in effect...

  16. 75 FR 18090 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... communities where modification of the Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) is appropriate because of new scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will be calculated from the modified BFEs for new buildings and their contents. DATES: These modified BFEs are currently in effect...

  17. 75 FR 18073 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... communities where modification of the Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) is appropriate because of new scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will be calculated from the modified BFEs for new buildings and their contents. DATES: These modified BFEs are currently in effect...

  18. 76 FR 26943 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 65 Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations... modified BFEs for new buildings and their contents. DATES: These modified BFEs are currently in effect on the dates listed in the table below and revise the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) in effect...

  19. 77 FR 61559 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Fairbanks North Star Borough, Alaska, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... North Star Borough, Alaska, and Incorporated Areas AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS... its proposed rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Fairbanks North Star Borough..., proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more flooding sources in Fairbanks North Star...

  20. 78 FR 22222 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ...: Baker Run, Little Shenango River, Munnell Run, Neshannock Creek, Otter Creek, Sawmill Run, Shenango... Jurisdictions)'' addressed the following flooding sources: Baker Run, Little Shenango River, Munnell Run, Neshannock Creek, Otter Creek, Sawmill Run, Shenango River, and Wolf Creek. That table contained...

  1. 77 FR 51743 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... addresses the flooding sources Newmarket Creek, Newmarket Creek Tributary, Stoney Run, Stoney Run- Colony Pines Branch, and Stoney Run-Denbigh Branch. DATES: Comments are to be submitted on or before November..., Newmarket Creek Tributary, Stoney Run, Stoney Run-Colony Pines Branch, and Stoney Run-Denbigh Branch....

  2. 75 FR 62751 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... downstream of Big Barren Creek.... +1055 +1032 Claiborne County. ] Approximately 28 miles upstream of Big... Areas of Vanderbilt Beach Road Collier County. to the north, Pine Ridge Road to the south, Tamiami Trail to the west, and I-75 to the east. Shallow Flooding An area bounded by Pine +7-10 +8-18 City...

  3. 75 FR 29268 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ... Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) for the proposed BFEs for each community is available for inspection at the community's map repository. The respective addresses are listed in the table below. You may submit comments... the revised Flood Insurance Rate Map located at the community map repository (see below) for...

  4. 75 FR 55515 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ... Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) for the proposed BFEs for each community is available for inspection at the community's map repository. The respective addresses are listed in the table below. You may submit comments... between the referenced locations above. Please refer to the revised Flood Insurance Rate Map located...

  5. 75 FR 55527 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ... Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) for the proposed BFEs for each community is available for inspection at the community's map repository. The respective addresses are listed in the table below. You may submit comments... stream reach between the referenced locations above. Please refer to the revised Flood Insurance Rate...

  6. 75 FR 11468 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ...: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... of U.S. +316 City of Ridgeland. Route 51. 400 feet upstream of +323 Planters Grove. Brashear Creek 1... Road. Purple Creek 2,000 feet downstream of +314 U.S. Route 51. 1,500 feet downstream of +332...

  7. 76 FR 8978 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42 U.S.C. 4104, and 44 CFR 67.4(a). These.... Approximate None +287 ly 1,000 feet upstream of the most upstream State Highway 2017 crossing Pennypack...

  8. 76 FR 5769 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42 U.S.C. 4104, and 44 CFR 67.4(a). These..., KS 66090. City of White Cloud Maps are available for inspection at City Hall, 2017 Main Street,...

  9. 76 FR 39011 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42 U.S.C. 4104, and 44 CFR part 67. FEMA has... Maps are available for inspection at 311 West Main Street, Bozeman, MT 59771. Wood County, Ohio, and... downstream of State Wood County. Highway 51. At State Highway 51...... + 609 Maumee River At the Lucas...

  10. 77 FR 15664 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... sources Little River (backwater effects from Lake Barkley) and Little River Tributary 1 (backwater effects from Lake Barkley). DATES: Comments are to be submitted on or before June 14, 2012. ADDRESSES: You may..., Kentucky'' addressed the flooding sources Little River (backwater effects from Lake Barkley) and...

  11. 76 FR 70386 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... affected elevation ** Elevation in meters (MSL) Effective Modified Montgomery County, Alabama, and Incorporated Areas Audubon Ditch At the upstream side of +185 +184 City of Montgomery. Norman Bridge Road... None +196 City of Montgomery. (backwater effects from Baldwin confluence. Slough). At the...

  12. Morphological Analyses and Simulated Flood Elevations in a Watershed with Dredged and Leveed Stream Channels, Wheeling Creek, Eastern Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherwood, James M.; Huitger, Carrie A.; Ebner, Andrew D.; Koltun, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    -sectional area, the mean percentage differences between the measured and estimated values were -16.0 and -11.2, respectively. The predominantly negative bias in differences between the measured and estimated values indicates that bankfull mean depths and cross-sectional areas in studied reaches generally are smaller than the regional trend. This may be an indication of channel filling and over widening or it may reflect insufficient representation in the regional dataset of basins with characteristics like that of Wheeling Creek. Step-backwater models were constructed for four previously dredged reaches to determine the height of levees required to contain floods with recurrence intervals of 2, 10, 50, and 100 years. Existing levees (all of which are uncertified) were found to contain the 100-year flood at only 20 percent of the surveyed cross sections. At the other 80 percent of the surveyed cross sections, levee heights would have to be raised an average of 2.5 feet and as much as 6.3 feet to contain the 100-year flood. Step-backwater models also were constructed for three undredged reaches to assess the impacts of selected dredging and streambed aggradation scenarios on water-surface elevations corresponding to the 2-, 10-, 50-, and 100-year floods. Those models demonstrated that changes in water-surface elevations associated with a given depth of dredging were proportionately smaller for larger floods due to the fact that more of the flood waters are outside of the main channel. For example, 2.0 feet of dredging in the three study reaches would lower the water-surface elevation an average of 1.30 feet for the 2-year flood and 0.64 feet for the 100-year flood.

  13. NETL: The First 100 Years

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory celebrates 100 years of innovative energy technology development. NETL has been a leader in energy technology development. This video takes a look back at the many accomplishments over the past 100 years. These advances benefit the American people, enhance our nation's energy security and protect our natural resources.

  14. NETL: The First 100 Years

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-21

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory celebrates 100 years of innovative energy technology development. NETL has been a leader in energy technology development. This video takes a look back at the many accomplishments over the past 100 years. These advances benefit the American people, enhance our nation's energy security and protect our natural resources.

  15. 44 CFR 67.3 - Establishment and maintenance of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD). 67.3 Section 67.3 Emergency Management and... MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS FROM PROPOSED FLOOD ELEVATION DETERMINATIONS § 67.3 Establishment and maintenance of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD). The Federal...

  16. 44 CFR 67.3 - Establishment and maintenance of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD). 67.3 Section 67.3 Emergency Management and... MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS FROM PROPOSED FLOOD ELEVATION DETERMINATIONS § 67.3 Establishment and maintenance of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD). The Federal...

  17. 44 CFR 67.3 - Establishment and maintenance of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD). 67.3 Section 67.3 Emergency Management and... MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS FROM PROPOSED FLOOD ELEVATION DETERMINATIONS § 67.3 Establishment and maintenance of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD). The Federal...

  18. 44 CFR 67.3 - Establishment and maintenance of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD). 67.3 Section 67.3 Emergency Management and... MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS FROM PROPOSED FLOOD ELEVATION DETERMINATIONS § 67.3 Establishment and maintenance of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD). The Federal...

  19. 44 CFR 67.3 - Establishment and maintenance of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD). 67.3 Section 67.3 Emergency Management and... MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS FROM PROPOSED FLOOD ELEVATION DETERMINATIONS § 67.3 Establishment and maintenance of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD). The Federal...

  20. 76 FR 49674 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... communities where modification of the Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) is appropriate because... to this determination for the listed communities. From the date of the second publication of these... the community that the Deputy Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administrator reconsider the...

  1. 76 FR 43603 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 65 Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations... Rate Maps (FIRMs) in effect for the listed communities prior to this date. ADDRESSES: The modified BFEs... community. The respective addresses are listed in the table below. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  2. 76 FR 22054 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 65 Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations... Smart Sr., Chairman, Board of Shopper. Selectmen, 34 Town Farm Road, P.O. Box 9, Hollis, ME...

  3. 76 FR 23 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 65 Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations... 0538P). 20, 2010; The Smart Sr., Chairman, Board of Shopper. Selectman, 34 Town Farm Road, Hollis,...

  4. 100 Years of ACCU Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Andrew N.

    1999-01-01

    Chronicles the administrative organization and governance of the Association of Catholic Colleges and Universities over its 100-year history, especially the membership and role of the executive committee and major organizational changes. A chart and timeline lists leaders since 1899. (MSE)

  5. 44 CFR 65.12 - Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed encroachments. 65.12 Section 65.12... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF...

  6. 44 CFR 65.12 - Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed encroachments. 65.12 Section 65.12... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF...

  7. 44 CFR 65.12 - Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed encroachments. 65.12 Section 65.12... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF...

  8. 44 CFR 65.12 - Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed encroachments. 65.12 Section 65.12... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF...

  9. 44 CFR 65.12 - Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed encroachments. 65.12 Section 65.12... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF...

  10. 77 FR 55787 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for the City of Carson City, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... City of Carson City, NV AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Proposed rule... concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for the City of Carson City, Nevada. DATES: This... flood elevation determinations along one or more flooding sources in the City of Carson City,...

  11. 44 CFR 66.3 - Establishment of community case file and flood elevation study docket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... case file and flood elevation study docket. 66.3 Section 66.3 Emergency Management and Assistance... National Flood Insurance Program CONSULTATION WITH LOCAL OFFICIALS § 66.3 Establishment of community case file and flood elevation study docket. (a) A file shall be established for each community at the...

  12. 44 CFR 66.3 - Establishment of community case file and flood elevation study docket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... case file and flood elevation study docket. 66.3 Section 66.3 Emergency Management and Assistance... National Flood Insurance Program CONSULTATION WITH LOCAL OFFICIALS § 66.3 Establishment of community case file and flood elevation study docket. (a) A file shall be established for each community at the...

  13. 44 CFR 66.3 - Establishment of community case file and flood elevation study docket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... case file and flood elevation study docket. 66.3 Section 66.3 Emergency Management and Assistance... National Flood Insurance Program CONSULTATION WITH LOCAL OFFICIALS § 66.3 Establishment of community case file and flood elevation study docket. (a) A file shall be established for each community at the...

  14. 44 CFR 66.3 - Establishment of community case file and flood elevation study docket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... case file and flood elevation study docket. 66.3 Section 66.3 Emergency Management and Assistance... National Flood Insurance Program CONSULTATION WITH LOCAL OFFICIALS § 66.3 Establishment of community case file and flood elevation study docket. (a) A file shall be established for each community at the...

  15. 44 CFR 66.3 - Establishment of community case file and flood elevation study docket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... case file and flood elevation study docket. 66.3 Section 66.3 Emergency Management and Assistance... National Flood Insurance Program CONSULTATION WITH LOCAL OFFICIALS § 66.3 Establishment of community case file and flood elevation study docket. (a) A file shall be established for each community at the...

  16. 77 FR 59880 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for the City of McCleary, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... City of McCleary, WA AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Proposed rule... concerning proposed flood elevation determinations in the City of McCleary, Washington. DATES: This... flood elevation determinations along one or more flooding sources in the City of McCleary,...

  17. 77 FR 66791 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Allegheny County, PA (All Jurisdictions)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... Allegheny County, PA (All Jurisdictions) AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Proposed... rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Allegheny County, Pennsylvania...

  18. 78 FR 28780 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Greene County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... Greene County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions) AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION... proposed rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Greene County, Pennsylvania...

  19. 78 FR 75542 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Fayette County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... Fayette County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions) AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION... proposed rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Fayette County, Pennsylvania...

  20. 78 FR 28780 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Beaver County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... Beaver County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions) AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION... proposed rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Beaver County, Pennsylvania...

  1. 78 FR 28779 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Armstrong County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... Armstrong County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions) AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION... proposed rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Armstrong County, Pennsylvania...

  2. 44 CFR 65.6 - Revision of base flood elevation determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Revision of base flood... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.6 Revision of base flood elevation determinations....

  3. 44 CFR 65.6 - Revision of base flood elevation determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Revision of base flood... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.6 Revision of base flood elevation determinations....

  4. 44 CFR 65.6 - Revision of base flood elevation determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Revision of base flood... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.6 Revision of base flood elevation determinations....

  5. 44 CFR 65.6 - Revision of base flood elevation determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Revision of base flood... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.6 Revision of base flood elevation determinations....

  6. 44 CFR 65.6 - Revision of base flood elevation determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Revision of base flood... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.6 Revision of base flood elevation determinations....

  7. 46 CFR 174.080 - Flooding on self-elevating and surface type units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flooding on self-elevating and surface type units. 174.080 Section 174.080 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.080 Flooding...

  8. 77 FR 65843 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Montgomery County, Alabama and Incorporated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... Montgomery County, Alabama and Incorporated Areas AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION... proposed rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Montgomery County, Alabama and... sources in Montgomery County, Alabama. FEMA is withdrawing the proposed rulemaking and intends to...

  9. 46 CFR 174.080 - Flooding on self-elevating and surface type units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.080 Flooding on self-elevating and surface type units. (a) On a surface type unit...

  10. 78 FR 8416 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... 1244). 06-1933P). December 5, 2011; Baldwin, Mayor, City of The Daily Commercial Schertz, 1400 Schertz... Assistance No. 97.022, ``Flood Insurance.'') James A. Walke, Acting Deputy Associate Administrator...

  11. 75 FR 81889 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation... modifications are made pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42 U.S.C. 4105,...

  12. 44 CFR 65.5 - Revision to special hazard area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation determinations. 65.5 Section 65.5 Emergency... HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.5 Revision to special hazard area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation...

  13. 75 FR 82272 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... of new scientific or technical data. New flood insurance premium rates will be calculated from the modified BFEs for new buildings and their contents. DATES: These modified BFEs are currently in effect on... conditions or new scientific or technical data. The modifications are made pursuant to section 201 of...

  14. 77 FR 50626 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132... seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR... be used to calculate flood insurance premium rates for new buildings and their contents. DATES:...

  15. 76 FR 58411 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132... et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR... be used to calculate flood insurance premium rates for new buildings and their contents. DATES:...

  16. Flood Hydrograph Restoration in Increasingly-urbanized Area Based on Low Elevation Greenbelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GAO, Cheng; Yang, Tao

    2015-04-01

    In increasingly urbanized area, water surface ratio descends and storage capacity of water decreases rapidly associated with lakes, branches, wetlands and floodplains buried. In addition, land surface impermeability enlarges runoff coefficients and runoff velocity. Urban flood, with higher peak discharge, larger volume and shorter concentration time, brings higher risk than rural area. Flood hydrograph restoration is to restore the flood hydrograph after urbanization by specific strategies, by compensating water surface ratio (WSR) and pervious surface proportion (PSP) for peak attenuation, volume reduction and concentration time increase. This paper presents the equivalent effect of low elevation greenbelt- a type of low impact development practices and WSR, PSP by the model SWMM, based on which, the corresponding compensative water surface ratio (CWSR) and compensative pervious surface proportion (CPSP) were obtained according to the equal peak discharge, volume of flood and concentration time- the three parameters determining the flood hydrograph. Then a relationship was found out between the ratio of low elevation greenbelt and WSR, PSP. Finally, the just ratio of low elevation greenbelt and the amount of rainwater resource utilization can be got by comparison of flood hydrograph with the one before urbanization for the restoration based on the three parameters to reduce effect of urbanization on flood hydrograph.

  17. Productivity responses of Acer rubrum and Taxodium distichum seedlings to elevated CO2 and flooding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vann, C.D.; Megonigal, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 are expected to increase photosynthetic rates of C3 tree species, but it is uncertain whether this will result in an increase in wetland seedling productivity. Separate short-term experiments (12 and 17 weeks) were performed on two wetland tree species, Taxodium distichum and Acer rubrum, to determine if elevated CO2 would influence the biomass responses of seedlings to flooding. T. distichum were grown in replicate glasshouses (n = 2) at CO2 concentrations of 350 or 700 ppm, and A. rubrum were grown in growth chambers at CO2 concentrations of 422 or 722 ppm. Both species were grown from seed. The elevated CO2 treatment was crossed with two water table treatments, flooded and non-flooded. Elevated CO2 increased leaf-level photosynthesis, whole-plant photosynthesis, and trunk diameter of T. distichum in both flooding treatments, but did not increase biomass of T. distichum or A. rubrum. Flooding severely reduced biomass, height, and leaf area of both T. distichum and A. rubrum. Our results suggest that the absence of a CO2-induced increase in growth may have been due to an O2 limitation on root production even though there was a relatively deep (??? 10 cm) aerobic soil surface in the non-flooded treatment. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Productivity responses of Acer rubrum and Taxodium distichum seedlings to elevated CO2 and flooding.

    PubMed

    Vann, C D; Megonigal, J P

    2002-01-01

    Elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 are expected to increase photosynthetic rates of C3 tree species, but it is uncertain whether this will result in an increase in wetland seedling productivity. Separate short-term experiments (12 and 17 weeks) were performed on two wetland tree species, Taxodium distichum and Acer rubrum, to determine if elevated CO2 would influence the biomass responses of seedlings to flooding. T. distichum were grown in replicate glasshouses (n = 2) at CO2 concentrations of 350 or 700 ppm. and A. rubrum were grown in growth chambers at CO2 concentrations of 422 or 722 ppm. Both species were grown from seed. The elevated CO2 treatment was crossed with two water table treatments, flooded and non-flooded. Elevated CO2 increased leaf-level photosynthesis, whole-plant photosynthesis, and trunk diameter of T. distichum in both flooding treatments, but did not increase biomass of T. distichum or A. rubrum. Flooding severely reduced biomass, height, and leaf area of both T. distichum and A. rubrum. Our results suggest that the absence of a CO2-induced increase in growth may have been due to an O2 limitation on root production even though there was a relatively deep (approximately 10 cm) aerobic soil surface in the non-flooded treatment.

  19. Hydrologic analysis of a flood based on a new Digital Elevation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio, M.; Mori, M.

    2015-06-01

    These The present study aims to simulate the hydrologic processes of a flood, based on a new, highly accurate Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The DEM is provided by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT) of Japan, and has a spatial resolution of five meters. It was generated by the new National Project in 2012. The Hydrologic Engineering Center - Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) is used to simulate the hydrologic process of a flood of the Onga River in Iizuka City, Japan. A large flood event in the typhoon season in 2003 caused serious damage around the Iizuka City area. Precise records of rainfall data from the Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System (AMeDAS) were input into the HEC-HMS. The estimated flood area of the simulation results by HEC-HMS was identical to the observed flood area. A watershed aggregation map is also generated by HEC-HMS around the Onga River.

  20. Convergence: Human Intelligence The Next 100 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fluellen, Jerry E., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    How might human intelligence evolve over the next 100 years? This issue paper explores that idea. First, the paper summarizes five emerging perspectives about human intelligence: Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences theory, Robert Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence, Ellen Langer's mindfulness theory, David Perkins' learnable…

  1. 76 FR 72961 - Flood Hazard Determinations (Including Flood Elevation Determinations)-Change in Notification and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ..., and Letters of Map Revision (LOMRs) that include changes to the technical content of a Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) or FIS as interim and final rules. FEMA now plans to publish these determinations as... also contact the FEMA Map Information exchange (FMIX) toll free at 1 (877) 336-2627 (877-FEMA MAP)...

  2. The AAS: Its Next 100 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, S.

    1999-05-01

    The AAS: Its Next Hundred Years "We are probably nearing the limit of all we can know about astronomy."-- Simon Newcomb, 1888. The best way to celebrate the centennial of the AAS is to look forward, not backward, and to begin planning for the next 100 years. However, predicting the future is even more difficult than it was in Newcomb's time. We live in an era characterized by an unprecedented rate of change in the kinds of scientific questions we ask, the tools we use to answer them, and the way we communicate our results. This talk will highlight some of the issues that we will face as a community during the next 10--but not the next 100!--years and suggests that the AAS has a fundamental role to play in shaping the community response to these issues.

  3. 78 FR 78808 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Pierce County, Washington, and Incorporated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ..., and Incorporated Areas. DATES: The proposed rule published December 6, 2007, at 72 FR 68784, corrected April 16, 2012, at 77 FR 22551, is withdrawn effective December 27, 2013. ADDRESSES: You may submit... proposed rulemaking at 72 FR 68784, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more...

  4. 77 FR 55787 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Clay County, FL, and Incorporated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... Clay County, FL, and Incorporated Areas AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION... proposed rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Clay County, Florida, and Incorporated... Clay County, Florida. FEMA is withdrawing the proposed rulemaking and intends to ] publish a Notice...

  5. 44 CFR 65.5 - Revision to special hazard area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... paragraphs (a)(1) through (6) of this section to request a map revision when no physical changes have... area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation determinations. 65.5 Section 65.5 Emergency... § 65.5 Revision to special hazard area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation...

  6. 44 CFR 65.5 - Revision to special hazard area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... paragraphs (a)(1) through (6) of this section to request a map revision when no physical changes have... area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation determinations. 65.5 Section 65.5 Emergency... § 65.5 Revision to special hazard area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation...

  7. 44 CFR 65.5 - Revision to special hazard area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... paragraphs (a)(1) through (6) of this section to request a map revision when no physical changes have... area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation determinations. 65.5 Section 65.5 Emergency... § 65.5 Revision to special hazard area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation...

  8. Gas turbines fire up after 100 years

    SciTech Connect

    Zink, J.C.

    1996-06-01

    It`s a familiar story. The ancient Greeks, Romans or Egyptians discovered a major physical principle and demonstrated it in a device that can be regarded as the forerunner of some modern technology. Then, as the industrial age dawned, various tinkerers constructed machines using these basic principles but found serious problems that couldn`t be solved with the technology then available. Finally, a ``cost is no object`` program fostered by military needs brings the device to life and, ultimately, gives it a form that is commercially suitable. This article describes how gas turbines have progressed from the theoretical to the commonplace in 100 years.

  9. Remembering Robert Goddard's vision 100 years later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, David P.

    “Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness” —such are the goals of most of us.Yet a few always exist who feel called by a higher purpose. Society often owes them a great deal.Robert Hutchins Goddard, whose work made spaceflight possible, found his vision 100 years ago this October as a youth of 17. His family was staying on the farm of a relative, when he was asked to trim the branches of a cherry tree behind the barn.

  10. Adolescent medicine with a 100 year perspective.

    PubMed

    Hardoff, Daniel; Eisenstein, Evelyn

    2004-01-01

    Adolescent medicine was born out of scientific advances from a wide variety of disciplines, changes in societal mores and the explosion of technology that occurred during the 20th century. The past 100 years of clinical practice and research have provided a wealth of information that has improved our understanding of the biologic and physical development of adolescents as well as the epidemiology of high-risk adolescent behaviors. The present challenge for all providers of health care to adolescents is to continue to examine the effect of these high-risk behaviors and develop mechanisms to address and limit the impact of these behaviors, just as the scientists and practitioners of the 20th century made great strides in treatment and cure of medical illnesses. With a broad base of scientific knowledge, formalization into an academic field and strong government and organizational support adolescent medicine are energized by these factors and can only envision continued growth in this important field of medicine.

  11. Geiger-Marsden experiments: 100 years on

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowley, Neil

    2012-09-01

    The perceptive analysis of Rutherford, celebrated at this conference, turned the experiments of Geiger and Marsden into a measurement of the radius of the object that became known as the atomic "nucleus". We now know that the nucleus can have a range of radii that depend on its static and dynamical deformations. These deformations give rise to the distributions of reaction barriers that have been extensively studied over recent years. While fusion reactions are most often used for such studies, there are cases where, for physical or practical reasons, the scattering channels must be exploited. Despite the major advantages gained from modern experimental techniques, the resulting experiments are in spirit essentially the same as those performed over 100 years ago by Rutherford and his colleagues.

  12. The Importance of Precise Digital Elevation Models (DEM) in Modelling Floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, Gokben; Akyurek, Zuhal

    2016-04-01

    Digital elevation Models (DEM) are important inputs for topography for the accurate modelling of floodplain hydrodynamics. Floodplains have a key role as natural retarding pools which attenuate flood waves and suppress flood peaks. GPS, LIDAR and bathymetric surveys are well known surveying methods to acquire topographic data. It is not only time consuming and expensive to obtain topographic data through surveying but also sometimes impossible for remote areas. In this study it is aimed to present the importance of accurate modelling of topography for flood modelling. The flood modelling for Samsun-Terme in Blacksea region of Turkey is done. One of the DEM is obtained from the point observations retrieved from 1/5000 scaled orthophotos and 1/1000 scaled point elevation data from field surveys at x-sections. The river banks are corrected by using the orthophotos and elevation values. This DEM is named as scaled DEM. The other DEM is obtained from bathymetric surveys. 296 538 number of points and the left/right bank slopes were used to construct the DEM having 1 m spatial resolution and this DEM is named as base DEM. Two DEMs were compared by using 27 x-sections. The maximum difference at thalweg of the river bed is 2m and the minimum difference is 20 cm between two DEMs. The channel conveyance capacity in base DEM is larger than the one in scaled DEM and floodplain is modelled in detail in base DEM. MIKE21 with flexible grid is used in 2- dimensional shallow water flow modelling. The model by using two DEMs were calibrated for a flood event (July 9, 2012). The roughness is considered as the calibration parameter. From comparison of input hydrograph at the upstream of the river and output hydrograph at the downstream of the river, the attenuation is obtained as 91% and 84% for the base DEM and scaled DEM, respectively. The time lag in hydrographs does not show any difference for two DEMs and it is obtained as 3 hours. Maximum flood extents differ for the two DEMs

  13. The Psychoanalytic Review: 100 years of history.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Alan J

    2013-02-01

    This paper is written in celebration of the centenary of The Psychoanalytic Review and aims to bring to life its entire history-100 years of publication. Almost as old as psychoanalysis itself, established by Jelliffe and White as a nonorthodox journal, and guided by all its subsequent editors, the Review has maintained its original mission: to serve as an open venue for all psychoanalytic perspectives, "a free forum for all." But the history of the Review is not without controversy. Freud made no original contributions to the Review. The paper unveils the Review's, rich history by looking briefly into the lives of some of its editors, the circumstances surrounding the creation of the Review (including pertinent correspondence between Freud and Brill and between Freud and Jelliffe), the years (with their engrossing politics) that followed the establishment of the Review until its merger with the journal Psychoanalysis (the official journal of NPAP), and the years that followed the merger to the present, including some of the important events that reshaped psychoanalysis. The role of the Review in promoting and reflecting almost the entire evolution of psychoanalysis is illustrated throughout.

  14. Flooding

    MedlinePlus

    ... flooding Prepare for flooding For communities, companies, or water and wastewater facilities: Suggested activities to help facilities ... con monóxido de carbono. Limit contact with flood water. Flood water may have high levels of raw ...

  15. 100 Years of the Physics of Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luginsland, John

    2013-10-01

    The Child-Langmuir Law (CL), discovered 100 years ago, gives the maximum current that can be transported across a planar diode in the steady state. As a quintessential example of the impact of space-charge shielding near a charged surface, it is central to the studies of high current diodes, such as high power microwave sources, vacuum microelectronics, electron and ion sources, and high current drivers used in high-energy density physics experiments. CL remains a touchstone of fundamental sheath physics, including contemporary studies of nano-scale quantum diodes and plasmonic devices. Its solid state analog is the Mott-Gurney law, governing the maximum charge injection in solids, such as organic materials and other dielectrics, which is important to energy devices, such as solar cells and light-emitting diodes. This paper reviews the important advances in the physics of diodes since the discovery of CL, including virtual cathode formation and extension of CL to multiple dimensions, to the quantum regime, and to ultrafast processes. We will review the influence of magnetic fields, multiple species in bipolar flow, electromagnetic and time dependent effects in both short pulse and high frequency THz limits, and single electron regimes. Transitions from various emission mechanisms (thermionic, field, and photo-emission) to the space charge limited state (CL) will be addressed, especially highlighting important simulation and experimental developments in selected contemporary areas of study. This talk will stress the fundamental physical links between the physics of beams to limiting currents in other areas, such as low temperature plasmas, laser plasmas, and space propulsion. Also emphasized is the role of non-equilibrium phenomena associated with materials and plasmas in close contact. Work supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  16. Perspectives on open access high resolution digital elevation models to produce global flood hazard layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, Christopher; Smith, Andrew; Bates, Paul; Neal, Jeffrey; Trigg, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Global flood hazard models have recently become a reality thanks to the release of open access global digital elevation models, the development of simplified and highly efficient flow algorithms, and the steady increase in computational power. In this commentary we argue that although the availability of open access global terrain data has been critical in enabling the development of such models, the relatively poor resolution and precision of these data now limit significantly our ability to estimate flood inundation and risk for the majority of the planet's surface. The difficulty of deriving an accurate 'bare-earth' terrain model due to the interaction of vegetation and urban structures with the satellite-based remote sensors means that global terrain data are often poorest in the areas where people, property (and thus vulnerability) are most concentrated. Furthermore, the current generation of open access global terrain models are over a decade old and many large floodplains, particularly those in developing countries, have undergone significant change in this time. There is therefore a pressing need for a new generation of high resolution and high vertical precision open access global digital elevation models to allow significantly improved global flood hazard models to be developed.

  17. Development of a Flood-Warning System and Flood-Inundation Mapping for the Blanchard River in Findlay, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitehead, Matthew T.; Ostheimer, Chad J.

    2009-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps of the Blanchard River in Findlay, Ohio, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Findlay, Ohio. The maps, which correspond to water levels at the USGS streamgage at Findlay (04189000), were provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into a Web-based flood-warning system that can be used in conjunction with NWS flood-forecast data to show areas of predicted flood inundation associated with forecasted flood-peak stages. The USGS reestablished one streamgage and added another on the Blanchard River upstream of Findlay. Additionally, the USGS established one streamgage each on Eagle and Lye Creeks, tributaries to the Blanchard River. The stream-gage sites were equipped with rain gages and multiple forms of telemetry. Data from these gages can be used by emergency management personnel to determine a course of action when flooding is imminent. Flood profiles computed by means of a step-backwater model were prepared and calibrated to a recent flood with a return period exceeding 100 years. The hydraulic model was then used to determine water-surface-elevation profiles for 11 flood stages with corresponding streamflows ranging from approximately 2 to 100 years in recurrence interval. The simulated flood profiles were used in combination with digital elevation data to delineate the flood-inundation areas. Maps of Findlay showing flood-inundation areas overlain on digital orthophotographs are presented for the selected floods.

  18. The influence of digital elevation model resolution on overland flow networks for modelling urban pluvial flooding.

    PubMed

    Leitão, J P; Boonya-Aroonnet, S; Prodanović, D; Maksimović, C

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the developments towards the next generation of overland flow modelling of urban pluvial flooding. Using a detailed analysis of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) the developed GIS tools can automatically generate surface drainage networks which consist of temporary ponds (floodable areas) and flow paths and link them with the underground network through inlets. For different commercially-available Rainfall-Runoff simulation models, the tool will generate the overland flow network needed to model the surface runoff and pluvial flooding accurately. In this paper the emphasis is placed on a sensitivity analysis of ponds and preferential overland flow paths creation. Different DEMs for three areas were considered in order to compare the results obtained. The DEMs considered were generated using different acquisition techniques and hence represent terrain with varying levels of resolution and accuracy. The results show that DEMs can be used to generate surface flow networks reliably. As expected, the quality of the surface network generated is highly dependent on the quality and resolution of the DEMs and successful representation of buildings and streets.

  19. Cane Creek flood-flow characteristics at State Route 30 near Spencer, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gamble, Charles R.

    1983-01-01

    The Tennessee Department of Transportation has constructed a new bridge and approaches on State Route 30 over Cane Creek near Spencer, Tennessee. The old bridge and its approaches were fairly low, permitting considerable flow over the road during high floods. The new bridge and its approaches are considerably higher, causing different flow conditions at the site. Analysis of the effects of the new bridge, as compared to the old bridge, on floods of the magnitude of the May 27, 1973, flood is presented. The May 27, 1973, flood was greater than a 100-year flood. Analysis of the 50- and 100-year floods for the new bridge are also presented. Results of the study indicate that the new construction will increase the water-surface elevation for a flood equal to the May 27, 1973, flood by approximately 1 foot upstream from bridge. (USGS)

  20. Simulation of Flood Profiles for Fivemile Creek at Tarrant, Alabama, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, K.G.; Hedgecock, T.S.

    2007-01-01

    A one-dimensional step-backwater model was used to simulate flooding conditions for Fivemile Creek at Tarrant, Alabama. The 100-year flood stage published in the current flood insurance study for Tarrant by the Federal Emergency Management Agency was significantly exceeded by the March 2000 and May 2003 floods in this area. A peak flow of 14,100 cubic feet per second was computed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the May 2003 flood in the vicinity of Lawson Road. Using this estimated peak flow, flood-plain surveys with associated roughness coefficients, and the surveyed high-water profile for the May 2003 flood, a flow model was calibrated to closely match this known event. The calibrated model was then used to simulate flooding for the 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year recurrence interval floods. The results indicate that for the 100-year recurrence interval, the flood profile is about 2.5 feet higher, on average, than the profile published by the Federal Emergency Management Agency. The absolute maximum and minimum difference is 6.80 feet and 0.67 foot, respectively. All water-surface elevations computed for the 100-year flood are higher than those published by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, except for cross section H. The results of this study provide the community with flood-profile information that can be used for existing flood-plain mitigation, future development, and safety plans for the city.

  1. Parallel Priority-Flood depression filling for trillion cell digital elevation models on desktops or clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Richard

    2016-11-01

    Algorithms for extracting hydrologic features and properties from digital elevation models (DEMs) are challenged by large datasets, which often cannot fit within a computer's RAM. Depression filling is an important preconditioning step to many of these algorithms. Here, I present a new, linearly scaling algorithm which parallelizes the Priority-Flood depression-filling algorithm by subdividing a DEM into tiles. Using a single-producer, multi-consumer design, the new algorithm works equally well on one core, multiple cores, or multiple machines and can take advantage of large memories or cope with small ones. Unlike previous algorithms, the new algorithm guarantees a fixed number of memory access and communication events per subdivision of the DEM. In comparison testing, this results in the new algorithm running generally faster while using fewer resources than previous algorithms. For moderately sized tiles, the algorithm exhibits ∼60% strong and weak scaling efficiencies up to 48 cores, and linear time scaling across datasets ranging over three orders of magnitude. The largest dataset on which I run the algorithm has 2 trillion (2×1012) cells. With 48 cores, processing required 4.8 h wall-time (9.3 compute-days). This test is three orders of magnitude larger than any previously performed in the literature. Complete, well-commented source code and correctness tests are available for download from a repository.

  2. Estimated 100-year peak flows and flow volumes in the Big Lost River and Birch Creek at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Kjelstrom, L.C.; Berenbrock, C.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to provide estimates of the 100-year peak flows and flow volumes that could enter the INEL area from the Big Lost River and Brich Creek are needed as input data for models that will be used to delineate the extent of the 100-year flood plain at the INEL. The methods, procedures and assumptions used to estimate the 100-year peak flows and flow volumes are described in this report.

  3. Progress of Cometary Science in the Past 100 Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Zdenek

    1999-01-01

    Enormous strides made by cometary science during the 20th century defy any meaningful comparison of its state 100 years ago and now. The great majority of the subfields enjoying much attention nowadays did not exist in the year 1900. Dramatic developments, especially in the past 30-50 years, have equally affected observational and theoretical studies of comets. The profound diversification of observing techniques has been documented by the ever widening limits on the electromagnetic spectrum covered. While the time around 1900 marked an early period of slow and painful experimentation with photographic methods in cometary studies, observations of comets from the x-ray region to the radio waves have by now become routine. Many of the new techniques, and all those involved with the wavelengths shorter than about 300 nm, were made possible by another major breakthrough of this century - observing from space. Experiments on dedicated Earth-orbiting satellites as well as several deep-space probes have provided fascinating new information on the nature and makeup of comets. In broader terms, much of the progress has been achieved thanks to fundamental discoveries and major advances in electronics, whose applications resulted in qualitatively new instruments (e.g. radiotelescopes) and sensors or detectors (e.g. CCD arrays). The most universal effect on the entire cometary science, from observing to data handling to quantitative interpretations, has been, as in any other branch of science, due to the introduction of electronic computers, with their processing capabilities not only unheard of, but literally unimaginable, in the age of classical desk calculators. As if all this should not be enough, the today's generations of comet scientists have, in addition, been blessed with nature's highly appreciated cooperation. Indeed, in the span of a dozen years, between 1985 and 1997, we were privileged to witness four remarkable cometary events: (i) a return of Halley

  4. Priority-flood: An optimal depression-filling and watershed-labeling algorithm for digital elevation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Richard; Lehman, Clarence; Mulla, David

    2014-01-01

    Depressions (or pits) are areas within a digital elevation model that are surrounded by higher terrain, with no outlet to lower areas. Filling them so they are level, as fluid would fill them if the terrain was impermeable, is often necessary in preprocessing DEMs. The depression-filling algorithm presented here - called Priority-Flood - unifies and improves the work of a number of previous authors who have published similar algorithms. The algorithm operates by flooding DEMs inwards from their edges using a priority queue to determine the next cell to be flooded. The resultant DEM has no depressions or digital dams: every cell is guaranteed to drain. The algorithm is optimal for both integer and floating-point data, working in O(n) and O(n log2 n) time, respectively. It is shown that by using a plain queue to fill depressions once they have been found, an O(m log2 m) time-complexity can be achieved, where m does not exceed the number of cells n. This is the lowest time complexity of any known floating-point depression-filling algorithm. In testing, this improved variation of the algorithm performed up to 37% faster than the original. Additionally, a parallel version of an older, but widely used, depression-filling algorithm required six parallel processors to achieve a run-time on par with what the newer algorithm's improved variation took on a single processor. The Priority-Flood Algorithm is simple to understand and implement: the included pseudocode is only 20 lines and the included C++ reference implementation is under a hundred lines. The algorithm can work on irregular meshes as well as 4-, 6-, 8-, and n-connected grids. It can also be adapted to label watersheds and determine flow directions through either incremental elevation changes or depression carving. In the case of incremental elevation changes, the algorithm includes safety checks not present in prior works.

  5. Local Flood Proofing Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    100-year flood. Selecting an appropriate flood protection level is discussed on page 63. Human Intervention: the need for one or more people to be...this publication, communities were asked “Why did your community select flood proofing as a damage reduction measure?” Six broad reasons were cited...Flood Proofing Programs – 10 – February 2005 External impact: Sometimes flood proofing is selected because the other flood protection measures

  6. Simulation of Flood Profiles for Catoma Creek near Montgomery, Alabama, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, K.G.; Hedgecock, T.S.

    2008-01-01

    A one-dimensional step-backwater model was used to simulate flooding conditions for Catoma Creek near Montgomery, Alabama. A peak flow of 50,000 cubic feet per second was computed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the March 1990 flood at the Norman Bridge Road gaging station. Using this estimated peak flow, flood-plain surveys with associated roughness coefficients, and surveyed high-water marks for the March 1990 flood, a flow model was calibrated to closely match the known event. The calibrated model then was used to simulate flooding for the 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year recurrence-interval floods. The 100-year flood stage for the Alabama River also was computed in the vicinity of the Catoma Creek confluence using observed high-water profiles from the 1979 and 1990 floods and gaging-station data. The results indicate that the 100-year flood profile for Catoma Creek within the 15-mile study reach is about 2.5 feet higher, on average, than the profile published by the Federal Emergency Management Agency. The maximum and minimum differences are 6.0 feet and 0.8 foot, respectively. All water-surface elevations computed for the 100-year flood are higher than those published by the Federal Emergency Management Agency. The 100-year flood stage computed for the Alabama River in the vicinity of the Catoma Creek confluence was about 4.5 feet lower than the elevation published by the Federal Emergency Management Agency. The results of this study provide the community with flood-profile information that can be used for flood-plain mitigation, future development, and safety plans for the city.

  7. 100 Years of Commitment to Children: Change and Continuity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rima

    The Foundation for Child Development (FCD) is the oldest philanthropy in the nation focused on improving the life prospects of children. This booklet, produced for FCD's centennial, describes the organization's origins and changes during the past 100 years. The booklet's sections, which include photographs, quotes, and a timeline, are: (1)…

  8. Centennial Calendar- 100 Years of the American Phytopathological Society

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    I edited a 40-page publication (calendar) that covered 18 chapters written by members of our society. This covered pioneering researchers, departments, and epidemics of the last 100 years of plant pathology in the U. S. This was given to all members of the American Phytopathological Society who att...

  9. Spring wheat gliadins: Have they changed in 100 years?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There have been many hard red spring (HRS) wheat cultivars released in North Dakota during the last 100 years. These cultivars have been improved for various characteristics such as, adaptation to weather conditions, high yield, and good milling and baking quality. The objectives of this study wer...

  10. Women in July Fourth Cartoons: A 100-Year Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Katherine; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Analyzes the dominance, appearance, and role of women as depicted in newspaper Independence Day political cartoons over a 100-year period. Concludes that woman's place has gradually broadened to include activities beyond wife and mother. Indicates a resistance to changing norms and difficulty in coping with emerging ones. (JMF)

  11. Floods

    MedlinePlus

    ... quickly, often have a dangerous wall of roaring water. The wall carries rocks, mud, and rubble and can sweep away most things in its path. Be aware of flood hazards no matter where you live, but especially if you live in a low-lying area, near water or downstream from a dam. Although there are ...

  12. Elevation of the March - April 2010 flood high water in selected river reaches in central and eastern Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zarriello, Phillip J.; Bent, Gardner C.

    2011-01-01

    A series of widespread, large, low-pressure systems in southern New England in late February through late March 2010 resulted in record, or near record, rainfall and runoff. The total rainfall in the region during this period ranged from about 17 to 25 inches, which coupled with seasonal low evaporation, resulted in record or near record peak flows at 13 of 37 streamgages in central and eastern Massachusetts. The highest record peaks generally occurred in southeastern Massachusetts in late March - early April; at most other streamgages, the peak was in mid-March. Determination of the flood-peak high-water elevation is a critical part of the recovery operations and post-flood analysis for improving future flood-hazard maps and flood-management practices. High-water marks (HWMs) were identified by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from April 13 through May 10, 2010, and by a consultant for Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation (MADCR) after peak flows in mid-March and again in late March - early April. HWMs were identified at 25 river reaches in 7 designated Massachusetts Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs (EEA) basins by the USGS and at 8 river reaches in 2 designated EEA basins by MADCR. The USGS identified 293 HWMs at 152 sites. A site may have more than one HWM, typically upstream and downstream from a bridge. The MADCR identified 133 HWMs; of these, 98 are at unique locations, and 29 of the 133 HWMs were visited once following the mid-March peak and again following the late March peak. The HWMs identified by the USGS and MADCR covered about 300 river miles, determined from the upstream and downstream HWMs (about 230 and 70 river miles, respectively). Elevation of HWMs was later determined to a standard vertical datum (NAVD 88) using the Global Navigation Satellite System and survey grade Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers along with standard optical surveying equipment.

  13. Elevation of the March-April 2010 flood high water in selected river reaches in Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zarriello, Phillip J.; Bent, Gardner C.

    2011-01-01

    A series of widespread, large, low-pressure systems in southern New England in late February through late March 2010 resulted in record, or near record, rainfall and runoff. The total rainfall in the region during this period ranged from about 19 to 25 inches, which coupled with seasonal low evaporation, resulted in record or near record peak flows at 21 of 25 streamgages in Rhode Island and southeastern Massachusetts. The highest record peaks occurred in late March-early April and generally greatly exceeded the earlier March peaks that were near or exceeded the peak of record for 10 of the 25 streamgages. Determination of the flood-peak high-water elevation is a critical part of the recovery operations and post-flood analysis for improving future flood-hazard maps and flood-management practices. High-water marks (HWMs) were identified by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from April 2-7, 2010, and by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) from April 3-7, 2010, in five major river basins including the Blackstone, Hunt, Moshassuck, Pawtuxet, and Woonasquatucket along the mainstems and in many tributaries. The USGS identified 276 HWMs at 137 sites. A site may have more than one HWM, typically upstream and downstream of a bridge. The USACE identified 144 HWMs at 127 sites. The HWMs identified by the USGS and USACE covered about 170 river miles, determined from the upstream and downstream HWMs. Elevation of HWMs were later determined to a standard vertical datum (NAVD 88) using the Global Navigation Satellite System and survey-grade Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers along with standard optical surveying equipment.

  14. Impacts of elevation data spatial resolution on two-dimensional dam break flood simulation and consequence assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Judi, David R; Mcpherson, Timothy N; Burian, Steven J

    2009-01-01

    A grid resolution sensitivity analysis using a two-dimensional flood inundation model has been presented in this paper. Simulations for 6 dam breaches located randomly in the United States were run at 10,30,60,90, and 120 meter resolutions. The dams represent a range of topographic conditions, ranging from 0% slope to 1.5% downstream of the dam. Using 10 meter digital elevation model (DEM) simulation results as the baseline, the coarser simulation results were compared in terms of flood inundation area, peak depths, flood wave travel time, daytime and nighttime population in flooded area, and economic impacts. The results of the study were consistent with previous grid resolution studies in terms of inundated area, depths, and velocity impacts. The results showed that as grid resolution is decreased, the relative fit of inundated area between the baseline and coarser resolution decreased slightly. This is further characterized by increasing over prediction as well as increasing under prediction with decreasing resolution. Comparison of average peak depths showed that depths generally decreased as resolution decreased, as well as the velocity. It is, however, noted that the trends in depth and velocity showed less consistency than the inundation area metrics. This may indicate that for studies in which velocity and depths must be resolved more accurately (urban environments when flow around buildings is important in the calculation of drag effects), higher resolution DEM data should be used. Perhaps the most significant finding from this study is the perceived insensitivity of socio-economic impacts to grid resolution. The difference in population at risk (PAR) and economic cost generally remained within 10% of the estimated impacts using the high resolution DEM. This insensitivity has been attributed to over estimated flood area and associated socio-economic impacts compensating for under estimated flooded area and associated socio-economic impacts. The United

  15. Potential hazards from flood in part of the Chalone Creek and Bear Valley drainage basins, Pinnacles National Monument, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, Robert W.

    1995-01-01

    Areas of Chalone Creek and Bear Valley drainage basins in Pinnacles National Monument, California, are subject to frontal storms that can cause major flooding from November to April in areas designated for public use. To enhance visitor safety and to protect cultural and natural resources, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service studied flood-hazard potentials within the boundaries of the Pinnacles National Monument. This study area extends from about a quarter of a mile north of Chalone Creek Campground to the mouth of Bear Valley and from the east monument entrance to Chalone Creek. Historical data of precipitation and floodflow within the monument area are sparse to nonexistent, therefore, U.S. Soil Conservation Service unit-hydrograph procedures were used to determine the magnitude of a 100-year flood. Because of a lack of specific storm-rainfall data, a simulated storm was applied to the basins using a digital-computer model developed by the Soil Conservation Service. A graphical relation was used to define the regionally based maximum flood for Chalone Creek and Bear Valley. Water-surface elevations and inundation areas were determined using a conventional step-backwater program. Flood-zone boundaries were derived from the computed water-surface elevations. The 100-year flood plain for both streams would be inundated at all points by the regional maximum flood. Most of the buildings and proposed building sites in the monument area are above the elevation of the 100-year flood, except the proposed building sites near the horse corral and the east monument entrance. The 100-year flood may cause reverse flow through a 12-inch culvert embedded in the embankment of Old Pinnacles Campground Road in the center of Chalone Creek Campground. The likelihood of this occurring is dependant upon the amount of aggradation that occurs upstream; therefore, the campground area also is considered to be within the 100-year flood zone.

  16. Elevation trends and shrink-swell response of wetland soils to flooding and drying

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, Donald R.; Perez, Brian C.; Segura, Bradley D.; Lynch, James C.

    2011-01-01

    Given the potential for a projected acceleration in sea-level rise to impact wetland sustainability over the next century, a better understanding is needed of climate-related drivers that influence the processes controlling wetland elevation. Changes in local hydrology and groundwater conditions can cause short-term perturbations to marsh elevation trends through shrink—swell of marsh soils. To better understand the magnitude of these perturbations and their impacts on marsh elevation trends, we measured vertical accretion and elevation dynamics in microtidal marshes in Texas and Louisiana during and after the extreme drought conditions that existed there from 1998 to 2000. In a Louisiana marsh, elevation was controlled by subsurface hydrologic fluxes occurring below the root zone but above the 4 m depth (i.e., the base of the surface elevation table benchmark) that were related to regional drought and local meteorological conditions, with marsh elevation tracking water level variations closely. In Texas, a rapid decline in marsh elevation was related to severe drought conditions, which lowered local groundwater levels. Unfragmented marshes experienced smaller water level drawdowns and more rapid marsh elevation recovery than fragmented marshes. It appears that extended drawdowns lead to increased substrate consolidation making it less resilient to respond to future favorable conditions. Overall, changes in water storage lead to rapid and large short-term impacts on marsh elevation that are as much as five times greater than the long-term elevation trend, indicating the importance of long-term, high-resolution elevation data sets to understand the prolonged effects of water deficits on marsh elevation change.

  17. An efficient variant of the Priority-Flood algorithm for filling depressions in raster digital elevation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guiyun; Sun, Zhongxuan; Fu, Suhua

    2016-05-01

    Depressions are common features in raster digital elevation models (DEMs) and they are usually filled for the automatic extraction of drainage networks. Among existing algorithms for filling depressions, the Priority-Flood algorithm substantially outperforms other algorithms in terms of both time complexity and memory requirement. The Priority-Flood algorithm uses a priority queue to process cells. This study proposes an efficient variant of the Priority-Flood algorithm, which considerably reduces the number of cells processed by the priority queue by using region-growing procedures to process the majority of cells not within depressions or flat regions. We present three implementations of the proposed variant: two-pass implementation, one-pass implementation and direct implementation. Experiments are conducted on thirty DEMs with a resolution of 3m. All three implementations run faster than existing variants of the algorithm for all tested DEMs. The one-pass implementation runs the fastest and the average speed-up over the fastest existing variant is 44.6%.

  18. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets 100-year-old VIP.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Among the VIPs attending the launch of STS-99 is Captain Ralph Charles (left), standing next to NASA Administrator Dan Goldin. Charles hopes to have his wish fulfilled of watching a Shuttle launch in person. The 100-year-old aviator has experienced nearly a century of flight history, from the Wright Brothers to the Space Program. He took flying lessons from one of the first fliers trained by Orville Wright, first repaired then built airplanes, went barnstorming, operated a charter service in the Caribbean, and worked as a test pilot for the Curtiss Wright Airplane Co. Charles is the oldest licensed pilot in the United States, and is still flying.

  19. Palama Settlement: 100 years of serving a neighborhood's needs.

    PubMed

    Rath, P

    1995-11-01

    The founding of Palama Settlement brought to those who might not be able to afford it public health nurses for maternal care and nutrition, well-baby clinics, tuberculosis clinics, medical and dental clinics, and eventually major support of medical needs during and after the attack on Pearl Harbor. Palama Settlement celebrates its centennial year with many of its early functions assumed by state and private organizations, but it is prepared to enter the next 100 years of service to the community. Palama was founded by James Arthur Rath with the purpose of serving the community; many people today remember their childhood and Palama Settlement.

  20. Analytical model of sea level elevation during a storm: Support for coastal flood risk assessment associated with cyclone passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maia, Natan Zambroni; Calliari, Lauro Julio; Nicolodi, João Luiz

    2016-08-01

    Sea level oscillations are a result of continuous astronomic, oceanographic, and atmospheric interactions on different time and intensity scales. Thus, the collective action of forcing factors such as tide, wind, atmospheric pressure, and wave action may lead to elevated sea levels during cyclone events over the continental shelf, abruptly impacting adjacent coasts. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential risks of sea level rise and coastal flooding associated with the passage of cyclones in southern Brazil. An analytical model was developed based on extreme storm events from 1997 to 2008. The model identifies the impact of each forcing factor during temporary sea level rise. Through the development of a digital terrain model, it was possible to identify the areas most vulnerable to flooding by superimposing the terrain model onto calculated sea levels. During storm events, sea level elevations ranged from 2 to 5 m and show wind as the major forcing factor, followed by swells waves, astronomical tide and finally atmospheric pressure.

  1. Flood-profile analysis, Big Darby Creek at State Route 762, Orient, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartlett, W.P.; Sherwood, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Ohio Department of Transportation, made a hydraulic analysis of the 25- and 100-year floods on Big Darby Creek where State Route 762 crosses the stream at Orient, Ohio. Two proposed bridge plans were analyzed to determine the effects on flood profiles subsequent to the placement of a 376-foot-long, four-span deck bridge across the stream 90 feet upstream of the existing State Route 762 bridge. In plan 1, the brigde is set at a 25-degrees skew to the river and at sufficient elevation to pass the 100-year flood below it. In plan 2, the skew is 28 degrees and elevations are 3 feet lower than in plan 1, which result in partial submergence of the bridge during the 100-year flood. This analysis shows that the 25-year flood profiles upstream of the new bridge would increase by 0.4 foot if plan 1 is adopted and by 0.3 foot if plan 2 is adopted. Both profiles converge with the present-condition profiles 5,750 feet upstream. The profiles for the 100-year flood would increase by 0.6 foot plan 1 and 1.1 feet for plan 2. This additional backwater affects profiles is 0.1 foot higher than for present conditions, and the plan 2 profile is 0.2 foot higher than profiles for present conditions.

  2. Flood of December 25, 1987, in Millington, Tennessee and vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, James G.; Gamble, Charles R.

    1989-01-01

    Intense rainfall totaling 9.2 in. in a 12-hour period on December 24-25, 1987, and 14.8 in for the period December 24-27 caused record floods in Millington, Tennessee and vicinity. The peak discharge of Big Creek at Raleigh-Millington Road was almost twice the discharge of the 100-year flood discharge and that of Loosahatchie River near Arlington was about equal to the 50-year flood discharge. The inundated area and flood elevations are depicted on a map of Millington, Tennessee and vicinity. Water surface profiles for the peak of December 25, 1987, for Loosahatchie River, Big Creek, Royster Creek, North Fork Creek, Casper Creek, and an unnamed tributary to Big Creek are shown. Flood damages and cleanup costs for this record flood have been estimated at about $9.2 million. (USGS)

  3. Updating flood maps efficiently using existing hydraulic models, very-high-accuracy elevation data, and a geographic information system; a pilot study on the Nisqually River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Joseph L.; Haluska, Tana L.; Kresch, David L.

    2001-01-01

    A method of updating flood inundation maps at a fraction of the expense of using traditional methods was piloted in Washington State as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Urban Geologic and Hydrologic Hazards Initiative. Large savings in expense may be achieved by building upon previous Flood Insurance Studies and automating the process of flood delineation with a Geographic Information System (GIS); increases in accuracy and detail result from the use of very-high-accuracy elevation data and automated delineation; and the resulting digital data sets contain valuable ancillary information such as flood depth, as well as greatly facilitating map storage and utility. The method consists of creating stage-discharge relations from the archived output of the existing hydraulic model, using these relations to create updated flood stages for recalculated flood discharges, and using a GIS to automate the map generation process. Many of the effective flood maps were created in the late 1970?s and early 1980?s, and suffer from a number of well recognized deficiencies such as out-of-date or inaccurate estimates of discharges for selected recurrence intervals, changes in basin characteristics, and relatively low quality elevation data used for flood delineation. FEMA estimates that 45 percent of effective maps are over 10 years old (FEMA, 1997). Consequently, Congress has mandated the updating and periodic review of existing maps, which have cost the Nation almost 3 billion (1997) dollars. The need to update maps and the cost of doing so were the primary motivations for piloting a more cost-effective and efficient updating method. New technologies such as Geographic Information Systems and LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) elevation mapping are key to improving the efficiency of flood map updating, but they also improve the accuracy, detail, and usefulness of the resulting digital flood maps. GISs produce digital maps without manual estimation of inundated areas between

  4. Quality control of the RMS US flood model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankowfsky, Sonja; Hilberts, Arno; Mortgat, Chris; Li, Shuangcai; Rafique, Farhat; Rajesh, Edida; Xu, Na; Mei, Yi; Tillmanns, Stephan; Yang, Yang; Tian, Ye; Mathur, Prince; Kulkarni, Anand; Kumaresh, Bharadwaj Anna; Chaudhuri, Chiranjib; Saini, Vishal

    2016-04-01

    The RMS US flood model predicts the flood risk in the US with a 30 m resolution for different return periods. The model is designed for the insurance industry to estimate the cost of flood risk for a given location. Different statistical, hydrological and hydraulic models are combined to develop the flood maps for different return periods. A rainfall-runoff and routing model, calibrated with observed discharge data, is run with 10 000 years of stochastic simulated precipitation to create time series of discharge and surface runoff. The 100, 250 and 500 year events are extracted from these time series as forcing for a two-dimensional pluvial and fluvial inundation model. The coupling of all the different models which are run on the large area of the US implies a certain amount of uncertainty. Therefore, special attention is paid to the final quality control of the flood maps. First of all, a thorough quality analysis of the Digital Terrain model and the river network was done, as the final quality of the flood maps depends heavily on the DTM quality. Secondly, the simulated 100 year discharge in the major river network (600 000 km) is compared to the 100 year discharge derived using extreme value distribution of all USGS gauges with more than 20 years of peak values (around 11 000 gauges). Thirdly, for each gauge the modelled flood depth is compared to the depth derived from the USGS rating curves. Fourthly, the modelled flood depth is compared to the base flood elevation given in the FEMA flood maps. Fifthly, the flood extent is compared to the FEMA flood extent. Then, for historic events we compare flood extents and flood depths at given locations. Finally, all the data and spatial layers are uploaded on geoserver to facilitate the manual investigation of outliers. The feedback from the quality control is used to improve the model and estimate its uncertainty.

  5. Methods for estimating peak discharge and flood boundaries of streams in Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, B.E.; Lindskov, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    Equations for estimating 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year peak discharges and flood depths at ungaged sites in Utah were developed using multiple-regression techniques. Ratios of 500- to 100-year values also were determined. The peak discharge equations are applicable to unregulated streams and the flood depth equations are applicable to the unregulated flow in natural stream channels. The flood depth data can be used to approximate flood prone areas. Drainage area and mean basin elevation are the two basin characteristics needed to use these equations. The standard error of estimate ranges from 38% to 74% for the 100-year peak discharge and from 23% to 33% for the 100-year flood depth. Five different flood mapping methods are described. Streams are classified into four categories as a basis for selecting a flood mapping method. Procedures for transferring flood depths obtained from the regression equations to a flood boundary map are outlined. Also, previous detailed flood mapping by government agencies and consultants is summarized to assist the user in quality control and to minimize duplication of effort. Methods are described for transferring flood frequency data from gaged to ungaged sites on the same stream. Peak discharge and flood depth frequency relations and selected basin characteristics data, updated through the 1980 water year, are tabulated for more than 300 gaging stations in Utah and adjoining states. In addition, weighted estimates of peak discharge relations based on the station data and the regression estimates are provided for each gaging station used in the regression analysis. (Author 's abstract)

  6. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets 100-year-old VIP.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Astronaut Andy Thomas (left) greets 100-year-old Captain Ralph Charles, one of the VIPs attending the launch of STS-99. Charles also met NASA Administrator Dan Goldin. An aviator who has the distinction of being the oldest licensed pilot in the United States, Charles is still flying. He has experienced nearly a century of flight history, from the Wright Brothers to the Space Program. He took flying lessons from one of the first fliers trained by Orville Wright, first repaired then built airplanes, went barnstorming, operated a charter service in the Caribbean, and worked as a test pilot for the Curtiss Wright Airplane Co. Charles watches all the Shuttle launches from his home in Ohio and his greatest wish is to be able to watch one in person from KSC.

  7. Opening the 100-Year Window for Time-Domain Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grindlay, Jonathan; Tang, Sumin; Los, Edward; Servillat, Mathieu

    2012-04-01

    The large-scale surveys such as PTF, CRTS and Pan-STARRS-1 that have emerged within the past 5 years or so employ digital databases and modern analysis tools to accentuate research into Time Domain Astronomy (TDA). Preparations are underway for LSST which, in another 6 years, will usher in the second decade of modern TDA. By that time the Digital Access to a Sky Century @ Harvard (DASCH) project will have made available to the community the full sky Historical TDA database and digitized images for a century (1890-1990) of coverage. We describe the current DASCH development and some initial results, and outline plans for the ``production scanning'' phase and data distribution which is to begin in 2012. That will open a 100-year window into temporal astrophysics, revealing rare transients and (especially) astrophysical phenomena that vary on time-scales of a decade. It will also provide context and archival comparisons for the deeper modern surveys.

  8. 100 years of sedimentation study by the USGS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glysson, G. Douglas

    1989-01-01

    On January 15, 1889, the U.S. Geological Survey began collecting sediment data on the Rio Grande at Embudo, New Mexico. During the past 100 years the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Resources Division (WRD) has collected daily sediment data at more than 1,200 sites. Projects have addressed the problems associated with reservoir construction, agricultural irrigation projects, energy production, and transport and deposition of pollutants sorbed to sediments. The Survey has been active as a charter member of the Federal Interagency Sediment Project and currently has three full-time hydrologists working on the project. The WRD's sediment-research projects have covered a wide variety of subjects from the fundamental theories of resistance to flow and sediment transport in alluvial channels to lunar erosion mechanisms.

  9. 100 years after Smoluchowski: stochastic processes in cell biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holcman, D.; Schuss, Z.

    2017-03-01

    100 years after Smoluchowski introduced his approach to stochastic processes, they are now at the basis of mathematical and physical modeling in cellular biology: they are used for example to analyse and to extract features from a large number (tens of thousands) of single molecular trajectories or to study the diffusive motion of molecules, proteins or receptors. Stochastic modeling is a new step in large data analysis that serves extracting cell biology concepts. We review here Smoluchowski’s approach to stochastic processes and provide several applications for coarse-graining diffusion, studying polymer models for understanding nuclear organization and finally, we discuss the stochastic jump dynamics of telomeres across cell division and stochastic gene regulation.

  10. Flooding in Illinois, April-June 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Avery, Charles; Smith, D.F.

    2002-01-01

    Widespread flooding occurred throughout most of Illinois in spring 2002 as a result of multiple intense rainstorms that moved through the State during an extended 2-month period from the third week in April through the month of May in central and southern Illinois, the first week in June in northern Illinois, and the second week in June in west-central Illinois. The scale of flooding was highly variable in time and intensity throughout the State. A Federal disaster was declared for central and southern Illinois to deal with the extensive damage incurred during the severe weather, and to provide emergency aid relief. Discharge and stage records for the flood periods described above are presented for 193 streamflow-gaging stations throughout Illinois and in drainages just upstream of the State. New maximum instantaneous discharge was recorded at 12 stations during this flood period, and new maximum stage was recorded at 15 stations. Flood stage was exceeded for at least 1 day during this 2-month period at 67 of the 82 stations with established flood-stage elevations given by the National Weather Service. Of the 162 streamflowgaging stations with an established flood-frequency distribution, a 5-year or greater flood discharge was recorded at 87 stations, and a 100-year or greater flood discharge occurred at six stations.

  11. Sea-Level Rise and Flood Potential along the California Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delepine, Q.; Leung, C.

    2013-12-01

    Sea-level rise is becoming an ever-increasing problem in California. Sea-level is expected to rise significantly in the next 100 years, which will raise flood elevations in coastal communities. This will be an issue for private homeowners, businesses, and the state. One study suggests that Venice Beach could lose a total of at least $440 million in tourism spending and tax dollars from flooding and beach erosion if sea level rises 1.4 m by 2100. In addition, several airports, such as San Francisco International Airport, are located in coastal regions that have flooded in the past and will likely be flooded again in the next 30 years, but sea-level rise is expected to worsen the effects of flooding in the coming decades It is vital for coastal communities to understand the risks associated with sea-level rise so that they can plan to adapt to it. By obtaining accurate LiDAR elevation data from the NOAA Digital Coast Website (http://csc.noaa.gov/dataviewer/?keyword=lidar#), we can create flood maps to simulate sea level rise and flooding. The data are uploaded to ArcGIS and contour lines are added for different elevations that represent future coastlines during 100-year flooding. The following variables are used to create the maps: 1. High-resolution land surface elevation data - obtained from NOAA 2. Local mean high water level - from USGS 3. Local 100-year flood water level - from the Pacific Institute 4. Sea-level rise projections for different future dates (2030, 2050, and 2100) - from the National Research Council The values from the last three categories are added to represent sea-level rise plus 100-year flooding. These values are used to make the contour lines that represent the projected flood elevations, which are then exported as KML files, which can be opened in Google Earth. Once these KML files are made available to the public, coastal communities will gain an improved understanding of how flooding and sea-level rise might affect them in the future

  12. Slope restoration for a 100-year old canal

    SciTech Connect

    Skaggs, R.L.; Lewis, S.W.; Liebersbach, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    Turlock Irrigation District (TID) is located in the northern portion of the fertile San Joaquin Valley of California. TID`s primary water supply is conveyed from the 100-year-old LaGrange Diversion Dam via their historic Upper Main Canal. The original canal was constructed by excavating into slate bedrock for the uphill (cut) bank, and constructing unmortared rock walls and rock fill for the downhill (fill) embankment; the excavation was then lined with concrete. Soil fill raises of the downhill embankment over the last 30 years have reduced the slope stability to unacceptable levels in the steepest embankment areas. In March of 1994, two surficial slides prompted investigation of the long term embankment stability in the Warehouse Slide Area. Based on results of analysis for various stabilization scenarios, TID chose a stabilization method which included: (1) excavation of an access bench below the existing canal, (2) installation of steel pipe piles through the existing rock fill and into the bedrock, (3) construction of a mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) retaining wall and (4) construction of a soil-cement canal roadway pavement. The design was chosen by the owner because of cost competitiveness compared to other design alternatives and because the construction sequence allowed uninterrupted use of the canal. By using local river cobble for the MSE wall facing material, TID met the desired 50-year design life of the repair while maintaining the area`s historic visual features.

  13. Colloquium: 100 years of mass spectrometry: Perspectives and future trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Simon; Jjunju, Fred P. M.; Taylor, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is widely regarded as the most sensitive and specific general purpose analytical technique. More than a century has passed for MS since the ground-breaking work of Nobel laureate Sir Joseph John Thomson in 1913. This Colloquium aims to (1) give an historical overview of the major instrumentation achievements that have driven mass spectrometry forward in the past century, including those leading up to the initial work of Thomson, (2) provide the nonspecialist with an introduction to MS, and (3) highlight some key applications of MS and explore the current and future trends. Because of the vastness of the subject area and quality of the manifold research efforts that have been undertaken over the last 100 years, which have contributed to the foundations and subsequent advances in mass spectrometry, it should be understood that not all of the key contributions may have been included in this Colloquium. Mass spectrometry has embraced a multitude of scientific disciplines and to recognize all of the achievements is an impossible task, such has been the diverse impact of this invaluable technique. Scientific progress is usually made via the cumulative effort of a large number of researchers; the achievements reported herein are only a representation of that effort.

  14. Pedernales oilfield, eastern Venezuela: The first 100 years

    SciTech Connect

    Gluyas, J.; Oliver, J.; Wilson, W.

    1996-08-01

    Petroleum seeps and surface tar mats attracted oil explorers to Pedernales in eastern Venezuela 100 years ago. Commercial production from the Pedernales Field was established by Creole in 1933. In three production periods, broken by WWII and the end of the Creole-Texaco refining contract, Creole and Lagoven produced about 60 MMSTB from about 60 wells in about 60 years. Peak production was in the late 1950s, when the field delivered 12,000 BOPD. Production was stopped in 1986. In March 1993, BP Venezuela acquired the license to reactivate Pedernales on behalf of Lagoven, and BP`s first well in the field was drilled in August 1994. A second was completed in early 1995. The production from each well was sufficiently encouraging for commerciality to be declared in March 1995. Phase 1 of the field reactivation demanded a production rate of 11,500 BOPD. As of now (September, 1995) six wells, including one gas disposal well, have been completed. Wells have been placed using a combination of old well data and mapping based on a close spaced 2D seismic survey shot in early 1994. Results from these first few wells indicate that the required production rate will be achieved despite severely depleted reservoir pressures. This paper tells the story of reactivation and re-evaluation of one of eastern Venezuela`s oldest oilfields.

  15. [Sheehan's syndrome--a forgotten disease with 100 years' history].

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Okopień, Bogusław

    2015-01-01

    Although named after Harold Sheehan, postpartum ischemic pituitary necrosis was reported for the first time 100 years ago in Przeglad Lekarski by Leon Konrad Gliński. In the majority of cases, the syndrome is a consequence of severe postpartum bleeding episode resulting in severe hypotension or hemorrhagic shock. The frequency of Sheehan's syndrome has decreased in developed countries as a result of improved obstetrical care, but this clinical entity remains a common cause of hypopituitarism in developing countries. The syndrome is characterized by varying degrees of anterior pituitary dysfunction resulting from the deficiency of multiple pituitary hormones. The order of frequency of hormone loss has generally been found to be growth hormone and prolactin, gonadotropins, ACTH and thyrotropin. Women with Sheehan's syndrome exhibit a variety of signs and symptoms including failure to lactate or resume menses, loss of genital and axillary hair, and often occurring long after delivery clinical manifestations of central hypothyroidism and secondary adrenal insufficiency. Diagnosis is based on laboratory studies, including hormone levels and hormone stimulation tests. Treatment of Sheehan's syndrome involves hormone replacement therapy. The aim of this study is to review current knowledge on clinically relevant aspects of this clinical entity and to provide the reader with recommendations concerning its diagnosis and treatment.

  16. 100 years of mapping the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta plain: combining research and teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, K. M.; Stouthamer, E.; Hoek, W. Z.; Middelkoop, H.

    2012-04-01

    The history of modern soil, geomorphological and shallow geological mapping in the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta plain goes back about 100 years. The delta plain is of very heterogeneous build up, with clayey and peaty flood basins, dissected by sandy fluvial distributary channel belts with fine textured levees grading into tidal-influenced rivers and estuaries. Several generations of precursor rivers occur as alluvial ridges and buried ribbon sands. They form an intricate network originating from repeated avulsions, back to 8000 years ago. Present rivers have been embanked since ca. 1250 AD and the delta plain (~ 3000 km2) has been reclaimed for agriculture. Soils are young and subject to oxidation and compaction. The first detailed field map of channel belts and floodbasins was made in 1926 by Vink, a geography teacher from Amsterdam. Soil mapping and Holocene geology gained interest after WW-II, with Wageningen soil scientists Edelman, Hoeksema and Pons taking lead. Utrecht University started teaching and research on the subject in 1959, launching an undergraduate mapping field course based on hand augering and field observation. An archive of borehole logs and local maps started to build up. Initially focused on soil mapping, from 1973 the course shifted to a geomorphological-geological focus. Berendsen took over supervision, introduced standard description protocols and legends and increased coring depth. This resulted in 1982 in his influential PhD thesis on the Rhine delta's genesis. New coring and sampling methods came and extensive 14C dating campaigns began. With steadily increasing numbers of students, accumulation of data speeded up, and increasingly larger parts of the delta were mapped. The academic mapping ran in parallel with soil survey and geological survey mapping campaigns. The computer was introduced in the field course and digital data archiving began in 1989. A series of PhD studies on thematic aspects of delta evolution and an increasing number

  17. 78 FR 5821 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  18. 78 FR 21143 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  19. 78 FR 52953 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  20. 78 FR 52954 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  1. 78 FR 5820 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  2. River bed Elevation Changes and Increasing Flood Hazards in the Nisqually River at Mount Rainier National Park, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halmon, S.; Kennard, P.; Beason, S.; Beaulieu, E.; Mitchell, L.

    2006-12-01

    Mount Rainier, located in Southwestern Washington, is the most heavily glaciated volcano of the Cascade Mountain Range. Due to the large quantities of glaciers, Mount Rainier also has a large number of braided rivers, which are formed by a heavy sediment load being released from the glaciers. As sediment builds in the river, its bed increases, or aggrades,its floodplain changes. Some contributions to a river's increased sediment load are debris flows, erosion, and runoff, which tend to carry trees, boulders, and sediment downstream. Over a period of time, the increased sediment load will result in the river's rise in elevation. The purpose of this study is to monitor aggradation rates, which is an increase in height of the river bed, in one of Mount Rainier's major rivers, the Nisqually. The studied location is near employee offices and visitor attractions in Longmire. The results of this study will also provide support to decision makers regarding geological hazard reduction in the area. The Nisqually glacier is located on the southern side of the volcano, which receives a lot of sunlight, thus releasing large amounts of snowmelt and sediment in the summer. Historical data indicate that several current features which may contribute to future flooding, such as the unnatural uphill slope to the river, which is due to a major depositional event in the late 1700s where 15 ft of material was deposited in this area. Other current features are the glaciers surrounding the Nisqually glacier, such as the Van Trump and Kaultz glaciers that produced large outbursts, affecting the Nisqually River and the Longmire area in 2001, 2003, and 2005. In an effort to further explore these areas, the research team used a surveying device, total station, in the Nisqually River to measure elevation change and angles of various positions within ten cross sections along the Longmire area. This data was then put into GIS for analyzation of its current sediment level and for comparison to

  3. Integration of SRTM DEM and Hydraulic Analysis for Flood Response Planning.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervez, M.; Asante, K. O.; Smith, J. L.; Verdin, J. P.; Rowland, J.

    2006-12-01

    The ability to delineate potential flood inundation areas is one of the most important requirements for flood response planning. Historical hydrologic records and high-resolution topographic data are essential to model flood inundation and to map areas at risk of inundation. For Afghanistan, historical hydrologic data enable the analysis of flood frequency, but the accurate delineation of flood inundation zones is limited by the lack of high- resolution elevation data. This study has developed a method for coupling hydraulic analysis and Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to delineate flood risk maps of the Helmand and Kabul drainage basins in Afghanistan. Land surface elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) were used to create an area-elevation profile with respect to the rivers that flow into these two basins. Using the profile, we computed cross-sectional area and wetted perimeter for each 1-m increment in elevation. Manning's equation was applied to compute river discharge for each 1-m increment in water level using cross-sectional area, wetted perimeter and slope of the respective river reach. Results for the gauged river reaches were compared with 25, 50, and 100-year return period floods based on a flood frequency from the historical stream flow data, and associated depths of water were estimated for each return period flood. Peak flows at gauge stations were extrapolated to ungauged river reaches based on upstream drainage area. The estimated depths of water for each river reach were used as thresholds to identify areas subject to flood inundation, using the SRTM Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with respect to the rivers. The resulting flood inundation polygons were combined in a GIS with roads, infrastructure, settlements, and higher resolution satellite imagery to identify potential hazards due to flooding, and provide detailed information for flood response planning.

  4. Flood of July 1-5, 1978 on the Kickapoo River, southwestern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, Peter E.; Hannuksela, J.S.; Danchuk, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Kickapoo River valley in southwestern Wisconsin had a devastating flood ($10 million estimated damages) during July 1-5, 1978. The flash flooding was caused by intense storms on June 30 through July 2. Total rainfall accumulation ranged from 5.8 inches near Ontario to 9.5 inches at La Farge. The resulting flood equaled or exceeded the largest ones recorded since the 1850 's and equaled or exceeded the 100-year flood frequency at the U.S. Geological Survey 's streamflow gages at La Farge and Steuben. Elevation and delineation of the flood are shown on photo mosaics developed from black and white aerial photographs. The 100-mile reach from Wauzeka to Wilton is shown. A summary of the storm conditions causing the flood and an analysis of the rainfall totals, as prepared by the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, are also included. (USGS)

  5. Estimated flood frequency and corresponding water-surface elevations at the confluence of the Potomac and Shenandoah rivers, Harpers Ferry, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doheny, E.J.; Fisher, G.T.

    2000-01-01

    The Harpers Ferry National Historical Park is located at the confluence of the Shenandoah and Potomac Rivers in Harpers Ferry, West Virginia and has historically been affected by flooding from both rivers. Because the drainage areas of both rivers are large and drain geographically separate regions, either river may contribute individually to flooding, or the combination of flows may be the source of flooding. Previous flood-frequency analyses have been conducted at U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations upstream on the Potomac River at Shepherdstown, West Virginia and on the Shenandoah River at Millville, West Virginia.; and downstream on the Potomac River at Point of Rocks, Maryland. A flood-frequency analysis for Harpers Ferry can be expected to fall within the streamflows and recurrence intervals predicted at the surrounding stations. The prediction of corresponding water-surface elevations at Harpers Ferry is difficult, however, because of differences in rainfall distribution across the two regions and the timing of the peaks on both rivers.

  6. Flood of May 2006 in York County, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Gregory J.; Kempf, Joshua P.

    2008-01-01

    A stalled low-pressure system over coastal New England on Mother's Day weekend, May 13-15, 2006, released rainfall in excess of 15 inches. This flood (sometimes referred to as the 'Mother's Day flood') caused widespread damage to homes, businesses, roads, and structures in southern Maine. The damage to public property in York County was estimated to be $7.5 million. As a result of these damages, a presidential disaster declaration was enacted on May 25, 2006, for York County, Maine. Peak-flow recurrence intervals for eight of the nine streams studied were calculated to be greater than 500 years. The peak-flow recurrence interval of the remaining stream was calculated to be between a 100-year and a 500-year interval. This report provides a detailed description of the May 2006 flood in York County, Maine. Information is presented on peak streamflows and peak-flow recurrence intervals on nine streams, peak water-surface elevations for 80 high-water marks at 25 sites, hydrologic conditions before and after the flood, comparisons with published Flood Insurance Studies, and places the May 2006 flood in context with historical floods in York County. At sites on several streams, differences were observed between peak flows published in the Flood Insurance Studies and those calculated for this study. The differences in the peak flows from the published Flood Insurance Studies and the flows calculated for this report are within an acceptable range for flows calculated at ungaged locations, with the exception of those for the Great Works River and Merriland River. For sites on the Mousam River, Blacksmith Brook, Ogunquit River, and Cape Neddick River, water-surface elevations from Flood Insurance Studies differed with documented water-surface elevations from the 2006 flood.

  7. Global change and water resources in the next 100 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, M. C.; Hirsch, R. M.

    2010-03-01

    in the first half of the 20th century. Decreased summer runoff affects water supply for agriculture, domestic water supply, cooling needs for thermoelectric power generation, and ecosystem needs. In addition to the reduced volume of streamflow during warm summer months, less water results in elevated stream temperature, which also has significant effects on cooling of power generating facilities and on aquatic ecosystem needs. We are now required to include fish and other aquatic species in negotiation over how much water to leave in the river, rather than, as in the past, how much water we could remove from a river. Additionally, we must pay attention to the quality of that water, including its temperature. This is driven in the US by the Endangered Species Act and the Clean Water Act. Furthermore, we must now better understand and manage the whole hydrograph and the influence of hydrologic variability on aquatic ecosystems. Man has trimmed the tails off the probability distribution of flows. We need to understand how to put the tails back on but can’t do that without improved understanding of aquatic ecosystems. Sea level rise presents challenges for fresh water extraction from coastal aquifers as they are compromised by increased saline intrusion. A related problem faces users of ‘run-of-the-river’ water-supply intakes that are threatened by a salt front that migrates further upstream because of higher sea level. We face significant challenges with water infrastructure. The U.S. has among the highest quality drinking water in the world piped to our homes. However, our water and sewage treatment plants and water and sewer pipelines have not had adequate maintenance or investment for decades. The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates that there are up to 3.5M illnesses per year from recreational contact with sewage from sanitary sewage overflows. Infrastructure investment needs have been put at 5 trillion nationally. Global change and water resources

  8. Effects of proposed highway embankment modifications on water-surface elevations in the lower Pearl River flood plain near Slidell, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, J.J.; Schuck-Kolben, R. E.

    1987-01-01

    Major flooding in the lower Pearl River basin in recent years has caused extensive damage to homes and highways in the area. In 1980 and 1983, Interstate Highway 10 and U.S. Highway 190 were overtopped. In 1983, the Interstate Highway 10 crossing was seriously damaged by the flood. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development, Office of Highways, used a two-dimensional finite-element surface-water flow model to evaluate the effects the proposed embankment modifications at Interstate Highway 10 and U.S. Highway 90 on the water-surface elevations in the lower Pearl River flood plain near Slidell, Louisiana. The proposed modifications that were considered for the 1983 flood are: (1) Removal of all highway embankments, the natural condition, (2) extension of the West Pearl River bridge by 1,000 feet at U.S. Highway 90, (3) construction of a new 250-foot bridge opening in the U.S. Highways 190 and 90, west of the intersection of the highways. The proposed highway bridge modifications also incorporated lowering of ground-surface elevations under the new bridges to sea level. The modification that provided the largest reduction in backwater, about 35 percent, was a new bridge in Interstate Highway 10. The modification of the West Pearl River bridge at U.S. Highway 90 and replacement of the bridge in U.S. Highway 190 provide about a 25% reduction in backwater each. For the other modification conditions that required structural modifications, maximum backwater computed on the west side of the flood plain ranges from 0.0 to 0.8 foot and on the east side from 0.0 to 0.6 foot. Results show that although backwater is greater on the west side of the flood plain than on the east side, upstream of highway embankments, backwater decreases more rapidly in the upstream direction on the west side of the flood plain than on the east side. Analysis of the proposed modifications indicates that backwater would still occur on

  9. Delineation of flooding within the upper Mississippi River Basin, flood of July 10 and 27, 1993, in Kansas City Missouri, and Kansas City, Kansas, and vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Charles A.; Clement, Ralph W.; Studley, Seth E.

    1997-01-01

    During spring and summer 1993, record flooding inundated many of the stream and river valleys in the upper Mississippi and the Missouri River Basins. The flooding was the result of widespread and numerous intense thunderstorms that, together with saturated soils, produced large volumes of runoff. The magnitude of flooding exceeded the 100-year discharge values (1-percent chance of exceedance in any given year) at many streamflow-gaging stations in Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. The flooding was unusual because of its long duration and widespread severe damage. The Mississippi and the Missouri Rivers were above flood stage for more than 1 month at several locations along their lengths. Millions of acres of agricultural and urban lands were inundated for weeks, and unofficial damage estimates exceeded $10 billion in the flooded States (Parrett and others, 1993),During summer 1993, large parts of Kansas City, Missouri, and Kansas City, Kansas, and vicinity were flooded from overflows of the Missouri and the Kansas Rivers and numerous smaller tributaries, This report provides flood-peak elevation data and delineates the arcalcktent of the 1993 floods in the Kansas City metropolitan area for July 10 and 27, 1993 (fig. 1A, sheet 1: B, sheet 2: C, sheet 3). The 1993 flood elevations and extent of flooding are compared with flood-plain boundaries defined by Flood Insurance Studies conducted by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) for cities and counties in the area (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 1975–95).This report is one of a series of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigations that document the effects of the 1993 flooding of the upper Mississippi and the Missouri River Basins and that improve the technical base from which flood-plain management decisions can be made by other agencies.

  10. Flood of April 2007 in Southern Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    Up to 8.5 inches of rain fell from April 15 through 18, 2007, in southern Maine. The rain - in combination with up to an inch of water from snowmelt - resulted in extensive flooding. York County, Maine, was declared a presidential disaster area following the event. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), determined peak streamflows and recurrence intervals at 24 locations and peak water-surface elevations at 63 sites following the April 2007 flood. Peak streamflows were determined with data from continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations where available and through hydraulic models where station data were not available. The flood resulted in peak streamflows with recurrence intervals greater than 100 years throughout most of York County, and recurrence intervals up to 50 years in Cumberland County. Peak flows for selected recurrence intervals varied from less than 10 percent to greater than 100 percent different than those in the current FEMA flood-insurance studies due to additional data or newer regression equations. Water-surface elevations observed during the April 2007 flood were bracketed by elevation profiles in FEMA flood-insurance studies with the same recurrence intervals as the recurrence intervals bracketing the observed peak streamflows at seven sites, with higher elevation-profile recurrence intervals than streamflow recurrence intervals at six sites, and with lower elevation-profile recurrence intervals than streamflow recurrence intervals at one site. The April 2007 flood resulted in higher peak flows and water-surface elevations than the flood of May 2006 in coastal locations in York County, and lower peak flows and water-surface elevations than the May 2006 flood further from the coast and in Cumberland County. The Mousam River watershed with over 13 dams and reservoirs was severely impacted by both events. Analyses indicate that the April 2007 peak streamflows in the Mousam River watershed

  11. Preliminary estimate of possible flood elevations in the Columbia River at Trojan Nuclear Power Plant due to failure of debris dam blocking Spirit Lake, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, D.L.; Laenen, Antonius

    1984-01-01

    Failure of the debris dam, blocking the outflow of Spirit Lake near Mount St. Helens, could result in a mudflow down the Toutle and Cowlitz Rivers into the Columbia River. Flood elevations at the Trojan Nuclear Power Plant on the Columbia River, 5 mi upstream from the Cowlitz River, were simulated with a hydraulic routing model. The simulations are made for four Columbia River discharges in each of two scenarios, one in which Columbia River floods coincide with a mudflow and the other in which Columbia River floods follow a mudflow sediment deposit upstream from the Cowlitz River. In the first scenario, Manning 's roughness coefficients for clear water and for mudflow in the Columbia River are used; in the second scenario only clear water coefficients are used. The grade elevation at the power plant is 45 ft above sea level. The simulated elevations exceed 44 ft if the mudflow coincides with a Columbia River discharge that has a recurrence interval greater than 10 years (610,000 cu ft/sec); the mudflow is assumed to extend downstream from the Cowlitz River to the mouth of the Columbia River, and Manning 's roughness coefficients for a mudflow are used. The simulated elevation is 32 ft if the mudflow coincides with a 100-yr flood (820,000 cu ft/sec) and clear-water Manning 's coefficients are used throughout the entire reach of the Columbia River. The elevations exceed 45 ft if a flow exceeding the 2-yr peak discharge in the Columbia River (410,000 cu ft/sec) follows the deposit of 0.5 billion cu yd of mudflow sediment upstream of the Cowlitz River before there has been any appreciable scour or dredging of the deposit. In this simulation it is assumed that: (1) the top of the sediment deposited in the Columbia River is at an elevation of 30 ft at the mouth of the Cowlitz River, (2) the surface elevation of the sediment deposit decreases in an upstream direction at a rate of 2.5 ft/mi, and (3) clear water Manning 's coefficients apply to the entire modeled reach of

  12. Simulated and observed 2010 flood-water elevations in selected river reaches in the Moshassuck and Woonasquatucket River Basins, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zarriello, Phillip J.; Straub, David E.; Westenbroek, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    Heavy persistent rains from late February through March 2010 caused severe flooding and set, or nearly set, peaks of record for streamflows and water levels at many long-term U.S. Geological Survey streamgages in Rhode Island. In response to this flood, hydraulic models were updated for selected reaches covering about 33 river miles in Moshassuck and Woonasquatucket River Basins from the most recent approved Federal Emergency Management Agency flood insurance study (FIS) to simulate water-surface elevations (WSEs) from specified flows and boundary conditions. Reaches modeled include the main stem of the Moshassuck River and its main tributary, the West River, and three tributaries to the West River—Upper Canada Brook, Lincoln Downs Brook, and East Branch West River; and the main stem of the Woonasquatucket River. All the hydraulic models were updated to Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) version 4.1.0 and incorporate new field-survey data at structures, high-resolution land-surface elevation data, and flood flows from a related study. The models were used to simulate steady-state WSEs at the 1- and 2-percent annual exceedance probability (AEP) flows, which is the estimated AEP of the 2010 flood in the Moshassuck River Basin and the Woonasquatucket River, respectively. The simulated WSEs were compared to the high-water mark (HWM) elevation data obtained in these basins in a related study following the March–April 2010 flood, which included 18 HWMs along the Moshassuck River and 45 HWMs along the Woonasquatucket River. Differences between the 2010 HWMs and the simulated 2- and 1-percent AEP WSEs from the FISs and the updated models developed in this study varied along the reach. Most differences could be attributed to the magnitude of the 2- and 1-percent AEP flows used in the FIS and updated model flows. Overall, the updated model and the FIS WSEs were not appreciably different when compared to the observed 2010 HWMs along the

  13. Estimated flood peak discharges on Twin, Brock, and Lightning creeks, Southwest Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, May 8, 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tortorelli, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The flash flood in southwestern Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, May 8, 1993, was the result of an intense 3-hour rainfall on saturated ground or impervious surfaces. The total precipitation of 5.28 inches was close to the 3-hour, 100-year frequency and produced extensive flooding. The most serious flooding was on Twin, Brock, and Lightning Creeks. Four people died in this flood. Over 1,900 structures were damaged along the 3 creeks. There were about $3 million in damages to Oklahoma City public facilities, the majority of which were in the three basins. A study was conducted to determine the magnitude of the May 8, 1993, flood peak discharge in these three creeks in southwestern Oklahoma City and compare these peaks with published flood estimates. Flood peak-discharge estimates for these creeks were determined at 11 study sites using a step-backwater analysis to match the flood water-surface profiles defined by high-water marks. The unit discharges during peak runoff ranged from 881 cubic feet per second per square mile for Lightning Creek at SW 44th Street to 3,570 cubic feet per second per square mile for Brock Creek at SW 59th Street. The ratios of the 1993 flood peak discharges to the Federal Emergency Management Agency 100-year flood peak discharges ranged from 1.25 to 3.29. The water-surface elevations ranged from 0.2 foot to 5.9 feet above the Federal Emergency Management Agency 500-year flood water-surface elevations. The very large flood peaks in these 3 small urban basins were the result of very intense rainfall in a short period of time, close to 100 percent runoff due to ground surfaces being essentially impervious, and the city streets acting as efficient conveyances to the main channels. The unit discharges compare in magnitude to other extraordinary Oklahoma urban floods.

  14. 77 FR 18842 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  15. 78 FR 5824 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  16. 77 FR 18846 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  17. 78 FR 21143 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  18. 77 FR 18839 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  19. 77 FR 18844 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  20. 78 FR 48701 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  1. 77 FR 18835 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  2. 78 FR 5822 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  3. 77 FR 74859 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  4. 78 FR 5826 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  5. 78 FR 49277 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  6. 78 FR 49278 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  7. 77 FR 18841 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  8. Flooding studies of proposed repository locations in the Palo Duro Basin of the Texas Panhandle

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-04-01

    This report contains the results of flooding studies of those stream channels that drain the proposed locations of a high-level nuclear-waste repository in Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties, Texas. Included are computations of the flood hydrographs and water surface profiles of the 100-year, 500-year, and probable maximum floods for Palo Duro Creek, Tule Creek, and Pleasant Draw. The hydrographs were produced according to the method of the Soil Conservation Service for ungaged watersheds, and the computations were made with computer programs developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers. The flood hydrographs were computed with the HEC-1 Flood Hydrograph Package and the water surface elevations with the HEC-2 Water Surface Profiles program. 76 refs., 19 figs., 16 tabs.

  9. From Anzac to Afghanistan: have 100 years taught us nothing about the devastation of war?

    PubMed

    Carragee, Eugene J

    2015-12-01

    Commentary On: Atkinson Brigadier (Ret'd) RN, Fraser RD. 100 years-Anzac, Vietnam to now. Spine J 2015:15:2454-6 (in this issue). Robertson PA. Gallipoli 100 years on: a New Zealand perspective. Spine J 2015:15:2457-8 (in this issue).

  10. Flood of September 2008 in Northwestern Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fowler, Kathleen K.; Kim, Moon H.; Menke, Chad D.; Arvin, Donald V.

    2010-01-01

    During September 12-15, 2008, rainfall ranging from 2 to more than 11 inches fell on northwestern Indiana. The rainfall resulted in extensive flooding on many streams within the Lake Michigan and Kankakee River Basins during September 12-18, causing two deaths, evacuation of hundreds of residents, and millions of dollars of damage to residences, businesses, and infrastructure. In all, six counties in northwestern Indiana were declared Federal disaster areas. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgages at four locations recorded new record peak streamflows as a result of the heavy rainfall. Peak-gage-height data, peak-streamflow data, annual exceedance probabilities, and recurrence intervals are tabulated in this report for 10 USGS streamgages in northwestern Indiana. Recurrence intervals of flood-peak streamflows were estimated to be greater than 100 years at six streamgages. Because flooding was particularly severe in the communities of Munster, Dyer, Hammond, Highland, Gary, Lake Station, Hobart, Schererville, Merrillville, Michiana Shores, and Portage, high-water-park data collected after the flood were tabulated for those communities. Flood peak inundation maps and water-surface profiles for selected streams were made in a geographic information system by combining high-water-mark data with the highest resolution digital elevation model data available.

  11. 44 CFR 65.5 - Revision to special hazard area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... hazard. (4) Written assurance by the participating community that they have complied with the appropriate... elevation of the parcel or the lowest adjacent grade to the structure. If the lowest ground elevation of the entire legally defined parcel of land or the lowest adjacent grade to the structure are at or above...

  12. Simulations of Flooding on Pea River and Whitewater Creek in the Vicinity of the Proposed Elba Bypass at Elba, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedgecock, T. Scott

    2003-01-01

    A two-dimensional finite-element surface-water model was used to study the effects of proposed modifications to the State Highway 203 corridor (proposed Elba Bypass/relocated U.S. Highway 84) on water-surface elevations and flow distributions during flooding in the Pea River and Whitewater Creek Basins at Elba, Coffee County, Alabama. Flooding was first simulated for the March 17, 1990, flood, using the 1990 flood-plain conditions to calibrate the model to match measured data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers after the flood. After model calibration, the effects of flooding were simulated for four scenarios: (1) floods having the 50- and 100-year recurrence intervals for the existing flood-plain, bridge, highway, and levee conditions; (2) floods having the 50- and 100-year recurrence intervals for the existing flood-plain and levee conditions with the State Highway 203 embankment and bridge removed; (3) floods having the 50- and 100-year recurrence intervals for the existing flood-plain, bridge, and highway conditions with proposed modifications (elevating) to the levee; and (4) floods having the 50- and 100-year recurrence intervals for the proposed conditions reflecting the Elba Bypass and modified levee. The simulation of floodflow for the Pea River and Whitewater Creek flood of March 17, 1990, in the study reach compared closely to flood profile data obtained after the flood. The flood of March 17, 1990, had an estimated peak discharge of 58,000 cubic feet per second at the gage (just below the confluence) and was estimated to be between a 50-year and 100-year flood event. The estimated peak discharge for Pea River and Whitewater Creek was 40,000 and 42,000 cubic feet per second, respectively. Simulation of floodflows for the 50-year flood (51,400 cubic feet per second) at the gage for existing flood-plain, bridge, highway, and levee conditions indicated that about 31 percent of the peak flow was conveyed by the State

  13. First Airswot Interferometric Radar Water Surface Elevations and Flooded Inundation Extent from the Sacramento River and Edwards AFB Wetland Complex, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitcher, L. H.; Smith, L. C.; Gleason, C. J.; Baney, O. N.; Chu, V. W.; Bennett, M. M.; Pavelsky, T.; Sadowy, G. A.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's forthcoming Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission aims to quantify global freshwater fluxes from space using Ka-band interferometric radar. AirSWOT is the airborne calibration/validation instrument for SWOT with first-pass data collected over the Sacramento River in May 2013 and a wetland complex on Edwards AFB (Piute Ponds) in May 2014. Here, AirSWOT elevation and coherence data are compared with high resolution airborne imagery and concurrent in-situ field mappings of inundation area and water surface elevation. For the Sacramento River, AirSWOT water surface elevations are compared with field-surveyed elevations collected using a high precision GPS Lagrangian river drifter escorted down 30 km of river length. Additionally, field mapped river shorelines are compared with shorelines extracted from AirSWOT coherence data. For the Piute Ponds, we use an exhaustive field mapping of inundation extent and flooded vegetation to assess the ability of AirSWOT coherence and backscatter to map shorelines in a complex lake and wetland environment containing varying vegetation and soil moisture conditions.

  14. Floods and Flash Flooding

    MedlinePlus

    Floods and flash flooding Now is the time to determine your area’s flood risk. If you are not sure whether you ... If you are in a floodplain, consider buying flood insurance. Do not drive around barricades. If your ...

  15. Flood hazard assessment of the Hoh River at Olympic National Park ranger station, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, D.L.; Pierson, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    Federal regulations require buildings and public facilities on Federal land to be located beyond or protected from inundation by a 100-year flood. Flood elevations, velocities and boundaries were determined for the occurrence of a 100-year flood through a reach, approximately 1-mi-long, of the Hoh River at the ranger station complex in Olympic National Park. Flood elevations, estimated by step-backwater analysis of the 100-year flood discharge through 14 channel and flood-plain cross sections of the Hoh River, indicate that the extent of flooding in the vicinity of buildings or public facilities at the ranger station complex is likely to be limited mostly to two historic meander channels that lie partly within loop A of the public campground and that average flood depths of about 2 feet or less would be anticipated in these channels. Mean flow velocities at the cross sections, corresponding to the passage of a 100-year flood, ranged from about 5 to over 11 ft/sec. Flooding in the vicinity of either the visitors center or the residential and maintenance areas is unlikely unless the small earthen dam at the upstream end of Taft Creek were to fail. Debris flows with volumes on the order of 100 to 1,000 cu yards could be expected to occur in the small creeks that drain the steep valley wall north of the ranger station complex. Historic debris flows in these creeks have generally traveled no more than about 100 yards out onto the valley floor. The potential risk that future debris flows in these creeks might reach developed areas within the ranger station complex is considered to be small because most of the developed areas within the complex are situated more than 100 yards from the base of the valley wall. Landslides or rock avalanches originating from the north valley wall with volumes potentially much larger than those for debris flows could have a significant impact on the ranger station complex. The probability that such landslides or avalanches may occur is

  16. Technique for estimating depth of floods in Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gamble, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimates of flood depths are needed for design of roadways across flood plains and for other types of construction along streams. Equations for estimating flood depths in Tennessee were derived using data for 150 gaging stations. The equations are based on drainage basin size and can be used to estimate depths of the 10-year and 100-year floods for four hydrologic areas. A method also was developed for estimating depth of floods having recurrence intervals between 10 and 100 years. Standard errors range from 22 to 30 percent for the 10-year depth equations and from 23 to 30 percent for the 100-year depth equations. (USGS)

  17. Climatic and Hydrological Changes of Past 100 Years in Asian Arid Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhaodong; Salnikov, Vitaliy; Xu, Changchun

    2014-05-01

    The Asian Arid Zone (AAZ) is here defined to include the following regions: northwestern China, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Generally speaking, the AAZ has experienced a temperature rising during the past 100 years that was significantly faster than the global average (0.14 ºC per decade). Specifically, the rate was 0.39 ºC per decade in northwestern China (1950-2010), 0.26 ºC per decade in Kazakhstan (1936-2005), 0.22 ºC per decade in Mongolia (1940-2010), 0.29 ºC per decade in Uzbekistan (1950-2005), 0.18 ºC per decade in Turkmenistan (1961-1995). It should be noted that the mountainous parts of AAZ seems to have experienced a slower rate of temperature rising. For example, the rate was 0.10 ºC per decade in Tajikistan (1940-2005) and was 0.08 ºC per decade in Kyrgyzstan (1890-2005). Precipitation has a slight increasing trend in northwestern China, but it has fluctuated along a near-constant line in the rest of the AAZ. Hydrological data from high-elevation basin show that the runoff has been increasing primarily as a result of rising temperature that caused increases in ice melting. A natural decreasing trend of surface runoff in low-elevation basins is undeniable and the decreasing trend is attributable to intensified evaporation under warming conditions. It is true that the total amount of runoff in the Tianshan Mountains and the associated basins has been increased primarily as a result of temperature rising-resulted increases in ice melting. But, approaching to the turning point of glacier-melting supplies to runoff will pose a great threat to socio-economic sustainability and to ecological security. The turning point refers to the transition from increasing runoff to decreasing runoff within ice melting supplied watersheds under a warming climate.

  18. CoSMoS Southern California v3.0 Phase 1 (100-year storm) storm hazard projections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick; Erikson, Li; Foxgrover, Amy; O'Neill, Andrea; Herdman, Liv

    2016-01-01

    The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes detailed predictions (meter-scale) over large geographic scales (100s of kilometers) of storm-induced coastal flooding and erosion for both current and future sea-level rise (SLR) scenarios. CoSMoS v3.0 for Southern California shows projections for future climate scenarios (sea-level rise and storms) to provide emergency responders and coastal planners with critical storm-hazards information that can be used to increase public safety, mitigate physical damages, and more effectively manage and allocate resources within complex coastal settings. Phase I data for Southern California include flood-hazard information for the coast from the Mexican Border to Pt. Conception for a 100-year storm scenario and sea-level rise 0 - 2 m. Changes from previous data releases may be reflected in some areas. Data are complete for the information presented but are considered preliminary; changes may be reflected in the full data release (Phase II) in summer 2016.

  19. Flood-inundation maps for the Yellow River at Plymouth, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menke, Chad D.; Bunch, Aubrey R.; Kim, Moon H.

    2016-11-16

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 4.9-mile reach of the Yellow River at Plymouth, Indiana (Ind.), were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Office of Community and Rural Affairs. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage 05516500, Yellow River at Plymouth, Ind. Current conditions for estimating near-real-time areas of inundation using USGS streamgage information may be obtained on the Internet at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/in/nwis/uv?site_no=05516500. In addition, information has been provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood-warning system (http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS AHPS forecasts flood hydrographs at many sites that are often collocated with USGS streamgages, including the Yellow River at Plymouth, Ind. NWS AHPS-forecast peak-stage information may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood and forecasts of flood hydrographs at this site.For this study, flood profiles were computed for the Yellow River reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the current stage-discharge relations at the Yellow River streamgage, in combination with the flood-insurance study for Marshall County (issued in 2011). The calibrated hydraulic model was then used to determine eight water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bankfull to the highest stage of the current stage-discharge rating curve. The 1-percent annual exceedance probability flood profile elevation (flood elevation with recurrence intervals within 100 years) is within

  20. Flooding and Flood Management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, K.N.; Fallon, J.D.; Lorenz, D.L.; Stark, J.R.; Menard, Jason; Easter, K.W.; Perry, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Floods result in great human disasters globally and nationally, causing an average of $4 billion of damages each year in the United States. Minnesota has its share of floods and flood damages, and the state has awarded nearly $278 million to local units of government for flood mitigation projects through its Flood Hazard Mitigation Grant Program. Since 1995, flood mitigation in the Red River Valley has exceeded $146 million. Considerable local and state funding has been provided to manage and mitigate problems of excess stormwater in urban areas, flooding of farmlands, and flood damages at road crossings. The cumulative costs involved with floods and flood mitigation in Minnesota are not known precisely, but it is safe to conclude that flood mitigation is a costly business. This chapter begins with a description of floods in Minneosta to provide examples and contrasts across the state. Background material is presented to provide a basic understanding of floods and flood processes, predication, and management and mitigation. Methods of analyzing and characterizing floods are presented because they affect how we respond to flooding and can influence relevant practices. The understanding and perceptions of floods and flooding commonly differ among those who work in flood forecasting, flood protection, or water resource mamnagement and citizens and businesses affected by floods. These differences can become magnified following a major flood, pointing to the need for better understanding of flooding as well as common language to describe flood risks and the uncertainty associated with determining such risks. Expectations of accurate and timely flood forecasts and our ability to control floods do not always match reality. Striving for clarity is important in formulating policies that can help avoid recurring flood damages and costs.

  1. Floods of June 17, 1990, and July 9, 1993, along Squaw Creek and the South Skunk River in Ames, Iowa, and vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Einhellig, R.F.; Eash, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    Water-surface-elevation profiles and peak discharges for the floods of June 17, 1990, and July 9, 1993, along Squaw Creek and the South Skunk River, in Ames, Iowa, are presented in this report. The maximum flood-peak discharge of 24,300 cubic feet per second for the streamflow-gaging station on Squaw Creek at Ames, Iowa (station number 05470500) occurred on July 9, 1993. This discharge was 80 percent larger than the 100-year recurrence-interval discharge and exceeded the previous record flood-peak discharge of June 17, 1990, by 94 percent. The July 9, 1993, flood-peak discharge of 26,500 cubic feet per second on the South Skunk River below Squaw Creek (station number 05471000) was also a peak of record, exceeding the previous record flood-peak discharge of June 27, 1975, by 80 percent, and the 100-year recurrence-interval discharge by 60 percent. A flood history describes rainfall conditions for floods that occurred during 1990 and 1993. The report also includes information on flood stages and discharges and floodflow frequencies for the active gaging stations in the vicinity of Ames, Iowa, and on temporary bench marks and reference points in the Squaw Creek and South Skunk River Basins near Ames, Iowa.

  2. Flood of June 7-9, 2008, in Central and Southern Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morlock, Scott E.; Menke, Chad D.; Arvin, Donald V.; Kim, Moon H.

    2008-01-01

    On June 6-7, 2008, heavy rainfall of 2 to more than 10 inches fell upon saturated soils and added to already high streamflows from a wetter than normal spring in central and southern Indiana. The heavy rainfall resulted in severe flooding on many streams within the White River Basin during June 7-9, causing three deaths, evacuation of thousands of residents, and hundreds of millions of dollars of damage to residences, businesses, infrastructure, and agricultural lands. In all, 39 Indiana counties were declared Federal disaster areas. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgages at nine locations recorded new record peak streamflows for the respective periods of record as a result of the heavy rainfall. Recurrence intervals of flood-peak streamflows were estimated to be greater than 100 years at five streamgages and 50-100 years at two streamgages. Peak-gage-height data, peak-streamflow data, and recurrence intervals are tabulated for 19 USGS streamgages in central and southern Indiana. Peak-streamflow estimates are tabulated for four ungaged locations, and estimated recurrence intervals are tabulated for three ungaged locations. The estimated recurrence interval for an ungaged location on Haw Creek in Columbus was greater than 100 years and for an ungaged location on Hurricane Creek in Franklin was 50-100 years. Because flooding was particularly severe in the communities of Columbus, Edinburgh, Franklin, Paragon, Seymour, Spencer, Martinsville, Newberry, and Worthington, high-water-mark data collected after the flood were tabulated for those communities. Flood peak inundation maps and water-surface profiles for selected streams were made in a geographic information system by combining the high-water-mark data with the highest-resolution digital elevation model data available.

  3. 78 FR 8175 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area.... City of Ludlow City Office, 51 Elm Street, Ludlow, KY 41016. City of Park Hills 1106 Amsterdam...

  4. A Tale of 3 P's--Penmanship, Product, and Process: 100 Years of Elementary Writing Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Lisa K.; Razali, Abu Bakar

    2012-01-01

    From penmanship, to product, to process...this article recounts 100 years of instructional practice in the US elementary writing classroom through the voices of past teaching manuals and curriculum guides. This particular tale begins at the turn of the 20th century--a time when the elementary school was firmly established in the country, and…

  5. What Would You Look Like If You Were 100 Years Old?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Hugh

    1998-01-01

    Describes a project inspired by the 100th day of school in which first-grade students created a self-portrait of themselves at 100 years old and wrote an accompanying essay. States that the students drew wrinkles on the faces, age-appropriate clothing, gray or white hair, and even glasses as a finishing touch. (CMK)

  6. Assessment Gaze, Refraction, and Blur: The Course of Achievement Testing in the Past 100 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.; Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Cai, Li

    2016-01-01

    This chapter addresses assessment (testing) with an emphasis on the 100-year period since the American Education Research Association was formed. The authors start with definitions and explanations of contemporary tests. They then look backward into the 19th century to significant work by Horace Mann and Herbert Spencer, who engendered two…

  7. Flood characteristics for the New River in the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, J.B.; Cunningham, M.K.

    1994-01-01

    The frequency and magnitude of flooding of the New River in the New River Gorge National River was studied. A steady-state, one-dimensional flow model was applied to the study reach. Rating curves, cross sections, and Manning's roughness coefficients that were used are presented in this report. Manning's roughness coefficients were evaluated by comparing computed elevations (from application of the steady-state, one-dimensional flow model) to rated elevations at U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging stations and miscellaneous-rating sites. Manning's roughness coefficients ranged from 0.030 to 0.075 and varied with hydraulic depth. The 2-, 25-, and 100-year flood discharges were esti- mated on the basis of information from flood- insurance studies of Summers County, Fayette County, and the city of Hinton, and flood-frequency analysis of discharge records for the USGS streamflow-gaging stations at Hinton and Thurmond. The 100-year discharge ranged from 107,000 cubic feet per second at Hinton to 150,000 cubic feet per second at Fayette.

  8. Flood-inundation maps for the Tippecanoe River at Winamac, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menke, Chad D.; Bunch, Aubrey R.

    2015-09-25

    For this study, flood profiles were computed for the Tippecanoe River reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relations at the Tippecanoe River streamgage, in combination with the current (2014) Federal Emergency Management Agency flood-insurance study for Pulaski County. The calibrated hydraulic model was then used to determine nine water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bankfull to the highest stage of the current stage-discharge rating curve. The 1-percent annual exceedance probability (AEP) flood stage (flood with recurrence intervals within 100 years) has not been determined yet for this streamgage location. The rating has not been developed for the 1-percent AEP because the streamgage dates to only 2001. The simulated water-surface profiles were then used with a geographic information system (GIS) digital elevation model (DEM, derived from Light Detection and Ranging [lidar]) in order to delineate the area flooded at each water level. The availability of these maps, along with Internet information regarding current stage from the USGS streamgage 03331753, Tippecanoe River at Winamac, Ind., and forecast stream stages from the NWS AHPS, provides emergency management personnel and residents with information that is critical for flood response activities such as evacuations and road closures, as well as for post-flood recovery efforts.

  9. Determining the Optimum Post Spacing of LIDAR-Derived Elevation Data in Varying Terrain for Flood Hazard Mapping Purposes in North Carolina and Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berglund, Judith; Davis, Bruce; Estep, Lee

    2004-01-01

    The major flood events in the United States in the past few years have made it apparent that many floodplain maps being used by State governments are outdated and inaccurate. In response, many Stated have begun to update their Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Digital Flood Insurance Rate Maps. Accurate topographic data is one of the most critical inputs for floodplain analysis and delineation. Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) altimetry is one of the primary remote sensing technologies that can be used to obtain high-resolution and high-accuracy digital elevation data suitable for hydrologic and hydraulic (H&H) modeling, in part because of its ability to "penetrate" various cover types and to record geospatial data from the Earth's surface. However, the posting density or spacing at which LIDAR collects the data will affect the resulting accuracies of the derived bare Earth surface, depending on terrain type and land cover type. For example, flat areas are thought to require higher or denser postings than hilly areas to capture subtle changes in the topography that could have a significant effect on flooding extent. Likewise, if an area has dense understory and overstory, it may be difficult to receive LIDAR returns from the Earth's surface, which would affect the accuracy of that bare Earth surface and thus would affect flood model results. For these reasons, NASA and FEMA have partnered with the State of North Carolina and with the U.S./Mexico Foundation in Texas to assess the effect of LIDAR point density on the characterization of topographic variation and on H&H modeling results for improved floodplain mapping. Research for this project is being conducted in two areas of North Carolina and in the City of Brownsville, Texas, each with a different type of terrain and varying land cover/land use. Because of various project constraints, LIDAR data were acquired once at a high posting density and then decimated to coarser postings or densities. Quality

  10. Floods of June 2012 in northeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czuba, Christiana R.; Fallon, James D.; Kessler, Erich W.

    2012-01-01

    During June 19–20, 2012, heavy rainfall, as much as 10 inches locally reported, caused severe flooding across northeastern Minnesota. The floods were exacerbated by wet antecedent conditions from a relatively rainy spring, with May 2012 as one of the wettest Mays on record in Duluth. The June 19–20, 2012, rainfall event set new records in Duluth, including greatest 2-day precipitation with 7.25 inches of rain. The heavy rains fell on three major watersheds: the Mississippi Headwaters; the St. Croix, which drains to the Mississippi River; and Western Lake Superior, which includes the St. Louis River and other tributaries to Lake Superior. Widespread flash and river flooding that resulted from the heavy rainfall caused evacuations of residents, and damages to residences, businesses, and infrastructure. In all, nine counties in northeastern Minnesota were declared Federal disaster areas as a result of the flooding. Peak-of-record streamflows were recorded at 13 U.S. Geological Survey streamgages as a result of the heavy rainfall. Flood-peak gage heights, peak streamflows, and annual exceedance probabilities were tabulated for 35 U.S. Geological Survey streamgages. Flood-peak streamflows in June 2012 had annual exceedance probabilities estimated to be less than 0.002 (0.2 percent; recurrence interval greater than 500 years) for five streamgages, and between 0.002 and 0.01 (1 percent; recurrence interval greater than 100 years) for four streamgages. High-water marks were identified and tabulated for the most severely affected communities of Barnum (Moose Horn River), Carlton (Otter Creek), Duluth Heights neighborhood of Duluth (Miller Creek), Fond du Lac neighborhood of Duluth (St. Louis River), Moose Lake (Moose Horn River and Moosehead Lake), and Thomson (Thomson Reservoir outflow near the St. Louis River). Flood-peak inundation maps and water-surface profiles were produced for these six severely affected communities. The inundation maps were constructed in a

  11. Floods of September 2010 in Southern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellison, Christopher A.; Sanocki, Chris A.; Lorenz, David L.; Mitton, Gregory B.; Kruse, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    During September 22-24, 2010, heavy rainfall ranging from 3 inches to more than 10 inches caused severe flooding across southern Minnesota. The floods were exacerbated by wet antecedent conditions, where summer rainfall totals were as high as 20 inches, exceeding the historical average by more than 4 inches. Widespread flooding that occurred as a result of the heavy rainfall caused evacuations of hundreds of residents, and damages in excess of 64 million dollars to residences, businesses, and infrastructure. In all, 21 counties in southern Minnesota were declared Federal disaster areas. Peak-of-record streamflows were recorded at nine U.S. Geological Survey and three Minnesota Department of Natural Resources streamgages as a result of the heavy rainfall. Flood-peak gage heights, peak streamflows, and annual exceedance probabilities were tabulated for 27 U.S. Geological Survey and 5 Minnesota Department of Natural Resources streamgages and 5 ungaged sites. Flood-peak streamflows in 2010 had annual exceedance probabilities estimated to be less than 0.2 percent (recurrence interval greater than 500 years) at 7 streamgages and less than 1 percent (recurrence interval greater than 100 years) at 5 streamgages and 4 ungaged sites. High-water marks were identified and tabulated for the most severely affected communities of Faribault along the Cannon and Straight Rivers, Owatonna along the Straight River and Maple Creek, Pine Island along the North Branch and Middle Fork Zumbro River, and Zumbro Falls along the Zumbro River. The nearby communities of Hammond, Henderson, Millville, Oronoco, Pipestone, and Rapidan also received extensive flooding and damage but were not surveyed for high-water marks. Flood-peak inundation maps and water-surface profiles for the four most severely affected communities were constructed in a geographic information system by combining high-water-mark data with the highest resolution digital elevation model data available. The flood maps and

  12. Assessment of coastal flood risk in a changing climate along the northern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilskie, M. V.; Hagen, S. C.; Passeri, D. L.; Alizad, K.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal regions around the world are susceptible to a variety of natural disasters causing extreme inundation. It is anticipated that the vulnerability of coastal cities will increase due to the effects of climate change, and in particular sea level rise (SLR). We have developed a novel framework to construct a physics-based storm surge model that includes projections of coastal floodplain dynamics under climate change scenarios. Numerous experiments were conducted and it was concluded that a number of influencing factors, other than SLR, should be included in future assessments of coastal flooding under climate change; e.g., shoreline changes, barrier island morphology, salt marsh migration, and population dynamics. These factors can significantly affect the path, pattern, and magnitude of flooding depths and inundation along the coastline (Bilskie et al., 2014; Passeri et al., 2014). Using these factors, a storm surge model of the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) representing present day conditions is modified to characterize the future outlook of the landscape. This adapted model is then used to assess flood risk in terms of the 100-year floodplain surface under SLR scenarios. A suite of hundreds of synthetic storms, derived by JPM-OS (Joint Probability Method - Optimum Sampling), are filtered to obtain the storms necessary to represent the statistically determined 100-year floodplain. The NGOM storm surge model is applied to simulate the synthetic storms and determine, for each storm, the flooding surface and depth, for four SLR scenarios for the year 2100 as prescribed by Parris et al. (2012). The collection of results facilitate the estimation of water surface elevation vs. frequency curves across the floodplain and the statistically defined 100-year floodplain is extracted. This novel method to assess coastal flooding under climate change can be performed across any coastal region worldwide, and results provide awareness of regions vulnerable to extreme

  13. Flood of June 26-29, 2006, Mohawk, Delaware, and Susquehanna River Basins, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suro, Thomas P.; Firda, Gary D.; Szabo, Carolyn O.

    2009-01-01

    A stalled frontal system caused tropical moisture to be funneled northward into New York, causing severe flooding in the Mohawk, Delaware, and Susquehanna River basins during June 26-29, 2006. Rainfall totals for this multi-day event ranged from 2 to 3 inches to greater than 13 inches in southern New York. The storm and flooding claimed four lives in New York, destroyed or damaged thousands of homes and businesses, and closed hundreds of roads and highways. Thousands of people evacuated their homes as floodwaters reached new record elevations at many locations within the three basins. Twelve New York counties were declared Federal disaster areas, more than 15,500 residents applied for disaster assistance, and millions of dollars in damages resulted from the flooding. Disaster-recovery assistance for individuals and businesses adversely affected by the floods of June 2006 reached more than $227 million. The National Weather Service rainfall station at Slide Mountain recorded storm totals of more than 8 inches of rainfall, and the stations at Walton and Fishs Eddy, NY, recorded storm totals of greater than 13 inches of rainfall. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) stream-gaging stations at Mohawk River at Little Falls, West Branch Delaware River at Hale Eddy, and Susquehanna River at Vestal, NY, among others, recorded peak discharges of 35,000 ft3/s, 43,400 ft3/s, and 119,000 ft3/s respectively, with greater than 100-year recurrence intervals. The peak water-surface elevation 21.47 ft and the peak discharge 189,000 ft3/s recorded on June 28, 2006, at the Delaware River at Port Jervis stream-gaging station were the highest recorded since the flood of August 1955. At the Susquehanna River at Conklin, NY, stream-gaging station, which has been in operation since 1912, the peak water-surface elevation 25.02 ft and peak discharge 76,800 ft3/s recorded on June 28, 2006, exceeded the previous period-of-record maximums that were set during the flood of March 1936. Documented

  14. 77 FR 29678 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... FEMA-2012-0003: Internal Agency Docket No. FEMA-B-1251] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY... flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood depth, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or...

  15. Ice core evidence for significant 100-year regional warming on the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, E. R.; Dennis, P. F.; Bracegirdle, T. J.; Franzke, C.

    2009-10-01

    We present a new 150-year, high-resolution, stable isotope record (δ 18O) from the Gomez ice core, drilled on the data sparse south western Antarctic Peninsula, revealing a ˜2.7°C rise in surface temperatures since the 1950s. The record is highly correlated with satellite-derived temperature reconstructions and instrumental records from Faraday station on the north west coast, thus making it a robust proxy for local and regional temperatures since the 1850s. We conclude that the exceptional 50-year warming, previously only observed in the northern Peninsula, is not just a local phenomena but part of a statistically significant 100-year regional warming trend that began around 1900. A suite of coupled climate models are employed to demonstrate that the 50 and 100 year temperature trends are outside of the expected range of variability from pre-industrial control runs, indicating that the warming is likely the result of external climate forcing.

  16. Creating Long Term Income Streams for the 100 Year Starship Study Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvester, A. J.

    Development and execution of long term research projects are very dependent on a consistent application of funding to maximize the potential for success. The business structure for the 100 Year Starship Study project should allow for multiple income streams to cover the expenses of the research objectives. The following examples illustrate the range of potential avenues: 1) affiliation with a charitable foundation for creating a donation program to fund a long term endowment for research, 2) application for grants to fund initial research projects and establish the core expertise of the research entity, 3) development of intellectual property which can then be licensed for additional revenue, 4) creation of spinout companies with equity positions retained by the lab for funding the endowment, and 5) funded research which is dual use for the technology goals of the interstellar flight research objectives. With the establishment of a diversified stream of funding options, then the endowment can be funded at a level to permit dedicated research on the interstellar flight topics. This paper will focus on the strategy of creating spinout companies to create income streams which would fund the endowment of the 100 Year Starship Study effort. This technique is widely used by universities seeking to commercially develop and market technologies developed by university researchers. An approach will be outlined for applying this technique to potentially marketable technologies generated as a part of the 100 Year Starship Study effort.

  17. Floods of June 28-29, 1998 in Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koltun, G.F.

    1999-01-01

    During a 96-hour period extending from June 26 to June 30, 1998, a stalled frontal system produced a series of storms that dumped 10 inches or more of rain on parts of Ohio. The storms occurred at the end of a relatively wet month, resulting in flooding and widespread damage throughout much of central, east-central, and southeastern Ohio. Twenty-three Ohio counties were declared Federal and State disaster areas as a result of the storms and flooding with an estimated economic impact of nearly $178 million. Twelve storm or flood-related fatalities were reported. Flooding was most severe in the Ohio counties of Guernsey, Noble, and Washington, which lie roughly along a north-south line coincident with the band of heaviest rainfall. Some streams in those counties had peak streamflows with estimated recurrence intervals in excess of 100 years. This report describes the meteorologic factors contributing to the floods and provides information on the resulting damages. Peak-streamflows, estimated recurrence intervals, and high-water elevation or stage data are reported for selected locations in the State.

  18. An Exploration of the Importance of Flood Heterogeneity for Regionalization in Arizona using the Expected Moments Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamora-Reyes, D.; Hirschboeck, K. K.; Paretti, N. V.

    2012-12-01

    equations for sites that have two or more independent flood populations. Finally, the individual probability curves generated for each of the three flood-causing populations were compared with both the site's composite probability curve and the standard B17B curve to explore the influence of heterogeneity using the 100-year and 200-year flood estimates as a basis of comparison. Results showed that sites located in southern Arizona and along the abrupt elevation transition zone of the Mogollon Rim exhibit a better fit to the systematic data using their composite probability curves than the curves derived from standard B17B analysis. Synoptic storm floods and tropical cyclone-enhanced floods had the greatest influence on 100-year and 200-year flood estimates. This was especially true in southern Arizona, even though summer convective floods are much more frequent and therefore dominate the composite curve. Using the EMA approach also influenced our results because all possible low outliers were censored by the built-in Multiple Grubbs-Beck Test, providing a better fit to the systematic data in the upper probabilities. In conclusion, flood heterogeneity can play an important role in regional flood frequency variations in Arizona and that understanding its influence is important when making projections about future flood variations.

  19. Observed climate variations during the last 100 years in Lapland, northern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Susan E.; Press, M. C.; Lee, J. A.

    2000-03-01

    Many general circulation models (GCMs) predict that high latitude environments will experience substantial warming over the next 100 years, which will be particularly pronounced during the winter months. Precipitation is also expected to increase but there is uncertainty as to the amount and spatial variation.The flora and fauna of the arctic and subarctic regions, together with indigenous people, such as the Saami, are particularly vunerable to rising temperatures and changing precipitation. Mean monthly temperature and precipitation data were examined for the last 100 years for northern Finland. These data were further analysed for the first and second half of the 20th century.There was no discernible warming trend between 1876 and 1993, but a significant annual warming (r=0.344, <0.05) occurred in the period 1901-1945, together with a significant summer warming (r=0.381, ρ<0.05). Warming has occurred consistently in May and June over the last 100 years and there appears to be a current (i.e. post 1990) annual trend, mostly due to winter warming. The greatest temperature anomaly increase for the period 1901-1945 was in the winter months (+0.72°C). The degree of temperature variation in the winter is greater than in the summer and has risen from 3.98°C for December in the period 1901-1945 to 4.37°C in the period 1946-1990. This is attributed to the recent high variability in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) Index. Annual precipitation has increased significantly during the period 1880-1993. The period 1946-1990 was wetter than 1901-1945, with greater variability particularly in the summer months, which contribute most to the annual precipitation in Lapland.

  20. 100 years of Epilepsia: landmark papers and their influence in neuropsychology and neuropsychiatry.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Bruce

    2010-07-01

    As part of the 2009 International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Centenary Celebration, a special symposium was dedicated to Epilepsia (100 Years of Epilepsia: Landmark Papers and Their Influence). The Associate Editors were asked to identify a particularly salient and meaningful paper in their areas of expertise. From the content areas of neuropsychology and neuropsychiatry two very interesting papers were identified using quite different ascertainment techniques. One paper addressed the problem of psychosis in temporal lobe epilepsy, whereas the other represents the first paper to appear in Epilepsia presenting quantitative assessment of cognitive status in epilepsy. These two papers are reviewed in detail and placed in historical context.

  1. Fascia Research Congress evidence from the 100 year perspective of Andrew Taylor Still.

    PubMed

    Findley, Thomas W; Shalwala, Mona

    2013-07-01

    More than 100 years ago A.T. Still MD founded osteopathic medicine, and specifically described fascia as a covering, with common origins of layers of the fascial system despite diverse names for individual parts. Fascia assists gliding and fluid flow and is highly innervated. Fascia is intimately involved with respiration and with nourishment of all cells of the body, including those of disease and cancer. This paper reviews information presented at the first three International Fascia Research Congresses in 2007, 2009 and 2012 from the perspective of Dr Still, that fascia is vital for organism's growth and support, and it is where disease is sown.

  2. 100 years since the discovery of cosmic rays. A brief history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiavassa, Andrea

    2012-11-01

    With the words "Cosmic Rays" we mean particles impinging on the earth atmosphere. The existence of these particles was discovered in 1912, i.e. exactly 100 years ago, by the Austrian physicist Victor Hesss. In this contribution I will describe the steps that lead to such a discovery: from the electroscope measurements, showing their spontaneous discharge, to the correct explanation of this results with the existence of charged particles arriving from outside of the atmosphere. Then I will discuss the first steps of experimental particle physics, obtained with experiments performed detecting cosmic rays, that allowed important discoveries as the detection of antimatter and of new subatominc particles as muons and pions.

  3. Flood-frequency characteristics of Wisconsin streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, John F.; Krug, William R.

    2003-01-01

    Flood-frequency characteristics for 312 gaged sites on Wisconsin streams are presented for recurrence intervals of 2 to 100 years using flood-peak data collected through water year 2000. Equations of the relations between flood-frequency and drainage-basin characteristics were developed by multiple-regression analyses. Flood-frequency characteristics for ungaged sites on unregulated, rural streams can be estimated by use of these equations. The state was divided into five areas with similar physiographic characteristics. The most significant basin characteristics are drainage area, main-channel slope, soil permeability, storage, rainfall intensity, and forest cover. The standard error of prediction for the equation for the 100-year flood discharge ranges from 22 to 44 percent in the state. A graphical method for estimating flood-frequency characteristics of regulated streams was developed from the relation of discharge and drainage area. Graphs for the major regulated streams are presented.

  4. Solar wind variations in the 60-100 year period range: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feynman, J.

    1983-01-01

    The evidence for and against the reality of a solar wind variation in the period range of 60-100 years is reexamined. Six data sets are reviewed; sunspot numbers, geomagnetic variations, two auroral data sets and two (14)C data sets. These data are proxies for several different aspects of the solar wind and the presence or absence of 60-100 year cyclic behavior in a particular data set does not necessarily imply the presence or absence of this variation in other sets. It was concluded that two different analyses of proxy data for a particular characteristic of the heliospheric solar wind yielded conflicting results. This conflict can be resolved only by future research. It is also definitely confirmed that proxy data for the solar wind in the ecliptic at 1 A.U. undergo a periodic variation with a period of approximately 87 years. The average amplitude and phase of this variation as seen in eleven cycles of proxy data are presented.

  5. Morphological response of songbirds to 100 years of landscape change in North America.

    PubMed

    Desrochers, A

    2010-06-01

    Major landscape changes caused by humans may create strong selection pressures and induce rapid evolution in natural populations. In the last 100 years, eastern North America has experienced extensive clear-cutting in boreal areas, while afforestation has occurred in most temperate areas. Based on museum specimens, I show that wings of several boreal forest songbirds and temperate songbirds of non-forest habitats have become more pointed over the last 100 years. In contrast, wings of most temperate forest and early-successional boreal forests species have become less pointed over the same period. In contrast to wing shape, the bill length of most species did not change significantly through time. These results are consistent with the "habitat isolation hypothesis", i.e., songbirds evolved in response to recent changes in the amount of available habitat and associated implications for mobility. Rapid morphological evolution may mitigate, without necessarily preventing, negative consequences of habitat loss caused by humans through direct exploitation or climate change.

  6. Solving the Supreme Problem: 100 years of selection and recruitment at the Journal of Applied Psychology.

    PubMed

    Ployhart, Robert E; Schmitt, Neal; Tippins, Nancy T

    2017-03-01

    This article reviews 100 years of research on recruitment and selection published in the Journal of Applied Psychology. Recruitment and selection research has been present in the Journal from the very first issue, where Hall (1917) suggested that the challenge of recruitment and selection was the Supreme Problem facing the field of applied psychology. As this article shows, the various topics related to recruitment and selection have ebbed and flowed over the years in response to business, legal, and societal changes, but this Supreme Problem has captivated the attention of scientist-practitioners for a century. Our review starts by identifying the practical challenges and macro forces that shaped the sciences of recruitment and selection and helped to define the research questions the field has addressed. We then describe the evolution of recruitment and selection research and the ways the resulting scientific advancements have contributed to staffing practices. We conclude with speculations on how recruitment and selection research may proceed in the future. Supplemental material posted online provides additional depth by including a summary of practice challenges and scientific advancements that affected the direction of selection and recruitment research and an outline of seminal articles published in the Journal and corresponding time line. The 100-year anniversary of the Journal of Applied Psychology is very much the celebration of recruitment and selection research, although predictions about the future suggest there is still much exciting work to be done. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. 77 FR 56664 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... [Docket ID FEMA-2012-0003; Internal Agency Docket No. FEMA-B-1262] Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations... where the addition or modification of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood... as flood hazard determinations), as shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), and...

  8. Urban flood analysis in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tortorelli, Robert L.; Huntzinger, T.L.; Bergman, D.L.; Patneaude, A.L.

    1983-01-01

    Flood insurance study information from the Federal Emergency Management Agency is utilized to estimate future flood hazard in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Techniques are described for estimating future urban runoff estimates. A method of developing stream cross section rating curves is explained. Future runoff estimates are used in conjuction with the rating curves to develop an estimate of 50- and 100- year flood profiles that would result from future urban development.

  9. Simulations of flooding on Tchoutacabouffa River at State Highways 15 and 67 at D'Iberville, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winters, Karl E.

    2000-01-01

    A two-dimensional finite-element surface-water model was used to simulate the effects of the proposed State Highways 15 and 67 relocation on water-surface elevations and flow distributions for the 100-year flood on the Tchoutacabouffa River at D?Iberville, Mississippi. The Mississippi Department of Transportation plans to relocate State Highways 15 and 67 by removing a portion of the existing four-lane highway and constructing a four-lane facility upstream of the existing alignment. The proposed alignment is located on the northern floodplain and will tie into the existing highway about 1,000 feet north of the dual State Highways 15 and 67 bridges. The proposed alignment will intercept flows that cross the existing highway during large floods. Seven scenarios were simulated for the 100-year flood, including four proposed alternative configurations for drainage structures. The model grid was developed by using surveyed floodplain cross sections and channel bathymetry data obtained by using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler, in combination with a global positioning system. The model was calibrated and verified by using surveyed flood profiles through the study reach and flood discharge measurements obtained at the State Highways 15 and 67 crossing. Model parameters were adjusted so that the computed water-surface profiles agreed closely with the surveyed flood profiles. Computed water-surface differentials across the proposed alignment near the northern edge of the floodplain for the four alternatives proposed by the Mississippi Department of Transportation ranged from 1.4 to 2.6 feet. Much lower differentials were computed in the vicinity of the main-channel bridge. The computed water-surface elevation at McCully Drive, upstream of the proposed alignment, was 17.3 feet for existing conditions. Computed water-surface elevations at McCully Drive for the proposed alternatives ranged from 17.3 to 17.8 feet.

  10. DNA from a 100-year-old holotype confirms the validity of a potentially extinct hummingbird species.

    PubMed

    Kirchman, Jeremy J; Witt, Christopher C; McGuire, Jimmy A; Graves, Gary R

    2010-02-23

    We used mtDNA sequence data to confirm that the controversial 100-year-old holotype of the Bogotá sunangel (Heliangelus zusii) represents a valid species. We demonstrate that H. zusii is genetically well differentiated from taxa previously hypothesized to have given rise to the specimen via hybridization. Phylogenetic analyses place H. zusii as sister to a clade of mid- to high-elevation Andean species currently placed in the genera Taphrolesbia and Aglaiocercus. Heliangelus zusii, presumed extinct, has never been observed in nature by biologists. We infer that the species occupied a restricted distribution between the upper tropical and temperate zones of the northern Andes and that it was most probably driven to extinction by deforestation that accompanied human population growth during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. We demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining DNA from nearly microscopic tissue samples from old hummingbird specimens and suggest that these methods could be used to resolve the taxonomy of dozens of avian taxa known only from type specimens.

  11. Floods in Indiana, June-August 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gold, Robert L.; Wolcott, Stephen W.

    1980-01-01

    This report documents rainstorms and resultant floods in central and southern Indiana during the summer of 1979. Major flooding was caused by three storms, one in June and two in July 1979, centered primarily in central and southern Indiana. Peak discharge exceeded the 100-year recurrence interval at 16 sites in this area. State Civil Defense officials estimated that almost 50-million dollars damage was attributable to the July floods. Hydrologic data have been tabulated for streamflow sites in the areas of flooding. Reservoir storage volumes, observation-well data, rainfall totals, and discharge hydrographs are presented to show the intensity and time of the storms and resultant floods. (USGS)

  12. Sedimentary records of eutrophication and hypoxia in the Changjiang Estuary over the last 100 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuwen, F.; Hongliang, L.; Zhao, M.; Xuefa, S.

    2012-12-01

    We selected two cores in the Changjiang Estuary, one located in the Changjiang Estuary mud area (CEMA) within the region of seasonal hypoxia, the other located in the Cheju Island mud area (SCIMA) and outside the hypoxia region. The grain size, total organic carbon (TOC), stable carbon isotopic ratios (δ13 Corg), biomarkers (the sum of brassicasterol, dinosterol and alkenone) and some redox sensitive elements (RSEs) were determined on the 210Pb-dated sediment cores to study potential hundrend-years eutrophication and hypoxia. The sediment record in CEMA showed that an increase in TOC (21%), biomarkers (141%) and δ13 Corg (1.6‰PDB ) occurred since 1950s and a marked increase since 1970s. These distributions indicated the enhanced productivity and establshed the history of eutrophication in the Changjiang Estuary during the past 100 years. Some RSEs have been enriched significantly since the late 1960s to 1970s, the rates of Mo/Al, Cd/Al and As/Al increased about 83%, 73% and 50% respectively. These data may indicate the onset of hypoxia in the Changjiang Estuary during the last 100 years. The increasing of marine organic matter and RSEs accumulation was corresponding with the fertilizer consumption and high nutrient inputs from the Changjiang River. The riverine runoff of fertilizers and nutrients stimulated the algae (e g. brassicasterol, dinosterol) blooming. Enhanced primary production resulted in an enrichment of organic matter and hypoxia invoked organic matter preserved in the sediment. For the core sediment in SCIMA, the geochemical indicators (TOC, biomarkers and δ13Corg ) increased in difference degrees before 1950s~1970s and then were almost the constant. Productivity in the SCIMA have been mainly influenced by climate ocean circulation changes over the last 100 years. The RSEs were controlled by "grain size effects" which indicated no hypoxia occurred. This study concluded that δ13 Corg, RSEs and biomarkers in sediment could be used to trace or

  13. Epic Flooding in Georgia, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gotvald, Anthony J.; McCallum, Brian E.

    2010-01-01

    Metropolitan Atlanta-September 2009 Floods The epic floods experienced in the Atlanta area in September 2009 were extremely rare. Eighteen streamgages in the Metropolitan Atlanta area had flood magnitudes much greater than the estimated 0.2-percent (500-year) annual exceedance probability. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) reported that 23 counties in Georgia were declared disaster areas due to this flood and that 16,981 homes and 3,482 businesses were affected by floodwaters. Ten lives were lost in the flood. The total estimated damages exceed $193 million (H.E. Longenecker, Federal Emergency Management Agency, written commun., November 2009). On Sweetwater Creek near Austell, Ga., just north of Interstate 20, the peak stage was more than 6 feet higher than the estimated peak stage of the 0.2-percent (500-year) flood. Flood magnitudes in Cobb County on Sweetwater, Butler, and Powder Springs Creeks greatly exceeded the estimated 0.2-percent (500-year) floods for these streams. In Douglas County, the Dog River at Ga. Highway 5 near Fairplay had a peak stage nearly 20 feet higher than the estimated peak stage of the 0.2-percent (500-year) flood. On the Chattahoochee River, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gage at Vinings reached the highest level recorded in the past 81 years. Gwinnett, De Kalb, Fulton, and Rockdale Counties also had record flooding.South Georgia March and April 2009 FloodsThe March and April 2009 floods in South Georgia were smaller in magnitude than the September floods but still caused significant damage. No lives were lost in this flood. Approximately $60 million in public infrastructure damage occurred to roads, culverts, bridges and a water treatment facility (Joseph T. McKinney, Federal Emergency Management Agency, written commun., July 2009). Flow at the Satilla River near Waycross, exceeded the 0.5-percent (200-year) flood. Flows at seven other stations in South Georgia exceeded the 1-percent (100-year) flood.

  14. 100-year DASCH Light Curves of Kepler Planet-Candidate Host Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Sumin; Sasselov, Dimitar; Grindlay, Jonathan; Los, Edward; Servillat, Mathieu

    2013-07-01

    We present 100 year light curves of Kepler planet-candidate host stars from the Digital Access to a Sky Century at Harvard (DASCH) project. 261 out of 997 host stars have at least 10 good measurements on DASCH scans of the Harvard plates. 109 of them have at least 100 good measurements, including 70% (73 out of 104) of all host stars with g ≤ 13 mag, and 44% (100 out of 228) of all host stars with g ≤ 14 mag. Our typical photometric uncertainty is ∼0.1–0.15 mag. No variation is found at 3σ level for these host stars, including 21 confirmed or candidate hot Jupiter systems which might be expected to show enhanced flares from magnetic interactions between dwarf primaries and their close and relatively massive planet companions.

  15. 100 years of Pb deposition and transport in soils in Champaign, Illinois, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Y.

    2003-01-01

    In Illinois, atmospheric deposition is one major source of heavy metal inputs to agricultural land. The atmospheric Pb deposition and transport record in agricultural soils in Champaign, Illinois, was established by studying surface and subsurface soil samples collected during the past 100 years from the Morrow Plots on the campus of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The Pb content in the soil samples was measured and the Ph deposition fluxes were calculated. The Pb content in surface soils increased sharply in the first half of the 20th century, and stayed invariant since. The maximum Pb flux from the atmosphere was estimated to be 27 (??14) ??g cm-2 yr-1 around 1940. The major pollution source for this increase probably was residential coal burning. It was estimated that in 50 yr, more than 50% of the Pb input had been lost from the surface soils.

  16. The Reissner Canard: The first all-metal airplane 100 years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Egon

    2012-10-01

    In 1912 Professor Hans Reissner of the Technical University Aachen built a canard-type aeroplane, the world-wide first completely out of metal: although the Reissner Canard initiated a new technology with the Junkers J1 the first to follow in 1915 and 1000 more until now, little is known about the very first steps way back in Aachen. This paper tries to recapture some details of the developments 100 years ago with the aid of early publications and photographs and shed some light on the first wing fabricated out of a corrugated aluminum sheet mounted at the tail of the braced-steel-pipe fuselage to earn its airworthiness in Berlin Johannisthal in 1912.

  17. 100 years of applied psychology research on individual careers: From career management to retirement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mo; Wanberg, Connie R

    2017-03-01

    This article surveys 100 years of research on career management and retirement, with a primary focus on work published in the Journal of Applied Psychology. Research on career management took off in the 1920s, with most attention devoted to the development and validation of career interest inventories. Over time, research expanded to attend to broader issues such as the predictors and outcomes of career interests and choice; the nature of career success and who achieves it; career transitions and adaptability to change; retirement decision making and adjustment; and bridge employment. In this article, we provide a timeline for the evolution of the career management and retirement literature, review major theoretical perspectives and findings on career management and retirement, and discuss important future research directions. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Sustainable Foods and Medicines Support Vitality, Sex and Longevity for a 100-Year Starship Expedition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, M. R.

    Extended space flight requires foods and medicines that sustain crew health and vitality. The health and therapeutic needs for the entire crew and their children for a 100-year space flight must be sustainable. The starship cannot depend on resupply or carry a large cargo of pharmaceuticals. Everything in the starship must be completely recyclable and reconstructable, including food, feed, textiles, building materials, pharmaceuticals, vaccines, and medicines. Smart microfarms will produce functional foods with superior nutrition and sensory attributes. These foods provide high-quality protein and nutralence (nutrient density), that avoids obesity, diabetes, and other Western diseases. The combination of functional foods, lifestyle actions, and medicines will support crew immunity, energy, vitality, sustained strong health, and longevity. Smart microfarms enable the production of fresh medicines in hours or days, eliminating the need for a large dispensary, which eliminates concern over drug shelf life. Smart microfarms are adaptable to the extreme growing area, resource, and environmental constraints associated with an extended starship expedition.

  19. Secular changes in growth among Japanese children over 100 years (1900-2000).

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Masaharu; Tahara, Yasuaki; Moji, Kazuhiko; Nakao, Rieko; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Hills, Andrew P

    2011-01-01

    Human growth is associated with complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. While research has reported increased body size and body mass index (BMI) of Japanese children, few studies have compared the magnitude of increments in growth before and after World War II (WW II) and also considered other social and economical events that may have influenced the growth of children. The current study assessed the secular change in growth in Japanese children and adolescents aged between 6 and 17 years using data from the School Health Statistics Survey conducted between 1900 and 2000 with consideration of key social changes during the 20th Century. Over the 100-year period, Japanese boys had height and weight increments of 1.0-2.0 cm per decade and 0.4-1.7 kg per decade whereas girls had rates of 1.1-1.9 cm and 0.4-1.5 kg per decade, respectively. The rates of height increment were significantly (p<0.05) different between pre-, during and post-WW II periods. While Japanese children were considerably larger in 2000 compared to 1900, increments between 1950 and 1960 reflected catch-up growth to restore physical size seen in children prior to WW II. The increments in body size continued after 1960 with greatest changes seen across the pubertal years. While increments in BMI were evident in most age groups, the BMI of 17-year-old girls was consistent over the 100 years. Results clarified secular changes in growth in Japanese school children across the 20th Century and possible factors contributing to these changes.

  20. 100+ years of instrumental seismology: the example of the ISC-GEM Global Earthquake Instrumental Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storchak, Dmitry; Di Giacomo, Domenico

    2015-04-01

    Systematic seismological observations of earthquakes using seismic instruments on a global scale began more than 100 years ago. Since then seismologists made many discoveries about the Earth interior and the physics of the earthquakes, also thanks to major developments in the seismic instrumentation deployed around the world. Besides, since the establishment of the first global networks (Milne and Jesuit networks), seismologists around the world stored and exchanged the results of routine observations (e.g., picking of arrival times, amplitude-period measurements, etc.) or more sophisticated analyses (e.g., moment tensor inversion) in seismological bulletins/catalogues. With a project funded by the GEM Foundation (www.globalquakemodel.org), the ISC and the Team of International Experts released a new global earthquake catalogue, the ISC-GEM Global Instrumental Earthquake Catalogue (1900 2009) (www.isc.ac.uk/iscgem/index.php), which, differently from previous global seismic catalogues, has the unique feature of covering the entire period of instrumental seismology with locations and magnitude re-assessed using modern approaches for the global earthquakes selected for processing (in the current version approximately 21,000). During the 110 years covered by the ISC-GEM catalogue many seismological developments occurred in terms of instrumentation, seismological practice and knowledge of the physics of the earthquakes. In this contribution we give a brief overview of the major milestones characterizing the last 100+ years of instrumental seismology that were relevant for the production of the ISC-GEM catalogue and the major challenges we faced to obtain a catalogue as homogenous as possible.

  1. Flood study of the Suncook River in Epsom, Pembroke, and Allenstown, New Hampshire, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    On May 15, 2006, a breach in the riverbank caused an avulsion in the Suncook River in Epsom, NH. The breach in the riverbank and subsequent avulsion changed the established flood zones along the Suncook River; therefore, a new flood study was needed to reflect this change and aid in flood recovery and restoration. For this flood study, the hydrologic and hydraulic analyses for the Suncook River were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency. This report presents water-surface elevations and profiles determined using the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers one-dimensional Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System model, also known as HEC-RAS. Steady-state water-surface profiles were developed for the Suncook River from its confluence with the Merrimack River in the Village of Suncook (in Allenstown and Pembroke, NH) to the upstream corporate limit of the town of Epsom, NH (approximately 15.9 river miles). Floods of magnitudes that are expected to be equaled or exceeded once on the average during any 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, or 500-year period (recurrence interval) were modeled using HEC-RAS. These flood events are referred to as the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year floods and have a 50-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, and 0.2-percent chance, respectively, of being equaled or exceeded during any year. The 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year flood events are important for flood-plain management, determination of flood-insurance rates, and design of structures such as bridges and culverts. The analyses in this study reflect flooding potentials that are based on existing conditions in the communities of Epsom, Pembroke, and Allenstown at the time of completion of this study (2009). Changes in the 100-year recurrence-interval flood elevation from the 1979 flood study were typically less than 2 feet with the exception of a location 900 feet upstream from the avulsion that, because of backwater from the dams in the

  2. Flood-prone areas of Jacksonville, Duval County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Richard B.; Causey, Lawson V.; Tucker, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Floods in the consolidated city of Jacksonville, Duval County, Florida, are caused directly by rainfall which, when combined with storm driven tides, causes rivers or other bodies of water to flood the low lying parts of the county. This map report supplies information on areas subject to floods of 100-year frequency; the information will permit evaluation of alternative uses of such areas. The extent of the 100-year flood is shown on the large-scale map accompanying the report. Also included is an index map showing sections of Duval County where more detailed information on the 100-year flood can be obtained. The major flood of record in the county occurred in 1964 when Hurricane Dora crossed the area. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. Hydrology, geomorphology, and flood profiles of the Mendenhall River, Juneau, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, Edward G.; Host, Randy H.

    1999-01-01

    Water-surface-profile elevations for the 2-, 20-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year floods were computed for the Mendenhall River near Juneau, Alaska, using the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System model. The peak discharges for the selected recurrence intervals were determined using the standard log-Pearson type III method. Channel cross sections were surveyed at 60 locations to define hydraulic characteristics over a 5.5-mile reach of river beginning at Mendenhall Lake outlet and extending to the river mouth. A peak flow of 12,400 cubic feet per second occurred on the Mendenhall River on October 20, 1998. This discharge is equivalent to about a 10-year flood on the Mendenhall River and floodmarks produced by this flood were surveyed and used to calibrate the model. The study area is currently experiencing land-surface uplift rates of about 0.05 foot per year. This high rate of uplift has the potential to cause incision or downcutting of the river channel through lowering of the base level. Vertical datum used in the study area was established about 37 years before the most recent surveys of river-channel geometry. The resulting difference between land-surface elevations and sea level continues to increase. Continuing incision of the river channel combined with increased land-surface elevations with respect to sea level may result in computed flood profiles that are higher than actual existing conditions in the tidally influenced reach of the river.

  4. Flood of July 9-11, 1993, in the Raccoon River basin, west-central Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eash, D.A.; Koppensteiner, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    Water-surface-elevation profiles and peak discharges for the flood of July 9-11, 1993, in the Raccoon River Basin, west-central Iowa, are presented in this report. The profiles illustrate the 1993 flood along the Raccoon, North Raccoon, South Raccoon, and Middle Raccoon Rivers and along Brushy and Storm Creeks in the west-central Iowa counties of Carroll, Dallas, Greene, Guthrie, and Polk. Water-surface-elevation profiles for the floods of June 1947, March 1979, and June 29- July 1, 1986, in the Raccoon River Basin also are included in the report for comparative purposes. The July 9-11, 1993, flood is the largest known peak discharge at gaging stations Brushy Creek near Templeton (station number 05483318) 19,000 cubic feet per second, Middle Raccoon River near Bayard (station number 05483450) 27,500 cubic feet per second, Middle Raccoon River at Panora (station number 05483600) 22,400 cubic feet per second, South Raccoon River at Redfield (station number 05484000) 44,000 cubic feet per second, and Raccoon River at Van Meter (station number 05484500) 70,100 cubic feet per second. The peak discharges were, respectively, 1.5, 1.3, 1.1,1.2, and 1.3 times larger than calculated 100-year recurrence-interval discharges. The report provides information on flood stages and discharges and floodflow frequencies for streamflow-gaging stations in the Raccoon River Basin using flood information collected through 1996. A flood history summarizes rainfall conditions and damages for floods that occurred during 1947, 1958, 1979, 1986, 1990, and 1993. Information on temporary bench marks and reference points established in the Raccoon River Basin during 1976-79 and 1995-97 also is included in the report.

  5. Use of documentary sources on past flood events for flood risk management and land planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cœur, Denis; Lang, Michel

    2008-09-01

    The knowledge of past catastrophic events can improve flood risk mitigation policy, with a better awareness against risk. As such historical information is usually available in Europe for the past five centuries, historians are able to understand how past society dealt with flood risk, and hydrologists can include information on past floods into an adapted probabilistic framework. In France, Flood Risk Mitigation Maps are based either on the largest historical known flood event or on the 100-year flood event if it is greater. Two actions can be suggested in terms of promoting the use of historical information for flood risk management: (1) the development of a regional flood data base, with both historical and current data, in order to get a good feedback on recent events and to improve the flood risk education and awareness; (2) the commitment to keep a persistent/perennial management of a reference network of hydrometeorological observations for climate change studies.

  6. Relative impacts of climate and land use changes on future flood damage along River Meuse in Wallonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, A.; Detrembleur, S.; Dewals, B. J.; Gouverneur, L.; Dujardin, S.; Archambeau, P.; Erpicum, S.; Pirotton, M.

    2012-04-01

    Climate change is expected to increase flood hazard across most of Europe, both in terms of peak discharge intensity and frequency. Consequently, managing flood risk will remain an issue of primary importance for decades to come. Flood risk depends on territories' flood hazard and vulnerability. Beside climate change, land use evolution is thus a key influencing factor on flood risk. The aim of this research is to quantify the relative influence of climate and land use changes on flood damage evolution during the 21st century. The study focuses on River Meuse in Wallonia for a 100-year flood. A scenario-based approach was used to model land use evolution. Nine urbanization scenarios for 2100 were developed: three of them assume a "current tend" land use evolution, characterized by urban sprawl, while six others assume a sustainable spatial planning, leading to an increase in density of residential areas as well as an increase in urban functions diversity. A study commissioned by the EU has estimated a 30 % increase in the 100-year discharge for River Meuse by the year 2100. Inundation modeling was conducted for the present day 100-year flood (HQ100) and for a discharge HQ100 + 30%, using the model Wolf 2D and a 5m grid resolution Digital Elevation Model (Ernst et al. 2009). Based on five different damage curves related to land use categories, the relative damage was deduced from the computed inundation maps. Finally, specific prices were associated to each land use category and allowed assessing absolute damages, which were subsequently aggregated to obtain a damage value for each of the 19 municipalities crossed by River Meuse. Results show that flood damage is estimated to increase by 540 to 630 % between 2009 and 2100, reaching 2.1 to 2.4 billion Euros in 2100. These increases mainly involve municipalities downstream of a point where the floodplain width becomes significantly larger. The city of Liège, which is protected against a 100-year flood in the present

  7. Floods in central, Southwest Oklahoma, October 17-23, 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hauth, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    Storms of October 17-23, 1983, produced as much as 17 inches of rain as a result of Hurricane Tico. Rainfall amounts exceeded the 100-year, 24-hour storm frequency in some areas of the central and southwest parts of Oklahoma. An 11-county area experienced flooding with damages exceeding $12 million. Peak discharges were determined during and after the flood at U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations and one miscellaneous location. Streamflow in some areas exceeded the estimated 100-year flood. Flood hydrographs and rainfall mass curves are presented for gaging stations located in areas of greater precipitation.

  8. Stages of the pathologic process in Alzheimer disease: age categories from 1 to 100 years.

    PubMed

    Braak, Heiko; Thal, Dietmar R; Ghebremedhin, Estifanos; Del Tredici, Kelly

    2011-11-01

    Two thousand three hundred and thirty two nonselected brains from 1- to 100-year-old individuals were examined using immunocytochemistry (AT8) and Gallyas silver staining for abnormal tau; immunocytochemistry (4G8) and Campbell-Switzer staining were used for the detection ofβ-amyloid. A total of 342 cases was negative in the Gallyas stain but when restaged for AT8 only 10 were immunonegative. Fifty-eight cases had subcortical tau predominantly in the locus coeruleus, but there was no abnormal cortical tau (subcortical Stages a-c). Cortical involvement (abnormal tau in neurites) was identified first in the transentorhinal region (Stage 1a, 38 cases). Transentorhinal pyramidal cells displayed pretangle material (Stage 1b, 236 cases). Pretangles gradually became argyrophilic neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) that progressed in parallel with NFT Stages I to VI. Pretangles restricted to subcortical sites were seen chiefly at younger ages. Of the total cases, 1,031 (44.2%) had β-amyloid plaques. The first plaques occurred in the neocortex after the onset of tauopathy in the brainstem. Plaques generally developed in the 40s in 4% of all cases, culminating in their tenth decade (75%). β-amyloid plaques and NFTs were significantly correlated (p < 0.0001). These data suggest that tauopathy associated with sporadic Alzheimer disease may begin earlier than previously thought and possibly in the lower brainstem rather than in the transentorhinal region.

  9. Physiological and morphological acclimation to height in cupressoid leaves of 100-year-old Chamaecyparis obtusa.

    PubMed

    Shiraki, Ayumi; Azuma, Wakana; Kuroda, Keiko; Ishii, H Roaki

    2016-10-15

    Cupressoid (scale-like) leaves are morphologically and functionally intermediate between stems and leaves. While past studies on height acclimation of cupressoid leaves have focused on acclimation to the vertical light gradient, the relationship between morphology and hydraulic function remains unexplored. Here, we compared physiological and morphological characteristics between treetop and lower-crown leaves of 100-year-old Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl. trees (~27 m tall) to investigate whether height-acclimation compensates for hydraulic constraints. We found that physiological acclimation of leaves was determined by light, which drove the vertical gradient of evaporative demand, while leaf morphology and anatomy were determined by height. Compared with lower-crown leaves, treetop leaves were physiologically acclimated to water stress. Leaf hydraulic conductance was not affected by height, and this contributed to higher photosynthetic rates of treetop leaves. Treetop leaves had higher leaf area density and greater leaf mass per area, which increase light interception but could also decrease hydraulic efficiency. We inferred that transfusion tissue flanking the leaf vein, which was more developed in the treetop leaves, contributes to water-stress acclimation and maintenance of leaf hydraulic conductance by facilitating osmotic adjustment of leaf water potential and efficient water transport from xylem to mesophyll. Our findings may represent anatomical adaptation that compensates for hydraulic constraints on physiological function with increasing height.

  10. [Nutrient dynamics over the past 100 years and its restoration baseline in Dianshan Lake].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Hua; Dong, Xu-Hui; Dong, Zhi; Sun, Dun-Ping

    2012-10-01

    The restoration of eutrophic lakes requires a good knowledge on the history and baseline of nutrients in the lakes. This work conducted an analysis on 210Pb/137Cs, water content, loss-on-ignition, sedimentary total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), total organic carbon (TOC) and diatoms in the four sediment cores from Dianshan Lake (near Shanghai City). Good coherence in palaeoproxies between the cores indicates a relatively stable sedimentary environment. With increasing human impact, diatom communities shifted from oligo-trophic species Cyclotella bodanica, C. ocelata, Achnanthes minutissima, Cocconeis placentula var lineate, Cymbella sp. , Fragilaria pintata, F. brevistrata, F. construens var venter to recent eutrophic species including Cyclostephanos dubias, C. atomus, Stephanodiscus minitulus, S. hantzschi, Aulacoseria alpigena. The epilimnetic TP over the past 100 years reconstructed using an established diatom-TP transfer function matches well with the monitoring TP where exists. Based on the sedimentary nutrient characteristics and diatom-reconstructed nutrient dynamics, we proposed that the nutrient baseline for Dianshan Lake is 50-60 microg x L(-1), 500 mg x kg(-1) and 550 mg x kg(-1) for water TP concentration, sedimentary TP and TN, respectively.

  11. Revisiting extreme storms of the past 100 years for future safety of large water management infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Hossain, Faisal

    2016-07-01

    Historical extreme storm events are widely used to make Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) estimates, which form the cornerstone of large water management infrastructure safety. Past studies suggest that extreme precipitation processes can be sensitive to land surface feedback and the planetary warming trend, which makes the future safety of large infrastructures questionable given the projected changes in land cover and temperature in the coming decades. In this study, a numerical modeling framework was employed to reconstruct 10 extreme storms over CONUS that occurred during the past 100 years, which are used by the engineering profession for PMP estimation for large infrastructures such as dams. Results show that the correlation in daily rainfall for such reconstruction can range between 0.4 and 0.7, while the correlation for maximum 3-day accumulation (a standard period used in infrastructure design) is always above 0.5 for post-1948 storms. This suggests that current numerical modeling and reanalysis data allow us to reconstruct big storms after 1948 with acceptable accuracy. For storms prior to 1948, however, reconstruction of storms shows inconsistency with observations. Our study indicates that numerical modeling and data may not have advanced to a sufficient level to understand how such old storms (pre-1948) may behave in future warming and land cover conditions. However, the infrastructure community can certainly rely on the use of model reconstructed extreme storms of the 1948-present period to reassess safety of our large water infrastructures under assumed changes in temperature and land cover.

  12. Under Connecticut Skies: Exploring 100 Years of Astronomy at Van Vleck Observatory in Middletown, Connecticut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilgard, Roy E.; Williams, Amrys; Erickson, Paul; Herbst, William; Redfield, Seth

    2017-01-01

    Under Connecticut Skies examines the history of astronomy at Van Vleck Observatory, located on the campus of Wesleyan University in Middletown, Connecticut. Since its dedication in June of 1916, Van Vleck has been an important site of astronomical research, teaching, and public outreach. Over a thousand visitors pass through the observatory each year, and regular public observing nights happen year-round in cooperation with the Astronomical Society of Greater Hartford. Our project explores the place-based nature of astronomical research, the scientific instruments, labor, and individuals that have connected places around the world in networks of observation, and the broader history of how observational astronomy has linked local people, amateur observers, professional astronomers, and the tools and objects that have facilitated their work under Connecticut’s skies over the past 100 years. Our research team has produced a historical exhibition to help commemorate the observatory’s centennial that opened to the public in May of 2016. Our work included collecting, documenting, and interpretting this history through objects, archival documents, oral histories, photographs, and more. The result is both a museum and a working history "laboratory" for use by student and professional researchers. In addition to the exhibit itself, we have engaged in new interpretive programs to help bring the history of astronomy to life. Future work will include digitization of documents and teaching slides, further collection of oral histories, and expanding the collection to the web for use by off-site researches.

  13. 100 years of relativity. Space-time structure: Einstein and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashtekar, Abhay

    2005-11-01

    Thanks to Einstein's relativity theories, our notions of space and time underwent profound revisions about a 100 years ago. The resulting interplay between geometry and physics has dominated all of fundamental physics since then. This volume contains contributions from leading researchers, worldwide, who have thought deeply about the nature and consequences of this interplay. The articles take a long-range view of the subject and distill the most important advances in broad terms, making them easily accessible to non-specialists. The first part is devoted to a summary of how relativity theories were born (J. Stachel). The second part discusses the most dramatic ramifications of general relativity, such as black holes (P. Chrusciel and R. Price), space-time singularities (H. Nicolai and A. Rendall), gravitational waves (P. Laguna and P. Saulson), the large scale structure of the cosmos (T. Padmanabhan); experimental status of this theory (C. Will) as well as its practical application to the GPS system (N. Ashby). The last part looks beyond Einstein and provides glimpses into what is in store for us in the 21st century. Contributions here include summaries of radical changes in the notions of space and time that are emerging from quantum field theory in curved space-times (Ford), string theory (T. Banks), loop quantum gravity (A. Ashtekar), quantum cosmology (M. Bojowald), discrete approaches (Dowker, Gambini and Pullin) and twistor theory (R Penrose).

  14. Delineation of flooding within the upper Mississippi River Basin-flood of June 18 through August 4, 1993, in Des Moines and vicinity, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaap, Bryan D.

    1996-01-01

    This hydrologic investigations atlas shows the areas in and near Des Moines, Iowa, that were flooded by the Des Moines and the Raccoon Rivers and Walnut, Fourmile, and Beaver Creeks from June 18 through August 4, 1993. This map also depicts the Federal Emergency Management Agency 100-year flood boundaries. The area drained by the Des Moines River upstream from Des Moines received more than 100 percent of normal rainfall in May, June, and July, 1993. At Boone, which is located about 35 miles north-northeast of Des Moines, July rainfall was 424 percent of normal. The discharges at streamflow- gaging stations on the Des Moines River near Stratford, downstream from Saylorville Lake, and at Des Moines are shown. The cumulative discharge for inflow-gaging stations in the Des Moines area and discharge for the Des Moines River below the Raccoon River at Des Moines from July 8 through 21, 1993, are shown. The water-surface elevations of Saylorville Lake from June 18 through August 4, 1993, are shown. Profiles of the maximum water- surface elevations of the Des Moines and Raccoon Rivers during the 1993 flood in Des Moines and vicinity are higher than the respective Federal Emergency Management Agency 100- and 500-year flood profiles.

  15. Hydrology, geomorphology, and flood profiles of Lemon Creek, Juneau, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Host, Randy H.; Neal, Edward G.

    2005-01-01

    Lemon Creek near Juneau, Alaska has a history of extensive gravel mining, which straightened and deepened the stream channel in the lower reaches of the study area. Gravel mining and channel excavation began in the 1940s and continued through the mid-1980s. Time sequential aerial photos and field investigations indicate that the channel morphology is reverting to pre-disturbance conditions through aggradation of sediment and re-establishment of braided channels, which may result in decreased channel conveyance and increased flooding potential. Time sequential surveys of selected channel cross sections were conducted in an attempt to determine rates of channel aggradation/degradation throughout three reaches of the study area. In order to assess flooding potential in the lower reaches of the study area the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System model was used to estimate the water-surface elevations for the 2-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year floods. A regionally based regression equation was used to estimate the magnitude of floods for the selected recurrence intervals. Forty-two cross sections were surveyed to define the hydraulic characteristics along a 1.7-mile reach of the stream. High-water marks from a peak flow of 1,820 cubic feet per second, or about a 5-year flood, were surveyed and used to calibrate the model throughout the study area. The stream channel at a bridge in the lower reach could not be simulated without violating assumptions of the model. A model without the lower bridge indicates flood potential is limited to a small area.

  16. An epidemiological review of changes in meningococcal biology during the last 100 years

    PubMed Central

    Abio, Anne; Neal, Keith R; Beck, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to assess changes in trends of meningococcal disease and strain diversity of Neisseria meningitidis in Europe, South America, and Africa over the last 100 years. Methods Healthcare databases and sources of grey literature were searched in 2012 and records were screened against the protocol eligibility criteria using a three-stage sifting process. Studies included in the review were subject to data extraction. Results were summarised using a narrative approach. Results Serogroup A was the dominant cause of invasive meningococcal disease in Europe before and during World Wars I and II. Whilst serogroup B has been dominant from the 1970s in Europe and the 1980s in South America, outbreaks have emerged associated with serogroups W135 and Y in the twenty-first century. There has been a shift in the age groups affected by invasive meningococcal disease with an increase in incidence among the elderly associated with serogroup Y and a decline in serogroup C among adolescent populations. Recent outbreaks of serogroup W135 have occurred in some countries in South America. The epidemiological trend of invasive meningococcal disease has remained largely static across Africa and dominated by serogroup A although recently serogroups X and W135 have accounted for a large proportion of morbidity and mortality. Conclusion The epidemiology of N. meningitidis has been dynamic in Europe and South America especially over the last 30 years. Routine vaccination with serogroup C vaccines has led to reduced carriage and incidence of invasive meningococcal disease and herd immunity. PMID:24392681

  17. 100 years of California’s water rights system: patterns, trends and uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grantham, Theodore E.; Viers, Joshua H.

    2014-08-01

    For 100 years, California’s State Water Resources Control Board and its predecessors have been responsible for allocating available water supplies to beneficial uses, but inaccurate and incomplete accounting of water rights has made the state ill-equipped to satisfy growing societal demands for water supply reliability and healthy ecosystems. Here, we present the first comprehensive evaluation of appropriative water rights to identify where, and to what extent, water has been dedicated to human uses relative to natural supplies. The results show that water right allocations total 400 billion cubic meters, approximately five times the state’s mean annual runoff. In the state’s major river basins, water rights account for up to 1000% of natural surface water supplies, with the greatest degree of appropriation observed in tributaries to the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers and in coastal streams in southern California. Comparisons with water supplies and estimates of actual use indicate substantial uncertainty in how water rights are exercised. In arid regions such as California, over-allocation of surface water coupled with trends of decreasing supply suggest that new water demands will be met by re-allocation from existing uses. Without improvements to the water rights system, growing human and environmental demands portend an intensification of regional water scarcity and social conflict. California’s legal framework for managing its water resources is largely compatible with needed reforms, but additional public investment is required to enhance the capacity of the state’s water management institutions to effectively track and regulate water rights.

  18. The Archives of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism: Documenting 100 Years of Carnegie Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, S. J.

    2005-12-01

    The archives of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism (DTM) of the Carnegie Institution of Washington document more than a century of geophysical and astronomical investigations. Primary source materials available for historical research include field and laboratory notebooks, equipment designs, plans for observatories and research vessels, scientists' correspondence, and thousands of expedition and instrument photographs. Yet despite its history, DTM long lacked a systematic approach to managing its documentary heritage. A preliminary records survey conducted in 2001 identified more than 1,000 linear feet of historically-valuable records languishing in dusty, poorly-accessible storerooms. Intellectual control at that time was minimal. With support from the National Historical Publications and Records Commission, the "Carnegie Legacy Project" was initiated in 2003 to preserve, organize, and facilitate access to DTM's archival records, as well as those of the Carnegie Institution's administrative headquarters and Geophysical Laboratory. Professional archivists were hired to process the 100-year backlog of records. Policies and procedures were established to ensure that all work conformed to national archival standards. Records were appraised, organized, and rehoused in acid-free containers, and finding aids were created for the project web site. Standardized descriptions of each collection were contributed to the WorldCat bibliographic database and the AIP International Catalog of Sources for History of Physics. Historic photographs and documents were digitized for online exhibitions to raise awareness of the archives among researchers and the general public. The success of the Legacy Project depended on collaboration between archivists, librarians, historians, data specialists, and scientists. This presentation will discuss key aspects (funding, staffing, preservation, access, outreach) of the Legacy Project and is aimed at personnel in observatories, research

  19. To Humbly Go: Guarding Against Perpetuating Models of Colonization in the 100-Year Starship Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, W. R.

    Past patterns of exploration, colonization and exploitation on Earth continue to provide the predominant paradigms that guide many space programs. Any project of crewed space exploration, especially of the magnitude envisioned by the 100-Year Starship Study, must guard against the hubris that may emerge among planners, crew, and others associated with the project, including those industries and bureaucracies that will emerge from the effort. Maintaining a non-exploitative approach may be difficult in consideration of the century of preparatory research and development and the likely multigenerational nature of the voyage itself. Starting now with mission dreamers and planners, the purpose of the voyage must be cast as one of respectful learning and humble discovery, not of conquest (either actual or metaphorical) or other inappropriate models, including military. At a minimum, the Study must actively build non-violence into the voyaging culture it is beginning to create today. References to exploitive colonization, conquest, destiny and other terms from especially American frontier mythology, while tempting in their propagandizing power, should be avoided as they limit creative thinking about alternative possible futures. Future voyagers must strive to adapt to new environments wherever possible and be assimilated by new worlds both biologically and behaviorally rather than to rely on attempts to recreate the Earth they have left. Adaptation should be strongly considered over terraforming. This paper provides an overview of previous work linking the language of colonization to space programs and challenges the extension of the myth of the American frontier to the Starship Study. It argues that such metaphors would be counter-productive at best and have the potential to doom long-term success and survival by planting seeds of social decay and self-destruction. Cautions and recommendations are suggested.

  20. Estimating magnitude and frequency of floods in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conger, Duane H.

    1971-01-01

    This report provides methods for estimating flood characteristics at most sites where flood information may be needed for planning and design and summatizes the significant flood data and related information available on Wisconsin streams. Individual equations are presented for estimating flood discharges for selected recurrence intervals up to a 25-year flood for drainage areas 0.5 square miles and larger, a 50-year flood for drainage areas 20 square miles and larger, and a 100-year flood for drainage areas 50 square miles and larger. A ratio method is used for estimating a 50-year flood for drainage areas 0.5 to 20 square miles. The equations were defined from multiple-regression analysis of flood peak records and basin characteristics for 119 continuous-record gaging stations and 114 crest-stage partial-record stations in Wisconsin and adjoining States. Of the severai basin characteristics used in this study, only drainage area, main-channel slope, lake and marsh area, and areal factors were found to be statistically significant at the 99 percent effectiveness level for all flood frequencies. Solution of a hypothetical problem is given for using the flood-frequency equations. Graphs are presented for solution of flood discharges on regulated streams where the formulas are not applicable. Flood-frequency characteristics, 2-year flood to 100-year flood, and drainage basin characteristics for stations used in the multiple regression are presented in the appendices of this report.

  1. Climate Simulation and Flood Risk Analysis for 2008-40 for Devils Lake, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2008-01-01

    generated future duration of the current wet period. On the basis of the simulations, and assuming ice-free conditions and calm wind, the Devils Lake flood elevation for an annualized flood risk of 1 percent (analogous to a ?100-year? riverine flood) was estimated to be 1,454.6 feet for a 10-year time horizon (2008---?17). Therefore, without adjusting for wind or ice, a residence near Devils Lake at elevation 1,454.6 feet has the same chance of being flooded sometime during the next 10 years as a residence at the edge of the 100-year flood plain along a river. Adjusting for the effects of wind or ice, which will increase the flood elevations for many locations near the lakes, was not within the scope of this study.

  2. Influence of elevated carbon dioxide and temperature on belowground carbon allocation and enzyme activities in tropical flooded soil planted with rice.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, P; Roy, K S; Neogi, S; Manna, M C; Adhya, T K; Rao, K S; Nayak, A K

    2013-10-01

    Changes in the soil labile carbon fractions and soil biochemical properties to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and temperature reflect the changes in the functional capacity of soil ecosystems. The belowground root system and root-derived carbon products are the key factors for the rhizospheric carbon dynamics under elevated CO2 condition. However, the relationship between interactive effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on belowground soil carbon accrual is not very clear. To address this issue, a field experiment was laid out to study the changes of carbon allocation in tropical rice soil (Aeric Endoaquept) under elevated CO2 and elevated CO2 + elevated temperature conditions in open top chambers (OTCs). There were significant increase of root biomass by 39 and 44 % under elevated CO2 and elevated CO2 + temperature compared to ambient condition, respectively. A significant increase (55 %) of total organic carbon in the root exudates under elevated CO2 + temperature was noticed. Carbon dioxide enrichment associated with elevated temperature significantly increased soil labile carbon, microbial biomass carbon, and activities of carbon-transforming enzyme like β-glucosidase. Highly significant correlations were noticed among the different soil enzymes and soil labile carbon fractions.

  3. Infrared survey of 50 buildings constructed during 100 years: thermal performances and damage conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ljungberg, Sven-Ake

    1995-03-01

    Different building constructions and craftsmanship give rise to different thermal performance and damage conditions. The building stock of most industrial countries consists of buildings of various age, and constructions, from old historic buildings with heavy stone or wooden construction, to new buildings with heavy or light concrete construction, or modern steel or wooden construction. In this paper the result from a detailed infrared survey of 50 buildings from six Swedish military camps is presented. The presentation is limited to a comparison of thermal performance and damage conditions of buildings of various ages, functions, and constructions, of a building period of more than 100 years. The result is expected to be relevant even to civilian buildings. Infrared surveys were performed during 1992-1993, with airborne, and mobile short- and longwave infrared systems, out- and indoor thermography. Interpretation and analysis of infrared data was performed with interactive image and analyzing systems. Field inspections were carried out with fiber optics system, and by ocular inspections. Air-exchange rate was measured in order to quantify air leakages through the building envelope, indicated in thermograms. The objects studied were single-family houses, barracks, office-, service-, school- and exercise buildings, military hotels and restaurants, aircraft hangars, and ship factory buildings. The main conclusions from this study are that most buildings from 1880 - 1940 have a solid construction with a high quality of craftsmanship, relatively good thermal performance, due to extremely thick walls, and adding insulation at the attic floor. From about 1940 - 1960 the quality of construction, thermal performance and craftsmanship seem to vary a lot. Buildings constructed during the period of 1960 - 1990 have in general the best thermal performance due to a better insulation capacity, however, also one finds here the greatest variety of problems. The result from this

  4. The Hunterian Neurosurgical Laboratory: the first 100 years of neurosurgical research.

    PubMed

    Sampath, P; Long, D M; Brem, H

    2000-01-01

    Modern neurosurgery has long had a strong laboratory foundation, and much of this tradition can be traced to the Hunterian Neurosurgical Laboratory of the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Founded with the basic goals of investigating the causes and symptoms of disease and establishing the crucial role that surgeons may play in the treatment of disease, the Hunterian laboratory has adhered to these tenets, despite the dramatic changes in neurosurgery that have occurred in the last 100 years. Named for the famous English surgeon John Hunter (1728-1793), the Hunterian laboratory was conceived by William Welch and William Halsted as a special laboratory for experimental work in surgery and pathology. In 1904, Harvey Cushing was appointed by Halsted to direct the laboratory. With the three primary goals of student education, veterinary surgery that stressed surgical techniques, and meticulous surgical and laboratory record-keeping, the laboratory was quite productive, introducing the use of physiological saline solutions, describing the anatomic features and function of the pituitary gland, and establishing the field of endocrinology. In addition, the original development of hanging drop tissue culture, fundamental investigations into cerebrospinal fluid, and countless contributions to otolaryngology by Samuel Crowe all occurred during this "crucible" period. In 1912, Cushing was succeeded by Walter Dandy, whose work on experimental hydrocephalus and cerebrospinal fluid circulation led to the development of pneumoencephalography. The early days of neurosurgery evolved with close ties to general surgery, and so did the Hunterian laboratory. After Dandy began devoting his time to clinical work, general surgeons (first Jay McLean and then, in 1922, Ferdinand Lee) became the directors of the laboratory. Between 1928 and 1942, more than 150 original articles were issued from the Hunterian laboratory; these articles described significant advances in surgery, including pioneering

  5. Popular myths about flooding in Western Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    Floods are the most destructive natural hazard in the Nation, causing more deaths and financial loss in the 20th century than any other natural disaster. The most significant 20 riverine floods of the 20th century for which data are available have killed more than 1,843 people and caused more than $50 billion (uninflated) in damages (Perry, 2000). One of the most common means of describing the severity of a flood is a comparison to the "100-year flood." In the last decade, increasing attention has been paid to the fact that some regions, notably the Pacific Northwest, have experienced numerous so-called "100-year" floods in the span of a few years. Part of the confusion stems from the statistical nature of the "100-year flood" (Greene, 1996); however, another part of the confusion is the fact that the statistics are calculated for specific sites (streamgages) on specific rivers, rather than for a region as a whole. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey have begun to investigate how the likelihood of flooding may be determined on a regional basis (Troutman and Karlinger, 2003).

  6. Flood Risk and Global Change: Future Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra-Llobet, A.

    2014-12-01

    Global flood risk is increasing in response to population growth in flood-prone areas, human encroachment into natural flood paths (exacerbating flooding in areas formerly out of harm's way), and climate change (which alters variables driving floods). How will societies respond to and manage flood risk in coming decades? Analysis of flood policy evolution in the EU and US demonstrates that changes occurred in steps, in direct response to disasters. After the flood produced by the collapse of Tous Dam in 1982, Spain initiated a systematic assessment of areas of greatest flood risk and civil protection response. The devastating floods on the Elbe and elsewhere in central Europe in 2002 motivated adoption of the EU Floods Directive (2007), which requires member states to develop systematic flood risk maps (now due) and flood risk management plans (due in 2015). The flooding of New Orleans by Hurricane Katrina in 2005 resulted in a nationwide levee-safety assessment and improvements in communicating risk, but overall less fundamental change in US flood management than manifest in the EU since 2007. In the developing world, large (and increasing) concentrations of populations in low-lying floodplains, deltas, and coasts are increasingly vulnerable, and governments mostly ill-equipped to implement fundamental changes in land use to prevent future increases in exposure, nor to develop responses to the current threats. Even in the developed world, there is surprisingly little research on how well residents of flood-prone lands understand their true risk, especially when they are 'protected' by '100-year' levees. Looking ahead, researchers and decision makers should prioritize improvements in flood risk perception, river-basin-scale assessment of flood runoff processes (under current and future climate and land-use conditions) and flood management alternatives, and bridging the disconnect between national and international floodplain management policies and local land

  7. Flood discharges and hydraulics near the mouths of Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek in the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, studied the frequency and magnitude of flooding near the mouths of five tributaries to the New River in the New River Gorge National River. The 100-year peak discharge at each tributary was determined from regional frequency equations. The 100-year discharge at Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek was 3,400 cubic feet per second, 640 cubic feet per second, 8,200 cubic feet per second, 7,100 cubic feet per second, and 9,400 cubic feet per second, respectively. Flood elevations for each tributary were determined by application of a steady-state, one-dimensional flow model. Manning's roughness coefficients for the stream channels ranged from 0.040 to 0.100. Bridges that would be unable to contain the 100-year flood within the bridge opening included: the State Highway 82 bridge on Wolf Creek, the second Fayette County Highway 25 bridge upstream from the confluence with New River on Dunloup Creek, and an abandoned log bridge on Mill Creek.

  8. The flood of December 1982 and the 100- and 500-year flood on the Buffalo River, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neely, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    Flood profiles, peak discharges, and stages were determined for the December 1982, the 100-year, and the 500-year floods at 17 sites along the Buffalo River, Arkansas. Typical synthetic stage hydrographs for the 100- and 500-year floods were determined for each site. Flow duration data for gaging stations at St. Joe and Rush are shown. The average velocity of the water for the 100- and 500-year floods is shown for each site. Approximate flood boundaries delineating the 100- and 500-year floods are shown for Ponca, Steel Creek, Pruitt, St. Joe, and Buffalo Point. (Author 's abstract)

  9. Climatic variability and flood frequency of the Santa Cruz River, Pima County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, Robert H.; Betancourt, Julio L.

    1992-01-01

    Past estimates of the 100-year flood for the Santa Cruz River at Tucson, Arizona, range from 572 to 2,780 cubic meters per second. An apparent increase in flood magnitude during the past two decades raises concern that the annual flood series is nonstationary in time. The apparent increase is accompanied by more annual floods occurring in fall and winter and fewer in summer. This greater mixture of storm types that produce annual flood peaks is caused by a higher frequency of meridional flow in the upper-air circulation and increased variance of ocean-atmosphere conditions in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Estimation of flood frequency on the Santa Cruz River is complicated because climate affects the magnitude and frequency of storms that cause floods. Mean discharge does not change significantly, but the variance and skew coefficient of the distribution of annual floods change with time. The 100-year flood during El Niffo-Southern Oscillation conditions is 1,300 cubic meters per second, more than double the value for other years. The increase is mostly caused by an increase in recurvature of dissipating tropical cyclones into the Southwestern United States during El Niffo-Southern Oscillation conditions. Flood frequency based on hydroclimatology was determined by combining populations of floods caused by monsoonal storms, frontal systems, and dissipating tropical cyclones. For 1930-59, annual flood frequency is dominated by monsoonal floods, and the estimated 100-year flood is 323 cubic meters per second. For 1960-86, annual flood frequency at recurrence intervals of greater than 10 years is dominated by floods caused by dissipating tropical cyclones, and the estimated 100-year flood is 1,660 cubic meters per second. For design purposes, 1,660 cubic meters per second might be an appropriate value for the 100-year flood at Tucson, assuming that climatic conditions during 1960-86 are representative of conditions expected in the immediate future.

  10. Modeling Flood Plain Hydrology and Forest Productivity of Congaree Swamp, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    tupelo (Nyssa aquatica), green ash (Fraxinus pennslyvanica), laurel oak (Quercus laurifolia), swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii), and sycamore (Plantanus occidentalis) within Congaree Swamp in highand low-elevation sites characteristic of shorter and longer flood duration and related to upriver flood controls and dam operation. Ring counts and dating indicated that all loblolly pine trees and nearly all baldcypress collections in this study are postsettlement recruits and old-growth cohorts, dating from 100 to 300 years in age. Most hardwood species and trees cored for age analysis were less than 100 years old, demonstrating robust growth and high site quality. Growth chronologies of loblolly pine and baldcypress exhibited positive and negative inflections over the last century that corresponded with climate history and residual effects of Hurricane Hugo in 1989. Stemwood production on average was less for trees and species on sites with longer flood retention and hydroperiod affected more by groundwater seepage and site elevation than river floods. Water level data provided evidence that stream regulation and operations of the Saluda Dam (post-1934) have actually increased the average daily water stage in the Congaree River. There was no difference in tree growth response by species or hydrogeomorphic setting to predam and postdam flood conditions and river stage. Climate-growth analysis showed that long-term growth variation is controlled more by spring/ summer temperatures in loblolly pine and by spring/summer precipitation in baldcypress than flooding history.

  11. High-fidelity numerical modeling of the Upper Mississippi River under extreme flood condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosronejad, Ali; Le, Trung; DeWall, Petra; Bartelt, Nicole; Woldeamlak, Solomon; Yang, Xiaolei; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2016-12-01

    We present data-driven numerical simulations of extreme flooding in a large-scale river coupling coherent-structure resolving hydrodynamics with bed morphodynamics under live-bed conditions. The study area is a ∼ 3.2 km long and ∼ 300 m wide reach of the Upper Mississippi River, near Minneapolis MN, which contains several natural islands and man-made hydraulic structures. We employ the large-eddy simulation (LES) and bed-morphodynamic modules of the Virtual Flow Simulator (VFS-Rivers) model, a recently developed in-house code, to investigate the flow and bed evolution of the river during a 100-year flood event. The coupling of the two modules is carried out via a fluid-structure interaction approach using a nested domain approach to enhance the resolution of bridge scour predictions. We integrate data from airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), sub-aqueous sonar apparatus on-board a boat and in-situ laser scanners to construct a digital elevation model of the river bathymetry and surrounding flood plain, including islands and bridge piers. A field campaign under base-flow condition is also carried out to collect mean flow measurements via Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) to validate the hydrodynamic module of the VFS-Rivers model. Our simulation results for the bed evolution of the river under the 100-year flood reveal complex sediment transport dynamics near the bridge piers consisting of both scour and refilling events due to the continuous passage of sand dunes. We find that the scour depth near the bridge piers can reach to a maximum of ∼ 9 m. The data-driven simulation strategy we present in this work exemplifies a practical simulation-based-engineering-approach to investigate the resilience of infrastructures to extreme flood events in intricate field-scale riverine systems.

  12. Methods for estimating magnitude and frequency of floods in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, B.E.; Hjalmarson, H.W.; Waltemeyer, S.D.

    1994-01-01

    Methods have been developed for estimating magni- tude and frequency of floods at gaged and ungaged sites on streams in the southwestern United States. Estimating equations for ungaged sites that apply to small drainage basins were developed by transferring information from ungaged sites using techniques such as multiple regression and a hybrid method developed during this study. Drainage area, mean basin elevation, mean annual precipitation, mean annual evaporation, latitude, and longitude are the basin and climatic charac- teristics needed to use the equations. Flood- frequency relations and selected basin and climatic characteristics, updated through 1986 water year, are tabulated for more than 1,300 gaging stations in the southwestern United States. The study area was divided into 16 flood regions. Generalized least-squares regression was used to define the regression models in 12 regions with a sufficient number of defined flood-frequency relations at gaged sites. Four regions had more than 30 percent of the gaged sites with no defined relations, thus the regression method was not used because of the large amount of missing infor- mation. The hybrid analysis was used in those 4 regions, because it does not require individual flood-frequency relations and thus can use data for all gaging stations in a region. Average standard error of prediction for the 12 regions with generalized least-squares models ranged from 39 to 95 percent for the 100-year peak discharge. The estimated average standard error of the four hybrid models ranged from 0.44 to 1.8 log units for the 100-year peak discharge.

  13. RASOR flood modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, Joost; Buckman, Lora; Bachmann, Daniel; Visser, Martijn; Tollenaar, Daniel; Vatvani, Deepak; Kramer, Nienke; Goorden, Neeltje

    2015-04-01

    Decision making in disaster management requires fast access to reliable and relevant information. We believe that online information and services will become increasingly important in disaster management. Within the EU FP7 project RASOR (Rapid Risk Assessment and Spatialisation of Risk) an online platform is being developed for rapid multi-hazard risk analyses to support disaster management anywhere in the world. The platform will provide access to a plethora of GIS data that are relevant to risk assessment. It will also enable the user to run numerical flood models to simulate historical and newly defined flooding scenarios. The results of these models are maps of flood extent, flood depths and flow velocities. The RASOR platform will enable to overlay historical event flood maps with observations and Earth Observation (EO) imagery to fill in gaps and assess the accuracy of the flood models. New flooding scenarios can be defined by the user and simulated to investigate the potential impact of future floods. A series of flood models have been developed within RASOR for selected case study areas around the globe that are subject to very different flood hazards: • The city of Bandung in Indonesia, which is prone to fluvial flooding induced by heavy rainfall. The flood hazard is exacerbated by land subsidence. • The port of Cilacap on the south coast of Java, subject to tsunami hazard from submarine earthquakes in the Sunda trench. • The area south of city of Rotterdam in the Netherlands, prone to coastal and/or riverine flooding. • The island of Santorini in Greece, which is subject to tsunamis induced by landslides. Flood models have been developed for each of these case studies using mostly EO data, augmented by local data where necessary. Particular use was made of the new TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurement) product from the German Aerospace centre (DLR) and EADS Astrium. The presentation will describe the flood models and the

  14. When and how long to flood for insect control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flooding in late spring (late May or early July) can remove tremendous numbers of arthropods from cranberry beds. For over 100 years, the Wisconsin cranberry industry has used flooding as a way to suppress arthropod populations. One critical element of this strategy is the trade-off between lethalit...

  15. The Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iceland, Charles

    2015-04-01

    As population growth and economic growth take place, and as climate change accelerates, many regions across the globe are finding themselves increasingly vulnerable to flooding. A recent OECD study of the exposure of the world's large port cities to coastal flooding found that 40 million people were exposed to a 1 in 100 year coastal flood event in 2005, and the total value of exposed assets was about US 3,000 billion, or 5% of global GDP. By the 2070s, those numbers were estimated to increase to 150 million people and US 35,000 billion, or roughly 9% of projected global GDP. Impoverished people in developing countries are particularly at risk because they often live in flood-prone areas and lack the resources to respond. WRI and its Dutch partners - Deltares, IVM-VU University Amsterdam, Utrecht University, and PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency - are in the initial stages of developing a robust set of river flood and coastal storm surge risk measures that show the extent of flooding under a variety of scenarios (both current and future), together with the projected human and economic impacts of these flood scenarios. These flood risk data and information will be accessible via an online, easy-to-use Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer. We will also investigate the viability, benefits, and costs of a wide array of flood risk reduction measures that could be implemented in a variety of geographic and socio-economic settings. Together, the activities we propose have the potential for saving hundreds of thousands of lives and strengthening the resiliency and security of many millions more, especially those who are most vulnerable. Mr. Iceland will present Version 1.0 of the Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer and provide a preview of additional elements of the Analyzer to be released in the coming years.

  16. Re-visiting spring flooding as an IPM approach in Wisconsin cranberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For over 100 years, flooding has been used to suppress arthropod pests of cranberries, yet questions remain as to the trade-off between pest control and flood-induced plant damage. In Wisconsin, there is much interest in the spring flood as a means to not only reduce pest populations, but also to fa...

  17. Looking toward the Future: New Research Helps Black Sororities and Fraternities Consider New Governing Structures for the Next 100 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffins, Paul

    2004-01-01

    From a historical perspective, it's interesting to note that at their 100-year mark Black fraternities and sororities are facing some of the very same political criticisms encountered half a century ago. The Black Greeks' ability to be a greater force for social change is also constrained by the basic internal structures of the organizations…

  18. The Bee Disease Diagnostic Service - 100 Years and Growing at the USDA Bee Research laboratory, Beltsville, MD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article discusses the history of honey bee research in the Washington, D.C. area including the 100 year old bee disease diagnostic service available for beekeepers and apiary inspectors. This service provides the Bee Research Laboratory with first-hand knowledge of the problems facing the beek...

  19. Regional flood probabilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troutman, B.M.; Karlinger, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    The T-year annual maximum flood at a site is defined to be that streamflow, that has probability 1/T of being exceeded in any given year, and for a group of sites the corresponding regional flood probability (RFP) is the probability that at least one site will experience a T-year flood in any given year. The RFP depends on the number of sites of interest and on the spatial correlation of flows among the sites. We present a Monte Carlo method for obtaining the RFP and demonstrate that spatial correlation estimates used in this method may be obtained with rank transformed data and therefore that knowledge of the at-site peak flow distribution is not necessary. We examine the extent to which the estimates depend on specification of a parametric form for the spatial correlation function, which is known to be nonstationary for peak flows. It is shown in a simulation study that use of a stationary correlation function to compute RFPs yields satisfactory estimates for certain nonstationary processes. Application of asymptotic extreme value theory is examined, and a methodology for separating channel network and rainfall effects on RFPs is suggested. A case study is presented using peak flow data from the state of Washington. For 193 sites in the Puget Sound region it is estimated that a 100-year flood will occur on the average every 4,5 years.

  20. Flood Assessment at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site and the Proposed Hazardous Waste Storage Unit, DOE/Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Schmeltzer, J. S.; Millier, J. J.; Gustafson, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    A flood assessment at the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) and the proposed Hazardous Waste Storage Unit (HWSU) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was performed to determine the 100-year flood hazard at these facilities. The study was conducted to determine whether the RWMS and HWSU are located within a 100-year flood hazard as defined by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and to provide discharges for the design of flood protection.

  1. Levee crest elevation profiles derived from airborne lidar-based high resolution digital elevation models in south Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Monica; Thatcher, Cindy A.; Barras, John A.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the feasibility of using airborne lidar surveys to construct high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) and develop an automated procedure to extract levee longitudinal elevation profiles for both federal levees in Atchafalaya Basin and local levees in Lafourche Parish, south Lousiana. This approach can successfully accommodate a high degree of levee sinuosity and abrupt changes in levee orientation (direction) in planar coordinates, variations in levee geometries, and differing DEM resolutions. The federal levees investigated in Atchafalaya Basin have crest elevations between 5.3 and 12 m while the local counterparts in Lafourche Parish are between 0.76 and 2.3 m. The vertical uncertainty in the elevation data is considered when assessing federal crest elevation against the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers minimum height requirements to withstand the 100-year flood. Only approximately 5% of the crest points of the two federal levees investigated in the Atchafalaya Basin region met this requirement.

  2. Changes in bottom-surface elevations in three reservoirs on the lower Susquehanna River, Pennsylvania and Maryland, following the January 1996 flood; implications for nutrient and sediment loads to Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langland, Michael J.; Hainly, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    The Susquehanna River drains about 27,510 square miles in New York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland, contributes nearly 50 percent of the freshwater discharge to the Chesapeake Bay, and contributes nearly 66 percent of the annual nitrogen load, 40 percent of the phosphorus load, and 25 percent of the suspended-sediment load from non-tidal parts of the Bay during a year of average streamflow. A reservoir system formed by three hydroelectric dams on the lower Susquehanna River is currently trapping a major part of the phosphorus and suspended-sediment loads from the basin and, to a lesser extent, the nitrogen loads. In the summer of 1996, the U. S. Geological Survey collected bathymetric data along 64 cross sections and 40 bottom-sediment samples along 14 selected cross sections in the lower Susquehanna River reservoir system to determine the remaining sediment-storage capacity, refine the current estimate of when the system may reach sediment-storage capacity, document changes in the reservoir system after the January 1996 flood, and determine the remaining nutrient mass in Conowingo Reservoir. Results from the 1996 survey indicate an estimated total of 14,800,000 tons of sediment were scoured from the reservoir system from 1993 (date of previous bathymetric survey) through 1996. This includes the net sediment change of 4,700,000 tons based on volume change in the reservoir system computed from the 1993 and 1996 surveys, the 6,900,000 tons of sediment deposited from 1993 through 1996, and the 3,200,000 tons of sediment transported into the reservoir system during the January 1996 flood. The January 1996 flood, which exceeded a 100-year recurrence interval, scoured about the same amount of sediment that normally would be deposited in the reservoir system during a 4- to 6-year period. Concentrations of total nitrogen in bottom sediments in the Conowingo Reservoir ranged from 1,500 to 6,900 mg/kg (milligrams per kilogram); 75 percent of the concentrations were between 3

  3. Floods at Mount Clemens, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiitala, S.W.; Ash, Arlington D.

    1962-01-01

    The approximate areas inundated during the flood of April 5-6, 1947, by Clinton River, North Branch and Middle Branch of Clinton River, and Harrington Drain, in Clinton Township, Macomb County, Mich., are shown on a topographic map base to record the flood hazard in graphical form. The flood of April 1947 is the highest known since 1934 and probably since 1902. Greater floods are possible, but no attempt was made to define their probable overflow limits.The Clinton River Cut-Off Canal, a flood-relief channel which diverts flow directly into Lake St. Clair from a point about 1500 feet downstream from Gratiot Avenue (about 9 miles upstream from the mouth) has been in operation since October 1951. The approximate limits of overflow that would results from a flood equivalent in discharge to that of April 1947, and occurring with the Cut-Off Canal in operation, are also shown. Although the Cut-Off Canal may reduce the frequency and depth of flooding it will not necessarily eliminate future flooding in the area. Improvements and additions to the drainage systems in the basin, expanding urbanization, new highways, and other cultural changes may influence the inundation pattern of future floods.The preparation of this flood inundation map was financed through a cooperative agreement between Clinton Township, Macomb County, Mich., and the U.S. Geological Survey.Backwater curves used to define the profile for a hypothetical flood on the Clinton River downstream from Moravian Drive, equivalent in discharge to the 1947 flood, but occurring with the present Cut-Off Canal in operation; flood stage established at the gaging station on Clinton River at Mount Clemens; and supplementary floodmark elevations were furnished by the Corps of Engineers.Bench-mark elevations and field survey data, used in the analysis of floods on Harrington Drain, were furnished by the Macomb County Drain Commission.

  4. Estimating Non-stationary Flood Risk in a Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, X.; Cohn, T. A.; Stedinger, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Flood risk is usually described by a probability distribution for annual maximum streamflow which is assumed not to change with time. Federal, state and local governments in the United States are demanding guidance on flood frequency estimates that account for climate change. If a trend exists in peak flow series, ignoring it could result in large quantile estimator bias, while trying to estimate a trend will increase the flood quantile estimator's variance. Thus the issue is, what bias-variance tradeoff should we accept? This paper discusses approaches to flood frequency analysis (FFA) when flood series have trends. GCMs describe how annual runoff might vary over sub-continental scales, but this information is nearly useless for FFA in small watersheds. A LP3 Monte Carlo analysis and a re-sampling study of 100-year flood estimation (25- and 50-year projections) compares the performance of five methods: FFA as prescribed in national guidelines (Bulletin 17B), assumes the flood series is stationary and follows a log-Pearson type III (LP3) distribution; Fitting a LP3 distribution with time-varying parameters that include future trends in mean and perhaps variance, where slopes are assumed known; Fitting a LP3 distribution with time-varying parameters that capture future trends in mean and perhaps variance, where slopes are estimated from annual peak flow series; Employing only the most recent 30 years of flood records to fit a LP3 distribution; Applying a safety factor to the 100-year flood estimator (e.g. 25% increase). The 100-year flood estimator of method 2 has the smallest log-space mean squared error, though it is unlikely that the true trend would be known. Method 3 is only recommended over method 1 for large trends (≥ 0.5% per year). The 100-year flood estimators of method 1, 4, and 5 often have poor accuracy. Clearly, flood risk assessment will be a challenge in an uncertain world.

  5. Floods of May 1981 in west-central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrett, Charles; Omang, R.J.; Hull, J.A.; Fassler, John W.

    1982-01-01

    Extensive flooding occurred in west-central Montana during May 22-23, 1981, as a result of a series of rainstorms. Flooding was particularly severe in the communities of East Helena, Belt, and Deer Lodge. Although no lives were lost, total flood damages were estimated by the Montana Disaster Emergency Services Division to be in excess of $30 million. Peak discharges were determined at 75 sites in the flooded area. At 25 sites the May 1981 peak discharge exceeded the computed 100-year frequency flood, and at 29 sites, where previous flow records are available, the May 1981 peak discharge exceeded the previous peak of record. (USGS)

  6. Effects of flood controls proposed for West Branch Brandywine Creek, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-four-hour rainfall, distributed over time according to the U.S. Soil Conservation Service type II rainfall distribution, was used as input to calibrated rainfall-runoff models of three subbasins in the West Branch Brandywine Creek watershed. The effects of four proposed flood controls were evaluated by using these rainfalls to simulate discharge hydrographs with and without the flood controls and comparing the simulated peak discharges. In the Honey Brook subbasin, 2-, 10-, and 100-year flood-discharge hydrographs were generated for station West Branch Brandywine Creek at Coatesville. For the 2- and 10-year floods, proposed flood controls would reduce the peak discharge from 1 to 8 percent. The combination of all three flood controls proposed for the Coatesville subbasin would reduce the 100-year peak discharge 44 percent. In the Modena subbasin, 2-, 10-, and 100-year flood-discharge hydrographs were generated for station West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena. A flood control proposed for Sucker Run, a tributary, would reduce the peak discharge of Sucker Run at State Route 82 by 22, 25, and 27 percent and the peak discharge of West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena by 10, 6, and less than 1 percent for the 2-, 10-, and 100-year floods, respectively. For the 2- and 10- year floods, flood control proposed for the Coatesville subbasin would have little effect on the peak discharge of West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena. For the 100-year flood, the combination of all three flood controls proposed for the Coatesville subbasin would reduce the peak discharge at Modena 25 percent. When flood control in the Modena subbasin was combined with flood control in the Coatesville subbasin, the 10-percent reduction in the 2-year flood peak of West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena was due almost entirely to flood control in the Modena subbasin. For the 10-year flood, flood control in the Modena subbasin would reduce the peak discharge 6 percent, and any single flood

  7. Quantification of uncertainties in the 100-year flow at an ungaged site near a gaged station and its application in Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Huidae; Bones, Emma

    2016-08-01

    The Federal Emergency Management Agency has introduced the concept of the "1-percent plus" flow to incorporate various uncertainties in estimation of the 100-year or 1-percent flow. However, to the best of the authors' knowledge, no clear directions for calculating the 1-percent plus flow have been defined in the literature. Although information about standard errors of estimation and prediction is provided along with the regression equations that are often used to estimate the 1-percent flow at ungaged sites, uncertainty estimation becomes more complicated when there is a nearby gaged station because regression flows and the peak flow estimate from a gage analysis should be weighted to compute the weighted estimate of the 1-percent flow. In this study, an equation for calculating the 1-percent plus flow at an ungaged site near a gaged station is analytically derived. Also, a detailed process is introduced for calculating the 1-percent plus flow for an ungaged site near a gaged station in Georgia as an example and a case study is performed. This study provides engineers and practitioners with a method that helps them better assess flood risks and develop mitigation plans accordingly.

  8. Assessing trends in organochlorine concentrations in Lake Winnipeg fish following the 1997 red river flood

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, A.R.; Stern, G.A.; Lockhart, W.L.; Kidd, K.A.; Salki, A.G.; Stainton, M.P.; Koczanski, K.; Rosenberg, G.B.; Savoie, D.A.; Billeck, B.N.; Wilkinson, Philip M.; Muir, D.C.G.

    2003-01-01

    As we move toward the virtual elimination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment our understanding of how short-term variability affects long-term trends of POPs in natural populations will become increasingly more important. In this study we report short-term trends in organochlorine (OC) levels in fish from Lake Winnipeg in the months and years following the 1997 100-year flood of the Red River ecosystem. Our goal was to understand the effects of an episodic event on OC levels in benthic and pelagic invertebrates and in fish. Despite elevated loading of OCs into the south basin of Lake Winnipeg during the flood there were no differences in OC levels of surface sediments or emergent mayflies. After adjusting for differences in lipid content and length among sample times, we did find significant increases in total DDT (??DDT) and total polychlorinated biphenyl (??PCB) post-flood (March 1999) in top predators including walleye and burbot. Significant increases were also observed in OC concentrations of zooplankton and yellow perch (> 2 fold in ??PCB, ??DDT, total chlordane (??CHL), total chlorobenzenes (??CBZ)) and walleye (1.4 fold ??PCB) over a 2-month period in the summer following the flood. Analysis of specific congener patterns over time suggest that the major changes in fish OC levels pre- and post-flood did not appear to be linked to transport of new compounds into the Lake during the flood, but to species shifts within the plankton community. Our results indicate that short-term variation (???2 months) in OC distributions within biota may be equal to or greater than those resulting from episodic events such as spring floods.

  9. Towards a robust calving and melt-history for Helheim Glacier, SE Greenland, for the last 100 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, T. J.; Ellegaard, M.; Markussen, T. N.

    2013-12-01

    Observations of increased ice-discharge from tidewater glaciers in Greenland in the early and mid 2000s has led to concern about a possible rapid loss of ice from the ice sheet in a scenario with increasing air and ocean water temperatures. In order to evaluate the strength and uniqueness of the observed increase a robust data-set on the temporal variation of calving and melt is strongly needed. The only reliable data prior to the period of aerial photographs and instrumental observations is the archive preserved at the seabed in the fjords and coastal waters off the ice sheet. Establishment of core-chronology is central in studies of these archives and is based on Pb-210 dating which will reach approx. 100 years back in time. Establishment of a detailed and accurate core-chronology by means of Pb-210 dating and Cs-137 peaks is by no means a trivial task in environments influenced by episodic deposition of ice-rafted debris (IRD). The deposition will have a relatively large component of random variability which could be mistaken for actual changes in sedimentation rate, especially so if only one or a few cores are analyzed. To increase the reliability of the calving reconstruction, a total of 13 cores have been sampled in this study in Sermilik Fjord in August 2012 at depths between approximately 700 to 900 m. Eleven of the cores are from within the central basin north of 66 degrees North and two are from the outer part of the fjord south of that line. CTD-profiles and measurements of floc size in situ indicate that the sedimentation is significantly influenced by deposition of IRD and temporal changes in sediment accumulation rates will therefore be examined for all the cores. The cores are also being analyzed for their content of dinoflagellate cysts and diatoms in order to examine possible temporal changes in ocean water temperature in the fjord. So far (August 2013) six cores have been studied and the total average accumulation rate for each year since 1925 has

  10. Modeling and classifying variable width riparian zones utilizing digital elevation models, flood height data, digital soil data and National Wetlands Inventory: A new approach for riparian zone delineation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abood, Sinan A.

    Riparian zones are dynamic, transitional ecosystems between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems with well defined vegetation and soil characteristics. Development of an all-encompassing definition for riparian ecotones, because of their high variability, is challenging. However, there are two primary factors that all riparian ecotones are dependent on: the watercourse and its associated floodplain. Previous approaches to riparian boundary delineation have utilized fixed width buffers, but this methodology has proven to be inadequate as it only takes the watercourse into consideration and ignores critical geomorphology, associated vegetation and soil characteristics. Our approach offers advantages over other previously used methods by utilizing: the geospatial modeling capabilities of ArcMap GIS; a better sampling technique along the water course that can distinguish the 50-year flood plain, which is the optimal hydrologic descriptor of riparian ecotones; the Soil Survey Database (SSURGO) and National Wetland Inventory (NWI) databases to distinguish contiguous areas beyond the 50-year plain; and land use/cover characteristics associated with the delineated riparian zones. The model utilizes spatial data readily available from Federal and State agencies and geospatial clearinghouses. An accuracy assessment was performed to assess the impact of varying the 50-year flood height, changing the DEM spatial resolution (1, 3, 5 and 10m), and positional inaccuracies with the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) streams layer on the boundary placement of the delineated variable width riparian ecotones area. The result of this study is a robust and automated GIS based model attached to ESRI ArcMap software to delineate and classify variable-width riparian ecotones.

  11. Scenario-based tsunami risk assessment using a static flooding approach and high-resolution digital elevation data: An example from Muscat in Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Bastian; Hoffmann, Gösta; Reicherter, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of tsunami risk and vulnerability is essential to establish a well-adapted Multi Hazard Early Warning System, land-use planning and emergency management. As the tsunami risk for the coastline of Oman is still under discussion and remains enigmatic, various scenarios based on historical tsunamis were created. The suggested inundation and run-up heights were projected onto the modern infrastructural setting of the Muscat Capital Area. Furthermore, possible impacts of the worst-case tsunami event for Muscat are discussed. The approved Papathoma Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment Model was used to model the structural vulnerability of the infrastructure for a 2 m tsunami scenario, depicting the 1945 tsunami and a 5 m tsunami in Muscat. Considering structural vulnerability, the results suggest a minor tsunami risk for the 2 m tsunami scenario as the flooding is mainly confined to beaches and wadis. Especially traditional brick buildings, still predominant in numerous rural suburbs, and a prevalently coast-parallel road network lead to an increased tsunami risk. In contrast, the 5 m tsunami scenario reveals extensively inundated areas and with up to 48% of the buildings flooded, and therefore consequently a significantly higher tsunami risk. We expect up to 60000 damaged buildings and up to 380000 residents directly affected in the Muscat Capital Area, accompanied with a significant loss of life and damage to vital infrastructure. The rapid urbanization processes in the Muscat Capital Area, predominantly in areas along the coast, in combination with infrastructural, demographic and economic growth will additionally increase the tsunami risk and therefore emphasizes the importance of tsunami risk assessment in Oman.

  12. Floods in central Texas, August 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, E.E.; Massey, B.C.; Waddell, Kidd M.

    1979-01-01

    Peak discharges at several streamflow stations exceeded the historic peaks, and the flood magnitude and frequency data for the Guadalupe River above Canyon Lake, the Medina River near Pipe Creek, and Clear Fork Brazos River indicate that the August 1978 flood had a recurrence interval in excess of 100 years. The highest unit discharge observed during this flood was 3,010 cubic feet per second from a 14.1-square-mil.e drainage area of Spring Creek, which is tributary to the Pedernales River.

  13. Impact of elevated CO2 and temperature on soil C and N dynamics in relation to CH4 and N2O emissions from tropical flooded rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, P; Roy, K S; Neogi, S; Dash, P K; Nayak, A K; Mohanty, S; Baig, M J; Sarkar, R K; Rao, K S

    2013-09-01

    A field experiment was carried out to investigate the impact of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) (CEC, 550 μmol mol(-1)) and elevated CO2+elevated air temperature (CECT, 550 μmol mol(-1) and 2°C more than control chamber (CC)) on soil labile carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools, microbial populations and enzymatic activities in relation to emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) in a flooded alluvial soil planted with rice cv. Naveen in open top chambers (OTCs). The labile soil C pools, namely microbial biomass C, readily mineralizable C, water soluble carbohydrate C and potassium permanganate oxidizable C were increased by 27, 23, 38 and 37% respectively under CEC than CC (ambient CO2, 394 μmol mol(-1)). The total organic carbon (TOC) in root exudates was 28.9% higher under CEC than CC. The labile N fractions were also increased significantly (29%) in CEC than CC. Methanogens and denitrifier populations in rhizosphere were higher under CEC and CECT. As a result, CH4 and N2O-N emissions were enhanced by 26 and 24.6% respectively, under CEC in comparison to open field (UC, ambient CO2, 394 μmol mol(-1)) on seasonal basis. The global warming potential (GWP) was increased by 25% under CEC than CC. However, emissions per unit of grain yield under elevated CO2 and temperature were similar to those observed at ambient CO2. The stimulatory effect on CH4 and N2O emissions under CEC was linked with the increased amount of soil labile C, C rich root exudates, lowered Eh, higher Fe(+2) concentration and increased activities of methanogens and extracellular enzymes.

  14. Elevating your elevator talk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important and often overlooked item that every early career researcher needs to do is compose an elevator talk. The elevator talk, named because the talk should not last longer than an average elevator ride (30 to 60 seconds), is an effective method to present your research and yourself in a clea...

  15. A model to evaluate 100-year energy mix scenarios to facilitate deep decarbonization in the southeastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Adkisson, Mary A.; Qualls, A. L.

    2016-08-01

    The Southeast United States consumes approximately one billion megawatt-hours of electricity annually; roughly two-thirds from carbon dioxide (CO2) emitting sources. The balance is produced by non-CO2 emitting sources: nuclear power, hydroelectric power, and other renewables. Approximately 40% of the total CO2 emissions come from the electric grid. The CO2 emitting sources, coal, natural gas, and petroleum, produce approximately 372 million metric tons of CO2 annually. The rest is divided between the transportation sector (36%), the industrial sector (20%), the residential sector (3%), and the commercial sector (2%). An Energy Mix Modeling Analysis (EMMA) tool was developed to evaluate 100-year energy mix strategies to reduce CO2 emissions in the southeast. Current energy sector data was gathered and used to establish a 2016 reference baseline. The spreadsheet-based calculation runs 100-year scenarios based on current nuclear plant expiration dates, assumed electrical demand changes from the grid, assumed renewable power increases and efficiency gains, and assumed rates of reducing coal generation and deployment of new nuclear reactors. Within the model, natural gas electrical generation is calculated to meet any demand not met by other sources. Thus, natural gas is viewed as a transitional energy source that produces less CO2 than coal until non-CO2 emitting sources can be brought online. The annual production of CO2 and spent nuclear fuel and the natural gas consumed are calculated and summed. A progression of eight preliminary scenarios show that nuclear power can substantially reduce or eliminate demand for natural gas within 100 years if it is added at a rate of only 1000 MWe per year. Any increases in renewable energy or efficiency gains can offset the need for nuclear power. However, using nuclear power to reduce CO2 will result in significantly more

  16. The 100-Year Base Flood Standard and the Floodplain Management Executive Order: A Review Prepared for the Office of Management and Budget by the Federal Emergency Management Agency.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    District 2480 W. 26th Avenue Denver, CO 80211 *FLORIDA L-18 E. D. Vergara Water Management District P.O. Box 1429 Palatka, FL 32077 L-19 R. P. Blakeley Old...Engineer 606 Laurel Valley Road Austin, TX 78746 0-4 The Bi-State Development Agency Manuel De La 0 Executive Director 707 North First Street St. Louis

  17. Water availability and flood hazards in the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, Frank J.; Oster, E.A.

    1979-01-01

    The rock formations of the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument area are aquifers that can be expected to yield less than 10 gallons of water per minute to wells. The most permeable of the geologic units is the alluvium that occurs at low elevations along the John Day River and most of the smaller streams. Wells in the alluvial deposits can be expected to yield adequate water supplies for recreational areas; also, wells completed in the underlying bedrock at depths ranging from 50 to 200 feet could yield as much as 10 gallons per minute. Pumping tests on two unused wells indicated yields of 8 gallons per minute and 2 gallons per minute. Nine of the ten springs measured in and near the monument area in late August of 1978 were flowing 0.2 to 30 gallons per minute. Only the Cant Ranch spring and the Johnny Kirk Spring near the Sheep Rock unit had flows exceeding 6 gallons per minute. Chemical analyses of selected constituents of the ground water indicated generally low concentrations of dissolved minerals. Although cloudbursts in the Painted Hills unit could generate a flood wave on the valley floors, flood danger can be reduced by locating recreational sites on high ground. The campground in Indian Canyon of the Clarno unit is vulnerable to cloudburst flooding. About 80 percent of the proposed campground on the John Day River in the Sheep Rock unit is above the estimated level of 1-percent chance flood (100-year flood) of the river. The 1-percent chance flood would extend about 120 feet from the riverbank into the upstream end of the campground. (USGS).

  18. Hydro-geological process chain for building a flood scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longoni, Laura; Brambilla, Davide; Papini, Monica; Ivanov, Vladislav; Radice, Alessio

    2015-04-01

    Flash-flood events in mountain environments are often related to the transport of large amounts of sediment from the slopes through the stream network. As a consequence, significant morphological changes may occur in rivers during a single, short-duration event, with possibly significant effect on the water elevation. An appropriate hazard evaluation would therefore require the thorough modelling of the flood-related phenomena and of their interconnection. In this context, this work is focused on an attempt of integrated modelling of event-scale water and sediment transport processes for a reference case-study of the Mallero basin in the Italian Alps. The area of the catchments is about 320 square km, the main stream being almost 25 km long and having slopes in the range from 1 to 40 %. A town (Sondrio) is present at the downstream end of the river. In 1987, Sondrio was at risk of inundation due to a combined effect of relatively high discharge and aggradation of the river bed up to 5 m (almost equal to the bankfull depth in the in-town reach). A 100-year flood scenario was produced including (i) a sediment supply model, (ii) a one-dimensional, hydro-morphologic model of the river bed evolution, and (iii) an estimation of the outflowing discharge at river sections where the bank elevation was exceeded by water. Rainfall-runoff transformation was not included into the modelling chain as the 100-year water hydrograph was already available from previous studies. For the sediment production model, a downscaling in time of the Gavrilovic equation was attempted using rainfall estimation from depth-duration-frequency curves, which furnished values in reasonable agreement with some available data. The hydro-morphologic model, based on the Saint-Venant and Exner equations, was preliminarily calibrated against data for bed aggradation measured in 1987. A point of separation was chosen at an appropriate location in the basin, and the sediment yield estimated upstream of this

  19. 11. VIEW OF FLOOD GATE FOR THE PRESSURE CULVERT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF FLOOD GATE FOR THE PRESSURE CULVERT AND THE SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Wyoming Valley Flood Control System, Woodward Pumping Station, East of Toby Creek crossing by Erie-Lackawanna Railroad, Edwardsville, Luzerne County, PA

  20. Flood frequency analysis of historical flood data under stationary and non-stationary modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, M. J.; Botero, B. A.; López, J.; Francés, F.; Díez-Herrero, A.; Benito, G.

    2015-01-01

    analysis using documentary data (plus gauged record) improved the estimates of the probabilities of rare floods (return intervals of 100 year and higher). Under non-stationary modelling flood occurrence associated with an exceedance probability of 0.01 (i.e. return period of 100 year) has changed over the last 500 year due to decadal and multi-decadal variability of the NAO. Yet, frequency analysis under stationary models was successful on providing an average discharge around which value flood quantiles estimated by non-stationary models fluctuate through time.

  1. Spatio-temporal analysis of rainfall trends over a maritime state (Kerala) of India during the last 100 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Archana; Ajith Joseph, K.; Nair, K. S.

    2014-05-01

    Kerala, a maritime state of India is bestowed with abundant rainfall which is about three times the national average. This study is conducted to have a better understanding of rainfall variability and trend at regional level for this state during the last 100 years. It is found that the rainfall variation in northern and southern regions of Kerala is large and the deviation is on different timescales. There is a shifting of rainfall mean and variability during the seasons. The trend analysis on rainfall data over the last 100 years reveals that there is a significant (99%) decreasing trend in most of the regions of Kerala especially in the month of January, July and November. The annual and seasonal trends of rainfall in most regions of Kerala are also found to be decreasing significantly. This decreasing trend may be related to global anomalies as a result of anthropogenic green house gas (GHG) emissions due to increased fossil fuel use, land-use change due to urbanisation and deforestation, proliferation in transportation associated atmospheric pollutants. We have also conducted a study of the seasonality index (SI) and found that only one district in the northern region (Kasaragod) has seasonality index of more than 1 and that the distribution of monthly rainfall in this district is mostly attributed to 1 or 2 months. In rest of the districts, the rainfall is markedly seasonal. The trend in SI reveals that the rainfall distribution in these districts has become asymmetric with changes in rainfall distribution.

  2. A 100 year sedimentary record of heavy metal pollution in a shallow eutrophic lake, Lake Chaohu, China.

    PubMed

    Zan, Fengyu; Huo, Shouliang; Xi, Beidou; Su, Jing; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Jingtian; Yeager, Kevin M

    2011-10-01

    This study has worked on the evaluation of the temporal and spatial evolution of heavy metal contamination in sediment taken from a shallow eutrophic lake, Lake Chaohu, China, over the last 100 years, and thereby used (137)Cs and (210)Pb dating, a PIRLA procedure, statistical analysis, geochemical normalization and a enrichment factor calculation (EF). Concentrations of 5174, 29 325, 10.7, 36.4, 20.4, 386.0, 21.1 and 38.4 mg kg(-1) for Ti, Fe, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn, respectively, are proposed as natural background values for the Lake Chaohu based on a PIRLA procedure. The contamination history from the last 100 years can be divided into two periods. Before the 1960s, heavy metal contamination did not occur and there was no spatial difference for heavy metal distribution. Since the 1960s, heavy metal enrichment and contamination has occurred, and the west half of the lake region showed a higher degree of contamination than the east half to various intensified anthropogenic activities. In the east half of the lake region, the anthropogenic source of heavy metals mainly originated from agricultural intensification, whereas in the west half of the lake it originated from city runoff and industry as well as agriculture. In all anthropogenic heavy metals, Co is only from industry.

  3. Flood of March 1997 in southern Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, K.S.; Vivian, S.A.; Diam, F.J.; Crecelius, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    Rainfall amounts of up to 12 inches produced by thunderstorms during March 1-2, 1997 resulted in severe flooding throughout much of southern Ohio. Eighteen counties were declared Federal and State disaster areas. Cost estimates of damage in Ohio from the flooding are nearly $180 million. About 6,500 residences and more than 800 businesses were affected by flooding. Nearly 20,000 persons were evacuated, and 5 deaths were attributed to the flooding. Record peak stage and streamflow were recorded at U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging stations on Ohio Brush Creek near West Union and Shade River near Chester. The peak streamflow at these two locations exceeded the estimate of the 100-year-recurrence- interval peak streamflow. The recurrence intervals of peak stream flow at selected USGS streamflow gaging stations throughout southern Ohio ranged from less than 2 years to greater than 100 years. The most severe flooding in the State was generally confined to areas within 50 to 70 miles of the Ohio River. Many communities along the Ohio River experienced the worst flooding in more than 30 years.

  4. Development of flood profiles and flood-inundation maps for the Village of Killbuck, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostheimer, Chad J.

    2013-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a reach of Killbuck Creek near the Village of Killbuck, Ohio, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Holmes County, Ohio. The inundation maps depict estimates of the areal extent of flooding corresponding to water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage Killbuck Creek near Killbuck (03139000) and were completed as part of an update to Federal Emergency Management Agency Flood-Insurance Study. The maps were provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into a Web-based flood-warning system that can be used in conjunction with NWS flood-forecast data to show areas of predicted flood inundation associated with forecasted flood-peak stages. The digital maps also have been submitted for inclusion in the data libraries of the USGS interactive Flood Inundation Mapper. Data from the streamgage can be used by emergency-management personnel, in conjunction with the flood-inundation maps, to help determine a course of action when flooding is imminent. Flood profiles for selected reaches were prepared by calibrating a steady-state step-backwater model to an established streamgage rating curve. The step-backwater model then was used to determine water-surface-elevation profiles for 10 flood stages at the streamgage with corresponding streamflows ranging from approximately the 50- to 0.2-percent annual exceedance probabilities. The computed flood profiles were used in combination with digital elevation data to delineate flood-inundation areas.

  5. Estimation of Future Changes in Flood Disaster Losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konoshima, L.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Roobavannan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Disaster losses can be estimated by hazard intensity, exposure, and vulnerabilities. Many studies have addressed future economic losses from river floods, most of which are focused on Europe (Bouwer et al, 2010). Here flood disaster losses are calculated using the output of multi-model ensembles of CMIP5 GCMs in order to estimate the changes in damage loss due to climate change. For the global distribution of the expected future population and GDP, the ALPS scenario of RITE is population for is used. Here, flood event is defined as river discharge that has a probability of having 100 years return period. The time series of annual maximum daily discharge was fitted using moment fitting method for GEV distribution at each grid. L-moment method (Hosking and Wallis 1997) is used for estimating the parameters of distribution. For probability distribution, Gumbel distribution and Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution were tested to see the future changes of 100-year value. Using the calculation of 100-year flood of present condition and annual maximum discharge for present and future climate conditions, the area exceeding 100-year flood is calculated for each 30 years. And to estimate the economic impact of future changes in occurrence of 100-year flood, affected total GDP is calculated by multiplying the affected population with country's GDP in areas exceeding 100-year flood value of present climate for each present and future conditions. The 100-year flood value is fixed with the value of present condition in calculating the affected value on the future condition. To consider the effect of the climatic condition and changes of economic growth, the regions are classified by continents. The Southeast Asia is divided into Japan and South Korea (No.1) and other countries (No.2), since the GDP and GDP growth rate within the two areas is quite different compared to other regions. Figure 1 shows the average and standard deviation (1-sigma) of future changing ratio

  6. Runoff models and flood frequency statistics for design flood estimation in Austria - Do they tell a consistent story?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogger, M.; Kohl, B.; Pirkl, H.; Viglione, A.; Komma, J.; Kirnbauer, R.; Merz, R.; Blöschl, G.

    2012-08-01

    SummaryDesign floods for a given location at a stream can be estimated by a number of approaches including flood frequency statistics and the design storm method. If applied to the same catchment the two methods often yield quite different results. The aim of this paper is to contribute to understanding the reasons for these differences. A case study is performed for 10 alpine catchments in Tyrol, Austria, where the 100-year floods are estimated by (a) flood frequency statistics and (b) an event based runoff model. To identify the sources of the differences of the two methods, the 100-year floods are also estimated by (c) Monte Carlo simulations using a continuous runoff model. The results show that, in most catchments, the event based model gives larger flood estimates than flood frequency statistics. The reasons for the differences depend on the catchment characteristics and different rainfall inputs that were applied. For catchments with a high storage capacity the Monte Carlo simulations indicate a step change in the flood frequency curve when a storage threshold is exceeded which is not captured by flood frequency statistics. Flood frequency statistics therefore tends to underestimate the floods in these catchments. For catchments with a low storage capacity or significant surface runoff, no step change occurs, but in three catchments the design storms used were larger than those read from the IDF (intensity duration frequency) curve leading to an overestimation of the design floods. Finally, also the correct representation of flood dominating runoff components was shown to influence design flood results. Geologic information on the catchments was essential for identifying the reasons for the mismatch of the flood estimates.

  7. Bank erosion history of a mountain stream determined by means of anatomical changes in exposed tree roots over the last 100 years (Bílá Opava River — Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Ireneusz; Matyja, Marcin

    2008-06-01

    The date of exposure of spruce roots as a result of bank erosion was investigated on the Bílá Opava River in the northeastern Czech Republic. Following the exposure of roots, wood cells in the tree rings divide into early wood and late wood. Root cells within the tree rings also become smaller and more numerous. These processes permit dating of the erosion episodes in which roots were exposed. Sixty root samples were taken from seven sampling sites selected on two riverbed reaches. The results of root exposure dating were compared to historical data on hydrological flooding. Using the root exposure dating method, several erosion episodes were recorded for the last 100 years. The greatest bank erosion was recorded as consequence of an extraordinary flood in July 1997. In the upper, rocky part of the valley studied, bank erosion often took place during large floods that occurred in the early 20th century. In the lower, alluvial part of the valley, erosion in the exposed roots was recorded only in 1973 and has been intensive ever since. It is suggested that banks in the lower part are more frequently undercut, which leads to the falling of trees within whose roots older erosion episodes were recorded. Locally, bank erosion is often intensified by the position of 1- to 2-m boulders in the riverbed, which direct water into the parts of the banks where erosion occurs. Selective bank erosion could be intensified by debris dams and hillslope material supply to the riverbed.

  8. Technique for estimating magnitude and frequency of floods in Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtis, George W.

    1977-01-01

    A technique is presented for estimating flood magnitudes at recurrence intervals ranging from 2 to 500 years, for unregulated rural streams in Illinois, with drainage areas ranging from 0.02 to 10,000 square miles. Multiple regression analyses, using streamflow data from 241 sampling sites, were used to define the flood-frequency relationships. The independent variables drainage area, slope, rainfall intensity, and an areal factor are used in the estimating equations to determine flood peaks. Examples are given to demonstrate a step-by-step procedure in computing a 100-year flood for a site on an ungaged stream and a site on a gaged stream in Illinois. The report is oriented toward planners and designers of engineering projects such as highways, bridges, culverts, flood-control structures, and drainage systems, and toward planners responsible for planning flood-plain use and establishing flood-insurance rates. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. The History of Parenting Practices: An Overview! Events, Policies and Theories That Have Influenced Parenting Practices over the Last 100 Years. [Videotape and Worksheets].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    Noting that parenting is a learned experience and that the source of information on parenting has changed considerably over the last 100 years, this videotape examines the history of parent education over the past 100 years, highlighting events influencing family life, policies and legislation to assist families, and parenting theories for each…

  10. Peak Discharge, Flood Profile, Flood Inundation, and Debris Movement Accompanying the Failure of the Upper Reservoir at the Taum Sauk Pump Storage Facility near Lesterville, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rydlund, Jr., Paul H.

    2006-01-01

    The Taum Sauk pump-storage hydroelectric power plant located in Reynolds County, Missouri, uses turbines that operate as pumps and hydraulic head generated by discharging water from an upper to a lower reservoir to produce electricity. A 55-acre upper reservoir with a 1.5- billion gallon capacity was built on top of Proffit Mountain, approximately 760 feet above the floodplain of the East Fork Black River. At approximately 5:16 am on December 14, 2005, a 680-foot wide section of the upper reservoir embankment failed suddenly, sending water rushing down the western side of Proffit Mountain and emptying into the floodplain of East Fork Black River. Flood waters from the upper reservoir flowed downstream through Johnson's Shut-Ins State Park and into the lower reservoir of the East Fork Black River. Floods such as this present unique challenges and opportunities to analyze and document peak-flow characteristics, flood profiles, inundation extents, and debris movement. On December 16, 2005, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data were collected and used to support hydraulic analyses, forensic failure analyses, damage extent, and mitigation of future disasters. To evaluate the impact of sedimentation in the lower reservoir, a bathymetric survey conducted on December 22 and 23, 2005, was compared to a previous bathymetric survey conducted in April, 2005. Survey results indicated the maximum reservoir capacity difference of 147 acre-feet existed at a pool elevation of 730 feet. Peak discharge estimates of 289,000 cubic feet per second along Proffit Mountain and 95,000 cubic feet per second along the East Fork Black River were determined through indirect measurement techniques. The magnitude of the embankment failure flood along the East Fork Black River was approximately 4 times greater than the 100-year flood frequency estimate of 21,900 cubic feet per second, and approximately 3 times greater than the 500-year flood frequency estimate of 30,500 cubic feet per second

  11. Climate factor for small-basin flood frequency

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lichty, R.W.; Karlinger, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    A climate factor, CT, (T = 2-, 25-, and 100-year recurrence intervals) that delineates regional trends in small-basin flood frequency was derived using data from 71 long-term rainfall record sites. Values of CT at these sites were developed by a regression analysis that related rainfall-runoff model estimates of T-year floods to a sample set of 50 model calibrations. CT was regionalized via kriging to develop maps depicting its geographic variation for a large part of the United States east of the 105th meridian. Kriged estimates of CT and basin-runoff characteristics were used to compute regionalized T-year floods for 200 small drainage basins. Observed T-year flood estimates also were developed for these sites. Regionalized floods are shown to account for a large percentage of the variability in observed flood estimates with coefficients of determination ranging from 0.89 for 2-year floods to 0.82 for 100-year floods. The relative importance of the factors comprising regionalized flood estimates is evaluated in terms of scale (size of drainage area), basin-runoff characteristics (rainfall-runoff model parameters), and climate (CT).

  12. Flood Summary Chehalis River Basin, January 1990 Event (and November 1990 Event Addendum)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-31

    Chehalis area. On the other hand, the three Eastern Washington counties (Chelan, Kittitas and Yakima ) experienced severe flooding for the first time in...River Basin, Washington Floods, 1990 19 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) The main report documents the 100-year...2 6. Temperature ........................................................ 2 7. Freezing Level and Snowpack

  13. Aboveground and belowground legacies of native Sami land use on boreal forest in northern Sweden 100 years after abandonment.

    PubMed

    Freschet, Grégoire T; Ostlund, Lars; Kichenin, Emilie; Wardle, David A

    2014-04-01

    Human activities that involve land-use change often cause major transformations to community and ecosystem properties both aboveground and belowground, and when land use is abandoned, these modifications can persist for extended periods. However, the mechanisms responsible for rapid recovery vs. long-term maintenance of ecosystem changes following abandonment remain poorly understood. Here, we examined the long-term ecological effects of two remote former settlements, regularly visited for -300 years by reindeer-herding Sami and abandoned -100 years ago, within an old-growth boreal forest that is considered one of the most pristine regions in northern Scandinavia. These human legacies were assessed through measurements of abiotic and biotic soil properties and vegetation characteristics at the settlement sites and at varying distances from them. Low-intensity land use by Sami is characterized by the transfer of organic matter towards the settlements by humans and reindeer herds, compaction of soil through trampling, disappearance of understory vegetation, and selective cutting of pine trees for fuel and construction. As a consequence, we found a shift towards early successional plant species and a threefold increase in soil microbial activity and nutrient availability close to the settlements relative to away from them. These changes in soil fertility and vegetation contributed to 83% greater total vegetation productivity, 35% greater plant biomass, and 23% and 16% greater concentrations of foliar N and P nearer the settlements, leading to a greater quantity and quality of litter inputs. Because decomposer activity was also 40% greater towards the settlements, soil organic matter cycling and nutrient availability were further increased, leading to likely positive feedbacks between the aboveground and belowground components resulting from historic land use. Although not all of the activities typical of Sami have left visible residual traces on the ecosystem after

  14. Improvements on flood alleviation in Germany: lessons learned from the Elbe flood in August 2002.

    PubMed

    Petrow, Theresia; Thieken, Annegret H; Kreibich, Heidi; Bahlburg, Cord Heinrich; Merz, Bruno

    2006-11-01

    The increase in damage due to natural disasters is directly related to the number of people who live and work in hazardous areas and continuously accumulate assets. Therefore, land use planning authorities have to manage effectively the establishment and development of settlements in flood-prone areas in order to avoid the further increase of vulnerable assets. Germany faced major destruction during the flood in August 2002 in the Elbe and Danube catchments, and many changes have been suggested in the existing German water and planning regulations. This article presents some findings of a "Lessons Learned" study that was carried out in the aftermath of the flood and discusses the following topics: 1) the establishment of comprehensive hazard maps and flood protection concepts, 2) the harmonization of regulations of flood protection at the federal level, 3) the communication of the flood hazard and awareness strategies, and 4) how damage potential can be minimized through measures of area precaution such as resettlement and risk-adapted land use. Although attempts towards a coordinated and harmonized creation of flood hazard maps and concepts have been made, there is still no uniform strategy at all planning levels and for all states (Laender) of the Federal Republic of Germany. The development and communication of possible mitigation strategies for "unthinkable extreme events" beyond the common safety level of a 100-year flood are needed. In order to establish a sustainable and integrated flood risk management, interdisciplinary and catchment-based approaches are needed.

  15. A 100-year sedimentary record of natural and anthropogenic impacts on a shallow eutrophic lake, Lake Chaohu, China.

    PubMed

    Zan, Fengyu; Huo, Shouliang; Xi, Beidou; Zhu, Chaowei; Liao, Haiqing; Zhang, Jingtian; Yeager, Kevin M

    2012-03-01

    In this study, the sediment profiles of total organic carbon, total nitrogen, C/N ratios, total phosphorus, N/P ratios, C/P ratios, particle sizes, and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) were used to investigate natural and anthropogenic impacts on Lake Chaohu over the past 100 years. Before 1960, Lake Chaohu experienced low productivity and a relatively steady and low nutrient input. The increasing concentration and fluxes of total organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, together with changes in the δ(13)C and δ(15)N of organic material in the sediment cores, suggested that the anthropogenic effects on trophic status first started because of an increase in nutrient input caused by a population increase in the drainage area. With the construction of the Chaohu Dam, an increase in the utilization of fertilizer and the population growth which occurred since 1960, stable depositional conditions and increasing nutrient input resulted in a dominantly algae-derived organic matter source and high productivity. Nutrient input increased most significantly around 1980 following the rapidly growing population, with concomitant urbanization, industrial and agricultural development. This study also revealed that the concentration and distribution of nutrients varied between different areas of sediment within Lake Chaohu because of the influence of different drainage basins and pollution sources.

  16. Regime Shifts in Shallow Lakes: Responses of Cyanobacterial Blooms to Watershed Agricultural Phosphorus Loading Over the Last ~100 Years.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermaire, J. C.; Taranu, Z. E.; MacDonald, G. K.; Velghe, K.; Bennett, E.; Gregory-Eaves, I.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid changes in ecosystem states have occurred naturally throughout Earth's history. However, environmental changes that have taken place since the start of the Anthropocene may be destabilizing ecosystems and increasing the frequency of regime shifts in response to abrupt changes in external drivers or local intrinsic dynamics. To evaluate the relative influence of these forcers and improve our understanding of the impact of future change, we examined the effects of historical catchment phosphorus loading associated with agricultural land use on lake ecosystems, and whether this caused a shift from a stable, clear-water, regime to a turbid, cyanobacteria-dominated, state. The sedimentary pigments, diatom, and zooplankton (Cladocera) records from a currently clear-water shallow lake (Roxton Pond) and a turbid-water shallow lake (Petit lac Saint-François; PSF) were examined to determine if a cyanobacteria associated pigment (i.e. echinenone) showed an abrupt non-linear response to continued historical phosphorus load index (determined by phosphorus budget) over the last ~100 years. While PSF lake is presently in the turbid-water state, pigment and diatom analyses indicated that both lakes were once in the clear-water state, and that non-linear increases in catchment phosphorus balance resulted in an abrupt transition to cyanobacteria dominated states in each record. These results show that phosphorus loading has resulted in state shifts in shallow lake ecosystems that has been recorded across multiple paleolimnological indicators preserved in the sedimentary record.

  17. On the Influence of the NAO on Outlet Glacier Stability in SE Greenland during the Past 100 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andresen, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Greenland Ice sheet has gained massive attention in recent years due to a sudden increase in mass loss at the onset of this century. A significant part of this mass loss has been attributed to increased ice discharge at the margin through iceberg calving from marine-terminating outlet glaciers. However, due to the lack of instrumental data beyond the past 20-30 years it is difficult to evaluate if this was an outstanding event or if it was part of a recurring phenomenon acting on inter-annual, inter-decadal or centennial timescales. In order to improve understanding of the timescales involved in glacier changes and on the influence of ocean and atmosphere variability we investigate sediment archives from fjords with marine terminating glaciers. Near the glacier margin the sedimentation rates are relatively high due to glacial flour input and rafting of iceberg debris. Our studies of several sediment cores obtained from Sermilik Fjord by Helheim Glacier in Southeast Greenland has allowed us to reconstruct glacier calving, shelf temperature and fjord water renewal rate for the past 100 years. These studies show that dominant modes of climate variability, i.e. the North Atlantic Oscillation and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, affect ocean properties near the glacier and that the recorded variability concurs with reconstructed outlet glacier changes. This presentation provides an overview these studies.

  18. Flood hazard and risk analysis in the southwest region of Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tingsanchali, Tawatchai; Fazlul Karim, Mohammed

    2005-06-01

    Flood hazard and risk assessment was conducted to identify the priority areas in the southwest region of Bangladesh for flood mitigation. Simulation of flood flow through the Gorai and Arial Khan river system and its floodplains was done by using a hydrodynamic model. After model calibration and verification, the model was used to simulate the flood flow of 100-year return period for a duration of four months. The maximum flooding depths at different locations in the rivers and floodplains were determined. The process in determining long flooding durations at every grid point in the hydrodynamic model is laborious and time-consuming. Therefore the flood durations were determined by using satellite images of the observed flood in 1988, which has a return period close to 100 years. Flood hazard assessment was done considering flooding depth and duration. By dividing the study area into smaller land units for hazard assessment, the hazard index and the hazard factor for each land unit for depth and duration of flooding were determined. From the hazard factors of the land units, a flood hazard map, which indicates the locations of different categories of hazard zones, was developed. It was found that 54% of the study area was in the medium hazard zone, 26% in the higher hazard zone and 20% in the lower hazard zone. Due to lack of sufficient flood damage data, flood damage vulnerability is simply considered proportional to population density. The flood risk factor of each land unit was determined as the product of the flood hazard factor and the vulnerability factor. Knowing the flood risk factors for the land units, a flood risk map was developed based on the risk factors. These maps are very useful for the inhabitants and floodplain management authorities to minimize flood damage and loss of human lives.

  19. Effectiveness of water infrastructure for river flood management - Part 1: Flood hazard assessment using hydrological models in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusyev, M. A.; Kwak, Y.; Khairul, M. I.; Arifuzzaman, M. B.; Magome, J.; Sawano, H.; Takeuchi, K.

    2015-06-01

    This study introduces a flood hazard assessment part of the global flood risk assessment (Part 2) conducted with a distributed hydrological Block-wise TOP (BTOP) model and a GIS-based Flood Inundation Depth (FID) model. In this study, the 20 km grid BTOP model was developed with globally available data on and applied for the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM) river basin. The BTOP model was calibrated with observed river discharges in Bangladesh and was applied for climate change impact assessment to produce flood discharges at each BTOP cell under present and future climates. For Bangladesh, the cumulative flood inundation maps were produced using the FID model with the BTOP simulated flood discharges and allowed us to consider levee effectiveness for reduction of flood inundation. For the climate change impacts, the flood hazard increased both in flood discharge and inundation area for the 50- and 100-year floods. From these preliminary results, the proposed methodology can partly overcome the limitation of the data unavailability and produces flood~maps that can be used for the nationwide flood risk assessment, which is presented in Part 2 of this study.

  20. Zonation of flood production potential in Kabutar Ali Chai watershed using SCS model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jananeh, Keristineh

    2015-04-01

    watershed were estimated experimentally using the SCS method, based on which, A3 and A4 sub-basins have the highest peak discharge (15.55 and 19.44, respectively), which can be one of the flood production factors in this watershed. Meanwhile, the A1 sub-basin in the southern end of the watershed has the lowest peak discharge with low flood production potential. Finally, considering the runoff height and discharge, as well as the determined CN number, the flood production potential was calculated for 2, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 year return periods. According to the these flood-potential maps, A3 sub-basin shows high flood risk in its northern, central and southern parts. A2 and A4 sub-basins have lower flood risk, respectively, and the A1 sub-basin shows the lowest flood potential, which is due to the presence of permeable alluvial sediments and the widening of the stream bed. It was also revealed that the land slope is not the sole effective factor in flood production, but lithology and vegetation are also efficient.

  1. Historic Flooding in Georgia, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gotvald, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    Heavy rains in southern Georgia during March 27-April 3, 2009, and in northern Georgia during September 16-22, 2009, caused severe flooding and widespread damages to residential, public, and commercial structures. Of the 159 counties in Georgia, 69 were declared disaster areas because of flooding. The heavy rainfall in southern Georgia resulted in severe flooding in the Satilla-St. Marys and upper Ochlockonee Basins and caused approximately $60 million in damages to the public infrastructure. The heavy rainfall in northern Georgia resulted in severe flooding on many streams within the upper Chattahoochee, Altamaha, and Coosa-Tallapoosa Basins and caused 10 deaths, evacuation of thousands of residents, and approximately $500 million in damages. The U.S. Geological Survey computed annual exceedance probabilities of the peak flows in 2009 at 238 streamgages throughout the State. Record peak flows were recorded at 40 streamgages for the respective periods of record as a result of the heavy rainfall during the two multiday events. The peak flows at 33 streamgages exceeded the 1-percent annual exceedance probability (100-year recurrence interval), and 19 of these exceeded the 0.2-percent annual exceedance probability (500-year recurrence interval).

  2. Polymer flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Littmann, W.

    1988-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of polymer flooding, an enhanced oil recovery method using water soluble polymers to increase the viscosity of flood water, for the displacement of crude oil from porous reservoir rocks. Although this method is becoming increasingly important, there is very little literature available for the engineer wishing to embark on such a project. In the past, polymer flooding was mainly the subject of research. The results of this research are spread over a vast number of single publications, making it difficult for someone who has not kept up-to-date with developments during the last 10-15 years to judge the suitability of polymer flooding to a particular field case. This book tries to fill that gap. An indispensable book for reservoir engineers, production engineers and lab. technicians within the petroleum industry.

  3. Increasing risk of great floods in a changing climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milly, P.C.D.; Wetherald, R.T.; Dunne, K.A.; Delworth, T.L.

    2002-01-01

    Radiative effects of anthropogenic changes in atmospheric composition are expected to cause climate changes, in particular an intensification of the global water cycle with a consequent increase in flood risk. But the detection of anthropogenically forced changes in flooding is difficult because of the substantial natural variability; the dependence of streamflow trends on flow regime further complicates the issue. Here we investigate the changes in risk of great floods - that is, floods with discharges exceeding 100-year levels from basins larger than 200,000 km2 - using both streamflow measurements and numerical simulations of the anthropogenic climate change associated with greenhouse gases and direct radiative effects of sulphate aerosols. We find that the frequency of great floods increased substantially during the twentieth century. The recent emergence of a statistically significant positive trend in risk of great floods is consistent with results from the climate model, and the model suggests that the trend will continue.

  4. Understanding cratonic flood basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, Paul G.; Behn, Mark D.; Kelley, Katherine; Schmitz, Mark; Savage, Brian

    2006-05-01

    The origin of continental flood basalts has been debated for decades. These eruptions often produce millions of cubic kilometers of basalt on timescales of only a million years. Although flood basalts are found in a variety of settings, no locale is more puzzling than cratonic areas such as southern Africa or the Siberian craton, where strong, thick lithosphere is breached by these large basaltic outpourings. Conventionally, flood basalts have been interpreted as melting events produced by one of two processes: 1) elevated temperatures associated with mantle plumes and/or 2) adiabatic-decompression melting associated with lithospheric thinning. In southern Africa, however, there are severe problems with both of these mechanisms. First, the rifting circumstances of several well-known basaltic outpourings clearly reflect lithospheric control rather than the influence of a deep-seated plume. Specifically, rift timing and magmatism are correlated with stress perturbations to the lithosphere associated with the formation of collisional rifts. Second, the substantial lithospheric thinning required for adiabatic decompression melting is inconsistent with xenolith evidence for the continued survival of thick lithosphere beneath flood basalt domains. As an alternative to these models, we propose a new two-stage model that interprets cratonic flood basalts not as melting events, but as short-duration drainage events that tap previously created sublithospheric reservoirs of molten basalt formed over a longer time scale. Reservoir creation/existence (Stage I) requires long-term (e.g. ≫ 1 Ma) supersolidus conditions in the sublithospheric mantle that could be maintained by an elevated equilibrium geotherm (appropriate for the Archean), a slow thermal perturbation (e.g. thermal blanketing or large-scale mantle upwelling), or a subduction-related increase in volatile content. The drainage event (Stage II) occurs in response to an abrupt stress change in the lithosphere, which

  5. 75 FR 18091 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... inspection at 108 4th Street, Galena, MO 65656 Bee County, Texas, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1032 Salt Branch Intersection of Unnamed +163 Unincorporated Areas of Road and Salt Branch. Bee County... Unincorporated Areas of Bee County Maps are available for inspection at the Bee County Courthouse, 105...

  6. 78 FR 10066 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... of the Bass Slough (Upper Reach) confluence. Clay Hole Pond Entire shoreline......... +66... Channel downstream Just upstream of Eagle +65 Unincorporated Areas of of Clay Hole Pond. Pond. Osceola County. Just downstream of Clay +66 Hole Pond. Unnamed Connecting Channel downstream Approximately...

  7. 77 FR 66737 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... upstream of Birch Creek Road. Black Mingo Creek At the upstream side of +14 Unincorporated Areas of County... A At the Black Mingo Creek +25 Unincorporated Areas of confluence. Williamsburg County... Unincorporated Areas of upstream of the Black River Williamsburg County. confluence. Approximately 3.7 miles...

  8. 78 FR 36099 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... final rule is not a significant regulatory action under the criteria of section 3(f) of Executive Order... Maricopa County, Arizona, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1216 Bonita Dike Channel Approximately.... Approximately 400 feet +2599 upstream of Hawknest Road. Camp Creek Tributary B At the downstream limit...

  9. 76 FR 59361 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1216, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal... section 3(f) of Executive Order 12866, as amended. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This proposed rule... feet None +2599 upstream of Hawknest Road. Camp Creek Tributary B At the downstream limit None...

  10. 76 FR 79098 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... meter. ADDRESSES Town of Hermosa Maps are available for inspection at 420 Mount Rushmore Road, Custer, SD 57730. Unincorporated Areas of Custer County Maps are available for inspection at 420 Mount... County. Just downstream of County +1760 Road 111-1. Rainy Creek Just downstream of Lowden +1670 City...

  11. 76 FR 72661 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... Stroud. Approximately 1,250 None +635 feet upstream of Spring Mountain Lane. Cranberry Creek at Paradise... +1092 upstream of Snowbird Lane. Cranberry Creek at Pocono At the Pocono Creek +794 +796 Township...

  12. 77 FR 21471 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... Docket No.: FEMA-B-1134 Lake Ellen Entire shoreline +895 City of Chisago City. Skogman Lake Entire... Street. Ice House Creek Approximately 25 feet +3658 City of Spearfish. upstream of Grant Street. Approximately 50 feet +3686 upstream of State Street. Ice House Creek Tributary A Approximately 73 feet...

  13. 75 FR 29238 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ... District. Hodges Bend Drive. Approximately 988 feet None +88 upstream of Hodges Bend Drive. Lower Oyster..., Unincorporated Areas of Fort Bend County. Approximately 1,300 None +64 feet upstream of McKeever Road. Old Oyster Creek (Backwater effects Approximately 2,000 None +59 City of Missouri City, from Lower Oyster...

  14. 78 FR 45877 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    .... Approximately 550 feet 27 northeast of the intersection of Point Louisa Road and Glacier Highway. At the Auke... of Egan Drive. Lemon Creek Approximately 0.27 mile 23 City and Borough of downstream of Glacier Juneau. Highway. Approximately 1.4 miles 106 upstream of Glacier Highway. Mendenhall River...

  15. 76 FR 8984 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... 550 feet 25 27 northeast of the intersection of Point Louisa Road and Glacier Highway. At the Auke Bay... Approximately 0.27 mile None 23 City and Borough of downstream of Glacier Juneau. Highway. Approximately 1.4 miles None 106 upstream of Glacier Highway. Mendenhall River Approximately 1.14 None 23 City and...

  16. 78 FR 45879 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132... within + 585 Town of Michiana Shores, community. Unincorporated Areas of La Porte County. Lake Michigan Entire shoreline within + 585 Town of Long Beach. community. Lake Michigan Entire shoreline within +...

  17. 76 FR 76055 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order..., Indiana, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1148 Etter Ditch Approximately 530 feet +914 Town of... Indianapolis Road. Fishback Creek Approximately 0.53 mile +897 City of Lebanon, Town of downstream of...

  18. 77 FR 30220 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132... Street. Atlantic Ocean Along the shoreline, +16 City of Gloucester, Town approximately 850 feet of Ipswich, Town of east of the intersection Manchester-by-the-Sea, of Page Road and Town of Marblehead,...

  19. 76 FR 54415 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... 0.5 mile upstream of the Cumberland River confluence. Big Willis Creek (backwater effects From the...), Big Renox Creek (backwater effects from Cumberland River), Big Whetstone Creek (backwater effects from Cumberland River), Big Willis Creek (backwater effects from Cumberland River), Brush Creek (backwater...

  20. 76 FR 20606 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1188, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal... Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, Federal..., Civil Justice Reform. This proposed rule meets the applicable standards of Executive Order 12988....

  1. 75 FR 31342 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1120, to Kevin C. Long, Acting Chief, Engineering Management Branch... Chief, ] Engineering Management Branch, Mitigation Directorate, Federal Emergency Management Agency, 500... federalism implications under Executive Order 13132. Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform....

  2. 76 FR 36044 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1197, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal... Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, Federal..., Civil Justice Reform. This proposed rule meets the applicable standards of Executive Order 12988....

  3. 78 FR 36098 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation... 13132. Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. This final rule meets the applicable standards...

  4. 75 FR 31377 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1109, to Kevin C. Long, Acting Chief, Engineering Management Branch... Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Mitigation Directorate, Federal Emergency Management Agency, 500 C... federalism implications under Executive Order 13132. Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform....

  5. 77 FR 26959 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... County Courthouse, 300 West 3rd Avenue, Corsicana, TX 75110. Preston County, West Virginia, and.... Little Wolf Creek At the confluence with Wolf +1460 Unincorporated Areas of Creek. Preston County... Unincorporated Areas of Creek. Preston County. Approximately 0.5 mile upstream +1745 of Herring Road. Wolf...

  6. 76 FR 1121 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... +740 Village of Cobalt. downstream of Marvin Avenue. Approximately 1,310 None +788 feet upstream of.... Village of Cobalt Maps are available for inspection at 1 Court Square, Fredericktown, MO 63645. ]...

  7. 76 FR 50920 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ...) Modified Sharp County, Arkansas, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1089 Curia Creek Approximately 1... County, South Dakota, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1089 Bear Butte Creek Approximately...

  8. 76 FR 36373 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    .... Johns County, Florida, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1089 Kendall Creek Approximately 300...-1089 Mississippi River Approximately 7.1 miles +554 City of Muscatine, downstream of State Route 92... County, Kentucky, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1089 Bacon Creek (backwater effects from...

  9. 76 FR 35119 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... Alexandria, Virginia Docket No.: FEMA-B-1089 Virginia City of Backlick Run Approximately 0.4 mile downstream...-1089 Big Branch (backwater effects from From the confluence with +644 Unincorporated Areas of... County, Mississippi, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1089 Mississippi River Approximately...

  10. 78 FR 48813 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... Butler County, Kentucky, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1089 Barren River (Backwater effects... Street, Morgantown, KY 42261 ] Scott County, Kentucky, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1089...

  11. 76 FR 39305 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ...) Modified Franklin County, Arkansas, and Incorporated Areas Docket Nos.: FEMA-B-1068 and FEMA-B-1089... County, Iowa, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1089 Old Mans Creek Approximately 1,800 feet...

  12. 76 FR 9668 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    .... Mendocino County, California, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1089 Ackerman Creek At the upstream..., Quincy, IL 62305. Crawford County, Illinois, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1089 Mill Creek At..., and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1089 Tombigbee River At the Lowndes County...

  13. 75 FR 8814 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... +1014 Town of Marathon, Village downstream of Main of Marathon. Street. Approximately 0.85 mile +1023... 13045. Town of Marathon Maps are available for inspection at the Town of Marathon Highway Department, 16 Brink Street, Marathon, NY 13803. Town of Preble Maps are available for inspection at the Town...

  14. 76 FR 43923 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1110 Mississippi River Approximately 1.30 miles +1027 City of Rice... nearest 0.1 meter. ADDRESSES City of Rice Maps are available for inspection at 205 Main Street East,...

  15. 75 FR 29290 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ............ East Branch Pemigewasset River Approximately 1,800 feet downstream of the Richard Cooper None * 781... the confluence None +829 Unincorporated Areas of from Taylor Fork). with Taylor Fork to Madison County. approximately 1,950 feet upstream of the confluence with Taylor Fork. Otter Creek Approximately 0.7 mile...

  16. 75 FR 75949 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1161, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal... Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, Federal..., Civil Justice Reform. This proposed rule meets the applicable standards of Executive Order 12988....

  17. 76 FR 68107 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... upstream of Shug Jordan Parkway. Branch 1 of Saugahatchee Creek At the confluence with +607 City of Auburn... Rick Drive. Branch of Parkerson Mill Creek......... Approximately 471 feet +441 City of Auburn... with +568 City of Auburn. Parkerson Mill Creek. Approximately 157 feet +687 upstream of Shug...

  18. 78 FR 9831 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... Lancaster County, Nebraska, and Incorporated Areas Docket Nos.: FEMA-B1222 Little Salt Creek Approximately 1,293 feet +1139 City of Lincoln, upstream of the Salt Unincorporated Areas of Creek confluence. Lancaster County. Approximately 1,289 feet +1253 downstream of West Rock Creek Road. Little Salt...

  19. 75 FR 67317 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... Road.... +5495 +5494 Montana Unincorporated Areas of Sand Creek Approximately 90 feet downstream of..., St. +5545 +5547 Paul and Pacific Railroad. Montana Unincorporated Areas of Sand Creek Diversion... Junction 9NF0040). Approximately 5,000 None +164 feet upstream of the intersection of Jones Road and...

  20. 75 FR 67304 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... Route 12 (Kingwood Avenue). Swan Creek At the confluence with +68 +69 City of Lambertville. the Delaware... Buffalo, Township of Pine, Township of Rayburn. Approximately 1.12 None +876 miles upstream of State Route... upstream of State Route 66. ] Kiskiminetas River Approximately 4.9 miles None +774 Borough of...

  1. 77 FR 66555 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... Levy County, Florida, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1166 Bronson North Ditch At Ifshie... Street, Bronson, FL 32621. Cobb County, Georgia, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1204 Bishop..., Missouri, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1218 Boggs Creek At the upstream side of +558 City...

  2. 76 FR 35111 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... confluence with +44 Unincorporated Areas of Pine Log Creek. Washington County. Approximately 3.9 miles +76 upstream of the confluence with Pine Log Creek. Botheration Creek At the confluence with +32 Unincorporated Areas of Pine Log Creek. Washington County. Approximately 200 feet +90 downstream of the county...

  3. 76 FR 21664 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... are available for inspection at 315 South Main Street, Suite 202, Ottawa, KS 66067. Barren County, Kentucky, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1080 Barren River Lake Entire shoreline......... +590 Unincorporated Areas of Barren County. Barren River Tributary 32.1 (backwater From the confluence with...

  4. 75 FR 29219 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ... Route 92. of Muscatine County. Approximately 3.3 miles +561 +560 upstream of the confluence with Pine..., Kentucky, and Incorporated Areas Barren River (Backwater effects from From the confluence +423...

  5. 76 FR 1093 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... Missouri River Approximately 3,000 feet +574 City of Lupus, upstream of the Cole Unincorporated Areas of... Level, rounded to the nearest 0.1 meter. ADDRESSES City of Lupus Maps are available for inspection at 3750 Main Street, Lupus, MO 65046. Unincorporated Areas of Moniteau County. Maps are available...

  6. 75 FR 3171 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    .... Static BFE at the intersection of the Limit of +8 Detailed Study and the shoreline. ;*National Geodetic..., Alaska, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1029 ;Chignik Lake Entire shoreline......... 16 Lake...-7768 ;10th Street Basin Entire shoreline......... +885 City of Afton. 10th Street and Neal Avenue...

  7. 76 FR 50952 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ...). approximately 1,000 feet upstream of Harrisons Hill Road. Missouri River Tributary 5.1 From the Missouri River... 78644. Harrison County, West Virginia, and Incorporated Areas Bingamon Creek (backwater effects At the West Fork River +901 +902 Unincorpo rated Areas from West Fork River). confluence. of Harrison...

  8. 75 FR 68738 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ... in meters (MSL) Effective Modified Harrison County, Iowa, and Incorporated Areas Boyer River (Left Overbank)......... Approximately 0.66 mile None +1003 Unincorporated Areas of upstream of I-29. Harrison... Pottawattamie None +1003 Unincorporated Areas of (overflow effects from Missouri County boundary to...

  9. 75 FR 55480 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ...) Modified Pickens County, Alabama, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1071 Big Ditch Approximately 1...,292 feet +227 upstream of U.S. Route 82. Stream 2 Approximately 1,375 feet +196 Unincorporated Areas of downstream of the Pickens County. confluence with Stream 3. Approximately 1,300 feet...

  10. 76 FR 49676 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... Rate Map (FIRM) showing BFEs and modified BFEs for each community. This date may be obtained by contacting the office where the maps are available for inspection as indicated in the table below. ADDRESSES... Maps are available for inspection at the Department of Developmental Services, 777 Deltona...

  11. 75 FR 75941 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ...) (backwater At the confluence with +84 +85 Unincorporated Areas of effects from Cypress Creek). Cypress Creek. Harris County. Approximately 920 feet +84 +85 downstream of Aldine Westfield Road. K120-00-00 (Lemm Gully... with +108 +106 Unincorporated Areas of Cypress Creek. Harris County. Approximately 200 feet +136...

  12. 76 FR 36482 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... County. Tributary 2 confluence. Approximately 50 feet downstream of White Oak Road........ + 129 + 132... None + 79 upstream of the Bass Slough (Upper Reach) confluence. Clay Hole Pond Entire shoreline... Areas of downstream of Clay Hole Pond. Pond. Osceola County/ Just downstream of Clay None + 66 Hole...

  13. 75 FR 81957 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... the confluence with Shaver Creek. Juniata River Approximately 1.72 miles None +638 Township of Porter... are available for inspection at the Logan Township Building, 7228 Diamond Valley, Alexandria, PA 16611..., Huntingdon, PA 16652. Township of Porter Maps are available for inspection at the Porter Township...

  14. 77 FR 49379 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... Creek. Juniata River Approximately 1.72 miles +638 Township of Porter. upstream of Bridge Street... Maps are available for inspection at the Logan Township Building, 7228 Diamond Valley, Alexandria, PA... Road, Huntingdon, PA 16652. Township of Porter Maps are available for inspection at the Porter...

  15. 76 FR 29656 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ..., Cambridge, MD 21613. Grenada County, Mississippi, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1093 Grenada Lake Entire shoreline within +237 City of Grenada, community. Unincorporated Areas of Grenada County... Level, rounded to the nearest 0.1 meter. ADDRESSES City of Grenada Maps are available for inspection...

  16. 76 FR 9714 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... location approximately 216 feet downstream of Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway should have been listed... Santa Fe Railway are to be submitted on or before May 23, 2011. ADDRESSES: You may submit comments... 216 feet downstream of Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway. The effective BFE for that location...

  17. 75 FR 75945 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Vernon, River. east of the intersection Unincorporated Areas of Dike Road and Britt of Skagit County... Britt Unincorporated Areas Road and Dike Road. of Skagit County. Approximately 250 feet 3 +28 north...

  18. 76 FR 43637 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... River), Butler Branch (backwater effects from Cumberland River), Cumberland River, McFarland Creek...: Bailey Branch (backwater effects from Cumberland River), Butler Branch (backwater effects from Cumberland... confluence. Butler Branch (backwater effects From the Cumberland None +534 Unincorporated Areas of...

  19. 78 FR 9600 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... Lick Creek At the Susquehanna River +877 Borough of Hallstead, confluence. Borough of New Milford, Township of Great Bend, Township of New Milford. Approximately 0.4 mile +1273 upstream of State Route 1012..., Lanesboro, PA 18827. Borough of New Milford Maps are available for inspection at the Borough Office,...

  20. 76 FR 70403 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... +912 Township of Rolland. Camelot Lake Entire shoreline....... None +706 Township of Chippewa. Coldwater Lake Entire shoreline within None +866 Township of Nottawa, community. Township of Sherman. Halls Lake Entire shoreline....... None +994 Township of Broomfield. Indian Lake Entire shoreline..........

  1. 75 FR 50955 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ..., Province Lake, Saco River, Salmon Falls River, Sampson Cove, Spruce Creek, Stump Pond, The Pool, Worster...), Portsmouth Harbor, Saco River, Sampson Cove, Spruce Creek, The Pool, Worster Brook, and Worster Brook... intersection of Fishers Lane and Agamenticus Avenue. Spruce Creek Along the shoreline, +8 +9 Town of...

  2. 77 FR 49373 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... confluence. Tuscarora Creek Approximately 0.9 mile +445 Township of Spruce Hill. upstream of Groninger Valley.... Mean Sea Level, rounded to the nearest 0.1 meter. ADDRESSES Township of Spruce Hill Maps are available for inspection at the Spruce Hill Township Secretary's Office, 727 Half Moon Road, Port Royal,...

  3. 76 FR 56724 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ..., Town of Orangetown, Village of Chestnut Ridge, Village of Kaser, Village of Spring Valley. At the..., 251 Cherry Lane, Airmont, NY 10982. Village of Chestnut Ridge Maps are available for inspection at the Village Hall, 277 Old Nyack Turnpike, Chestnut Ridge, NY 10977. Village of Haverstraw Maps are...

  4. 76 FR 69665 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... side of U.S. Route 51. Raccoon Creek Approximately 0.85 mile + 468 Unincorporated Areas of downstream... developed criteria for floodplain management in floodprone areas in accordance with 44 CFR part 60... west along Sandy Drive. ] Virginia City of Suffolk.... Unnamed ponding From the + 8 areas...

  5. 75 FR 14091 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ...-1035 Big Creek South Ely Street......... + 713 City of Bertram. Big Creek Road + 719 Cedar Lake Entire.... Mean Sea Level, rounded to the nearest 0.1 meter. ADDRESSES City of Bertram Maps are available...

  6. 78 FR 21273 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... BFEs are the basis for the floodplain management measures that each community is required either to... for floodplain management in floodprone areas in accordance with 44 CFR part 60. Interested...

  7. 78 FR 21272 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... BFEs are the basis for the floodplain management measures that each community is required either to... for floodplain management in floodprone areas in accordance with 44 CFR part 60. ] Interested...

  8. 78 FR 14700 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... BFEs are the basis for the floodplain management measures that each community is required either to... for floodplain management in floodprone areas in accordance with 44 CFR part 60. Interested...

  9. 75 FR 62057 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) for the proposed BFEs for each community is available for inspection at the community's map repository. The respective addresses are listed in the table below. You may submit comments... +341 Unincorporated Areas of from Ohio River). with Blizzards Ponds McCracken County. Drainage Ditch...

  10. 76 FR 26980 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... Lake Michigan and White Ditch in La Porte County, Indiana. The City of Michiana Shores should have been listed as the Town of Michiana Shores. DATES: Comments pertaining to the Lake Michigan and White Ditch... Michigan and White Ditch. That table incorrectly listed the City of Michiana Shores among the...

  11. 77 FR 51745 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... (Tributary to Little Elk Creek), Northeast Creek, Perch Creek, Plum Creek, Susquehanna River, Tributary 1 to... (Tributary to Little Elk Creek), Northeast Creek, Perch Creek, Plum Creek, Susquehanna River, Tributary 1 to... Cecil County. Herman Highway. At Augustine Herman Highway None +11 Plum Creek Approximately 1.32...

  12. 77 FR 57066 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... Run (backwater effects from Sandlick Creek), Plum Creek (backwater effects from Green River), Plum... Run (backwater effects from Sandlick Creek), Plum Creek (backwater effects from Green River), Plum... Muhlenberg County. 1,175 feet upstream of Opossum Lane. Plum Creek (backwater effects from From the...

  13. 77 FR 50665 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... +1201 Township of Plum. downstream of Bradleytown Road. Approximately 0.78 mile None +1201 downstream of.... Township of Plum Maps are available for inspection at the Plum Township Building, 2360 Sunville...

  14. 75 FR 28511 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... County. approximately 1,175 feet upstream of Opossum Lane. Plum Creek (Backwater effects from From the... 300 feet of Muhlenberg County. downstream of the confluence with Plum Creek Tributary 4. Plum Creek... Plum Creek to Muhlenberg County. approximately 0.65 mile upstream of the confluence with Plum...

  15. 75 FR 22699 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... in feet above ground. Mean Sea Level, rounded to the nearest 0.1 meter. ADDRESSES Unincorporated.... + North American Vertical Datum. Depth in feet above ground. Mean Sea Level, rounded to the nearest 0.1... Vertical Datum. Depth in feet above ground. Mean Sea Level, rounded to the nearest 0.1 meter....

  16. 76 FR 26976 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... County. Grand River). South Lake Annette Road to approximately 0.49 mile upstream of South Lake Annette... authority citation for part 67 continues to read as follows: Authority: 42 U.S.C. 4001 et seq.... Sec. 67.4 2. The tables published under the authority of Sec. 67.4 are proposed to be amended...

  17. 75 FR 19320 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... are not within the scope of the Regulatory Flexibility Act, 5 U.S.C. 601- 612, a regulatory... Tombigbee River). with the Tombigbee Sumter County. River to approximately 0.5 mile downstream of County... River. Franklin County. Approximately 0.5 mile +212 +211 upstream of Dyking Road (State Route 1235)....

  18. 77 FR 76916 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... feet +1062 upstream of the Camp Branch Tributary A confluence. Camp Branch Tributary A At the Camp.... Approximately 350 feet +1062 upstream of James Road. Chattahoochee River At the Fulton County...

  19. 76 FR 46705 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ..., Red Oak Avenue to the south, and Royal Trails Road to the west. Multiple Ponding Areas Area bound by... None +47 Unincorporated Areas of Lane to the north, Lake County. Flag Street to the east, Red Oak... by West Thyme Avenue to the north, Poinciana Street to the east, Red Oak Avenue to the south,...

  20. 77 FR 73324 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Maggie Jones Road, bound by West Thyme Avenue to the north, Poinciana Street to the east, Red Oak Avenue... north, Flag Lake County. Street to the east, Red Oak Avenue to the south, and Jericho Trail to the west... the east, Red Oak Avenue to the south, and Royal Trails Road to the west. Multiple Ponding Areas...

  1. 76 FR 50960 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... +76 +75 upstream of Apple Tree Road. Bear Creek At the upstream side of +84 +83 Unincorpo rated Areas... Tributary 2 Approximately 0.6 mile None +60 Town of Winterville, upstream of Red Forbes Unincorporated Areas Road. of Pitt County. Approximately 0.7 mile None +62 upstream of Red Forbes Road. Tranters...

  2. 75 FR 62048 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... Lake Entire shoreline within None +959 City of Apple Valley. Dakota County. Keller Lake Entire shoreline within None +936 City of Apple Valley. Dakota County. * National Geodetic Vertical Datum. + North... Apple Valley Maps are available for inspection at 7100 West 147th Street, Apple Valley, MN...

  3. 76 FR 72627 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ...-1130 Alimagnet Lake Entire shoreline within +959 City of Apple Valley. Dakota County. Cannon River At... upstream of 280th Street West. Keller Lake Entire shoreline within +936 City of Apple Valley. Dakota County... meter. ADDRESSES City of Apple Valley Maps are available for inspection at 7100 West 147th Street,...

  4. 76 FR 39800 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... County, Colorado, and Incorporated Areas Bear Creek Approximately 0.42 mile None +7409 Unincorporated... railroad. Indian Branch Approximately 175 feet +71 +70 Unincorporated Areas of downstream of Gay...

  5. 78 FR 29654 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... Borough. Salmon Creek. At the outflow from Bear +255 Lake. Grouse Creek At the confluence with +189 Kenai Peninsula Borough. Lost Creek. At the outflow from +220 Grouse Lake. Kwechack Creek (Including Flows Outside... +16 City of Seward, Kenai Resurrection Bay. Peninsula Borough. At the confluence with +189...

  6. 76 FR 53082 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... downstream side None +1230 of the Akers Pond Dam. Moose Brook At the Androscoggin +794 +793 Town of Gorham. River confluence. Approximately 840 feet None +1128 upstream of Jimtown Road. Moose Brook Split At the Moose Brook None +924 Town of Gorham. confluence. At the Moose Brook None +937 divergence. Moose...

  7. 75 FR 69892 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ...) Docket No.: FEMA-B-1061 Carrier Creek At the confluence with Moon +837 Charter Township of and Hamilton... the convergence with Miller Creek. Moon and Hamilton County Drain....... Approximately 1,900 feet...

  8. 76 FR 61649 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... upstream of Laurel Oaks Circle. Nova Canal North Reach 1 Approximately 775 feet None +7 City of Holly Hill... Avenue. Nova Canal North Reach 2 Approximately 1,660 None +7 City of Daytona Beach, feet downstream of City of Holly Hill. 10th Street. Approximately 925 feet None +8 upstream of Orange Avenue. Nova...

  9. 76 FR 76060 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... upstream of I-196 North. Deer Creek At the upstream side of I- +614 Charter Township of 96 West. Polkton. Deer Creek At the confluence with +597 Charter Township of the Grand River. Polkton, Charter Township of Tallmadge. Approximately 1 mile +597 upstream of Leonard Street. Deer Creek of Crockery At...

  10. 76 FR 26978 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1190, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal... Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, Federal..., Civil Justice Reform. This proposed rule meets the applicable standards of Executive Order 12988....

  11. 78 FR 10072 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... Atlantic Beach, Pablo Creek. City of Neptune Beach. Approximately 1,100 feet +7 upstream of Cutlass Drive..., City of Neptune 2. Beach. Approximately 1,700 feet +4 upstream of the confluence with Hopkins Creek. Hopkins Creek Tributary 2 At the confluence with +4 City of Neptune Beach. Hopkins Creek. Just...

  12. 75 FR 31347 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... Creek. City of Neptune Beach. Approximately 1,100 None +7 feet upstream of Cutlass Drive. Hopkins Creek Tributary 1 At the confluence with None +4 City of Jacksonville Hopkins Creek Beach, City of Neptune... Creek Tributary 2 At the confluence with None +4 City of Neptune Beach. Hopkins Creek. Just...

  13. 75 FR 61373 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Town of Jasper. Route 64. Approximately 4,000 None +619 feet upstream of U.S. Route 64. West Fork Pryor Cove Branch......... At the confluence with +716 +717 Town of Jasper, Pryor Cove Branch. Unincorporated..., 500 C Street, SW., Washington, DC 20472. ADDRESSES Town of Jasper Maps are available for inspection...

  14. 75 FR 29253 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ... None +22 * National Geodetic Vertical Datum. + North American Vertical Datum. Depth in feet above.... * National Geodetic Vertical Datum. + North American Vertical Datum. Depth in feet above ground. Mean Sea... 925 6th Street, Del Norte, CO 81132. Washington County, Florida, and Incorporated Areas...

  15. 75 FR 59989 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... upstream of Loop 1604 Access Road. Elm Waterhole Creek Approximately 4,300 feet +796 City of San Antonio... Hausman +923 City of San Antonio. Road South. Just upstream of Loop +936 1604 West Access Road. French Creek Tributary B Approximately 600 feet +929 City of San Antonio. downstream of Loop 1604 West...

  16. 76 FR 45485 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... Ohio River), Sugar Creek (backwater effects from Ohio River), Sugarcamp Creek (backwater effects from... (backwater effects from Ohio River), Sugar Creek (backwater effects from Ohio River), Sugarcamp Creek... Hickory Creek confluence. Sugar Creek (backwater effects from From the Cumberland None +343...

  17. 76 FR 3524 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ..., Arkansas, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1085 Snake Creek Approximately 1,400 feet +131 City of....: FEMA-B-1085 Black Fork (backwater effects from At the upstream side of +755 Unincorporated Areas of... Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1085 Flag Run Approximately 0.4 mile +669 Unincorporated Areas...

  18. 76 FR 1535 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ..., AR 72432. Village of Jewett, Illinois Docket No.: FEMA-B-1085 Illinois Village of Embarras River... Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1085 Copperas Creek Approximately 0.52 mile +454 Unincorporated Areas of... Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1085 Illinois River Approximately 0.83 mile +462 Unincorporated Areas...

  19. 75 FR 78664 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ...). confluence to Carroll County. approximately 2.7 miles upstream of County Road 335. Grand River (backwater... Carroll County. upstream side of the railroad. ] Missouri River At the Grand River +646 +645 City of Dewitt, City of confluence. Norborne, Town of Carrollton, Unincorporated Areas of Carroll County. At...

  20. 75 FR 5929 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... table for Carroll County, Arkansas, and Incorporated Areas. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kevin C... published on September 8, 2009, at 74 FR 46047. The table for Carroll County, Arkansas, and Incorporated..., 2009, proposed rule contained a table entitled ``Carroll County, Arkansas, and Incorporated...