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Sample records for 100-year flood plain

  1. Determination of the 100-year flood plain on Upper Three Runs and selected tributaries, and the Savannah River at the Savannah River site, South Carolina, 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanier, T.H.

    1996-01-01

    The 100-year flood plain was determined for Upper Three Runs, its tributaries, and the part of the Savannah River that borders the Savannah River Site. The results are provided in tabular and graphical formats. The 100-year flood-plain maps and flood profiles provide water-resource managers of the Savannah River Site with a technical basis for making flood-plain management decisions that could minimize future flood problems and provide a basis for designing and constructing drainage structures along roadways. A hydrologic analysis was made to estimate the 100-year recurrence- interval flow for Upper Three Runs and its tributaries. The analysis showed that the well-drained, sandy soils in the head waters of Upper Three Runs reduce the high flows in the stream; therefore, the South Carolina upper Coastal Plain regional-rural-regression equation does not apply for Upper Three Runs. Conse- quently, a relation was established for 100-year recurrence-interval flow and drainage area using streamflow data from U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations on Upper Three Runs. This relation was used to compute 100-year recurrence-interval flows at selected points along the stream. The regional regression equations were applicable for the tributaries to Upper Three Runs, because the soil types in the drainage basins of the tributaries resemble those normally occurring in upper Coastal Plain basins. This was verified by analysis of the flood-frequency data collected from U.S. Geological Survey gaging station 02197342 on Fourmile Branch. Cross sections were surveyed throughout each reach, and other pertinent data such as flow resistance and land-use were col- lected. The surveyed cross sections and computed 100-year recurrence-interval flows were used in a step-backwater model to compute the 100-year flood profile for Upper Three Runs and its tributaries. The profiles were used to delineate the 100-year flood plain on topographic maps. The Savannah River forms the southwestern border

  2. 100-Year Flood-It's All About Chance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Jr., Robert R.; Dinicola, Karen

    2010-01-01

    In the 1960's, the United States government decided to use the 1-percent annual exceedance probability (AEP) flood as the basis for the National Flood Insurance Program. The 1-percent AEP flood was thought to be a fair balance between protecting the public and overly stringent regulation. Because the 1-percent AEP flood has a 1 in 100 chance of being equaled or exceeded in any 1 year, and it has an average recurrence interval of 100 years, it often is referred to as the '100-year flood'. The term '100-year flood' is part of the national lexicon, but is often a source of confusion by those not familiar with flood science and statistics. This poster is an attempt to explain the concept, probabilistic nature, and inherent uncertainties of the '100-year flood' to the layman.

  3. Technique for estimating depths of 100-year floods in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flippo, Herbert N., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Techniques are developed for estimating 100-year flood depths in natural channels of unregulated Pennsylvania streams that drain less than 2,200 square miles. Equations and graphs are presented relating the depth of the 100-year flood above median stage and drainage area in five defined hydrologic areas in the State. Another graph defines the relation between drainage area and median depth of flow over the low point of riffles. Thus 100-year depths on riffles can be estimated by summing depth values derived from two simple relations.

  4. Water-surface profile and flood boundaries for the computed 100-year flood, Muddy Creek, Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Omang, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    Hydrologic and hydraulic evaluations of Muddy Creek were made to determine the magnitude of the 100-year flood and the extent of flooding that would occur as the result of this flood. Forty-three cross sections were surveyed and 14 cross sections were synthesized along a 6.7-mile reach of Muddy Creek. Data from the surveys were used to calculate the water-surface flood elevation at each cross section using a computer program (WSPRO) developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The water-surface profile of the computed 100-year flood elevations was then drawn. The profile shows the streambed elevation and the location of one bridge, one culvert, and cross sections. The computed 100-year flood elevation at each cross section was used to delineate the width of the flood plain at that section. Flood boundaries between cross sections were interpolated using contour lines on topographic maps.

  5. Water-surface profile and flood boundaries for the computed 100-year flood, Rosebud Creek, Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Omang, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Hydrologic and hydraulic evaluations of Rosebud Creek were made to determine the magnitude of the 100-year flood and the extent of flooding that would occur as the result of this flood. The magnitude of the 100-year flood was determined to range from 2,620 to 3,980 ft3/s, depending on location. Field surveys were made at 149 cross sections along a 39-mile reach of Rosebud Creek. An additional 33 cross sections along the same reach were synthesized. Data from the surveys were used to calculate the water-surface elevation at each cross section using a computer program (WSPRO) developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The water-surface profile of the computed 100-year flood elevations was then drawn. The profile also shows the streambed elevation and the location of the bridges and cross sections. The computed 100-year flood elevation at each cross section was used to delineate the width of the flood plain at that section. Flood boundaries between cross sections were interpolated using contour lines on topographic maps.

  6. Flood risk management in the Thames Estuary looking ahead 100 years.

    PubMed

    Lavery, Sarah; Donovan, Bill

    2005-06-15

    The River Thames tidal defences have provided protection against the increasing threat of tidal flooding from the North Sea for more than 2000 years. The flood of 1953 was the catalyst for the construction of the current system of River Thames tidal defences, which includes the Thames Barrier, and has provided one of the best standards of flood defence in the UK for over 20 years. Substantial growth is planned through "Thames Gateway", a regeneration initiative of the United Kingdom government. These new developments will fundamentally change the developed footprint in the Thames Estuary flood-plain, and will be in place for at least the next 100 years. This presents a challenge of planning future defence against a background of uncertainty over climate and other environmental change, while ensuring that correct decisions are made concerning the nature and location of new building in the tidal flood-plain. Through its "Thames Estuary 2100" project, the Environment Agency is developing a long-term strategy for flood risk management in the estuary. Implementation of major construction works on the River Thames could commence from around 2015. Alternatively, it may be decided that minimum works are undertaken to provide security and major investment is delayed until uncertainties over climate change have abated. Whatever long-term option is chosen, this must be preceded by a period of collaboration with the Thames Gateway developments to ensure appropriate and sustainable flood defences are incorporated in new riverside construction. PMID:16191661

  7. Water-surface profile and flood boundaries for the computed 100-year flood, Lame Deer Creek, Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Omang, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    Hydrologic and hydraulic evaluations of Lame Deer Creek were made to determine the magnitude of the 100-year flood and the extent of flooding that would occur as the result of this flood. SixtY-six cross sections were Surveyed and 25 cross sections were synthesized along a 9.5-mile reach of Lame Deer Creek. Data from the surveys were used to calculate the water-surface elevation at each cross section using a computer program (WSPRO) developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The water-surface profile of the computed 100-year flood elevations was then drawn. The profile shows the streambed elevation and the location of the bridge, culverts, and cross sections. The computed 100-year flood elevation at each cross section was used to delineate the width of the flood plain at that section. Flood boundaries between cross sections were interpolated using contour lines on topographic maps.

  8. Technique for estimating depth of 100-year floods in Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gamble, Charles R.; Lewis, James G.

    1977-01-01

    Preface: A method is presented for estimating the depth of the loo-year flood in four hydrologic areas in Tennessee. Depths at 151 gaging stations on streams that were not significantly affected by man made changes were related to basin characteristics by multiple regression techniques. Equations derived from the analysis can be used to estimate the depth of the loo-year flood if the size of the drainage basin is known.

  9. Water-surface profile and flood boundaries for the computed 100-year flood, Big Muddy Creek, Fort Peck Indian Reservation and adjacent area, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Omang, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    Hydrologic and hydraulic evaluations of Big Muddy Creek were made to determine the magnitude of the 100-year flood and the extent of flooding that would occur as the result of this flood. The magnitude of the 100-year flood was determined to range from 13,600 to 20,400 ft3/s, depending on location. Field surveys were made at 39 cross sections along a 41-mile reach of Big Muddy Creek. An additional two cross sections along the same reach were synthesized. Data from the surveys were used to calculate the water-surface elevation at each cross section using a computer program (WSPRO) developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The water-surface profile of the computed 100-year flood elevations was then drawn. The profile also shows the streambed elevation and the location of the bridges and cross sections. The computed 100-year flood elevation at each cross section was used to delineate the width of the flood plain at that section. Flood boundaries between cross sections were interpolated using contour lines on topographic maps.

  10. Base (100-year) flood elevations for selected sites in Livingston County, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southard, Rodney E.; Richards, Joseph M.

    2002-01-01

    The primary criteria for community participation in the National Flood Insurance Program is the adoption and enforcement of floodplain management requirements that minimize the potential for flood damages to existing and proposed development in flood-hazard areas. This report provides base flood elevations (BFE) for a 100-year recurrence-interval flood for use in the management and regulation of 18 flood-hazard areas designated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency as approximate Zone A areas in Livingston County, Missouri. The one-dimensional surface-water flow models HEC-RAS and Water-Surface PROfile (WSPRO) were used to compute base (100-year) flood elevations for 18 Zone A sites. The HEC-RAS model was used at BFE sites 1 to 6, 9, 10, and 15 to 18. The WSPRO model was used at BFE sites 7, 8, and 11 to 14. The 18 sites are all located in Livingston County, Missouri, at U.S., State, or County road crossings, and the base flood elevation was determined at the upstream side of each crossing. The base (100-year) flood elevations for BFE 1, 2, and 3 on Shoal Creek at Dawn and Shoal Creek Drainage Ditch near Dawn are 701.0, 701.0, and 696.5 feet, respectively. The base (100-year) flood elevations for BFE 4 and 5 on Indian Branch near Sampsel and a tributary to Indian Branch near Sampsel are 711.7 and 755.4 feet, respectively. Site BFE 6 is located on Honey Creek near Farmersville and the base (100-year) flood elevation for this site is 730.8 feet. One site (BFE 7) is located on No Creek near Farmersville. The base (100-year) flood elevation for this site is 731.3 feet. Site BFE 8 is located on Crooked Creek near Chillicothe and the base (100-year) elevation is 716.4 feet. One site (BFE 9) is located on a tributary to Coon Creek at Chillicothe. The base (100-year) flood elevation for this site is 734.9 feet. Two sites (BFE 10 and 11) are located on Blackwell Branch at Chillicothe. The base (100-year) flood elevation for BFE 10 is 738.9 feet and for BFE 11 is 701

  11. Flood information for flood-plain planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bue, Conrad D.

    1967-01-01

    Floods are natural and normal phenomena. They are catastrophic simply because man occupies the flood plain, the highwater channel of a river. Man occupies flood plains because it is convenient and profitable to do so, but he must purchase his occupancy at a price-either sustain flood damage, or provide flood-control facilities. Although large sums of money have been, and are being, spent for flood control, flood damage continues to mount. However, neither complete flood control nor abandonment of the flood plain is practicable. Flood plains are a valuable resource and will continue to be occupied, but the nature and degree of occupancy should be compatible with the risk involved and with the degree of protection that is practicable to provide. It is primarily to meet the needs for defining the risk that the flood-inundation maps of the U.S. Geological Survey are prepared.

  12. Base (100-year) flood elevations for selected sites in Marion County, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southard, Rodney E.; Wilson, Gary L.

    1998-01-01

    The primary requirement for community participation in the National Flood Insurance Program is the adoption and enforcement of floodplain management requirements that minimize the potential for flood damages to new construction and avoid aggravating existing flooding conditions. This report provides base flood elevations (BFE) for a 100-year recurrence flood for use in the management and regulation of 14 flood-hazard areas designated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency as approximate Zone A areas in Marion County, Missouri. The one-dimensional surface-water flow model, HEC-RAS, was used to compute the base (100-year) flood elevations for the 14 Zone A sites. The 14 sites were located at U.S., State, or County road crossings and the base flood elevation was determined at the upstream side of each crossing. The base (100-year) flood elevations for BFE 1, 2, and 3 on the South Fork North River near Monroe City, Missouri, are 627.7, 579.2, and 545.9 feet above sea level. The base (100-year) flood elevations for BFE 4, 5, 6, and 7 on the main stem of the North River near or at Philadelphia and Palmyra, Missouri, are 560.5, 539.7, 504.2, and 494.4 feet above sea level. BFE 8 is located on Big Branch near Philadelphia, a tributary to the North River, and the base (100-year) flood elevation at this site is 530.5 feet above sea level. One site (BFE 9) is located on the South River near Monroe City, Missouri. The base (100-year) flood elevation at this site is 619.1 feet above sea level. Site BFE 10 is located on Bear Creek near Hannibal, Missouri, and the base (100-year) elevation is 565.5 feet above sea level. The four remaining sites (BFE 11, 12, 13, and 14) are located on the South Fabius River near Philadelphia and Palmyra, Missouri. The base (100-year) flood elevations for BFE 11, 12, 13, and 14 are 591.2, 578.4, 538.7, and 506.9 feet above sea level.

  13. Flood boundaries and water-surface profile for the computed 100-year flood, Swift Creek at Afton, Wyoming, 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rankl, James G.; Wallace, Joe C.

    1989-01-01

    Flood flows on Swift Creek near Afton, Wyoming, were analyzed. Peak discharge with an average recurrence interval of 100 years was computed and used to determine the flood boundaries and water surface profile in the study reach. The study was done in cooperation with Lincoln County and the Town of Afton to determine the extent of flooding in the Town of Afton from a 100-year flood on Swift Creek. The reach of Swift Creek considered in the analysis extends upstream from the culvert at Allred County Road No. 12-135 to the US Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station located in the Bridger National Forest , a distance of 3.2 miles. Boundaries of the 100-year flood are delineated on a map using the computed elevation of the flood at each cross section, survey data, and a 1983 aerial photograph. The computed water surface elevation for the 100-year flood was plotted at each cross section, then the lateral extent of the flood was transferred to the flood map. Boundaries between cross sections were sketched using information taken from the aerial photograph. Areas that are inundated, but not part of the active flow, are designated on the cross sections. (Lantz-PTT)

  14. Ontogeny of a flood plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, J.A.; Pizzuto, J.E.; Meade, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    The ontogeny of five flood-plain segments is described for a period of 18 yr following a major flood in 1978 on the Powder River in southeastern Montana. The flood plains developed on relatively elevated sand and gravel deposits left within the channel by the 1978 flood. In cross section, the flood plains resemble benches with well-developed natural levees. Flood-plain growth occurred as sediment was draped onto preexisting surfaces in layers of sand and mud a few centimeters to decimeters thick, resulting in some lateral, but mostly vertical accretion. Annual and biannual measurements indicated that, as the flood-plain segments grew upward, the annual rate of vertical accretion decreased as the partial duration recurrence interval for the threshold or bankfull discharge increased from 0.16 to 1.3 yr. It is clear that a constant recurrence interval for overbank flow cannot be meaningfully assigned to this type of flood-plain ontogeny. These flood plains did not grow on migrating point bars, and vertical accretion at least initially occurred within the channel, rather than across the valley flat during extensive overbank flows. Sediments of these flood plains define narrow, elongated stratigraphic units that border the active channel and onlap older flood-plain deposits. These characteristics are considerably different from those of many facies models for meandering river deposits. Facies similar to those described in this paper are likely to be preserved, thereby providing important evidence in the geologic record for episodes of periodic channel expansion by ancient rivers.

  15. A technique for estimating heights reached by the 100-year flood on unregulated, nontidal streams in North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coble, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    A method for estimating the heights reached by floods having a recurrence interval of 100 years is defined for nontidal streams with unregulated flows in North Carolina. The flood heights are the vertical distance between stream stage at median discharge (50 percent duration) and the 100-year flood stage and are defined for streams draining areas between 1 and 10,000 square miles for each of the three physiographic areas in the State. An illustrated example of how the method can be used in conjunction with topographic maps to estimate flood heights and delineate inundated areas by interpolation is given.

  16. Combining Neural Networks with Existing Methods to Estimate 1 in 100-Year Flood Event Magnitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newson, A.; See, L.

    2005-12-01

    Over the last fifteen years artificial neural networks (ANN) have been shown to be advantageous for the solution of many hydrological modelling problems. The use of ANNs for flood magnitude estimation in ungauged catchments, however, is a relatively new and under researched area. In this paper ANNs are used to make estimates of the magnitude of the 100-year flood event (Q100) for a number of ungauged catchments. The data used in this study were provided by the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology's Flood Estimation Handbook (FEH), which contains information on catchments across the UK. Sixteen catchment descriptors for 719 catchments were used to train an ANN, which was split into a training, validation and test data set. The goodness-of-fit statistics on the test data set indicated good model performance, with an r-squared value of 0.8 and a coefficient of efficiency of 79 percent. Data for twelve ungauged catchments were then put through the trained ANN to produce estimates of Q100. Two other accepted methodologies were also employed: the FEH statistical method and the FSR (Flood Studies Report) design storm technique, both of which are used to produce flood frequency estimates. The advantage of developing an ANN model is that it provides a third figure to aid a hydrologist in making an accurate estimate. For six of the twelve catchments, there was a relatively low spread between estimates. In these instances, an estimate of Q100 could be made with a fair degree of certainty. Of the remaining six catchments, three had areas greater than 1000km2, which means the FSR design storm estimate cannot be used. Armed with the ANN model and the FEH statistical method the hydrologist still has two possible estimates to consider. For these three catchments, the estimates were also fairly similar, providing additional confidence to the estimation. In summary, the findings of this study have shown that an accurate estimation of Q100 can be made using the catchment descriptors of

  17. Caspian tern reproduction in the Saginaw Bay ecosystem following a 100-year flood event

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, James P.; Auman, Heidi J.; Kurita, Hiroko; Ludwig, Matthew E.; Campbell, Loraine M.; Giesy, John P.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Jones, Paul; Yamashita, Nobu; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Tatsukawa, Ryo

    1993-01-01

    In the 2 years that followed the 100-year flood incident of September 1986 in the Saginaw River/Bay ecosystem, the reproduction of Caspian terns collapsed and then slowly recovered. Egg viability and fledging rates of hatched chicks were drastically depressed in 1987 and 1988. Eggs from clutches laid later in the year were less viable and chicks hatched from these eggs displayed wasting syndromes and deformities. The post-flood rate of deformities in hatched chicks in 1987–1989 was 163-fold greater than background rates for this population in 1962–1967. Embryonic abnormalities and deformities were found in many embryos recovered from dead eggs. Recently published data on planar toxic chemicals from samples of forage fish, tern eggs, and chicks from water birds nesting in the bay implicate planar dioxin-like PCBs 77 and 126 as the sources of these severe bioeffects. The planar PCB congeners accounted for >98% of TCDD-EQ toxicity in the tern eggs, and several were present at levels near or at the LD95 levels each for chicken eggs. Actual TCDD was about 1% of the TCDD-EQ toxicity. Very rapid buildup rates of PCBs were measured in tern eggs. The calculated toxic potency of PCB recovered from tern eggs was about 15-fold greater than parent aroclor 1242 PCB. Smaller tern species were projected to be much more at risk than the larger Caspian tern due to greater standard metabolic rates. The study supports the view that sediment disturbance and sediment banks of toxic chemicals are major threats to upper trophic level fish-eating species.

  18. Comparison of the 2-, 25-, and 100-year recurrence interval floods computed from observed data with the 1995 urban flood-frequency estimating equations for Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Inman, Ernest J.

    1997-01-01

    Flood-frequency relations were computed for 28 urban stations, for 2-, 25-, and 100-year recurrence interval floods and the computations were compared to corresponding recurrence interval floods computed from the estimating equations from a 1995 investigation. Two stations were excluded from further comparisons or analyses because neither station had a significant flood during the period of observed record. The comparisons, based on the student's t-test statistics at the 0.05 level of significance, indicate that the mean residuals of the 25- and 100-year floods were negatively biased by 26.2 percent and 31.6 percent, respectively, at the 26 stations. However, the mean residuals of the 2-year floods were 2.5 percent lower than the mean of the 2-year floods computed from the equations, and were not significantly biased. The reason for this negative bias is that the period of observed record at the 26 stations was a relatively dry period. At 25 of the 26 stations, the two highest simulated peaks used to develop the estimating equations occurred many years before the observed record began. However, no attempt was made to adjust the estimating equations because higher peaks could occur after the period of observed record and an adjustment to the equations would cause an underestimation of design floods.

  19. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions...

  20. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions...

  1. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions...

  2. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions...

  3. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions...

  4. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Flood plain management... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. (a) Periodic inundation of lands along waterways has not discouraged development of flood hazards areas. Major floods cause loss of...

  5. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Flood plain management... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. (a) Periodic inundation of lands along waterways has not discouraged development of flood hazards areas. Major floods cause loss of...

  6. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flood plain management... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. (a) Periodic inundation of lands along waterways has not discouraged development of flood hazards areas. Major floods cause loss of...

  7. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Flood plain management... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. (a) Periodic inundation of lands along waterways has not discouraged development of flood hazards areas. Major floods cause loss of...

  8. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Flood plain management... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. (a) Periodic inundation of lands along waterways has not discouraged development of flood hazards areas. Major floods cause loss of...

  9. Flood-plain delineation for Cub Run basin, Fairfax County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soule, Pat LeRoy

    1978-01-01

    Flood-plain delineation for Cub Run basin water-surface profiles of the 25-, 50-, and 100-year recurrence interval discharges have been computed for all streams and reaches of channels in Fairfax County, Virginia having a drainage area greater than 1 square mile except for Dogue Creek, Little Hunting Creek, and that part of the Cameron Run above Lake Barcroft. Maps having a 2-foot contour interval and a horizontal scale of 1 inch equals 100 feet have been used for base on which flood boundaries were delineated for 25-, 50-, and 100-year floods to be expected in each basin under ultimate development conditions. This report is one of a series and presents a discussion of techniques employed in computing discharges and profiles as well as the flood profiles and maps on which flood boundaries have been delineated for the Cub Run basin in Fairfax County. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Flood-plain delineation for Cameron Run Basin, Fairfax County-Alexandria City, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soule, Pat L.

    1976-01-01

    Flood-Plain Delineation for Cameron Run Basin Water-surface profiles of the 25-, 50-, and 100-year recurrence interval discharges have been computed for all streams and reaches of channels in Fairfax County, Virginia, having a drainage area greater than 1 square mile except for Dogue Creek, Little Hunting Creek, and that part of Cameron Run above Lake Barcroft. Maps having a 2-foot contour interval and a horizontal scale of 1 inch equals 100 feet have been used for a base on which flood boundaries were delineated for 25-, 50-, and 100-year floods to be expected in each basin under ultimate development conditions. Included are techniques employed in computing discharges and profiles as well as the flood profiles and maps on which flood boundaries have been delineated for that part of Cameron Run basin below Lake Barcroft in both Fairfax County and the city of Alexandria.

  11. Effects of flooding upon woody vegetation along parts of the Potomac River flood plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yanosky, T.M.

    1982-01-01

    A two-part study along the Potomac River flood plain near Washington, D.C., was undertaken to investigate the effects of flooding upon woody vegetation. Floods abrade bark, damage branches and canopies, and often uproot trees. The first study was of vegetation in five monumented flood-plain plots which differed in the frequency and severity of floodflow over a 10-year period. Basal area and survival of trees appears to be related to velocity of floodflow, which in turn is related to flood magnitude and channel shape. However, the effects of flooding also depend on the nature of the flood-plain surface and size and growth habit of vegetation. In the second study, a catastrophic flood after Hurricane Agnes in June 1972 was found to cause large-scale changes in the age, form, and species composition of flood-plain forest below Great Falls, Va. The impact of the flood depended primarily on the flow regime of the river; destruction was greatest in areas exposed to the maximum flood foce, and minimal at sheltered locations. Age determinations from dead trunks and surviving trees suggest that most trees in severely damaged areas started to grow since the last great flood, which occurred in 1952. Trees along sheltered reaches survived several previous catastrophic floods. In addition, species varied in ability to withstand damage from the Hurricane Agnes flood. Least likely to recover were species growing on infrequently flooded surfaces, which may explain, in part, their absence at lower flood-plain elevations. (USGS)

  12. Guide for selecting Manning's roughness coefficients for natural channels and flood plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arcement, George J.; Schneider, Verne R.

    1989-01-01

    Although much research has been done on Manning's roughness coefficient, n, for stream channels, very little has been done concerning the roughness values for densely vegetated flood plains. The n value is determined from the values of the factors that affect the roughness of channels and flood plains. In densely vegetated flood plains, the major roughness is caused by trees, vines, and brush. The n value for this type of flood plain can be determined by measuring the vegetation density of the flood plain. Photographs of flood-plain segments where n values have been verified can be used as a comparison standard to aid in assigning n values to similar flood plains.

  13. Flood plain analysis for Petris, , Troas, and Monoros, tia watersheds, the Arad department, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Győri, M.-M.; Haidu, I.

    2012-04-01

    The present study sets out to determine the flood plains corresponding to flood discharges having 10, 50 and 100 year recurrence intervals on the Monoroštia, Petriš and Troaš Rivers, located in Western Romania, the Arad department. The data of the study area is first collected and pre-processed in ArcGIS. It consists of land use data, soil data, the DEM, stream gauges' and meteorological stations' locations, on the basis of which the watersheds' hydrologic parameters' are computed using the Geospatial Hydrologic Modelling Extension (HEC Geo-HMS). HEC Geo-HMS functions as an interface between ArcGIS and HEC-HMS (Hydrologic Engineering Centre- Hydrologic Modelling System) and converts the data collected and generated in ArcGIS to data useable by HEC-HMS. The basin model component in HEC-HMS represents the physical watershed. It facilitates the effective rainfall computation on the basis of the input hyetograph, passing the results to a transform function that converts the excess precipitation into runoff at the subwatersheds' outlet. This enables the estimation and creation of hydrographs for the ungauged watersheds. In the present study, the results are achieved through the SCS CN loss method and the SCS Unit hydrograph transform method. The simulations use rainfall data that is registered at the stations situated in the catchments' vicinity, data that spans over two decades (1989-2009) and which allows the rainfall hyetographs to be determined for the above mentioned return periods. The model will be calibrated against measured streamflow data from the gauging stations on the main rivers, leading to the adjustment of watershed parameters, such as the CN parameter. As the flood discharges for 10, 50 and 100 year return periods have been determined, the profile of the water surface elevation along the channel will be computed through a steady flow analysis, with HEC-RAS (Hydrologic Engineering Centre- River Analysis System). For each of the flood frequencies, a

  14. Flood-plain delineation for Difficult Run Basin, Fairfax County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soule, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    Water-surface profiles of the 25-year and 100-year floods and maps on which the 25-, 50-, and 100-year flood boundaries are delineated for streams in the Difficult Run basin in Fairfax County, Virginia. The techniques used in the computation of the flood profiles and delineation of flood boundaries are presented. Difficult Run heads at about 500 ft. elevation near the city of Fairfax and discharges into the Potomac River at about 70 feet above mean sea level. Stream channel slopes are fairly steep, the main channel of Difficult Run has an average fall of about 25 feet per mile. Stream channels are well defined with established flood plains covered in most cases with trees and dense brush. Development within the basin has been gradual and mostly residential. In 1965 most of the development was in the area of Fairfax City and the town of Vienna and imperviousness for the basin at that time was computed to be less than 1 percent. Since 1965 considerable additional residential development has taken place within the basin in the Vienna and Reston areas and ultimate development with an overall imperviousness of 30 percent is anticipated with higher percentages of imperviousness near centers of anticipated development. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Flood hydrology and methylmercury availability in coastal plain rivers.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Paul M; Journey, Celeste A; Chapelle, Francis H; Lowery, Mark A; Conrads, Paul A

    2010-12-15

    Mercury (Hg) burdens in top-predator fish differ substantially between adjacent South Carolina Coastal Plain river basins with similar wetlands coverage. In the Congaree River, floodwaters frequently originate in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont regions, where wetlands coverage and surface water dissolved methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations are low. Piedmont-driven flood events can lead to downward hydraulic gradients in the Coastal Plain riparian wetland margins, inhibiting MeHg transport from wetland sediments, and decreasing MeHg availability in the Congaree River habitat. In the adjacent Edisto River basin, floodwaters originate only within Coastal Plain sediments, maintaining upward hydraulic gradients even during flood events, promoting MeHg transport to the water column, and enhancing MeHg availability in the Edisto River habitat. These results indicate that flood hydrodynamics contribute to the variability in Hg vulnerability between Coastal Plain rivers and that comprehensive regional assessment of the relationship between flood hydrodynamics and Hg risk in Coastal Plain streams is warranted.

  16. Flood hydrology and methylmercury availability in Coastal Plain rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste A.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Lowery, Mark A.; Conrads, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) burdens in top-predator fish differ substantially between adjacent South Carolina Coastal Plain river basins with similar wetlands coverage. In the Congaree River, floodwaters frequently originate in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont regions, where wetlands coverage and surface water dissolved methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations are low. Piedmont-driven flood events can lead to downward hydraulic gradients in the Coastal Plain riparian wetland margins, inhibiting MeHg transport from wetland sediments, and decreasing MeHg availability in the Congaree River habitat. In the adjacent Edisto River basin, floodwaters originate only within Coastal Plain sediments, maintaining upward hydraulic gradients even during flood events, promoting MeHg transport to the water column, and enhancing MeHg availability in the Edisto River habitat. These results indicate that flood hydrodynamics contribute to the variability in Hg vulnerability between Coastal Plain rivers and that comprehensive regional assessment of the relationship between flood hydrodynamics and Hg risk in Coastal Plain streams is warranted.

  17. Computation of backwater and discharge at width constrictions of heavily vegetated flood plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, V.R.; Board, J.W.; Colson, B.E.; Lee, F.N.; Druffel, Leroy

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, cooperated with the Federal Highway Administration and the State Highway Departments of Mississippi, Alabama, and Louisiana, to develop a proposed method for computing backwater and discharge at width constrictions of heavily vegetated flood plains. Data were collected at 20 single opening sites for 31 floods. Flood-plain width varied from 4 to 14 times the bridge opening width. The recurrence intervals of peak discharge ranged from a 2-year flood to greater than a 100-year flood, with a median interval of 6 years. Measured backwater ranged from 0.39 to 3.16 feet. Backwater computed by the present standard Geological Survey method averaged 29 percent less than the measured, and that computed by the currently used Federal Highway Administration method averaged 47 percent less than the measured. Discharge computed by the Survey method averaged 21 percent more then the measured. Analysis of data showed that the flood-plain widths and the Manning 's roughness coefficient are larger than those used to develop the standard methods. A method to more accurately compute backwater and discharge was developed. The difference between the contracted and natural water-surface profiles computed using standard step-backwater procedures is defined as backwater. The energy loss terms in the step-backwater procedure are computed as the product of the geometric mean of the energy slopes and the flow distance in the reach was derived from potential flow theory. The mean error was 1 percent when using the proposed method for computing backwater and 3 percent for computing discharge. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. 13 CFR 120.172 - Flood-plain and wetlands management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Flood-plain and wetlands management. (a) All loans must conform to requirements of Executive Orders 11988, “Flood Plain Management” (3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 117) and 11990, “Protection of Wetlands” (3 CFR... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flood-plain and...

  19. 13 CFR 120.172 - Flood-plain and wetlands management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Flood-plain and wetlands management. (a) All loans must conform to requirements of Executive Orders 11988, “Flood Plain Management” (3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 117) and 11990, “Protection of Wetlands” (3 CFR... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flood-plain and...

  20. 13 CFR 120.172 - Flood-plain and wetlands management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Flood-plain and wetlands management. (a) All loans must conform to requirements of Executive Orders 11988, “Flood Plain Management” (3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 117) and 11990, “Protection of Wetlands” (3 CFR... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flood-plain and...

  1. 13 CFR 120.172 - Flood-plain and wetlands management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Flood-plain and wetlands management. (a) All loans must conform to requirements of Executive Orders 11988, “Flood Plain Management” (3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 117) and 11990, “Protection of Wetlands” (3 CFR... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flood-plain and...

  2. A two-dimensional dam-break flood plain model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hromadka, T.V., II; Berenbrock, C.E.; Freckleton, J.R.; Guymon, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    A simple two-dimensional dam-break model is developed for flood plain study purposes. Both a finite difference grid and an irregular triangle element integrated finite difference formulation are presented. The governing flow equations are approximately solved as a diffusion model coupled to the equation of continuity. Application of the model to a hypothetical dam-break study indicates that the approach can be used to predict a two-dimensional dam-break flood plain over a broad, flat plain more accurately than a one-dimensional model, especially when the flow can break-out of the main channel and then return to the channel at other downstream reaches. ?? 1985.

  3. Modeling Flood Plain Hydrology and Forest Productivity of Congaree Swamp, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    tupelo (Nyssa aquatica), green ash (Fraxinus pennslyvanica), laurel oak (Quercus laurifolia), swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii), and sycamore (Plantanus occidentalis) within Congaree Swamp in highand low-elevation sites characteristic of shorter and longer flood duration and related to upriver flood controls and dam operation. Ring counts and dating indicated that all loblolly pine trees and nearly all baldcypress collections in this study are postsettlement recruits and old-growth cohorts, dating from 100 to 300 years in age. Most hardwood species and trees cored for age analysis were less than 100 years old, demonstrating robust growth and high site quality. Growth chronologies of loblolly pine and baldcypress exhibited positive and negative inflections over the last century that corresponded with climate history and residual effects of Hurricane Hugo in 1989. Stemwood production on average was less for trees and species on sites with longer flood retention and hydroperiod affected more by groundwater seepage and site elevation than river floods. Water level data provided evidence that stream regulation and operations of the Saluda Dam (post-1934) have actually increased the average daily water stage in the Congaree River. There was no difference in tree growth response by species or hydrogeomorphic setting to predam and postdam flood conditions and river stage. Climate-growth analysis showed that long-term growth variation is controlled more by spring/ summer temperatures in loblolly pine and by spring/summer precipitation in baldcypress than flooding history.

  4. Flood-plain delineation using multispectral data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harker, G. R.; Rouse, J. W., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The paper explores the application of a remote sensing technique that may permit the determination of flood-plain areas without the extensive work associated with existing techniques. Multispectral scanner data were simulated by utilizing the density differences in a color-infrared transparency for a section of the Navasota River, Texas. The transparency was taken from a low-flying aircraft and covered an area approximating a square mile. The simulated data were processed by an automatic classification technique previously developed in the remote sensing field. The technique used involves the application of the maximum likelihood rule in order to categorize the data being processed. An attempt was made to distinguish between areas known to be in the flood plain and those outside. A reasonabke correlation was found between boundaries based on computer-processed multispectral data and those produced by techniques currently in use.

  5. Properties of a 5500-year-old flood-plain in the Loup River Basin, Nebraska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, David W.

    2003-12-01

    Flood-plain aggradation within the Loup River Basin of central Nebraska was episodic and alternated with incision throughout much of the Holocene. A widespread episode of flood-plain stability, however, occurred about 5700-5100 cal. year BP. The purpose of this paper is to describe the properties of this buried flood-plain at six sites in the basin, to consider why the properties of the buried flood-plain vary from site to site, and to evaluate possible reasons why the Loup River flood-plains stabilized 5500 years ago. Episodic valley-bottom aggradation was common during flood-plain formation at five of the six sites. The radiocarbon ages, particle-size data, and organic-carbon data for the buried flood-plain reveal that valley-bottom aggradation generally slowed between about 5700 and 5100 cal. year BP. Erratic down-profile changes in percentages of sand, clay, and organic matter indicate flood-plain sedimentation and soil formation were often episodic. Sand and clay rarely show a steady fining-upward trend. Organic matter fluctuates with depth; at some sites multiple, incipient A horizons were buried during waning valley-bottom aggradation. At two localities, the buried flood-plain is evident as a clay-rich stratum that must have been deposited in a paleochannel. Flood-plain stabilization between 5700 and 5100 cal. year BP probably occurred in response to the effects of external climate forcing on vegetation and hydrologic changes. Flood-plains of other rivers in the central Great Plains also stabilized at this time, further supporting a climatic explanation for slowing of valley aggradation and formation of a flood-plain at this time. Recognition of buried flood-plains is important to both soil mapping in valleys and to the discovery of cultural resources in valleys.

  6. 44 CFR 60.5 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas. 60.5 Section 60.5 Emergency Management and Assistance... Management Regulations § 60.5 Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas. The... flood-related erosion-prone areas shall be based. If the Federal Insurance Administrator has...

  7. 44 CFR 60.5 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas. 60.5 Section 60.5 Emergency Management and Assistance... Management Regulations § 60.5 Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas. The... flood-related erosion-prone areas shall be based. If the Federal Insurance Administrator has...

  8. 44 CFR 60.5 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas. 60.5 Section 60.5 Emergency Management and Assistance... Management Regulations § 60.5 Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas. The... flood-related erosion-prone areas shall be based. If the Federal Insurance Administrator has...

  9. 44 CFR 60.5 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas. 60.5 Section 60.5 Emergency Management and Assistance... Management Regulations § 60.5 Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas. The... flood-related erosion-prone areas shall be based. If the Federal Insurance Administrator has...

  10. 44 CFR 60.5 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas. 60.5 Section 60.5 Emergency Management and Assistance... Management Regulations § 60.5 Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas. The... flood-related erosion-prone areas shall be based. If the Federal Insurance Administrator has...

  11. Arsenic and associated trace-elements in groundwater from the Chaco-Pampean plain, Argentina: results from 100 years of research.

    PubMed

    Nicolli, Hugo B; Bundschuh, Jochen; Blanco, María Del C; Tujchneider, Ofelia C; Panarello, Héctor O; Dapeña, Cristina; Rusansky, Jorge E

    2012-07-01

    The Chaco-Pampean plain, Argentina, is a vast geographical unit (1,000,000 km²) affected by high arsenic (As) concentrations in universal oxidizing groundwater. The socio-economic development of the region is restricted by water availability and its low quality caused by high salinity and hardness. In addition, high As and associated trace-elements (F, U, V, B, Se, Sb, Mo) concentrations of geogenic origin turn waters unsuitable for human consumption. Shallow groundwater with high As and F concentrations (ranges: <10-5300 μg As/L; 51-7,340 μg F/L) exceeding the WHO guideline values (As: 10 μg/L; F: 1,500 μg/L) introduces a potential risk of hydroarsenicism disease in the entire region and fluorosis in some areas. The rural population is affected (2-8 million inhabitants). Calcareous loess-type sediments and/or intercalated volcanic ash layers in pedosedimentary sequences hosting the aquifers are the sources of contaminant trace-elements. Large intra and interbasin variabilities of trace-element concentrations, especially between shallow and deep aquifers have been observed. All areas of the Chaco-Pampean plain were affected in different grades: the Chaco-Salteña plain (in the NNE of the region) and the northern La Pampa plain (in the center-south) have been shown the highest concentrations. The ranges of As and F contents in loess-sediments are 6-25 and 534-3340 mg/kg, respectively in the Salí River basin. Three key processes render high As concentrations in shallow aquifers: i) volcanic glass dissolution and/or hydrolysis and leaching of silicates minerals hosted in loess; ii) desorption processes from the surface of Al-, Fe- and Mn-oxi-hydroxides (coating lithic fragments) at high pH and mobilization as complex oxyanions (As and trace elements)in Na-bicarbonate type groundwaters; and iii) evaporative concentration in areas with semiarid and arid climates. Local factors play also an important role in the control of high As concentrations, highly influenced

  12. 44 CFR 60.7 - Revisions of criteria for flood plain management regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... flood plain management regulations. 60.7 Section 60.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program CRITERIA FOR LAND MANAGEMENT AND USE Requirements for Flood Plain Management...

  13. 44 CFR 60.7 - Revisions of criteria for flood plain management regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... flood plain management regulations. 60.7 Section 60.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program CRITERIA FOR LAND MANAGEMENT AND USE Requirements for Flood Plain Management...

  14. 44 CFR 60.7 - Revisions of criteria for flood plain management regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... flood plain management regulations. 60.7 Section 60.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program CRITERIA FOR LAND MANAGEMENT AND USE Requirements for Flood Plain Management...

  15. 44 CFR 60.7 - Revisions of criteria for flood plain management regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... flood plain management regulations. 60.7 Section 60.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program CRITERIA FOR LAND MANAGEMENT AND USE Requirements for Flood Plain Management...

  16. 44 CFR 60.7 - Revisions of criteria for flood plain management regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... flood plain management regulations. 60.7 Section 60.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program CRITERIA FOR LAND MANAGEMENT AND USE Requirements for Flood Plain Management...

  17. [100 years of ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Nover, A

    1982-12-16

    100 years ago ophthalmology was already an own special sector of medicine. In 1850, when Hermann von Helmholtz invented the ophthalmoscope, the beginning of modern ophthalmology was established. The "Ophthalmologische Gesellschaft" was founded in 1863. From thereon major advances in all divisions of ophthalmology were achieved. Some outstanding personalities and highlights are mentioned.

  18. Tuskegee: 100 Years Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Renelda

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the history and accomplishments of Tuskegee Institute over the past 100 years. Highlights the role played by Booker T. Washington, and W. E. B. DuBois; discusses the career of the school's retiring president, Luther Foster. Provides information on the new president, Dr. Benjamin Payton, and discusses future directions for the college. (APM)

  19. Floods, floodplains, delta plains — A satellite imaging approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syvitski, James P. M.; Overeem, Irina; Brakenridge, G. Robert; Hannon, Mark

    2012-08-01

    Thirty-three lowland floodplains and their associated delta plains are characterized with data from three remote sensing systems (AMSR-E, SRTM and MODIS). These data provide new quantitative information to characterize Late Quaternary floodplain landscapes and their penchant for flooding over the last decade. Daily proxy records for discharge since 2002 and for each of the 33 river systems can be derived with novel Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) methods. A descriptive framework based on analysis of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data is used to capture the major landscape-scale floodplain elements or zones: 1) container valleys with their long and narrow pathways of largely sediment transit and bypass, 2) floodplain depressions that act as loci for frequent flooding and sediment storage, 3) zones of nodal avulsions common to many continental scale rivers, and often located seaward of container valleys, and 4) coastal floodplains and delta plains that offer both sediment bypass and storage but under the influence of marine processes. The SRTM data allow mapping of smaller-scale architectural elements in unprecedented systematic manner. Floodplain depressions were found to play a major role, which may largely be overlooked in conceptual floodplain models. Lastly, MODIS data (independently and combined with AMSR-E) allows the tracking of flood hydrographs and pathways and sedimentation patterns on a near-daily timescale worldwide. These remote-sensing data show that 85% of the studied major river systems experienced extensive flooding in the last decade. A new quantitative paradigm of floodplain processes, honoring the frequency and extent of floods, can be develop by careful analysis of these new remotely sensed data.

  20. 44 CFR 60.12 - Flood plain management criteria for State-owned properties in special hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flood plain management... MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program CRITERIA FOR LAND MANAGEMENT AND USE Requirements for State Flood Plain Management Regulations § 60.12 Flood plain management criteria for State-owned properties...

  1. 44 CFR 60.12 - Flood plain management criteria for State-owned properties in special hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program CRITERIA FOR LAND MANAGEMENT AND USE Requirements for State Flood Plain Management Regulations § 60.12 Flood plain management criteria for State-owned properties in... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood plain...

  2. Inventory and analyses of information for flood plain management in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emerson, D.G.; Wald, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Governmental units that have been identified as having flood hazard areas but do not have detailed base flood information are required to use the ' best available data ' to regulate new development or expansion of existing development in flood prone areas. Information for flood plain management has been identified for 95 governmental units in North Dakota and includes the determination of what data are available regarding flood hazards, hydraulics, and hydrology, and a review of these data to determine their adequacy for use in flood plain management. (USGS)

  3. Estimated 100-year peak flows and flow volumes in the Big Lost River and Birch Creek at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Kjelstrom, L.C.; Berenbrock, C.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to provide estimates of the 100-year peak flows and flow volumes that could enter the INEL area from the Big Lost River and Brich Creek are needed as input data for models that will be used to delineate the extent of the 100-year flood plain at the INEL. The methods, procedures and assumptions used to estimate the 100-year peak flows and flow volumes are described in this report.

  4. 44 CFR 63.12 - Setback and community flood plain management requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Setback and community flood plain management requirements. 63.12 Section 63.12 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY... Setback and community flood plain management requirements. (a) Where benefits have been paid under...

  5. Channel narrowing and vegetation development following a great plains flood

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, J.M.; Osterkamp, W.R.; Lewis, W.M.

    1996-01-01

    Streams in the plains of eastern Colorado are prone to intense floods following summer thunderstorms. Here, and in other semiarid and arid regions, channel recovery after a flood may take several decades. As a result, flood history strongly influences spatial and temporal variability in bottomland vegetation. Interpretation of these patterns must be based on understanding the long-term response of bottomland morphology and vegetation to specific floods. A major flood in 1965 on Plum Creek, a perennial sandbed stream, removed most of the bottomland vegetatiqn and transformed the single-thread stream into a wider, braided channel. Channel narrowing began in 1973 and continues today. In 1991, we determined occurrences of 150 vascular plant species in 341 plots (0.5 m2) along a 7-km reach of Plum Creek near Louviers, Colorado. We related patterns of vegetation to elevation, litter cover, vegetative cover, sediment particle size, shade, and year of formation of the underlying surface (based on age of the excavated root flare of the oldest woody plants). Geomorphic investigation determined that Plum Creek fluvial surfaces sort into five groups by year of formation: terraces of fine sand formed before 1965; terraces of coarse sand deposited by the 1965 flood; stable bars formed by channel narrowing during periods of relatively high bed level (1973-1986); stable bars similarly formed during a recent period of low bed level (1987-1990); and the present channel bed (1991). Canonical correspondence analysis indicates a strong influence of elevation and litter cover, and lesser effects of vegetative cover, shade, and sediment particle size. However, the sum of all canonical eigenvalues explained by these factors is less than that explained by an analysis including only the dummy variables that define the five geomorphically determined age groups. The effect of age group is significant even when all five other environmental variables are specified as covariables. Therefore, the

  6. Overlaps among phenological phases in flood plain forest ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartošová, Lenka; Bauer, Zdeněk; Trnka, Miroslav; Možný, Martin; Štěpánek, Petr; Žalud, Zdeněk

    2015-04-01

    There is a growing concern that climate change has significant impacts on species phenology, seasonal population dynamics, and thus interaction (a)synchrony between species. Species that have historically undergone life history events on the same seasonal calendar may lose synchrony and therefore lose the ability to interact as they have in the past. In view of the match/mismatch hypothesis, the different extents or directions of the phenological shifts among interacting species may have significant implications for community structure and dynamics. That's why our principal goal of the study is to determine the phenological responses within the ecosystem of flood plain forest and analyzed the phenological overlapping among each phenological periods of given species. The phenological observations were done at flood-plain forest experimental site during the period 1961-2012. The whole ecosystem in this study create 17 species (15 plants and 2 bird species) and each species is composed of 2 phenological phases. Phenological periods of all species of ecosystem overlap each other and 43 of these overlapping were chosen and the length, trend and correlation with temperature were elaborated. The analysis of phenophases overlapping of chosen species showed that the length of overlay is getting significantly shorter in 1 case. On the other hand the situation when the length of overlaps is getting significantly longer arose in 4 cases. Remaining overlaps (38) of all phenological periods among various species is getting shorter or longer but with no significance or have not changed anyhow. This study was funded by project "Building up a multidisciplinary scientific team focused on drought" No. CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0248. and of projects no. LD13030 supporting participation of the Czech Republic in the COST action ES1106.

  7. 44 CFR 60.2 - Minimum compliance with flood plain management criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Minimum compliance with flood... MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program CRITERIA FOR LAND MANAGEMENT AND USE Requirements for Flood Plain Management Regulations §...

  8. 44 CFR 60.2 - Minimum compliance with flood plain management criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum compliance with flood... MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program CRITERIA FOR LAND MANAGEMENT AND USE Requirements for Flood Plain Management Regulations §...

  9. Evidence of floods on the Potomac River from anatomical abnormalities in the wood of flood-plain trees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yanosky, Thomas M.

    1983-01-01

    Ash trees along the Potomac River flood plain near Washington, D.C., were studied to determine changes in wood anatomy related to flood damage, and anomalous growth was compared to flood records for April 15 to August 31, 1930-79. Collectively, anatomical evidence was detected for 33 of the 34 growing-season floods during the study period. Evidence of 12 floods prior to 1930 was also noted, including catastrophic ones in 1889 and 1924. Trees damaged after the transition from earlywood to latewood growth typically formed ' flood rings ' of enlarged vessels within the latewood zone. Trees damaged near the beginning of the growth year developed flood rings within, or contiguous with, the earlywood. Both patterns are assumed to have developed when flood-damaged trees produced a second crop of leaves. Trees damaged by high-magnitude floods developed well formed flood rings along the entire height and around the entire circumference of the stem. Small floods were generally associated wtih diffuse or discontinuous anomalies restricted to stem apices. Frequency of flood rings was positively related to flood magnitude, and time of flood generation during the tree-growth season was estimated from the radial position of anomalous growth relative to annual ring width. Reconstructing tree heights in a year of flood-ring formation gives a minimum stage estimate along local stream reaches. Some trees provided evidence of numerous floods. Those with the greatest number of flood rings grew on frequently flooded surfaces subject to flood-flow velocities of at least 1 m/s, and more typically greater than 2 m/s. Tree size, more than age, was related to flood-ring formation. Trees kept small by frequent flood damage had more flood rings than taller trees of comparable age. (USGS)

  10. Nutrient yield of the Apalachicola River flood plain, Florida; water-quality assessment plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattraw, H.C.; Elder, John F.

    1980-01-01

    The Apalachicola River in northwestern Florida is the location of one of four current U.S. Geological Survey National River Quality Assessments. The investigation of the Apalachicola River and flood plain is designed to quantify the organic detritus and nutrient yield to the productive, estuarine Apalachicola Bay. The extensive riverine flood plain is subject to seasonal flooding which transports large quantities of accumulated, decaying leaf litter from the flood plain into the river and ultimately into Apalachicola Bay. The Apalachicola River Quality Assessment has four major objectives; (1) Determine the accumulation of organic substances and trace elements in benthic organisms and fine-grained sediments; (2) Define the distribution of the major tree communities on the flood plain; (3) Assess the role of leaf fall and decomposition on nutrient yield; and (4) Identify and quantify major sources and pathways of nutrients to the river. Extensive emphasis is given to investigation approaches and techniques to facilitate technology transfer to similar wetland ecosystems. (USGS)

  11. Hot particles of the Yenisei River flood plain, Russia.

    PubMed

    Bolsunovsky AYa; Tcherkezian, V O

    2001-01-01

    Some high-activity hot particles (HP) were found in the flood plain of the Yenisei River, near the Krasnoyarsk Mining-and-Chemical Combine (MCC), and their radionuclide compositions were determined. The ratios of plutonium and caesium isotopes in the particles are indicative of their reactor origin. The 137Cs activity of the particles amounts to 29,200 kBq/particle, which is higher than the corresponding activities of the fuel particles that formed as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP. All the particles have been divided into two major groups according to the 137Cs/34Cs ratio: in the first group, the 137Cs/134Cs ratio is more than or equal to 3000, and in the second the 137Cs/134Cs ratio is less than or equal to 1000. The particles of the first and the second groups were preliminarily estimated to be formed 30 and 20 years ago, which suggests that there must have been at least two accidents at the MCC reactors, with part of the fuel released into the Yenisei River.

  12. Occurrence and variability of mining-related lead and zinc in the Spring River flood plain and tributary flood plains, Cherokee County, Kansas, 2009--11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2013-01-01

    Historical mining activity in the Tri-State Mining District (TSMD), located in parts of southeast Kansas, southwest Missouri, and northeast Oklahoma, has resulted in a substantial ongoing input of cadmium, lead, and zinc to the environment. To provide some of the information needed to support remediation efforts in the Cherokee County, Kansas, superfund site, a 4-year study was begun in 2009 by the U.S. Geological Survey that was requested and funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A combination of surficial-soil sampling and coring was used to investigate the occurrence and variability of mining-related lead and zinc in the flood plains of the Spring River and several tributaries within the superfund site. Lead- and zinc-contaminated flood plains are a concern, in part, because they represent a long-term source of contamination to the fluvial environment. Lead and zinc contamination was assessed with reference to probable-effect concentrations (PECs), which represent the concentrations above which adverse aquatic biological effects are likely to occur. The general PECs for lead and zinc were 128 and 459 milligrams per kilogram, respectively. The TSMD-specific PECs for lead and zinc were 150 and 2,083 milligrams per kilogram, respectively. Typically, surficial soils in the Spring River flood plain had lead and zinc concentrations that were less than the general PECs. Lead and zinc concentrations in the surficial-soil samples were variable with distance downstream and with distance from the Spring River channel, and the largest lead and zinc concentrations usually were located near the channel. Lead and zinc concentrations larger than the general or TSMD-specific PECs, or both, were infrequent at depth in the Spring River flood plain. When present, such contamination typically was confined to the upper 2 feet of the core and frequently was confined to the upper 6 inches. Tributaries with few or no lead- and zinc-mined areas in the basin—Brush Creek

  13. Backwater at bridges and densely wooded flood plains, Tallahala Creek at Waldrup, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colson, B.E.; Ming, C.O.; Arcement, George J.

    1978-01-01

    Floodflow data that will provide a base for evaluating digital models relating to open-channel flow were obtained at 22 sites on streams in Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Thirty-five floods were measured. Analysis of the data indicated that backwater and discharges computed by standard indirect methods currently in use would be inaccurate where densely vegetated flood plains are crossed by highway embankments and single-opening bridges. This atlas presents flood information at the site on Tallahala Creek at Waldrup, Miss. Water depths, velocities, and discharges through bridge openings on Tallahala Creek at Waldrup, Miss., for floods of April 14, 1969, February 21, 1971, and April 13, 1974, were measured together with peak water surface elevations along embankments and along cross sections. Manning 's roughness coefficient values in different parts of the flood plain are shown on maps, and flood-frequency relations are shown on graphs. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Backwater at bridges and densely wooded flood plains, west fork Amite River near Liberty, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colson, B.E.; Ming, C.O.; Arcement, George J.

    1979-01-01

    Floodflow data that will provide a base for evaluating digital models relating to open-channel flow were obtained at 22 sites on streams in Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Thirty-five floods were measured. Analysis of the data indicated methods currently in use would be inaccurate where densely vegetated flood plains are crossed by highway embankments and single-opening bridges. This atlas presents flood information at the site on West Fork Amite River near Liberty, MS. Water depths , velocities, and discharges through bridge openings on West Fork Amite River near Liberty, MS for floods of December 6, 1971 , and March 25, 1973, are shown, together with peak water-surface elevations along embankments and along cross sections. Manning 's roughness coefficient values in different parts of the flood plain are shown on maps, and flood-frequency relations are shown on a graph. (USGS).

  15. Backwater at bridges and densely wooded flood plains, Thompson Creek near Clara, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colson, B.E.; Ming, C.O.; Arcement, George J.

    1979-01-01

    Floodflow data that will provide a base for evaluating digital models relating to open-channel flow were obtained at 22 sites on streams in Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Thirty-five floods were measured. Analysis of the data indicated methods currently in use would be inaccurate where densely vegetated flood plains are crossed by highway embankments and single-opening bridges. This atlas presents flood information at the site on Thompson Creek near Clara, MS: Water depths, velocities, and discharges through bridge openings on Thompson Creek near Clara, MS, for flood of March 3, 1971, are shown, together with peak water-surface elevations along embankments and along cross sections. Manning 's roughness coefficient values in different parts of the flood plain are shown on maps, and flood-frequency relations are shown on a graph. (USGS).

  16. Backwater at bridges and densely wooded flood plains, Yockanookany River near Thomastown, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colson, B.E.; Ming, C.O.; Arcement, George J.

    1979-01-01

    Floodflow data that will provide a base for evaluating digital models relating to open-channel flow were obtained at 22 sites on streams in Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Thirty-five floods were measured. Analysis of the data indicated methods currently in use would be inaccurate where densely vegetated flood plains are crossed by highway embankments and single-opening bridges. This atlas presents flood information at the site on Yockanookany River near Thomastown, Miss. Water depths, velocities, and discharges through bridge openings on Yockanookany River near Thomastown, Miss., for floods of April 12, 1969, January 2, 1970, and March 15, 1975, are shown, together with peak water-surface elevations along embankments and along cross sections. Manning 's roughness coefficient values in different parts of the flood plain are shown on maps, and flood-frequency relations are shown on a graph. (Kosco-USGS)

  17. Relation of sediment load and flood-plain formation to climatic variability, Paria River drainage basin, Utah and Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graf, J.B.; Webb, R.H.; Hereford, R.

    1991-01-01

    Flood-plain alluviation began about 1940 at a time of decreasing magnitude and frequency of floods in winter, summer, and fall. No floods with stages high enough to inundate the flood plain have occurred since 1980, and thus no flood-plain alluviation has occurred since then. The decrease in magnitude and frequency of floods appears to have resulted from a decrease in frequency of large storms, particularly dissipating tropical cyclones, and not from a decrease in annual or seasonal precipitation. -from Authors

  18. Flood plain and channel dynamics of the Quinault and Queets Rivers, Washington, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Jim E.; Jones, Myrtle A.; Haluska, Tana L.

    2003-03-01

    Comparison of historic channel migration rates, modern planform conditions, and overall sediment, wood, and flow conditions and interactions for the Quinault River and Queets River in the western Olympic Peninsula, Washington, reveals decadal- to century-scale interactions between gravel-bed channels and forested flood plains in temperate maritime environments. The downstream alluvial portions of these two rivers can be divided into three reaches of different slope, flow, sediment, and wood regimes: (i) the upper Quinault River is aggrading behind Lake Quinault, a natural lake that traps most sediment and wood transported from the Olympic Mountain headwaters. (ii) The lower Quinault River, downstream of Lake Quinault, transports only sediment and wood derived from reworking of flood-plain deposits and contributed from valley margins. (iii) The Queets River has unimpeded movement of sediment and water from the mountainous headwaters to the Pacific Ocean. Measurements of channel planform characteristics and historic migration rates and patterns show that these three reaches have correspondingly distinct channel and flood-plain morphologies and dynamics. The aggrading and sediment-rich upper Quinault River has the widest flood plain, widest active channel, greatest number of low-flow channels and flanking gravel bars, and an average channel migration rate of 12.7±3.3 m/year between 1900 and 1994. The comparatively sediment-poor lower Quinault River has the narrowest flood plain, narrowest active channel, and lowest channel migration rate (4.0±1.2 m/year); and most flow is through a single channel with few adjacent gravel bars. The Queets River has attributes intermediate between the lower and upper Quinault Rivers, including an average channel migration rate of 7.5±2.9 m/year. Flood-plain turnover rates are similar for all three reaches, with channels eroding the flood plain at the rate of about 0.2% of the flood-plain area per year, and with corresponding flood-plain

  19. Geohazards (floods and landslides) in the Ndop plain, Cameroon volcanic line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wotchoko, Pierre; Bardintzeff, Jacques-Marie; Itiga, Zénon; Nkouathio, David Guimolaire; Guedjeo, Christian Suh; Ngnoupeck, Gerald; Dongmo, Armand Kagou; Wandji, Pierre

    2016-07-01

    The Ndop Plain, located along the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL), is a volcano-tectonic plain, formed by a series of tectonic movements, volcanic eruptions and sedimentation phases. Floods (annually) and landslides (occasionally) occur with devastating environmental effects. However, this plain attracts a lot of inhabitants owing to its fertile alluvial soils. With demographic explosion in the plain, the inhabitants (143,000 people) tend to farm and inhabit new zones which are prone to these geohazards. In this paper, we use field observations, laboratory analyses, satellite imagery and complementary methods using appropriate software to establish hazard (flood and landslide) maps of the Ndop Plain. Natural factors as well as anthropogenic factors are considered. The hazard maps revealed that 25% of the area is exposed to flood hazard (13% exposed to high flood hazard, 12% to moderate) and 5% of the area is exposed to landslide hazard (2% exposed to high landslide hazard, 3% to moderate). Some mitigation measures for floods (building of artificial levees, raising foundations of buildings and the meticulous regulation of the flood guards at Bamendjing Dam) and landslides (slope terracing, planting of trees, and building retaining walls) are proposed.

  20. NETL: The First 100 Years

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-21

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory celebrates 100 years of innovative energy technology development. NETL has been a leader in energy technology development. This video takes a look back at the many accomplishments over the past 100 years. These advances benefit the American people, enhance our nation's energy security and protect our natural resources.

  1. Flood plain and channel dynamics of the Quinault and Queets Rivers, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, J. E.; Jones, M.A.; Haluska, T.L.

    2003-01-01

    Observations from this study and previous studies on the Queets River show that channel and flood-plain dynamics and morphology are affected by interactions between flow, sediment, and standing and entrained wood, some of which likely involve time frames similar to 200–500-year flood-plain half-lives. On the upper Quinault River and Queets River, log jams promote bar growth and consequent channel shifting, short-distance avulsions, and meander cutoffs, resulting in mobile and wide active channels. On the lower Quinault River, large portions of the channel are stable and flow within vegetated flood plains. However, locally, channel-spanning log jams have caused channel avulsions within reaches that have been subsequently mobile for several decades. In all three reaches, log jams appear to be areas of conifer germination and growth that may later further influence channel and flood-plain conditions on long time scales by forming flood-plain areas resistant to channel migration and by providing key members of future log jams. Appreciation of these processes and dynamics and associated temporal and spatial scales is necessary to formulate effective long-term approaches to managing fluvial ecosystems in forested environments.

  2. Flood Plain Lakes Along the Elbe River - a Forgotten Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heise, Susanne

    2014-05-01

    Flood Plain Lakes Along the Elbe River - a Forgotten Risk Introduction: Along the German part of the Elbe River, more than 1000 "side structures" form potential sinks of contaminated sediment. They are mostly remains of previous river courses which have been cut off by natural causes or anthropogenic alterations of the river (oxbow lakes), or are floodplain lakes that were formed during high water conditions. These water bodies sometimes have a small opening towards the Elbe, or are hydrodynamically connected only in situations of high discharges. High discharges in the Elbe River, however, are mainly responsible for transporting historic contaminants along with suspended matter from former historic sources in the middle Elbe downstream. As these may settle when the current dies down at the end of a high discharge period, side structures have been under suspicion to have accumulated contaminated material over the last decades. Until this study was conducted, nothing was known about erodibility and contamination of sediment in these lakes even though they could have a large impact on the Elbe River itself: A preliminary investigation showed that the total surface of side structures in the Elbe floodplain adds up to about 50 km2. In case that deposited sediment is contaminated and only the upper 20 cm are prone to resuspension and transport during flooding, 10 Mio m3 of contaminated sediment could potentially be added to the contaminant load during a high water event. This study was carried out to evaluate the risk from these side structures for the environmental quality of the Elbe River. Methods: 15 side structures were investigated. Sediment cores were taken on 1 to 3 locations per water body in order to obtain the following information: • Depth of sediment layer • Erodibility of surface sediment, measured immediately after sampling - using the "Gust Microcosm", • Eroded mass at over-critical shear stress, measured in the lab by eroding a sediment core for

  3. 137Cs contamination of Techa river flood plain in Brodokalmak settlement.

    PubMed

    Chesnokov, A V; Govorun, A P; Ivanitskaya, M V; Liksonov, V I; Shcherbak, S B

    1999-06-01

    137Cs contamination of the Techa river flood plain inside the Brodokalmak settlement has been mapped. The collimated scintillated detector technique was used for 137Cs deposit measurements. The 137Cs contamination is very heterogeneous. A comparison of this technique with the traditional sample method was performed at selected locations. The sampling data are in good agreement with in-situ data. Soil surface activity of 90Sr was determined from the samples. It was shown that 137Cs contamination correlates with 90Sr contamination within the flood plain of the settlement.

  4. The Effects of the Saluda Dam on the Surface-Water and Ground-Water Hydrology of the Congaree National Park Flood Plain, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conrads, Paul A.; Feaster, Toby D.; Harrelson, Larry G.

    2008-01-01

    The Congaree National Park was established '... to preserve and protect for the education, inspiration, and enjoyment of present and future generations an outstanding example of a near-virgin, southern hardwood forest situated in the Congaree River flood plain in Richland County, South Carolina' (Public Law 94-545). The resource managers at Congaree National Park are concerned about the timing, frequency, magnitude, and duration of flood-plain inundation of the Congaree River. The dynamics of the Congaree River directly affect ground-water levels in the flood plain, and the delivery of sediments and nutrients is constrained by the duration, extent, and frequency of flooding from the Congaree River. The Congaree River is the southern boundary of the Congaree National Park and is formed by the convergence of the Saluda and Broad Rivers 24 river miles upstream from the park. The streamflow of the Saluda River has been regulated since 1929 by the operation of the Saluda Dam at Lake Murray. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, Congaree National Park, studied the interaction between surface water in the Congaree River and ground water in the flood plain to determine the effect Saluda Dam operations have on water levels in the Congaree National Park flood plain. Analysis of peak flows showed the reduction in peak flows after the construction of Lake Murray was more a result of climate variability and the absence of large floods after 1930 than the operation of the Lake Murray dam. Dam operations reduced the recurrence interval of the 2-year to 100-year peak flows by 6.1 to 17.6 percent, respectively. Analysis of the daily gage height of the Congaree River showed that the dam has had the effect of lowering high gage heights (95th percentile) in the first half of the year (December to May) and raising low gage heights (5th percentile) in the second half of the year (June to November). The dam has also had the effect of increasing the 1

  5. Exchanges of sediment between the flood plain and channel of the Amazon River in Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunne, T.; Mertes, L.A.K.; Meade, R.H.; Richey, J.E.; Forsberg, B.R.

    1998-01-01

    Sediment transport through the Brazilian sector of the Amazon River valley, a distance of 2010 km, involves exchanges between the channel and the flood plain that in each direction exceed the annual flux of sediment out of the river at O??bidos (???1200 Mt yr-1). The exchanges occur through bank erosion, bar deposition, settling from diffuse overbank flow, and sedimentation in flood-plain channels. We estimated the magnitude of these exchanges for each of 10 reaches of the valley, and combined them with calculations of sediment transport into and out of the reaches based on sediment sampling and flow records to define a sediment budget for each reach. Residuals in the sediment budget of a reach include errors of estimation and erosion or deposition within the channel. The annual supply of sediment entering the channel from bank erosion was estimated to average 1570 Mt yr-1 (1.3 ?? the O??bidos flux) and the amount transferred from channel transport to the bars (380 Mt yr-1) and the flood plain (460 Mt yr-1 in channelized flow; 1230 Mt yr-1 in diffuse overbank flow) totaled 2070 Mt yr-1 (1.7 ?? the O??bidos flux). Thus, deposition on the bars and flood plain exceeded bank erosion by 500 Mt yr-1 over a 10-16 yr period. Sampling and calculation of sediment loads in the channel indicate a net accumulation in the valley floor of approximately 200 Mt yr-1 over 16 yr, crudely validating the process-based calculations of the sediment budget, which in turn illuminate the physical controls on each exchange process. Another 300-400 Mt yr-1 are deposited in a delta plain downstream of O??bidos. The components of the sediment budget reflect hydrologie characteristics of the valley floor and geomorphic characteristics of the channel and flood plain, which in turn are influenced by tectonic features of the Amazon structural trough.

  6. A study of farmers' flood perceptions based on the entropy method: an application from Jianghan Plain, China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaofeng; Lone, Todd; Jiang, Songying; Li, Rongrong; Berends, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    Using survey data from 280 farmers in Jianghan Plain, China, this paper establishes an evaluation index system for three dimensions of farmers' flood perceptions and then uses the entropy method to estimate their overall flood perception. Farmers' flood perceptions exhibit the following characteristics: (i) their flood-occurrence, flood-prevention, and overall flood perceptions gradually increase with age, whereas their flood-effects perception gradually decreases; (ii) their flood-occurrence and flood-effects perceptions gradually increase with a higher level of education, whereas their flood-prevention perception gradually decreases and their overall flood perception shows nonlinear change; (iii) flood-occurrence, flood-effects, and overall flood perceptions are higher among farmers who serve in public offices than among those who do not do so; (iv) the flood-occurrence, flood-effects, and overall flood perceptions of farmers who work off-farm are higher than those of farmers who work solely on-farm, contrary to the flood-prevention perception; and (v) the flood-effects and flood-prevention perceptions of male farmers are lower than those of female farmers, but the flood-occurrence and overall flood perceptions of male farmers are higher than those of female farmers. PMID:26576512

  7. 13 CFR 120.172 - Flood-plain and wetlands management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11988, “Flood Plain Management” (3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 117) and 11990, “Protection of Wetlands” (3 CFR... floodplain or wetland; (2) If it is in a floodplain, that the assistance is in compliance with local land use... (determining if a proposed action is in the base floodplain) need be completed: (1) Actions located outside...

  8. Technique for estimating depth of floods in Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gamble, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimates of flood depths are needed for design of roadways across flood plains and for other types of construction along streams. Equations for estimating flood depths in Tennessee were derived using data for 150 gaging stations. The equations are based on drainage basin size and can be used to estimate depths of the 10-year and 100-year floods for four hydrologic areas. A method also was developed for estimating depth of floods having recurrence intervals between 10 and 100 years. Standard errors range from 22 to 30 percent for the 10-year depth equations and from 23 to 30 percent for the 100-year depth equations. (USGS)

  9. Geochemical signature of provenance, tectonics and chemical weathering in the Quaternary flood plain sediments of the Hindon River, Gangetic plain, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, M. E. A.; Wani, H.; Mondal, Bulbul

    2012-09-01

    The Ganga basin in the Himalayan foreland is a part of the world's largest area of modern alluvial sedimentation. Flood plain sediments of the Hindon River of the Gangetic plain have been analyzed for sediment texture, major and trace elements including rare earth elements (REEs). The results have been used to characterize the source rock composition and to understand the intensity of chemical weathering, tectonics and their interplay in the Hindon flood plain. The sediments of the Hindon flood plain dominantly consist of sand sized particles with little silt and clay. The geochemistry of the Hindon sediments has been compared to the Siwalik mudstone of the Siwalik Group (Siwaliks). The Siwalik sedimentary rocks like sandstones, mudstones and conglomerates are the known source rocks for the Hindon flood plain sediments. Mudstone geochemistry has been considered best to represent the source rock characteristics. The UCC (Upper Continental Crust) normalized major and trace elements of the Hindon flood plain sediments are very similar to the Siwalik mudstone except for Th and Cr. Furthermore, the average chondrite normalized REE pattern of the Hindon flood plain sediments is similar to the Siwalik mudstone. Textural immaturity, K/Rb ratios and the average CIA (Chemical Index of Alteration) and PIA (Plagioclase Index of Alteration) values of the Hindon flood plain sediments indicate that the sediments have not been affected by chemical weathering. Our study suggests that the active tectonics of the Himalayas and monsoon climate enhances only physical erosion of the source rocks (Siwaliks) rather than the chemical alteration. These factors help the Hindon sediments to retain their parental and tectonic signature even after recycling.

  10. Wilson's disease, 100 years later….

    PubMed

    Trocello, J-M; Broussolle, E; Girardot-Tinant, N; Pelosse, M; Lachaux, A; Lloyd, C; Woimant, F

    2013-12-01

    Texts published, in 1912, 100 years ago, by Sir K. Wilson on his eponymous disease in Brain, The Lancet and La Revue Neurologique highlight the relevance of his descriptions in the light of the current knowledge. Wilson's invocation of an "unknown toxin" appears today as a prophetic intuition as the presence of excess copper in the liver was mentioned for the first time a year later whereas the role of copper in this disease was not described until 1929. Progress has been made to better understand the physiology of Wilson's disease (WD). The ATP7B gene implicated in WD is located on chromosome 13 and more than 500 mutations and 100 polymorphisms have been to date identified. The phenotypic expression is highly variable, even within a family. This can partly be explained by environmental factors as nutrition. Modulator genes are also involved in the phenotypic expression of the disease. Most of symptoms observed in WD have already been described in detail by Wilson in 1912, but subsequent progress was made over the following 100 years, helping the physician diagnose WD. Hepatic and neurological symptoms are the most frequent expressions of the disease. Other extrahepatic features include renal manifestations, osteoarticular disorders, myocardial abnormalities, endocrine disturbances, realizing a multisystemic disease. The diagnosis of the disease is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, biological, radiological and genetic data and new tools (Brain MRI, relative exchangeable copper…) allow reducing delay to diagnosis. Therapeutic findings have also changed the disease prognosis. Treatment is based on the use of copper chelators to promote copper excretion from the body (D-penicillamine and Triethylenetetramine) and zinc salts to reduce copper absorption. Tetratiomolybdate appears to be a promising treatment. While significant progress has been made during this century, many physiological aspects of this disease remain unknown and require further research to

  11. Wilson's disease, 100 years later….

    PubMed

    Trocello, J-M; Broussolle, E; Girardot-Tinant, N; Pelosse, M; Lachaux, A; Lloyd, C; Woimant, F

    2013-12-01

    Texts published, in 1912, 100 years ago, by Sir K. Wilson on his eponymous disease in Brain, The Lancet and La Revue Neurologique highlight the relevance of his descriptions in the light of the current knowledge. Wilson's invocation of an "unknown toxin" appears today as a prophetic intuition as the presence of excess copper in the liver was mentioned for the first time a year later whereas the role of copper in this disease was not described until 1929. Progress has been made to better understand the physiology of Wilson's disease (WD). The ATP7B gene implicated in WD is located on chromosome 13 and more than 500 mutations and 100 polymorphisms have been to date identified. The phenotypic expression is highly variable, even within a family. This can partly be explained by environmental factors as nutrition. Modulator genes are also involved in the phenotypic expression of the disease. Most of symptoms observed in WD have already been described in detail by Wilson in 1912, but subsequent progress was made over the following 100 years, helping the physician diagnose WD. Hepatic and neurological symptoms are the most frequent expressions of the disease. Other extrahepatic features include renal manifestations, osteoarticular disorders, myocardial abnormalities, endocrine disturbances, realizing a multisystemic disease. The diagnosis of the disease is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, biological, radiological and genetic data and new tools (Brain MRI, relative exchangeable copper…) allow reducing delay to diagnosis. Therapeutic findings have also changed the disease prognosis. Treatment is based on the use of copper chelators to promote copper excretion from the body (D-penicillamine and Triethylenetetramine) and zinc salts to reduce copper absorption. Tetratiomolybdate appears to be a promising treatment. While significant progress has been made during this century, many physiological aspects of this disease remain unknown and require further research to

  12. [100 years' of clinical electrocardiography].

    PubMed

    Bergovec, Mijo

    2003-01-01

    In 1903 Willem Einthoven published in Pflügers Arch his classic article on the investigation of human electrocardiogram by his string galvanometer. Many historians of medicine, Einthoven also marked that publication as the beginning of clinical electrocardiography. Many investigators like Galvani, Manteucci, Kölliker, Müller, Lipmann, Waller, Ader, Einthoven, Lewis, Wilson and others participated in creation and development of electrocardiogram. From that time electrocardiogram quickly became, and has remained the most essential diagnostic laboratory tool in investigation of heart diseases. The aim of this article is to remind us of the beginning of this part of cardiology 100 years ago. PMID:15209030

  13. Microbially mediated cycling of iron in flood plains and other wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szewzyk, Ulrich; Braun, Burga; Schmidt, Bertram; Schaudin, Christoph

    2010-05-01

    Floodplains are subjected to alternating changes of flooding and partly drying of the soil systems and are therefore prominent examples of ecosystems undergoing dramatic changes in redox conditions. During the last 5 years the flood plains and associated water systems of the National Park "Untere Oder" were examined for the presence and relevance of bacteria associated with the redox cycling of iron and manganese. Biofilms grown at different locations in the national park were used as source material for examinations on the diversity of iron bacteria. Besides classical microbiological cultivation techniques, culture independent methods were used to explore the phylogenetic diversity of bacteria in ochreous depositions. The natural grown biofilms were intensely examined and documented by light and scanning electron microscopy. Many of the classical morphotypes of iron bacteria were observed and documented. Parallel the biofilms were used for cultivation of iron related bacteria under various conditions. The 16s rDNA of the isolated strains was sequenced and phylogenetically affiliated. In addition, these biofilms were used for establishing 16S rDNA clone libraries. In comparison of the results from direct microscopic examinations, cultivation and culture independent detection methods (FISH) certain of the morphotypes from the biofilms could be assigned to phylogenetic lineages. Besides the biofilms from the Oder flood plains, ochreous depositing biofilms from Berlin drinking water wells, flood plains in Norway and various wetlands in terra de fuego were examined. The cultures and 16S rDNA-clones from the different sampling sites are being compared for biogeographic differences.

  14. A participatory approach of flood vulnerability assessment in the Banat Plain, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balteanu, Dan; Costache, Andra; Sima, Mihaela; Dumitrascu, Monica; Dragota, Carmen; Grigorescu, Ines

    2014-05-01

    The Banat Plain (western Romania) is a low, alluvial plain affected by neotectonic subsidence movements, being a critical region in terms of exposure to floods. The latest extreme event was the historic floods occcured in the spring of 2005, which caused significant economic damage in several rural communities. The response to 2005 floods has highlighted a number of weaknesses in the management of hazards, such as the deficiencies of the early warning system, people awareness or the inefficiency of some mitigation measures, besides the past structural measures which are obsolete. For a better understanding of the local context of vulnerability and communities resilience to floods, the quantitative assessment of human vulnerability to floods was supplemented with a participatory research, in which there were involved five rural settlements from the Banat Plain (comprising 15 villages and a population of over 12,000 inhabitants). Thus, in the spring of 2013, a questionnaire-based survey was conducted in approx. 100 households of the affected communities and structured interviews were held with local authorities, in the framework of VULMIN project, funded by the Ministry of National Education. The questionnaire was designed based on a pilot survey conducted in 2005, several months after the flood, and was focused on two major issues: a) perception of the local context of vulnerability to environmental change and extreme events; b) perception of human vulnerability to floods (personal experience, post-disaster rehabilitation, awareness, worrying and opinion on the measures aimed to prevent and mitigate the effects of flooding). The results were correlated with a number of specific variables of the households included in the sample, such as: household structure; income source; income level; location of the dwelling in relation to floodplains. In this way, we were able to draw general conclusions about the way in which local people perceive the extreme events, such as

  15. Flood-plain areas of the Mississippi River, mile 866.8 to mile 888.0, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, George H.; Gue, Lowell C.

    1980-01-01

    Profiles of the regional flood, 500-year flood, and flood-protection elevation have been developed for a 21-mile reach of the Mississippi River. Areas flooded by the regional flood and by the 500-year flood were delineated by photogrammetric mapping techniques and are shown on seven large-scale map sheets. Over 1,300 acres of flood plain are included in the cities of Anoka, Champlin, Coon Rapids, Dayton, Ramsey and Elk River, and in unincorporated areas of Wright County. The flood-outline maps and flood profiles comprise data needed by local units of government to adopt, enforce, and administer flood-plain management regulations along the Mississippi River throughout the study reach. Streamflow data from two gaging stations provided the basis for definition of the regional and 500-year floods. Cross-section data obtained at 83 locations were used to develop a digital computer model of the river. Flood elevation and discharge data from the 1965 flood provided a basis for adjusting the computer model. Information relating the history of floods, formation of ice jams, and duration of flood elevations at Anoka and at Elk River are included.

  16. Alternating flood and drought hazards in the Drava Plain, Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lóczy, Dénes; Dezsö, József; Gyenizse, Péter; Ortmann-Ajkai, Adrienne

    2016-04-01

    Our research project covers the assessment of archive data and monitoring present-day water availability in the floodplain of the Hungarian Drava River. Historically flood hazard has been prevalent in the area. Recently, however, flood and drought hazards occur with equal frequency. Potential floodwater storage is defined from the analyses of soil conditions (grain size, porosity, water conductivity etc.) and GIS-based volumetric estimations of storage capacities in oxbows (including communication with groundwater). With the remarkable rate of river channel incision (2.4 m per century) and predictable climate change trends (increased annual mean temperature and decreased summer precipitation), the growing frequency and intensification of drought hazard is expected. For the assessment of drought hazard the impacts of hydrometeorological events, groundwater table dynamics and capillary rise are modelled, the water demands of natural vegetation and agricultural crops are studied. The project is closely linked to the ongoing Old Drava Programme, a comprehensive government project, which envisions floodplain rehabilitation through major transformations in water governance and land use of the region, and has numerous implications for regional development. Authors are grateful for financial support from the Hungarian National Scientific Research Fund (OTKA, contacts nos K 104552 and K 108755) as well as from the Visegrad Fund (31210058). The contribution is dedicated to the 650th anniversary of the foundation of the University of Pécs, Hungary.

  17. Geomorphology and flood-plain vegetation of the Sprague and lower Sycan Rivers, Klamath Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, James E.; McDowell, Patricia F.; Lind, Pollyanna; Rasmussen, Christine G.; Keith, Mackenzie K.

    2015-01-01

    Despite these effects of human disturbances, many of the fundamental physical processes forming the Sprague River fluvial systems over the last several thousand years still function. In particular, flows are unregulated, sediment transport processes are active, and overbank flooding allows for floodplain deposition and erosion. Therefore, restoration of many of the native physical conditions and processes is possible without substantial physical manipulation of current conditions for much of the Sprague River study area. An exception is the South Fork Sprague River, where historical trends are not likely to reverse until it attains a more natural channel and flood-plain geometry and the channel aggrades to the extent that overbank flow becomes common.

  18. Wetland hydrology and tree distribution of the Apalachicola River flood plain, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leitman, H.M.; Sohm, J.E.; Franklin, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Apalachicola River is part of a 50,800-square-kilometer drainage basin in northwest Florida, Alabama, and Georgia. The river is formed by the confluence of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers at Jim Woodruff Dam and flows 171 kilometers to Apalachicola Bay in the Gulf of Mexico. Its flood plain supports 450 square kilometers of bottom-land hardwood and tupelco-cypress forests. The most common trees, constituting 62 percent of the total basal area, were five wet-site species; water tupelo, Ogeeche tupelo, baldcypress, Carolina ash, and swamp tupelo. Other common species were sweetgum, overcup oak, planertree, green ash, water hickory, sugarberry, and diamond-leaf oak. Five forest types were defined based on species predominance by basal area. Biomass increased downstream and was greatest in forests growing on permanently saturated soils. Water and tree relations varied with river location because range in water-level fluctuation and topographic relief in the flood plain diminished downstream. Heights of natural riverbank levees and size and distribution of breaks in levees had a major controlling effect on flood-plain hydrology. Depth of water, duration of inundation and saturation, and river location, but not water velocity, were very highly correlated with forest types. (USGS)

  19. Distribution of gamma exposure rates in a reactor effluent stream flood plain system.

    PubMed

    Gladden, J B; Brown, K L; Smith, M H; Towns, A

    1985-01-01

    Ground-level gamma dosimetry surveys were conducted along the length of a radiocesium-contaminated reactor effluent stream flood plain system to determine the extent and patterns of isotope distribution over a decade after reactor releases were stopped. The maximum mean exposure rates were found at upstream locations near the source of the contamination and in a downstream sedimentary delta. Gamma exposure rates were not uniformly distributed and high exposure rates were generally restricted to small areas of the flood plain. There was little similarity in either the spatial distribution or magnitudes of maximum gamma exposure rates across flood plains along the stream. Frequency the measured exposure rates tended to be highly skewed and most closely approximated the log-normal distribution in most areas along the stream. However, the complex and changing patterns of dose distributions strongly affected the ability to predict the probability of encountering unusually high exposure rates. Complex statistical and distributional models are required to provide precise descriptions of the dosimetry environment in such complex ecosystems and different models could be required on a site-by-site basis.

  20. Evidence of Late-Holocene floods in the central Great Plains

    SciTech Connect

    May, D.W. . Dept. of Geography)

    1992-01-01

    From southwestern Kansas to northeastern Nebraska alluvial studies are revealing stratigraphic and morphological evidence of two brief periods of large-magnitude floods in the central Great Plains during the past 2,500 years. Evidence for these floods consists of deeply-scoured paleochannels, coarse-textured point-bar deposits overlying fine-grained deposits, soils on former floodplains that are buried by alluvium, and fluvial terraces. Wood and bone collagen in several deeply-scoured paleochannels date to about 2,300--2,000 yr B.P. Modest incision and floodplain reconstruction at this time is evident from both maps of fluvial landforms and C-14-dated stratigraphic sections in both large and small basins. Sediments near the base and top of inset gully fills in both trenched and untrenched tributary valleys to Great Plains rivers date to about 2,000 yr B.P. A second episode of large floods in the central Great Plains occurred about 1,300--850 yr B.P. Throughout most valleys a buried soil that developed in alluvium occurs from 50 cm to 1.0 m below terraces. Recently, stratified point-bar deposits beneath a low terrace in a small (9.6 km[sup 2]) basin in east-central Nebraska were exposed and studied. Crossbedded, gravelly sand strata alternative with massive, dark, silty strata. The C-14-dated section indicates that multiple floods occurred between 1,250 and 850 yr B.P. Such widespread evidence of flooding about 2,300--2,000 yr B.P. and again 1,250--850 yr B.P. attests to regional, and probably, global climate changes at these times. Discontinuities in the alluvial record have previously been recognized at 2,000 and 1,200 yr B.P. Furthermore, a discontinuity in the pollen record at 850 yr B.P. has long been recognized.

  1. Wetland hydrology and tree distribution of the Apalachicola River flood plain, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leitman, Helen M.; Sohm, James E.; Franklin, Marvin A.

    1984-01-01

    The Apalachicola River in northwest Florida is part of a three-State drainage basin encompassing 50,800 km 2 in Alabama, Georgia, and Florida. The river is formed by the confluence of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers at Jim Woodruff Dam from which it flows 171 km to Apalachicola Bay in the Gulf of Mexico. Its average annual discharge at Chattahoochee, Fla., is 690 m3/s (1958-80) with annual high flows averaging nearly 3,000 m3/s. Its flood plain supports 450 km 2 of bottom-land hardwood and tupelo-cypress forests. The Apalachicola River Quality Assessment focuses on the hydrology and productivity of the flood-plain forest. The purpose of this part of the assessment is to address river and flood-plain hydrology, flood-plain tree species and forest types, and water and tree relations. Seasonal stage fluctuations in the upper river are three times greater than in the lower river. Analysis of long-term streamflow record revealed that 1958-79 average annual and monthly flows and flow durations were significantly greater than those of 1929-57, probably because of climatic changes. However, stage durations for the later period were equal to or less than those of the earlier period. Height of natural riverbank levees and the size and distribution of breaks in the levees have a major controlling effect on flood-plain hydrology. Thirty-two kilometers upstream of the bay, a flood-plain stream called the Brothers River was commonly under tidal influence during times of low flow in the 1980 water year. At the same distance upstream of the bay, the Apalachicola River was not under tidal influence during the 1980 water year. Of the 47 species of trees sampled, the five most common were wet-site species constituting 62 percent of the total basal area. In order of abundance, they were water tupelo, Ogeechee tupelo, baldcypress, Carolina ash, and swamp tupelo. Other common species were sweetgum, overcup oak, planertree, green ash, water hickory, sugarberry, and diamond-leaf oak

  2. Flood-plain study of the Upper Iowa River in the vicinity of Decorah, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christiansen, Daniel E.; Eash, David A.

    2008-01-01

    The city of Decorah, Iowa, has experienced severe flooding from the Upper Iowa River resulting in property damage to homes and businesses. Streamflow data from two U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging stations, the Upper Iowa River at Decorah, Iowa (station number 05387500), located upstream from the College Drive bridge; and the Upper Iowa River near Decorah, Iowa (station number 05388000), at the Clay Hill Road bridge (locally known as the Freeport bridge) were used in the study. The three largest floods on the Upper Iowa River at Decorah occurred in 1941, 1961, and 1993, for which the estimated peak discharges were 27,200 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), 20,200 ft3/s, and 20,500 ft3/s, respectively. Flood-discharge information can be obtained from the World Wide Web at URL (uniform resource locator) http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/. In response to the need to provide the City of Decorah and other flood-plain managers with an assessment of the risks of flooding to properties and facilities along an 8.5-mile (mi) reach of the Upper Iowa River, the USGS, in cooperation with the City of Decorah, initiated a study to map 100- and 500-year flood-prone areas.

  3. Hydrology, vegetation, and soils of four north Florida River flood plains with an evaluation of state and federal wetland determinations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Light, H.M.; Darst, M.R.; MacLaughlin, M.T.; Sprecher, S.W.

    1993-01-01

    A study of hydrologic conditions, vegetation, and soils was made in wetland forests of four north Florida streams from 1987 to 1990. The study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation to support State and Federal efforts to improve wetland delineation methodology in flood plains. Plant communities and soils were described and related to topographic position and long-term hydrologic conditions at 10 study plots located on 4 streams. Detailed appendixes give average duration, frequency, and depth of flooding; canopy, subcanopy, and ground-cover vegetation; and taxonomic classification, series, and profile descriptions of soils for each plot. Topographic relief, range in stage, and depth of flooding were greatest on the alluvial flood plain of the Ochlockonee River, the largest of the four streams. Soils were silty in the lower elevations of the flood plain, and tree communities were distinctly different in each topographic zone. The Aucilla River flood plain was dominated by levees and terraces with very few depressions or low backwater areas. Oaks dominated the canopy of both lower and upper terraces of the Aucilla flood plain. Telogia Creek is a blackwater stream that is a major tributary of the Ochlockonee River. Its low, wet flood plain was dominated by Wyssa ogeche (Ogeechee tupelo) trees, had soils with mucky horizons, and was inundated by frequent floods of very short duration. The St. Marks River, a spring-fed stream with high base flow, had the least topographic relief and lowest range in stage of the four streams. St. Marks soils had a higher clay content than the other streams, and limestone bedrock was relatively close to the surface. Wetland determinations of the study plots based on State and Federal regulatory criteria were evaluated. Most State and Federal wetland determinations are based primarily on vegetation and soil characteristics because hydrologic records are usually not

  4. Hydrologic, Hydraulic, and Flood Analyses of the Blackberry Creek Watershed, Kendall County, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Straub, Timothy D.; Soong, David T.; Hamblen, Christopher S.

    2007-01-01

    Results of the hydrologic model, flood-frequency, hydraulic model, and flood-hazard analysis of the Blackberry Creek watershed in Kendall County, Illinois, indicate that the 100-year and 500-year flood plains cover approximately 3,699 and 3,762 acres of land, respectively. On the basis of land-cover data for 2003, most of the land in the flood plains was cropland and residential land. Although many acres of residential land were included in the flood plain, this land was mostly lawns, with 25 homes within the 100-year flood plain, and 41 homes within the 500-year flood plain in the 2003 aerial photograph. This report describes the data collection activities to refine the hydrologic and hydraulic models used in an earlier study of the Kane County part of the Blackberry Creek watershed and to extend the flood-frequency analysis through water year 2003. The results of the flood-hazard analysis are presented in graphical and tabular form. The hydrologic model, Hydrological Simulation Program - FORTRAN (HSPF), was used to simulate continuous water movement through various land-use patterns in the watershed. Flood-frequency analysis was applied to an annual maximum series to determine flood quantiles in subbasins for flood-hazard analysis. The Hydrologic Engineering Center- River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) hydraulic model was used to determine the 100-year and 500-year flood elevations, and the 100-year floodway. The hydraulic model was calibrated and verified using observations during three storms at two crest-stage gages and the U.S. Geological Survey streamflowgaging station near Yorkville. Digital maps of the 100-year and 500-year flood plains and the 100-year floodway for each tributary and the main stem of Blackberry Creek were compiled.

  5. 44 CFR 60.3 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-prone areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance... which approval is required by Federal or State law, including section 404 of the Federal Water Pollution..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed...

  6. 44 CFR 60.3 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-prone areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance... which approval is required by Federal or State law, including section 404 of the Federal Water Pollution..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed...

  7. 44 CFR 60.3 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-prone areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance... which approval is required by Federal or State law, including section 404 of the Federal Water Pollution..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed...

  8. 44 CFR 60.3 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-prone areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance... which approval is required by Federal or State law, including section 404 of the Federal Water Pollution..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed...

  9. 44 CFR 60.3 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-prone areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance... which approval is required by Federal or State law, including section 404 of the Federal Water Pollution..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed...

  10. Taenia spp. infections in wildlife in the Bangweulu and Kafue flood plains ecosystems of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Muma, J B; Gabriël, S; Munyeme, M; Munang'andu, H M; Victor, B; Dorny, P; Nalubamba, K S; Siamudaala, V; Mwape, K E

    2014-09-15

    Taenia spp. have an indirect life cycle, cycling between a definitive and an intermediate host with zoonotic species causing public health problems in many developing countries. During the course of 2 separate surveys in Zambia (2004 and 2009), the presence of Taenia larval stages (cysticerci) was examined in Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis), Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithermani) and other wildlife species from the Kafue and Bangweulu flood plains. Examinations involved post-mortem inspection and serum specific antigen detection. The recovered cysts from seven carcasses were characterised using PCR and DNA sequence analysis. The overall proportion of infection in wildlife on post-mortem examination was 19.0% (95% CI: 9.1-29.0%). The proportion of infected wildlife based on post-mortem examinations in the Kafue flood plains was estimated at 28.6% (95% CI: 13.3-43.9%), while the seroprevalence was estimated at 25.0% (95% CI: 2.9-47.1%). The seroprevalence for cattle in the Kafue flood plains was estimated at 61.5% (95% CI: 42.0-81.0%) while that of Kafue lechwe in the same ecosystem was estimated at 66.6% (95% CI: 45.6-85.7%). Infection rates were higher in Kafue lechwe than in Black lechwe suggesting differences in the exposure patterns. The sequencing results indicated that none of the recovered cysts were either Taenia solium or Taenia saginata. We therefore conclude they most likely belong to a less studied (wildlife) Taenia species that requires further characterisation. PMID:25090953

  11. Taenia spp. infections in wildlife in the Bangweulu and Kafue flood plains ecosystems of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Muma, J B; Gabriël, S; Munyeme, M; Munang'andu, H M; Victor, B; Dorny, P; Nalubamba, K S; Siamudaala, V; Mwape, K E

    2014-09-15

    Taenia spp. have an indirect life cycle, cycling between a definitive and an intermediate host with zoonotic species causing public health problems in many developing countries. During the course of 2 separate surveys in Zambia (2004 and 2009), the presence of Taenia larval stages (cysticerci) was examined in Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis), Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithermani) and other wildlife species from the Kafue and Bangweulu flood plains. Examinations involved post-mortem inspection and serum specific antigen detection. The recovered cysts from seven carcasses were characterised using PCR and DNA sequence analysis. The overall proportion of infection in wildlife on post-mortem examination was 19.0% (95% CI: 9.1-29.0%). The proportion of infected wildlife based on post-mortem examinations in the Kafue flood plains was estimated at 28.6% (95% CI: 13.3-43.9%), while the seroprevalence was estimated at 25.0% (95% CI: 2.9-47.1%). The seroprevalence for cattle in the Kafue flood plains was estimated at 61.5% (95% CI: 42.0-81.0%) while that of Kafue lechwe in the same ecosystem was estimated at 66.6% (95% CI: 45.6-85.7%). Infection rates were higher in Kafue lechwe than in Black lechwe suggesting differences in the exposure patterns. The sequencing results indicated that none of the recovered cysts were either Taenia solium or Taenia saginata. We therefore conclude they most likely belong to a less studied (wildlife) Taenia species that requires further characterisation.

  12. Spring Land Temperature Anomalies in Northwestern U.S. and Southern Plains Summer Extreme: Texas Droughts and Floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Y.; Oaida, C. M.; Diallo, I.; Vasic, R.; Neelin, J. D.; Li, S.; Lee, J.; De Sales, F.; Li, W.; Robinson, D. A.; Zhu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Recurrent drought and associated heatwave as well as flood episodes are important features of the Southern Plains regional climate, such as the 2011 Texas drought and the 2015 Texas flood. Many studies have examined the remote connection between sea surface temperature (SST) changes and conterminous U.S. droughts and flood. However, less attention has been devoted to effects of large-scale land surface temperature changes, over shorter but still considerable distances, on droughts and flood. The present study combines two types of evidence: climate observations and model simulations. Our analysis of observational data shows that springtime land temperature in the U.S. Northwest is significantly correlated with rainfall anomalies and heat in the Southern Plains. Our model simulations of the 2011 Southern Plains drought and 2015 flood confirm the observed relationship between land temperature anomaly and extreme and suggest that the remote effect of land temperature changes in the U.S. Northwest on Southern Plains extreme is probably as large as the more familiar effects of SSTs and atmospheric internal variability. We conclude that the cool 2011 springtime climate conditions in the U.S. Northwest increased the probability of summer drought and abnormal heat in the Southern Plains. The preliminary results for the 2015 flood will also be presented. The present study suggests that catastrophic consequences likely occur in a region when forcing from ocean and land combine synergistically to favor an extreme and that there is a potential for skillful seasonal predictions of U.S. Southern Plains extreme when such facts as ones presented here are considered.

  13. Flood plain stability of the Peace River, southwestern Florida, since the last glacial lowstand of sea level

    SciTech Connect

    Guccione, M.J. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    The 186 km long Peace River heads in the Central Highlands, dissects marine terraces of the Coastal Lowlands, and flows into the Gulf of Mexico. Between river kms 80 and 137 the gradient is low (0.1 to 0.3 m/km), sinuosity is moderate (1.2 to 1.8), and the flood plain is wide (0.6 to 2.5 km). The flood plain is underlain by a well-sorted fine/very fine-grained quartz sand overbank deposit. This overlies crossbedded and rippled, medium/coarse-grained quartz and phosphatic sand channel deposits, organic-rich loamy sand channel-fill deposits, and/or non-fluvial strata. Radiocarbon dates of organics in channel deposits at two sites 57 km apart indicate that aggradation of the flood plain was in progress by 24,760 [plus minus] 920 (Wauchula) and 21,870 [plus minus] 130 (Arcadia) years B.P. during a lowstand of sea level. Well-developed soils in the overlying fine sand have accumulated 12% and 9% clay respectively, indicating that the flood-plain surface has been stable for a considerable portion of the 22,000 years since deposition began. Between dated sites, soils are developed in nearly identical parent material with less, but varying degrees of development and clay accumulation, suggesting that other portions of the flood plain surface are younger. Because of the very low river gradient, both during lowstands and highstands of sea level, the Peace River cannot easily aggrade or degrade. It slowly reworks its flood-plain sediment resulting in a variety of soil development and surface ages on a single geomorphic surface.

  14. A Flood Detection and Mapping Algorithm Using MODIS Data: Assessment of Extreme Flooding Events in Eastern Ganga Plains (2000-2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprigg, W. A.; Patel, S.; Prasad, A. K.; Sarkar, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    Flood, a hydrological extreme, is a dominant and frequent phenomena over the eastern Ganga Plains comprising of alluvial plains of Bihar and adjoining Nepal Himalaya. Flood affects major parts of Bihar where Gandak and Koshi are the major tributaries of Ganga River causing inundation during the monsoon season. Due to heavy rainfall in the Eastern Himalaya and adjoining regions, the river discharge increases several folds causing severe flood in plains. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived data at 250 m resolution (year 2000-2015) have been used to identify flood water and calculate daily water fraction (water cover) using model adopted from previous studies. During the monsoon season, cloud cover in daily images is found to be extremely high leading to lot of gaps in the form of missing data. To account for missing grid cell values, an adaptive polynomial filter (Savitzky-Golay) have been used to fit the time series of daily data for each grid cell. The missing values in daily images have been filled with calculated values to create daily time series of flood water. Landsat data at 30 m grid resolution have been used to verify flood water detection algorithm used in this study. Time series analysis of satellite derived data reveal a strong spatial and temporal variation in the extent, duration and frequency (inter-annual and intra-annual) of flooding event over the study region. Statistical analysis of IDF (intensity, duration, and frequency) and trend have been carried out to identify regions which show greater flood risk. Reoccurrence interval and length of flooding event in the study region is found to be high compared to other river basins in the western India. Based on the historical occurrence of flood, the study area have been classified into different flood hazard zones where flood mitigation and management need to be prioritized. MODIS based flood monitoring and mapping model used in this study can be used for monitoring and

  15. Precise Dating of Flood-Plain Stratigraphy Using Changes in Tree-Ring Anatomy Following Burial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, J. M.; Shafroth, P. B.; Vincent, K. R.; Scott, M. L.; Auble, G. T.

    2001-12-01

    Determination of sediment deposition rates from stratigraphy is typically limited by a scarcity of chronological information. We present a method for precise dating of sedimentary beds based on the change in anatomy of tree rings upon burial. When stems of tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima)and sandbar willow (Salix exigua) are buried, subsequent annual rings in the buried portions become narrower and vessels within the rings become larger. Observation of these changes can be combined with tree ring counts to determine the year of deposition of sedimentary beds that are at least 10 cm thick. Using a backhoe we dug trenches across the flood plain at three locations along the arroyo of the Rio Puerco, New Mexico. At each cross section we prepared a detailed stratigraphic description and excavated several tamarisks to depths as great as 5 meters. From each excavated tree we cut and sanded 10-50 slabs for tree-ring analysis. We cross-dated slabs within and between plants and used the burial signature in the tree rings to date all sedimentary beds in the stratigraphic profile near each plant. We then used the trench stratigraphy to convert depths of sediment deposition around individual trees to areas of deposition in the cross section. In the lower Rio Puerco introduction of tamarisk in 1926 occurred just prior to the beginning of channel narrowing and arroyo filling. Thus the tamarisks record a process of channel change to which they may have contributed. Aggradation has not been synchronous along the lower arroyo. For example, near Highway 6 and Belen, the flood plain has aggraded more than 2 m since 1970, while there has been little aggradation downstream at Bernardo. Much of the sediment deposition in levies at Highway 6 occurred during a flood in 1988. Future work will document longitudinal variation in the arroyo so that we can convert areas of sediment deposition in cross sections to volumes in the arroyo.

  16. Principal Locations of Metal Loading from Flood-Plain Tailings, Lower Silver Creek, Utah, April 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimball, Briant A.; Runkel, Robert L.; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    Because of the historical deposition of mill tailings in flood plains, the process of determining total maximum daily loads for streams in an area like the Park City mining district of Utah is complicated. Understanding the locations of metal loading to Silver Creek and the relative importance of these locations is necessary to make science-based decisions. Application of tracer-injection and synoptic-sampling techniques provided a means to quantify and rank the many possible source areas. A mass-loading study was conducted along a 10,000-meter reach of Silver Creek, Utah, in April 2004. Mass-loading profiles based on spatially detailed discharge and chemical data indicated five principal locations of metal loading. These five locations contributed more than 60 percent of the cadmium and zinc loads to Silver Creek along the study reach and can be considered locations where remediation efforts could have the greatest effect upon improvement of water quality in Silver Creek.

  17. Managing fish, flood plains and food security in the Lower Mekong Basin.

    PubMed

    Jensen, J G

    2001-01-01

    The "Lower Mekong Basin" in this paper refers to the part of the Mekong River Basin which is shared by Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Viet Nam, all members of the Mekong River Commission, consisting of approx. 2,400 km of mainstream river, numerous tributaries and huge flood plains. Few river basins produce as much fish as the Mekong River Basin, and the fishery in the Lower Mekong Basin is among the biggest and most productive inland fisheries in the world. The flood plains of the Lower Mekong produce some four times as much fish per square kilometre as the North Sea, which is among the most productive marine areas in the world. It is quite clear that the fisheries in the Mekong Basin are very important for the population in respect to their food security and income. Its importance in nutrition is highest in the rural areas, where there are few other low cost sources of protein, and even in highland areas fish is of crucial importance in the diet. Most fish species in the Mekong Basin are migratory, and the economically most important ones are certainly so. However, with economic development gaining speed, the impact on migratory patterns and the competition for the water resources are becoming stronger. The water resources offer a large number of opportunities, and a lot of economic activities need access to the water resources for their development. However, what is seen in one sector as an opportunity may be considered as a threat in another, and a careful balance is necessary in order not to lose opportunities in important sectors. The fate of a large number of river basins in the world is frightening. Most have been left biologically near dead, with some of the big rivers reduced for a time, or forever, to be used as waste water canals for the new industries, and others almost dried out from excessive water extraction before they reach the sea.

  18. Has land subsidence changed the flood hazard potential? A case example from the Kujukuri Plain, Chiba Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. L.; Ito, Y.; Sawamukai, M.; Su, T.; Tokunaga, T.

    2015-11-01

    Coastal areas are subject to flood hazards because of their topographic features, social development and related human activities. The Kujukuri Plain, Chiba Prefecture, Japan, is located nearby the Tokyo metropolitan area and it faces to the Pacific Ocean. In the Kujukuri Plain, widespread occurrence of land subsidence has been caused by exploitation of groundwater, extraction of natural gas dissolved in brine, and natural consolidation of the Holocene and landfill deposits. The locations of land subsidence include areas near the coast, and it may increase the flood hazard potential. Hence, it is very important to evaluate flood hazard potential by taking into account the temporal change of land elevation caused by land subsidence, and to prepare hazard maps for protecting the surface environment and for developing an appropriate land-use plan. In this study, flood hazard assessments at three different times, i.e., 1970, 2004, and 2013 are implemented by using a flood hazard model based on Multicriteria Decision Analysis with Geographical Information System techniques. The model incorporates six factors: elevation, depression area, river system, ratio of impermeable area, detention ponds, and precipitation. Main data sources used are 10 m resolution topography data, airborne laser scanning data, leveling data, Landsat-TM data, two 1:30 000 scale river watershed maps, and precipitation data from observation stations around the study area and Radar data. The hazard assessment maps for each time are obtained by using an algorithm that combines factors with weighted linear combinations. The assignment of the weight/rank values and their analysis are realized by the application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process method. This study is a preliminary work to investigate flood hazards on the Kujukuri Plain. A flood model will be developed to simulate more detailed change of the flood hazard influenced by land subsidence.

  19. Flood risk of natural and embanked landscapes on the Ganges-Brahmaputra tidal delta plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auerbach, L. W.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Mondal, D. R.; Wilson, C. A.; Ahmed, K. R.; Roy, K.; Steckler, M. S.; Small, C.; Gilligan, J. M.; Ackerly, B. A.

    2015-02-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra river delta, with 170 million people and a vast, low-lying coastal plain, is perceived to be at great risk of increased flooding and submergence from sea-level rise. However, human alteration of the landscape can create similar risks to sea-level rise. Here, we report that islands in southwest Bangladesh, enclosed by embankments in the 1960s, have lost 1.0-1.5 m of elevation, whereas the neighbouring Sundarban mangrove forest has remained comparatively stable. We attribute this elevation loss to interruption of sedimentation inside the embankments, combined with accelerated compaction, removal of forest biomass, and a regionally increased tidal range. One major consequence of this elevation loss occurred in 2009 when the embankments of several large islands failed during Cyclone Aila, leaving large areas of land tidally inundated for up to two years until embankments were repaired. Despite sustained human suffering during this time, the newly reconnected landscape received tens of centimetres of tidally deposited sediment, equivalent to decades’ worth of normal sedimentation. Although many areas still lie well below mean high water and remain at risk of severe flooding, we conclude that elevation recovery may be possible through controlled embankment breaches.

  20. Flood-inundation maps for a nine-mile reach of the Des Plaines River from Riverwoods to Mettawa, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Soong, David T.; Sharpe, Jennifer B.

    2012-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 9-mile reach of the Des Plaines River from Riverwoods to Mettawa, Illinois, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Lake County Stormwater Management Commission and the Villages of Lincolnshire and Riverwoods. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (gage heights) at the USGS streamgage at Des Plaines River at Lincolnshire, Illinois (station no. 05528100). Current conditions at the USGS streamgage may be obtained on the Internet at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/usa/nwis/uv?05528100. In addition, this streamgage is incorporated into the Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/) by the National Weather Service (NWS). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often co-located at USGS streamgages. The NWS forecasted peak-stage information, also shown on the Des Plaines River at Lincolnshire inundation Web site, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was then used to determine seven water-surface profiles for flood stages at roughly 1-ft intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from the 50- to 0.2-percent annual exceedance probability flows. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a Geographic Information System (GIS) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) (derived from Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data) in order to delineate the area flooded at each water level. These maps, along with information on the Internet regarding current gage height from USGS streamgages and forecasted stream stages from

  1. Simulation of water-surface elevations for a hypothetical 100-year peak flow in Birch Creek at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Berenbrock, C.; Kjelstrom, L.C.

    1997-10-01

    Delineation of areas at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory that would be inundated by a 100-year peak flow in Birch Creek is needed by the US Department of Energy to fulfill flood-plain regulatory requirements. Birch Creek flows southward about 40 miles through an alluvium-filled valley onto the northern part of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental laboratory site on the eastern Snake River Plain. The lower 10-mile reach of Birch Creek that ends in Birch Creek Playa near several Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory facilities is of particular concern. Twenty-six channel cross sections were surveyed to develop and apply a hydraulic model to simulate water-surface elevations for a hypothetical 100-year peak flow in Birch Creek. Model simulation of the 100-year peak flow (700 cubic feet per second) in reaches upstream from State Highway 22 indicated that flow was confined within channels even when all flow was routed to one channel. Where the highway crosses Birch Creek, about 315 cubic feet per second of water was estimated to move downstream--115 cubic feet per second through a culvert and 200 cubic feet per second over the highway. Simulated water-surface elevation at this crossing was 0.8 foot higher than the elevation of the highway. The remaining 385 cubic feet per second flowed southwestward in a trench along the north side of the highway. Flow also was simulated with the culvert removed. The exact location of flood boundaries on Birch Creek could not be determined because of the highly braided channel and the many anthropogenic features (such as the trench, highway, and diversion channels) in the study area that affect flood hydraulics and flow. Because flood boundaries could not be located exactly, only a generalized flood-prone map was developed.

  2. Pore scale to flood plain scale modeling of reactive transport processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steefel, C.; Molins, S.; Andre, B.; Trebotich, D.; Shen, C.; Landrot, G.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    Reactive transport processes operate at a wide variety of scales in the subsurface, although modeling these across the scales remains a challenge. The need to treat reactive transport processes across scales is necessary because of the hierarchical nature of porous media in the subsurface, with physical, chemical, and potentially microbial heterogeneities present all the way from the pore to flood plain (watershed) or reservoir scale. The need to address the hierarchical nature of subsurface porous media is particularly important for resolving the long-standing "discrepancy" between laboratory and field rates, which are likely due at least in part to the development of gradients in concentration and thus reaction rate at all scales of heterogeneity. The huge range in modeling scales (microns to kilometers) are a computational challenge, but so is the need to consider differing constitutive equations, for example Navier-Stokes versus Darcy flow equations, or explicitly resolved mineral-microbe-fluid interfaces versus volume-averaged reactive surface areas, at the differing scales. Pore scale processes focusing on carbonate dissolution and precipitation are addressed by solving the Navier-Stokes or Stokes equation for flow at the pore scale coupled to reactive transport calculations in which the interfacial area for mineral dissolution and precipitation is taken directly from the pore geometry. Partial or complete diffusion control of reaction rates is accounted for directly by resolving velocity gradients in the vicinity of reactive mineral grains. Hydrologic accessibility of reactive surface area is also accounted for in this approach, although in general this is an additional factor that needs to be factored into simulations of reactive transport in volume-averaged porous media. At a scale above the pore scale, we use volume-averaged micro-continuum models to address reactivity and transport at the centimeter scale using a sample from the Cranfield formation in

  3. Inverse algorithms for 2D shallow water equations in presence of wet dry fronts: Application to flood plain dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnier, J.; Couderc, F.; Dartus, D.; Larnier, K.; Madec, R.; Vila, J.-P.

    2016-11-01

    The 2D shallow water equations adequately model some geophysical flows with wet-dry fronts (e.g. flood plain or tidal flows); nevertheless deriving accurate, robust and conservative numerical schemes for dynamic wet-dry fronts over complex topographies remains a challenge. Furthermore for these flows, data are generally complex, multi-scale and uncertain. Robust variational inverse algorithms, providing sensitivity maps and data assimilation processes may contribute to breakthrough shallow wet-dry front dynamics modelling. The present study aims at deriving an accurate, positive and stable finite volume scheme in presence of dynamic wet-dry fronts, and some corresponding inverse computational algorithms (variational approach). The schemes and algorithms are assessed on classical and original benchmarks plus a real flood plain test case (Lèze river, France). Original sensitivity maps with respect to the (friction, topography) pair are performed and discussed. The identification of inflow discharges (time series) or friction coefficients (spatially distributed parameters) demonstrate the algorithms efficiency.

  4. Convergence: Human Intelligence The Next 100 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fluellen, Jerry E., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    How might human intelligence evolve over the next 100 years? This issue paper explores that idea. First, the paper summarizes five emerging perspectives about human intelligence: Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences theory, Robert Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence, Ellen Langer's mindfulness theory, David Perkins' learnable…

  5. Sele coastal plain flood risk due to wave storm and river flow interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benassai, Guido; Aucelli, Pietro; Di Paola, Gianluigi; Della Morte, Renata; Cozzolino, Luca; Rizzo, Angela

    2016-04-01

    Wind waves, elevated water levels and river discharge can cause flooding in low-lying coastal areas, where the water level is the interaction between wave storm elevated water levels and river flow interaction. The factors driving the potential flood risk include weather conditions, river water stage and storm surge. These data are required to obtain inputs to run the hydrological model used to evaluate the water surface level during ordinary and extreme events regarding both the fluvial overflow and storm surge at the river mouth. In this paper we studied the interaction between the sea level variation and the river hydraulics in order to assess the location of the river floods in the Sele coastal plain. The wave data were acquired from the wave buoy of Ponza, while the water level data needed to assess the sea level variation were recorded by the tide gauge of Salerno. The water stages, river discharges and rating curves for Sele river were provided by Italian Hydrographic Service (Servizio Idrografico e Mareografico Nazionale, SIMN).We used the dataset of Albanella station (40°29'34.30"N, 15°00'44.30"E), located around 7 km from the river mouth. The extreme river discharges were evaluated through the Weibull equation, which were associated with their return period (TR). The steady state river water levels were evaluated through HEC-RAS 4.0 model, developed by Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC) of the United States Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center (USACE,2006). It is a well-known 1D model that computes water surface elevation (WSE) and velocity at discrete cross-sections by solving continuity, energy and flow resistance (e.g., Manning) equation. Data requirements for HEC-RAS include topographic information in the form of a series of cross-sections, friction parameter in the form of Manning's n values across each cross-section, and flow data including flow rates, flow change locations, and boundary conditions. For a steady state sub

  6. The economic importance of products extracted from Amazonian flood plain forests.

    PubMed

    Gram, S; Kvist, L P; Cáseres, A

    2001-09-01

    Rural people in the Peruvian Amazon practice agriculture and extract a wide range of products from natural forests, rivers and lakes. Their diversified livelihood system includes fish, game, and plant products. In 2 flood-plain villages, data for one year have been collected to compare the economy of local agriculture with the economy of extracted forest products for subsistence as well as for commerce. The study includes both fauna (game and fish) and flora (timber as well as nontimber). The results show that extracted forest products for subsistence, especially fish, are a main factor in the local economy. The daily net income from extraction activities exceeds both income from cultivation and the normal daily wages for unskilled workers, emphasizing the need for thorough socioeconomic investigations before any alternative land-use option is implemented. The average value per ha of natural forest used for extraction is in the order of USD 13 yr-1, and the average extraction area is 113 ha household-1. When yield from agriculture is included in the calculations, the total per ha value of current extraction and agricultural activities increases to USD 21 yr-1.

  7. Uptake of 244Cm, 238Pu and other radionuclides by trees inhabiting a contaminated flood plain.

    PubMed

    Pinder, J E; McLeod, K W; Alberts, J J; Adriano, D C; Corey, J C

    1984-09-01

    The plant uptake of 244Cm, 137Cs, 238Pu and 90Sr was measured for trees in a flood plain forest whose soils were contaminated by aqueous discharges from a nuclear-fuel chemical separations facility. Uptake of the naturally occurring radionuclide 226Ra was also measured. The relative availability of the nuclides was 238Pu less than 244Cm less than 137Cs less than 226Ra less than or equal to 90Sr. The concentration ratios for 238Pu and 244Cm, 3 X 10(-4) and 3.6 X 10(-3), respectively, were similar to those reported for other plant-soil systems. The ratios for 137Cs and 90Sr, 0.11 and 3.9, were similar to those reported for other southeastern soils. However, the ratio for 226Ra, 2.1, was greater than that normally reported. These ratios, which were determined in the field, were generally similar to those reported for greenhouse studies on the same soil.

  8. Phenotypic trade-offs in the sexual reproduction of Salicaceae from flood plains.

    PubMed

    Karrenberg, Sophie; Suter, Marianne

    2003-05-01

    We studied the relationship of seed mass to seed longevity (controlled conditions) and to seed number in six species of Salicaceae (Populus nigra, Salix alba, S. daphnoides, S. elaeagnos, S. purpurea, and S. triandra) that frequently co-occur on European flood plains. These species regenerate sexually in the same habitat but differ in seed mass. Half-viability periods, i.e., the time after which 50% of the initially viable seeds no longer germinate, were short (between 6.5 ± 0.1 and 23.3 ± 0.3 d), and large numbers of seeds were produced (between 10 000 and 1 × 10(6) per plant). Mean seed mass ranged from 0.02 ± 0.001 mg in S. triandra to 0.80 ± 0.05 mg in P. nigra. Whereas seed mass was, against expectation, positively related to half-viability periods, seed number generally decreased with increasing seed mass. Thus, a phenotypic trade-off between seed mass and seed number appears to be accentuated by an increase in seed longevity with increasing seed mass.

  9. [100 years since the death of Helmholtz].

    PubMed

    Fodor, F; Karin, H

    1995-01-01

    In September 1994, we celebrated 100 years since Hermann von Helmholtz died. Inventor of the ophthalmoscope, professor in physiology since he was 30 (at Königsberg), Helmholtz also contributed to the development of thermodynamics, hydrodynamics, electrodynamics, he made studies on muscular contraction, music, theory, accommodation mechanisms. He also revealed that the interpretation of sounds is done at the level of resonators--represented by perilympha and basilar lamellae which enter in vibration accordingly with the respective sound frequency.

  10. Production and decomposition of forest litter fall on the Apalachicola River flood plain, Florida: Chapter B, Apalachicola River quality assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elder, John F.; Cairns, Duncan J.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of litter fall (leaves and other particulate organic material) and leaf decomposition were made on the bottom-land hardwood swamp of the Apalachicola River flood plain in 1979-80. Litter fall was collected monthly from nets located in 16 study plots. The plots represented five forest types in the swamp and levee areas of the Apalachicola River flood plain. Forty-three species of trees, vines, and other plants contributed to the total litter fall, but more than 90 percent of the leaf material originated from 12 species. Nonleaf material made up 42 percent of the total litter fall. Average litter fall was determined to be 800 grams per square meter per year, resulting in an annual deposition of 3.6 ? 105 metric tons of organic material in the 454-square-kilometer flood plain. The levee communities have less tree biomass but greater tree diversity than do swamp communities. The levee vegetation, containing less tree biomass, produces slightly more litter fall per unit of ground surface area than does the swamp vegetation. The swamps are dominated by three genera: tupelo (Nyssa), cypress (Taxodium) and ash (Fraxinus). These genera account for more than 50 percent of the total leaf fall in the flood plain, but they are the least productive, on a weight-perbiomass basis, of any of the 12 major leaf producers. Decomposition rates of leaves from five common floodplain tree species were measured using a standard leaf-bag technique. Leaf decomposition was highly species dependent. Tupelo (Nyssa spp.) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) leaves decomposed completely in 6 months when flooded by river water. Leaves of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) and diamond-leaf oak (Quercus laurifolia) were much more resistant. Water hickory (Carya aquatica) leaves showed intermediate decomposition rates. Decomposition of all species was greatly reduced in dry environments. Carbon and biomass loss rates from the leaves were nearly linear over a 6-month period, but nitrogen

  11. Effects of flooding and drought on water quality in Gulf Coastal Plain streams in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Golladay, Stephen W; Battle, Juliann

    2002-01-01

    Since 1994, water-quality constituents have been measured monthly in three adjacent Coastal Plain watersheds in southwestern Georgia. During 1994, rainfall was 650 mm above annual average and the highest flows on record were observed. From November 1998 through November 2000, 19 months had below average rainfall. Lowest flows on record were observed during the summer of 2000. The watersheds are human-dominated with row-crop agriculture and managed forestlands being the major land uses. However, one watershed (Chickasawhatchee Creek) had 10 to 13% less agriculture and greater wetland area, especially along the stream. Suspended particles, dissolved organic carbon, NH4-N, and soluble reactive phosphorus concentrations were greater during wet and flood periods compared with dry and drought periods for each stream. Regional hydrologic conditions had little effect on NO3-N or dissolved inorganic carbon. Chickasawhatchee Creek had significantly lower suspended sediment and NO3-N concentrations and greater organic and inorganic carbon concentrations, reflecting greater wetland area and stronger connection to a regional aquifer system. Even though substantial human land use occurred within all watersheds, water quality was generally good and can be attributed to low stream drainage density and relatively intact floodplain forests. Low drainage density minimizes surface run-off into streams. Floodplain forests reduce nonpoint-source pollutants through biological and physical absorption. In addition to preserving water quality, floodplain forests provide important ecological functions through the export of nutrients and organic carbon to streams. Extreme low flows may be disruptive to aquatic life due to both the lack of water and to the scarcity of biologically important materials originating from floodplain forests.

  12. Flood-plain delineation for Occoquan River, Wolf Run, Sandy Run, Elk Horn Run, Giles Run, Kanes Creek, Racoon Creek, and Thompson Creek, Fairfax County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soule, Pat LeRoy

    1978-01-01

    Water-surface profiles of the 25-, 50-, and 100-year recurrence interval discharges have been computed for all streams and reaches of channels in Fairfax County, Virginia, having a drainage area greater than 1 square mile except for Dogue Creek, Little Hunting Creek, and that portion of Cameron Run above Lake Barcroft. Maps having a 2-foot contour interval and a horizontal scale of 1 inch equals 100 feet were used for base on which flood boundaries were delineated for 25-, 50-, and 100-year floods to be expected in each basin under ultimate development conditions. This report is one of a series and presents a discussion of techniques employed in computing discharges and profiles as well as the flood profiles and maps on which flood boundaries have been delineated for the Occoquan River and its tributaries within Fairfax County and those streams on Mason Neck within Fairfax County tributary to the Potomac River. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Flood-plain delineation for Horsepen Run, Sugarland Run, Nichols Run, Pond Branch, Clarks Branch, and Mine Run Branch basins, Fairfax County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soule, Pat LeRoy

    1978-01-01

    Water-surface profiles of the 25-, 50-, and 100-year recurrence interval discharges have been computed for all streams and reaches of channels in Fairfax County, Virginia, having a drainage area greater than 1 square mile except for Dogue Creek, Little Hunting Creek, and that portion of Cameron Run above Lake Barcroft. Maps have a 2-foot contour interval and a horizontal scale of 1 inch equals 100 feet were used for base on which flood boundaries were delineated for 25-, 50-, and 100-year floods to be expected in each basin under ultimate development conditions. This report is one of a series and presents a discussion of techniques employed in computing discharges and profiles as well as the flood profiles and maps on which flood boundaries have been delineated for the Horsepen Run, Sugarland Run, Nichols Run, and Pond Branch basins in Fairfax County. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Effects of alternative Missouri River management plans on ground-water levels in the lower Missouri River flood plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, Brian P.

    2000-01-01

    In 1998, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) proposed eight Alternative River Management Plans (ARMPs) for managing reservoir levels and water-release rates for the Missouri River. The plans include the Current Water Control Plan (CWCP), Conservation 18, 31, and 44 (C18, C31, and C44) that provide different levels of water conservation in the reservoirs during droughts, Fish and Wildlife 10, 15, and 20 (FW10, FW15, and FW20) that vary water-release rates to provide additional fish and wildlife benefits, and Mississippi River 66 (M66) that maintains a 66,000 cubic feet per second discharge at St. Louis to provide navigation support for the Mississippi River. Releases from Gavin?s Point Dam affect both the lower 1,305 kilometers of the Missouri River and ground-water levels in the lower Missouri River flood plain. Changes in the magnitude and timing of ground-water-level fluctuations in response to changes in river management could impact agriculture, urban development, and wetland hydrology along the lower Missouri River flood plain. This study compared simulated ground-water altitude and depth to ground water for the CWCP in the Missouri River alluvial aquifer near the Kansas City area between 1970 and 1980 with each ARMP, determined the average change in simulated ground-water level for selected river-stage flood pulses at selected distances from the river, and compared simulated flood pulse, ground-water responses with actual flood pulse, and ground-water responses measured in wells located at three sites along the lower Missouri River flood plain.For the model area, the percent total shallow ground-water area (depth to ground water less than 0.3048 meter) is similar for each ARMP because of overall similarities in river flow between ARMPs. The percent total shallow ground-water area for C18 is the most similar to CWCP followed by C31, M66, C44, FW10, FW15, and FW20. ARMPs C18, C31, C44, and M66 do not cause large changes in the percent shallow ground

  15. Remembering Robert Goddard's vision 100 years later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, David P.

    “Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness” —such are the goals of most of us.Yet a few always exist who feel called by a higher purpose. Society often owes them a great deal.Robert Hutchins Goddard, whose work made spaceflight possible, found his vision 100 years ago this October as a youth of 17. His family was staying on the farm of a relative, when he was asked to trim the branches of a cherry tree behind the barn.

  16. Simulation of Flood Profiles for Fivemile Creek at Tarrant, Alabama, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, K.G.; Hedgecock, T.S.

    2007-01-01

    A one-dimensional step-backwater model was used to simulate flooding conditions for Fivemile Creek at Tarrant, Alabama. The 100-year flood stage published in the current flood insurance study for Tarrant by the Federal Emergency Management Agency was significantly exceeded by the March 2000 and May 2003 floods in this area. A peak flow of 14,100 cubic feet per second was computed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the May 2003 flood in the vicinity of Lawson Road. Using this estimated peak flow, flood-plain surveys with associated roughness coefficients, and the surveyed high-water profile for the May 2003 flood, a flow model was calibrated to closely match this known event. The calibrated model was then used to simulate flooding for the 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year recurrence interval floods. The results indicate that for the 100-year recurrence interval, the flood profile is about 2.5 feet higher, on average, than the profile published by the Federal Emergency Management Agency. The absolute maximum and minimum difference is 6.80 feet and 0.67 foot, respectively. All water-surface elevations computed for the 100-year flood are higher than those published by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, except for cross section H. The results of this study provide the community with flood-profile information that can be used for existing flood-plain mitigation, future development, and safety plans for the city.

  17. Survival of plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera) and saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) seedlings in response to flooding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gladwin, D.N.; Roelle, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    We examined the response of first year saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) and plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera) seedlings to flooding in fall (25 days) and spring (28 days) using potgrown plants (12-18 individuals/26.5-liter pot). Seedlings were initially counted in all pots prior to fall treatment. Survival was calculated as the proportion of seedlings in each pot still alive following spring treatment. Mean survival rates of seedlings flooded in fall (saltcedar = 0.8%, cottonwood = 20.8%, n = 14 pots) were lower compared to the spring flooding treatment (saltcedar = 91.1%, cottonwood = 92.2%, n = 13) and control (saltcedar = 93.9%, cottonwood = 98.7%, n = 14). We used multiple response permutation procedures to detect omnibus distributional differences in survival data (total tests = 9) because assumptions of normality and equal variance were not met. Survival distributions differed between saltcedar and cottonwood fall flooding groups (P 0.07). Smaller size and consequent lack of energy reserves may account for lower survival of saltcedar compared to cottonwood in the fall treatment and for lower survival of both species in the fall treatment compared to the spring treatment. Fall flooding for controlling first year saltcedar seedlings is suggested as a potentially useful technique in riparian habitat restoration and management in the southwestern United States.

  18. Flood-plain and channel aggradation of selected bridge sites in the Iowa and Skunk River basins, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eash, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    Flood-plain and channel-aggradation rates were estimated at 10 bridge sites on the Iowa River upstream of Coralville Lake and at two bridge sites in the central part of the Skunk River Basin. Four measurement methods were used to quantify aggradation rates: (1) a dendrogeomorphic method that used tree-age data and sediment-deposition depths, (2) a bridge-opening cross-section method that compared historic and recent cross sections of bridge openings, (3) a stage-discharge rating-curve method that compared historic and recent stages for the 5-year flood discharge and the average discharge, and (4) nine sediment pads that were installed on the Iowa River flood plain at three bridge sites in the vicinity of Marshalltown. The sediment pads were installed prior to overbank flooding in 1993. Sediments deposited on the pads as a result of the 1993 flood ranged in depth from 0.004 to 2.95 feet. Measurement periods used to estimate average aggradation rates ranged from 1 to 98 years and varied among methods and sites. The highest aggradation rates calculated for the Iowa River Basin using the dendrogeomorphic and rating- curve measurement methods were for the State Highway 14 crossing at Marshalltown, where these highest rates were 0.045 and 0.124 feet per year, respectively. The highest aggradation rates calculated for the Skunk River Basin were for the U.S. Highway 63 crossing of the South Skunk River near Oskaloosa, where these highest rates were 0.051 and 0.298 feet per year, respectively.

  19. 100 years of photometry and radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardis, Jonathan E.

    2001-06-01

    Measurement of light is an old subject, though the past 100 years have seen significant advances. 100 years ago, photometry - the art and science of measuring light as it is perceived by people - had the greater technological importance. Even today SI (the metric system) retains a base unit for photometry, the candela. However, early work at NBS included pivotal projects in the field of radiometry - the measurement of the physical characteristics of light. These included the validation of Planck's newly-minted theory of blackbody radiation, determining the radiation constants with good accuracy, and the definitive analysis of the spectral responsivity of human vision, so as to relate photometry to radiometry. This latter work has only increased in importance over the past 75 years as the definition of the candela has changed and improved. Today, NIST makes radiometric, and hence photometric measurements, with unprecedented precision. Cryogenic radiometers based on the principle of electrical substitution measure optical flux with uncertainties of 0.02%. Additional facilities enable measurement of spectral responsivity, spectral radiance, and spectral irradiance. Novel detectors, such as light-traps, allow the best accuracy to be transferred from the primary standards to routinely-used instruments and to calibration customers. Filtered detectors are used to realize photometric scales, radiation temperature scales, and other specialized measurements. Indeed, the story of the metrology of light is the story of continuous improvement, both driven by and enabled by advances in technology. We touch upon some of these as a prelude to the other talks in this Conference.

  20. 44 CFR 63.12 - Setback and community flood plain management requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Setback and community flood... MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IMPLEMENTATION OF SECTION 1306(c) OF THE NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE ACT OF 1968 General §...

  1. 44 CFR 63.12 - Setback and community flood plain management requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Setback and community flood... MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IMPLEMENTATION OF SECTION 1306(c) OF THE NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE ACT OF 1968 General §...

  2. 44 CFR 63.12 - Setback and community flood plain management requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Setback and community flood... MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IMPLEMENTATION OF SECTION 1306(c) OF THE NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE ACT OF 1968 General §...

  3. 44 CFR 63.12 - Setback and community flood plain management requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Setback and community flood... MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IMPLEMENTATION OF SECTION 1306(c) OF THE NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE ACT OF 1968 General §...

  4. The use of stable isotope to evaluate water mixing and water use by flood plain trees along the Garonne valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambs, L.; Loubiat, M.; Richardson, W.

    2003-01-01

    Before the confluence of the Tarn, the Garonne valley was the driest area in the entire south-west of France, due to the relatively low rainfall and low summer discharge of the Garonne River and its tributaries. The natural abundance of the stable isotope of oxygen (18O) and ionic charge of surface and ground water were used to estimate the water source for the Garonne River and phreatic subsurface water. We also measured these constituents in the sap of trees at several flood plain sites to better understand the source of water used by these trees. 18O signatures and conductivity in the Garonne River indicated that the predominance of water was from high altitude surface runoff from the Pyrenees Mountains. Tributary inputs had little effect on isotopic identity, but had a small effect on the conductivity. The isotopic signature and ionic conductivity of river water (??18O: -9.1??? to -9.0???, conductivity: 217-410??S/cm) was distinctly different from groundwater (??18O: -7.1??? to -6.6???, conductivity: 600-900??S/cm). Isotopic signatures from the sap of trees on the flood plain showed that the water source was shallow subsurface water (1m). Trees at both locations maintained sap with ionic charges much greater (2.3-3.7x) than that of source water. The combined use of 18O signatures and ionic conductivity appears to be a potent tool to determine water sources on geographic scales, and source and use patterns by trees at the local forest scale. These analyses also show promise for better understanding of the effects of anthropogenic land-use and water-use changes on flood plain forest dynamics.

  5. The use of stable isotopes to evaluate water mixing and water use by flood plain trees along the Garonne valley.

    PubMed

    Lambs, L; Loubiat, M; Richardson, W

    2003-12-01

    Before the confluence of the Tarn, the Garonne valley was the driest area in the entire south-west of France, due to the relatively low rainfall and low summer discharge of the Garonne River and its tributaries. The natural abundance of the stable isotope of oxygen (18O) and ionic charge of surface and ground water were used to estimate the water source for the Garonne River and phreatic subsurface water. We also measured these constituents in the sap of trees at several flood plain sites to better understand the source of water used by these trees. 18O signatures and conductivity in the Garonne River indicated that the predominance of water was from high altitude surface runoff from the Pyrenees Mountains. Tributary inputs had little effect on isotopic identity, but had a small effect on the conductivity. The isotopic signature and ionic conductivity of river water (delta18O: -9.1 per thousand to -9.0 per thousand, conductivity: 217-410 microS/cm) was distinctly different from groundwater (delta18O: -7.1 per thousand to -6.6 per thousand, conductivity: 600-900 microS/cm). Isotopic signatures from the sap of trees on the flood plain showed that the water source was shallow subsurface water (<30 cm), whereas trees further from the river relied on deeper ground water (>1 m). Trees at both locations maintained sap with ionic charges much greater (2.3-3.7x) than that of source water. The combined use of 18O signatures and ionic conductivity appears to be a potent tool to determine water sources on geographic scales, and source and use patterns by trees at the local forest scale. These analyses also show promise for better understanding of the effects of anthropogenic land-use and water-use changes on flood plain forest dynamics.

  6. [100 years physical therapy and rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Heipertz, W

    2001-10-01

    Physical medicine and rehabilitation received powerful impulses from orthopaedic surgery, which organizes its pragmatic and scientific interests since 100 years in its own association. A point of breakthrough was reached at the beginning of the 20th century, when progress in surgical and conservative orthopaedics enabled a comprehensive rehabilitation of physically disabled. On the other hand, the professionalisation of care for the handicapped (Krüppelfürsorge) has decisively supported the advancement of orthopaedics. Next to the storming development of orthopaedic surgery step by step the scientific foundations and clear indications for physiotherapy were achieved. The strategy of treatment was adapted to the increasingly active approach to orthopaedic ailments and traumata. This relates as well to wide ranges of rehabilitation and developed the training of specialists. Orthopaedic surgeons were significantly involved in this development as well as the framing of legal regulations safeguarding the entitlement of the disabled.

  7. [Results of prolonged study of flood plain-swamp endemic foci of tularemia, and its prophylaxis in the Leningrad Region].

    PubMed

    Ul'ianova, N I; Bessonova, M A; Panasik, L N; Svimonishvili, V N; Grishina, L S

    1982-02-01

    The results of a prolonged (more than 18 years), comprehensive study have revealed that stable natural foci of tularemia in backwater swamps are widely spread in the Leningrad region. These foci are located in the narrow swampy flood-plains of small watercourses with adjacent meadow areas among forests. Water from such small watercourses can often serve as the indicator of the epizootic process: during the above-mentioned period 346 Francicella tularensis strain have been isolated from water and 86 strains from small mammals. The water factor plays an important role in the circulation of the infective agent in natural foci.

  8. Sediment accumulation determined with 210Pb geochronology and geochemical tracers for Strickland River flood plains, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalto, R.; Swanson, K. M.; Dietrich, W. E.; Apte, S.

    2005-05-01

    The Strickland River is the primary sediment source for the Fly River system, a large tropical river that ranks in the global top 20 for both water and sediment discharge. As part of a "Source to Sink" NSF Margins program, the patterns and rates of floodplain sedimentation are being investigated. Previous research on the Middle Fly has documented an exponential decrease in sedimentation rates with distance from channel bank and a large influence of distributary floodplain channels in directing sediment to the floodplain environment. In the Strickland, a mine has discharged waste into the river since 1992, and though the total load increase is small for the lowland Strickland, elevated Ag and Pb levels occur in the river sediment, providing a clear environmental tracer across the floodplain. Work on other flood plain environments has demonstrated that 210Pb can be used to map the spatial and temporal patterns of sedimentation. Here we present geochronological results from an intensive floodplain coring campaign conducted in 2003 on the lower Strickland, which employed both 210Pb geochronology and Ag and Pb penetration depths to quantify sedimentation rates. We will first outline our procedure for dating Strickland sediment with 210Pb geochronology and summarize some early results from 36 cores. Flood plain accumulation rates appear to be highest upstream near the gravel-sand transition, low in the middle portion of the river, and higher again in the lower reaches of the Strickland near to its confluence with the Fly River. Overall patterns of sedimentation from 210Pb geochronology seem to be spatially consistent, for series of cores collected along single flood plain transects. We will next compare these results to accumulation rates determined from duplicate cores that were measured for the concentration of heavy metals from the upstream mine. These two techniques are independent and cover different temporal and spatial (in the vertical dimension) scales, so we

  9. Aggradation of Leveed Channels and Their Flood Plains in Arroyo Bottoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, K. R.

    2005-12-01

    the emerging flood plain became dominated by silt (or clay) while the levees next to the channel remained dominated by fine or very fine sand. Furthermore, the channel and floodplain aggraded at similar rates and thus had come into geomorphic equilibrium. Vertical accretion of the channel banks, which are the flanks of channel-margin levees, was accomplished by deposition of inclined lamina and very thin beds dominated by silt that have fairly uniform thickness. This may have been promoted by rapid infiltration of stream water into the banks, filtering fine suspended sediment at the solid interface.

  10. An analysis on the relationship between land subsidence and floods at the Kujukuri Plain in Chiba Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Y.; Chen, H.; Sawamukai, M.; Su, T.; Tokunaga, T.

    2015-11-01

    Surface environments at the Kujukuri Plain in Chiba Prefecture, Japan, in 1970, 2004, and 2013, were analyzed and compared to discuss the possible impact of land subsidence on the occurrence of floods. The study area has been suffered from land subsidence due to ground deformation from paleo-earthquakes, tectonic activities, and human-induced subsidence by groundwater exploitation. Meteorological data, geomorphological data including DEM obtained from the airborne laser scanning (1-m spatial resolution), leveling data, and the result of our assessment map (Chen et al., 2015) were used in this study. Clear relationship between floods and land subsidence was not recognized, while geomorphological setting, urbanization, and change of precipitation pattern were found to contribute to the floods. The flood prone-area is distributed on the characteristic geomorphological setting such as floodplain and back swamp. It was revealed that the urban area has been expanded on these geomorphological setting in recent years. The frequency of hourly precipitation was also shown to be increased in the past ca. 40 years, and this could induce rapid freshet and overflow of small- and medium-sized rivers and sewerage lines. The distribution of depression areas was increased from 2004 to 2013. This change could be associated with the ground deformation after the Tohoku earthquake (Mw = 9.0) in 2011.

  11. The Psychoanalytic Review: 100 years of history.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Alan J

    2013-02-01

    This paper is written in celebration of the centenary of The Psychoanalytic Review and aims to bring to life its entire history-100 years of publication. Almost as old as psychoanalysis itself, established by Jelliffe and White as a nonorthodox journal, and guided by all its subsequent editors, the Review has maintained its original mission: to serve as an open venue for all psychoanalytic perspectives, "a free forum for all." But the history of the Review is not without controversy. Freud made no original contributions to the Review. The paper unveils the Review's, rich history by looking briefly into the lives of some of its editors, the circumstances surrounding the creation of the Review (including pertinent correspondence between Freud and Brill and between Freud and Jelliffe), the years (with their engrossing politics) that followed the establishment of the Review until its merger with the journal Psychoanalysis (the official journal of NPAP), and the years that followed the merger to the present, including some of the important events that reshaped psychoanalysis. The role of the Review in promoting and reflecting almost the entire evolution of psychoanalysis is illustrated throughout. PMID:23421656

  12. Nursing--the next 100 years.

    PubMed

    Collins, S M

    1981-05-01

    This paper sets the scene for future patterns of nursing and nursing education and traces the ways in which the nursing profession has reached the present position. It illustrates the development of nursing over the past 100 years, and examines the key influences which have affected, and are likely to continue to affect, nursing, namely: the Government, the Law and the State; wars and disasters; scientific and technological advances; and people. No attempt has been made to predict or to crystal-gaze, yet the emphasis is firmly placed on the need to plan, to think and to recognize the trends that may determine the future of nursing. Research and education are seen as the tools that will enable nurses to adapt their function to the changing needs of society, whilst preserving the essential or central role of caring. The tapestry--the pattern or web of social relationships, that formed the professional nurse in the Victorian and Edwardian eras, and in the first and second World Wars--presents an unfinished canvas. The present generation of nurses are responsible for continuing to develop that tapestry for future decades, within the framework of the changing social scene of the present day.

  13. Investigation of Soil Permeability and Hydrological Properties of Flood Plain Deposits of the Rio Grande in EL Paso TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schacht, D.; Jin, L.; Doser, D. I.

    2013-12-01

    The various soil types within the flood plains of Rio Grande in El Paso 's Lower Valley have long been utilized by local farmers. These soils are typically more conducive to farming than the more recent (Pliocene) sandy soils outside of the flood plain region. This project will explore the various properties of these soils types such as their grain size, depths, extent, and hydrological conductivity utilizing various geophysical and geochemical methods. The study site is located in El Paso 's Lower Valley and is situated in an actively farmed area. Soil maps from the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) and variations in vegetation growth will help delineate locations of soil types in the study area. The information that will be collected will produce baseline data to help track expected seasonal variations in the soil's moisture content and in the depth of the local water table. This project represents a collaboration between El Paso Community College's and the University of Texas at El Paso's Departments of Geological Sciences as a means for students majoring in Geological Sciences at El Paso Community College to gain hands on experience in researching geological issues through partnerships with their future institution and faculty.

  14. Continuous hydrologic simulation and flood-frequency, hydraulic, and flood-hazard analysis of the Blackberry Creek watershed, Kane County, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soong, David T.; Straub, Timothy D.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    Results of hydrologic model, flood-frequency, hydraulic model, and flood-hazard analysis of the Blackberry Creek watershed in Kane County, Illinois, indicate that the 100-year and 500-year flood plains range from approximately 25 acres in the tributary F watershed (a headwater subbasin at the northeastern corner of the watershed) to almost 1,800 acres in Blackberry Creek main stem. Based on 1996 land-cover data, most of the land in the 100-year and 500-year flood plains was cropland, forested and wooded land, and grassland. A relatively small percentage of urban land was in the flood plains. The Blackberry Creek watershed has undergone rapid urbanization in recent decades. The population and urbanized lands in the watershed are projected to double from the 1990 condition by 2020. Recently, flood-induced damage has occurred more frequently in urbanized areas of the watershed. There are concerns about the effect of urbanization on flood peaks and volumes, future flood-mitigation plans, and potential effects on the water quality and stream habitats. This report describes the procedures used in developing the hydrologic models, estimating the flood-peak discharge magnitudes and recurrence intervals for flood-hazard analysis, developing the hydraulic model, and the results of the analysis in graphical and tabular form. The hydrologic model, Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF), was used to perform the simulation of continuous water movements through various patterns of land uses in the watershed. Flood-frequency analysis was applied to an annual maximum series to determine flood quantiles in subbasins for flood-hazard analysis. The Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) hydraulic model was used to determine the 100-year and 500-year flood elevations, and to determine the 100-year floodway. The hydraulic model was calibrated and verified using high water marks and observed inundation maps for the July 17-18, 1996, flood event. Digital

  15. 44 CFR 60.2 - Minimum compliance with flood plain management criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... which to meet the requirements of § 60.4(b). (c) A flood-related erosion-prone community applying for... community will be given a period of six months from the date the flood-related erosion areas having special erosion hazards are delineated in which to meet the requirements of § 60.5(b). (d) Communities...

  16. 44 CFR 60.2 - Minimum compliance with flood plain management criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... which to meet the requirements of § 60.4(b). (c) A flood-related erosion-prone community applying for... community will be given a period of six months from the date the flood-related erosion areas having special erosion hazards are delineated in which to meet the requirements of § 60.5(b). (d) Communities...

  17. 44 CFR 60.2 - Minimum compliance with flood plain management criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... which to meet the requirements of § 60.4(b). (c) A flood-related erosion-prone community applying for... community will be given a period of six months from the date the flood-related erosion areas having special erosion hazards are delineated in which to meet the requirements of § 60.5(b). (d) Communities...

  18. 100 Years of the Physics of Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luginsland, John

    2013-10-01

    The Child-Langmuir Law (CL), discovered 100 years ago, gives the maximum current that can be transported across a planar diode in the steady state. As a quintessential example of the impact of space-charge shielding near a charged surface, it is central to the studies of high current diodes, such as high power microwave sources, vacuum microelectronics, electron and ion sources, and high current drivers used in high-energy density physics experiments. CL remains a touchstone of fundamental sheath physics, including contemporary studies of nano-scale quantum diodes and plasmonic devices. Its solid state analog is the Mott-Gurney law, governing the maximum charge injection in solids, such as organic materials and other dielectrics, which is important to energy devices, such as solar cells and light-emitting diodes. This paper reviews the important advances in the physics of diodes since the discovery of CL, including virtual cathode formation and extension of CL to multiple dimensions, to the quantum regime, and to ultrafast processes. We will review the influence of magnetic fields, multiple species in bipolar flow, electromagnetic and time dependent effects in both short pulse and high frequency THz limits, and single electron regimes. Transitions from various emission mechanisms (thermionic, field, and photo-emission) to the space charge limited state (CL) will be addressed, especially highlighting important simulation and experimental developments in selected contemporary areas of study. This talk will stress the fundamental physical links between the physics of beams to limiting currents in other areas, such as low temperature plasmas, laser plasmas, and space propulsion. Also emphasized is the role of non-equilibrium phenomena associated with materials and plasmas in close contact. Work supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  19. Modeling the Impact of Biogeochemical Hotspots and Hot Moments on Subsurface Carbon Fluxes from a Flood Plain Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, B.; Spycher, N.; Steefel, C. I.; King, E.; Conrad, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Biogeochemical hotspots and hot moments are known to account for a high percentage of carbon and nutrient cycling within flood plain environments. To quantify the impact of these hotspots and hot moments on the carbon cycle, a 2D reactive transport model was developed for the saturated-unsaturated zone of a flood plain site in Rifle, CO. Previous studies have identified naturally reduced zones (NRZs) in the saturated zone of the Rifle site to be hotspots and important regions for subsurface biogeochemical cycling. Wavelet analysis of geochemical concentrations at the site suggested that hydrologic and temperature variations are hot moments and exert an important control on biogeochemical conditions in the Rifle aquifer. Here, we describe the development of a reactive transport model that couples hydrologic and biogeochemical processes to microbial functional distributions inferred from site-specific 'omic' data. The model includes microbial contributions from heterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic processes. We use Monod based formulations to represent biomass formation and consider energy partitioning between catabolic and anabolic processes. We use this model to explore community emergence at the Rifle site and further constrain the extent and rates of nutrient uptake as well as abiotic and biotic reactions using stable carbon isotopes. Results from 2D model simulations with only abiotic reactions predict lower CO2 partial pressures in the unsaturated zone and severely underpredict (~200%) carbon fluxes to the river compared to simulations with chemolithoautotrophic pathways. δ13C-CO2 profiles also point to biotic sources for the locally observed high CO2 concentrations above NRZs. Results further indicate that groundwater carbon fluxes from the Rifle site to the river are underestimated by almost 180% (to 3.3 g m-2 d-1) when temperature fluctuations are ignored in the simulations. Preliminary results demonstrate the emergence of denitrifiers at specific depths

  20. Digital geospatial presentation of geoelectrical and geotechnical data for the lower American River and flood plain, east Sacramento, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, Lyndsay B.; Burton, Bethany L.; Powers, Michael H.; Asch, Theodore H.

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the extent and thickness of lithologic units that may have differing scour potential, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, has performed several geoelectrical surveys of the lower American River channel and flood plain between Cal Expo and the Rio Americano High School in east Sacramento, California. Additional geotechnical data have been collected by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and its contractors. Data resulting from these surveys have been compiled into similar database formats and converted to uniform geospatial datums and projections. These data have been visualized in a digital three-dimensional framework project that can be viewed using freely available software. These data facilitate a comprehensive analysis of the resistivity structure underlying the lower American River corridor and assist in levee system management.

  1. Swiss Re Global Flood Hazard Zones: Know your flood risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinukollu, R. K.; Castaldi, A.; Mehlhorn, J.

    2012-12-01

    Floods, among all natural disasters, have a great damage potential. On a global basis, there is strong evidence of increase in the number of people affected and economic losses due to floods. For example, global insured flood losses have increased by 12% every year since 1970 and this is expected to further increase with growing exposure in the high risk areas close to rivers and coastlines. Recently, the insurance industry has been surprised by the large extent of losses, because most countries lack reliable hazard information. One example has been the 2011 Thailand floods where millions of people were affected and the total economic losses were 30 billion USD. In order to assess the flood risk across different regions and countries, the flood team at Swiss Re based on a Geomorphologic Regression approach, developed in house and patented, produced global maps of flood zones. Input data for the study was obtained from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) elevation data, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) and HydroSHEDS. The underlying assumptions of the approach are that naturally flowing rivers shape their channel and flood plain according to basin inherent forces and characteristics and that the flood water extent strongly depends on the shape of the flood plain. On the basis of the catchment characteristics, the model finally calculates the probability of a location to be flooded or not for a defined return period, which in the current study was set to 100 years. The data is produced at a 90-m resolution for latitudes 60S to 60N. This global product is now used in the insurance industry to inspect, inform and/or insure the flood risk across the world.

  2. Heavy metal contaminations in the groundwater of Brahmaputra flood plain: an assessment of water quality in Barpeta District, Assam (India).

    PubMed

    Haloi, Nabanita; Sarma, H P

    2012-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the heavy metal contamination status of groundwater in Brahmaputra flood plain Barpeta District, Assam, India. The Brahmaputra River flows from the southern part of the district and its many tributaries flow from north to south. Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn are estimated by using atomic absorption spectrometer, Perkin Elmer AA 200. The quantity of heavy metals in drinking water should be checked time to time; as heavy metal accumulation will cause numerous problems to living being. Forty groundwater samples were collected mainly from tube wells from the flood plain area. As there is very little information available about the heavy metal contamination status in the heavily populated study area, the present work will help to be acquainted with the suitability of groundwater for drinking applications as well as it will enhance the database. The concentration of iron exceeds the WHO recommended levels of 0.3 mg/L in about 80% of the samples, manganese values exceed 0.4 mg/L in about 22.5% of the samples, and lead values also exceed limit in 22.5% of the samples. Cd is reported in only four sampling locations and three of them exceed the WHO permissible limit (0.003 mg/L). Zinc concentrations were found to be within the prescribed WHO limits. Therefore, pressing awareness is needed for the betterment of water quality; for the sake of safe drinking water. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using Special Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 16).

  3. Role of the strengthened El Niño teleconnection in the May 2015 floods over the southern Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon Wang, S.-Y.; Huang, Wan-Ru; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung; Gillies, Robert R.

    2015-10-01

    The climate anomalies leading to the May 2015 floods in Texas and Oklahoma were analyzed in the context of El Niño teleconnection in a warmer climate. A developing El Niño tends to increase late-spring precipitation in the southern Great Plains, and this effect has intensified since 1980. Anthropogenic global warming contributed to the physical processes that caused the persistent precipitation in May 2015: Warming in the tropical Pacific acted to strengthen the teleconnection toward North America, modification of zonal wave 5 circulation that deepened the stationary trough west of Texas, and enhanced Great Plains low-level southerlies increasing moisture supply from the Gulf of Mexico. Attribution analysis using the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 single-forcing experiments and the Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble Project indicated a significant increase in the El Niño-induced precipitation anomalies over Texas and Oklahoma when increases in the anthropogenic greenhouse gases were taken into account.

  4. Effects of proposed highway embankment modifications on water-surface elevations in the lower Pearl River flood plain near Slidell, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, J.J.; Schuck-Kolben, R. E.

    1987-01-01

    Major flooding in the lower Pearl River basin in recent years has caused extensive damage to homes and highways in the area. In 1980 and 1983, Interstate Highway 10 and U.S. Highway 190 were overtopped. In 1983, the Interstate Highway 10 crossing was seriously damaged by the flood. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development, Office of Highways, used a two-dimensional finite-element surface-water flow model to evaluate the effects the proposed embankment modifications at Interstate Highway 10 and U.S. Highway 90 on the water-surface elevations in the lower Pearl River flood plain near Slidell, Louisiana. The proposed modifications that were considered for the 1983 flood are: (1) Removal of all highway embankments, the natural condition, (2) extension of the West Pearl River bridge by 1,000 feet at U.S. Highway 90, (3) construction of a new 250-foot bridge opening in the U.S. Highways 190 and 90, west of the intersection of the highways. The proposed highway bridge modifications also incorporated lowering of ground-surface elevations under the new bridges to sea level. The modification that provided the largest reduction in backwater, about 35 percent, was a new bridge in Interstate Highway 10. The modification of the West Pearl River bridge at U.S. Highway 90 and replacement of the bridge in U.S. Highway 190 provide about a 25% reduction in backwater each. For the other modification conditions that required structural modifications, maximum backwater computed on the west side of the flood plain ranges from 0.0 to 0.8 foot and on the east side from 0.0 to 0.6 foot. Results show that although backwater is greater on the west side of the flood plain than on the east side, upstream of highway embankments, backwater decreases more rapidly in the upstream direction on the west side of the flood plain than on the east side. Analysis of the proposed modifications indicates that backwater would still occur on

  5. Simulation of Flood Profiles for Catoma Creek near Montgomery, Alabama, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, K.G.; Hedgecock, T.S.

    2008-01-01

    A one-dimensional step-backwater model was used to simulate flooding conditions for Catoma Creek near Montgomery, Alabama. A peak flow of 50,000 cubic feet per second was computed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the March 1990 flood at the Norman Bridge Road gaging station. Using this estimated peak flow, flood-plain surveys with associated roughness coefficients, and surveyed high-water marks for the March 1990 flood, a flow model was calibrated to closely match the known event. The calibrated model then was used to simulate flooding for the 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year recurrence-interval floods. The 100-year flood stage for the Alabama River also was computed in the vicinity of the Catoma Creek confluence using observed high-water profiles from the 1979 and 1990 floods and gaging-station data. The results indicate that the 100-year flood profile for Catoma Creek within the 15-mile study reach is about 2.5 feet higher, on average, than the profile published by the Federal Emergency Management Agency. The maximum and minimum differences are 6.0 feet and 0.8 foot, respectively. All water-surface elevations computed for the 100-year flood are higher than those published by the Federal Emergency Management Agency. The 100-year flood stage computed for the Alabama River in the vicinity of the Catoma Creek confluence was about 4.5 feet lower than the elevation published by the Federal Emergency Management Agency. The results of this study provide the community with flood-profile information that can be used for flood-plain mitigation, future development, and safety plans for the city.

  6. Floods

    MedlinePlus

    Floods are common in the United States. Weather such as heavy rain, thunderstorms, hurricanes, or tsunamis can ... is breached, or when a dam breaks. Flash floods, which can develop quickly, often have a dangerous ...

  7. Field and laboratory data describing physical and chemical characteristics of metal-contaminated flood-plain deposits downstream from Lead, west-central South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marron, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    Samples from metal-contaminated flood-plain sediments at 9 sites downstream from Lead, in west-central South Dakota, were collected during the summers of 1985-87 to characterize aspects of the sedimentology, chemistry, and geometry of a deposit that resulted from the discharge of a large volume of mining wastes into a river system. Field and laboratory data include stratigraphic descriptions, chemical contents and grain-size distributions of samples, and surveyed flood-plain positions of samples. This report describes sampling-site locations, and methods of sample collection and preservation, and subsequent laboratory analysis. Field and laboratory data are presented in 4 figures and 11 tables in the ' Supplemental Data ' section at the back of the report. (USGS)

  8. Compared leaf anatomy of Nymphaea (Nymphaeaceae) species from Brazilian flood plain.

    PubMed

    Catian, G; Scremin-Dias, E

    2013-11-01

    Nymphaea has seven species already catalogued in the flood prone areas of the Brazilian Pantanal. However, some species remain difficult to identify and descriptions of the anatomy of vegetative organs are an important tool for infrageneric separation to aid in group taxonomy. The species collected in the Pantanal and prepared according to the usual techniques for anatomical studies showed similar structural characteristics, and data on the arrangement of vascular bundles in the midrib and petiole, as well as the form and distribution of sclereids, were consistent. Nymphaea oxypetala stands out from the other evaluated species for having a greater number of differential characters, including angular collenchyma and the absence of bicollateral bundles in the petiole. Nymphaea lingulata stands out as the only species to feature bicollateral bundles in the leaf blade. The results, summarised in the dichotomous key, facilitate the identification of species that use the flower as the main differentiation, but are in a vegetative stage.

  9. Compared leaf anatomy of Nymphaea (Nymphaeaceae) species from Brazilian flood plain.

    PubMed

    Catian, G; Scremin-Dias, E

    2013-11-01

    Nymphaea has seven species already catalogued in the flood prone areas of the Brazilian Pantanal. However, some species remain difficult to identify and descriptions of the anatomy of vegetative organs are an important tool for infrageneric separation to aid in group taxonomy. The species collected in the Pantanal and prepared according to the usual techniques for anatomical studies showed similar structural characteristics, and data on the arrangement of vascular bundles in the midrib and petiole, as well as the form and distribution of sclereids, were consistent. Nymphaea oxypetala stands out from the other evaluated species for having a greater number of differential characters, including angular collenchyma and the absence of bicollateral bundles in the petiole. Nymphaea lingulata stands out as the only species to feature bicollateral bundles in the leaf blade. The results, summarised in the dichotomous key, facilitate the identification of species that use the flower as the main differentiation, but are in a vegetative stage. PMID:24789398

  10. Modeling of the solid-solution partitioning of heavy metals and arsenic in embanked flood plain soils of the rivers Rhine and Meuse.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Thomas J; Hiemstra, Tjisse; Vink, Jos P M; van der Zee, Sjoerd E A T M

    2005-09-15

    The aim of this study is to predict the solid-solution partitioning of heavy metals in river flood plain soils. We compared mechanistic geochemical modeling with a statistical approach. To characterize the heavy metal contamination of embanked river flood plain soils in The Netherlands, we collected 194 soil samples at 133 sites distributed in the Dutch part of the Rhine and Meuse river systems. We measured the total amounts of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the soil samples and the metal fraction extractable by 2.5 mM CaCl2. We found a strong correlation between heavy metal contamination and organic matter content, which was almost identical for both river systems. Speciation calculations by a fully parametrized model showed the strengths and weaknesses of the mechanistic approach. Cu and Cd concentrations were predicted within one log scale, whereas modeling of Zn and Pb needs adjustment of some model parameters. The statistical fitting approach produced better results but is limited with regard to the understanding it provides. The log RMSE for this approach varied between 0.2 and 0.32 for the different metals. The careful modeling of speciation and adsorption processes is a useful tool for the investigation and understanding of metal availability in river flood plain soils. PMID:16201646

  11. Flood control failure: San Lorenzo River, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griggs, Gary B.; Paris, Lance

    1982-09-01

    The San Lorenzo River on the central California coast was the site of a major US Army Corps of Engineers flood control project in 1959. By excavating the channel below its natural grade and constructing levees, the capacity of the river was increased in order to contain approximately the 100 year flood. Production and transport of large volumes of sediment from the river's urbanizing watershed has filled the flood control project with sand and silt. The natural gradient has been re-established, and flood protection has been reduced to containment of perhaps the 30 year flood. In order for the City of Santa Cruz, which is situated on the flood plain, to be protected from future flooding,it must either initiate an expensive annual dredging program, or replan and rebuild the inadequately designed flood control channel. It has become clear, here and elsewhere, that the problem of flooding cannot simply be resolved by engineering. Large flood control projects provide a false sense of security and commonly produce unexpected channel changes.

  12. Aspects of organic matter transport and processing within Savannah River Plant streams and the Savannah River flood plain swamp

    SciTech Connect

    Hauer, F.R.

    1985-06-01

    The studies were directed toward understanding; (1) the transport dynamics, storage, and retention of organic matter, (2) the processing of leaf material that enters the streams and swamp habitats of the SRP, and (3) how these factors are influenced by current or previous reactor operations at the SRP. Suspended particulate organic matter, benthic organic matter, and in-stream wood were investigated along selected reaches of Steel Creek from April 1983 to April 1984. Concentrations of organic seston ranged from 0.4 to 5.7 mg l/sup -1/. Steel Creek transported significantly higher concentrations of particulate organic matter than did either Meyers Branch or the waters at the swamp site. Seston and dissolved organic matter were investigated on Four Mile Creek, a thermal stream on the SRP, within three different reactor cycles; reactor not operating (cold flow), reactor operating in early portion of cycle (early hot flow), and reactor operating in late portion of cycle (late hot flow). Significantly higher concentrations of particulate organic matter were transported at all study sites during hot flow than during cold flow. Particulate organic matter and dissolved organic matter concentrations were investigated at twelve sampling sites to quantify input and output dynamics of organic matter to the flood plain swamp. Samples were taken biweekly from February 1983 to March 1984. Dissolved organic matter concentrations ranged from 1.3 to 9.9 mg l/sup -1/ and particulate organic matter concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 5.1 mg l/sup -1/. Leaf decomposition of three bottomland tree species was studied at six stream and four swamp sites under various temperature regimes.

  13. Evaluation of natural radioactivity in soil, sediment and water samples of Niger Delta (Biseni) flood plain lakes, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Agbalagba, E O; Onoja, R A

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the findings of a baseline study undertaken to evaluate the natural radioactivity levels in soil, sediment and water samples in four flood plain lakes of the Niger Delta using a hyper pure germanium (HPGe) detector. The activity profile of radionuclides shows low activity across the study area. The mean activity level of the natural radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K is 20 ± 3, 20 ± 3 and 180 ± 50 Bq kg(-1), respectively. These values are well within values reported elsewhere in the country and in other countries with similar environments. The study also examined some radiation hazard indices. The mean values obtained are, 76 ± 14 Bq kg(-1), 30 ± 5.5 ηGy h(-1), 37 ± 6.8 μSv y(-1), 0.17 and 0.23 for Radium Equivalent Activity (Ra(eq)), Absorbed Dose Rates (D), Annual Effective Dose Rates (E(ff) Dose), External Hazard Index (H(ex)) and Internal Hazard Index (H(in)) respectively. All the health hazard indices are well below their recommended limits. The soil and sediments from the study area provide no excessive exposures for inhabitants and can be used as construction materials without posing any significant radiological threat to the population. The water is radiologically safe for domestic and industrial use. The paper recommends further studies to estimate internal and external doses from other suspected radiological sources to the population of the Biseni kingdom.

  14. Progress of Cometary Science in the Past 100 Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Zdenek

    1999-01-01

    Enormous strides made by cometary science during the 20th century defy any meaningful comparison of its state 100 years ago and now. The great majority of the subfields enjoying much attention nowadays did not exist in the year 1900. Dramatic developments, especially in the past 30-50 years, have equally affected observational and theoretical studies of comets. The profound diversification of observing techniques has been documented by the ever widening limits on the electromagnetic spectrum covered. While the time around 1900 marked an early period of slow and painful experimentation with photographic methods in cometary studies, observations of comets from the x-ray region to the radio waves have by now become routine. Many of the new techniques, and all those involved with the wavelengths shorter than about 300 nm, were made possible by another major breakthrough of this century - observing from space. Experiments on dedicated Earth-orbiting satellites as well as several deep-space probes have provided fascinating new information on the nature and makeup of comets. In broader terms, much of the progress has been achieved thanks to fundamental discoveries and major advances in electronics, whose applications resulted in qualitatively new instruments (e.g. radiotelescopes) and sensors or detectors (e.g. CCD arrays). The most universal effect on the entire cometary science, from observing to data handling to quantitative interpretations, has been, as in any other branch of science, due to the introduction of electronic computers, with their processing capabilities not only unheard of, but literally unimaginable, in the age of classical desk calculators. As if all this should not be enough, the today's generations of comet scientists have, in addition, been blessed with nature's highly appreciated cooperation. Indeed, in the span of a dozen years, between 1985 and 1997, we were privileged to witness four remarkable cometary events: (i) a return of Halley

  15. Modeling the Biogeochemical Response of a Flood Plain Aquifer Impacted By Seasonal Temperature and Water Table Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, B.; Spycher, N.; Molins, S.; Steefel, C. I.

    2014-12-01

    for seasonal temperature changes to accurately represent lateral and vertical delivery of water and nutrients as well as biogeochemical transformations within the Rifle Flood Plain system.

  16. On the use of InSAR technology to assess land subsidence in Jakarta coastal flood plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koudogbo, Fifame; Duro, Javier; Garcia Robles, Javier; Arnaud, Alain; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.

    2014-05-01

    Jakarta is the capital of Indonesia and is home to approximately 10 million people on the coast of the Java Sea. It is situated on the northern coastal alluvial plane of Java which shares boundaries with West Java Province in the south and in the east, and with Banten Province in the west. The Capital District of Jakarta (DKI) sits in the lowest lying areas of the basin. Its topography varies, with the northern part just meters above current sea level and lying on a flood plain. Subsequently, this portion of the city frequently floods. The southern part of the city is hilly. Thirteen major rivers flow through Jakarta to the Java Sea. The Ciliwung River is the most significant river and divides the city West to East. In the last three decades, urban growing of Jakarta has been very fast in sectors as industry, trade, transportation, real estate, among others. This exponential development has caused several environmental issues; land subsidence is one of them. Subsidence in Jakarta has been known since the early part of the 20th century. It is mainly due to groundwater extraction, the fast development (construction load), soil natural consolidation and tectonics. Evidence of land subsidence exists through monitoring with GPS, level surveys and InSAR investigations. InSAR states for "Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar". Its principle is based on comparing the distance between the satellite and the ground in consecutive satellite passes over the same area on the Earth's surface. Radar satellites images record, with very high precision, the distance travelled by the radar signal that is emitted by the satellite is registered. When this distance is compared through time, InSAR technology can provide highly accurate ground deformation measurements. ALTAMIRA INFORMATION, company specialized in ground motion monitoring, has developed GlobalSARTM, which combines several processing techniques and algorithms based on InSAR technology, to achieve ground motion

  17. Spring wheat gliadins: Have they changed in 100 years?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There have been many hard red spring (HRS) wheat cultivars released in North Dakota during the last 100 years. These cultivars have been improved for various characteristics such as, adaptation to weather conditions, high yield, and good milling and baking quality. The objectives of this study wer...

  18. 100 Years of Commitment to Children: Change and Continuity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rima

    The Foundation for Child Development (FCD) is the oldest philanthropy in the nation focused on improving the life prospects of children. This booklet, produced for FCD's centennial, describes the organization's origins and changes during the past 100 years. The booklet's sections, which include photographs, quotes, and a timeline, are: (1) "The…

  19. Women in July Fourth Cartoons: A 100-Year Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Katherine; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Analyzes the dominance, appearance, and role of women as depicted in newspaper Independence Day political cartoons over a 100-year period. Concludes that woman's place has gradually broadened to include activities beyond wife and mother. Indicates a resistance to changing norms and difficulty in coping with emerging ones. (JMF)

  20. Simulations of Flooding on Pea River and Whitewater Creek in the Vicinity of the Proposed Elba Bypass at Elba, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedgecock, T. Scott

    2003-01-01

    A two-dimensional finite-element surface-water model was used to study the effects of proposed modifications to the State Highway 203 corridor (proposed Elba Bypass/relocated U.S. Highway 84) on water-surface elevations and flow distributions during flooding in the Pea River and Whitewater Creek Basins at Elba, Coffee County, Alabama. Flooding was first simulated for the March 17, 1990, flood, using the 1990 flood-plain conditions to calibrate the model to match measured data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers after the flood. After model calibration, the effects of flooding were simulated for four scenarios: (1) floods having the 50- and 100-year recurrence intervals for the existing flood-plain, bridge, highway, and levee conditions; (2) floods having the 50- and 100-year recurrence intervals for the existing flood-plain and levee conditions with the State Highway 203 embankment and bridge removed; (3) floods having the 50- and 100-year recurrence intervals for the existing flood-plain, bridge, and highway conditions with proposed modifications (elevating) to the levee; and (4) floods having the 50- and 100-year recurrence intervals for the proposed conditions reflecting the Elba Bypass and modified levee. The simulation of floodflow for the Pea River and Whitewater Creek flood of March 17, 1990, in the study reach compared closely to flood profile data obtained after the flood. The flood of March 17, 1990, had an estimated peak discharge of 58,000 cubic feet per second at the gage (just below the confluence) and was estimated to be between a 50-year and 100-year flood event. The estimated peak discharge for Pea River and Whitewater Creek was 40,000 and 42,000 cubic feet per second, respectively. Simulation of floodflows for the 50-year flood (51,400 cubic feet per second) at the gage for existing flood-plain, bridge, highway, and levee conditions indicated that about 31 percent of the peak flow was conveyed by the State

  1. Aquifer tests in the flood-plain alluvium and Santa Fe group at the Rio Grande near Canutillo, El Paso County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nickerson, Edward L.

    1989-01-01

    An aquifer system consisting of the Rio Grande flood-plain alluvium and Santa Fe Group underlying the southern Mesilla Valley in Dona Ana County, New Mexico and El Paso County, Texas has become an important source of water for both municipal and agricultural uses. Determination of aquifer properties is essential in order to evaluate groundwater potential for increasing water demand and potential streamflow depletion of the Rio Grande due to groundwater development. The aquifer system at the Canutillo well field hydrologic section was divided into a shallow, intermediate, and deep zone based on geohydrologic characteristics. Aquifer properties of specific zones at the test site were determined from a series of multiple-well aquifer tests conducted from December 3, 1985 through January 20, 1986. The Rio Grande is hydraulically connected to the shallow flood-plain alluvium. Water generally occurs within the shallow zone under unconfined conditions, within the intermediate zone under semiconfined conditions, and within the deep zone under confined conditions. (USGS)

  2. Public Policy and Private Enterprise in the Development of Flood Plains: A Laboratory Exercise in Physical Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunnally, Nelson R.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    This activity is designed to introduce college students to the concept of floods as natural hazards, to flood frequency analysis, to hazard adjustment, and to the mechanics of public policy formulation through a six hour laboratory exercise, culminating in a simulation game. (JH)

  3. Investigation of the 2006 Drought and 2007 Flood Extremes at the Southern Great Plains Through an Integrative Analysis of Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Kennedy, Aaron; Feng, Zhe; Entin, Jared K.; Houser, Paul R.; Schiffer, Robert A.; LEucyer, Tristan; Olson, William S.; Hsu, Kuo-lin; Liu, W. Timothy; Lin, BIng; Deng, Yi; Jiang, Tianyu

    2010-01-01

    Hydrological years 2006 (HY06, 10/2005-09/2006) and 2007 (HY07, 10/2006-09/2007) provide a unique opportunity to examine hydrological extremes in the central US because there are no other examples of two such highly contrasting precipitation extremes occurring in consecutive years at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) in recorded history. The HY06 annual precipitation in the state of Oklahoma, as observed by the Oklahoma Mesonet, is around 61% of the normal (92.84 cm, based on the 1921-2008 climatology), which results in HY06 the second-driest year in the record. In particular, the total precipitation during the winter of 2005-06 is only 27% of the normal, and this winter ranks as the driest season. On the other hand, the HY07 annual precipitation amount is 121% of the normal and HY07 ranks as the seventh-wettest year for the entire state and the wettest year for the central region of the state. Summer 2007 is the second-wettest season for the state. Large-scale dynamics play a key role in these extreme events. During the extreme dry period (10/2005-02/2006), a dipole pattern in the 500-hPa GH anomaly existed where an anomalous high was over the southwestern U.S. region and an anomalous low was over the Great Lakes. This pattern is associated with inhibited moisture transport from the Gulf of Mexico and strong sinking motion over the SGP, both contributing to the extreme dryness. The precipitation deficit over the SGP during the extreme dry period is clearly linked to significantly suppressed cyclonic activity over the southwestern U.S., which shows robust relationship with the Western Pacific (WP) teleconnection pattern. The precipitation events during the extreme wet period (May-July 2007) were initially generated by active synoptic weather patterns, linked with moisture transport from the Gulf of Mexico by the northward low level jet, and enhanced by the mesoscale convective systems. Although the drought and pluvial conditions are dominated by large-scale dynamic

  4. Potential hazards from flood in part of the Chalone Creek and Bear Valley drainage basins, Pinnacles National Monument, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, Robert W.

    1995-01-01

    Areas of Chalone Creek and Bear Valley drainage basins in Pinnacles National Monument, California, are subject to frontal storms that can cause major flooding from November to April in areas designated for public use. To enhance visitor safety and to protect cultural and natural resources, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service studied flood-hazard potentials within the boundaries of the Pinnacles National Monument. This study area extends from about a quarter of a mile north of Chalone Creek Campground to the mouth of Bear Valley and from the east monument entrance to Chalone Creek. Historical data of precipitation and floodflow within the monument area are sparse to nonexistent, therefore, U.S. Soil Conservation Service unit-hydrograph procedures were used to determine the magnitude of a 100-year flood. Because of a lack of specific storm-rainfall data, a simulated storm was applied to the basins using a digital-computer model developed by the Soil Conservation Service. A graphical relation was used to define the regionally based maximum flood for Chalone Creek and Bear Valley. Water-surface elevations and inundation areas were determined using a conventional step-backwater program. Flood-zone boundaries were derived from the computed water-surface elevations. The 100-year flood plain for both streams would be inundated at all points by the regional maximum flood. Most of the buildings and proposed building sites in the monument area are above the elevation of the 100-year flood, except the proposed building sites near the horse corral and the east monument entrance. The 100-year flood may cause reverse flow through a 12-inch culvert embedded in the embankment of Old Pinnacles Campground Road in the center of Chalone Creek Campground. The likelihood of this occurring is dependant upon the amount of aggradation that occurs upstream; therefore, the campground area also is considered to be within the 100-year flood zone.

  5. Rich versus poor: equality in nursing care 100 years ago.

    PubMed

    The question relating to the importance of the equality of nursing care the rich and poor should receive was raised in a very interesting article in the BJN 100 years ago. Miss EA Stevenson, Late Lady Superintendent of the Sutherland Benefit Nursing Association, highlighted some of the key factors. For example, there was the foundation and growth of organizations for the preservation of health and the cure of disease, the increasing role which the metropolitan and provincial hospitals made, and the foundation of Queen Victoria's institute for providing trained nurses for the sick and poor in their own homes.

  6. Palama Settlement: 100 years of serving a neighborhood's needs.

    PubMed

    Rath, P

    1995-11-01

    The founding of Palama Settlement brought to those who might not be able to afford it public health nurses for maternal care and nutrition, well-baby clinics, tuberculosis clinics, medical and dental clinics, and eventually major support of medical needs during and after the attack on Pearl Harbor. Palama Settlement celebrates its centennial year with many of its early functions assumed by state and private organizations, but it is prepared to enter the next 100 years of service to the community. Palama was founded by James Arthur Rath with the purpose of serving the community; many people today remember their childhood and Palama Settlement.

  7. Delineation of flooding within the upper Mississippi River Basin, flood of July 10 and 27, 1993, in Kansas City Missouri, and Kansas City, Kansas, and vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Charles A.; Clement, Ralph W.; Studley, Seth E.

    1997-01-01

    During spring and summer 1993, record flooding inundated many of the stream and river valleys in the upper Mississippi and the Missouri River Basins. The flooding was the result of widespread and numerous intense thunderstorms that, together with saturated soils, produced large volumes of runoff. The magnitude of flooding exceeded the 100-year discharge values (1-percent chance of exceedance in any given year) at many streamflow-gaging stations in Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. The flooding was unusual because of its long duration and widespread severe damage. The Mississippi and the Missouri Rivers were above flood stage for more than 1 month at several locations along their lengths. Millions of acres of agricultural and urban lands were inundated for weeks, and unofficial damage estimates exceeded $10 billion in the flooded States (Parrett and others, 1993),During summer 1993, large parts of Kansas City, Missouri, and Kansas City, Kansas, and vicinity were flooded from overflows of the Missouri and the Kansas Rivers and numerous smaller tributaries, This report provides flood-peak elevation data and delineates the arcalcktent of the 1993 floods in the Kansas City metropolitan area for July 10 and 27, 1993 (fig. 1A, sheet 1: B, sheet 2: C, sheet 3). The 1993 flood elevations and extent of flooding are compared with flood-plain boundaries defined by Flood Insurance Studies conducted by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) for cities and counties in the area (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 1975–95).This report is one of a series of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigations that document the effects of the 1993 flooding of the upper Mississippi and the Missouri River Basins and that improve the technical base from which flood-plain management decisions can be made by other agencies.

  8. Chryse Planitia region, Mars: Channeling history, flood-volume estimates, and scenarios for bodies of water in the northern plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rotto, Susan L.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.

    1992-01-01

    The Chryse Planitia region of Mars includes several outflow channels that debouched into a single basin. Here we evaluate possible volumes and areal extents of standing bodies of water that collected in the northern lowland plains, based on evidence provided by topography, fluvial relations, and channel chronology and geomorphology.

  9. Stream network analysis and geomorphic flood plain mapping from orbital and suborbital remote sensing imagery application to flood hazard studies in central Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, V. R. (Principal Investigator); Holz, R. K.; Hulke, S. D.; Patton, P. C.; Penteado, M. M.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Development of a quantitative hydrogeomorphic approach to flood hazard evaluation was hindered by (1) problems of resolution and definition of the morphometric parameters which have hydrologic significance, and (2) mechanical difficulties in creating the necessary volume of data for meaningful analysis. Measures of network resolution such as drainage density and basin Shreve magnitude indicated that large scale topographic maps offered greater resolution than small scale suborbital imagery and orbital imagery. The disparity in network resolution capabilities between orbital and suborbital imagery formats depends on factors such as rock type, vegetation, and land use. The problem of morphometric data analysis was approached by developing a computer-assisted method for network analysis. The system allows rapid identification of network properties which can then be related to measures of flood response.

  10. Opening the 100-Year Window for Time-Domain Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grindlay, Jonathan; Tang, Sumin; Los, Edward; Servillat, Mathieu

    2012-04-01

    The large-scale surveys such as PTF, CRTS and Pan-STARRS-1 that have emerged within the past 5 years or so employ digital databases and modern analysis tools to accentuate research into Time Domain Astronomy (TDA). Preparations are underway for LSST which, in another 6 years, will usher in the second decade of modern TDA. By that time the Digital Access to a Sky Century @ Harvard (DASCH) project will have made available to the community the full sky Historical TDA database and digitized images for a century (1890-1990) of coverage. We describe the current DASCH development and some initial results, and outline plans for the ``production scanning'' phase and data distribution which is to begin in 2012. That will open a 100-year window into temporal astrophysics, revealing rare transients and (especially) astrophysical phenomena that vary on time-scales of a decade. It will also provide context and archival comparisons for the deeper modern surveys.

  11. Famines in the last 100 years: implications for diabetes.

    PubMed

    de Rooij, Susanne R; Roseboom, Tessa J; Painter, Rebecca C

    2014-10-01

    Overnutrition is a major cause of diabetes. The contrary situation of undernutrition has also been suggested to increase the risk of the disease. Especially undernutrition during prenatal life has been hypothesized to program the structure and physiology of the fetus in such a way that it is more prone to develop diabetes in later life. Famines over the last 100 years have provided historical opportunities to study later-life health consequences of poor nutritional circumstances in early life. The majority of studies based on famine exposure during prenatal life clearly show that diabetes risk is increased. Postnatal famine exposure in childhood, adolescence, or young adulthood also seems to raise risk for diabetes, although prenatal famine effects seem to be more substantial. These study results not only have implications for the consequences of famines still happening but also for pregnancies complicated by factors mimicking poor nutritional situations.

  12. Revisiting the 100 Year Old Radioactivity Lectures of Frederick Soddy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampton, Christine

    2008-04-01

    Between 1908 and 1922, Frederick Soddy, MA., FRS (Dr. Lee`s Professor of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Univ. of Oxford) published four editions of a compendium of his experimental lectures delivered at the University of Glasgow, under the title ``The Interpretation of Radium, and the Structure of the Atom''. Professor Soddy taught his students about `radium writing' and the emanation of radium. He presented a radium clock designed by Professor Strutt; showed students `Pleochroic Halos'; and described the separation of `ionium' from its isotope, thorium. The process of constructing a cohesive logic to empirical observations of this newly discovered phenomenon of radioactivity was a challenging one. Some aspects did not stand the test of time. However, revisiting these lectures after 100 years gives us fascinating insight into the mental processes of the early pioneers in radioactivity.

  13. 100 years of sedimentation study by the USGS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glysson, G. Douglas

    1989-01-01

    On January 15, 1889, the U.S. Geological Survey began collecting sediment data on the Rio Grande at Embudo, New Mexico. During the past 100 years the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Resources Division (WRD) has collected daily sediment data at more than 1,200 sites. Projects have addressed the problems associated with reservoir construction, agricultural irrigation projects, energy production, and transport and deposition of pollutants sorbed to sediments. The Survey has been active as a charter member of the Federal Interagency Sediment Project and currently has three full-time hydrologists working on the project. The WRD's sediment-research projects have covered a wide variety of subjects from the fundamental theories of resistance to flow and sediment transport in alluvial channels to lunar erosion mechanisms.

  14. Flood potential of Topopah Wash and tributaries, eastern part of Jackass Flats, Nevada Test Site, southern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Rulon C.; Spahr, Norman E.

    1980-01-01

    Guidelines for the evaluation of potential surface facilities for the storage of high-level radioactive wastes on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada include the consideration of the potential for flooding. Those floods that are considered to constitute the principal flood hazards for these facilities are the 100- and 500-year floods, and the maximum potential flood. Flood-prone areas for the three floods with present natural-channel conditions were defined for the eastern part of Jackass Flats in the southwestern part of the Nevada Test Site. The 100-year flood-prone areas would closely parallel most stream channels with very few occurrences of overland flooding between adjacent channels. The 500-year flood and the maximum potential flood would exceed the discharge capacities of main channels and cause overland flooding between adjacent channels throughout most of the study area. Excluded areas would be those located immediately east of the upstream reach of Topopah Wash and between upstream channel reaches of some tributaries. Floodflow characteristics for the three floods were determined at 47 cross sections. The magnitudes of the estimated velocities indicate severe erosion of channels and flood plains would occur in parts of the study area. (USGS)

  15. Assessment of hyporheic zone, flood-plain, soil-gas, soil, and surface-water contamination at the Old Incinerator Area, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army Environmental and Natural Resources Management Office of the U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon, Georgia, assessed the hyporheic zone, flood plain, soil gas, soil, and surface-water for contaminants at the Old Incinerator Area at Fort Gordon, from October 2009 to September 2010. The assessment included the detection of organic contaminants in the hyporheic zone, flood plain, soil gas, and surface water. In addition, the organic contaminant assessment included the analysis of explosives and chemical agents in selected areas. Inorganic contaminants were assessed in soil and surface-water samples. The assessment was conducted to provide environmental contamination data to the U.S. Army at Fort Gordon pursuant to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. Total petroleum hydrocarbons were detected above the method detection level in all 13 samplers deployed in the hyporheic zone and flood plain of an unnamed tributary to Spirit Creek. The combined concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and total xylene were detected at 3 of the 13 samplers. Other organic compounds detected in one sampler included octane and trichloroethylene. In the passive soil-gas survey, 28 of the 60 samplers detected total petroleum hydrocarbons above the method detection level. Additionally, 11 of the 60 samplers detected the combined masses of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and total xylene above the method detection level. Other compounds detected above the method detection level in the passive soil-gas survey included octane, trimethylbenzene, perchlorethylene, and chloroform. Subsequent to the passive soil-gas survey, six areas determined to have relatively high contaminant mass were selected, and soil-gas samplers were deployed, collected, and analyzed for explosives and chemical agents. No explosives or chemical agents were detected above

  16. Sediment capture in flood plains of the Mississippi River: A case study in Cat Island National Wildlife Refuge, Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M.; Bentley, S. J., Sr.

    2015-03-01

    To plan restoration of the Mississippi River Delta, it is imperative to know how much sediment the Mississippi River currently provides. Recent research has demonstrated that between Tarbert Landing and St Francisville on the Mississippi, as much as 67 million metric tons (Mt) per year is lost from river transport, of which ~16 Mt is muddy suspended sediment. So where does this sediment go? Two pathways for loss have been proposed: riverbed storage, and overbank deposition in regions that lack manmade levées. Cat Island National Wildlife Refuge, on the unleveed Mississippi River east bank near St Francisville, Louisiana, consists of undisturbed bottomland forest that is inundated most years by river flooding. To determine fluvial sediment accumulation rates (SAR) from flooding, pushcores 40-50 cm long were collected then dated by Pb-210 and Cs-137 geochronology. Preliminary data suggests that muddy sediment accumulation is 10-13% of muddy suspended sediment lost from river transport along this river reach.

  17. Mercury net methylation in five tropical flood plain regions of Brazil: high in the root zone of floating macrophyte mats but low in surface sediments and flooded soils.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, J R; Meili, M; Hylander, L D; de Castro e Silva, E; Roulet, M; Mauro, J B; de Lemos, R

    2000-10-16

    In aquatic systems, bottom sediments have often been considered as the main methylmercury (MeHg) production site. In tropical floodplain areas, however, floating meadows and flooded forests extend over large areas and can be important Hg methylating sites. We present here a cross-system comparison of the Hg net methylation capacity in surface sediments, flooded soils and roots of floating aquatic macrophytes, assayed by in situ incubation with 203Hg and extraction of formed Me203 Hg by acid leaching and toluene. The presence of mono-MeHg was confirmed by thin layer chromatography and other techniques. Study areas included floodplain lakes in the Amazon basin (Tapajós, Negro and Amazon rivers), the Pantanal floodplain (Paraguay river basin), freshwater coastal lagoons in Rio de Janeiro and oxbow lakes in the Mogi-Guaçú river, São Paulo state. Different Hg levels were added in assays performed in 1994-1998, but great care was taken to standardise all other test parameters, to allow data comparisons. Net MeHg production was one order of magnitude higher (mean 13.8%, range 0.28-35) in the living or decomposing roots of floating or rooted macrophyte mats (Eichhornia azurea, E. crassipes, Paspalum sp., Eleocharis sellowiana, Salvinia sp., S. rotundifolia and Scirpus cubensis) than in the surface layer of underlying lake sediments (mean 0.6%, range 0.022-2.5). Methylation in flooded soils presented a wide range and was in some cases similar to the one found in macrophyte roots but usually much lower. In a Tapajós floodplain lake, natural concentrations of MeHg in soil and sediment cores taken along a lake-forest transect agreed well with data on net methylation potentials in the same samples. E. azurea, E. crassipes and Salvinia presented the highest methylation potentials, up to 113 times higher than in sediments. Methylation in E. azurea from six lakes of the Paraguay and Cuiabá rivers, high Pantanal, was determined in the 1998 dry and wet seasons and ranged from

  18. Slope restoration for a 100-year old canal

    SciTech Connect

    Skaggs, R.L.; Lewis, S.W.; Liebersbach, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    Turlock Irrigation District (TID) is located in the northern portion of the fertile San Joaquin Valley of California. TID`s primary water supply is conveyed from the 100-year-old LaGrange Diversion Dam via their historic Upper Main Canal. The original canal was constructed by excavating into slate bedrock for the uphill (cut) bank, and constructing unmortared rock walls and rock fill for the downhill (fill) embankment; the excavation was then lined with concrete. Soil fill raises of the downhill embankment over the last 30 years have reduced the slope stability to unacceptable levels in the steepest embankment areas. In March of 1994, two surficial slides prompted investigation of the long term embankment stability in the Warehouse Slide Area. Based on results of analysis for various stabilization scenarios, TID chose a stabilization method which included: (1) excavation of an access bench below the existing canal, (2) installation of steel pipe piles through the existing rock fill and into the bedrock, (3) construction of a mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) retaining wall and (4) construction of a soil-cement canal roadway pavement. The design was chosen by the owner because of cost competitiveness compared to other design alternatives and because the construction sequence allowed uninterrupted use of the canal. By using local river cobble for the MSE wall facing material, TID met the desired 50-year design life of the repair while maintaining the area`s historic visual features.

  19. The history of atrial fibrillation: the last 100 years.

    PubMed

    Prystowsky, Eric N

    2008-06-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) has had a rich history that has touched the careers of many of the great clinicians and investigators of the 20th century. More recently, there has been an explosion of research into various aspects of the mechanisms and therapy for AF, as evidenced by over 8,000 publications on AF from 2000 to 2007. A century of research and clinical observations, coupled with modern investigative technologies, has enabled modern investigators to have their own "fantastic voyage" as they travel beyond the cell borders into the ionic mechanisms responsible for AF and its many atrial perturbations. One can only imagine the satisfaction of Wenckebach, MacKenzie, and Lewis if they could see how their seeds of wisdom have grown into such sturdy ideas, or how delighted Scherf would be to learn that his ectopic focus theory for AF has been given new life. This paper on 100 years of AF was initially prepared for presentation as the Plenary Lecture at the AFib Summit for Heart Rhythm 2007 in Denver, Colorado. I have tried to provide the reader with some of the most important observations on AF, realizing that it would be impossible to include all or even most of the major research done during this time frame. I apologize to my many colleagues whose research has helped us to understand better the clinical and basic aspects of AF, yet who could not be cited for lack of space.

  20. Pedernales oilfield, eastern Venezuela: The first 100 years

    SciTech Connect

    Gluyas, J.; Oliver, J.; Wilson, W.

    1996-08-01

    Petroleum seeps and surface tar mats attracted oil explorers to Pedernales in eastern Venezuela 100 years ago. Commercial production from the Pedernales Field was established by Creole in 1933. In three production periods, broken by WWII and the end of the Creole-Texaco refining contract, Creole and Lagoven produced about 60 MMSTB from about 60 wells in about 60 years. Peak production was in the late 1950s, when the field delivered 12,000 BOPD. Production was stopped in 1986. In March 1993, BP Venezuela acquired the license to reactivate Pedernales on behalf of Lagoven, and BP`s first well in the field was drilled in August 1994. A second was completed in early 1995. The production from each well was sufficiently encouraging for commerciality to be declared in March 1995. Phase 1 of the field reactivation demanded a production rate of 11,500 BOPD. As of now (September, 1995) six wells, including one gas disposal well, have been completed. Wells have been placed using a combination of old well data and mapping based on a close spaced 2D seismic survey shot in early 1994. Results from these first few wells indicate that the required production rate will be achieved despite severely depleted reservoir pressures. This paper tells the story of reactivation and re-evaluation of one of eastern Venezuela`s oldest oilfields.

  1. Overuse syndrome in musicians--100 years ago. An historical review.

    PubMed

    Fry, H J

    Overuse syndrome in musicians was extensively reported 100 years ago. The clinical features and results of treatment, which were recorded in considerable detail, match well the condition that is described today. The medical literature that is reviewed here extends from 1830 to 1911 and includes 21 books and 54 articles from the English language literature, apart from two exceptions; however, the writers of the day themselves reviewed French, German and Italian literature on the subject. The disorder was said to result from the overuse of the affected parts. Two theories of aetiology, not necessarily mutually exclusive, were argued. The central theory regarded the lesion as being in the central nervous system, the peripheral theory implied a primary muscle disorder. No serious case was put forward for a psychogenic origin, though emotional factors were believed to aggravate the condition. Advances in musical instrument manufacture--particularly the development of the concert piano and the clarinet--may have played a part in the prevalence of overuse syndrome in musicians. Total rest from the mechanical use of the hand was the only effective treatment recorded.

  2. Colloquium: 100 years of mass spectrometry: Perspectives and future trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Simon; Jjunju, Fred P. M.; Taylor, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is widely regarded as the most sensitive and specific general purpose analytical technique. More than a century has passed for MS since the ground-breaking work of Nobel laureate Sir Joseph John Thomson in 1913. This Colloquium aims to (1) give an historical overview of the major instrumentation achievements that have driven mass spectrometry forward in the past century, including those leading up to the initial work of Thomson, (2) provide the nonspecialist with an introduction to MS, and (3) highlight some key applications of MS and explore the current and future trends. Because of the vastness of the subject area and quality of the manifold research efforts that have been undertaken over the last 100 years, which have contributed to the foundations and subsequent advances in mass spectrometry, it should be understood that not all of the key contributions may have been included in this Colloquium. Mass spectrometry has embraced a multitude of scientific disciplines and to recognize all of the achievements is an impossible task, such has been the diverse impact of this invaluable technique. Scientific progress is usually made via the cumulative effort of a large number of researchers; the achievements reported herein are only a representation of that effort.

  3. Probable flood predictions in ungauged coastal basins of El Salvador

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, M.J.; Smith, M.E.; Chica, A.M.E.; Litke, D.

    2008-01-01

    A regionalization procedure is presented and used to predict probable flooding in four ungauged coastal river basins of El Salvador: Paz, Jiboa, Grande de San Miguel, and Goascoran. The flood-prediction problem is sequentially solved for two regions: upstream mountains and downstream alluvial plains. In the upstream mountains, a set of rainfall-runoff parameter values and recurrent peak-flow discharge hydrographs are simultaneously estimated for 20 tributary-basin models. Application of dissimilarity equations among tributary basins (soft prior information) permitted development of a parsimonious parameter structure subject to information content in the recurrent peak-flow discharge values derived using regression equations based on measurements recorded outside the ungauged study basins. The estimated joint set of parameter values formed the basis from which probable minimum and maximum peak-flow discharge limits were then estimated revealing that prediction uncertainty increases with basin size. In the downstream alluvial plain, model application of the estimated minimum and maximum peak-flow hydrographs facilitated simulation of probable 100-year flood-flow depths in confined canyons and across unconfined coastal alluvial plains. The regionalization procedure provides a tool for hydrologic risk assessment and flood protection planning that is not restricted to the case presented herein. ?? 2008 ASCE.

  4. System of gigantic valleys northwest of Tharsis, Mars: Latent catastrophic flooding, northwest watershed, and implications for northern plains ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dohm, J.M.; Anderson, R.C.; Baker, V.R.; Ferris, J.C.; Hare, T.M.; Strom, R.G.; Rudd, L.P.; Rice, J. W.; Casavant, R.R.; Scott, D.H.

    2000-01-01

    Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) reveals a system of gigantic valleys to the northwest of the huge martian shield volcano, Arsia Mons, in the western hemisphere of Mars. These newly identified northwestern slope valleys (NSVs) potentially signify previously undocumented martian catastrophic floods and may corroborate the northern ocean hypotheses. These features, which generally correspond spatially to gravity lows, were previously obscurred in Mariner and Viking Orbiter imagery by veneers of materials, including volcanic lava flows and air fall deposits. Geologic investigations of the Tharsis region suggest that the NSVs were mainly carved prior to the construction of Arsia Mons and its associated Late Hesperian and Amazonian age lava flows, concurrent with the early development of the outflow channels that debouch into Chryse Planitia.

  5. [90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu, and 241Am radionuclides in macrophytes within the Krasnensky flood plain: species specificity of concentration and distribution in phytocenosis components].

    PubMed

    Gudkov, D I; Zub, L N; Derevets, V V; Kuz'menko, M I; Nazarov, A B; Kaglian, A E; Savitskiĭ, A L

    2002-01-01

    The analysis of the content of radionuclides 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239 + 240Pu and 241Am in water vegetation of flood plain reservoirs has allowed studing features of radionuclide accumulation by various species of macrophytes and revealing bioindicators of radionuclide contamination. Thus species-specificity of radionuclide accumulation can essentially change the contribution of different species to a percentage ratio of the radionuclide content in phytomass of reservoirs in comparison with fund of higher aquatic plants.

  6. An analysis of region-of-influence methods for flood regionalization in the Gulf-Atlantic Rolling Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eng, K.; Tasker, Gary D.; Milly, P.C.D.

    2005-01-01

    Region-of-influence (RoI) approaches for estimating streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites were applied and evaluated in a case study of the 50-year peak discharge in the Gulf-Atlantic Rolling Plains of the southeastern United States. Linear regression against basin characteristics was performed for each ungaged site considered based on data from a region of influence containing the n closest gages in predictor variable (PRoI) or geographic (GRoI) space. Augmentation of this count based cutoff by a distance based cutoff also was considered. Prediction errors were evaluated for an independent (split-sampled) dataset. For the dataset and metrics considered here: (1) for either PRoI or GRoI, optimal results were found when the simpler count based cutoff, rather than the distance augmented cutoff, was used; (2) GRoI produced lower error than PRoI when applied indiscriminately over the entire study region; (3) PRoI performance improved considerably when RoI was restricted to predefined geographic subregions.

  7. Spatio-temporal variability of CH4 fluxes and environmental drivers on a modern flood plain of the Siberian Lena River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rößger, Norman; Wille, Christian; Kutzbach, Lars

    2016-04-01

    In the course of the amplified climate change in the Arctic, methane emissions may considerably increase due to more suitable production conditions comprising enhanced temperatures, greater abundance of moisture and increased availability of the carbon stock to microorganisms. Since methane exhibits a much higher global warming potential than carbon dioxide, a comprehensive understanding of its spatio-temporal dynamics as well as its key controls is of great importance. We study the carbon turnover with a focus on methane on the modern flood plain of Samoylov Island in the Lena River Delta (72°22'N, 126°28'E) using the eddy covariance technique. The heterogeneous area around the flux tower (footprint) is characterised by annual flooding, a variety of non-cryoturbated permafrost-affected soils with different degrees of organic matter accumulation, a tundra vegetation dominated by shrubs and sedges and a slightly undulating relief forming elevated, well drained areas und wet, partially inundated depressions. The measurements ran between June 2014 and September 2015 when methane fluxes were determined using a LICOR 7700 open-path CH4 analyser. The main emissions occurred between June and September determined by spring thaw and refreezing in autumn. The highest methane emissions took place in early August reaching up to 0.03 μmol m-2 s-1. Over the season, the mean methane flux amounted to 0.012 μmol m-2 s-1. This average is based on a large variability of methane fluxes which is to be attributed to the complexity of the footprint. The methane sources are unevenly distributed; thus, the capture of methane fluxes is highly dependent on atmospheric conditions such as stratification and wind direction. Explaining the variability in methane fluxes is based on three modelling approaches: step-wise regression, neural network and deterministic modelling using exponential relationships for flux drivers. For the identification of suitable flux drivers, a comprehensive data

  8. Subglacial flood event observed using in situ GPS data, CryoSat-2 altimetry, and MODIS image differencing on the Whillans Ice Plain, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegfried, M. R.; Fricker, H.; Roberts, M. W.; Scambos, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Whillans Ice Plain (WIP), at the confluence of the Whillans and Mercer Ice Streams on the Siple Coast, West Antarctica, has been observed to have a dynamic subglacial hydrological system, including subglacial lakes that fill and drain on sub-annual to decadal cycles. The initial data from the ICESat mission (2003-2009) provided a precise, yet spatially and temporally discontinuous, time-series of lake activity for nine subglacial lakes in the area. Here, we use an array of moderate-rate GPS units to monitor the subglacial hydrology on WIP during and after the ICESat/CryoSat-2 altimetry gap, assess the efficacy of CryoSat-2's Synthetic Aperture Radar-Interferometric (SIN) mode data for investigating active subglacial lakes, and tie the ICESat and Cryosat-2 datasets together through these in situ observations. Simultaneous ice-surface elevation measurements over Subglacial Lake Mercer (SLM) from GPS data and SIN-mode data reveal a subglacial lake drainage event lasting from August 2012 until March 2013, which is independently confirmed through MODIS image differencing. This event is similar in magnitude to the only previously documented SLM lake drainage (~30m3s-1 sustained over 6-8 months in 2005), but the GPS (at 30-second intervals) and CryoSat-2 data (at monthly intervals) have improved the temporal resolution of previous observations of WIP subglacial floods by orders of magnitude. This increase in both the temporal and spatial resolution at which we map subglacial water allows for a better mechanistic understanding of the subglacial hydrological system on a decelerating ice stream, and enables us to track the movement of subglacial drainage water downstream.

  9. Estimating the magnitude of peak discharges for selected flood frequencies on small streams in South Carolina (1975)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whetstone, B.H.

    1982-01-01

    A program to collect and analyze flood data from small streams in South Carolina was conducted from 1967-75, as a cooperative research project with the South Carolina Department of Highways and Public Transportation and the Federal Highway Administration. As a result of that program, a technique is presented for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods on small streams in South Carolina with drainage areas ranging in size from 1 to 500 square miles. Peak-discharge data from 74 stream-gaging stations (25 small streams were synthesized, whereas 49 stations had long-term records) were used in multiple regression procedures to obtain equations for estimating magnitude of floods having recurrence intervals of 10, 25, 50, and 100 years on small natural streams. The significant independent variable was drainage area. Equations were developed for the three physiographic provinces of South Carolina (Coastal Plain, Piedmont, and Blue Ridge) and can be used for estimating floods on small streams. (USGS)

  10. Climate change and the response of phenology of Great Tit, Summer Oak and herbivorous caterpillars on flood plain forest ecosystem during 1961-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartosova, L.; Trnka, M.; Bauer, Z.; Bauerova, J.; Stepanek, P.; Mozny, M.; Zalud, Z.

    2009-04-01

    In this study are presented the phenophases of three animal and plant species, which were observed on research plot Vranovice during 1961 - 2007 (47 years). The observation took place at typical flood plain forest of southern Moravia. These are one common bird Great Tit (Parus major), tree Summer Oak (Quercus robur) and caterpillars Tortrix moth (Tortrix viridana) and Winter Moth (Operophthera brumata). These species are dependent on each other during their development and together create trophic chain. In case of Summer Oak the phenophases were observed since the bud break to full foliage on the same specimen during the whole 47 years. During the same period were observed nesting of 843 nesting pairs of Great Tit. We determined the first laying date (FLD), which was defined as the date when the first clutch in a given year was initiated and mean laying date (MLD), which was defined as the mean initiation date of the all first clutches in the population. The activity of caterpillars was observed indirectly using data on the intensity of caterpillars' frass fall-down that was systematically recorded throughout the study period. As the beginning of peak of excrement fall-down was taken the first day when this event was first observable. The conclusion phase was accompanied by migration of Winter Moth (Operophthera brumata) caterpillars to lower levels of the forest before the cocooning. Tortrix Moth (Tortrix viridana) caterpillars are cocooning (encapsulated) in folds of leaves. The phenophases of all three species has shifted to the earlier time during whole period of observation. The date of full foliage has advanced by 1.9 days per decade. FLD of Great Tit has shifted to the earlier time by 1.6 days and MLD has advanced by 1.5 days per decade. In both cases, the trends are statistically significant at α = 0.01. The dates of activity of caterpillars has shifted at the beginning by 2.02 and at the end by 2.06 days per decade. This trend is statictically highly

  11. Estimating the feeding range of a mobile consumer in a river-flood plain system using δ(13)C gradients and parasites.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Micheline; Cabana, Gilbert; Marcogliese, David J; Magnan, Pierre

    2011-11-01

    1. The feeding range of an individual is central to food web dynamics as it determines the spatial scale of predator-prey interactions. However, despite recognition of its importance as a driving force in population dynamics, establishing feeding range is seldom done as detailed information on trophic interactions is difficult to obtain. 2. Biological markers are useful to answer this challenge as long as spatial heterogeneity in signal is present within the area investigated. A spatially complex ecosystem, Lake St. Pierre (LSP), a fluvial lake of the St Lawrence River (Québec, Canada), offered a unique opportunity to determine the feeding range of a secondary consumer, yellow perch (Perca flavescens) using isotopic ratios of carbon (δ(13)C). However, because food chains based on phytoplankton have generally more negative δ(13) C than those depending on periphyton, it was essential to determine the contribution of zooplankton in fish diet to correctly interpret spatial patterns of δ(13)C. We used parasites in perch to examine whether their δ(13)C was reflecting local δ(13)C baseline conditions rather than a feeding specialization on zooplankton. 3. δ(13)C of primary consumers was highly variable and exhibited a striking gradient along the shore-channel axis, suggesting that δ(13)C should reflect an individual consumer's spatial position in LSP. 4. This strong isotopic gradient allowed us to estimate the spatial scale of the resources used by individual perch following an approach presented by Rasmussen, Trudeau & Morinville (Journal of Animal Ecology, 78, 2009, 674). By comparing the δ(13)C variability in perch to that of primary consumers, we estimated that the adults feeding range was around 2 km along the shore-channel axis. 5. The combined use of isotopic ratios and parasites allowed us to determine that the adult population uses a wide range of habitats between the flood plain and the main channel. However, individually, each perch depended

  12. Flood hazard assessment of the Hoh River at Olympic National Park ranger station, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, D.L.; Pierson, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    Federal regulations require buildings and public facilities on Federal land to be located beyond or protected from inundation by a 100-year flood. Flood elevations, velocities and boundaries were determined for the occurrence of a 100-year flood through a reach, approximately 1-mi-long, of the Hoh River at the ranger station complex in Olympic National Park. Flood elevations, estimated by step-backwater analysis of the 100-year flood discharge through 14 channel and flood-plain cross sections of the Hoh River, indicate that the extent of flooding in the vicinity of buildings or public facilities at the ranger station complex is likely to be limited mostly to two historic meander channels that lie partly within loop A of the public campground and that average flood depths of about 2 feet or less would be anticipated in these channels. Mean flow velocities at the cross sections, corresponding to the passage of a 100-year flood, ranged from about 5 to over 11 ft/sec. Flooding in the vicinity of either the visitors center or the residential and maintenance areas is unlikely unless the small earthen dam at the upstream end of Taft Creek were to fail. Debris flows with volumes on the order of 100 to 1,000 cu yards could be expected to occur in the small creeks that drain the steep valley wall north of the ranger station complex. Historic debris flows in these creeks have generally traveled no more than about 100 yards out onto the valley floor. The potential risk that future debris flows in these creeks might reach developed areas within the ranger station complex is considered to be small because most of the developed areas within the complex are situated more than 100 yards from the base of the valley wall. Landslides or rock avalanches originating from the north valley wall with volumes potentially much larger than those for debris flows could have a significant impact on the ranger station complex. The probability that such landslides or avalanches may occur is

  13. From Anzac to Afghanistan: have 100 years taught us nothing about the devastation of war?

    PubMed

    Carragee, Eugene J

    2015-12-01

    Commentary On: Atkinson Brigadier (Ret'd) RN, Fraser RD. 100 years-Anzac, Vietnam to now. Spine J 2015:15:2454-6 (in this issue). Robertson PA. Gallipoli 100 years on: a New Zealand perspective. Spine J 2015:15:2457-8 (in this issue).

  14. From Anzac to Afghanistan: have 100 years taught us nothing about the devastation of war?

    PubMed

    Carragee, Eugene J

    2015-12-01

    Commentary On: Atkinson Brigadier (Ret'd) RN, Fraser RD. 100 years-Anzac, Vietnam to now. Spine J 2015:15:2454-6 (in this issue). Robertson PA. Gallipoli 100 years on: a New Zealand perspective. Spine J 2015:15:2457-8 (in this issue). PMID:26698028

  15. Estimation of flood-frequency characteristics of small urban streams in North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, J.C.; Pope, B.F.

    1996-01-01

    A statewide study was conducted to develop methods for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods of small urban streams in North Carolina. This type of information is critical in the design of bridges, culverts and water-control structures, establishment of flood-insurance rates and flood-plain regulation, and for other uses by urban planners and engineers. Concurrent records of rainfall and runoff data collected in small urban basins were used to calibrate rainfall-runoff models. Historic rain- fall records were used with the calibrated models to synthesize a long- term record of annual peak discharges. The synthesized record of annual peak discharges were used in a statistical analysis to determine flood- frequency distributions. These frequency distributions were used with distributions from previous investigations to develop a database for 32 small urban basins in the Blue Ridge-Piedmont, Sand Hills, and Coastal Plain hydrologic areas. The study basins ranged in size from 0.04 to 41.0 square miles. Data describing the size and shape of the basin, level of urban development, and climate and rural flood charac- teristics also were included in the database. Estimation equations were developed by relating flood-frequency char- acteristics to basin characteristics in a generalized least-squares regression analysis. The most significant basin characteristics are drainage area, impervious area, and rural flood discharge. The model error and prediction errors for the estimating equations were less than those for the national flood-frequency equations previously reported. Resulting equations, which have prediction errors generally less than 40 percent, can be used to estimate flood-peak discharges for 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year recurrence intervals for small urban basins across the State assuming negligible, sustainable, in- channel detention or basin storage.

  16. Floods in the Raccoon River basin, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinitz, Albert J.

    1980-01-01

    Evaluation of flood hazards, and the planning, design, and operation of various facilities on flood plains requires information on floods. This report provides information on flood stages and discharges, flood magnitude and frequency, bench mark data, and flood profiles for the Raccoon River and some of its tributaries. Ir covers the Raccoon River, the North Raccoon River to the northern boundary of Sac County and the lower reaches of the Middle and South Raccoon Rivers.

  17. The protection of Canfranc Internation Railway Sattion against natural risks. Analysis and evaluation of its effectiveness 100 years later.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabregas, S.; Hurtado, R.; Mintegui, J.

    2012-04-01

    In the late XIXth century and early XXth century, the international railway station in Canfranc "Los Arañones" is built in the Central Pyrenees of Huesca in Spain, along the border between France and Spain. Just after starting the construction of the huge station (250 m long), it was found that natural hazards such as flash floods, landslides, falling blocks and avalanches affected it and compromised the safety of users and infrastructures.Quickly, hydrological restoration works were carried out along "Los Arañones" gorgers basins to reduce joint residual risks. Longitudinal and transversal dams for floods, a large reforestation work to prevent against falling blocks, erosion, flooding and regarding avalanches stone walls were built, as well as benches of grit, snow rakes, and "empty dams", which were created as experimental structures to dissipate the energy of the avalanche in the track zone and wich do not exist anywhere else in the world. All the works were carried out mainly by hand, with materials such as stone, cement and iron. Over 2,500,000 holes were made for planting more than 15 different species of trees, and more than 400,000 tons of stone were moved to build more than 12 different kinds of control measures.It is essential to emphasize the empirical nature of these works and Canfranc's function as a "laboratory or field tests", with most of its structures still effective 100 years after its construction. The works involved about 30% of the total cost of the station in the early XX century. Nowadays to have an "equivalent protection" with the current technology, around 100 million euro should be invested. It is also necessary to validate the current effectiveness of such works, its maintenance task and the protective role of the forest.

  18. Assessment of Hyporheic Zone, Flood-Plain, Soil-Gas, Soil, and Surface-Water Contamination at the McCoys Creek Chemical Training Area, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army Environmental and Natural Resources Management Office of the U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon, Georgia, assessed the hyporheic zone, flood plain, soil gas, soil, and surface water for contaminants at the McCoys Creek Chemical Training Area (MCTA) at Fort Gordon, from October 2009 to September 2010. The assessment included the detection of organic contaminants in the hyporheic zone, flood plain, soil gas, and surface water. In addition, the organic contaminant assessment included the analysis of organic compounds classified as explosives and chemical agents in selected areas. Inorganic contaminants were assessed in soil and surface-water samples. The assessment was conducted to provide environmental contamination data to the U.S. Army at Fort Gordon pursuant to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. Ten passive samplers were deployed in the hyporheic zone and flood plain, and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and octane were detected above the method detection level in every sampler. Other organic compounds detected above the method detection level in the hyporheic zone and flood-plain samplers were trichloroethylene, and cis- and trans- 1, 2-dichloroethylene. One trip blank detected TPH below the method detection level but above the nondetection level. The concentrations of TPH in the samplers were many times greater than the concentrations detected in the blank; therefore, all other TPH concentrations detected are considered to represent environmental conditions. Seventy-one soil-gas samplers were deployed in a grid pattern across the MCTA. Three trip blanks and three method blanks were used and not deployed, and TPH was detected above the method detection level in two trip blanks and one method blank. Detection of TPH was observed at all 71 samplers, but because TPH was detected in the trip and method blanks, TPH was

  19. Flooding and Flood Management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, K.N.; Fallon, J.D.; Lorenz, D.L.; Stark, J.R.; Menard, Jason; Easter, K.W.; Perry, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Floods result in great human disasters globally and nationally, causing an average of $4 billion of damages each year in the United States. Minnesota has its share of floods and flood damages, and the state has awarded nearly $278 million to local units of government for flood mitigation projects through its Flood Hazard Mitigation Grant Program. Since 1995, flood mitigation in the Red River Valley has exceeded $146 million. Considerable local and state funding has been provided to manage and mitigate problems of excess stormwater in urban areas, flooding of farmlands, and flood damages at road crossings. The cumulative costs involved with floods and flood mitigation in Minnesota are not known precisely, but it is safe to conclude that flood mitigation is a costly business. This chapter begins with a description of floods in Minneosta to provide examples and contrasts across the state. Background material is presented to provide a basic understanding of floods and flood processes, predication, and management and mitigation. Methods of analyzing and characterizing floods are presented because they affect how we respond to flooding and can influence relevant practices. The understanding and perceptions of floods and flooding commonly differ among those who work in flood forecasting, flood protection, or water resource mamnagement and citizens and businesses affected by floods. These differences can become magnified following a major flood, pointing to the need for better understanding of flooding as well as common language to describe flood risks and the uncertainty associated with determining such risks. Expectations of accurate and timely flood forecasts and our ability to control floods do not always match reality. Striving for clarity is important in formulating policies that can help avoid recurring flood damages and costs.

  20. A Tri-centennial Portrait. Minorities and Women 100 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerard, Paul

    1976-01-01

    Suggests that during the next 100 years, progress for women, blacks, the Spanish surnamed, American Indians, and all other minorities--including the poor and the elderly--will depend on how willing they are to coalesce with each other. (Author)

  1. What Would You Look Like If You Were 100 Years Old?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Hugh

    1998-01-01

    Describes a project inspired by the 100th day of school in which first-grade students created a self-portrait of themselves at 100 years old and wrote an accompanying essay. States that the students drew wrinkles on the faces, age-appropriate clothing, gray or white hair, and even glasses as a finishing touch. (CMK)

  2. 100 Years of Cotton Production, Harvesting and Ginning Systems Engineering: 1907 - 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) celebrated its centennial year during 2007. As part of the ASABE centennial, the authors were asked to describe agricultural engineering accomplishments in U.S. cotton production, harvesting and ginning over the past 100 years. ...

  3. The 1965 Mississippi River flood in Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwob, Harian H.; Myers, Richard E.

    1965-01-01

    Flood data compiled for the part of the River along the eastern border include flood discharges, flood elevations, and the frequency of floods of varying magnitudes. They also include the daily or more frequent stage and discharge data for both the Mississippi River and the downstream gaging stations on Iowa tributaries for the period March-May 1965. Sufficient data are presented to permit studied for preparation of plans for protective works and plans for zoning or for flood plain regulation.

  4. Water-quality assessment of the Rio Grande Valley, Colorado, New Mexico and Texas; ground-water quality in the Rio Grande flood plain, Cochiti Lake, New Mexico, to El Paso, Texas, 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bexfield, L.M.; Anderholm, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    From March to May of 1995, water samples were collected from 30 wells located in the flood plain of the Rio Grande between Cochiti Lake, New Mexico, and El Paso, Texas. These samples were analyzed for a broad host of constituents, including field parameters, major constituents, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, trace elements, radiochemicals, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. The main purpose of this study was to observe the quality of ground water in this part of the Rio Grande Valley study unit of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment program. The sampling effort was limited to the basin- fill aquifer beneath the above-defined reach of the Rio Grande flood plain because of the relative homogeneity of the hydrogeology, the large amount of ground-water use for public supply, and the potential for land-use activities to affect the quality of ground water. Most of the wells sampled for the study are used for domestic purposes, including drinking water. Depths to the tops of the sampling intervals in the 30 wells ranged from 10 to 345 feet below land surface, and the median was 161.5 feet; the sampling intervals in most of the wells spanned about 10 feet or less. Quality-control data were collected at three of the wells. A significant amount of variation was found in the chemical composition of ground water sampled throughout the study area, but the water generally was found to be of suitable chemical quality for use as drinking water, according to current enforceable standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Nutrients generally were measured at concentrations near or below their method reporting limits. The most dominant nutrient species was nitrite plus nitrate, at a maximum concentration of 1.9 milligrams per liter (as N). Only eight of the trace elements analyzed for had median concentrations greater than their respective minimum reporting levels. Water from one well exceeded the lifetime health

  5. Creating Long Term Income Streams for the 100 Year Starship Study Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvester, A. J.

    Development and execution of long term research projects are very dependent on a consistent application of funding to maximize the potential for success. The business structure for the 100 Year Starship Study project should allow for multiple income streams to cover the expenses of the research objectives. The following examples illustrate the range of potential avenues: 1) affiliation with a charitable foundation for creating a donation program to fund a long term endowment for research, 2) application for grants to fund initial research projects and establish the core expertise of the research entity, 3) development of intellectual property which can then be licensed for additional revenue, 4) creation of spinout companies with equity positions retained by the lab for funding the endowment, and 5) funded research which is dual use for the technology goals of the interstellar flight research objectives. With the establishment of a diversified stream of funding options, then the endowment can be funded at a level to permit dedicated research on the interstellar flight topics. This paper will focus on the strategy of creating spinout companies to create income streams which would fund the endowment of the 100 Year Starship Study effort. This technique is widely used by universities seeking to commercially develop and market technologies developed by university researchers. An approach will be outlined for applying this technique to potentially marketable technologies generated as a part of the 100 Year Starship Study effort.

  6. Floods n' Dams: A Watershed Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Andrew; Etches, John

    1996-01-01

    Describes an activity meant to illustrate flooding in a watershed as it impinges on human activities. Shows how flood protection can be provided using the natural holding capacity of basins elsewhere in the water system to reduce the impact on the settled flood plain. The activity works well with intermediate and senior level students but can be…

  7. Streamflow regulation and multi-level flood plain formation: channel narrowing on the aggrading Green River in the eastern Uinta Mountains, Colorado and Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grams, Paul E.; Schmidt, John C.

    2002-05-01

    The style and degree of channel narrowing in aggrading reaches downstream from large dams is dependent upon the dominant geomorphic processes of the affected river, the magnitude of streamflow regulation, and the post-dam sediment transport regime. We measured different magnitudes of channel adjustment on the Green River downstream from Flaming Gorge Dam, UT, USA, that are related to these three factors. Bankfull channel width decreased by an average of about 20% in the study area. In reaches with abundant debris fans and eddy deposited sand bars, the amount of channel narrowing was proportional to the decrease in specific stream power. The fan-eddy-dominated reach with the greatest decrease in stream power narrowed by 22% while the reach with the least decrease in stream power narrowed by 11%. In reaches with the same magnitude of peak flow reduction, meandering reaches narrowed by 15% to 22% and fan-eddy-dominated reaches narrowed by 11% to 12%. Specific stream power was not significantly affected by flow regulation in the meandering reaches. In the diverse array of reach characteristics and deposit types found in the study area, all pre- and post-dam deposits are part of a suite of topographic surfaces that includes a terrace that was inundated by rare pre-dam floods, an intermediate bench that was inundated by rare post-dam floods, and a post-dam floodplain that was inundated by the post-dam mean annual flood. Analysis of historical photographs and tree-ring dating of Tamarix sp. shows that the intermediate bench and post-dam floodplain are post-dam landforms in each reach type. Although these two surfaces occur at different levels, they are forming simultaneously during flows of different magnitude. And while the relative elevation and sedimentologic characteristics of the deposits differ between meandering reaches and reaches with abundant debris fans and eddies, both reach types contain deposits at all of these topographic levels. The process of channel

  8. Natural Flood Management in context: evaluating and enhancing the impact.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, Peter; Beven, Keith; Hankin, Barry; Lamb, Rob

    2016-04-01

    The series of flood events in the UK throughout December 2015 have led to calls for a reappraisal of the country's approach to flood management. In parts of Cumbria so-called "1 in 100" year floods have occurred three times in the last ten years, leading to significant infrastructure damage. Hard-engineered defences upgraded to cope with an anticipated 20% increase in peak flows and these 1% AEP events have been overwhelmed. It has become more widely acknowledged that unsympathetic agricultural and upland management practices, mainly since the Second World War, have led to a significant loss of storage in mid and upper catchments and their consequent ability to retain and slow storm run-off. Natural Flood Management (NFM) is a nature-based solution to restoring this storage and flood peak attenuation through a network of small-scale features exploiting natural topography and materials. Combined with other "soft" interventions such as restoring flood plain roughness and tree-planting, NFM offers the attractive prospect of an intervention that can target both the ecological and chemical objectives of the Water Framework Directive and the resilience demanded by the Floods Directive. We developed a simple computerised physical routing model that can account for the presence of in-channel and offline features such as would be found in a NFM scheme. These will add storage to the channel and floodplain and throttle the downstream discharge at storm flows. The model was applied to the heavily-modified channel network of an agricultural catchment in North Yorkshire using the run-off simulated for two storm events that caused flooding downstream in the autumn of 2012. Using up to 60 online features we demonstrated some gains in channel storage and a small impact on the flood hydrograph which would, however, have been insufficient to prevent the downstream floods in either of the storms. Complementary research at JBA has applied their hydrodynamic model JFLOW+ to identify

  9. Assessment of Hyporheic Zone, Flood-Plain, Soil-Gas, Soil, and Surface-Water Contamination at the McCoys Creek Chemical Training Area, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army Environmental and Natural Resources Management Office of the U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon, Georgia, assessed the hyporheic zone, flood plain, soil gas, soil, and surface water for contaminants at the McCoys Creek Chemical Training Area (MCTA) at Fort Gordon, from October 2009 to September 2010. The assessment included the detection of organic contaminants in the hyporheic zone, flood plain, soil gas, and surface water. In addition, the organic contaminant assessment included the analysis of organic compounds classified as explosives and chemical agents in selected areas. Inorganic contaminants were assessed in soil and surface-water samples. The assessment was conducted to provide environmental contamination data to the U.S. Army at Fort Gordon pursuant to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. Ten passive samplers were deployed in the hyporheic zone and flood plain, and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and octane were detected above the method detection level in every sampler. Other organic compounds detected above the method detection level in the hyporheic zone and flood-plain samplers were trichloroethylene, and cis- and trans- 1, 2-dichloroethylene. One trip blank detected TPH below the method detection level but above the nondetection level. The concentrations of TPH in the samplers were many times greater than the concentrations detected in the blank; therefore, all other TPH concentrations detected are considered to represent environmental conditions. Seventy-one soil-gas samplers were deployed in a grid pattern across the MCTA. Three trip blanks and three method blanks were used and not deployed, and TPH was detected above the method detection level in two trip blanks and one method blank. Detection of TPH was observed at all 71 samplers, but because TPH was detected in the trip and method blanks, TPH was

  10. Peculiarities of Environment Pollution as a Special Type of Radioactive Waste: Field Means for Comprehensive Characterization of Soil and Bottom Sediments and their Application in the Survey at the Flood plain of Techa River - 13172

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Oleg; Danilovich, Alexey; Potapov, Victor; Stepanov, Vyacheslav; Smirnov, Sergey; Volkovich, Anatoly

    2013-07-01

    Contamination of natural objects - zone alarm fallout, zones and flood plains near production sites (the result of technological accidents and resource extraction) occupy large areas. Large area and volume of contaminated matter, moderate specific activity (as low - medium-level wastes) make such objects specific types of radioactive waste. These objects exist for a long time, now they are characterized by a bound state of nuclides with the matrix. There is no cost-effective ways to remove these waste, the only solution for the rehabilitation of such areas is their isolation and regular monitoring through direct and indirect measurements. The complex of instruments was developed to field mapping of contamination. It consists of a portable spectrometric collimated detector, collimated spectrometric borehole detector, underwater spectrometer detector, spectrometer for field measurements of the specific activity of Sr-90, connected to a portable MCA 'Colibry (Hummingbird)'. The complex was used in settlements of Bryansk region, rivers Techa and Yenisei. The effectiveness of the developed complex considered by the example of characterization of the reservoir 10 (artificial lake) in Techinsky cascade containing a huge amount of radioactive waste. The developed field means for comprehensive characterization of soil and bottom sediments contamination are very effective for mapping and monitoring of environment contamination after accidents. Especially in case of high non-uniformity of fallout and may be very actual in Fukushima area. (authors)

  11. Flood study of the Suncook River in Epsom, Pembroke, and Allenstown, New Hampshire, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    On May 15, 2006, a breach in the riverbank caused an avulsion in the Suncook River in Epsom, NH. The breach in the riverbank and subsequent avulsion changed the established flood zones along the Suncook River; therefore, a new flood study was needed to reflect this change and aid in flood recovery and restoration. For this flood study, the hydrologic and hydraulic analyses for the Suncook River were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency. This report presents water-surface elevations and profiles determined using the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers one-dimensional Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System model, also known as HEC-RAS. Steady-state water-surface profiles were developed for the Suncook River from its confluence with the Merrimack River in the Village of Suncook (in Allenstown and Pembroke, NH) to the upstream corporate limit of the town of Epsom, NH (approximately 15.9 river miles). Floods of magnitudes that are expected to be equaled or exceeded once on the average during any 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, or 500-year period (recurrence interval) were modeled using HEC-RAS. These flood events are referred to as the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year floods and have a 50-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, and 0.2-percent chance, respectively, of being equaled or exceeded during any year. The 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year flood events are important for flood-plain management, determination of flood-insurance rates, and design of structures such as bridges and culverts. The analyses in this study reflect flooding potentials that are based on existing conditions in the communities of Epsom, Pembroke, and Allenstown at the time of completion of this study (2009). Changes in the 100-year recurrence-interval flood elevation from the 1979 flood study were typically less than 2 feet with the exception of a location 900 feet upstream from the avulsion that, because of backwater from the dams in the

  12. Fascia Research Congress evidence from the 100 year perspective of Andrew Taylor Still.

    PubMed

    Findley, Thomas W; Shalwala, Mona

    2013-07-01

    More than 100 years ago A.T. Still MD founded osteopathic medicine, and specifically described fascia as a covering, with common origins of layers of the fascial system despite diverse names for individual parts. Fascia assists gliding and fluid flow and is highly innervated. Fascia is intimately involved with respiration and with nourishment of all cells of the body, including those of disease and cancer. This paper reviews information presented at the first three International Fascia Research Congresses in 2007, 2009 and 2012 from the perspective of Dr Still, that fascia is vital for organism's growth and support, and it is where disease is sown.

  13. Acute Torsion of the Gallbladder in a 100-Year-Old Female Patient

    PubMed Central

    Taha, Assad M.; Welling, Richard E.

    1985-01-01

    Torsion of the gallbladder is rare. However, the surgeon should be aware of it and that unusual presentations in the elderly make early diagnosis very difficult. A 100-year-old white female presented with right-sided abdominal pain and was found to have acute torsion of the gallbladder. The clinical picture, diagnostic tests, and operative findings are outlined. Serial evaluations of the patient's condition and a high index of suspicion are essential elements for prompt recognition and early surgical management. PMID:3999156

  14. Cherishing the past: 100 years of nursing education at the American University of Beirut.

    PubMed

    Huijer, Huda Abu-Saad; Balian, Sossy A; Arevian, Mary

    2006-10-01

    This article describes the foundation and the development of nursing education at the American University of Beirut, the first professional school in the country and the region, across 100 years (1905-2005). It talks about the early years, pioneering achievements (1905-1940), the school's leadership in nursing from 1940 to 1976, the war years from 1976 to 1993, and postwar global vision (1993-2005). Furthermore, it gives special tribute to the dedication and hard work of the founders, Ms. Jane Elizabeth Van Zandt and Ms. Mary Bliss Dale, and all the directors whose endeavors and wisdom have helped the development of the school from diploma to bachelor and master's programs.

  15. 100 years of Epilepsia: landmark papers and their influence in neuropsychology and neuropsychiatry.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Bruce

    2010-07-01

    As part of the 2009 International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Centenary Celebration, a special symposium was dedicated to Epilepsia (100 Years of Epilepsia: Landmark Papers and Their Influence). The Associate Editors were asked to identify a particularly salient and meaningful paper in their areas of expertise. From the content areas of neuropsychology and neuropsychiatry two very interesting papers were identified using quite different ascertainment techniques. One paper addressed the problem of psychosis in temporal lobe epilepsy, whereas the other represents the first paper to appear in Epilepsia presenting quantitative assessment of cognitive status in epilepsy. These two papers are reviewed in detail and placed in historical context.

  16. Flood-frequency characteristics of Wisconsin streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, John F.; Krug, William R.

    2003-01-01

    Flood-frequency characteristics for 312 gaged sites on Wisconsin streams are presented for recurrence intervals of 2 to 100 years using flood-peak data collected through water year 2000. Equations of the relations between flood-frequency and drainage-basin characteristics were developed by multiple-regression analyses. Flood-frequency characteristics for ungaged sites on unregulated, rural streams can be estimated by use of these equations. The state was divided into five areas with similar physiographic characteristics. The most significant basin characteristics are drainage area, main-channel slope, soil permeability, storage, rainfall intensity, and forest cover. The standard error of prediction for the equation for the 100-year flood discharge ranges from 22 to 44 percent in the state. A graphical method for estimating flood-frequency characteristics of regulated streams was developed from the relation of discharge and drainage area. Graphs for the major regulated streams are presented.

  17. Extreme climatic events drive mammal irruptions: regression analysis of 100-year trends in desert rainfall and temperature

    PubMed Central

    Greenville, Aaron C; Wardle, Glenda M; Dickman, Chris R

    2012-01-01

    Extreme climatic events, such as flooding rains, extended decadal droughts and heat waves have been identified increasingly as important regulators of natural populations. Climate models predict that global warming will drive changes in rainfall and increase the frequency and severity of extreme events. Consequently, to anticipate how organisms will respond we need to document how changes in extremes of temperature and rainfall compare to trends in the mean values of these variables and over what spatial scales the patterns are consistent. Using the longest historical weather records available for central Australia – 100 years – and quantile regression methods, we investigate if extreme climate events have changed at similar rates to median events, if annual rainfall has increased in variability, and if the frequency of large rainfall events has increased over this period. Specifically, we compared local (individual weather stations) and regional (Simpson Desert) spatial scales, and quantified trends in median (50th quantile) and extreme weather values (5th, 10th, 90th, and 95th quantiles). We found that median and extreme annual minimum and maximum temperatures have increased at both spatial scales over the past century. Rainfall changes have been inconsistent across the Simpson Desert; individual weather stations showed increases in annual rainfall, increased frequency of large rainfall events or more prolonged droughts, depending on the location. In contrast to our prediction, we found no evidence that intra-annual rainfall had become more variable over time. Using long-term live-trapping records (22 years) of desert small mammals as a case study, we demonstrate that irruptive events are driven by extreme rainfalls (>95th quantile) and that increases in the magnitude and frequency of extreme rainfall events are likely to drive changes in the populations of these species through direct and indirect changes in predation pressure and wildfires. PMID:23170202

  18. Solar wind variations in the 60-100 year period range: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feynman, J.

    1983-01-01

    The evidence for and against the reality of a solar wind variation in the period range of 60-100 years is reexamined. Six data sets are reviewed; sunspot numbers, geomagnetic variations, two auroral data sets and two (14)C data sets. These data are proxies for several different aspects of the solar wind and the presence or absence of 60-100 year cyclic behavior in a particular data set does not necessarily imply the presence or absence of this variation in other sets. It was concluded that two different analyses of proxy data for a particular characteristic of the heliospheric solar wind yielded conflicting results. This conflict can be resolved only by future research. It is also definitely confirmed that proxy data for the solar wind in the ecliptic at 1 A.U. undergo a periodic variation with a period of approximately 87 years. The average amplitude and phase of this variation as seen in eleven cycles of proxy data are presented.

  19. Morphological response of songbirds to 100 years of landscape change in North America.

    PubMed

    Desrochers, A

    2010-06-01

    Major landscape changes caused by humans may create strong selection pressures and induce rapid evolution in natural populations. In the last 100 years, eastern North America has experienced extensive clear-cutting in boreal areas, while afforestation has occurred in most temperate areas. Based on museum specimens, I show that wings of several boreal forest songbirds and temperate songbirds of non-forest habitats have become more pointed over the last 100 years. In contrast, wings of most temperate forest and early-successional boreal forests species have become less pointed over the same period. In contrast to wing shape, the bill length of most species did not change significantly through time. These results are consistent with the "habitat isolation hypothesis", i.e., songbirds evolved in response to recent changes in the amount of available habitat and associated implications for mobility. Rapid morphological evolution may mitigate, without necessarily preventing, negative consequences of habitat loss caused by humans through direct exploitation or climate change.

  20. Floods in Indiana, June-August 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gold, Robert L.; Wolcott, Stephen W.

    1980-01-01

    This report documents rainstorms and resultant floods in central and southern Indiana during the summer of 1979. Major flooding was caused by three storms, one in June and two in July 1979, centered primarily in central and southern Indiana. Peak discharge exceeded the 100-year recurrence interval at 16 sites in this area. State Civil Defense officials estimated that almost 50-million dollars damage was attributable to the July floods. Hydrologic data have been tabulated for streamflow sites in the areas of flooding. Reservoir storage volumes, observation-well data, rainfall totals, and discharge hydrographs are presented to show the intensity and time of the storms and resultant floods. (USGS)

  1. Epic Flooding in Georgia, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gotvald, Anthony J.; McCallum, Brian E.

    2010-01-01

    Metropolitan Atlanta-September 2009 Floods * The epic floods experienced in the Atlanta area in September 2009 were extremely rare. Eighteen streamgages in the Metropolitan Atlanta area had flood magnitudes much greater than the estimated 0.2-percent (500-year) annual exceedance probability. * The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) reported that 23 counties in Georgia were declared disaster areas due to this flood and that 16,981 homes and 3,482 businesses were affected by floodwaters. Ten lives were lost in the flood. The total estimated damages exceed $193 million (H.E. Longenecker, Federal Emergency Management Agency, written commun., November 2009). * On Sweetwater Creek near Austell, Ga., just north of Interstate 20, the peak stage was more than 6 feet higher than the estimated peak stage of the 0.2-percent (500-year) flood. Flood magnitudes in Cobb County on Sweetwater, Butler, and Powder Springs Creeks greatly exceeded the estimated 0.2-percent (500-year) floods for these streams. * In Douglas County, the Dog River at Ga. Highway 5 near Fairplay had a peak stage nearly 20 feet higher than the estimated peak stage of the 0.2-percent (500-year) flood. * On the Chattahoochee River, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gage at Vinings reached the highest level recorded in the past 81 years. Gwinnett, De Kalb, Fulton, and Rockdale Counties also had record flooding. South Georgia March and April 2009 Floods * The March and April 2009 floods in South Georgia were smaller in magnitude than the September floods but still caused significant damage. * No lives were lost in this flood. Approximately $60 million in public infrastructure damage occurred to roads, culverts, bridges and a water treatment facility (Joseph T. McKinney, Federal Emergency Management Agency, written commun., July 2009). * Flow at the Satilla River near Waycross, exceeded the 0.5-percent (200-year) flood. Flows at seven other stations in South Georgia exceeded the 1-percent (100-year) flood.

  2. 100 years of Pb deposition and transport in soils in Champaign, Illinois, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Y.

    2003-01-01

    In Illinois, atmospheric deposition is one major source of heavy metal inputs to agricultural land. The atmospheric Pb deposition and transport record in agricultural soils in Champaign, Illinois, was established by studying surface and subsurface soil samples collected during the past 100 years from the Morrow Plots on the campus of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The Pb content in the soil samples was measured and the Ph deposition fluxes were calculated. The Pb content in surface soils increased sharply in the first half of the 20th century, and stayed invariant since. The maximum Pb flux from the atmosphere was estimated to be 27 (??14) ??g cm-2 yr-1 around 1940. The major pollution source for this increase probably was residential coal burning. It was estimated that in 50 yr, more than 50% of the Pb input had been lost from the surface soils.

  3. The Reissner Canard: The first all-metal airplane 100 years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Egon

    2012-10-01

    In 1912 Professor Hans Reissner of the Technical University Aachen built a canard-type aeroplane, the world-wide first completely out of metal: although the Reissner Canard initiated a new technology with the Junkers J1 the first to follow in 1915 and 1000 more until now, little is known about the very first steps way back in Aachen. This paper tries to recapture some details of the developments 100 years ago with the aid of early publications and photographs and shed some light on the first wing fabricated out of a corrugated aluminum sheet mounted at the tail of the braced-steel-pipe fuselage to earn its airworthiness in Berlin Johannisthal in 1912.

  4. Sustainable Foods and Medicines Support Vitality, Sex and Longevity for a 100-Year Starship Expedition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, M. R.

    Extended space flight requires foods and medicines that sustain crew health and vitality. The health and therapeutic needs for the entire crew and their children for a 100-year space flight must be sustainable. The starship cannot depend on resupply or carry a large cargo of pharmaceuticals. Everything in the starship must be completely recyclable and reconstructable, including food, feed, textiles, building materials, pharmaceuticals, vaccines, and medicines. Smart microfarms will produce functional foods with superior nutrition and sensory attributes. These foods provide high-quality protein and nutralence (nutrient density), that avoids obesity, diabetes, and other Western diseases. The combination of functional foods, lifestyle actions, and medicines will support crew immunity, energy, vitality, sustained strong health, and longevity. Smart microfarms enable the production of fresh medicines in hours or days, eliminating the need for a large dispensary, which eliminates concern over drug shelf life. Smart microfarms are adaptable to the extreme growing area, resource, and environmental constraints associated with an extended starship expedition.

  5. PREFACE: Spanish Relativity Meeting (ERE 2014): almost 100 years after Einstein's revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdá-Durán, P.; Font, J. A.; Ibáñez, J. M.; Lledó, M. A.; Navarro-Salas, J.; Olmo, G. J.

    2015-04-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the international scientific conference ''Spanish Relativity Meeting (ERE 2014): almost 100 years after Einstein's revolution''. The conference was devoted to discussing the current state-of-the-art of a wide variety of topics of research in the fields of Gravitation and General Relativity in the ''pre-centennial'' year of General Relativity. The name of the conference was chosen to highlight the importance of the upcoming one hundredth anniversary of Einstein's theory of General Relativity, officially established by the Internal Society on General Relativity and Gravitation in November 25th, 2015. In particular, the conference was organized along three main lines of present-day research and applications of the theory, namely, Relativistic Astrophysics, Mathematical Relativity, and the interface between Gravitation and Quantum Field Theory.

  6. Tree rings record 100 years of hydrologic change within a wetland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yanosky, Thomas M.; Kappel, William M.

    1997-01-01

    Hydrology and tree growth were investigated within a small wetland in the Tully Valley of central New York, about 20 miles south of Syracuse. In late 1994 it was noted that some wetland trees were dying, and local residents reported that flow of a small stream draining the wetland seemingly increased and became more brackish since the mid to late 1980s. The wetland is about 3 miles north of an extensive salt mining operation known to have degraded local water quality, but no effects of mining had been confirmed previously near the wetland. The oldest wetland trees started to grow before the onset of mining in 1889, and thus tree-ring studies were undertaken not only to investi-gate recent hydrologic change within the wetland, but also to search for evidence of any other changes during the last 100 years.

  7. Élie Metchnikoff (1845-1916): celebrating 100 years of cellular immunology and beyond.

    PubMed

    Underhill, David M; Gordon, Siamon; Imhof, Beat A; Núñez, Gabriel; Bousso, Philippe

    2016-10-01

    The year 2016 marks 100 years since the death of Élie Metchnikoff (1845-1916), the Russian zoologist who pioneered the study of cellular immunology and who is widely credited with the discovery of phagocytosis, for which he was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1908. However, his long scientific career spanned many disciplines and has had far-reaching effects on modern immunology beyond the study of phagocytosis. In this Viewpoint article, five leading immunologists from the fields of phagocytosis, macrophage biology, leukocyte migration, the microbiota and intravital imaging tell Nature Reviews Immunology how Metchnikoff's work has influenced past, present and future research in their respective fields.

  8. 100-year DASCH Light Curves of Kepler Planet-Candidate Host Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Sumin; Sasselov, Dimitar; Grindlay, Jonathan; Los, Edward; Servillat, Mathieu

    2013-07-01

    We present 100 year light curves of Kepler planet-candidate host stars from the Digital Access to a Sky Century at Harvard (DASCH) project. 261 out of 997 host stars have at least 10 good measurements on DASCH scans of the Harvard plates. 109 of them have at least 100 good measurements, including 70% (73 out of 104) of all host stars with g <= 13 mag, and 44% (100 out of 228) of all host stars with g <= 14 mag. Our typical photometric uncertainty is ~0.1-0.15 mag. No variation is found at 3σ level for these host stars, including 21 confirmed or candidate hot Jupiter systems which might be expected to show enhanced flares from magnetic interactions between dwarf primaries and their close and relatively massive planet companions.

  9. 100 Years of British military neurosurgery: on the shoulders of giants.

    PubMed

    Roberts, S A G

    2015-01-01

    Death from head injuries has been a feature of conflicts throughout the world for centuries. The burden of mortality has been variously affected by the evolution in weaponry from war-hammers to explosive ordnance, the influence of armour on survivability and the changing likelihood of infection as a complicating factor. Surgery evolved from haphazard trephination to valiant, yet disjointed, neurosurgery by a variety of great historical surgeons until the Crimean War of 1853-1856. However, it was events initiated by the Great War of 1914-1918 that not only marked the development of modern neurosurgical techniques, but our approach to military surgery as a whole. Here the author describes how 100 years of conflict and the input and intertwining relationships between the 20th century's great neurosurgeons established neurosurgery in the United Kingdom and beyond. PMID:26292388

  10. Long term (>100 years) Carbon Sequestration in California Coastal Salt Marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, L. N.; MacDonald, G. M.; Holmquist, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal salt marsh ecosystems rank as one of the ecosystems which sequester the most carbon (C) in the world (Chmura, 2003; Mcleod et al., 2011). California hosts multiple small marsh ecosystems outside of the San Francisco Bay that are limited in geographic extent but still contribute significantly to global soil C. This study evaluates 11 marsh sites along the California coast for annual soil C sequestration rates using 14C, 137Cs, and 210Pb chronologies. Estimates of carbon sequestration for California over the past 100 years from this study average at 49 g C m-2 yr-1. Long term estimates of soil C generally are lower because of natural decomposition of organic C, but this study indicates a persistence of high C storage capacity for coastal marsh systems. These estimates provide valuable insight into the long term capacity for coastal salt marshes to mitigate climate change through sequestration of C.

  11. Élie Metchnikoff (1845-1916): celebrating 100 years of cellular immunology and beyond.

    PubMed

    Underhill, David M; Gordon, Siamon; Imhof, Beat A; Núñez, Gabriel; Bousso, Philippe

    2016-10-01

    The year 2016 marks 100 years since the death of Élie Metchnikoff (1845-1916), the Russian zoologist who pioneered the study of cellular immunology and who is widely credited with the discovery of phagocytosis, for which he was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1908. However, his long scientific career spanned many disciplines and has had far-reaching effects on modern immunology beyond the study of phagocytosis. In this Viewpoint article, five leading immunologists from the fields of phagocytosis, macrophage biology, leukocyte migration, the microbiota and intravital imaging tell Nature Reviews Immunology how Metchnikoff's work has influenced past, present and future research in their respective fields. PMID:27477126

  12. 100+ years of instrumental seismology: the example of the ISC-GEM Global Earthquake Instrumental Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storchak, Dmitry; Di Giacomo, Domenico

    2015-04-01

    Systematic seismological observations of earthquakes using seismic instruments on a global scale began more than 100 years ago. Since then seismologists made many discoveries about the Earth interior and the physics of the earthquakes, also thanks to major developments in the seismic instrumentation deployed around the world. Besides, since the establishment of the first global networks (Milne and Jesuit networks), seismologists around the world stored and exchanged the results of routine observations (e.g., picking of arrival times, amplitude-period measurements, etc.) or more sophisticated analyses (e.g., moment tensor inversion) in seismological bulletins/catalogues. With a project funded by the GEM Foundation (www.globalquakemodel.org), the ISC and the Team of International Experts released a new global earthquake catalogue, the ISC-GEM Global Instrumental Earthquake Catalogue (1900 2009) (www.isc.ac.uk/iscgem/index.php), which, differently from previous global seismic catalogues, has the unique feature of covering the entire period of instrumental seismology with locations and magnitude re-assessed using modern approaches for the global earthquakes selected for processing (in the current version approximately 21,000). During the 110 years covered by the ISC-GEM catalogue many seismological developments occurred in terms of instrumentation, seismological practice and knowledge of the physics of the earthquakes. In this contribution we give a brief overview of the major milestones characterizing the last 100+ years of instrumental seismology that were relevant for the production of the ISC-GEM catalogue and the major challenges we faced to obtain a catalogue as homogenous as possible.

  13. Floods in the Skunk River basin, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinitz, Albert J.; Wiitala, Sulo Werner

    1978-01-01

    Evaluation of flood hazards, and the planning, design, and operation of various facilities on flood plains require information on floods. This report provides information on flood stages and discharges, flood magnitudes and frequency, and flood profiles for the Skunk River and some of its tributaries. It covers the Skunk -- South Skunk Rivers to Ames, and the lower reaches of tributaries as flows: Squaw Creek, 8.2 miles; Indian Creek, 11.6 miles; North Skunk River, 83.2 miles; Cedar Creek, 55.8 miles; and Big Creek, 21.7 miles.

  14. Flood-prone areas of Jacksonville, Duval County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Richard B.; Causey, Lawson V.; Tucker, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Floods in the consolidated city of Jacksonville, Duval County, Florida, are caused directly by rainfall which, when combined with storm driven tides, causes rivers or other bodies of water to flood the low lying parts of the county. This map report supplies information on areas subject to floods of 100-year frequency; the information will permit evaluation of alternative uses of such areas. The extent of the 100-year flood is shown on the large-scale map accompanying the report. Also included is an index map showing sections of Duval County where more detailed information on the 100-year flood can be obtained. The major flood of record in the county occurred in 1964 when Hurricane Dora crossed the area. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Applicability of 1994-1995 USRADS{reg_sign} surveys of Bear Creek Valley flood plain and Operable Unit 1 to the radiological characterization of Y-12 grassy/wooded areas

    SciTech Connect

    Bogard, J.S.; Hamm, R.N.; Brown, K.S.

    1997-03-01

    This document, provided in support of the Y-12 Site Radiological Characterization Study, analyzes the utility of data from two reports by Chemrad Tennessee Corporation in identifying radiological contamination in excess of contamination control guidelines at the surface of soils in the Bear Creek Valley Flood Plain (BCVFP) and in Y-12 Operable Unit 1 (OU1). The Chemrad reports were developed under subcontract to Science Applications International Corporation for their remedial investigation of these sites for Martin Marietta Energy Systems Environmental Restoration Division. Surveys were performed by Chemrad using the UltraSonic Ranging and Data System (USRADS{reg_sign}), which utilizes ultrasonic triangulation to determine the location of a survey technician at the same time that radiological monitoring data are telemetered from his instruments to a remote receiving station. Floor monitor and Geiger-Mueller pancake meter results from the USRADS{reg_sign} surveys are shown to be sufficiently precise to reliably detect contamination in excess of the limiting radioactivity value of 1,000 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} for removable uranium contamination specified in 10 CFR 835 Appendix D. MicroRem meter survey results, also included as part of the USRADS{reg_sign} surveys, indicate that the derived limiting value of 56.8 {mu}rem/h for penetrating dose at 1 m (corresponding to 100 mrem/{gamma}) was not exceeded. However, both the pancake meter and floor monitor results suggest that surface contamination exceeding 1,000 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} is not uncommon. Sites in OU1 and BCVFP were visited, and independent surveys made with hand-held instruments, to confirm conclusions about the USRADS{close_quote} survey results and to verify that these results are from contamination uniformly distributed on the soil surface, and not from discrete sources which are not likely transferred to shoes, vehicles, or clothing.

  16. Potential flood and debris hazards at Cottonwood Cove, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Clark County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moosburner, Otto

    1981-01-01

    At Cottonwood Cove, Nevada, most of the existing dikes at the recreation sites are effective in diverting and routing floodflows, up to and including the 100-year flood, away from people and facilities. The dikes across Ranger Residence Wash and Access Road Wash at the mouth divert floods up to the 50-year recurrence interval away from residential areas. Flow and debris damage in protected areas will be relatively minor minor for floods including the 100-year flood, whereas damage caused by sediment deposition at the mouths of the washes near Lake Mohave could be significant for floods equal to or less than the 100-year flood. The extreme flood, a flood meteorologically and hydrologically possible but so rare as to preclude a frequency estimate, could cause great damage and possible loss of life. The present dikes would be topped or breached by such flooding. (USGS)

  17. Use of documentary sources on past flood events for flood risk management and land planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cœur, Denis; Lang, Michel

    2008-09-01

    The knowledge of past catastrophic events can improve flood risk mitigation policy, with a better awareness against risk. As such historical information is usually available in Europe for the past five centuries, historians are able to understand how past society dealt with flood risk, and hydrologists can include information on past floods into an adapted probabilistic framework. In France, Flood Risk Mitigation Maps are based either on the largest historical known flood event or on the 100-year flood event if it is greater. Two actions can be suggested in terms of promoting the use of historical information for flood risk management: (1) the development of a regional flood data base, with both historical and current data, in order to get a good feedback on recent events and to improve the flood risk education and awareness; (2) the commitment to keep a persistent/perennial management of a reference network of hydrometeorological observations for climate change studies.

  18. [From the regional hospital to the Clinical Center in Sarajevo--100 years of work and development].

    PubMed

    Konjhodzić, F

    1994-01-01

    In the course of the past 100 years of the Regional Hospital, the Clinical Centre now experienced a number of organizational, functional and technological changes. There 6 striking periods: 1. Period of the Regional Hospital in Sarajevo, 1894-1918; 2. General State Hospital, 1919-1940; 3. World War 2, 1941-1945; 4. Clinical Hospital of the Medical Faculty in Sarajevo, 1946-1974; 5. University Medical Centre in Sarajevo, 1974-1992; 6. Clinical Centre of University in Sarajevo, since 1992 to the present days. From the modest building like pavilions, the Regional Hospital in Sarajevo became a modern Clinical Centre, 40 units, Institute of Research Work and the developed secondary and terciary health protection, except cardiosurgery. The Clinical Centre and its staff are the true heroes of the war, who succeed in the past two years to extend over a million of helps, nearly 20,000 surgical operations, over 1,5 million of diagnostic treatments, more than 100,000 psychotherapeutical treatments, more than 3,000 deliveries, etc. All that was performed in the extra-ordinary difficult circumstances, without electricity, the damaged equipment, reduced medical staff and shortage of the medical materials and drugs. The Clinical Centre was awarded by the UN for humanity and human rights, 1983 and the Humanist of the Year in B&H in 1993.

  19. Revisiting extreme storms of the past 100 years for future safety of large water management infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Hossain, Faisal

    2016-07-01

    Historical extreme storm events are widely used to make Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) estimates, which form the cornerstone of large water management infrastructure safety. Past studies suggest that extreme precipitation processes can be sensitive to land surface feedback and the planetary warming trend, which makes the future safety of large infrastructures questionable given the projected changes in land cover and temperature in the coming decades. In this study, a numerical modeling framework was employed to reconstruct 10 extreme storms over CONUS that occurred during the past 100 years, which are used by the engineering profession for PMP estimation for large infrastructures such as dams. Results show that the correlation in daily rainfall for such reconstruction can range between 0.4 and 0.7, while the correlation for maximum 3-day accumulation (a standard period used in infrastructure design) is always above 0.5 for post-1948 storms. This suggests that current numerical modeling and reanalysis data allow us to reconstruct big storms after 1948 with acceptable accuracy. For storms prior to 1948, however, reconstruction of storms shows inconsistency with observations. Our study indicates that numerical modeling and data may not have advanced to a sufficient level to understand how such old storms (pre-1948) may behave in future warming and land cover conditions. However, the infrastructure community can certainly rely on the use of model reconstructed extreme storms of the 1948-present period to reassess safety of our large water infrastructures under assumed changes in temperature and land cover.

  20. Rainfall and drought in equatorial east Africa during the past 1,100 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschuren, Dirk; Laird, Kathleen R.; Cumming, Brian F.

    2000-01-01

    Knowledge of natural long-term rainfall variability is essential for water-resource and land-use management in sub-humid regions of the world. In tropical Africa, data relevant to determining this variability are scarce because of the lack of long instrumental climate records and the limited potential of standard high-resolution proxy records such as tree rings and ice cores. Here we present a decade-scale reconstruction of rainfall and drought in equatorial east Africa over the past 1,100 years, based on lake-level and salinity fluctuations of Lake Naivasha (Kenya) inferred from three different palaeolimnological proxies: sediment stratigraphy and the species compositions of fossil diatom and midge assemblages. Our data indicate that, over the past millennium, equatorial east Africa has alternated between contrasting climate conditions, with significantly drier climate than today during the `Medieval Warm Period' (~ AD 1000-1270) and a relatively wet climate during the `Little Ice Age' (~ AD 1270-1850) which was interrupted by three prolonged dry episodes. We also find strong chronological links between the reconstructed history of natural long-term rainfall variation and the pre-colonial cultural history of east Africa, highlighting the importance of a detailed knowledge of natural long-term rainfall fluctuations for sustainable socio-economic development.

  1. Cryptic loss of montane avian richness and high community turnover over 100 years.

    PubMed

    Tingley, Morgan W; Beissinger, Steven R

    2013-03-01

    Although there are numerous examples of individual species moving up in elevation and poleward in latitude in response to 20th century climate change, how communities have responded is less well understood and requires fully accounting for changes in species-specific detectability over time, which has been neglected in past studies. We use a hierarchical Bayesian occupancy model to examine bird species richness change and turnover along three elevation gradients surveyed 80-100 years apart in the Sierra Nevada of California, USA. Richness declined over the 20th century across all elevations. Turnover was greatest at the highest and the lowest elevations. These findings were only apparent, however, after species' detectability was incorporated into measures of species richness. Further partitioning of species richness changes by elevational life zone showed that numbers of low- and high-elevation species declined, without a concurrent expansion by mid-elevation species. Our results provide empirical evidence for biodiversity loss in protected montane areas during the 20th century and highlight the importance of accounting for detectability in comparisons of species richness over time.

  2. Migration and health in Southern Africa: 100 years and still circulating

    PubMed Central

    Lurie, Mark N.; Williams, Brian G.

    2014-01-01

    Migration has deep historical roots in South and Southern Africa and to this day continues to be highly prevalent and a major factor shaping South African society and health. In this paper we examine the role of migration in the spread of two diseases nearly 100 years apart: tuberculosis following the discovery of gold in 1886 and HIV in the early 1990s. Both cases demonstrate the critical role played by human migration in the transmission and subsequent dissemination of these diseases to rural areas. In both cases, migration acts to assemble in one high-risk environment thousands of young men highly susceptible to new diseases. With poor living and working conditions, these migration destinations act as hot-spots for disease transmission. Migration of workers back to rural areas then serves as a highly efficient means of disseminating these diseases to rural populations. We conclude by raising some more recent questions examining the current role of migration in Southern Africa. PMID:24653964

  3. 100 years of relativity. Space-time structure: Einstein and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashtekar, Abhay

    2005-11-01

    Thanks to Einstein's relativity theories, our notions of space and time underwent profound revisions about a 100 years ago. The resulting interplay between geometry and physics has dominated all of fundamental physics since then. This volume contains contributions from leading researchers, worldwide, who have thought deeply about the nature and consequences of this interplay. The articles take a long-range view of the subject and distill the most important advances in broad terms, making them easily accessible to non-specialists. The first part is devoted to a summary of how relativity theories were born (J. Stachel). The second part discusses the most dramatic ramifications of general relativity, such as black holes (P. Chrusciel and R. Price), space-time singularities (H. Nicolai and A. Rendall), gravitational waves (P. Laguna and P. Saulson), the large scale structure of the cosmos (T. Padmanabhan); experimental status of this theory (C. Will) as well as its practical application to the GPS system (N. Ashby). The last part looks beyond Einstein and provides glimpses into what is in store for us in the 21st century. Contributions here include summaries of radical changes in the notions of space and time that are emerging from quantum field theory in curved space-times (Ford), string theory (T. Banks), loop quantum gravity (A. Ashtekar), quantum cosmology (M. Bojowald), discrete approaches (Dowker, Gambini and Pullin) and twistor theory (R Penrose).

  4. [Advances in the development of new vaccines against tuberculosis. 100 years after the introduction of BCG].

    PubMed

    Krysztopa-Grzybowska, Katarzyna; Lutyńska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The BCG vaccine used in the world for nearly 100 years protects children against the most severe forms of tuberculosis, but its effectiveness in preventing the most commonly occurring tuberculosis and the one burdened with the highest risk of transmission in adults is very diverse. Contraindications for BCG vaccination include HIV infection and other conditions of immunosuppression. Tuberculosis is a global problem difficult to control because of three main reasons: poor diagnostics in developing countries, long-term therapy or discontinuation of treatment resulting in the emergence of drug-resistant mycobacteria, and the availability of a TB vaccine which only protects children from the most severe forms of tuberculosis. BCG has little to no efficacy in preventing the most common adult pulmonary TB. The development of a more effective vaccine against tuberculosis is undoubtedly still a public health priority in order to improve control of the disease throughout the world. Elimination of TB as a global public health goal by 2050 is particularly ambitious and its achievement depends on the development and application of new intervention measures and newly designed vaccines. Currently, 14 newly developed products are undergoing clinical trials. These include a prophylactic vaccine capable of replacing the current BCG, booster vaccines to increase the effects of BCG, and therapeutic vaccines. The aim of the study is to present the current state of knowledge on cutting-edge research into new vaccines against tuberculosis, their efficacy, immunogenicity and potential use in the future.

  5. The Archives of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism: Documenting 100 Years of Carnegie Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, S. J.

    2005-12-01

    The archives of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism (DTM) of the Carnegie Institution of Washington document more than a century of geophysical and astronomical investigations. Primary source materials available for historical research include field and laboratory notebooks, equipment designs, plans for observatories and research vessels, scientists' correspondence, and thousands of expedition and instrument photographs. Yet despite its history, DTM long lacked a systematic approach to managing its documentary heritage. A preliminary records survey conducted in 2001 identified more than 1,000 linear feet of historically-valuable records languishing in dusty, poorly-accessible storerooms. Intellectual control at that time was minimal. With support from the National Historical Publications and Records Commission, the "Carnegie Legacy Project" was initiated in 2003 to preserve, organize, and facilitate access to DTM's archival records, as well as those of the Carnegie Institution's administrative headquarters and Geophysical Laboratory. Professional archivists were hired to process the 100-year backlog of records. Policies and procedures were established to ensure that all work conformed to national archival standards. Records were appraised, organized, and rehoused in acid-free containers, and finding aids were created for the project web site. Standardized descriptions of each collection were contributed to the WorldCat bibliographic database and the AIP International Catalog of Sources for History of Physics. Historic photographs and documents were digitized for online exhibitions to raise awareness of the archives among researchers and the general public. The success of the Legacy Project depended on collaboration between archivists, librarians, historians, data specialists, and scientists. This presentation will discuss key aspects (funding, staffing, preservation, access, outreach) of the Legacy Project and is aimed at personnel in observatories, research

  6. 100 years of California’s water rights system: patterns, trends and uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grantham, Theodore E.; Viers, Joshua H.

    2014-08-01

    For 100 years, California’s State Water Resources Control Board and its predecessors have been responsible for allocating available water supplies to beneficial uses, but inaccurate and incomplete accounting of water rights has made the state ill-equipped to satisfy growing societal demands for water supply reliability and healthy ecosystems. Here, we present the first comprehensive evaluation of appropriative water rights to identify where, and to what extent, water has been dedicated to human uses relative to natural supplies. The results show that water right allocations total 400 billion cubic meters, approximately five times the state’s mean annual runoff. In the state’s major river basins, water rights account for up to 1000% of natural surface water supplies, with the greatest degree of appropriation observed in tributaries to the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers and in coastal streams in southern California. Comparisons with water supplies and estimates of actual use indicate substantial uncertainty in how water rights are exercised. In arid regions such as California, over-allocation of surface water coupled with trends of decreasing supply suggest that new water demands will be met by re-allocation from existing uses. Without improvements to the water rights system, growing human and environmental demands portend an intensification of regional water scarcity and social conflict. California’s legal framework for managing its water resources is largely compatible with needed reforms, but additional public investment is required to enhance the capacity of the state’s water management institutions to effectively track and regulate water rights.

  7. An epidemiological review of changes in meningococcal biology during the last 100 years

    PubMed Central

    Abio, Anne; Neal, Keith R; Beck, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to assess changes in trends of meningococcal disease and strain diversity of Neisseria meningitidis in Europe, South America, and Africa over the last 100 years. Methods Healthcare databases and sources of grey literature were searched in 2012 and records were screened against the protocol eligibility criteria using a three-stage sifting process. Studies included in the review were subject to data extraction. Results were summarised using a narrative approach. Results Serogroup A was the dominant cause of invasive meningococcal disease in Europe before and during World Wars I and II. Whilst serogroup B has been dominant from the 1970s in Europe and the 1980s in South America, outbreaks have emerged associated with serogroups W135 and Y in the twenty-first century. There has been a shift in the age groups affected by invasive meningococcal disease with an increase in incidence among the elderly associated with serogroup Y and a decline in serogroup C among adolescent populations. Recent outbreaks of serogroup W135 have occurred in some countries in South America. The epidemiological trend of invasive meningococcal disease has remained largely static across Africa and dominated by serogroup A although recently serogroups X and W135 have accounted for a large proportion of morbidity and mortality. Conclusion The epidemiology of N. meningitidis has been dynamic in Europe and South America especially over the last 30 years. Routine vaccination with serogroup C vaccines has led to reduced carriage and incidence of invasive meningococcal disease and herd immunity. PMID:24392681

  8. To Humbly Go: Guarding Against Perpetuating Models of Colonization in the 100-Year Starship Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, W. R.

    Past patterns of exploration, colonization and exploitation on Earth continue to provide the predominant paradigms that guide many space programs. Any project of crewed space exploration, especially of the magnitude envisioned by the 100-Year Starship Study, must guard against the hubris that may emerge among planners, crew, and others associated with the project, including those industries and bureaucracies that will emerge from the effort. Maintaining a non-exploitative approach may be difficult in consideration of the century of preparatory research and development and the likely multigenerational nature of the voyage itself. Starting now with mission dreamers and planners, the purpose of the voyage must be cast as one of respectful learning and humble discovery, not of conquest (either actual or metaphorical) or other inappropriate models, including military. At a minimum, the Study must actively build non-violence into the voyaging culture it is beginning to create today. References to exploitive colonization, conquest, destiny and other terms from especially American frontier mythology, while tempting in their propagandizing power, should be avoided as they limit creative thinking about alternative possible futures. Future voyagers must strive to adapt to new environments wherever possible and be assimilated by new worlds both biologically and behaviorally rather than to rely on attempts to recreate the Earth they have left. Adaptation should be strongly considered over terraforming. This paper provides an overview of previous work linking the language of colonization to space programs and challenges the extension of the myth of the American frontier to the Starship Study. It argues that such metaphors would be counter-productive at best and have the potential to doom long-term success and survival by planting seeds of social decay and self-destruction. Cautions and recommendations are suggested.

  9. Flood-prone areas and land-use planning; selected examples from the San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waananen, Arvi O.; Limerinos, J.T.; Kockelman, W.J.; Spangle, W.E.; Blair, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    The common goal of flood-plain regulation and use is protecting life, minimizing public expenditures, and reducing flood loss. A comprehensive program combining structural and nonstructural measures can yield substantial benefits and may present a practical approach for managing a flood plain. A review of flood-plain planning, management, and regulation in the San Francisco Bay region, Calif., as shown by a study of Napa County , demonstrates complex multijurisdictional involvements. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Popular myths about flooding in Western Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    Floods are the most destructive natural hazard in the Nation, causing more deaths and financial loss in the 20th century than any other natural disaster. The most significant 20 riverine floods of the 20th century for which data are available have killed more than 1,843 people and caused more than $50 billion (uninflated) in damages (Perry, 2000). One of the most common means of describing the severity of a flood is a comparison to the "100-year flood." In the last decade, increasing attention has been paid to the fact that some regions, notably the Pacific Northwest, have experienced numerous so-called "100-year" floods in the span of a few years. Part of the confusion stems from the statistical nature of the "100-year flood" (Greene, 1996); however, another part of the confusion is the fact that the statistics are calculated for specific sites (streamgages) on specific rivers, rather than for a region as a whole. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey have begun to investigate how the likelihood of flooding may be determined on a regional basis (Troutman and Karlinger, 2003).

  11. Floods in the English River basin, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinitz, A.J.; Riddle, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    Information describing floods is essential for proper planning, design, and operation of bridges and other structures on or over streams and their flood plains. This report provides information on flood stages and discharges, flood magnitude and frequency, bench mark data, and flood profiles for the English River and some of its tributaries. It covers the English River, the North English River to near Guernsey, the south Eaglish River to Barnes City and the lower reaches of the Biddle English and Deep Rivers

  12. Infrared survey of 50 buildings constructed during 100 years: thermal performances and damage conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ljungberg, Sven-Ake

    1995-03-01

    Different building constructions and craftsmanship give rise to different thermal performance and damage conditions. The building stock of most industrial countries consists of buildings of various age, and constructions, from old historic buildings with heavy stone or wooden construction, to new buildings with heavy or light concrete construction, or modern steel or wooden construction. In this paper the result from a detailed infrared survey of 50 buildings from six Swedish military camps is presented. The presentation is limited to a comparison of thermal performance and damage conditions of buildings of various ages, functions, and constructions, of a building period of more than 100 years. The result is expected to be relevant even to civilian buildings. Infrared surveys were performed during 1992-1993, with airborne, and mobile short- and longwave infrared systems, out- and indoor thermography. Interpretation and analysis of infrared data was performed with interactive image and analyzing systems. Field inspections were carried out with fiber optics system, and by ocular inspections. Air-exchange rate was measured in order to quantify air leakages through the building envelope, indicated in thermograms. The objects studied were single-family houses, barracks, office-, service-, school- and exercise buildings, military hotels and restaurants, aircraft hangars, and ship factory buildings. The main conclusions from this study are that most buildings from 1880 - 1940 have a solid construction with a high quality of craftsmanship, relatively good thermal performance, due to extremely thick walls, and adding insulation at the attic floor. From about 1940 - 1960 the quality of construction, thermal performance and craftsmanship seem to vary a lot. Buildings constructed during the period of 1960 - 1990 have in general the best thermal performance due to a better insulation capacity, however, also one finds here the greatest variety of problems. The result from this

  13. The Hunterian Neurosurgical Laboratory: the first 100 years of neurosurgical research.

    PubMed

    Sampath, P; Long, D M; Brem, H

    2000-01-01

    Modern neurosurgery has long had a strong laboratory foundation, and much of this tradition can be traced to the Hunterian Neurosurgical Laboratory of the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Founded with the basic goals of investigating the causes and symptoms of disease and establishing the crucial role that surgeons may play in the treatment of disease, the Hunterian laboratory has adhered to these tenets, despite the dramatic changes in neurosurgery that have occurred in the last 100 years. Named for the famous English surgeon John Hunter (1728-1793), the Hunterian laboratory was conceived by William Welch and William Halsted as a special laboratory for experimental work in surgery and pathology. In 1904, Harvey Cushing was appointed by Halsted to direct the laboratory. With the three primary goals of student education, veterinary surgery that stressed surgical techniques, and meticulous surgical and laboratory record-keeping, the laboratory was quite productive, introducing the use of physiological saline solutions, describing the anatomic features and function of the pituitary gland, and establishing the field of endocrinology. In addition, the original development of hanging drop tissue culture, fundamental investigations into cerebrospinal fluid, and countless contributions to otolaryngology by Samuel Crowe all occurred during this "crucible" period. In 1912, Cushing was succeeded by Walter Dandy, whose work on experimental hydrocephalus and cerebrospinal fluid circulation led to the development of pneumoencephalography. The early days of neurosurgery evolved with close ties to general surgery, and so did the Hunterian laboratory. After Dandy began devoting his time to clinical work, general surgeons (first Jay McLean and then, in 1922, Ferdinand Lee) became the directors of the laboratory. Between 1928 and 1942, more than 150 original articles were issued from the Hunterian laboratory; these articles described significant advances in surgery, including pioneering

  14. Flood Risk and Global Change: Future Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra-Llobet, A.

    2014-12-01

    Global flood risk is increasing in response to population growth in flood-prone areas, human encroachment into natural flood paths (exacerbating flooding in areas formerly out of harm's way), and climate change (which alters variables driving floods). How will societies respond to and manage flood risk in coming decades? Analysis of flood policy evolution in the EU and US demonstrates that changes occurred in steps, in direct response to disasters. After the flood produced by the collapse of Tous Dam in 1982, Spain initiated a systematic assessment of areas of greatest flood risk and civil protection response. The devastating floods on the Elbe and elsewhere in central Europe in 2002 motivated adoption of the EU Floods Directive (2007), which requires member states to develop systematic flood risk maps (now due) and flood risk management plans (due in 2015). The flooding of New Orleans by Hurricane Katrina in 2005 resulted in a nationwide levee-safety assessment and improvements in communicating risk, but overall less fundamental change in US flood management than manifest in the EU since 2007. In the developing world, large (and increasing) concentrations of populations in low-lying floodplains, deltas, and coasts are increasingly vulnerable, and governments mostly ill-equipped to implement fundamental changes in land use to prevent future increases in exposure, nor to develop responses to the current threats. Even in the developed world, there is surprisingly little research on how well residents of flood-prone lands understand their true risk, especially when they are 'protected' by '100-year' levees. Looking ahead, researchers and decision makers should prioritize improvements in flood risk perception, river-basin-scale assessment of flood runoff processes (under current and future climate and land-use conditions) and flood management alternatives, and bridging the disconnect between national and international floodplain management policies and local land

  15. Climate Simulation and Flood Risk Analysis for 2008-40 for Devils Lake, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2008-01-01

    generated future duration of the current wet period. On the basis of the simulations, and assuming ice-free conditions and calm wind, the Devils Lake flood elevation for an annualized flood risk of 1 percent (analogous to a ?100-year? riverine flood) was estimated to be 1,454.6 feet for a 10-year time horizon (2008---?17). Therefore, without adjusting for wind or ice, a residence near Devils Lake at elevation 1,454.6 feet has the same chance of being flooded sometime during the next 10 years as a residence at the edge of the 100-year flood plain along a river. Adjusting for the effects of wind or ice, which will increase the flood elevations for many locations near the lakes, was not within the scope of this study.

  16. The flood of December 1982 and the 100- and 500-year flood on the Buffalo River, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neely, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    Flood profiles, peak discharges, and stages were determined for the December 1982, the 100-year, and the 500-year floods at 17 sites along the Buffalo River, Arkansas. Typical synthetic stage hydrographs for the 100- and 500-year floods were determined for each site. Flow duration data for gaging stations at St. Joe and Rush are shown. The average velocity of the water for the 100- and 500-year floods is shown for each site. Approximate flood boundaries delineating the 100- and 500-year floods are shown for Ponca, Steel Creek, Pruitt, St. Joe, and Buffalo Point. (Author 's abstract)

  17. Climatic variability and flood frequency of the Santa Cruz River, Pima County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, Robert H.; Betancourt, Julio L.

    1992-01-01

    Past estimates of the 100-year flood for the Santa Cruz River at Tucson, Arizona, range from 572 to 2,780 cubic meters per second. An apparent increase in flood magnitude during the past two decades raises concern that the annual flood series is nonstationary in time. The apparent increase is accompanied by more annual floods occurring in fall and winter and fewer in summer. This greater mixture of storm types that produce annual flood peaks is caused by a higher frequency of meridional flow in the upper-air circulation and increased variance of ocean-atmosphere conditions in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Estimation of flood frequency on the Santa Cruz River is complicated because climate affects the magnitude and frequency of storms that cause floods. Mean discharge does not change significantly, but the variance and skew coefficient of the distribution of annual floods change with time. The 100-year flood during El Niffo-Southern Oscillation conditions is 1,300 cubic meters per second, more than double the value for other years. The increase is mostly caused by an increase in recurvature of dissipating tropical cyclones into the Southwestern United States during El Niffo-Southern Oscillation conditions. Flood frequency based on hydroclimatology was determined by combining populations of floods caused by monsoonal storms, frontal systems, and dissipating tropical cyclones. For 1930-59, annual flood frequency is dominated by monsoonal floods, and the estimated 100-year flood is 323 cubic meters per second. For 1960-86, annual flood frequency at recurrence intervals of greater than 10 years is dominated by floods caused by dissipating tropical cyclones, and the estimated 100-year flood is 1,660 cubic meters per second. For design purposes, 1,660 cubic meters per second might be an appropriate value for the 100-year flood at Tucson, assuming that climatic conditions during 1960-86 are representative of conditions expected in the immediate future.

  18. Utopia Plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    5 March 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a dark-toned, cratered plain in southwest Utopia Planitia. Large, light-toned, windblown ripples reside on the floors of many of the depressions in the scene, including a long, linear, trough.

    Location near: 30.3oN, 255.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  19. ANNUS MIRABILIS. PHYSICS OF OUR DAYS: Geometry and Physics after 100 Years of Einstein's Relativity (5-8 April 2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braginsky, Vladimir B.

    2005-06-01

    As part of the celebration of the World Year of Physics, the Conference "Geometry and Physics after 100 Years of Einstein's Relativity" was held in Golm, near Potsdam, Germany, on April 5-8, 2005. The Conference was organized by the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (also known as the Albert Einstein Institute), which is celebrating its 10th anniversary in 2005. Conference participants discussed progress made in theoretical and experimental research during the 100 years since the publication of Einstein's famous papers in 1905, the year which has gone down in history as 'Albert Einstein's ANNUS MIRABILIS'.

  20. Revisiting Plain Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Beth

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the plain language movement and its origins. Reviews past and current resources related to plain language writing. Examines criticism of the movement while examining past and current plain language literature, with particular attention to the information design field. (SR)

  1. The Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iceland, Charles

    2015-04-01

    As population growth and economic growth take place, and as climate change accelerates, many regions across the globe are finding themselves increasingly vulnerable to flooding. A recent OECD study of the exposure of the world's large port cities to coastal flooding found that 40 million people were exposed to a 1 in 100 year coastal flood event in 2005, and the total value of exposed assets was about US 3,000 billion, or 5% of global GDP. By the 2070s, those numbers were estimated to increase to 150 million people and US 35,000 billion, or roughly 9% of projected global GDP. Impoverished people in developing countries are particularly at risk because they often live in flood-prone areas and lack the resources to respond. WRI and its Dutch partners - Deltares, IVM-VU University Amsterdam, Utrecht University, and PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency - are in the initial stages of developing a robust set of river flood and coastal storm surge risk measures that show the extent of flooding under a variety of scenarios (both current and future), together with the projected human and economic impacts of these flood scenarios. These flood risk data and information will be accessible via an online, easy-to-use Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer. We will also investigate the viability, benefits, and costs of a wide array of flood risk reduction measures that could be implemented in a variety of geographic and socio-economic settings. Together, the activities we propose have the potential for saving hundreds of thousands of lives and strengthening the resiliency and security of many millions more, especially those who are most vulnerable. Mr. Iceland will present Version 1.0 of the Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer and provide a preview of additional elements of the Analyzer to be released in the coming years.

  2. Impact of 100-year human interventions on the deltaic coastal zone of the Inner Thermaikos Gulf (Greece): a DPSIR framework analysis.

    PubMed

    Karageorgis, Aristomenis P; Kapsimalis, Vasilios; Kontogianni, Areti; Skourtos, Michael; Turner, Kerry R; Salomons, Wim

    2006-08-01

    The Axios River delta and the Inner Thermaikos Gulf coastal zone have experienced a long period of human interventions during the past 100 years. A post-evaluation of long run coastal zone changes under the Drivers-Pressures-State-Impacts-Response (DPSIR) conceptual framework is presented. The DPSIR approach is then used to project out into possible futures in order to connect with policy and management options proposed for the improvement of the current conditions and the achievement of sustainable development, in the coastal zone. Socio-economic driving forces with their origins in the end of the 19th century have generated numerous pressures in the coastal environment that changed the state of the environment. In the first part of the last century, there was no coupling between change of state and policy. Due to increasing environmental awareness, a coupling became more apparent over the last thirty years. Human interventions include river route realignment, extensive drainage of the plains, irrigation network, roads and dam constructions. The consequences were positive for the economic development of the area, human health, and navigation for the port of Thessaloniki. In contrast, the manipulation and over-use of natural resources has led to a reduction of wetlands, biodiversity loss, stress on freshwater supplies, and subsidence of coastal areas, aquifer salinization, and rapid coastal erosion. Three plausible future scenarios are utilised in order to investigate the implications of this environmental change process and possible socio-economic consequences. PMID:16779699

  3. Impact of 100-year human interventions on the deltaic coastal zone of the Inner Thermaikos Gulf (Greece): a DPSIR framework analysis.

    PubMed

    Karageorgis, Aristomenis P; Kapsimalis, Vasilios; Kontogianni, Areti; Skourtos, Michael; Turner, Kerry R; Salomons, Wim

    2006-08-01

    The Axios River delta and the Inner Thermaikos Gulf coastal zone have experienced a long period of human interventions during the past 100 years. A post-evaluation of long run coastal zone changes under the Drivers-Pressures-State-Impacts-Response (DPSIR) conceptual framework is presented. The DPSIR approach is then used to project out into possible futures in order to connect with policy and management options proposed for the improvement of the current conditions and the achievement of sustainable development, in the coastal zone. Socio-economic driving forces with their origins in the end of the 19th century have generated numerous pressures in the coastal environment that changed the state of the environment. In the first part of the last century, there was no coupling between change of state and policy. Due to increasing environmental awareness, a coupling became more apparent over the last thirty years. Human interventions include river route realignment, extensive drainage of the plains, irrigation network, roads and dam constructions. The consequences were positive for the economic development of the area, human health, and navigation for the port of Thessaloniki. In contrast, the manipulation and over-use of natural resources has led to a reduction of wetlands, biodiversity loss, stress on freshwater supplies, and subsidence of coastal areas, aquifer salinization, and rapid coastal erosion. Three plausible future scenarios are utilised in order to investigate the implications of this environmental change process and possible socio-economic consequences.

  4. Regional flood probabilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troutman, B.M.; Karlinger, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    The T-year annual maximum flood at a site is defined to be that streamflow, that has probability 1/T of being exceeded in any given year, and for a group of sites the corresponding regional flood probability (RFP) is the probability that at least one site will experience a T-year flood in any given year. The RFP depends on the number of sites of interest and on the spatial correlation of flows among the sites. We present a Monte Carlo method for obtaining the RFP and demonstrate that spatial correlation estimates used in this method may be obtained with rank transformed data and therefore that knowledge of the at-site peak flow distribution is not necessary. We examine the extent to which the estimates depend on specification of a parametric form for the spatial correlation function, which is known to be nonstationary for peak flows. It is shown in a simulation study that use of a stationary correlation function to compute RFPs yields satisfactory estimates for certain nonstationary processes. Application of asymptotic extreme value theory is examined, and a methodology for separating channel network and rainfall effects on RFPs is suggested. A case study is presented using peak flow data from the state of Washington. For 193 sites in the Puget Sound region it is estimated that a 100-year flood will occur on the average every 4,5 years.

  5. 44 CFR 59.22 - Prerequisites for the sale of flood insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... purpose ordinances (such as a flood plain ordinance, grading ordinance, or flood-related erosion control....e., mudflow) or flood-related erosion damage; (4) A list of the incorporated communities within the...., mudflow) and flood-related erosion prone areas concerning: (i) Population; (ii) Number of one to...

  6. 44 CFR 59.22 - Prerequisites for the sale of flood insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... purpose ordinances (such as a flood plain ordinance, grading ordinance, or flood-related erosion control....e., mudflow) or flood-related erosion damage; (4) A list of the incorporated communities within the...., mudflow) and flood-related erosion prone areas concerning: (i) Population; (ii) Number of one to...

  7. 44 CFR 59.22 - Prerequisites for the sale of flood insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... purpose ordinances (such as a flood plain ordinance, grading ordinance, or flood-related erosion control....e., mudflow) or flood-related erosion damage; (4) A list of the incorporated communities within the...., mudflow) and flood-related erosion prone areas concerning: (i) Population; (ii) Number of one to...

  8. 44 CFR 59.22 - Prerequisites for the sale of flood insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... purpose ordinances (such as a flood plain ordinance, grading ordinance, or flood-related erosion control....e., mudflow) or flood-related erosion damage; (4) A list of the incorporated communities within the...., mudflow) and flood-related erosion prone areas concerning: (i) Population; (ii) Number of one to...

  9. 44 CFR 59.22 - Prerequisites for the sale of flood insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... purpose ordinances (such as a flood plain ordinance, grading ordinance, or flood-related erosion control....e., mudflow) or flood-related erosion damage; (4) A list of the incorporated communities within the...., mudflow) and flood-related erosion prone areas concerning: (i) Population; (ii) Number of one to...

  10. Development of a Flood-Warning System and Flood-Inundation Mapping for the Blanchard River in Findlay, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitehead, Matthew T.; Ostheimer, Chad J.

    2009-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps of the Blanchard River in Findlay, Ohio, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Findlay, Ohio. The maps, which correspond to water levels at the USGS streamgage at Findlay (04189000), were provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into a Web-based flood-warning system that can be used in conjunction with NWS flood-forecast data to show areas of predicted flood inundation associated with forecasted flood-peak stages. The USGS reestablished one streamgage and added another on the Blanchard River upstream of Findlay. Additionally, the USGS established one streamgage each on Eagle and Lye Creeks, tributaries to the Blanchard River. The stream-gage sites were equipped with rain gages and multiple forms of telemetry. Data from these gages can be used by emergency management personnel to determine a course of action when flooding is imminent. Flood profiles computed by means of a step-backwater model were prepared and calibrated to a recent flood with a return period exceeding 100 years. The hydraulic model was then used to determine water-surface-elevation profiles for 11 flood stages with corresponding streamflows ranging from approximately 2 to 100 years in recurrence interval. The simulated flood profiles were used in combination with digital elevation data to delineate the flood-inundation areas. Maps of Findlay showing flood-inundation areas overlain on digital orthophotographs are presented for the selected floods.

  11. Floods on Yahara River, Lake Kegonsa dam to county line, Dane County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Carl L.; Holmstrom, Barry K.

    1972-01-01

    The regional flood is defined by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources as a flood having an average frequency of occurrence of-once in 100 years and "which is representative of large floods known to have occurred generally in Wisconsin and reasonably characteristics of what can be expected to occur on a particular stream."

  12. [Progress and tradition. 100 years of the congress held by the German Society of Urology: Vienna 1907-Berlin 2007].

    PubMed

    Rathert, P

    2007-09-01

    The history of the German Urological Society and their congress reflects the scientific medical achievements of the last 100 years as well as the political and social structure of the twentieth century with the fantastic medical progress and the tremendous catastrophes. The congress in Berlin in 2007 once again links the urological society with the congress in Vienna of 1907.

  13. Flood Assessment at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site and the Proposed Hazardous Waste Storage Unit, DOE/Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Schmeltzer, J. S.; Millier, J. J.; Gustafson, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    A flood assessment at the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) and the proposed Hazardous Waste Storage Unit (HWSU) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was performed to determine the 100-year flood hazard at these facilities. The study was conducted to determine whether the RWMS and HWSU are located within a 100-year flood hazard as defined by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and to provide discharges for the design of flood protection.

  14. Estimating Non-stationary Flood Risk in a Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, X.; Cohn, T. A.; Stedinger, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Flood risk is usually described by a probability distribution for annual maximum streamflow which is assumed not to change with time. Federal, state and local governments in the United States are demanding guidance on flood frequency estimates that account for climate change. If a trend exists in peak flow series, ignoring it could result in large quantile estimator bias, while trying to estimate a trend will increase the flood quantile estimator's variance. Thus the issue is, what bias-variance tradeoff should we accept? This paper discusses approaches to flood frequency analysis (FFA) when flood series have trends. GCMs describe how annual runoff might vary over sub-continental scales, but this information is nearly useless for FFA in small watersheds. A LP3 Monte Carlo analysis and a re-sampling study of 100-year flood estimation (25- and 50-year projections) compares the performance of five methods: FFA as prescribed in national guidelines (Bulletin 17B), assumes the flood series is stationary and follows a log-Pearson type III (LP3) distribution; Fitting a LP3 distribution with time-varying parameters that include future trends in mean and perhaps variance, where slopes are assumed known; Fitting a LP3 distribution with time-varying parameters that capture future trends in mean and perhaps variance, where slopes are estimated from annual peak flow series; Employing only the most recent 30 years of flood records to fit a LP3 distribution; Applying a safety factor to the 100-year flood estimator (e.g. 25% increase). The 100-year flood estimator of method 2 has the smallest log-space mean squared error, though it is unlikely that the true trend would be known. Method 3 is only recommended over method 1 for large trends (≥ 0.5% per year). The 100-year flood estimators of method 1, 4, and 5 often have poor accuracy. Clearly, flood risk assessment will be a challenge in an uncertain world.

  15. Effects of flood controls proposed for West Branch Brandywine Creek, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-four-hour rainfall, distributed over time according to the U.S. Soil Conservation Service type II rainfall distribution, was used as input to calibrated rainfall-runoff models of three subbasins in the West Branch Brandywine Creek watershed. The effects of four proposed flood controls were evaluated by using these rainfalls to simulate discharge hydrographs with and without the flood controls and comparing the simulated peak discharges. In the Honey Brook subbasin, 2-, 10-, and 100-year flood-discharge hydrographs were generated for station West Branch Brandywine Creek at Coatesville. For the 2- and 10-year floods, proposed flood controls would reduce the peak discharge from 1 to 8 percent. The combination of all three flood controls proposed for the Coatesville subbasin would reduce the 100-year peak discharge 44 percent. In the Modena subbasin, 2-, 10-, and 100-year flood-discharge hydrographs were generated for station West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena. A flood control proposed for Sucker Run, a tributary, would reduce the peak discharge of Sucker Run at State Route 82 by 22, 25, and 27 percent and the peak discharge of West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena by 10, 6, and less than 1 percent for the 2-, 10-, and 100-year floods, respectively. For the 2- and 10- year floods, flood control proposed for the Coatesville subbasin would have little effect on the peak discharge of West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena. For the 100-year flood, the combination of all three flood controls proposed for the Coatesville subbasin would reduce the peak discharge at Modena 25 percent. When flood control in the Modena subbasin was combined with flood control in the Coatesville subbasin, the 10-percent reduction in the 2-year flood peak of West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena was due almost entirely to flood control in the Modena subbasin. For the 10-year flood, flood control in the Modena subbasin would reduce the peak discharge 6 percent, and any single flood

  16. Quantification of uncertainties in the 100-year flow at an ungaged site near a gaged station and its application in Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Huidae; Bones, Emma

    2016-08-01

    The Federal Emergency Management Agency has introduced the concept of the "1-percent plus" flow to incorporate various uncertainties in estimation of the 100-year or 1-percent flow. However, to the best of the authors' knowledge, no clear directions for calculating the 1-percent plus flow have been defined in the literature. Although information about standard errors of estimation and prediction is provided along with the regression equations that are often used to estimate the 1-percent flow at ungaged sites, uncertainty estimation becomes more complicated when there is a nearby gaged station because regression flows and the peak flow estimate from a gage analysis should be weighted to compute the weighted estimate of the 1-percent flow. In this study, an equation for calculating the 1-percent plus flow at an ungaged site near a gaged station is analytically derived. Also, a detailed process is introduced for calculating the 1-percent plus flow for an ungaged site near a gaged station in Georgia as an example and a case study is performed. This study provides engineers and practitioners with a method that helps them better assess flood risks and develop mitigation plans accordingly.

  17. Contamination of the alluvial plain, feeding-stuffs and foodstuffs with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and mercury from the River Elbe in the light of the flood event in August 2002.

    PubMed

    Stachel, B; Christoph, E H; Götz, R; Herrmann, T; Krüger, F; Kühn, T; Lay, J; Löffler, J; Päpke, O; Reincke, H; Schröter-Kermani, C; Schwartz, R; Steeg, E; Stehr, D; Uhlig, S; Umlauf, G

    2006-07-01

    Meadow soils, feeding-stuffs and foodstuffs from the alluvial plain of the river Elbe were analyzed in respect of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and mercury with a view to assessing the consequences of the extreme flood of August 2002. The PCDD/F concentrations in the soils range from 3 to 2100 ng WHO-TEQ/kg dm, and for the DL-PCBs the range was 0.32 to 28 ng WHO-TEQ/kg dm. On the basis of established threshold values >40% of the areas are only fit for restricted usage. Mercury concentrations range from 0.11 to 17 mg/kg dm, whereby the action value of 2 mg/kg dm is exceeded in about 50% of the soil samples. A cumulative memory effect from past floods rather than a recent contamination from August 2002 is documented. Soils taken from behind broken dykes showed significantly lower concentrations. Grass, hay and grass silage originating from pasture land in Lower Saxony were taken before and immediately after the flooding. PCDD/Fs range from 0.29 to 16 ng WHO-TEQ/kg, the maximum permitted value of 0.75 ng WHO-TEQ/kg was exceeded in about 50% of the samples. Muscle-tissue from cattle, sheep, lamb and a roe deer as well as untreated milk from individual cows returned values ranging from 0.76 to 5.9 pg WHO-PCDD/F-TEQ/g fat, and 10% of the samples returned values higher than the permitted maximum of 3 pg WHO-PCDD/F-TEQ/g fat. The action value of 2 pg WHO-PCDD/F-TEQ/g fat was exceeded in 33% of the samples. No direct connection between these results and the effects of the flood could be established. A major input path for PCDD/Fs is the tributary Mulde, which discharges contaminated sediments from its catchment area into the Elbe. PMID:16199077

  18. Stream-sediment geochemistry in mining-impacted streams : sediment mobilized by floods in the Coeur d'Alene-Spokane River system, Idaho and Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Box, Stephen E.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Ikramuddin, Mohammed

    2005-01-01

    Environmental problems associated with the dispersion of metal-enriched sediment into the Coeur d'Alene-Spokane River system downstream from the Coeur d'Alene Mining District in northern Idaho have been a cause of litigation since 1903, 18 years after the initiation of mining for lead, zinc, and silver. Although direct dumping of waste materials into the river by active mining operations stopped in 1968, metal-enriched sediment continues to be mobilized during times of high runoff and deposited on valley flood plains and in Coeur d'Alene Lake (Horowitz and others, 1993). To gauge the geographic and temporal variations in the metal contents of flood sediment and to provide constraints on the sources and processes responsible for those variations, we collected samples of suspended sediment and overbank deposits during and after four high-flow events in 1995, 1996, and 1997 in the Coeur d'Alene-Spokane River system with estimated recurrence intervals ranging from 2 to 100 years. Suspended sediment enriched in lead, zinc, silver, antimony, arsenic, cadmium, and copper was detected over a distance of more than 130 mi (the downstream extent of sampling) downstream of the mining district. Strong correlations of all these elements in suspended sediment with each other and with iron and manganese are apparent when samples are grouped by reach (tributaries to the South Fork of the Coeur d'Alene River, the South Fork of the Coeur d'Alene River, the main stem of the Coeur d'Alene River, and the Spokane River). Elemental correlations with iron and manganese, along with observations by scanning electron microscopy, indicate that most of the trace metals are associated with Fe and Mn oxyhydroxide compounds. Changes in elemental correlations by reach suggest that the sources of metal-enriched sediment change along the length of the drainage. Metal contents of suspended sediment generally increase through the mining district along the South Fork of the Coeur d'Alene River, decrease

  19. Pakistan Flooding

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Flooding in Pakistan     View Larger Image In late July 2010, flooding caused by heavy monsoon rains began in several regions of Pakistan, ... and Aug 11, 2010 Images:  Pakistan Flood location:  Asia thumbnail:  ...

  20. Cane Creek flood-flow characteristics at State Route 30 near Spencer, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gamble, Charles R.

    1983-01-01

    The Tennessee Department of Transportation has constructed a new bridge and approaches on State Route 30 over Cane Creek near Spencer, Tennessee. The old bridge and its approaches were fairly low, permitting considerable flow over the road during high floods. The new bridge and its approaches are considerably higher, causing different flow conditions at the site. Analysis of the effects of the new bridge, as compared to the old bridge, on floods of the magnitude of the May 27, 1973, flood is presented. The May 27, 1973, flood was greater than a 100-year flood. Analysis of the 50- and 100-year floods for the new bridge are also presented. Results of the study indicate that the new construction will increase the water-surface elevation for a flood equal to the May 27, 1973, flood by approximately 1 foot upstream from bridge. (USGS)

  1. 100 Years of Science

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, Dick

    2004-07-07

    The last half-century has seen enormous strides in many scientific and technical areas. In fundamental physics previously unrelated fields like weak interactions and electromagnetism have been linked. Cosmology has been probed back to the Big Bang. Computing and communications have moved from minor topics to subjects that dominate the economy. The structure of DNA has been untangled. We may be on the threshold of understanding the origin of life and even discovering life elsewhere in the universe. Several of these diverse topics such as cosmology and fundamental physics are already profoundly coupled. Remarkably, ties exist between all of these subjects. These ties will be reviewed in light of opportunities ahead in the next decades.

  2. Development of Flood GIS Database of River Indus using RS and GIS Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Z.; Farooq, M.; Shah, S.

    Remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) are information technologies that furnish a broad range of tools to assist in preparing for the next flood and for obtaining vital information about the flood plain. This type of information is used to improve flood forecasting and preparedness, monitoring flood conditions, assess flood damage, relief efforts, flood control etc. Severe floods of varied magnitudes have occurred in the river Indus and its tributaries viz; Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi and Sutlej during the past three decades covering the Indus flood plain from Cheshma Barrage in the province of Punjab to downstream of Kotri Barrage in the souh of Sindh province of Pakistan. Digital mapping of different floods in the Indus Basin was carried out using both MSS and TM data of Landsat yielding flood maps. These maps depict flood extent and other relevant information in the flood plain. In order to create comprehensive GIS database, various hydrologic information such as rainfall, river discharge, canal withdrawal, embankment, breach etc. were incorporated. Flood database provide comprehensive information both in separate layer and combination of multiple layers pertaining to floods that occurred in the past three decades . GIS database on flood provides easy access to updated in-situ geographic information to planners and irrigation engineers concerned with overall river Indus operation and management system. GIS database of Indus floods can als o be used to improve the efficiency of decision making and management by collecting, organizing and integrating geographic, environmental and socio-economic spatial data and information.

  3. 3-D hydrodynamic modelling of flood impacts on a building and indoor flooding processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gems, Bernhard; Mazzorana, Bruno; Hofer, Thomas; Sturm, Michael; Gabl, Roman; Aufleger, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Given the current challenges in flood risk management and vulnerability assessment of buildings exposed to flood hazards, this study presents three-dimensional numerical modelling of torrential floods and its interaction with buildings. By means of a case study application, the FLOW-3D software is applied to the lower reach of the Rio Vallarsa torrent in the village of Laives (Italy). A single-family house on the flood plain is therefore considered in detail. It is exposed to a 300-year flood hydrograph. Different building representation scenarios, including an entire impervious building envelope and the assumption of fully permeable doors, light shafts and windows, are analysed. The modelling results give insight into the flooding process of the building's interior, the impacting hydrodynamic forces on the exterior and interior walls, and further, they quantify the impact of the flooding of a building on the flow field on the surrounding flood plain. The presented study contributes to the development of a comprehensive physics-based vulnerability assessment framework. For pure water floods, this study presents the possibilities and limits of advanced numerical modelling techniques within flood risk management and, thereby, the planning of local structural protection measures.

  4. Young flood lavas in the Elysium Region, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B.

    1990-01-01

    The nature and origin of a smooth plains unit (the Cerberus Plains) in southeastern Elysium and western Amazonis are reported. The interpretation that the Cerberus Plains resulted from flood plains style volcanism late in martian history is presented which carries implications for martian thermal history and volcanic evolution of a global scale. Although central construct volcanism (e.g., Olympus Mons) has long been recognized as occurring late in time, flood volcanism has not. Flood volcanism has been suggested as the origin of the ridged plains units (e.g., Lunae Planum, Solis, and Sinai Planum). This type of volcanic activity generally occurred early, and in Tharsis, the style of volcanism evolved from flood eruptions into centralized eruptions which built the large Tharsis Montes and Olympus Mons shields. Volcanism in the Elysium region seems to have followed a similar trend from flood eruptions to central construct building. But, the Cerberus Plains indicate that the volcanic style returned to flood eruption again after central constructional volcanism had ended.

  5. Floods in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Follansbee, Robert; Sawyer, Leon R.

    1948-01-01

    resulting from a cloudburst rises so quickly that it is usually described as a 'wall of water.' It has a peak duration of only a few minutes, followed by a rapid subsidence. Nearly 90 cloudburst floods in Colorado are described in varying detail in this report. The earliest recorded cloudburst--called at that time a waterspout--occurred in Golden Gate Gulch, July 14, 1872. The 'wall of water' was described as a 'perpendicular breast of 10 or 12 feet.' A cloudburst flood on Kiowa Creek in May 1878 caused the loss of a standard-gage locomotive, and although search was made by means of long metallic rods, the locomotive was never recovered, as bedrock was about 50 feet below the creek bed. All available information relative to floods in Colorado, beginning with the flood of 1826 on the Arkansas River, is presented in this report, although for many of the earlier floods estimates of discharge are lacking. Floods throughout a large part of the State have occurred in 1844, June 1864, June 1884, May 1894, and June 1921. The highest floods of record were on the larger streams and occurred as follows: South Platte River, June 1921; Rio Grande, June 1927; Colorado River, June and July 1884; San Juan River, October 1911. The greatest floods on the plains streams occurred during May and June 1935 and were caused by cloudbursts. Ranchers living in the vicinity noted rainfalls as high as 24 inches in a 13-hour period, measurements being made in a stock tank. The effect of settlement on channel capacities can be clearly traced. When settlement began, and with it the beginning of the livestock industry, the plains were thickly covered with a luxuriant growth of grasses. With the development of the livestock industry the grass cover was grazed so closely that it afforded little protection against erosion during the violent rains and resulting floods. The intensive grazing packed the soil so hard as to increase greatly the percentage of rainfall that entered the streams. This co

  6. 100 years of Drosophila research and its impact on vertebrate neuroscience: a history lesson for the future

    PubMed Central

    Bellen, Hugo J; Tong, Chao; Tsuda, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Discoveries in fruit flies have greatly contributed to our understanding of neuroscience. The use of an unparalleled wealth of tools, many of which originated between 1910–1960, has enabled milestone discoveries in nervous system development and function. Such findings have triggered and guided many research efforts in vertebrate neuroscience. After 100 years, fruit flies continue to be the choice model system for many neuroscientists. The combinational use of powerful research tools will ensure that this model organism will continue to lead to key discoveries that will impact vertebrate neuroscience. PMID:20383202

  7. Flood of March 1997 in southern Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, K.S.; Vivian, S.A.; Diam, F.J.; Crecelius, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    Rainfall amounts of up to 12 inches produced by thunderstorms during March 1-2, 1997 resulted in severe flooding throughout much of southern Ohio. Eighteen counties were declared Federal and State disaster areas. Cost estimates of damage in Ohio from the flooding are nearly $180 million. About 6,500 residences and more than 800 businesses were affected by flooding. Nearly 20,000 persons were evacuated, and 5 deaths were attributed to the flooding. Record peak stage and streamflow were recorded at U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging stations on Ohio Brush Creek near West Union and Shade River near Chester. The peak streamflow at these two locations exceeded the estimate of the 100-year-recurrence- interval peak streamflow. The recurrence intervals of peak stream flow at selected USGS streamflow gaging stations throughout southern Ohio ranged from less than 2 years to greater than 100 years. The most severe flooding in the State was generally confined to areas within 50 to 70 miles of the Ohio River. Many communities along the Ohio River experienced the worst flooding in more than 30 years.

  8. Flood frequency analysis of historical flood data under stationary and non-stationary modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, M. J.; Botero, B. A.; López, J.; Francés, F.; Díez-Herrero, A.; Benito, G.

    2015-01-01

    analysis using documentary data (plus gauged record) improved the estimates of the probabilities of rare floods (return intervals of 100 year and higher). Under non-stationary modelling flood occurrence associated with an exceedance probability of 0.01 (i.e. return period of 100 year) has changed over the last 500 year due to decadal and multi-decadal variability of the NAO. Yet, frequency analysis under stationary models was successful on providing an average discharge around which value flood quantiles estimated by non-stationary models fluctuate through time.

  9. Floods of May and June 2008 in Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchmiller, Robert C.; Eash, David A.

    2010-01-01

    An unusually wet winter and spring of 2007 to 2008 resulted in extremely wet antecedent conditions throughout most of Iowa. Rainfall of 5 to 15 inches was observed in eastern Iowa during May 2008, and an additional 5 to 15 inches of rain was observed throughout most of Iowa in June. Because of the severity of the May and June 2008 flooding, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with other Federal, State, and local agencies, has summarized the meteorological and hydrological conditions leading to the flooding, compiled flood-peak stages and discharges, and estimated revised flood probabilities for 62 selected streamgages. Record peak discharges or flood probabilities of 1 percent or smaller (100-year flooding or greater) occurred at more than 60 streamgage locations, particularly in eastern Iowa. Cedar Rapids, Decorah, Des Moines, Iowa City, Mason City, and Waterloo were among the larger urban areas affected by this flooding. High water and flooding in small, headwater streams in north-central and eastern Iowa, particularly in June, combined and accumulated in large, mainstem rivers and resulted in flooding of historic proportions in the Cedar and Iowa Rivers. Previous flood-peak discharges at many locations were exceeded by substantial amounts, in some cases nearly doubling the previous record peak discharge at locations where more than 100 years of streamflow record are available.

  10. Spatio-temporal analysis of rainfall trends over a maritime state (Kerala) of India during the last 100 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Archana; Ajith Joseph, K.; Nair, K. S.

    2014-05-01

    Kerala, a maritime state of India is bestowed with abundant rainfall which is about three times the national average. This study is conducted to have a better understanding of rainfall variability and trend at regional level for this state during the last 100 years. It is found that the rainfall variation in northern and southern regions of Kerala is large and the deviation is on different timescales. There is a shifting of rainfall mean and variability during the seasons. The trend analysis on rainfall data over the last 100 years reveals that there is a significant (99%) decreasing trend in most of the regions of Kerala especially in the month of January, July and November. The annual and seasonal trends of rainfall in most regions of Kerala are also found to be decreasing significantly. This decreasing trend may be related to global anomalies as a result of anthropogenic green house gas (GHG) emissions due to increased fossil fuel use, land-use change due to urbanisation and deforestation, proliferation in transportation associated atmospheric pollutants. We have also conducted a study of the seasonality index (SI) and found that only one district in the northern region (Kasaragod) has seasonality index of more than 1 and that the distribution of monthly rainfall in this district is mostly attributed to 1 or 2 months. In rest of the districts, the rainfall is markedly seasonal. The trend in SI reveals that the rainfall distribution in these districts has become asymmetric with changes in rainfall distribution.

  11. Over 100 years of environmental change recorded by foraminifers and sediments in Mobile Bay, Alabama, Gulf of Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterman, Lisa E.; Smith, Christopher G.

    2012-12-01

    The marine microfauna of Mobile Bay has been profoundly influenced by the development and expansion of the primary shipping channel over the last ˜100 years. Foraminifers and sediments from seven box cores with excess lead-210 chronology document that channel dredging and spoil disposal have altered circulation, reduced estuarine mixing, changed sedimentation patterns, and caused a faunal turnover within the bay. Beginning in the late 1800s, changes in estuarine mixing allowed for greater low-pH freshwater influence in the bay, and ultimately began environmental changes that resulted in the loss of calcareous foraminifers. By the early 1900s, box cores throughout Mobile Bay record a ˜100-year trend of increasing calcareous test dissolution that continues to the present. Since the completion of the current shipping channel in the 1950s, restricted tidal flushing and increased terrestrial organic matter, documented by carbon-to-nitrogen ratios, stimulated an increase in agglutinated foraminiferal densities. However, in deeper areas of the bay, hypoxic water has negatively impacted the marine microfauna. Comparisons of the present-day foraminiferal assemblage with foraminifers collected in the early 1970s indicate that the continued biologic loss of calcareous foraminifers in the bay has allowed the introduction of a new agglutinated foraminiferal species into the bay.

  12. An application of a flood risk analysis system for impact analysis of a flood control plan in a river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Dushmanta; Herath, Srikantha; Musiake, Katumi

    2006-04-01

    An application of a flood risk analysis system is presented for the analysis on the impact of a proposed flood control plan in the Ichinomiya river basin, Chiba Prefecture, Japan. The system consists of two main modules: a physically based distributed hydrological model for flood inundation and a geographical information system (GIS)-based raster model for flood loss estimation. In the system, the grid-based distributed hydrological model simulates surface flood inundation parameters for user-specified spatial and temporal resolutions. At the end of each time step the simulated flood parameters in each grid are transferred to the GIS-based model for economic loss estimation. The proposed flood control plan consisted of three structural measures. These measures were then incorporated into the system to analyze their impacts on the reduction of flood inundation and resulting economic impacts for 50-year and 100-year return-period rainfall scenarios in the basin. From the analyses, it was found that the proposed flood control plan can reduce flood inundation in the basin for 50-year and 100-year return-period rainfalls to a great extent, and the resulting urban and agriculture damage in the basin can be reduced by over 70%.

  13. Flood profiles in the Calapooya Creek basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friday, John

    1982-01-01

    Water-surface profiles were computed for a 19.4-mile reach of Calapooya Creek in Douglas County, Oregon. The data will enable the county to evaluate flood hazards in the floodprone areas in the reach. Profiles for floods having recurrence intervals of 2, 10, 50, 100, and 500 years are shown in graphic and tabular form. A floodway, allowing encroachment of the 100-year floods, was designed with a maximum 1.0-foot surcharge limitation. A profile for a flood that occurred in November 1961 is also presented. All data were derived from a digital computer model developed for the study.

  14. Flood elevations for the Soleduck River at Sol Duc Hot Springs, Clallam County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Elevations and inundation areas of a 100-year flood of the Soleduck River, Washington, were determined by the U.S. Geological Survey for the area in the vicinity of the Sol Duc Hot Springs resort, a public facility in the Olympic National Park that under Federal law must be located beyond or protected from damage by a 100-year flood. Results show that most flooding could be eliminated by raising parts of an existing dike. In general, little flood damage is expected, except at the southern end of an undeveloped airstrip that could become inundated and hazardous due to flow from a tributary. The airstrip is above the 100-year flood of the Soleduck River.

  15. Runoff models and flood frequency statistics for design flood estimation in Austria - Do they tell a consistent story?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogger, M.; Kohl, B.; Pirkl, H.; Viglione, A.; Komma, J.; Kirnbauer, R.; Merz, R.; Blöschl, G.

    2012-08-01

    SummaryDesign floods for a given location at a stream can be estimated by a number of approaches including flood frequency statistics and the design storm method. If applied to the same catchment the two methods often yield quite different results. The aim of this paper is to contribute to understanding the reasons for these differences. A case study is performed for 10 alpine catchments in Tyrol, Austria, where the 100-year floods are estimated by (a) flood frequency statistics and (b) an event based runoff model. To identify the sources of the differences of the two methods, the 100-year floods are also estimated by (c) Monte Carlo simulations using a continuous runoff model. The results show that, in most catchments, the event based model gives larger flood estimates than flood frequency statistics. The reasons for the differences depend on the catchment characteristics and different rainfall inputs that were applied. For catchments with a high storage capacity the Monte Carlo simulations indicate a step change in the flood frequency curve when a storage threshold is exceeded which is not captured by flood frequency statistics. Flood frequency statistics therefore tends to underestimate the floods in these catchments. For catchments with a low storage capacity or significant surface runoff, no step change occurs, but in three catchments the design storms used were larger than those read from the IDF (intensity duration frequency) curve leading to an overestimation of the design floods. Finally, also the correct representation of flood dominating runoff components was shown to influence design flood results. Geologic information on the catchments was essential for identifying the reasons for the mismatch of the flood estimates.

  16. Flood resilience urban territories. Flood resilience urban territories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beraud, Hélène; Barroca, Bruno; Hubert, Gilles

    2010-05-01

    flood but also to restart as fast as possible (for example, the clearing of roads is a prerequisite for electricity's restoration which is a vital network for territory's functioning). While the waste management is a main stage of post crisis, these questions are still without answer. The extend of this network influence also leads us to think about the means to prevent from waste production and service's dysfunction. How to develop the territory to limit the floods' impact on the waste management network? Are there techniques or equipments allowing stakeholders to limit these impacts? How to increase population's, entrepreneur's or farmer's awareness to get ready to face floods, to limit the waste production, but also to react well during and after the floods? Throughout means of prevention and thanks to actor's technical and organizational adaptations towards the waste network, or by raising population's awareness and preparation, economic and institutional actors of urban territories might improve the waste's network flood resilience, and thus, cities' flood resilience. Through experience feedbacks about countries recently affected by large-extended floods and field reflection with local actors, the stakes of this PhD research are thus to think about means (1) to maintain the activity out of flood plains during a flood, (2) to increase the waste management network's activity in post crisis period in order to be able to deal with a new waste production both by its quality and its quantity, but also (3) to study the means to prevent this new production. This work will use the concept of urban system to describe urban territory because it allows us to study both its behaviour and functioning. The interest of this methodological choice is to take into account the impacts of the disruption of waste management networks on cities' functioning, and thus, on cities' flood resilience.

  17. Observations on the effect of flood on animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1948-01-01

    Summary. The flood plain of the Patuxent River is washed over periodically, and occasionally the entire bottomland is submerged to a depth of several feet. The effects of an unusually severe flood on the populations and home ranges of wood mice (Peromyscus leucopus) and box turtles (Terrapene carolina) were studied by means of collecting the animals before, during, and after the flood. The flood had little or no effect on the size of the populations, and individuals showed remarkable ability to remain within their home ranges despite the flood.

  18. 44 CFR 65.6 - Revision of base flood elevation determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... new discharge estimates. (6) Any computer program used to perform hydrologic or hydraulic analyses in... control and/or the regulation of flood plain lands. For computer programs adopted by non-Federal agencies..., tested, and accepted by that agency for purposes of design of flood control structures or flood...

  19. 44 CFR 65.6 - Revision of base flood elevation determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... new discharge estimates. (6) Any computer program used to perform hydrologic or hydraulic analyses in... control and/or the regulation of flood plain lands. For computer programs adopted by non-Federal agencies..., tested, and accepted by that agency for purposes of design of flood control structures or flood...

  20. 44 CFR 65.6 - Revision of base flood elevation determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... new discharge estimates. (6) Any computer program used to perform hydrologic or hydraulic analyses in... control and/or the regulation of flood plain lands. For computer programs adopted by non-Federal agencies..., tested, and accepted by that agency for purposes of design of flood control structures or flood...

  1. 44 CFR 65.6 - Revision of base flood elevation determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... new discharge estimates. (6) Any computer program used to perform hydrologic or hydraulic analyses in... control and/or the regulation of flood plain lands. For computer programs adopted by non-Federal agencies..., tested, and accepted by that agency for purposes of design of flood control structures or flood...

  2. 44 CFR 65.6 - Revision of base flood elevation determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... new discharge estimates. (6) Any computer program used to perform hydrologic or hydraulic analyses in... control and/or the regulation of flood plain lands. For computer programs adopted by non-Federal agencies..., tested, and accepted by that agency for purposes of design of flood control structures or flood...

  3. Quality control of the RMS US flood model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankowfsky, Sonja; Hilberts, Arno; Mortgat, Chris; Li, Shuangcai; Rafique, Farhat; Rajesh, Edida; Xu, Na; Mei, Yi; Tillmanns, Stephan; Yang, Yang; Tian, Ye; Mathur, Prince; Kulkarni, Anand; Kumaresh, Bharadwaj Anna; Chaudhuri, Chiranjib; Saini, Vishal

    2016-04-01

    The RMS US flood model predicts the flood risk in the US with a 30 m resolution for different return periods. The model is designed for the insurance industry to estimate the cost of flood risk for a given location. Different statistical, hydrological and hydraulic models are combined to develop the flood maps for different return periods. A rainfall-runoff and routing model, calibrated with observed discharge data, is run with 10 000 years of stochastic simulated precipitation to create time series of discharge and surface runoff. The 100, 250 and 500 year events are extracted from these time series as forcing for a two-dimensional pluvial and fluvial inundation model. The coupling of all the different models which are run on the large area of the US implies a certain amount of uncertainty. Therefore, special attention is paid to the final quality control of the flood maps. First of all, a thorough quality analysis of the Digital Terrain model and the river network was done, as the final quality of the flood maps depends heavily on the DTM quality. Secondly, the simulated 100 year discharge in the major river network (600 000 km) is compared to the 100 year discharge derived using extreme value distribution of all USGS gauges with more than 20 years of peak values (around 11 000 gauges). Thirdly, for each gauge the modelled flood depth is compared to the depth derived from the USGS rating curves. Fourthly, the modelled flood depth is compared to the base flood elevation given in the FEMA flood maps. Fifthly, the flood extent is compared to the FEMA flood extent. Then, for historic events we compare flood extents and flood depths at given locations. Finally, all the data and spatial layers are uploaded on geoserver to facilitate the manual investigation of outliers. The feedback from the quality control is used to improve the model and estimate its uncertainty.

  4. Are Geodetically and Geologically Constrained Vertical Deformation Models Compatible With the 100-Year Coastal Tide Gauge Record in California?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith-Konter, B. R.; Sandwell, D. T.

    2006-12-01

    Sea level change has been continuously recorded along the California coastline at several tide gauge stations for the past 50-100 years. These stations provide a temporal record of sea level change, generally attributed to post-glacial rebound and ocean climate phenomena. However, geological processes, including displacements from large earthquakes, have also been shown to produce sea level variations. Furthermore, the vertical tectonic response to interseismic strain accumulation in regions of major fault bends has been shown to produce uplift and subsidence rates consistent with sea level trends. To investigate the long-term extent and implication of tectonic deformation on sea level change, we compare time series data from California tide gauge stations to model estimates of vertical displacements produced by earthquake cycle deformation. Using a 3-D semi-analytic viscoelastic model, we combine geologic slip rates, geodetic velocities, and historical seismic data to simulate both horizontal and vertical deformation of the San Andreas Fault System. Using this model, we generate a time-series of vertical displacements spanning the 100-year sea level record and compare this to tide gauge data provided by the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL). Comparison between sea level data and a variety of geologically and geodetically constrained models confirms that the two are highly compatible. Vertical displacements are largely controlled by interseismic strain accumulation, however displacements from major earthquakes are also required to explain varying trends in the sea level data. Models based on elastic plate thicknesses of 30-50km and viscosities of 7x10^1^8-2x10^1^9 Pa-s produce vertical displacements at tide-gauge locations that explain long-term trends in the sea level record to a high degree of accuracy at nearly all stations. However, unmodeled phenomena are also present in the sea level data and require further inspection.

  5. The History of Parenting Practices: An Overview! Events, Policies and Theories That Have Influenced Parenting Practices over the Last 100 Years. [Videotape and Worksheets].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    Noting that parenting is a learned experience and that the source of information on parenting has changed considerably over the last 100 years, this videotape examines the history of parent education over the past 100 years, highlighting events influencing family life, policies and legislation to assist families, and parenting theories for each…

  6. Climate factor for small-basin flood frequency

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lichty, R.W.; Karlinger, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    A climate factor, CT, (T = 2-, 25-, and 100-year recurrence intervals) that delineates regional trends in small-basin flood frequency was derived using data from 71 long-term rainfall record sites. Values of CT at these sites were developed by a regression analysis that related rainfall-runoff model estimates of T-year floods to a sample set of 50 model calibrations. CT was regionalized via kriging to develop maps depicting its geographic variation for a large part of the United States east of the 105th meridian. Kriged estimates of CT and basin-runoff characteristics were used to compute regionalized T-year floods for 200 small drainage basins. Observed T-year flood estimates also were developed for these sites. Regionalized floods are shown to account for a large percentage of the variability in observed flood estimates with coefficients of determination ranging from 0.89 for 2-year floods to 0.82 for 100-year floods. The relative importance of the factors comprising regionalized flood estimates is evaluated in terms of scale (size of drainage area), basin-runoff characteristics (rainfall-runoff model parameters), and climate (CT).

  7. Flood of June 18, 1978, on Honey Creek tributary at Thornville, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webber, Earl E.; Mayo, Ronald I.

    1980-01-01

    A high-intensity summer rain estimated at 8 inches in 2 hours caused flooding on a small stream near Thornville, Ohio, destroying a culvert and highway fill on State Highway 188. Computation of peak discharges of 3,250 cubic feet per second above and 4,050 cubic feet per second below the culvert indicates a greater than 100-year flood. (USGS)

  8. Aboveground and belowground legacies of native Sami land use on boreal forest in northern Sweden 100 years after abandonment.

    PubMed

    Freschet, Grégoire T; Ostlund, Lars; Kichenin, Emilie; Wardle, David A

    2014-04-01

    Human activities that involve land-use change often cause major transformations to community and ecosystem properties both aboveground and belowground, and when land use is abandoned, these modifications can persist for extended periods. However, the mechanisms responsible for rapid recovery vs. long-term maintenance of ecosystem changes following abandonment remain poorly understood. Here, we examined the long-term ecological effects of two remote former settlements, regularly visited for -300 years by reindeer-herding Sami and abandoned -100 years ago, within an old-growth boreal forest that is considered one of the most pristine regions in northern Scandinavia. These human legacies were assessed through measurements of abiotic and biotic soil properties and vegetation characteristics at the settlement sites and at varying distances from them. Low-intensity land use by Sami is characterized by the transfer of organic matter towards the settlements by humans and reindeer herds, compaction of soil through trampling, disappearance of understory vegetation, and selective cutting of pine trees for fuel and construction. As a consequence, we found a shift towards early successional plant species and a threefold increase in soil microbial activity and nutrient availability close to the settlements relative to away from them. These changes in soil fertility and vegetation contributed to 83% greater total vegetation productivity, 35% greater plant biomass, and 23% and 16% greater concentrations of foliar N and P nearer the settlements, leading to a greater quantity and quality of litter inputs. Because decomposer activity was also 40% greater towards the settlements, soil organic matter cycling and nutrient availability were further increased, leading to likely positive feedbacks between the aboveground and belowground components resulting from historic land use. Although not all of the activities typical of Sami have left visible residual traces on the ecosystem after

  9. Aboveground and belowground legacies of native Sami land use on boreal forest in northern Sweden 100 years after abandonment.

    PubMed

    Freschet, Grégoire T; Ostlund, Lars; Kichenin, Emilie; Wardle, David A

    2014-04-01

    Human activities that involve land-use change often cause major transformations to community and ecosystem properties both aboveground and belowground, and when land use is abandoned, these modifications can persist for extended periods. However, the mechanisms responsible for rapid recovery vs. long-term maintenance of ecosystem changes following abandonment remain poorly understood. Here, we examined the long-term ecological effects of two remote former settlements, regularly visited for -300 years by reindeer-herding Sami and abandoned -100 years ago, within an old-growth boreal forest that is considered one of the most pristine regions in northern Scandinavia. These human legacies were assessed through measurements of abiotic and biotic soil properties and vegetation characteristics at the settlement sites and at varying distances from them. Low-intensity land use by Sami is characterized by the transfer of organic matter towards the settlements by humans and reindeer herds, compaction of soil through trampling, disappearance of understory vegetation, and selective cutting of pine trees for fuel and construction. As a consequence, we found a shift towards early successional plant species and a threefold increase in soil microbial activity and nutrient availability close to the settlements relative to away from them. These changes in soil fertility and vegetation contributed to 83% greater total vegetation productivity, 35% greater plant biomass, and 23% and 16% greater concentrations of foliar N and P nearer the settlements, leading to a greater quantity and quality of litter inputs. Because decomposer activity was also 40% greater towards the settlements, soil organic matter cycling and nutrient availability were further increased, leading to likely positive feedbacks between the aboveground and belowground components resulting from historic land use. Although not all of the activities typical of Sami have left visible residual traces on the ecosystem after

  10. Regime Shifts in Shallow Lakes: Responses of Cyanobacterial Blooms to Watershed Agricultural Phosphorus Loading Over the Last ~100 Years.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermaire, J. C.; Taranu, Z. E.; MacDonald, G. K.; Velghe, K.; Bennett, E.; Gregory-Eaves, I.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid changes in ecosystem states have occurred naturally throughout Earth's history. However, environmental changes that have taken place since the start of the Anthropocene may be destabilizing ecosystems and increasing the frequency of regime shifts in response to abrupt changes in external drivers or local intrinsic dynamics. To evaluate the relative influence of these forcers and improve our understanding of the impact of future change, we examined the effects of historical catchment phosphorus loading associated with agricultural land use on lake ecosystems, and whether this caused a shift from a stable, clear-water, regime to a turbid, cyanobacteria-dominated, state. The sedimentary pigments, diatom, and zooplankton (Cladocera) records from a currently clear-water shallow lake (Roxton Pond) and a turbid-water shallow lake (Petit lac Saint-François; PSF) were examined to determine if a cyanobacteria associated pigment (i.e. echinenone) showed an abrupt non-linear response to continued historical phosphorus load index (determined by phosphorus budget) over the last ~100 years. While PSF lake is presently in the turbid-water state, pigment and diatom analyses indicated that both lakes were once in the clear-water state, and that non-linear increases in catchment phosphorus balance resulted in an abrupt transition to cyanobacteria dominated states in each record. These results show that phosphorus loading has resulted in state shifts in shallow lake ecosystems that has been recorded across multiple paleolimnological indicators preserved in the sedimentary record.

  11. Flood magnitude and frequency of Jacks Run at the culvert on U.S. Route 206, Southampton Township, Burlington County, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barringer, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Flood magnitude and frequency of Jacks Run at the culvert on U.S. Route 206, Southampton Township, New Jersey, were determined by using the rational method. Flood magnitude and frequency estimates, as well as basin characteristics, are included in this report. The 100-year-flood estimate is 29 cubic feet per second.

  12. Flooding on Russia's Lena River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Nearly every year in the late spring, ice blocks the flow of water at the mouth of the Lena River in northeastern Russia and gives rise to floods across the Siberian plains. This year's floods can be seen in this image taken on June 2, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. The river runs down the left side of the image, and its delta is shrouded in ice (red) at the top of the image. Normally, the river would resemble a thin black line in MODIS imagery. The river, which is Russia's longest, flows 2,641 miles (4,250 kilometers) south to north through Siberia and into the Laptev Sea. In the winter, the river becomes nearly frozen. In the spring, however, water upstream thaws earlier than water at the mouth of the river. As the southern end of the river begins to melt, blocks of ice travel downstream to the still frozen delta, pile up, and often obstruct the flow of water. Flooding doesn't always occur on the same parts of the river. The floods hit further south last year. If the flooding grows severe enough, explosive charges are typically used to break up the ice jams. In these false-color images land areas are a dull, light green or tan, and water is black. Clouds appear pink, and ice comes across as bright red. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  13. Flood of December 25, 1987, in Millington, Tennessee and vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, James G.; Gamble, Charles R.

    1989-01-01

    Intense rainfall totaling 9.2 in. in a 12-hour period on December 24-25, 1987, and 14.8 in for the period December 24-27 caused record floods in Millington, Tennessee and vicinity. The peak discharge of Big Creek at Raleigh-Millington Road was almost twice the discharge of the 100-year flood discharge and that of Loosahatchie River near Arlington was about equal to the 50-year flood discharge. The inundated area and flood elevations are depicted on a map of Millington, Tennessee and vicinity. Water surface profiles for the peak of December 25, 1987, for Loosahatchie River, Big Creek, Royster Creek, North Fork Creek, Casper Creek, and an unnamed tributary to Big Creek are shown. Flood damages and cleanup costs for this record flood have been estimated at about $9.2 million. (USGS)

  14. Increasing risk of great floods in a changing climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milly, P.C.D.; Wetherald, R.T.; Dunne, K.A.; Delworth, T.L.

    2002-01-01

    Radiative effects of anthropogenic changes in atmospheric composition are expected to cause climate changes, in particular an intensification of the global water cycle with a consequent increase in flood risk. But the detection of anthropogenically forced changes in flooding is difficult because of the substantial natural variability; the dependence of streamflow trends on flow regime further complicates the issue. Here we investigate the changes in risk of great floods - that is, floods with discharges exceeding 100-year levels from basins larger than 200,000 km2 - using both streamflow measurements and numerical simulations of the anthropogenic climate change associated with greenhouse gases and direct radiative effects of sulphate aerosols. We find that the frequency of great floods increased substantially during the twentieth century. The recent emergence of a statistically significant positive trend in risk of great floods is consistent with results from the climate model, and the model suggests that the trend will continue.

  15. Precipitation in the Northern Plains, September 1996 through April 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macek-Rowland, K. M.; Burr, M.J.; Mitton, G.B.

    2001-01-01

    Above-normal snowfall throughout the winter of 1996-97, combined with excessive precipitation during the fall of 1996 and additional moisture from a spring blizzard on April 5-6, 1997, caused the worst flooding in more than 100 years in several areas in central and eastern North Dakota, western Minnesota, and central eastern South Dakota. Many of the monthly precipitation totals for September 1996 through April 1997 were more than 200 percent of monthly normals at selected weather stations.

  16. After the flood is before the next flood - post event review of the Central European Floods of June 2013. Insights, recommendations and next steps for future flood prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szoenyi, Michael; Mechler, Reinhard; McCallum, Ian

    2015-04-01

    In early June 2013, severe flooding hit Central and Eastern Europe, causing extensive damage, in particular along the Danube and Elbe main watersheds. The situation was particularly severe in Eastern Germany, Austria, Hungary and the Czech Republic. Based on the Post Event Review Capability (PERC) approach, developed by Zurich Insurance's Flood Resilience Program to provide independent review of large flood events, we examine what has worked well (best practice) and opportunities for further improvement. The PERC overall aims to thoroughly examine aspects of flood resilience, flood risk management and catastrophe intervention in order to help build back better after events and learn for future events. As our research from post event analyses shows a lot of losses are in fact avoidable by taking the right measures pre-event and these measures are economically - efficient with a return of 4 Euro on losses saved for every Euro invested in prevention on average (Wharton/IIASA flood resilience alliance paper on cost benefit analysis, Mechler et al. 2014) and up to 10 Euros for certain countries. For the 2013 flood events we provide analysis on the following aspects and in general identify a number of factors that worked in terms of reducing the loss and risk burden. 1. Understanding risk factors of the Central European Floods 2013 We review the precursors leading up to the floods in June, with an extremely wet May 2013 and an atypical V-b weather pattern that brought immense precipitation in a very short period to the watersheds of Elbe, Donau and partially the Rhine in the D-A-CH countries and researched what happened during the flood and why. Key questions we asked revolve around which protection and risk reduction approaches worked well and which did not, and why. 2. Insights and recommendations from the post event review The PERC identified a number of risk factors, which need attention if risk is to be reduced over time. • Yet another "100-year flood" - risk

  17. Floods of September 16, 1975 in the Tallaboa Valley, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Karl G.

    1981-01-01

    The most severe flood since 1928 inundated the Rio Tallaboa Valley on the south coast of Puerto Rico on September 16, 1975. Peak discharge was about 666 cubic meters per second. The flood has an estimated recurrence interval of 20 years. The data provided in the report can be used in making rational decisions in formulating effective flood-plain regulations that would minimize flood problems in the Tallaboa Valley. (USGS)

  18. Flood of April 2007 in New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    During April 16-18, 2007, central and southeastern New Hampshire experienced severe flooding as a result of up to 7 inches of rainfall from a storm that stalled off the New England coast. As a result of the flooding, a Presidential Disaster Declaration was issued on April 27, 2007. On that day, disaster declarations were announced for Grafton, Hillsborough, Merrimack, Rockingham, and Strafford Counties. On May 10, 2007, Belknap County was added to the disaster declaration. Following the flooding, the U.S. Geological Survey, in a cooperative investigation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency, determined the peak stages, peak discharges, and recurrence-interval estimates of the April 2007 flood at 57 streamgages and 4 ungaged sites in and adjacent to the counties named in the disaster declaration. Data from flood-insurance studies published by the Federal Emergency Management Agency also were compiled for each streamgage site for comparison purposes. The peak discharges during the April 2007 flood were the highest ever recorded at five long-term (more than 10 years of record) streamgage sites on the New Hampshire-Salmon Falls River at Milton, Cocheco River near Rochester, Oyster River near Durham, Contoocook River at Peterborough, and South Branch Piscataquog River near Goffstown. In addition, peak discharges equaled or exceeded a 100-year recurrence interval at 10 streamgages and a 50-year recurrence interval at 16 streamgages. The most severe flooding occurred in Rockingham, Strafford, Merrimack, and Hillsborough Counties.

  19. Flood of May 2006 in New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, Scott A.

    2007-01-01

    From May 13-17, 2006, central and southern New Hampshire experienced severe flooding caused by as much as 14 inches of rainfall in the region. As a result of the flood damage, a presidential disaster declaration was made on May 25, 2006, for seven counties-Rockingham, Hillsborough, Strafford, Merrimack, Belknap, Carroll, and Grafton. Following the flooding, the U.S. Geological Survey, in a cooperative investigation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency, determined the peak stages, peak discharges, and recurrence-interval estimates of the May 2006 flood at 65 streamgages in the counties where the disaster declaration was made. Data from flood-insurance studies published by the Federal Emergency Management Agency also were compiled for each streamgage location for comparison purposes. The peak discharges during the May 2006 flood were the largest ever recorded at 14 long-term (more than 10 years of record) streamgages in New Hampshire. In addition, peak discharges equaled or exceeded a 100-year recurrence interval at 14 streamgages and equaled or exceeded a 50-year recurrence interval at 22 streamgages. The most severe flooding occurred in Rockingham, Strafford, Merrimack, and eastern and northern Hillsborough Counties.

  20. Methods for estimating peak discharge and flood boundaries of streams in Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, B.E.; Lindskov, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    Equations for estimating 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year peak discharges and flood depths at ungaged sites in Utah were developed using multiple-regression techniques. Ratios of 500- to 100-year values also were determined. The peak discharge equations are applicable to unregulated streams and the flood depth equations are applicable to the unregulated flow in natural stream channels. The flood depth data can be used to approximate flood prone areas. Drainage area and mean basin elevation are the two basin characteristics needed to use these equations. The standard error of estimate ranges from 38% to 74% for the 100-year peak discharge and from 23% to 33% for the 100-year flood depth. Five different flood mapping methods are described. Streams are classified into four categories as a basis for selecting a flood mapping method. Procedures for transferring flood depths obtained from the regression equations to a flood boundary map are outlined. Also, previous detailed flood mapping by government agencies and consultants is summarized to assist the user in quality control and to minimize duplication of effort. Methods are described for transferring flood frequency data from gaged to ungaged sites on the same stream. Peak discharge and flood depth frequency relations and selected basin characteristics data, updated through the 1980 water year, are tabulated for more than 300 gaging stations in Utah and adjoining states. In addition, weighted estimates of peak discharge relations based on the station data and the regression estimates are provided for each gaging station used in the regression analysis. (Author 's abstract)

  1. Acidophilic denitrifiers dominate the N2O production in a 100-year-old tea orchard soil.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Long, Xi-En; Chapman, Stephen J; Yao, Huaiying

    2015-03-01

    Aerobic denitrification is the main process for high N2O production in acid tea field soil. However, the biological mechanisms for the high emission are not fully understood. In this study, we examined N2O emission and denitrifier communities in 100-year-old tea soils with four pH levels (3.71, 5.11, 6.19, and 7.41) and four nitrate concentration (0, 50, 200, and 1000 mg kg(-1) of NO3 (-)-N) addition. Results showed the highest N2O emission (10.1 mg kg(-1) over 21 days) from the soil at pH 3.71 with 1000 mg kg(-1) NO3 (-) addition. The N2O reduction and denitrification enzyme activity in the acid soils (pH <7.0) were significantly higher than that of soils at pH 7.41. Moreover, TRF 78 of nirS and TRF 187 of nosZ dominated in soils of pH 3.71, suggesting an important role of acidophilic denitrifiers in N2O production and reduction. CCA analysis also showed a negative correlation between the dominant denitrifier ecotypes (nirS TRF 78, nosZ TRF 187) and soil pH. The representative sequences were identical to those of cultivated denitrifiers from acidic soils via phylogenetic tree analysis. Our results showed that the acidophilic denitrifier adaptation to the acid environment results in high N2O emission in this highly acidic tea soil.

  2. Midlife muscle strength and human longevity up to age 100 years: a 44-year prospective study among a decedent cohort.

    PubMed

    Rantanen, Taina; Masaki, Kamal; He, Qimei; Ross, G Webster; Willcox, Bradley J; White, Lon

    2012-06-01

    We studied prospectively the midlife handgrip strength, living habits, and parents' longevity as predictors of length of life up to becoming a centenarian. The participants were 2,239 men from the Honolulu Heart Program/Honolulu-Asia Aging Study who were born before the end of June 1909 and who took part in baseline physical assessment in 1965-1968, when they were 56-68 years old. Deaths were followed until the end of June 2009 for 44 years with complete ascertainment. Longevity was categorized as centenarian (≥100 years, n = 47), nonagenarian (90-99 years, n = 545), octogenarian (80-89 years, n = 847), and ≤79 years (n = 801, reference). The average survival after baseline was 20.8 years (SD = 9.62). Compared with people who died at the age of ≤79 years, centenarians belonged 2.5 times (odds ratio (OR) = 2.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.23-5.10) more often to the highest third of grip strength in midlife, were never smokers (OR = 5.75 95% CI = 3.06-10.80), had participated in physical activity outside work (OR = 1.13 per daily hour, 95% CI = 1.02-1.25), and had a long-lived mother (≥80 vs. ≤60 years, OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.06-5.01). Associations for nonagenarians and octogenarians were parallel, but weaker. Multivariate modeling showed that mother's longevity and offspring's grip strength operated through the same or overlapping pathway to longevity. High midlife grip strength and long-lived mother may indicate resilience to aging, which, combined with healthy lifestyle, increases the probability of extreme longevity.

  3. Management of hazardous waste at RCRA facilities during the flood of `93 -- Methods used and lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, T.; Jacko, R.B.

    1996-11-01

    During the summer of 1993, the state of Iowa experienced severe flooding that caused the release of many hazardous materials into the environment. Six months after the flood, the Iowa section of the RCRA branch, US EPA Region 7, sent inspectors to survey every RCRA facility in Iowa. Information was gathered through questionnaires to determine the flood`s impact and to learn potential lessons that could be beneficial in future flood disasters. The objective of this project was to use the information gathered to determine effective storage methods and emergency procedures for handling hazardous material during flood disasters. Additional data were obtained through record searches, phone interviews, and site visits. Data files and statistics were analyzed, then the evident trends and specific insights observed were utilized to create recommendations for RCRA facilities in the flood plain and for the federal EPA and state regulatory agencies. The recommendations suggest that RCRA regulated facilities in the flood plain should: employ the safest storage methods possible; have a flood emergency plan that includes the most effective release prevention available; and take advantage of several general suggestions for flood protection. The recommendations suggest that the federal EPA and state regulatory agencies consider: including a provision requiring large quantity generators of hazardous waste in the flood plain to include flood procedures in the contingency plans; establishing remote emergency storage areas during the flood disasters; encouraging small quantity generators (SQGs) within the flood plain to establish flood contingency plans; and promoting sound flood protection engineering practices for all RCRA facilities in the flood plain.

  4. Floods of August 1967 in east-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childers, Joseph M.; Meckel, James P.; Anderson, Gary S.

    1972-01-01

    East-central Alaska had record floods near Fairbanks following extensive rains of August 8-20, 1967. Precipitation during this period totaled as much as 10 inches, which is close to the average annual precipitation for this area. The most extensive flooding occurred in the White Mountains northeast of Fairbanks and along the major streams draining those mountains. Some of the major streams flooded were the Salcha, Chena, Chatanika, Tolovana, and lower Tanana Rivers, and Birch Creek west of Circle. Peak discharges on some streams in the flood area were from two to four times the probable 50-year flood. The peak discharge of 74,400 cubic feet per second of the Chena River at Fairbanks, from 1,980 square miles of drainage area, was 2.6 times the 50-year flood. The rise of ground-water levels in the Tanana River flood plain to the land surface during the flood caused foundation failures and prevented drainage of subsurface structures. Above-normal ground-water levels existed until the middle of September. Total flood damage was estimated in excess of $85 million. Six lives were reported lost, and about 12,000 persons were evacuated during the flood. This report has been prepared to furnish hydrologic data for development planning. Included are discussions of antecedent streamflow, meteorology of the storm, descriptions of floods, flood damage, flood frequency, ground-water conditions, and stages and discharges of major streams for August 1967.

  5. The story of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory -- A remarkable first 100 years of tracking eruptions and earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Babb, Janet L.; Kauahikaua, James P.; Tilling, Robert I.

    2011-01-01

    The year 2012 marks the centennial of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO). With the support and cooperation of visionaries, financiers, scientists, and other individuals and organizations, HVO has successfully achieved 100 years of continuous monitoring of Hawaiian volcanoes. As we celebrate this milestone anniversary, we express our sincere mahalo—thanks—to the people who have contributed to and participated in HVO’s mission during this past century. First and foremost, we owe a debt of gratitude to the late Thomas A. Jaggar, Jr., the geologist whose vision and efforts led to the founding of HVO. We also acknowledge the pioneering contributions of the late Frank A. Perret, who began the continuous monitoring of Kīlauea in 1911, setting the stage for Jaggar, who took over the work in 1912. Initial support for HVO was provided by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the Carnegie Geophysical Laboratory, which financed the initial cache of volcano monitoring instruments and Perret’s work in 1911. The Hawaiian Volcano Research Association, a group of Honolulu businessmen organized by Lorrin A. Thurston, also provided essential funding for HVO’s daily operations starting in mid-1912 and continuing for several decades. Since HVO’s beginning, the University of Hawaiʻi (UH), called the College of Hawaii until 1920, has been an advocate of HVO’s scientific studies. We have benefited from collaborations with UH scientists at both the Hilo and Mänoa campuses and look forward to future cooperative efforts to better understand how Hawaiian volcanoes work. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has operated HVO continuously since 1947. Before then, HVO was under the administration of various Federal agencies—the U.S. Weather Bureau, at the time part of the Department of Agriculture, from 1919 to 1924; the USGS, which first managed HVO from 1924 to 1935; and the National Park Service from 1935 to 1947. For 76 of its first 100 years, HVO has been

  6. The Plains City Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Olphen, Marcela; Rios, Francisco; Berube, William; Dexter, Robin; McCarthy, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This case study portrays a contemporary phenomenon that affects many U.S. school districts. Specifically, the authors address the challenges that the superintendent of the Plains City school district faced as a result of a change in the demographic distribution of his district. The gradual development of the pig farming industry in Plains City…

  7. Assessment of flood Response Characteristics to Urbanization and extreme flood events-Typhoons at Cheongju, Chungbuk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, HyungJoon; Lee, Hyosang; Hwang, Myunggyu; Jang, Sukhwan

    2016-04-01

    The changes of land use influence on the flood characteristics, which depend on rainfall runoff procedures in the catchment. This study assesses the changes of flood characteristics due to land use changes between 1997 and 2012. The catchment model (HEC-HMS) is calibrated with flood events of 1990's and 2000's respectively, then the design rainfall of 100, 200, 500year return period are applied to this model, which represent the catchment in 1990's and 2000's, to assess the flood peaks. Then the extreme flood events (i.e., 6 typhoon events) are applied to assess the flood responses. The results of comparison between 1990's and 2000's show that the flood peak and level of 2000's are increasing and time to peak of 2000's is decreasing comparing to those of 1990's :3% to 78% increase in flood peak, 3% in flood level and 10.2% to 16% decrease in time to peak in 100year return period flood. It is due to decreasing of the farmland area (2.18%), mountainous area (8.88%), and increasing of the urbanization of the area (5.86%). This study also estimates the responses to extreme flood events. The results of 2000's show that the increasing of the flood peak and time to peak comparing to 1990's. It indicates that the extreme rainfall is more responsible at unurbanized catchment ( 2000's), which resulting with a 11% increasing of the peak volume. Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant (11-TI-C06) from Advanced Water Management Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  8. Flood of May 5 and 6, 1981, Mobile, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ming, C.O.; Nelson, G.H.

    1981-01-01

    Heavy and intense rainfall in the late evening and early morning hours, May 5 and 6, 1981, caused widespread flooding along streams and low-lying areas in the port city of Mobile, Ala. More than 12 inches of rain fell between 6 p.m. May 5, and 3 a.m. May 6. Damage caused by flooding was estimated by the Mobile Department of Public Works to be millions of dollars. Maximum water surface elevations on streams in the area were 2 to 3 feet higher than those that occurred during a similar flood in April 1980. The approximate extent of flooding delineated on maps using flood profiles obtained by field surveys will provide a basis for formulating effective flood plain zoning that could minimize existing and future flood problems. (USGS)

  9. Outwash plains and thermokarst on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Costard, F.M.; Kargel, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    The spatial distribution of different types of rampart craters on Mars suggests a hemispheric asymmetry in the distribution of ground ice. The northern plains, especially major topographic depressions near the terminations of outflow channels, have high percentages of rampart craters. Two of these basins, Acidalia and Utopia Planitiae, received extraordinarily large amounts of water and sediment from the Chryse and Elysium outflow channels. In both regions, the analysis of high-resolution Viking pictures (12 m/pixel) indicates a concentration of kilometer-scale depressions that are similar in size and form to thermokarstic features in Yakutia (Siberia) and parts of the arctic coastal plain of North America. Accordingly, we infer that (1) Utopia Planitia and Acidalia Planitia may contain thick, laterally continuous, ice-rich sedimentary deposits related to outflow channel-forming floods, and (2) these areas of Mars may have experienced thermokarstic processes similar to modern thermokarstic processes in some periglacial regions of Earth.

  10. Flood-risk management strategies for an uncertain future: living with Rhine River floods in The Netherlands?

    PubMed

    Klijn, Frans; van Buuren, Michaël; van Rooij, Sabine A M

    2004-05-01

    Social pressure on alluvial plains and deltas is large, both from an economic point of view and from a nature conservation point of view. Gradually, flood risks increase with economic development, because the expected damage increases, and with higher dikes, because the flooding depth increases. Global change, changing social desires, but also changing views, require a revision of flood-risk management strategies for the long term. These should be based on resilience as opposed to the resistence strategy of heightening dikes. Resilience strategies for flood-risk management imply that the river is allowed to temporarily flood large areas, whereas the flood damage is minimized by adapting land use. Such strategies are thus based on risk management and 'living with floods' instead of on hazard control. For The Netherlands, one of the most densely populated deltas in the world, alternative resilience strategies have been elaborated and assessed for their hydraulic functioning and 'sustainability criteria'.

  11. A technique for estimating flood heights on small streams in the city of Charlotte and Mecklenburg County, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddins, William H.; Jackson, N.M., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A method for estimating the height reached by floods having recurrence intervals of 10, 20, and 100 years is defined for unregulated streams in Charlotte and Mecklenburg County draining areas of less than 1.0 square mile. Flood heights, defined as the vertical distance between the streambed at riffles and the floodwater surface, can be used to estimate flood elevations on small streams where flood profiles and flood inundation maps are not available. An illustrative example is given of how the method can be used with streambed elevation data and topographic maps to estimate flood elevations and delineate inundated areas.

  12. Accumulation of Pharmaceuticals, Enterococcus, and Resistance Genes in Soils Irrigated with Wastewater for Zero to 100 Years in Central Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Siebe, Christina; Willaschek, Elisha; Sakinc, Tuerkan; Huebner, Johannes; Amelung, Wulf; Grohmann, Elisabeth; Siemens, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Irrigation with wastewater releases pharmaceuticals, pathogenic bacteria, and resistance genes, but little is known about the accumulation of these contaminants in the environment when wastewater is applied for decades. We sampled a chronosequence of soils that were variously irrigated with wastewater from zero up to 100 years in the Mezquital Valley, Mexico, and investigated the accumulation of ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, clarithromycin, carbamazepine, bezafibrate, naproxen, diclofenac, as well as the occurrence of Enterococcus spp., and sul and qnr resistance genes. Total concentrations of ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and carbamazepine increased with irrigation duration reaching 95% of their upper limit of 1.4 µg/kg (ciprofloxacin), 4.3 µg/kg (sulfamethoxazole), and 5.4 µg/kg (carbamazepine) in soils irrigated for 19–28 years. Accumulation was soil-type-specific, with largest accumulation rates in Leptosols and no time-trend in Vertisols. Acidic pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, naproxen, bezafibrate) were not retained and thus did not accumulate in soils. We did not detect qnrA genes, but qnrS and qnrB genes were found in two of the irrigated soils. Relative concentrations of sul1 genes in irrigated soils were two orders of magnitude larger (3.15×10−3±0.22×10−3 copies/16S rDNA) than in non-irrigated soils (4.35×10−5±1.00×10−5 copies/16S rDNA), while those of sul2 exceeded the ones in non-irrigated soils still by a factor of 22 (6.61×10–4±0.59×10−4 versus 2.99×10−5±0.26×10−5 copies/16S rDNA). Absolute numbers of sul genes continued to increase with prolonging irrigation together with Enterococcus spp. 23S rDNA and total 16S rDNA contents. Increasing total concentrations of antibiotics in soil are not accompanied by increasing relative abundances of resistance genes. Nevertheless, wastewater irrigation enlarges the absolute concentration of resistance genes in soils due to a long-term increase in

  13. Flood of October 1986 at Seward, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, S.H.; Zenone, Chester

    1988-01-01

    Broad areas along the lower Resurrection River and Salmon Creek as well as the surfaces of several adjacent alluvial fans in the Seward area were flooded as a result of the intensive rainstorm of October 9-11, 1986. Severe erosion took place through the steep gradient, mountain canyons and near the apex of the fans, while rock and debris were deposited on the distal parts of the fans. In Godwin, Lost, Box Canyon, Japanese, and Spruce Creek basins, and perhaps others, landslides or debris avalanches dammed the streams temporarily. Subsequent failure or overtopping of these dams led to ' surge-release ' flooding; peak discharge of such a flood at Spruce Creek was 13,600 cu ft/sec, four times as great as any previously known maximum discharge from the basin and 2.5 times as great as the runoff rate from the debris dam. Flood discharges were determined indirectly--using the slope-area method--at ten high-gradient reaches on nine streams. Computed peak discharges for several small basins were the largest since records began in 1963. The largest rainfall-runoff rate unaffected by surge-release was 1 ,020 cu ft per sec per sq mi at Rudolph Creek, which has a drainage area of 1.00 sq mi. The 15.05 inches of rain that fell in one 24-hour period during the storm was assigned a recurrence interval of 100 years or greater. The length of the streamflow record available for most Seward area streams-25 years or less-is inadequate to reliably define flood frequency relations for recurrence intervals as great as 100 years. However, the slope-area determined discharge of Spruce Creek above the debris avalanche indicates a recurrence interval of a 100 years or greater. In addition, conventional flood-frequency analysis techniques are not applicable to peak discharges that are affected by surge-release phenomena. Large, damaging floods have repeatedly caused major damage in the Seward area, and the potential for catastrophic, debris-laden floods is an ever-present threat to areas

  14. More than 100 Years of Background-Level Sedimentary Metals, Nisqually River Delta, South Puget Sound, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takesue, Renee K.; Swarzenski, Peter W.

    2011-01-01

    The Nisqually River Delta is located about 25 km south of the Tacoma Narrows in the southern reach of Puget Sound. Delta evolution is controlled by sedimentation from the Nisqually River and erosion by strong tidal currents that may reach 0.95 m/s in the Nisqually Reach. The Nisqually River flows 116 km from the Cascade Range, including the slopes of Mount Rainier, through glacially carved valleys to Puget Sound. Extensive tidal flats on the delta consist of late-Holocene silty and sandy strata from normal river streamflow and seasonal floods and possibly from distal sediment-rich debris flows associated with volcanic and seismic events. In the early 1900s, dikes and levees were constructed around Nisqually Delta salt marshes, and the reclaimed land was used for agriculture and pasture. In 1974, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service established the Nisqually National Wildlife Refuge on the reclaimed land to protect migratory birds; its creation has prevented further human alteration of the Delta and estuary. In October 2009, original dikes and levees were removed to restore tidal exchange to almost 3 km2 of man-made freshwater marsh on the Nisqually Delta.

  15. Bayesian Non-Stationary Flood Frequency Estimation at Ungauged Basins Using Climate Information and a Scaling Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, C. H.; Lall, U.

    2010-12-01

    Flood frequency statistical analysis most often relies on stationary assumptions, where distribution moments (e.g. mean, standard deviation) and associated flood quantiles do not change over time. In this sense, one expects that flood magnitudes and their frequency of occurrence will remain constant as observed in the historical information. However, evidence of inter-annual and decadal climate variability and anthropogenic change as well as an apparent increase in the number and magnitude of flood events across the globe have made the stationary assumption questionable. Here, we show how to estimate flood quantiles (e.g. 100-year flood) at ungauged basins without needing to consider stationarity. A statistical model based on the well known flow-area scaling law is proposed to estimate flood flows at ungauged basins. The slope and intercept scaling law coefficients are assumed time varying and a hierarchical Bayesian model is used to include climate information and reduce parameter uncertainties. Cross-validated results from 34 streamflow gauges located in a nested Basin in Brazil show that the proposed model is able to estimate flood quantiles at ungauged basins with remarkable skills compared with data based estimates using the full record. The model as developed in this work is also able to simulate sequences of flood flows considering global climate changes provided an appropriate climate index developed from the General Circulation Model is used as a predictor. The time varying flood frequency estimates can be used for pricing insurance models, and in a forecast mode for preparations for flooding, and finally, for timing infrastructure investments and location. Non-stationary 95% interval estimation for the 100-year Flood (shaded gray region) and 95% interval for the 100-year flood estimated from data (horizontal dashed and solid lines). The average distribution of the 100-year flood is shown in green in the right side.

  16. The story of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory -- A remarkable first 100 years of tracking eruptions and earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Babb, Janet L.; Kauahikaua, James P.; Tilling, Robert I.

    2011-01-01

    The year 2012 marks the centennial of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO). With the support and cooperation of visionaries, financiers, scientists, and other individuals and organizations, HVO has successfully achieved 100 years of continuous monitoring of Hawaiian volcanoes. As we celebrate this milestone anniversary, we express our sincere mahalo—thanks—to the people who have contributed to and participated in HVO’s mission during this past century. First and foremost, we owe a debt of gratitude to the late Thomas A. Jaggar, Jr., the geologist whose vision and efforts led to the founding of HVO. We also acknowledge the pioneering contributions of the late Frank A. Perret, who began the continuous monitoring of Kīlauea in 1911, setting the stage for Jaggar, who took over the work in 1912. Initial support for HVO was provided by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the Carnegie Geophysical Laboratory, which financed the initial cache of volcano monitoring instruments and Perret’s work in 1911. The Hawaiian Volcano Research Association, a group of Honolulu businessmen organized by Lorrin A. Thurston, also provided essential funding for HVO’s daily operations starting in mid-1912 and continuing for several decades. Since HVO’s beginning, the University of Hawaiʻi (UH), called the College of Hawaii until 1920, has been an advocate of HVO’s scientific studies. We have benefited from collaborations with UH scientists at both the Hilo and Mänoa campuses and look forward to future cooperative efforts to better understand how Hawaiian volcanoes work. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has operated HVO continuously since 1947. Before then, HVO was under the administration of various Federal agencies—the U.S. Weather Bureau, at the time part of the Department of Agriculture, from 1919 to 1924; the USGS, which first managed HVO from 1924 to 1935; and the National Park Service from 1935 to 1947. For 76 of its first 100 years, HVO has been

  17. Hydrologic Controls On Methylmercury Availability In Coastal Plain Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, P. M.; Brigham, M. E.; Burns, D. A.; Button, D. T.; Lutz, M. A.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M. C.; Riva-Murray, K.; Journey, C.

    2011-12-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) in streams is often attributed to methylation in up-gradient wetland areas, with episodic flood events maximizing wetland-stream hydrologic connectivity and dominating MeHg supply to the stream habitat. A number of studies have demonstrated that Coastal Plain streams in the southeastern United States are particularly vulnerable to high MeHg bioaccumulation and have attributed this vulnerability to wetland abundance and strong hydrologic connectivity between wetland areas and adjacent stream aquatic habitat. Because characteristically coarse-grained Coastal Plain sediments favor vertical infiltration with little surface runoff, flood events attributable to Coastal Plain precipitation are driven by rising groundwater, promoting efficient transport of MeHg from wetland/floodplain source areas to the stream habitat and increasing in-stream availability. Several observations at McTier Creek, South Carolina, however, suggest that good hydrologic connectivity and efficient MeHg transport in Coastal Plain systems are not limited to flood conditions. Close correspondence between stream and shallow-groundwater water levels at McTier indicate good hydrologic connectivity exists prior to flood conditions. Dissolved MeHg concentrations do not increase under flood conditions. Thus, we assessed the flux of water and dissolved mercury (Hg) species (FMeHg and total Hg (FTHg)) from surface water and groundwater sources in a short reach at McTier Creek during separate events in April and July 2009, to determine the importance of shallow groundwater Hg transport from floodplain areas to the stream under non-flood conditions. Mass balance assessments indicated that, under non-flood conditions, the primary supply of water, FMeHg, and FTHg within the reach (excluding upstream surface-water influx) was groundwater discharge, rather than tributary transport from wetlands, in-stream MeHg production, or atmospheric deposition. The results indicate efficient transport of

  18. The Bosna River floods in May 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmar, Andrej; Globevnik, Lidija; Koprivšek, Maja; Sečnik, Matej; Zabret, Katarina; Đurović, Blažo; Anzeljc, Darko; Kastelic, Janez; Kobold, Mira; Sušnik, Mojca; Borojevič, Darko; Kupusović, Tarik; Kupusović, Esena; Vihar, Anja; Brilly, Mitja

    2016-10-01

    In May 2014, extreme floods occurred in the lower Sava River basin, causing major damage, with catastrophic consequences. Based on the data gathered, the weather situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina's (BiH) Bosna River basin was analysed and the hydrological conditions were provided, including the results of the probability analysis of the size of the recorded precipitation and flow rates. According to the observed data, extremely high precipitation intensities produced specific discharges of 1.0 m3 s-1 km-2. A hydrological model of the Bosna River basin was developed using HBV light for the purposes of reconstructing and forecasting such events more effectively. All analyses confirmed that the May 2014 event was an extreme extraordinary event whose return period greatly exceeds 100 years. The study is the basis for further flood safety measures and flood forecast development in the Bosna River basin.

  19. Re-assessing the flood risk in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Black, Andrew R; Burns, John C

    2002-07-22

    This paper presents a review of changes in flood risk estimation on Scottish rivers resulting from re-analysis of flood records or from the application of new methods. The review arises at a time when flood damages have received recent prominence through the occurrence of a number of extreme floods in Scotland, and when the possible impacts of climate change on flood risk are receiving considerable attention. An analysis of the nine longest available peaks-over-threshold (POT) flood series for Scottish rivers reveals that, for thresholds yielding two events per year on average, annual POT frequencies on western rivers have increased in the 1980s/1990s to maximum recorded values, while in the east, values were highest in the 1950s/1960s. These results support the results of flood modelling work based on rainfall and temperature records from the 1870s, which indicate that, in western catchments, annual POT frequencies in the 1980s/1990s are unprecedented. No general trends in flood magnitude series were found, but an unexpected cluster of extreme floods is identified as having occurred since 1988, resulting in eight of Scotland's 16 largest gauged rivers producing their maximum recorded flows since then. These shifts are related to recent increases in the dominance of westerly airflows, share similarities with the results of climate change modelling, and collectively point to increases in flood risk in many parts of Scotland. The paper also reviews advances in flood risk estimation arising from the publication of the UK Flood Estimation Handbook, developments in the collection and use of historic flood estimation and the production of maps of 100-year flood areal extent. Finally the challenges in flood risk estimation posed by climate change are examined, particularly in relation to the assumption of stationarity.

  20. Low-probability flood risk modeling for New York City.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Jeroen C J H; Lin, Ning; Botzen, Wouter; Emanuel, Kerry; de Moel, Hans

    2013-05-01

    The devastating impact by Hurricane Sandy (2012) again showed New York City (NYC) is one of the most vulnerable cities to coastal flooding around the globe. The low-lying areas in NYC can be flooded by nor'easter storms and North Atlantic hurricanes. The few studies that have estimated potential flood damage for NYC base their damage estimates on only a single, or a few, possible flood events. The objective of this study is to assess the full distribution of hurricane flood risk in NYC. This is done by calculating potential flood damage with a flood damage model that uses many possible storms and surge heights as input. These storms are representative for the low-probability/high-impact flood hazard faced by the city. Exceedance probability-loss curves are constructed under different assumptions about the severity of flood damage. The estimated flood damage to buildings for NYC is between US$59 and 129 millions/year. The damage caused by a 1/100-year storm surge is within a range of US$2 bn-5 bn, while this is between US$5 bn and 11 bn for a 1/500-year storm surge. An analysis of flood risk in each of the five boroughs of NYC finds that Brooklyn and Queens are the most vulnerable to flooding. This study examines several uncertainties in the various steps of the risk analysis, which resulted in variations in flood damage estimations. These uncertainties include: the interpolation of flood depths; the use of different flood damage curves; and the influence of the spectra of characteristics of the simulated hurricanes.

  1. Geologic history of the Cerberus Plains, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanagan, Peter Denham

    This work examines the relative chronology of geologic units within the Cerberus Plains of Mars with an emphasis on lava flows emplaced after the last Marte Valles fluvial episode. High resolution images show the bulk of the Cerberus Plains is covered by platy-ridged and inflated lavas, which are interpreted as insulated sheet flows. Eastern Cerberus Plains lavas originate at Cerberus Fossae fissures and shields. Some flows extend for >2000 km through Marte Valles into Amazonis Planitia. Athabasca Valles are both incised into pristine lavas and embayed by pristine lavas, indicating that Athabascan fluvial events were contemporaneous with volcanic eruptions. Deposits of the Medusae Fossae Formation lie both over and under lavas, suggesting the deposition of the Medusae Fossae Formation was contemporaneous with volcanism. Statistics of small craters indicate lavas in the Western Cerberus Plains may be less than a million years old, but the model isochrons may be unreliable if the small crater population is dominated by secondary craters. Images showing no large craters with diameters >500 m superimposed on Western Cerberus Plains lavas indicate the same surface is younger than 49 Ma. High resolution Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images have revealed the existence of small cones in the Cerberus Plains, Marte Valles, and Amazonis Planitia. These cones are similar in both morphology and planar dimensions to the larger Icelandic rootless cones, which form due to explosive interactions between surficial lavas and near-surface groundwater. If martian cones form in the same manner as terrestrial rootless cones, then equatorial ground-ice or ground water must have been present near the surface in geologically recent times. Evidence for a shallow lake in the Western Cerberus Plains during the Late Amazonian is also presented. High-resolution images show features interpreted as flood-eroded scarps and fluvial spillways exiting the lake. Based on present-day topography, a lake

  2. Simulations of the Greenland ice sheet 100 years into the future with the full Stokes model Elmer/Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seddik, H.; Greve, R.; Zwinger, T.; Gillet-Chaulet, F.; Gagliardini, O.

    2011-12-01

    the surface precipitation and temperature and the set S (three experiments) applies an amplification factor to change the basal sliding velocity. The experiments are compared to a constant climate control run beginning at present (epoch 2004-1-1 0:0:0) and running up to 100 years holding the climate constant to its present state. The experiments with the amplification factor (Set S) show high sensitivities. Relative to the control run, the scenario with an amplification factor of 3x applied to the sliding velocity produces a Greenland contribution to sea level rise of ~25 cm. An amplification factor of 2.5x produces a contribution of ~16 cm and an amplification factor 2x produces a contribution of ~9 cm. The experiments with the changes to the surface precipitation and temperature (set C) show a contribution to sea level rise of ~4 cm when a factor 1x is applied to the temperature and precipitation anomalies. A factor 1.5x produces a sea level rise of ~8 cm and a factor 2x produces a sea level rise of ~12 cm.

  3. Flood of May 26-27, 1984 in Tulsa, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergman, DeRoy L.; Tortorelli, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    The greatest flood disaster in the history of Tulsa, Oklahoma occurred during 8 hours from 2030 hours May 26 to 0430 hours May 27, 1984, as a result of intense rainfall centered over the metropolitan area. Storms of the magnitude that caused this flood are not uncommon to the southern great plains. Such storms are seldom documented in large urban areas. Total rainfall depth and rainfall distribution in the Tulsa metropolitan area during the May 26-27 storm were recorded by 16 recording rain gages. This report presents location of recording rain gages with corresponding rainfall histograms and mass curves, lines of equal rainfall depth (map A), and flood magnitudes and inundated areas of selected streams within the city (map B). The limits of the study areas (fig. 1) are the corporate boundaries of Tulsa, an area of about 185 square miles. Streams draining the city are: Dirty Butter, Coal, and Mingo Creeks which drain northward into Bird Creek along the northern boundary of the city; and Cherry, Crow, Harlow, Joe Haikey, Fry, Vensel, Fred, and Mooser Creeks which flow into the Arkansas River along the southern part of the city. Flooding along Haikey, Fry, Fred, Vensel, and Mooser Creeks was not documented for this report. The Arkansas River is regulated by Keystone Dam upstream from Tulsa (fig. 1). The Arkansas River remained below flood stage during the storm. Flooded areas in Tulsa (map B) were delineated on the topographic maps using flood profiles based on surveys of high-water marks identified immediately after the flood. The flood boundaries show the limits of stream flooding. Additional areas flooded because of overfilled storm drains or by sheet runoff are not shown in this report. Data presented in this report, including rainfall duration and frequency, and flood discharges and elevations, provide city officials and consultants a technical basis for making flood-plain management decisions.

  4. Billing in Plain English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Sarah Jane

    1987-01-01

    The author describes the efforts of the Federal Trade Commission to make credit communications more readable and informative. The group working on the project uses "plain English" as the writing model for forms and manuals. (CH)

  5. Generalized flood-frequency estimates for urban areas in Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gann, Ector Eugene

    1971-01-01

    A method is presented for estimating flood-frequency information for urban areas in Missouri. Flood-frequency relations are presented which provide an estimate of the flood-peak discharge for floods with recurrence intervals from 2.33 to 100 years for basins with various degrees of existing or projected urban development. Drainage area sizes for which the relations are applicable range from 0.1 to 50 square miles. These generalized relations will be useful to the urban planner and designer until more comprehensive studies are completed for the individual urban areas within the State. The relations will also be of use in the definition of flood-hazard areas in Missouri.

  6. Flood of December 1987 in central and eastern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neely, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    Heavy rain fell across Arkansas during December 24-28, 1987. During this period, 6 to 12 inches of rain fell in a 100-mile wide belt extending roughly from Texarkana to West Memphis, Arkansas. The intense rainfall produced flooding throughout much of central and eastern Arkansas. Peak discharges associated with the flood had recurrence intervals of 100 years at two gaging stations. Peak stages, discharges, and recurrence intervals for this flood are documented profiles for 41 gaging stations. Also included in this report are flood profiles for Bayou Meto, Bayou Two Prairie, Cache River, L'Anguille River, and flood hydrographs for gaging stations on Bayou Meto near Lonoke and Cache River at Patterson. (USGS)

  7. An analysis of changes in flood quantiles at the gauge Neu Darchau (Elbe River) from 1875 to 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudersbach, Christoph; Bender, Jens; Netzel, Fabian

    2016-05-01

    Within this investigation, we focus on a detailed analysis of the discharge data of the gauge Neu Darchau (Elbe River). The Elbe River inflows onto the North Sea. The gauge Neu Darchau is the most downstream discharge gauge of the Elbe River before it becomes an estuary. We follow the questions, whether the discharge characteristics of the Elbe River have changed over the last decades and how much common flood quantiles (i.e. 100-year flood) are affected by the latest extreme events in 2002, 2006, 2011, and 2013. Hence, we conduct (i) trend and seasonality analysis and (ii) an assessment of time-dependencies of flood quantiles by using quasi non-stationary extreme value statistics with both block maxima and peak-over-threshold approaches. The (iii) significance of the changes found in flood quantiles are assessed by using a stochastic approach based on autoregressive models and Monte Carlo simulations. The results of the trend analyses do show no clear evidences for any significant trends in daily mean discharges and increasing flood frequencies. With respect to the extreme events in 2002, 2006, 2011, and 2013 our results reveal, that those events do not lead to extraordinary changes in the 100-year floods. Nevertheless, in the majority an increase in the 100-year floods over the recent decades can be stated. Although these changes are not significant, for many time series of the 100-year flood quantiles there is a clear tendency towards the upper confidence band.

  8. Atmosphere-Land-Surface Interaction over the Southern Great Plains: Diagnosis of Mechanisms from SGP ARM Data

    SciTech Connect

    Sumant Nigam

    2013-02-01

    Work reported included analysis of pentad (5 day) averaged data, proposal of a hypothesis concerning the key role of the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation in 20th century drought and wet periods over the Great Plains, analysis of recurrent super-synoptic evolution of the Great Plains low-level jet, and study of pentad evolution of the 1988 drought and 1993 flood over the Great Plains from a NARR perspective on the atmospheric and terrestrial water balance.

  9. The Plains of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpton, V. L.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic plains units of various types comprise at least 80% of the surface of Venus. Though devoid of topographic splendor and, therefore often overlooked, these plains units house a spectacular array of volcanic, tectonic, and impact features. Here I propose that the plains hold the keys to understanding the resurfacing history of Venus and resolving the global stratigraphy debate. The quasi-random distribution of impact craters and the small number that have been conspicuously modified from the outside by plains-forming volcanism have led some to propose that Venus was catastrophically resurfaced around 725×375 Ma with little volcanism since. Challenges, however, hinge on interpretations of certain morphological characteristics of impact craters: For instance, Venusian impact craters exhibit either radar dark (smooth) floor deposits or bright, blocky floors. Bright floor craters (BFC) are typically 100-400 m deeper than dark floor craters (DFC). Furthermore, all 58 impact craters with ephemeral bright ejecta rays and/or distal parabolic ejecta patterns have bright floor deposits. This suggests that BFCs are younger, on average, than DFCs. These observations suggest that DFCs could be partially filled with lava during plains emplacement and, therefore, are not strictly younger than the plains units as widely held. Because the DFC group comprises ~80% of the total crater population on Venus the recalculated emplacement age of the plains would be ~145 Ma if DFCs are indeed volcanically modified during plains formation. Improved image and topographic data are required to measure stratigraphic and morphometric relationships and resolve this issue. Plains units are also home to an abundant and diverse set of volcanic features including steep-sided domes, shield fields, isolated volcanoes, collapse features and lava channels, some of which extend for 1000s of kilometers. The inferred viscosity range of plains-forming lavas, therefore, is immense, ranging from the

  10. Tsunami flooding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, Eric; Jones, Henry; McBride, Mark; Fedors, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Panel 5 focused on tsunami flooding with an emphasis on Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) as derived from its counterpart, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) that determines seismic ground-motion hazards. The Panel reviewed current practices in PTHA and determined the viability of extending the analysis to extreme design probabilities (i.e., 10-4 to 10-6). In addition to earthquake sources for tsunamis, PTHA for extreme events necessitates the inclusion of tsunamis generated by submarine landslides, and treatment of the large attendant uncertainty in source characterization and recurrence rates. Tsunamis can be caused by local and distant earthquakes, landslides, volcanism, and asteroid/meteorite impacts. Coastal flooding caused by storm surges and seiches is covered in Panel 7. Tsunamis directly tied to earthquakes, the similarities with (and path forward offered by) the PSHA approach for PTHA, and especially submarine landslide tsunamis were a particular focus of Panel 5.

  11. Extent and frequency of floods on Delaware River in vicinity of Belvidere, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farlekas, George M.

    1966-01-01

    A stream overflowing its banks is a natural phenomenon. This natural phenomenon of flooding has occurred on the Delaware River in the past and will occur in the future. T' o resulting inundation of large areas can cause property damage, business losses and possible loss of life, and may result in emergency costs for protection, rescue, and salvage work. For optimum development of the river valley consistent with the flood risk, an evaluation of flood conditions is necessary. Basic data and the interpretation of the data on the regimen of the streams, particularly the magnitude of floods to be expected, the frequency of their occurrence, and the areas inundated, are essential for planning and development of flood-prone areas.This report presents information relative to the extent, depth, and frequency of floods on the Delaware River and its tributaries in the vicinity of Belvidere, N.J. Flooding on the tributaries detailed in the report pertains only to the effect of backwater from the Delaware River. Data are presented for several past floods with emphasis given to the floods of August 19, 1955 and May 24, 1942. In addition, information is given for a hypothetical flood based on the flood of August 19, 1955 modified by completed (since 1955) and planned flood-control works.By use of relations presented in this report the extent, depth, and frequency of flooding can be estimated for any site along the reach of the Delaware River under study. Flood data and the evaluation of the data are presented so that local and regional agencies, organizations, and individuals may have a technical basis for making decisions on the use of flood-prone areas. The Delaware River Basin Commission and the U.S. Geological Survey regard this program of flood-plain inundation studies as a positive step toward flood-damage prevention. Flood-plain inundation studies, when followed by appropriate land-use regulations, are a valuable and economical supplement to physical works for flood

  12. Demonstrating the impact of flood adaptation using an online dynamic flood mapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orton, P. M.; MacManus, K.; Doxsey-Whitfield, E.; Yetman, G.; Fisher, K.; Sanderson, E. W.; Giampieri, M.; Blumberg, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    Municipalities across the nation are weighing the value of coastal natural and nature-based features (NNBF) for flood risk reduction and the many ecosystem services they provide, yet there is limited quantitative information available to help make these decisions. Here, we describe a new "dynamic" flood mapping web-tool that demonstrates the modeled effects of NNBF on flood hazard zones for the highly populated areas surrounding Jamaica Bay, New York City. The tool also provides information on damages from flooding as well as cost-benefit analyses for NNBF adaptations for the bay. The project researchers are involved with development of a Jamaica Bay Coastal Master Plan, and the mapper will play an important role for increasing the public understanding of adaptation options. More broadly, dynamic flood mappers have many more possibilities than "static" mappers that simply add sea level rise onto pre-defined flood levels and bathtub them over flood plains. Dynamic modeling can enable inclusion of the response of coastal systems, imposed human adaptation, as well as flooding by surge, tide and precipitation.

  13. Struggles for Perspective: A Commentary on ""One Story of Many to Be Told": Following Empirical Studies of College and Adult Writing through 100 Years of NCTE Journals"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author comments on Kevin Roozen and Karen Lunsford's insightful examination of empirical studies of college and adult writing published in NCTE journals over the last 100 years. One sees in their account the struggles for perspective that marked writing studies in this period, as researchers applied ever wider lenses to the…

  14. Delineation of flooding within the upper Mississippi River Basin, 1993-flood of June 29-September 18, 1993, in Iowa City and vicinity, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaap, Bryan D.; Harvey, Craig A.

    1995-01-01

    The hydrologic investigations atlas shows the areas in and around Iowa City, Iowa, that were flooded by the Iowa River in 1993. This map also depicts the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) 100-year flood boundaries. The drainage basin of the Iowa River at Iowa City received well over 100 percent of normal rainfall in June, July, and August, 1993. At the Cedar Rapids airport, located about 20 miles north-northwest of Iowa City, July rainfall was 414 percent of normal. The discharges at U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations on the Iowa River upstream of Coralville Reservoir, just downstream from Coralville Reservoir, and at Iowa City are shown. A profile of the maximum water-surface elevations of the 1993 flood in Iowa City and vicinity is higher than the FEMA 100-year flood profile. The water-surface elevation of Coralville Reservoir is shown from June 29-September 18, 1993.

  15. Floods in Georgia, magnitude and frequency : techniques for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods in Georgia with compilation of flood data through 1974

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, McGlone

    1979-01-01

    Regional relations are defined for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods having recurrence intervals of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 years on streams with natural flow in Georgia. Multiple-regression analyses were used to define the relationship between the flood-discharge frequency of annual peak discharges for streams draining 0.1 to 1,000 square miles and 10 climatological and physical basin characteristics. The analyses indicate that the drainage area of the basin is the most significant characteristic. Five regions having distinct flood-discharge frequency characteristics are delineated. Individual relations of flood magnitude and frequency to drainage area are given for parts of the main stems of the major rivers without significant regulation draining more than 1,000 square miles. (Kosco-USGS)

  16. Flood hazard, vulnerability, and risk assessment for human life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, T.; Chang, T.; Lai, J.; Hsieh, M.; Tan, Y.; Lin, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Flood risk assessment is an important issue for the countries suffering tropical cyclones and monsoon. Taiwan is located in the hot zone of typhoon tracks in the Western Pacific. There are three to five typhoons landing Taiwan every year. Typhoons and heavy rainfalls often cause inundation disaster rising with the increase of population and the development of social economy. The purpose of this study is to carry out the flood hazard, vulnerability and risk in term of human life. Based on the concept that flood risk is composed by flood hazard and vulnerability, a inundation simulation is performed to evaluate the factors of flood hazard for human life according to base flood (100-year return period). The flood depth, velocity and rising ratio are the three factors of flood hazards. Furthermore, the factors of flood vulnerability are identified in terms of human life that are classified into two main factors, residents and environment. The sub factors related to residents are the density of population and the density of vulnerable people including elders, youngers and disabled persons. The sub factors related to environment include the the number of building floors, the locations of buildings, the and distance to rescue center. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is adopted to determine the weights of these factors. The risk matrix is applied to show the risk from low to high based on the evaluation of flood hazards and vulnerabilities. The Tseng-Wen River watershed is selected as the case study because a serious flood was induced by Typhoon Morakot in 2009, which produced a record-breaking rainfall of 2.361mm in 48 hours in the last 50 years. The results of assessing the flood hazard, vulnerability and risk in term of human life could improve the emergency operation for flood disaster to prepare enough relief goods and materials during typhoon landing.

  17. Floods on Yahara River, Lake Mendota to Lake Kegonsa, Dane County, Wisconsin, 1971

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmstrom, Barry K.; Lawrence, Carl L.

    1971-01-01

    The profile and an approximate outline of the flooded area for the regional (100-year) flood has been determined for a 21.3-mile reach of the Yahara River, Dane County, Wisconsin, from State Highway 113 at the head of Lake Mendota downstream to the dam at the outlet of Lake Kegonsa. The reach consists principally of lake surface, which results in large amounts of flood-storage volume. The regional-flood profile ranges from 1.7 feet to 3.1 feet above normal low-water elevation.

  18. Northern Plains 'Crater'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    10 December 2004 The lower left (southwest) corner of this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the location of a somewhat filled and buried meteor impact crater on the northern plains of Mars. The dark dots are boulders. A portion of a similar feature is seen in the upper right (northeast) corner of the image. This picture, showing landforms (including the odd mound north/northeast of the crater) that are typical of the martian northern lowland plains, was obtained as part of the MGS MOC effort to support the search for a landing site for the Phoenix Mars Scout lander. Phoenix will launch in 2007 and land on the northern plains in 2008. This image is located near 68.0oN, 227.4oW, and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  19. Floods in Kansas City, Missouri and Kansas, September 12-13, 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hauth, Leland D.; Carswell, William J., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The storm of September 12-13, 1977, produced as much as 16 inches of rainfall in the Kansas City, Missouri-Kansas area, left 25 persons dead, many homeless, and over 50 million dollars in damages. Flood hydrographs taken from U.S. Geological Survey gaging-stations reflected two storms occurring within 24 hours. Measured precipitation indicated each storm event to be near a 100-year, 24-hour rainfall frequency. Peak discharges determined at selected locations in areas of greater rainfall depths exceeded those of the 100-year floods. (Woodard-USGS)

  20. Flood of September 2008 in Northwestern Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fowler, Kathleen K.; Kim, Moon H.; Menke, Chad D.; Arvin, Donald V.

    2010-01-01

    During September 12-15, 2008, rainfall ranging from 2 to more than 11 inches fell on northwestern Indiana. The rainfall resulted in extensive flooding on many streams within the Lake Michigan and Kankakee River Basins during September 12-18, causing two deaths, evacuation of hundreds of residents, and millions of dollars of damage to residences, businesses, and infrastructure. In all, six counties in northwestern Indiana were declared Federal disaster areas. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgages at four locations recorded new record peak streamflows as a result of the heavy rainfall. Peak-gage-height data, peak-streamflow data, annual exceedance probabilities, and recurrence intervals are tabulated in this report for 10 USGS streamgages in northwestern Indiana. Recurrence intervals of flood-peak streamflows were estimated to be greater than 100 years at six streamgages. Because flooding was particularly severe in the communities of Munster, Dyer, Hammond, Highland, Gary, Lake Station, Hobart, Schererville, Merrillville, Michiana Shores, and Portage, high-water-park data collected after the flood were tabulated for those communities. Flood peak inundation maps and water-surface profiles for selected streams were made in a geographic information system by combining high-water-mark data with the highest resolution digital elevation model data available.

  1. Flood of July 5-7, 1978, on the South Fork Zumbro River at Rochester, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Latkovich, V.J.

    1979-01-01

    The intense thunderstorm of July 5-6, 1978, caused record flooding on the South Fork Zumbro River at Rochester, Minnesota. The peak discharge on July 6 was 30,500 cubic feet per second compared with 19,600 cubic feet per second for the flood of March 1965, which was the largest previously known. The 1965 flood had a recurrence interval of about 30 years, whereas the 1978 flood had a recurrence interval exceeding 100 years. The flood waters claimed at least 5 lives and 5,000 people were forced to leave their homes. Millions of dollars in flood damage was reported, and this report summarizes some of the flood data and a photomosaic map shows the inundated area.

  2. Building a flood climatology and rethinking flood risk at continental scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreadis, Konstantinos; Schumann, Guy; Stampoulis, Dimitrios; Smith, Andrew; Neal, Jeffrey; Bates, Paul; Sampson, Christopher; Brakenridge, Robert; Kettner, Albert

    2016-04-01

    Floods are one of the costliest natural disasters and the ability to understand their characteristics and their interactions with population, land cover and climate changes is of paramount importance. In order to accurately reproduce flood characteristics such as water inundation and heights both in the river channels and floodplains, hydrodynamic models are required. Most of these models operate at very high resolutions and are computationally very expensive, making their application over large areas very difficult. However, a need exists for such models to be applied at regional to global scales so that the effects of climate change with regards to flood risk can be examined. We use the a modeling framework that includes the VIC hydrologic and the LISFLOOD-FP hydrodynamic model to simulate a 40-year history of flood characteristics at the continental scale, particularly Australia. In order to extend the simulated flood climatology to 50-100 years in a consistent manner, reanalysis datasets have to be used as meteorological forcings to the models. The objective of this study is the evaluation of multiple atmospheric reanalysis datasets (ERA, NCEP, MERRA, JRA) as inputs to the VIC/LISFLOOD-FP model. Comparisons of the simulated flood characteristics are made with both satellite observations of inundation and a benchmark simulation of LISFLOOD-FP being forced by observed flows. The implications of having a climatology of flood characteristics are discussed, and in particular We found the magnitude and timing of floodplain water storage to significantly differ from streamflow in terms of their distribution. Furthermore, floodplain volume gave a much sharper discrimination of high hazard and low hazard periods than discharge, and using the latter can lead to significant overestimation. These results demonstrate that global streamflow statistics or precipitation should not be used to infer flood hazard and risk, but instead a flood inundation climatology is necessary.

  3. The Bosna River floods in May 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmar, A.; Globevnik, L.; Koprivšek, M.; Sečnik, M.; Zabret, K.; Ðurović, B.; Anzeljc, D.; Kastelic, J.; Kobold, M.; Sušnik, M.; Borojevič, D.; Kupusović, T.; Kupusović, E.; Vihar, A.; Brilly, M.

    2015-10-01

    In May 2014, extreme floods occurred in the lower Sava River basin, causing major damage, with catastrophic consequences. Based on the data gathered, the weather situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina's (BiH) Bosna River basin was analysed and the hydrological conditions were provided, including the results of the probability analysis of the size of the recorded precipitation and flow rates. A hydrological model of the Bosna River basin was developed using HBV-light for the purposes of reconstructing and forecasting such events more effectively. All analyses confirmed that the May 2014 event was an extreme event whose returning period greatly exceeds 100 years.

  4. Evaluation of on-line DEMs for flood inundation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Brett F.

    2007-08-01

    Recent and highly accurate topographic data should be used for flood inundation modeling, but this is not always feasible given time and budget constraints so the utility of several on-line digital elevation models (DEMs) is examined with a set of steady and unsteady test problems. DEMs are used to parameterize a 2D hydrodynamic flood simulation algorithm and predictions are compared with published flood maps and observed flood conditions. DEMs based on airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) are preferred because of horizontal resolution, vertical accuracy (˜0.1 m) and the ability to separate bare-earth from built structures and vegetation. DEMs based on airborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IfSAR) have good horizontal resolution but gridded elevations reflect built structures and vegetation and therefore further processing may be required to permit flood modeling. IfSAR and shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM) DEMs suffer from radar speckle, or noise, so flood plains may appear with non-physical relief and predicted flood zones may include non-physical pools. DEMs based on national elevation data (NED) are remarkably smooth in comparison to IfSAR and SRTM but using NED, flood predictions overestimate flood extent in comparison to all other DEMs including LiDAR, the most accurate. This study highlights utility in SRTM as a global source of terrain data for flood modeling.

  5. Flood Hazard in Barpeta District, Assam: Environmental Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talukdar, Naba Kumar

    The study deals with various aspects of flood hazard in Barpeta district of Assam, Northeast India. It is broadly confined to three basic themes - general perspectives, environmental perspectives and flood hazard mitigation. The first theme includes the study on flow characteristics of the major rivers of the district during rainy season and zoning of flood prone areas. The second theme deals with some environmental aspects of floods in the district, such as river water quality during floods, effects of floods on soil quality, human health and socioeconomic losses. Flood mitigation study includes discussion on measures adopted for flood mitigation in the district and suggested management strategies. The study covers a wide range of database generated from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data on relevant parameters of soil and water are generated by using proper sampling procedures and standard laboratory methods. Suitable graphical and statistical methods have been used to analyze and interpret different kinds of data. All the relevant data and surveyed information on the perspective of the flood plain dwellers of the district are integrated together in formulating flood management strategies. The Barpeta District of Assam covers an area of 3245 sq. km. comprising 4.2% of the total area of the state. The district has fascinating diversified landscape sloping from north to south which includes highlands covered by forests, plain fertile lands suitable for agricultural activities and low lying areas containing-water bodies and swamps. Flood is a perennial problem and all kinds of common flood damages prevail in the district. Floods cause large-scale damages to the socio-economic life of the people as well as to the ecology and environment of the district to a certain extent. The rivers Manas, Beki, Pahumara and Kaldia and their tributaries, which emerge from Eastern Himalaya, create flood havocs in the district. During monsoon period, these rivers are

  6. Extreme coastal flood risk with sea level rise: New definitions and analysis for the contiguous US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, B.; Tebaldi, C.

    2013-12-01

    The '100-year flood' - formally defined as a flood with 0.01 annual probability - is a standard policy and regulatory benchmark for risk in the United States. However, there is increasing recognition that the traditional concept does not apply in a warming world. This is particularly the case with respect to coastal flooding, because at most locations, sea level rise is increasing the risk of flooding to any given height with each passing decade. Here we propose a flexible approach to defining extreme coastal flood height that employs different periods of interest and takes changing risks into account, while maintaining some consistency with the legacy definition. We note that in a stationary world, a 0.01 annual chance flood is equivalent to a flood with cumulative probability P(N) = 1 - 0.99^N over a period of N years. We compute P(N) for N=1 to 100 years, and then estimate the corresponding extreme coastal flood height H(N) for each period length, taking into account projected local sea level rise at each of 55 water level stations distributed throughout the contiguous US, and employing various sea level rise scenarios. In one result, employing a 50-yr interval and the high-intermediate global sea level scenario developed for the National Climate Assessment, we find that the height of extreme floods increases by an average of roughly 0.4 m or 40%, as compared to the traditional definition that assumes unchanging risk. Such discrepancies are compounded when we estimate extreme flood risk under the new approach as it would be calculated for periods beginning in future years, leading to rapid expansion of 100-year flood risk zones.

  7. Flood inundation modelling in data-poor areas: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Kun; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Pappenberger, Florian; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2014-05-01

    One of the main obstacles in mapping flood hazard in data scarce areas is the difficulty in estimating the design flood, i.e. river discharge corresponding to a given return period. This exercise can be carried out via regionalization techniques, which are based on flood data of regions with similar hydro-climatic conditions, or physically based model cascades. In this context, we compared the flood extents maps derived for a river reach of the Blue Nile following two alternative methods: i) regional envelope curve (REC), whereby design floods (e.g. 1-in-20 and 1-in-100 year flood peaks) are derived from African envelope curves (Padi et al., 2011) and physical model cascade (PMC), whereby design floods are calculated from the physical model chain of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF, Pappenberger et al., 2012). The two design flood estimates are then used as input of a 2D hydraulic model LISFLOOD-FP and the simulated flood extents are quantitatively evaluated by comparing to a reference flood extent model, which uses design floods estimated from in situ data. The results show the complexity in assessing flood hazard in data scarce area as PMC largely overestimates, while REC underestimates, the flood extents.

  8. Storm and flood of July 31-August 1, 1976, in the Big Thompson River and Cache la Poudre River basins, Larimer and Weld Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCain, Jerald F.; Shroba, R.R.

    1979-01-01

    the site during 88 years of flood history. At the gaging station on the North Fork Big Thompson River at Drake, the peak discharge on July 31 was 8,710 cubic feet per second as compared to the previous maximum discharge during 29 years of record of 1,290 cubic feet per second. Peak discharges for three small tributaries near the area of heaviest rainfall northeast of Estes Park exceeded previously recorded maximum discharges for basins of less than 4 square miles in Colorado. Stream velocities were rapid along the tributaries near the storm center and on the Big Thompson River in the canyon section, with average velocities of 20-25 feet per second being common. The flood crest on the Big Thompson River moved through the 7.7-mile reach between Drake and the canyon mouth in about 30 minutes for an average travel rate of 15 miles per hour, or about 23 feet per second. The peak discharge of the flood on the Big Thompson River at the canyon mouth exceeded the 100-year flood discharge for the site by a ratio of 1.8. Upstream in the Big Thompson River basin, the flood was even more rare being 3.8 times the estimated 100-year flood discharge at the site on the Big Thompson River just upstream from Drake. In the Cache la Poudre River basin, recurrence intervals were computed to be 100 years for the flood on Deadman Creek and 16 years for Rist Canyon and the Cache la Poudre River at the canyon mouth near Fort Collins. Although the rainfall and flood discharges were unusually large, they are not unprecedented for some areas along the eastern foothills and plains of Colorado. The May 1935 and June 1965 floods on some streams along the eastern plains greatly exceeded the 1976 flood peaks in the storm area. Prior floods on several other streams in the foothills have approximately equaled the 1976 peak discharges. PART B: Intense rainfall from the Big Thompson thunderstorm complex on the evening of July 31,1976, and the ensuing floods that evening and the fol

  9. Mountain-Plains Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., Glasgow AFB, MT.

    The document lists the Mountain-Plains curriculum by job title (where applicable), including support courses. The curriculum areas covered are mathematics skills, communication skills, office education, lodging services, food services, marketing and distribution, welding support, automotive, small engines, career guidance, World of Work, health…

  10. Uncertainties of the global-to-regional temperature and precipitation simulations in CMIP5 models for past and future 100 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lilong; Xu, Jianjun; Powell, Alfred M.; Jiang, Zhihong

    2015-10-01

    Global-to-regional surface temperature and precipitation trends are examined based on the CMIP5 model 100 years of historical simulations and another future 100 years following the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) emission scenario projection. Different from the ensemble mean approach in the previous studies, the probabilistic multimodal ensemble prediction with Gaussian fitting is used to generate probabilistic simulations. The results show that the averaged precipitation increases slightly with global warming, but the response is not globally uniform. Both historical model simulations and the RCP emission scenario projections suffer from large uncertainties in the selected models and the geographic distribution. The spatial distribution of spreads among the multimodal scenario projections is similar to that in the historical simulations, except the magnitude of spread sharply increases and the region expands equatorward and poleward in surface temperature and precipitation, respectively.

  11. Grasping time scales from galactic life cycles to personal life projects at a linear scale of 1 mm per 100 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm Jacobsen, Bo

    2010-05-01

    The ambition is to make the citizen (i.e. pupil/student/scholar/voter/journalist/politician) comprehend better and more scientifically all time scales from the lifespan of the universe to the personal life project by a consistent geographical mapping of time at a scale of 1 mm per 100 years. The processes which change earth systems like life, climate, topography and plate tectonics operate at very different timescales. The understanding of these systems is essential not only for students and scholars of earth science but also for pupils, voters and politicians who make decisions of possibly significant consequence to climate and biodiversity not only for our generation but for thousands or even millions of years ahead. With a consistent linear mapping of time to a scale of 1 millimetre per 100 years, historical time (

  12. Floods, flood control, and bottomland vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, Jonathan M.; Auble, Gregor T.

    2000-01-01

    Bottomland plant communities are typically dominated by the effects of floods. Floods create the surfaces on which plants become established, transport seeds and nutrients, and remove establish plants. Floods provide a moisture subsidy that allows development of bottomland forests in arid regions and produce anoxic soils, which can control bottomland plant distribution in humid regions. Repeated flooding produces a mosaic of patches of different age, sediment texture, and inundation duration; this mosaic fosters high species richness.

  13. Magnitude and frequency of 1993 flood volumes in Upper Mississippi River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southard, Rodney E.

    1995-01-01

    Previous maximum flows on many streams and rivers were exceeded during the flood of 1993 in the upper Mississippi River Basin. Not only were peak discharges exceeded at many streamflow-gaging stations, but also flood volumes were significantly higher than previous maximums. Rainfall amounts that were greater than 127 cm (50 in.) were recorded in parts of Kansas, Missouri, and Iowa from April 1 through September 30, 1993. As a result of the excessive rainfall, 53 of the 60 stations discussed had flow volumes greater than twice the mean flow volume for April through September. The Mississippi River at St. Louis, Missouri, remained above flood stage for 144 days from April 1 to September 30, 1993, compared with 81 days during the spring and summer flood of 1973. Of the 60 stations, 24 recorded new maximum 3-day flood volumes, and 47 recorded new maximum 120-day flood volumes. This indicates that the flooding of 1993 is significant with respect to its long duration and magnitude of flow. The same aspect is indicated in the frequency analysis of the 1993 flood. During the 1993 flood, the 100-year 3-day flows were exceeded at 22 stations, and the 100-year 120-day flows were exceeded at 43 stations.

  14. [Changes in the therapy of pulpal diseases and periapical lesions according to the articles published in the journal Fogorvosi Szemle during the past 100 years (1908-2008)].

    PubMed

    Nemes, Júlia; Duhaj, Szilvia; Nyárasdy, Ida

    2008-08-01

    Present review makes an attempt to summarize the Hungarian endodontic literature of pulpal and periodontal diseases, published during the past 100 years. The experimental examinations and clinical studies make it possible to follow the changes in the methods and in the medicines, used in the field of pulpal treatment. The overview gives us information about the problem of disinfection, shaping, measuring, and obturation of root canal. PMID:19055128

  15. The Productivity of Plain English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Commerce, Washington, DC.

    Focusing on a meeting held in January 1983, this pamphlet describes the Forum on the Productivity of Plain English, from which grew the permanent Plain English Forum, which is committed to spreading the message that plain English is good business. The pamphlet includes quotations from leaders in business and industry explaining why they feel that…

  16. Hydrologic inferences from ring widths of flood-damaged trees, Potomac River, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yanosky, T.M.

    1982-01-01

    Year-to-year variability in the ring widths of trees on flood plains along two reaches of the Potomac River near Washington, D.C., seems in large part to be related to differences in flood-flow regimes. Trees directly exposed to high flood velocities are damaged more often than sheltered trees and thus exhibit more variable ring-width patterns. The ring-width variability of unsheltered trees on low levels of flood plains is greater than that of trees on high levels, indicating that variability values are positively correlated with flood frequency. Sheltered trees, however, have less variable ring-width patterns than those of unsheltered trees, and variability is not correlated with flood frequency. As a result, ring-width variations may be used to estimate the probability of flood damage along local channel reaches of a stream. Growth responses after hydrologic catastrophies in 1948 and 1972 indicate that rings of flood-plain trees can be used to document the occurrence and crest altitude of high-magnitude floods. ?? 1982 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  17. Floods of November 12, 1974 in the Charlotte Amalie area, St Thomas, US Virgin Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haire, W.J.; Johnson, K.G.

    1977-01-01

    The flood on St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, of November 12, 1974, was the largest recorded flood in the area from Fort Christian through Charlotte Amalie and Frenchtown to the end of Crown Bay. This flood has a recurrence interval of about 60 years. With the exception of a few narrow beaches, very little flooding occurred outside of the Charlotte Amalie area. The flood boundaries are controlled to a large extent by the prevailing channel and flood-plain conditions. Inundation from future floods may be affected by changes in channel conditions, alteration of waterway openings at roads, changes in runoff characteristics of the stream caused by increased urbanization, and other cultural developments. The areas inundated by the 1974 flood are shown on 2 maps. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. The Impact of Corps Flood Control Reservoirs in the June 2008 Upper Mississippi Flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charley, W. J.; Stiman, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    dissemination. The system uses precipitation and flow data, collected in real-time, along with forecasted flow from the National Weather Service to model and optimize reservoir operations and forecast downstream flows and stages, providing communities accurate and timely information to aid their flood-fighting. This involves integrating several simulation modeling programs, including HEC-HMS to forecast flows, HEC-ResSim to model reservoir operations and HEC-RAS to compute forecasted stage hydrographs. An inundation boundary and depth map of water in the flood plain can be calculated from the HEC-RAS results using ArcInfo. By varying future precipitation and releases, engineers can evaluate different "What if?" scenarios. The effectiveness of this tool and Corps reservoirs are examined.

  19. Flood of June 27, 1975, in City of Ames, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lara, Oscar G.; Heinitz, Albert J.

    1976-01-01

    The peak discharge at the Squaw Creek station, 206 mi2 (534 km2), was measured at 11,300 ft3/s (320 m3/s), which is 1.6 times the 100-year flood. The south Skunk River above the confluence with Squaw creek, 315 mi2 (816 km2), peaked at 5,330 ft3/s (151 m3). The recurrence interval of this discharge is 6.0 years. The peak discharge on the South Skunk River below the confluence with Squaw creek, 556 mi2 (1440 km2), was 14,700 ft3/s (416 m3/s), which is 1.1 times the 100-year flood.

  20. 7 CFR 650.25 - Flood-plain management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... “critical actions” such as schools, hospitals, nursing homes, utilities, and facilities producing or storing... with official State or designated area water-quality plans. (4) Nonproject technical and financial... plantings (7 CFR Part 613, Plant Materials Centers, 16 U.S.C. 590 a-e, f, and 7 U.S.C. 1010-1011). If...

  1. 7 CFR 650.25 - Flood-plain management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... “critical actions” such as schools, hospitals, nursing homes, utilities, and facilities producing or storing... with official State or designated area water-quality plans. (4) Nonproject technical and financial... plantings (7 CFR Part 613, Plant Materials Centers, 16 U.S.C. 590 a-e, f, and 7 U.S.C. 1010-1011). If...

  2. 7 CFR 650.25 - Flood-plain management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... “critical actions” such as schools, hospitals, nursing homes, utilities, and facilities producing or storing... with official State or designated area water-quality plans. (4) Nonproject technical and financial... plantings (7 CFR Part 613, Plant Materials Centers, 16 U.S.C. 590 a-e, f, and 7 U.S.C. 1010-1011). If...

  3. 7 CFR 650.25 - Flood-plain management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... “critical actions” such as schools, hospitals, nursing homes, utilities, and facilities producing or storing... with official State or designated area water-quality plans. (4) Nonproject technical and financial... plantings (7 CFR Part 613, Plant Materials Centers, 16 U.S.C. 590 a-e, f, and 7 U.S.C. 1010-1011). If...

  4. 7 CFR 650.25 - Flood-plain management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... “critical actions” such as schools, hospitals, nursing homes, utilities, and facilities producing or storing... with official State or designated area water-quality plans. (4) Nonproject technical and financial... plantings (7 CFR Part 613, Plant Materials Centers, 16 U.S.C. 590 a-e, f, and 7 U.S.C. 1010-1011). If...

  5. Wintering birds in riverine tree communities: Yakima River flood plain

    SciTech Connect

    Rickard, W.H.

    1982-04-01

    For 20 years there has been little change in wintering bird species composition or their relative abundance in a Yakima River riverine tree community. Clandestine tree cutting has opened the community to the point where it is not acceptable as a daytime roost for the Great Horned Owl. In 1981-1982 the Robin was the most abundant bird observed. It was not observed in surveys conducted 10 and 20 years ago. 4 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. Los Alamos Canyon Ice Rink Parking Flood Plain Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hathcock, Charles Dean

    2015-02-10

    The project location is in Los Alamos Canyon east of the ice rink facility at the intersection of West and Omega roads (Figure 1). Forty eight parking spaces will be constructed on the north and south side of Omega Road, and a lighted walking path will be constructed to the ice rink. Some trees will be removed during this action. A guardrail of approximately 400 feet will be constructed along the north side of West Road to prevent unsafe parking in that area.

  7. Sea-Level Rise and Flood Potential along the California Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delepine, Q.; Leung, C.

    2013-12-01

    Sea-level rise is becoming an ever-increasing problem in California. Sea-level is expected to rise significantly in the next 100 years, which will raise flood elevations in coastal communities. This will be an issue for private homeowners, businesses, and the state. One study suggests that Venice Beach could lose a total of at least $440 million in tourism spending and tax dollars from flooding and beach erosion if sea level rises 1.4 m by 2100. In addition, several airports, such as San Francisco International Airport, are located in coastal regions that have flooded in the past and will likely be flooded again in the next 30 years, but sea-level rise is expected to worsen the effects of flooding in the coming decades It is vital for coastal communities to understand the risks associated with sea-level rise so that they can plan to adapt to it. By obtaining accurate LiDAR elevation data from the NOAA Digital Coast Website (http://csc.noaa.gov/dataviewer/?keyword=lidar#), we can create flood maps to simulate sea level rise and flooding. The data are uploaded to ArcGIS and contour lines are added for different elevations that represent future coastlines during 100-year flooding. The following variables are used to create the maps: 1. High-resolution land surface elevation data - obtained from NOAA 2. Local mean high water level - from USGS 3. Local 100-year flood water level - from the Pacific Institute 4. Sea-level rise projections for different future dates (2030, 2050, and 2100) - from the National Research Council The values from the last three categories are added to represent sea-level rise plus 100-year flooding. These values are used to make the contour lines that represent the projected flood elevations, which are then exported as KML files, which can be opened in Google Earth. Once these KML files are made available to the public, coastal communities will gain an improved understanding of how flooding and sea-level rise might affect them in the future

  8. Flood frequency analysis of Ganga river at Haridwar and Garhmukteshwar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, Vikas; Mukherjee, Saumitra; Singh, P.; Sen, R.; Vishwakarma, C. A.; Sajadi, P.; Asthana, H.; Rena, V.

    2016-02-01

    The Ganga River is a major river of North India and is known for its fertile alluvium deposits formed due to floods throughout the Indo-Gangetic plains. Flood frequency analysis has been carried out through various approaches for the Ganga River by many scientists. With changes in river bed brought out by anthropogenic changes the intensity of flood has also changed in the last decade, which calls for further study. The present study is in a part of the Upper Indo-Ganga plains subzone 1(e). Statistical distributions applied on the discharge data at two stations found that for Haridwar lognormal and for Garhmukteshwar Gumbel EV1 is applicable. The importance of this study lies in its ability to predict the discharge for a return period after a suitable distribution is found for an area.

  9. Flooding and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, flooding is the nation's most common natural disaster. Some floods develop slowly during an extended period of rain or in a warming trend following a heavy snow. Flash floods can occur quickly, without any visible sign of rain. Catastrophic floods are associated with burst dams and levees,…

  10. 100 Years of Reality Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimpher, Nancy L.; Wright Ron, D.

    2006-01-01

    One may have heard of reality TV, but what about reality learning? The latter is probably a term one hasn't seen much, although it is in many ways a clearer and more concise name for a concept that in 2006 marks its 100th anniversary: cooperative education, or "co-op." Co-op, a break-through idea pioneered at the University of Cincinnati by Herman…

  11. 100 years of Philips Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Delft, Dirk

    2014-03-01

    On Thursday 23 October 1913, a Dutch newspaper published the following advertisement: Hiring: A capable young scientist with a doctorate in physics. Must be a good experimenter. Letters containing information on age, life history and references may be submitted to Philips in Eindhoven. Two days later, a candidate applied: Gilles Holst. At that time, Holst was working in Leiden as an assistant to Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, a recent Nobel Prize winner.

  12. Celebrating 100 Years of Flight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2003-01-01

    In honor of the Wright brothers' first flight, the article profiles aviation and aerospace technology programs that are training workers in aviation safety and explorations. Looks at programs from Eastern New Mexico University-Roswell, Pima Community College, and Olathe Northwest High School. (JOW)

  13. [The cell 100 years ago].

    PubMed

    Vogt, H H

    1975-04-18

    Eduard Strasburgers monograph "On Cell Formation and Cell Division" appeared in Jena in 1875. At that time the existence of the cell nucleus was established, but the scientists were still discussing a possibility of free formation of cells as suggested by Schwann and Schleiden. Nuclear structure and the processes of mitosis were still uninvestigated. The original observations which are reproduced show the first tentative efforts at a generalised description. Comparison with the opinions of Haeckel and Flemming show the uncertainty of cytology in that early phase, because the lack of microscopic technique did not yet permit of any detailed evidence. PMID:805932

  14. Floods of June 2012 in northeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czuba, Christiana R.; Fallon, James D.; Kessler, Erich W.

    2012-01-01

    During June 19–20, 2012, heavy rainfall, as much as 10 inches locally reported, caused severe flooding across northeastern Minnesota. The floods were exacerbated by wet antecedent conditions from a relatively rainy spring, with May 2012 as one of the wettest Mays on record in Duluth. The June 19–20, 2012, rainfall event set new records in Duluth, including greatest 2-day precipitation with 7.25 inches of rain. The heavy rains fell on three major watersheds: the Mississippi Headwaters; the St. Croix, which drains to the Mississippi River; and Western Lake Superior, which includes the St. Louis River and other tributaries to Lake Superior. Widespread flash and river flooding that resulted from the heavy rainfall caused evacuations of residents, and damages to residences, businesses, and infrastructure. In all, nine counties in northeastern Minnesota were declared Federal disaster areas as a result of the flooding. Peak-of-record streamflows were recorded at 13 U.S. Geological Survey streamgages as a result of the heavy rainfall. Flood-peak gage heights, peak streamflows, and annual exceedance probabilities were tabulated for 35 U.S. Geological Survey streamgages. Flood-peak streamflows in June 2012 had annual exceedance probabilities estimated to be less than 0.002 (0.2 percent; recurrence interval greater than 500 years) for five streamgages, and between 0.002 and 0.01 (1 percent; recurrence interval greater than 100 years) for four streamgages. High-water marks were identified and tabulated for the most severely affected communities of Barnum (Moose Horn River), Carlton (Otter Creek), Duluth Heights neighborhood of Duluth (Miller Creek), Fond du Lac neighborhood of Duluth (St. Louis River), Moose Lake (Moose Horn River and Moosehead Lake), and Thomson (Thomson Reservoir outflow near the St. Louis River). Flood-peak inundation maps and water-surface profiles were produced for these six severely affected communities. The inundation maps were constructed in a

  15. Floods of September 2010 in Southern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellison, Christopher A.; Sanocki, Chris A.; Lorenz, David L.; Mitton, Gregory B.; Kruse, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    During September 22-24, 2010, heavy rainfall ranging from 3 inches to more than 10 inches caused severe flooding across southern Minnesota. The floods were exacerbated by wet antecedent conditions, where summer rainfall totals were as high as 20 inches, exceeding the historical average by more than 4 inches. Widespread flooding that occurred as a result of the heavy rainfall caused evacuations of hundreds of residents, and damages in excess of 64 million dollars to residences, businesses, and infrastructure. In all, 21 counties in southern Minnesota were declared Federal disaster areas. Peak-of-record streamflows were recorded at nine U.S. Geological Survey and three Minnesota Department of Natural Resources streamgages as a result of the heavy rainfall. Flood-peak gage heights, peak streamflows, and annual exceedance probabilities were tabulated for 27 U.S. Geological Survey and 5 Minnesota Department of Natural Resources streamgages and 5 ungaged sites. Flood-peak streamflows in 2010 had annual exceedance probabilities estimated to be less than 0.2 percent (recurrence interval greater than 500 years) at 7 streamgages and less than 1 percent (recurrence interval greater than 100 years) at 5 streamgages and 4 ungaged sites. High-water marks were identified and tabulated for the most severely affected communities of Faribault along the Cannon and Straight Rivers, Owatonna along the Straight River and Maple Creek, Pine Island along the North Branch and Middle Fork Zumbro River, and Zumbro Falls along the Zumbro River. The nearby communities of Hammond, Henderson, Millville, Oronoco, Pipestone, and Rapidan also received extensive flooding and damage but were not surveyed for high-water marks. Flood-peak inundation maps and water-surface profiles for the four most severely affected communities were constructed in a geographic information system by combining high-water-mark data with the highest resolution digital elevation model data available. The flood maps and

  16. Flood of May 2006 in York County, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Gregory J.; Kempf, Joshua P.

    2008-01-01

    A stalled low-pressure system over coastal New England on Mother's Day weekend, May 13-15, 2006, released rainfall in excess of 15 inches. This flood (sometimes referred to as the 'Mother's Day flood') caused widespread damage to homes, businesses, roads, and structures in southern Maine. The damage to public property in York County was estimated to be $7.5 million. As a result of these damages, a presidential disaster declaration was enacted on May 25, 2006, for York County, Maine. Peak-flow recurrence intervals for eight of the nine streams studied were calculated to be greater than 500 years. The peak-flow recurrence interval of the remaining stream was calculated to be between a 100-year and a 500-year interval. This report provides a detailed description of the May 2006 flood in York County, Maine. Information is presented on peak streamflows and peak-flow recurrence intervals on nine streams, peak water-surface elevations for 80 high-water marks at 25 sites, hydrologic conditions before and after the flood, comparisons with published Flood Insurance Studies, and places the May 2006 flood in context with historical floods in York County. At sites on several streams, differences were observed between peak flows published in the Flood Insurance Studies and those calculated for this study. The differences in the peak flows from the published Flood Insurance Studies and the flows calculated for this report are within an acceptable range for flows calculated at ungaged locations, with the exception of those for the Great Works River and Merriland River. For sites on the Mousam River, Blacksmith Brook, Ogunquit River, and Cape Neddick River, water-surface elevations from Flood Insurance Studies differed with documented water-surface elevations from the 2006 flood.

  17. Upper limits of flash flood stream power in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchi, Lorenzo; Cavalli, Marco; Amponsah, William; Borga, Marco; Crema, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    Flash floods are characterized by strong spatial gradients of rainfall inputs that hit different parts of a river basin with different intensity. Stream power values associated with flash floods therefore show spatial variations that depend on geological controls on channel geometry and sediment characteristics, as well as on the variations of flood intensity: this stresses the need for a field approach that takes into account the variability of the controlling factors. Post-flood assessment of peak discharge after major floods makes it possible to analyse stream power in fluvial systems affected by flash floods. This study analyses the stream power of seven intense (return period of rainfall > 100 years at least in some sectors of the river basin) flash floods that occurred in mountainous basins of central and southern Europe from 2007 to 2014. In most of the analysed cross sections, high values of unit stream power were observed; this is consistent with the high severity of the studied floods. The highest values of cross-sectional stream power and unit stream power usually occur in Mediterranean regions. This is mainly ascribed to the larger peak discharges that characterize flash floods in these regions. The variability of unit stream power with catchment area is clearly nonlinear and has been represented by log-quadratic relations. The values of catchment area at which maximum values of unit stream power occur show relevant differences among the studied floods and are linked to the spatial scale of the events. Values of stream power are generally consistent with observed geomorphic changes in the studied cross sections: bedrock channels show the highest values of unit stream power but no visible erosion, whereas major erosion has been observed in alluvial channels. Exceptions to this general pattern, which mostly occur in semi-alluvial cross sections, urge the recognition of local or event-specific conditions that increase the resistance of channel bed and

  18. How Can Flood Affect the Real Estate Market?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trejo Rangel, Miguel Angel; Sapač, Klaudija; Brilly, Mitja

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine how actual flood events can affect the real estate for different case studies. Therefore, we have analysed the impact for two cases, the first is the flood event which occurred in 2013 in Boulder, Colorado, United States, city that is located in the eastern part of the Rocky Mountains, and the second event was the flood which occurred in 2010 the city of Ljubljana, capital and largest city of Slovenia, that is located between the Alpine and Balkan mountains.. The methodology that was used is comparison of mean prices of real estate, taking into account the flood events which have been chosen in accordance with the available data and previous studies, furthermore for the case study of Ljubljana, Slovenia questionnaires were sent through one civil organization which is actively working in the area (Civil Initiative for Flood Security SW part of Ljubljana). Analysed sales prices during the period 2009-2014 in the case study of Boulder, Colorado, United States showed that the flood event in 2013 did not significantly affect the mean price of real estate within the flooded area, besides prices inside the flood plain tended to stay above the prices outside the floodplain. Nevertheless, we have found that the flood event affected the real estate sector in terms of number of sales, being that after the flood event in 2013 sales decreased 52% regarding the previous years. For the case study of Ljubljana, Slovenia the results were unexpected somehow. In fact we expected that the prices of real estate located within the flooded areas, on average, would be lower than those located outside the flooded areas, and that was what shown in the results, which is actually opposite to what occurred for the case study of Boulder City. However the research showed that the flood event in 2010 did not affect the change in prices of real estate within the flooded areas and the trend was considerable similar to previous years the flood event in 2010

  19. Cracked Plain, Buried Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    4 September 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a cracked plain in western Utopia Planitia. The three circular crack patterns indicate the location of three buried meteor impact craters. These landforms are located near 41.9oN, 275.9oW. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the lower left.

  20. Flood of July 1-5, 1978 on the Kickapoo River, southwestern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, Peter E.; Hannuksela, J.S.; Danchuk, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Kickapoo River valley in southwestern Wisconsin had a devastating flood ($10 million estimated damages) during July 1-5, 1978. The flash flooding was caused by intense storms on June 30 through July 2. Total rainfall accumulation ranged from 5.8 inches near Ontario to 9.5 inches at La Farge. The resulting flood equaled or exceeded the largest ones recorded since the 1850 's and equaled or exceeded the 100-year flood frequency at the U.S. Geological Survey 's streamflow gages at La Farge and Steuben. Elevation and delineation of the flood are shown on photo mosaics developed from black and white aerial photographs. The 100-mile reach from Wauzeka to Wilton is shown. A summary of the storm conditions causing the flood and an analysis of the rainfall totals, as prepared by the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, are also included. (USGS)

  1. Floods on White Rock Creek above White Rock Lake at Dallas, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, Clarence R.

    1963-01-01

    The White Rock Creek watershed within the city limits of Dallas , Texas, presents problems not unique in the rapid residential and industrial development encountered by many cities throughout the United States. The advantages of full development of the existing area within a city before expanding city boundaries, are related to both economics and civic pride. The expansion of city boundaries usually results in higher per capital costs for the operation of city governments. Certainly no responsible city official would oppose reasonable development of watersheds and flood plains and thus sacrifice an increase in tax revenue. Within the words "reasonable development" lies the problem faced by these officials. They are aware that the natural function of a stream channel, and its associated flood plain is to carry away excess water in time of flood. They are also aware that failure to recognize this has often led to haphazard development on flood plains with a consequent increase in flood damages. In the absence of factual data defining the risk involved in occupying flood plains, stringent corrective and preventative measures must be taken to regulate man's activities on flood plains to a point beyond normal precaution. Flood-flow characteristics in the reach of White Rock Creek that lies between the northern city boundary of Dallas and Northwest Highway (Loop 12) at the upper end of White Rock Lake, are presented in this report. Hydrologic data shown include history and magnitude of floods, flood profiles, outlines of areas inundated by three floods, and estimates of mean velocities of flow at selected points. Approximate areas inundated by floods of April 1942 and July 1962 along White Rock Creek and by the flood of October 1962 along Cottonwood Creek, Floyd Branch, and Jackson Branch, are delineated on maps. Greater floods have undoubtedly occurred in the past but no attempt is made to show their probable overflow limits because basic data on such floods could not

  2. Flood Risk in Megadelta Coastal Cities: Lessons From New Orleans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, R. E.; Muir-Wood, R.; Grossi, P.

    2007-05-01

    The flood hazard posed by storm surges to the city of New Orleans is increasing for three reasons. First, as a result of the city's location on thick deposits of recent delta sediments along the edge of an oceanic basin, it is sinking at geologically rapid rates. Second, over the last decade, global sea level has increased as a result of climate change and is projected to continue to rise in the future. And third, the level of Atlantic basin hurricane activity has also increased, with the biggest increase for the strongest storms (with the largest surges), particularly in and around the Gulf of Mexico. The future flood risk in New Orleans has been explored using stochastic hurricane and storm surge generation models. Levels of risk have been determined at different geographical locations within the city today, and have been estimated for the future based on likely changes in the flood hazard. The study has also incorporated vulnerability and breaching models to determine the probabilities of failure and likely breach size, relative to the height of the storm surge outside, for each section of the flood defences that protect the city. Flood maps of relative risk throughout the region were developed from high resolution digital elevation maps, showing expected flood depths at various return periods. For example, the map for the 100-year return flood shows the extent of flooding that is expected on average once every 100 years, corresponding to an annual exceedance probability of one per cent. Additionally, four locations within the city of New Orleans were chosen for a more detailed study of predicted flood depth return periods, using the simple metric of the modeled return period of first flooding from a storm surge. The study shows that while the risk of flooding from storm surges can be reduced by the repair and enhancement of flood defences, the risk will begin to rise again as soon as improvements stop. The situation in New Orleans raises wider questions about

  3. Stealing a March in the 21st Century: Accelerating Progress in the 100-Year War Against Tobacco Addiction in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Timothy B.

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco use in the United States has declined dramatically over the past 50 years, with the prevalence of cigarette smoking falling from about 42% of all adults to less than 20% by 2007. If this rate of decline continues, smoking could be eliminated in the United States by 2047. Framed in military parlance, we may be halfway through a 100-year war against the leading public health killer of our time. We describe factors that have contributed to progress over the last 50 years and identify policy and other initiatives that can contribute to the elimination of tobacco use in the United States. PMID:19443815

  4. Peak-flow frequency and extreme flood potential for streams in the vicinity of the Highland Lakes, central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asquith, William H.; Slade, R.M.; Lanning-Rush, Jennifer

    1996-01-01

    The Highland Lakes on the Colorado River are in an area periodically threatened by large storms and floods. Many storms exceeding 10 inches (in.) in depth have been documented in the area, including some with depths approaching 40 in. These storms typically produce large peak discharges that often threaten lives and property. The storms sometimes occur with little warning. Steep stream slopes and thin soils characteristic of the area often cause large peak discharges and rapid movement of floods through watersheds. A procedure to predict the discharge associated with large floods is needed for the area so that appropriate peak discharges can be used in the design of flood plains, bridges, and other structures.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA), studied flood peaks for streams in the vicinity of the Highland Lakes of central Texas. The Highland Lakes are a series of reservoirs constructed on the Colorado River. The chain of lakes (and year each was completed) comprises Lake Buchanan (1937), Inks Lake (1938), Lake Lyndon B. Johnson (1950), Lake Marble Falls (1951), Lake Travis (1942), and lake Austin (1890). The study area (fig. 1), which includes all or parts of 21 counties in the vicinity of the Highland Lakes, was selected because most streams in the area have flood characteristics similar to streams entering the Highland Lakes. The entire study area is in a region subject to large storms.The purpose of this report is to present (1) peak-flow frequency data for stations and equations to estimate peak-flow frequency for large streams with natural drainage basins in the vicinity of the Highland Lakes, and (2) a technique to estimate the extreme flood peak discharges for the large streams in the vicinity of the Highland Lakes. Peak-flow frequency in this report refers to the peak discharges for recurrence intervals of 2,5, 10,25,50, and 100 years. A large stream is defined as having a contributing drainage

  5. Texas floods of 1940

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breeding, Seth D.

    1948-01-01

    Floods occurred in Texas during, June, July, and November 1940 that exceeded known stages on many small streams and at a few places on the larger streams. Stages at several stream-gaging stations exceeded the maximum known at those places since the collection of daily records began. A storm, haying its axis generally on a north-south line from Cameron to Victoria and extending across the Brazos, Colorado, Lavaca, and Guadalupe River Basins, caused heavy rainfall over a large part of south-central Texas. The maximum recorded rain of 22.7 inches for the 2-day period June 29-30 occurred at Engle. Of this amount, 17.5 inches fell in the 12-hour period between 8 p.m. June 29, and 8 a.m. June 30. Light rains fell at a number of places on June 28, and additional light rains fell at many places within the area from July 1 to 4. During the period June 28 to July 4 more than 20 inches of rain fell over an area of 300 square miles, more than 15 inches over 1,920 square miles, and more than 10 inches over 5,100 square miles. The average annual rainfall for the area experiencing the heaviest rainfall during this storm is about 35 inches. Farming is largely confined to the fertile flood plains in much of the area subjected to the record-breaking floods in June and July. Therefore these floods, coming at the height of the growing season, caused severe losses to crops. Much damage was done also to highways and railways. The city of Hallettsville suffered the greatest damage of any urban area. The Lavaca River at that place reached a stage 8 feet higher than ever known before, drowned several people, destroyed many homes, and submerged almost the entire business district. The maximum discharge there was 93,100 second-feet from a drainage area of 101 square miles. Dry Creek near Smithville produced a maximum discharge of 1,879 second-feet from an area of 1.48 square miles and a runoff of 11.3 inches in a 2-day period from a rainfall of 19.5 inches. The area in the Colorado River

  6. Dissolved phosphorus retention and release from southeastern USA Coastal Plain in-stream wetlands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the southeastern USA Coastal Plain region, many inland surface water systems will meander through flat or depressional landscape areas prior to discharge into coastal estuaries. Slow water flow through these areas often causes flooding that promotes formation of in-stream wetlands with dense vege...

  7. The August 2002 flood in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sercl, P.; Stehlik, J.

    2003-04-01

    The floods in August 2002 in the Czech Republic were caused by very intensive and large-scale rainfall that hit mainly the southern and western part of the country. There were two following rainfall events, the first on the {6th} and {7th} August and the second on the {11th} and {12th} August. The total sum of areal rainfall was 150 to 200 mm; in mountain areas more than 250 mm and in some localities even more than 300 mm. Such large-scale rainfall amounts are extraordinary for Czech conditions. The first wave of rainfall caused floods in the majority of rivers. There were 10 to 20 year floods, exceptionally 100-year (and more) floods on rivers in the southern and western part of the country. When the second wave of rainfall followed the first one, rivers were already full of water and soils were saturated: therefore the runoff response was rapid and massive. Water levels in all rivers rose very quickly again and they reached their historical maxima in many places. Peak discharges in most streams reached or exceeded a 100-year flood and in some rivers a 1000-year flood. The capital of the Czech Republic, Prague, is situated at the confluence of two rivers, the Moldau and the Berounka (left hand tributary of the Moldau). The flow in the Moldau River can be partly controlled by operation of many reservoirs in the upstream reaches of the river (the Moldau cascade), the flow in Berounka is not influenced. During the first flood event the major part of the wave was retained by the reservoirs and the discharge in Prague was reduced. During the second event the inflow into the reservoir system was so high that reservoirs were filled before the peak occurred. The peak flow from the Berounka River coincided with the maximum outflow from the Moldau. As a consequence, on 14th August the peak discharge in Prague was about 5200 {m3/s} (the long-term mean discharge is 150 {m3/s}) and is preliminarily judged to be a 500-year flood. The influence of the Moldau cascade on the

  8. Application of remote sensing data to land use and land cover assessment in the Tubarao River coastal plain, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    By means of aerial photography and MSS-LANDSAT data a land use/land cover classification was applied to the Tubarao River coastal plain. The following classes were identified: coal related areas, permanently flooded wetlands, periodically flooded wetlands, agricultural lands, bare soils, water bodies, urban areas, forestlands.

  9. Over 100 years of environmental change recorded by foraminifers and sediments in a large Gulf of Mexico estuary, Mobile Bay, AL, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterman, Lisa E.; Smith, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    The marine microfauna of Mobile Bay has been profoundly influenced by the development and expansion of the primary shipping channel over the last ˜100 years. Foraminifers and sediments from seven box cores with excess lead-210 chronology document that channel dredging and spoil disposal have altered circulation, reduced estuarine mixing, changed sedimentation patterns, and caused a faunal turnover within the bay. Beginning in the late 1800s, changes in estuarine mixing allowed for greater low-pH freshwater influence in the bay, and ultimately began environmental changes that resulted in the loss of calcareous foraminifers. By the early 1900s, box cores throughout Mobile Bay record a ˜ 100-year trend of increasing calcareous test dissolution that continues to the present. Since the completion of the current shipping channel in the 1950s, restricted tidal flushing and increased terrestrial organic matter, documented by carbon-to-nitrogen ratios, stimulated an increase in agglutinated foraminiferal densities. However, in deeper areas of the bay, hypoxic water has negatively impacted the marine microfauna. Comparisons of the present-day foraminiferal assemblage with foraminifers collected in the early 1970s indicate that the continued biologic loss of calcareous foraminifers in the bay has allowed the introduction of a new agglutinated foraminiferal species into the bay.

  10. Flood of April 2007 in Southern Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    Up to 8.5 inches of rain fell from April 15 through 18, 2007, in southern Maine. The rain - in combination with up to an inch of water from snowmelt - resulted in extensive flooding. York County, Maine, was declared a presidential disaster area following the event. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), determined peak streamflows and recurrence intervals at 24 locations and peak water-surface elevations at 63 sites following the April 2007 flood. Peak streamflows were determined with data from continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations where available and through hydraulic models where station data were not available. The flood resulted in peak streamflows with recurrence intervals greater than 100 years throughout most of York County, and recurrence intervals up to 50 years in Cumberland County. Peak flows for selected recurrence intervals varied from less than 10 percent to greater than 100 percent different than those in the current FEMA flood-insurance studies due to additional data or newer regression equations. Water-surface elevations observed during the April 2007 flood were bracketed by elevation profiles in FEMA flood-insurance studies with the same recurrence intervals as the recurrence intervals bracketing the observed peak streamflows at seven sites, with higher elevation-profile recurrence intervals than streamflow recurrence intervals at six sites, and with lower elevation-profile recurrence intervals than streamflow recurrence intervals at one site. The April 2007 flood resulted in higher peak flows and water-surface elevations than the flood of May 2006 in coastal locations in York County, and lower peak flows and water-surface elevations than the May 2006 flood further from the coast and in Cumberland County. The Mousam River watershed with over 13 dams and reservoirs was severely impacted by both events. Analyses indicate that the April 2007 peak streamflows in the Mousam River watershed

  11. Past and future flooding in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiele-Eich, Insa; Hopson, Thomas; Simmer, Clemens; Simon, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Currently, an average of about 20 % of the land surface in Bangladesh is flooded each year, affecting one of the most densely populated regions in the world. We aim to understand the processes currently determining flooding in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) basin, in particular the role of precipitation and sea-level rise, as well as to assess how climate change might impact flood characteristics in the future. Water level and discharge data were provided by the Bangladesh Water Development Board on a daily basis for a period of 1909-2009. Monthly maps based on daily sea level anomalies from the Data Unification Altimeter Combination System DUACS are available on a 0.25° by 0.25° grid for the time period 1993-2014. Ensemble model output for upper catchment precipitation and annual mean thermosteric sea-level rise is taken from historical and RCP scenario runs conducted with the CCSM4. We first analyzed daily water levels of the past 100 years in order to detect potential shifts in extremes. The available observations are then used to set up a generalized linear model to detect how precipitation influences flooding in the GBM basin. This model can then be used to give a prognosis on changes in future flooding. Our analysis suggests that water levels have indeed changed over the course of the past century. While the magnitude and duration of average flood events decreased, the frequency of extreme flood events has increased. Low water levels have also changed, with a significant decrease in the annual minimum water level most noticeable when we compare the time periods 1909-1939 and 1979-2009. For the future, first results confirm the decrease in return periods of strong flood events found in previous studies. The impact of climate change on flooding will also be compared to the impact of man-made structures such as Farakka barrage, built across the Ganges on the border between India and Bangladesh and operating since 1975. This is of particular interest as

  12. Controls on river morphology in the Ganga Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dingle, Elizabeth; Sinclair, Hugh; Attal, Mikael; Milodowski, David; Singh, Vimal

    2016-04-01

    The Ganga Plain represents a large proportion of the current foreland basin to the Himalaya. The Himalayan-sourced waters irrigate the Plain via major river networks that support ~7% of the global population. However, some of these rivers are also the source of devastating floods. The tendency for some of these rivers to flood is directly linked to their large scale morphology. Systematic variations in the large scale morphology of the river systems are recognised across the extent of the Ganga foreland basin. In general, the rivers that drain the east Ganga Plain have channels that are perched at a higher elevation relative to their floodplain, leading to more frequent channel avulsion and flooding. In contrast, those further west have channels that are incised into the floodplain and are historically less prone to flooding. Understanding the controls on these contrasting river forms is fundamental to determining the sensitivity of these systems to projected climate change and the growing water resource demands across the Plain. Here, we present a new basin scale approach to quantifying floodplain and channel topography that identifies the degree to which channels are super-elevated or entrenched relative to their adjacent floodplain. We explore the probable controls on these observations through an analysis of basin subsidence rates, sediment grain size data and sediment supply from the main river systems that traverse the Plain (Yamuna, Ganga, Karnali, Gandak and Kosi rivers). Subsidence rates are approximated by combining basement profiles derived from seismic data with known convergence velocities; results suggest a more slowly subsiding basin in the west than the east. Grain size fining rates are also used as a proxy of relative subsidence rates along the strike of the basin; the results also indicate higher fining rates (and hence subsidence rates for given sediment supply) in the east. By integrating these observations, we propose that higher subsidence

  13. A comparison of large 18th-century floods on Danube: Vienna - Bratislava - Budapest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Andrea; Parajka, Juraj

    2013-04-01

    The documentation of historic floods can help in better understanding of factors that might cause and contribute to large and extreme flood events. In particular, the analysis of historic floods provides information about flood seasonality, its changes and anthropogenic impacts on river flood regime which in some cases strongly influenced flood behaviour. The main objective of the present contribution is to document large and medium size flood events on Danube in Vienna, Bratislava and Budapest in the 18th century. In the present study, based on contemporary documentary evidence, for each of the three towns a five-scaled flood index series is developed to describe the magnitude and intensity of flood events. According to this classification, the 100-year flood event was characterised by the index value 5, while great destructive floods - depending on their extension, destructivity and further impacts - received the values 4 and 3, respectively. Less significant but still harmful flood events were classified as No. 2, and floods without further specification remained in the lowest category (No. 1). Beside classification issues, seasonality and flood frequency differences between the three towns are as well discussed. The results indicate that a greater number of flood events took place in the last decades of the century, but only a few flood events of the same magnitude are documented simultaneously in all three towns. And whereas in 1775 no winter flood event was reported in Vienna, an important ice jam flood was documented in Bratislava, and a catastrophic ice jam flood event, greatest of the century, occurred in Budapest. In 1787 autumn the greatest flood event of the century occurred in Vienna, while hardly any flood waves were observed at Budapest. While in Vienna, summer (and partly autumn) floods had great importance, in Budapest a large number of ice jam floods were documented. In some cases the differences are likely caused by different hydrometeorological

  14. Summary of data-collection activities and effects of flooding from tropical storm Alberto in parts of Georgia, Alabama, and Florida, July 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamey, Timothy C.

    1996-01-01

    Parts of central and southwestern Georgia, southeastern Alabama, and the western panhandle of Florida were devastated by floods resulting from rainfall produced by Tropical Storm Alberto in July 1994. As tributary floodwaters combined and moved downstream in the Flint, Ocmulgee, and Choctawhatchee Rivers, peak discharges exceeded the 100-year flood discharges along most stream reaches. Along the Flint River, the 100-year flood stage was exceeded at Montezuma by 3.7 ft; at Albany, by 5.1 ft; at Newton, by 3.9 ft; and at Bainbridge by 2.2 ft. Along the Ocmulgee River, the 100-year flood was exceeded at Juliette, by 5.4 ft; at Macon, by 2.2 ft; and at Hawkinsville by 3.9 ft. Peak discharges exceeded the 100-year flood discharges along the Choctawhatchee River from Newton, Ala., to Bruce, Fla. Discharge measurements were made at many gaging stations throughout the area of flooding. Streamflow velocities are obtained during the process of making the discharge measurement. Velocity data are given for selected gaging stations on two streams in Georgia. Scour around pier and abutment foundations caused settling or washout at most bridge failures. Scour mechanisms at these bridges include local scour, contraction scour, and scour plus bank instability of the general stream reach where the bridge is located. Eighteen feet of predominantly contraction scour was measured during the flood at the U.S. Highway 82 crossing of Flint River at Albany, Ga.

  15. Flood Risk Assessments of Architectural Heritage - Case of Changgyeonggung Palace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyosang; Kim, Ji-sung; Lee, Ho-jin

    2014-05-01

    The risk of natural disasters such as flood and earthquake has increased due to recent extreme weather events. Therefore, the necessity of the risk management system to protect architectural properties, a cultural heritage of humanity, from natural disasters has been consistently felt. The solutions for managing flood risk focusing on architectural heritage are suggested and applied to protect Changgyeonggung Palace, a major palace heritage in Seoul. After the probable rainfall scenario for risk assessment (frequency: 100 years, 200 years, and 500 years) and the scenario of a probable maximum precipitation (PMP) are made and a previous rainfall event (from July 26th to 28th in 2011) is identified, they are used for the model (HEC-HMS, SWMM) to assess flood risk of certain areas covering Changgyeonggung Palace to do flood amount. Such flood amount makes it possible to identify inundation risks based on GIS models to assess flood risk of individual architectural heritage. The results of assessing such risk are used to establish the disaster risk management system that managers of architectural properties can utilize. According to the results of assessing flood risk of Changgyeonggung Palace, inundation occurs near outlets of Changgyeonggung Palace and sections of river channel for all scenarios of flood risk but the inundation risk of major architectural properties was estimated low. The methods for assessing flood risk of architectural heritage proposed in this study and the risk management system for Changgyeonggung Palace using the methods show thorough solutions for flood risk management and the possibility of using the solutions seems high. A comprehensive management system for architectural heritage will be established in the future through the review on diverse factors for disasters.

  16. Can atmospheric reanalysis datasets be used to reproduce flood characteristics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreadis, K.; Schumann, G.; Stampoulis, D.

    2014-12-01

    Floods are one of the costliest natural disasters and the ability to understand their characteristics and their interactions with population, land cover and climate changes is of paramount importance. In order to accurately reproduce flood characteristics such as water inundation and heights both in the river channels and floodplains, hydrodynamic models are required. Most of these models operate at very high resolutions and are computationally very expensive, making their application over large areas very difficult. However, a need exists for such models to be applied at regional to global scales so that the effects of climate change with regards to flood risk can be examined. We use the LISFLOOD-FP hydrodynamic model to simulate a 40-year history of flood characteristics at the continental scale, particularly over Australia. LISFLOOD-FP is a 2-D hydrodynamic model that solves the approximate Saint-Venant equations at large scales (on the order of 1 km) using a sub-grid representation of the river channel. This implementation is part of an effort towards a global 1-km flood modeling framework that will allow the reconstruction of a long-term flood climatology. The components of this framework include a hydrologic model (the widely-used Variable Infiltration Capacity model) and a meteorological dataset that forces it. In order to extend the simulated flood climatology to 50-100 years in a consistent manner, reanalysis datasets have to be used. The objective of this study is the evaluation of multiple atmospheric reanalysis datasets (ERA, NCEP, MERRA, JRA) as inputs to the VIC/LISFLOOD-FP model. Comparisons of the simulated flood characteristics are made with both satellite observations of inundation and a benchmark simulation of LISFLOOD-FP being forced by observed flows. Finally, the implications of the availability of a global flood modeling framework for producing flood hazard maps and disseminating disaster information are discussed.

  17. Flood of October 8, 1962, on Bachman Branch and Joes Creek at Dallas, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggles, Frederick H.

    1966-01-01

    This report presents hydrologic data that enable the user to define areas susceptible to flooding and to evaluate the flood hazard along Bachman Branch and Joes Creek. The data provide a technical basis for making sound decisions concerning the use of flood-plain lands. The report will be useful for preparing building and zoning regulations, locating waste disposal facilities, purchasing unoccupied land, developing recreational areas, and managing surface water in relation to ground-water resources. This is one of the series of reports delineating the flood hazard on streams in the Dallas area.

  18. Flood of June 15, 1981, in Great Bend and vicinity, central Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clement, R.W.; Johnson, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    Torrential precipitation, as much as 20 inches in 12 hours, resulted in unprecedented flooding on Dry Walnut Creek in southwestern Barton County, central Kansas. Runoff from the storm caused extensive flooding in the town of Great Bend on June 15, 1981. Estimates of total damages exceeded $42 million. Measurements of peak discharges made in the downstream part of the Dry Walnut Creek watershed were as much as 3 1/2 times the estimated magnitude of the 100-year flood and in some locations exceeded the maximum previously measured discharge for the area. (USGS)

  19. Streamflow model of Wisconsin River for estimating flood frequency and volume

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krug, William R.; House, Leo B.

    1980-01-01

    The 100-year flood peak at Wisconsin Dells, computed from the simulated, regulated streamflow data for the period 1915-76, is 82,000 cubic feet per second, including the effects of all the reservoirs in the river system, as they are currently operated. It also includes the effects of Lakes Du Bay, Petenwell, and Castle Rock which are significant for spring floods but are insignificant for summer or fall floods because they are normally maintained nearly full in the summer and fall and have very little storage for floodwaters. (USGS)

  20. On the seasonality of flooding across the continental United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villarini, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the seasonality of flooding across the continental United States using circular statistics. Analyses are based on 7506 USGS stream gage stations with a record of least 30 years of annual maximum instantaneous peak discharge. Overall, there is a very strong seasonality in flooding across the United States, reflecting differences in flood generating mechanisms. Most of the flood events along the western and eastern United States tend to occur during the October-March period and are associated with extratropical cyclones. The average seasonality of flood events shifts to April-May in regions where snowmelt is the dominant flood agent, and later in the spring-summer across the central United States. The strength of the seasonal cycle also varies considerably, with the weakest seasonality in the Appalachian Mountains and the strongest in the northern Great Plains. The seasonal distribution of flooding is described in terms of circular uniform, reflective symmetric and asymmetric distributions. There are marked differences in the shape of the distribution across the continental United States, with the majority of the stations exhibiting a reflective symmetric distribution. Finally, nonstationarities in the seasonality of flooding are examined. Analyses are performed to detect changes over time, and to examine changes that are due to urbanization and regulation. Overall, there is not a strong signal of temporal changes. The strongest impact of urbanization and regulation is on the strength of the seasonal cycle, with indications that the signal weakens (i.e., the seasonal distribution becomes wider) under the effects of regulation.

  1. Flood risk assessment and mapping for the Lebanese watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, Chadi; Hdeib, Rouya

    2016-04-01

    Of all natural disasters, floods affect the greatest number of people worldwide and have the greatest potential to cause damage. Nowadays, with the emerging global warming phenomenon, this number is expected to increase. The Eastern Mediterranean area, including Lebanon (10452 Km2, 4.5 M habitant), has witnessed in the past few decades an increase frequency of flooding events. This study profoundly assess the flood risk over Lebanon covering all the 17 major watersheds and a number of small sub-catchments. It evaluate the physical direct tangible damages caused by floods. The risk assessment and evaluation process was carried out over three stages; i) Evaluating Assets at Risk, where the areas and assets vulnerable to flooding are identified, ii) Vulnerability Assessment, where the causes of vulnerability are assessed and the value of the assets are provided, iii) Risk Assessment, where damage functions are established and the consequent damages of flooding are estimated. A detailed Land CoverUse map was prepared at a scale of 1/ 1 000 using 0.4 m resolution satellite images within the flood hazard zones. The detailed field verification enabled to allocate and characterize all elements at risk, identify hotspots, interview local witnesses, and to correlate and calibrate previous flood damages with the utilized models. All filed gathered information was collected through Mobile Application and transformed to be standardized and classified under GIS environment. Consequently; the general damage evaluation and risk maps at different flood recurrence periods (10, 50, 100 years) were established. Major results showed that floods in a winter season (December, January, and February) of 10 year recurrence and of water retention ranging from 1 to 3 days can cause total damages (losses) that reach 1.14 M for crop lands and 2.30 M for green houses. Whereas, it may cause 0.2 M to losses in fruit trees for a flood retention ranging from 3 to 5 days. These numbers differs

  2. Dunes on Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03047 Dunes on Plains

    These dunes are located on the plains around Doanus Vallis.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 62.3S, Longitude 335.3E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  3. Northern Plains Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-513, 14 October 2003

    Patterns are common on the northern plains of Mars. Like their terrestrial counterparts in places like Siberia, Alaska, and northern Canada, patterned ground on Mars might be an indicator of the presence of ground ice. Whether it is true that the patterns on Mars are related to ground ice and whether the ice is still present beneath the martian surface are unknown. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows an example of patterned ground on the martian northern plains near 72.4oN, 252.6oW. The dark dots and lines are low mounds and chains of mounds. The circular feature near the center of the image is the location of a buried meteor impact crater; its presence today is marked only by the dark boulders on its rim and ejecta blanket that have managed to remain uncovered at the martian surface. The area shown is 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  4. Importance of Integrating High-Resoultion 2D Flood Hazard Maps in the Flood Disaster Management of Marikina City, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapales, B. J. M.; Mendoza, J.; Uichanco, C.; Lagmay, A. M. F. A.; Moises, M. A.; Delmendo, P.; Tingin, N. E.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding has been a perennial problem in the city of Marikina. These incidences result in human and economic losses. In response to this, the city has been investing in their flood disaster mitigation program in the past years. As a result, flooding in Marikina was reduced by 31% from 1992 to 2004. [1] However, these measures need to be improved so as to mitigate the effects of floods with more than 100 year return period, such as the flooding brought by tropical storm Ketsana in 2009 which generated 455mm of rains over a 24-hour period. Heavy rainfall caused the streets to be completely submerged in water, leaving at least 70 people dead in the area. In 2012, the Southwest monsoon, enhanced by a typhoon, brought massive rains with an accumulated rainfall of 472mm for 22-hours, a number greater than that which was experienced during Ketsana. At this time, the local government units were much more prepared in mitigating the risk with the use of early warning and evacuation measures, resulting to zero casualty in the area. Their urban disaster management program, however, can be further improved through the integration of high-resolution 2D flood hazard maps in the city's flood disaster management. The use of these maps in flood disaster management is essential in reducing flood-related risks. This paper discusses the importance and advantages of integrating flood maps in structural and non-structural mitigation measures in the case of Marikina City. Flood hazard maps are essential tools in predicting the frequency and magnitude of floods in an area. An information that may be determined with the use of these maps is the locations of evacuation areas, which may be accurately positioned using high-resolution 2D flood hazard maps. Evacuation of areas that are not vulnerable of being inundated is one of the unnecessary measures that may be prevented and thus optimizing mitigation efforts by local government units. This paper also discusses proposals for a more efficient

  5. Importance of Integrating High-Resoultion 2D Flood Hazard Maps in the Flood Disaster Management of Marikina City, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapales, Ben Joseph; Mendoza, Jerico; Uichanco, Christopher; Mahar Francisco Amante Lagmay, Alfredo; Moises, Mark Anthony; Delmendo, Patricia; Eneri Tingin, Neil

    2015-04-01

    Flooding has been a perennial problem in the city of Marikina. These incidences result in human and economic losses. In response to this, the city has been investing in their flood disaster mitigation program in the past years. As a result, flooding in Marikina was reduced by 31% from 1992 to 2004. [1] However, these measures need to be improved so as to mitigate the effects of floods with more than 100 year return period, such as the flooding brought by tropical storm Ketsana in 2009 which generated 455mm of rains over a 24-hour period. Heavy rainfall caused the streets to be completely submerged in water, leaving at least 70 people dead in the area. In 2012, the Southwest monsoon, enhanced by a typhoon, brought massive rains with an accumulated rainfall of 472mm for 22-hours, a number greater than that which was experienced during Ketsana. At this time, the local government units were much more prepared in mitigating the risk with the use of early warning and evacuation measures, resulting to zero casualty in the area. Their urban disaster management program, however, can be further improved through the integration of high-resolution 2D flood hazard maps in the city's flood disaster management. The use of these maps in flood disaster management is essential in reducing flood-related risks. This paper discusses the importance and advantages of integrating flood maps in structural and non-structural mitigation measures in the case of Marikina City. Flood hazard maps are essential tools in predicting the frequency and magnitude of floods in an area. An information that may be determined with the use of these maps is the locations of evacuation areas, which may be accurately positioned using high-resolution 2D flood hazard maps. Evacuation of people in areas that are not vulnerable of being inundated is one of the unnecessary measures that may be prevented and thus optimizing mitigation efforts by local government units. This paper also discusses proposals for a more

  6. Assessing the environmental justice consequences of flood risk: a case study in Miami, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Marilyn C.; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2015-09-01

    Recent environmental justice (EJ) research has emphasized the need to analyze social inequities in the distribution of natural hazards such as hurricanes and floods, and examine intra-ethnic diversity in patterns of EJ. This study contributes to the emerging EJ scholarship on exposure to flooding and ethnic heterogeneity by analyzing the racial/ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics of the population residing within coastal and inland flood risk zones in the Miami Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), Florida—one of the most ethnically diverse MSAs in the U.S. and one of the most hurricane-prone areas in the world. We examine coastal and inland flood zones separately because of differences in amenities such as water views and beach access. Instead of treating the Hispanic population as a homogenous group, we disaggregate the Hispanic category into relevant country-of-origin subgroups. Inequities in flood risk exposure are statistically analyzed using socio-demographic variables derived from the 2010 U.S. Census and 2007-2011 American Community Survey estimates, and 100-year flood risk zones from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Social vulnerability is represented with two neighborhood deprivation indices called economic insecurity and instability. We also analyze the presence of seasonal/vacation homes and proximity to public beach access sites as water-related amenity variables. Logistic regression modeling is utilized to estimate the odds of neighborhood-level exposure to coastal and inland 100-year flood risks. Results indicate that neighborhoods with greater percentages of non-Hispanic Blacks, Hispanics, and Hispanic subgroups of Colombians and Puerto Ricans are exposed to inland flood risks in areas without water-related amenities, while Mexicans are inequitably exposed to coastal flood risks. Our findings demonstrate the importance of treating coastal and inland flood risks separately while controlling for water-related amenities, and

  7. Flood of August 27-28, 1977, West Cache Creek and Blue Beaver Creek, southwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corley, Robert K.; Huntzinger, Thomas L.

    1979-01-01

    This report documents a major storm which occurred August 27-28, 1977, in southwest Oklahoma near the communities of Cache and Faxon, OK. Blue Beaver Creek and West Cache Creek and their tributaries experienced extensive flooding that caused an estimated $1 million in damages. Reported rainfall amounts of 8 to 12 inches in 6 hours indicate the storm had a frequency in excess of the 100-year rainfall. Peak discharges on Blue Beaver Creek near Cache and West Cache Creek near Faxon were 13,500 cubic feet per second and 45,700 cubic feet per second respectively. The estimated flood frequency was in excess of 100 years on Blue Beaver Creek and in excess of 50 years on West Cache Creek. Unit runoff on small basins were in excess of 2000 cubic feet per second per square mile. Surveyed highwater marks were used to map the flooded area. (USGS)

  8. The role of plains volcanism in the formation of Mercury's crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denevi, B. W.; Robinson, M. S.; Murchie, S. L.; Barnouin, O. S.; Blewett, D. T.; Chabot, N. L.; Ernst, C. M.; Head, J. W.; Ostrach, L. R.; Solomon, S. C.; Watters, T. R.

    2011-12-01

    Mercury has experienced widespread resurfacing. Plains cover much of the surface, and no terrain is as heavily cratered as the lunar highlands. Plains formation appears to have occurred throughout much of Mercury's history. Intercrater plains formation extended through the period of heavy bombardment, and smooth plains formation may have continued into the second half of solar system history, with a continuum of ages in between. However, the mode of formation of these plains is not clear in all cases. Strong evidence for a volcanic origin of many plains units indicates that volcanism played an important role in shaping Mercury's crust, but many plains units lack clear evidence for source regions, flooding or embayment relationships, or color boundaries, suggesting that alternate mechanisms of formation are possible (e.g., impact-produced melt or fluidized basin ejecta). We focus on the origin of these more ambiguous plains units, particularly the intercrater plains, to understand their role in crustal formation. Preliminary maps of plains covering ~55% of Mercury were produced from Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flyby data. We have extended these maps with global orbital image mosaics (monochrome at 250 m/pixel; color at 1 km/pixel) and targeted high-resolution images (up to ~10 m/pixel). We find many regions where morphologic boundaries between plains units are gradational and no difference in spectral properties is detected. The distinction between such units appears to be largely the enhanced population of secondary craters in some locations, which destroy evidence of an original morphologic boundary or mask the original character of the unit. Many of these units also lack a clear association with any large basin, suggesting that an origin as basin ejecta is unlikely. Thus, some portion of more heavily cratered plains units may simply be degraded versions of smooth plains and share a common volcanic origin. We also explore the origin of smooth plains units contained

  9. History of views on the relative positions of Antarctica and South America: A 100-year tango between Patagonia and the Antarctic Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, H.

    2007-01-01

    Discussion of continental drift around Antarctica began nearly 100 years ago. While the Gondwana connections of Antarctica to Africa and Australia have been well defined for decades, the relative pre-drift positions of the Antarctic Peninsula and Patagonia continue to be subjects of controversy. Certainly older figures, which showed a paleo-position of the Peninsula crossing over continental crust of the Falkland Plateau or even South Africa or Patagonia, are out of consideration now. But contradictory opinions remain over the relative paleo-position of the Peninsula as a more or less straight prolongation of the Patagonian Andes, versus a position parallel to Patagonia along the Pacific coast. Geological reasons are found for both opinions, but geophysical observations on the adjacent ocean floors, particularly the evolution of the Weddell Sea crust, speak for the last-mentioned reconstruction.

  10. Late-stage flood lavas in the Elysium region, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B.

    1987-01-01

    In the southeastern part of the Elysium region is a unit that exhibits little texture and a generally low albedo and that has a very low crater frequency. This unit has been mapped as smooth plains material and previously interpreted as an eolian deposit on the basis of Mariner 9 images. More recently, the unit was mapped as material deposited during a channeling episode. The author interprets the smooth plains unit as being a volcanic deposit composed of low viscosity lava flows: both flood lavas and individual flows. The reasons for these conclusions are given and briefly discussed.

  11. Effects of 100 years wastewater irrigation on resistance genes, class 1 integrons and IncP-1 plasmids in Mexican soil

    PubMed Central

    Jechalke, Sven; Broszat, Melanie; Lang, Friederike; Siebe, Christina; Smalla, Kornelia; Grohmann, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Long-term irrigation with untreated wastewater can lead to an accumulation of antibiotic substances and antibiotic resistance genes in soil. However, little is known so far about effects of wastewater, applied for decades, on the abundance of IncP-1 plasmids and class 1 integrons which may contribute to the accumulation and spread of resistance genes in the environment, and their correlation with heavy metal concentrations. Therefore, a chronosequence of soils that were irrigated with wastewater from 0 to 100 years was sampled in the Mezquital Valley in Mexico in the dry season. The total community DNA was extracted and the absolute and relative abundance (relative to 16S rRNA genes) of antibiotic resistance genes (tet(W), tet(Q), aadA), class 1 integrons (intI1), quaternary ammonium compound resistance genes (qacE+qacEΔ1) and IncP-1 plasmids (korB) were quantified by real-time PCR. Except for intI1 and qacE+qacEΔ1 the abundances of selected genes were below the detection limit in non-irrigated soil. Confirming the results of a previous study, the absolute abundance of 16S rRNA genes in the samples increased significantly over time (linear regression model, p < 0.05) suggesting an increase in bacterial biomass due to repeated irrigation with wastewater. Correspondingly, all tested antibiotic resistance genes as well as intI1 and korB significantly increased in abundance over the period of 100 years of irrigation. In parallel, concentrations of the heavy metals Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Cr significantly increased. However, no significant positive correlations were observed between the relative abundance of selected genes and years of irrigation, indicating no enrichment in the soil bacterial community due to repeated wastewater irrigation or due to a potential co-selection by increasing concentrations of heavy metals. PMID:25784901

  12. Channel geometry, flood elevations, and flood maps, lower Toutle and Cowlitz rivers, Washington, June 1980 to May 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lombard, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    The volcanic eruption of Mount St. Helens on May 18, 1980, triggered mudflows that deposited upwards of 15 ft of sediment in the channels of the lower Toutle and Cowlitz Rivers. The major population areas along the lower Cowlitz River (Kelso, Longview,Lexington, and Castle Rock) were not flooded, but the channel capacity of the river was seriously reduced and the potential for unusually high flood elevations from fall and winter storms was an obvious concern. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers began dredging operations in June 1980 to alleviate the flood hazard. Surveys to monitor the effect of changes to the channel and flood plains that resulted from dredging and additional sediment inflow from the upper Toutle River basin were started in June 1980 and continued until May 11, 1981, when dredging operations on the Cowlitz River had been completed. (USGS)

  13. Flood-inundation map and water-surface profiles for floods of selected recurrence intervals, Consumnes River and Deer Creek, Sacramento County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guay, Joel R.; Harmon, Jerry G.; McPherson, Kelly R.

    1998-01-01

    The damage caused by the January 1997 floods along the Cosumnes River and Deer Creek generated new interest in planning and managing land use in the study area. The 1997 floodflow peak, the highest on record and considered to be a 150-year flood, caused levee failures at 24 locations. In order to provide a technical basis for floodplain management practices, the U.S. Goelogical Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency, completed a flood-inundation map of the Cosumnes River and Deer Creek drainage from Dillard Road bridge to State Highway 99. Flood frequency was estimated from streamflow records for the Cosumnes River at Michigan Bar and Deer Creek near Sloughhouse. Cross sections along a study reach, where the two rivers generally flow parallel to one another, were used with a step-backwater model (WSPRO) to estimate the water-surface profile for floods of selected recurrence intervals. A flood-inundation map was developed to show flood boundaries for the 100-year flood. Water-surface profiles were developed for the 5-, 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year floods.

  14. Developments in large-scale coastal flood hazard mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vousdoukas, Michalis I.; Voukouvalas, Evangelos; Mentaschi, Lorenzo; Dottori, Francesco; Giardino, Alessio; Bouziotas, Dimitrios; Bianchi, Alessandra; Salamon, Peter; Feyen, Luc

    2016-08-01

    Coastal flooding related to marine extreme events has severe socioeconomic impacts, and even though the latter are projected to increase under the changing climate, there is a clear deficit of information and predictive capacity related to coastal flood mapping. The present contribution reports on efforts towards a new methodology for mapping coastal flood hazard at European scale, combining (i) the contribution of waves to the total water level; (ii) improved inundation modeling; and (iii) an open, physics-based framework which can be constantly upgraded, whenever new and more accurate data become available. Four inundation approaches of gradually increasing complexity and computational costs were evaluated in terms of their applicability to large-scale coastal flooding mapping: static inundation (SM); a semi-dynamic method, considering the water volume discharge over the dykes (VD); the flood intensity index approach (Iw); and the model LISFLOOD-FP (LFP). A validation test performed against observed flood extents during the Xynthia storm event showed that SM and VD can lead to an overestimation of flood extents by 232 and 209 %, while Iw and LFP showed satisfactory predictive skill. Application at pan-European scale for the present-day 100-year event confirmed that static approaches can overestimate flood extents by 56 % compared to LFP; however, Iw can deliver results of reasonable accuracy in cases when reduced computational costs are a priority. Moreover, omitting the wave contribution in the extreme total water level (TWL) can result in a ˜ 60 % underestimation of the flooded area. The present findings have implications for impact assessment studies, since combination of the estimated inundation maps with population exposure maps revealed differences in the estimated number of people affected within the 20-70 % range.

  15. Floods of April 1983 in southern Mississippi and southeastern Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, Darrell D.; Firda, Gary D.

    1983-01-01

    Extreme flooding occurred in April 1983 in southern Mississippi and southeastern Louisiana. The floods resulted from a near-stationary cold front, which moved slowly across Louisiana and Mississippi. Flood heights and discharges of many streams exceeded previously known maximums of record, and for many the recurrence interval of peak discharge exceeded 100 years. On Black Creek, near Brooklyn, Miss., the previous maximum stage (since 1961) was exceeded by 4.26 ft, and the April 7 peak discharge of 42,500 cu ft/sec was about two times the previous maximum discharge. This flood exceeded the 100-yr event. In southeastern Louisiana, the area with the most severe flooding was in the Bogue Chitto basin. At the Franklinton, LA, Station, the April 7 peak discharge of 125,000 cu ft/sec was more than two times the previous maximum discharge. In April 1900 the stage at this site was 29.6 ft, 4.9 ft higher than the April 1981 peak. An extreme event also occurred on the Tchefuncta River near Franklinton, LA. The previous maximum stage (since 1949) was exceeded by 3.75 ft, and the April 6 discharge of 26 ,900 cu ft/sec is more than three times the previous maximum. This discharge also exceeded the 100-yr event. Combined flood damages for both States totaled in the hundred of millions of dollars. (Lantz-PTT)

  16. Synthesized flood frequency for small urban streams in Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.H.

    1984-01-01

    Bridge, culvert, and highway design often require knowledge of the magnitude and frequency of flood discharge from small streams where the drainage basin is urbanized. The results of a 6-year study by the U.S. Geological Survey provide methods for estimating flood magnitudes for selected frequencies on small streams draining urban areas in Tennessee. A total of 22 rainfall-runoff sites located in basins with drainage areas of 0.21 to 24.3 square miles in size and in municipalities with populations between 5,000 and 100,000 were used to derive regionalized flood-frequency equations. Impervious area, measured from recent aerial photographs, ranged between 4.7 percent and 74.0 percent of the basin. The equations were derived by multiple regression analyses of snythetic flood-frequency estimates, derived from a rainfall-runoff modeling procedure, versus physical basin characteristics and a precipitation factor. These equations can be used to estimate the magnitude of future floods with recurrence intervals of 2 to 100 years on ungaged urbanized streams in Tennessee. One equation for each recurrence interval applies statewide. Flood-frequency estimates for stations used in the analyses and example computations demonstrating applications of the regression equations to urban streams in Tennessee are given in the report. (USGS)

  17. Interaction of flooding and salinity stress on baldcypress (Taxodium distichum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.A.; Pezeshki, S.R.; Chambers, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Coastal wetlands of the southeastern United States are threatened by increases in flooding and salinity as a result of both natural processes and man-induced hydrologic alterations. Furthermore, global climate change scenarios suggest that, as a consequence of rising sea levels, much larger areas of coastal wetlands may be affected by flooding and salinity in the next 50 to 100 years. In this paper, we review studies designed to improve our ability to predict and ameliorate the impacts of increased flooding and salinity stress on baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.), which is a dominant species of many coastal forested wetlands. Specifically, we review studies on species-level responses to flooding and salinity stress, alone and in combination, we summarize two studies on intraspecific variation in response to flooding and salinity stress, we analyze the physiological mechanisms thought to be responsible for the interaction between flooding and salinity stress, and we discuss the implications for coastal wetland loss and the prospects for developing salt-tolerant lines of baldcypress.

  18. Confidence intervals for expected moments algorithm flood quantile estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohn, T.A.; Lane, W.L.; Stedinger, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    Historical and paleoflood information can substantially improve flood frequency estimates if appropriate statistical procedures are properly applied. However, the Federal guidelines for flood frequency analysis, set forth in Bulletin 17B, rely on an inefficient "weighting" procedure that fails to take advantage of historical and paleoflood information. This has led researchers to propose several more efficient alternatives including the Expected Moments Algorithm (EMA), which is attractive because it retains Bulletin 17B's statistical structure (method of moments with the Log Pearson Type 3 distribution) and thus can be easily integrated into flood analyses employing the rest of the Bulletin 17B approach. The practical utility of EMA, however, has been limited because no closed-form method has been available for quantifying the uncertainty of EMA-based flood quantile estimates. This paper addresses that concern by providing analytical expressions for the asymptotic variance of EMA flood-quantile estimators and confidence intervals for flood quantile estimates. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate the properties of such confidence intervals for sites where a 25- to 100-year streamgage record is augmented by 50 to 150 years of historical information. The experiments show that the confidence intervals, though not exact, should be acceptable for most purposes.

  19. Floods in Central Texas, December 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hejl, H.R., Jr.; Slade, Raymond M.; Jennings, Marshall E.

    1996-01-01

    Record-breaking peak discharges were recorded at eight U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging stations in central Texas during December 1991 (fig. 1), and substantial peak discharges also occurred at numerous other stations. Large peak discharges during December are unusual in central Texas. The rainfall causing the flooding began on December 18, with 6-day totals exceeding 10 inches (in.) in the area of heaviest rainfall.This report documents peak discharges and runoff volumes during December 1991. Recurrence intervals were determined for the peak discharges and runoff volumes for 1-, 3-, and 7-day periods. A recurrence interval references the approximate number of years during which a given peak discharge or runoff volumes is expected to be equaled or exceeded only once. A flood of a given recurrence interval is defined on the basis of peak discharge – for example, a 100-year flood is defined as the peak discharge that has a 1-percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year.

  20. Impacts of dyke development in flood prone areas in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta to downstream flood hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanh Triet Nguyen, Van; Dung Nguyen, Viet; Fujii, Hideto; Kummu, Matti; Merz, Bruno; Apel, Heiko

    2016-04-01

    The Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD) plays an important role in food security and socio-economic development of the country. Being a low-lying coastal region, the VMD is particularly susceptible to both riverine and tidal floods, which provide, on (the) one hand, the basis for the rich agricultural production and the livelihood of the people, but on the other hand pose a considerable hazard depending on the severity of the floods. But despite of potentially hazardous flood, the area remain active as a rice granary due to its nutrient-rich soils and sediment input, and dense waterways, canals and the long standing experience of the population living with floods. In response to both farmers' requests and governmental plans, the construction of flood protection infrastructure in the delta progressed rapidly in the last twenty years, notably at areas prone to deep flooding, i.e. the Plain of Reeds (PoR) and Long Xuyen Quadrangle (LXQ). Triple rice cropping becomes possible in farmlands enclosed by "full-dykes", i.e. dykes strong and high enough to prevent flooding of the flood plains for most of the floods. In these protected flood plains rice can be grown even during the peak flood period (September to November). However, little is known about the possibly (and already alleged) negative impacts of this fully flood protection measure to downstream areas. This study aims at quantifying how the flood regime in the lower part of the VMD (e.g. Can Tho, My Thuan, …) has been changed in the last 2 recent "big flood" events of 2000 and 2011 due to the construction of the full-dyke system in the upper part. First, an evaluation of 35 years of daily water level data was performed in order to detect trends at key gauging stations: Kratie: upper boundary of the Delta, Tan Chau and Chau Doc: areas with full-dyke construction, Can Tho and My Thuan: downstream. Results from the Mann-Kendall (MK) test show a decreasing trend of the annual maximum water level at 3 stations Kratie, Tan

  1. Cracked and Pitted Plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-536, 6 November 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a typical view--at 1.5 meters (5 feet) per pixel--of surfaces in far western Utopia Planitia. In this region, the plains have developed cracks and pit chains arranged in a polygonal pattern. The pits form by collapse along the trend of a previously-formed crack. This picture is located near 45.0oN, 275.4oW. This April 2003 image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  2. Flood Magnitude and Frequency of the Delaware River in New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schopp, Robert D.; Firda, Gary D.

    2008-01-01

    From September 2004 to June 2006, the Delaware River in New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania experienced three major floods that caused extensive damage. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) needed updated information on the flood magnitude and frequency for the eight active streamflow-gaging stations along the main stem Delaware River in New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania that included the three recent floods in order to update its flood insurance studies. Therefore, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) computed updated flood magnitude and frequency values following the guidelines published by the Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data in its Bulletin 17B. The updated flood-frequency values indicate that the recurrence interval of the September 2004 flood ranged from 20 to 35 years, the recurrence interval of the April 2005 flood ranged from 40 to 70 years, and the recurrence interval of the June 2006 flood ranged from 70 to greater than 100 years. Examination of trends in flood discharges indicate no statistically significant trends in peak flows during the period of record for any of the eight streamflow-gaging stations.

  3. Importance of record length with respect to estimating the 1-percent chance flood

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feaster, Toby D.

    2010-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow gages have been established in every State in the Nation, Puerto Rico, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. From these st reamflow records, estimates of the magnitude and frequency of floods are often developed and used to design transportation and water- conveyance structures to protect lives and property, and to determine flood-insurance rates. Probably the most recognizable flood statistic computed from USGS stream gaging records is the 1- percent (%) chance flood; better known has the 100-year flood. By definition, this is a flood that has a 1% chance of occurring in any given year. The 1% chance flood is a statistical estimate that can be significantly influenced by length of record and extreme flood events captured in that record. Consequently, it is typically recommended that flood statistics be updated on some regular interval such as every 10 years. This paper examines the influence of record length on the 1% chance flood for the Broad River in Georgia and the substantial difference that can occur in the estimate based on record length and the hydrologic conditions under which that record was collected. 

  4. Flood Impact Modelling and Natural Flood Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Gareth; Quinn, Paul; ODonnell, Greg

    2016-04-01

    Local implementation of Natural Flood Management methods are now being proposed in many flood schemes. In principal it offers a cost effective solution to a number of catchment based problem as NFM tackles both flood risk and WFD issues. However within larger catchments there is the issue of which subcatchments to target first and how much NFM to implement. If each catchment has its own configuration of subcatchment and rivers how can the issues of flood synchronisation and strategic investment be addressed? In this study we will show two key aspects to resolving these issues. Firstly, a multi-scale network water level recorder is placed throughout the system to capture the flow concentration and travel time operating in the catchment being studied. The second is a Flood Impact Model (FIM), which is a subcatchment based model that can generate runoff in any location using any hydrological model. The key aspect to the model is that it has a function to represent the impact of NFM in any subcatchment and the ability to route that flood wave to the outfall. This function allows a realistic representation of the synchronisation issues for that catchment. By running the model in interactive mode the user can define an appropriate scheme that minimises or removes the risk of synchornisation and gives confidence that the NFM investment is having a good level of impact downstream in large flood events.

  5. Channeling episodes of Kasei Valles, Mars, and the nature of ridged plains material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Mary G.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.

    1991-01-01

    The geologic mapping compiled at 1:500,000 scale of the northern Kasei Valles area of Mars (MTMs 25062 and 25067) indicates (1) at least three periods of Kasei Valles channeling, (2) the development of Sacra Fossae (linear depressions on Tempe Terra and Lunae Planum) in relation to Kasei channeling episodes, and (3) the nature of ridged plains material dissected by Kasei Valles on northern Lunae Planum. (The three channeling periods consists of two flood events and a later, sapping related event). These findings suggest hydrologic conditions and processes that formed Kasei Valles and associated features and terrains. It is concluded that an early period of flooding, whose source is perhaps buried beneath lava flows of Tharsis Montes, may have eroded streamlined features in northern Lunae Planum. Also, later floods originating from Echus Chasma formed after the initial flooding and the mesas adjacent to the plateau. The Sacra Fossae formed after the initial flooding and during the second flooding by sapping, outbreak, scarp retreat, and collapse along joints and fractures in ridged plains materials.

  6. Hydrologic data for floods of July 1978 in Southeast Minnesota and Southwest Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Latkovich, V.J.

    1979-01-01

    Intense storms of July 1978 caused floods of historical significance in southeast Minnesota and southwest Wisconsin. Local, State, and Federal officials need data and information to evaluate, coordinate, and manage programs concerned with floods and flood losses. Because of a need to document stream discharges, elevations, and sediment concentrations, current-meter and indirect measurements were made at 34 gaging stations during or immediately after the floods. This report summarizes some of the hydrologic data collected. Peak discharges of record occurred at 20 gaging stations. Frequency of peak discharge equaled or exceeded the 100-year recurrence interval at 11 stations. The Federal Benchmark gaging station on the North Fork Whitewater River was destroyed. Five people died as a result of the floods, and property damages were estimated to exceed $114 million. Thirty-three counties were officially declared disaster areas.

  7. Flooding studies of proposed repository locations in the Palo Duro Basin of the Texas Panhandle

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-04-01

    This report contains the results of flooding studies of those stream channels that drain the proposed locations of a high-level nuclear-waste repository in Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties, Texas. Included are computations of the flood hydrographs and water surface profiles of the 100-year, 500-year, and probable maximum floods for Palo Duro Creek, Tule Creek, and Pleasant Draw. The hydrographs were produced according to the method of the Soil Conservation Service for ungaged watersheds, and the computations were made with computer programs developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers. The flood hydrographs were computed with the HEC-1 Flood Hydrograph Package and the water surface elevations with the HEC-2 Water Surface Profiles program. 76 refs., 19 figs., 16 tabs.

  8. Floods in Kansas City, Missouri and vicinity, August 12-13, 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, L.D.; Alexander, T.W.; Waite, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    On August 12-13, 1982, a nearly stationary weather front in the vicinity of Kansas City, MO, produced intense thunderstorms. Excessive rainfall (12.6 inches in Raytown, MO) caused flash flooding during the nighttime and early daylight hours. Four deaths and damages unofficially estimated in excess of $30 million, occurred in the three-county area of Jackson, Cass, and Clay counties. Peak discharges were determined at 12 current or discontinued streamflow-gaging stations and 17 miscellaneous sites. Flood peaks and volumes at many locations exceeded estimated 100-year recurrence-interval floods and equaled or exceeded the 1977 floods in some drainage basins. Significant flooding occurred in the Blue, East Fork Little Blue, and Little Blue River basins and in the Rock, Wilkerson, Sni-A-Bar, Shoal, and Big Creek drainage basins. (USGS)

  9. Frequency and duration of flooding of Grove Creek near Kenansville, North Carolina, for present and proposed restored channel conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamey, T.C.

    1985-01-01

    The Grove Creek basin includes an area of about 42 square miles in Duplin County, southeastern North Carolina. The North Carolina Department of Human Resources (DHR) proposes to implement a channel restoration project on about an eight-mile reach of Grove Creek. The purpose of the restoration program is to improve drainage, thereby reducing frequency and duration of overbank flooding and reducing the opportunity for mosquito breeding in frequently flooded areas adjacent to Grove Creek. This study evaluates the effects of the restoration on the frequency and duration of flooding within the study reach for present (1984) and proposed restored channel conditions. The proposed restored channel is estimated to increase the carrying capacity of the main channel from 10 to 19 times. The greatest reduction in areas of flooded land immediately adjacent to the study reach would be west of North Carolina Highway 11 (between sites 4 and 6) and would be reduced by an average of 29 percent during floods up through the 10-year flood level and reduced by an average of 5 percent for the 25- to 100-year flood levels. An average reduction of 1 percent is indicated for areas inundated east of North Carolina Highway 11 (for sites 1 through 3) for the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year floods; while reductions in inundated area of the total study reach of 13, 5, 4, and 1.5 percent are indicated for the 2-, 5-, 10-, and 100-year floods, respectively. Overbank flooding during 1983 and 1984 water years occurred 32 times and persisted from a few hours up to about 3 months. For proposed restored-channel conditions, overbank flooding would have been reduced to 5 occurrences, and areal flooding would have persisted from a few hours to about 2 days. Flooding on the Northeast Cape Fear River causes variable backwater conditions on the lower Grove Creek study reach. A 100-year flood on the Northeast Cape Fear River would create backwater for about 1.5 miles upstream on Grove Creek.

  10. Severe Flooding in India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Floods devestated parts of eastern India along the Brahmaputra River in June 2000. In some tributaries of the Brahmaputra, the water reached more than 5 meters (16.5 feet) above flood stage. At least 40 residents died, and the flood waters destroyed a bridge linking the region to the rest of India. High water also threatened endangered Rhinos in Kaziranga National Park. Flooded areas are shown in red in the above image. The map was derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data taken on June 15, 2000. For more information on observing floods with satellites, see: Using Satellites to Keep our Head above Water and the Dartmouth Flood Observatory Image by the Dartmouth Flood Observatory

  11. Estimated flood peak discharges on Twin, Brock, and Lightning creeks, Southwest Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, May 8, 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tortorelli, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The flash flood in southwestern Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, May 8, 1993, was the result of an intense 3-hour rainfall on saturated ground or impervious surfaces. The total precipitation of 5.28 inches was close to the 3-hour, 100-year frequency and produced extensive flooding. The most serious flooding was on Twin, Brock, and Lightning Creeks. Four people died in this flood. Over 1,900 structures were damaged along the 3 creeks. There were about $3 million in damages to Oklahoma City public facilities, the majority of which were in the three basins. A study was conducted to determine the magnitude of the May 8, 1993, flood peak discharge in these three creeks in southwestern Oklahoma City and compare these peaks with published flood estimates. Flood peak-discharge estimates for these creeks were determined at 11 study sites using a step-backwater analysis to match the flood water-surface profiles defined by high-water marks. The unit discharges during peak runoff ranged from 881 cubic feet per second per square mile for Lightning Creek at SW 44th Street to 3,570 cubic feet per second per square mile for Brock Creek at SW 59th Street. The ratios of the 1993 flood peak discharges to the Federal Emergency Management Agency 100-year flood peak discharges ranged from 1.25 to 3.29. The water-surface elevations ranged from 0.2 foot to 5.9 feet above the Federal Emergency Management Agency 500-year flood water-surface elevations. The very large flood peaks in these 3 small urban basins were the result of very intense rainfall in a short period of time, close to 100 percent runoff due to ground surfaces being essentially impervious, and the city streets acting as efficient conveyances to the main channels. The unit discharges compare in magnitude to other extraordinary Oklahoma urban floods.

  12. A 100-Year Retrospective Landscape-Level Carbon Budget for the Sooke Lake Watershed, British Columbia: Constraining Estimates of Terrestrial to Aquatic DOC Transfers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofymow, J. A.; Smiley, B. P. K.

    2014-12-01

    To address how natural disturbance, forest harvest, and deforestation from reservoir creation affect landscape-level carbon (C) budgets, a retrospective C budget for the 8500 ha Sooke watershed from 1911 - 2012 was developed using historic spatial inventory and disturbance data. Data was input to a spatially-explicit version of the Carbon Budget Model-Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS3), an inventory-based C budget model used to simulate forest C dynamics at multiple scales. In 1911 the watershed was dominated by mature/old Douglas-fir forests with aboveground biomass C (ABC) of 262 Mg C/ha and net ecosystem production (NEP) of 0.63 Mg C/ha/yr. Land was cleared around Sooke Lake, a dam built and lake expanded from 370 to 450 ha in 1915, 610 ha in 1970, 670 ha in 1980 and 810 ha in 2002. Along with deforestation, fires and localized harvest occurred from 1920 - 1940, reducing ABC to 189 Mg C/ha, with NEP varying from -1.63 to 0.13 Mg C/ha/yr. Distributed harvest occurred 1954 - 1998, with a minimum ABC of 148 Mg C/ha in 1991. By 2012 ABC (177 Mg C/ha) and NEP (2.29 Mg C/ha/yr) had increased. Over 100 years, 2430 ha forest was cut and replanted and 640 ha deforested. CBM-CFS3 includes transfers of dissolved organic C (DOC) to aquatic systems, however data has not been available to parameterize DOC flux. DOC fluxes are modelled as a fraction of decay loss from humified soil C with a default of 100% of losses to CO2 and 0% to DOC. Stream flow and [DOC] data from 1996 - 2012 for 3 watershed catchments, Rithet, Judge and Council were used to estimate annual DOC fluxes. Rithet, Judge and Council differed both in area % disturbed (logging or fire) over 100 years (39%, 93%, 91%) and in area % mature/old forest (>80yrs in 2012) (67%, 56%, 21%). DOC flux for Rithet and Judge ranged from 0.037 - 0.057 Mg C/ha/yr, Council averaged 0.017 Mg C/ha/yr. Low DOC fluxes were likely due to influences of a small lake in the catchment. Constraining CBM-CFS3 to observed DOC fluxes, required

  13. New mechanism under International Flood Initiative toward robustness for flood management in the Asia Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murase, M.; Yoshitani, J.; Takeuchi, K.; Koike, T.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is likely to result in increases in the frequency or intensity of extreme weather events. It is imperative that a good understanding is developed of how climate change affects the events that are reflected in hydrological extremes such as floods and how practitioners in water resources management deal with them. Since there is still major uncertainty as to how the impact of climate change affect actual water resources management, it is important to build robustness into management schemes and communities. Flood management under such variety of uncertainty favors the flexible and adaptive implementation both in top-down and bottom-up approaches. The former uses projections of global or spatially downscaled models to drive resource models and project resource impacts. The latter utilizes policy or planning tools to identify what changes in climate would be most threatening to their long-range operations. Especially for the bottom-up approaches, it is essential to identify the gap between what should be done and what has not been achieved for disaster risks. Indicators or index are appropriate tools to measure such gaps, but they are still in progress to cover the whole world. The International Flood Initiative (IFI), initiated in January 2005 by UNESCO and WMO in close cooperation with UNU and ISDR, IAHS and IAHR, has promoted an integrated approach to flood management to take advantage of floods and use of flood plains while reducing the social, environmental and economic risks. Its secretariat is located in ICHARM. The initiative objective is to support national platforms to practice evidence-based disaster risk reduction through mobilizing scientific and research networks at national, regional and international levels. The initiative is now preparing for a new mechanism to facilitate the integrated approach for flood management on the ground regionally in the Asia Pacific (IFI-AP) through monitoring, assessment and capacity building.

  14. Hydrological-hydraulic model cascading for pan-European flood hazard mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfieri, Lorenzo; Salamon, Peter; Bianchi, Alessandra; Pappenberger, Florian; Wetterhall, Fredrik

    2013-04-01

    Flood hazard maps at trans-national and continental scale have potential for a large number of applications ranging from climate change studies, aid to emergency planning for major flood crisis, early damage assessment and urban development, among others. However, such maps are usually available at rather coarse resolution, which limits their applications to rough assessments. At finer resolution, maps are often limited to country boundaries, due to limited data sharing and specific cooperation programs at trans-national level. The European Floods Directive 2007/60/EC requires EU Member States to map the potential flood extent for all water courses by the end of 2013. In this work we derive a pan-European flood hazard map at 100 m resolution, covering most of the European territory. The proposed approach is based on expanding the cascade model presented by Barredo et al. (2007). First, a pan-European distributed rainfall-runoff model with a resolution of 5x5km is set up and calibrated using discharge observations at 481 gauging sites. Then, by using 21-year meteorological climatology we derived a long term discharge simulation. A generalized extreme value fitting is applied to estimate flood peaks with 100-year return period for each river pixel in the model. This data is downscaled to the river network at 100 m resolution and design flood hydrographs are derived for 100-year return period event along the entire pan-European river network. Design flood hydrographs are then used to perform small-scale floodplain hydraulic simulations every 5 km along the river network using a two-dimensional hydraulic model. Finally, output maps of more than 35000 hydraulic simulations are merged into a pan-European flood hazard map. The quality of this map is evaluated for selected areas against the flood hazard maps provided by national/regional authorities. Finally, limitations of the approach and future directions of research are discussed.

  15. Flood of July 5, 1969 in the vicinity of Wooster, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webber, Earl E.; Mayo, Ronald I.

    1970-01-01

    This report documents flood data for Killbuck Creek, Apple Creek, and Little Apple Creek at Wooster, Ohio, to show the high-water elevations and corresponding discharges produced by the July 5, 1969 flood. This flood resulted from a violent storm with officially recorded rainfall in excess of 10 inches and unofficial catches of over l4 inches in the vicinity of Wooster during the 18-hour storm period. A more detailed analysis of data for Killbuck Creek was made in order to define an estimated profile of the July 5 flood for an assumed condition with no obstructions present in the channel or on the flood plain. The 50-year frequency flood profiles on Killbuck Creek were also developed for existing conditions and for the assumed condition of no obstructions.

  16. Geomorphic characterization and diversity of the fluvial systems of the Gangetic Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, R.; Jain, Vikrant; Babu, G. Prasad; Ghosh, S.

    2005-09-01

    The extensive Gangetic alluvial plains are drained by rivers which differ strongly in terms of hydrological and sediment transport characteristics. These differences are manifested in the geomorphic diversity of the plains. The Western Gangetic Plains (WGP) are marked by a degradational topography with incised channels and extensive badland development in some parts, while the Eastern Gangetic Plains (EGP) are characterized by shallow, aggrading channels with frequent avulsions and extensive flooding. We interpret such geomorphic diversity in terms of differences in stream power and sediment supply from the catchment areas. The rivers draining the western plains are marked by higher stream power and lower sediment yield that result in degradation. In comparison, the rivers draining the eastern Gangetic Plains have lower stream power and higher sediment yield that result in aggradation. The variation of stream power, a function of channel slope and high sediment yield, is attributed to differences in rainfall and rate of uplift in the hinterland. It is suggested that such differences have resulted in a marked geomorphic diversity across the plains. It is also suggested that such diversity has existed for a fairly long time because of climatic and tectonic variance.

  17. Spatio-temporal dynamics in the flood exposure due to land use changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammerer, H.; Thieken, A.

    2012-04-01

    Flood risk is expected to intensify in the future in many regions of the world. Consequently, the resulting flood damage is very likely to increase further on. Comprehensive flood risk analyses which are not only reliable for the contemporary state require therefore the consideration of the main drivers that influence flood risk. Human-induced changes in land use as well as climate change impacts on hydrological processes turned out to play a key role in future-orientated flood risk assessments. Even if there is strong evidence that global climate change will amplify flood risk especially in mountainous areas like the European Alps the accumulation of people and their assets in flood plains are seen as main causes of increasing flood risk. Therefore the analysis of spatio-temporal dynamics in the flood exposure due to land use changes is a crucial part for long-term and more robust flood risk analyses. Within the frame of a study in the region of Reutte in Tyrol (Austria) flood risk time series for the next decades are developed by estimating the hazard potential as well as the flood impact, i.e. the flood losses. For the latter, future flood exposed residential and industrial areas are assessed by applying a spatially explicit land use change model and various inundation scenarios. The land use simulations for the alpine study area were calculated by means of the CLUE-S model, respectively the newer Version Dyna-CLUE. This model simulates the spatial pattern of land-use in reaction to pre-defined changes of the future land use demand, suitable locations which are identified by means of logistic regression and user-specified decision rules as well as spatial policies (e.g. area zoning plans and danger zoning plans). For now, inundation areas were derived from the past flood event in August 2005 and the HORA project where flood extents for different recurrence intervals were simulated. The intersection of these flood plains with various land use scenarios allows

  18. Estimated Flood Discharges and Map of Flood-Inundated Areas for Omaha Creek, near Homer, Nebraska, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Wilson, Richard C.; Strauch, Kellan R.

    2008-01-01

    Repeated flooding of Omaha Creek has caused damage in the Village of Homer. Long-term degradation and bridge scouring have changed substantially the channel characteristics of Omaha Creek. Flood-plain managers, planners, homeowners, and others rely on maps to identify areas at risk of being inundated. To identify areas at risk for inundation by a flood having a 1-percent annual probability, maps were created using topographic data and water-surface elevations resulting from hydrologic and hydraulic analyses. The hydrologic analysis for the Omaha Creek study area was performed using historical peak flows obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey streamflow gage (station number 06601000). Flood frequency and magnitude were estimated using the PEAKFQ Log-Pearson Type III analysis software. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System, version 3.1.3, software was used to simulate the water-surface elevation for flood events. The calibrated model was used to compute streamflow-gage stages and inundation elevations for the discharges corresponding to floods of selected probabilities. Results of the hydrologic and hydraulic analyses indicated that flood inundation elevations are substantially lower than from a previous study.

  19. Topographic Rise in the Northern Smooth Plains of Mercury: Characteristics from Messenger Image and Altimetry Data and Candidate Modes of Origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickson, James L.; Head, James W.; Whitten, Jennifer L.; Fassett, Caleb I.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Phillips, Roger J.

    2012-01-01

    MESSENGER observations from orbit around Mercury have revealed that a large contiguous area of smooth plains occupies much of the high northern latitudes and covers an area in excess of approx.6% of the surface of the planet [1] (Fig. 1). Smooth surface morphology, embayment relationships, color data, candidate flow fronts, and a population of partly to wholly buried craters provide evidence for the volcanic origin of these plains and their emplacement in a flood lava mode to depths at least locally in excess of 1 km. The age of these plains is similar to that of plains associated with and postdating the Caloris impact basin, confirming that volcanism was a globally extensive process in the post-heavy bombardment history of Mercury [1]. No specific effusive vent structures, constructional volcanic edifices, or lava distributary features (leveed flow fronts or sinuous rilles) have been identified in the contiguous plains, although vent structures and evidence of high-effusion-rate flood eruptions are seen in adjacent areas [1]. Subsequent to the identification and mapping of the extensive north polar smooth plains, data from the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) on MESSENGER revealed the presence of a broad topographic rise in the northern smooth plains that is 1,000 km across and rises more than 1.5 km above the surrounding smooth plains [2] (Fig. 2). The purpose of this contribution is to characterize the northern plains rise and to outline a range of hypotheses for its origin.

  20. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in wetland soils under different land uses along a 100-year chronosequence of reclamation in a Chinese estuary

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Junhong; Lu, Qiongqiong; Zhao, Qingqing; Wang, Junjing; Gao, Zhaoqin; Zhang, Guangliang

    2015-01-01

    Soil profiles were collected at a depth of 30 cm in ditch wetlands (DWs), riverine wetlands (RiWs) and reclaimed wetlands (ReWs) along a 100-year chronosequence of reclamation in the Pearl River Delta. In total, 16 OCPs were measured to investigate the effects of wetland reclamation and reclamation history on OCP levels. Our results showed that average ∑DDTs, HCB, MXC, and ∑OCPs were higher in surface soils of DWs compared to RiWs and ReWs. Both D30 and D20 soils contained the highest ∑OCP levels, followed by D40 and D100 soils; lower ∑OCP levels occurred in D10 soils. Higher ∑OCP levels were observed in the younger RiWs than in the older ones, and surface soils exhibited higher ∑OCP concentrations in the older ReWs compared with younger ReWs. The predominant percentages of γ-HCH in ∑HCHs (>42%) and aldrin in ∑DRINs (>46%) in most samples reflected the recent use of lindane and aldrin. The presence of dominant DDT isomers (p,p’-DDE and p,p’-DDD) indicated the historical input of DDT and significant aerobic degradation of the compound. Generally, DW soils had a higher ecotoxicological risk of OCPs than RiW and ReW soils, and the top 30 cm soils had higher ecotoxicological risks of HCHs than of DDTs. PMID:26633149

  1. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in wetland soils under different land uses along a 100-year chronosequence of reclamation in a Chinese estuary.

    PubMed

    Bai, Junhong; Lu, Qiongqiong; Zhao, Qingqing; Wang, Junjing; Gao, Zhaoqin; Zhang, Guangliang

    2015-12-03

    Soil profiles were collected at a depth of 30 cm in ditch wetlands (DWs), riverine wetlands (RiWs) and reclaimed wetlands (ReWs) along a 100-year chronosequence of reclamation in the Pearl River Delta. In total, 16 OCPs were measured to investigate the effects of wetland reclamation and reclamation history on OCP levels. Our results showed that average ∑DDTs, HCB, MXC, and ∑OCPs were higher in surface soils of DWs compared to RiWs and ReWs. Both D30 and D20 soils contained the highest ∑OCP levels, followed by D40 and D100 soils; lower ∑OCP levels occurred in D10 soils. Higher ∑OCP levels were observed in the younger RiWs than in the older ones, and surface soils exhibited higher ∑OCP concentrations in the older ReWs compared with younger ReWs. The predominant percentages of γ-HCH in ∑HCHs (>42%) and aldrin in ∑DRINs (>46%) in most samples reflected the recent use of lindane and aldrin. The presence of dominant DDT isomers (p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD) indicated the historical input of DDT and significant aerobic degradation of the compound. Generally, DW soils had a higher ecotoxicological risk of OCPs than RiW and ReW soils, and the top 30 cm soils had higher ecotoxicological risks of HCHs than of DDTs.

  2. Evolution of US maize (Zea mays L.) root architectural and anatomical phenes over the past 100 years corresponds to increased tolerance of nitrogen stress.

    PubMed

    York, Larry M; Galindo-Castañeda, Tania; Schussler, Jeffrey R; Lynch, Jonathan P

    2015-04-01

    Increasing the nitrogen use efficiency of maize is an important goal for food security and agricultural sustainability. In the past 100 years, maize breeding has focused on yield and above-ground phenes. Over this period, maize cultivation has changed from low fertilizer inputs and low population densities to intensive fertilization and dense populations. The authors hypothesized that through indirect selection the maize root system has evolved phenotypes suited to more intense competition for nitrogen. Sixteen maize varieties representing commercially successful lines over the past century were planted at two nitrogen levels and three planting densities. Root systems of the most recent material were 7 º more shallow, had one less nodal root per whorl, had double the distance from nodal root emergence to lateral branching, and had 14% more metaxylem vessels, but total mextaxylem vessel area remained unchanged because individual metaxylem vessels had 12% less area. Plasticity was also observed in cortical phenes such as aerenchyma, which increased at greater population densities. Simulation modelling with SimRoot demonstrated that even these relatively small changes in root architecture and anatomy could increase maize shoot growth by 16% in a high density and high nitrogen environment. The authors concluded that evolution of maize root phenotypes over the past century is consistent with increasing nitrogen use efficiency. Introgression of more contrasting root phene states into the germplasm of elite maize and determination of the functional utility of these phene states in multiple agronomic conditions could contribute to future yield gains.

  3. A 100-year record of changes in water renewal rate in Sermilik fjord and its influence on calving of Helheim glacier, southeast Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andresen, Camilla S.; Schmidt, Sabine; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Straneo, Fiammetta; Grycel, Aleksandra; Hass, Christian H.; Henrik Kjær, Kurt; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Niels; Dyke, Laurence M.; Olsen, Jesper; Kuijpers, Antoon

    2014-08-01

    Here we present a 100 year long proxy record for the renewal rate of the subsurface ocean waters in Sermilik Fjord at the edge of Helheim Glacier, based on investigations of two sediment cores (ER11-24 and ER11-25) obtained from the head of the fjord. By calculating the mean sortable silt (SSbar) in current-sorted melt water plume sediments we find that episodes of increased water renewal rates lasting 3-5 years coincide with a positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. This is not surprising as low pressure systems and northeasterly storms are observed more frequently along the east coast of Greenland during positive NAO years as a result of the northward shift in the North Atlantic storm track. Previous studies of sediment cores obtained from the mid-region of the fjord showed that Helheim Glacier destabilization coincides with a negative NAO index. Therefore we conclude that inter-annual variability in storm-induced flushing of Sermilik Fjord and thus the water renewal rate towards the glacier margin is not the controlling factor for inter-annual variability in Helheim Glacier destabilization. Such knowledge may have implications on predictive model studies of ice-ocean interactions and glacier behavior.

  4. Intraspecific variation in fine root respiration and morphology in response to in situ soil nitrogen fertility in a 100-year-old Chamaecyparis obtusa forest.

    PubMed

    Makita, Naoki; Hirano, Yasuhiro; Sugimoto, Takanobu; Tanikawa, Toko; Ishii, Hiroaki

    2015-12-01

    Soil N fertility has an effect on belowground C allocation, but the physiological and morphological responses of individual fine root segments to variations in N availability under field conditions are still unclear. In this study, the direction and magnitude of the physiological and morphological function of fine roots in response to variable in situ soil N fertility in a forest site were determined. We measured the specific root respiration (Rr) rate, N concentration and morphology of fine root segments with 1-3 branching orders in a 100-year-old coniferous forest of Chamaecyparis obtusa. Higher soil N fertility induced higher Rr rates, root N concentration, and specific root length (SRL), and lower root tissue density (RTD). In all fertility levels, the Rr rates were significantly correlated positively with root N and SRL and negatively with RTD. The regression slopes of respiration with root N and RTD were significantly higher along the soil N fertility gradient. Although no differences in the slopes of Rr and SRL relationship were found across the levels, there were significant shifts in the intercept along the common slope. These results suggest that a contrasting pattern in intraspecific relationships between specific Rr and N, RTD, and SRL exists among soils with different N fertility. Consequently, substantial increases in soil N fertility would exert positive effects on organ-scale root performance by covarying the Rr, root N, and morphology for their potential nutrient and water uptake.

  5. Microbe-mediated transformations of marine dissolved organic matter during 2,100 years of natural incubation in the cold, oxic crust of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah Walter, S. R.; Jaekel, U.; Huber, J. A.; Dittmar, T.; Girguis, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    On the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, oxic seawater from the deep ocean is downwelled into the basaltic crust, supplying the crustal aquifer with an initial inoculum of organic matter and electron acceptors. Studies have shown that fluids circulating within the crust are minimally altered from original seawater, making this subsurface environment a unique natural experiment in which the fate of marine organic matter and the limitations of microbial adaptability in the context of reduced carbon supply can be examined. To make the subsurface crustal aquifer accessible, two CORK (Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit) observatories have been installed at North Pond, a sediment-filled depression beneath the oligotrophic Sargasso Sea. Radiocarbon analysis of dissolved inorganic (DIC) and organic carbon (DOC) in samples recovered from these observatories show uncoupled aging between DOC and DIC with Δ14C values of DOC as low as -933‰ despite isolation from the open ocean for, at most, 2,100 years. This extreme value is part of a general trend of decreasing DOC δ13C and Δ14C values with increasing incubation time within the aquifer. Combined with reduced concentrations of DOC, our results argue for selective microbial oxidation of the youngest, most 13C-enriched components of downwelled DOC, possibly identifying these as characteristics of the more bioavailable fractions of deep-ocean dissolved organic matter. They also suggest that microbial oxidation during low-temperature hydrothermal circulation could be an important sink for aged marine dissolved organic matter.

  6. Evolution of US maize (Zea mays L.) root architectural and anatomical phenes over the past 100 years corresponds to increased tolerance of nitrogen stress.

    PubMed

    York, Larry M; Galindo-Castañeda, Tania; Schussler, Jeffrey R; Lynch, Jonathan P

    2015-04-01

    Increasing the nitrogen use efficiency of maize is an important goal for food security and agricultural sustainability. In the past 100 years, maize breeding has focused on yield and above-ground phenes. Over this period, maize cultivation has changed from low fertilizer inputs and low population densities to intensive fertilization and dense populations. The authors hypothesized that through indirect selection the maize root system has evolved phenotypes suited to more intense competition for nitrogen. Sixteen maize varieties representing commercially successful lines over the past century were planted at two nitrogen levels and three planting densities. Root systems of the most recent material were 7 º more shallow, had one less nodal root per whorl, had double the distance from nodal root emergence to lateral branching, and had 14% more metaxylem vessels, but total mextaxylem vessel area remained unchanged because individual metaxylem vessels had 12% less area. Plasticity was also observed in cortical phenes such as aerenchyma, which increased at greater population densities. Simulation modelling with SimRoot demonstrated that even these relatively small changes in root architecture and anatomy could increase maize shoot growth by 16% in a high density and high nitrogen environment. The authors concluded that evolution of maize root phenotypes over the past century is consistent with increasing nitrogen use efficiency. Introgression of more contrasting root phene states into the germplasm of elite maize and determination of the functional utility of these phene states in multiple agronomic conditions could contribute to future yield gains. PMID:25795737

  7. Evolution of US maize (Zea mays L.) root architectural and anatomical phenes over the past 100 years corresponds to increased tolerance of nitrogen stress

    PubMed Central

    York, Larry M.; Galindo-Castañeda, Tania; Schussler, Jeffrey R.; Lynch, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the nitrogen use efficiency of maize is an important goal for food security and agricultural sustainability. In the past 100 years, maize breeding has focused on yield and above-ground phenes. Over this period, maize cultivation has changed from low fertilizer inputs and low population densities to intensive fertilization and dense populations. The authors hypothesized that through indirect selection the maize root system has evolved phenotypes suited to more intense competition for nitrogen. Sixteen maize varieties representing commercially successful lines over the past century were planted at two nitrogen levels and three planting densities. Root systems of the most recent material were 7 º more shallow, had one less nodal root per whorl, had double the distance from nodal root emergence to lateral branching, and had 14% more metaxylem vessels, but total mextaxylem vessel area remained unchanged because individual metaxylem vessels had 12% less area. Plasticity was also observed in cortical phenes such as aerenchyma, which increased at greater population densities. Simulation modelling with SimRoot demonstrated that even these relatively small changes in root architecture and anatomy could increase maize shoot growth by 16% in a high density and high nitrogen environment. The authors concluded that evolution of maize root phenotypes over the past century is consistent with increasing nitrogen use efficiency. Introgression of more contrasting root phene states into the germplasm of elite maize and determination of the functional utility of these phene states in multiple agronomic conditions could contribute to future yield gains. PMID:25795737

  8. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in wetland soils under different land uses along a 100-year chronosequence of reclamation in a Chinese estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Junhong; Lu, Qiongqiong; Zhao, Qingqing; Wang, Junjing; Gao, Zhaoqin; Zhang, Guangliang

    2015-12-01

    Soil profiles were collected at a depth of 30 cm in ditch wetlands (DWs), riverine wetlands (RiWs) and reclaimed wetlands (ReWs) along a 100-year chronosequence of reclamation in the Pearl River Delta. In total, 16 OCPs were measured to investigate the effects of wetland reclamation and reclamation history on OCP levels. Our results showed that average ∑DDTs, HCB, MXC, and ∑OCPs were higher in surface soils of DWs compared to RiWs and ReWs. Both D30 and D20 soils contained the highest ∑OCP levels, followed by D40 and D100 soils; lower ∑OCP levels occurred in D10 soils. Higher ∑OCP levels were observed in the younger RiWs than in the older ones, and surface soils exhibited higher ∑OCP concentrations in the older ReWs compared with younger ReWs. The predominant percentages of γ-HCH in ∑HCHs (>42%) and aldrin in ∑DRINs (>46%) in most samples reflected the recent use of lindane and aldrin. The presence of dominant DDT isomers (p,p’-DDE and p,p’-DDD) indicated the historical input of DDT and significant aerobic degradation of the compound. Generally, DW soils had a higher ecotoxicological risk of OCPs than RiW and ReW soils, and the top 30 cm soils had higher ecotoxicological risks of HCHs than of DDTs.

  9. Corps Water Management System (CWMS) Decision Support Modeling and Integration Use in the June 2007 Texas Floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charley, W. J.; Luna, M.

    2007-12-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Corps Water Management System (CWMS) is a comprehensive data acquisition and hydrologic modeling system for short-term decision support of water control operations in real time. It encompasses data collection, validation and transformation, data storage, visualization, real time model simulation for decision-making support, and data dissemination. CWMS uses an Oracle database and Sun Solaris workstations for data processes, storage and the execution of models, with a client application (the Control and Visualization Interface, or CAVI) that can run on a Windows PC. CWMS was used by the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA) to make hydrologic forecasts of flows on the Lower Colorado River and operate reservoirs during the June 2007 event in Texas. The LCRA receives real-time observed gridded spatial rainfall data from OneRain, Inc. that which is a result of adjusting NexRad rainfall data with precipitation gages. This data is used, along with future precipitation estimates, for hydrologic forecasting by the rainfall-runoff modeling program HEC-HMS. Forecasted flows from HEC-HMS and combined with observed flows and reservoir information to simulate LCRA's reservoir operations and help engineers make release decisions based on the results. The river hydraulics program, HEC-RAS, computes river stages and water surface profiles for the computed flow. An inundation boundary and depth map of water in the flood plain can be calculated from the HEC-RAS results using ArcInfo. By varying future precipitation and releases, engineers can evaluate different "What if?" scenarios. What was described as an "extraordinary cluster of thunderstorms" that stalled over Burnet and Llano counties in Texas on June 27, 2007, dropped 17 to 19 inches of rainfall over a 6-hour period. The storm was classified over a 500-year event and the resulting flow over some of the smaller tributaries as a 100-year or better. CWMS was used by LCRA for flood forecasting and

  10. Estimating the Magnitude and Frequency of Floods in Small Urban Streams in South Carolina, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feaster, Toby D.; Guimaraes, Wladimir B.

    2004-01-01

    The magnitude and frequency of floods at 20 streamflowgaging stations on small, unregulated urban streams in or near South Carolina were estimated by fitting the measured wateryear peak flows to a log-Pearson Type-III distribution. The period of record (through September 30, 2001) for the measured water-year peak flows ranged from 11 to 25 years with a mean and median length of 16 years. The drainage areas of the streamflow-gaging stations ranged from 0.18 to 41 square miles. Based on the flood-frequency estimates from the 20 streamflow-gaging stations (13 in South Carolina; 4 in North Carolina; and 3 in Georgia), generalized least-squares regression was used to develop regional regression equations. These equations can be used to estimate the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence-interval flows for small urban streams in the Piedmont, upper Coastal Plain, and lower Coastal Plain physiographic provinces of South Carolina. The most significant explanatory variables from this analysis were mainchannel length, percent impervious area, and basin development factor. Mean standard errors of prediction for the regression equations ranged from -25 to 33 percent for the 10-year recurrence-interval flows and from -35 to 54 percent for the 100-year recurrence-interval flows. The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a Geographic Information System application called StreamStats that makes the process of computing streamflow statistics at ungaged sites faster and more consistent than manual methods. This application was developed in the Massachusetts District and ongoing work is being done in other districts to develop a similar application using streamflow statistics relative to those respective States. Considering the future possibility of implementing StreamStats in South Carolina, an alternative set of regional regression equations was developed using only main channel length and impervious area. This was done because no digital coverages are currently

  11. Origin of lunar light plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, E. C. T.; Hodges, C. A.; Boyce, J. M.; Soderblom, L. A.

    1975-01-01

    In order to determine the origin of Cayley-type lunar light plains, their physical properties, distribution, and relative ages are examined from Apollo orbital and Lunar Orbiter photographs. The distribution and apparent age of the plains deposits and data on highly feldspathic breccias indicate that these superficial materials are neither locally derived nor part of the Imbrium ejecta. The existence of a planar facies of continuous ejecta at Orientale and in the ejecta blankets of small craters is demonstrated. The data and interpretation presented support the hypothesis that the surface and near-surface materials of some light plains, including those at the Apollo 16 site, are at least partly composed of ejecta from the Orientale basin and that the materials of many rugged areas, such as the Descartes highlands, are overlain by similar material. The possibility that some Cayley-type plains may have a different origin is not excluded.

  12. Rocky Martian Plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The rocky Martian plain surrounding Viking 2 is seen in high resolution in this 85-degree panorama sweeping from north at the left to east at right during the Martian afternoon on September 5. Large blocks litter the surface. Some are porous, sponge-like rocks like the one at the left edge (size estimate: 1 1/2 to 2 feet); others are dense and fine-grained, such as the very bright rounded block (1 to 1 1/2 feet across) toward lower right. Pebbled surface between the rocks is covered in places by small drifts of very fine material similar to drifts seen at the Viking 1 landing site some 4600 miles to the southwest. The fine-grained material is banked up behind some rocks, but wind tails seen by Viking 1 are not well-developed here. On the right horizon, flat-topped ridges or hills are illuminated by the afternoon sun. Slope of the horizon is due to the 8-degree tilt of the spacecraft.

  13. Advances in pan-European flood hazard mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, P. D.; Alfieri, L.; Salamon, P.; Bianchi, A.; Neal, J. C.; Feyen, L.

    2013-12-01

    Flood hazard maps at trans-national scale have potential for a large number of applications ranging from climate change studies, reinsurance products, aid to emergency operations for major flood crisis, among others. However, at continental scales, only few products are available, due to the difficulty of retrieving large consistent data sets. Moreover, these are produced at relatively coarse grid resolution, which limits their applications to qualitative assessments. At finer resolution, maps are often limited to country boundaries, due to limited data sharing at trans-national level. The creation of a European flood hazard map would currently imply a collection of scattered regional maps, often lacking mutual consistency due to the variety of adopted approaches and quality of the underlying input data. In this work, we derive a pan-European flood hazard map at 100m resolution. The proposed approach is based on expanding a literature cascade model through a physically based approach. A combination of distributed hydrological and hydraulic models was set up for the European domain. Then, an observed meteorological data set is used to derive a long-term streamflow simulation and subsequently coherent design flood hydrographs for a return period of 100years along the pan-European river network. Flood hydrographs are used to simulate areas at risk of flooding and output maps are merged into a pan-European flood hazard map. The quality of this map is evaluated for selected areas in Germany and United Kingdom against national/regional hazard maps. Despite inherent limitations and model resolution issues, simulated maps are in good agreement with reference maps (hit rate between 59% and 78%, critical success index between 43% and 65%), suggesting strong potential for a number of applications at the European scale

  14. Flood risk assessment in France: comparison of extreme flood estimation methods (EXTRAFLO project, Task 7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garavaglia, F.; Paquet, E.; Lang, M.; Renard, B.; Arnaud, P.; Aubert, Y.; Carre, J.

    2013-12-01

    In flood risk assessment the methods can be divided in two families: deterministic methods and probabilistic methods. In the French hydrologic community the probabilistic methods are historically preferred to the deterministic ones. Presently a French research project named EXTRAFLO (RiskNat Program of the French National Research Agency, https://extraflo.cemagref.fr) deals with the design values for extreme rainfall and floods. The object of this project is to carry out a comparison of the main methods used in France for estimating extreme values of rainfall and floods, to obtain a better grasp of their respective fields of application. In this framework we present the results of Task 7 of EXTRAFLO project. Focusing on French watersheds, we compare the main extreme flood estimation methods used in French background: (i) standard flood frequency analysis (Gumbel and GEV distribution), (ii) regional flood frequency analysis (regional Gumbel and GEV distribution), (iii) local and regional flood frequency analysis improved by historical information (Naulet et al., 2005), (iv) simplify probabilistic method based on rainfall information (i.e. Gradex method (CFGB, 1994), Agregee method (Margoum, 1992) and Speed method (Cayla, 1995)), (v) flood frequency analysis by continuous simulation approach and based on rainfall information (i.e. Schadex method (Paquet et al., 2013, Garavaglia et al., 2010), Shyreg method (Lavabre et al., 2003)) and (vi) multifractal approach. The main result of this comparative study is that probabilistic methods based on additional information (i.e. regional, historical and rainfall information) provide better estimations than the standard flood frequency analysis. Another interesting result is that, the differences between the various extreme flood quantile estimations of compared methods increase with return period, staying relatively moderate up to 100-years return levels. Results and discussions are here illustrated throughout with the example

  15. Alabama district flood plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedgecock, T. Scott; Pearman, J. Leroy; Stricklin, Victor E.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this flood plan is to outline and record advance planning for flood emergencies, so that all personnel will know the general plan and have a ready-reference for necessary information. This will ensure that during any flood event, regardless of the extent or magnitude, the resources of the District can be mobilized into a maximum data collection operation with a mimimum of effort.

  16. Characterization of Lunar Farside Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mest, S.C.; Garry, W. B.; Ostrach, L. R.; Han, S.-C.; Staid, M. I.

    2016-01-01

    The Moon contains broad and isolated areas of plains that have been recognized as mare, cryptomare, impact ejecta, or impact melt. These deposits have been extensively studied on the lunar nearside by remote sensing via telescopes and numerous spacecraft, and in some cases, in situ robotically and by astronauts. Only recently have the deposits on the entire farside been able to be observed and evaluated to the same degree. There are spatially extensive plains deposits located throughout the lunar farside highlands whose formation has remained ambiguous. Many of the plains deposits in the lunar farside highlands display higher albedos than mare materials. Some deposits are located in close proximity to relatively younger impact craters suggesting that plains could be composed of cryptomare or ejecta materials. Some deposits are within the range in which ejecta from large basin-forming events (e.g., SPA and Orientale) likely distributed large amounts of ejecta across the surface. Here we are conducting a series of observations and models in order to resolve the nature and origin of lunar farside plains deposits. Understanding these plains is important for understanding the volcanic and impact histories of the lunar farside, and is important for future mapping and thermal modeling studies.

  17. Flood of June 7-9, 2008, in Central and Southern Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morlock, Scott E.; Menke, Chad D.; Arvin, Donald V.; Kim, Moon H.

    2008-01-01

    On June 6-7, 2008, heavy rainfall of 2 to more than 10 inches fell upon saturated soils and added to already high streamflows from a wetter than normal spring in central and southern Indiana. The heavy rainfall resulted in severe flooding on many streams within the White River Basin during June 7-9, causing three deaths, evacuation of thousands of residents, and hundreds of millions of dollars of damage to residences, businesses, infrastructure, and agricultural lands. In all, 39 Indiana counties were declared Federal disaster areas. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgages at nine locations recorded new record peak streamflows for the respective periods of record as a result of the heavy rainfall. Recurrence intervals of flood-peak streamflows were estimated to be greater than 100 years at five streamgages and 50-100 years at two streamgages. Peak-gage-height data, peak-streamflow data, and recurrence intervals are tabulated for 19 USGS streamgages in central and southern Indiana. Peak-streamflow estimates are tabulated for four ungaged locations, and estimated recurrence intervals are tabulated for three ungaged locations. The estimated recurrence interval for an ungaged location on Haw Creek in Columbus was greater than 100 years and for an ungaged location on Hurricane Creek in Franklin was 50-100 years. Because flooding was particularly severe in the communities of Columbus, Edinburgh, Franklin, Paragon, Seymour, Spencer, Martinsville, Newberry, and Worthington, high-water-mark data collected after the flood were tabulated for those communities. Flood peak inundation maps and water-surface profiles for selected streams were made in a geographic information system by combining the high-water-mark data with the highest-resolution digital elevation model data available.

  18. Root responses to flooding.

    PubMed

    Sauter, Margret

    2013-06-01

    Soil water-logging and submergence pose a severe threat to plants. Roots are most prone to flooding and the first to suffer from oxygen shortage. Roots are vital for plant function, however, and maintenance of a functional root system upon flooding is essential. Flooding-resistant plants possess a number of adaptations that help maintain oxygen supply to the root. Plants are also capable of initiating organogenesis to replace their original root system with adventitious roots if oxygen supply becomes impossible. This review summarizes current findings on root development and de novo root genesis in response to flooding.

  19. Flood frequency in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childers, J.M.

    1970-01-01

    Records of peak discharge at 183 sites were used to study flood frequency in Alaska. The vast size of Alaska, its great ranges of physiography, and the lack of data for much of the State precluded a comprehensive analysis of all flood determinants. Peak stream discharges, where gaging-station records were available, were analyzed for 2-year, 5-year, 10-year, 25-year, and 50-year average-recurrence intervals. A regional analysis of the flood characteristics by multiple-regression methods gave a set of equations that can be used to estimate floods of selected recurrence intervals up to 50 years for any site on any stream in Alaska. The equations relate floods to drainage-basin characteristics. The study indicates that in Alaska the 50-year flood can be estimated from 10-year gaging- station records with a standard error of 22 percent whereas the 50-year flood can be estimated from the regression equation with a standard error of 53 percent. Also, maximum known floods at more than 500 gaging stations and miscellaneous sites in Alaska were related to drainage-area size. An envelope curve of 500 cubic feet per second per square mile covered all but 2 floods in the State.

  20. RASOR flood modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, Joost; Buckman, Lora; Bachmann, Daniel; Visser, Martijn; Tollenaar, Daniel; Vatvani, Deepak; Kramer, Nienke; Goorden, Neeltje

    2015-04-01

    Decision making in disaster management requires fast access to reliable and relevant information. We believe that online information and services will become increasingly important in disaster management. Within the EU FP7 project RASOR (Rapid Risk Assessment and Spatialisation of Risk) an online platform is being developed for rapid multi-hazard risk analyses to support disaster management anywhere in the world. The platform will provide access to a plethora of GIS data that are relevant to risk assessment. It will also enable the user to run numerical flood models to simulate historical and newly defined flooding scenarios. The results of these models are maps of flood extent, flood depths and flow velocities. The RASOR platform will enable to overlay historical event flood maps with observations and Earth Observation (EO) imagery to fill in gaps and assess the accuracy of the flood models. New flooding scenarios can be defined by the user and simulated to investigate the potential impact of future floods. A series of flood models have been developed within RASOR for selected case study areas around the globe that are subject to very different flood hazards: • The city of Bandung in Indonesia, which is prone to fluvial flooding induced by heavy rainfall. The flood hazard is exacerbated by land subsidence. • The port of Cilacap on the south coast of Java, subject to tsunami hazard from submarine earthquakes in the Sunda trench. • The area south of city of Rotterdam in the Netherlands, prone to coastal and/or riverine flooding. • The island of Santorini in Greece, which is subject to tsunamis induced by landslides. Flood models have been developed for each of these case studies using mostly EO data, augmented by local data where necessary. Particular use was made of the new TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurement) product from the German Aerospace centre (DLR) and EADS Astrium. The presentation will describe the flood models and the