Science.gov

Sample records for 1000-year return period

  1. 1000 years of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, C.

    problems have been adequately solved although caution is warranted. A promising adjunct to tree rings is actual measurement of temperatures in boreholes. Inversion of such records gives low frequency temperatures that are potentially more accurate than any proxy- derived ones. All these records give a fairly consistent picture of at least one major warming and cooling extreme (Medieval Warming Period (MWP) and Little Ice Age (LIA). Many modeling efforts using direct solar forcing have been done. These typically employ proxy data (sunspot number and variations in Be-10 and C -14 calibrated by satellite observations) for changes in solar forcing, and give the same general picture-- that of a substantial warming 1,000 yrs ago (MWP) followed by cooling that was particularly marked in the late 17th and early 19th centuries (LIA). The resulting amplitude of temperature change between MWP and LIA agrees well with paleo-temperature reconstructions and suggests that solar forcing alone is inadequate to account for more than about half the 20th century warming (Lean et al 1995, Crowley and Lowry 2000). Since these quantitatively reproduce climate variations in the past 1000 years, the role of indirect solar forcing is inferred to be small but may be important (Lean and Rind 2001). Gerard Bond, Bernd Kromer, Juerg Beer, Raimund Muscheler, Michael N. Evans, William Showers, Sharon Hoffmann, Rusty Lotti-Bond, Irka Hajdas, and Georges Bonani, (2001) Persistent Solar Influence on North Atlantic Climate During the Holocene,Science 294: 2130-2136 Briffa and Osborne, (2002) Blowing Hot and Cold, Science 295, 2227-2228. Lean, J., Beer, J., and Bradley, R., (1995) Reconstruction of solar irradiance since 1610: Implications for climate change, Geophys. Res. Lett.., 22, 3195-3198. Crowley ,T., (2000) Causes of climate change over the past 1000 years, Science,289, 270- 277. Lean and Rind, (2001), Earth's Response to a Variable Sun, Science, 292, 234-236.

  2. Reliability, return periods, and risk under nonstationarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Laura K.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2015-08-01

    Water resources design has widely used the average return period as a concept to inform management and communication of the risk of experiencing an exceedance event within a planning horizon. Even though nonstationarity is often apparent, in practice hydrologic design often mistakenly assumes that the probability of exceedance, p, is constant from year to year which leads to an average return period To equal to 1/p; this expression is far more complex under nonstationarity. Even for stationary processes, the common application of an average return period is problematic: it does not account for planning horizon, is an average value that may not be representative of the time to the next flood, and is generally not applied in other areas of water planning. We combine existing theoretical and empirical results from the literature to provide the first general, comprehensive description of the probabilistic behavior of the return period and reliability under nonstationarity. We show that under nonstationarity, the underlying distribution of the return period exhibits a more complex shape than the exponential distribution under stationary conditions. Using a nonstationary lognormal model, we document the increased complexity and challenges associated with planning for future flood events over a planning horizon. We compare application of the average return period with the more common concept of reliability and recommend replacing the average return period with reliability as a more practical way to communicate event likelihood in both stationary and nonstationary contexts.

  3. Changes in Climate and Variability over the Last 1000 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, P. D.

    INTRODUCTION THE INSTRUMENTAL PERIOD (1850-) EARLY EUROPEAN INSTRUMENTAL RECORDS THE PRE-INSTRUMENTAL PERIOD (BACK TO 1000) Palaeoclimatic Sources Multiproxy Averages from High-Frequency Sources Low-Frequency Sources DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS The Instrumental Period The Last 1000 Years REFERENCES

  4. 27 CFR 40.163 - Semimonthly tax return periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Semimonthly tax return periods. 40.163 Section 40.163 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Payment of Taxes on Tobacco Products § 40.163 Semimonthly tax return periods. Except as otherwise...

  5. Estimating return period of landslide triggering by Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peres, D. J.; Cancelliere, A.

    2016-10-01

    Assessment of landslide hazard is a crucial step for landslide mitigation planning. Estimation of the return period of slope instability represents a quantitative method to map landslide triggering hazard on a catchment. The most common approach to estimate return periods consists in coupling a triggering threshold equation, derived from an hydrological and slope stability process-based model, with a rainfall intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curve. Such a traditional approach generally neglects the effect of rainfall intensity variability within events, as well as the variability of initial conditions, which depend on antecedent rainfall. We propose a Monte Carlo approach for estimating the return period of shallow landslide triggering which enables to account for both variabilities. Synthetic hourly rainfall-landslide data generated by Monte Carlo simulations are analysed to compute return periods as the mean interarrival time of a factor of safety less than one. Applications are first conducted to map landslide triggering hazard in the Loco catchment, located in highly landslide-prone area of the Peloritani Mountains, Sicily, Italy. Then a set of additional simulations are performed in order to evaluate the traditional IDF-based method by comparison with the Monte Carlo one. Results show that return period is affected significantly by variability of both rainfall intensity within events and of initial conditions, and that the traditional IDF-based approach may lead to an overestimation of the return period of landslide triggering, or, in other words, a non-conservative assessment of landslide hazard.

  6. Deriving robust return periods for tropical cyclone inundations from sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nott, Jonathan F.; Jagger, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    Return periods for tropical cyclone (TC) marine inundations are usually derived from synthetic data sets generated from deterministic models or by extrapolating short historical records. Such approaches contain considerable uncertainties because it is difficult to test their veracity until a sufficiently long period has elapsed. These approaches also often only consider storm surges or storm tides and not the total inundation, which includes waves, set-up and run-up, likely to flood a coastal property. An alternative approach is to examine sedimentary records of actual events that occurred throughout the late Holocene. Sedimentary beach ridges are unique amongst the different types of storm inundation sedimentary records because they record variations in the height of total marine inundations rather than a censoring level as occurs with overwash deposits. The limitation in using beach ridges to derive return periods for inundations has been the lack of a robust statistical model that accurately describes the distribution of these events over the past several millennia. Such a model is presented here using a Generalized Extreme Value distribution and Bayesian analysis of a sand beach ridge plain record of extreme TC-generated marine inundations from northeast Australia. Using this approach, the return period of the marine inundation generated by severe TC Yasi is determined. This return period differs considerably from estimates determined using a probability-based approach, which extrapolates from a short historical record. With global climate changing and the magnitude of marine inundations expected to increase, there is mounting pressure to develop national standards for marine flood loadings on coastal buildings. Deriving accurate return periods of these events will be critical to this endeavor, and this approach will be applicable at numerous localities globally where storm deposited beach ridges occur.

  7. Return times at periodic points in random dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haydn, Nicolai; Todd, Mike

    2017-01-01

    We prove a quenched limiting law for random measures on subshifts at periodic points. We consider a family of measures {≤ft\\{{{μω}\\right\\}}ω \\in Ω } , where the ‘driving space’ Ω is equipped with a probability measure which is invariant under a transformation θ. We assume that the fibred measures {μω} satisfy a generalised invariance property and are ψ-mixing. We then show that for almost every ω the return times to cylinders A n at periodic points are in the limit compound Poisson distributed for a parameter ϑ which is given by the escape rate at the periodic point.

  8. The 2011 Thailand flood: climate causes and return periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gale, Emma; Saunders, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Thailand is one of the most developed and wealthiest countries in Southeast Asia. However, its tropical location and the influence of seasonal monsoon rains and local topography make it prone to floods. The Thailand floods in 2011 were especially severe causing estimated losses of US 30 billion (economic) and US 12 billion (insured) (Swiss Re, 2012). This insured loss ranks easily as the highest ever worldwide from a freshwater flood disaster (Swiss Re, 2012). We review the nature, impacts and historical ranking of the 2011 Thailand flood, and then discuss the climate causes for the exceptional rainfall which triggered the flood - annual rainfall in 2011 was the highest in Thailand's 61-year precipitation record (Thai Meteorological Department, 2011). Thai precipitation data from 100 stations for the period 1992-2011, NCEP/NCAR mean sea level pressure (MSLP) data and best-track data from the Joint Typhoon Warning Center for the period 1992-2011 are used in this study. We find that the floods were caused by a combination of a strong Southeast Asian summer monsoon that brought high rainfall across the country between May and October, and by the remnants of four tropical storms that brought high rainfall to northern Thailand between June and October. During the monsoon season the Southern Oscillation was moderately positive and, as a result, likely contributed to the high monsoonal rains. We estimate the return periods for the 2011 Thai rains and compare these to satellite-derived return periods for 2011 Thai river flow. The rainfall return period varies from 8-20 years in the north and south of the country to 1-8 years in the east and centre of Thailand. Satellite-derived river flows at two locations on the Chao Phraya River suggest a return period of 10-20 years. The return period is also estimated using historical flood records (Brakenridge, 2012) which suggest a return period of 5-6 years. A 'consensus' return period for the 2011 Thai flood is estimated to be 10

  9. Causes of climate change over the past 1000 years

    PubMed

    Crowley

    2000-07-14

    Recent reconstructions of Northern Hemisphere temperatures and climate forcing over the past 1000 years allow the warming of the 20th century to be placed within a historical context and various mechanisms of climate change to be tested. Comparisons of observations with simulations from an energy balance climate model indicate that as much as 41 to 64% of preanthropogenic (pre-1850) decadal-scale temperature variations was due to changes in solar irradiance and volcanism. Removal of the forced response from reconstructed temperature time series yields residuals that show similar variability to those of control runs of coupled models, thereby lending support to the models' value as estimates of low-frequency variability in the climate system. Removal of all forcing except greenhouse gases from the approximately 1000-year time series results in a residual with a very large late-20th-century warming that closely agrees with the response predicted from greenhouse gas forcing. The combination of a unique level of temperature increase in the late 20th century and improved constraints on the role of natural variability provides further evidence that the greenhouse effect has already established itself above the level of natural variability in the climate system. A 21st-century global warming projection far exceeds the natural variability of the past 1000 years and is greater than the best estimate of global temperature change for the last interglacial.

  10. Evaluating the long-term hydrology of an evapotranspiration-capillary barrier with a 1000 year design life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. Fred

    2016-06-01

    A surface barrier is a commonly used technology for isolation of subsurface contaminants. Surface barriers for isolating radioactive waste are expected to perform for centuries to millennia, yet there are very few data for field-scale surface barriers for periods approaching a decade or longer. The Prototype Hanford Barrier (PHB) with a design life of 1000 years was constructed over an existing radioactive waste site in 1994 to demonstrate its long-term performance. The primary element of the PHB is an evapotranspiration-capillary (ETC) barrier in which precipitation water is stored in a fine-textured soil layer and later released to the atmosphere via evapotranspiration. To address the barrier performance under extreme conditions, this study included an enhanced precipitation stress test from 1995 to 1997 to determine barrier response to extreme precipitation events. During this period a 1000 year 24 h return rainstorm was simulated in March every year. The loss of vegetation on barrier hydrology was tested with a controlled fire test in 2008. The 19 year monitoring record shows that the store-and-release mechanism worked as well as or better than the design criterion. Average drainage from the ETC barrier amounted to an average of 0.005 mm yr-1, which is well below the design criterion of 0.5 mm yr-1. After a simulated wildfire, the naturally reestablished vegetation and increased evaporation combined to release the stored water and summer precipitation to the atmosphere such that drainage did not occur in the 5 years subsequent to the fire.

  11. The Hanford Site 1000-Year Cap Design Test

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W. ); Ward, Anderson L. ); Wittreich, Curtis D.

    2002-12-27

    Surface barrier or capping technology is needed to isolate buried wastes. A successful cap must prevent the intrusion of plants, animals, and man into the underlying waste, minimize wind and water erosion, require minimal maintenance, and limit water intrusion to near-zero amounts. For some sites where wastes are long-lived, caps should potentially last a thousand years or more. At the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State, a surface cap with a 1000-year design life was constructed and then tested and monitored for performance under wetting conditions that are extreme for the region. The cap was built in 1994 over an existing waste site as a part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) treatability test. The above-grade barrier or cap consists of a 2-m-thick silt-loam soil overlying layers (from top down) of sand, gravel, basalt rock (riprap), and a low-permeability asphalt. Two sideslope configurations, a clean-fill gravel on a 10:1 slope and a basalt riprap on a 2:1 slope were part of the overall design and testing. Design considerations included constructability; water-balance monitoring; wind and water erosion control and monitoring; surface revegetation, biointrusion control, subsidence, and sideslope stability; and durability of the asphalt layer.

  12. Return periods of losses associated with European windstorm series in a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karremann, Melanie K.; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Reyers, Mark; Klawa, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    During the last decades, several windstorm series hit Europe leading to large aggregated losses. Such storm series are examples of serial clustering of extreme cyclones, presenting a considerable risk for the insurance industry. Clustering of events and return periods of storm series affecting Europe are quantified based on potential losses using empirical models. Moreover, possible future changes of clustering and return periods of European storm series with high potential losses are quantified. Historical storm series are identified using 40 winters of NCEP reanalysis data (1973/1974 - 2012/2013). Time series of top events (1, 2 or 5 year return levels) are used to assess return periods of storm series both empirically and theoretically. Return periods of historical storm series are estimated based on the Poisson and the negative binomial distributions. Additionally, 800 winters of ECHAM5/MPI-OM1 general circulation model simulations for present (SRES scenario 20C: years 1960- 2000) and future (SRES scenario A1B: years 2060- 2100) climate conditions are investigated. Clustering is identified for most countries in Europe, and estimated return periods are similar for reanalysis and present day simulations. Future changes of return periods are estimated for fixed return levels and fixed loss index thresholds. For the former, shorter return periods are found for Western Europe, but changes are small and spatially heterogeneous. For the latter, which combines the effects of clustering and event ranking shifts, shorter return periods are found everywhere except for Mediterranean countries. These changes are generally not statistically significant between recent and future climate. However, the return periods for the fixed loss index approach are mostly beyond the range of preindustrial natural climate variability. This is not true for fixed return levels. The quantification of losses associated with storm series permits a more adequate windstorm risk assessment in a

  13. 7 CFR 273.32 - Households who return to TANF during the transitional period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM CERTIFICATION OF ELIGIBLE HOUSEHOLDS The Transitional Benefits Alternative § 273.32 Households who return to TANF during the transitional period. If a household receiving transitional benefits returns to...

  14. Eastern Tropical Pacific Mean State and Variability During the Past 1000 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rustic, G. T.; Koutavas, A.; Marchitto, T. M., Jr.; Linsley, B. K.

    2014-12-01

    Dynamical changes in the tropical Pacific are hypothesized to have exerted an important influence on climate of the past millennium. However, direct proxy evidence in support of this hypothesis from the Eastern Tropical Pacific remains sparse. Here we present a unique 1000+ year continuous record of oceanic mixed layer temperature and its variability from a sediment multi-core collected in 2009 near the Galápagos Islands. The study location sits in the center of action of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), a major driver of tropical and global climate variability. We analyzed Mg/Ca ratios of multiple specimens of the mixed-layer dwelling foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber to reconstruct mean sea surface temperature (SST) over the past 1000 years. We also analyzed δ18O from individual specimens of G. ruber from the same samples to assess mixed layer temperature variability during the same period. Both the multi-shell Mg/Ca and single-shell δ18O reveal statistically significant and systematic changes during the past millennium. The Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA, ~1100-1400 CE) features a sustained period of ~1°C cooler mean surface temperatures and reduced variability (by up to 35%) compared to the late 20th century. Little Ice Age (LIA) mean mixed layer temperatures were comparatively warmer and much more variable than the MCA. Intervals with greater variability than modern, as well as intervals with lower than modern variability are both present in the LIA. The most recent sediment interval corresponding to the period 1985-2009 CE has the highest mean SST of the past 1000 years, although it is within error of temperatures from ~1000 CE. An estimate of the zonal SST gradient of the tropical Pacific based on this Mg/Ca data and similar data from the western Pacific supports a pattern of enhanced zonal gradient during the MCA and reduced gradient during the LIA. We explore the implications of these results for tropical Pacific dynamics in the context of

  15. Return period adjustment for runoff coefficients based on analysis in undeveloped Texas watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dhakal, Nirajan; Fang, Xing; Asquith, William H.; Cleveland, Theodore G.; Thompson, David B.

    2013-01-01

    The rational method for peak discharge (Qp) estimation was introduced in the 1880s. The runoff coefficient (C) is a key parameter for the rational method that has an implicit meaning of rate proportionality, and the C has been declared a function of the annual return period by various researchers. Rate-based runoff coefficients as a function of the return period, C(T), were determined for 36 undeveloped watersheds in Texas using peak discharge frequency from previously published regional regression equations and rainfall intensity frequency for return periods T of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 years. The C(T) values and return period adjustments C(T)/C(T=10  year) determined in this study are most applicable to undeveloped watersheds. The return period adjustments determined for the Texas watersheds in this study and those extracted from prior studies of non-Texas data exceed values from well-known literature such as design manuals and textbooks. Most importantly, the return period adjustments exceed values currently recognized in Texas Department of Transportation design guidance when T>10  years.

  16. Intense Southwest Florida hurricane landfalls over the past 1000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ercolani, Christian; Muller, Joanne; Collins, Jennifer; Savarese, Michael; Squiccimara, Louis

    2015-10-01

    Recent research has proposed that human-induced sea surface temperature (SST) warming has led to an increase in the intensity of hurricanes over the past 30 years. However, this notion has been challenged on the basis that the instrumental record is too short and unreliable to reveal long-term trends in hurricane activity. This study addresses this limitation by investigating hurricane-induced overwash deposits (paleotempestites) behind a barrier island in Naples, FL, USA. Paleotempestologic proxies including grain size, percent calcium carbonate, and fossil shells species were used to distinguish overwash events in two sediment cores spanning the last one thousand years. Two prominent paleotempestites were observed in the top 20 cm of both cores: the first identified as Hurricane Donna in 1960 whereas an older paleotempestite (1900-1930) could represent one of three documented storms in the early 1900s. An active period of hurricane overwash from 1000 to 500 yrs. BP and an inactive period from 500 to 150 yrs. BP correlate with reconstructed SSTs from the Main Development Region (MDR) of the North Atlantic Ocean. We observe an increased number of paleotempestites when MDR SSTs are warmer, coinciding with the Medieval Warm Period, and very few paleotempestites when MDR SSTs are cooler, coinciding with the Little Ice Age. Results from this initial Southwest Florida study indicate that MDR SSTs have been a key long-term climate driver of intense Southwest Florida hurricane strikes.

  17. Evaluating the long-term hydrology of an evapotranspiration-capillary barrier with a 1000 year design life: HYDROLOGY OF A 1000 YEAR ETC BARRIER

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z. Fred

    2016-06-01

    A surface barrier (or cover) is a commonly used technology for subsurface remediation. A key function of the barrier is to reduce or eliminate the movement of meteoric precipitation into the underlying waste zone, where it could mobilize and transport contaminants. Surface barriers are expected to perform for centuries to millennia, yet there are very few examples of performance for periods longer than a decade. The Prototype Hanford Barrier was constructed in 1994 over an existing waste site to demonstrate its long-term performance for a design period of 1000 years. This barrier is a field-scale evapotranspiration-capillary (ETC) barrier. In this design, the storage layer consists of 2-m-thick silt loam. The 19-year monitoring results show that the store-and-release mechanism for the ETC barrier worked efficiently as the storage layer was recharged in the winter season (November to March) and the stored water was released to the atmosphere in the summer season (April to October) via soil evaporation and plant transpiration. The capillary break functioned normally in improving the storage capacity and minimizing drainage. The maximum drainage observed through the ET barrier at any of the monitoring stations was only 0.178 mm yr-1 (under an enhanced precipitation condition), which is less than the design criterion. A very small amount (2.0 mm yr-1 on average) of runoff was observed during the 19-year monitoring period. The observed storage capacity of the storage layer was considerably (39%) larger than the estimated value based on the method of equilibrium of water pressure. After a controlled fire in 2008, the newly grown vegetation (primarily shallow-rooted grasses) could still release the stored water and summer precipitation to the atmosphere via transpiration. The findings are useful for predicting water storage and ET under different precipitation conditions and for the design of future barriers.

  18. A 1000-Year Carbon Isotope Rainfall Proxy Record from South African Baobab Trees (Adansonia digitata L.).

    PubMed

    Woodborne, Stephan; Hall, Grant; Robertson, Iain; Patrut, Adrian; Rouault, Mathieu; Loader, Neil J; Hofmeyr, Michele

    2015-01-01

    A proxy rainfall record for northeastern South Africa based on carbon isotope analysis of four baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) trees shows centennial and decadal scale variability over the last 1,000 years. The record is in good agreement with a 200-year tree ring record from Zimbabwe, and it indicates the existence of a rainfall dipole between the summer and winter rainfall areas of South Africa. The wettest period was c. AD 1075 in the Medieval Warm Period, and the driest periods were c. AD 1635, c. AD 1695 and c. AD1805 during the Little Ice Age. Decadal-scale variability suggests that the rainfall forcing mechanisms are a complex interaction between proximal and distal factors. Periods of higher rainfall are significantly associated with lower sea-surface temperatures in the Agulhas Current core region and a negative Dipole Moment Index in the Indian Ocean. The correlation between rainfall and the El Niño/Southern Oscillation Index is non-static. Wetter conditions are associated with predominantly El Niño conditions over most of the record, but since about AD 1970 this relationship inverted and wet conditions are currently associated with la Nina conditions. The effect of both proximal and distal oceanic influences are insufficient to explain the rainfall regime shift between the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age, and the evidence suggests that this was the result of a northward shift of the subtropical westerlies rather than a southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone.

  19. A 1000-Year Carbon Isotope Rainfall Proxy Record from South African Baobab Trees (Adansonia digitata L.)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A proxy rainfall record for northeastern South Africa based on carbon isotope analysis of four baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) trees shows centennial and decadal scale variability over the last 1,000 years. The record is in good agreement with a 200-year tree ring record from Zimbabwe, and it indicates the existence of a rainfall dipole between the summer and winter rainfall areas of South Africa. The wettest period was c. AD 1075 in the Medieval Warm Period, and the driest periods were c. AD 1635, c. AD 1695 and c. AD1805 during the Little Ice Age. Decadal-scale variability suggests that the rainfall forcing mechanisms are a complex interaction between proximal and distal factors. Periods of higher rainfall are significantly associated with lower sea-surface temperatures in the Agulhas Current core region and a negative Dipole Moment Index in the Indian Ocean. The correlation between rainfall and the El Niño/Southern Oscillation Index is non-static. Wetter conditions are associated with predominantly El Niño conditions over most of the record, but since about AD 1970 this relationship inverted and wet conditions are currently associated with la Nina conditions. The effect of both proximal and distal oceanic influences are insufficient to explain the rainfall regime shift between the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age, and the evidence suggests that this was the result of a northward shift of the subtropical westerlies rather than a southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. PMID:25970402

  20. Note on a modified return period scale for upper-truncated unbounded flood distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardsley, Earl

    2017-01-01

    Probability distributions unbounded to the right often give good fits to annual discharge maxima. However, all hydrological processes are in reality constrained by physical upper limits, though not necessarily well defined. A result of this contradiction is that for sufficiently small exceedance probabilities the unbounded distributions anticipate flood magnitudes which are impossibly large. This raises the question of whether displayed return period scales should, as is current practice, have some given number of years, such as 500 years, as the terminating rightmost tick-point. This carries the implication that the scale might be extended indefinitely to the right with a corresponding indefinite increase in flood magnitude. An alternative, suggested here, is to introduce a sufficiently high upper truncation point to the flood distribution and modify the return period scale accordingly. The rightmost tick-mark then becomes infinity, corresponding to the upper truncation point discharge. The truncation point is likely to be set as being above any physical upper bound and the return period scale will change only slightly over all practical return periods of operational interest. The rightmost infinity tick point is therefore proposed, not as an operational measure, but rather to signal in flood plots that the return period scale does not extend indefinitely to the right.

  1. Estimation of return periods of multiple losses per winter associated with historical windstorm series over Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karremann, Melanie; Pinto, Joaquim G.; von Bomhard, Philipp; Klawa, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    During the last decades, several windstorm series hit Western Europe leading to large cumulative economic losses. Such storm series are an example of serial clustering of extreme cyclones and present a considerable risk for the insurance industry. Here, clustering of events and return periods of storm series for Germany are quantified based on potential losses using empirical models. Two reanalysis datasets and observations from 123 German Weather Service stations are considered for the winters 1981/1982 to 2010/2011. Based on these datasets, histograms of events exceeding selected return levels (1-, 2- and 5-year) are derived. Return periods of historical storm series are estimated based on the Poisson and the negative Binomial distribution. About 4680 years of global circulation model simulations forced with current climate conditions are analysed to provide a better assessment of historical return periods. Estimations differ between the considered distributions. Except for frequent and weak events, the return period estimates obtained with the Poisson distribution clearly deviate from empirical data. This clearly documents overdispersion in the loss data, thus indicating the clustering of potential loss events. Better assessments are achieved for the negative Binomial distribution, e.g. 34 to 53 years for the storm series like 1989/1990. The overdispersion (clustering) of potential loss events clearly states the importance of an adequate risk assessment of multiple events per winter for economical applications.

  2. Hydrological instability of a Baltic raised bog during the last 1000 years in northern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Galka, Mariusz; Pawlyta, Jacek; Lamentowicz, Lukasz; Goslar, Tomasz; Miotk-Szpiganowicz, Grażyna; Mitchell, Edward A. D.

    2010-05-01

    Our aim was to reconstruct the palaeohydrological of a Baltic raised bog located in northern Poland over the last 1000 years. We used several proxies: testate amoebae, plant macrofossils, pollen and carbon stable isotopes to reconstruct the bog surface wetness. We analysed two replicated monoliths collected from the same bog at high temporal resolution. We obtained a reliable chronology for both monoliths based on radiocarbon and lead 210 dating. We compared the inferred water table depth changes obtained from the quantitative reconstruction based on the testate amoebae transfer function with inference from plant remains and carbon isotopic composition of Sphagnum stems for both monoliths. Our data provide new insight on human impact on the hydrology of Baltic raised bogs and the sensitivity of these peatlands to various disturbances. We show an increasing hydrological instability of the studied peatland concomitant with the gradually increasing human impact over the landscape since the Medieval Period. However, climatic change also played an important role during the Little Ice Age period that overlapped with the anthropogenic disturbance. This palaeoenvironmental data provides useful baseline data for peatland management and restoration in Northern Poland and more generally illustrate the value of high-resolution multiproxy studies as tool for both palaeoenvironmental studies and current management.

  3. 1,000 Years of Climatic Variability in the Upper Colorado River Basin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tingstad, A. H.; MacDonald, G. M.

    2008-12-01

    The Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) is an essential water resource region in the United States. Seven western U.S. states, including water-hungry California, depend on water originating in the UCRB to support rising populations, agriculture, and infrastructure. Predictions that drought and depletion of water resources will intensify in the next several decades due to human-induced climate warming makes it essential that the natural patterns and causes of drought in the UCRB are understood. In particular, droughts that occurred during the Medieval Period (~ A.D. 900-1200) are of interest because temperatures are known to have been elevated during this time. We present a new 1,000-year tree-ring reconstruction for part of the UCRB using Pinus edulis (two-needle Pinyon) samples from northeastern Utah. We evaluate variability in the summer (JJA) and annual Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for the Uinta Mountains region, and use wavelet and other analyses to determine the importance of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) in determining the timing and duration of droughts in the region. We conclude that while intense droughts did occur during the Medieval Period and throughout the record, water shortages may not be spatially and temporally uniform throughout the UCRB and the western U.S.

  4. The return period analysis of natural disasters with statistical modeling of bivariate joint probability distribution.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Liu, Xueqin; Xie, Wei; Wu, Jidong; Zhang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    New features of natural disasters have been observed over the last several years. The factors that influence the disasters' formation mechanisms, regularity of occurrence and main characteristics have been revealed to be more complicated and diverse in nature than previously thought. As the uncertainty involved increases, the variables need to be examined further. This article discusses the importance and the shortage of multivariate analysis of natural disasters and presents a method to estimate the joint probability of the return periods and perform a risk analysis. Severe dust storms from 1990 to 2008 in Inner Mongolia were used as a case study to test this new methodology, as they are normal and recurring climatic phenomena on Earth. Based on the 79 investigated events and according to the dust storm definition with bivariate, the joint probability distribution of severe dust storms was established using the observed data of maximum wind speed and duration. The joint return periods of severe dust storms were calculated, and the relevant risk was analyzed according to the joint probability. The copula function is able to simulate severe dust storm disasters accurately. The joint return periods generated are closer to those observed in reality than the univariate return periods and thus have more value in severe dust storm disaster mitigation, strategy making, program design, and improvement of risk management. This research may prove useful in risk-based decision making. The exploration of multivariate analysis methods can also lay the foundation for further applications in natural disaster risk analysis.

  5. 7 CFR 273.32 - Households who return to TANF during the transitional period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Households who return to TANF during the transitional period. 273.32 Section 273.32 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION...

  6. 7 CFR 273.32 - Households who return to TANF during the transitional period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Households who return to TANF during the transitional period. 273.32 Section 273.32 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION...

  7. Spatial estimation of debris flows-triggering rainfall and its dependence on rainfall return period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Destro, Elisa; Marra, Francesco; Nikolopoulos, Efthymios I.; Zoccatelli, Davide; Creutin, Jean Dominique; Borga, Marco

    2017-02-01

    Forecasting the occurrence of debris flows is fundamental for issuing hazard warnings, and often focuses on rainfall as a triggering agent and on the use of empirical rainfall thresholds based on rain gauge observations. A recognized component of the uncertainty associated with the use of rainfall thresholds is related to the sampling of strongly varying rainfall variability with sparse rain gauge networks. In this work we examine the spatial distribution of rainfall depth in areas up to 10 km from the debris flow initiation points as a function of return period, and we exploit this information to analyze the errors expected in the estimation of debris flow triggering rainfall when rain gauge data are used. In particular, we investigate the impact of rain gauge density and of the use of different interpolation methods. High-resolution, adjusted radar rainfall estimates, representing the best available spatially-distributed rainfall estimates at the debris flows initiation point and in the surrounding area, are sampled by stochastically generated rain gauge networks characterized by varying densities. Debris flow triggering rainfall is estimated by means of three rainfall interpolation methods: nearest neighbor, inverse distance weighting and ordinary kriging. On average, triggering rainfall shows a local peak corresponding to the debris flow initiation point, with a decay of rainfall with distance which increases with the return period of the triggering rainfall. Interpolation of the stochastically generated rain gauge measurements leads to an underestimation of the triggering rainfall that, irrespective of the interpolation methods, increases with the return period and decreases with the rain gauge density. For small return period events and high rain gauge density, the differences among the methods are minor. With increasing the return period and decreasing the rain gauge density, the nearest neighbor method is less biased, because it makes use only of the

  8. Determining the Return Period of Storm Surge Events in the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago, Joy; Suarez, John Kenneth; Lapidez, John Phillip; Mendoza, Jerico; Caro, Carl Vincent; Tablazon, Judd; Ladiero, Christine; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo

    2015-04-01

    The devastating damages generated by the Tropical Cyclone Haiyan storm surges in Eastern Samar, Philippines prompted the Department of Science and Technology-Project NOAH (Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards) to calculate the return period and storm surge exceedance probability of these events. The recurrence interval or the period of return of a storm surge event is the estimated likelihood that that event would occur again. Return periods are measured through historical data denoting the interval of recurrence in average over a period of time. The exceedance probability however, is a graphical representation that describes the probability that some various levels of loss will be exceeded over a future time period or will be surpassed over a given time. DOST-Project NOAH simulates storm surge height time series using JMA storm surge model which is a numerical model based on shallow water equations. To determine the period of recurrence of storm surges with this type of intensity, the agency intends to compute the estimation of storm surge heights generated by tropical cyclones for 2-year, 5-year, 10-year, 25-year, 50-year and 100-year return periods for the Philippine coast. The storm surge time series generated from JMA combined with WXTide simulation, a software containing archives/catalogues of world-wide astronomical tides, and 5-meter resolution DEM were used as input parameters for the inundation model, which shows probable extent of flooding at a specific storm surge return period. Flo-2D two-dimensional flood routing model, a GIS integrated software tool that facilitates the creation of the flood model grid system, was used for flood hazard model. It is a simple volume conservation model composed of processor program that facilitate graphical editing and mapping of flooding details which uses continuity equation and the dynamic wave momentum equations. The measurements of storm surge return period and probable extent of coastal flooding in the

  9. Estimation of the return period of rockfall blocks according to their size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Biagi, Valerio; Lia Napoli, Maria; Barbero, Monica; Peila, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    With reference to the rockfall risk estimation and the planning of rockfall protection devices, one of the most critical and most discussed problems is the correct definition of the design block by taking into account its return period. In this paper, a methodology for the assessment of the design block linked with its return time is proposed and discussed, following a statistical approach. The procedure is based on the survey of the blocks that were already detached from the slope and had accumulated at the foot of the slope in addition to the available historical data.

  10. Impact of climate change on the Baltic Sea ecosystem over the past 1,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabel, Karoline; Moros, Matthias; Porsche, Christian; Neumann, Thomas; Adolphi, Florian; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Siegel, Herbert; Gerth, Monika; Leipe, Thomas; Jansen, Eystein; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change has a strong impact on ecosystem health, particularly in marginal seas such as the Baltic, for example causing the spreading of anoxic areas (oxygen-free areas, the so-called dead zones) through strong feedbacks. Marked ecosystem changes in the Baltic Sea have been recorded in the sedimentary archive, but the reasons are not fully understood. Here we report an integrated study of high-resolution sediment records (past 1,000 years) in combination with an ecosystem modelling approach, providing new insights into the functioning of the Baltic Sea ecosystem under natural and human-influenced climatic changes. Between the Little Ice Age and the Modern Warm Period the surface water temperatures reconstructed using TEX86 palaeothermometry increased by ~2°C. Simultaneously, the anoxic areas in the Baltic Sea began to expand significantly as evident from the accumulation of laminated sediments. Ecosystem model simulations support our findings of widespread oxic areas during the Little Ice Age. Backed up by the modelling results that take into account anthropogenic-influenced nutrient load scenarios, our results provide evidence that surface temperature changes strongly influence deepwater oxygenation. This highlights the risk of a continued spreading of anoxic areas during scenarios of continued climate warming in the future.

  11. How are flood risk estimates affected by the choice of return-periods?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, P. J.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; De Moel, H.; Poussin, J. K.

    2012-04-01

    Flood management is more and more adopting a risk based approach, whereby flood risk is the product of the probability and consequences of flooding. One of the most common approaches in flood risk assessment is to estimate the damage that would occur for floods of several exceedance probabilities (or return periods), to plot these on an exceedance probability-loss curve (risk curve) and to estimate risk as the area under the curve. However, there is little insight into how the selection of the return-periods (which ones and how many) used to calculate risk actually affects the final risk calculation. To gain such insights, we developed and validated an inundation model capable of rapidly simulating inundation extent and depth, and dynamically coupled this to an existing damage model. The method was applied to a section of the River Meuse in the southeast of the Netherlands. Firstly, we estimated risk based on a risk curve using yearly return periods from 2 to 10 000 yr (€ 34 million p.a.). We found that the overall risk is greatly affected by the number of return periods used to construct the risk curve, with over-estimations of annual risk between 33% and 100% when only three return periods are used. Also, the final risk estimate is greatly dependent on the minimum and maximum return periods (and their associated damages) used in the construction of the risk curve. In addition, binary assumptions on dike failure can have a large effect (a factor two difference) on risk estimates. The results suggest that more research is needed to develop relatively simple inundation models that can be used to produce large numbers of inundation maps, complementary to more complex 2D-3D hydrodynamic models. We then used the insights and models described above to assess the relative change in risk between current conditions and several scenarios of land use and climate change. For the case study region, we found that future land use change has a larger impact than future climate

  12. A new method to estimate wave height of specified return period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liping; Xu, Xin; Liu, Guilin; Chen, Baiyu; Chen, Zhengshou

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method to estimate the wave height of a specific return period based on the Hurst rule and a self-affine fractal formula. A detailed description of our proposed model is presented in this paper. We use the proposed model to analyze wave height data recorded along the coast of Chaolian Island from 1963 to 1989. The results show that the performance of our proposed model in estimating design wave heights is superior to traditional models.

  13. Annually resolved seawater temperature variability of the Sub-polar North Atlantic over the last 1000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, David; Scourse, James; Hall, Ian; Nederbragt, Alexandra; Wanamaker, Alan; Halloran, Paul; Butler, Paul; Richardson, Chris; Eiríksson, Jon; Heinemeier, Jan; Luise Knudsen, Karen

    2015-04-01

    The lack of annually-resolved marine climate records spanning the last millennium constrains our understanding of the natural variability of the global climate system. We present a continuous annually-resolved reconstruction of sub-polar (N Iceland) sea water temperatures (SWT) derived from the 18O analyses of carbonate material drilled from the annually resolved growth increments contained in an absolutely dated master Arctica islandica sclerochronology spanning the period 953-2000. The calibrated SWT reconstruction contains a significant cooling trend over the period 953-1891 (0.1oC per century) and a marked warming trend over the period 1891-2000 (2.3oC per century). The underlying natural variability is controlled by solar irradiance changes modulated by volcanic forcing and internal variability. The modern SWT warming is demonstrated to lie outside the range of natural variability of the last 1000 years consistent with an anthropogenic influence.

  14. The dual effect of vegetation green-up date and strong wind on the return period of spring dust storms.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jieling; Li, Ning; Zhang, Zhengtao; Chen, Xi

    2017-08-15

    Vegetation phenology changes have been widely applied in the disaster risk assessments of the spring dust storms, and vegetation green-up date shifts have a strong influence on dust storms. However, the effect of earlier vegetation green-up dates due to climate warming on the evaluation of dust storms return periods remains an important, but poorly understood issue. In this study, we evaluate the spring dust storm return period (February to June) in Inner Mongolia, Northern China, using 165 observations of severe spring dust storm events from 16 weather stations, and regional vegetation green-up dates as an integrated factor from NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), covering a period from 1982 to 2007, by building the bivariate Copula model. We found that the joint return period showed better fitting results than without considering the integrated factor when the actual dust storm return period is longer than 2years. Also, for extremely severe dust storm events, the gap between simulation result and actual return period can be narrowed up to 0.4888years by using integrated factor. Furthermore, the risk map based on the return period results shows that the Mandula, Zhurihe, Sunitezuoqi, Narenbaolige stations are identified as high risk areas. In this study area, land surface is extensively covered by grasses and shrubs, vegetation green-up date can play a significant role in restraining spring dust storm outbreaks. Therefore, we suggest that Copula method can become a useful tool for joint return period evaluation and risk analysis of severe dust storms.

  15. Return Period and Risk of Extreme Sea Levels under Non-Stationarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obeysekera, J.; Salas, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Heavily populated urban centers and natural areas located in low lying coastal regions are highly vulnerable to sea level extremes. Current practice of using probabilistic methods for predicting future sea level extremes is based on concepts of return period and risk that have been developed under stationarity conditions. Recently, similar concepts under non-stationary conditions have been developed and a paradigm shift is needed to incorporate the newer concepts into practice. Current projections of future sea levels include varying degrees of acceleration with significant uncertainty and often alternative scenarios are considered on a risk-based framework for planning coastal infrastructure. Extension of the traditional concepts of return period and risk into a non-stationary framework is demonstrated by assuming a probability distribution of extreme values that is parameterized as a function of time. Specifically, the Generalized Extreme Value distribution with time-varying parameters has been applied for fitting the distribution of extreme sea level data. The scenario based projection of mean sea level is linked to the location parameter of the extreme value distribution. This allows the estimation of return period and risk associated with future sea levels in a changing world where mean sea level is expected to be accelerating. Confidence intervals for the projections of extreme sea levels using the new paradigm are also presented. The methodology presented here as demonstrated using the data from few tide gages can be used for planning and design of coastal infrastructure in a changing climate. The presentation ends with a discussion of a number of relevant issues involved in considering non-stationarity in planning and design of coastal projects.

  16. Temperature variability of the last 1000 years in Antarctica from inert gas isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsi, Anais; Landais, Amaelle; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.

    2015-04-01

    A large effort has been made to document the climate history of the last two thousand years, but there are still substantial gaps in the Southern Hemisphere, especially at high latitudes, where the changes in the climate are the largest. These gaps limit our understanding of the most fundamental driving mechanisms of the climate. In particular, the impact of solar minima on surface temperature is not fully understood. Here, we investigate the spatial structure of multi decadal climate variability in Antarctica, assess the significance of the Little Ice Age minimum documented elsewhere. We present a 1000 year temperature record at two sites in Antarctica: WAIS Divide (79°S, 112°W, 1766 m a.s.l), and Talos Dome (72°S, 159°E, 2315 m a.s.l), reconstructed from the combination of inert gas isotopes from the ice core and borehole temperature measurements. Borehole temperature provides an absolute estimate of long-term trends, while noble gases track decadal to centennial scale changes. This method provides a temperature reconstruction that is independent of water isotopes, and allows us to improve our understanding of water isotopes as a temperature proxy, and use them to track circulation changes. We find that there is a pronounced cooling trend over the last millennium at both sites, but it is stronger in East Antarctica (Talos Dome) than West Antarctica (WAIS-D). At WAIS Divide, we find that "Little Ice Age" cold period of 1400-1800 was 0.52°C colder than the last century, and that the recent warming trend (0.23°C/decade since 1960) has past analogs about every 200 years. At Talos Dome, the pronounced cooling trend over the whole record is not visible in the water isotope record, which suggests that there is a compensation of several sources of fractionation. Overall, both records are consistent with the idea that the solar minima and persistent volcanic activity of the Little Ice Age (1400-1850 A.D.) had a significant impact on the surface temperature in

  17. Studies of phase return map and symbolic dynamics in a periodically driven Hodgkin—Huxley neuron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jiong; Zhang, Hong; Tong, Qin-Ye; Chen, Zhuo

    2014-02-01

    How neuronal spike trains encode external information is a hot topic in neurodynamics studies. In this paper, we investigate the dynamical states of the Hodgkin—Huxley neuron under periodic forcing. Depending on the parameters of the stimulus, the neuron exhibits periodic, quasiperiodic and chaotic spike trains. In order to analyze these spike trains quantitatively, we use the phase return map to describe the dynamical behavior on a one-dimensional (1D) map. According to the monotonicity or discontinuous point of the 1D map, the spike trains are transformed into symbolic sequences by implementing a coarse-grained algorithm — symbolic dynamics. Based on the ordering rules of symbolic dynamics, the parameters of the external stimulus can be measured in high resolution with finite length symbolic sequences. A reasonable explanation for why the nervous system can discriminate or cognize the small change of the external signals in a short time is also presented.

  18. Estimation of extreme precipitation; Return period values and PMP for Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engen-Skaugen, Torill; Alfnes, Eli; Førland, Eirik J.

    2010-05-01

    Estimates of extreme values of precipitation represented as return period values and Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) are frequently used in flood evaluation as well as dimensioning of hydro power dams. The estimates are also of interest for infrastructure constructions (e.g. urban runoff). The estimates establish a reference to how rare a heavy rainfall event at a location is. This study presents present-day and future return period values and PMP estimates for several catchments in Norway. Daily precipitation values are extracted from grids covering the Norwegian mainland, spatial resolution 1 x 1 km2, for the time period 1957 - 2009. The grids are interpolated from observations at all available rain gage stations operated by the Norwegian Meteorolgoical Institute in Norway. The maps can be seen at http://senorge.no (Mohr, 2009; Jansson et al., 2007). The rain gauge network in the high mountain region is sparse, leading to reduced quality in these regions. A rough correction of daily gauge precipitation for undercatch because of wind exposure is performed before interpolation. Six climate projections downscaled with different Regional Climate Models (RCMs) are adjusted to be representative locally for the Norwegian mainland (Engen-Skaugen, 2007). Daily precipitation projections are established for the same grid extent as for observations. Time series of daily precipitation are then extracted from these grids representing the same catchments as the historic data. The estimates of extreme precipitation are based on daily precipitation values (Førland, 1992; Alfnes, 2007). Instead of producing area estimates based on site values adjusted by an Area Reduction Factor (ARF), area estimates in the present study is based on time series of daily precipitation representing the actual catchments extracted from the high resolution grids. Alfnes (2007) found that the five-year return value estimates (M5) for these two methods were similar, with exceptions for catchments

  19. First Annually Resolved Marine Temperature Series For The Last 1000 Years From The North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, D.; Scourse, J. D.; Richardson, C.; Hall, I. R.; Butler, P.; Nederbragt, A.; Wanamaker, A. D.; Becker, J.

    2013-12-01

    There remain very few high-resolution records of marine climate variability covering the last 1000 years; annually-resolved series have hitherto been confined to coral archives from the low latitude oceans and do not cover the full millennium. We have constructed a 1357-year crossdated sclerochronology based on annual growth increments in the long-lived bivalve mollusc Arctica islandica, collected by dredge from the temperate North Atlantic (Grimsey, North Icelandic shelf, 80 m water depth; Butler et al. 2013). We present here annual- to sub-annually-resolved oxygen isotope data from the last 1000 years of this absolute chronology. Radiocarbon analysis of the series demonstrates variability in the marine reservoir effect (ΔR) controlled by Atlantic vs. Arctic water masses (Irminger Current, East Icelandic Current) with enhanced ingress of Irminger Current water during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and since AD 1900; the Little Ice Age is conversely characterized by Arctic water masses (Wanamaker et al. 2012). We use the ΔR variability to correct for the isotopic content of seawater (δ18Ow) and hence convert δ18Oshell to seawater temperature at 80m, a calibration supported by comparison with instrumental series. This reveals the evolution of North Atlantic seawater temperatures over the last 1000 years in unprecedented detail and provides a basis for the comparison of marine with terrestrial series at the same resolution for the first time.

  20. Blast from the Past: Pervasive Impact and Landscape-Scale Modification from Historical Mining Over 1000 Years in Central Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansson, S.; Bindler, R.

    2011-12-01

    In the public consciousness Sweden is often viewed as a largely natural landscape. However, many parts of the landscape have undergone substantial changes. For example, in the historically and culturally important Bergslagen region in central Sweden, which played an important role in the economic development of Sweden since the medieval period, agriculture and mining have greatly transformed the landscape over the past 1000 years. Bergslagen is an ore-rich region characterized as a granite-porphyr belt formed 1900 Ma ago, with thousands of mines and mine pits, hundreds of furnaces, smelters and forges distributed throughout the area. Drawing on data from selected lake sediment records from different historical mining districts in Central Sweden (e.g. Norberg mining district - iron ores and Falun mining district - copper ores) the aim of this presentation is to show how small-scale but pervasively widespread mining and metallurgy, along with associated settlement, have transformed the surrounding landscape. These anthropogenic activities led to changes in sedimentation and erosion rates, forest structure, and also causing large-scale metal pollution and ecological changes in recipient watercourses and lakes. This historical pollution was oftentimes on a scale we associate with modern mining pollution. Our research is based on analyses of lake sediment records, which include multi-element analyses of minor and trace elements using XRF, mercury, carbon, and in some lakes also pollen and diatoms. In two lakes in Norberg, recent catastrophic failure (1991) of a sand magazine below a now closed mine led to significant contamination of the two downstream lakes, with Cu and Hg concentrations up to 1800 ppm and 1400 ppb, respectively. These concentrations are 50 and 20 times greater than natural background values. However, such elevated concentrations are also frequently found in sediments dated to the 16th-18th centuries. For example, in one lake in the Norberg iron mining

  1. Estimating return periods for daily precipitation extreme events over the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Eliane Barbosa; Lucio, Paulo Sérgio; Santos e Silva, Cláudio Moisés

    2016-11-01

    This paper aims to model the occurrence of daily precipitation extreme events and to estimate the return period of these events through the extreme value theory (generalized extreme value distribution (GEV) and the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD)). The GEV and GPD were applied in precipitation series of homogeneous regions of the Brazilian Amazon. The GEV and GPD goodness of fit were evaluated by quantile-quantile (Q-Q) plot and by the application of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test, which compares the cumulated empirical distributions with the theoretical ones. The Q-Q plot suggests that the probability distributions of the studied series are appropriated, and these results were confirmed by the KS test, which demonstrates that the tested distributions have a good fit in all sub-regions of Amazon, thus adequate to study the daily precipitation extreme event. For all return levels studied, more intense precipitation extremes is expected to occur within the South sub-regions and the coastal area of the Brazilian Amazon. The results possibly will have some practical application in local extreme weather forecast.

  2. Multivariate multiparameter extreme value models and return periods: A copula approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvadori, G.; de Michele, C.

    2010-10-01

    Multivariate extreme value models are a fundamental tool in order to assess potentially dangerous events. The target of this paper is two-fold. On the one hand we outline how, exploiting recent theoretical developments in the theory of copulas, new multivariate extreme value distributions can be easily constructed; in particular, we show how a suitable number of parameters can be introduced, a feature not shared by traditional extreme value models. On the other hand, we introduce a proper new definition of multivariate return period and show the differences with (and the advantages over) the definition presently used in literature. An illustration involving flood data is presented and discussed, and a generalization of the well-known multivariate logistic Gumbel model is also given.

  3. Forest response to 1,000 years of drought variability in the Southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, A. P.; Meko, D. M.; Woodhouse, C. A.; Cook, E.; Swetnam, T. W.; Macalady, A. K.; Allen, C. D.; Rauscher, S. A.; Jiang, X.; Grissino-Mayer, H.; McDowell, N. G.; Cai, M.

    2011-12-01

    Droughts in the early 1950s and early 2000s significantly accelerated tree mortality rates in the Southwestern United States. During the early 2000s, forest inventory data indicate that the proportion of dead piñon pine, ponderosa pine, and Douglas-fir trees doubled in the Southwest. The 2000s drought peaked in 2002 and was the most severe drought in at least 100 years. In 2011, precipitation, dew-point, and wind data indicate the intensity of the 2002 drought has been surpassed in a number of ways. Measurements of water potential in piñon pine trees in northern New Mexico indicate that, at present, trees have less access to soil moisture than in 2002 when widespread mortality occurred. How do these recent droughts compare to those of the last 1000 years? We used records of annual tree-ring widths from 309 populations of piñon pine, ponderosa pine, and Douglas-fir throughout the Southwestern United States to reconstruct a single record of regional drought stress from 1000-2005 AD. This record indicates that the last Southwestern drought similar in intensity to one in the early 2000s occurred in the late 1600s. Both of these droughts, however, paled in comparison to a mega-drought that occurred from 1575-1595. The emergence from this mega-drought, around 1600 AD, appears to mark a transition period from a time when droughts similar the early 2000s drought were much more common. Tree-age studies indicate a scarcity of Southwestern trees with rings extending back beyond the mega-drought of the late 1500s. This suggests that (1) the late-1500s mega-drought triggered a massive die-off of forests and/or (2) the higher frequency of drought events prior to the mega-drought sustained a much more sparse forest population than the one that has thrived from the 1600s through present. Given this apparent plasticity of Southwestern forests, a change in the forest population should be underway if higher temperatures contribute to forest drought stress. The Southwestern tree

  4. Evaluation of the return periods of water crises and evaporation in Monte Cotugno reservoir (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copertino, Vito; Lo Vecchio, Giuseppina; Marotta, Lucia; Pastore, Vittoria; Ponzio, Giuseppe; Scavone, Giuseppina; Telesca, Vito; Vita, Michele

    2010-05-01

    In the past water resources management has been dealt and solved increasing water availabilities; today such opportunities have been considerably reduced and the technical-scientific perspectives are addressed above all to improve water system effectiveness and to promote an use of water resources that holds account of the droughts frequency and based on a correct estimate of the hydrologic balance. In this work a study on the water stored in Monte Cotugno reservoir in Sinni river - Basilicata (Southern Italy) - is proposed, estimating water crises return periods and reservoir evaporation. For such purpose the runs method was applied, based on the comparison between the temporal series of the "water volume" hydrological variable and a threshold representative of the "normal" conditions regarding which the availability in excess or defect was estimated. This allowed to individualize the beginning and the end of a water crisis event and to characterize the droughts in terms of duration, sum deficit and intensity. Therefore the return period was evaluated by means of the methodology proposed by Shiau and Shen in 2001, turned out equal approximately to 6 years. Such value was then verified with a frequency analysis of the "water volume" random variable, using the Weibull's distribution. Subsequently, the Fourier's analysis in the last twenty years was carried out, obtaining the same result of the previous methods. Moreover, in proximity of the Monte Cotugno reservoir the weather station of Senise is located, managed by ALSIA (Agenzia Lucana di Sviluppo e Innovazione in Agricultura), that provides in continuous measurements of air temperature and humidity, wind speed and direction, and global solar radiation since 2000. Such parameters allowed to apply five methods for reservoir evaporation estimate selected from those proposed in the literature, of which the first three, the Jensen-Haise's method, Makkink's method and Stephens-Stewart's one are based on solar radiation

  5. Estimating return periods of extreme values from relatively short time series of winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonasson, Kristjan; Agustsson, Halfdan; Rognvaldsson, Olafur; Arfeuille, Gilles

    2013-04-01

    An important factor for determining the prospect of individual wind farm sites is the frequency of extreme winds at hub height. Here, extreme winds are defined as the value of the highest 10 minutes averaged wind speed with a 50 year return period, i.e. annual exceeding probability of 2% (Rodrigo, 2010). A frequently applied method to estimate winds in the lowest few hundred meters above ground is to extrapolate observed 10-meter winds logarithmically to higher altitudes. Recent study by Drechsel et al. (2012) showed however that this methodology is not as accurate as interpolating simulated results from the global ECMWF numerical weather prediction (NWP) model to the desired height. Observations of persistent low level jets near Colima in SW-Mexico also show that the logarithmic approach can give highly inaccurate results for some regions (Arfeuille et al., 2012). To address these shortcomings of limited, and/or poorly representative, observations and extrapolations of winds one can use NWP models to dynamically scale down relatively coarse resolution atmospheric analysis. In the case of limited computing resources one has typically to make a compromise between spatial resolution and the duration of the simulated period, both of which can limit the quality of the wind farm siting. A common method to estimate maximum winds is to fit an extreme value distribution (e.g. Gumbel, gev or Pareto) to the maximum values of each year of available data, or the tail of these values. If data are only available for a short period, e.g. 10 or 15 years, then this will give a rather inaccurate estimate. It is possible to deal with this problem by utilizing monthly or weekly maxima, but this introduces new problems: seasonal variation, autocorrelation of neighboring values, and increased discrepancy between data and fitted distribution. We introduce a new method to estimate return periods of extreme values of winds at hub height from relatively short time series of winds, simulated

  6. Investigation of the relation between the return periods of major drought characteristics using copula functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüsami Afşar, Mehdi; Unal Şorman, Ali; Tugrul Yilmaz, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    Different drought characteristics (e.g. duration, average severity, and average areal extent) often have monotonic relation that increased magnitude of one often follows a similar increase in the magnitude of the other drought characteristic. Hence it is viable to establish a relationship between different drought characteristics with the goal of predicting one using other ones. Copula functions that relate different variables using their joint and conditional cumulative probability distributions are often used to statistically model the drought characteristics. In this study bivariate and trivariate joint probabilities of these characteristics are obtained over Ankara (Turkey) between 1960 and 2013. Copula-based return period estimation of drought characteristics of duration, average severity, and average areal extent show joint probabilities of these characteristics can be satisfactorily achieved. Among different copula families investigated in this study, elliptical family (i.e. including normal and t-student copula functions) resulted in the lowest root mean square error. "This study was supported by TUBITAK fund #114Y676)."

  7. Decline of recent seabirds inferred from a composite 1000-year record of population dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liqiang; Liu, Xiaodong; Wu, Libin; Sun, Liguang; Zhao, Jinjun; Chen, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Based on three ornithogenic sediment profiles and seabird subfossils therein from the Xisha Islands, South China Sea, the relative population size of seabirds over the past 1000 years was reconstructed using reflectance spectrum. Here we present an apparent increase and subsequent decline of seabirds on these islands in the South China Sea. Seabird populations peaked during the Little Ice Age (LIA, 1400–1850 AD), implying that the cool climate during the LIA appears to have been more favorable to seabirds on the Xisha Islands in the South China Sea. Climate change partly explains the recent decrease in seabird populations over the past 150 years, but the significant decline and almost complete disappearance thereof on most of the Xisha Islands is probably attributable to human disturbance. Our study reveals the increasing impact of anthropogenic activities on seabird population in recent times. PMID:27748366

  8. Decline of recent seabirds inferred from a composite 1000-year record of population dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Liqiang; Liu, Xiaodong; Wu, Libin; Sun, Liguang; Zhao, Jinjun; Chen, Lin

    2016-10-01

    Based on three ornithogenic sediment profiles and seabird subfossils therein from the Xisha Islands, South China Sea, the relative population size of seabirds over the past 1000 years was reconstructed using reflectance spectrum. Here we present an apparent increase and subsequent decline of seabirds on these islands in the South China Sea. Seabird populations peaked during the Little Ice Age (LIA, 1400–1850 AD), implying that the cool climate during the LIA appears to have been more favorable to seabirds on the Xisha Islands in the South China Sea. Climate change partly explains the recent decrease in seabird populations over the past 150 years, but the significant decline and almost complete disappearance thereof on most of the Xisha Islands is probably attributable to human disturbance. Our study reveals the increasing impact of anthropogenic activities on seabird population in recent times.

  9. Rainfall erosivity and rainfall return period in the experimental watershed of Aracruz, in the Coastal Plain of Espirito Santo, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The knowledge of the factors influencing water erosion is relevant to land management practices. Rainfall, expressed by rainfall erosivity, is very important among the factors affecting water erosion. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine rainfall erosivity and return period for the Coa...

  10. Joint return periods in hydrology: a critical and practical review focusing on the synthetic design hydrograph estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenberghe, S.; Graeler, B.; van den Berg, M. J.; Grimaldi, S.; Petroselli, A.; De Baets, B.; Verhoest, N. E. C.

    2012-04-01

    In several branches of engineering the selection of design variables is a common exercise. Recently, there is increasing interest in considering several variables at the same time in the design, which are likely to be associated with each other. In hydrology and hydraulics, applications such as the design of sewer systems or dams, the calculation of flood risks, etc. require the selection of characteristic variables of rainfall or discharge events with a predefined return period. So far, well-established univariate frequency analysis methods have been a standard tool in practice. In contrast, newer methods show a tendency of describing hydrological phenomena with multiple variables. This is challenging practitioners to calculate the multivariate return period and to select a specific design event. In literature, several approaches for the latter problem have evolved over the years, however no study exists on how these methods compare to each other and a controversy on which approach is the right one is going on. In this study, an overview will first be given on the state of the art for defining joint return periods. The construction of multivariate distribution functions will focus on copulas, given their practicality in multivariate frequency analysis. Subsequently, a case study focusing on the selection of design hydrograph characteristics is introduced. In this application, design values of a 3-dimensional phenomenon composed of peak discharge, volume and duration are derived (for given return periods). This case study investigates and compares the different definitions of joint return periods and allows to highlight important issues with respect to multivariate frequency analysis.

  11. The joint return period analysis of natural disasters based on monitoring and statistical modeling of multidimensional hazard factors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xueqin; Li, Ning; Yuan, Shuai; Xu, Ning; Shi, Wenqin; Chen, Weibin

    2015-12-15

    As a random event, a natural disaster has the complex occurrence mechanism. The comprehensive analysis of multiple hazard factors is important in disaster risk assessment. In order to improve the accuracy of risk analysis and forecasting, the formation mechanism of a disaster should be considered in the analysis and calculation of multi-factors. Based on the consideration of the importance and deficiencies of multivariate analysis of dust storm disasters, 91 severe dust storm disasters in Inner Mongolia from 1990 to 2013 were selected as study cases in the paper. Main hazard factors from 500-hPa atmospheric circulation system, near-surface meteorological system, and underlying surface conditions were selected to simulate and calculate the multidimensional joint return periods. After comparing the simulation results with actual dust storm events in 54years, we found that the two-dimensional Frank Copula function showed the better fitting results at the lower tail of hazard factors and that three-dimensional Frank Copula function displayed the better fitting results at the middle and upper tails of hazard factors. However, for dust storm disasters with the short return period, three-dimensional joint return period simulation shows no obvious advantage. If the return period is longer than 10years, it shows significant advantages in extreme value fitting. Therefore, we suggest the multivariate analysis method may be adopted in forecasting and risk analysis of serious disasters with the longer return period, such as earthquake and tsunami. Furthermore, the exploration of this method laid the foundation for the prediction and warning of other nature disasters.

  12. The Recognition of Multi-Decadal Scale Climate Variability in the Paleo-record over the Past 1000 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swart, Peter; Waite, Amanda; Rosenheim, Brad; Moses, Chris

    2010-05-01

    Proxy reconstructions of climate from tree rings, corals, stalagmites, sclerosponges, and deep-sea sediments show multi-decadal climate variability preserved in records extending back at least 1000 years. Most of these records appear to show a strong correlation with indices such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO) over the period of the instrumental record (~1850-present). The repeated recognition of these signals in a number of different archives and geographical locations throughout the Atlantic (Cape Verde Islands, Gulf of Guinea, Puerto Rico, Cariaco Basin , South Florida, and the Bahamas) strongly suggests that these signals are real and have climatic significance. The AMO and NAO climate signals are manifested in these indices through (i) the direct effect of water temperature and salinity on the growth rate of trees and corals and (ii) temperature and salinity influences on the incorporation of geochemical proxies, such as the Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, and oxygen isotopic ratios, into the skeletons of different carbonate producing organisms. In many areas these relationships are complex and there is often considerable local variability in the response of corals and trees, particularly in the growth rate related parameters. Prior to the instrumental period, the tree-ring index compiled by (Gray et al., 2004, GRL,31) has been taken as the principal reconstruction of the AMO. While most of the marine records examined appear to correlate with the tree-ring record during the instrumental period, there are significant discrepancies prior to 1850. This raises many questions about the stationarity and persistence of the AMO and the suitability of individual archives such as tree rings for these modes.

  13. Fresh-water cementation of a 1,000-year-old oolite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halley, R. B.; Harris, P. M.

    1979-01-01

    Calcite cementation of aragonite ooid sand is producing oolite on Joulters Cays, Bahamas. During the last 1,000 years, calcite cement has formed at an average rate of between 27 and 55 cm3 /m3 /yr and is derived from dissolution of ooid aragonite in fresh water. The dissolution-reprecipitation of carbonate minerals in the aquifer results in ground waters of unusually high Sr content. Sea water and mixtures of fresh and sea water appear to inhibit cementation. A pronounced cement fabric change occurs across the water table and has produced an obvious petrographic record of fresh-water diagenesis. Above the water table, cement is typically near grain contact positions, where water is held by capillarity; below the water table, cement is more randomly distributed around grains. At the water table a transition zone, 1 meter thick, marks the boundary between cement textures. No porosity reduction is associated with cementation; calcite cement precipitation is apparently compensated by an equal or greater amount of aragonite dissolution in the interval undergoing cementation. Permeability is more variable above the water table than below it, reflecting early channelling of flow patterns in the vadose zone. Effective permeability below the water table is one to two orders of magnitude higher than above the water table because of entrained gas in the vadose zone. This permeability difference promotes preservation of unstable minerals above the water table and continued diagenetic alteration below the water table.

  14. 20 CFR 1002.236 - How is the employee's rate of pay determined when he or she returns from a period of service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... attained with reasonable certainty, an employer may examine the returning employee's own work history, his... of time the returning employee was absent from work, the level of difficulty of the test itself, the... when he or she returns from a period of service? 1002.236 Section 1002.236 Employees' Benefits...

  15. Effect of initial conditions and of intra-event rainfall intensity variability on shallow landslide triggering return period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peres, David Johnny; Cancelliere, Antonino

    2016-04-01

    Assessment of shallow landslide hazard is important for appropriate planning of mitigation measures. Generally, return period of slope instability is assumed as a quantitative metric to map landslide triggering hazard on a catchment. The most commonly applied approach to estimate such return period consists in coupling a physically-based landslide triggering model (hydrological and slope stability) with rainfall intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves. Among the drawbacks of such an approach, the following assumptions may be mentioned: (1) prefixed initial conditions, with no regard to their probability of occurrence, and (2) constant intensity-hyetographs. In our work we propose the use of a Monte Carlo simulation approach in order to investigate the effects of the two above mentioned assumptions. The approach is based on coupling a physically based hydrological and slope stability model with a stochastic rainfall time series generator. By this methodology a long series of synthetic rainfall data can be generated and given as input to a landslide triggering physically based model, in order to compute the return period of landslide triggering as the mean inter-arrival time of a factor of safety less than one. In particular, we couple the Neyman-Scott rectangular pulses model for hourly rainfall generation and the TRIGRS v.2 unsaturated model for the computation of transient response to individual rainfall events. Initial conditions are computed by a water table recession model that links initial conditions at a given event to the final response at the preceding event, thus taking into account variable inter-arrival time between storms. One-thousand years of synthetic hourly rainfall are generated to estimate return periods up to 100 years. Applications are first carried out to map landslide triggering hazard in the Loco catchment, located in highly landslide-prone area of the Peloritani Mountains, Sicily, Italy. Then a set of additional simulations are performed

  16. It's T time: A study on the return period of multivariate problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michailidi, Eleni Maria; Balistrocchi, Matteo; Bacchi, Baldassare

    2016-04-01

    One of the most important tasks a hydrologist must face is the proper estimation of the 'design values' of a natural variable corresponding to a given Return Period, T, of failures of the hydraulic 'structure' to be designed or verified. Sometimes the 'structure' is simply the embankments, the failure of which corresponds to the outflows of flood runoff on the surrounding land. The widely adopted definition of T, in a problem regarding the maxima of hydrological variables, is "the average time elapsing between two successive occurrences of an event exceeding a certain magnitude of the natural variables". If T is referred to the minima, the symmetric definition pertains to the "average time between two periods during which the variable ranges below a given magnitude". Conventional (and the only accepted) approaches for estimation of T involve a single natural variable (i.e. flood-peak of a river at a given cross section, the daily maximum discharge, the maximum daily rainfall depth observed at a given rain-gauge). The method of estimation of T entails a frequency analysis of the variable of interest, where the design value of a given T is needed to design the structure of interest (e.g. dams, sewers). In other words, T is used as the index value to set the assigned risk level for the hydraulic works. However, a univariate approach in complex problems ignores the effect of significant variables interrelation leading to different risk levels for each quantity of interest and resulting in a completely wrong estimate of the risk. For example, if one considers the flood inflow in a lake around which cities and villages are positioned, the variable to be investigated in relation to the risk assessment is the lake water level. It is obvious that the same water level may occur from very different flood hydrographs, even when the same initial water level and the same rate curve of outflows are considered. This is a consequence of the interaction of at least three joint

  17. Terrigenous material supply to the Peruvian central continental shelf (Pisco, 14° S) during the last 1000 years: paleoclimatic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceño-Zuluaga, Francisco Javier; Sifeddine, Abdelfettah; Caquineau, Sandrine; Cardich, Jorge; Salvatteci, Renato; Gutierrez, Dimitri; Ortlieb, Luc; Velazco, Federico; Boucher, Hugues; Machado, Carine

    2016-03-01

    In the eastern Pacific, lithogenic input to the ocean responds to variations in the atmospheric and oceanic system and their teleconnections over different timescales. Atmospheric (e.g., wind fields), hydrological (e.g., fresh water plumes) and oceanic (e.g., currents) conditions determine the transport mode and the amount of lithogenic material transported from the continent to the continental shelf. Here, we present the grain size distribution of a composite record of two laminated sediment cores retrieved from the Peruvian continental shelf that record the last ˜ 1000 years at a sub-decadal to centennial time-series resolution. We propose novel grain size indicators of wind intensity and fluvial input that allow reconstructing the oceanic-atmospheric variability modulated by sub-decadal to centennial changes in climatic conditions. Four grain size modes were identified. Two are linked to aeolian inputs (M3: ˜ 54; M4: ˜ 91 µm on average), the third is interpreted as a marker of sediment discharge (M2: ˜ 10 µm on average), and the last is without an associated origin (M1: ˜ 3 µm). The coarsest components (M3 and M4) dominated during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and the Current Warm Period (CWP) periods, suggesting that aeolian transport increased as a consequence of surface wind stress intensification. In contrast, M2 displays an opposite behavior, exhibiting an increase in fluvial terrigenous input during the Little Ice Age (LIA) in response to more humid conditions associated with El Niño-like conditions. Comparison with other South American paleoclimate records indicates that the observed changes are driven by interactions between meridional displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), the South Pacific Subtropical High (SPSH) and Walker circulation at decadal and centennial timescales.

  18. 26 CFR 1.443-1 - Returns for periods of less than 12 months.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the short period is as follows: Taxable income exclusive of net long-term capital gain $40,000 Net long-term capital gain 10,000 Taxable income for short period before annualizing 50,000 Taxable income... term “12-month period” means the 12-month period ending at the close of the last day of the...

  19. Expressions of climate perturbations in western Ugandan crater lake sediment records during the last 1000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, K.; Ryves, D. B.; Anderson, N. J.; Bryant, C. L.; Tyler, J. J.

    2014-08-01

    Equatorial East Africa has a complex regional patchwork of climate regimes, sensitive to climate fluctuations over a variety of temporal and spatial scales during the late Holocene. Understanding how these changes are recorded in and interpreted from biological and geochemical proxies in lake sedimentary records remains a key challenge to answering fundamental questions regarding the nature, spatial extent and synchroneity of climatic changes seen in East African palaeo-records. Using a paired lake approach, where neighbouring lakes share the same geology, climate and landscape, it might be expected that the systems will respond similarly to external climate forcing. Sediment cores from two crater lakes in western Uganda spanning the last ~1000 years were examined to assess diatom community responses to late Holocene climate and environmental changes, and to test responses to multiple drivers using redundancy analysis (RDA). These archives provide annual to sub-decadal records of environmental change. Lakes Nyamogusingiri and Kyasanduka appear to operate as independent systems in their recording of a similar hydrological response signal via distinct diatom records. However, whilst their fossil diatom records demonstrate an individualistic, indirect response to external (e.g. climatic) drivers, the inferred lake levels show similar overall trends and reflect the broader patterns observed in Uganda and across East Africa. The lakes appear to be sensitive to large-scale climatic perturbations, with evidence of a dry Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; ca. AD 1000-1200). The diatom record from Lake Nyamogusingiri suggests a drying climate during the main phase of the Little Ice Age (LIA) (ca. AD 1600-1800), whereas the diatom response from the shallower Lake Kyasanduka is more complex (with groundwater likely playing a key role), and may be driven more by changes in silica and other nutrients, rather than by lake level. The sensitivity of these two Ugandan lakes to regional

  20. 1000 Years of the Olympic Games: Treasures of Ancient Greece--Digital Reconstruction at the Home of the Gods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenderdine, Sarah

    This paper results from a recently completed project that augmented an exhibition at the Powerhouse Museum, Sydney, entitled "1000 Years of the Olympic Games: Treasures of Ancient Greece" (July 18-November 18, 2000). This Exhibition offered an opportunity to supplement the traditional visitor experience with the introduction of…

  1. Timing of magma storage at the Vulcano Island during the last 1000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Rosa, Rosanna; Donato, Paola; Gioncada, Anna; Giuffrida, Marisa; Nicotra, Eugenio; Viccaro, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the nature and timescales of magmatic processes is one of the primary goals of modern volcanology, and chemical zoning is an efficient tool to achieve this aim. In basic volcanic rocks, plagioclase is a common phase used for documenting magmatic processes and their timescales. This is chiefly due to its stability over a wide range of physical-chemical conditions and its sensitivity to changes in thermodynamic parameters during its growth in magma storage and transport zones. We present here textural analysis and major (SEM-EDS/WDS) and trace (LA-ICP-MS) element zoning data on plagioclase crystals from selected volcanic products of Vulcano (Aeolian Islands), emitted during the last 1000 years. The collected samples belong to the La Fossa cone (Palizzi latitic lava flow, latitic enclaves within Commenda and Pietre Cotte rhyolitic lava flows, 1888-90 spatter bombs) and Vulcanello peninsula (shoshonitic and shoshonitic-latitic lava flows at the end of Vulcanello I and Vulcanello 3 phases, respectively). Textural observations through polarizing optical microscope, high-contrast BSE images and SEM-EDS/WDS core-to-rim profiles, allowed to discriminate four different plagioclase textures, namely: 1) oscillatory-zoned crystals; 2) sieve-textured rims; 3) dissolved/resorbed cores; 4) cores with coarse sieve-textures. Plagioclase with sieve-textured rims and coarsely-sieved cores (Types 2 and 4) are the most abundant in the analyzed products. The estimates of maximum magma residence time have been obtained on crystals with exclusive oscillatory-zoned patterns (Type 1) or portions of crystals not severely affected by μm-sized glass inclusions caused by disequilibrium. We used one-step modeling of Sr diffusion considering the highest An content of each crystal and magma temperature ranging between 1075 and 1175° C. Textural observations and core-to-rim profiles on plagioclases show that dynamics of magma ascent and storage are markedly different at La Fossa and

  2. Climate and ocean variability during the past 1000 years in Pescadero basin, southern Gulf of California, Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenorio, Alejandra; Pérez-Cruz, Ligia; Roy, Debajyoti; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Vilaclara-Fatjó, Gloria

    2013-04-01

    We analyzed a laminated sedimentary sequence, box core C-2 (30.5 cm length); it was recovered in the eastern part of Pescadero Basin at 670 m depth collected aboard of the R/V "El Puma". Pescadero Basin is one of a series of deep tectonically active basins developed in the Gulf of California from south to north, which are characterized by their distinct climatic, oceanographic and geologic conditions. The purpose for this study is to contribute to the understanding of the paleoceanographic variability during 1000 years in the southern Gulf of California, using geochemical data, X- ray fluorescence and Corg analyses. The Core C-2 is characterized by silty clay sediments with visible laminated structure throughout the core. The preliminary chronology for core C-2 was obtained with the isotopic 210Pb dating method, based on this we estimated a sedimentation rate of 27 mm/yr for the first 5 cm. The data were extrapolated to the base of the core (30.5 cm); according to this the C-2 core covers the period from 900 to 2003 years EC. The geochemical proxies suggest three main changes in sedimentary sequence, considering Al, K, Fe, Si as terrigenous proxies, Ti as precipitation proxy , Zr/Al ratio as aeolian supply proxy and Corg as productivity proxy. At the bottom of the core, low values of Al, K, Si and Fe suggest a decrease in terrigenous input, low values of Ti concentration are associated with reduction in precipitation and high values of the Zr/Al ratio are shown increase aeolian supply. In this context, the proportion of aeolian sediments in the terrigenous record indicates dry conditions.In the middle of the core, high values Al, K, Si and Fe are interpreted to reflect increased terrigenous input, Ti high values suggest an increase in precipitation, low values of Corg reflect diminish in productivity. Also, within the period it is possible to recognize an episode with an abrupt decrease of terrigenous input, but aeolian supply is greater, it suggested a multi

  3. 26 CFR 1.443-1 - Returns for periods of less than 12 months.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sections 34 and 116 are applicable 750.00 11,250.00 Deductions Real estate taxes 200.00 2 personal....00 Deduct credits: Dividends received for 10-month period $750.00 Less: Excluded portion 50.00...,000 (after credits) 3,348.40 Tax for 10-month period ($3,348.40×10/12) 2,790.33 Example 2. The...

  4. Trading and non-trading period Internet information flow and intraday return volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Dehua; Zhang, Wei; Xiong, Xiong; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Yongjie

    2016-06-01

    This paper employs the news appeared in Baidu News as the proxy for Internet information flow, separates them into trading period and non-trading period information and provides alternative evidence for the Mixture of Distribution Hypothesis (MDH). The empirical results show that the contemporary information can effectively reduce the volatility persistence; meanwhile, the lead information and the aggregate information also show some explanatory power. Some future directions are pointed out in the concluding remarks.

  5. Return to 1990: The cost of mitigating United States carbon emissions in the post-2000 period

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H.; MacCracken, C.N.; Sands, R.D.; Wise, M.A.

    1997-10-01

    The Second Generation Model (SGM) is employed to examine four hypothetical agreements to reduce emissions in Annex 1 nations (OECD nations plus most of the nations of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union) to levels in the neighborhood of those which existed in 1990, with obligations taking effect in the year 2010. The authors estimate the cost to the US of complying with such agreements under three distinct conditions: no trading of emissions rights, trading of emissions rights only among Annex 1 nations, and a fully global trading regime. The authors find that the marginal cost of returning to 1990 emissions levels in the US in the absence of trading opportunities is approximately $108 per metric ton carbon in 2010. The total cost in that year is approximately 0.2% of GDP. International trade in emissions permits lowers the cost of achieving any mitigation objective by equalizing the marginal cost of carbon mitigation among countries. For the four mitigation scenarios in this study, economic costs to the US remain below 1% of GDP through at least the year 2020.

  6. Should Age-Period-Cohort Studies Return to the Methodologies of the 1970s?

    PubMed Central

    Masters, Ryan K.; Yang, Y. Claire; Powers, Daniel A.; Zheng, Hui; Land, Kenneth C.

    2015-01-01

    Social scientists have recognized the importance of age-period-cohort (APC) models for half a century, but have spent much of this time mired in debates about the feasibility of APC methods. Recently, a new class of APC methods based on modern statistical knowledge has emerged, offering potential solutions. In 2009, Reither, Hauser and Yang used one of these new methods – hierarchical APC (HAPC) modeling – to study how birth cohorts may have contributed to the U.S. obesity epidemic. They found that recent birth cohorts experience higher odds of obesity than their predecessors, but that ubiquitous period-based changes are primarily responsible for the rising prevalence of obesity. Although these findings have been replicated elsewhere, recent commentaries by Bell and Jones call them into question – along with the new class of APC methods. Specifically, Bell and Jones claim that new APC methods do not adequately address model identification and suggest that “solid theory” is often sufficient to remove one of the three temporal dimensions from empirical consideration. They also present a series of simulation models that purportedly show how the HAPC models estimated by Reither et al. (2009) could have produced misleading results. However, these simulation models rest on assumptions that there were no period effects, and associations between period and cohort variables and the outcome were perfectly linear. Those are conditions under which APC models should never be used. Under more tenable assumptions, our own simulations show that HAPC methods perform well, both in recovering the main findings presented by Reither et al. (2009) and the results reported by Bell and Jones. We also respond to critiques about model identification and theoretically-imposed constraints, finding little pragmatic support for such arguments. We conclude by encouraging social scientists to move beyond the debates of the 1970s and toward a deeper appreciation for modern APC

  7. Freshwater mussel shells (Unionidae) chronicle changes in a North American river over the past 1000years.

    PubMed

    Fritts, Andrea K; Fritts, Mark W; Haag, Wendell R; DeBoer, Jason A; Casper, Andrew F

    2017-01-01

    The Illinois River was substantially altered during the 20th century with the installation of navigational locks and dams, construction of extensive levee networks, and degradation of water quality. Freshwater mussels were affected by these changes. We used sclerochronology and stable isotopes to evaluate changes over time in age-and-growth and food sources for two mussel species: Amblema plicata and Quadrula quadrula. Specimens were collected in years 1894, 1897, 1909, 1912, 1966, and 2013, and archeological specimens were collected circa 850. The von Bertalanffy growth parameter (K) was similar between 850 and 1897, but it increased by 1912 and remained elevated through 2013. Predicted maximum size (Linf) increased over the past millennium, and 2013 individuals were over 50% larger than in 850. Growth indices showed similar patterns of continual increases in growth. Shells were enriched in (13)C and (15)N during the 20th century, but exhibited a partial return to historical conditions by 2013. These patterns are likely attributable to impoundment, nutrient pollution and eutrophication beginning in the early 20th century followed by recent water quality improvement.

  8. Interhemispheric Variation in the Response to Solar Forcing Over the Past 1000 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, P. J.; McCormac, F. G.; Hogg, A. G.; Higham, T. F.; Palmer, J. G.

    2002-12-01

    The difference in atmospheric 14C levels in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres (NS offset) has recently been shown to vary between 1 and 10 % over the last millennium (1, 2). More than 80 % of the variation is explained by three quasi-periodic cycles with ca. 200, 130, and 80-year periods. The 205-year de Vries cycle in atmospheric 14C levels can confidently be ascribed to a solar origin based on comparisons to cosmogenic isotope records, (3, 4). Additionally, a significant 130-year cycle is found in the 10Be ice core record of the South Pole. Observing these cycles in the NS offset requires either variable input of 14C into the troposphere in each hemisphere or a differential response of the carbon reservoirs to solar variations. The amplitude of the de Vries cycle increases throughout the past millennium in the individual records of Northern and Southern Hemisphere tree-ring 14C. The Southern Hemisphere amplitudes are smaller until ca. AD 1500 when the amplitudes in both hemispheres are roughly the same. This interhemispheric difference in amplitudes results in pseudo-cyclic behavior in the NS offset that disappears after AD 1400. Because the de Vries cycle in the South Pole 10Be record has nearly constant amplitude during this same time period, the increase in the amplitude in the atmospheric 14C records must include a climatic component possibly related to millennial-scale ocean circulation changes. 1. A. G. Hogg et al., Radiocarbon (submitted). 2. F. G. McCormac et al., Radiocarbon (submitted). 3. E. Bard, G. M. Raisbeck, F. Yiou, J. Jouzel, EPSL 150:453-462 (1997). 4. G. Wagner et al., GRL 28:303-306 (2001).

  9. Protein oxidation of a hair sample kept in Alaskan ice for 800-1000 years.

    PubMed

    Lubec, G; Zimmerman, M R; Teschler-Nicola, M; Stocchi, V; Aufderheide, A C

    1997-05-01

    Ancient finds of organic matter are not only of the highest value for palaeochemists and palaeobiologists but can be used to determine basic chemical reactions, such as protein oxidation, over long time periods. We studied oxidation of human hair protein about one thousand years old of an Alaskan child buried in ice, ten hair samples of copts of comparable age buried in graves of hot dry sand and compared the results to ten recent hair samples. Protein oxidation parameters o-tyrosine and cysteic acid of the Alaskan child were comparable to recent samples whereas they were higher in the coptic specimen. N-epsilon-carboxymethyllysine, a parameter for glycoxidation, however, was as high in coptic specimen. We conclude that ice in contrast to soil prevented protein oxidation but failed to inhibit glycoxidation, a reaction initiated by autooxidation of glucose. This study therefore has implications for the interpretation of oxidation and glycoxidation as well as preservation mechanisms of proteins.

  10. Climate change for the last 1,000 years inferred from borehole temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaoka, K.; Arimoto, H.; Hamamoto, H.; Taniguchi, M.; Takeuchi, T.

    2013-12-01

    Subsurface temperatures are an archive of temperature changes occurred at the ground surface in the recent past (Lachenbruch and Marshall, 1986; Pollack, 1993). In order to investigate the local surface temperature histories in Osaka Plane, Japan, we observed subsurface temperatures in existing boreholes, using a thermometer logger. Many temperature-depth profiles within 200 m depth from the ground surface have been obtained, but they show considerable variability. The geological formations in the area consist of horizontally stratified sedimentary layers of about 1,000 m in thickness overlaid on bedrock of granite. There exists a vertical disordered structure in the formations, which may be relating to an active fault (Uemachi fault) in the bedrock (Takemura, et al, 2013). It is considered that groundwater in the horizontal layers cannot move vertically, but can move vertically along the vertical disordered zone. Various temperature profiles might be related to occurrence of vertical groundwater flow in the zone. Analytical models of subsurface temperature which include heat conduction and convection due to vertical groundwater flow in the zone have been constructed under the boundary conditions of prescribing time dependent surface temperature and uniform geothermal flux from greater depths. To solve as one-dimensional problem, heat transfer between the vertical zone and the surrounding medium of no groundwater flow is assumed. Prescribing surface temperatures were given as exponential and periodic functions of the time. Climate change can be considered to comprise both natural and artificial changes. Artificial change, which occurs by the increasing combustion of fossil fuels, is considered roughly to be an exponential increase of the ground surface temperature during the last 150 years. Natural change, which can correlate to solar activity (Lassen and Friis-Christensen, 1995), is assumed roughly to be periodic with the period of about 1200 y at the minimum time

  11. Modelled rainfall skill assessment against a 1000-year time/space isotope dendro-climatology for southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodborne, Stephan; Hall, Grant; Zhang, Qiong

    2016-04-01

    Palaeoclimate reconstruction using isotopic analysis of tree growth increments has yielded a 1000-year record of rainfall variability in southern Africa. Isotope dendro-climatology reconstructions from baobab trees (Adansonia digitata) provide evidence for rainfall variability from the arid Namib Desert and the Limpopo River Valley. Isotopic analysis of a museum specimen of a yellowwood tree (Podocarps falcatus) yields another record from the southwestern part of the subcontinent. Combined with the limited classic denro-climatologies available in the region these records yield palaeo-rainfall variability in the summer and winter rainfall zones as well as the hyper-arid zone over the last 1000 years. Coherent shifts in all of the records indicate synoptic changes in the westerlies, the inter-tropical convergence zone, and the Congo air boundary. The most substantial rainfall shift takes place at about 1600 CE at the onset of the Little Ice Age. Another distinctive feature of the record is a widespread phenomenon that occurs shortly after 1810 CE that in southern Africa corresponds with a widespread social upheaval known as the Difequane or Mfekane. Large scale forcing of the system includes sea-surface temperatures in the Agulhas Current, the El Nino Southern Oscillation and the Southern Annular Mode. The Little Ice Age and Mfekane climate shifts result from different forcing mechanisms, and the rainfall response in the different regions at these times do not have a fixed phase relationship. This complexity provides a good scenario to test climate models. A first order (wetter versus drier) comparison between each of the tree records and a 1000-year palaeoclimate model simulation for the Little Ice Age and Mfekane transitions demonstrates a generally good correspondence.

  12. 26 CFR 1.6038-1 - Information returns required of domestic corporations with respect to annual accounting periods...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... corporation's liabilities, and (iii) The corporation's net worth; and (3) An analysis of changes in the... criminal penalties for failure to file a return and filing a false or fraudulent return, see sections...

  13. 26 CFR 1.6038-1 - Information returns required of domestic corporations with respect to annual accounting periods...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... corporation's liabilities, and (iii) The corporation's net worth; and (3) An analysis of changes in the... criminal penalties for failure to file a return and filing a false or fraudulent return, see sections...

  14. A system for generating long streamflow records for study of floods of long return period: Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, D.D.; Kraeger, B.A.; Linsley, R.K.

    1989-02-01

    Knowledge of the return periods of large floods is required to make risk analyses for nuclear power plants subject to flooding from rivers. The system reported here combined the stochastic simulation of hourly rainfall data and daily pan evaporation data with the deterministic simulation of streamflow by using the synthetic rainfall and evaporation data as input to a calibrated rainfall runoff model. The sequence of annual maximum flood peaks from a synthetic record of 10,000 years or more was then analyzed to obtain estimates of flood frequency. The reasonableness of the flood frequency results must be evaluated on the degree of mimicry of the key characteristics of the observed rainfall data and the ability of the rainfall-runoff model to mimic the observed flood frequency during the calibration period. On this basis, the flood frequency results appeared to be a reasonable extrapolation of the data used in defining the model parameters. There is a need to develop regional parameters for the stochastic models and to conduct research on the relationship between the stochastic structure of rainfall and stochastic structure of flood frequency. The methodology is applicable, assuming a highly skilled analyst, to watersheds similar to those already tested.

  15. 26 CFR 1.6038-2 - Information returns required of United States persons with respect to annual accounting periods...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... respect to which a return is filed, include banking transactions entered into on behalf of customers; in... establishes to the satisfaction of the district director or the director of the service center that the...

  16. Two Extreme Climate Events of the Last 1000 Years Recorded in Himalayan and Andean Ice Cores: Impacts on Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, L. G.; Mosley-Thompson, E. S.; Davis, M. E.; Kenny, D. V.; Lin, P.

    2013-12-01

    In the last few decades numerous studies have linked pandemic influenza, cholera, malaria, and viral pneumonia, as well as droughts, famines and global crises, to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Two annually resolved ice core records, one from Dasuopu Glacier in the Himalaya and one from the Quelccaya Ice Cap in the tropical Peruvian Andes provide an opportunity to investigate these relationships on opposite sides of the Pacific Basin for the last 1000 years. The Dasuopu record provides an annual history from 1440 to 1997 CE and a decadally resolved record from 1000 to 1440 CE while the Quelccaya ice core provides annual resolution over the last 1000 years. Major ENSO events are often recorded in the oxygen isotope, insoluble dust, and chemical records from these cores. Here we investigate outbreaks of diseases, famines and global crises during two of the largest events recorded in the chemistry of these cores, particularly large peaks in the concentrations of chloride (Cl-) and fluoride (Fl-). One event is centered on 1789 to 1800 CE and the second begins abruptly in 1345 and tapers off after 1360 CE. These Cl- and F- peaks represent major droughts and reflect the abundance of continental atmospheric dust, derived in part from dried lake beds in drought stricken regions upwind of the core sites. For Dasuopu the likely sources are in India while for Quelccaya the sources would be the Andean Altiplano. Both regions are subject to drought conditions during the El Niño phase of the ENSO cycle. These two events persist longer (10 to 15 years) than today's typical ENSO events in the Pacific Ocean Basin. The 1789 to 1800 CE event was associated with a very strong El Niño event and was coincidental with the Boji Bara famine resulting from extended droughts that led to over 600,000 deaths in central India by 1792. Similarly extensive droughts are documented in Central and South America. Likewise, the 1345 to 1360 CE event, although poorly documented

  17. Biodiversity of freshwater diatom communities during 1000 years of metal mining, land use, and climate change in central Sweden.

    PubMed

    De Laender, F; Verschuren, D; Bindler, R; Thas, O; Janssen, C R

    2012-08-21

    We subjected a unique set of high-quality paleoecological data to statistical modeling to examine if the biological richness and evenness of freshwater diatom communities in the Falun area, a historical copper (Cu) mining region in central Sweden, was negatively influenced by 1000 years of metal exposure. Contrary to ecotoxicological predictions, we found no negative relation between biodiversity and the sedimentary concentrations of eight metals. Strikingly, our analysis listed metals (Co, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) or the fractional land cover of cultivated crops, meadow, and herbs indicating land disturbance as potentially promoting biodiversity. However, correlation between metal- and land-cover trends prevented concluding which of these two covariate types positively affected biodiversity. Because historical aqueous metal concentrations--inferred from solid-water partitioning--approached experimental toxicity thresholds for freshwater algae, positive effects of metal mining on biodiversity are unlikely. Instead, the positive relationship between biodiversity and historical land-cover change can be explained by the increasing proportion of opportunistic species when anthropogenic disturbance intensifies. Our analysis illustrates that focusing on the direct toxic effects of metals alone may yield inaccurate environmental assessments on time scales relevant for biodiversity conservation.

  18. A revised 1000 year atmospheric δ13C-CO2 record from Law Dome and South Pole, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubino, M.; Etheridge, D. M.; Trudinger, C. M.; Allison, C. E.; Battle, M. O.; Langenfelds, R. L.; Steele, L. P.; Curran, M.; Bender, M.; White, J. W. C.; Jenk, T. M.; Blunier, T.; Francey, R. J.

    2013-08-01

    We present new measurements of δ13C of CO2 extracted from a high-resolution ice core from Law Dome (East Antarctica), together with firn measurements performed at Law Dome and South Pole, covering the last 150 years. Our analysis is motivated by the need to better understand the role and feedback of the carbon (C) cycle in climate change, by advances in measurement methods, and by apparent anomalies when comparing ice core and firn air δ13C records from Law Dome and South Pole. We demonstrate improved consistency between Law Dome ice, South Pole firn, and the Cape Grim (Tasmania) atmospheric δ13C data, providing evidence that our new record reliably extends direct atmospheric measurements back in time. We also show a revised version of early δ13C measurements covering the last 1000 years, with a mean preindustrial level of -6.50‰. Finally, we use a Kalman Filter Double Deconvolution to infer net natural CO2 fluxes between atmosphere, ocean, and land, which cause small δ13C deviations from the predominant anthropogenically induced δ13C decrease. The main features found from the previous δ13C record are confirmed, including the ocean as the dominant cause for the 1940 A.D. CO2 leveling. Our new record provides a solid basis for future investigation of the causes of decadal to centennial variations of the preindustrial atmospheric CO2 concentration. Those causes are of potential significance for predicting future CO2 levels and when attempting atmospheric verification of recent and future global carbon emission mitigation measures through Coupled Climate Carbon Cycle Models.

  19. Turnip Mosaic Potyvirus Probably First Spread to Eurasian Brassica Crops from Wild Orchids about 1000 Years Ago

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Huy D.; Tomitaka, Yasuhiro; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Duchêne, Sebastián; Vetten, Heinrich-Josef; Lesemann, Dietrich; Walsh, John A.; Gibbs, Adrian J.; Ohshima, Kazusato

    2013-01-01

    Turnip mosaic potyvirus (TuMV) is probably the most widespread and damaging virus that infects cultivated brassicas worldwide. Previous work has indicated that the virus originated in western Eurasia, with all of its closest relatives being viruses of monocotyledonous plants. Here we report that we have identified a sister lineage of TuMV-like potyviruses (TuMV-OM) from European orchids. The isolates of TuMV-OM form a monophyletic sister lineage to the brassica-infecting TuMVs (TuMV-BIs), and are nested within a clade of monocotyledon-infecting viruses. Extensive host-range tests showed that all of the TuMV-OMs are biologically similar to, but distinct from, TuMV-BIs and do not readily infect brassicas. We conclude that it is more likely that TuMV evolved from a TuMV-OM-like ancestor than the reverse. We did Bayesian coalescent analyses using a combination of novel and published sequence data from four TuMV genes [helper component-proteinase protein (HC-Pro), protein 3(P3), nuclear inclusion b protein (NIb), and coat protein (CP)]. Three genes (HC-Pro, P3, and NIb), but not the CP gene, gave results indicating that the TuMV-BI viruses diverged from TuMV-OMs around 1000 years ago. Only 150 years later, the four lineages of the present global population of TuMV-BIs diverged from one another. These dates are congruent with historical records of the spread of agriculture in Western Europe. From about 1200 years ago, there was a warming of the climate, and agriculture and the human population of the region greatly increased. Farming replaced woodlands, fostering viruses and aphid vectors that could invade the crops, which included several brassica cultivars and weeds. Later, starting 500 years ago, inter-continental maritime trade probably spread the TuMV-BIs to the remainder of the world. PMID:23405136

  20. Geochemical evidence of past earthquakes in sediments of the Reloncaví fjord (Chilean Patagonia) during the last ˜ 1000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebolledo, Lorena; Lange, Carina; Muñoz, Práxedes; Salamanca, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The Chilean fjords are excellent archives of paleoearthquakes, tsunamis and landslides (St-Onge et al., 2012 in Sedimentary Geology 243-244: 89-107). Here we report on new sedimentological and geochemical evidence of past earthquakes in sediments of the Reloncavi fjord, Northern Patagonia (41° S, 72° W), during the last ~1000 years. We recovered four sediment cores from the Reloncaví fjord (RH-5B, RH-5C, RH-6B, RH7B, water depth range = 90-260 m; core length range = 45-75 cm). Age models were based on 210Pb, AMS-14C and the first appearance of the diatom Rhizosolenia setigera cf. pungens in the fossil record as statigraphic marker. The cores span the last ~122 to 800 years of sedimentation with sedimentation rates ranging between 0.1 and 0.24 cm yr-1. The cores revealed evidence of turbidites associated with the historical earthquakes of 1960, 1837, 1737 and 1575 AD, and an earlier period for which there is no historical information, 1200-1400 AD. The turbidites exhibit a grading-up pattern with sand layers, and are characterized by a decrease in organic carbon and biogenic opal, an increase in the C/N molar ratio, negative values of δ13Corg(average -27),and an increase in the relative abundance of Paralia sulcata, a diatom associated with sandy environments, being the turbite layers mainly freshwater in origen. We suggest that these turbidite layers were triggered by past earthquakes that produced movement of land from the cliff areas that surround the Reloncaví fjord. Funding: Project FONDECYT # 11110103 and COPAS Sur-Austral project PFB-31.

  1. 26 CFR 1.6038-2 - Information returns required of United States persons with respect to annual accounting periods...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... foreign income, war profits, and excess profits taxes are determined on the basis of an accounting period... outstanding stock; (10) For the annual accounting period, the amount of the corporation's: (i) Current earnings and profits; (ii) Foreign income, war profits, and excess profits taxes paid or accrued;...

  2. 26 CFR 1.6038-2 - Information returns required of United States persons with respect to annual accounting periods...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... foreign income, war profits, and excess profits taxes are determined on the basis of an accounting period... outstanding stock; (10) For the annual accounting period, the amount of the corporation's: (i) Current earnings and profits; (ii) Foreign income, war profits, and excess profits taxes paid or accrued;...

  3. 26 CFR 1.6038-2 - Information returns required of United States persons with respect to annual accounting periods...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... foreign income, war profits, and excess profits taxes are determined on the basis of an accounting period... outstanding stock; (10) For the annual accounting period, the amount of the corporation's: (i) Current earnings and profits; (ii) Foreign income, war profits, and excess profits taxes paid or accrued;...

  4. 26 CFR 1.6038-2 - Information returns required of United States persons with respect to annual accounting periods...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... foreign income, war profits, and excess profits taxes are determined on the basis of an accounting period... outstanding stock; (10) For the annual accounting period, the amount of the corporation's: (i) Current earnings and profits; (ii) Foreign income, war profits, and excess profits taxes paid or accrued;...

  5. Periodization

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on periodization principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of periodization, as well as periodization program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of periodization principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords periodization, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, periodized strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting periodization programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of periodization into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982

  6. Return period of great Himalayan earthquakes in Eastern Nepal: evidence from the Patu and Bardibas strands of the Main Frontal Thrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollinger, L.; Tapponnier, P.; Sapkota, S. N.; Klinger, Y.; Rizza, M.; van der Woerd, J.

    2013-12-01

    The return period of large Himalayan earthquakes remains poorly constrained. Despite the repeated destruction of ancient cities in and afoot the mountain range, attested by historical chronicles, no definitive link between known events and specific segments of the Main Himalayan Thrust system has been established. Furthermore, few paleo-seismological records have unambiguously documented the occurrence of multiple, similar events at the same location along that system. In east-central Nepal, however, primary ruptures and modern surface deformation due to the great 1255 and 1934 earthquakes were recently discovered in the Sir Khola valley. The ruptures are associated with a long record of multiple terraces uplifted by the Main Frontal Thrust. To investigate further the recent slip history of the thrust in that area, we surveyed in detail its two main, overlapping splays: the Patu Thrust to the North, and the Bardibas Thrust, ≈ 5 km to the South. We updated the regional geomorphic and neo-tectonic map of active faulting and folding, acquired three shallow, ≈ 1.5 km-long, 400 m-deep seismic profiles, refreshed a natural rivercut cliff, excavated trenches and dated recent sedimentary records across both structures. In addition to the 1255 and 1934 earthquakes, the uplift of terraces in the hanging-wall of the Patu thrust requires two more events in the last 2400 +/-100 years BP. Given the thrust deep geometry and dip, and the hangingwall uplift rate, each event on the Patu splay appears to have accommodated 9 to 12.5 m of slip. Trenching of a flexural fold scarp on the Bardibas splay suggests that growth events generated transient episodes of proximal colluvial deposition, augmenting the number of past earthquakes recorded to a minimum of 6 in the last 4500 years. Overall, assuming that both splays rupture coevally, our observations thus imply that the average return period of great Himalayan earthquakes in eastern Nepal is between [700-933] years and 907 +/- 150

  7. Return to sexual activity and modern family planning use in the extended postpartum period: an analysis of findings from seventeen countries.

    PubMed

    Borda, Maria R; Winfrey, William; McKaig, Catharine

    2010-12-01

    Unintended pregnancies can lead to poor maternal and child health outcomes. Family planning use during the first year postpartum has the potential to significantly reduce at least some of these unintended pregnancies. This paper examines the relationship of menses return, breastfeeding status, and postpartum duration on return to sexual activity and use of modern family planning among postpartum women. This paper presents results from a secondary data analysis of Demographic and Health Surveys from 17 countries. For postpartum women, the return of menses, breastfeeding status, and postpartum duration are significantly associated with return to sexual activity in at least 10 out of the 17 countries but not consistently associated with family planning use. Only menses return had a significant association with use of modern family planning in the majority of countries. These findings point to the importance of education about pregnancy risk prior to menses return.

  8. Using Stochastically Downscaled Climate Models and Multiproxy Lake Sediment Data to Connect Climatic Variations Over the Past 1000 Years and the History of Prehistoric Maize Farming in Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, M. J.; MacDonald, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    We are investigating the relationship between climatic variations over the past 1000 years and the history of prehistoric maize farming expansion and decline in the American Southwest, with a focus on Utah. We are examining both the downscaled climate models and high resolution analyses of lake cores and dendrochronological data matched with occupation information. We are testing the specific utility of stochastically downscaled general circulation models (viz. ECHO-G) to reconstruct local conditions for sites with documented prehistoric dryland farming through the so-called Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and transition to the Little Ice Age (LIA). We are testing our model-based reconstructions with proxies of temperature and aridity from three subalpine lake sediment cores transecting Utah. We compare the patterns of climate change from the downscaled models and the paleoclimate records to a database of 837 radiocarbon dates over 169 locations of archaeological Native American maize-farmer site occupations in Utah.

  9. A High Resolution Record of Central Asian Climate Change Over the Last 1,000 Years From Lake Issyk-Kul, Kyrgyzstan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricketts, R. D.; Rasmussen, K. A.

    2001-12-01

    Lake Issyk-Kul is a highly oligotrophic, brackish closed-basin lake located in the heart of central Asia. Its continental-interior position along the PAGES-PEP II transect in an area where relatively few records of past climate have been fully exploited makes it an interesting site for paleoclimate research. Sedimentary, geochemical and palynological analyses of sediment recovered from the lake indicate that the sediment contains carbonate, clastic and organic components that suggest that changes in lake-level and climate have affected the basin. Previous work on sediment from the basin has focused on piston cores that contain sediment deposited during the last 1,000 to 11,000 years, while this work focuses on sediment deposited more recently. Multicores were collected from the lake in order to recover the last 1,000 years of the sediment record. Two of these cores (3MC and 8MC) were selected for detailed analyses due to the proximity of their core sites to locations where longer and extensively analyzed piston cores had been recovered. These multicores were analyzed for AMS-radiocarbon and 210Pb ages, grain size, %carbonate, %TOC, carbonate mineralogy, and the stable isotope and trace element content of ostracode shells. Radiocarbon ages indicate that sediment in the relatively short (35 cm) multicores extends back approximately 1,000 years, which gives a sediment accumulation rate (0.35 mm/year) for the multicores that is similar to that found in piston cores collected from the lake. Instrumental records of lake level over the last 80 years and 14C dates from archeological sites indicate that the lake level of Issyk-Kul has fluctuated by approximately 20 meters over the last millennium. A comparison between the archeological/instrumental lake-level record and the climate record contained in sediment from the two multicores indicates some correlations between the records.

  10. Supply of terrestrial organic matter to Amazon Shelf sediments of the last 1000 years deduced from bacteriohopanepolyols and other lipid biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallweit, Wiebke; Mollenhauer, Gesine; Talbot, Helen M.; Wagner, Thomas; Zabel, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    In the Amazon Shelf and Fan region large amounts of particulate material - mainly derived from the Andes - are transported via the Amazon River into the western tropical Atlantic Ocean. Previous studies have shown that the Amazon Fan sediments dominantly consist of terrigenous material. In this study we investigate the distribution of lipid biomarkers for terrigenous and soil organic matter (SOM), in particular bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs), and other lipid biomarkers in a sediment core covering approximately the last 1000 years, recovered on the Amazon Shelf about 350 km north of the Amazon River mouth at about 50 m water depth. Here we present the first evidence for the presence of soil-specific and other BHPs in these sediments. Concentrations of soil BHP within the range of 70 to 220 µg/g TOC are amongst the highest reported to date from marine environments confirming the exceptional role of SOM export from major tropical rivers. Enhanced concentrations of 35-amino-BHPs in the sediments also suggest intense aerobic methane-oxidation, testifying for intense and active microbial cycling of labile organic matter. However, we can not rule out the possibility that this signal is exported from the catchment with the soil-marker BHPs. The concentrations of n-alkanes also show fluctuations, albeit less distinctive and not correlated with the cyclic variations of the BHPs. Very low concentrations of alkenones as molecular markers for prymnesiophyte algae imply comparatively small contributions of marine organic matter. The relative abundances of different groups of BHPs remain rather constant downcore, arguing that the type of SOM being exported over the last >1000 years was uniform. The concentrations of all individual BHPs reveal a cyclic pattern that might be related to changes in the supply of terrestrial material due to climatic fluctuations. This is also supported by the Al/Ti record of our core showing a similar cyclicity as the BHPs. The current observations

  11. Origin and dynamics of suspended sediment during a 10-yr return period flood on the Bès River, Southern French Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evrard, O.; Navratil, O.; Esteves, M.; Legout, C.; Ayrault, S.; Némery, J.; Lefèvre, I.; Bonté, P.; Tacon, S.; Liébault, F.

    2011-12-01

    In mountains, an excessive sediment supply to the rivers typically leads to an increase in water turbidity and a rapid filling of reservoirs in downstream areas. This situation is particularly problematic in regions where reservoirs are used to provide drinking water to large cities or clear water to hydroelectric power plants (e.g., in the French Southern Alps). Sediment source areas must first be delineated and sediment fluxes between hillslopes and the river system must be better understood to implement efficient sediment management. In this context, the Sediment Transport and Erosion Across MountainS STREAMS project (2007-2010) funded by the French National Research Agency (ANR) aimed at understanding the spatial and temporal dynamics of fine sediment at the scale of two mountainous watersheds located in contrasted environments (range, 10 - 1,000 km2). One of the main specificities of this project consisted in combining traditional monitoring techniques and sediment fingerprinting using elemental geochemistry (determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis - INAA, and Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry - ICP-MS) and fallout radionuclides (measured by gamma spectrometry) as potential discriminant properties. The combination of both these approaches provided valuable information on the temporal variability of suspended sediment sources and sediment transfer within the river network. This presentation will focus on the results obtained during a 10-years return period flood that occurred on the Bès River (165 km2), the main tributary of the Bléone River (905 km2), Southern French Alps. Suspended sediment concentrations and yields were estimated using discharge and turbidity monitoring (records with 10 min. time step) and sediment sampling during the flood. Rainfall intensity, volume, distribution and nature were estimated using 3 rain gauges and rainfall radar images. Sediment fingerprinting was conducted using a mixing model based on

  12. 26 CFR 1.6694-4 - Extension of period of collection when tax return preparer pays 15 percent of a penalty for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... tax return preparer before the assessment of either— (i) A penalty for understating tax liability due... than not be sustained on its merits under section 6694(a) or no substantial authority, as applicable... assessment, the IRS will also send, before assessment of either penalty, a 30-day letter to the tax...

  13. 26 CFR 1.6694-4 - Extension of period of collection when tax return preparer pays 15 percent of a penalty for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... examination to the tax return preparer before the assessment of either— (i) A penalty for understating tax... likely than not be sustained on its merits under section 6694(a) or no substantial authority, as... for assessment, the IRS will also send, before assessment of either penalty, a 30-day letter to...

  14. 26 CFR 1.6694-4 - Extension of period of collection when tax return preparer pays 15 percent of a penalty for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... examination to the tax return preparer before the assessment of either— (i) A penalty for understating tax... likely than not be sustained on its merits under section 6694(a) or no substantial authority, as... for assessment, the IRS will also send, before assessment of either penalty, a 30-day letter to...

  15. Identifying coherent patterns of environmental change between multiple, multivariate records: an application to four 1000-year diatom records from Victoria, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, Jonathan J.; Mills, Keely; Barr, Cameron; Sniderman, J. M. Kale; Gell, Peter A.; Karoly, David J.

    2015-07-01

    Empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) of indirect archives of environmental change are increasingly used to identify coherent trends between palaeoclimate records, to separate externally forced patterns from locally driven idiosyncrasies. Lake sediments are particularly suited to such syntheses: they are abundant in most landscapes and record a wide array of information, yet local complexities often conceal or confuse the climate signal recorded at individual sites. Lake sediment parameters usually exhibit non-linear, multivariate and indirect responses to climate, therefore identifying coherent patterns between two or more lake records presents a complex challenge. Ideally, the selection of representative variables should be non-subjective and inclusive of as many different variables as possible, allowing for unexpected correlations between sites. In order to meet such demands, we propose a two-tier ordination procedure whereby site-specific (local) ordinations, obtained using Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA), are nested within a second, regional EOF. Using the local DCAs as representative variables allows the retention of a larger fraction of variance from each site, removes any subjectivity from variable selection and retains the potential for observing multiple, coherent signals from within and between each dataset. We explore this potential using four decadally resolved diatom records from volcanic lakes in Western Victoria, Australia. The records span the 1000 years prior to European settlement in CE 1803. Our analyses reveal at least two coherent patterns of ecological change that are manifest in each of the four datasets, patterns which may have been overlooked by a single-variable, empirical orthogonal function approach. This intra-site coherency provides a valuable step towards understanding multi-decadal hydroclimate variability in southeastern Australia.

  16. 27 CFR 40.355 - Return of manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., a semimonthly tax return on TTB Form 5000.24. A return shall be filed for each semimonthly return... for that particular return period. (b) Waiver from filing. The manufacturer need not file a return for... period and the appropriate TTB officer has granted a waiver from filing in response to a written...

  17. 27 CFR 40.355 - Return of manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., a semimonthly tax return on TTB Form 5000.24. A return shall be filed for each semimonthly return... for that particular return period. (b) Waiver from filing. The manufacturer need not file a return for... period and the appropriate TTB officer has granted a waiver from filing in response to a written...

  18. Tatanka Returns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonelli, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Describes efforts of the InterTribal Bison Cooperative (Rapid City, SD) to reintroduce the buffalo for cultural purposes to American Indian reservations. Explains how the buffalo's return is contributing to community wellness. Discusses career opportunities for both Native and non-Native people in buffalo management. (LP)

  19. Declining Returns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Gerald H.; Perrin, Robert

    1992-01-01

    The Teachers Insurance and Annuities Association's (TIAA) College Retirement and Equity Fund is criticized for its low returns and its chief executive officer's recent salary raise. It is said to be in need of additional regulation and policyholder involvement. A TIAA vice president responds that the analysis given is inaccurate and misleading.…

  20. A 1000-year record of dry conditions in the eastern Canadian prairies reconstructed from oxygen and carbon isotope measurements on Lake Winnipeg sediment organics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buhay, W.M.; Simpson, S.; Thorleifson, H.; Lewis, M.; King, J.; Telka, A.; Wilkinson, Philip M.; Babb, J.; Timsic, S.; Bailey, D.

    2009-01-01

    A short sediment core (162 cm), covering the period AD 920-1999, was sampled from the south basin of Lake Winnipeg for a suite of multi-proxy analyses leading towards a detailed characterisation of the recent millennial lake environment and hydroclimate of southern Manitoba, Canada. Information on the frequency and duration of major dry periods in southern Manitoba, in light of the changes that are likely to occur as a result of an increasingly warming atmosphere, is of specific interest in this study. Intervals of relatively enriched lake sediment cellulose oxygen isotope values (??18Ocellulose) were found to occur from AD 1180 to 1230 (error range: AD 1104-1231 to 1160-1280), 1610-1640 (error range: AD 1571-1634 to 1603-1662), 1670-1720 (error range: AD 1643-1697 to 1692-1738) and 1750-1780 (error range: AD 1724-1766 to 1756-1794). Regional water balance, inferred from calculated Lake Winnipeg water oxygen isotope values (??18Oinf-lw), suggest that the ratio of lake evaporation to catchment input may have been 25-40% higher during these isotopically distinct periods. Associated with the enriched d??18Ocellulose intervals are some depleted carbon isotope values associated with more abundantly preserved sediment organic matter (d??13COM). These suggest reduced microbial oxidation of terrestrially derived organic matter and/or subdued lake productivity during periods of minimised input of nutrients from the catchment area. With reference to other corroborating evidence, it is suggested that the AD 1180-1230, 1610-1640, 1670-1720 and 1750-1780 intervals represent four distinctly drier periods (droughts) in southern Manitoba, Canada. Additionally, lower-magnitude and duration dry periods may have also occurred from 1320 to 1340 (error range: AD 1257-1363), 1530-1540 (error range: AD 1490-1565 to 1498-1572) and 1570-1580 (error range: AD 1531-1599 to 1539-1606). ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. A 1000-year sediment record of recurring hypoxia off the Mississippi River: The potential role of terrestrially-derived organic matter inputs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swarzenski, P.W.; Campbell, P.L.; Osterman, L.E.; Poore, R.Z.

    2008-01-01

    A suite of inorganic and organic geochemical tracers and a low-oxygen tolerant benthic faunal index ('PEB') were measured in a 14C-dated 2+??m long gravity core collected on the Louisiana shelf adjacent to the Mississippi River delta to study potential millennium-scale low-oxygen events. Periodic down-core excursions in the PEB index throughout the core suggest recurring, natural bottom water low-oxygen events that extend back ??? 1000??14C years. Select trace element and biomarker distributions in these same sediments were examined as potential tracers of past hypoxic events and to help distinguish between marine versus terrestrial processes involved in organic carbon production. In discrete sediment horizons where the PEB index was elevated, redox-sensitive vanadium concentrations were consistently depleted, excursions in sedimentary ??13C suggest periodic, preferential terrestrial inputs, and the concentrations of two sterol biomarkers (sitosterol and ??-stigmasterol) also showed concurrent enrichments. If the PEB index successfully records ??? 1000??14C year-scale low-oxygen events, then the distribution of these geochemical tracers can be interpreted to corroborate the view that naturally occurring low-oxygen bottom water conditions have existed on the inner Louisiana continental shelf, not only in recent times, but also over at least the last 1000??14C years. These data support the general hypothesis that historic, low-oxygen bottom water conditions on the Louisiana shelf are likely tied to periods of increased fluvial discharge and associated wetland export in the absence of modern river levees. Enhanced river discharge and associated material export would both stimulate enhanced in situ organic carbon production and foster water column stratification. Such periodic elevated river flows during the last millennium can be linked to climate fluctuations and tropical storm activity. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Millennial Simulation of Isotope-Enable GCM with a Special Focus on Antarctic Climate Variability in the Past 1,000 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Q.; Steig, E. J.; Werner, M.

    2015-12-01

    Our knowledge of changes in Southern Hemisphere (SH) circulation during the last millennium is extremely limited in comparison to the Northern Hemisphere (NH) because of the low density of proxy records in the SH. This period provides a good opportunity for placing the recent and twentieth-century SH circulation change into a longer term context and examining the effect of both the anthropogenic and natural external forces on SH circulation. The instrumental data in the SH can provide only at most 100 years of climate information back to the early twentieth century. Thus, we have to rely on various paleoclimate proxy data to evaluate the model's millennial simulation. Several scientific works have pointed out the existence of climate changes in Antarctica, Australia, New Zealand, and South America and their relationships to the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) and Little Ice Age (LIA). There is an advantage to directly comparing model-generated δ18O and observed δ18O in the ice core. However, the models used to produce the millennial simulations in the AR5 and most model comparison projects do not have the ability to produce water isotopes. So a direct comparison between ice-core data and the millennial simulations is impossible. To fill this gap, we take a new approach to generate an Antarctica-wide δ18O field associate with each millennial run. Using the 100 to 200 year climatology of SSTs and sea-ice conditions during three key periods—MWP (1000-1200), LIA (1500-1700), and PWP (1850-present)—generated by existing millennial run to force our isotope GCM model. To better include the meteorological information in our new experiment, corresponding atmospheric states (U, V and T) for each period could also be retrieved from these existing runs, and the atmospheric field of our isotope-enable GCM can be nudged onto this meteorological pattern. Through this method, we can roughly produce a virtual δ18O pattern in Antarctica for each millennial run, which allows us to

  3. 27 CFR 25.164 - Quarterly and semimonthly returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Preparation and Remittance of Tax Returns... on beer (unless prepaid) by return on Form 5000.24. The brewer shall file Form 5000.24 as a return... file a return on Form 5000.24 for each return period even though no beer was removed for consumption...

  4. 27 CFR 25.164 - Quarterly and semimonthly returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Preparation and Remittance of Tax Returns... on beer (unless prepaid) by return on Form 5000.24. The brewer shall file Form 5000.24 as a return... file a return on Form 5000.24 for each return period even though no beer was removed for consumption...

  5. 27 CFR 25.164 - Quarterly and semimonthly returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Preparation and Remittance of Tax Returns... on beer (unless prepaid) by return on Form 5000.24. The brewer shall file Form 5000.24 as a return... file a return on Form 5000.24 for each return period even though no beer was removed for consumption...

  6. 27 CFR 25.164 - Quarterly and semimonthly returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Preparation and Remittance of Tax Returns... on beer (unless prepaid) by return on Form 5000.24. The brewer shall file Form 5000.24 as a return... file a return on Form 5000.24 for each return period even though no beer was removed for consumption...

  7. The last 1000 years of natural and anthropogenic low-oxygen bottom-water on the Louisiana shelf, Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterman, L.E.; Poore, R.Z.; Swarzenski, P.W.

    2008-01-01

    The relative abundance of three species of low-oxygen tolerant benthic foraminifers, the PEB index, in foraminiferal assemblages from sediment cores is used to trace the history of low-oxygen bottom-water conditions on the Louisiana shelf. Analyses of a network of box cores indicate that the modern zone of chronic seasonal hypoxia off the Mississippi Delta began to develop around 1920 and was well established by 1960. The pattern of development over the last century is consistent with the interpretation that the formation of modern chronic hypoxia is related to anthropogenic activities resulting in increased transport of nutrients to the Louisiana shelf. The PEB index in two gravity- and box core pairs (MRD05-4 and 05-6) indicates that low-oxygen bottom-water events have occurred periodically on the Louisiana Shelf for at least the last 1000 14C years. The pre-1900 low-oxygen bottom-water events are likely caused by intervals of increased Mississippi River discharge and widespread wetland export. The PEB record in gravity cores indicates that the pre-1900 low-oxygen bottom-water events were not as well developed or as geographically extensive as the modern hypoxia zone. We conclude that the development of low-oxygen bottom-water on the Louisiana shelf is a natural process that has been negatively modified by human activities in the last 100 years.

  8. The Point of No Return

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Gordon D.

    2015-01-01

    Bartlett (1958) described the point of no return as a point of irrevocable commitment to action, which was preceded by a period of gradually increasing commitment. As such, the point of no return reflects a fundamental limit on the ability to control thought and action. I review the literature on the point of no return, taking three perspectives. First, I consider the point of no return from the perspective of the controlled act, as a locus in the architecture and anatomy of the underlying processes. I review experiments from the stop-signal paradigm that suggest that the point of no return is located late in the response system. Then I consider the point of no return from the perspective of the act of control that tries to change the controlled act before it becomes irrevocable. From this perspective, the point of no return is a point in time that provides enough “lead time” for the act of control to take effect. I review experiments that measure the response time to the stop signal as the lead time required for response inhibition in the stop-signal paradigm. Finally, I consider the point of no return in hierarchically controlled tasks, in which there may be many points of no return at different levels of the hierarchy. I review experiments on skilled typing that suggest different points of no return for the commands that determine what is typed and the countermands that inhibit typing, with increasing commitment to action the lower the level in the hierarchy. I end by considering the point of no return in perception and thought as well as action. PMID:25633089

  9. 26 CFR 1.6060-1 - Reporting requirements for tax return preparers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... provided in this section. (b) Return period defined. For purposes of this section, the term return period... work during the return period of each tax return preparer employed by the person at any time during... “return period”, see paragraph (b) of this section. (5)(i) For purposes of this section, any...

  10. 26 CFR 1.6060-1 - Reporting requirements for tax return preparers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... provided in this section. (b) Return period defined. For purposes of this section, the term return period... work during the return period of each tax return preparer employed by the person at any time during... “return period”, see paragraph (b) of this section. (5)(i) For purposes of this section, any...

  11. Analysis of the return period and correlation between the reservoir-induced seismic frequency and the water level based on a copula: A case study of the Three Gorges reservoir in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaofei; Zhang, Qiuwen

    2016-11-01

    Studies have considered the many factors involved in the mechanism of reservoir seismicity. Focusing on the correlation between reservoir-induced seismicity and the water level, this study proposes to utilize copula theory to build a correlation model to analyze their relationships and perform the risk analysis. The sequences of reservoir induced seismicity events from 2003 to 2011 in the Three Gorges reservoir in China are used as a case study to test this new methodology. Next, we construct four correlation models based on the Gumbel, Clayton, Frank copula and M-copula functions and employ four methods to test the goodness of fit: Q-Q plots, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test, the minimum distance (MD) test and the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) test. Through a comparison of the four models, the M-copula model fits the sample better than the other three models. Based on the M-copula model, we find that, for the case of a sudden drawdown of the water level, the possibility of seismic frequency decreasing obviously increases, whereas for the case of a sudden rising of the water level, the possibility of seismic frequency increasing obviously increases, with the former being greater than the latter. The seismic frequency is mainly distributed in the low-frequency region (Y ⩽ 20) for the low water level and in the middle-frequency region (20 < Y ≤ 80) for both the medium and high water levels; the seismic frequency in the high-frequency region (Y > 80) is the least likely. For the conditional return period, it can be seen that the period of the high-frequency seismicity is much longer than those of the normal and medium frequency seismicity, and the high water level shortens the periods.

  12. Welfare Returns and Temporary Time Limits: A Proportional Hazard Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Vicky N.; King, William C.; Iaci, Ross

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzes welfare returns for families who leave welfare for a "sit-out" period of 12 months in response to a temporary time limit requirement in Nevada. Findings reveal that relatively few families return for cash assistance after sitting out and that the majority who do return soon after their sit-out period is complete.…

  13. Why Do Staff Return?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnuson, Connie

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 211 returning staff from 25 camps and interviewed 19 returning staff to study factors that influence a counselor's decision to return to camp. Examined the following dimensions of motivation and hygiene factors: (1) stimulation or inspiration; (2) personal; (3) job-related experience; (4) living conditions and camp life; (5) camp…

  14. Economic Returns to Military Service

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    on subsequent earnings, the short time horizon over which vets could return to school and catchup , and employer discrimination against and societal...the military, drop below those of nonveterans for a brief period after discharge, and then catchup and overtake the earnings of nonveterans thereafter... catchup , and employer discrimination against and societal rejection of Vietnam vets as noted in previous sections of this report. In sum, his studies do not

  15. Returning Samples from Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsou, P.; Kanik, I.; Brownlee, D.; McKay, C.; Anbar, A.; Glavin, D.; Yano, H.

    2012-12-01

    search for chemical biosignatures to understand the habitability potential of the subsurface ocean of Enceladus [Glavin et al. 2011]. By assessing the chiral excess among different amino acids, identifying chains of amino acids, isolate distinct sequences of these chains and the same for nucleic acids, we can formulate a new set of hypotheses to address some of the key science questions required for investigating the stage of extraterrestrial life at Enceladus beyond the four factors of habitability. Criticality of Analyses - For extraterrestrial organic matter analyses such as chirality and compound-specific isotopes, the repeatable robustness of laboratory measurements is a necessity. These analyses require a series of chemical extraction and derivatization steps prior to analysis that is adapted to the sample and procedures results-driven. The Stardust mission is an excellent example of the challenges in the analysis of organics. Confirmation of the cometary origin of the amino acid glycine from comet Wild 2 was obtained 3 years after the samples were returned to Earth. This long period of laboratory development allowed several modifications to the extraction protocol, multiple analytical techniques and instrumentations. Reference: Tsou et al., Astrobiology, in press 2012. McKay et al. Astrobiology 2008. Waite et al. Nature V 460 I 7254, 2009. Postberg et al. EPSC 642P 2011. Glavin et al., LPSC, #5002, 2011.

  16. 29 CFR 825.311 - Intent to return to work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intent to return to work. 825.311 Section 825.311 Labor... Intent to return to work. (a) An employer may require an employee on FMLA leave to report periodically on the employee's status and intent to return to work. The employer's policy regarding such reports...

  17. Returning to practice.

    PubMed

    Holland, S

    1994-03-01

    All too often health visitors seeking to return to practice following a career break are met with negative response, writes Stevie Holland. Here she recounts the words and experiences of some of the health visitors who enrolled on the HVA's open learning 'Return to practice' courses in recent years. The health visiting profession needs to encourage the enthusiasm and innovation of returners if it is to survive in today's political climate, she warns.

  18. Assured crew return vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerimele, Christopher J. (Inventor); Ried, Robert C. (Inventor); Peterson, Wayne L. (Inventor); Zupp, George A., Jr. (Inventor); Stagnaro, Michael J. (Inventor); Ross, Brian P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A return vehicle is disclosed for use in returning a crew to Earth from low earth orbit in a safe and relatively cost effective manner. The return vehicle comprises a cylindrically-shaped crew compartment attached to the large diameter of a conical heat shield having a spherically rounded nose. On-board inertial navigation and cold gas control systems are used together with a de-orbit propulsion system to effect a landing near a preferred site on the surface of the Earth. State vectors and attitude data are loaded from the attached orbiting craft just prior to separation of the return vehicle.

  19. Lightning return stroke models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Y. T.; Uman, M. A.; Standler, R. B.

    1980-01-01

    We test the two most commonly used lightning return stroke models, Bruce-Golde and transmission line, against subsequent stroke electric and magnetic field wave forms measured simultaneously at near and distant stations and show that these models are inadequate to describe the experimental data. We then propose a new return stroke model that is physically plausible and that yields good approximations to the measured two-station fields. Using the new model, we derive return stroke charge and current statistics for about 100 subsequent strokes.

  20. Comet nucleus and asteroid sample return missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, Robert G.; Thompson, Roger C.; Starchville, Thomas F., Jr.; Adams, C.; Aldo, A.; Dobson, K.; Flotta, C.; Gagliardino, J.; Lear, M.; Mcmillan, C.

    1992-01-01

    During the 1991-92 academic year, the Pennsylvania State University has developed three sample return missions: one to the nucleus of comet Wild 2, one to the asteroid Eros, and one to three asteroids located in the Main Belt. The primary objective of the comet nucleus sample return mission is to rendezvous with a short period comet and acquire a 10 kg sample for return to Earth. Upon rendezvous with the comet, a tethered coring and sampler drill will contact the surface and extract a two-meter core sample from the target site. Before the spacecraft returns to Earth, a monitoring penetrator containing scientific instruments will be deployed for gathering long-term data about the comet. A single asteroid sample return mission to the asteroid 433 Eros (chosen for proximity and launch opportunities) will extract a sample from the asteroid surface for return to Earth. To limit overall mission cost, most of the mission design uses current technologies, except the sampler drill design. The multiple asteroid sample return mission could best be characterized through its use of future technology including an optical communications system, a nuclear power reactor, and a low-thrust propulsion system. A low-thrust trajectory optimization code (QuickTop 2) obtained from the NASA LeRC helped in planning the size of major subsystem components, as well as the trajectory between targets.

  1. Returning to School for Higher Returns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Seonyoung

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of those respondents in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) who change jobs with an intervening period of education reinvestment, the conventional assumption of linearity of log wages in years of schooling is strongly rejected: a typical reinvestment for the 1980 through 1993 period is associated with a rise of about 3.5…

  2. Electrostatic Return of Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rantanen, R.; Gordon, T.

    2003-01-01

    A Model has been developed capable of calculating the electrostatic return of spacecraft-emitted molecules that are ionized and attracted back to the spacecraft by the spacecraft electric potential on its surfaces. The return of ionized contaminant molecules to charged spacecraft surfaces is very important to all altitudes. It is especially important at geosynchronous and interplanetary environments, since it may be the only mechanism by which contaminants can degrade a surface. This model is applicable to all altitudes and spacecraft geometries. In addition to results of the model will be completed to cover a wide range of potential space systems.

  3. Return to Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Call it physical activity, call it games, or call it play. Whatever its name, it's a place we all need to return to. In the physical education, recreation, and dance professions, we need to redesign programs to address the need for and want of play that is inherent in all of us.

  4. Sustainable Mars Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, Christie; Hancock, Sean; Laub, Joshua; Perry, Christopher; Ash, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The proposed Mars sample return mission will be completed using natural Martian resources for the majority of its operations. The system uses the following technologies: In-Situ Propellant Production (ISPP), a methane-oxygen propelled Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV), a carbon dioxide powered hopper, and a hydrogen fueled balloon system (large balloons and small weather balloons). The ISPP system will produce the hydrogen, methane, and oxygen using a Sabatier reactor. a water electrolysis cell, water extracted from the Martian surface, and carbon dioxide extracted from the Martian atmosphere. Indigenous hydrogen will fuel the balloon systems and locally-derived methane and oxygen will fuel the MAV for the return of a 50 kg sample to Earth. The ISPP system will have a production cycle of 800 days and the estimated overall mission length is 1355 days from Earth departure to return to low Earth orbit. Combining these advanced technologies will enable the proposed sample return mission to be executed with reduced initial launch mass and thus be more cost efficient. The successful completion of this mission will serve as the next step in the advancement of Mars exploration technology.

  5. Assured crew return capability Crew Emergency Return Vehicle (CERV) avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Harvey Dean

    1990-01-01

    The Crew Emergency Return Vehicle (CERV) is being defined to provide Assured Crew Return Capability (ACRC) for Space Station Freedom. The CERV, in providing the standby lifeboat capability, would remain in a dormat mode over long periods of time as would a lifeboat on a ship at sea. The vehicle must be simple, reliable, and constantly available to assure the crew's safety. The CERV must also provide this capability in a cost effective and affordable manner. The CERV Project philosophy of a simple vehicle is to maximize its useability by a physically deconditioned crew. The vehicle reliability goes unquestioned since, when needed, it is the vehicle of last resort. Therefore, its systems and subsystems must be simple, proven, state-of-the-art technology with sufficient redundancy to make it available for use as required for the life of the program. The CERV Project Phase 1'/2 Request for Proposal (RFP) is currently scheduled for release on October 2, 1989. The Phase 1'/2 effort will affirm the existing project requirements or amend and modify them based on a thorough evaluation of the contractor(s) recommendations. The system definition phase, Phase 2, will serve to define CERV systems and subsystems. The current CERV Project schedule has Phase 2 scheduled to begin October 1990. Since a firm CERV avionics design is not in place at this time, the treatment of the CERV avionics complement for the reference configuration is not intended to express a preference with regard to a system or subsystem.

  6. A wavelet based investigation of long memory in stock returns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Pei P.; Galagedera, Don U. A.; Maharaj, Elizabeth A.

    2012-04-01

    Using a wavelet-based maximum likelihood fractional integration estimator, we test long memory (return predictability) in the returns at the market, industry and firm level. In an analysis of emerging market daily returns over the full sample period, we find that long-memory is not present and in approximately twenty percent of 175 stocks there is evidence of long memory. The absence of long memory in the market returns may be a consequence of contemporaneous aggregation of stock returns. However, when the analysis is carried out with rolling windows evidence of long memory is observed in certain time frames. These results are largely consistent with that of detrended fluctuation analysis. A test of firm-level information in explaining stock return predictability using a logistic regression model reveal that returns of large firms are more likely to possess long memory feature than in the returns of small firms. There is no evidence to suggest that turnover, earnings per share, book-to-market ratio, systematic risk and abnormal return with respect to the market model is associated with return predictability. However, degree of long-range dependence appears to be associated positively with earnings per share, systematic risk and abnormal return and negatively with book-to-market ratio.

  7. Changing Returns to Education in Spain During the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vila, Luis-Eduardo; Mora, Jose-Gines

    1998-01-01

    Presents evidence on returns to education for Spanish employees during the 1980s, a period of remarkable structural transformation. Results show a declining payoff to education between 1981 and 1991 for lower and intermediate educational levels. Higher education does not show a reduction in return. Earnings inequality by gender declined noticeably…

  8. Assured Crew Return Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, D. A.; Craig, J. W.; Drone, B.; Gerlach, R. H.; Williams, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    The developmental status is discussed regarding the 'lifeboat' vehicle to enhance the safety of the crew on the Space Station Freedom (SSF). NASA's Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) is intended to provide a means for returning the SSF crew to earth at all times. The 'lifeboat' philosophy is the key to managing the development of the ACRV which further depends on matrixed support and total quality management for implementation. The risk of SSF mission scenarios are related to selected ACRV mission requirements, and the system and vehicle designs are related to these precepts. Four possible ACRV configurations are mentioned including the lifting-body, Apollo shape, Discoverer shape, and a new lift-to-drag concept. The SCRAM design concept is discussed in detail with attention to the 'lifeboat' philosophy and requirements for implementation.

  9. Absconding: reducing failure to return in adult mental health wards

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Jill; Page, Bethan; Ndimande, Nokuthula; Connell, Julie; Vincent, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Failing to return from leave from acute psychiatric wards can have a range of negative consequences for patients, relatives and staff. This study used quality improvement methodology to improve the processes around patient leave and time away from the ward. The aim of this study was to improve rates of on-time return from leave by detained and informal patients by 50%. Following a baseline period, four interventions were implemented and refined using PDSA cycles. The main outcome measure was the proportion of periods of leave where the patient returned on time. Late return was defined as failure to return to the ward within 10 minutes of the agreed time. At baseline, the rate for on-time return was 56.0%; this increased to 87.1% post-intervention, a statistically significant increase of 55.5%. SPC charts show that the interventions were associated with improvements. The improvements have been sustained and the interventions are fully embedded into daily practice. The project was refined to local context and trialled on six additional wards: four of the six wards have successfully implemented the interventions and have on-time return rates of over 90%. This project produced a marked and sustained improvement in patients returning on-time from leave, facilitating a more open discussion between staff and patients about the purpose and value of periods away from the ward. Quality improvement approaches can be effectively applied in mental health settings. PMID:27933157

  10. Returns to Education in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asadullah, Mohammad Niaz

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports labour market returns to education in Bangladesh using data from recent nationwide household survey. Returns are estimated separately for rural and urban samples, males, females and private-sector employees. Substantial heterogeneity in returns is observed; for example, estimates are higher for urban (than rural sample) and…

  11. Energy Vs. Productivity: Diminishing Returns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Energy invested in corn production is compared with food energy returned in calculations by David Pimentel at Cornell University. The rate of return is falling off sharply in this already energy-intensive agriculture. Increased energy input, in the form of fertilizer, would yield far greater returns where agriculture is less sophisticated.…

  12. Sample Return Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williford, K. H.; Allwood, A.; Beegle, L. W.; Bhartia, R.; Flannery, D.; Hoffmann, A.; Mora, M. F.; Orbay, J.; Petrizzo, D. A.; Tuite, M. L., Jr.; Willis, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    The first clear identification of an ancient habitable environment on Mars by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover mission relied on a synthetic analytical approach combining orbital and surface imagery and spectroscopy with sophisticated sample acquisition and handling technology including a rotary percussive drill that provided powdered rock for bulk geochemical analysis [1]. The recent announcement of the instrument package for the proposed NASA Mars2020 rover mission, including micro x-ray fluorescence (PIXL) for elemental mapping as well as scanning ultraviolet laser fluorescence and Raman (SHERLOC) suggests a shift in emphasis of Mars surface science towards spatially resolved geochemical analysis that will support the selection and acquisition of samples for coring, caching, and possible return to Earth for further analysis. During a recent field expedition to investigate Archean and Proterozoic biosignatures in the Pilbara region of Western Australia, we deployed a dry, rotary percussive coring drill with a bit assembly analogous to that being considered for Mars2020. Six targets of varying age and lithology were sampled with the coring drill, and surrounding and adjacent rock samples were collected simultaneously. These samples were subsequently prepared and subsampled for bulk and in situ, spatially resolved analysis using conventional laboratory methods as well as the existing PIXL and SHERLOC platforms currently in development. Here we present new approaches and data from this integrated and ongoing program of "sample return science" designed to simulate, and eventually reduce risk associated with a long-term effort towards Mars sample return. [1] Grotzinger, J.P. et al. 2014. Science 343 DOI: 10.1126/science.1242777.

  13. Titan Science Return Quantification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisbin, Charles R.; Lincoln, William

    2014-01-01

    Each proposal for a NASA mission concept includes a Science Traceability Matrix (STM), intended to show that what is being proposed would contribute to satisfying one or more of the agency's top-level science goals. But the information traditionally provided cannot be used directly to quantitatively compare anticipated science return. We added numerical elements to NASA's STM and developed a software tool to process the data. We then applied this methodology to evaluate a group of competing concepts for a proposed mission to Saturn's moon, Titan.

  14. 26 CFR 31.6071(a)-1 - Time for filing returns and other documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of the first calendar month following the period for which it is made. However, a return may be filed on or before the 10th day of the second calendar month following such period if timely deposits under... regulations in respect of the return period may be made on or before the last day of the first calendar...

  15. Return to Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This video documents the preparations for Shuttle Flight STS-26 with Shuttle Discovery, NASA's return to manned space flight after the Challenger disaster. Footage and descriptions document such changes to the new Shuttle as new joints, improved insulation, and added O-rings to the solid rocket boosters; new safety hardware and procedures such as parachute and sidewire evacuations during liftoff, and new pressure suits; modified landing gear, brakes, and nose wheel steering, as well as a modified landing runway. Also profiled are the 5 member crew of all veteran Shuttle astronauts, the TDRS 3 Satellite to be released from the cargo bay in orbit, and 11 commercial and student experiments to be performed during the mission.

  16. Dealing with returned manuscripts.

    PubMed

    Peh, W C G; Ng, K H

    2009-11-01

    It is useful for authors to learn to deal with returned manuscripts with a rejection decision or a request for revision. Common reasons for rejection include contents outside the scope of the journal or inappropriate for the journal, incomplete submission, poor methodology, faulty experimental design, major flaws in the interpretation of results, extremely poor writing, and duplicated or plagiarised work. Authors should use the editor's and reviewers' comments to improve their manuscripts and resubmit elsewhere. Common reasons for revision requests include minor faults in the methodology, minor inaccuracies in data, inconsistencies among different sections of the manuscript, faulty deductions, data that do not support the conclusions, excessive data or text, poor or excessive illustrations, and poor but salvageable writing. A request for revision should be viewed positively, as it means that there is a possibility that the manuscript may still be potentially publishable, provided that all the editor's and reviewers' comments are addressed.

  17. Awaiting Halley's Return

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyn, Herman M.

    2004-01-01

    When Comet Halley perihelioned in early 1986, there were people still around who had witnessed its previous, 1910 apparition. )Then there is Mark Twain, who was born under the comet in 1835, wished for his demise upon its return, and died one day after it perihelioned in 1910!( I so enjoyed my 1986 view of Halley, that I decided I would like to be among those who see it again when it perihelions in 2061. The big problem with this ambition is that I would need to live to a Guinness Book of World's Records age of 131 years. Now, thanks to Randy Showstack's In Brief news note, ``Farthest, faintest detection of a comet'' (Eos, 16 September 2003), I have been handed a fallback position which, literally, I may be able to live with: a telescopic photo of Halley at aphelion.

  18. Returning to freud.

    PubMed

    Chessick, Richard D

    2010-01-01

    In this article I attempt to renew interest in the importance of Freud's work for both the practice of psychoanalysis and in the training of psychoanalysts. I hope to stimulate readers to return to Freud's writings in detail, which seem to be increasingly neglected these days both in training and in the many conflicting contemporary models of psychoanalysis. I propose that the identity of psychoanalysis can still be based on Freud's work, and his approach can form a fundamental center from which there are various channels of divergence that may be useful when the patient seems to need them. But the centerpiece of our training and our orientation, I suggest, should be the basic principles spelled out in Freud's numerous volumes, in spite of the many changes and contradictions and even outright mistakes and cultural blindness he displays in some instances. I proceed to review some of these basic principles in the hope of persuading the reader to return to Freud again. I present these with some commentary from my own 50 years of clinical experience. I briefly review the clinical cornerstones of Freud's approach as developed in his early books, his controversial papers on technique, and his later emendations, which constitute the actual reality of Freud at work in psychoanalysis (that sometimes--and sometimes wisely--violates his papers on technique), and I discuss his notion of curative factors in psychoanalysis. All of this is to revive an interest in Freud's thought and to emphasize the lasting value of his work, both in its contemporary clinical relevance and as the proposed foundation stone of our identity as psychoanalysts.

  19. Returns on Investment in California County Departments of Public Health

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate the average return on investment for the overall activities of county departments of public health in California. Methods. I gathered the elements necessary to estimate the average return on investment for county departments of public health in California during the period 2001 to 2008–2009. These came from peer-reviewed journal articles published as part of a larger project to develop a method for determining return on investment for public health by using a health economics framework. I combined these elements by using the standard formula for computing return on investment, and performed a sensitivity analysis. Then I compared the return on investment for county departments of public health with the returns on investment generated for various aspects of medical care. Results. The estimated return on investment from $1 invested in county departments of public health in California ranges from $67.07 to $88.21. Conclusions. The very large estimated return on investment for California county departments of public health relative to the return on investment for selected aspects of medical care suggests that public health is a wise investment. PMID:27310339

  20. Aerothermodynamic heating environment and thermal protection materials comparison for manned Mars-earth return vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henline, William D.

    1991-01-01

    The aerothermodynamic environment during the earth return portion of a specific manned Mars mission is studied. Particular attention is given to the earlier smaller crew return capsule and its thermal protection system requirements. Data are presented on the stagnation region of a generic Mars return capsule. Insulation material thicknesses required to maintain allowable structural temperatures throughout a prolonged heat soak period are estimated.

  1. Return Migration to Mexico: Does Health Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Arenas, Erika; Goldman, Noreen; Pebley, Anne R.; Teruel, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    We use data from three rounds of the Mexican Family Life Survey to examine whether migrants in the United States returning to Mexico in the period 2005–2012 have worse health than those remaining in the United States. Despite extensive interest by demographers in health-related selection, this has been a neglected area of study in the literature on U.S.-Mexico migration, and the few results to date have been contradictory and inconclusive. Using five self-reported health variables collected while migrants resided in the United States and subsequent migration history, we find direct evidence of higher probabilities of return migration for Mexican migrants in poor health as well as lower probabilities of return for migrants with improving health. These findings are robust to the inclusion of potential confounders reflecting the migrants’ demographic characteristics, economic situation, family ties, and origin and destination characteristics. We anticipate that in the coming decade, health may become an even more salient issue in migrants’ decisions about returning to Mexico, given the recent expansion in access to health insurance in Mexico. PMID:26385111

  2. Return Migration to Mexico: Does Health Matter?

    PubMed

    Arenas, Erika; Goldman, Noreen; Pebley, Anne R; Teruel, Graciela

    2015-12-01

    We use data from three rounds of the Mexican Family Life Survey to examine whether migrants in the United States returning to Mexico in the period 2005-2012 have worse health than those remaining in the United States. Despite extensive interest by demographers in health-related selection, this has been a neglected area of study in the literature on U.S.-Mexico migration, and the few results to date have been contradictory and inconclusive. Using five self-reported health variables collected while migrants resided in the United States and subsequent migration history, we find direct evidence of higher probabilities of return migration for Mexican migrants in poor health as well as lower probabilities of return for migrants with improving health. These findings are robust to the inclusion of potential confounders reflecting the migrants' demographic characteristics, economic situation, family ties, and origin and destination characteristics. We anticipate that in the coming decade, health may become an even more salient issue in migrants' decisions about returning to Mexico, given the recent expansion in access to health insurance in Mexico.

  3. Multivariate Models of Adult Pacific Salmon Returns

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Brian J.; Peterson, William T.; Beckman, Brian R.; Morgan, Cheryl; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Litz, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Most modeling and statistical approaches encourage simplicity, yet ecological processes are often complex, as they are influenced by numerous dynamic environmental and biological factors. Pacific salmon abundance has been highly variable over the last few decades and most forecasting models have proven inadequate, primarily because of a lack of understanding of the processes affecting variability in survival. Better methods and data for predicting the abundance of returning adults are therefore required to effectively manage the species. We combined 31 distinct indicators of the marine environment collected over an 11-year period into a multivariate analysis to summarize and predict adult spring Chinook salmon returns to the Columbia River in 2012. In addition to forecasts, this tool quantifies the strength of the relationship between various ecological indicators and salmon returns, allowing interpretation of ecosystem processes. The relative importance of indicators varied, but a few trends emerged. Adult returns of spring Chinook salmon were best described using indicators of bottom-up ecological processes such as composition and abundance of zooplankton and fish prey as well as measures of individual fish, such as growth and condition. Local indicators of temperature or coastal upwelling did not contribute as much as large-scale indicators of temperature variability, matching the spatial scale over which salmon spend the majority of their ocean residence. Results suggest that effective management of Pacific salmon requires multiple types of data and that no single indicator can represent the complex early-ocean ecology of salmon. PMID:23326586

  4. The Chilean strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis): Over 1000 years of domestication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cultivated strawberry of South America, Fragaria chiloensis, has a long history. At least two native peoples, the Mapuche and the Picunche began the domestication process. While white- and red-fruited forms were domesticated, the white form was preferred as the red-fruited types are not mention...

  5. Gulf of Mexico dead zone - 1000 year record

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterman, L.E.; Poore, R.Z.; Swarzenski, P.W.

    2010-01-01

    An area of oxygen-depleted bottom- and subsurfacewater (hypoxia = dissolved oxygen Since systematic measurement of the extent of the dead zone was begun in 1985, the overall pattern indicates that the area of the dead zone is increasing. Several studies have concluded that the expansion of the Louisiana shelf dead zone is related to increased nutrients (primarily nitrogen, but possibly also phosphorous) in the Mississippi River drainage basin and is responsible for the degradation of Gulf of Mexico marine habitats. The goal of this research is to augment information on the recent expansion of Louisiana shelf hypoxia and to investigate the temporal and geographic extent of the lowoxygen bottom-water conditions prior to 1985 in sediment cores collected from the Louisiana shelf. We use a specific low-oxygen faunal proxy termed the PEB index based on the cumulative percentage of three foraminifers (= % Protononion atlanticum, + % Epistominella vitrea, + % Buliminella morgani) that has been shown statistically to represent the modern seasonal Louisiana hypoxia zone. Our hypothesis is that the increased relative abundance of PEB species in dated sediment cores accurately tracks past seasonal low-oxygen conditions on the Louisiana shelf.

  6. Major coastal impact induced by a 1000-year storm event

    PubMed Central

    Fruergaard, Mikkel; Andersen, Thorbjørn J.; Johannessen, Peter N.; Nielsen, Lars H.; Pejrup, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Extreme storms and storm surges may induce major changes along sandy barrier coastlines, potentially causing substantial environmental and economic damage. We show that the most destructive storm (the 1634 AD storm) documented for the northern Wadden Sea within the last thousand years both caused permanent barrier breaching and initiated accumulation of up to several metres of marine sand. An aggradational storm shoal and a prograding shoreface sand unit having thicknesses of up to 8 m and 5 m respectively were deposited as a result of the storm and during the subsequent 30 to 40 years long healing phase, on the eroded shoreface. Our results demonstrate that millennial-scale storms can induce large-scale and long-term changes on barrier coastlines and shorefaces, and that coastal changes assumed to take place over centuries or even millennia may occur in association with and be triggered by a single extreme storm event.

  7. 11. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. SITE RETURNS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. SITE RETURNS WERE NUCLEAR WEAPONS SHIPPED TO THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT FROM THE NUCLEAR WEAPON STOCKPILE FOR RETIREMENT, TESTING, OR UPGRADING. FISSILE MATERIALS (PLUTONIUM, URANIUM, ETC.) AND RARE MATERIALS (BERYLLIUM) WERE RECOVERED FOR REUSE, AND THE REMAINDER WAS DISPOSED. (8/7/62) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  8. [Fever after travel return].

    PubMed

    Schedel, I

    2004-06-01

    Between 20 and 70 percent of the 50 million people who travel from the industrialized world to the developing world each year report some illness associated with their travel. Approximately 3 percent of people traveling internationally for short periods (<2 weeks) report fever even after travel. Careful assessment of the travel history, likely incubation period, exposure history, associated signs and symptoms, duration of fever, immunization status use or nonuse of antimalarial chemoprophylaxis, and degree of compliance with a chemoprophylactic regimen, if used, helps to establish the diagnosis. Determining an approximate incubation period can be particular helpful in ruling out possible causes of fever. Specific examinations targeting the individual infection, assumed to be responsible for the development of febrile disease may ascertain diagnosis and lead to effective treatment.

  9. Christmas Island birds returning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Six months after their mass exodus, birds are beginning to return to Christmas Island. Roughly 17 million birds, almost the entire adult bird population, either perished or fled their mid-Pacific atoll home last autumn, leaving behind thousands of nestlings to starve (Eos, April 5, 1983, p. 131). It is believed that the strong El Niño altered the ecology of the surrounding waters and forced the birds to flee. Christmas Island is the world's largest coral atoll.“Ocean and atmosphere scientists are unsure of future directions for the El Niño conditions and cannot now predict what will happen to the birds in the coming months,” said Ralph W. Schreiber, curator of ornithology at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County in California. Heisthe ornithologist who discovered the disappearance. “The recovery of the bird populations depends on the food supply in the waters surrounding the island.” The island's birds feed exclusively on small fish and squid.

  10. Bulgarian Turkish emigration and return.

    PubMed

    Vasileva, D

    1992-01-01

    The main factors which determined the 1989 migration of Turks in Bulgaria back to Turkey are discussed. Background history is provided. After World War I, Turks in bulgaria comprised 10% of the total population. Bulgarian policy had been, up to the 1980s to send Rumelian Turks back, but the policy after 1980 was one of a national revival process to integrate Turks into the developed socialist society. Muslim traditions, customs, and Turkish language were interfered with. International disfavor resulted. In May 1989, the Communist Party declared, in an effort to show democratic ideals, open borders. Thus began the new emigration wave. 369,839 people fled to the Turkish border. 43% of the 9.47 ethnic Turks in bulgaria went to Turkey within 4 months. The numbers decreased in November, and soon after the communist regime ended. New laws were adopted allowing Turks to assume their original Turkish names. The huge migration was clearly political, and as such, the emigrant Turks should be determined as refugees and asylum seekers. The provocation of ethnic Turks was used by the communist regime to solve potential social conflicts. Not only did Turks flee to escape from violence or for religious, cultural, and moral reasons but also due to free market initiatives begun in Turkey in the early 1980s which improved Turkish quality of life. Food and consumer goods were cheaper and economic advantages were perceived. Emigrants were primarily peasants with lower levels of education, professional qualifications, and labor skills. 154,937 (42%) returned to bulgaria and 58% stayed in Turkey to comprise 25% of the former Turkish population. During this period, tensions between countries was high.l Bulgarians actively encouraged emigration and Turkey welcomed it. The emigrants to Turkey were seen as foreigners (muhacir or gocmen) but were received with good will and were readily accepted into menial positions. Emigrants were confronted with political, linguistic, and cultural

  11. Capital Structure and Stock Returns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Ivo

    2004-01-01

    U.S. corporations do not issue and repurchase debt and equity to counteract the mechanistic effects of stock returns on their debt-equity ratios. Thus over one- to five-year horizons, stock returns can explain about 40 percent of debt ratio dynamics. Although corporate net issuing activity is lively and although it can explain 60 percent of debt…

  12. Returns to Education and Economic Transition: An International Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Fan-sing

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares the returns to education in transitional economies in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), such as Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Romania, Russia, Slovak Republic and the Ukraine in the 1990s, and in China in the 1980s and 1990s. In the pre-transition period, the returns to education in the six CEE countries were low at about 2-4%,…

  13. Returning Evidence at the Appeals Council Level. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-02-05

    This final rule adopts the notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) that we published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2015. This final rule revises our rules regarding returning evidence at the Appeals Council (AC) level. Under this final rule, the AC will no longer return additional evidence it receives when the AC determines the additional evidence does not relate to the period on or before the date of the administrative law judge (ALJ) decision.

  14. AKATSUKI returns to Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Masato; Imamura, Takeshi; Ishii, Nobuaki; Abe, Takumi; Kawakatsu, Yasuhiro; Hirose, Chikako; Satoh, Takehiko; Suzuki, Makoto; Ueno, Munetaka; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Iwagami, Naomoto; Watanabe, Shigeto; Taguchi, Makoto; Fukuhara, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Yamada, Manabu; Imai, Masataka; Ohtsuki, Shoko; Uemizu, Kazunori; Hashimoto, George L.; Takagi, Masahiro; Matsuda, Yoshihisa; Ogohara, Kazunori; Sato, Naoki; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Kouyama, Toru; Hirata, Naru; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Yamamoto, Yukio; Horinouchi, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Masaru; Hayashi, Yoshi-Yuki; Kashimura, Hiroki; Sugiyama, Ko-ichiro; Sakanoi, Takeshi; Ando, Hiroki; Murakami, Shin-ya; Sato, Takao M.; Takagi, Seiko; Nakajima, Kensuke; Peralta, Javier; Lee, Yeon Joo; Nakatsuka, Junichi; Ichikawa, Tsutomu; Inoue, Kozaburo; Toda, Tomoaki; Toyota, Hiroyuki; Tachikawa, Sumitaka; Narita, Shinichiro; Hayashiyama, Tomoko; Hasegawa, Akiko; Kamata, Yukio

    2016-05-01

    AKATSUKI is the Japanese Venus Climate Orbiter that was designed to investigate the climate system of Venus. The orbiter was launched on May 21, 2010, and it reached Venus on December 7, 2010. Thrust was applied by the orbital maneuver engine in an attempt to put AKATSUKI into a westward equatorial orbit around Venus with a 30-h orbital period. However, this operation failed because of a malfunction in the propulsion system. After this failure, the spacecraft orbited the Sun for 5 years. On December 7, 2015, AKATSUKI once again approached Venus and the Venus orbit insertion was successful, whereby a westward equatorial orbit with apoapsis of ~440,000 km and orbital period of 14 days was initiated. Now that AKATSUKI's long journey to Venus has ended, it will provide scientific data on the Venusian climate system for two or more years. For the purpose of both decreasing the apoapsis altitude and avoiding a long eclipse during the orbit, a trim maneuver was performed at the first periapsis. The apoapsis altitude is now ~360,000 km with a periapsis altitude of 1000-8000 km, and the period is 10 days and 12 h. In this paper, we describe the details of the Venus orbit insertion-revenge 1 (VOI-R1) and the new orbit, the expected scientific information to be obtained at this orbit, and the Venus images captured by the onboard 1-µm infrared camera, ultraviolet imager, and long-wave infrared camera 2 h after the successful initiation of the VOI-R1.

  15. Long memory behavior of returns after intraday financial jumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behfar, Stefan Kambiz

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, characterization of intraday financial jumps and time dynamics of returns after jumps is investigated, and will be analytically and empirically shown that intraday jumps are power-law distributed with the exponent 1 < μ < 2; in addition, returns after jumps show long-memory behavior. In the theory of finance, it is important to be able to distinguish between jumps and continuous sample path price movements, and this can be achieved by introducing a statistical test via calculating sums of products of returns over small period of time. In the case of having jump, the null hypothesis for normality test is rejected; this is based on the idea that returns are composed of mixture of normally-distributed and power-law distributed data (∼ 1 /r 1 + μ). Probability of rejection of null hypothesis is a function of μ, which is equal to one for 1 < μ < 2 within large intraday sample size M. To test this idea empirically, we downloaded S&P500 index data for both periods of 1997-1998 and 2014-2015, and showed that the Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function of jump return is power-law distributed with the exponent 1 < μ < 2. There are far more jumps in 1997-1998 as compared to 2015-2016; and it represents a power law exponent in 2015-2016 greater than one in 1997-1998. Assuming that i.i.d returns generally follow Poisson distribution, if the jump is a causal factor, high returns after jumps are the effect; we show that returns caused by jump decay as power-law distribution. To test this idea empirically, we average over the time dynamics of all days; therefore the superposed time dynamics after jump represent a power-law, which indicates that there is a long memory with a power-law distribution of return after jump.

  16. FRS Geospatial Return File Format

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Geospatial Return File Format describes format that needs to be used to submit latitude and longitude coordinates for use in Envirofacts mapping applications. These coordinates are stored in the Geospatail Reference Tables.

  17. Another Kind of Returning Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Judith B.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the needs of women who are returning to school for adult basic education. Provides suggestions for meeting the needs of this group in terms of professional action, counselor education, teacher training, grants, financial support, publication, and volunteerism. (JAC)

  18. Malaria in a returning traveler from Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Kavanaugh, Michael; Bavaro, Mary

    2014-06-01

    Malaria in Jamaica is a real, but uncommon entity and poses a health risk to our Department of Defense personnel, which should not be overlooked in returning travelers. Malaria in Jamaica was actually considered eradicated in the 1960s, but there has been a reemergence attributed to the combination of Haitian nationals as well as endemic Anopheles mosquitoes in the Kingston area. Our facility recently admitted a 33-year-old Marine who had two Emergency Department visits before being evaluated for malaria. He had returned from Kingston 14 days before presentation, which included fever, night sweats, and headache followed by a period of malaise prior to the next paroxysm. He was found to have a 1.5% parasitemia with Malaria falciparum that borders on severe malaria. Fortunately, he was treated effectively with atovaquone/proguanil and had a favorable outcome. The Center for Disease Control acknowledges that malaria is present in Jamaica, but only recommends mosquito avoidance without prophylaxis. This case emphasizes the need to consider malaria in differential diagnosis in Jamaica as well as in any returning travelers with fever because of broad global travel.

  19. Earnings Quality Measures and Excess Returns.

    PubMed

    Perotti, Pietro; Wagenhofer, Alfred

    2014-06-01

    This paper examines how commonly used earnings quality measures fulfill a key objective of financial reporting, i.e., improving decision usefulness for investors. We propose a stock-price-based measure for assessing the quality of earnings quality measures. We predict that firms with higher earnings quality will be less mispriced than other firms. Mispricing is measured by the difference of the mean absolute excess returns of portfolios formed on high and low values of a measure. We examine persistence, predictability, two measures of smoothness, abnormal accruals, accruals quality, earnings response coefficient and value relevance. For a large sample of US non-financial firms over the period 1988-2007, we show that all measures except for smoothness are negatively associated with absolute excess returns, suggesting that smoothness is generally a favorable attribute of earnings. Accruals measures generate the largest spread in absolute excess returns, followed by smoothness and market-based measures. These results lend support to the widespread use of accruals measures as overall measures of earnings quality in the literature.

  20. Earnings Quality Measures and Excess Returns

    PubMed Central

    Perotti, Pietro; Wagenhofer, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how commonly used earnings quality measures fulfill a key objective of financial reporting, i.e., improving decision usefulness for investors. We propose a stock-price-based measure for assessing the quality of earnings quality measures. We predict that firms with higher earnings quality will be less mispriced than other firms. Mispricing is measured by the difference of the mean absolute excess returns of portfolios formed on high and low values of a measure. We examine persistence, predictability, two measures of smoothness, abnormal accruals, accruals quality, earnings response coefficient and value relevance. For a large sample of US non-financial firms over the period 1988–2007, we show that all measures except for smoothness are negatively associated with absolute excess returns, suggesting that smoothness is generally a favorable attribute of earnings. Accruals measures generate the largest spread in absolute excess returns, followed by smoothness and market-based measures. These results lend support to the widespread use of accruals measures as overall measures of earnings quality in the literature. PMID:26300582

  1. Leaving from and returning to nursing practice: contributing factors.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Isabel; Taua, Chris

    2009-07-01

    Many nurses leave nursing and never return. Others return after a period of time. Given the global shortage of nurses a better understanding of these movements is needed. The present study focused on nurses who had been out of nursing for more than five years, and explored factors that influenced their leaving and return to practice. All the nurses who had undertaken a Competency Assessment Programme at a given New Zealand tertiary institution during 2005 were invited to participate. Of the 70 questionnaires mailed out 32 (44.5%) were completed and returned. Quantitative data were analysed using Microsoft Excel, and the qualitative data were coded and analysed by means of content analysis. For each, leaving and returning, three key issues emerged. Nurses left for personal reasons, to seek a career change, or because of poor working conditions. They returned when they had the personal freedom to do so, for fiscal reasons, or because they were motivated by some sense of unfinished business. These findings indicate that it is important for educators involved with Competency Assessment Programmes to collaborate with employers in ensuring that there are opportunities for re-entry to positive work environments, with a degree of flexibility that suits the demographic characteristics of those nurses returning to practice.

  2. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ... to skip periods or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...

  3. Return to work following ileostomy.

    PubMed

    Whates, P D; Irving, M

    1984-08-01

    The experiences of 1033 members of the 51 English divisions of the Ileostomy Association of Great Britain and Ireland have been analysed in respect of their return to work after construction of an ileostomy. Although there was a fall in the number of patients returning to work after operation this was often for reasons unrelated to surgery. The majority of those returning to work resumed work with the same employer and usually in the same post. Fifty-nine (5.7 per cent) patients began work for the first time after operation, including 33 (3.2 per cent) who were previously inactive although of working age. Analysis of occupational class shows that, although a number of patients initially resumed work within a lower class, once established in employment successful career advancement was possible. Problems in the gaining or resumption of employment were reported by 56 (5.4 per cent) patients. In 22 (2.1 per cent) patients, almost all approaching or above retirement age, successful surgery resulted in a decision not to return to employment. An ileostomy is no barrier to successful return to work in nearly all occupations, and is accomplished by the majority of patients without major difficulty.

  4. Probability distribution of extreme share returns in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zin, Wan Zawiah Wan; Safari, Muhammad Aslam Mohd; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Yie, Wendy Ling Shin

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the suitable probability distribution to model the extreme share returns in Malaysia. To achieve this, weekly and monthly maximum daily share returns are derived from share prices data obtained from Bursa Malaysia over the period of 2000 to 2012. The study starts with summary statistics of the data which will provide a clue on the likely candidates for the best fitting distribution. Next, the suitability of six extreme value distributions, namely the Gumbel, Generalized Extreme Value (GEV), Generalized Logistic (GLO) and Generalized Pareto (GPA), the Lognormal (GNO) and the Pearson (PE3) distributions are evaluated. The method of L-moments is used in parameter estimation. Based on several goodness of fit tests and L-moment diagram test, the Generalized Pareto distribution and the Pearson distribution are found to be the best fitted distribution to represent the weekly and monthly maximum share returns in Malaysia stock market during the studied period, respectively.

  5. Sample Return Primer and Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrow, Kirk; Cheuvront, Allan; Faris, Grant; Hirst, Edward; Mainland, Nora; McGee, Michael; Szalai, Christine; Vellinga, Joseph; Wahl, Thomas; Williams, Kenneth; Lee, Gentry; Duxbury, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This three-part Sample Return Primer and Handbook provides a road map for conducting the terminal phase of a sample return mission. The main chapters describe element-by-element analyses and trade studies, as well as required operations plans, procedures, contingencies, interfaces, and corresponding documentation. Based on the experiences of the lead Stardust engineers, the topics include systems engineering (in particular range safety compliance), mission design and navigation, spacecraft hardware and entry, descent, and landing certification, flight and recovery operations, mission assurance and system safety, test and training, and the very important interactions with external support organizations (non-NASA tracking assets, landing site support, and science curation).

  6. 28 CFR 540.24 - Returned mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Returned mail. 540.24 Section 540.24... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.24 Returned mail. Staff shall open and inspect for contraband all undelivered mail returned to an institution by the Post Office before returning it to...

  7. 28 CFR 540.24 - Returned mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Returned mail. 540.24 Section 540.24... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.24 Returned mail. Staff shall open and inspect for contraband all undelivered mail returned to an institution by the Post Office before returning it to...

  8. 28 CFR 540.24 - Returned mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Returned mail. 540.24 Section 540.24... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.24 Returned mail. Staff shall open and inspect for contraband all undelivered mail returned to an institution by the Post Office before returning it to...

  9. 28 CFR 540.24 - Returned mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Returned mail. 540.24 Section 540.24... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.24 Returned mail. Staff shall open and inspect for contraband all undelivered mail returned to an institution by the Post Office before returning it to...

  10. 28 CFR 540.24 - Returned mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Returned mail. 540.24 Section 540.24... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.24 Returned mail. Staff shall open and inspect for contraband all undelivered mail returned to an institution by the Post Office before returning it to...

  11. Uncertain Educational Returns in a Developing Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohapatra, Sandeep; Luckert, Martin K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper estimates the distribution of educational returns by gender for India. While previous studies focus on mean returns, the variance of educational returns has important implications for policy-making and micro-level decision making with respect to education. If the variance of educational returns is large, it can leave large sections of…

  12. Measuring the Earnings Returns to Lifelong Learning in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanden, Jo; Buscha, Franz; Sturgis, Patrick; Urwin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the earnings returns to learning that takes place following the conventional "school-to-work" stage of the life-course. We operationalise such "lifelong learning" as the attainment of certified qualifications in adulthood, following the completion of the first period of continuous full-time education. Using…

  13. Analysing Enterprise Returns on Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moy, Janelle; McDonald, Rod

    Recent Australian and overseas studies on evaluation of enterprises' return on training investment (ROTI) were reviewed to identify key issues in encouraging increased evaluation of training benefits by enterprises and successful approaches that may inform future "enterprise-friendly" studies of ROTI. It was concluded that more…

  14. Neurocognitive Performance: Returning to Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Larry W.; McIntire, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Athletes who suffer from concussions under report their symptoms in order to expedite their return to competition. Athletic trainers and coaches must be aware of what is going on with athletes, even if it means requiring them to refrain from competition. Ninety percent of concussions are minor and can be difficult to diagnosis. There is a lack of…

  15. The Returns to Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agan, Amanda Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Almost half of postsecondary students are currently enrolled in community colleges. These institutions imply that even amongst students with the same degree outcome there is considerable heterogeneity in the path taken to get there. I estimate the life-cycle private and social returns to the different postsecondary paths and sequential decisions…

  16. Comet coma sample return instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albee, A. L.; Brownlee, Don E.; Burnett, Donald S.; Tsou, Peter; Uesugi, K. T.

    1994-01-01

    The sample collection technology and instrument concept for the Sample of Comet Coma Earth Return Mission (SOCCER) are described. The scientific goals of this Flyby Sample Return are to return to coma dust and volatile samples from a known comet source, which will permit accurate elemental and isotopic measurements for thousands of individual solid particles and volatiles, detailed analysis of the dust structure, morphology, and mineralogy of the intact samples, and identification of the biogenic elements or compounds in the solid and volatile samples. Having these intact samples, morphologic, petrographic, and phase structural features can be determined. Information on dust particle size, shape, and density can be ascertained by analyzing penetration holes and tracks in the capture medium. Time and spatial data of dust capture will provide understanding of the flux dynamics of the coma and the jets. Additional information will include the identification of cosmic ray tracks in the cometary grains, which can provide a particle's process history and perhaps even the age of the comet. The measurements will be made with the same equipment used for studying micrometeorites for decades past; hence, the results can be directly compared without extrapolation or modification. The data will provide a powerful and direct technique for comparing the cometary samples with all known types of meteorites and interplanetary dust. This sample collection system will provide the first sample return from a specifically identified primitive body and will allow, for the first time, a direct method of matching meteoritic materials captured on Earth with known parent bodies.

  17. Comet coma sample return instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albee, A. L.; Brownlee, Don E.; Burnett, Donald S.; Tsou, Peter; Uesugi, K. T.

    The sample collection technology and instrument concept for the Sample of Comet Coma Earth Return Mission (SOCCER) are described. The scientific goals of this Flyby Sample Return are to return to coma dust and volatile samples from a known comet source, which will permit accurate elemental and isotopic measurements for thousands of individual solid particles and volatiles, detailed analysis of the dust structure, morphology, and mineralogy of the intact samples, and identification of the biogenic elements or compounds in the solid and volatile samples. Having these intact samples, morphologic, petrographic, and phase structural features can be determined. Information on dust particle size, shape, and density can be ascertained by analyzing penetration holes and tracks in the capture medium. Time and spatial data of dust capture will provide understanding of the flux dynamics of the coma and the jets. Additional information will include the identification of cosmic ray tracks in the cometary grains, which can provide a particle's process history and perhaps even the age of the comet. The measurements will be made with the same equipment used for studying micrometeorites for decades past; hence, the results can be directly compared without extrapolation or modification. The data will provide a powerful and direct technique for comparing the cometary samples with all known types of meteorites and interplanetary dust. This sample collection system will provide the first sample return from a specifically identified primitive body and will allow, for the first time, a direct method of matching meteoritic materials captured on Earth with known parent bodies.

  18. Heat Pipe Blocks Return Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eninger, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Metal-foil reed valve in conventional slab-wick heat pipe limits heat flow to one direction only. With sink warmer than source, reed is forced closed and fluid returns to source side through annular transfer wick. When this occurs, wick slab on sink side of valve dries out and heat pipe ceases to conduct heat.

  19. Cells anticipate periodic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2009-03-01

    We show that an amoeboid organism can anticipate the timing of periodic events. The plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum moves rapidly under favourable conditions, but stops moving when transferred to less-favourable conditions. Plasmodia exposed to unfavourable conditions, presented in three consecutive pulses at constant intervals, reduced their locomotive speed in response to each episode. When subsequently subjected to favourable conditions, the plasmodia spontaneously reduced their locomotive speed at the time point when the next unfavourable episode would have occurred. This implied anticipation of impending environmental change. After this behaviour had been evoked several times, the locomotion of the plasmodia returned to normal; however, the anticipatory response could subsequently be induced by a single unfavourable pulse, implying recall of the memorized periodicity. We explored the mechanisms underlying these behaviours from a dynamical systems perspective. Our results hint at the cellular origins of primitive intelligence and imply that simple dynamics might be sufficient to explain its emergence.

  20. Phobos Sample Return: Next Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, Lev; Martynov, Maxim; Zakharov, Alexander; Korablev, Oleg; Ivanov, Alexey; Karabadzak, George

    The Martian moons still remain a mystery after numerous studies by Mars orbiting spacecraft. Their study cover three major topics related to (1) Solar system in general (formation and evolution, origin of planetary satellites, origin and evolution of life); (2) small bodies (captured asteroid, or remnants of Mars formation, or reaccreted Mars ejecta); (3) Mars (formation and evolution of Mars; Mars ejecta at the satellites). As reviewed by Galimov [2010] most of the above questions require the sample return from the Martian moon, while some (e.g. the characterization of the organic matter) could be also answered by in situ experiments. There is the possibility to obtain the sample of Mars material by sampling Phobos: following to Chappaz et al. [2012] a 200-g sample could contain 10-7 g of Mars surface material launched during the past 1 mln years, or 5*10-5 g of Mars material launched during the past 10 mln years, or 5*1010 individual particles from Mars, quantities suitable for accurate laboratory analyses. The studies of Phobos have been of high priority in the Russian program on planetary research for many years. Phobos-88 mission consisted of two spacecraft (Phobos-1, Phobos-2) and aimed the approach to Phobos at 50 m and remote studies, and also the release of small landers (long-living stations DAS). This mission implemented the program incompletely. It was returned information about the Martian environment and atmosphere. The next profect Phobos Sample Return (Phobos-Grunt) initially planned in early 2000 has been delayed several times owing to budget difficulties; the spacecraft failed to leave NEO in 2011. The recovery of the science goals of this mission and the delivery of the samples of Phobos to Earth remain of highest priority for Russian scientific community. The next Phobos SR mission named Boomerang was postponed following the ExoMars cooperation, but is considered the next in the line of planetary exploration, suitable for launch around 2022. A

  1. Facilitating Successful Re-Entries in the United States: Training and Development for Women Returners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Tomika W.

    2013-01-01

    Women returners are women who leave the paid workforce for a period of time following the birth of their child(ren) and subsequently seek to return to paid employment. As women returners attempt to re-enter the workforce, many of them are in need of updating their skills or re-training in a new set of skills. In this study, the training and…

  2. The Genesis Solar Wind Sample Return Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiens, Roger C.; Burnett, Donald S.; Neugebauer, Marcia; Sasaki, Chester; Sevilla, Donald; Stansbery, Eileen; Clark, Ben; Smith, Nick; Oldham, Lloyd

    1990-01-01

    The Genesis spacecraft was launched on August 8 from Cape Canaveral on a journey to become the first spacecraft to return from interplanetary space. The fifth in NASA's line of low-cost Discovery-class missions, its goal is to collect samples of solar wind and return them to Earth for detailed isotopic and elemental analysis. The spacecraft is to collect solar wind for over two years, while circling the L1 point 1.5 million km sunward of the earth, before heading back for a capsule-style re-entry in September, 2004. After parachute deployment, a mid-air helicopter recovery will be used to avoid a hard landing. The mission has been in the planning stages for over ten years. Its cost, including development, mission operations, and sample analysis, is approximately $209M. The Genesis science team, headed by principal investigator Donald Burnett of Caltech, consists of approximately 20 co-investigators from universities and science centers around the country and internationally. The spacecraft consists of a relatively flat spacecraft bus containing most of the subsystem components, situated below a sample return capsule (SRC) which holds the solar-wind collection substrates and an electrostatic solar wind concentrator. Some of the collectors are exposed throughout the collection period, for a sample of bulk solar wind, while others are exposed only to certain solar wind regimes, or types of flow. Ion and electron spectrometers feed raw data to the spacecraft control and data-handling (C&DH) unit, which determines ion moments and electron flux geometries in real time. An algorithm is used to robotically decide between interstream (IS), coronal hole (CH), and coronal mass ejection (CME) regimes, and to control deployment of the proper arrays to sample these wind regimes independently. This is the first time such a solar-wind decision algorithm has been used on board a spacecraft.

  3. Mars Double-Flyby Free Returns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jesick, Mark

    2015-01-01

    A subset of Earth-originating Mars double-flyby ballistic trajectories is documented. The subset consists of those trajectories that, after the first Mars flyby, perform a half-revolution transfer with Mars before returning to Earth. This class of free returns is useful for both human and robotic Mars missions because of its low geocentric energy at departure and arrival, and because of its extended stay time in the vicinity of Mars. Ballistic opportunities are documented over Earth departure dates ranging from 2015 through 2100. The mission is viable over three or four consecutive Mars synodic periods and unavailable for the next four, with the pattern repeating approximately every 15 years. Over the remainder of the century, a minimum Earth departure hyperbolic excess speed of 3.16 km/s, a minimum Earth atmospheric entry speed of 11.47 km/s, and a minimum flight time of 904 days are observed. The algorithm used to construct these trajectories is presented along with several examples.

  4. Parents Returning to Work: Evaluation of Grant Recipient Outcomes 2004-05, 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrier, Fran; Kellock, Peter; Burke, Gerald

    2007-01-01

    The Parents Returning to Work Program (PRTW) is a Victorian government initiative which commenced in 2003. It provides grants to assist eligible parents who wish to return to paid employment after a period of caring for children to participate in training that will increase their work skills and job prospects. This evaluation aimed to review the…

  5. Changes in the Returns to Schooling 1991-2002: Evidence from the British Household Panel Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuinness, Seamus; Bennett, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    The present paper uses British Household Panel Survey data from 1991 to 2002 to assess the extent to which labour market returns have been influenced by changes in the nature of educational supply. We find that whilst there have been substantial shifts in the returns to schooling over the period, these effects are much more pronounced for younger…

  6. Returns to Education in the Economic Transition: A Systematic Assessment Using Comparable Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flabbi, Luca; Paternostro, Stefano; Tiongson, Erwin R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies a sample of economies in transition to verify the assertion that returns to schooling increase as an economy transitions to a market environment. This claim has been difficult to assess in the past as the empirical evidence so far has covered only a few countries over short time periods. A number of studies find that returns to…

  7. Period Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may also have other symptoms, such as lower back pain, nausea, diarrhea, and headaches. Period pain is not ... Taking a hot bath Doing relaxation techniques, including yoga and meditation You might also try taking over- ...

  8. Periodized wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Schlossnagle, G.; Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.

    1993-12-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and contrasted against their counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrate by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and several tabulated values are included.

  9. Quantifying Stock Return Distributions in Financial Markets

    PubMed Central

    Botta, Federico; Moat, Helen Susannah; Stanley, H. Eugene; Preis, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Being able to quantify the probability of large price changes in stock markets is of crucial importance in understanding financial crises that affect the lives of people worldwide. Large changes in stock market prices can arise abruptly, within a matter of minutes, or develop across much longer time scales. Here, we analyze a dataset comprising the stocks forming the Dow Jones Industrial Average at a second by second resolution in the period from January 2008 to July 2010 in order to quantify the distribution of changes in market prices at a range of time scales. We find that the tails of the distributions of logarithmic price changes, or returns, exhibit power law decays for time scales ranging from 300 seconds to 3600 seconds. For larger time scales, we find that the distributions tails exhibit exponential decay. Our findings may inform the development of models of market behavior across varying time scales. PMID:26327593

  10. STS-32 Return to KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia, returning to KSC after the successful STS-32 mission, is poised atop the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) as the duo fly by the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at KSC January 26. Columbia, carrying the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) in its payload bay, was compleitng a two-day ferry flight from Edwards Air Force Base, California. Landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility occurred a few moments later at 3:30 p.m.

  11. The returning traveler with fever.

    PubMed

    Saxe, S E; Gardner, P

    1992-06-01

    The febrile returning traveler tests a clinician's knowledge of tropical medicine as well as skills in differential diagnosis. A thorough history with special emphasis placed on the patient's travel itinerary and knowledge of the geographic location and incubation times of certain tropical diseases will narrow the diagnostic possibilities. This will allow the clinician to focus the diagnostic work-up and make wise choices of laboratory tests and procedures.

  12. Asteroid Return Mission Feasibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.; Gershman, Robert; Landau, Damon; Polk, James; Porter, Chris; Yeomans, Don; Allen, Carlton; Williams, Willie; Asphaug, Erik

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation into the technological feasibility of finding, characterizing, robotically capturing, and returning an entire Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) to the International Space Station (ISS) for scientific investigation, evaluation of its resource potential, determination of its internal structure and other aspects important for planetary defense activities, and to serve as a testbed for human operations in the vicinity of an asteroid. Reasonable projections suggest that several dozen candidates NEAs in the size range of interest (approximately 2-m diameter) will be known before the end of the decade from which a suitable target could be selected. The conceptual mission objective is to return an approximately 10,000-kg asteroid to the ISS in a total flight time of approximately 5 years using a single Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle. Preliminary calculations indicate that this could be accomplished using a solar electric propulsion (SEP) system with high-power Hall thrusters and a maximum power into the propulsion system of approximately 40 kW. The SEP system would be used to provide all of the post-launch delta V. The asteroid would have an unrestricted Earth return Planetary Protection categorization, and would be curated at the ISS where numerous scientific and resource utilization experiments would be conducted. Asteroid material brought to the ground would be curated at the NASA Johnson Space Center. This preliminary study identified several areas where additional work is required, but no show stoppers were identified for the approach that would return an entire 10,000-kg asteroid to the ISS in a mission that could be launched by the end of this decade.

  13. Challenging Return to Play Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Asplund, Chad A.; O’Connor, Francis G.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Sports medicine providers frequently return athletes to play after sports-related injuries and conditions. Many of these conditions have guidelines or medical evidence to guide the decision-making process. Occasionally, however, sports medicine providers are challenged with complex medical conditions for which there is little evidence-based guidance and physicians are instructed to individualize treatment; included in this group of conditions are exertional heat stroke (EHS), exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER), and exertional collapse associated with sickle cell trait (ECAST). Evidence Acquisition: The MEDLINE (2000-2015) database was searched using the following search terms: exertional heat stroke, exertional rhabdomyolysis, and exertional collapse associated with sickle cell trait. References from consensus statements, review articles, and book chapters were also utilized. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: These entities are unique in that they may cause organ system damage capable of leading to short- or long-term detriments to physical activity and may not lend to complete recovery, potentially putting the athlete at risk with premature return to play. Conclusion: With a better understanding of the pathophysiology of EHS, ER, and ECAST and the factors associated with recovery, better decisions regarding return to play may be made. PMID:26896216

  14. Tick size and stock returns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Töyli, Juuso; Kaski, Kimmo

    2009-02-01

    Tick size is an important aspect of the micro-structural level organization of financial markets. It is the smallest institutionally allowed price increment, has a direct bearing on the bid-ask spread, influences the strategy of trading order placement in electronic markets, affects the price formation mechanism, and appears to be related to the long-term memory of volatility clustering. In this paper we investigate the impact of tick size on stock returns. We start with a simple simulation to demonstrate how continuous returns become distorted after confining the price to a discrete grid governed by the tick size. We then move on to a novel experimental set-up that combines decimalization pilot programs and cross-listed stocks in New York and Toronto. This allows us to observe a set of stocks traded simultaneously under two different ticks while holding all security-specific characteristics fixed. We then study the normality of the return distributions and carry out fits to the chosen distribution models. Our empirical findings are somewhat mixed and in some cases appear to challenge the simulation results.

  15. The Gulliver sample return mission to Deimos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britt, D. T.; Robinson, M.; Gulliver Team

    The Martian moon Deimos presents a unique opportunity for a sample return mission. Deimos is spectrally analogous to type D asteroids, which are thought to be composed of highly primitive carbonaceous material that originated in the outer asteroid belt. It also is in orbit around Mars and has been accumulating material ejected from the Martian surface ever since the earliest periods of Martian history, over 4.4 Gyrs ago. There are a number of factors that make sample return from Deimos extremely attractive. It is Better: Deimos is a repository for two kinds of extremely significant and scientifically exciting ancient samples: (1) Primitive spectral D-type material that may have accreted in the outer asteroid belt and Trojan swarm. This material samples the composition of solar nebula well outside the zone of terrestrial planets and provides a direct sample of primitive material so common past 3 AU but so uncommon in the meteorite collection. (2) Ancient Mars, which could include the full range of Martian crustal and upper mantle material from the early differentiation and crustal-forming epoch as well as samples from the era of high volatile flux, thick atmosphere, and possible surface water. The Martian material on Deimos would be dominated by ejecta from the ancient crust of Mars, delivered during the Noachian Period of basin-forming impacts and heavy bombardment. It is Closer: Compared to other primitive D-type asteroids, Deimos is by far the most accessible. Because of its orbit around Mars, Deimos is far closer than any other D asteroid. It is Safer: Deimos is also by far the safest small body for sample return yet imaged. It is an order of magnitude less rocky than Eros and the NEAR-Shoemaker mission succeeded in landing on Eros with a spacecraft not designed for landing and proximity maneuvering. Because of Viking imagery we already know a great deal about the surface roughness of Deimos. It is known to be very smooth and have moderate topography and

  16. Nonspecific low back pain and return to work.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trang H; Randolph, David C

    2007-11-15

    As many as 90 percent of persons with occupational nonspecific low back pain are able to return to work in a relatively short period of time. As long as no "red flags" exist, the patient should be encouraged to remain as active as possible, minimize bed rest, use ice or heat compresses, take anti-inflammatory or analgesic medications if desired, participate in home exercises, and return to work as soon as possible. Medical and surgical intervention should be minimized when abnormalities on physical examination are lacking and the patient is having difficulty returning to work after four to six weeks. Personal and occupational psychosocial factors should be addressed thoroughly, and a multidisciplinary rehabilitation program should be strongly considered to prevent delayed recovery and chronic disability. Patient advocacy should include preventing unnecessary and ineffective medical and surgical interventions, prolonged work loss, joblessness, and chronic disability.

  17. Exploring the Processes of Self-Development Encountered by Adult Returners to Higher Education: A Lifespan Psychology Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Evidence indicates that non-traditional adult returners describe returning to education as a period of self-development and growth. However, lifespan psychology perspectives also show that successful growth and change involves periods of conflict. This paper will explore both the nature of self-development and conflicts experienced by a sample of…

  18. Maternity Leave: Tips for Returning to Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... telecommuting or working part time. Prepare to continue breast-feeding. If you plan to breast-feed after returning ... or nearby child care, consider the logistics of breast-feeding your baby during the workday. Set a return- ...

  19. Returning to sports after a back injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000518.htm Returning to sports after a back injury To use the sharing ... Back pain - returning to sports Which Type of Sport is Best? In deciding when and if to ...

  20. 5 CFR 1650.5 - Returned funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Returned funds. 1650.5 Section 1650.5 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN General § 1650.5 Returned funds. If a withdrawal is returned as undeliverable, the TSP...

  1. Heterogeneity in Schooling Rates of Return

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Daniel J.; Polachek, Solomon W.; Wang, Le

    2011-01-01

    This paper relaxes the assumption of homogeneous rates of return to schooling by employing nonparametric kernel regression. This approach allows us to examine the differences in rates of return to education both across and within groups. Similar to previous studies we find that on average blacks have higher returns to education than whites,…

  2. Evidence of Higher-Order Solar Periodicities in China Temperature Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, R. K.; Rajesh, R.; Padmavathi, B.

    2016-07-01

    We examine here a 2000-year-long record of surface air temperature from China using powerful spectral and statistical analysis techniques to assess the trend and harmonics, if any. Our analyses reveal statistically significant periodicities of order ~900 ± 50, ~480 ± 20, 340 ± 10, ~190 ± 10 and ~130 ± 5 years, which closely match with the known higher-order solar cycles. These periodicities are also similar to quasi-periodicities reported in the climate records of sedimentary cores of subarctic and subpolar regions of North America and North Pacific, thus attesting to the global signature of solar signals in temperature variability. A visual comparison of the temperature series shows that the nodes and antinodes of the underlying temperature variation also match with sunspot variations. We also compare the China temperature (CT) with temperature of northern and southern hemispheres of the past 1000 years. The study reveals strong correlation between the southern hemispheric temperatures and CT during the past 1000 years. However, the northern hemisphere temperature shows strong correlation with CT only during the past century. Interestingly, the variations in the correlation coefficient also have shown periodicities that are nearly identical to the periods observed from CT and higher-order solar cycles. We suggest that the solar irradiance induces global periodic oscillations in temperature records by transporting heat and thermal energy, possibly through the coupling of ocean-atmospheric processes and thereby reinforcing the Sun-ocean-climate link.

  3. The Effects of Twitter Sentiment on Stock Price Returns

    PubMed Central

    Ranco, Gabriele; Aleksovski, Darko; Caldarelli, Guido; Grčar, Miha; Mozetič, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Social media are increasingly reflecting and influencing behavior of other complex systems. In this paper we investigate the relations between a well-known micro-blogging platform Twitter and financial markets. In particular, we consider, in a period of 15 months, the Twitter volume and sentiment about the 30 stock companies that form the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) index. We find a relatively low Pearson correlation and Granger causality between the corresponding time series over the entire time period. However, we find a significant dependence between the Twitter sentiment and abnormal returns during the peaks of Twitter volume. This is valid not only for the expected Twitter volume peaks (e.g., quarterly announcements), but also for peaks corresponding to less obvious events. We formalize the procedure by adapting the well-known “event study” from economics and finance to the analysis of Twitter data. The procedure allows to automatically identify events as Twitter volume peaks, to compute the prevailing sentiment (positive or negative) expressed in tweets at these peaks, and finally to apply the “event study” methodology to relate them to stock returns. We show that sentiment polarity of Twitter peaks implies the direction of cumulative abnormal returns. The amount of cumulative abnormal returns is relatively low (about 1–2%), but the dependence is statistically significant for several days after the events. PMID:26390434

  4. The Effects of Twitter Sentiment on Stock Price Returns.

    PubMed

    Ranco, Gabriele; Aleksovski, Darko; Caldarelli, Guido; Grčar, Miha; Mozetič, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Social media are increasingly reflecting and influencing behavior of other complex systems. In this paper we investigate the relations between a well-known micro-blogging platform Twitter and financial markets. In particular, we consider, in a period of 15 months, the Twitter volume and sentiment about the 30 stock companies that form the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) index. We find a relatively low Pearson correlation and Granger causality between the corresponding time series over the entire time period. However, we find a significant dependence between the Twitter sentiment and abnormal returns during the peaks of Twitter volume. This is valid not only for the expected Twitter volume peaks (e.g., quarterly announcements), but also for peaks corresponding to less obvious events. We formalize the procedure by adapting the well-known "event study" from economics and finance to the analysis of Twitter data. The procedure allows to automatically identify events as Twitter volume peaks, to compute the prevailing sentiment (positive or negative) expressed in tweets at these peaks, and finally to apply the "event study" methodology to relate them to stock returns. We show that sentiment polarity of Twitter peaks implies the direction of cumulative abnormal returns. The amount of cumulative abnormal returns is relatively low (about 1-2%), but the dependence is statistically significant for several days after the events.

  5. Mars 2005 Sample Return Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulick, V. C. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Convened at the request of Dr. Jurgen Rahe of the NASA Office of Space Science, the purpose of this workshop was to reexamine the science issues that will determine how an optimum sample return mission would be carried out in 2005 given the new context that has emerged for Mars exploration since the last such workshop was held (in 1987). The results and summary of discussion that took place at the meeting are contained in this volume. The community was invited to participate in the preparation of the final written report by browsing through the agenda and reading the text and viewgraphs provided by workshop participants and submitting comments for that section.

  6. Return to Flight Task Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    It has been 29 months since Columbia was lost over East Texas in February 2003. Seven months after the accident, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) released the first volume of its final report, citing a variety of technical, managerial, and cultural issues within NASA and the Space Shuttle Program. To their credit, NASA offered few excuses, embraced the report, and set about correcting the deficiencies noted by the accident board. Of the 29 recommendations issued by the CAIB, 15 were deemed critical enough that the accident board believed they should be implemented prior to returning the Space Shuttle to flight. Some of these recommendations were relatively easy, most were straightforward, a few bordered on the impossible, and others were largely overcome by events, particularly the decision by the President to retire the Space Shuttle by 2010. The Return to Flight Task Group (RTF TG, or simply, the Task Group) was chartered by the NASA Administrator in July 2003 to provide an independent assessment of the implementation of the 15 CAIB return-to-flight recommendations. An important observation must be stated up-front: neither the CAIB nor the RTF TG believes that all risk can be eliminated from Space Shuttle operations; nor do we believe that the Space Shuttle is inherently unsafe. What the CAIB and RTF TG do believe, however, is that NASA and the American public need to understand the risks associated with space travel, and that NASA must make every reasonable effort to minimize such risk. Since the release of the CAIB report, NASA and the Space Shuttle Program expended enormous effort and resources toward correcting the causes of the accident and preparing to fly again. Relative to the 15 specific recommendations that the CAIB indicated should be implemented prior to returning to flight, NASA has met or exceeded most of them the Task Group believes that NASA met the intent of the CAIB for 12 of these recommendations. The remaining three

  7. Hematospermia in a returned traveler

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Raynell; Minion, Jessica; Wong, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Hematospermia is a common complaint among patients seen in outpatient urology clinics. The differential diagnosis is broad and includes inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic, structural, systemic, and traumatic causes. The most common infectious causes are uropathogens and sexually transmitted infections. However, with increasing global travel, physicians must maintain a high clinical suspicion for pathogens not endemic to their region, including Echinococcus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Schistosoma.1 We present a case of hematospermia in a traveler returning from Eastern Africa with exposure to Lake Malawi. The patient’s microscopic analysis of semen was positive for Schistosoma haematobium, revealing a rare presentation of S. haematobium infection. PMID:28163813

  8. Periodic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Periodic polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D periodic nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based periodic materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.

  9. Low encounter speed comet COMA sample return missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, P.; Yen, C. W.; Albee, A. L.

    1994-01-01

    Comets, being considered the most primitive bodies in the solar system, command the highest priority among solar-system objects for studying solar nebula evolution and the evolution of life through biogenic elements and compounds. The study of comets, and more especially, of material from them, provides an understanding of the physical, chemical, and mineralogical processes operative in the formation and earliest development of the solar systems. These return samples will provide valuable information on comets and serve as a rosetta stone for the analytical studies conducted on interplanetary dust particles over the past two decades, and will provide much needed extraterrestrial samples for the planetary materials community since the Apollo program. Lander sample return missions require rather complex spacecraft, intricate operations, and costly propulsion systems. By contrast, it is possible to take a highly simplified approach for sample capture and return in the case of a comet. In the past, we have considered Earth free-return trajectory to the comet, in which passive collectors intercept dust and volatiles from the cometary coma. However, standard short period cometary free-return trajectories results in the comet to the spacecraft encounter speeds in the range of 10 km/s. At these speeds the kinetic energy of the capture process can render significant modification of dust structure, change of solid phase as well as the lost of volatiles components. This paper presents a class of new missions with trajectories with significant reduction of encounter speeds by incorporating gravity assists and deep space maneuvering. Low encounter speed cometary flyby sample return will enable a marked increase in the value of the return science. Acquiring thousands of samples from a known comet and thousands of images of a comet nucleus would be space firsts. Applying new approach in flight mechanics to generate a new class of low encounter speed cometary sample return

  10. Return to sport following amputation.

    PubMed

    Matthews, D; Sukeik, M; Haddad, F

    2014-08-01

    Amputation in athletes has a substantial impact on lifestyle and sporting activity, as well as self-perception and quality of life. The impact of limb loss on athletic ability will vary depending on the cause of amputation and the anatomical location of the amputation. The use of sporting activity for rehabilitation of amputees was first introduced in 1944 at Stoke Mandeville Hospital. The first international paralympic games were founded in 1960. Following these events the opportunity to participate in sport following limb loss has increased significantly. Sport participation has been aided by the development of sporting prostheses, however multiple factors will determine the exact prosthesis used. These include the nature of the sporting activity as well as the level of the amputation. The biomechanics involved in walking and running are altered following the loss of a limb or part thereof. This can cause subsequent degenerative changes within the remaining joints on the amputated limb as well as the contralateral limb. Factors affecting return to sporting activity are multivariate and inter-related, including patient factors, surgical factors, nature and level of the sporting activity and prosthetic factors. The authors review current literature, detail predictive factors of return to sport and the physical and psychosocial impact on patients following limb amputation.

  11. Returning to work while breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Biagioli, Frances

    2003-12-01

    Mothers who work outside the home initiate breastfeeding at the same rate as mothers who stay at home. However, the breastfeeding continuance rate declines sharply in mothers who return to work. While the work environment may be less than ideal for the breastfeeding mother, obstacles can be overcome. Available breast pump types include manual pumps, battery-powered pumps, electric diaphragm pumps, electric piston pumps, and hospital-grade electric piston pumps. Electric piston pumps may be the most suitable type for mothers who work outside the home for more than 20 hours per week; however, when a mother is highly motivated, any pump type can be successful in any situation. Conservative estimates suggest that breast milk can be stored at room temperature for eight hours, refrigerated for up to eight days, and frozen for many months. A breastfeeding plan can help the working mother anticipate logistic problems and devise a practical pumping schedule. A mother's milk production usually is well established by the time her infant is four weeks old; it is best to delay a return to work until at least that time, and longer if possible.

  12. The dynamics of health and return migration.

    PubMed

    Davies, Anita A; Borland, Rosilyne M; Blake, Carolyn; West, Haley E

    2011-06-01

    The increasing importance and complexity of migration globally also implies a global increase in return migration, and thus an increased interest in the health of returning migrants. The health of returning migrants is impacted by the cumulative exposure to social determinants and risk factors of health during the migration process, during the return movement, and following return. Circular migration often occurs among the diaspora, which can result in the transfer of knowledge and skills that contribute to development, including health system strengthening. Migrants with dual nationality often return to countries with better health services than their country of origin when they are sick and can not get care at home. To maintain and improve the health of returning migrants, multi-sectoral policies at global and national levels should facilitate access to appropriate and equitable health services, social services, and continuity of care across and within borders.

  13. Multifactor analysis of multiscaling in volatility return intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fengzhong; Yamasaki, Kazuko; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2009-01-01

    We study the volatility time series of 1137 most traded stocks in the U.S. stock markets for the two-year period 2001-2002 and analyze their return intervals τ , which are time intervals between volatilities above a given threshold q . We explore the probability density function of τ , Pq(τ) , assuming a stretched exponential function, Pq(τ)˜e-τγ . We find that the exponent γ depends on the threshold in the range between q=1 and 6 standard deviations of the volatility. This finding supports the multiscaling nature of the return interval distribution. To better understand the multiscaling origin, we study how γ depends on four essential factors, capitalization, risk, number of trades, and return. We show that γ depends on the capitalization, risk, and return but almost does not depend on the number of trades. This suggests that γ relates to the portfolio selection but not on the market activity. To further characterize the multiscaling of individual stocks, we fit the moments of τ , μm≡⟨(τ/⟨τ⟩)m⟩1/m , in the range of 10<⟨τ⟩⩽100 by a power law, μm˜⟨τ⟩δ . The exponent δ is found also to depend on the capitalization, risk, and return but not on the number of trades, and its tendency is opposite to that of γ . Moreover, we show that δ decreases with increasing γ approximately by a linear relation. The return intervals demonstrate the temporal structure of volatilities and our findings suggest that their multiscaling features may be helpful for portfolio optimization.

  14. Risk of portfolio with simulated returns based on copula model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razak, Ruzanna Ab; Ismail, Noriszura

    2015-02-01

    The commonly used tool for measuring risk of a portfolio with equally weighted stocks is variance-covariance method. Under extreme circumstances, this method leads to significant underestimation of actual risk due to its multivariate normality assumption of the joint distribution of stocks. The purpose of this research is to compare the actual risk of portfolio with the simulated risk of portfolio in which the joint distribution of two return series is predetermined. The data used is daily stock prices from the ASEAN market for the period January 2000 to December 2012. The copula approach is applied to capture the time varying dependence among the return series. The results shows that the chosen copula families are not suitable to present the dependence structures of each bivariate returns. Exception for the Philippines-Thailand pair where by t copula distribution appears to be the appropriate choice to depict its dependence. Assuming that the t copula distribution is the joint distribution of each paired series, simulated returns is generated and value-at-risk (VaR) is then applied to evaluate the risk of each portfolio consisting of two simulated return series. The VaR estimates was found to be symmetrical due to the simulation of returns via elliptical copula-GARCH approach. By comparison, it is found that the actual risks are underestimated for all pairs of portfolios except for Philippines-Thailand. This study was able to show that disregard of the non-normal dependence structure of two series will result underestimation of actual risk of the portfolio.

  15. Time-bound product returns and optimal order quantities for mass merchandisers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Min-Chun; Goh, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The return guidelines for a mass merchandiser usually entail a grace period, a markdown on the original price and the condition of the returned items. This research utilises eight scenarios formed from the variation of possible return guidelines to model the cost functions of single-product categories for a typical mass merchandiser. Models for the eight scenarios are developed and solved with the objective of maximising the expected profit so as to obtain closed form solutions for the associated optimal order quantity. An illustrative example and sensitivity analysis are provided to demonstrate the applicability of the model. Our results show that merchandisers who allow for returns within a time window, albeit with a penalty cost imposed and the returned products being recoverable, should plan for larger order amounts as such products do not affect the business. Similarly, the merchandisers who allow for returns beyond a grace period and without any penalty charges, but where the returned products are irrecoverable, should manage their stocks in this category more judiciously by ordering as little as possible so as to limit the number of returns and carefully consider the effects of their customer satisfaction-guaranteed policies, if any.

  16. Melioidosis in a returning traveller

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Alaa; Buckley, Adam; Dubrey, Simon William

    2013-01-01

    A 66-year-old man returned to the UK from Thailand with a 2-week history of new confusion, hallucinations, fever with rigours and productive cough. He had not responded to (unspecified) antibiotic treatment in Thailand. On examination he was afebrile, with an abbreviated mental test score of 8/10 and no other findings on systemic examination. He was treated with ceftriaxone in response to discovery of a Gram-negative organism in blood. This was converted to meropenem on the clinical suspicion of our microbiologist, on the basis of a history of contact with surface water in the Far East. A blood culture subsequently confirmed Burkholderia pseudomallei. His condition remained stable for approximately 4 days, but then deteriorated over the course of the next 2 weeks with pneumonia and subsequent formation of disseminated abscesses. Treatment was withdrawn as his condition deteriorated to the point at which survival was deemed impossible and he subsequently died. PMID:23605844

  17. Partial Return Yoke for MICE

    SciTech Connect

    Witte H.; Plate, S

    2013-05-03

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is a large scale experiment which is presently assembled at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in Didcot, UK. The purpose of MICE is to demonstrate the concept of ionization cooling experimentally. Ionization cooling is an important accelerator concept which will be essential for future HEP experiments such as a potential Muon Collider or a Neutrino Factory. The MICE experiment will house up to 18 superconducting solenoids, all of which produce a substantial amount of magnetic flux. Recently it was realized that this magnetic flux leads to a considerable stray magnetic field in the MICE hall. This is a concern as technical equipment in the MICE hall may may be compromised by this. In July 2012 a concept called partial return yoke was presented to the MICE community, which reduces the stray field in the MICE hall to a safe level. This report summarizes the general concept, engineering considerations and the expected shielding performance.

  18. Risk analysis of earth return options for the Mars rover/sample return mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Four options for return of a Mars surface sample to Earth were studied to estimate the risk of mission failure and the risk of a sample container breach that might result in the release of Martian life forms, should such exist, in the Earth's biosphere. The probabilities calculated refer only to the time period from the last midcourse correction burn to possession of the sample on Earth. Two extreme views characterize this subject. In one view, there is no life on Mars, therefore there is no significant risk and no serious effort is required to deal with back contamination. In the other view, public safety overrides any desire to return Martian samples, and any risk of damaging contamination greater than zero is unacceptable. Zero risk requires great expense to achieve and may prevent the mission as currently envisioned from taking place. The major conclusion is that risk of sample container breach can be reduced to a very low number within the framework of the mission as now envisioned, but significant expense and effort, above that currently planned is needed. There are benefits to the public that warrant some risk. Martian life, if it exists, will be a major discovery. If it does not, there is no risk.

  19. 47 CFR 65.701 - Period of review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Period of review. 65.701 Section 65.701 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Maximum Allowable Rates of Return § 65.701...

  20. Understanding the multifractality in portfolio excess returns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng; Wang, Yudong

    2017-01-01

    The multifractality in stock returns have been investigated extensively. However, whether the autocorrelations in portfolio returns are multifractal have not been considered in the literature. In this paper, we detect multifractal behavior of returns of portfolios constructed based on two popular trading rules, size and book-to-market (BM) ratio. Using the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis, we find that the portfolio returns are significantly multifractal and the multifractality is mainly attributed to long-range dependence. We also investigate the multifractal cross-correlation between portfolio return and market average return using the detrended cross-correlation analysis. Our results show that the cross-correlations of small fluctuations are persistent, while those of large fluctuations are anti-persistent.

  1. Breeding return times and abundance in capture-recapture models.

    PubMed

    Pledger, Shirley; Baker, Edward; Scribner, Kim

    2013-12-01

    For many long-lived animal species, individuals do not breed every year, and are often not accessible during non-breeding periods. Individuals exhibit site fidelity if they return to the same breeding colony or spawning ground when they breed. If capture and recapture is only possible at the breeding site, temporary emigration models are used to allow for only a subset of the animals being present in any given year. Most temporary emigration models require the use of the robust sampling design, and their focus is usually on probabilities of annual survival and of transition between breeding and non-breeding states. We use lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) data from a closed population where only a simple (one sample per year) sampling scheme is possible, and we also wish to estimate abundance as well as sex-specific survival and breeding return time probabilities. By adding return time parameters to the Schwarz-Arnason version of the Jolly-Seber model, we have developed a new likelihood-based model which yields plausible estimates of abundance, survival, transition and return time parameters. An important new finding from investigation of the model is the overestimation of abundance if a Jolly-Seber model is used when Markovian temporary emigration is present.

  2. What stock market returns to expect for the future?

    PubMed

    Diamond, P A

    2000-01-01

    In evaluating proposals for reforming Social Security that involve stock investments, the Office of the Chief Actuary (OCACT) has generally used a 7.0 percent real return for stocks. The 1994-96 Advisory Council specified that OCACT should use that return in making its 75-year projections of investment-based reform proposals. The assumed ultimate real return on Treasury bonds of 3.0 percent implies a long-run equity premium of 4.0 percent. There are two equity-premium concepts: the realized equity premium, which is measured by the actual rates of return; and the required equity premium, which investors expect to receive for being willing to hold available stocks and bonds. Over the past two centuries, the realized premium was 3.5 percent on average, but 5.2 percent for 1926 to 1998. Some critics argue that the 7.0 percent projected stock returns are too high. They base their arguments on recent developments in the capital market, the current high value of the stock market, and the expectation of slower economic growth. Increased use of mutual funds and the decline in their costs suggest a lower required premium, as does the rising fraction of the American public investing in stocks. The size of the decrease is limited, however, because the largest cost savings do not apply to the very wealthy and to large institutional investors, who hold a much larger share of the stock market's total value than do new investors. These trends suggest a lower equity premium for projections than the 5.2 percent of the past 75 years. Also, a declining required premium is likely to imply a temporary increase in the realized premium because a rising willingness to hold stocks tends to increase their price. Therefore, it would be a mistake during a transition period to extrapolate what may be a temporarily high realized return. In the standard (Solow) economic growth model, an assumption of slower long-run growth lowers the marginal product of capital if the savings rate is constant

  3. 76 FR 17521 - Specified Tax Return Preparers Required To File Individual Income Tax Returns Using Magnetic Media

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... File Individual Income Tax Returns Using Magnetic Media AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS... for ``specified tax return preparers'' to file individual income tax returns using magnetic media... individual income tax returns using magnetic media (electronically). Section 17 of the Worker,...

  4. The Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period in the Sargasso Sea

    PubMed

    Keigwin

    1996-11-29

    Sea surface temperature (SST), salinity, and flux of terrigenous material oscillated on millennial time scales in the Pleistocene North Atlantic, but there are few records of Holocene variability. Because of high rates of sediment accumulation, Holocene oscillations are well documented in the northern Sargasso Sea. Results from a radiocarbon-dated box core show that SST was approximately 1°C cooler than today approximately 400 years ago (the Little Ice Age) and 1700 years ago, and approximately 1°C warmer than today 1000 years ago (the Medieval Warm Period). Thus, at least some of the warming since the Little Ice Age appears to be part of a natural oscillation.

  5. Doppler shifts of radar return from the sea surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakov, S. A.; Kapustin, I. A.; Molkov, A. A.; Sergievskaya, I. A.; Shomina, O. V.

    2016-10-01

    Investigation of the Doppler shift of radar return from the sea surface is very important for better understanding of capabilities of exploitation of microwave radar for measuring velocities of marine currents. Here new field experiments carried out from a Platform on the Black Sea with a coherent X-band scatterometer, and a Doppler multifrequency (X- /C-/S-band) dual-polarized radar recently designed at IAP RAS are discussed. It is shown that the radar return contains both Bragg (polarized) and non polarized scattering components, presumably giving different contributions to radar Doppler shifts. Radar Doppler shifts were estimated using two different definitions as a) a frequency of the "centre of gravity" of an instantaneous radar return spectrum (ASIS) averaged over periods of dominant wind waves and b) the "centre of gravity" of the averaged over dominant wave periods spectrum (SAS). The ASIS and SAS values for both VV and HH-polarizations are shown to be different due to effects of radar backscatter modulation by dominant (long) wind waves. The radar Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) has been analyzed from experimental data and difference between SAS- and ASIS-values has been satisfactory explained using the measured MTF-values. It is obtained that experimental values of ASIS can be satisfactory described by the Bragg model despite the significant contribution of NP component to the radar backscatter. A physical explanation of the effect is given.

  6. Can trade opportunities and returns be generated in a trend persistent series? Evidence from global indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, S. K.; Bawa, Jaslene

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we explore the possibility of generating trade opportunities and returns when a financial stock index series is trend persistent. Through application of Hurst coefficient based on the modified range to standard deviation analysis (Weron, 2002) in a sample of 31 leading global indices during the period December 2000 to November 2015, we found periods of trend persistence. We developed and tested a set of trading strategies on these periods of trend persistent in the financial series and found that significant positive returns can be generated when a series displayed upward trend persistence.

  7. A Community Returns to Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saavedra-Vela, Pilar

    1978-01-01

    Aiming to keep the land in the hands of the people, the Cooperativa del pueblo's first venture of steer grazing on land held communally was abandoned due to financial pressure and the community's social needs. Today its plans include teaching families to grow vegetables for longer periods in an organic manner and developing a marketing…

  8. The returns and risks of investment portfolio in a financial market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiang-Cheng; Mei, Dong-Cheng

    2014-07-01

    The returns and risks of investment portfolio in a financial system was investigated by constructing a theoretical model based on the Heston model. After the theoretical model and analysis of portfolio were calculated and analyzed, we find the following: (i) The statistical properties (i.e., the probability distribution, the variance and loss rate of equity portfolio return) between simulation results of the theoretical model and the real financial data obtained from Dow Jones Industrial Average are in good agreement; (ii) The maximum dispersion of the investment portfolio is associated with the maximum stability of the equity portfolio return and minimal investment risks; (iii) An increase of the investment period and a worst investment period are associated with a decrease of stability of the equity portfolio return and a maximum investment risk, respectively.

  9. 7 CFR 356.8 - Return procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Return procedure. 356.8 Section 356.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FORFEITURE PROCEDURES § 356.8 Return procedure. If, at the conclusion...

  10. 26 CFR 50.7 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.7 Returns. (a) Form of... on which hydraulic mining operations began and ended during the taxable year for which the return is made; (7) The number of cubic yards mined by the hydraulic process at the mine during the taxable...

  11. 26 CFR 50.7 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.7 Returns. (a) Form of... on which hydraulic mining operations began and ended during the taxable year for which the return is made; (7) The number of cubic yards mined by the hydraulic process at the mine during the taxable...

  12. 26 CFR 50.7 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.7 Returns. (a) Form of... on which hydraulic mining operations began and ended during the taxable year for which the return is made; (7) The number of cubic yards mined by the hydraulic process at the mine during the taxable...

  13. 26 CFR 50.7 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.7 Returns. (a) Form of... on which hydraulic mining operations began and ended during the taxable year for which the return is made; (7) The number of cubic yards mined by the hydraulic process at the mine during the taxable...

  14. 26 CFR 50.7 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.7 Returns. (a) Form of... on which hydraulic mining operations began and ended during the taxable year for which the return is made; (7) The number of cubic yards mined by the hydraulic process at the mine during the taxable...

  15. Aggregate Unemployment Decreases Individual Returns to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammermueller, Andreas; Kuckulenz, Anja; Zwick, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Aggregate unemployment may affect individual returns to education through qualification-specific responses in participation and wage bargaining. This paper shows that an increase in regional unemployment by 1% decreases returns to education by 0.005 percentage points. This implies that higher skilled employees are better sheltered from labour…

  16. The Returns to Quality in Graduate Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Adam

    2016-01-01

    This paper estimates the monetary return to quality in US graduate education, controlling for cognitive ability and self-selection across award level, program quality, and field-of-study. In most program types, I cannot reject the hypothesis of no returns to either degree completion or program quality. Important exceptions include master's…

  17. 46 CFR 308.514 - Return premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Return premium. 308.514 Section 308.514 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.514 Return premium. No premium will...

  18. 27 CFR 41.112 - Tax return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Tax return. 41.112 Section 41.112 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... States Deferred Payment of Tax in Puerto Rico on Tobacco Products § 41.112 Tax return. The...

  19. 27 CFR 41.112 - Tax return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax return. 41.112 Section 41.112 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... States Deferred Payment of Tax in Puerto Rico on Tobacco Products § 41.112 Tax return. The...

  20. 27 CFR 41.112 - Tax return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax return. 41.112 Section 41.112 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... States Deferred Payment of Tax in Puerto Rico on Tobacco Products § 41.112 Tax return. The...

  1. 27 CFR 41.112 - Tax return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax return. 41.112 Section 41.112 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... States Deferred Payment of Tax in Puerto Rico on Tobacco Products § 41.112 Tax return. The...

  2. 27 CFR 41.112 - Tax return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tax return. 41.112 Section 41.112 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... States Deferred Payment of Tax in Puerto Rico on Tobacco Products § 41.112 Tax return. The...

  3. 21 CFR 203.23 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., or charitable institution documents the return by filling out a credit memo specifying: (1) The name..., health care entity, or charitable institution forwards a copy of each credit memo to the manufacturer and retains a copy of each credit memo for its records; (c) Any drugs returned to a manufacturer or...

  4. 21 CFR 203.23 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., or charitable institution documents the return by filling out a credit memo specifying: (1) The name..., health care entity, or charitable institution forwards a copy of each credit memo to the manufacturer and retains a copy of each credit memo for its records; (c) Any drugs returned to a manufacturer or...

  5. 21 CFR 203.23 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., or charitable institution documents the return by filling out a credit memo specifying: (1) The name..., health care entity, or charitable institution forwards a copy of each credit memo to the manufacturer and retains a copy of each credit memo for its records; (c) Any drugs returned to a manufacturer or...

  6. 21 CFR 203.23 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., or charitable institution documents the return by filling out a credit memo specifying: (1) The name..., health care entity, or charitable institution forwards a copy of each credit memo to the manufacturer and retains a copy of each credit memo for its records; (c) Any drugs returned to a manufacturer or...

  7. 21 CFR 203.23 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., or charitable institution documents the return by filling out a credit memo specifying: (1) The name..., health care entity, or charitable institution forwards a copy of each credit memo to the manufacturer and retains a copy of each credit memo for its records; (c) Any drugs returned to a manufacturer or...

  8. Returned Solar Max hardware degradation study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Triolo, Jack J.; Ousley, Gilbert W.

    1989-01-01

    The Solar Maximum Repair Mission returned with the replaced hardware that had been in low Earth orbit for over four years. The materials of this returned hardware gave the aerospace community an opportunity to study the realtime effects of atomic oxygen, solar radiation, impact particles, charged particle radiation, and molecular contamination. The results of these studies are summarized.

  9. 46 CFR 308.514 - Return premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Return premium. 308.514 Section 308.514 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.514 Return premium. No premium will...

  10. 46 CFR 308.514 - Return premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Return premium. 308.514 Section 308.514 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.514 Return premium. No premium will...

  11. 46 CFR 308.514 - Return premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Return premium. 308.514 Section 308.514 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.514 Return premium. No premium will...

  12. 46 CFR 308.514 - Return premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Return premium. 308.514 Section 308.514 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.514 Return premium. No premium will...

  13. 12 CFR 210.12 - Return of cash items and handling of returned checks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Return of cash items and handling of returned checks. 210.12 Section 210.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... FEDWIRE (REGULATION J) Collection of Checks and Other Items By Federal Reserve Banks § 210.12 Return...

  14. 26 CFR 1.6013-2 - Joint return after filing separate return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of the excess. (ii) If any part of such excess is attributable to fraud with intent to evade tax at... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax Returns Or Statements § 1.6013-2 Joint return after... separate return of either spouse are to be taken into account in determining the extent to which the...

  15. Synoptic Monitoring of Water's Return to Mesopotamian Marshlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertes, Leal A. K.

    2004-08-01

    The Mesopotamian Marshlands are a recorded element of Sumerian culture since 5000 B.C., and have withstood multiple impacts over the centuries until the twentieth century development of dams on the Tigris-Euphrates systems and increased water usage in Turkey, Syria, and Iraq increased their vulnerability to human impact. Devastation of >90% of ~20,000 km2 of the marshlands occurred over a remarkably short period of time near the end of the 20th century, when the majority of the area was drained beginning in 1991. The late twentieth century barren landscape showed little hope of a return to its aquatic character until a 2003 military strategy, implemented March through May, resulted in return of water to areas that had not been inundated for >10 years. Ali Shaheen, chief of the Iraqi Irrigation Department in Nasiriyah, reported that the tactic of flooding the marshes was designed to interfere with military advances from the south.

  16. The point of no return: A fundamental limit on the ability to control thought and action.

    PubMed

    Logan, Gordon D

    2015-01-01

    Bartlett (1958. Thinking. New York: Basic Books) described the point of no return as a point of irrevocable commitment to action, which was preceded by a period of gradually increasing commitment. As such, the point of no return reflects a fundamental limit on the ability to control thought and action. I review the literature on the point of no return, taking three perspectives. First, I consider the point of no return from the perspective of the controlled act, as a locus in the architecture and anatomy of the underlying processes. I review experiments from the stop-signal paradigm that suggest that the point of no return is located late in the response system. Then I consider the point of no return from the perspective of the act of control that tries to change the controlled act before it becomes irrevocable. From this perspective, the point of no return is a point in time that provides enough "lead time" for the act of control to take effect. I review experiments that measure the response time to the stop signal as the lead time required for response inhibition in the stop-signal paradigm. Finally, I consider the point of no return in hierarchically controlled tasks, in which there may be many points of no return at different levels of the hierarchy. I review experiments on skilled typing that suggest different points of no return for the commands that determine what is typed and the countermands that inhibit typing, with increasing commitment to action the lower the level in the hierarchy. I end by considering the point of no return in perception and thought as well as action.

  17. Are Returns to Education on the Decline in Venezuela and Does Mission Sucre Have a Role to Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Naihobe; Oyelere, Ruth Uwaifo

    2011-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence points to a falling standard of living for the educated in Venezuela. During this same period, President Hugo Chavez implemented several education reforms. We focus on a major university education reform known as Mission Sucre and its potential impact on returns to university education. First, we show that returns to education…

  18. The OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission Operations Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gal-Edd, Jonathan S.; Cheuvront, Allan

    2015-01-01

    OSIRIS-REx is an acronym that captures the scientific objectives: Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer. OSIRIS-REx will thoroughly characterize near-Earth asteroid Bennu (Previously known as 1019551999 RQ36). The OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission delivers its science using five instruments and radio science along with the Touch-And-Go Sample Acquisition Mechanism (TAGSAM). All of the instruments and data analysis techniques have direct heritage from flown planetary missions. The OSIRIS-REx mission employs a methodical, phased approach to ensure success in meeting the mission's science requirements. OSIRIS-REx launches in September 2016, with a backup launch period occurring one year later. Sampling occurs in 2019. The departure burn from Bennu occurs in March 2021. On September 24, 2023, the Sample Return Capsule (SRC) lands at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR). Stardust heritage procedures are followed to transport the SRC to Johnson Space Center, where the samples are removed and delivered to the OSIRIS-REx curation facility. After a six-month preliminary examination period the mission will produce a catalog of the returned sample, allowing the worldwide community to request samples for detailed analysis. Traveling and returning a sample from an Asteroid that has not been explored before requires unique operations consideration. The Design Reference Mission (DRM) ties together spacecraft, instrument and operations scenarios. Asteroid Touch and Go (TAG) has various options varying from ground only to fully automated (natural feature tracking). Spacecraft constraints such as thermo and high gain antenna pointing impact the timeline. The mission is sensitive to navigation errors, so a late command update has been implemented. The project implemented lessons learned from other "small body" missions. The key lesson learned was 'expect the unexpected' and implement planning tools early in the lifecycle

  19. Characterization of return flow pathways during flood irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claes, N.; Paige, G. B.; Parsekian, A.; Gordon, B. L.; Miller, S. N.

    2015-12-01

    With a decline in water resources available for private consumption and irrigation, the importance of sustainable water management practices is increasing. Local management decisions, based on models may affect the availability of water both locally and downstream, causing a ripple effect. It is therefore important that the models that these local management decisions are based on, accurately quantify local hydrological processes and the timescales at which they happen. We are focusing on return flow from flood irrigation, which can occur via different pathways back to the streams: overland flow, near-surface return flow and return flow via pathways below the vadose zone. The question addressed is how these different pathways each contribute to the total amount of return flow and the dynamics behind them. We used time-lapse ERT measurements in combination with an ensemble of ERT and seismic lines to answer this question via (1) capturing the process of gradual fragmentation of aqueous environments in the vadose zone during drying stages at field scale; (2) characterization of the formation of preferential flow paths from infiltrating wetting fronts during wetting cycles at field scale. The time-lapse ERT provides the possibility to capture the dynamic processes involved during the occurrence of finger flow or macro-pores when an intensive wetting period during flood irrigation occurs. It elucidates the dynamics of retention in the vadose zone during drying and wetting periods at field scale. This method provides thereby a link to upscale from laboratory experiments to field scale and watershed scale for finger flow and preferential flow paths and illustrates the hysteresis behavior at field scale.

  20. Integrating public perspectives in sample return planning.

    PubMed

    Race, M S; MacGregor, D G

    2000-01-01

    Planning for extraterrestrial sample returns--whether from Mars or other solar system bodies--must be done in a way that integrates planetary protection concerns with the usual mission technical and scientific considerations. Understanding and addressing legitimate societal concerns about the possible risks of sample return will be a critical part of the public decision making process ahead. This paper presents the results of two studies, one with lay audiences, the other with expert microbiologists designed to gather information on attitudes and concerns about sample return risks and planetary protection. Focus group interviews with lay subjects, using generic information about Mars sample return and a preliminary environmental impact assessment, were designed to obtain an indication of how the factual content is perceived and understood by the public. A research survey of microbiologists gathered information on experts' views and attitudes about sample return, risk management approaches and space exploration risks. These findings, combined with earlier research results on risk perception, will be useful in identifying levels of concern and potential conflicts in understanding between experts and the public about sample return risks. The information will be helpful in guiding development of the environmental impact statement and also has applicability to proposals for sample return from other solar system bodies where scientific uncertainty about extraterrestrial life may persist at the time of mission planning.

  1. Return to sports after shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Christine C; Johnson, Daniel J; Liu, Joseph N; Dines, Joshua S; Dines, David M; Gulotta, Lawrence V; Garcia, Grant H

    2016-09-18

    Many patients prioritize the ability to return to sports following shoulder replacement surgeries, including total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA), reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA), and hemiarthroplasty (HA). While activity levels after hip and knee replacements have been well-established in the literature, studies on this topic in the field of shoulder arthroplasty are relatively limited. A review of the literature regarding athletic activity after shoulder arthroplasty was performed using the PubMed database. All studies relevant to shoulder arthroplasty and return to sport were included. The majority of patients returned to their prior level of activity within six months following TSA, RTSA, and shoulder HA. Noncontact, low demand activities are permitted by most surgeons postoperatively and generally have higher return rates than contact sports or high-demand activities. In some series, patients reported an improvement in their ability to participate in sports following the arthroplasty procedure. The rates of return to sports following TSA (75%-100%) are slightly higher than those reported for HA (67%-76%) and RTSA (75%-85%). Patients undergoing TSA, RTSA, and shoulder HA should be counseled that there is a high probability that they will be able to return to their preoperative activity level within six months postoperatively. TSA has been associated with higher rates of return to sports than RTSA and HA, although this may reflect differences in patient population or surgical indication.

  2. Return to sports after shoulder arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Christine C; Johnson, Daniel J; Liu, Joseph N; Dines, Joshua S; Dines, David M; Gulotta, Lawrence V; Garcia, Grant H

    2016-01-01

    Many patients prioritize the ability to return to sports following shoulder replacement surgeries, including total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA), reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA), and hemiarthroplasty (HA). While activity levels after hip and knee replacements have been well-established in the literature, studies on this topic in the field of shoulder arthroplasty are relatively limited. A review of the literature regarding athletic activity after shoulder arthroplasty was performed using the PubMed database. All studies relevant to shoulder arthroplasty and return to sport were included. The majority of patients returned to their prior level of activity within six months following TSA, RTSA, and shoulder HA. Noncontact, low demand activities are permitted by most surgeons postoperatively and generally have higher return rates than contact sports or high-demand activities. In some series, patients reported an improvement in their ability to participate in sports following the arthroplasty procedure. The rates of return to sports following TSA (75%-100%) are slightly higher than those reported for HA (67%-76%) and RTSA (75%-85%). Patients undergoing TSA, RTSA, and shoulder HA should be counseled that there is a high probability that they will be able to return to their preoperative activity level within six months postoperatively. TSA has been associated with higher rates of return to sports than RTSA and HA, although this may reflect differences in patient population or surgical indication. PMID:27672564

  3. Integrating Public Perspectives in Sample Return Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Race, Margaret S.; MacGregor, G.

    2001-01-01

    Planning for extraterrestrial sample returns, whether from Mars or other solar system bodies, must be done in a way that integrates planetary protection concerns with the usual mission technical and scientific considerations. Understanding and addressing legitimate societal concerns about the possible risks of sample return will be a critical part of the public decision making process ahead. This paper presents the results of two studies, one with lay audiences, the other with expert microbiologists, designed to gather information, on attitudes and concerns about sample return risks and planetary protection. Focus group interviews with lay subjects, using generic information about Mars sample return and a preliminary environmental impact assessment, were designed to obtain an indication of how the factual content is perceived and understood by the public. A research survey of microbiologists gathered information on experts' views and attitudes about sample return, risk management approaches and space exploration risks. These findings, combined with earlier research results on risk perception, will be useful in identifying levels of concern and potential conflicts in understanding between experts and the public about sample return risks. The information will be helpful in guiding development of the environmental impact statement and also has applicability to proposals for sample return from other solar system bodies where scientific uncertainty about extraterrestrial life may persist at the time of mission planning.

  4. Grand valley irrigation return flow case study

    SciTech Connect

    Keys, J.W.

    1981-06-01

    Irrigation water supply is furnished annually to about 71,500 acres of land in the Grand Valley of western Colorado. Return flows from that irrigation contribute about 780,000 tpy of salt to the Colorado River, causing an increase of 77 mg/l in the salinity concentration at Imperial Dam. A case study of water quality in this region is focused on: water quality data for irrigation and return flows/ identification of regulations that affect irrigation and return flows/ and a proposed program for controlling salinity levels. (1 map, 9 references, 8 tables)

  5. Rejected asylum seekers: the problem of return.

    PubMed

    Noll, G

    1999-01-01

    "During this decade the return of rejected asylum seekers has become an issue of increasing concern to major asylum states in the industrialized world. This article exposes the various political and legal approaches taken by returning states as well as the constraints emerging from human rights law. As a rigid control paradigm and related enforcement practices entail a considerable risk of human rights violations, it seems reasonable to focus on measures enhancing the voluntary compliance of all actors involved with norms governing return." (EXCERPT)

  6. Technology for return of planetary samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Technological requirements of a planetary return sample mission were studied. The state-of-the-art for problems unique to this class of missions was assessed and technological gaps were identified. The problem areas where significant advancement of the state-of-the-art is required are: life support for the exobiota during the return trip and within the Planetary Receiving Laboratory (PRL); biohazard assessment and control technology; and quarantine qualified handling and experimentation methods and equipment for studying the returned sample in the PRL. Concepts for solving these problems are discussed.

  7. Return to Play Following Hip Arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Simon; Kuhn, Andrew; Draovitch, Pete; Bedi, Asheesh

    2016-10-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement may be particularly disabling to the high-demand athlete, especially those with significant cutting and pivoting requirements. If nonoperative treatment fails to adequately alleviate symptoms or sufficiently restore function in the athlete, hip arthroscopy can lead to improved pain, improved range of motion, and high rates of return to play with proper postoperative rehabilitation. The rate of return to previous level of competition is also high with accurate diagnosis and well-executed correction of deformity. A clear understanding of the etiology, diagnosis, management, and outcomes is essential for clinicians to optimally help patients to return to play.

  8. Winged cargo return vehicle conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA is committed to placing a permanent space station in Earth orbit in the 1990's. Space Station Freedom (SSF) will be located in a 220 n.m. orbit at 28.5 degrees inclination. The Winged Cargo Return Vehicle's (CRV) primary mission is to support SSF crew by flying regular resupply missions. The winged CRV is designed to be reusable, dry land recoverable, and unmanned. The CRV will be launched inline on three liquid hydrogen/oxygen rocket boosters with a payload capacity of 113,000 lbs. The three boosters will take the CRV to an orbit of 50 by 110 n.m. From this altitude the orbital manuevering engine will place the vehicle in synchronous orbit with the space station. The winged CRV will deliver cargo modules to the space station by direct docking or by remaining outside the SSF command zone and using the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) to transfer cargo. After unloading/loading, the CRV will deorbit and fly back to Kennedy Space Center. The CRV has a wing span of 57.8 feet, a length of 76.0 feet, and a dry weight of 61.5 klb. The cargo capacity of the vehicle is 44.4 klb. The vehicle has a lift-drag ratio of 1.28 (hypersonic) and 6.0 (subsonic), resulting in a 1351 n.m. cross range. The overall mission length ranges between 18.8 and 80.5 hr. The operational period will be the years 2000 to 2020.

  9. Sample Tube Sealing for Future Proposed Mars Sample Return Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Younse, P.; Aveline, D.; Bao, X.; Berisford, D.; Bhandari, P.; Budney, C.; Chen, F.; Cooper, M.; Chung, S.; Lewis, D.

    2013-01-01

    A key premise of a proposed Sample Caching Rover, a crucial element of the proposed Mars Sample Return (MSR) campaign, is that the samples could be packaged and left on Mars for an extended period of time (at least five Mars years) without loss of scientific value (Fig. 1). The MEPAG E2E-iSAG (2011) concluded that the single most important factor in preserving the scientific integrity of the samples during the interval between their collection and their analysis is effective sealing of the samples.

  10. Reliability estimation from field return data.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Simon; Joyce, Toby; Lisay, Ed

    2009-09-01

    In this article statistical inference for the failure time distribution of a product from "field return data", that records the time between the product being shipped and returned for repair or replacement, is described. The problem that is addressed is that the data are not failure times because they also include the time that it took to ship and install the product and then to return it to the manufacturer for repair or replacement. The inference attempts to infer the distribution of time to failure (that is, from installation to failure) from the data when in addition there are separate data on the times from shipping to installation, and from failure to return. The method is illustrated with data from units installed in a telecommunications network.

  11. Self-Checks Help Spot Melanoma's Return

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_163682.html Self-Checks Help Spot Melanoma's Return Patient-detected symptoms were most common way ... Feb. 20, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Self-checks by melanoma skin cancer patients play an important role in ...

  12. Preparing for the Meteoritic Return of Stardust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, P.; Kontinos, D.; Jordan, D.; Wright, M.; Olejniczak, J.; Raiche, G.; Wercinski, P.; Desai, P. N.; Taylor, M. J., Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; McHarg, M. G.; Abe, S.; Rairden, R. L.; Albers, J.; Winter, M. And, Harms, F.; Wolf, J.; Revelle, D. O.; Gural, P.; Dantowitz, R.; Rietmeijer, F.; Hladiuk, D.; Hildebrand, A. R.

    2007-01-01

    The hypervelocity entry of a sample return capsule on its way back from interplanetary space acts as an artificial meteor, with flow conditions similar to natural m-sized meteoroids. Unlike natural fireballs, a sample return capsule arrives at a known time and its shock emissions and ablation can be studied without the confusion of fragmentation and the obscuring emissions from ablated meteoric metals. The entry of the Stardust Sample Return Capsule (SRC) on Sunday January 15, 2006, was also a real-life test of key risk drivers for future Thermal Protection System (TPS) design, by measuring the amount of radiative heat flux and the ablation response of the TPS. This paper presents results from the calculations made to predict the expected meteoric emissions for the Stardust SRC entry and re-evaluates the surface temperature measurements obtained during a prior mission that observed the Genesis sample return.

  13. Phootprint: A European Phobos Sample Return Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barraclough, S.; Ratcliffe, A.; Buchwald, R.; Scheer, H.; Chapuy, M.; Garland, M.; Rebuffat, D.

    2014-06-01

    Phootprint is an ESA funded feasibility study for a European Phobos Sample Return Mission. A complete system design has been performed including ERC, Landing Leg, Sample Acquisition System and GNC Proximity Operations.

  14. Hydraulic Fracturing Return Waters and Legacy Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, D. J.; Michanowicz, A. R.; Ferrar, K. J.

    2010-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing of gas-bearing shales to enhance recovery is growing increasingly common globally. However, disposal of return water remains a challenge, particularly in humid environments where evapoconcentration potential is limited. Further, return water typical of recent activity in the Marcellus Shale in the eastern United States is substantially saltier relative to other shales where hydraulic fracturing has been employed. This presentation explores scenarios of both traditional return water disposal and accidental releases of return water to fluvial systems using simple exchange modeling, with particular attention to conditions in landscapes typical of Marcellus country. That is, these simulations will incorporate a historic context, acknowledging decades of coal extraction from surface and sub-surface mines and energy production via combustion of said coal. The interactions between “naturally attenuated” historic contamination and rapidly changing water chemistry are critical to accurate risk assessment in this uncertain environment.

  15. Fluctuation behaviors of financial return volatility duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Hongli; Wang, Jun; Lu, Yunfan

    2016-04-01

    It is of significantly crucial to understand the return volatility of financial markets because it helps to quantify the investment risk, optimize the portfolio, and provide a key input of option pricing models. The characteristics of isolated high volatility events above certain threshold in price fluctuations and the distributions of return intervals between these events arouse great interest in financial research. In the present work, we introduce a new concept of daily return volatility duration, which is defined as the shortest passage time when the future volatility intensity is above or below the current volatility intensity (without predefining a threshold). The statistical properties of the daily return volatility durations for seven representative stock indices from the world financial markets are investigated. Some useful and interesting empirical results of these volatility duration series about the probability distributions, memory effects and multifractal properties are obtained. These results also show that the proposed stock volatility series analysis is a meaningful and beneficial trial.

  16. STS-26: The return to flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The major activities leading up to the return to flight of the Space Shuttles are summarized. Major orbiter modifications and solid rocket motor redesign are described. Shuttle payloads are discussed briefly. Also provided are the biographies of the crew.

  17. Mercury Sample Return using Solar Sails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Edward E.; Young, Roy M.; Adams, Charles L.

    2006-01-01

    A conventional Mercury sample return mission requires significant launch mass due to the large deltav required for the outbound and return trips, and the large mass of a planetary lander and ascent vehicle. Solar sailing can be used to reduce lander mass allocation by delivering the lander to a low, thermally safe orbit close to the terminator. Propellant mass is not an issue for solar sails so a sample can be returned relatively easily, without resorting to lengthy, multiple gravity assists. The initial Mercury sample return studies reported here were conducted under ESA contract ESTEC/16534/02/NL/NR, PI Colin McInnes, Technical Officer Peter Falkner. Updated solar sail capabilities were developed under the Ground System Demonstration program, funded by the NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Program.

  18. An Efficient Approach for Mars Sample Return Using Emerging Commercial Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzales, Andrew A.; Stoker, Carol R.

    2016-01-01

    Mars Sample Return is the highest priority science mission for the next decade as recommended by the 2011 Decadal Survey of Planetary Science. This article presents the results of a feasibility study for a Mars Sample Return mission that efficiently uses emerging commercial capabilities expected to be available in the near future. The motivation of our study was the recognition that emerging commercial capabilities might be used to perform Mars Sample Return with an Earth-direct architecture, and that this may offer a desirable simpler and lower cost approach. The objective of the study was to determine whether these capabilities can be used to optimize the number of mission systems and launches required to return the samples, with the goal of achieving the desired simplicity. All of the major element required for the Mars Sample Return mission are described. Mission system elements were analyzed with either direct techniques or by using parametric mass estimating relationships. The analysis shows the feasibility of a complete and closed Mars Sample Return mission design based on the following scenario: A SpaceX Falcon Heavy launch vehicle places a modified version of a SpaceX Dragon capsule, referred to as "Red Dragon", onto a Trans Mars Injection trajectory. The capsule carries all the hardware needed to return to Earth Orbit samples collected by a prior mission, such as the planned NASA Mars 2020 sample collection rover. The payload includes a fully fueled Mars Ascent Vehicle; a fueled Earth Return Vehicle, support equipment, and a mechanism to transfer samples from the sample cache system onboard the rover to the Earth Return Vehicle. The Red Dragon descends to land on the surface of Mars using Supersonic Retropropulsion. After collected samples are transferred to the Earth Return Vehicle, the single-stage Mars Ascent Vehicle launches the Earth Return Vehicle from the surface of Mars to a Mars phasing orbit. After a brief phasing period, the Earth Return

  19. An Efficient Approach for Mars Sample Return Using Emerging Commercial Capabilities.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Andrew A; Stoker, Carol R

    2016-06-01

    Mars Sample Return is the highest priority science mission for the next decade as recommended by the 2011 Decadal Survey of Planetary Science [1]. This article presents the results of a feasibility study for a Mars Sample Return mission that efficiently uses emerging commercial capabilities expected to be available in the near future. The motivation of our study was the recognition that emerging commercial capabilities might be used to perform Mars Sample Return with an Earth-direct architecture, and that this may offer a desirable simpler and lower cost approach. The objective of the study was to determine whether these capabilities can be used to optimize the number of mission systems and launches required to return the samples, with the goal of achieving the desired simplicity. All of the major element required for the Mars Sample Return mission are described. Mission system elements were analyzed with either direct techniques or by using parametric mass estimating relationships. The analysis shows the feasibility of a complete and closed Mars Sample Return mission design based on the following scenario: A SpaceX Falcon Heavy launch vehicle places a modified version of a SpaceX Dragon capsule, referred to as "Red Dragon", onto a Trans Mars Injection trajectory. The capsule carries all the hardware needed to return to Earth Orbit samples collected by a prior mission, such as the planned NASA Mars 2020 sample collection rover. The payload includes a fully fueled Mars Ascent Vehicle; a fueled Earth Return Vehicle, support equipment, and a mechanism to transfer samples from the sample cache system onboard the rover to the Earth Return Vehicle. The Red Dragon descends to land on the surface of Mars using Supersonic Retropropulsion. After collected samples are transferred to the Earth Return Vehicle, the single-stage Mars Ascent Vehicle launches the Earth Return Vehicle from the surface of Mars to a Mars phasing orbit. After a brief phasing period, the Earth Return

  20. An efficient approach for Mars Sample Return using emerging commercial capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, Andrew A.; Stoker, Carol R.

    2016-06-01

    Mars Sample Return is the highest priority science mission for the next decade as recommended by the 2011 Decadal Survey of Planetary Science (Squyres, 2011 [1]). This article presents the results of a feasibility study for a Mars Sample Return mission that efficiently uses emerging commercial capabilities expected to be available in the near future. The motivation of our study was the recognition that emerging commercial capabilities might be used to perform Mars Sample Return with an Earth-direct architecture, and that this may offer a desirable simpler and lower cost approach. The objective of the study was to determine whether these capabilities can be used to optimize the number of mission systems and launches required to return the samples, with the goal of achieving the desired simplicity. All of the major element required for the Mars Sample Return mission are described. Mission system elements were analyzed with either direct techniques or by using parametric mass estimating relationships. The analysis shows the feasibility of a complete and closed Mars Sample Return mission design based on the following scenario: A SpaceX Falcon Heavy launch vehicle places a modified version of a SpaceX Dragon capsule, referred to as "Red Dragon", onto a Trans Mars Injection trajectory. The capsule carries all the hardware needed to return to Earth Orbit samples collected by a prior mission, such as the planned NASA Mars 2020 sample collection rover. The payload includes a fully fueled Mars Ascent Vehicle; a fueled Earth Return Vehicle, support equipment, and a mechanism to transfer samples from the sample cache system onboard the rover to the Earth Return Vehicle. The Red Dragon descends to land on the surface of Mars using Supersonic Retropropulsion. After collected samples are transferred to the Earth Return Vehicle, the single-stage Mars Ascent Vehicle launches the Earth Return Vehicle from the surface of Mars to a Mars phasing orbit. After a brief phasing period, the

  1. Hayabusa: Navigation Challenges for Earth Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haw, Robert J.; Bhaskaran, S.; Strauss, W.; Sklyanskiy, E.; Graat, E. J.; Smith, J. J.; Menom, P.; Ardalan, S.; Ballard, C.; Williams, P.; Kawaguchi, J.; Makoto, Y.; Ohnishi, T.

    2011-01-01

    Hayabusa was a JAXA sample-return mission to Itokawa navigated, in part, by JPL personnel. Hayabusa survived several near mission-ending failures at Itokawa yet returned to Earth with an asteroid regolith sample on June 13, 2010. This paper describes NASA/JPL's participation in the Hayabusa mission during the last 100 days of its mission, wherein JPL provided tracking data and orbit determination, plus verification of maneuver design and entry, descent and landing.

  2. Should Athletes Return to Activity After Cryotherapy?

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, Kimberly A.; Saliba, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    Reference/Citation Bleakley CM, Costello JT, Glasgow PD. Should athletes return to sport after applying ice? A systematic review of the effect of local cooling on functional performance. Sports Med. 2012; 42(1):69–87. Clinical Question Does local tissue cooling affect immediate functional performance outcomes in a sport situation? Data Sources Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and EMBASE, each from the earliest available record through April 2011. Combinations of 18 medical subheadings or key words were used to complete the search. Study Selection This systematic review included only randomized controlled trials and crossover studies published in English that examined human participants who were treated with a local cooling intervention. At least 1 functional performance outcome that was measured before and after a cooling intervention had to be reported. Excluded were studies using whole-body cryotherapy or cold-water immersion above the waist and studies that measured strength or force production during evoked muscle contraction. Data Extraction Data were extracted by 2 authors using a customized form to evaluate relevant data on study design, eligibility criteria, detailed characteristics of cooling protocols, comparisons, and outcome measures. Disagreement was resolved by consensus or third-party adjudication. To perform an intent-to-treat analysis when possible, data were extracted according to the original allocation groups, and losses to follow-up were noted. The review authors were not blinded to the study author, institution, or journal. For each study, mean differences or standardized mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for continuous outcomes using RevMan (version 5.1; The Nordic Cochrane Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark). Treatment effects were based on between-groups comparisons (cryotherapy versus control) using postintervention outcomes or within-group comparisons

  3. 26 CFR 1.6033-4 - Required use of magnetic media for returns by organizations required to file returns under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Required use of magnetic media for returns by... Returns § 1.6033-4 Required use of magnetic media for returns by organizations required to file returns under section 6033. The return of an organization that is required to be filed on magnetic media...

  4. 26 CFR 1.6033-4 - Required use of magnetic media for returns by organizations required to file returns under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Required use of magnetic media for returns by...) Information Returns § 1.6033-4 Required use of magnetic media for returns by organizations required to file returns under section 6033. The return of an organization that is required to be filed on magnetic...

  5. 26 CFR 1.6033-4 - Required use of magnetic media for returns by organizations required to file returns under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Required use of magnetic media for returns by...) Information Returns § 1.6033-4 Required use of magnetic media for returns by organizations required to file returns under section 6033. The return of an organization that is required to be filed on magnetic...

  6. 26 CFR 1.6033-4 - Required use of magnetic media for returns by organizations required to file returns under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Required use of magnetic media for returns by...) Information Returns § 1.6033-4 Required use of magnetic media for returns by organizations required to file returns under section 6033. The return of an organization that is required to be filed on magnetic...

  7. 26 CFR 1.6033-4 - Required use of magnetic media for returns by organizations required to file returns under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Required use of magnetic media for returns by...) Information Returns § 1.6033-4 Required use of magnetic media for returns by organizations required to file returns under section 6033. The return of an organization that is required to be filed on magnetic...

  8. Comet nucleus and asteroid sample return missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-06-01

    Three Advanced Design Projects have been completed this academic year at Penn State. At the beginning of the fall semester the students were organized into eight groups and given their choice of either a comet nucleus or an asteroid sample return mission. Once a mission had been chosen, the students developed conceptual designs. These were evaluated at the end of the fall semester and combined into three separate mission plans, including a comet nucleus same return (CNSR), a single asteroid sample return (SASR), and a multiple asteroid sample return (MASR). To facilitate the work required for each mission, the class was reorganized in the spring semester by combining groups to form three mission teams. An integration team consisting of two members from each group was formed for each mission so that communication and information exchange would be easier among the groups. The types of projects designed by the students evolved from numerous discussions with Penn State faculty and mission planners at the Johnson Space Center Human/Robotic Spacecraft Office. Robotic sample return missions are widely considered valuable precursors to manned missions in that they can provide details about a site's environment and scientific value. For example, a sample return from an asteroid might reveal valuable resources that, once mined, could be utilized for propulsion. These missions are also more adaptable when considering the risk to humans visiting unknown and potentially dangerous locations, such as a comet nucleus.

  9. Comet nucleus and asteroid sample return missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Three Advanced Design Projects have been completed this academic year at Penn State. At the beginning of the fall semester the students were organized into eight groups and given their choice of either a comet nucleus or an asteroid sample return mission. Once a mission had been chosen, the students developed conceptual designs. These were evaluated at the end of the fall semester and combined into three separate mission plans, including a comet nucleus same return (CNSR), a single asteroid sample return (SASR), and a multiple asteroid sample return (MASR). To facilitate the work required for each mission, the class was reorganized in the spring semester by combining groups to form three mission teams. An integration team consisting of two members from each group was formed for each mission so that communication and information exchange would be easier among the groups. The types of projects designed by the students evolved from numerous discussions with Penn State faculty and mission planners at the Johnson Space Center Human/Robotic Spacecraft Office. Robotic sample return missions are widely considered valuable precursors to manned missions in that they can provide details about a site's environment and scientific value. For example, a sample return from an asteroid might reveal valuable resources that, once mined, could be utilized for propulsion. These missions are also more adaptable when considering the risk to humans visiting unknown and potentially dangerous locations, such as a comet nucleus.

  10. Mars Earth Return Vehicle (MERV) Propulsion Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Burke, Laura; Fincannon, James; Warner, Joe; Williams, Glenn; Parkey, Thomas; Colozza, Tony; Fittje, Jim; Martini, Mike; Packard, Tom; Hemminger, Joseph; Gyekenyesi, John

    2010-01-01

    The COMPASS Team was tasked with the design of a Mars Sample Return Vehicle. The current Mars sample return mission is a joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency (ESA) mission, with ESA contributing the launch vehicle for the Mars Sample Return Vehicle. The COMPASS Team ran a series of design trades for this Mars sample return vehicle. Four design options were investigated: Chemical Return /solar electric propulsion (SEP) stage outbound, all-SEP, all chemical and chemical with aerobraking. The all-SEP and Chemical with aerobraking were deemed the best choices for comparison. SEP can eliminate both the Earth flyby and the aerobraking maneuver (both considered high risk by the Mars Sample Return Project) required by the chemical propulsion option but also require long low thrust spiral times. However this is offset somewhat by the chemical/aerobrake missions use of an Earth flyby and aerobraking which also take many months. Cost and risk analyses are used to further differentiate the all-SEP and Chemical/Aerobrake options.

  11. 49 CFR 236.720 - Circuit, common return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Circuit, common return. A term applied where one wire is used for the return of more than one electric circuit. ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Circuit, common return. 236.720 Section...

  12. 49 CFR 236.720 - Circuit, common return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Circuit, common return. A term applied where one wire is used for the return of more than one electric circuit. ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Circuit, common return. 236.720 Section...

  13. 49 CFR 236.720 - Circuit, common return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Circuit, common return. A term applied where one wire is used for the return of more than one electric circuit. ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Circuit, common return. 236.720 Section...

  14. 49 CFR 236.720 - Circuit, common return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Circuit, common return. A term applied where one wire is used for the return of more than one electric circuit. ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Circuit, common return. 236.720 Section...

  15. Analyzing traffic source impact on returning visitors ratio in information provider website

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetio, A.; Sari, P. K.; Sharif, O. O.; Sofyan, E.

    2016-04-01

    Web site performance, especially returning visitor is an important metric for an information provider web site. Since high returning visitor is a good indication of a web site’s visitor loyalty, it is important to find a way to improve this metric. This research investigated if there is any difference on returning visitor metric among three web traffic sources namely direct, referral and search. Monthly returning visitor and total visitor from each source is retrieved from Google Analytics tools and then calculated to measure returning visitor ratio. The period of data observation is from July 2012 to June 2015 resulting in a total of 108 samples. These data then analysed using One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to address our research question. The results showed that different traffic source has significantly different returning visitor ratio especially between referral traffic source and the other two traffic sources. On the other hand, this research did not find any significant difference between returning visitor ratio from direct and search traffic sources. The owner of the web site can focus to multiply referral links from other relevant sites.

  16. Mars sample return power supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoang, Don; Ludwigs, Sharon; Schmitz, Paul; Wright, John

    1988-01-01

    A power supply is designed for a vehicle able to operate on the surface of Mars for a period of 5 to 10 years. This vehicle will be used for sample and data collection. The design is based on the assumption that the vehicle will be unmanned. Also, there will be no means by which components could be repaired or replaced while on the Martian surface. A consequence of this is that all equipment must meet high standards of reliability and, if possible, redundancy. Power will be supplied to the vehicle by means of a General Purpose Heat Source capable of producing a minimum of 7 kW of thermal power. The heat generated from the General Purpose Heat Source will be transferred to a Stirling engine via hot side heat pipes. The Stirling engine will then convert this heat into 2 kW of electrical power. Cold side heat pipes will be used to carry away waste heat, which will be released to the Martian environment via radiators connected to the end of the cold side heat pipes.

  17. Mars sample return power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Don; Ludwigs, Sharon; Schmitz, Paul; Wright, John

    A power supply is designed for a vehicle able to operate on the surface of Mars for a period of 5 to 10 years. This vehicle will be used for sample and data collection. The design is based on the assumption that the vehicle will be unmanned. Also, there will be no means by which components could be repaired or replaced while on the Martian surface. A consequence of this is that all equipment must meet high standards of reliability and, if possible, redundancy. Power will be supplied to the vehicle by means of a General Purpose Heat Source capable of producing a minimum of 7 kW of thermal power. The heat generated from the General Purpose Heat Source will be transferred to a Stirling engine via hot side heat pipes. The Stirling engine will then convert this heat into 2 kW of electrical power. Cold side heat pipes will be used to carry away waste heat, which will be released to the Martian environment via radiators connected to the end of the cold side heat pipes.

  18. [Effects of returning straw to soil and different tillage methods on paddy field soil fertility and microbial population].

    PubMed

    Ren, Wan-Jun; Liu, Dai-Yin; Wu, Jin-Xiu; Wu, Ju-Xian; De, Chen-Chun; Yang, Wen-Yu

    2009-04-01

    A field experiment was conducted on a paddy field to study the effects of returning straw to soil and different tillage methods (no-tillage + returning straw, no-tillage, tillage + returning straw, and tillage) on the fertility level and microbial quantities of different soil layers. The results showed that in upper soil layer, the organic matter content in treatment 'no-tillage + returning straw' was 5.33, 2.79, and 5.37 g x kg(-1) higher than that in treatments 'no-tillage', 'tillage + returning straw', and 'tillage', respectively, and the contents of total and available N, P and K in treatment 'no-tillage + returning straw' were also the highest, followed by in treatments 'no-tillage' and 'tillage + returning straw', and in treatment 'tillage'. In deeper soil layer, all the fertility indices were higher in treatment 'tillage + returning straw'. Treatments of 'returning straw to soil' had the highest quantities of soil microbes. The quantities of bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes in upper soil layer were the highest in treatment 'no-tillage + returning straw', and thus, the cellulose decomposition intensity in this treatment at maturity period was 26.44%, 79.01%, and 98. 15% higher than that in treatments 'tillage + returning straw', 'no-tillage', and 'tillage', respectively. In deeper soil layer, the quantities of bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes were the highest in treatment 'tillage + returning straw'. Treatment 'no-tillage + returning straw' had the features of high fertility and abundant microbes in surface soil layer. The quantities of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the decomposition intensity of soil cellulose were significantly positively correlated with soil fertility level.

  19. Comet Odyssey: Comet Surface Sample Return

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissman, Paul R.; Bradley, J.; Smythe, W. D.; Brophy, J. R.; Lisano, M. E.; Syvertson, M. L.; Cangahuala, L. A.; Liu, J.; Carlisle, G. L.

    2010-10-01

    Comet Odyssey is a proposed New Frontiers mission that would return the first samples from the surface of a cometary nucleus. Stardust demonstrated the tremendous power of analysis of returned samples in terrestrial laboratories versus what can be accomplished in situ with robotic missions. But Stardust collected only 1 milligram of coma dust, and the 6.1 km/s flyby speed heated samples up to 2000 K. Comet Odyssey would collect two independent 800 cc samples directly from the surface in a far more benign manner, preserving the primitive composition. Given a minimum surface density of 0.2 g/cm3, this would return two 160 g surface samples to Earth. Comet Odyssey employs solar-electric propulsion to rendezvous with the target comet. After 180 days of reconnaissance and site selection, the spacecraft performs a "touch-and-go” maneuver with surface contact lasting 3 seconds. A brush-wheel sampler on a remote arm collects up to 800 cc of sample. A duplicate second arm and sampler collects the second sample. The samples are placed in a return capsule and maintained at colder than -70 C during the return flight and at colder than -30 C during re-entry and for up to six hours after landing. The entire capsule is then refrigerated and transported to the Astromaterials Curatorial Facility at NASA/JSC for initial inspection and sample analysis by the Comet Odyssey team. Comet Odyssey's planned target was comet 9P/Tempel 1, with launch in December 2017 and comet arrival in June 2022. After a stay of 300 days at the comet, the spacecraft departs and arrives at Earth in May 2027. Comet Odyssey is a forerunner to a flagship Cryogenic Comet Sample Return mission that would return samples from deep below the nucleus surface, including volatile ices. This work was supported by internal funds from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  20. Optimization of return electrodes in neurostimulating arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Thomas; Goetz, Georges; Lei, Xin; Palanker, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Objective. High resolution visual prostheses require dense stimulating arrays with localized inputs of individual electrodes. We study the electric field produced by multielectrode arrays in electrolyte to determine an optimal configuration of return electrodes and activation sequence. Approach. To determine the boundary conditions for computation of the electric field in electrolyte, we assessed current dynamics using an equivalent circuit of a multielectrode array with interleaved return electrodes. The electric field modeled with two different boundary conditions derived from the equivalent circuit was then compared to measurements of electric potential in electrolyte. To assess the effect of return electrode configuration on retinal stimulation, we transformed the computed electric fields into retinal response using a model of neural network-mediated stimulation. Main results. Electric currents at the capacitive electrode-electrolyte interface redistribute over time, so that boundary conditions transition from equipotential surfaces at the beginning of the pulse to uniform current density in steady state. Experimental measurements confirmed that, in steady state, the boundary condition corresponds to a uniform current density on electrode surfaces. Arrays with local return electrodes exhibit improved field confinement and can elicit stronger network-mediated retinal response compared to those with a common remote return. Connecting local return electrodes enhances the field penetration depth and allows reducing the return electrode area. Sequential activation of the pixels in large monopolar arrays reduces electrical cross-talk and improves the contrast in pattern stimulation. Significance. Accurate modeling of multielectrode arrays helps optimize the electrode configuration to maximize the spatial resolution, contrast and dynamic range of retinal prostheses.

  1. The OSIRIS-Rex Asteroid Sample Return: Mission Operations Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gal-Edd, Jonathan; Cheuvront, Allan

    2014-01-01

    The OSIRIS-REx mission employs a methodical, phased approach to ensure success in meeting the missions science requirements. OSIRIS-REx launches in September 2016, with a backup launch period occurring one year later. Sampling occurs in 2019. The departure burn from Bennu occurs in March 2021. On September 24, 2023, the SRC lands at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR). Stardust heritage procedures are followed to transport the SRC to Johnson Space Center, where the samples are removed and delivered to the OSIRIS-REx curation facility. After a six-month preliminary examination period the mission will produce a catalog of the returned sample, allowing the worldwide community to request samples for detailed analysis.Traveling and returning a sample from an Asteroid that has not been explored before requires unique operations consideration. The Design Reference Mission (DRM) ties together space craft, instrument and operations scenarios. The project implemented lessons learned from other small body missions: APLNEAR, JPLDAWN and ESARosetta. The key lesson learned was expected the unexpected and implement planning tools early in the lifecycle. In preparation to PDR, the project changed the asteroid arrival date, to arrive one year earlier and provided additional time margin. STK is used for Mission Design and STKScheduler for instrument coverage analysis.

  2. 27 CFR 479.151 - Failure to make returns: Substitute returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Failure to make returns: Substitute returns. 479.151 Section 479.151 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS,...

  3. 27 CFR 479.151 - Failure to make returns: Substitute returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Failure to make returns: Substitute returns. 479.151 Section 479.151 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS,...

  4. 27 CFR 479.151 - Failure to make returns: Substitute returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Failure to make returns: Substitute returns. 479.151 Section 479.151 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS,...

  5. 27 CFR 479.151 - Failure to make returns: Substitute returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Failure to make returns: Substitute returns. 479.151 Section 479.151 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS,...

  6. 27 CFR 479.151 - Failure to make returns: Substitute returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Failure to make returns: Substitute returns. 479.151 Section 479.151 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS,...

  7. 75 FR 76940 - Specified Tax Return Preparers Required To File Individual Income Tax Returns Using Magnetic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 301 RIN 1545-BJ52 Specified Tax Return Preparers Required To File Individual Income Tax Returns Using Magnetic Media; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue...

  8. Return Migration: A Study of College Graduates Returning to Rural U.S. Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Elizabeth D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore perceptions of return migration experiences and gain knowledge from rural residents who have left to obtain a college education and start careers in non-rural areas, and who then returned to their rural hometowns with the social and economic benefits of a college education, and other valuable resources. This…

  9. 12 CFR 229.31 - Returning bank's responsibility for return of checks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Returning bank's responsibility for return of checks. 229.31 Section 229.31 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS AND COLLECTION OF CHECKS (REGULATION CC)...

  10. 26 CFR 1.6013-2 - Joint return after filing separate return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... adopt and use the last-in, first-out inventory method under section 472, this election may not be...(b), any election, other than the election to file a separate return, made by either spouse in his... such spouse shall not be changed in the making of the joint return where such election would have...

  11. 26 CFR 1.6013-2 - Joint return after filing separate return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... adopt and use the last-in, first-out inventory method under section 472, this election may not be...(b), any election, other than the election to file a separate return, made by either spouse in his... such spouse shall not be changed in the making of the joint return where such election would have...

  12. 76 FR 31543 - Disclosure of Returns and Return Information to Designee of Taxpayer; Hearing Cancellation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... addressed. As of May 23, 2011, no one has requested to speak. Therefore, the public hearing scheduled for...: Cancellation of a notice of public hearing on a proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: This document cancels a public... authorizations permitting disclosure of returns and return information. DATES: The public hearing,...

  13. Planetary Protection Technology for Mars Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gershman, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Mars Exploration Program has recently adopted a plan that includes a first Mars sample return (MSR) mission proposed for launch in 2013. Such a mission would deal with two new categories of planetary protection requirements: (1) assuring a very low probability of inadvertent release of the sample in order to provide extra protection against the extremely unlikely possibility of biological hazards in the returned material and (2) keeping the samples free of round-trip Earth organisms to facilitate confirmation of safety after return to Earth. This paper describes the planetary-protection-related technical challenges awaiting any MSR mission and describes work in progress on technology needed to meet these challenges. New technology is needed for several functions. Containment assurance requires breaking the chain of contact with Mars: the exterior of the sample container must not be contaminated with Mars material either during the loading process or during launch from the Mars surface.

  14. SOCCER: Comet Coma Sample Return Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albee, A. L.; Uesugi, K. T.; Tsou, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Comets, being considered the most primitive bodies in the solar system, command the highest priority among solar system objects for studying solar nebula evolution and the evolution of life through biogenic elements and compounds. Sample Of Comet Coma Earth Return (SOCCER), a joint effort between NASA and the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) in Japan, has two primary science objectives: (1) the imaging of the comet nucleus and (2) the return to Earth of samples of volatile species and intact dust. This effort makes use of the unique strengths and capabilities of both countries in realizing this important quest for the return of samples from a comet. This paper presents an overview of SOCCER's science payloads, engineering flight system, and its mission operations.

  15. A wave function for stock market returns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ataullah, Ali; Davidson, Ian; Tippett, Mark

    2009-02-01

    The instantaneous return on the Financial Times-Stock Exchange (FTSE) All Share Index is viewed as a frictionless particle moving in a one-dimensional square well but where there is a non-trivial probability of the particle tunneling into the well’s retaining walls. Our analysis demonstrates how the complementarity principle from quantum mechanics applies to stock market prices and of how the wave function presented by it leads to a probability density which exhibits strong compatibility with returns earned on the FTSE All Share Index. In particular, our analysis shows that the probability density for stock market returns is highly leptokurtic with slight (though not significant) negative skewness. Moreover, the moments of the probability density determined under the complementarity principle employed here are all convergent - in contrast to many of the probability density functions on which the received theory of finance is based.

  16. Earth Entry Vehicle for Mars Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitcheltree, R. A.; Braun, R. D.; Hughes. S. J.; Simonsen, L. C.

    2000-01-01

    The driving requirement for design of a Mars Sample return mission is assuring containment of the returned samples. The impact of this requirement on developmental costs, mass allocation, and design approach of the Earth Entry Vehicle is significant. A simple Earth entry vehicle is described which can meet these requirements and safely transport the Mars Sample Return mission's sample through the Earth's atmosphere to a recoverable location on the surface. Detailed analysis and test are combined with probabilistic risk assessment to design this entirely passive concept that circumvents the potential failure modes of a parachute terminal descent system. The design also possesses features that mitigate other risks during the entry, descent, landing and recovery phases. The results of a full-scale drop test are summarized.

  17. Rapid impactor sample return (RISR) mission scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, James D.; Freitas, Christopher J.; Tapley, Mark B.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the long lead time and great expense of traditional sample return mission plans to Mars or other astronomical bodies, there is a need for a new and innovative way to return materials, potentially at a lower cost. The Rapid Impactor Sample Return (RISR) mission is one such proposal. The general mission scenario involves a single pass of Mars, a Martian moon or an asteroid at high speeds (7 km/s), with the sample return vehicle skimming just 1 or 2 m above a high point (such as a top ridge on Olympus Mons on Mars) and releasing an impactor. The impactor strikes the ground, throwing up debris. The debris with roughly the same forward velocity will be captured by the sample return vehicle and returned to Earth. There is no delay or orbit in the vicinity of Mars or the asteroid: RISR is a one-pass mission. This paper discusses some of the details of the proposal. Calculations are presented that address the question of how much material can be recovered with this technique. There are concerns about the effect of Mars tenuous atmosphere. However, it will be noted that such issues do not occur for RISR style missions to Phobos, Deimos, or asteroids and Near Earth Objects (NEOs). Recent test results in the missile defense community (IFTs 6-8 in 2001, 2002) have scored direct hits at better than 1 m accuracy with closing velocities of 7.6 km/s, giving the belief that accuracy and sensing issues are developed to a point that the RISR mission scenario is feasible.

  18. Immediate return preference emerged from a synaptic learning rule for return maximization.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yoshiya; Aihara, Takeshi; Sakai, Yutaka

    2015-02-01

    Animals including human often prefer immediate returns to larger delayed returns. It holds true in the human communications. Standard interpretation of the immediate return preference is that an animal might subjectively discount the value of a delayed reward, and that might choose the larger valued one. The interpretation has been successfully applied to explain behavior of many species including human. However, the description is not necessarily sufficient to apply for interactions of individuals. This study adopts a different approach to seek a possibility that immediate return preference may be reproduced by learning rule to maximize objective outcomes. We show that a synaptic learning rule to achieve the temporal difference (TD) learning for outcome maximization fails the maximization and exhibits immediate return preference if the context is not properly represented as a internal state.

  19. Deciphering Martian climatic history using returned samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paige, D. A.; Krieger, D. B.; Brigham, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    By necessity, a Mars sample return mission must sample the upper few meters of the Martian surface. This material was subjected to a wide variety of physical processes. Presently, the most important processes are believed to be wind-driven erosion and deposition, and water ice accumulation at higher latitudes. A sample return mission represents an opportunity to better understand and quantify these important geological processes. By obtaining sample cores at key locations, it may be possible to interpret much of recent Martian climatic history.

  20. Return-volatility correlation in financial dynamics.

    PubMed

    Qiu, T; Zheng, B; Ren, F; Trimper, S

    2006-06-01

    We investigate the return-volatility correlation both local and nonlocal in time with daily and minutely data of the German DAX and Chinese indices, and observe a leverage effect for the German DAX, while an antileverage effect for the Chinese indices. In the negative time direction, i.e., for the volatility-return correlation, an antileverage effect nonlocal in time is detected for both the German DAX and Chinese indices, although the duplicate local in time does not exist. A retarded volatility model may describe the asymmetric properties of the financial indices in the positive time direction.

  1. Return-volatility correlation in financial dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, T.; Zheng, B.; Ren, F.; Trimper, S.

    2006-06-01

    We investigate the return-volatility correlation both local and nonlocal in time with daily and minutely data of the German DAX and Chinese indices, and observe a leverage effect for the German DAX, while an antileverage effect for the Chinese indices. In the negative time direction, i.e., for the volatility-return correlation, an antileverage effect nonlocal in time is detected for both the German DAX and Chinese indices, although the duplicate local in time does not exist. A retarded volatility model may describe the asymmetric properties of the financial indices in the positive time direction.

  2. Horizontal fields generated by return strokes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooray, Vernon

    1991-01-01

    Horizontal fields generated by return strokes play an important role in the interaction of lightning generated electric fields with power lines. In many of the recent investigations on the interaction of lightning electromagnetic fields with power lines, the horizontal field was calculated by employing the expression for the tilt of the electric field of a plane wave propagating over finitely conducting earth. The method is suitable for calculating horizontal fields generated by return strokes at distances as close as 200m. At these close ranges, the use of the wavetilt expression can cause large errors.

  3. Return to work (RTW) after head injury.

    PubMed

    McMordie, W R; Barker, S L; Paolo, T M

    1990-01-01

    This study explored return to work (RTW) after head injury from survey data on 177 cases of head injury. Although 45% of the sample study did engage in some work-related activity only 19% were in competitive employment positions. Factors which were related to RTW after head injury were: age when injured, sex, length of loss of consciousness and Likert ratings of learning, motor and ambulation impairment. Many of those who did return to competitive employment did so in less demanding positions than held pre-injury. Limitations of the current study and suggestions for future research are ventured.

  4. 7 CFR 3560.305 - Return on investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Return on investment. 3560.305 Section 3560.305... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Financial Management § 3560.305 Return on investment. (a) Borrower's return on investment. Borrowers may receive a return on their investment (ROI)...

  5. 26 CFR 1.6013-1 - Joint returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Joint returns. 1.6013-1 Section 1.6013-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax Returns Or Statements § 1.6013-1 Joint returns. (a) In general. (1) A husband and wife may elect to make a joint return under section 6013(a) even though one of the spouses...

  6. 26 CFR 1.6013-1 - Joint returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Joint returns. 1.6013-1 Section 1.6013-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax Returns Or Statements § 1.6013-1 Joint returns. (a) In general. (1) A husband and wife may elect to make a joint return under section 6013(a) even though one of the spouses...

  7. 26 CFR 1.6013-1 - Joint returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Joint returns. 1.6013-1 Section 1.6013-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax Returns Or Statements § 1.6013-1 Joint returns. (a) In general. (1) A husband and wife may elect to make a joint return under section 6013(a) even though one of the spouses...

  8. 26 CFR 1.6013-1 - Joint returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Joint returns. 1.6013-1 Section 1.6013-1...) INCOME TAXES Tax Returns Or Statements § 1.6013-1 Joint returns. (a) In general. (1) A husband and wife may elect to make a joint return under section 6013(a) even though one of the spouses has no...

  9. 26 CFR 1.6013-1 - Joint returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Joint returns. 1.6013-1 Section 1.6013-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax Returns Or Statements § 1.6013-1 Joint returns. (a) In general. (1) A husband and wife may elect to make a joint return under section 6013(a) even though one of the spouses...

  10. Chloroquine-resistant malaria in travelers returning from Haiti after 2010 earthquake.

    PubMed

    Gharbi, Myriam; Pillai, Dylan R; Lau, Rachel; Hubert, Véronique; Khairnar, Krishna; Existe, Alexandre; Kendjo, Eric; Dahlström, Sabina; Guérin, Philippe J; Le Bras, Jacques

    2012-08-01

    We investigated chloroquine sensitivity to Plasmodium falciparum in travelers returning to France and Canada from Haiti during a 23-year period. Two of 19 isolates obtained after the 2010 earthquake showed mixed pfcrt 76K+T genotype and high 50% inhibitory concentration. Physicians treating malaria acquired in Haiti should be aware of possible chloroquine resistance.

  11. 75 FR 37856 - Lazard Global Total Return and Income Fund, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... 6(c) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (``Act'') for an exemption from section 19(b) of the Act... registered closed-end investment companies to make periodic distributions of long-term capital gains with... stock that such investment companies may issue. Applicants: Lazard Global Total Return and Income...

  12. Mail Survey Return Rates Published in Health Education Journals: An Issue of External Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James H.; Murnan, Judy; Dake, Joseph A.; Dimmig, Jaime; Hayes, Mary

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed mail survey return rates published in seven general health education journals for the 13-year period, 1990-2002: "American Journal of Health Behavior," "American Journal of Health Education," "American Journal of Health Promotion," "Health Education & Behavior," "Health Education Research," "Journal of American College Health,"…

  13. 77 FR 47426 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Request for the Return of Original Documents, Form...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... the Return of Original Documents, Form Number G-884; Extension, Without Change, of a Currently... this 60-day period, USCIS will be evaluating whether to revise the Form G-884. Should USCIS decide to revise Form G-884, we will advise the public when we publish the 30-day notice in the Federal Register...

  14. 26 CFR 1.458-1 - Exclusion for certain returned magazines, paperbacks, or records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Record. “Record” means a disc, tape, or similar item on which music, spoken or other sounds are recorded... purchaser will record. The following items, provided they carry pre-recorded sound, are examples of “records... return period exceed the opening balance; the addition is not to cause the suspense account to exceed...

  15. The Relationship between Return on Profitability and Costs of Outsourcing Information Technology Technical Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odion, Segun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlational research study was to examine the relationship between costs of operation and total return on profitability of outsourcing information technology technical support in a two-year period of outsourcing operations. United States of America list of Fortune 1000 companies' chief information officers…

  16. Dynamics of Rate of Returns for Postgraduate Education in Taiwan: The Impact of Higher Education Expansion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chih-Hai; Lin, Chun-Hung A.; Lin, Chien-Ru

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the dynamics of rate of returns for postgraduate education and the determinants of wage premiums for postgraduate labor, especially for the impact of higher education expansions, in terms of quantity and quality, since the late 1990s in Taiwan. Utilizing quasi-panel data over the 1990-2004 period and employing the double fixed…

  17. Planetary Protection for LIFE-Sample Return from Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsou, Peter; Yano, Hajime; Takano, Yoshinori; McKay, David; Takai, Ken; Anbar, Ariel; Baross, J.

    Introduction: We are seeking a balanced approach to returning Enceladus plume samples to state-of-the-art terrestrial laboratories to search for signs of life. NASA, ESA, JAXA and other space agencies are seeking habitable worlds and life beyond Earth. Enceladus, an icy moon of Saturn, is the first known body in the Solar System besides Earth to emit liquid water from its interior. Enceladus is the most accessible body in our Solar System for a low cost flyby sample return mission to capture aqueous based samples, to determine its state of life development, and shed light on how life can originate on wet planets/moons. LIFE combines the unique capabilities of teams of international exploration expertise. These returned Enceladus plume samples will determine if this habitable body is in fact inhabited [McKay et al, 2014]. This paper describes an approach for the LIFE mission to capture and return samples from Enceladus while meeting NASA and COSPAR planetary protection requirements. Forward planetary protection requirements for spacecraft missions to icy solar system bodies have been defined, however planetary protection requirements specific to an Earth return of samples collected from Enceladus or other Outer Planet Icy Moons, have yet to be defined. Background: From the first half century of space exploration, we have returned samples only from the Moon, comet Wild 2, the Solar Wind and the asteroid Itokawa. The in-depth analyses of these samples in terrestrial laboratories have yielded detailed chemical information that could not have been obtained otherwise. While obtaining samples from Solar System bodies is trans-formative science, it is rarely performed due to cost and complexity. The discovery by Cassini of geysers on Enceladus and organic materials in the ejected plume indicates that there is an exceptional opportunity and strong scientific rationale for LIFE. The earliest low-cost possible flight opportunity is the next Discovery Mission [Tsou et al 2012

  18. Elevated intra-abdominal pressure limits venous return during exercise in Varanus exanthematicus.

    PubMed

    Munns, Suzanne L; Hartzler, Lynn K; Bennett, Albert F; Hicks, James W

    2004-11-01

    The effects of treadmill exercise on components of the cardiovascular (venous return, heart rate, arterial blood pressure) and respiratory systems (minute ventilation, tidal volume, breathing frequency, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production) and intra-abdominal pressure were investigated in the Savannah monitor lizard, Varanus exanthematicus B., at 35 degrees C. Compared with resting conditions, treadmill exercise significantly increased lung ventilation, gular pumping, intra-abdominal pressure, mean arterial blood pressure and venous return (blood flow in the post caval vein). However, venous return declines at high levels of activity, and mean arterial pressure and venous return did not attain peak values until the recovery period, immediately following activity. Elevating intra-abdominal pressure in resting lizards (via saline infusion) resulted in significant reductions in venous return when the transmural pressure of the post caval vein became negative (i.e. when intra-abdominal pressure exceeded central venous pressure). Together these results suggest that increments in intra-abdominal pressure compress the large abdominal veins and inhibit venous return. During locomotion, the physical compression of the large abdominal veins may represent a significant limitation to cardiac output and maximal oxygen consumption in lizards.

  19. 27 CFR 479.51 - Fraudulent return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Fraudulent return. 479.51 Section 479.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  20. 27 CFR 479.51 - Fraudulent return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraudulent return. 479.51 Section 479.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  1. 27 CFR 479.51 - Fraudulent return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fraudulent return. 479.51 Section 479.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  2. 27 CFR 479.51 - Fraudulent return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Fraudulent return. 479.51 Section 479.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  3. 27 CFR 479.51 - Fraudulent return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fraudulent return. 479.51 Section 479.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  4. Tortuosity of lightning return stroke channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, D. M.; Gilson, B.

    1984-01-01

    Data obtained from photographs of lightning are presented on the tortuosity of return stroke channels. The data were obtained by making piecewise linear fits to the channels, and recording the cartesian coordinates of the ends of each linear segment. The mean change between ends of the segments was nearly zero in the horizontal direction and was about eight meters in the vertical direction. Histograms of these changes are presented. These data were used to create model lightning channels and to predict the electric fields radiated during return strokes. This was done using a computer generated random walk in which linear segments were placed end-to-end to form a piecewise linear representation of the channel. The computer selected random numbers for the ends of the segments assuming a normal distribution with the measured statistics. Once the channels were simulated, the electric fields radiated during a return stroke were predicted using a transmission line model on each segment. It was found that realistic channels are obtained with this procedure, but only if the model includes two scales of tortuosity: fine scale irregularities corresponding to the local channel tortuosity which are superimposed on large scale horizontal drifts. The two scales of tortuosity are also necessary to obtain agreement between the electric fields computed mathematically from the simulated channels and the electric fields radiated from real return strokes. Without large scale drifts, the computed electric fields do not have the undulations characteristics of the data.

  5. Early Learning: Return on Investment. Annotated Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hite, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Today's researchers seek to determine if contemporary pre-K programs provide the strong return on investment found by researchers in the 1960's High/Scope Perry Preschool Program and 1970's North Carolina Abecedarian Project. Research then showed that these two programs created positive academic effects that accompanied their students as they…

  6. An Organization's Economic Return on Training Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pucel, David J.; Lyau, Nyan-Myau

    A study examined the relationship between investment in training and labor productivity in a sample of 237 large and medium-size Taiwanese firms producing auto parts. Of the 162 firms (68.4%) that returned usable questionnaires, 142 (59.9%) had training programs and 131 (55.3%) provided full cost data. The data were analyzed by multiple regression…

  7. NASA returns rocks from a comet.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Don S

    2006-12-15

    Cometary particles returned by the Stardust Discovery Mission are primarily silicate materials of solar system origin. Some of the grains were formed at high temperatures close to the Sun, but then transported far out to the Kuiper belt region of the solar system before being incorporated in the comet.

  8. A Sample Return Container with Hermetic Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, Kin Yuen; Rafeek, Shaheed; Sadick, Shazad; Porter, Christopher C.

    2000-01-01

    A sample return container is being developed by Honeybee Robotics to receive samples from a derivative of the Champollion/ST4 Sample Acquisition and Transfer Mechanism or other samplers and then hermetically seal samples for a sample return mission. The container is enclosed in a phase change material (PCM) chamber to prevent phase change during return and re-entry to earth. This container is designed to operate passively with no motors and actuators. Using the sampler's featured drill tip for interfacing, transfer-ring and sealing samples, the container consumes no electrical power and therefore minimizes sample temperature change. The circular container houses a few isolated canisters, which will be sealed individually for samples acquired from different sites or depths. The drill based sampler indexes each canister to the sample transfer position, below the index interface for sample transfer. After sample transfer is completed, the sampler indexes a seal carrier, which lines up seals with the openings of the canisters. The sampler moves to the sealing interface and seals the sample canisters one by one. The sealing interface can be designed to work with C-seals, knife edge seals and cup seals. Again, the sampler provides all sealing actuation. This sample return container and co-engineered sample acquisition system are being developed by Honeybee Robotics in collaboration with the JPL Exploration Technology program.

  9. Galahad: medium class asteroid sample return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Andrew; Rivkin, Andrew; Adler, Mark

    The Galahad asteroid sample return mission proposal to the NASA New Frontiers solicitation met all of the objectives for the Asteroid Rover/Sample Return mission as defined in that announcement. Galahad is in many ways similar to the Marco Polo and the OSIRIS-Rex proposals. All three missions plan bulk sample returns from primitive, C or B class Near Earth asteroids. Galahad in particular will rendezvous with and orbit the binary C-asteroid 1996 FG3, making extensive orbital measurements. It will then land and collect over 60 g of well-documented samples with geologic context for return to Earth. The samples are expected to provide abundant materials from the early solar system, including chondrules and CAIs, as well as a primitive assemblage of organics, presolar grains and probably hydrated minerals. Analyses of these samples will yield new understanding of the early solar system, planetary accretion, and the nature and origins of prebiotic organic material. We will discuss scientific and technical approaches to characterization of, landing on, and sample collection from small primitive bodies.

  10. Enterprise Return on a Training Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucouliagos, Chris; Sgro, Pasquale

    The return on investment (ROI) obtained by enterprises that invest in training was examined through case studies of seven Australian work organizations. The case study organizations included a government-owned transportation company, a privately owned company, a major nongovernmental charitable organization, a publicly listed corporation, and two…

  11. The 80's--Return to Traditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deloria, Vine, Jr.

    Indians should be the ones to determine Indian education policy. Local control and freedom from outside interference would be the best thing for Indian education all around. Policymakers must first realize that education, if it is to be relevant to American Indians, must return in both content and substance to Indian traditions. Rather than…

  12. Near-Earth Asteroid Sample Return Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sears, D. W. G.; Allen, C. C.; Britt, D. T.; Brownlee, D. E.; Cheng, A.; Chapman, C. R.; Clark, B. C.; Drake, B. G.; Franchi, I. A.; Gorevan, S.

    2001-01-01

    The rate of discovery of new Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the success of D-S 1 and NEAR-Shoemaker, suggest that sample return from NEAs is now technically feasible. Here we present a summary of a recent workshop on the topic. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  13. The Mechanism Underlying Inhibition of Saccadic Return

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Casimir J. H.; Farrell, Simon; Ellis, Lucy A.; Gilchrist, Iain D.

    2009-01-01

    Human observers take longer to re-direct gaze to a previously fixated location. Although there has been some exploration of the characteristics of inhibition of saccadic return (ISR), the exact mechanisms by which ISR operates are currently unknown. In the framework of accumulation models of response times, in which evidence is integrated over…

  14. Exploring Literate Lives: Returning to the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Robyn; Woods, Annette

    2016-01-01

    The challenges of conducting lengthy fieldwork in today's busy academic world have impacted the types of research that are able to be carried out. In particular, traditional educational ethnography has become problematic for research beyond initial doctoral research programs. This article analyzes data collected during a return to the field of a…

  15. [Coordination for a successful return home].

    PubMed

    Mamoudy, Claire; Jaulin, Marie; Cerf, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    The organisation of the return home of a dependent person is an important stage in their care. Good coordination between the different healthcare and social professionals enable their needs to be assessed in order for adapted solutions to be offered. In this global approach, the teams take into account not only the patient in their living environment but also their family carer.

  16. Renewal, reform, and return to flight.

    PubMed

    Dorr, Robert F

    2005-06-01

    The Washington Watch column discusses budget issues on Capitol Hill relating to aerospace issues, including the shuttle's delayed return to flight and Michael Griffin becoming the new NASA administrator; the Transportation Security Administration becoming downsized; and new personnel at the Pentagon.

  17. Return on Investment in Training: Research Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andrew, Ed.

    Following an introduction ("Return on Investment in Training" by Andrew Smith) that provides an overview and a synopsis of research findings, the following five chapters of this book present the results of five research projects funded by the National Research and Evaluation Committee in Australia in 1999-2000. The first four of these…

  18. Reality Check: A Teacher Educator Returns Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherff, Lisa; Kaplan, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    This collaborative self-study, told through email excerpts and reflections, explores a teacher educator's return to high school teaching. In this study, we juxtapose our voices and alternate between past and present to develop insights that reveal how going back can lead to moving forward with respect to educating prospective teachers. While the…

  19. An Editor's Journey: Return to Haiti

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moy, Yvette

    2012-01-01

    This paper recounts the author's story as she returned to Haiti in February to join a building project near Port-Au-Prince and to document efforts by U.S. higher education institutions to help the country rebound from the devastating 2010 earthquake. The author describes how consortiums have been formed in order to support the development of the…

  20. 26 CFR 36.3121(l)(10)-3 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Returns. 36.3121(l)(10)-3 Section 36.3121(l)(10....3121(l)(10)-3 Returns. (a) The forms prescribed for use in making returns of the taxes imposed by the... returns of its liability under an agreement entered into as provided in § 36.3121(l)(1)-1. Returns of...

  1. 26 CFR 36.3121(l)(10)-3 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Returns. 36.3121(l)(10)-3 Section 36.3121(l)(10....3121(l)(10)-3 Returns. (a) The forms prescribed for use in making returns of the taxes imposed by the... returns of its liability under an agreement entered into as provided in § 36.3121(l)(1)-1. Returns of...

  2. 26 CFR 36.3121(l)(10)-3 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Returns. 36.3121(l)(10)-3 Section 36.3121(l)(10....3121(l)(10)-3 Returns. (a) The forms prescribed for use in making returns of the taxes imposed by the... returns of its liability under an agreement entered into as provided in § 36.3121(l)(1)-1. Returns of...

  3. 26 CFR 36.3121(l)(10)-3 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returns. 36.3121(l)(10)-3 Section 36.3121(l)(10....3121(l)(10)-3 Returns. (a) The forms prescribed for use in making returns of the taxes imposed by the... returns of its liability under an agreement entered into as provided in § 36.3121(l)(1)-1. Returns of...

  4. 26 CFR 36.3121(l)(10)-3 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Returns. 36.3121(l)(10)-3 Section 36.3121(l)(10....3121(l)(10)-3 Returns. (a) The forms prescribed for use in making returns of the taxes imposed by the... returns of its liability under an agreement entered into as provided in § 36.3121(l)(1)-1. Returns of...

  5. 26 CFR 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information by other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... other agencies. 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 Section 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 Disclosure of returns and return information... regulations thereunder, including, if applicable, safeguards imposed by section 6103(p)(4). (d) Records...

  6. 26 CFR 301.6103(p)(4)-1 - Procedures relating to safeguards for returns or return information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... or return information. 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Section 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Procedures relating to safeguards for returns..., see § 301.6103(p)(7)-1....

  7. 26 CFR 301.6103(n)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information in connection with written contracts or agreements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... administration purposes. 301.6103(n)-1 Section 301.6103(n)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(n)-1 Disclosure of returns and return information in... administration purposes. (a) General rule. (1) Pursuant to the provisions of section 6103(n) of the...

  8. 26 CFR 301.6103(n)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information in connection with written contracts or agreements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... administration purposes. 301.6103(n)-1 Section 301.6103(n)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(n)-1 Disclosure of returns and return information in... administration purposes. (a) General rule. (1) Pursuant to the provisions of section 6103(n) of the...

  9. 26 CFR 301.6103(n)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information in connection with written contracts or agreements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... administration purposes. 301.6103(n)-1 Section 301.6103(n)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(n)-1 Disclosure of returns and return information in... administration purposes. (a) General rule. (1) Pursuant to the provisions of section 6103(n) of the...

  10. 26 CFR 301.6103(n)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information in connection with written contracts or agreements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... administration purposes. 301.6103(n)-1 Section 301.6103(n)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(n)-1 Disclosure of returns and return information in... administration purposes. (a) General rule. (1) Pursuant to the provisions of section 6103(n) of the...

  11. 26 CFR 301.6103(p)(4)-1 - Procedures relating to safeguards for returns or return information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... or return information. 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Section 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Procedures relating to safeguards for returns..., see § 301.6103(p)(7)-1....

  12. 26 CFR 301.6103(p)(4)-1 - Procedures relating to safeguards for returns or return information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... or return information. 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Section 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Procedures relating to safeguards for returns..., see § 301.6103(p)(7)-1....

  13. 26 CFR 301.6103(p)(4)-1 - Procedures relating to safeguards for returns or return information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... or return information. 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Section 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Procedures relating to safeguards for returns..., see § 301.6103(p)(7)-1....

  14. 26 CFR 301.6103(p)(4)-1 - Procedures relating to safeguards for returns or return information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... or return information. 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Section 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Procedures relating to safeguards for returns..., see § 301.6103(p)(7)-1....

  15. 26 CFR 1.6011-7 - Specified tax return preparers required to file individual income tax returns using magnetic media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... individual income tax returns using magnetic media. 1.6011-7 Section 1.6011-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... tax returns using magnetic media. Individual income tax returns that are required to be filed on magnetic media by tax return preparers under section 6011(e)(3) and § 301.6011-7 of this chapter must...

  16. 26 CFR 301.6103(l)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information for purposes other than tax administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... for purposes other than tax administration. 301.6103(l)-1 Section 301.6103(l)-1 Internal Revenue... ADMINISTRATION Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(l)-1 Disclosure of returns and return... provisions of section 6103(l) of the Internal Revenue Code, the term agent includes a contractor....

  17. 26 CFR 301.6103(l)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information for purposes other than tax administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for purposes other than tax administration. 301.6103(l)-1 Section 301.6103(l)-1 Internal Revenue... ADMINISTRATION Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(l)-1 Disclosure of returns and return... provisions of section 6103(l) of the Internal Revenue Code, the term agent includes a contractor....

  18. 26 CFR 301.6103(l)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information for purposes other than tax administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for purposes other than tax administration. 301.6103(l)-1 Section 301.6103(l)-1 Internal Revenue... ADMINISTRATION Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(l)-1 Disclosure of returns and return... provisions of section 6103(l) of the Internal Revenue Code, the term agent includes a contractor....

  19. 26 CFR 301.6103(l)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information for purposes other than tax administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for purposes other than tax administration. 301.6103(l)-1 Section 301.6103(l)-1 Internal Revenue... ADMINISTRATION Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(l)-1 Disclosure of returns and return... provisions of section 6103(l) of the Internal Revenue Code, the term agent includes a contractor....

  20. 26 CFR 301.6103(l)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information for purposes other than tax administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for purposes other than tax administration. 301.6103(l)-1 Section 301.6103(l)-1 Internal Revenue... ADMINISTRATION Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(l)-1 Disclosure of returns and return... provisions of section 6103(l) of the Internal Revenue Code, the term agent includes a contractor....

  1. 26 CFR 1.6011-7 - Specified tax return preparers required to file individual income tax returns using magnetic media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... individual income tax returns using magnetic media. 1.6011-7 Section 1.6011-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... tax returns using magnetic media. Individual income tax returns that are required to be filed on magnetic media by tax return preparers under section 6011(e)(3) and § 301.6011-7 of this chapter must...

  2. 26 CFR 1.6011-7 - Specified tax return preparers required to file individual income tax returns using magnetic media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... individual income tax returns using magnetic media. 1.6011-7 Section 1.6011-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... tax returns using magnetic media. Individual income tax returns that are required to be filed on magnetic media by tax return preparers under section 6011(e)(3) and § 301.6011-7 of this chapter must...

  3. 26 CFR 301.6033-4 - Required use of magnetic media for returns by organizations required to file returns under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Required use of magnetic media for returns by... ADMINISTRATION Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6033-4 Required use of magnetic media for... required to file returns under section 6033 on magnetic media. An organization required to file a...

  4. 26 CFR 1.6011-7 - Specified tax return preparers required to file individual income tax returns using magnetic media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... individual income tax returns using magnetic media. 1.6011-7 Section 1.6011-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... tax returns using magnetic media. Individual income tax returns that are required to be filed on magnetic media by tax return preparers under section 6011(e)(3) and § 301.6011-7 of this chapter must...

  5. 26 CFR 301.6033-4 - Required use of magnetic media for returns by organizations required to file returns under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Required use of magnetic media for returns by... ADMINISTRATION Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6033-4 Required use of magnetic media for... required to file returns under section 6033 on magnetic media. An organization required to file a...

  6. 26 CFR 301.6033-4 - Required use of magnetic media for returns by organizations required to file returns under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Required use of magnetic media for returns by... ADMINISTRATION Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6033-4 Required use of magnetic media for... required to file returns under section 6033 on magnetic media. An organization required to file a...

  7. 26 CFR 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information by other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... other agencies. 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 Section 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 Disclosure of returns and return information by other agencies. (a) General rule. Subject to the requirements of paragraphs (b), (c), and (d)...

  8. 26 CFR 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information by other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... other agencies. 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 Section 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 Disclosure of returns and return information by other agencies. (a) General rule. Subject to the requirements of paragraphs (b), (c), and (d)...

  9. 26 CFR 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information by other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... other agencies. 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 Section 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 Disclosure of returns and return information by other agencies. (a) General rule. Subject to the requirements of paragraphs (b), (c), and (d)...

  10. 26 CFR 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information by other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... other agencies. 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 Section 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 Disclosure of returns and return information by other agencies. (a) General rule. Subject to the requirements of paragraphs (b), (c), and (d)...

  11. 26 CFR 301.6103(n)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information in connection with written contracts or agreements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... administration purposes. 301.6103(n)-1 Section 301.6103(n)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(n)-1 Disclosure of returns and return information in... administration purposes. (a) General rule. (1) Pursuant to the provisions of section 6103(n) of the...

  12. Power and energy dissipation in subsequent return strokes as predicted by a new return stroke model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooray, Vernon

    1991-01-01

    Recently, Cooray introduced a new return stroke model which is capable of predicting the temporal behavior of the return stroke current and the return stroke velocity as a function of the height along the return stroke channel. The authors employed this model to calculate the power and energy dissipation in subsequent return strokes. The results of these calculations are presented here. It was concluded that a large fraction of the total energy available for the dart leader-subsequent stroke process is dissipated in the dart leader stage. The peak power per unit length dissipated in a subsequent stroke channel element decreases with increasing height of that channel element from ground level. For a given channel element, the peak power dissipation increases with increasing current in that channel element. The peak electrical power dissipation in a typical subsequent return stroke is about 1.5 times 10(exp 11) W. The energy dissipation in a subsequent stroke increases with increasing current in the return stroke channel, and for a typical subsequent stroke, the energy dissipation per unit length is about 5.0 times 10(exp 3) J/m.

  13. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-09-14

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors.

  14. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R.; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors. PMID:26365061

  15. Return to Play After Forearm and Hand Injuries in the National Basketball Association

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Kyle W.; Hearns, Krystle A.; Carlson, Michelle Gerwin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hand injuries can result in significant time away from competition for professional basketball players. Time to return to play after hand injuries in elite athletes has not been well described. Purpose: To report the return to play from metacarpal fractures, phalangeal fractures, and thumb ligament tears in National Basketball Association (NBA) players over a 5-year period. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: The NBA transaction report was analyzed from January 2009 to May 2014. Players were identified if they were added to the inactive list (IL), missed games due to their injury, or underwent surgery as a result of hand injury. Number of games missed due to injury, days spent on the IL, and age at injury were calculated by injury type and location. Results: One hundred thirty-seven injuries were identified: 39 injuries to the hand and 98 injuries to the finger. Three major injury patterns were identified and analyzed: metacarpal fractures (n = 26), phalangeal fractures (n = 33), and thumb ligament tears (n = 9). The type of injury sustained affected return to play (P < .05). All thumb ligament tears required surgery and had the longest return to play of 67.5 ± 17.7 days (P < .05). The return to play for surgically treated metacarpal fractures (56.7 ± 26.3 days) was significantly greater than nonsurgically treated metacarpal fractures (26.3 ± 12.1 days; P < .01). Return to play for surgically repaired phalangeal fractures (46.2 ± 10.8 days) trended greater but was not significantly different than phalangeal fractures treated nonsurgically (33.3 ± 28.5 days; P = .21). Conclusion: Hand injuries in professional basketball players can lead to prolonged periods of time away from competition, especially after surgery. This study provides guidelines on expected return to play in the NBA after these common hand injuries. PMID:28251168

  16. Return to physical activity after gastrocnemius recession

    PubMed Central

    Tang Qian Ying, Camelia; Lai Wei Hong, Sean; Lee, Bing Howe; Thevendran, Gowreeson

    2016-01-01

    AIM To prospectively investigate the time taken and patients’ ability to resume preoperative level of physical activity after gastrocnemius recession. METHODS Endoscopic gastrocnemius recession (EGR) was performed on 48 feet in 46 consecutive sportspersons, with a minimum follow-up of 24 mo. The Halasi Ankle Activity Score was used to quantify the level of physical activity. Time taken to return to work and physical activity was recorded. Functional outcomes were evaluated using the short form 36 (SF-36), American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Hindfoot score and modified Olerud and Molander (O and M) scores respectively. Patient’s satisfaction and pain experienced were assessed using a modified Likert scale and visual analogue scales. P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS Ninety-one percent (n = 42) of all patients returned to their preoperative level of physical activity after EGR. The mean time for return to physical activity was 7.5 (2-24) mo. Ninety-eight percent (n = 45) of all patients were able to return to their preoperative employment status, with a mean time of 3.6 (1-12) mo. Ninety-six percent (n = 23) of all patients with an activity score > 2 were able to resume their preoperative level of physical activity in mean time of 8.8 mo, as compared to 86% (n = 19) of patients whose activity score was ≤ 2, with mean time of 6.1 mo. Significant improvements were noted in SF-36, AOFAS hindfoot and modified O and M scores. Ninety percent of all patients rated good or very good outcomes on the Likert scale. CONCLUSION The majority of patients were able to return to their pre-operative level of sporting activity after EGR. PMID:27900272

  17. Return to the Moon: A New Strategic Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the value of a new lunar program, initially robotic and eventually manned, in the light of developments since the 1991 Synthes Group study of the Space Exploration Initiative. The objective is to evaluate a return to the Moon in comparison to proposed Mars programs as a focus for American space exploration with humans in the next century. The Moon is demonstrably accessible, hospitable, useful, and interesting. Lunar programs are inherently faster and less risky from a programmatic viewpoint than comparable Mars programs such as Mars Direct. The dominant reason for a resumption of manned lunar missions, focused on a single site such as Grimaldi, is to rebuild the infrastructure for missions beyond Earth orbit, the last of which was in 1972. A transitional program, corresponding to the 10 Gemini missions that bridged the gap between Mercury and Apollo, was considered absolutely essential by the Synthesis Group. Further justification for a return to the Moon is the demonstrated feasibility of a robotic lunar observatory, concentrating on optical and infrared interferometry. Many unsolved scientific questions about the Moon itself remain, and could be investigated using telerobotic lunar rovers even before the return of humans. Mars is unquestionably more interesting scientifically and far more hospitable for long-term colonization. A new lunar program would be the most effective possible preparation for the human exploration, settlement and eventually the terraforming of Mars. Lunar and Mars programs are complementary, not competitive. Both can be justified in the most fundamental terms as beginning the dispersal of the human species against uncontrollable natural disasters, cometary or asteroidal impacts in particular, to which mankind is vulnerable while confined to a single planet. Three specific programs are recommended for the 2001-2010 period: Ice Prospectors, to evaluate polar ice or hydrogen deposits; a robotic lunar observatory; and a

  18. Return to the Moon: A New Strategic Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the value of a new lunar program, initially robotic and eventually manned, in the light of developments since the 1991 Synthesis Group study of the Space Exploration Initiative. The objective is to evaluate a return to the Moon in comparison to proposed Mars programs as a focus for American space exploration with humans in the next century. The Moon is demonstrably accessible, hospitable, useful, and interesting. Lunar programs are inherently faster and less risky from a programmatic viewpoint than comparable Mars programs such as Mars Direct. The dominant reason for a resumption of manned lunar missions, focussed on a single site such as Grimaldi, is to rebuild the infrastructure for missions beyond earth orbit, the last of which was in 1972. A transitional program, corresponding to the 10 Gemini missions that bridged the gap between Mercury and Apollo, was considered absolutely essential by the Synthesis Group. Further justification for a return to the Moon is the demonstrated feasibility of a robotic lunar observatory, concentrating on optical and infrared interferometry. Many unsolved scientific questions about the Moon itself remain, and could be investigated using telerobotic lunar rovers even before the return of humans. Mars is unquestionably more interesting scientifically and far more hospitable for long-term colonization. A new lunar program would be the most effective possible preparation for the human exploration, settlement, and eventually the terraforming of Mars. Lunar and Mars programs are complementary, not competitive. Both can be justified in the most fundamental terms as beginning the dispersal of the human species against uncontrollable natural disasters, cometary or asteroidal impacts in particular, to which mankind is vulnerable while confined to a single planet. Three specific programs are recommended for the 2001-2010 period: Ice Prospectors, to evaluate polar ice or hydrogen deposits; a robotic lunar observatory; and a

  19. Return to the Moon: A New Strategic Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the value of a new lunar program, initially robotic and eventually manned, in the light of developments since the 1991 Synthes Group study of the Space Exploration Initiative. The objective is to evaluate a return to the Moon in comparison to proposed Mars programs as a focus for American space exploration with humans in the next century. The Moon is demonstrably accessible, hospitable, useful, and interesting. Lunar programs are inherently faster and less risky from a programmatic viewpoint than comparable Mars programs such as Mars Direct. The dominant reason for a resumption of manned lunar missions, focused on a single site such as Grimaldi, is to rebuild the infrastructure for missions beyond Earth orbit, the last of which was in 1972. A transitional prograrr@ corresponding to the 10 Gemini missions that bridged the gap between Mercury and Apollo, was considered absolutely essential by the Synthesis Group. Further justification for a return to the Moon is the demonstrated feasibility of a robotic lunar observatory, concentrating on optical and infrared interferometry. Many unsolved scientific questions about the Moon itself remain, and could be investigated using telerobotic lunar rovers even before the return of humans. Mars is unquestionably more interesting scientifically and far more hospitable for long-term colonization. A new lunar program would be the most effective possible preparation for the human exploration, settlement and eventually the terraforming of Mars. Lunar and Mars programs are complementary, not competitive. Both can be justified in the most fundamental terms as beginning the dispersal of the human species against uncontrollable natural disasters, cometary or asteroidal impacts in particular, to which mankind is vulnerable while confined to a single planet. Three specific programs are recommended for the 2001-2010 period: Ice Prospectors, to evaluate polar ice or hydrogen deposits; a robotic lunar observatory; and a

  20. OSIRIS-REx, Returning the Asteroid Sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajluni, Thomas, M.; Everett, David F.; Linn, Timothy; Mink, Ronald; Willcockson, William; Wood, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the technical aspects of the sample return system for the upcoming Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) asteroid sample return mission. The overall mission design and current implementation are presented as an overview to establish a context for the technical description of the reentry and landing segment of the mission.The prime objective of the OSIRIS-REx mission is to sample a primitive, carbonaceous asteroid and to return that sample to Earth in pristine condition for detailed laboratory analysis. Targeting the near-Earth asteroid Bennu, the mission launches in September 2016 with an Earth reentry date of September 24, 2023.OSIRIS-REx will thoroughly characterize asteroid Bennu providing knowledge of the nature of near-Earth asteroids that is fundamental to understanding planet formation and the origin of life. The return to Earth of pristine samples with known geologic context will enable precise analyses that cannot be duplicated by spacecraft-based instruments, revolutionizing our understanding of the early Solar System. Bennu is both the most accessible carbonaceous asteroid and one of the most potentially Earth-hazardous asteroids known. Study of Bennu addresses multiple NASA objectives to understand the origin of the Solar System and the origin of life and will provide a greater understanding of both the hazards and resources in near-Earth space, serving as a precursor to future human missions to asteroids.This paper focuses on the technical aspects of the Sample Return Capsule (SRC) design and concept of operations, including trajectory design and reentry retrieval. Highlights of the mission are included below.The OSIRIS-REx spacecraft provides the essential functions for an asteroid characterization and sample return mission: attitude control propulsion power thermal control telecommunications command and data handling structural support to ensure successful

  1. Decreases in thymopoiesis of astronauts returning from space flight

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Cara L.; Stowe, Raymond P.; St. John, Lisa; Sams, Clarence F.; Mehta, Satish K.; Crucian, Brian E.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2016-01-01

    Following the advent of molecular assays that measure T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) present in recent thymic emigrants, it has been conclusively shown that thymopoiesis persists in most adults, but that functional output decreases with age, influencing the maintenance of a diverse and functional T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire. Space flight has been shown to result in a variety of phenotypic and functional changes in human T cells and in the reactivation of latent viruses. While space flight has been shown to influence thymic architecture in rodents, thymopoiesis has not previously been assessed in astronauts. Here, we assessed thymopoiesis longitudinally over a 1-year period prior to and after long-term space flight (median duration, 184 days) in 16 astronauts. While preflight assessments of thymopoiesis remained quite stable in individual astronauts, we detected significant suppression of thymopoiesis in all subjects upon return from space flight. We also found significant increases in urine and plasma levels of endogenous glucocorticoids coincident with the suppression of thymopoiesis. The glucocorticoid induction and thymopoiesis suppression were transient, and they normalized shortly after return to Earth. This is the first report to our knowledge to prospectively demonstrate a significant change in thymopoiesis in healthy individuals in association with a defined physiologic emotional and physical stress event. These results suggest that suppression of thymopoiesis has the potential to influence the maintenance of the TCR repertoire during extended space travel. Further studies of thymopoiesis and endogenous glucocorticoids in other stress states, including illness, are warranted. PMID:27699228

  2. Decreases in thymopoiesis of astronauts returning from space flight.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Cara L; Stowe, Raymond P; St John, Lisa; Sams, Clarence F; Mehta, Satish K; Crucian, Brian E; Pierson, Duane L; Komanduri, Krishna V

    2016-08-04

    Following the advent of molecular assays that measure T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) present in recent thymic emigrants, it has been conclusively shown that thymopoiesis persists in most adults, but that functional output decreases with age, influencing the maintenance of a diverse and functional T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire. Space flight has been shown to result in a variety of phenotypic and functional changes in human T cells and in the reactivation of latent viruses. While space flight has been shown to influence thymic architecture in rodents, thymopoiesis has not previously been assessed in astronauts. Here, we assessed thymopoiesis longitudinally over a 1-year period prior to and after long-term space flight (median duration, 184 days) in 16 astronauts. While preflight assessments of thymopoiesis remained quite stable in individual astronauts, we detected significant suppression of thymopoiesis in all subjects upon return from space flight. We also found significant increases in urine and plasma levels of endogenous glucocorticoids coincident with the suppression of thymopoiesis. The glucocorticoid induction and thymopoiesis suppression were transient, and they normalized shortly after return to Earth. This is the first report to our knowledge to prospectively demonstrate a significant change in thymopoiesis in healthy individuals in association with a defined physiologic emotional and physical stress event. These results suggest that suppression of thymopoiesis has the potential to influence the maintenance of the TCR repertoire during extended space travel. Further studies of thymopoiesis and endogenous glucocorticoids in other stress states, including illness, are warranted.

  3. 76 FR 22611 - Specified Tax Return Preparers Required To File Individual Income Tax Returns Using Magnetic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... Individual Income Tax Returns Using Magnetic Media; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS... using magnetic media pursuant to section 6011(e)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code. DATES: This...

  4. The Global Statistics of Return Times: Return Time Dimensions Versus Generalized Measure Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantica, Giorgio

    2010-03-01

    We investigate return times in dynamical systems, i.e. the time required by a trajectory to complete a return journey to a neighborhood of the initial position. In particular, we study the relations holding between the scaling exponents of phase-space moments of return times in balls of diminishing radius, on the one side, and the generalized dimensions of invariant measures, on the other. Because of a heuristic use of Kac theorem, the former have been used in place of the latter in numerical and experimental investigations: to mark the distinction, we call them return time dimensions. We derive a full set of inequalities linking generalized dimensions of invariant measures and return time dimensions. We comment on their optimality with the aid of two maps due to von Neumann-Kakutani and to Gaspard-Wang. We conjecture a formula for the return time dimensions in a typical system. We only assume that the dynamical system under investigation is ergodic and that motion takes place in a compact, finite dimensional space.

  5. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    Periodic paralysis - hypokalemic; Familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis; HOKPP; HypoKPP; HypoPP ... is not inherited. Unlike other forms of periodic paralysis, people with hypoPP have normal thyroid function. But ...

  6. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    Periodic paralysis - hyperkalemic; Familial hyperkalemic periodic paralysis; HyperKPP; HyperPP; Gamstorp disease ... factors include having other family members with periodic paralysis. It affects men more often than women.

  7. Coral isotopic records during the medieval period from Ishigaki Island, northwestern Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimoto, Maki; Abe, Osamu

    2013-04-01

    Proxy-based paleoclimate reconstructions in high time-resolution and modeling studies have been greatly advanced in recent years to understand global temperature history over the past 1000 years. However, most proxy data for these reconstructions are from terrestrial sources such as tree-rings, speleothems, etc., and very few marine records in annual resolution have been obtained over 500 years. This is considered to be one of reasons for large uncertainties of global scale climatic reconstructions. Marine sediments can provide long consecutive records from several thousands of years to several million years. However, their time-resolutions of several tens to several thousands of years are insufficient for reconstructing decadal to centennial climate variabilities. Coral skeletal proxies, such as oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O) and Sr/Ca, have been used to reconstruct tropical and subtropical sea surface paleoenvironment in much higher time-resolution of weeks to months, which could provide comparable results with tree-ring records. The Northwestern Pacific is one of regions with sparse long paleoclimate records in high time-resolution for the last 1000 years. We collected a medieval fossil coral (Porites sp.) with a height of more than 5 m from a fringing reef of the southern coast of the Ishigaki Island, southern Japan, where the East Asian monsoon is predominant. Using combined annual age determination by annual band analysis and high resolution isotope measurements, yearly δ18O was obtained spanning 300 years of about 1000 years ago (1535+-35 ~ 1260+-80 14C age (ca. cal AD 850 ~ 1150)). This period corresponds to the beginning of the Medieval Warm Period, recently more commonly referred to as the Medieval Climate Anomaly (Stine, 1994), and it also is marked by a tendency for La Niña-like conditions in the tropical Pacific (Mann et al., 2009). Here we discuss about the transition to the warm period of the northwestern Pacific and its degree by comparing with

  8. Microscopic return point memory in Co/Pd multilayer films

    SciTech Connect

    Seu, K.A.; Su, R.; Roy, S.; Parks, D.; Shipton, E.; Fullerton, E.E.; Kevan, S.D.

    2009-10-01

    We report soft x-ray speckle metrology measurements of microscopic return point and complementary point memory in Co/Pd magnetic films having perpendicular anisotropy. We observe that the domains assemble into a common labyrinth phase with a period that varies by nearly a factor of two between initial reversal and fields near saturation. Unlike previous studies of similar systems, the ability of the film to reproduce its domain structure after magnetic cycling through saturation varies from loop to loop, from position to position on the sample, and with the part of the speckle pattern used in the metrology measurements. We report the distribution of memory as a function of field and discuss these results in terms of the reversal process.

  9. [Return scholarship of the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia].

    PubMed

    Guerra, Humberto

    2010-09-01

    Developing countries suffer from brain drain for many decades. Industrialized countries have raised their barriers against immigrants, but have created mechanisms to attract foreign professionals, with aggressive policies to capture talents, in an effort to increase their competitiveness. To mitigate the effects of the migration of scientists, the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia has created its own "return scholarship" about 12 years ago, and has repatriated 12 scientists through it. The funds invested in attracting the scholars total U.S. $333,540.00 and they have secured U.S. $9,249,828.42 in research funds during the same period, a figure over 27 times higher. They have published 8 articles in national journals, 68 internationally, and trained 29 undergraduate and 20 graduate students as Thesis Tutors. Other universities and institutions of our countries can emulate this successful experience, which is still evolving.

  10. Near-Earth Asteroid Returned Sample (NEARS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoemaker, Eugene M.; Cheng, Andrew F.

    1994-01-01

    The concept of the Near-Earth Asteroid Returned Sample (NEARS) mission is to return to Earth 10-100 g from each of four to six sites on a near-Earth asteroid and to perform global characterization of the asteroid and measure mass, volume, and density to ten percent. The target asteroid for the mission is 4660 Nereus, probably a primitive C-type asteroid, with the alternate target being 1989ML, an extremely accessible asteroid of unknown type. Launch dates will be 1998, 2000, 2002, and 2004 on the Delta II-7925 launch vehicle. The mission objectives are three-fold. (1) Provide first direct and detailed petrological, chemical, age, and isotopic characterization of a near-Earth asteroid and relate it to terrestrial, lunar, and meteoritic materials. (2) Sample the asteroid regolith and characterize any exotic fragments. (3) Identify heterogeneity in the asteroid's isotopic properties, age, and elemental chemistry.

  11. Organic Contamination Standards for Mars Sample Return

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugel, D. E.; Conley, Catharine

    Collecting samples from Mars and bringing them to Earth for study has long been an objective of planetary exploration, among other reasons because this allows for the application of the most sensitive instruments to detect biosignatures and other indications of possible Mars life. Understanding terrestrial contamination that could be introduced into Mars samples and confound life detection measurements is an essential aspect of the investigative process. Defining quantitative limits on terrestrial organic contamination is necessary for planetary protection purposes, to ensure high confidence in a putative detection of `Mars life' or possible biohazards in samples after return to Earth. As reported here, NASA's Office of Planetary Protection is initiating a process to establish appropriate limits and controls on organic contamination introduced into Mars samples that will be collected and cached by the Mars 2020 mission for possible future return to Earth.

  12. STARDUST: Finessing expensive cometary sample returns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brownlee, Donald E.; Tsou, Peter; Atkins, Kenneth L.; Yen, Chen-wan; Vellinga, Joseph M.; Price, Stephen; Benton Clark, C.

    1996-07-01

    The STARDUST Discovery mission will collect samples of cometary coma and interstellar dust and return them to Earth. Five years after launch in February 1999, coma dust in the 1- to 100-μm size range will be captured by impact into ultra-low-density silica aerogel during a 6 kms -1 flyby of Comet Wild 2. The returned samples will be investigated at laboratories where the most critical information on these primitive materials is retained. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory will provide project management with Lockheed Martin Astronautics as the spacecraft industrial partner STARDUST management will aggressively and innovatively achieve cost control through the use of Total Quality Management principles, the chief of which will be organization in a Project Engineering and Integration Team that "flattens" the traditional hierarchical structure by including all project elements from the beginning, in a concurrent engineering framework focusing on evolving Integrated Mission Capability

  13. Returners and explorers dichotomy in human mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, Luca; Simini, Filippo; Rinzivillo, Salvatore; Pedreschi, Dino; Giannotti, Fosca; Barabási, Albert-László

    2015-09-01

    The availability of massive digital traces of human whereabouts has offered a series of novel insights on the quantitative patterns characterizing human mobility. In particular, numerous recent studies have lead to an unexpected consensus: the considerable variability in the characteristic travelled distance of individuals coexists with a high degree of predictability of their future locations. Here we shed light on this surprising coexistence by systematically investigating the impact of recurrent mobility on the characteristic distance travelled by individuals. Using both mobile phone and GPS data, we discover the existence of two distinct classes of individuals: returners and explorers. As existing models of human mobility cannot explain the existence of these two classes, we develop more realistic models able to capture the empirical findings. Finally, we show that returners and explorers play a distinct quantifiable role in spreading phenomena and that a correlation exists between their mobility patterns and social interactions.

  14. Returners and explorers dichotomy in human mobility.

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Luca; Simini, Filippo; Rinzivillo, Salvatore; Pedreschi, Dino; Giannotti, Fosca; Barabási, Albert-László

    2015-09-08

    The availability of massive digital traces of human whereabouts has offered a series of novel insights on the quantitative patterns characterizing human mobility. In particular, numerous recent studies have lead to an unexpected consensus: the considerable variability in the characteristic travelled distance of individuals coexists with a high degree of predictability of their future locations. Here we shed light on this surprising coexistence by systematically investigating the impact of recurrent mobility on the characteristic distance travelled by individuals. Using both mobile phone and GPS data, we discover the existence of two distinct classes of individuals: returners and explorers. As existing models of human mobility cannot explain the existence of these two classes, we develop more realistic models able to capture the empirical findings. Finally, we show that returners and explorers play a distinct quantifiable role in spreading phenomena and that a correlation exists between their mobility patterns and social interactions.

  15. Returners and explorers dichotomy in human mobility

    PubMed Central

    Pappalardo, Luca; Simini, Filippo; Rinzivillo, Salvatore; Pedreschi, Dino; Giannotti, Fosca; Barabási, Albert-László

    2015-01-01

    The availability of massive digital traces of human whereabouts has offered a series of novel insights on the quantitative patterns characterizing human mobility. In particular, numerous recent studies have lead to an unexpected consensus: the considerable variability in the characteristic travelled distance of individuals coexists with a high degree of predictability of their future locations. Here we shed light on this surprising coexistence by systematically investigating the impact of recurrent mobility on the characteristic distance travelled by individuals. Using both mobile phone and GPS data, we discover the existence of two distinct classes of individuals: returners and explorers. As existing models of human mobility cannot explain the existence of these two classes, we develop more realistic models able to capture the empirical findings. Finally, we show that returners and explorers play a distinct quantifiable role in spreading phenomena and that a correlation exists between their mobility patterns and social interactions. PMID:26349016

  16. Near-Earth Asteroid Sample Return Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the Near-Earth Asteroid Sample Return Workshop, 11-12 Dec 2000. The Steering Committee consisted of Derek Sears, Chair, Dan Britt, Don Brownlee, Andrew Cheng, Benton Clark, Leon Gefert, Steve Gorevan, Marilyn Lindstrom, Carle Pieters, Jeff Preble, Brian Wilcox, and Don Yeomans. Logistical, administrative, and publications support were provided by the Publications and Program Services Department of the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

  17. Isotopic studies in returned lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, E. C., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Analysis of lunar soil samples returned by Apollo 11 and 12 flights are discussed. Isotopic studies of the rare gases from Apollo 11 flight lunar samples are presented. The lunar soil analyses indicated the following: (1) high concentrations of solar wind rare gases, (2) isotopic match between solar wind gases and gas components in gas-rich meteorites, and (3) rare gases attributable to spallation reactions induced in heavier nuclides by cosmic ray particles.

  18. Environmental water incentive policy and return flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, M. E.; Schwabe, K.; Connor, J.; Kirby, M.

    2010-04-01

    With increasing urban, industrial, and agricultural water demand and projected reduced supply under climate change, allocations to the environment are critically low in many arid and semiarid basins. Consequently, many governments are striving to augment environmental flows, often through market-oriented mechanisms that involve compensating irrigated agriculture, the largest water user in most basins, for reducing diversions. A widely documented challenge with policies to recover water for the environment arises because part of the water diversion reduction can form the basis for downstream consumptive water rights or environmental flows. This article gives an empirical comparison of two incentive policies to acquire water for environmental flows for a part of the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), Australia. One policy consists of paying irrigators and water delivery firms to make capital and management investments that improve on-farm irrigation and water-conveyance; the other policy consists of having the government buy water from irrigators on the active MDB water market. The results show that the first option results in relatively larger return flow reduction, while the second option tends to induce significant irrigated land retirement with relatively large reductions in consumptive use and small reductions in return flow. In cases where irrigation losses result in little useful return flow (e.g., evaporative loss reduction or during drought in some instances), efficiency-improving investments may provide some cost-effective opportunities. Where a large portion of loss forms valuable return flow, it is difficult to make a case for the cost-effectiveness of policies involving payments for investments in irrigation and conveyance system upgrades.

  19. Horizontal electric fields from lightning return strokes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, E. M.; Medelius, P. J.; Rubinstein, M.; Uman, M. A.; Johnson, J.

    1988-01-01

    An experiment to measure simultaneously the wideband horizontal and vertical electric fields from lightning return strokes is described. Typical wave shapes of the measured horizontal and vertical fields are presented, and the horizontal fields are characterized. The measured horizontal fields are compared with calculated horizontal fields obtained by applying the wavetilt formula to the vertical fields. The limitations and sources of error in the measurement technique are discussed.

  20. Edward Teller Returns to LOS Alamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecker, Siegfried S.

    2010-01-01

    I was asked to share some reflections of Edward Teller's return to Los Alamos during my directorship. I met Teller late in his life. My comments focus on that time and they will be mostly in the form of stories of my interactions and those of my colleagues with Teller. Although the focus of this symposium is on Teller's contributions to science, at Los Alamos it was never possible to separate Teller's science from policy and controversy ...

  1. Mercury Sample Return using Solar Sails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Roy; Montgomery, E.; Adams, C.

    2006-12-01

    Over the previous three years NASA’s In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Program has matured solar sail technology from laboratory components to full systems, demonstrated in as relevant a space environment as could be simulated on the ground. Solar sail propulsion uses sunlight to propel vehicles through space by reflecting solar photons from a large sails made of a lightweight, reflective material. With photonic pressure providing continuous thrust, sailcraft can conduct missions not available with conventional propulsion: • high-inclination plane changes • flyby or rendezvous missions to outer solar system objects • non-Keplarian orbits (e.g. above the pole of a planet) • hovering indefinitely near a Lagrange point in space To illustrate the capabilities of solar sails, the results of an European Space Agency Mercury Sample Return study using solar sails is described and compared with a mission using conventional propulsion. A conventional Mercury sample return mission requires significant launch mass due to the large Δv required for the outbound and return trips, and the large mass of a planetary lander and ascent vehicle. Solar sailing can reduce mass by delivering the lander to a low, orbit close to the terminator and providing the Δv for the return flight. The mission concept calls for a 275 m sail to deliver a lander, cruise stage and science payload to a Sun-synchronous orbit at Mercury in 2.85 years. The lander acquires samples, and conducts limited surface exploration. An ascent vehicle delivers a small vehicle containing the samples for transfer to the solar sail. The solar sail then spirals back to Earth in 1 year. Solar sailing reduces launch mass by 60% and trip time by 40%, relative to conventional mission concepts. Results of technology development activities sponsored by the ISPT Program will be provided to demonstrate the level of technology readiness for such missions.

  2. Mars Sample Return Using Solar Sail Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Macdonald, Malcolm; Mcinnes, Colin; Percy, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Many Mars Sample Return (MSR) architecture studies have been conducted over the years. A key element of them is the Earth Return Stage (ERS) whose objective is to obtain the sample from the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) and return it safely to the surface of the Earth. ERS designs predominantly use chemical propulsion [1], incurring a significant launch mass penalty due to the low specific impulse of such systems coupled with the launch mass sensitivity to returned mass. It is proposed to use solar sail propulsion for the ERS, providing a high (effective) specific impulse propulsion system in the final stage of the multi-stage system. By doing so to the launch mass of the orbiter mission can be significantly reduced and hence potentially decreasing mission cost. Further, solar sailing offers a unique set of non-Keplerian low thrust trajectories that may enable modifications to the current approach to designing the Earth Entry Vehicle by potentially reducing the Earth arrival velocity. This modification will further decrease the mass of the orbiter system. Solar sail propulsion uses sunlight to propel vehicles through space by reflecting solar photons from a large, mirror-like surface made of a lightweight, reflective material. The continuous photonic pressure provides propellantless thrust to conduct orbital maneuvering and plane changes more efficiently than conventional chemical propulsion. Because the Sun supplies the necessary propulsive energy, solar sails require no onboard propellant, thus reducing system mass. This technology is currently at TRL 7/8 as demonstrated by the 2010 flight of the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA, IKAROS mission. [2

  3. Documenting investment policy boosts safety, returns.

    PubMed

    Kovener, R R

    1992-02-01

    The process and responsibility for a healthcare organization's investment decisions should be clearly documented in an investment policy. Any investment policy should contain at least seven elements: how investments relate to the organization's mission; responsibilities of involved parties; long- and short-term objectives; desired balance between return and risk; proportions of a portfolio held in stocks, bonds, and other investments; disposition of donated assets; desired investment reports; and the process for keeping the policy current.

  4. Vaginal bleeding between periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... periods; Intermenstrual bleeding; Spotting; Metrorrhagia Images Female reproductive anatomy Bleeding between periods Uterus References Bulun SE. The physiology and pathology of the female reproductive axis. In: ...

  5. Management of the Returning Traveler with Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Traveler's diarrhea (TD) strikes 20—60% of travelers visiting developing countries. It occurs shortly after the return and can be distinguished into two categories: acute and persistent TD. Acute TD, mostly caused by bacterial and viral pathogens, is usually mild and self-limited, and deserves empirical symptomatic and/or antibiotic therapy in selected cases. Fluoroquinolones are progressively superseded in this indication by azithromycin, a well tolerated macrolide active against most bacteria responsible for TD, including the quinolone-resistant species of Campylobacter jejuni that are now pervasive, especially in Southeast Asia and India. Persistent TD in the returning traveler is much rarer than its acute counterpart and may be associated with three types of causes. Persistent infections, among which Giardia and possibly Entamoeba predominate, account for a significant proportion of cases. Postinfectious processes represent a second cause and comprise temporary lactose malabsorption and postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome, now considered a major cause of persistent TD. Finally, apparently unrelated chronic diseases causing diarrhea are occasionally unmasked by TD and represent a third type of persistent TD, among which the well established case of incident inflammatory bowel disease poses intriguing pathogenesis questions. This review discusses recent advances in the field and provides practical recommendations for the management of TD in adult, immunocompetent returning travelers. PMID:21180583

  6. Cloud Thickness from Offbeam Returns - Thor Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, R.; Kolasinski, J.; McGill, M.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Physical thickness of a cloud layer, and sometimes multiple cloud layers, can be estimated from the time delay of off-beam returns from a pulsed laser source illuminating one side of the cloud layer. In particular, the time delay of light returning from the outer diffuse halo of light surrounding the beam entry point, relative to the time delay at beam center, determines the cloud physical thickness. The delay combined with the pulse stretch gives the optical thickness. The halo method works best for thick cloud layers, typically optical thickness exceeding 2, and thus compliments conventional lidar which cannot penetrate thick clouds. Cloud layer top and base have been measured independently over the ARM/SGP site using conventional laser ranging (lidar) and the top minus base thickness are compared with a cloud top halo estimate obtained from the NASA/Goddard THOR System (THOR = THickness from Offbeam Returns). THOR flies on the NASA P3, and measures the halo timings from several km above cloud top, at the same time providing conventional lidar cloud top height. The ARM/SGP micropulse lidar provides cloud base height for validation.

  7. A 1,000-Year-Old Antimicrobial Remedy with Antistaphylococcal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Aled E. L.; Gabrilska, Rebecca; Rumbaugh, Kendra P.; Lee, Christina

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Plant-derived compounds and other natural substances are a rich potential source of compounds that kill or attenuate pathogens that are resistant to current antibiotics. Medieval societies used a range of these natural substances to treat conditions clearly recognizable to the modern eye as microbial infections, and there has been much debate over the likely efficacy of these treatments. Our interdisciplinary team, comprising researchers from both sciences and humanities, identified and reconstructed a potential remedy for Staphylococcus aureus infection from a 10th century Anglo-Saxon leechbook. The remedy repeatedly killed established S. aureus biofilms in an in vitro model of soft tissue infection and killed methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in a mouse chronic wound model. While the remedy contained several ingredients that are individually known to have some antibacterial activity, full efficacy required the combined action of several ingredients, highlighting the scholarship of premodern doctors and the potential of ancient texts as a source of new antimicrobial agents. PMID:26265721

  8. Preliminary evidence for a 1000-year-old tsunami in the South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Liguang; Zhou, Xin; Huang, Wen; Liu, Xiaodong; Yan, Hong; Xie, Zhouqing; Wu, Zijun; Zhao, Sanping; Da Shao; Yang, Wenqing

    2013-01-01

    The risk of large, devastating tsunamis in the South China Sea and its surrounding coastal region is commonly underestimated or unrecognized due to the difficulty of differentiating tsunami from storm deposits. As a consequence, few convincing records have documented tsunami deposits in this region. Here we report preliminary evidence from Xisha Islands in the South China Sea for a large tsunami around AD 1024. Sand layers in lake sediment cores and their geochemical characteristics indicate a sudden deposition event around AD 1024, temporally consistent with a written record of a disastrous event characterized by high waves in AD 1076. Heavy coral and shell fossils, which are older than AD 1024, deposited more than 200 meters into the island, further support the occurrence of a high-energy event such as a tsunami or an unusually large storm. Our results underscore the importance of acknowledging and understanding the tsunami hazard in this area. PMID:23575432

  9. A 1000-year increase in deep Pacific ventilation age during the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, D. C.; Mix, A. C.; Southon, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    The rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide during the last deglaciation may have been driven by release of carbon sequestered in the abyssal ocean. This mechanism requires a poorly ventilated deep Pacific during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and enhanced ventilation during the deglaciation. Here we present planktonic and benthic foraminiferal radiocarbon data from a high-sedimentation rate core collected at 2.7 km water depth in the Northeast Pacific, a site that monitors the oldest watermass in the modern ocean. We estimate ventilation age (i.e. the time elapsed since water was last at the surface) using the projection age (Adkins and Boyle, 1997) and TTD-ETD methods (DeVries and Primeau, 2010). We show that both methods yield LGM ventilation ages similar to today, suggesting this depth horizon in the NE Pacific was not an important carbon reservoir at the LGM. During the deglaciation, both projection and TTD-ETD ages increased by ~1 kyr, indicating that either the 1) ventilation rate decreased, 2) the surface water reservoir age in the Southern Ocean increased, or 3) there was an influx of 14C-depleted carbon from another source into the deep Pacific. The available paleoceanographic evidence is inconsistent with the first two options, implying that another source of old carbon may have been responsible for the apparent increase in ventilation age during the last deglaciation.

  10. Atmospheric CO2 Over the Last 1000 Years: WAIS Divide Ice Core Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, J.; Brook, E. J.

    2009-04-01

    How atmospheric CO2 varied over the last thousands years is of great interest because we may see not only natural, but also anthropogenic variations (Ruddiman, Climatic Change, 2003). The Law Dome ice cores reveal decadal to centennial variations in CO2 over the last 2000 years (MacFarling Meure et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 2006). However, these variations have not yet been well confirmed in other ice core records. Here we use a newly drilled WAIS Divide ice core, which is ideal for this purpose because WAIS Divide has relatively high snow accumulation rate and small gas age distribution that allow us to observe decadal CO2 variations with minimal damping. We have started an extensive study of CO2 in WAIS Divide core. So far we have obtained data for 960-1940 A.D. from the WDC05-A core drilled in 2005-2006. 344 ice samples from 103 depths were analyzed and the standard error of the mean is ~0.8 ppm on average. Ancient air in 8~12 g of bubbly ice is liberated by crushing with steel pins at -35 °C and trapped in stainless steel tubes at -262 °C. CO2 mixing ratio in the extracted air is precisely determined using a gas chromatographic method. Details of the high-precision methods are described in Ahn et al. (J. of Glaciology, in press). Our new results show preindustrial atmospheric CO2 variability of ~ 10 ppm. The most striking feature of the record is a rapid atmospheric CO2 decrease of 7~8 ppm within ~20 years at ~ 1600 A.D. Considering the larger smoothing of gas records in the WAIS Divide relative to Law Dome, our results confirm the atmospheric CO2 decrease of ~10 ppm in Law Dome records observed at this time. However, this event is not significant in the Dronning Maud Land ice core (Siegenthaler et al., Tellus, 2005), probably due to more extensive smoothing of gas records in the core. Similar rapid changes of CO2 at other times in the WAIS Divide record need to be confirmed with higher resolution studies. We also found that our WAIS Divide CO2 data are slightly higher than those of Law Dome by 3~5 ppm over most of the record. It is not clear whether the offset is due to real variability in ice cores or an analytical offset. We are participating in international laboratory intercalibration to determine the origin of the offset. Several WDC05-A and Law Dome ice samples are shared and will be analyzed for data comparison with CSIRO (Australian Common Wealth Scientific and Research Organization).

  11. Palaeo-pollution from mining activities in the Vosges Mountains: 1000 years and still bioavailable.

    PubMed

    Mariet, Anne-Lise; de Vaufleury, Annette; Bégeot, Carole; Walter-Simonnet, Anne-Véronique; Gimbert, Frédéric

    2016-07-01

    Mining and smelting activities have contaminated the environment with trace metals (TMs) at a worldwide scale for at least two millennia. A combination of chemical approaches and active biomonitoring was performed to analyse the environmental availability and bioavailability of TM palaeo-pollution in a former PbAg mining district in the Vosges Mountains, France. Along a soil TM contamination gradient that covered eight stations, including two archaeological mining sites, the toxicokinetics of six TMs (Pb, Cd, As, Ag, Co, Sb) in the snail Cantareus aspersus revealed that palaeo-pollution from the studied sites remains bioavailable. This study provides the first data on the accumulation kinetics of Ag and Co for C. aspersus. The environmental availability of the TMs was estimated with three chemical extraction methods (aqua regia, EDTA 50 mM, CaCl2 10 mM). Univariate regression analyses showed that EDTA extraction is the best method for estimating the bioavailability of Pb, As, Ag, Co and Sb to snails. None of the three extractants was efficient for Cd. A multivariate analysis of bioaccumulation data revealed that TM bioavailability and transfer were modulated by exposure sources (soil, humus and vegetation) rather than by soil physico-chemical characteristics. Hence, although the deposition of mining wastes dates back several centuries, these wastes still represent a source of contamination that must be considered to develop relevant site management and environmental risk assessment.

  12. Preliminary evidence for a 1000-year-old tsunami in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liguang; Zhou, Xin; Huang, Wen; Liu, Xiaodong; Yan, Hong; Xie, Zhouqing; Wu, Zijun; Zhao, Sanping; Da Shao; Yang, Wenqing

    2013-01-01

    The risk of large, devastating tsunamis in the South China Sea and its surrounding coastal region is commonly underestimated or unrecognized due to the difficulty of differentiating tsunami from storm deposits. As a consequence, few convincing records have documented tsunami deposits in this region. Here we report preliminary evidence from Xisha Islands in the South China Sea for a large tsunami around AD 1024. Sand layers in lake sediment cores and their geochemical characteristics indicate a sudden deposition event around AD 1024, temporally consistent with a written record of a disastrous event characterized by high waves in AD 1076. Heavy coral and shell fossils, which are older than AD 1024, deposited more than 200 meters into the island, further support the occurrence of a high-energy event such as a tsunami or an unusually large storm. Our results underscore the importance of acknowledging and understanding the tsunami hazard in this area.

  13. Implications of deregulation in natural gas industry on utility risks and returns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addepalli, Rajendra P.

    This thesis examines the changes in risk and required return on capital for local distribution utility companies in the increasingly competitive natural gas industry. The deregulation in the industry impacts the LDCs in several ways. First, with the introduction of competition consumers have been given choices among suppliers besides the traditional monopoly, the local utility, for purchasing their natural gas supply needs. Second, with the introduction of competition, some of the interstate pipelines were stuck with 'Take Or Pay' contracts and other costs that resulted in 'stranded costs', which have been passed on to customers of the pipeline including the LDCs. Third, the new obligation for the LDCs to purchase gas from the market, as opposed to buying it from pipelines and passing on the costs to its customers, brought opportunities and risks as well. Finally, with the introduction of competition, in some states LDCs have been allowed to enter into unregulated ventures to increase their profits. In the thesis we first develop a multifactor model (MFM) to explain historical common stock returns of individual utilities and of utility portfolios. We use 'rolling regression' analysis to analyze how different variables explain the variation in stock returns over time. Second, we conduct event studies to analyze the events in the deregulation process that had significant impacts on the LDC returns. Finally we assess the changes in risk and required return on capital for the LDCs over a 15 year time frame, covering the deregulation period. We employ four aspects in the examination of risk and return profile of the utilities: measuring (a) changes in required return on common equity and Weighted Average Cost of Capital, (b) changes in risk premium (WACC less an interest rate proxy), (c) changes in utility bond ratings, and (d) changes in dividend payments, new debt and equity issuances. We perform regression analysis to explain the changes in the required WACC using

  14. 78 FR 49296 - Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample Return Robot Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample Return Robot Challenge AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample Return Robot... Robot Challenge is scheduled and teams that wish to compete may register. Centennial Challenges is...

  15. 49 CFR 236.720 - Circuit, common return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.720 Circuit, common return. A term applied where one wire is used for the return of more than one...

  16. Return Migrants’ Experience of Access to Care in Corrupt Healthcare Systems: The Bosnian Example

    PubMed Central

    Neerup Handlos, Line; Fog Olwig, Karen; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Norredam, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Equal and universal access to healthcare services is a core priority for a just health system. A key societal determinant seen to create inequality in access to healthcare is corruption in the healthcare system. How return migrants’ access to healthcare is affected by corruption is largely unstudied, even though return migrants may be particularly vulnerable to problems related to corruption due to their period of absence from their country of origin. This article investigates how corruption in the healthcare sector affects access to healthcare for refugees who repatriated to Bosnia, a country with a high level of corruption, from Denmark, a country with a low level of corruption. The study is based on 18 semi-structured interviews with 33 refugees who returned after long-term residence in Denmark. We found that the returned refugees faced greater problems with corruption than was the case for those who had not left the country, as doctors considered them to be better endowed financially and therefore demanded larger bribes from them than they did from those who had remained in Bosnia. Moreover, during their stay abroad the returnees had lost the connections that could have helped them sidestep the corruption. Returned refugees are thus particularly vulnerable to the effects of corruption. PMID:27657096

  17. Return to work: the predictive value of the Worker Role Interview (WRI) over two years.

    PubMed

    Ekbladh, Elin; Thorell, Lars-Håkan; Haglund, Lena

    2010-01-01

    Worker Role Interview (WRI) is an assessment tool designed to identify psychosocial and environmental factors which influence a person's ability to return to work. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the Worker Role Interview (WRI) can predict return to work over a period of two years. Fifty three long-term sick-listed people were interviewed and rated with the WRI. Differences in ratings and the ability of WRI to correctly predict whether these people would fall into the working or non-working groups at 6, 12 and 24 month follow-ups were tested by Mann-Whitney test and logistic regression respectively. Eight of 17 items in WRI were rated differently between the groups at one or more of the follow-ups. The regression models based on the WRI ratings had an overall correct prediction rate ranging from 81% to 96%. 'Expectation of job success' which concerns the person's belief in abilities in relation to return to work emerged as an important predictive factor for return to work in all statistical analyses. The WRI assessment contains items that could predict return to work. This implies that the WRI could be a useful tool in vocational rehabilitation for identifying individual rehabilitation needs.

  18. Sample Return Mission to the South Pole Aitken Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, M. B.; Clark, B. C.; Gamber, T.; Lucey, P. G.; Ryder, G.; Taylor, G. J.

    1999-01-01

    The South Pole Aitken Basin (SPA) is the largest and oldest observed feature on the Moon. Compositional and topographic data from Galileo, Clementine, and Lunar Prospector have demonstrated that SPA represents a distinctive major lunar terrane, which has not been sampled either by sample return missions (Apollo, Luna) or by lunar meteorites. The floor of SPA is characterized by mafic compositions enriched in Fe, Ti, and Th in comparison to its surroundings. This composition may represent melt rocks from the SPA event, which would be mixtures of the preexisting crust and mantle rocks. However, the Fe content is higher than expected, and the large Apollo basin, within SPA, exposes deeper material with lower iron content. Some of the Fe enrichment may represent mare and cryptomare deposits. No model adequately accounts for all of the characteristics of the SPA and disagreements are fundamental. Is mantle material exposed or contained as fragments in melt rock and breccias? If impact melt is present, did the vast sheet differentiate? Was the initial mantle and crust compositionally different from other regions of the Moon? Was the impact event somehow peculiar, (e.g., a low-velocity impact)? The precise time of formation of the SPA is unknown, being limited only by the initial differentiation of the Moon and the age of the Imbrium event, believed to be 3.9 b.y. The questions raised by the SPA can be addressed only with detailed sample analysis. Analysis of the melt rocks, fragments in breccias, and basalts of SPA can address several highly significant problems for the Moon and the history of the solar system. The time of formation of SPA, based on analysis of melt rocks formed in the event. would put limits on the period of intense bombardment of the Moon, which has been inferred by some to include a "terminal cataclysm." If close to 3.9 Ga, the presumed age of the Imbrium Basin, the SPA date would confirm the lunar cataclysm. This episode, if it occurred, would have

  19. Academic Specialisation and Returns to Education: Evidence from India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saha, Bibhas; Sensarma, Rudra

    2011-01-01

    We study returns to academic specialisation for Indian corporate sector workers by analysing cross-sectional data on male employees randomly selected from six large firms. Our analysis shows that going to college pays off, as it brings significant incremental returns over and above school education. However, the increase in returns is more…

  20. 76 FR 56819 - Centennial Challenges 2012 Sample Return Robot Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Centennial Challenges 2012 Sample Return Robot Challenge AGENCY: National... 42 U.S.C. 2451(314)(d). The 2012 Sample Return Robot Challenge is scheduled and teams that wish to... technologies of interest and value to NASA and the nation. The 2012 Sample Return Robot Challenge is a...

  1. 47 CFR 65.600 - Rate of return reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rate of return reports. 65.600 Section 65.600 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate of Return Reports § 65.600 Rate of...

  2. Supporting Women Returning to Work: A European Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Jan; Saxby-Smith, Sue

    A 2-year project examined the effectiveness of courses for returning workers in enabling women to make a sustained return to paid employment in the following countries: France; Spain; Ireland; and the United Kingdom. In each country, a short foundation-level program and a longer accredited return-to-work program were selected for evaluation.…

  3. 26 CFR 53.7701-1 - Tax return preparer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax return preparer. 53.7701-1 Section 53.7701... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Procedure and Administration § 53.7701-1 Tax return preparer. (a) In general. For the definition of a tax return preparer, see § 301.7701-15 of...

  4. 26 CFR 156.7701-1 - Tax return preparer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax return preparer. 156.7701-1 Section 156... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) EXCISE TAX ON GREENMAIL Procedure and Administration § 156.7701-1 Tax return preparer. (a) In general. For the definition of a tax return preparer, see § 301.7701-15 of this...

  5. 26 CFR 56.7701-1 - Tax return preparer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax return preparer. 56.7701-1 Section 56.7701... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PUBLIC CHARITY EXCISE TAXES § 56.7701-1 Tax return preparer. (a) In general. For the definition of a tax return preparer, see § 301.7701-15 of this chapter. (b)...

  6. 26 CFR 54.7701-1 - Tax return preparer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax return preparer. 54.7701-1 Section 54.7701... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.7701-1 Tax return preparer. (a) In general. For the definition of a tax return preparer, see § 301.7701-15 of this chapter. (b) Effective/applicability...

  7. 26 CFR 40.7701-1 - Tax return preparer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax return preparer. 40.7701-1 Section 40.7701... EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS § 40.7701-1 Tax return preparer. (a) In general. For the definition of a tax return preparer, see § 301.7701-15 of this chapter. (b) Effective/applicability...

  8. 26 CFR 40.7701-1 - Tax return preparer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax return preparer. 40.7701-1 Section 40.7701... EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS § 40.7701-1 Tax return preparer. (a) In general. For the definition of a tax return preparer, see § 301.7701-15 of this chapter. (b) Effective/applicability...

  9. 27 CFR 25.211 - Beer returned to brewery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.211 Beer returned to brewery. (a) General. Beer, produced in the United States, on which the brewer has paid or determined the tax may...

  10. 27 CFR 25.211 - Beer returned to brewery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.211 Beer returned to brewery. (a) General. Beer, produced in the United States, on which the brewer has paid or determined the tax may...

  11. 27 CFR 25.211 - Beer returned to brewery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.211 Beer returned to brewery. (a) General. Beer, produced in the United States, on which the brewer has paid or determined the tax may...

  12. 27 CFR 25.211 - Beer returned to brewery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.211 Beer returned to brewery. (a) General. Beer, produced in the United States, on which the brewer has paid or determined the tax may...

  13. 26 CFR 301.6063-1 - Signing of partnership returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Signing of partnership returns. 301.6063-1 Section 301.6063-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED....6063-1 Signing of partnership returns. For provisions relating to the signing of returns of...

  14. 26 CFR 301.6063-1 - Signing of partnership returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Signing of partnership returns. 301.6063-1 Section 301.6063-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED....6063-1 Signing of partnership returns. For provisions relating to the signing of returns of...

  15. 26 CFR 301.6063-1 - Signing of partnership returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Signing of partnership returns. 301.6063-1 Section 301.6063-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED....6063-1 Signing of partnership returns. For provisions relating to the signing of returns of...

  16. 26 CFR 301.6063-1 - Signing of partnership returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Signing of partnership returns. 301.6063-1 Section 301.6063-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED....6063-1 Signing of partnership returns. For provisions relating to the signing of returns of...

  17. 26 CFR 301.6063-1 - Signing of partnership returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Signing of partnership returns. 301.6063-1 Section 301.6063-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED....6063-1 Signing of partnership returns. For provisions relating to the signing of returns of...

  18. 19 CFR 145.35 - United States products returned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false United States products returned. 145.35 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MAIL IMPORTATIONS Special Classes of Merchandise § 145.35 United States products returned. Products of the United States returned after having been exported, which have not...

  19. 19 CFR 145.35 - United States products returned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false United States products returned. 145.35 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MAIL IMPORTATIONS Special Classes of Merchandise § 145.35 United States products returned. Products of the United States returned after having been exported, which have not...

  20. 19 CFR 145.35 - United States products returned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false United States products returned. 145.35 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MAIL IMPORTATIONS Special Classes of Merchandise § 145.35 United States products returned. Products of the United States returned after having been exported, which have not...

  1. 19 CFR 145.35 - United States products returned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false United States products returned. 145.35 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MAIL IMPORTATIONS Special Classes of Merchandise § 145.35 United States products returned. Products of the United States returned after having been exported, which have not...

  2. 19 CFR 145.35 - United States products returned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false United States products returned. 145.35 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MAIL IMPORTATIONS Special Classes of Merchandise § 145.35 United States products returned. Products of the United States returned after having been exported, which have not...

  3. 78 FR 13899 - Revision of Annual Information Return/Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... Benefits Security Administration RIN 1210-AB51 Revision of Annual Information Return/Reports AGENCY... Annual Return/Report is the principal source of information and data concerning the operations, funding... would have on the information collection request titled ``Form 5500, Annual Return/Report of...

  4. 22 CFR 42.22 - Returning resident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returning resident aliens. 42.22 Section 42.22... Returning resident aliens. (a) Requirements for returning resident status. An alien shall be classifiable as... presented that: (1) The alien had the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence at...

  5. 22 CFR 42.22 - Returning resident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Returning resident aliens. 42.22 Section 42.22... Returning resident aliens. (a) Requirements for returning resident status. An alien shall be classifiable as... presented that: (1) The alien had the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence at...

  6. 22 CFR 42.22 - Returning resident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Returning resident aliens. 42.22 Section 42.22... Returning resident aliens. (a) Requirements for returning resident status. An alien shall be classifiable as... presented that: (1) The alien had the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence at...

  7. 22 CFR 42.22 - Returning resident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Returning resident aliens. 42.22 Section 42.22... Returning resident aliens. (a) Requirements for returning resident status. An alien shall be classifiable as... presented that: (1) The alien had the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence at...

  8. 22 CFR 42.22 - Returning resident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Returning resident aliens. 42.22 Section 42.22... Returning resident aliens. (a) Requirements for returning resident status. An alien shall be classifiable as... presented that: (1) The alien had the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence at...

  9. 27 CFR 25.211 - Beer returned to brewery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.211 Beer returned to brewery. (a) General. Beer, produced in the United States, on which the brewer has paid or determined the tax may...

  10. 27 CFR 53.185 - Credit on returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Credit on returns. 53.185... Other Administrative Provisions of Special Application to Manufacturers Taxes § 53.185 Credit on returns..., in lieu of claiming refund of the overpayment, claim credit for the overpayment on any return of...

  11. 26 CFR 48.6416(f)-1 - Credit on returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Credit on returns. 48.6416(f)-1 Section 48.6416... Special Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6416(f)-1 Credit on returns. Any person..., in lieu of claiming refund of the overpayment, claim credit for the overpayment on any return of...

  12. 26 CFR 48.6416(f)-1 - Credit on returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Credit on returns. 48.6416(f)-1 Section 48.6416... Special Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6416(f)-1 Credit on returns. Any person..., in lieu of claiming refund of the overpayment, claim credit for the overpayment on any return of...

  13. 26 CFR 48.6416(f)-1 - Credit on returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Credit on returns. 48.6416(f)-1 Section 48.6416... Special Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6416(f)-1 Credit on returns. Any person..., in lieu of claiming refund of the overpayment, claim credit for the overpayment on any return of...

  14. 27 CFR 53.185 - Credit on returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Credit on returns. 53.185... Other Administrative Provisions of Special Application to Manufacturers Taxes § 53.185 Credit on returns..., in lieu of claiming refund of the overpayment, claim credit for the overpayment on any return of...

  15. 26 CFR 48.6416(f)-1 - Credit on returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Credit on returns. 48.6416(f)-1 Section 48.6416... Special Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6416(f)-1 Credit on returns. Any person..., in lieu of claiming refund of the overpayment, claim credit for the overpayment on any return of...

  16. Parametrization of Fresnel returns in middle-atmosphere radar experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rastogi, P. K.

    1983-01-01

    Weak reflections from sharp discontinuities in radio refractivity are usually invoked to explain the results of radio propagation experiments. The characteristics of refractivity structures required to produce Fresnel returns are examined and experimental evidence for Fresnel returns in middle-atmosphere radar experiments is reviewed. The consequences of these returns on estimating the turbulence and wind parameters are outlined.

  17. 10 CFR 436.22 - Adjusted internal rate of return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.22 Adjusted internal rate of return. The adjusted internal rate of return is the overall rate of return on an energy or water conservation measure... yearly net savings in energy or water and non-fuel or non-water operation and maintenance...

  18. 10 CFR 436.22 - Adjusted internal rate of return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.22 Adjusted internal rate of return. The adjusted internal rate of return is the overall rate of return on an energy or water conservation measure... yearly net savings in energy or water and non-fuel or non-water operation and maintenance...

  19. 46 CFR 113.10-5 - Common return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Common return. 113.10-5 Section 113.10-5 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Fire and Smoke Detecting and Alarm Systems § 113.10-5 Common return. A conductor must not be used as a common return from more than one zone....

  20. Why we need asteroid sample return mission?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, Maria Antonietta

    2016-07-01

    Small bodies retain evidence of the primordial solar nebula and the earliest solar system processes that shaped their evolution. They may also contain pre-solar material as well as complex organic molecules, which could have a major role to the development of life on Earth. For these reasons, asteroids and comets have been targets of interest for missions for over three decades. However, our knowledge of these bodies is still very limited, and each asteroid or comet visited by space mission has revealed unexpected scientific results, e.g. the structure and nature of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P/C-G) visited by the Rosetta mission. Only in the laboratory can instruments with the necessary precision and sensitivity be applied to individual components of the complex mixture of materials that forms a small body regolith, to determine their precise chemical and isotopic composition. Such measurements are vital for revealing the evidence of stellar, interstellar medium, pre-solar nebula and parent body processes that are retained in primitive material, unaltered by atmospheric entry or terrestrial contamination. For those reasons, sample return missions are considered a high priority by a number of the leading space agencies. Abundant within the inner Solar System and the main impactors on terrestrial planets, small bodies may have been the principal contributors of the water and organic material essential to create life on Earth. Small bodies can therefore be considered to be equivalent to DNA for unravelling our solar system's history, offering us a unique window to investigate both the formation of planets and the origin of life. A sample return mission to a primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) has been study at ESA from 2008 in the framework of ESA's Cosmic Vision (CV) programme, with the objective to answer to the fundamental CV questions "How does the Solar System work?" and "What are the conditions for life and planetary formations?". The returned material

  1. Mars Sample Return Landed with Red Dragon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol R.; Lemke, Lawrence G.

    2013-01-01

    A Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission is the highest priority science mission for the next decade as recommended by the recent Decadal Survey of Planetary Science. However, an affordable program to carry this out has not been defined. This paper describes a study that examined use of emerging commercial capabilities to land the sample return elements, with the goal of reducing mission cost. A team at NASA Ames examined the feasibility of the following scenario for MSR: A Falcon Heavy launcher injects a SpaceX Dragon crew capsule and trunk onto a Trans Mars Injection trajectory. The capsule is modified to carry all the hardware needed to return samples collected on Mars including a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV), an Earth Return Vehicle (ERV) and Sample Collection and Storage hardware. The Dragon descends to land on the surface of Mars using SuperSonic Retro Propulsion (SSRP) as described by Braun and Manning [IEEEAC paper 0076, 2005]. Samples are acquired and deliverd to the MAV by a prelanded asset, possibly the proposed 2020 rover. After samples are obtained and stored in the ERV, the MAV launches the sample-containing ERV from the surface of Mars. We examined cases where the ERV is delivered to either low Mars orbit (LMO), C3 = 0 (Mars escape), or an intermediate energy state. The ERV then provides the rest of the energy (delta V) required to perform trans-Earth injection (TEI), cruise, and insertion into a Moon-trailing Earth Orbit (MTEO). A later mission, possibly a crewed Dragon launched by a Falcon Heavy (not part of the current study) retrieves the sample container, packages the sample, and performs a controlled Earth re-entry to prevent Mars materials from accidentally contaminating Earth. The key analysis methods used in the study employed a set of parametric mass estimating relationships (MERs) and standard aerospace analysis software codes modified for the MAV class of launch vehicle to determine the range of performance parameters that produced converged

  2. Forecasting volatility in gold returns under the GARCH, IGARCH and FIGARCH frameworks: New evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentes, Sonia R.

    2015-11-01

    This study employs three volatility models of the GARCH family to examine the volatility behavior of gold returns. Much of the literature on this topic suggests that gold plays a fundamental role as a hedge and safe haven against adverse market conditions, which is particularly relevant in periods of high volatility. This makes understanding gold volatility important for a number of theoretical and empirical applications, namely investment valuation, portfolio selection, risk management, monetary policy-making, futures and option pricing, hedging strategies and value-at-risk (VaR) policies (e.g. Baur and Lucey (2010)). We use daily data from August 2, 1976 to February 6, 2015 and divide the full sample into two periods: the in-sample period (August 2, 1976-October 24, 2008) is used to estimate model coefficients, while the out-of-sample period (October 27, 2008-February 6, 2015) is for forecasting purposes. Specifically, we employ the GARCH(1,1), IGARCH(1,1) and FIGARCH(1, d,1) specifications. The results show that the FIGARCH(1, d,1) is the best model to capture linear dependence in the conditional variance of the gold returns as given by the information criteria. It is also found to be the best model to forecast the volatility of gold returns.

  3. 26 CFR 1.1502-79A - Separate return years generally applicable for consolidated return years beginning before January...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... December 31, 1967. (ii) P, S, and T join in the filing of a consolidated return for 1968, which return... Testing Dates (and Corporations Joining or Leaving Consolidated Groups) Before June 25, 1999...

  4. 26 CFR 26.6109-1 - Tax return preparers furnishing identifying numbers for returns or claims for refund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX... for returns or claims for refund. (a) In general. Each generation-skipping transfer tax return...

  5. 26 CFR 26.6109-1 - Tax return preparers furnishing identifying numbers for returns or claims for refund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX... for returns or claims for refund. (a) In general. Each generation-skipping transfer tax return...

  6. 26 CFR 26.6109-1 - Tax return preparers furnishing identifying numbers for returns or claims for refund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX... for returns or claims for refund. (a) In general. Each generation-skipping transfer tax return...

  7. 26 CFR 26.6109-1 - Tax return preparers furnishing identifying numbers for returns or claims for refund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX... for returns or claims for refund. (a) In general. Each generation-skipping transfer tax return...

  8. 26 CFR 26.6109-1 - Tax return preparers furnishing identifying numbers for returns or claims for refund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX... for returns or claims for refund. (a) In general. Each generation-skipping transfer tax return...

  9. Recommended Maximum Temperature For Mars Returned Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaty, D. W.; McSween, H. Y.; Czaja, A. D.; Goreva, Y. S.; Hausrath, E.; Herd, C. D. K.; Humayun, M.; McCubbin, F. M.; McLennan, S. M.; Hays, L. E.

    2016-01-01

    The Returned Sample Science Board (RSSB) was established in 2015 by NASA to provide expertise from the planetary sample community to the Mars 2020 Project. The RSSB's first task was to address the effect of heating during acquisition and storage of samples on scientific investigations that could be expected to be conducted if the samples are returned to Earth. Sample heating may cause changes that could ad-versely affect scientific investigations. Previous studies of temperature requirements for returned mar-tian samples fall within a wide range (-73 to 50 degrees Centigrade) and, for mission concepts that have a life detection component, the recommended threshold was less than or equal to -20 degrees Centigrade. The RSSB was asked by the Mars 2020 project to determine whether or not a temperature requirement was needed within the range of 30 to 70 degrees Centigrade. There are eight expected temperature regimes to which the samples could be exposed, from the moment that they are drilled until they are placed into a temperature-controlled environment on Earth. Two of those - heating during sample acquisition (drilling) and heating while cached on the Martian surface - potentially subject samples to the highest temperatures. The RSSB focused on the upper temperature limit that Mars samples should be allowed to reach. We considered 11 scientific investigations where thermal excursions may have an adverse effect on the science outcome. Those are: (T-1) organic geochemistry, (T-2) stable isotope geochemistry, (T-3) prevention of mineral hydration/dehydration and phase transformation, (T-4) retention of water, (T-5) characterization of amorphous materials, (T-6) putative Martian organisms, (T-7) oxidation/reduction reactions, (T-8) (sup 4) He thermochronometry, (T-9) radiometric dating using fission, cosmic-ray or solar-flare tracks, (T-10) analyses of trapped gasses, and (T-11) magnetic studies.

  10. Return to school after brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, C; Ward, A; Magnay, A; Mychalkiw, W

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To examine return to school and classroom performance following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: This cross-sectional study set in the community comprised a group of 67 school-age children with TBI (35 mild, 13 moderate, 19 severe) and 14 uninjured matched controls. Parents and children were interviewed and children assessed at a mean of 2 years post injury. Teachers reported on academic performance and educational needs. The main measures used were classroom performance, the Children's Memory Scale (CMS), the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–third edition UK (WISC-III) and the Weschler Objective Reading Dimensions (WORD). Results: One third of teachers were unaware of the TBI. On return to school, special arrangements were made for 18 children (27%). Special educational needs were identified for 16 (24%), but only six children (9%) received specialist help. Two thirds of children with TBI had difficulties with school work, half had attention/concentration problems and 26 (39%) had memory problems. Compared to other pupils in the class, one third of children with TBI were performing below average. On the CMS, one third of the severe group were impaired/borderline for immediate and delayed recall of verbal material, and over one quarter were impaired/borderline for general memory. Children in the severe group had a mean full-scale IQ significantly lower than controls. Half the TBI group had a reading age ⩾1 year below their chronological age, one third were reading ⩾2 years below their chronological age. Conclusions: Schools rely on parents to inform them about a TBI, and rarely receive information on possible long-term sequelae. At hospital discharge, health professionals should provide schools with information about TBI and possible long-term impairments, so that children returning to school receive appropriate support. PMID:14736628

  11. Biological Sterilization of Returned Mars Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C. C.; Albert, F. G.; Combie, J.; Bodnar, R. J.; Hamilton, V. E.; Jolliff, B. L.; Kuebler, K.; Wang, A.; Lindstrom, D. J.; Morris, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    Martian rock and soil, collected by robotic spacecraft, will be returned to terrestrial laboratories early in the next century. Current plans call for the samples to be immediately placed into biological containment and tested for signs of present or past life and biological hazards. It is recommended that "Controlled distribution of unsterilized materials from Mars should occur only if rigorous analyses determine that the materials do not constitute a biological hazard. If any portion of the sample is removed from containment prior to completion of these analyses it should first be sterilized." While sterilization of Mars samples may not be required, an acceptable method must be available before the samples are returned to Earth. The sterilization method should be capable of destroying a wide range of organisms with minimal effects on the geologic samples. A variety of biological sterilization techniques and materials are currently in use, including dry heat, high pressure steam, gases, plasmas and ionizing radiation. Gamma radiation is routinely used to inactivate viruses and destroy bacteria in medical research. Many commercial sterilizers use Co-60 , which emits gamma photons of 1.17 and 1.33 MeV. Absorbed doses of approximately 1 Mrad (10(exp 8) ergs/g) destroy most bacteria. This study investigates the effects of lethal doses of Co-60 gamma radiation on materials similar to those anticipated to be returned from Mars. The goals are to determine the gamma dose required to kill microorganisms in rock and soil samples and to determine the effects of gamma sterilization on the samples' isotopic, chemical and physical properties. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. Study of return rate and return time of undeliverable postal letters.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Pokrzywniak, Andrea; Stang, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    Postal questionnaires are widely used to collect data in health research and epidemiologic studies. One problem related to mail surveys is the availability of an up-to-date and accurate list of people in the population from which to draw the sample for the survey. For the identification of incorrect postal addresses it is important that all incorrectly addressed mails are returned as undeliverable. This study examines the proportion of unreturned postal letters that were sent to incorrect addresses. We sent 339 letters to existing addresses throughout Germany, but used fictional names name of persons. Three hundred and three letters (98.2%) were returned as undeliverable. The return rates only slightly differed by layout of the envelopes, region and deliverer.

  13. The return on investment in online education.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Tana M

    2007-01-01

    In the decade since online education emerged in higher education, digital learning has become increasingly commonplace. Various models exist-from those offered fully online to others that combine traditional classroom time with some online activities. This article identifies the dominant emergent models, provides examples of their implementation across higher-education institutions, and evaluates the cost analyses conducted to date on this relatively new teaching and learning model. The ways in which we determine the return on investment depend upon the cost indicators selected, the measures of effectiveness used, and the indices by which institutions mark progress toward their educational and cost objectives.

  14. Phootprint - A Phobos sample return mission study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koschny, Detlef; Svedhem, Håkan; Rebuffat, Denis

    Introduction ESA is currently studying a mission to return a sample from Phobos, called Phootprint. This study is performed as part of ESA’s Mars Robotic Exploration Programme. Part of the mission goal is to prepare technology needed for a sample return mission from Mars itself; the mission should also have a strong scientific justification, which is described here. 1. Science goal The main science goal of this mission will be to Understand the formation of the Martian moons Phobos and put constraints on the evolution of the solar system. Currently, there are several possibilities for explaining the formation of the Martian moons: (a) co-formation with Mars (b) capture of objects coming close to Mars (c) Impact of a large body onto Mars and formation from the impact ejecta The main science goal of this mission is to find out which of the three scenarios is the most probable one. To do this, samples from Phobos would be returned to Earth and analyzed with extremely high precision in ground-based laboratories. An on-board payload is foreseen to provide information to put the sample into the necessary geological context. 2. Mission Spacecraft and payload will be based on experience gained from previous studies to Martian moons and asteroids. In particular the Marco Polo and MarcoPolo-R asteroid sample return mission studies performed at ESA were used as a starting point. Currently, industrial studies are ongoing. The initial starting assumption was to use a Soyuz launcher. Uunlike the initial Marco Polo and MarcoPolo-R studies to an asteroid, a transfer stage will be needed. Another main difference to an asteroid mission is the fact that the spacecraft actually orbits Mars, not Phobos or Deimos. It is possible to select a spacecraft orbit, which in a Phobos- or Deimos-centred reference system would give an ellipse around the moon. The following model payload is currently foreseen: - Wide Angle Camera, - Narrow Angle Camera, - Close-Up Camera, - Context camera for

  15. Reflection, return to practice and revalidation.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jane

    2015-07-01

    This article explores the use of reflection and critical thinking during a return-to-practice programme, demonstrating both concepts and their value in developing insight. The aim of the article is to provide insight into a learner's reflection about nursing older people and encourage nurses to reflect and think critically about their own practice, which is a requirement of forthcoming revalidation. Lessons learned as a result of reflection must be demonstrated in order for registered nurses to revalidate. Reflection and insight gained from critical thinking can have a positive effect on individual nurses and the quality of patient care they provide.

  16. Technology for return of planetary samples, 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Recent progress on the development of a basic warning system (BWS) proposed to assess the biohazard of a Mars sample returned to earth, an earth orbiting spacecraft, or to a moon base was presented. The BWS package consists of terrestrial microorganisms representing major metabolic pathways. A vital processes component of the BWS will examine the effects of a Mars sample at terrestrial atmospheric conditions while a hardy organism component will examine the effects of a Mars sample under conditions approaching those of the Martian environment. Any deleterious insult on terrestrial metabolism effected by the Mars sample could be indicated long before the sample reached earth proximity.

  17. STARDUST: An Incredulous Dream to Incredible Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Stardust mission. The goal of the mission was to return to Earth a very small part of a comet for study. The success of the mission gave us a small part of a comet to use for research into questions such as the cometary origin of water and life on earth and the formation of the solar system. The slides review the challenges, the strategy, the laboratory experiments, the instrument development, the characteristics of Aerogel, the Stardust trajectory, pictures of the samples and a listing of the firsts that were accomplished during the Stardust project.

  18. The little ice age and medieval warm period in the Sargasso Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Keigwin, L.D.

    1996-11-29

    Sea surface temperature (SST), salinity, and flux of terrigenous material oscillated on millennial time scales in the Pleistocene North Atlantic, but there are few records of Holocene variability. Because of high rates of sediment accumulation, Holocene oscillations are well documented in the northern Sargasso Sea. Results from a radiocarbondated box core show that SST was {approximately} 1{degree}C cooler than today {approximately} 400 years ago (the Little Ice Age) and 1700 years ago, and {approximately} 1{degree}C warmer than today 1000 years ago (the Medieval Warm Period). Thus, at least some of the warming since the Little Ice Age appears to be part of a natural oscillation. 39 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. 26 CFR 301.6103(c)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information to designee of taxpayer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... telephone conversation with Internal Revenue Service officials. (iii) As long as the requirements of this... telephone conversation, for disclosures of returns and return information to be made to the other person. (3... paragraph, common data means information reflected on the Federal return required by State law to...

  20. 26 CFR 301.6103(c)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information to designee of taxpayer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... telephone conversation with Internal Revenue Service officials. (iii) As long as the requirements of this... telephone conversation, for disclosures of returns and return information to be made to the other person. (3... paragraph, common data means information reflected on the Federal return required by State law to...