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Sample records for 103ru 106ru 141ce

  1. Separation of fission produced (106)Ru from simulated high level nuclear wastes for production of brachytherapy sources.

    PubMed

    Blicharska, Magdalena; Bartoś, Barbara; Krajewski, Seweryn; Bilewicz, Aleksander

    An effective and simple process for the isolation of (106)Ru from high-level liquid wastes was developed. Radioactive ruthenium was oxidized by H5IO6 in HNO3 solution and was extracted to CCl4 phase in the form of RuO4. In order to obtain ruthenium in the suitable form for production of brachytherapy sources, RuO4 in organic phase was reduced and re-extracted to aqueous phase. The efficiency of extraction of (103)Ru to organic phase was 86 %, re-extraction to aqueous solution was near 100 %, so the overall recovery of (103)Ru is estimated at more than 80 %.

  2. Studies of quadrupole collectivity in the γ -soft 106Ru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Vega, M.; Mach, H.; Taylor, R. B. E.; Fogelberg, B.; Lindroth, A.; Aas, A. J.; Dendooven, P.; Honkanen, A.; Huhta, M.; Lhersonneau, G.; Oinonen, M.; Parmonen, J. M.; Penttilä, H.; Äystö, J.; Persson, J. R.; Kurpeta, J.

    2008-02-01

    Various alternative models were used to describe the structure of 106Ru . For example, the General Collective Model (GCM) predicts shape-coexistence for 106Ru with a spherical and a triaxial minimum and strongly mixed structures, while in the IBA-2 calculations, where 106Ru was considered as transitional from vibrational U(5) to γ -soft O(6) , no need was found to include the shape-coexisting configurations. In order to provide additional constraints on the model interpretations, we have applied the Advanced Time-Delayed (ATD) βγγ( t) method to measure the level lifetimes of the excited levels in 106Ru . The new results include the half-lives of T 1/2 = 183(3) ps and 7.5(30)ps for the 2+ 1 and 2+ 2 states, respectively.

  3. High resolution spectroscopy of 102Ru(d, p) 103Ru and 104Ru(p, d) 103Ru reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, G. P. A.; Demarteau, M.; Hardt, A.; Hürlimann, W.; Martin, S. A.; Meissburger, J.; Oelert, W.; Seyfarth, H.; Styczen, B.; Köhler, M.; Oelrich, I.; Scheerer, J.

    1982-04-01

    The high resolution magnetic spectrometer BIG KARL was used to investigate the low-lying states of 103Ru by 102Ru(d, p) and 104Ru(p,d) reactions at Ed = 45 MeV andEp = 29 MeV. The resolution of {ΔE}/{E} = (1.7-2.5) × 10 -4 was sufficient to separate most of the known states up to Ex = 1 MeV excitation energy. For these levels differential cross sections have been measured in the range of θ lab = 4°-43°. A DWBA analysis has been employed in order to determine orbital angular momenta and obtain spectroscopic factors. These were used to make a number of tentative spin and parity assignments. In addition several weakly excited states in 103Ru could be identified and excitation energies have been determined to about ±2 keV.

  4. Development of a phantom and assessment of (141)Ce as a surrogate radionuclide for flood field uniformity testing of gamma cameras.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Sanjay Kumar; Kumar, Yogendra; Malpani, Basant; Rakshit, Sutapa; Dash, Ashutosh

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes an indigenous method for development and deployment of rechargeable liquid filled phantom with newly proposed radionuclide (141)Ce for determination of extrinsic uniformity of gamma cameras. Details about design of phantom, neutron irradiation of cerium targets, chemical processing of (141)Ce, charging of phantom with (141)Ce solution and their performance evaluation are presented. Suitability of (141)Ce in quality assurance of gamma cameras used in in-vivo diagnostic imaging procedures has been amply demonstrated.

  5. Standardization of (106)Ru/Rh by live-timed anticoincidence counting and gamma emission determination.

    PubMed

    da Silva, C J; Rezende, E A; Poledna, R; Tauhata, L; Iwahara, A; Lopes, R T

    2017-04-01

    The absolute activity standardization measurement system of radionuclide by live-timed anticoincidence counting was implemented at LNMRI in 2008 to reduce the effects of some correction factors on the determination of activity with coincidence counting technique used for decades in the laboratory, for example, the corrections of dead time and resolution. With the live-timed anticoincidence system, the variety of radionuclides that can be calibrated by LNMRI was increased in relation to the type of decay. The objective of this study was to standardize the (106)Ru activity, determine gamma emission probabilities by spectrometric method for some energies, and estimate measurement uncertainties.

  6. {beta}-Ray brachytherapy with {sup 106}Ru plaques for retinoblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Schueler, Andreas O. . E-mail: andreas.schueler@uni-essen.de; Fluehs, Dirk; Anastassiou, Gerassimos; Jurklies, Christine; Neuhaeuser, Markus; Schilling, Harald; Bornfeld, Norbert; Sauerwein, Wolfgang

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: A retrospective analysis of 134 patients who received {sup 106}Ru brachytherapy for retinoblastomas (175 tumors in 140 eyes). Treatment and follow-up were analyzed with special emphasis on tumor control organ, preservation, and late complications. Results: Treated tumors had a mean height and diameter of 3.7 {+-} 1.4 mm and 5.0 {+-} 2.8 disk diameters, respectively. The radiation dose values were recalculated according to the calibration standard recently introduced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The recalculation revealed a mean applied dose of 419 Gy at the sclera (SD, 207 Gy) and 138 Gy (SD, 67 Gy) at the tumor apex. The 5-year tumor control rate was 94.4%. Tumor recurrence was more frequent in eyes with vitreous tumor cell seeding or fish-flesh regression. The estimated 5-year eye preservation rate was 86.5%. Previous treatment by brachytherapy or external beam radiotherapy, as well as a large tumor diameter, were significant factors for enucleation. The radiotherapy-induced complications after 5 years of follow-up were retinopathy (22%), optic neuropathy (21%), and cataract (17%). These complications were significantly more frequent after prior brachytherapy or external beam radiotherapy. Conclusion: Brachytherapy using {sup 106}Ru plaques is a highly efficient therapy with excellent local tumor control and an acceptable incidence of side effects.

  7. Local tumor control after {sup 106}Ru brachytherapy of choroidal melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Damato, Bertil . E-mail: Bertil@damato.co.uk; Patel, Imran; Campbell, Ian R.; Mayles, Helen M.; Errington, R. Douglas

    2005-10-01

    Purpose To report on local tumor control after {sup 106}Ru brachytherapy for choroidal melanoma. Methods and Materials A total of 458 patients with choroidal melanoma were treated at a single institution between January 1993 and December 2001. The tumors had a median longest basal dimension of 10.6 mm and a median height of 3.2 mm. The brachytherapy was administered using a 15- or 20-mm plaque. For posterior tumors, the plaque was positioned eccentrically with its posterior edge aligned with the posterior tumor margin to reduce the radiation dose to the optic disk and fovea. A minimal scleral dose sufficient to cause visible choroidal atrophy provided a permanent ophthalmoscopic record of the distribution of choroidal irradiation. If radiotherapy to the posterior tumor was uncertain, adjunctive transpupillary thermotherapy was administered 6 months postoperatively. Results The actuarial rates of tumor recurrence were 1%, 2%, and 3% at 2, 5, and 7 years, respectively. Local tumor recurrence correlated with the longest basal tumor dimension (Cox univariate analysis, p = 0.02, risk ratio 1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.88). Seven of the nine eyes with recurrent tumor were salvaged with additional conservative therapy. Conclusion The low rate of local tumor recurrence suggests that ruthenium plaque radiotherapy is effective with good case selection and if special measures are taken to ensure that the plaque is positioned correctly.

  8. Investigation of surrogate reactions near A=100: ^102,104Ru(,') for ^101,103Ru(n,γ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, J. A.; Bernstein, L. A.; Burke, J. T.; Dietrich, F.; Escher, J.; Forssen, C.; Norman, E. B.; Ai, H.-C.; Phair, L.; Clark, R.; Fallon, P. A.; Lee, D.; Lee, I. Y.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; McMahan, P.; Sinha, S.; Stephens, M.; -Vietez, E. R.; Wiedeking, M.

    2006-10-01

    For two-step, neutron-induced reactions proceeding through an equilibrated intermediate state, an alternate, ``surrogate reaction'' technique is applicable. Measured decay probabilities for the intermediate nucleus formed via a light-ion reaction are combined with optical-model calculations for the formation of the same intermediate nucleus via the n- induced reaction, and result in the overall (n, γ/n/2n) cross sections. ^102,104Ru(,') were studied separately as surrogate reactions for ^101,103Ru (n,γ). The test, ^101Ru(n,γ), has been previously measured directly (EXFOR). The unknown, ^103Ru (n,γ), is a branch in the s-process. Energies of scattered α particles were detected in double-sided silicon detectors (STARS) over scattering angles of 42-60 degrees. Ge clover detectors (LiBerACE) were used to count γ-rays in coincidence with α particles scattered at energies corresponding to 0-3 MeV equivalent neutron energy in the desired (n,γ) reaction. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by the Univ. of CA, LLNL contract No. W-7405-Eng-4, and DOE grants DE-FG02-91ER-40609 and DE-FG03- 03NA00081, LDRD-04-ERD-057. J.D. Cramer and H.C. Britt, Nucl. Sci. Eng., 41, 177 (1970).

  9. Multidimensional dosimetry of {sup 106}Ru eye plaques using EBT3 films and its impact on treatment planning

    SciTech Connect

    Heilemann, G. Kostiukhina, N.

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to establish a method to perform multidimensional radiochromic film measurements of {sup 106}Ru plaques and to benchmark the resulting dose distributions against Monte Carlo simulations (MC), microdiamond, and diode measurements. Methods: Absolute dose rates and relative dose distributions in multiple planes were determined for three different plaque models (CCB, CCA, and COB), and three different plaques per model, using EBT3 films in an in-house developed polystyrene phantom and the MCNP6 MC code. Dose difference maps were generated to analyze interplaque variations for a specific type, and for comparing measurements against MC simulations. Furthermore, dose distributions were validated against values specified by the manufacturer (BEBIG) and microdiamond and diode measurements in a water scanning phantom. Radial profiles were assessed and used to estimate dosimetric margins for a given combination of representative tumor geometry and plaque size. Results: Absolute dose rates at a reference depth of 2 mm on the central axis of the plaque show an agreement better than 5% (10%) when comparing film measurements (MCNP6) to the manufacturer’s data. The reproducibility of depth-dose profile measurements was <7% (2 SD) for all investigated detectors and plaque types. Dose difference maps revealed minor interplaque deviations for a specific plaque type due to inhomogeneities of the active layer. The evaluation of dosimetric margins showed that for a majority of the investigated cases, the tumor was not completely covered by the 100% isodose prescribed to the tumor apex if the difference between geometrical plaque size and tumor base ≤4 mm. Conclusions: EBT3 film dosimetry in an in-house developed phantom was successfully used to characterize the dosimetric properties of different {sup 106}Ru plaque models. The film measurements were validated against MC calculations and other experimental methods and showed a good agreement with

  10. Isolation and characterization of hot particles from Chernobyl fallout in southwestern Finland.

    PubMed

    Saari, H; Luokkanen, S; Kulmala, M; Lehtinen, S; Raunemaa, T

    1989-12-01

    Three types of activity composition have been found in airborne hot particles that were transported long distances from the Chernobyl accident. Their characterization is based on the analysis of single particles isolated from Pinus Sylvestris needles. The average activity of the particles was 130 Bq at the time of the accident. The most common type of particle contains the radioactive species 141Ce, 144Ce, 95Zr and 95Nb; the second type includes 103Ru and 106Ru along with the previous isotopes; and the third contains 103Ru and 106Ru only. Cesium-134 and -137 were present only in very small amounts. The activity composition of the Chernobyl reactor core fuel was similar to the composition of the first and second type particle; apparently the core fuel was only partially volatilized. The main bulk composition of the particles is shown to be U. The average aerodynamic size of the identified hot particles is 10 microns. The particles are rectangular or pentagonal in shape.

  11. Assessment of selected fission products in the Savannah River Site environment

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, W.H.; Denham, M.

    1997-04-01

    Most of the radioactivity produced by the operation of a nuclear reactor results from the fission process, during which the nucleus of a fissionable atom (such as 235U) splits into two or more nuclei, which typically are radioactive. The Radionuclide Assessment Program (RAP) has reported on fission products cesium, strontium, iodine, and technetium. Many other radionuclides are produced by the fission process. Releases of several additional fission products that result in dose to the offsite population are discussed in this publication. They are 95Zr, 95Nb, 103Ru, 106Ru, 141Ce, and 144Ce. This document will discuss the production, release, migration, and dose to humans for each of these selected fission products.

  12. Thermal neutron capture cross-section and resonance integral measurements of 139La(n, γ)140La and 140Ce(n, γ)141Ce using a Am-Be neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panikkath, Priyada; Mohanakrishnan, P.

    2017-03-01

    Thermal neutron capture cross-sections and resonance integrals of 139La(n, γ)140La and 140Ce (n, γ)141Ce are measured with respect to reference reactions 197Au(n, γ)198Au and 55Mn(n, γ)56Mn using the neutron activation technique. Measurements are carried out using neutrons from an Am-Be source located inside a concrete bunker. Two different methods are used for determining self-shielding factors of activation foils as well as for finding the epithermal neutron spectrum shape factor. For 139 La with reference to 197 Au and 55 Mn the measured thermal cross sections are 9.24 ± 0.25 b and 9.28 ± 0.37 b, respectively, while the measured resonance integrals are 12.18 ± 0.67 b and 11.81 ± 0.94 b, respectively. For 140 Ce with reference to 197 Au and 55 Mn the measured thermal cross sections are 0.44 ± 0.01 b and 0.44 ± 0.02 b, respectively, while the measured resonance integrals are 0.55 ± 0.03 b and 0.54 ± 0.04 b, respectively. The present measurements are compared with earlier measurements and evaluations. Presently estimated values confirm the established 139La(n, γ)140La cross-sections. The presently measured thermal capture cross-section 140Ce(n, γ)141Ce , though lower than the evaluated data, is having higher accuracy compared to previous measurements with large uncertainties. The resonance integral measured is higher (like most previous measurements) than most evaluations requiring a revision of the evaluated data.

  13. 10 CFR Appendix L to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Byproduct Materials Under NRC Export/Import Licensing Authority a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Rubidium 86 (Rb 86) Rubidium 87 (Rb 87) Ruthenium 97 (Ru 97) Ruthenium 103 (Ru 103) Ruthenium 105 (Ru 105) Ruthenium 106 (Ru 106) Samarium 151 (Sm 151) Samarium 153 (Sm 153) Scandium 46 (Sc 46) Scandium 47 (Sc...

  14. 10 CFR Appendix L to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Byproduct Materials Under NRC Export/Import Licensing Authority a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Rubidium 86 (Rb 86) Rubidium 87 (Rb 87) Ruthenium 97 (Ru 97) Ruthenium 103 (Ru 103) Ruthenium 105 (Ru 105) Ruthenium 106 (Ru 106) Samarium 151 (Sm 151) Samarium 153 (Sm 153) Scandium 46 (Sc 46) Scandium 47 (Sc...

  15. Particle size distribution of radioactive aerosols after the Fukushima and the Chernobyl accidents.

    PubMed

    Malá, Helena; Rulík, Petr; Bečková, Vera; Mihalík, Ján; Slezáková, Miriam

    2013-12-01

    Following the Fukushima accident, a series of aerosol samples were taken between 24th March and 13th April 2011 by cascade impactors in the Czech Republic to obtain the size distribution of (131)I, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (7)Be aerosols. All distributions could be considered monomodal. The arithmetic means of the activity median aerodynamic diameters (AMADs) for artificial radionuclides and for (7)Be were 0.43 and 0.41 μm with GDSs 3.6 and 3.0, respectively. The time course of the AMADs of (134)Cs, (137)Cs and (7)Be in the sampled period showed a slight decrease at a significance level of 0.05, whereas the AMAD pertaining to (131)I increased at a significance level of 0.1. Results obtained after the Fukushima accident were compared with results obtained after the Chernobyl accident. The radionuclides released during the Chernobyl accident for which we determined the AMAD fell into two categories: refractory radionuclides ((140)Ba, (140)La (141)Ce, (144)Ce, (95)Zr and (95)Nb) and volatile radionuclides ((134)Cs, (137)Cs, (103)Ru, (106)Ru, (131)I, and (132)Te). The AMAD of the refractory radionuclides was approximately 3 times higher than the AMAD of the volatile radionuclides; nevertheless, the size distributions for volatile radionuclides having a mean AMAD value of 0.51 μm were very close to the distributions after the Fukushima accident.

  16. Accumulation history of radionuclides in the lichen Stereocaulon vesuvianum from Mt. Vesuvius (south Italy).

    PubMed

    Adamo, P; Arienzo, M; Pugliese, M; Roca, V; Violante, P

    2004-01-01

    The fruticose lichen Stereocaulon vesuvianum, growing on the slopes of Mt. Vesuvius (south Italy), was used as a biomonitor of 134Cs, 137Cs, 103Ru and 106Ru derived from the April 26 1986 Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Samples were taken at five different quotes (370, 490, 580, 780 and 960 m a.s.l.) and four successive dates (October 1986, December 1986, October 1987 and May 1999). At the first sampling, the concentrations (as Bq kg(-1) dry weight) ranged between 460 and 1020 for 134Cs, 1330 and 2500 for 137Cs, 90 and 200 for 103Ru and 360 and 710 for 106Ru, values generally lower in respect to those measured in soil and higher plants. Of the total 137Cs measured only 14% was due to 1950s and 1960s nuclear weapons tests fallout. Highest average activities of all nuclides were observed at the quote of 960 m and significant correlation (0.7106Ru and 137Cs values. The time span between the first two samplings (38 days) was enough to highlight only the decay of 103Ru (T1/2=40 days). At sampling performed 1 year later (October 1987) only 134Cs, 137Cs, and 106Ru were observed. Thirteen years after the Chernobyl incident (May 1999), although a decrease was obvious with time, the 137Cs content in lichen thallus was still appreciable (270-570 Bq kg(-1) dw). Experimental results from the first three samplings yield effective residence time of 0.98+/-0.07, 5.9+/-0.3 and 1.6+/-0.1 years for 106Ru, 137Cs and 134Cs, respectively. The last sampling of May 1999 allowed to achieve a more precise determination of lifetime of 137Cs (6.1+/-0.4 years).

  17. [Comparative analysis of the radionuclide composition in fallout after the Chernobyl and the Fukushima accidents].

    PubMed

    Kotenko, K V; Shinkarev, S M; Abramov, Iu V; Granovskaia, E O; Iatsenko, V N; Gavrilin, Iu I; Margulis, U Ia; Garetskaia, O S; Imanaka, T; Khoshi, M

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear accident occurred at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) (March 11, 2011) similarly to the accident at the Chernobyl NPP (April 26, 1986) is related to the level 7 of the INES. It is of interest to make an analysis of the radionuclide composition of the fallout following the both accidents. The results of the spectrometric measurements were used in that comparative analysis. Two areas following the Chernobyl accident were considered: (1) the near zone of the fallout - the Belarusian part of the central spot extended up to 60 km around the Chernobyl NPS and (2) the far zone of the fallout--the "Gomel-Mogilev" spot centered 200 km to the north-northeast of the damaged reactor. In the case of Fukushima accident the near zone up to about 60 km considered. The comparative analysis has been done with respect to refractory radionuclides (95Zr, 95Nb, 141Ce, 144Ce), as well as to the intermediate and volatile radionuclides 103Ru, 106Ru, 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs, 140La, 140Ba and the results of such a comparison have been discussed. With respect to exposure to the public the most important radionuclides are 131I and 137Cs. For the both accidents the ratios of 131I/137Cs in the considered soil samples are in the similar ranges: (3-50) for the Chernobyl samples and (5-70) for the Fukushima samples. Similarly to the Chernobyl accident a clear tendency that the ratio of 131I/137Cs in the fallout decreases with the increase of the ground deposition density of 137Cs within the trace related to a radioactive cloud has been identified for the Fukushima accident. It looks like this is a universal tendency for the ratio of 131I/137Cs versus the 137Cs ground deposition density in the fallout along the trace of a radioactive cloud as a result of a heavy accident at the NPP with radionuclides releases into the environment. This tendency is important for an objective reconstruction of 131I fallout based on the results of 137Cs measurements of soil samples carried out at

  18. The biokinetics of ruthenium in the human body

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne

    2011-01-01

    The biokinetics of ruthenium (Ru) in the human body is of interest due mainly to the potential for occupational or environmental exposure to 106Ru (T1/2 = 373.6 d) and 103Ru (T1/2 = 39.3 d), which typically represent a significant portion of the fission products in a reactor inventory. During reactor operations or nuclear fuel reprocessing these ruthenium isotopes may be present as ruthenium tetroxide (RuO4) vapor, a highly mobile form of ruthenium that has been involved in a number of cases of accidental exposure to 106Ru or 103Ru. This paper summarizes the biokinetic database for ruthenium and proposes a new respiratory model for inhaled RuO4 vapor, a new biokinetic for systemic (absorbed) ruthenium, and material-specific gastrointestinal absorption fractions for ruthenium. The proposed respiratory model for RuO4 differs from the current ICRP model mainly in that it depicts slower clearance of deposited activity from the respiratory tract and lower absorption to blood than depicted in the current ICRP model. The proposed systemic biokinetic model depicts more realistic paths of movement of absorbed ruthenium in the body than the current ICRP model and, in contrast to the present model, a less uniform distribution of systemic activity. Implications of the proposed models with regard to inhalation and ingestion dose coefficients for 106Ru are examined.

  19. Contamination from 131I, 103Ru, and 239Np in the eluate of 99Mo-99mTc generators loaded with (n, gamma)-produced 99Mo.

    PubMed

    Billinghurst, M W; Hreczuch, F W

    1976-09-01

    Iodine-131, ruthenium-103, and neptunium-239 are present as contaminants in the eluate of 99Mo-99mTc generators loaded with 99Mo prepared by thermal-neutron irradiation of enriched 98Mo. The elution pattern of each of these contaminants is determined, together with the amounts found in the eluate of all generators tested over a 7-month period.

  20. Thirty years after Chernobyl: Long-term determination of (137)Cs effective half-life in the lichen Stereocaulon vesuvianum.

    PubMed

    Savino, F; Pugliese, M; Quarto, M; Adamo, P; Loffredo, F; De Cicco, F; Roca, V

    2017-04-05

    It has been widely shown that nuclear fallout includes substances, which accumulate in organisms such as crustaceans, fish, mushrooms and lichens, helping to evaluate the activity concentration of contaminants accumulated on a long time. In this context, radiocaesium deposited in soil following the Chernobyl accident on 26 April 1986 is known to have remained persistently available for plant uptake in many areas of Europe. Studies on the lichen Stereocaulon vesuvianum show the plant's high capacity to retain radionuclides from the substrate and the air. After the Chernobyl accident, starting from September 1986, at the Radioactivity Laboratory (LaRa) of the University of Naples Federico II, four monitoring campaigns to evaluate the activity concentration of four isotopes of the two elements caesium and ruthenium ((134)Cs, (137)Cs, (103)Ru and (106)Ru) were carried out until 1999. This study allowed the effective half-life of (134)Cs and (137)Cs to be estimated. Twenty-eight years after the accident, in December 2014, a further sampling was carried out; only (137)Cs was revealed beyond the detection limits, measuring activity concentrations ranging from 20 to 40 Bq/kg, while the other radionuclides were no longer observed due to their shorter half-life. The last sampling allowed more precise determination of the effective half-life of (137)Cs (6.2 ± 0.1 year), due to the larger dataset on a large time period.

  1. Deposition of gamma emitters from Chernobyl accident and their transfer in lichen-soil columns.

    PubMed

    Lehto, Jukka; Paatero, Jussi; Pehrman, Reijo; Kulmala, Seija; Suksi, Juhani; Koivula, Teija; Jaakkola, Timo

    2008-10-01

    Lichen-soil column samples were taken from several locations in the Southern Finland between 1986 and 2006. Columns were divided into three parts, upper lichen, lower lichen and underlying soil, and their gamma emitting radionuclides, 134Cs, 137Cs, 103Ru, 95Zr, 106Ru, 110mAg, 125Sb and 144Ce, were measured with gamma spectrometry. Deposition values were calculated as Bq/m2 for each sampling site. Distribution of various radionuclides in the three compartments as a function of time was determined. Both effective and ecological half-lives of all radionuclides were calculated for upper lichen, whole lichen and whole lichen-soil column. A linear relation was derived between the physical half-lives and effective half-lives for whole lichen and for whole lichen-soil column. Reindeer meat activity concentrations of various radionuclides and ensuing radiation doses to reindeer-herding people were also estimated for a hypothetical case where a similar high radioactive pollution, as was taken place in the Southern Finland, would have occurred in the reindeer-herding areas in the Finnish Lapland.

  2. Air radioactivity levels following the Fukushima reactor accident measured at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, France.

    PubMed

    Loaiza, P; Brudanin, V; Piquemal, F; Reyss, J-L; Stekl, I; Warot, G; Zampaolo, M

    2012-12-01

    The radioactivity levels in the air of the radionuclides released by the Fukushima accident were measured at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, in the South-East of France, during the period 25 March-18 April 2011. Air-filters from the ventilation system exposed for one or two days were measured using low-background gamma-ray spectrometry. In this paper we present the activity concentrations obtained for the radionuclides (131)I, (132)Te, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (95)Nb, (95)Zr, (106)Ru, (140)Ba/La and (103)Ru. The activity concentration of (131)I was of the order of 100 μBq/m(3), more than 100 times higher than the activities of other fission products. The highest activities of (131)I were measured as a first peak on 30 March and a second peak on 3-4 April. The activity concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs varied from 5 to 30 μBq/m(3). The highest activity concentration recorded for Cs corresponded to the same period as for (131)I, with a peak on 2-3 April. The results of the radioactivity concentration levels in grass and mushrooms exposed to the air in the Modane region were also measured. Activity concentrations of (131)I of about 100 mBq/m(2) were found in grass.

  3. [Influence of nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl' on the environmental radioactivity in Toyama].

    PubMed

    Morita, M; Shoji, M; Honda, T; Sakanoue, M

    1987-06-01

    The environmental radioactivity caused by the reactor accident at Chernobyl' was investigated from May 7 to May 31 of 1986 in Toyama. Measurement of radioactivities in airborne particles, rain water, drinking water, milk, and mugwort are carried out by gamma-ray spectrometry (pure Ge detector; ORTEC GMX-23195). Ten different nuclides (103Ru, 106Ru, 131I, 132Te-I, 134Cs, 136Cs, 137Cs, 140Ba-La) are identified from samples of airborne particles. In the air samples, a maximum radioactivity concentration of each nuclide is observed on 13th May 1986. The time of the reactor shut-down and the flux of thermal neutron at the reactor were calculated from 131I/132I and 137Cs/134Cs ratio. The exposure dose in Toyama by this accident is given as follows: internal exposure; [thyroid] adult-59 microSv, child-140 microSv, baby-130 microSv, [total body] adult-0.2 microSv, child, baby-0.4 microSv, external exposure; 7 microSv, effective dose equivalent; adult-9 microSv, child-12 Sv, baby-11 microSv.

  4. Residual Nuclide Production by Proton-Induced Reactions on Uranium for Energies between 20 and 70 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uosif, M. A. M.; Michel, R.; Herpers, U.; Kubik, P.-W.; Duijvestijn, M.; Koning, A.

    2005-05-01

    Within the HINDAS project, proton-irradiation experiments were performed at the injector cyclotron of the Paul Scherrer Institute at Villigen/Switzerland in order to investigate the production of residual nuclides from natural uranium. The stacked-foil technique was used to cover proton energies between 20 MeV and 70 MeV. Copper targets were used for monitoring the proton beam using the reaction 65Cu (p,n)65Zn. Residual radionuclides were measured by off-line γ-spectrometry. Excitation functions were obtained for the production of 91Y, 95Zr, 95mNb, 99Mo, 103Ru, 112Pd, 115Cd, 124Sb, 126Sb, 127Sb, 132Te, 131I, 134Cs, 136Cs, 137Cs, 140Ba, 141Ce, 144Ce, 147Nd, and 238Np. The experimental data are compared to the sparse results of earlier measurements and with theoretical excitation functions calculated by the newly developed TALYS code. Good agreement between theory and experiment was obtained for product masses up to 115. For higher-mass fission products and for 238Np, there are still systematic deviations between theory and experiment. These deviations are discussed as deficits of the fission model in the heavy part of the fission product distribution.

  5. Residual Nuclide Production by Proton-Induced Reactions on Uranium for Energies between 20 and 70 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Uosif, M.A.M.; Michel, R.; Herpers, U.; Kubik, P.-W.; Duijvestijn, M.; Koning, A.

    2005-05-24

    Within the HINDAS project, proton-irradiation experiments were performed at the injector cyclotron of the Paul Scherrer Institute at Villigen/Switzerland in order to investigate the production of residual nuclides from natural uranium. The stacked-foil technique was used to cover proton energies between 20 MeV and 70 MeV. Copper targets were used for monitoring the proton beam using the reaction 65Cu (p,n)65Zn. Residual radionuclides were measured by off-line {gamma}-spectrometry. Excitation functions were obtained for the production of 91Y, 95Zr, 95mNb, 99Mo, 103Ru, 112Pd, 115Cd, 124Sb, 126Sb, 127Sb, 132Te, 131I, 134Cs, 136Cs, 137Cs, 140Ba, 141Ce, 144Ce, 147Nd, and 238Np. The experimental data are compared to the sparse results of earlier measurements and with theoretical excitation functions calculated by the newly developed TALYS code. Good agreement between theory and experiment was obtained for product masses up to 115. For higher-mass fission products and for 238Np, there are still systematic deviations between theory and experiment. These deviations are discussed as deficits of the fission model in the heavy part of the fission product distribution.

  6. Coronary vasodilator reserve persists despite tachycardia and myocardial ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Bristow, J.D.; McFalls, E.O.; Anselone, C.G.; Pantely, G.A. )

    1987-08-01

    During myocardial ischemia, the authors tested whether coronary blood flow measured with radioactive microspheres labeled with {sup 141}Ce, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 103}Ru, and {sup 95}Nb would increase in response to tachycardia thereby employing known coronary flow reserve. The authors instrumented the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary circulation in anesthetized pigs and performed three sets of experiments while coronary pressure was controlled and several heart rate increases were produced. (1) Pacing-induced tachycardia at normal LAD pressure was characterized by increased LAD flow and myocardial oxygen consumption, without production of lactate. (2) Tachycardia at a mean LAD pressure of 38 mmHg was associated with a lower, fixed coronary flow and oxygen consumption. Lactate was produced at all rates and local myocardial function declined progressively. (3) Coronary flow at low LAD pressure doubled during tachycardia when intracoronary adenosine was added. The increase to the subepicardium was >100%, whereas subendocardial flow changed little. There is persistent coronary flow reserve during moderately severe myocardial ischemia, even when metabolic demand is increased by tachycardia. This reserve, however, is predominantly subepicardial.

  7. Validity of microsphere depositions for regional myocardial flows

    SciTech Connect

    Bassingthwaighte, J.B.; Malone, M.A.; Moffett, T.C.; King, R.B.; Little, S.E.; Link, J.M.; Krohn, K.A.

    1987-07-01

    Due to the particulate nature of microspheres, their deposition in small-tissue regions may not be strictly flow dependent. To evaluate the importance of rheological and geometric factors and random error, their deposition densities in small regions of rabbit hearts were examined in comparison with those of a new molecular microsphere, 2-iododesmethylimipramine (IDMI), whose high lipid solubility allows it to be delivered into tissue in proportion to flow, and whose binding in tissue prevents rapid washout. /sup 141/Ce- and /sup 103/Ru-labeled 16.5-..mu..m spheres in one syringe and (/sup 125/I)- and (/sup 131/I)DMI in another syringe were injected simultaneously into the left atrium of open-chest rabbits, while obtaining reference blood samples from the femoral artery. Hearts were removed 1 min after injection, cut into /approximately/ 100 pieces averaging 54 mg, and the regional deposition densities calculated for each tracer from the isotopic counts. Scatter plots of sphere densities vs. IDMI densities showed that differences between microspheres and IDMI had substantial scatter and were not random. Microsphere depositions tended to be lower that IDMI deposition at low flows and higher at high flows. The authors conclude that microspheres are generally adequate for estimating regional flows but suffer systematic error when the regions of interest are supplied via arteries of diameters only a few times those of microspheres.

  8. {sup 106}Ruthenium Brachytherapy for Retinoblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Abouzeid, Hana; Moeckli, Raphael; Gaillard, Marie-Claire; Beck-Popovic, Maja; Pica, Alessia; Zografos, Leonidas; Balmer, Aubin; Pampallona, Sandro; Munier, Francis L.

    2008-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of {sup 106}Ru plaque brachytherapy for the treatment of retinoblastoma. Methods and Materials: We reviewed a retrospective, noncomparative case series of 39 children with retinoblastoma treated with {sup 106}Ru plaques at the Jules-Gonin Eye Hospital between October 1992 and July 2006, with 12 months of follow-up. Results: A total of 63 tumors were treated with {sup 106}Ru brachytherapy in 41 eyes. The median patient age was 27 months. {sup 106}Ru brachytherapy was the first-line treatment for 3 tumors (4.8%), second-line treatment for 13 (20.6%), and salvage treatment for 47 tumors (74.6%) resistant to other treatment modalities. Overall tumor control was achieved in 73% at 1 year. Tumor recurrence at 12 months was observed in 2 (12.5%) of 16 tumors for which {sup 106}Ru brachytherapy was used as the first- or second-line treatment and in 15 (31.9%) of 47 tumors for which {sup 106}Ru brachytherapy was used as salvage treatment. Eye retention was achieved in 76% of cases (31 of 41 eyes). Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed no statistically significant risk factors for tumor recurrence. Radiation complications included retinal detachment in 7 (17.1%), proliferative retinopathy in 1 (2.4%), and subcapsular cataract in 4 (9.7%) of 41 eyes. Conclusion: {sup 106}Ru brachytherapy is an effective treatment for retinoblastoma, with few secondary complications. Local vitreous seeding can be successfully treated with {sup 106}Ru brachytherapy.

  9. Development of A phantom for ophthalmic beta source applicator quality control using TL dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, N. A.; da Rosa, L. A. R.; Braz, D.

    2015-11-01

    Concave eye applicators with 90Sr/90Y and 106Ru/106Rh beta ray sources are usually used in brachytherapy for the treatment of superficial intraocular tumors as uveal melanoma with thickness up to 5 mm. The calculation of the dose delivered to the eye is carried out based on the data present in the beta source calibration certificate. Therefore, it would be interesting to have a system that could evaluate that dose. In this work, an eye phantom to be used with 106Ru/106Rh betatherapy applicators was developed in solid water. This phantom can hold nine micro-cube thermoluminescent (TL) dosimeters, TLD-100. The characteristics of the TL response of the dosimeters, namely reproducibility and individual sensitivity, were determined for a 60Co source. Using Monte Carlo code MCNPX, the dose to a water eye was determined at different depths. Exposing the eye phantom with TL dosimeters to the 106Ru/106Rh applicator, it is possible to assess calibration factors using the dose values obtained by Monte Carlo simulation to each depth. Using mean calibration factors, dose values obtained by TL dosimetry were compared to the data present in the applicators certificate. Mean differences for both applicators were lower than ±10%, maximum value 17% and minimum value 0.08%. Considering that the certificate values present an uncertainty of ±20%, the calibration procedure and the developed phantom are validated and can be applied.

  10. Radionuclide transfer to marine biota species: review of Russian language studies.

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S; Fesenko, E; Titov, I; Karpenko, E; Sanzharova, N; Fonseca, A Gondin; Brown, J

    2010-11-01

    An extensive programme of experiments on transfer of radionuclides to aquatic species was conducted in the former USSR starting from the early 1950s. Only a few of these studies were made available in the English language literature or taken into account in international reviews of radionuclide behaviour in marine ecosystems. Therefore, an overview of original information on radionuclide transfer to marine biota species available from Russian language literature sources is presented here. The concentration ratio (CR) values for many radionuclides and for marine species such as: (239)Pu, (106)Ru and (95)Zr (crustacean), (54)Mn, (90)Sr, (95)Nb, (106)Ru, (137)Cs (239)Pu, (241)Am and natural U (molluscs), and (54)Mn, (90)Sr, (137)Cs and (144)Ce (fish) are in good agreement with those previously published, whilst for some of them, in particular, for (32)P and (110)Ag (crustaceans), (35)S (molluscs), (32)P, (35)S, (95)Nb, and (106)Ru (macroalgae) and (60)Co and (239,240)Pu (fish) the data presented here suggest that changes in the default CR reference values presented in recent marine reviews may be required. The data presented here are intended to supplement substantially the CR values being collated within the handbook on Wildlife Transfer Coefficients, coordinated under the IAEA EMRAS II programme.

  11. Effect of tropicamide on ocular blood flow in the rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Delgado, D.; Michel, P.; Jaanus, S.D.

    1982-05-01

    Intracardiac injection of 15 microspheres labeled with /sup 85/Sr (strontium) and /sup 141/Ce (cerium) were used to determine ocular blood flow in seven rabbits before and 25 min after bilateral application of tropicamide to the cornea. By using two different isotopes distinguishable under gammaspectrometry, each animal served as its own control. After administration of two drops of 1% tropicamide, no significant difference in blood flow between treated and untreated eyes was observed.

  12. Effects of cold exposure on feed protein degradation, microbial protein synthesis and transfer of plasma urea to the rumen of sheep.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, P M; Christopherson, R J; Milligan, L P

    1982-05-01

    1. Three diets of barley-canola-seed (Brassica campestris), lucerne (Medicago sativa) or chopped brome-grass (Bromus inermis) were given at intervals of 3 h to closely-shorn Suffolk wethers held at a temperature of 1-5 degree (cold) or 22-24 degree (warm). Apparent digestibility of organic matter (OM) and nitrogen was reduced by 0.08-0.05 and 0.04 units respectively for lucerne and brome-grass diets given to cold-exposed sheep, but no treatment effects on digestibility were observed for the barley-CSM diet. Measurements achieved using infusion of the digesta markers 58Co-EDTA and 103Ru-phenanthroline (103Ru-P) showed that cold exposure depressed apparent OM digestion in the stomach and intestines by 33 and 42 g/d for the lucerne diet, and 13 and 35 g/d for the brome-grass diet respectively. 2. The turnover time (h) of the 103Ru-P marker in the rumen of warm sheep was 38.9 for barley-CSM, 18.4 for lucerne, and 15.6 for brome-grass. In cold-exposed sheep, 103Ru-P turnover time (h) tended to be reduced to 32.3, 12.3 and 15.3 for the three diets, respectively. OM fermentation in the stomach was highly related to 103RU-P turnover time for lucerne and brome-grass diets. 3. Cold exposure increased the escape of dietary N from the abomasum by 0.04 and 0.09 of dietary N intake for sheep given lucerne and brome-grass diets respectively. Dietary N degradation was closely related to 103Ru-P turnover time for lucerne, and to the proportion of large particles in rumen digesta for the brome-grass diet. Estimates of feed N degradation made by use of information on the rate of fermentation of the diet in nylon bags and 103Ru-P turnover time were consistently lower than those observed in vivo for barley-CSM and lucerne diets. Intestinal digestibility of non-ammonia N was not significantly changed by cold exposure. 4. Transfer of urea from plasma to the rumen was 1.4-2.5 g N/d for the barley-CSM and lucerne diets, but the value for brome-grass was 4.5-4.9 g N/d. Cold exposure did not

  13. Excitation function and yield for the (103)Rh(d,2n)(103)Pd nuclear reaction: Optimization of the production of palladium-103.

    PubMed

    Manenti, Simone; Alí Santoro, María Del Carmen; Cotogno, Giulio; Duchemin, Charlotte; Haddad, Ferid; Holzwarth, Uwe; Groppi, Flavia

    2017-03-06

    Deuteron-induced nuclear reactions for the generation of (103)Pd were investigated using the stacked-foil activation technique on rhodium targets at deuteron energies up to Ed=33MeV. The excitation functions of the reactions (103)Rh(d,xn)(101,103)Pd, (103)Rh(d,x)(100g,cum,101m,g,102m,g)Rh and (103)Rh(d,2p)(103)Ru have been measured, and the Thick-Target Yield for (103)Pd has been calculated.

  14. A two-dimensional position sensitive charged-particle detector for the magnetic spectrograph ``Big Karl'' of the Jülich Cyclotron ``Jülich''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, M.; Müller, K. D.; Stoff, H.; Teske, M.; Berg, G. P. A.; Hardt, A.; Martin, S.; Mayer-Böricke, C.; Meißburger, J.

    1980-09-01

    A two-dimensional position sensitive detector with an area of 300 mm × 40 mm and a charged-particle spatial resolution of ΔX = ΔY ⩽ 0.5 mm is described. Some test results point out the detector properties. Results of the experiments 102Ru(d,p) 103Ru and 208Pb(p,p') 208Pb done at 45 MeV incident particle energy using the magnetic spectrograph BIG KARL are shown with sections of the proton spectra.

  15. Determination of IRT-2M fuel burnup by gamma spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Koleška, Michal; Viererbl, Ladislav; Marek, Milan; Ernest, Jaroslav; Šunka, Michal; Vinš, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    A spectrometric system was developed for evaluating spent fuel in the LVR-15 research reactor, which employs highly enriched (36%) IRT-2M-type fuel. Such system allows the measurement of detailed fission product profiles. Within these measurements, nuclides such as (137)Cs, (134)Cs, (144)Ce, (106)Ru and (154)Eu may be detected in fuel assemblies with different cooling times varying between 1.67 and 7.53 years. Burnup calculations using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code data showed good agreement with measurements, though some discrepancies were observed in certain regions. These discrepancies are attributed to the evaluation of irradiation history, reactor regulation pattern and buildup schemes.

  16. PMT signal increase using a wavelength shifting paint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allada, K.; Hurlbut, Ch.; Ou, L.; Schmookler, B.; Shahinyan, A.; Wojtsekhowski, B.

    2015-05-01

    We report a 1.65 times increase of the PMT signal and a simple procedure of application of a new wavelength shifting (WLS) paint for PMTs with non-UV-transparent windows. Samples of four different WLS paints, made from hydrocarbon polymers and organic fluors, were tested on a 5-in. PMT (ET 9390KB) using Cherenkov radiation produced in fused silica disks by 106Ru electrons on a 'table-top' setup. The best performing paint was employed on two different types of 5-in. PMTs (ET 9390KB and XP4572B), installed in atmospheric pressure CO2 gas Cherenkov detectors, and tested using GeV electrons.

  17. Proposed search for a fourth neutrino with a PBq antineutrino source.

    PubMed

    Cribier, Michel; Fechner, Maximilien; Lasserre, Thierry; Letourneau, Alain; Lhuillier, David; Mention, Guillaume; Franco, Davide; Kornoukhov, Vasily; Schönert, Stefan

    2011-11-11

    Several observed anomalies in neutrino oscillation data can be explained by a hypothetical fourth neutrino separated from the three standard neutrinos by a squared mass difference of a few eV(2). We show that this hypothesis can be tested with a PBq (ten kilocurie scale) (144)Ce or (106)Ru antineutrino beta source deployed at the center of a large low background liquid scintillator detector. In particular, the compact size of such a source could yield an energy-dependent oscillating pattern in event spatial distribution that would unambiguously determine neutrino mass differences and mixing angles.

  18. Deposition and retention of radioactive aerosols on desert vegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Millard, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    Deposition velocities and retention times were obtained for submicron aerosols of /sup 134/Cs and /sup 141/Ce on a shrub species (Artemisia tridentata) and a grass (Elymus elimoides) in a natural desert environment. Submicron aerosols of these two nuclides were artificially generated and released over a sagebrush community in southeast Idaho during each of three seasons: spring, summer and winter, to determine the effects of weathering and plant development on aerosol deposition and retention. Information on friction velocities, roughness lengths, and particle size was also obtained.

  19. In-vitro and in-vivo characterization of ruthenium-bleomycin compared to cobalt- and copper-bleomycin

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, H.S.; Meinken, G.E.; Srivastava, S.C.; Slosman, D.; Sacker, D.F.; Som, P.; Brill, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    Bleomycin (BLM) has undergone extensive investigation both as a cancer chemotherapeutic agent, and as a carrier for radionuclides for tumor imaging. The available methods or the radionuclides used, however, have had limited effectiveness. Although labeling of BLM with /sup 103/Ru has been reported earlier, we carried out a study to develop a more reproducible method of labeling particularly for use with Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer produced /sup 97/Ru. Ruthenium-97 has favorable physical properties that make it ideal for imaging applications: decay by electron capture; ..gamma.. 216 keV, 85%; t/sub 1/2/ 2.9 d. A novel method based on the reduction of Ru/sup 3 +/ to Ru/sup 2 +/ using stannous chloride was investigated for labeling BLM with /sup 97/Ru and/or /sup 103/Ru. In-vitro and in vivo comparisons of the product(s) with /sup 57/Co and /sup 67/Cu-labeled BLM were also carried out. 4 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. Distribution coefficients for radionuclides in aquatic environments. Volume 2. Dialysis experiments in marine environments

    SciTech Connect

    Sibley, T.H.; Nevissi, A.E.; Schell, W.R.

    1981-05-01

    The overall objective of this research program was to obtain new information that can be used to predict the fate of radionuclides that may enter the aquatic environment from nuclear power plants, waste storage facilities or fuel reprocessing plants. Important parameters for determining fate are the distribution of radionuclides between the soluble and particulate phases and the partitioning of radionuclides among various suspended particulates. This report presents the results of dialysis experiments that were used to study the distribution of radionuclides among suspended sediments, phytoplankton, organic detritus, and filtered sea water. Three experiments were conducted to investigate the adsorption kinetics and equilibrium distribution of (59)Fe, (60)Co, (65)Zn, (106)Ru, (137)Cs, (207)Bi, (238)Pu, and (241)Am in marine system. Diffusion across the dialysis membranes depends upon the physico-chemical form of the radionuclides, proceeding quite rapidly for ionic species of (137)Cs and (60)Co but much more slowly for radionuclides which occur primarily as colloids and solid precipitates such as (59)Fe, (207)Bi, and (241)Am. All the radionuclides adsorb to suspended particulates although the amount of adsorption depends upon the specific types and concentration of particulates in the system and the selected radionuclide. High affinity of some radionuclides - e.g., (106)Ru and (241)Am - for detritus and phytoplankton suggests that suspended organics may significantly affect the eventual fate of those radionuclides in marine ecosystems.

  1. Spatial trends on an ungrazed West Cumbrian saltmarsh of surface contamination by selected radionuclides over a 25 year period.

    PubMed

    Caborn, Jane A; Howard, Brenda J; Blowers, Paul; Wright, Simon M

    2016-01-01

    Long term spatial and temporal variations in radionuclide activity have been measured in a contaminated ungrazed saltmarsh near Ravenglass, Cumbria. Over a twenty-five year period there has been a decrease in activity concentration with (106)Ru and (137)Cs showing the highest rate of change followed by Pu alpha and (241)Am. A number of factors contribute to the reduction with time; including radiological half lives, discharge and remobilisation. For (241)Am the lower reduction rate is partially due to ingrowth from (241)Pu and partially as a result of transport of sediment from the offshore Irish Sea mud patch. Considerable spatial variation for the different radionuclides was observed, which with time became less defined. The highest activity concentrations of long-lived radionuclides were in low energy areas, typically where higher rates of sedimentation and vegetation occurred. The trend was reversed for the shorter lived radionuclide, (106)Ru, with higher activity concentrations observed in high energy areas where there was frequent tidal inundation. Surface scrape samples provide a pragmatic, practical method of measuring sediment contamination over large areas and is a sampling approach adopted by most routine environmental monitoring programs, but it does not allow for interpretation of the effect of variation in sedimentation rates. This paper proposes a method for calculating indicative sedimentation rates across the saltmarsh using surface scrape data, which produces results consistent with values experimentally obtained.

  2. Ruthenium-106 brachytherapy for thick uveal melanoma: reappraisal of apex and base dose radiation and dose rate

    PubMed Central

    Jaberi, Ramin; Sedaghat, Ahad; Azma, Zohreh; Nojomi, Marzieh; Falavarjani, Khalil Ghasemi; Nazari, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the outcomes of ruthenium-106 (106Ru) brachytherapy in terms of radiation parameters in patients with thick uveal melanomas. Material and methods Medical records of 51 patients with thick (thickness ≥ 7 mm and < 11 mm) uveal melanoma treated with 106Ru brachytherapy during a ten-year period were reviewed. Radiation parameters, tumor regression, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and treatment-related complications were assessed. Results Fifty one eyes of 51 consecutive patients including 25 men and 26 women with a mean age of 50.5 ± 15.2 years were enrolled. Patients were followed for 36.1 ± 26.5 months (mean ± SD). Mean radiation dose to tumor apex and to sclera were 71 (± 19.2) Gy and 1269 (± 168.2) Gy. Radiation dose rates to tumor apex and to sclera were 0.37 (± 0.14) Gy/h and 6.44 (± 1.50) Gy/h. Globe preservation was achieved in 82.4%. Preoperative mean tumor thickness of 8.1 (± 0.9) mm decreased to 4.5 (± 1.6) mm, 3.4 (± 1.4) mm, and 3.0 (± 1.46) mm at 12, 24, and 48 months after brachytherapy (p = 0.03). Four eyes that did not show regression after 6 months of brachytherapy were enucleated. Secondary enucleation was performed in 5 eyes because of tumor recurrence or neovascular glaucoma. Tumor recurrence was evident in 6 (11.8%) patients. Mean Log MAR (magnification requirement) visual acuity declined from 0.75 (± 0.63) to 0.94 (± 0.5) (p = 0.04). Best corrected visual acuity of 20/200 or worse was recorded in 37% of the patients at the time of diagnosis and 61.7% of the patients at last exam (p = 0.04). Non-proliferative and proliferative radiation-induced retinopathy was observed in 20 and 7 eyes. Conclusions Thick uveal melanomas are amenable to 106Ru brachytherapy with less than recommended apex radiation dose and dose rates. PMID:26985199

  3. Effect of the electron decay of metallic fission products on the chemical and phase compositions of an uranium-plutonium fuel irradiated by fast neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, G. G.; Bulatov, G. S.; Gedgovd, K. N.; Lyubimov, D. Yu.; Yakushkin, M. M.

    2011-11-01

    After fast-neutron irradiation, uranium-plutonium nitride U0.8Pu0.2N is shown to acquire a complex structure consisting of a solid solution that is based on the nitrides of uranium, plutonium, americium, neptunium, zirconium, yttrium, and lanthanides and contains condensed phases U2N3, CeRu2, BaTe, Ba3N2, CsI, Sr3N2, LaSe, metallic molybdenum, technetium, and U(Ru, Rh, Pd)3 intermetallics. The contents and compositions of these phases are calculated at a temperature of 900 K and a burn-up fraction up to 14% (U + Pu). The change in the composition of the irradiated uranium-plutonium nitride is studied during the electron decay of metallic radionuclides. The kinetics of transformation of U103Ru3, 137CsI, 140Ba3N2, and 241PuN is calculated.

  4. Recoil effect on beta-decaying in vivo generators, interpreted for (103)Pd/(103m)Rh.

    PubMed

    Szucs, Zoltan; van Rooyen, Johann; Zeevaart, Jan Rijn

    2009-01-01

    The use of Auger emitters as potential radiopharmaceuticals is being increasingly investigated. One of the radionuclides of interest is (103m)Rh, which can be produced from (103)Ru or (103)Pd in an in vivo generator. A potential problem, however, is the recoil of the (103m)Rh out of the carrier molecule and even out of the target cell. In order to determine the likelihood of this happening in the (103)Pd/(103m)Rh, case calculations were made to prove that this does not happen. The equations were generalised for all radionuclides with an atomic mass of 10-240 as a tool for determining the recoil threshold of any beta-emitting radionuclide.

  5. Extension of activation cross section data of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on rhodium up to 50 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanne, A.; Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Ditrói, F.

    2015-11-01

    In the frame of the systematical study of light ion induced nuclear reactions activation cross sections for deuteron induced reactions on monoisotopic 103Rh were extended to 50 MeV incident energy. Excitation functions were measured in the 49.8-36.6 MeV energy range for the 103Rh(d,xn)100,101Pd, 103Rh(d,pxn)99m,99g,100,101m,101g,102m,102gRh and 103Rh(d,x)97,103Ru reactions by using the stacked foil irradiation technique and off-line high resolution γ-ray spectrometry. The experimental results are compared to our previous results and to the theoretical predictions in the TENDL-2014 library (TALYS 1.6 code).

  6. Neutron-spectroscopic strength in Ru isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Duarte, J.L.M.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L.B. )

    1994-08-01

    A systematic, high resolution (6--8 keV) study of ([ital d],[ital t]) reactions on [sup 100,102,104]Ru is reported. Spectroscopic factors were extracted by comparison of experimental angular distributions with distorted wave Born approximation predictions. All of the information for [sup 99]Ru and, for excitation energies above 0.9 MeV, for [sup 103]Ru is new. Most of the strength expected for the 50--82 neutron shell was found. The strength distributions are discussed, also in comparison with the corresponding stripping reactions. Special attention is focused on extremely low and relatively intense [ital l]=3 excitations and on the [ital l]=4 transfer pattern observed.

  7. Analysis of a uranium solution for evaluating the total number of fissions in the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, G; Watanabe, K; Miyauchi, M; Togashi, Y; Nakahara, Y; Fukaya, H; Inagawa, J; Suzuki, D; Sonoda, T; Kohno, N; Gunji, K; Ito, M; Sato, T

    2001-09-01

    The uranium solution in the precipitation tank in the JCO's uranium conversion facility was analyzed in order to evaluate the total number of fissions in the criticality accident. Two analytical groups at JAERI performed chemical analyses independently in order to check the validity of the results: the concentration of the fission products (95Zr, 99Mo, 103Ru, 131I, 140Ba, etc), uranium, boron and impurity elements in the solution. The analytical results obtained by the two groups were almost in agreement within the analytical error. The number of fissions per one gram of uranium in the accident was determined to be (1.5 +/- 0.1 ) x 10(14). Also, the total number of events was evaluated to be (2.5 +/- 0.1) x 10(18) fissions using the total amount of uranium (16.6 kg) fed into the precipitation tank at the accident.

  8. Calculation of Isodose Curves for Cca and Ccb Concave Eye Applicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mowlavi, Ali Asghar; Yazdani, Majed

    BEBIG Ruthenium-106 ophthalmic plaques have been used for treatment of uveal melanoma, retinoblastoma, melanoma of the iris and other special applications for more than 30 years. The plaques consist of a thin film of Ru-106, a beta emitter encapsulated in pure silver. Simulations of small concave applicators CCA and CCB, manufactured by Bebig, were performed using Monte Carlo MCNP4C code which allows for description of the applicator (geometry and materials) in detail. Electrons are emitted from the 106Ru nuclei isotropically with initial energy randomly sampled from the corresponding Fermi spectra and with initial positions uniformly distributed on the radioactive layer. In this work, relative doses were calculated in soft tissue phantom near the active layer. Isodose curves for CCA and CCB eye applicators were determined. Our calculated data agrees well with the measured phantom data reported in literature.

  9. Recent studies related to head-end fuel processing at the Hanford PUREX plant

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, J.L.

    1988-08-01

    This report presents the results of studies addressing several problems in the head-end processing (decladding, metathesis, and core dissolution) of N Reactor fuel elements in the Hanford PUREX plant. These studies were conducted over 2 years: FY 1986 and FY 1987. The studies were divided into three major areas: 1) differences in head-end behavior of fuels having different histories, 2) suppression of /sup 106/Ru volatilization when the ammonia scrubber solution resulting from decladding is decontaminated by distillation prior to being discharged, and 3) suitability of flocculating agents for lowering the amount of transuranic (TRU) element-containing solids that accompany the decladding solution to waste. 16 refs., 43 figs.

  10. Results with a micro-cavity plasma panel detector

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-01

    During the three last years, a complete study of a radiation detector based on plasma panel technology (main component of plasma television display) has been completed using source, cosmic ray and beam. This studies showed a fast response (O(5 ns)), high spatial resolution detection of ionizing particle and minimum ionizing particles. It shows very promising results in term of pixel-to-pixel uniformity and time stability of both signal shapes and rates. The prototype has also demonstrated very low background over a wide range of applied high voltages, excellent pixel response isolation, time resolutions of a few nanoseconds, and efficiencies above 95% over a 100-volt range for beta particles emitted by a {sup 106}Ru radioactive source. A full report will be presented (authors)

  11. An optimized method for Technetium-99 determination in Low-Level waste by extraction into Tri-n-octylamine

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, C.J.; Warwick, P.E.; Croudace, I.W.

    1996-11-01

    The paper describes the optimization of the extraction of {sup 99}Tc with tri-n-octylamine (TnOA) and its incorporation into a routine analytical method for the quantitative determination of {sup 99}Tc in Low-Level Waste (LLW). Extraction was found to be independent of TnOA concentration, sulphuric (sulfuric)-acid and hydrochloric-acid concentrations and aqueous to organic ratios. The presence of nitric acid and nitrate anions significantly reduces the extraction efficiency. The incorporation of the extraction into an analytical scheme results in a technique capable of quantitatively separating Tc from a range of matrices and decontaminating the element from other commonly interfering radionculides including {sup 106}Ru.

  12. Chemical speciation of radionuclides migrating in groundwaters

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, D.; Schilk, A.; Abel, K.; Lepel, E.; Thomas, C.; Pratt, S.; Cooper, E.; Hartwig, P.; Killey, R.

    1994-04-01

    In order to more accurately predict the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration from low-level waste disposal facilities via groundwater transport, ongoing studies are being conducted at field sites at Chalk River Laboratories to identify and characterize the chemical speciation of mobile, long-lived radionuclides migrating in groundwaters. Large-volume water sampling techniques are being utilized to separate and concentrate radionuclides into particular, cationic, anionic, and nonionic chemical forms. Most radionuclides are migrating as soluble, anionic species that appear to be predominantly organoradionuclide complexes. Laboratory studies utilizing anion exchange chromatography have separated several anionically complexed radionuclides, e.g., {sup 60}Co and {sup 106}Ru, into a number of specific compounds or groups of compounds. Further identification of the anionic organoradionuclide complexes is planned utilizing high resolution mass spectrometry. Large-volume ultra-filtration experiments are characterizing the particulate forms of radionuclides being transported in these groundwaters.

  13. Comparison between beta radiation dose distribution due to LDR and HDR ocular brachytherapy applicators using GATE Monte Carlo platform.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Laoues; Rachid, Khelifi; Ahmed, Sidi Moussa

    2016-08-01

    Eye applicators with 90Sr/90Y and 106Ru/106Rh beta-ray sources are generally used in brachytherapy for the treatment of eye diseases as uveal melanoma. Whenever, radiation is used in treatment, dosimetry is essential. However, knowledge of the exact dose distribution is a critical decision-making to the outcome of the treatment. The Monte Carlo technique provides a powerful tool for calculation of the dose and dose distributions which helps to predict and determine the doses from different shapes of various types of eye applicators more accurately. The aim of this work consisted in using the Monte Carlo GATE platform to calculate the 3D dose distribution on a mathematical model of the human eye according to international recommendations. Mathematical models were developed for four ophthalmic applicators, two HDR 90Sr applicators SIA.20 and SIA.6, and two LDR 106Ru applicators, a concave CCB model and a flat CCB model. In present work, considering a heterogeneous eye phantom and the chosen tumor, obtained results with the use of GATE for mean doses distributions in a phantom and according to international recommendations show a discrepancy with respect to those specified by the manufacturers. The QC of dosimetric parameters shows that contrarily to the other applicators, the SIA.20 applicator is consistent with recommendations. The GATE platform show that the SIA.20 applicator present better results, namely the dose delivered to critical structures were lower compared to those obtained for the other applicators, and the SIA.6 applicator, simulated with MCNPX generates higher lens doses than those generated by GATE.

  14. The influence of EDTMP-concentration on the biodistribution of radio-lanthanides and 225-Ac in tumor-bearing mice. The ISOLDE Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Beyer, G J; Offord, R; Künzi, G; Aleksandrova, Y; Ravn, U; Jahn, S; Barker, J; Tengblad, O; Lindroos, M

    1997-07-01

    High-resolution gamma spectroscopy was applied to measure simultaneously the biodistribution of carrier-free radionuclides of several lanthanides (141Ce, 145Sm, 149Gd, 167Tm) and 225Ac in tumor-bearing nude mice. Mixtures of the radiotracers were injected in solutions containing different concentrations of EDTMP (ethylenediaminetetramethylenephosphonic acid). The strong dependence of liver uptake on the ionic radius of the radio-lanthanides was confirmed for all tracers used. The ratios of radioactivity concentrated in tumour that concentrated in liver are strongly influenced by the EDTMP concentration, reaching values close to 10 for Tm, 3 for Sm, and 1 for Ac. The optimal EDTMP concentrations, giving highest tumor-to-liver ratios of enrichment, were between 1 and 10 mM for 100 microL injected volume for the animal model used in this experiment. In radionuclide therapy using EDTMP as ligands, close control of ligand concentration will be necessary.

  15. Health risks from radionuclides released into the Clinch River

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, B.A. |; Hoffman, F.O.; Miller, L.F.

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to estimate off-site radiation doses and health risks (with uncertainties) associated with the release of radionuclides from the X-10 site. Following an initial screening analysis, the exposure pathways of interest included fish ingestion, drinking water ingestion, the ingestion of milk and meat, and external exposure from shoreline sediment. Four representative locations along the Clinch River, from the White Oak Creek Embayment to the city of Kingston, were chosen. The demography of the lower Clinch River supplied information dealing with land use that aided in the determination of sites on which to focus efforts. The locations that proved to be the most significant included Jones Island at Clinch River Mile (CRM) 20.5, Grassy Creek and K-25 (CRM 14), Kingston Steam Plant (CRM 3.5), and the city of Kingston (CRM 0). These areas of interest have historically been and are still primarily agricultural and residential areas. Reference individuals were determined with respect to the pathways involved. The primary radionuclides of interest released from the X-10 facility into the Clinch River via White Oak Creek were identified in the initial screening analysis as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 60}Co, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 131}I, {sup 95}Zr, and {sup 95}Nb. Of these radionuclides, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 95}Zr, and {sup 95}Nb were evaluated for their contribution to the external exposure pathway. This study utilized an object-oriented modeling software package that provides an alternative to the spreadsheet, providing graphical influence diagrams to show qualitative structure of models, hierarchical models to organize complicated models into manageable modules, and intelligent arrays with the power to scale up simple models to handle large problems. The doses and risks estimated in this study are not significant enough to cause a detectable increase in health effects in the population. In

  16. Volatility of ruthenium-106, technetium-99, and iodine-129, and the evolution of nitrogen oxide compounds during the calcination of high-level, radioactive nitric acid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Rimshaw, S.J.; Case, F.N.; Tompkins, J.A.

    1980-02-01

    The nitrate anion is the predominant constituent in all high-level nuclear wastes. Formic acid reacts with the nitrate anion to yield noncondensable, inert gases (N/sub 2/ or N/sub 2/O), which can be scrubbed free of /sup 106/Ru, /sup 129/I, and /sup 99/Tc radioactivities prior to elimination from the plant by passing through HEPA filters. Treatment of a high-level authentic radioactive waste with two moles of formic acid per mole of nitrate anion leads to a low RuO/sub 4/ volatility of about 0.1%, which can be reduced to an even lower level of 0.007% on adding a 15% excess of formic acid. Without pretreatment of the nitrate waste with formic acid, a high RuO/sub 4/ volatility of approx. 35% is observed on calcining a 4.0 N HNO/sub 3/ solution in quartz equipment at 350/sup 0/C. The RuO/sub 4/ volatility falls to approx. 1.0% on decreasing the initial HNO/sub 3/ concentration to 1.0 N or lower. It is postulated that thermal denitration of a highly nitrated ruthenium complex leads to the formation of volatile RuO/sub 4/, while decarboxylation of a ruthenium-formate complex leads to the formation of nonvolatile RuO/sub 2/. Wet scrubbing with water is used to remove RuO/sub 4/ from the off-gas stream. In all glass equipment, small amounts of particulate RuO/sub 2/ are formed in the gas phase by decomposition of RuO/sub 4/. The /sup 99/Tc volatility was found to vary from 0.2 to 1.4% on calcining HNO/sub 3/ and HCOOH (formic acid) solutions over the temperature range of 250 to 600/sup 0/C. These unexpectedly low volatilities of /sup 99/Tc are correlated to the high thermal stability limits of various metal pertechnetates and technetates. Iodine volatilities were high, varying from a low of 30% at 350/sup 0/C to a high of 97% at 650/sup 0/C. It is concluded that with a proper selection of pretreatment and operating conditions the /sup 106/Ru and /sup 99/Tc activities can be retained in the calcined solid with recycle of the wet scrubbing solution.

  17. Neural control of adrenal medullary and cortical blood flow during hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Breslow, M.J.; Jordan, D.A.; Thellman, S.T.; Traystman, R.J.

    1987-03-01

    Hemorrhagic hypotension produces an increase in adrenal medullary blood flow and a decrease in adrenal cortical blood flow. To determine whether changes in adrenal blood flow during hemorrhage are neurally mediated, the authors compared blood flow responses following adrenal denervation (splanchnic nerve section) with changes in the contralateral, neurally intact adrenal. Carbonized microspheres labeled with /sup 153/Gd, /sup 114/In, /sup 113/Sn, /sup 103/Ru, /sup 95/Nb or /sup 46/Se were used. Blood pressure was reduced and maintained at 60 mmHg for 25 min by hemorrhage into a pressurized bottle system. Adrenal cortical blood flow decreased to 50% of control with hemorrhage in both the intact and denervated adrenal. Adrenal medullary blood flow increased to four times control levels at 15 and 25 min posthemorrhage in the intact adrenal, but was reduced to 50% of control at 3, 5, and 10 min posthemorrhage in the denervated adrenal. In a separate group of dogs, the greater splanchnic nerve on one side was electrically stimulated at 2, 5, or 15 Hz for 40 min. Adrenal medullary blood flow increased 5- to 10-fold in the stimulated adrenal but was unchanged in the contralateral, nonstimulated adrenal. Adrenal cortical blood flow was not affected by nerve stimulation. They conclude that activity of the splanchnic nerve profoundly affects adrenal medullary vessels but not adrenal cortical vessels and mediates the observed increase in adrenal medullary blood flow during hemorrhagic hypotension.

  18. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste. Part 1: Radiological surrogates

    SciTech Connect

    Stockdale, J.A.D.; Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Lee, H.T.

    1994-01-01

    The evaluation and comparison of proposed thermal treatment systems for mixed wastes can be expedited by tests in which the radioactive components of the wastes are replaced by surrogate materials chosen to mimic, as far as is possible, the chemical and physical properties of the radioactive materials of concern. In this work, sponsored by the Mixed Waste Integrated Project of the US Department of Energy, the authors have examined reported experience with such surrogates and suggest a simplified standard list of materials for use in tests of thermal treatment systems. The chief radioactive nuclides of concern in the treatment of mixed wastes are {sup 239}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 90}Sr. These nuclides are largely by-products of uranium enrichment, reactor fuel reprocessing, and weapons program activities. Cs, Ru, and Sr all have stable isotopes that can be used as perfect surrogates for the radioactive forms. Technetium exists only in radioactive form, as do plutonium and uranium. If one wishes to preclude radioactive contamination of the thermal treatment system under trial burn, surrogate elements must be chosen for these three. For technetium, the authors suggest the use of natural ruthenium, and for both plutonium and uranium, they recommend cerium. The seven radionuclides listed can therefore be simulated by a surrogate package containing stable isotopes of ruthenium, strontium, cesium, and cerium.

  19. Investigation of the α-particle induced nuclear reactions on natural molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditrói, F.; Hermanne, A.; Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Ignatyuk, A. V.

    2012-08-01

    Cross-sections of alpha particle induced nuclear reactions on natural molybdenum have been studied in the frame of a systematic investigation of charged particle induced nuclear reactions on metals for different applications. The excitation functions of 93mTc, 93gTc(m+), 94mTc, 94gTc, 95mTc, 95gTc, 96gTc(m+), 99mTc, 93mMo, 99Mo(cum), 90Nb(m+), 94Ru, 95Ru,97Ru, 103Ru and 88Zr were measured up to 40 MeV alpha energy by using a stacked foil technique and activation method. The main goals of this work were to get experimental data for accelerator technology, for monitoring of alpha beam, for thin layer activation technique and for testing nuclear reaction theories. The experimental data were compared with critically analyzed published data and with the results of model calculations, obtained by using the ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE and TALYS codes (TENDL-2011).

  20. Radioactivity in persons exposed to fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident

    SciTech Connect

    Schlenker, R.A.; Oltman, B.G.; Lucas, H.F.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity were made in the thyroid region, abdomen, whole body, or urine of 96 persons who were in eastern Europe at the time of the Chernobyl reactor accident or who went there shortly afterward. The most frequently encountered radionuclides were /sup 131/I, sup 134,137/Cs, and /sup 103/Ru//sup 103/Rh. The median /sup 131/I activity in the thyroids of 42 subjects in whom radioiodine was detected and who were in Europe when the accident began was projected as 42 nCi the day the accident began. The median total body activity of /sup 134/Cs in 40 subjects in which it was detected was 1.7 nCi upon arrival in the US. For 51 subjects with detectable /sup 137/Cs burdens, the total body activity was 4.6 nCi. The risk of fatal thyroid cancer is less than 3 x 10/sup -6/ for nearly all subjects in this series. The risk of fatal cancer from /sup 134,137/Cs for subjects with cesium exposures similar to the ones observed by us, but who remained in Europe, is estimated as 1.4 x 10/sup -6/ to 4.2 x 10/sup -5/ with 95% of the risk attributable to /sup 137/Cs. 5 refs., 4 tabs.

  1. Internally deposited fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident

    SciTech Connect

    Schlenker, R.A.; Oltman, B.G.; Lucas, H.F.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity were made in the thyroid region, abdomen, whole body, or urine of 96 persons who were in eastern Europe at the time of the Chernobyl reactor accident or who went there shortly afterward. The most frequently encountered radionuclides were /sup 131/I, /sup 134,137/Cs, and /sup 103/Ru//sup 103/Rh. The median /sup 131/I activity in the thyroids of 42 subjects in whom radioiodine was detected and who were in Europe when the accident began was projected as 42 nCi the day the accident began. The median total body activity of /sup 134/Cs in 40 subjects in which it was detected was 1.7 nCi upon arrival in the US. For 51 subjects with detectable /sup 137/Cs burdens, the total body activity was 4.6 nCi. The risk of fatal thyroid cancer is less than 3 x 10/sup -6/ for nearly all subjects in this series. The risk of fatal cancer from /sup 134,137/Cs for subjects with cesium exposures similar to the ones observed by us, but who remained in Europe, is estimated as 1.4 x 10/sup -6/ to 4.2 x 10/sup -5/ with 95% of the risk attributable to /sup 137/Cs. 5 refs., 4 tabs.

  2. Simulation of radioelement volatility during the vitrification of radioactive wastes by arc plasma.

    PubMed

    Ghiloufi, Imed

    2009-04-15

    A computer model is used to simulate the volatility of some radioelements cesium ((137)Cs), cobalt ((60)Co), and ruthenium ((106)Ru) during the radioactive wastes vitrification by thermal plasma. This model is based on the calculation of system composition using the free enthalpy minimization method, coupled with the equation of mass transfer at the reactional interface. The model enables the determination of the effects of various parameters (e.g., temperature, plasma current, and matrix composition) on the radioelement volatility. The obtained results indicate that any increase in molten bath temperature causes an increase in the cobalt volatility; while ruthenium has a less obvious behavior. It is also found that the oxygen flux in the carrier gas supports the radioelement incorporations in the containment matrix, except in the case of the ruthenium which is more volatile under an oxidizing atmosphere. For electrolyses effects, an increase in the plasma current considerably increases both the vaporization speed and the vaporized quantities of (137)Cs and (60)Co. The increase of silicon percentage in the containment matrix supports the incorporation of (60)Co and (137)Cs in the matrix. The simulation results are compared favorably to the experimental measurements obtained by emission spectroscopy.

  3. Specific activity and activity ratios of radionuclides in soil collected about 20 km from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant: Radionuclide release to the south and southwest.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Uchihori, Yukio; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Kitamura, Hisashi; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki

    2011-10-15

    Soil samples at different depths (0-2, 5-7 and 10-12cm) were collected from J Village, about 20km south of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) to determine their radionuclide specific activities and activity ratios. The concentrations and activity ratios of (131)I, (134, 136, 137)Cs and (129m)Te were obtained, but only trace amounts of (95)Nb, (110m)Ag and (140)La were detected which were too low to provide accurate concentrations. Radionuclides such as (95)Zr, (103, 106)Ru and (140)Ba that were found in Chernobyl fallout, were not found in these soil samples. This suggests that noble gasses and volatile radionuclides predominated in the releases from FNPP to the terrestrial environment. The average activity ratios of (131)I/(137)Cs, (134)Cs/(137)Cs, (136)Cs/(137)Cs and (129m)Te/(137)Cs were 55, 0.90, 0.22 and 4.0 (corrected to March 11, 2011) in the 0-2cm soil samples of April 20 and 28, 2011.

  4. [Carbon stable isotope composition (delta 13C) of lichen thalli in the forests in the vicinity of the Chernobyl atomic power station].

    PubMed

    Biazrov, L G; Gongal'skiĭ, K B; Pel'gunova, L A; Tiunov, A V

    2010-01-01

    The stable isotope abundance of carbon in the lichens Cladina mitis, Cladonia crispata Hypogymnia physodes, Parmelia sulcata has been investigated in a study relating these values with known levels of 106Ru, 134Cs, 137Cs and 144Ce defined activity in their thalli in the pine forests of region within a 30-km radius of the Chernobyl atomic power station and beyond it (37 km). All 63 samples of the lichens were obtained from 7 different sites. Small effects on delta 13C values in the lichens Cladina mitis, Hypogymnia physodes were found to be associated with distance from CNPP, activity level of radionuclides in them thalli whereas at Cladonia crispata is observed weighting of carbon with increase in values of 134Cs and 137Cs activity in thalli. Values of delta 13C the investigated lichen species more depends on habitat conditions rather than from levels of thalli radioactivity. In our study we didn't reveal the isotope specificity of any one species as it was not possible to establish a correlation between values of delta 13C and a particular species.

  5. Radioactivity in food crops

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

  6. High-level waste glass field burial test: leaching and migration of fission products

    SciTech Connect

    Melnyk, T.W.; Johnson, L.H.; Walton, F.B.

    1984-01-01

    In June 1960, 25 nepheline syenite-based glass hemispheres containing the fission products /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 144/Ce and /sup 106/Ru were buried below the water table in a sandy-soil aquifer at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. Measurements of soil and groundwater concentrations of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs have been interpreted using non-equilibrium migration models to deduce the leaching history of the glass for these burial conditions. The leaching history derived from the field data has been compared to laboratory leaching of samples taken from a glass hemisphere retrieved in 1978, and also to pre-burial laboratory leaching of identical hemispheres. The time dependence of the leach rates observed for the buried specimens suggests that leaching is inhibited by the formation of a protective surface layer. The effect of the kinetic limitations of the fission-product/sandy-soil interactions is discussed with respect to the migration of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs over a 20 year time scale. It is concluded that kinetically limited sorption by oxyhdroxides, rather than equilibrium ion exchange, controls the long-term migration of /sup 90/Sr. Cesium is initially rapidly bound to the micaceous fraction of the sand, but slow remobilization of /sup 137/Cs in particulate form is observed and is believed to be related to bacterial action.

  7. Treatment of low level radioactive liquid waste containing appreciable concentration of TBP degraded products.

    PubMed

    Valsala, T P; Sonavane, M S; Kore, S G; Sonar, N L; De, Vaishali; Raghavendra, Y; Chattopadyaya, S; Dani, U; Kulkarni, Y; Changrani, R D

    2011-11-30

    The acidic and alkaline low level radioactive liquid waste (LLW) generated during the concentration of high level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) prior to vitrification and ion exchange treatment of intermediate level radioactive liquid waste (ILW), respectively are decontaminated by chemical co-precipitation before discharge to the environment. LLW stream generated from the ion exchange treatment of ILW contained high concentrations of carbonates, tributyl phosphate (TBP) degraded products and problematic radio nuclides like (106)Ru and (99)Tc. Presence of TBP degraded products was interfering with the co-precipitation process. In view of this a modified chemical treatment scheme was formulated for the treatment of this waste stream. By mixing the acidic LLW and alkaline LLW, the carbonates in the alkaline LLW were destroyed and the TBP degraded products got separated as a layer at the top of the vessel. By making use of the modified co-precipitation process the effluent stream (1-2 μCi/L) became dischargeable to the environment after appropriate dilution. Based on the lab scale studies about 250 m(3) of LLW was treated in the plant. The higher activity of the TBP degraded products separated was due to short lived (90)Y isotope. The cement waste product prepared using the TBP degraded product was having good chemical durability and compressive strength.

  8. Determination of gamma-emitting radionuclides in the inter-tidal sediments off Balochistan (Pakistan) Coast, Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Akram, M; Qureshi, Riffat M; Ahmad, Nasir; Solaija, Tariq Jamal

    2007-01-01

    Natural radionuclide contents of 226Ra, 228Ra and (40)K were studied for inter-tidal sediments collected from selected locations off the745 km long Balochistan Coast using HPGe detector based gamma-spectrometry system. The sampling zone extends from the beaches of Sonmiani (near Karachi metropolis) through Jiwani (close to the border of Iran). The natural radioactivity levels detected in various sediment samples range from 14.4 +/- 2.5 to 36.6 +/- 3.8 Bq kg(-1) for 226Ra, 9.8 +/- 1.2 to 35.2 +/- 2.0 Bq kg(-1) for (228)Ra and 144.6 +/- 9.4 to 610.5 +/- 23.9 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. No artificial radionuclide was detected in any of the marine coastal sediment samples. 137Cs, (60)Co, 106Ru and 144Ce contents in sediment samples were below the limit of detection. The measured radioactivity levels are compared with those reported in the literature for coastal sediments in other parts of the world. The information presented in this paper will serve as the first ever local radioactivity database for the Balochistan/Makran Coastal belt of Pakistan. The presented data will also contribute to the IAEA's, Asia-Pacific Marine Radioactivity Database (ASPAMARD) and the Global Marine Radioactivity Database (GLOMARD).

  9. Improved Detection of Cherenkov Radiation using Wavelength-Shifting Paints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmookler, Barak; Ou, Longwu

    2014-03-01

    Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs) are often used to detect Cherenkov radiation in accelerator-based physics experiments. Since the Cherenkov spectrum is inversely proportional to the square of the photon's wavelength, PMTs with relatively good quantum efficiencies in the ultraviolet region can produce on average a higher number of photoelectrons. The application of certain paints, which absorb light at ultraviolet wavelengths and emit in the visible spectrum, to the surface of some PMTs allows for better sampling of the Cherenkov spectrum. The effects of various wavelength-shifting (WLS) paints designed by Eljen Technologies were tested on ET Enterprises, Model: 9390KB PMTs. Using a 106Ru β-source, Cherenkov light was produced in disks of fused silica. The charge spectrums of the PMTs were measured before and after application of the paint. The average number of photoelectrons produced from the Cherenkov radiation could be determined by knowing the value of the single-photoelectron peak and the mean of the charge spectrum. Four paints were tested, and the gain in the number photoelectrons produced varied from 10-35% for the different paints. Work Conducted at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.

  10. Light water reactor fuel reprocessing: dissolution studies of voloxidized and nonvoloxidized fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.R.; Stone, J.A.

    1980-04-01

    Small-scale tests with irradiated Zircaloy-clad fuels from Robinson, Oconee, Saxton, and Point Beach reactors with burnups from about 200 to 28,000 MWD/MTHM have been made to determine the dissolution behavior of both voloxidized (U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) and nonvoloxidized (UO{sub 2}) fuel. No significant technical problems were encountered in batch-dissolving of either form. Dissolution rates were well-controlled in all tests. Significant characteristics of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} dissolution that differed from UO{sub 2} dissolution included: (1) reduced tritium and ruthenium ({sup 106}Ru) concentrations in product solutions, (2) increased insoluble noble metal fission product residue (about 2.2X greater), and (3) increased insoluble plutonium in the fission product residue. The insoluble plutonium is easily leached from the residue by 10M HNO{sub 3}. The weight of the fission product residue collected from both U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and UO{sub 2} fuels increased aproximately linearly with fuel burnup. A major fraction (>83%) of the {sup 85}Kr was evolved from U{sub 3}O{sub 8} fuel during dissolution rather than voloxidation. The {sup 85}Kr evolution rate was an appropriate monitor of fuel dissolution rate. Virtually all of the {sup 129}I was evolved by air sparging of the dissolver solution during dissolution. 30 tables, 18 figures.

  11. Electrochemical treatment of liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1997-10-01

    Under this task, electrochemical treatment processes are being evaluated and developed for the destruction of organic compounds and nitrates/nitrites and the removal of other hazardous species from liquid wastes stored throughout the DOE complex. This technology targets the (1) destruction of nitrates, nitrites and organic compounds; (2) removal of radionuclides; and (3) removal of RCRA metals. The development program consists of five major tasks: (1) evaluation of electrochemical reactors for the destruction and removal of hazardous waste components, (2) development and validation of engineering process models, (3) radioactive laboratory-scale tests, (4) demonstration of the technology in an engineering-scale reactor, and (5) analysis and evaluation of test data. The development program team is comprised of individuals from national laboratories, academic institutions, and private industry. Possible benefits of this technology include: (1) improved radionuclide separation as a result of the removal of organic complexants, (2) reduction in the concentrations of hazardous and radioactive species in the waste (e.g., removal of nitrate, mercury, chromium, cadmium, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 106}Ru), (3) reduction in the size of the off-gas handling equipment for the vitrification of low-level waste (LLW) by reducing the source of NO{sub x} emissions, (4) recovery of chemicals of value (e.g. sodium hydroxide), and (5) reduction in the volume of waste requiring disposal.

  12. Molecular recognition using ruthenium(II) porphyrin thiol complexes as probes.

    PubMed

    Rebouças, Júlio S; James, Brian R

    2013-01-18

    In situ (1)H NMR data are reported for 106 Ru(porp)(RSH)(2) species, where porp is the dianion of β-octaethylporphyrin (OEP), meso-tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP), and its para-substituted tetraphenyl analogues (T-p-XPP; X = OMe, Me, F, Cl, CO(2)Me, CF(3)), meso-tetrakis(3,5-dimethylphenyl)porphyrin (T-m,m'-Me(2)PP), and meso-tetramesitylporphyrin (TMP), and R = Me, Et, (n)Pr, (i)Pr, (n)Bu, (t)Bu, (n)Hex, Bn (benzyl), Ph, and p-MeOC(6)H(4). The upfield shifts in the SH resonances upon coordination of the thiol reflect changes in the porphyrin ring current and are analyzed using an empirical model that depicts quantitatively the nonbonding, electronic, and steric interactions between the thiol ligands, where steric factors dominate, and the porphyrin plane, where electronic factors dominate; such interactions are typically involved in small-molecule recognition within metalloporphyrin systems. Implications of the findings to hemethiolate proteins and surface coordination chemistry are also briefly presented.

  13. Importance of colloids in the transport within the dissolved phase (<450 nm) of artificial radionuclides from the Rhône river towards the Gulf of Lions (Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Eyrolle, Frédérique; Charmasson, Sabine

    2004-01-01

    The significance of colloidal fractions regarding the transport of artificial radionuclides in natural water systems is underlined by using sequential ultrafiltration both in the Rhône freshwater and the marine area under and outside the influence of the river outflow. Indeed, the Rhodanian aquatic system represents an interesting test site as various artificial radionuclides are released into the Rhône river by several nuclear installations. We focused our study on (137)Cs, (106)Ru, (60)Co, (238)Pu and (239+240)Pu. Our results show that Fe, Al and Organic carbon (OC) are the main components of colloidal matter. Colloids represent about 15% of dissolved (<450 nm) OC and 25% of dissolved Fe and Al exported towards the sea. Within the dissolved (< 450 nm) phase, these colloidal compounds are shown to account for the transport of 40% for both Co and Ru, 60% for (238)Pu and (239+240)Pu and have no significance on (137)Cs flux.

  14. VIP and its homologous increase vascular conductance in certain endocrine and exocrine glands

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, L.J.; Connors, J.M.; Hedge, G.A. )

    1988-04-01

    The effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and related structural homologues on tissue vascular conductances were investigated in anesthetized male rats. VIP, peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI), secretin, growth hormone-releasing factor (GHRF), gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), or saline was infused intravenously over 4 min. Tissue blood flows were measured during this time by use of {sup 141}Ce-labeled microspheres. Circulating thyrotropin (TSH), triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}), and thyroxine (T{sub 4}) levels were determined before and at 20 min and 2 h after treatment. Marked increases in thyroid, pancreatic, and salivary gland vascular Cs occurred during peptide infusion with the order of potency correlating with the degree of structural homology to VIP. PHI and secretin produced maximal increases in vascular Cs, which were the same as those obtained with VIP. Circulating TSH, T{sub 3}, and T{sub 4} levels were not different from values in saline-infused rats after peptide treatments that caused striking increases in thyroid vascular C. These observations indicate that the vascular beds of certain endocrine and exocrine glands are responsive to the vasodilatory action of VIP and related homologues with the order of potency corresponding to the degree of structural homology to VIP. These results are also consistent with the proposal that structural homologues of VIP act at the same vascular receptor as VIP. Alternative, the involvement of different vascular receptors, acting through the same mechanism at a level beyond the receptor site, cannot be excluded.

  15. Precise trace rare earth analysis by radiochemical neutron activation

    SciTech Connect

    Laul, J.C.; Lepel, E.A.; Weimer, W.C.; Wogman, N.A.

    1981-06-01

    A rare earth group separation scheme followed by normal Ge(Li), low energy photon detector (LEPD), and Ge(Li)-NaI(Tl) coincidence-noncoincidence spectrometry significantly enhances the detection sensitivity of individual rare earth elements (REE) at or below the ppB level. Based on the selected ..gamma..-ray energies, normal Ge(Li) counting is favored for /sup 140/La, /sup 170/Tb, and /sup 169/Yb; LEPD is favored for low ..gamma..-ray energies of /sup 147/Nd, /sup 153/Sm, /sup 166/Ho, and /sup 169/Yb; and noncoincidence counting is favored for /sup 141/Ce, /sup 143/Ce, /sup 142/Pr, /sup 153/Sm, /sup 171/Er, and /sup 175/Yb. The detection of radionuclides /sup 152m/Eu, /sup 159/Gd, and /sup 177/Lu is equally sensitive by normal Ge(Li) and noncoincidence counting; /sup 152/Eu is equally sensitive by LEPD and normal Ge(Li); and /sup 153/Gd and /sup 170/Tm is equally favored by all the counting modes. Overall, noncoincidence counting is favored for most of the REE. Precise measurements of the REE were made in geological and biological standards.

  16. Intestinal circulation during inhalation anesthesia

    SciTech Connect

    Tverskoy, M.; Gelman, S.; Fowler, K.C.; Bradley, E.L.

    1985-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the influence of inhalational agents on the intestinal circulation in an isolated loop preparation. Sixty dogs were studied, using three intestinal segments from each dog. Selected intestinal segments were pumped with aortic blood at a constant pressure of 100 mmHg. A mixture of /sub 86/Rb and 9-microns spheres labeled with /sup 141/Ce was injected into the arterial cannula supplying the intestinal loop, while mesenteric venous blood was collected for activity counting. A very strong and significant correlation was found between rubidium clearance and microsphere entrapment (r = 0.97, P less than 0.0001). Nitrous oxide anesthesia was accompanied by a higher vascular resistance (VR), lower flow (F), rubidium clearance (Cl-Rb), and microspheres entrapment (Cl-Sph) than pentobarbital anesthesia, indicating that the vascular bed in the intestinal segment was constricted and flow (total and nutritive) decreased. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia were accompanied by a much lower arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVDO/sub 2/) and oxygen uptake than pentobarbital or nitrous oxide. Compared with pentobarbital, enflurane anesthesia was not accompanied by marked differences in VR, F, Cl-Rb, and Cl-Sph; halothane at 2 MAC decreased VR and increased F and Cl-Rb while isoflurane increased VR and decreased F. alpha-Adrenoceptor blockade with phentolamine (1 mg . kg-1) abolished isoflurane-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting that the increase in VR was mediated via circulating catecholamines.

  17. Effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide on vascular conductance are unaffected by anesthesia

    SciTech Connect

    Bouder, T.G.; Huffman, L.J.; Hedge, G.A. )

    1988-12-01

    In rats anesthetized with ketamine and pentobarbital (KET/PB), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) increases vascular conductance (VC) in the salivary gland, pancreas, and thyroid gland, whereas no changes in VC are observed in a number of other organs. Because anesthesia may alter the responsiveness of physiological systems, we compared the effects of VIP on organ VC in conscious or anesthetized rats. Chronically catheterized rats were studied in the conscious state or 30 min after induction of anesthesia with KET/PB, isoflurane, or Inactin. Blood flows were measured by the reference sample version of the radioactive microsphere (MS) technique using two MS injections ({sup 141}Ce-MS/{sup 85}Sr-MS). Mean arterial blood pressure was monitored and used in the calculation of VC. Organ VCs were similar under basal conditions in conscious and anesthetized rats. VIP infusion caused systemic hypotension and increased VCs in the salivary gland, pancreas, and thyroid gland, and these responses were largely unaffected by anesthesia. These results indicate that the anesthetics used do not alter basal VC or the responsiveness of the vasculature to exogenous VIP.

  18. [Effect of dietary fiber content reduction on digestive transit in the rabbit. Comparison and validation of models fitted to fecal marker excretion kinetics].

    PubMed

    Gidenne, T

    1994-01-01

    The rate of passage (RP) in several digestive compartments was studied in 4 adult female rabbits cannulated at ileum, and receiving ad libitum 3 diets with decreasing fibre content (40, 30 and 22% NDF). The RP values in the whole digestive tract and between ileum and rectum were simultaneously measured by following the fecal kinetics of 2 markers (169Yb and 141Ce adsorbed on the NDF fraction of the diets) given as single doses. The mean retention time (MRT) in the whole tract provided by modelling methods (models: Grovum and Williams or Ellis) were similar to those obtained by reference method (numeric integration). MRT values in the caecum and the stomach were provided by models and were in good agreement with those deduced from reference measurements. Compared with the Ellis model, the Grovum and Williams model estimated more precisely the RP in tubular compartments (ie small intestine and distal colon); but the increasing part of the kinetics was better fitted using the Ellis model, particularly for low-fibre diets. The decrease in fibre intake (-50%) led to a 12 h increase (+72%) of the whole tract MRT, originating mainly from a 2-fold increase of ileo-rectal MRT. The MRT in the stomach decreased from 3 to 1 h, whereas the RP in the small intestine increased. Therefore, the oro-ileal MRT (mean 5 h) was not affected. A low dietary fibre induces a longer cecal MRT of large particles, without significant change for fine particles.

  19. Bioavailability and distribution and of ceria nanoparticles in simulated aquatic ecosystems, quantification with a radiotracer technique.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kai; Zhang, Zhiyong; He, Xiao; Ma, Yuhui; Zhou, Kebin; Zhang, Haifeng; Bai, Wei; Ding, Yayun; Wu, Zhenqiang; Zhao, Yuliang; Chai, Zhifang

    2010-12-01

    Although the presence of manufactured nanoparticles in the aquatic environment is still largely undocumented, their release could certainly occur in the future, particularly via municipal treatment plant effluents of cities supporting nano-industries. To get an initial estimate of the environmental behavior of nanomaterials, we investigated the distribution and accumulation of ceria nanoparticles in simulated aquatic ecosystems which included aquatic plant, shellfish, fish, water, and sediment using a radiotracer technique. Radioactive ceria (141CeO2) nanoparticles with a diameter of ca. 7 nm were synthesized by a precipitation method and added to the simulated aquatic ecosystems. The results indicate that the concentration of ceria nanoparticles in water decreased to a steady-state value after 3 days; meanwhile, the concentrations of ceria nanoparticles in the aquatic plant and sediment increased to their highest values. The distribution and accumulation characteristics of ceria nanoparticles in various aquatic organisms were different. Ceratophyllum demersum showed a high ability of accumulation of ceria nanoparticles from water.

  20. Direct determination of 90Sr and 147Pm in Chernobyl hot particles collected in Kiev using beta absorption method.

    PubMed

    Papp, Z; Bolyós, A; Dezsó, Z; Daróczy, S

    1997-12-01

    59 hot particles were collected in Kiev, Ukraine, in 1987. All but one were prepared from a moss carpet of 360 cm2 area. Radionuclide composition of the hot particles was investigated by gamma-spectrometry and beta absorption method. Pure beta emitters 90Sr and 147Pm were determined in 25 hot particles measuring the beta absorption curves of the hot particles with an end-window Geiger-Müller counter and decomposing the curves in order to obtain the contributions of 90Sr and 147Pm to the total beta counting rate. All but one of the hot particles were found to be the debris of the fuel. The activity ratio 90Sr:l44Ce was 0.052 in good agreement with theoretical calculations on core inventories. This means that strontium behaved as a nonvolatile element in the process of the formation of the hot particles investigated. The activity ratio 147Pm:144Ce was 0.078 which is half of the theoretical result. Although 147Pm is considered to be a refractory nuclide, it seems that significant part of 147Pm went to the homogeneous fraction of the general fallout. The surface density of hot particles (of higher than about 50 Bq activity) was about 1,600 m(-2) and that of the activities of the nuclides 90Sr, 106Ru, 134Cs, 137Cs, 144Ce and 147Pm as components of hot particles was 12.2, 54.3, 5.9, 9.7, 234 and 18.3 kBq m(-2) (activity values counted for 26 April 1986), respectively, in downtown Kiev city in 1987.

  1. Passive gamma analysis of the boiling-water-reactor assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo, D.; Favalli, A.; Grogan, B.; Jansson, P.; Liljenfeldt, H.; Mozin, V.; Schwalbach, P.; Sjöland, A.; Tobin, S.; Trellue, H.; Vaccaro, S.

    2016-09-01

    This research focused on the analysis of a set of stationary passive gamma measurements taken on the spent nuclear fuel assemblies from a boiling water reactor (BWR) using pulse height analysis data acquisition. The measurements were performed on 25 different BWR assemblies in 2014 at Sweden's Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Clab). This study was performed as part of the Next Generation of Safeguards Initiative-Spent Fuel project to research the application of nondestructive assay (NDA) to spent fuel assemblies. The NGSI-SF team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins, (3) estimate the plutonium mass, (4) estimate the decay heat, and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. The final objective of this project is to quantify the capability of several integrated NDA instruments to meet the aforementioned goals using the combined signatures of neutrons, gamma rays, and heat. This report presents a selection of the measured data and summarizes an analysis of the results. Specifically, trends in the count rates measured for spectral lines from the following isotopes were analyzed as a function of the declared burnup and cooling time: 137Cs, 154Eu, 134Cs, and to a lesser extent, 106Ru and 144Ce. From these measured count rates, predictive algorithms were developed to enable the estimation of the burnup and cooling time. Furthermore, these algorithms were benchmarked on a set of assemblies not included in the standard assemblies set used by this research team.

  2. Laboratory development of methods for centralized treatment of liquid low-level waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, W.D.; Bostick, D.T.; Burgess, M.W.; Taylor, P.A.; Perona, J.J.; Kent, T.E.

    1994-10-01

    Improved centralized treatment methods are needed in the management of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). LLLW, which usually contains radioactive contaminants at concentrations up to millicurie-per-liter levels, has accumulated in underground storage tanks for over 10 years and has reached a volume of over 350,000 gal. These wastes have been collected since 1984 and are a complex mixture of wastes from past nuclear energy research activities. The waste is a highly alkaline 4-5 M NaNO{sub 3} solution with smaller amounts of other salts. This type of waste will continue to be generated as a consequence of future ORNL research programs. Future LLLW (referred to as newly generated LLLW or NGLLLW) is expected to a highly alkaline solution of sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide with a smaller concentration of sodium nitrate. New treatment facilities are needed to improve the manner in which these wastes are managed. These facilities must be capable of separating and reducing the volume of radioactive contaminants to small stable waste forms. Treated liquids must meet criteria for either discharge to the environment or solidification for onsite disposal. Laboratory testing was performed using simulated waste solutions prepared using the available characterization information as a basis. Testing was conducted to evaluate various methods for selective removal of the major contaminants. The major contaminants requiring removal from Melton Valley Storage Tank liquids are {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs. Principal contaminants in NGLLLW are {sup 9O}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 106}Ru. Strontium removal testing began with literature studies and scoping tests with several ion-exchange materials and sorbents.

  3. Data summary report for fission product release test VI-4

    SciTech Connect

    Obsorne, M.F.; Lorenz, R.A.; Collins, J.L.; Travis, J.R.; Webster, C.S.; Nakamura, T. )

    1991-01-01

    This was the fourth in a series of high-temperature fission product release tests in a vertical test apparatus. The test specimen, a 15.2-cm-long section of a fuel rod from the BR3 reactor in Belgium, had been irradiated to a burnup of 47 MWd/kg. In simulation of a severe accident in a light-water reactor, it was heated in hydrogen in a hot cell-mounted test apparatus to a maximum test temperature of 2400 K for a period of 20 min. The released fission products were collected on components designed to facilitate sampling and analysis. On-line radioactivity measurements and posttest inspection revealed that the fuel had partially collapsed at about the time the cladding melted. Based on fission product inventories measured in the fuel or calculated by ORIGEN2, analyses of test components showed total releases from the fuel of 85% for {sup 85}Kr, <1% for {sup 106}Ru, 3.9% for {sup 125}Sb, 96% for both {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs, and 13% for {sup 154}Eu. Large fractions of the released fission products (up to 96% of the {sup 154}Eu) were retained in the furnace. Small release fractions for several other fission products -- Rb, Br, Sr, Te, I, and Ba -- were detected also. In addition, very small amounts of fuel material -- uranium and plutonium -- were released. Total mass release from the furnace to the collection system, which included fission products, fuel material, and structural materials, was 0.40g, with 40% of this material being deposited as vapor and 60% of it being collected as aerosols. The results from this test were compared with previous tests in this series and with an in-pile test at similar conditions at Sandia National Laboratories. There was no indication that the mode of heating (fission heat vs radiant heat) significantly affected fission product release. 24 refs., 25 figs., 14 tabs.

  4. Data summary report for fission product release test VI-3

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, M.F.; Lorenz, R.A.; Collins, J.L.; Travis, J.R.; Webster, C.S.; Lee, H.K.; Nakamura, T.; Tong, Y.-C. )

    1990-06-01

    Test VI-3, the third in a series of high-temperature fission product release tests in the vertical test apparatus, was conducted in flowing steam. The test specimen was a 15.2-cm-long section of a fuel rod from the BR3 reactor in Belgium, which had been irradiated to a burnup of 42 MWd/kg. Using an induction furnace, it was heated under simulated light-water reactor (LWR) accident conditions to two test temperatures, 20 min at 2000 K and then 20 min at 2700 K, in a hot cell-mounted test apparatus. The released fission products were collected on components designed to facilitate sampling and analysis. Posttest inspection confirmed that the cladding had been completely oxidized during the test. Only minimal fragmentation of the fuel specimen was found, however, and very little melting or fuel-cladding interaction had occurred. Based on fission product inventories measured in the fuel or calculated by ORIGEN2, analyses of test components showed total releases from the fuel of 100% for {sup 85}Kr, 5% for {sup 106}Ru, 99% for {sup 125}Sb, and 99% for both {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs. A large fraction (27%) of the released {sup 125}Sb was retained in the furnace, but most of the released cesium (89%) escaped to the collection system. In addition, very small amounts of fuel material --- uranium and plutonium --- were released. Including fission products and fuel and structural materials, the total mass released from the furnace to the collection system was 3.17 g, 78% of which was collected on the filters. The results from this test were compared with previous tests in this series and with a commonly used model for fission product release. 25 refs., 22 figs., 14 tabs.

  5. Radioactive contamination of bottom sediments in the upper reaches of the Techa river: analysis of the data obtained in 1950 and 1951.

    PubMed

    Mokrov, Yury G

    2003-10-01

    A stationary sorption model has been developed for re-evaluating and analysing archive data from 1950-1951 on the radioactive contamination of Techa river bottom sediments close to the site of liquid radioactive waste discharge. In general, good agreement was obtained between calculations and measurements, which substantiates further the assumptions and conclusions in two preceding articles, on the radionuclide composition of discharged liquid radioactive waste. Estimates on the effective liquid radioactive waste discharges given here are significantly different from those deduced in the 1950s, i.e. in summer 1950 and October 1951. The results are discussed in relation to the Techa River Dosimetry System 2000 (TRDS-2000) that has recently been presented to serve as a means for estimating doses to the Techa river residents. Parameter values describing the exponential decrease of bottom sediment contamination along the river due to short-lived radionuclides, such as (106)Ru, and (144)Ce, agree reasonably with those used in TRDS-2000. However, for other radionuclides, such as (95)Zr, (95)Nb, (91)Y, (90)Sr and (137)Cs, substantial differences are found. It is demonstrated that water flow rate, width of the river, and surface area of bottom sediments are important parameters which were not adequately taken into account in TRDS-2000. Also, the stirring-up of contaminated bottom sediments and their subsequent transport by the water flow are seen to be an important mechanism that governs the radionuclide transport downstream. This mechanism was not included in the TRDS-2000 model. It is concluded that the sorption model used in TRDS-2000 for the reconstruction of radioactive contamination of water and bottom sediments of the Techa river in 1949-1951, is subject to considerable errors. While the present paper is focussed on details of the dosimetric modelling, the implications for the Techa river dosimetry are major. They will be further elucidated in a forthcoming paper.

  6. Determining initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies by analyzing passive gamma spectra measured at the Clab interim-fuel storage facility in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favalli, A.; Vo, D.; Grogan, B.; Jansson, P.; Liljenfeldt, H.; Mozin, V.; Schwalbach, P.; Sjöland, A.; Tobin, S. J.; Trellue, H.; Vaccaro, S.

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI)-Spent Fuel (SF) project is to strengthen the technical toolkit of safeguards inspectors and/or other interested parties. The NGSI-SF team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins; (3) estimate the plutonium mass [which is also a function of the variables in (1)]; (4) estimate the decay heat; and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. Since August 2013, a set of measurement campaigns has been conducted at the Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Clab), in collaboration with Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). One purpose of the measurement campaigns was to acquire passive gamma spectra with high-purity germanium and lanthanum bromide scintillation detectors from Pressurized Water Reactor and Boiling Water Reactor spent fuel assemblies. The absolute 137Cs count rate and the 154Eu/137Cs, 134Cs/137Cs, 106Ru/137Cs, and 144Ce/137Cs isotopic ratios were extracted; these values were used to construct corresponding model functions (which describe each measured quantity's behavior over various combinations of burnup, cooling time, and initial enrichment) and then were used to determine those same quantities in each measured spent fuel assembly. The results obtained in comparison with the operator declared values, as well as the methodology developed, are discussed in detail in the paper.

  7. Summary technical report on the electrochemical treatment of alkaline nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1994-07-30

    This report summarizes the laboratory studies investigating the electrolytic treatment of alkaline solutions carried out under the direction of the Savannah River Technology Center from 1985-1992. Electrolytic treatment has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale to be feasible for the destruction of nitrate and nitrite and the removal of radioactive species such as {sup 99}Tc and {sup 106}Ru from Savannah River Site (SRS) decontaminated salt solution and other alkaline wastes. The reaction rate and current efficiency for the removal of these species are dependent on cell configuration, electrode material, nature of electrode surface, waste composition, current density, and temperature. Nitrogen, ammonia, and nitrous oxide have been identified as the nitrogen-containing reaction products from the electrochemical reduction of nitrate and nitrite under alkaline conditions. The reaction mechanism for the reduction is very complex. Voltammetric studies indicated that the electrode reactions involve surface phenomena and are not necessarily mass transfer controlled. In an undivided cell, results suggest an electrocatalytic role for oxygen via the generation of the superoxide anion. In general, more efficient reduction of nitrite and nitrate occurs at cathode materials with higher overpotentials for hydrogen evolution. Nitrate and nitrite destruction has also been demonstrated in engineering-scale flow reactors. In flow reactors, the nitrate/nitrite destruction efficiency is improved with an increase in the current density, temperature, and when the cell is operated in a divided cell configuration. Nafion{reg_sign} cation exchange membranes have exhibited good stability and consistent performance as separators in the divided-cell tests. The membranes were also shown to be unaffected by radiation at doses approximating four years of cell operation in treating decontaminated salt solution.

  8. Passive gamma analysis of the boiling-water-reactor assemblies

    DOE PAGES

    Vo, D.; Favalli, A.; Grogan, B.; ...

    2016-09-01

    This research focused on the analysis of a set of stationary passive gamma measurements taken on the spent nuclear fuel assemblies from a boiling water reactor (BWR) using pulse height analysis data acquisition. The measurements were performed on 25 different BWR assemblies in 2014 at Sweden’s Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Clab). This study was performed as part of the Next Generation of Safeguards Initiative–Spent Fuel project to research the application of nondestructive assay (NDA) to spent fuel assemblies. The NGSI–SF team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in themore » past using nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins, (3) estimate the plutonium mass, (4) estimate the decay heat, and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. The final objective of this project is to quantify the capability of several integrated NDA instruments to meet the aforementioned goals using the combined signatures of neutrons, gamma rays, and heat. This report presents a selection of the measured data and summarizes an analysis of the results. Specifically, trends in the count rates measured for spectral lines from the following isotopes were analyzed as a function of the declared burnup and cooling time: 137Cs, 154Eu, 134Cs, and to a lesser extent, 106Ru and 144Ce. From these measured count rates, predictive algorithms were developed to enable the estimation of the burnup and cooling time. Furthermore, these algorithms were benchmarked on a set of assemblies not included in the standard assemblies set used by this research team.« less

  9. Determining initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of pressurized-water reactor spent fuel assemblies by analyzing passive gamma spectra measured at the Clab interim-fuel storage facility in Sweden

    DOE PAGES

    Favalli, Andrea; Vo, D.; Grogan, Brandon R.; ...

    2016-02-26

    The purpose of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI)–Spent Fuel (SF) project is to strengthen the technical toolkit of safeguards inspectors and/or other interested parties. The NGSI–SF team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins; (3) estimate the plutonium mass [which is also a function of the variables in (1)]; (4) estimate the decay heat; and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuelmore » assemblies. Since August 2013, a set of measurement campaigns has been conducted at the Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Clab), in collaboration with Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). One purpose of the measurement campaigns was to acquire passive gamma spectra with high-purity germanium and lanthanum bromide scintillation detectors from Pressurized Water Reactor and Boiling Water Reactor spent fuel assemblies. The absolute 137Cs count rate and the 154Eu/137Cs, 134Cs/137Cs, 106Ru/137Cs, and 144Ce/137Cs isotopic ratios were extracted; these values were used to construct corresponding model functions (which describe each measured quantity’s behavior over various combinations of burnup, cooling time, and initial enrichment) and then were used to determine those same quantities in each measured spent fuel assembly. Furthermore, the results obtained in comparison with the operator declared values, as well as the methodology developed, are discussed in detail in the paper.« less

  10. GHSI EMERGENCY RADIONUCLIDE BIOASSAY LABORATORY NETWORK - SUMMARY OF THE SECOND EXERCISE.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunsheng; Bartizel, Christine; Battisti, Paolo; Böttger, Axel; Bouvier, Céline; Capote-Cuellar, Antonio; Carr, Zhanat; Hammond, Derek; Hartmann, Martina; Heikkinen, Tarja; Jones, Robert L; Kim, Eunjoo; Ko, Raymond; Koga, Roberto; Kukhta, Boris; Mitchell, Lorna; Morhard, Ryan; Paquet, Francois; Quayle, Debora; Rulik, Petr; Sadi, Baki; Sergei, Aleksanin; Sierra, Inmaculada; de Oliveira Sousa, Wanderson; Szabό, Gyula

    2016-08-29

    The Global Health Security Initiative (GHSI) established a laboratory network within the GHSI community to develop collective surge capacity for radionuclide bioassay in response to a radiological or nuclear emergency as a means of enhancing response capability, health outcomes and community resilience. GHSI partners conducted an exercise in collaboration with the WHO Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network and the IAEA Response and Assistance Network, to test the participating laboratories (18) for their capabilities in in vitro assay of biological samples, using a urine sample spiked with multiple high-risk radionuclides ((90)Sr, (106)Ru, (137)Cs, and (239)Pu). Laboratories were required to submit their reports within 72 h following receipt of the sample, using a pre-formatted template, on the procedures, methods and techniques used to identify and quantify the radionuclides in the sample, as well as the bioassay results with a 95% confidence interval. All of the participating laboratories identified and measured all or some of the radionuclides in the sample. However, gaps were identified in both the procedures used to assay multiple radionuclides in one sample, as well as in the methods or techniques used to assay specific radionuclides in urine. Two-third of the participating laboratories had difficulties in determining all the radionuclides in the sample. Results from this exercise indicate that challenges remain with respect to ensuring that results are delivered in a timely, consistent and reliable manner to support medical interventions. Laboratories within the networks are encouraged to work together to develop and maintain collective capabilities and capacity for emergency bioassay, which is an important component of radiation emergency response.

  11. Tracking translocation of industrially relevant engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) across alveolar epithelial monolayers in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Joel M.; Derk, Raymond; Wang, Liying; Godleski, John; Kobzik, Lester; Brain, Joseph; Demokritou, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the fate of industrially relevant engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the lungs. Inhalation exposure and subsequent translocation of ENMs across the epithelial lining layer of the lung might contribute to clearance, toxic effects or both. To allow precise quantitation of translocation across lung epithelial cells, we developed a method for tracking industrially-relevant metal oxide ENMs in vitro using neutron activation. The versatility and sensitivity of the proposed In Vitro Epithelial Translocation (INVET) system was demonstrated using a variety of industry relevant ENMs including CeO2 of various primary particle diameter, ZnO, and SiO2-coated-CeO2 and ZnO particles. ENMs were neutron activated, forming gamma emitting isotopes 141Ce and 65Zn respectively. Calu-3 lung epithelial cells cultured to confluency on transwell inserts were exposed to neutron-activated ENM dispersions at sub-lethal doses to investigate the link between ENM properties and translocation potential. The effects of ENM exposure on monolayer integrity was monitored by various methods. ENM translocation across the cellular monolayer was assessed by gamma spectrometry following 2, 4 and 24 hours of exposure. Our results demonstrate that ENMs translocated in small amounts (e.g. <0.01% of the delivered dose at 24 h), predominantly via transcellular pathways without compromising monolayer integrity or disrupting tight junctions. It was also demonstrated that the delivery of particles in suspension to cells in culture is proportional to translocation, emphasizing the importance of accurate dosimetry when comparing ENM-cellular interactions for large panels of materials. The reported INVET system for tracking industrially relevant ENMs while accounting for dosimetry can be a valuable tool for investigating nano-bio interactions in the future. PMID:24479615

  12. Tracking translocation of industrially relevant engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) across alveolar epithelial monolayers in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joel M; Derk, Raymond; Wang, Liying; Godleski, John; Kobzik, Lester; Brain, Joseph; Demokritou, Philip

    2014-08-01

    Abstract Relatively little is known about the fate of industrially relevant engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the lungs that can be used to convert administered doses to delivered doses. Inhalation exposure and subsequent translocation of ENMs across the epithelial lining layer of the lung might contribute to clearance, toxic effects or both. To allow precise quantitation of translocation across lung epithelial cells, we developed a method for tracking industrially relevant metal oxide ENMs in vitro using neutron activation. The versatility and sensitivity of the proposed in vitro epithelial translocation (INVET) system was demonstrated using a variety of industry relevant ENMs including CeO2 of various primary particle diameter, ZnO, and SiO2-coated CeO2 and ZnO particles. ENMs were neutron activated, forming gamma emitting isotopes (141)Ce and (65)Zn, respectively. Calu-3 lung epithelial cells cultured to confluency on transwell inserts were exposed to neutron-activated ENM dispersions at sub-lethal doses to investigate the link between ENM properties and translocation potential. The effects of ENM exposure on monolayer integrity was monitored by various methods. ENM translocation across the cellular monolayer was assessed by gamma spectrometry following 2, 4 and 24 h of exposure. Our results demonstrate that ENMs translocated in small amounts (e.g. <0.01% of the delivered dose at 24 h), predominantly via transcellular pathways without compromising monolayer integrity or disrupting tight junctions. It was also demonstrated that the delivery of particles in suspension to cells in culture is proportional to translocation, emphasizing the importance of accurate dosimetry when comparing ENM-cellular interactions for large panels of materials. The reported INVET system for tracking industrially relevant ENMs while accounting for dosimetry can be a valuable tool for investigating nano-bio interactions in the future.

  13. Influence of fentanyl and morphine on intestinal circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tverskoy, M.; Gelman, S.; Fowler, K.C.; Bradley, E.L.

    1985-06-01

    The influence of fentanyl and morphine on the intestinal circulation was evaluated in an isolated loop preparation in 37 dogs anesthetized with pentobarbital intravenously. Selected intestinal segments were pumped with aortic blood at a constant pressure of 100 mm Hg. A mixture of /sup 86/Rb and 9-micron spheres labeled with /sup 141/Ce was injected into the arterial cannula supplying the intestinal loop, while mesenteric venous blood was collected for activity counting. A strong correlation was found between the clearances of rubidium and microspheres (r = 0.97, P less than 0.0001), suggesting that the shunting of 9-micron spheres through the intestines reflects the shunting of blood through nonnutritive vessels. Intravenous fentanyl decreased oxygen uptake (O/sub 2/up), and vascular resistance (VR), and increased blood flow (BF), rubidium and microsphere clearances (Cl-Rb, Cl-Sph, respectively), and permeability--surface area product (PS) in a dose-related fashion. Intravenous morphine in a dose of 1 mg X kg-1 increased Cl-Rb (nutritive BF) without changes in total (nutritive and nonnutritive) BF. This increase in nutritive BF is probably related to morphine-induced histamine release. Morphine in a dose of 5 mg X kg-1 was accompanied by vasoconstriction that was completely abolished by alpha-adrenoceptor blockade. The data suggest that morphine-induced intestinal vasoconstriction is mediated via a release of epinephrine, apparently from the adrenal medulla. It is concluded that changes in the intestinal circulation during anesthesia with narcotics might play a certain role in the cardiovascular homeostasis during anesthesia and surgery. An increase in oxygen content in portal venous blood, resulting from a decrease in intestinal oxygen uptake, should facilitate hepatic oxygenation.

  14. Endotoxin of Escherichia coli and permeability of the mammary glands of goats

    SciTech Connect

    Lengemann, F.W.; Pitzrick, M.

    1987-01-01

    Serial collections of milk were used to determine where in the mammary gland endotoxin of Escherichia coli was effective in altering the transfer of selected milk components into blood and blood components into milk. Lactating goats had half the gland infused with 1 ..mu..g of endotoxin and the other half served as a control. Sodium-24 and /sup 42/K or (/sup 14/C) lactose were included with /sup 141/Ce in the infusate in some experiments, whereas in others /sup 99m/Tc-labelled albumin or /sup 24/Na and /sup 42/K were given intravenously 2 h after the endotoxin infusion. Milk was collected 3 h after endotoxin infusion. Endotoxin increased the loss of /sup 24/Na, /sup 42/K, and (/sup 14/C) lactose from the mammary gland and increased the transfer of /sup 24/Na and /sup 99m/Tc-albumin into the gland. The transfer in of /sup 42/K was reduced compared with control halves. Movement of stable Na and K was in accord with the movement of the /sup 24/Na and /sup 42/K. Endotoxin was effective in all parts of the gland but particularly from the mid-portion upward to the alveoli. For the control halves there was evidence that some /sup 24/Na and /sup 42/K crossed the ductal or cisternal epithelium into blood outside of the alveoli, whereas only /sup 42/K provided evidence for transfer from blood to milk in these same regions. There was no demonstrable transfer of lactose and albumin in regions other than the alveoli.

  15. Factors associated with hyperdynamic or hypodynamic circulation and role of platelet-activating factor in hemodynamic alterations in bacterial peritonitis in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Novo, C; Ais, G; López-Farré, A; Romeo, J M; Pérez-Barriocanal, F; López-Novoa, J M

    1995-12-01

    Male Wistar rats injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 10(9) U Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 developed acute bacterial peritonitis. Hemodynamic studies, with microspheres labeled with 103Ru 57Co, and 113Sn, were performed before, 30 min after bacterial injection, and 30 min after administration of either the platelet-activating factor (PAF) antagonist BN-52021 (5 mg/kg body weight) or isotonic saline. A blood sample of 0.3 ml was obtained for bacterial culture and endotoxemia measurements. Plasma PAF levels were measured in a different group of 10 control rats and 20 animals with experimental peritonitis. One group of rats injected with E. coli (n = 13) displayed hyperdynamic circulation, with an increase in cardiac output (CO) from 15.1 +/- 1.2 to 19.4 +/- 1.1 ml/min/100 g body weight and a decrease in total peripheral resistance (TPR) from 19.5 +/- 2.4 to 14.9 +/- 1.1 dynes.s.cm-5 10(-4). Furthermore, these rats showed high endotoxin blood concentrations and low hemoculture levels. The remaining 7 peritonitic rats showed a significant decrease in CO from 16.3 +/- 1.6 to 12.7 +/- 1.2 ml/min/100 g body weight and an increase in TPR from 17.3 +/- 1.8 to 22.6 +/- 2.8 dynes.s.cm-5 10(-4). In addition, these rats showed low endotoxin blood concentrations and high hemoculture levels. Endotoxin blood concentrations were positively correlated with the change in CO (r = 0.87, p < 0.05), and cell hemocultures were positively correlated with CO (r = 0.89, p < 0.05). Rats with high endotoxin blood levels showed higher PAF plasma levels than control rats or peritonitic rats with low endotoxin blood levels. When peritonitic rats were injected with the specific PAF-receptor blocker BN-52021 (5 mg/kg body weight) as a bolus, CO and TPR returned to baseline values in both groups of animals. These data suggest that the hemodynamic changes induced by bacterial peritonitis depend on endotoxemia and bacteremia in opposite ways. In addition, PAF appears to be involved in both the

  16. Problems in shallow land disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste in the united states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, P.R.; DeBuchananne, G.D.

    1976-01-01

    Disposal of solid low-level wastes containing radionuclides by burial in shallow trenches was initiated during World War II at several sites as a method of protecting personnel from radiation and isolating the radionuclides from the hydrosphere and biosphere. Today, there are 11 principal shallow-land burial sites in the United States that contain a total of more than 1.4 million cubic meters of solid wastes contaminated with a wide variety of radionuclides. Criteria for burial sites have been few and generalized and have contained only minimal hydrogeologic considerations. Waste-management practices have included the burial of small quantities of long-lived radionuclides with large volumes of wastes contaminated with shorter-lived nuclides at the same site, thereby requiring an assurance of extremely long-time containment for the entire disposal site. Studies at 4 of the 11 sites have documented the migration of radionuclides. Other sites are being studied for evidence of containment failure. Conditions at the 4 sites are summarized. In each documented instance of containment failure, ground water has probably been the medium of transport. Migrating radionuclides that have been identified include90Sr,137Cs,106Ru,239Pu,125Sb,60Co, and3H. Shallow land burial of solid wastes containing radionuclides can be a viable practice only if a specific site satisfies adequate hydrogeologic criteria. Suggested hydrogeologic criteria and the types of hydrogeologic data necessary for an adequate evaluation of proposed burial sites are given. It is mandatory that a concomitant inventory and classification be made of the longevity, and the physical and chemical form of the waste nuclides to be buried, in order that the anticipated waste types can be matched to the containment capability of the proposed sites. Ongoing field investigations at existing sites will provide data needed to improve containment at these sites and help develop hydrogeologic criteria for new sites. These

  17. External exposure to radionuclides accumulated in shoreline sediments with an application to the lower Clinch River.

    PubMed

    Apostoaei, A I; Nair, S K; Thomas, B A; Lewis, C J; Hoffman, F O; Thiessen, K M

    2000-06-01

    . This river received large amounts of 137Cs, 60Co, 106Ru, 95Zr, 95Nb, 144Ce, and 90Sr released during 1944-1991 from the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  18. Analysis of Radionuclide Migration Through a 200-m Vadose Zone Following a 16-Year Infiltration Event

    SciTech Connect

    Tompson, A F B; Smith, D K; Hudson, G B

    2002-01-31

    The CAMBRIC nuclear test was conducted beneath Frenchman Flat at the Nevada Test Site on May 14, 1965. The nuclear device was emplaced in heterogeneous alluvium, approximately 70 m beneath the ambient water table, which is itself 220 m beneath the ground surface. Approximately 10 years later, groundwater adjacent to the test was pumped steadily for 16 years to elicit information on radionuclide migration in the saturated zone. The pumping well effluent--containing mostly soluble radionuclides such as tritium, {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 85}Kr, {sup 129}I, and {sup 106}Ru--was monitored, discharged to an unlined ditch, and allowed to flow towards Frenchman Lake just over one kilometer away. Water discharged into the ditch infiltrated into the ground during flow along the ditch. This created an unexpected and remarkable second experiment in which the migration of the effluent through the 220 meters of unsaturated media, or ''vadose zone'', back to the water table, could be studied. In this paper, the pumping and effluent data are being utilized in conjunction with a series of geologic data, new radionuclide measurements, isotopic age-dating estimates, and vadose zone flow and transport models to better understand the movement of radionuclides between the ditch and the water table. Measurements of radionuclide concentrations in water samples produced from a water table monitoring well 100m away from the ditch indicate rising levels of tritium since 1993. The detection of tritium in the monitoring well occurs approximately 16 years after its initial discharge into the ditch. Modeling and tritium age dating have suggested 3 to 5 years of this 16-year transit time occurred solely in the vadose zone. They also suggest considerable recirculation of the pumping well discharge back into the original pumping well. Surprisingly, no {sup 14}C was observed at the water table, suggesting its preferential retention, possibly due to precipitation or other chemical reaction, during

  19. Results of 1999 Spectral Gamma-Ray and Neutron Moisture Monitoring of Boreholes at Specific Retention Facilities in the 200 East Area, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    DG Horton; RR Randall

    2000-01-18

    Twenty-eight wells and boreholes in the 200 East Are% Hanford Site, Washington were monitored in 1999. The monitored facilities were past-practice liquid waste disposal facilities and consisted of six cribs and nineteen ''specific retention'' cribs and trenches. Monitoring consisted of spectral gamma-ray and neutron moisture logging. All data are included in Appendix B. The isotopes {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 154}Eu were identified on spectral gamma logs from boreholes monitoring the PUREX specific retention facilities; the isotopes {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 125}Sb, and {sup 154}Eu were identified on the logs from boreholes at the BC Controlled Area cribs and trenches; and {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 125}Sb were, identified on the logs from boreholes at the BX specific retention trenches. Three boreholes in the BC Controlled Area and one at the BX trenches had previous spectral gamma logs available for comparison with 1999 logs. Two of those logs showed that changes in the subsurface distribution of {sup 137}CS and/or {sup 60}Co had occurred since 1992. Although the changes are not great, they do point to continued movement of contaminants in the vadose zone. The logs obtained in 1999 create a larger baseline for comparison with future logs. Numerous historical gross gamma logs exist from most of the boreholes logged. Qualitative comparison of those logs with the 1999 logs show many substantial changes, most of which reflect the decay of deeper short-lived isotopes, such as {sup 106}Ru and {sup 125}Sb, and the much slower decay of shallower and longer-lived isotopes such as {sup 137}Cs. The radionuclides {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co have moved in two boreholes since 1992. Given the amount of movement and the half-lives of the isotopes, it is expected that they will decay to insignificant amounts before reaching groundwater. However, gamma ray logging cannot detect many of the contaminants of interest such as {sup 99}Tc, NO

  20. Inorganic, radioisotopic and organic analysis of 241-AP-101 tank waste

    SciTech Connect

    SK Fiskum; PR Bredt; JA Campbell; LR Greenwood; OT Farmer; GJ Lumetta; GM Mong; RT Ratner; CZ Soderquist; RG Swoboda; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

    2000-06-28

    Battelle received five samples from Hanford waste tank 241-AP-101, taken at five different depths within the tank. No visible solids or organic layer were observed in the individual samples. Individual sample densities were measured, then the five samples were mixed together to provide a single composite. The composite was homogenized and representative sub-samples taken for inorganic, radioisotopic, and organic analysis. All analyses were performed on triplicate sub-samples of the composite material. The sample composite did not contain visible solids or an organic layer. A subsample held at 10 C for seven days formed no visible solids. The characterization of the 241-AP-101 composite samples included: (1) Inductively-coupled plasma spectrometry for Ag, Al, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Pd, Ru, Rh, Si, Sr, Ti, U, Zn, and Zr (Note: Although not specified in the test plan, As, B, Be, Co, Li, Mo, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, V, W, and Y were also measured and reported for information only) (2) Radioisotopic analyses for total alpha and total beta activities, {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 60}Co, {sup 79}Se, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc as pertechnetate, {sup 106}Ru/Rh, {sup 125}Sb, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 152}Eu, {sup 154}Eu, {sup 155}Eu, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 242}Cm, and {sup 243+244}Cm; (3) Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry for {sup 237}Np, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 126}Sn, {sup 129}I, {sup 231}Pa, {sup 233}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 236}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 241}AMU, {sup 242}AMU, {sup 243}AMU, As, B, Be, Ce, Co, Cs, Eu, I, Li, Mo, Pr, Rb, Sb, Se, Ta, Te, Th, Tl, V, and W; (4) total U by kinetic phosphorescence analysis; (5) Ion chromatography for Cl, F, NO{sub 2}, NO{sub 3}, PO{sub 4}, SO{sub 4}, acetate, formate, oxalate, and citrate; (6) Density, inorganic carbon and organic carbon by two different methods, mercury, free hydroxide, ammonia, and cyanide. The 241-AP-101 composite met all

  1. Analysis of Radionuclide Migration through a 200-m Vadose Zone Following a 16-year Infiltration Event

    SciTech Connect

    Tompson, A B; Hudson, G B; Smith, D K; Hunt, J R

    2004-09-21

    The CAMBRIC nuclear test was conducted beneath Frenchman Flat at the Nevada Test Site on May 14, 1965. The nuclear device was emplaced in heterogeneous alluvium, approximately 70 m beneath the ambient water table, which is itself 220 m beneath the ground surface. Approximately 10 years later, groundwater adjacent to the test was pumped steadily for 16 years to elicit information on the migration of residual radionuclide migration through the saturated zone. The pumping well effluent--containing mostly soluble radionuclides such as tritium, {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 85}Kr, {sup 129}I, and {sup 106}Ru--was monitored, discharged to an unlined ditch, and allowed to flow towards Frenchman Lake over one kilometer away. Discharged water and radionuclides infiltrated into the ground and created an unexpected second experiment in which the migration of the effluent through the unsaturated zone back to the water table could be studied. In this paper, the pumping and effluent data are being utilized in conjunction with a series of geologic data, new radionuclide measurements, isotopic age-dating estimates, and vadose zone flow and transport models to better understand the movement of radionuclides between the ditch and the water table. Measurements of radionuclide concentrations in water samples produced from a water table monitoring well 100 m away from the ditch indicate rising levels of tritium since 1993. The detection of tritium in the monitoring well occurs approximately 16 years after its initial discharge into the ditch. Modeling and tritium age dating have suggested 3 to 5 years of this 16-year transit time occurred solely in the vadose zone. They also suggest considerable recirculation of the pumping well discharge back into the original pumping well. Notably, there have been no observations of {sup 14}C or {sup 85}Kr at the water table, suggesting their preferential retention or volatilization during transit to the water table. Overall, the long term nature of

  2. A comparison of methods for the estimation of the proportion of microbial nitrogen in duodenal digesta, and of correction for microbial contamination in nylon bags incubated in the rumen of sheep.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, P M; Hazlewood, G P; Milligan, L P

    1984-09-01

    Four sheep, each fitted with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum, were given two diets (1390 g dry matter (DM)/d) consisting of lucerne (Medicago sativa) pellets (24.2 g nitrogen/kg DM) plus pelleted reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea; 14.1 g N/kg DM) or chopped hay (11.8 g N/kg DM) at intervals of 2 h. Flow of duodenal digesta measured by reference to the markers 51Cr-EDTA and 103Ru-phenanthroline indicated a net gain of 5.8-7.5 g non-ammonia-N (NAN) between mouth and duodenum. The proportion of microbial N in duodenal digesta N was estimated using 15N and 35S incorporation into bacteria and digesta. Two methods of analysis for 35S content, the Bird & Fountain (1970; B&F method) and the Mathers & Miller (1980; M&M method), were used. (15NH4)2SO4 and Na2(35)SO4 were infused into the rumen for 3.5 d before and 4.0 d during sampling. A bacterial fraction was prepared from the fluid phases of sampled duodenal digesta and rumen contents by differential centrifugation. In addition, samples of ground canary grass and of lucerne were incubated in nylon bags in the rumen for 3-48 h during the infusion. Each of the 35S analytical methods yielded similar values of 35S content of isolated rumen or duodenal bacteria, but there was more (P less than 0.05) incorporation of 15N into rumen than into duodenal bacteria. Relative to values obtained using the M&M method and 15N incorporation, the B&F method for S analysis yielded higher (P less than 0.05) estimates of microbial content of duodenal digesta from sheep given chopped reed canary grass. 35S activity associated with washed nylon-bag residues increased rapidly with time-period of incubation and was substantially greater (P less than 0.05) when analysed by the B&F method compared with the M&M method. The 35S content (/g DM) of adherent bacteria removed from nylon-bag residues by homogenization in a second experiment varied from 0.65 to 1.88 that of free-living bacteria isolated from rumen fluid by differential

  3. SALTSTONE VAULT CLASSIFICATION SAMPLES MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT/ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS WASTE STREAM APRIL 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Eibling, R.

    2011-09-28

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was asked to prepare saltstone from samples of Tank 50H obtained by SRNL on April 5, 2011 (Tank 50H sampling occurred on April 4, 2011) during 2QCY11 to determine the non-hazardous nature of the grout and for additional vault classification analyses. The samples were cured and shipped to Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Group-Radioisotope and Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (B&W TSG-RACL) to perform the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and subsequent extract analysis on saltstone samples for the analytes required for the quarterly analysis saltstone sample. In addition to the eight toxic metals - arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead, selenium and silver - analytes included the underlying hazardous constituents (UHC) antimony, beryllium, nickel, and thallium which could not be eliminated from analysis by process knowledge. Additional inorganic species determined by B&W TSG-RACL include aluminum, boron, chloride, cobalt, copper, fluoride, iron, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nitrate/nitrite as Nitrogen, strontium, sulfate, uranium, and zinc and the following radionuclides: gross alpha, gross beta/gamma, 3H, 60Co, 90Sr, 99Tc, 106Ru, 106Rh, 125Sb, 137Cs, 137mBa, 154Eu, 238Pu, 239/240Pu, 241Pu, 241Am, 242Cm, and 243/244Cm. B&W TSG-RACL provided subsamples to GEL Laboratories, LLC for analysis for the VOCs benzene, toluene, and 1-butanol. GEL also determines phenol (total) and the following radionuclides: 147Pm, 226Ra and 228Ra. Preparation of the 2QCY11 saltstone samples for the quarterly analysis and for vault classification purposes and the subsequent TCLP analyses of these samples showed that: (1) The saltstone waste form disposed of in the Saltstone Disposal Facility in 2QCY11 was not characteristically hazardous for toxicity. (2) The concentrations of the eight RCRA metals and UHCs identified as possible in the saltstone waste form were present at levels below the UTS. (3) Most of the

  4. Patterns of Cs-137 and Sr-90 distribution in conjugated landscape systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobova, E.

    2012-04-01

    The main goal of the study was to reveal spatial patterns of 137Cs and 90Sr distribution in soils and plants of conjugated landscapes and to use 137Cs as a tracer for natural migration and accumulation processes in the environment. The studies were based on presumptions that: 1) the environment consisted of interrelated bio- and geochemical fields of hierarchical structure depending on the level and age of factors responsible for spatial distribution of chemical elements; 2)distribution of technogenic radionuclides in natural landscapes depended upon the location and type of the initial source and radionuclide involvement in natural pathways controlled by the state and mobility of the typomorphic elements and water migration. Case studies were undertaken in areas subjected to contamination after the Chernobyl accident and in the estuary zones of the Yenisey and Pechora rivers. First observations in the Chernobyl remote zone in 1987-1989 demonstrated relation between the dose rate, 137Cs, 134Cs, 144Ce, 106Ru, 125Sb in soil cover and the location of the measured plot in landscape toposequence. Later study of 137Cs and 90Sr concentration and speciation confirmed different patterns of their distribution dependent upon the radioisotope, soil features and vegetation cover corresponding to the local landscape and landuse structure. Certain patterns in distribution and migration of 137Cs and 90Sr in soils and local food chain were followed in private farms situated in different landscape position [1]. Detailed study of 137Cs activity in forested site with a pronounced relief 20 and 25 years after the Chernobyl accident showed its stable polycentric structure in soils, mosses and litter which was sensitive to meso- and micro-relief features [2]. Radionuclide contamination of the lower Yenisey and Pechora studied along meridian landscape transects proved both areas be subjected to global 137Cs pollution while the Yenisey floodplain received additional regional contamination

  5. RESULTS FOR THE THIRD QUARTER 2009 TANK 50 WAC SLURRY SAMPLE: CHEMICAL AND RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINANT RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M.; Diprete, C.; Bibler, N.

    2009-11-13

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2009 Third Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). Information from this characterization will be used by Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System. Recently, a review of the radionuclide inventory in Saltstone Vaults 1 and 4 identified several additional radionuclides, not currently in the WAC, which require quantification ({sup 40}K, {sup 108m}Ag, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 207}Bi, {sup 227}Ac, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th, {sup 231}Pa, {sup 247}Cm, {sup 249}Cf, {sup 251}Cf). In addition, several of the radionuclides previously reported with minimum detection limits below the requirements listed in the WAC required analysis with reduced detection limits to support future inventory reporting requirements ({sup 22}Na, {sup 26}Al, {sup 59}Ni, {sup 94}Nb, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 152}Eu, {sup 155}Eu, {sup 226}Ra). This added scope was formally requested in a revision to the standing Technical Task Request for CY2009 Saltstone support and is further discussed in several supporting documents. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: (1) The concentrations of the reported chemical and radioactive contaminants are less than their respective WAC targets or limits unless noted in this section. (2) The reported detection limits for {sup 59}Ni, {sup 94}Nb, {sup 247}Cm, and {sup 249}Cf are above the limits requested by LWO; however, they are below the achievable limits established by Analytical Development (AD). (3) The reported detection limit of isopropanol is lower than its WAC Limit for accident analysis in Appendix 8.1, but higher than its WAC concentration given in