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Sample records for 10exp 4 mexp

  1. Measurements of Local Heat Transfer and Pressure on Six 2-Inch-Diameter Blunt Bodies at a Mach Number of 4.95 and at Reynolds Numbers Per Foot up to 81 x 10(exp 6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Morton; Mayo, Edward E.

    1959-01-01

    Measurements of the local heat transfer and pressure distribution have been made on six 2-inch-diameter, blunt, axially symmetric bodies in the Langley gas dynamics laboratory at a Mach number of 4.95 and at Reynolds numbers per foot up to 81 x 10(exp 6). During the investigation laminar flow was observed over a hemispherical-nosed body having a surface finish from 10 to 20 microinches at the highest test Reynolds number per foot (for this configuration) of 77.4 x 10(exp 6). Though it was repeatedly possible to measure completely laminar flow at this Reynolds number for the hemisphere, it was not possible to observe completely laminar flow on the flat-nosed body for similar conditions. The significance of this phenomenon is obscured by the observation that the effects of particle impacts on the surface in causing roughness were more pronounced on the flat-nosed body. For engineering purposes, a method developed by M. Richard Dennison while employed by Lockheed Aircraft Corporation appears to be a reasonable procedure for estimating turbulent heat transfer provided transition occurs at a forward location on the body. For rearward-transition locations, the method is much poorer for the hemispherical nose than for the flat nose. The pressures measured on the hemisphere agreed very well with those of the modified Newtonian theory, whereas the pressures on all other bodies, except on the flat-nosed body, were bracketed by modified Newtonian theory both with and without centrifugal forces. For the hemisphere, the stagnation-point velocity gradient agreed very well with Newtonian theory. The stagnation-point velocity gradient for the flat- nosed model was 0.31 of the value for the hemispherical-nosed model. If a Newtonian type of flow is assumed, the ratio 0.31 will be independent of Much number and real-gas effects.

  2. Laboratory Demonstration of Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) Coronagraph with Better than 10(exp -9) Contrast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, Brian; Guyon, Olivier; Kuhnert, Andreas; Niessner, Albert; Martinache, Frantz; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham

    2013-01-01

    We present coronagraphic images from the Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph on NASA's High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT) at the Jet Propulsion Lab, showing contrasts of 5x10(exp -1) averaged from 2-4 lambda/D, in monochromatic light at 808 nm. In parallel with the coronagraph and its deformable mirror and coronagraphic wavefront control, we also demonstrate a low-order wavefront control system, giving 100 x rms suppression of introduced tip/tilt disturbances down to residual levels of 10(exp -3) lambda/D. Current limitations, as well as broadband (10% fractional bandpass) preliminary results are discussed.

  3. The Influence of Low Wall Temperature on Boundary-Layer Transition and Local Heat Transfer on 2-Inch-Diameter Hemispheres at a Mach Number of 4.95 and a Reynolds Number per Foot of 73.2 x 10(exp 6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Morton; Mayo, Edward E.; Julius, Jerome D.

    1960-01-01

    Measurements of the location of boundary-layer transition and the local heat transfer have been made on 2-inch-diameter hemispheres in the Langley gas dynamics laboratory at a Mach number of 4.95, a Reynolds number per foot of 73.2 x 10(exp 6), and a stagnation temperature of approximately 400 F. The transient-heating thin-skin calorimeter technique was used, and the initial values of the wall-to-stream stagnation- temperature ratios were 0.16 (cold-model tests) and 0.65 (hot-model test). During two of the four cold tests, the boundary-layer flow changed from turbulent to laminar over large regions of the hemisphere as the model heated. On the basis of a detailed consideration of the magnitude of roughness possibly present during these two cold tests, it appears that this destabilizing effect of low wall temperatures (cooling) was not caused by roughness as a dominant influence. This idea of a decrease in boundary-layer stability with cooling has been previously suggested. (See, for example, NASA Memorandum 10-8-58E.) For the laminar data obtained during the early part of the hot test, the correlation of the local-heating data with laminar theory was excellent.

  4. A vacuum (10(exp -9) Torr) friction apparatus for determining friction and endurance life of MoSx films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Honecy, Frank S.; Abel, Phillip B.; Pepper, Stephen V.; Spalvins, Talivaldis; Wheeler, Donald R.

    1992-01-01

    The first part of this paper describes an ultrahigh vacuum friction apparatus (tribometer). The tribometer can be used in a ball-on-disk configuration and is specifically designed to measure the friction and endurance life of solid lubricating films such as MoS(x) in vacuum at a pressure of 10 exp -7 Pa. The sliding mode is typically unidirectional at a constant rotating speed. The second part of this paper presents some representative friction and endurance life data for magnetron sputtered MoS(x) films (110 nm thick) deposited on sputter-cleaned 440 C stainless-steel disk substrates, which were slid against a 6-mm-diameter 440 C stainless-steel bearing ball. All experiments were conducted with loads of 0.49 to 3.6 N (average Hertzian contact pressure, 0.33 to 0.69 GPa), at a constant rotating speed of 120 rpm (sliding velocity ranging from 31 to 107 mm/s due to the range of wear track radii involved in the experiments), in a vacuum of 7 x 10 exp -7 Pa and at room temperature. The results indicate that there are similarities in friction behavior of MoS(x) films overs their life cycles regardless of load applied. The coefficient of friction (mu) decreases as load W increases according to mu = kW exp -1/3. The endurance life E of MoS(x) films decreases as the load W increases according to E = KW exp -1.4 for the load range. The load- (or contract-pressure-) dependent endurance life allows us to reduce the time for wear experiments and to accelerate endurance life testing of MoS(x) films. For the magnetron-sputtered MoS(x) films deposited on 440 C stainless-steel disks: the specific wear rate normalized to the load and the number of revolutions was 3 x 10 exp -8 mm exp 3/N-revolution; the specific wear rate normalized to the load and the total sliding distance was 8 x 10 exp -7 mm exp 3/N-m; and the nondimensional wear coefficient of was approximately 5 x 10 exp -6. The values are almost independent of load in the range 0.49 to 3.6 N (average Hertzian contact

  5. An Instrument to Measure Elemental Energy Spectra of Cosmic Ray Nuclei Up to 10(exp 16) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Chilingarian, A.; Drury, L.; Egorov, N.; Golubkov,S.; Korotkova, N.; Panasyuk, M.; Podorozhnyi, D.; Procqureur, J.

    2000-01-01

    A longstanding goal of cosmic ray research is to measure the elemental energy spectra of cosmic rays up to and through the "knee" (approx. equal to 3 x 10 (exp 15) eV. It is not currently feasible to achieve this goal with an ionization calorimeter because the mass required to be deployed in Earth orbit is very large (at least 50 tonnes). An alternative method will be presented. This is based on measuring the primary particle energy by determining the angular distribution of secondaries produced in a target layer using silicon microstrip detector technology. The proposed technique can be used over a wide range of energies (10 (exp 11)- 10 (exp 16) eV) and gives an energy resolution of 60% or better. Based on this technique, a design for a new lightweight instrument with a large aperture (KLEM) will be described.

  6. A vacuum (10 exp -9 torr) friction apparatus for determining friction and endurance life of MoS(x) films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Honecy, Frank S.; Abel, Phillip B.; Pepper, Stephen V.; Spalvins, Talivaldis; Wheeler, Donald R.

    1993-01-01

    An ultrahigh-vacuum tribometer for use in a ball-on-disk configuration was specially designed for measuring the friction and endurance life of magnetron-sputtered solid lubricating MoS(x) films deposited on sputter-cleaned 400 C stainless-steel disks, when slid against a 6-mm-diameter 440 C stainless-steel ball. The results of tests showed that the tribometer performs satisfactorily in unidirectional rotation in vacuum at a pressure of 10 exp -7 Pa, 10 exp -9 torr. Similarities are observed in the life cycle friction behavior and the coefficient of friction as a function of the number of disk revolutions, for MoS(x) films at average Hertzian contact from 0.33 to 0.69 GPa.

  7. Friction, Wear, and Evaporation Rates of Various Materials in Vacuum to 10(exp -7) mm Hg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, Donald H.; Swikert, Max; Johnson, Robert L.

    1961-01-01

    The requirements for bearings and seals to operate in the environment of space dictate a new area for lubrication research. The low ambient pressures encountered in space can be expected to influence the behavior of oil, grease, and solid-film lubricants. The property of these materials most significantly affected by low ambient pressures is the evaporation rate. Various investigators have therefore measured the evaporation rates of oils and greases in vacuum as one method of establishing their relative merit for space applications (1-3). The results of this work have given some indication as to the oils and greases with the greatest stability at reduced ambient pressures. Only limited experimental work, however, has been reported in the literature for inorganic solids and soft metals which have potential use as solid lubricant films or coatings for hard alloy substrates [e.g. Reference ( 4 )]. In general, the evaporation rates of these materials would be lower than those of oils and greases. These films might therefore be very attractive as lubricants for high vacuum service.

  8. 39 photons/bit direct detection receiver at 810 nm, BER = 1 x 10 exp -6, 60 Mb/s QPPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, Andrew; Dion, Bruno; Noeldeke, Christoph; Duchmann, Olivier

    1991-06-01

    39 photons/bit direct detection receiver sensitivity is reported, at a BER of 1 x 10 exp -6, for a 2-percent extinction ratio, 810 nm, 60 Mb/s QPPM signal. The sensitivity is 68 photons/bit at a BER of 1 x 10 exp -9. These figures represent a record sensitivity for a direct detection receiver. They are achieved by a combination of a novel silicon avalanche photodiode, an optimized preamplifier and a maximum likelihood demodulator. The work was a part of Phase B Breadboarding activities for the European Space Agency (ESA) SILEX (Semiconductor Intersatellite Link EXperiment) program on Intersatellite Optical Links.

  9. Heat Transfer and Boundary-Layer Transition on a Highly Polished Hemisphere-Cone in Free Flight at Mach Numbers Up to 3.14 and Reynolds Numbers Up to 24 x 10(exp 6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buglia, James J.

    1961-01-01

    A highly polished hemisphere-cone having a ratio of nose radius to base radius of 0.74 and a half-angle of 14.5 was flight tested at Mach numbers up to 4.70. Temperature and pressure data were obtained at Mach numbers up to 3.14 and a free-stream Reynolds number of 24 x 10(exp 6) based on body diameter. The nose of the model had a surface roughness of 2 to 5 microinches as measured with an interferometer. The measured Stanton numbers were in good agreement with theory. Transition Reynolds numbers based on the laminar boundary-layer momentum thickness at transition ranged from 2,190 to 794. Comparison with results from previous tests of blunt shapes having a surface roughness of 20 to 40 microinches showed that the high degree of polish was instrumental in delaying the transition from laminar to turbulent flow.

  10. Spectroscopy of luminous infrared galaxies at 2 microns: 1. The ultraluminous galaxies (L(sub IR) approximately greater than 10 (exp 12) solar luminosity)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldader, Jeffrey D.; Joseph, R. D.; Doyon, Rene; Sanders, D. B.

    1995-01-01

    We present high-quality spectra covering the K window at a resolving power of 340 for a sample of 13 ultraluminous (L(sub IR) approximately greater than 10(exp 12) solar luminosity) infrared-selected galaxies, and line fluxes for a comparison sample of 24 lower luminosity galaxies. The 2 micrometers spectra of 10 of the ultraluminous galaxies are characterized by emission and absorption features commonly associated with stars and star formation; two others have the red power-law spectra and Br gamma line widths of Seyfert 1 galaxies; the final galaxy has strong emission from hot dust. We have found no broad-line active nuclei not already known from optical observations, despite the fact that the extinction at 2 micrometers is 1/10 that at optical wavelengths; any putative Seyfert 1 nuclei must be deeply buried. Powerful continua and emission lines from H2 and Br gamma are detected in all the ultraluminous galaxies. Comparing the H2 1-0 S(1), Br gamma, and 2 micrometers and far-infrared luminosities to those of the lower luminosity galaxies yields several major results. First, the dereddened Br gamma emission, relative to the far-infrared luminosity is significantly depressed in the ultraluminous sample, when compared to the lower luminosity galaxies. Five of the ultraluminous galaxies have L(sub Br gamma)L(sub IR) ratios lower than for any of the comparison objects. Second, the H2 1-0 S(1) luminosity is also responsible, directly or indirectly, for producing the excited H2, and that the H2 apparently comes from optically thin regions in both classes of objects. Third, eight of the 13 ultraluminous systems have lower 2 micrometers/far-infrared luminosity ratios than any of the lower luminosity galaxies, and five of these are the galaxies also deficient in Br gamma. These three findings may be understood if the the H2, Br gamma, and 2 mircometers continua in the ultraluminous galaxies arise from spatially distinct regions, with the continuum and Br gamma largely

  11. Preliminary Investigation of Molybdenum Disulfide-air-mist Lubrication for Roller Bearings Operating to DN Values of 1 x 10(exp 6) and Ball Bearings Operating to Temperatures of 1000 F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macks, E F; Nemeth, Z N; Anderson, W J

    1951-01-01

    The effectiveness of molybdenum disulfide MoS2 as a bearing lubricant was determined at high temperature and at high speeds. A 1-inch-bore ball bearing operated at temperatures to 1000 F, a speed of 1725 rpm, and a thrust load of 20 pounds when lubricated only with MoS2-air mist. A 75-millimeter-bore cageless roller bearing, provided with a MoS2-syrup coating before operation, operated at DN values to 1 x 10(exp 6) with a load of 368 pounds.

  12. Initial Results from a Search for Lunar Radio Emission from Interactions of >= 10(exp 19) eV Neutrinos and Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorham, P. W.; Liewer, K. M.; Naudet, C. J.

    2000-01-01

    Using the NASA Goldstone 70m antenna DSS 14 both singly and in coincidence with the 34 m antenna DSS 13 (21.7 km to the southeast), we have acquired approximately 12 hrs of livetime in a search for predicted pulsed radio emission from extremely-high energy cascades induced by neutrinos or cosmic rays in the lunar regolith. In about 4 hrs of single antenna observations, we reduced our sensitivity to impulsive terrestrial interference to a negligible level by use of a veto afforded by the unique capability of DSS 14. In the 8 hrs of dual-antenna observations, terrestrial interference is eliminated as a background. In both observing modes the thermal noise floor limits the sensitivity. We detected no events above statistical background. We report here initial limits based on these data which begin to constrain several predictions of the flux of EHE neutrinos.

  13. Low-Speed Longitudinal Stability and Lateral-Control Characteristics of a 0.3-Scale Model of the Republic RF-84F Airplane at a Reynolds Number of 9x10(exp 6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollech, Thomas V.; Kelly, H. Neale

    1954-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 19-foot pressure tunnel on a 0.3-scale model of the Republic RF-84F airplane to determine modifications which would eliminate the pitch-up that occurred near maximum lift during flight tests of the airplane. The effects of high-lift and stall-control devices, horizontal tail locations, external stores, and various inlets on the longitudinal characteristics of the model were investigated. For the most part, these tests were conducted at a Reynolds number of 9.0 x 10(exp 6) and a Mach number of 0.19. The results indicated that from the standpoint of stability the inlets should possess blunted side bodies. The horizontal tail located at either the highest or lowest position investigated improved the stability of the model. Three configurations were found for the model equipped with the production tail which eliminated the pitch-up through the lift range up to the maximum lift and provided a stable static margin which did not vary more than 15% of the mean aerodynamic chord through the lift range up to 85% of maximum lift. The three configurations are as follows: the production wing-fuselage-tail combination with an inlet similar to the production inlet but smaller in plan form in conjunction with either (1) a wing fence located at 65% of the win semispan or (2) an 11.7% chord leading-edge extension extending from 65.8 to 95.8% of the wing semispan and (3) the production wing-fuselage-tail combination with the production inlet and an 11.7% chord leading-edge extension extending from 70.8 to 95.8% of the wing semispan.

  14. 4H-SiC UV Photo Detector with Large Area and Very High Specific Detectivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Feng; Shahid, Aslam; Franz, David; Xin, Xiaobin; Zhao, Jian H.; Zhao, Yuegang; Winer, Maurice

    2004-01-01

    Pt/4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes have been fabricated with the device areas up to 1 sq cm. The I-V characteristics and photo-response spectra have been measured and analyzed. For a 5 mm x 5 mm area device leakage current of 1 x 10(exp 15)A at zero bias and 1.2 x 10(exp 14)A at -IV have been established. The quantum efficiency is over 30% from 240nm to 320nm. The specific detectivity, D(sup *), has been calculated from the directly measured leakage current and quantum efficiency data and are shown to be higher than 10(exp 15) cmHz(sup 1/2)/W from 210nm to 350nm with a peak D(sup *) of 3.6 x 10(exp 15)cmH(sup 1/2)/W at 300nm.

  15. Experimental Surface Pressure Data Obtained on 65 deg Delta Wing Across Reynolds Number and Mach Number Ranges. Vol. 4: Large-radius leading edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Julio; Luckring, James M.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental wind tunnel test of a 65 deg delta wing model with interchangeable leading edges was conducted in the Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF). The objective was to investigate the effects of Reynolds and Mach numbers on slender-wing leading-edge vortex flows with four values of wing leading-edge bluntness. Experimentally obtained pressure data are presented without analysis in tabulated and graphical formats across a Reynolds number range of 6 x 10(exp 6) to 120 x 10(exp 6) at a Mach number of 0.85 and across a Mach number range of 0.4 to 0.9 at Reynolds numbers of 6 x 10(exp 6) and 60 x 10(exp 6). Normal-force and pitching-moment coefficient plots for these Reynolds number and Mach number ranges are also presented.

  16. Heat-Transfer and Pressure Measurements from a Flight Test of the Third 1/18-Scale Model of the Titan Intercontinental Ballistic Missile up to a Mach Number of 3.86 and Reynolds Number per Foot of 23.5 x 10(exp 6) and a Comparison with Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, John B., Jr.

    1958-01-01

    Heat-transfer and pressure measurements were obtained from a flight test of a 1/18-scale model of the Titan intercontinental ballistic missile up to a Mach number of 3.86 and Reynolds number per foot of 23.5 x 10(exp 6) and are compared with the data of two previously tested 1/18-scale models. Boundary-layer transition was observed on the nose of the model. Van Driest's theory predicted heat-transfer coefficients reasonably well for the fully laminar flow but predictions made by Van Driest's theory for turbulent flow were considerably higher than the measurements when the skin was being heated. Comparison with the flight test of two similar models shows fair repeatability of the measurements for fully laminar or turbulent flow.

  17. Friction and Wear Properties of As-Deposited and Carbon Ion-Implanted Diamond Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1996-01-01

    Recent work on the friction and wear properties of as-deposited and carbon ion-implanted diamond films was reviewed. Diamond films were produced by the microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. Diamond films with various grain sizes and surface roughnesses were implanted with carbon ions at 60 keV ion energy, resulting in a dose of 1.2 x 10(exp 17) carbon ions per cm(exp 2). Various analytical techniques, including Raman spectroscopy, proton recoil analysis, Rutherford backscattering, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, were utilized to characterize the diamond films. Sliding friction experiments were conducted with a polished natural diamond pin in contact with diamond films in the three environments: humid air (40% relative humidity), dry nitrogen (less than 1 percent relative humidity), and ultrahigh vacuum (10(exp -7) Pa). The CVD diamond films indeed have friction and wear properties similar to those of natural diamond in the three environments. The as-deposited, fine-grain diamond films can be effectively used as self-lubricating, wear-resistant coatings that have low coefficients of friction (0.02 to 0.04) and low wear rates (10(exp -7) to lO(exp -8) mm(exp 3) N(exp -1) m(exp -1)) in both humid air and dry nitrogen. However, they have high coefficients of friction (1.5 to 1.7) and a high wear rate (10(exp -4) mm(exp 7) N(exp -1) m(exp -1)) in ultrahigh vacuum. The carbon ion implantation produced a thin surficial layer (less than 0.1 micron thick) of amorphous, non-diamond carbon on the diamond films. In humid air and dry nitrogen, the ion-implanted, fine and coarse-grain diamond films have a low coefficient of friction (around 0.1) and a low wear rate (10(exp -7) mm(exp 3) N(exp -1) m(exp-1)). Even in ultrahigh vacuum, the presence of the non-diamond carbon layer reduced the coefficient of friction of fine-grain diamond films to 0.1 or lower and the wear rate to 10(exp -6

  18. Investigation of Drag and Static Longitudinal and Lateral Stability and Control Characteristics of 1/20-Scale Model of McDonnell F4H-1 Airplane at Mach Numbers of 1.57, 1.87, 2.16, and 2.53. Phase II Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmel, Melvin M.; Turner, Kenneth L.

    1957-01-01

    Tests were performed in the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel to determine the drag and static longitudinal and lateral stability and control characteristics of a 1/20-scale model of the McDonnell F4H-1 airplane at Mach numbers of 1 57, 1 87, 2.16, and 2.53. This is the second phase in a series of tests performed on this model. The Reynolds numbers for these tests, based on the mean aerodynamic chord of the wing, are 1.446 x 10 (exp 6), 1.269 x 10 (exp 6), 1.116 x 10 (exp 6), and 0.714 x 10 (exp 6) at Mach numbers of 1.57, 1.87, 2.16, and 2.53, respectively. The model had a 12 deg. wing tip dihedral, a larger vertical tail, and a modified duct.

  19. Spectral and Timing Nature of the Symbiotic X-Ray Binary 4U 1954+319: The Slowest Rotating Neutron Star in AN X-Ray Binary System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enoto, Teruaki; Sasano, Makoto; Yamada, Shin'Ya; Tamagawa, Toru; Makishima, Kazuo; Pottschmidt, Katja; Marcu, Diana; Corbet, Robin H. D.; Fuerst, Felix; Wilms, Jorn

    2014-01-01

    The symbiotic X-ray binary (SyXB) 4U 1954+319 is a rare system hosting a peculiar neutron star (NS) and an M-type optical companion. Its approx. 5.4 hr NS spin period is the longest among all known accretion-powered pulsars and exhibited large (is approx. 7%) fluctuations over 8 yr. A spin trend transition was detected with Swift/BAT around an X-ray brightening in 2012. The source was in quiescent and bright states before and after this outburst based on 60 ks Suzaku observations in 2011 and 2012. The observed continuum is well described by a Comptonized model with the addition of a narrow 6.4 keV Fe-K alpha line during the outburst. Spectral similarities to slowly rotating pulsars in high-mass X-ray binaries, its high pulsed fraction (approx. 60%-80%), and the location in the Corbet diagram favor high B-field (approx. greater than 10(exp12) G) over a weak field as in low-mass X-ray binaries. The observed low X-ray luminosity (10(exp33)-10(exp35) erg s(exp-1)), probable wide orbit, and a slow stellar wind of this SyXB make quasi-spherical accretion in the subsonic settling regime a plausible model. Assuming a approx. 10(exp13) G NS, this scheme can explain the approx. 5.4 hr equilibrium rotation without employing the magnetar-like field (approx. 10(exp16) G) required in the disk accretion case. The timescales of multiple irregular flares (approx. 50 s) can also be attributed to the free-fall time from the Alfv´en shell for a approx. 10(exp13) G field. A physical interpretation of SyXBs beyond the canonical binary classifications is discussed.

  20. A Catalog of Soft X-Ray Shadows, and More Contemplation of the 1/4 KeV Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snowden, S. L.; Freyberg, M. J.; Kuntz, K. D.; Sanders, W. T.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a catalog of shadows in the 1/4 keV soft X-ray diffuse background 4 (SXRB) that were identified by a comparison between ROSAT All-Sky Survey maps and DIRB&corrected IRAS 100 micron maps. These "shadows" are the negative correlations between the surface brightness of the SXRB and the column density of the Galactic interstellar medium (ISIM) over limited angular regions (a few degrees in extent). We have compiled an extensive but not exhaustive set of 378 shadows in the polar regions of the Galaxy (Absolute value (beta) > and approximately equal 20 deg.), and determined their foreground and background X-ray intensities (relative to the absorbing features), and the respective hardness ratios of that emission. The portion of the sky that was examined to find these shadows was restricted in general to regions where the minimum column density is less than and approximately equal to 4 x 10(exp 20) H/square cm, i.e., relatively high Galactic latitudes, and to regions away from distinct extended features in the SXRB such as supernova remnants and superbubbles. The results for the foreground intensities agree well with the recent results of a general analysis of the local 1/4 KeV emission while the background intensities show additional. but not unexpected scatter. The results also confirm the existence of a gradient in the hardness of the local 1/4 keV emission along a Galactic center/ anticenter axis with a temperature that varies from 10(exp 6.13) K to 10(exp 6.02) K, respectively. The average temperature of the foreground component from this analysis is 10(exp 6.08) K, compared to 10(exp 6.06) K in the previous analysis. Likewise, the average temperature for the distant component for the current and previous analyses are 10(exp 6.06) K and 10(exp 6.02) K, respectively. Finally, the results for the 1/4 keV halo emission are compared to the observed fluxes at 3/4 keV, where the lack of correlation suggests that the Galactic halo's 1/4 keV and 3/4 ke

  1. Suzaku View of the Neutron Star in the Dipping Source 4U 1822-37

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasano, Makoto; Makishima, Kazuo; Sakurai, Soki; Zhang, Zhongli; Enoto, Teruaki

    2013-01-01

    The dipping X-ray source 4U 1822-37 was observed by Suzaku on 2006 Octrober 20 for a net exposure of 37 ks. The source was detected with the XIS at a 1-10 keV flux of 5.5 ×10(exp -10) erg per square centimeter per second, and with the HXD (HXD-PIN) at a 10-50 keV flux of 8.9 ×10(exp -10) erg per square centimeter per second. With HXD-PIN, the pulsation was detected at a barycentric period of 0.592437 seconds, and its change rate was reconfirmed as -2.43 × 10(exp -12) seconds per second. The 1-50 keV spectra of 4U 1822-37 were found to be very similar to those of Her X- 1 in the slopes, cutoff and iron lines. Three iron lines (Fe Kalpha, Fe XXV, and Fe XXVI) were detected, on top of a 1-50 keV continuum that is described by an NPEX model plus a soft blackbody. In addition, a cyclotron resonance scattering feature was detected significantly ( greater than 99% confidence), at an energy of 33+/-2 keV with a depth of 0.4(sup +0.6)/(sub -0.3). Therefore, the neutron star in this source is concluded to have a strong magnetic field of 2.8 × 10(exp 12) G. Further assuming that the source has a relatively high intrinsic luminosity of several times 10(exp 37) erg per second, its spectral and timing properties are consistently explained.

  2. Timing and Spectral Study of 4U 1538-52

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, George W.

    2000-01-01

    Improved orbital parameters of the high-mass binary X-ray pulsar 4U 1538-52 have been derived from high count rate data obtained from the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer. Pulse-timing analysis yields an eccentricity of 0.174 +/- 0.015, a periastron at 64 deg +/- 9 deg, and evidence of orbital decay with prime-P(sub orb)/P(sub orb) = (-2.9 +/- 2.1) x 10(exp -6)/yr.

  3. Recombination of N4(+) ions with electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, Y. S.; Johnsen, R.

    1991-01-01

    Using a modified high-pressure-afterglow/mass spectrometer apparatus similar to that described by Lee and Johnsen (1989), spectroscopic observations of afterglow helium plasmas, with N2 as a minor additive, were carried out in order to verify the mechanism suggested by Bates (1991) for dissociative recombination of electrons with N4(+) ions. It was found that dissociative recombination of electrons with N4(+) ions results in the formation of N2 molecules in the C 3Pi(u) (v = 0,1) state, with the recombination rate coefficient of (2.6 +/- 0.3) x 10 exp -6 cu cm/sec at 300 K.

  4. RX J0045.4+4154: A recurrent supersoft x-ray transient in M31

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, N. E.; Giommi, P.; Heise, J.; Angelini, L.; Fantasia, S.

    1995-01-01

    Using data extracted from the ROSAT archive we have discovered a recurrent supersoft X-ray transient RX J0045.4+4154 in M31. The first outburst began on 1992 February 2 and continued for at least 4 days, until the end of the observation sequence. A second outburst that lasted more than 6 days was seen to begin on 1993 January 7. The X-ray spectrum on both occasions yields a characteristic blackbody temperature of approximately 90 eV. For a range of plausible continuum models, the hydrogen column density is (0.8-1.5) x 10(exp 21)/sq cm and is consistent with the source being located in M31. This implies an unabsorbed 0.1-2.0 keV peak luminosity of approximately 10(exp 38) ergs/sec. This is the first recurrent X-ray transient to be found in M31 and is particularly notable because it is much softer than the bright X-ray transients seen in our Galaxy. The spectrum is characteristic of the supersoft class of X-ray sources, which are thought to be accreting white dwarfs that have a hydrogen-burning surface layer. A fit to a white dwarf model atmosphere gives a temperature of 10(exp 6)K, the hottest found so far. This high temperature is consistent with a white dwarf mass of 1.3-1.4 solar mass, approaching the Chandrasekhar limit, and burning close to the nuclear stability limit.

  5. Gallium Electromagnetic (GEM) Thruster Performance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Robert E.; Burton, Rodney L.; Polzin, K. A.

    2009-01-01

    Discharge current, terminal voltage, and mass bit measurements are performed on a coaxial gallium electromagnetic thruster at discharge currents in the range of 7-23 kA. It is found that the mass bit varies quadratically with the discharge current which yields a constant exhaust velocity of 20 km/s. Increasing the electrode radius ratio of the thruster from to 2.6 to 3.4 increases the thruster efficiency from 21% to 30%. When operating with a central gallium anode, macroparticles are ejected at all energy levels tested. A central gallium cathode ejects macroparticles when the current density exceeds 3.7 10(exp 8) A/square m . A spatially and temporally broad spectroscopic survey in the 220-520 nm range is used to determine which species are present in the plasma. The spectra show that neutral, singly, and doubly ionized gallium species are present in the discharge, as well as annular electrode species at higher energy levels. Axial Langmuir triple probe measurements yield electron temperatures in the range of 0.8-3.8 eV and electron densities in the range of 8 x 10(exp )20 to 1.6 x 10(exp 21) m(exp -3) . Triple probe measurements suggest an exhaust plume with a divergence angle of 9 , and a completely doubly ionized plasma at the ablating thruster cathode.

  6. Measurements of Thermophysical Properties of Molten Silicon by a High-Temperature Electrostatic Levitator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhim, W. K.; Chung, S. K.; Rulison, A. J.; Spjut, R. E.

    1997-01-01

    Several thermophysical properties of molten silicon measured by the high-temperature electrostatic levitator at JPL are presented. They are density, constant-pressure specific heat capacity, hemispherical total emissivity, and surface tension. Over the temperature range investigated (1350 less than T(sub m) less than 1825 K), the measured liquid density (in g/cc) can be expressed by a quadratic function, pi(P) = p(sub m) - 1.69 x 10(exp -4)(T - T(sub m)) - 1.75 x 10(exp -7)((T - T(sub m))(exp 2) with T(sub m) and p(sub m) being 1687 K and 2.56 g/cc, respectively. The hemispherical total emissivity of molten silicon at the melting temperature was determined to be 0.18, and the constant-pressure specific heat was evaluated as a function of temperature. The surface tension (in 10(exp -3) N/m) of molten silicon over a similar temperature range can be expressed by sigma(T) = 875 - 0.22( T - T(sub m)).

  7. Toward 10(exp 9) GPS geodesy: Vector baselines, Earth rotation and reference frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutz, Bob E.

    1993-01-01

    The University of Texas Center for Space Research research efforts under NASA Grant No. NAG-1936 from 1 Jan. 1992 - 31 Dec. 1992 were in the following areas: GPS orbit accuracy assessments and efforts to improve the accuracy; analysis of global GPS data collected during the first three months of the IGS campaign, and analysis of regional data. A brief summary of each of the above activities is presented in the following.

  8. Towards 10(exp 9) GPS geodesy: Vector baselines, Earth rotation and reference frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutz, Bob E.

    1994-01-01

    Effort during the period form January 1, 1993 to December 31, 1993 were in the following areas: GPS orbit accuracy assessments and efforts to improve the accuracy; analysis and effects of GPS receiver antenna phase center variation; analysis of global GPS data being collected for the IGS campaign; and analysis of regional (south west Pacific) campaign data. A brief summary of each of the above activities is presented.

  9. Low-Temperature Rate Coefficients of C2H with CH4 and CD4 from 154 to 359 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opansky, Brian J.; Leone, Stephen R.

    1996-01-01

    Rate coefficients for the reaction C2H + CH4 yields C2H2 + CH3 and C2H + CD4 yields C2HD + CD3 are measured over the temperature range 154-359 K using transient infrared laser absorption spectroscopy. Ethynyl radicals are produced by pulsed laser photolysis of C2H2 in a variable temperature flow cell, and a tunable color center laser probes the transient removal of C2H (Chi(exp 2) Sigma(+) (0,0,0)) in absorption. The rate coefficients for the reactions of C2H with CH4 and CD4 both show a positive temperature dependence over the range 154-359 K, which can be expressed as k(sub CH4) = (1.2 +/- 0.1) x 10(exp -11) exp((-491 +/- 12)/T) and k(sub CD4) = (8.7 +/- 1.8) x 10(exp -12) exp((-650 +/- 61)/T) cm(exp 3) molecule(exp -1) s(exp -1), respectively. The reaction of C2H + CH4 exhibits a significant kinetic isotope effect at 300 K of k(sub CH4)/k(sub CD4) = 2.5 +/- 0.2. Temperature dependent rate constants for C2H + C2H2 were also remeasured over an increased temperature range from 143 to 359 K and found to show a slight negative temperature dependence, which can be expressed as k(sub C2H2) = 8.6 x 10(exp -16) T(exp 1.8) exp((474 +/- 90)/T) cm(exp 3) molecule(exp -1) s(exp -1).

  10. High Silicate Crystalline-to-Amorphous Ratios in Comets C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) and Hale-Bopp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, D. H.; Harker, D. E.; Woodward, C. E.

    2004-01-01

    Crystalline silicates, by their apparent absence in the ISM, are dust grains that experienced high temperatures in the solar nebula. Mg-rich crystalline silicates formed either by condensation from hot nebular gases (1450 K) or by the annealing of Mg-rich amorphous silicates (approx. 1000 K) in shocks in the 5-10 AU region or by radial transport into and out of the hot inner zones, e.g., T(sub d) > 1000 K at r(sub h) < 5 AU, 10(exp -6) - 10(exp -5) M(sub O)/yr, alpha = 10(exp -4) of the early solar nebula. Mg-rich crystalline silicates are found in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and produce IR spectral features in many Oort cloud comets. In May 2004, we discovered strong crystalline silicate features in the dynamically new Oort cloud comet C/2001 Q4 (NEAT). Thermal emission modeling of comets Q4 and C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) demonstrate that both these comets have similar, high silicate crystalline-to-amorphous ratios of 2.4 and 2.1, respectively, indicating that these icy planetesimals aggregated from similar reservoirs of material or that crystalline silicates were widely distributed within the comet-forming zone. This argues for efficient annealing mechanisms and radial mixing.

  11. High Silicate Crystalline-to-Amorphous Ratios in Comets C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) and Hale-Bopp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, D. H.; Harker, D. E.; Wodward, C. E.

    2004-01-01

    Crystalline silicates, by their apparent absence in the ISM, are dust grains that experienced high temperatures in the solar nebula. Mg-rich crystalline silicates formed either by condensation from hot nebular gases (1450 K) or by the annealing of Mg-rich amorphous silicates (approximately 1000 K) in shocks in the 5-10AU region or by radial transport into and out of the hot inner zones, e.g., T(sub d) greater than 1000K at r(sub h) less than 5AU, 10(exp -6) -10(exp -5) solar mass per year, alpha = 10(exp -4) of the early solar nebula. Mg-rich crystalline silicates are found in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and produce IR spectral features in many Oort cloud comets. In May 2004, we discovered strong crystalline silicate features in the dynamically new Oort cloud comet C/2001 Q4 (NEAT). Thermal emission modeling of comets Q4 and C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) demonstrate that both these comets have similar, high silicate crystalline-toamorphous ratios of 2.4 and 2.1, respectively, indicating that these icy planetesimals aggregated from similar reservoirs of material or that crystalline silicates were widely distributed within the comet-forming zone. This argues for efficient annealing mechanisms and radial mixing.

  12. Chemical reaction of atomic oxygen with evaporated films of copper, part 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fromhold, A. T.; Williams, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    Evaporated copper films were exposed to an atomic oxygen flux of 1.4 x 10(exp 17) atoms/sq cm per sec at temperatures in the range 285 to 375 F (140 to 191 C) for time intervals between 2 and 50 minutes. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) was used to determine the thickness of the oxide layers formed and the ratio of the number of copper to oxygen atoms in the layers. Oxide film thicknesses ranged from 50 to 3000 A (0.005 to 0.3 microns, or equivalently, 5 x 10(exp -9) to 3 x 10(exp -7); it was determined that the primary oxide phase was Cu2O. The growth law was found to be parabolic (L(t) varies as t(exp 1/2)), in which the oxide thickness L(t) increases as the square root of the exposure time t. The analysis of the data is consistent with either of the two parabolic growth laws. (The thin-film parabolic growth law is based on the assumption that the process is diffusion controlled, with the space charge within the growing oxide layer being negligible. The thick-film parabolic growth law is also based on a diffusion controlled process, but space-charge neutrality prevails locally within very thick oxides.) In the absence of a voltage measurement across the growing oxide, a distinction between the two mechanisms cannot be made, nor can growth by the diffusion of neutral atomic oxygen be entirely ruled out. The activation energy for the reaction is on the order of 1.1 eV (1.76 x 10(exp -19) joule, or equivalently, 25.3 kcal/mole).

  13. Observation of a Long-Term Spin-up Trend in 4U 1538-52

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, B. C.; Finger, M. H.; Scott, D. M.; Wilson, R. B.

    1997-01-01

    The high-mass X-ray pulsar 4U 153 8-52 has been continually monitored by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory. These observations permit the construction of long-term pulse frequency and intensity histories. The frequency history reveals that a reversal of the long-term trend in the accretion torque, from spinning down to spinning up, has occurred, probably in 1988. This is the first time a long-term change is known to have occurred for this source, The magnitude of the average absolute value of (dot-nu / nu) is approximately 10(exp -11)/s over an interval of approximately 5 year is similar during spin-down and spin-up. Shorter term pulse frequency variations of either sign are also observed. The power density spectrum of fluctuations in angular acceleration is consistent with white noise on timescales from 16 to 1600 days. It can be well fit with a power law with a power-law index of 0.10 plus or minus 0.21 and white noise strength of (7.6 +/- 1.6) x 10(exp -21) (Hz/s(exp 2)/Hz). These observations are also used to set 95% confidence level lower and upper limits on the rate of orbital period change, -3.9< dot-P orb /P orb <2. 1, in units of 10(exp -6) yr(exp -1).

  14. Condensed Water in Tropical Cyclone "Oliver", 8 February 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, R. F.; Allen, D. A.; Black, C.; Faisant, S.; Ferry, G. V.; Howard, S. D.; Livingston, J. M.; Redemann, J.; Sorenson, C. E.; Verma, S.

    1995-01-01

    On February 8, 1993, the NASA DC-8 aircraft profiled from 10,000 to 37,000 feet (3.1-11.3 km) pressure altitude in a stratified section of tropical cyclone "Oliver" over the Coral Sea northeast of Australia. Size, shape and phase of cloud and precipitation particles were measured with a 2-D Greyscale probe. Cloud/precipitation particles changed from liquid to ice as soon as the freezing level was reached near 17,000 feet (5.2 km) pressure altitude. The cloud was completely glaciated at -5 C. There was no correlation between ice particle habit and ambient temperature. In the liquid phase, the precipitation-cloud drop concentration was 4.0 x 10(exp 3)/cu m, the geometric mean diameter D(sub g) = 0.5-0.7 mm, and the liquid water content 0.7-1.9 g m(exp-3). The largest particles anywhere in the cloud, dominated by fused dendrites at concentrations similar to that of raindrops (2.5 x 10(exp 3) m(exp -3)) but a higher condensed water content(5.4 g/cu m estimated) were found in the mixed phase; condensed water is removed very effectively from the mixed layer due to high settling velocities of the large mixed particles. The highest number concentration (4.9 x 10(exp 4)/cu m, smallest size (D(sub g) = 0.3-0.4 mm), largest surface area (up to 2.6 x 10 (exp 2) sq cm/cu m at 0.4- 1.0 g/cu m of condensate) existed in the ice phase at the coldest temperature (- 40 C) at 35,000 feet ( 10.7 km). Each cloud contained aerosol (haze particles) in addition to cloud particles. The aerosol total surface area exceeded that of the cirrus particles at the coldest temperature. Thus, aerosols must play a significant role in the upscattering of solar radiation. Light extinction (6.2/km) and backscatter (0.8/sr/km) was highest in the coldest portion of the cirrus cloud at the highest altitude.

  15. Experimental Investigation of the Heat-Transfer Rate to a Series of 20 deg Cones of Various Surface Finishes at a Mach Number of 4.95

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jim J.

    1959-01-01

    The heat-transfer rates were measured on a series of cones of various surface finishes at a Mach number of 4.95 and Reynolds numbers per foot varying from 20 x 10(exp 6) to 100 x 10(exp 6). The range of surface finish was from a very smooth polish to smooth machining with no polish (65 micro inches rms). Some laminar boundary-layer data were obtained, since transition was not artificially tripped. Emphasis, however, is centered on the turbulent boundary layer. The results indicated that the turbulent heat-transfer rate for the highest roughness tested was only slightly greater than that for the smoothest surface. The laminar-sublayer thickness was calculated to be about half the roughness height for the roughest model at the highest value of unit Reynolds number tested.

  16. Static Longitudinal and Lateral Stability Characteristics at Low Speed of 45 Degree Sweptback-midwing Models Having Wings with an Aspect Ratio of 2, 4, or 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, David F , Jr; Wolhart, Walter D

    1957-01-01

    Results are presented of tests conducted in the Langley stability tunnel to determine the effects of various components and combinations of components on the static longitudinal and lateral stability characteristics at low speed of a series of 45 degree sweptback-midwing-airplane configurations having wings with an aspect ratio of 2, 4, or 6. The tests were made at a dynamic pressure of 24.9 pounds per square foot which corresponds to a Mach number of 0.13 and Reynolds numbers of 1.00 x 10(exp 6), 0.71 x 10 (exp 6), and 0.58 x 10 (exp 6) based on the respective wing mean aerodynamic chords. The angle-of-attack range covered was from -4 degrees to 32 degrees and the sideslip angles used for the lateral-derivative tests were 5 degrees and -5 degrees. An increasing loss in tail contribution to directional stability both with increasing wing aspect ratio and increasing angle of attack was found to be a principal cause of all the complete models becoming directionally unstable in the high angle-of-attack range.

  17. Flux to the atmosphere of CH4 and CO2 from wetland ponds on the Hudson Bay lowlands (HBLs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, J. David; Kelly, Carol A.; Rudd, John W. M.; Hesslein, Raymond H.; Roulet, Nigel T.

    1994-01-01

    Ponds on peatlands of the Hudson Bay lowlands (HBLs) are complex ecosystems in which the fluxes to the atmosphere of CH4 and CO2 were controlled by interacting physical and biological factors. This resulted in strong diel variations of both dissolved gas concentrations and gas fluxes to the atmosphere, necessitating frequent sampling on a 24-hour schedule to enable accurate estimates of daily fluxes. Ponds at three sites on the HBL were constant net sources of CH4 and CO2 to the atmosphere at mean rates of 110-180 mg CH4 m(exp -2)/d and 3700-11,000 mg CO2 m(exp -2)/d. Rates peaked in August and September. For CH4 the pond fluxes were 3-30 times higher than adjacent vegetated surfaces. For CO2 the net pond fluxes were similar in magnitude to the vegetated fluxes but the direction of the flux was opposite, toward atmosphere. Even though ponds cover only 8-12% of the HBL area, they accounted for 30% of its total CH4 flux to the atmosphere. There is some circumstantial evidence that the ponds are being formed by decomposition of the underlying peat and that this decomposition is being stimulated by the activity of N2 fixing cyanobacteria that grow in mats at the peat-water interface. The fact that the gas fluxes from the ponds were so different from the surrounding vegetated surfaces means that any change in the ratio of pond to vegetated area, as may occur in response to climate change, would affect the total HBL fluxes.

  18. Vertical Transport Rates in the Stratosphere in 1993 from Observations of CO2, N2O and CH4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wofsy, Steven C.; Boering, Kristie A.; Daube, Bruce C., Jr.; McElroy, Michael B.; Loewenstein, Max; Podolske, James R.; Elkins, James W.; Dutton, Geoffrey S.; Fahey, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of CO2, N2O and CH4 are analyzed to define hemispheric average vertical exchange rates in the lower stratosphere from November 1992 to October 1993. Effective vertical diffusion coefficients were small in summer, less than or equal to 1 m(exp 2)/sec at altitudes below 25 km; values were similar near the tropopause in winter, but increased markedly with altitude. The analysis suggests possibly longer residence times for exhaust from stratospheric aircraft, and more efficient transport from 20 km to the middle stratosphere, than predicted by many current models. Seasonally-resolved measurements of stratospheric CO2 and N2O provide significant new constraints on rates for global-scale vertical transport.

  19. Microstructural Evolution of Ti-6Al-4V during High Strain Rate Conditions of Metal Cutting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dong, Lei; Schneider, Judy

    2009-01-01

    The microstructural evolution following metal cutting was investigated within the metal chips of Ti-6Al-4V. Metal cutting was used to impose a high strain rate on the order of approx.10(exp 5)/s within the primary shear zone as the metal was removed from the workpiece. The initial microstructure of the parent material (PM) was composed of a bi-modal microstructure with coarse prior grains and equiaxed primary located at the boundaries. After metal cutting, the microstructure of the metal chips showed coarsening of the equiaxed primary grains and lamellar. These metallographic findings suggest that the metal chips experienced high temperatures which remained below the transus temperature.

  20. Low Luminosity States of the Black Hole Candidate GX 339-4. 2; Timing Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowak, Michael A.; Wilms, Joern; Dove, James B.

    1999-01-01

    Here we present timing analysis of a set of eight Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the black hole candidate GX 339-4 that were taken during its hard/low state. On long time scales, the RXTE All Sky Monitor data reveal evidence of a 240 day periodicity, comparable to timescales expected from warped, precessing accretion disks. On short timescales all observations save one show evidence of a persistent f(qpo approximately equals 0.3 Hz quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO)). The broad band (10 (exp -3) to 10 (exp2) Hz) power appears to be dominated by two independent processes that can be modeled as very broad Lorentzians with Q approximately less than - 1. The coherence function between soft and hard photon variability shows that if these are truly independent processes, then they are individually coherent, but they are incoherent with one another. This is evidenced by the fact that the coherence function between the hard and soft variability is near unity between 5 x 10 (exp -3) but shows evidence of a dip at f approximately equals 1 Hz. This is the region of overlap between the broad Lorentzian fits to the Power Spectral Density (PSD). Similar to Cyg X-1, the coherence also drops dramatically at frequencies approximately greater than 1O Hz. Also similar to Cyg X-1, the hard photon variability is seen to lag the soft photon variability with the lag time increasing with decreasing Fourier frequency. The magnitude of this time lag appears to be positively correlated with the flux of GX 339-4. We discuss all of these observations in light of current theoretical models of both black hole spectra and temporal variability.

  1. Binary-binary interactions and the formation of the PSR B1620-26 triple system in M4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasio, Frederic A.; Mcmillan, Steve; Hut, Piet

    1995-01-01

    The hierarchical triple system containing the millisecond pulsar PSR B1620-26 in M4 is the first star system ever detected in a globular cluster. Such systems should form in globular clusters as a result of dynamical interactions between binaries. We propose that the triple system containing PSR B1620-26 formed through an exchange interaction between a wide primordial binary and a pre-existing binary millisecond pulsar. This scenario would have the advantage of reconciling the approximately 10(exp 9) yr timing age of the pulsar with the much shorter lifetime of the triple system in the core of M4.

  2. Satellite Boreal Measurements over Alaska and Canada During June-July 2004: Simultaneous Measurements of Upper Tropospheric CO, C2H6, HCN, CH3Cl, CH4, C2H2, CH2OH, HCOOH, OCS, and SF6 Mixing Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, Curtis P.; Dufour, Gaelle; Boone, Chris D.; Bernath, Peter F.; Chiou, Linda; Coheur, Pierre-Francois; Turquety, Solene; Clerbaux, Cathy

    2007-01-01

    Simultaneous ACE (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment) upper tropospheric CO, C2H6, HCN, CH3Cl, CH4 , C2H2 , CH30H, HCOOH, and OCS measurements show plumes up to 185 ppbv (10 (exp -9) per unit volume) for CO, 1.36 ppbv for C2H6, 755 pptv (10(exp -12) per unit volume) for HCN, 1.12 ppbv for CH3C1, 1.82 ppmv, (10(exp -6) per unit volume) for CH4, 0.178 ppbv for C2H2, 3.89 ppbv for CH30H, 0.843 ppbv for HCOOH, and 0.48 ppbv for OCS in western Canada and Alaska at 50 deg N-68 deg N latitude between 29 June and 23 July 2004. Enhancement ratios and emission factors for HCOOH, CH30H, HCN, C2H6, and OCS relative to CO at 250-350 hPa are inferred from measurements of young plumes compared with lower mixing ratios assumed to represent background conditions based on a CO emission factor derived from boreal measurements. Results are generally consistent with the limited data reported for various vegetative types and emission phases measured in extratropical forests including boreal forests. The low correlation between fire product emission mixing ratios and the S176 mixing ratio is consistent with no significant SF6 emissions from the biomass fires.

  3. Long term microparticle impact fluxes on LDEF determined from optical survey of Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, C. G.; Oliver, J. P.; Cooke, W. J.; Downey, K. I.; Kassel, P. C.

    1995-01-01

    Many of the IDE metal-oxide-silicon (MOS) capacitor-discharge impact sensors remained active during the entire Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) mission. An optical survey of impact sites on the active surfaces of these sensors has been extended to include all sensors from the low-flux sides of LDEF (i.e. the west or trailing side, the earth end, and the space end) and 5-7 active sensors from each LDEF's high-flux sides (i.e. the east or leading side, the south side, and the north side). This survey was facilitated by the presence of a relatively large (greater than 50 micron diameter) optical signature associated with each impact site on the active sensor surfaces. Of the approximately 4700 impacts in the optical survey data set, 84% were from particles in the 0.5 to 3 micron size range. An estimate of the total number of hypervelocity impacts on LDEF from particles greater than 0.5 micron diameter yields a value of approximately 7 x 10(exp 6). Impact feature dimensions for several dozen large craters on MOS sensors and germanium witness plates are also presented. Impact fluxes calculated from the IDE survey data closely matched surveys of similar size impacts (greater than or equal to 3 micron diameter craters in Al, or marginal penetrations of a 2.4 micron thick Al foil) by other LDEF investigators. Since the first year IDE data were electronically recorded, the flux data could be divided into three long term time periods: the first year, the entire 5.8 year mission, and the intervening 4.8 years (by difference). The IDE data show that there was an order of magnitude decrease in the long term microparticle impact flux on the trailing side of LDEF, from 1.01 to 0.098 x 10(exp -4) m(exp 2)/s, from the first year in orbit compared to years 2-6. The long term flux on the leading edge showed an increase from 8.6 to 11.2 x 10(exp -4) m(exp -2)/s over this same time period. (Short term flux increases up to 10,000 times the background rate were recorded on the

  4. Kinetics of the Cl(2)P(J)) + CH4 Reaction: Effects of Secondary Chemistry Below 300 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. J.; Keyser, Leon F.

    2000-01-01

    Absolute rate data for the Cl(2)P(J) + CH4 yields HCl + CH3 reaction have been obtained from 218 to 298 K by using the discharge-flow resonance fluorescence technique at I Torr total pressure. The result at 298 K is (10.1 +/- 0.6) x 10(exp -14) cu cm/molecule/s. The temperature dependence in Arrhenius form is (6.5 +/- 0.9 ) x 10(exp -12) exp[(-1235 +/- 34 )/T]. The errors given are one standard deviation; overall experimental error is estimated at +/- 15%. Because of the relatively large disagreement among earlier measurements at low temperatures, the results were examined for possible effects of non-Boltzmann spin distribution and vibrational excitation of CH4, secondary chemistry of CH3 radicals, and impurities in the CH4 source. There was no significant change in the observed rate constant when an efficient spin quencher, CF4, was added and estimates indicate that vibrational partitioning in CH4 should be at the ambient reactor temperature before the start of the reaction. The results were also independent of the source of Cl atoms (microwave discharge or thermal decomposition of Cl2) and whether CH4 was purified in-situ. However, the observed rate constant did depend on initial Cl atom concentrations and to a lesser extent on CH4 concentrations. Numerical simulations were used to assess the importance of secondary chemistry over a range of reactant concentrations

  5. Toward 10(exp 10) Contrast for Terrestrial Exoplanet Detection: Demonstration of Wavefront Correction in a Shaped Pupil Coronagraph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belikov, Ruslan; Give'on, Amir; Trauger, John T.; Carr, Michael; Kasdin, Jeremy N.; Vanderbei, Robert J.; Shi, Fang; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Kuhnert, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Experimental demonstration of wavefront control with shaped pupils. Contrast level is maintained across different wavelengths and 10% broadband light. Further improvements in contrast believed to have been possible with more time and parameter optimizations.

  6. Measurement of atmospheric OH by titration of near-IR fluorescent dyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betterton, Eric A.; Gast, Karl

    1994-01-01

    Recent research has shown that certain polymethine dyes can be detected at ultratrace levels (greater than or equal to 6x10(exp -14) M) in solution by fluorimetry. These detection limits are possible because of the inherent sensitivity of fluorescence techniques, because the dyes fluoresce in the near infrared region where background interference is negligible, and because powerful infrared diode lasers are now available to improve the signal to noise ratio. Other work has shown that the hydroxyl radical destroys the ability of polymethine dyes to fluoresce. These observations form the basis for a new hydroxyl radical detector that is essentially a fluorometric titrator. Theoretically, the detector should show an acceptable sensitivity and response time. Assuming that the atmospheric HO concentration is about 10(exp -11) moles m(exp -3) (i.e. 10(exp 6) molecules cm(exp -3)), then 10 L of air 'titrated' with 20 mL of 10(exp -11) M dye solution (an easily detected concentration) should result in a drop in the fluorescent signal of 50 percent - a readily detectable change. At a flow rate of 3 L min(exp -1) the sampling time would be 3 minutes. The biggest potential problem is selectivity: other oxidants may also cause the fluorescence signal to be lost. The chemistry of polymethine dyes has not been studied in detail and so no quantitative data are available. However, a survey of the literature suggests that in general HO should react up to six orders of magnitude faster than HO2 and other radicals such as RO2 and RO. It should also react much more rapidly than H2O2 and O3. Thus it may be possible to discriminate kinetically against potential interfering substances. It was shown in the laboratory that 10(exp -4) M H2O2 has little effect on the absorption spectrum of the dye IR125 over a period of hours but that the band at 780 nm is slowly lost in water over a period of days even under argon in the dark. By contrast, DMSO solutions of IR125 are stable.

  7. Rate Coefficients of C2H with C2H4, C2H6, and H2 from 150 to 359 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opansky, Brian J.; Leone, Stephen R.

    1996-01-01

    Rate coefficients for the reactions C2H with C2H4, C2H6, and H2 are measured over the temperature range 150-359 K using transient infrared laser absorption spectroscopy. The ethynyl radical is formed by photolysis of C2H2 with a pulsed excimer laser at 193 nm, and its transient absorption is monitored with a color center laser on the Q(sub 11)(9) line of the A(sup 2) Pi-Chi(sup 2) Sigma transition at 3593.68 cm(exp -1). Over the experimental temperature range 150-359 K the rate constants of C2H with C2H4, C2H6, and H2 can be fitted to the Arrhenius expressions k(sub C2H4) = (7.8 +/- 0.6) x 10(exp -11) exp[(134 +/- 44)/T], k(sub C2H6) = (3.5 +/- 0.3) x 10(exp -11) exp[(2.9 +/- 16)/T], and k(sub H2) = (1.2 +/- 0.3) x 10(exp -11) exp[(-998 +/- 57)]/T cm(exp 3) molecule(exp -1) sec(exp -1). The data for C2H with C2H4 and C2H6 indicate a negligible activation energy to product formation shown by the mild negative temperature dependence of both reactions. When the H2 data are plotted together with the most recent high-temperature results from 295 to 854 K, a slight curvature is observed. The H2 data can be fit to the non-Arrhenius form k(sub H2) = 9.2 x 10(exp -18) T(sup 2.17 +/- 0.50) exp[(-478 +/- 165)/T] cm(exp 3) molecules(exp -1) sec(exp -1). The curvature in the Arrhenius plot is discussed in terms of both quantum mechanical tunneling of the H atom from H2 to the C2H radical and bending mode contributions to the partition function.

  8. Heterogeneous Uptake and Conversion of HOBr on H2SO4 at Upper Tropospheric and Stratospheric Temperatures (255 - 210 K)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iraci, Laura T.; Ashbourn, Samantha F. M.; Rammer, Thomas A.; Golden, David M.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Halogen species are known to catalytically destroy ozone in several different regions of the atmosphere. In addition to directly destroying ozone, bromine compounds can indirectly enhance ozone loss through coupling to other radical families. Hypobromous acid (HOBr), a key species in the linkage of BrOx to ClOx and HOx, is produced by the hydrolysis of BrONO2 on sulfate aerosols, and thus the heterogeneous behavior of HOBr must be understood. We have measured the solubility of HOBr in 45 to 70 percent by weight sulfuric acid solutions. Over the temperature range 208 to 255 K, HOBr is very soluble in sulfuric acid, H(*) = 10(exp 4) to 10(exp 8) M/atm. The solubility is temperature dependent, and our results agree well with those of Waschewsky and Abbott for 60 percent by weight H2SO4. HOBr is nearly as soluble as HBr, indicating that equilibrium concentrations of HOBr could approach those of HBr in sulfuric acid aerosols. Despite the high solubility of HOBr, stratospheric aerosol volumes are not large enough to sequester a significant fraction of inorganic bromine from the gas phase. Uptake of HOBr was nearly always accompanied by reaction, producing Br2O and possibly Br2. The effect of this bromine conversion pathway on the HOx and ClOx families, particularly at temperatures as warm as 255 K, will be considered.

  9. Experimental Determination of the Recovery Factor and Analytical Solution of the Conical Flow Field for a 20 deg Included Angle Cone at Mach Numbers of 4.6 and 6.0 and Stagnation Temperatures to 2600 degree R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfyl, Frank A.; Presley, Leroy L.

    1961-01-01

    The local recovery factor was determined experimentally along the surface of a thin-walled 20 deg included angle cone for Mach numbers near 6.0 at stagnation temperatures between 1200 deg R and 2600 deg R. In addition, a similar cone configuration was tested at Mach numbers near 4.5 at stagnation temperatures of approximately 612 deg R. The local Reynolds number based on flow properties at the edge of the boundary layer ranged between 0.1 x 10(exp 4) and 3.5 x 10(exp 4) for tests at temperatures above 1200 deg R and between 6 x 10(exp 4) and 25 x 10(exp 4) for tests at temperatures near 612 deg R. The results indicated, generally, that the recovery factor can be predicted satisfactorily using the square root of the Prandtl number. No conclusion could be made as to the necessity of evaluating the Prandtl number at a reference temperature given by an empirical equation, as opposed to evaluating the Prandtl number at the wall temperature or static temperature of the gas at the cone surface. For the tests at temperatures above 1200 deg R (indicated herein as the tests conducted in the slip-flow region), two definite trends in the recovery data were observed - one of increasing recovery factor with decreasing stagnation pressure, which was associated with slip-flow effects and one of decreasing recovery factor with increasing temperature. The true cause of the latter trend could not be ascertained, but it was shown that this trend was not appreciably altered by the sources of error of the magnitude considered herein. The real-gas equations of state were used to determine accurately the local stream properties at the outer edge of the boundary layer of the cone. Included in the report, therefore, is a general solution for the conical flow of a real gas using the Beattie-Bridgeman equation of state. The largest effect of temperature was seen to be in the terms which were dependent upon the internal energy of the gas. The pressure and hence the pressure drag terms were

  10. Detection of C2H4 Neptune from ISO/PHT-S Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulz, B.; Encrenaz, Th.; Bezard, B.; Romani, P. N.; Lellouch, E.; Atreya, S. K.

    1999-01-01

    The 6-12 micrometer spectrum of Neptune has been recorded with the PHT-S instrument of the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) at a resolution of 0.095 micrometer. In addition to the emissions of CH4, CH3D and C2H6 previously identified, the spectrum shows the first firm identification of ethylene C2H4. The inferred column density above the 0.2-mbar level is in the range (1.1 - 3) x 10(exp 14) molecules/cm. To produce this low amount, previous photochemical models invoked rapid mixing between the source and sink regions of C2H4. We show that this requirement can be relaxed if recent laboratory measurements of CH4 photolysis branching ratios at Lyman alpha are used.

  11. Elevated Temperature Deformation of Fe-39.8Al and Fe-15.6Mn-39.4Al

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel

    2004-01-01

    The elevated temperature compressive properties of binary Fe-39.8 at % Al and Fe-15.6Mn-39.4Al have been measured between 1000 and 1300 K at strain rates between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 3)/ s. Although the Mn addition to iron aluminide did not change the basic deformation characteristics, the Mn-modified alloy was slightly weaker. In the regime where deformation of FeAl occurs by a high stress exponent mechanism (n = 6), strength increases as the grain size decreases at least for diameters between approx. 200 and approx. 10 microns. Due to the limitation in the grain size-flow stress-temperature-strain rate database, the influence of further reductions of the grain size on strength is uncertain. Based on the appearance of subgrains in deformed iron aluminide, the comparison of grain diameters to expected subgrain sizes, and the grain size exponent and stress exponent calculated from deformation experiments, it is believed that grain size strengthening is the result of an artificial limitation on subgrain size as proposed by Sherby, Klundt and Miller.

  12. Meteoroid Flux from Lunar Impact Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suggs, Robert; Moser, Danielle; Cooke, William; Suggs, Ronnie

    2015-01-01

    The flux of kilogram-sized meteoroids has been determined from the first 5 years of observations by NASA's Lunar Impact Monitoring Program (Suggs et al. 2014). Telescopic video observations of 126 impact flashes observed during photometric conditions were calibrated and the flux of meteoroids to a limiting mass of 30 g was determined to be 6.14 x 10(exp -10) m(exp -2) yr(exp -1) at the Moon, in agreement with the Grun et al. (1985) model value of 7.5 x 10(exp -10) m(exp -2) yr(exp -1). After accounting for gravitational focusing effects, the flux at the Earth to a limiting impact energy of 3.0 x10(exp -6) kilotons of TNT (1.3 x 10(exp 7) J) was determined to be consistent with the results in Brown et al. (2002). Approximately 62% of the impact flashes were correlated with major meteor showers as cataloged in visual/optical meteor shower databases. These flux measurements, coupled with cratering and ejecta models, can be used to develop impact ejecta engineering environments for use in lunar surface spacecraft design and risk analyses.

  13. The 2006-2007 Active Phase Of Anomalous X-Ray Pulsar 4U 0142+61: Radiative and Timing Changes, Bursts, and Burst Spectral Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavril, Fotis P.; Dib, Rim; Kaspi, Victoria M.

    2009-01-01

    After at least 6 years of quiescence, Anomalous X-ray Pulsar (AXP) 4U 0142+61 entered an active phase in 2006 March that lasted several months and included six X-ray bursts as well as many changes in the persistent X-ray emission. The bursts, the first seen from this AXP in >11 years of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer monitoring, all occurred in the interval between 2006 April 6 and 2007 February 7. The burst durations ranged from 8-3x10(exp 3)s. The first five burst spectra are well modeled by blackbodies, with temperatures kT approx. 2 - 6 keV. However, the sixth burst had a complicated spectrum that is well characterized by a blackbody plus three emission features whose amplitude varied throughout the burst. The most prominent feature was at 14.0 keV. Upon entry into the active phase the pulsar showed a significant change in pulse morphology and a likely timing glitch. The glitch had a total frequency jump of (1.9+/-0.4)x10(exp -7) Hz, which recovered with a decay time of 17+/-2 days by more than the initial jump, implying a net spin-down of the pulsar. We discuss these events in the context of the magnetar model.

  14. Initial astronomical results with a new 5-14 micron Si:Ga 58x62 DRO array camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, Dan; Folz, Walter; Woods, Larry

    1989-01-01

    A new array camera system was developed using a 58 x 62 pixel Si:Ga (gallium doped silicon) DRO (direct readout) photoconductor array detector manufactured by Hughes/Santa Barbara Research Center (SBRC). The camera system is a broad band photometer designed for 5 to 14 micron imaging with large ground-based optical telescopes. In a typical application a 10 micron photon flux of about 10(exp 9) photons sec(exp -1) m(exp -2) microns(exp -1) arcsec(exp -2) is incident in the telescope focal plane, while the detector well capacity of these arrays is 10(exp 5) to 10 (exp 6) electrons. However, when the real efficiencies and operating conditions are accounted for, the 2-channel 3596 pixel array operates with about 1/2 full wells at 10 micron and 10% bandwidth with high duty cycle and no real experimental compromises.

  15. Study of Bulk and Elementary Screw Dislocation Assisted Reverse Breakdown in Low-Voltage (<250 V) 4H-SiC p+n Junction Diodes - Part 1: DC Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Huang, Wei; Dudley, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Given the high density (approx. 10(exp 4)/sq cm) of elementary screw dislocations (Burgers vector = lc with no hollow core) in commercial SiC wafers and epilayers, all appreciable current (greater than 1 A) SiC power devices will likely contain elementary screw dislocations for the foreseeable future. It is therefore important to ascertain the electrical impact of these defects, particularly in high-field vertical power device topologies where SiC is expected to enable large performance improvements in solid-state high-power systems. This paper compares the DC-measured reverse-breakdown characteristics of low-voltage (less than 250 V) small-area (less than 5 x 10(exp -4) sq cm) 4H-SiC p(+)n diodes with and without elementary screw dislocations. Compared to screw dislocation-free devices, diodes containing elementary screw dislocations exhibited higher pre-breakdown reverse leakage currents, softer reverse breakdown I-V knees, and highly localized microplasmic breakdown current filaments. The observed localized 4H-SiC breakdown parallels microplasmic breakdowns observed in silicon and other semiconductors, in which space-charge effects limit current conduction through the local microplasma as reverse bias is increased.

  16. Study of Bulk and Elementary Screw Dislocation Assisted Reverse Breakdown in Low-Voltage (less than 250 V) 4H-SiC p(+)n Junction diodes. Part 1; DC Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Huang, Wei; Dudley, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Given the high density (approx. 10(exp 4)/sq cm) of elementary screw dislocations (Burgers vector = 1c with no hollow core) in commercial SiC wafers and epilayers, all appreciable current (greater than 1 A) SiC power devices will likely contain elementary screw dislocations for the foreseeable future. It is therefore important to ascertain the electrical impact of these defects, particularly in high-field vertical power device topologies where SiC is expected to enable large performance improvements in solid-state high-power systems. This paper compares the DC-measured reverse-breakdown characteristics of low-voltage (less than 250 V) small-area (less than 5 x 10(exp -4)/sq cm) 4H-SiC p(+)n diodes with and without elementary screw dislocations. Compared to screw dislocation-free devices, diodes containing elementary screw dislocations exhibited higher pre-breakdown reverse leakage currents, softer reverse breakdown I-V knees, and highly localized microplasmic breakdown current filaments. The observed localized 4H-SiC breakdown parallels microplasmic breakdowns observed in silicon and other semiconductors, in which space-charge effects limit current conduction through the local microplasma as reverse bias is increased.

  17. Estimation of the viscosities of silicate liquids at high pressure from measurements of oxygen diffusivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubie, D. C.; Ross, C. R., II; Carroll, M. R.; Elphick, S. C.

    1992-01-01

    The dynamics and evolution of a magma ocean depend significantly on the structure and physical properties of silicate liquids at high pressure. Viscosity is particularly important because of its effect on the dynamics of convection and crystal setting. Traditionally, the viscosities of silicate liquids have been measured at high pressure by falling sphere viscometry but, due to some limitations of this technique, few measurements have been made at pressures exceeding 2.5 GPa. An alternative approach, which has previously been proven up to 2 GPa, is to use high pressure measurements of oxygen self-diffusivity (D) to estimate viscosity (eta) from the Eyring relationship eta = kT/D lambda (where k is the Boltzmann constant, T is absolute temperature, and lambda is the diffusive jump distance). We have performed preliminary experiments on Na2Si4O9 liquid in order to explore the feasibility of this method up to pressures in excess of 10 GPa. Diffusion couples were prepared from glass starting materials with one half of the sample enriched in O-18 and the other half containing the natural abundance (0.2 wt percent). Diffusion experiments were performed at 1600 to 1800 C at pressures in the range of 2.5 to 10 GPa for times up to 6 minutes using a 1200 ton multianvil apparatus. Oxygen diffusivities were derived from the resulting O-18 concentration profiles, which were analyzed using an ion microprobe. At 1800 C, oxygen diffusivities increase continuously from 1 x 10(exp -10) m(exp -2) s(exp -1) at 2.5 Gpa to 5 x 10(exp -10) m(exp -2) s(exp -1) at 10 GPa. From the Eyring relationship, the viscosity of Na2SiO9 liquid is predicted to decrease by approx. 0.7 log units over this pressure range at 1800 C. These trends, which can be related to changes in the structure of the liquid at high pressure, are in agreement with results of molecular dynamics calculations. These results suggest that it should be possible to estimate the viscosities of silicate liquids up to at least 15

  18. The orbital evolution of real asteroids near the 4:1 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahlgren, Mats; Hahn, Gerhard; Lagerkvist, C.-I.; Lundstroem, M.

    1992-01-01

    Numerical integrations of the orbits of ten asteroids with osculating elements near the 4:1 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter have been performed over 200,000 years into the future. A variety of orbital evolutions was found, depending on the start values of the semi-major axis. The orbit of asteroid 1983 RJ4, which lies almost exactly at the resonance center, experiences large variations in eccentricity, evolving into an Earth-crosser on a time-scale of a few 10(exp 4) years. This makes this region a potential source for Apollo objects and meteoritic material, although the width of the resonance region in semi-major axis seems to be very narrow.

  19. Possible identification of a cluster of galaxies at redshift z = 3.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giavalisco, Mauro; Steidel, Charles C.; Szalay, Alexander S.

    1994-01-01

    We report the possible detection of a cluster of 16 radio-quiet galaxies at z = 3.4, identified in the field around the optically thick absorption system toward Q0000-263 at z(sub abs) = 3.390. Two of them, a Lyman alpha emitter at z = 3.428 and the galaxy responsible for the absorption system, have redshifts spectroscopically confirmed. The other 14 galaxies identified using a multicolor imaging technique designed to detect sources in the redshift interval 3 approximately less than z approximately less than 3.5 which are characterized by a Lyman discontinuity in an otherwise flat spectrum, have broad-band spectral energy distributions identical to the two galaxies with known redshift. They are spatially distributed in two apparent clumps, around the damped absorber and the Lyman alpha galaxy, respectively. A clustering analysis excludes with 98.8% confidence that this association is a realization of a Poissonian distribution and confirms that the observed clumps are real. The implications are that the 16 galaxies are members of a cluster at z approximately equals 3.4, by far the most distant ever detected. An estimate of the mass bounded in stars of this cluster is 3 x 10(exp 12) solar mass (q(sub 0) = 0 and H(sub 0) = 50 km/s/Mpc throughout this Letter), while the total mass (baryonic + dark) is 6 x 10(exp 14) solar mass. We also estimate that at z = 3.4 the correlation length is 2.2 Mpc, which, compared to the present value of 11 Mpc, suggests that the clustering evolution is still close to the linear regime.

  20. Microstructure Evolution in Cut Metal Chips of Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dong, L.; Schneider, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    The microstructural evolution following metal cutting was investigated within metal chips of Ti-6Al-4V. Metal cutting was used to impose a high strain rate on the order of approx.10(exp 5)/s within the primary shear zone as the metal was removed from the workpiece. The initial microstructure of the parent material (PM) was composed of a bi-modal microstructure with coarse prior beta grains and equiaxed primary alpha located at the boundaries. After metal cutting, the microstructure of the metal chips showed coarsening of the equiaxed primary alpha grains and beta lamellar. These metallographic findings suggest that the metal chips experienced high temperatures which remained below the beta transus temperature.

  1. Simultaneous ROSAT/Ginga observations of 4U 1820-30

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Der Klis, M.; Hasinger, G.; Dotani, T.; Mitsuda, K.; Verbunt, F.; Murphy, B. W.; Van Paradijs, J.; Belloni, T.; Makishima, K.; Morgan, E.

    1993-01-01

    We have made simultaneous Ginga LAC and ROSAT PSPC observations of 4U 1820-30. The 685-s orbital light curves obtained with the two instruments are very similar, indicating that the energy dependence of the orbital modulation is small. Our measurements extend the baseline over which the period variations can be measured to 15 yr. The previous possibility, that the changes in the period are themselves periodic, with a period of about 8 yr, is no longer preferred over a constant P(dot). Over the interval 1976-91 the period has decreased, rather than increasing as predicted by the standard model for the orbital evolution of the binary. The average period derivative P(dot)/P was (-0.88 +/- 0.16) x 10 exp -7/yr, different by 11 sigma from the predicted value. Under the assumption that there are no intrinsic changes in the light curve that mimic a period change, we discuss three possible explanations.

  2. Rate constant for the reaction of OH with CH3CCl2F (HCFC-141b) determined by relative rate measurements with CH4 and CH3CCl3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huder, Karin; Demore, William B.

    1993-01-01

    Determination of accurate rate constants for OH abstraction is of great importance for the calculation of lifetimes for HCFCs and their impact on the atmosphere. For HCFC-141b there has been some disagreement in the literature for absolute measurements of this rate constant. In the present work rate constant ratios for HCFC-141b were measured at atmospheric pressure in the temperature range of 298-358 K, with CH4 and CH3CCl3 as reference gases. Ozone was photolyzed at 254 nm in the presence of water vapor to produce OH radicals. Relative depletions of 141b and the reference gases were measured by FTIR. Arrhenius expressions for 141b were derived from each reference gas and found to be in good agreement with each other. The combined expression for HCFC-141b which we recommend is 1.4 x 10 exp -12 exp(-1630/T) with k at 298 K being 5.9 x 10 exp -15 cu cm/molec-s. This value is in excellent agreement with the JPL 92-20 recommendation.

  3. RF Manipulation of Ions in the High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, J. Boise; Martin, James J.; Sims, William H.; Chakrabarti, Suman; Lewis, Raymond A.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The annihilation of antimatter provides the highest mass specific energy of any other known reaction. Proper harnessing of this energy holds great promise for future space propulsion systems. Many different propulsion concepts have been proposed that take advantage of antimatter, either using matter-antimatter as the primary fuel, or as a 'spark plug' for fusion and fission systems. In order to begin to address these concepts experimentally, a method of storing and transporting antimatter must be developed. The High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT) is a first-generation storage and transportation device designed to store and transport 10(exp 12) antiprotons with a storage half-life of 18 days. It uses a Penning-Malmberg ion trap with a 4T magnetic field and 20 kV potential. This will enable researchers much more flexibility in the design of antimatter experiments related to propulsion. Ions cannot be stored indefinitely in a real trap, as ion cloud instabilities develop from imperfections in manufacturing and misalignments in assembly. Previous work has been done at both the National Institute of Standards and University of California in San Diego in using RF (radio frequency) signals to both diagnose and confine the ion cloud. Two electrodes in the trap have been segmented to allow both reception and transmission of RF waves in the ion cloud. Experiments are underway to determine the number of ions and density in the cloud by "listening" to protons contained in the HiPAT. Currently we believe the density of ions stored in the trap is roughly 10(exp 15) m(exp -3). Development of non-destructive techniques is vital to the project goals, enabling continuous monitoring of the quantities stored in the system. Experimental work is also being done in identifying RF transmission frequencies that can manipulate the density of the cloud, by exchanging energy and momentum between the RF wave and the ions. Preliminary experiments have demonstrated this interaction.

  4. Hard X-Ray Detection of the High Redshift Quasar 4C 71.07

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malizia, A.; Bassani, L.; Dean, A. J.; McCollough, M. L.; Stephen, J. B.; Zhang, S. N.

    1999-01-01

    BATSE/OSSE observations of the high redshift quasar 4C 71.07 indicate that this is the brightest and furthest AGN so far detected 20 keV. BATSE Earth occultation data have been used to search for emission from 4C 71.07 from nearly 3 years of observation. The mean source flux over the- whole period in the BATSE energy range 20-100 keV is (13.2 +/- 1.06) x 10(exp -11) erg/square cm/s corresponding to a luminosity of 2 x 10(exp 48 erg/s. The BATSE light curve over the 3 years of observations shows several flare-like events, one of which (in January 1996) is associated with an optical flare (R=16.1) but with a delay of 55 days. The OSSE/BATSE spectral analysis indicates that the source is characterized by a flat power spectrum (Gamma is approximately 1.1- 1.3) when in a low state: this spectral form is consistent within errors with the ASCA and ROSAT spectra. This means that the power law observed from 0.1 to 10 keV extends up to at least 1 MeV but steepens soon after to meet EGRET high energy data. BATSE data taken around the January 1996 flare suggests that the spectrum could be steeper when the source is in a bright state. The upsilon-F-upsilon representation of the source is typical of a low frequency peaked/ gamma- ray dominated blazar, with the synchrotron peak in the mm-FIR band and the Compton peak in the MeV band. The BATSE and OSSE spectral data seem to favour a model in which the high energy - flux is due to the sum of the synchrotron self-Compton and the external Compton contributions: this is also supported by the- variability behaviour of the source.

  5. Electron-Temperature Dependence of the Recombination of NH4(+)((NH3)(sub n) Ions with Electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skrzypkowski, M. P.; Johnson, R.

    1997-01-01

    The two-body recombination of NH4(+)(NH3)(sub 2,3) cluster-ions with electrons has been studied in an afterglow experiment in which the electron temperature T, was elevated by radio-frequency heating from 300 K up to 900 K. The recombination coefficients for the n = 2 and n = 3 cluster ions were found to be equal, alpha(sub 2, sup(2)) = alpha(sub 3, sup(2)) = (4.8 +/- 0.5) x 10(exp - 6)cu cm/s, and to vary with electron temperature as T(sub c, sup -0.65) rather than to be nearly temperature-independent as had been inferred from measurements in microwave-heated plasmas.

  6. 2.4 Micron Cutoff AlGaAsSb/InGaAsSb Phototransistors for Shortwave IR Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Abedin, Nurul; Sulima, Oleg V.; Swaminathan, Krishna; Ismail, Syed; Singh, Upendra N.

    2006-01-01

    Shortwave infrared detectors are critical for several applications including remote sensing and optical communications. Several detectors are commercially available for this wavelength range, but they lack sufficient gain, which limits their detectivity. The characterization results of an AlGaAsSb/InGaAsSb phototransistor for shortwave IR application are reported. The phototransistor is grown using molecular beam epitaxy technique. Spectral response measurements showed a uniform responsivity between 1.2 and 2.4 micron region with a mean value of 1000 A/W. A maximum detectivity of 3.4 X 10(exp 11) cmHz1/2/W was obtained at 2 micron at -20 C and 1.3 V.

  7. Detection and period measurements of GX1+4 at hard x ray energies with the SIGMA telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurent, PH.; Salotti, L.; Lebrun, F.; Paul, J.; Denis, M.; Barret, D.; Jourdain, E.; Roques, J. P.; Churazov, E.; Gilfanov, M.

    1992-01-01

    The galactic Low Mass X ray Binary GX1+4 was detected by the coded aperture hard X ray gamma ray SIGMA telescope during the Feb. to April 1991 observations of the galactic center regions. The source, whose emission varied during the survey of a factor greater than 40 pct., reached a maximum luminosity in the 40 to 140 energy range of 1.03 x 10(exp 37) erg/s (D = 8.5 kpc), thus approaching the emission level of the 1970 to 1980 high state. Two minute flux pulsations were detected on Mar. 22 and on Mar. 31 and Apr. 1. Comparison with the last period measurements shows that the current spin-down phase of GX1+4 is ending. Concerning the proposed association of this source with the galactic center 511 keV annihilation emission, upper limits were derived.

  8. Swift J2058.4+0516: Discovery of a Possible Second Relativistic Tidal Disruption Flare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cenko, S. Bradely; Krimm, Hans A.; Horesh, Assaf; Rau, Arne; Frail, Dale A.; Kennea, Jamie A.; Levan, Andrew J.; Holland, Stephen T.; Butler, Nathaniel R.; Quimby, Robert M.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Greiner, Jochen; Kulkarni, S. R.; Ofek, Eran O.; Olivares, Felipe E.; Schady, Patricia; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Tanvir, Nial R.; Xu, Dong

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery by the Swift hard X-ray monitor of the transient source Swift J2058.4+0516 (Sw J2058+05). Our multi-wavelength follow-up campaign uncovered a long-lived (duration approximately greater than months), luminous X-ray (L(sub x.iso) approximates 3 X 10(exp47) erg/s) and radio (vL(sub v.iso) approximates 10(exp 42) erg/s) counterpart. The associated optical emission, however, from which we measure a redshift of 1.1853, is relatively faint, and this is not due to a large amount of dust extinction in the host galaxy. Based on numerous similarities with the recently discovered GRB 110328A / Swift 1164449.3+573451 (Sw 11644+57), we suggest that Sw J2058+05 may be the second member of a new class of relativistic outbursts resulting from the tidal disruption of a star by a supermassive black hole. If so, the relative rarity of these sources implies that either these outflows are extremely narrowly collimated (theta < 1 deg), or only a small fraction of tidal disruptions generate relativistic ejecta. Analogous to the case of long duration gamma-ray bursts and core-collapse supernovae, we speculate that the spin of the black hole may be a necessary condition to generate the relativistic component. Alternatively, if powered by gas accretion (i.e., an active galactic nucleus), this would imply that some galaxies can transition from apparent quiescence to a radiatively efficient state of accretion on quite short time scales.

  9. A Novel Tungsten-Nickel Alloy Ohmic Contact to SiC at 900 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okojie, Robert S.; Evans, Laura J.; Lukco, Dorothy; Morris, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    A novel tungsten-nickel ohmic contact metallization on 4H-SiC and 6H-SiC capable of surviving temperatures as high as 900 C is reported. Preliminary results revealed the following: 1) ohmic contact on n-type 4H-SiC having net doping levels (Nd's) of 1.4 and 2 x 10(exp 19) per cubic centimeter, with specific contact resistances rhosNd's of 7.69 x 10(exp -4) and 5.81 x 10(exp -4) OMEGA (raised dot) square centimeters, respectively, after rapid thermal annealing (RTA), and 5.9 x 10(exp -3) and 2.51 x 10(exp -4) OMEGA (raised dot) square centimeters, respectively, after subsequent soak at 900 C for 1 h in argon, and 2) ohmic contact on n- and p-type 6H-SiC having Nd > 2 x 10(exp 19) and Na > 1 x 10(exp 20) per cubic centimeter, with rhosNd = 5 x 10(exp -5) and rhosNa = 2 X 10(exp -4) OMEGA (raised dot) square centimeter, respectively, after RTA, and rhosNd = 2.5 x 10 (exp -5) and rhosNa = 1.5 x 10(exp -4) OMEGA (raised dot) square centimeter after subsequent treatment at 900 C for 1 h in argon, respectively.

  10. Tunable CW diode-pumped Tm,Ho:YLiF4 laser operating at or near room temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguckin, Brendan T. (Inventor); Menzies, Robert T. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A conversion efficiency of 42% and slope efficiency of 60% relative to absorbed pump power are obtained from a continuous wave diode-pumped Tm,Ho:YLiF4 laser at 2 microns with output power of 84 mW at a crystal temperature of 275 K. The emission spectrum is etalon tunable over a range of7 nm (16.3/cm) centered on 2.067 microns with fine tuning capability of the transition frequency with crystal temperature at a measured rate of -0.03/(cm)K. The effective emission cross-section is measured to be 5 x 10(exp -21) cm squared. These and other aspects of the laser performance are disclosed in the context of calculated atmospheric absorption characteristics in this spectral region and potential use in remote sensing applications. Single frequency output and frequency stabilization are achieved using an intracavity etalon in conjunction with an external reference etalon.

  11. High-Field Fast-Risetime Pulse Failures in 4H- and 6H-SiC pn Junction Diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Fazi, Christian

    1996-01-01

    We report the observation of anomalous reverse breakdown behavior in moderately doped (2-3 x 10(exp 17 cm(exp -3)) small-area micropipe-free 4H- and 6H-SiC pn junction diodes. When measured with a curve tracer, the diodes consistently exhibited very low reverse leakage currents and sharp repeatable breakdown knees in the range of 140-150 V. However, when subjected to single-shot reverse bias pulses (200 ns pulsewidth, 1 ns risetime), the diodes failed catastrophically at pulse voltages of less than 100 V. We propose a possible mechanism for this anomalous reduction in pulsed breakdown voltage relative to dc breakdown voltage. This instability must be removed so that SiC high-field devices can operate with the same high reliability as silicon power devices.

  12. Possible Detection of an Emission Cyclotron Resonance Scattering Feature from the Accretion-Powered Pulsar 4U 1626-67

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwakiri, W. B.; Terada, Y.; Tashiro, M. S.; Mihara, T.; Angelini, L.; Yamada, S.; Enoto, T.; Makishima, K.; Nakajima, M.; Yoshida, A.

    2012-01-01

    We present analysis of 4U 1626-67, a 7.7 s pulsar in a low-mass X-ray binary system, observed with the hard X-ray detector of the Japanese X-ray satellite Suzaku in 2006 March for a net exposure of 88 ks. The source was detected at an average 10-60 keY flux of approx 4 x 10-10 erg / sq cm/ s. The phase-averaged spectrum is reproduced well by combining a negative and positive power-law times exponential cutoff (NPEX) model modified at approx 37 keY by a cyclotron resonance scattering feature (CRSF). The phase-resolved analysis shows that the spectra at the bright phases are well fit by the NPEX with CRSF model. On the other hand. the spectrum in the dim phase lacks the NPEX high-energy cutoff component, and the CRSF can be reproduced by either an emission or an absorption profile. When fitting the dim phase spectrum with the NPEX plus Gaussian model. we find that the feature is better described in terms of an emission rather than an absorption profile. The statistical significance of this result, evaluated by means of an F test, is between 2.91 x 10(exp -3) and 1.53 x 10(exp -5), taking into account the systematic errors in the background evaluation of HXD-PIN. We find that the emission profile is more feasible than the absorption one for comparing the physical parameters in other phases. Therefore, we have possibly detected an emission line at the cyclotron resonance energy in the dim phase.

  13. Low Luminosity States of the Black Hole Candidate GX 339-4. 1; ASCA and Simultaneous Radio/RXTE Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilms, Joern; Nowak, Michael A.; Dove, James B.; Fender, Robert P.; DiMatteo, Tiziana

    1998-01-01

    We discuss a series of observations of the black hole candidate GX 339-4 in low luminosity, spectrally hard states. We present spectral analysis of three separate archival Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) data sets and eight separate Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) data sets. Three of the RXTE observations were strictly simultaneous with 843 Mega Hertz and 8.3-9.1 Giga Hertz radio observations. All of these observations have (3-9 keV) flux approximately less than 10(exp-9) ergs s(exp-1) CM(exp -2). The ASCA data show evidence for an approximately 6.4 keV Fe line with equivalent width approximately 40 eV, as well as evidence for a soft excess that is well-modeled by a power law plus a multicolor blackbody spectrum with peak temperature approximately equals 150-200 eV. The RXTE data sets also show evidence of an Fe line with equivalent widths approximately equal to 20-1OO eV. Reflection models show a hardening of the RXTE spectra with decreasing X-ray flux; however, these models do not exhibit evidence of a correlation between the photon index of the incident power law flux and the solid angle subtended by the reflector. 'Sphere+disk' Comptonization models and Advection Dominated Accretion Flow (ADAF) models also provide reasonable descriptions of the RXTE data. The former models yield coronal temperatures in the range 20-50 keV and optical depths of r approximately equal to 3. The model fits to the X-ray data, however, do not simultaneously explain the observed radio properties. The most likely source of the radio flux is synchrotron emission from an extended outflow of extent greater than O(10 (exp7) GM/c2).

  14. Viscoelastic Response of the Titanium Alloy Ti-6-4: Experimental Identification of Time- and Rate-Dependent Reversible and Irreversible Deformation Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Bradley A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    In support of an effort on damage prognosis, the viscoelastic behavior of Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-6-4) was investigated. This report documents the experimental characterization of this titanium alloy. Various uniaxial tests were conducted to low load levels over the temperature range of 20 to 538 C to define tensile, creep, and relaxation behavior. A range of strain rates (6x10(exp -7) to 0.001/s) were used to document rate effects. All tests were designed to include an unloading portion, followed by a hold time at temperature to allow recovery to occur either at zero stress or strain. The titanium alloy was found to exhibit viscoelastic behavior below the "yield" point and over the entire range of temperatures (although at lower temperatures the magnitude is extremely small). These experimental data will be used for future characterization of a viscoelastic model.

  15. Study of Bulk and Elementary Screw Dislocation Assisted Reverse Breakdown in Low-Voltage (< 250 V) 4H-SiC p(sup +)n Junction Diodes--Part II: Dynamic Breakdown Properties. Part 2; Dynamic Breakdown Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Fazi, Christian

    1999-01-01

    This paper outlines the dynamic reverse-breakdown characteristics of low-voltage (<250 V) small-area <5 x 10(exp -4) sq cm 4H-SiC p(sup +)n diodes subjected to nonadiabatic breakdown-bias pulsewidths ranging from 0.1 to 20 microseconds. 4H-SiC diodes with and without elementary screw dislocations exhibited positive temperature coefficient of breakdown voltage and high junction failure power densities approximately five times larger than the average failure power density of reliable silicon pn rectifiers. This result indicates that highly reliable low-voltage SiC rectifiers may be attainable despite the presence of elementary screw dislocations. However, the impact of elementary screw dislocations on other more useful 4H-SiC power device structures, such as high-voltage (>1 kV) pn junction and Schottky rectifiers, and bipolar gain devices (thyristors, IGBT's, etc.) remains to be investigated.

  16. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Gilmore Load Cell Machine: Load Cell Calibrations to 2.22 x 10(exp 7) Newtons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, Michael W.

    2000-01-01

    Designed in 1964 and erected in 1966, the mission of the Gilmore Load Cell Machine was to provide highly accurate calibrations for large capacity load cells in support of NASA's Apollo Program. Still in use today, the Gilmore Machine is a national treasure with no equal.

  17. Characterization of voids formed during liquid impregnation of nonwoven multifilament glass networks as related to composite processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahale, Anant D.; Prudhomme, Robert K.; Rebenfeld, Ludwig

    1993-01-01

    A technique based on matching the refractive index of an invading liquid to that of a fiber mat was used to study entrapment of air ('voids') that occurs during forced in-plane radial flow into nonwoven multifilament glass networks. The usefulness of this technique is demonstrated in quantifying and mapping the air pockets. Experiments with a series of fluids with surface tensions varying from 28 x 10(exp -3) to 36 x 10(exp -3) N/m, viscosities from 45 x 10(exp -3) to 290 x 10(exp -3) Pa.s, and inlet flow rates from 0.15 x 10(exp -6) to 0.75 x 10(exp -6) m(exp 3)/s, showed that void content is a function of the capillary number characterizing the flow process. A critical value of capillary number, Ca = 2.5 x 10(exp -3), identifies a zone below which void content increases exponentially with decreasing capillary number. Above this critical value, negligible entrapment of voids is observed. Similar experiments carried out on surface treated nonwoven mats spanning a range of equilibrium contact angles from 20 deg to 78 deg showed that there is a critical contact angle above which negligible entrapment is observed. Below this value, there is no apparent effect of contact angle on the void fraction - capillary number relationship described earlier. Studies on the effect of filament wettability, and fluid velocity and viscosity on the size of the entrapment (voids) were also carried out. These indicate that larger sized entrapments which envelop more than one pore are favored by a low capillary number in comparison to smaller, pore level bubbles. Experiments were carried out on deformed mats - imposing high permeability spots at regular intervals on a background of low permeability. The effect of these spatial fluctuations in heterogeneity of the mat on entrapment is currently being studied.

  18. The 2006-2007 Active Phase of Anomalous X-Ray Pulsar 4U 0142+61: Radiative and Timing Changes, Bursts,and Burst Spectral Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavriil, Fotis P.; Dib, Rim; Kaspi, Victoria M.

    2011-01-01

    After at least 6 years of quiescence, Anomalous X-ray Pulsar (AXP) 4U 0142+61 entered an active phase in 2006 March that lasted several months and included six X-ray bursts as well as many changes in the persistent X-ray emission. The bursts, the first seen from this AXP in > 11 years of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer monitoring, all occurred in the interval between 2006 April 6 and 2007 February 7. The burst durations ranged from 0.4 - 1.8 x 10(exp 3) s. The first five burst spectra are well modeled by blackbodies, with temperatures kT approx 2 - 9 keV. However, the sixth burst had a complicated spectrum that is well characterized by a blackbody plus two emission features whose amplitude varied throughout the burst. The most prominent feature was at 14.0 keV. Upon entry into the active phase the pulsar showed a significant change in pulse morphology and a likely timing glitch. The glitch had a total frequency jump of (1.9+/-0.4) x 10(exp -7) Hz, which recovered with a decay time of 17+/-2 days by more than the initial jump, implying a net spin-down of the pulsar. Within the framework of the magnetar model, the net spin-down of the star could be explained by regions of the superfluid that rotate. slower than the rest. The bursts, flux enhancements, and pulse morphology changes can be explained as arising from crustal deformations due to stresses imposed by the highly twisted internal magnetic field. However, unlike other AXP outbursts, we cannot account for a major twist being implanted in the magnetosphere.

  19. Improvement of critical current density in thallium-based (Tl,Bi)Sr(1.6)Ba(0.4)Ca2Cu3O(x) superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ren, Z. F.; Wang, C. A.; Wang, J. H.; Miller, D. J.; Goretta, K. C.

    1995-01-01

    Epitaxial (Tl,Bi)Sr(1.6)Ba(0.4)Ca2Cu3O(x) ((Tl,Bi)-1223) thin films on (100) single crystal LaAlO3 substrates were synthesized by a two-step procedure. Phase development, microstructure, and relationships between film and substrate were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Resistance versus temperature, zero-field-cooled and field cooled magnetization, and transport critical current density (J(sub c)) were measured. The zero-resistance temperature was 105-111 K. J(sub c) at 77 K and zero field was greater than 2 x 10(exp 6) A/sq cm. The films exhibited good flux pinning properties.

  20. Burst Oscillation Periods from 4U 1636-53: A Constraint on the Binary Doppler Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, A. B.; Hill, K. M.; Strohmayer, T. E.; Cummings, N.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The burst oscillations seen during Type 1 X-ray bursts from low mass X-ray binaries (LMXB) typically evolve in period towards an asymptotic limit that likely reflects the spin of the underlying neutron star. If the underlying period is stable enough, measurement of it at different orbital phases may allow a detection of the Doppler modulation caused by the motion of the neutron star with respect to the center of mass of the binary system. Testing this hypothesis requires enough X-ray bursts and an accurate optical ephemeris to determine the binary phases at which they occurred. We present here a study of the distribution of asymptotic burst oscillation periods for a sample of 26 bursts from 4U 1636-53 observed with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The burst sample includes both archival and proprietary data and spans more than 4.5 years. We also present new optical light curves of V801 Arae, the optical counterpart of 4U 1636-53, obtained during 1998-2001. We use these optical data to refine the binary period measured by Augusteijn et al. to 3.7931206(152) hours. We show that a subset of approx. 70% of the bursts form a tightly clustered distribution of asymptotic periods consistent with a period stability of approx. 1 x 10(exp -4). The tightness of this distribution, made up of bursts spanning more than 4 years in time, suggests that the underlying period is highly stable, with a time to change the period of approx. 3 x 10(exp 4) yr. This is comparable to similar numbers derived for X-ray pulsars. We investigate the period and orbital phase data for our burst sample and show that it is consistent with binary motion of the neutron star with v(sub ns) sin i < 38 and 50 km/s at 90 and 99% confidence, respectively. We use this limit as well as previous radial velocity data to constrain the binary geometry and component masses in 4U 1636-53. Our results suggest that unless the neutron star is significantly more massive than 1.4 solar masses the secondary is

  1. A preliminary characterization of applied-field MPD thruster plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.; Wehrle, David; Vernyi, Mark; Biaglow, James; Reese, Shawn

    1991-01-01

    Electric probes, quantitative imaging, and emission spectroscopy were used to study the plume characteristics of applied field magnetohydrodynamic thrusters. The measurements showed that the applied magnetic field plays the dominant role in establishing the plume structure, followed in importance by the cathode geometry and propellant. The anode radius had no measurable impact on the plume characteristics. For all cases studied the plume was highly ionized, though spectral lines of neutral species were always present. Centerline electron densities and temperatures ranged from 2 times 10 (exp 18) to 8 times 10 (exp 18) m(exp -3) and from 7500 to 20,000 K, respectively. The plume was strongly confined by the magnetic field, with radial density gradients increasing monotonically with applied field strength. Plasma potential measurements show a strong effect of the magnetic field on the electrical conductivity and indicate the presence of radial current conduction in the plume.

  2. A Remarkable Three Hour Thermonuclear Burst from 4U 1820-30

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Brown, Edward F.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present a detailed observational and theoretical study of an approximately three hour long X-ray burst (the "super burst") observed by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) from the low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) 4U 1820-30. This is the longest X-ray burst ever observed from this source, and perhaps one of the longest ever observed in great detail from any source. We show that the super burst is thermonuclear in origin. Its peak luminosity of approximately 3.4 x 10(exp 38) ergs s(exp -1) is consistent with the helium Eddington limit for a neutron star at approximately 7 kpc, as well as the peak luminosity of other, shorter, thermonuclear bursts from the same source. The super burst begins in the decaying tail of a more typical (approximately equal to 20 s duration) thermonuclear burst. These shorter, more frequent bursts are well known helium flashes from this source. The level of the accretion driven flux as well as the observed energy release of upwards of 1.5 x 10(exp 42) ergs indicate that helium could not be the energy source for the super burst. We outline the physics relevant to carbon production and burning on helium accreting neutron stars and present calculations of the thermal evolution and stability of a carbon layer and show that this process is the most likely explanation for the super burst. Ignition at the temperatures in the deep carbon "ocean" requires greater than 30 times the mass of carbon inferred from the observed burst energetics unless the He flash is able to trigger a deflagration from a much smaller mass of carbon. We show, however, that for large columns of accreted carbon fuel, a substantial fraction of the energy released in the carbon burning layer is radiated away as neutrinos, and the heat that is conducted from the burning layer in large part flows inward, only to be released on timescales longer than the observed burst. Thus the energy released during the event possibly exceeds that observed in X-rays by more than a factor of

  3. Low-Lift Drag and Duct Pressure Recovery of a 1/8.25-Scale Model of the Consolidated Vultee XF-92 Airplane at Mach Numbers from 0.7 to 1.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitcham, Grady L.; Stevens, Joseph E.; Crabill, Norman L.; Hinners, Arthur H., Jr.

    1951-01-01

    A flight investigation has been made to determine the external drag and pressure recovery of a 1/8.25 - scale flight model of the Consolidated Vultee XF-92 from Mach numbers 0.7 to 1.4 and Reynolds numbers from 8.5 x 10(exp 6) to 19.2 x 10(exp 6) at or near zero lift. Relative mass flow, average pressure recovery, total drag, internal drag, and external drag are presented as functions of Mach number. Between Mach numbers of 0.90 and 0.975, the external drag of the configuration (including base drag of the inner body and additive drag) was about equal to that of a similar model with a faired nose and no mass flow; however, at supersonic speeds the drag coefficient for the faired-nose model remained relatively constant whereas the drag coefficient for the ducted model continued to increase sharply. The internal drag coefficient of the duct was roughly constant at 0.013 up to a Mach number of 1.20; after which it decreased to 0.0075 at a Mach number of 1.4. The over-all pressure recovery of the inlet and duct varied from 94 percent at a Mach number of 0.7 to about 91 percent at a Mach number of 1.4 at a relative-mass-flow ratio of about 0.30. The losses in pressure recovery were believed to be caused by the possible occurrence of separation of flow from the inner body and by an aerodynamically unclean internal configuration which did not duplicate the form proposed for the original XF-92 airplane.

  4. Debinding Process of Fe-6Ni-4Cu Compact Fabricated by Metal Injection Molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jenn-Shing; Lin, Shih-Pin; Hon, Min-Hsiung; Wang, Moo-Chin

    2000-02-01

    The debinding process in the case of metal injection molding for fabrication of the Fe-6Ni-4Cu compact and variables such as temperature and time has been studied. The debinding process of multiple organic binders in the Fe-6Ni-4Cu compact was investigated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) weight loss and mercury porosimetry analysis. The weight loss of wax and SA dramatically increases from below 10 wt% to 76.0 wt% and 86.0 wt% after immersion in 35°C and 40°C n-hexane for 6 h, respectively. The interdiffusion coefficients of the binder and solvent are 9.763× 10-7 cm2/s and 1.295× 10-6 cm2/s, respectively. The temperature dependent interdiffusion coefficient for the Fe-6Ni-4Cu compact can be expressed as Dx=4.534× 10\\exp({-}5437.2/T). The distribution of pore size is about 0.1-1.9 μm for the Fe-6Ni-4Cu compact.

  5. Absolute intensities and foreign gas broadening coefficients of the 11(sub 1,10) from 11(sub 2,10) and 18(sub 0,18) from 18(sub 1,18) lines in the nu(sub 7) band of C2H4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, Dennis C.; Sirota, J. Marcos

    1993-01-01

    Absolute intensities and foreign gas broadening coefficients of the 18(sub 0,18) from 18(sub 1,18) and 11(sub 1,10) from 11(sub 2,10) transitions in the nu(sub 7) band of C2H4 near 948/cm have been measured at a spectral resolution of approximately 5 x 10(exp -4)/cm using tunable diode laser spectrometry. Ar, He, N2, O2 were used as the broadening gases. In order to determine the temperature dependence of the broadening coefficient, data were obtained at temperatures ranging from 150 to 296 K. The absolute intensity of the 5(sub 0,5) from 5(sub 1,5) transition was also found at 296 K. A band strength of 330 +/- 10/sq cm/atm was obtained from weighted averages of the individual line intensities and a rigid asymmetric top calculation.

  6. Torque Reversal and Spin-Down of the Accretion-Powered Pulsar 4U 1626-67

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarty, Deepto L.; Bildsten, L.; Grunsfeld, J. M.; Koh, D. T.; Prince, T. A.; Vaughan, B. A.; Finger, M. H.; Scott, D. M.; Wilson, R. B.

    1997-01-01

    Over 5 yr of hard X-ray (20-60 keV) monitoring of the 7.66 s accretion-powered pulsar 4U 1626-67 with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory/BATSE large-area detectors has revealed that the neutron star is now steadily spinning down, in marked contrast to the steady spin-up and spin-down torques differ by only 15% with the neutron star spin changing on a timescale |v/v| approximately equals 5000 yr in both states. The current spin-down rate is itself decreasing on a timescale |v/v| approximately equals 26 yr. The long-term timing history shows small-amplitude variations on a 4000 day timescale, which are probably due to variations in the mass transfer rate. The pulsed 20-60 keV emission from 4U 1626-67 is well-fitted by a power-law spectrum with photon index gamma = 4.9 and a typical pulsed intensity of 1.5 x 10(exp -10) ergs cm (exp -2)s(exp -1). The low count rates with BATSE prohibited us from constraining the reported 42 minute binary orbit, but we can rule out long-period orbits in the range 2 days < or = P(orb) < or = 900 days. We compare the long-term torque behavior of 4U 1626-67 to other disk-fed accreting pulsars and discuss the implications of our results for the various theories of magnetic accretion torques. The abrupt change in the sign of the torque is difficult to reconcile with the extremely smooth spin-down now observed. The strength of the torque noise in 4U 1626-67, approximately 10(exp -22) Hz(exp 2)s(exp -2) Hz(exp -1), is the smallest ever measured for an accreting X-ray pulsar, and it is comparable to the timing noise seen in young radio pulsars. We close by pointing out that the core temperature and external torque (the two parameters potentially relevant to internal sources of timing noise) of an accreting neutron star are also comparable to those of young radio pulsars.

  7. Observations of 4U 1700-37 with BATSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, B. C.; Finger, M. H.; Harmon, B. A.; Paciesas, W. S.; Fishman, G. J.; Wilson, R. B.; Wilson, C. A.; Brock, M. N.; Briggs, M. S.; Pendleton, G. N.; Cominsky, L. R.; Roberts, M. S.

    1996-01-01

    The eclipsing binary X-ray source 4U 1700-37 has been continually monitored by the BATSE experiment on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory since the spring of 1991. Using source measurements at times of Earth occultation, we observe an average (uneclipsed) flux of 0.23 crab in the 20-120 keV band. The flux is highly variable, with occasional flaring behavior on timescales from hundreds of seconds to several hours and intensities as bright as 1 crab. The uneclipsed spectrum is well represented by an optically thin thermal bremsstrahlung model with a temperature of 25 keV independent of source intensity or orbital phase. An upper limit of 4% on the pulse fraction has been obtained for pulse periods between 2 and 700 s. Average orbital light curves from almost 1000 days of occultation measurements have been constructed. These profiles are used to measure: (1) the eclipse semiangle, Theta(sub E) = 28.6 deg +/- 2.1 deg in the 20-120 keV band, and (2) the decrease in orbital period, P(dot)/P = -(3.3 +/- 0.6) x 10(exp -7) 1/ yr. Estimates of system physical parameters are obtained using Monte Carlo simulations to propagate errors in measured and assumed parameters. For the X-ray source mass we find M(sub x) = 2.6(sub -1.4)(sup +2.3) solar mass, and for the mass and radius of the optical companion, M(sub 0) = 30(sub -7)(sup +11) solar mass and R(sub 0) = 18(sub -2)(sup +2) solar radius.

  8. A crystallographic model for hydrous wadsleyite (Beta-Mg2SiO4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    Wadsleyite (beta-Mg2SiO4) is believed to be the most abundant phase in the Earth between depths of 400 and about 525km. Because of the unusual crystal chemistry, Smyth suggested that this phase might be a significant host for hydrogen in the transition zone. Indeed, of the nominally anhydrous phases believed to make up the upper mantle and transition zone none has been reported with a greater H content than wadsleyite. Young et al, report the synthesis of hydrous, Fe-bearing wadsleyite with up to 60,000 H per 10(exp 6) Si. Using ionic constraints and maximal subgroup symmetry, a hypothetical, ordered model for hydrous wadsleyite has been created and examined. The model has formula Mg7Si4O14(OH)2, has space group Pmmb, has an ordered vacancy into one of two non-equivalent M2 sites, and contains two different H positions, one on each of the non-equivalent O1 sites. Electrostatic calculations indicate that hydration would relieve the underbonding of O1 as well as the overbonding of the bridging oxygen, O2, so that the hydrous phase may be more stable than the anhydrous phase. This model makes several predictions that may be of significance for the mechanisms and amounts of H that may be stored in the transition zone of the Earth, and by which the model may be tested experimentally.

  9. Energy Spectra and High Frequency Oscillations in 4U 0614+091

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, E. C.; Kaaret, P.; Chen, K.; Tavani, M.; Barret, D.; Bloser, P.; Grindlay, J.; Harmon, B. A.; Paciesas, W. S.; Zhang, S. N.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of the high frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in 4U 0614+091, combining timing and spectral analysis of RXTE (Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer) observations. The energy spectrum of the source can be described by a power law plus a blackbody component. The blackbody has a variable temperature (kT approximately 0.8 to 1.4 keV) and accounts for 10 to 25% of the total energy flux. The power law flux and photon index also vary (F approximately 0.8 to 1.6 x 10(exp -9) erg/sq cm.s and alpha approximately 2.0 to 2.8 respectively). We find a robust correlation of the frequency of the higher frequency QPO with the flux of the blackbody. The source follows the same relation even in observations separated by several months. The QPO frequency does not have a similarly unique correlation with the total flux or the flux of the power law component. The RMS amplitudes of the higher frequency QPO rise with energy but are consistent with a constant for the lower frequency QPO. These results may be interpreted in terms of a beat frequency model for the production of the high frequency QPOs.

  10. The Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph: Instrument, goals, and science results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.; Heap, S. R.; Beaver, E. A.; Boggess, A.; Carpenter, K. G.; Ebbets, D. C.; Hutchings, J. B.; Jura, M.; Leckrone, D. S.; Linsky, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS), currently in Earth orbit on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), operates in the wavelength range 1150-3200 A with spectral resolutions (lambda/delta lambda) of approximately 2 x 10(exp 3), 2 x 10(exp 4), and 1 x 10(exp 3). The instrument and its development from inception, its current status, the approach to operations, representative results in the major areas of the scientific goals, and prospects for the future are described.

  11. Radio Detections During Two State Transitions of the Intermediate-Mass Black Hole HLX-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Natalie; Cseh, David; Lenc, Emil; Godet, Olivier; Barret, Didier; Corbel, Stephane; Farrell, Sean; Fender, Robert; Gehrels, Neil; Heywood, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Relativistic jets are streams of plasma moving at appreciable fractions of the speed of light. They have been observed from stellar-mass black holes (approx. 3 to 20 solar masses) as well as supermassive black holes (approx.. 10(exp 6) to 10(exp 9) Solar Mass) found in the centers of most galaxies. Jets should also be produced by intermediate-mass black holes (approx. 10(exp 2) to 10(exp 5) Solar Mass), although evidence for this third class of black hole has, until recently, been weak. We report the detection of transient radio emission at the location of the intermediate-mass black hole candidate ESO 243-49 HLX-1, which is consistent with a discrete jet ejection event. These observations also allow us to refine the mass estimate of the black hole to be between approx. 9 × 10(exp 3) Solar Mass and approx. 9 × 10(exp 4) Solar Mass.

  12. An XMM-Newton Observation of 4U1755-33 in Quiescence: Evidence for a Fossil X-Ray Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelini, Lorella; White, Nicholas E.

    2003-01-01

    We report an XMM-Newton observation of the Low mass X-ray Binary (LMXB) and black hole candidate 4U1755-33. This source had been a bright persistent source for at least 25 yrs, but in 1995 entered an extended quiescent phase. 4U1755-33 was not detected with an upper limit to the 2-10 keV luminosity of 5 x 10(exp 31) d(sup 2) (sub 4kpc) ergs per second (where d(sub 4kpc) is the distance in units of 4 kpc) - consistent with the luminosity of other black hole candidates in a quiescent state. An unexpected result is the discovery of a narrow 7 arc min long X-ray jet centered on the position of 4Ul755-33. The spectrum of the jet is similar to that of jets observed from other galactic and extragalactic sources, and may have been ejected from 4Ul755-33 when it was bright. Jets are a feature of accreting black holes, and the detection of a fossil jet provides additional evidence supporting the black hole candidacy of 4U1755-33. The spectral properties of three bright serendipitous sources in the field are reported and it is suggested these are background active galactic nuclei sources.

  13. Meridional Distribution of CH3C2H and C4H2 in Saturn's Stratosphere from CIRS/Cassini Limb and Nadir Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerlet, Sandrine; Fouchet, Thierry; Bezard, Bruno; Moses, Julianne I.; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Flasar, F. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Limb and nadir spectra acquired by Cassini/CIRS (Composite InfraRed Spectrometer) are analyzed in order to derive, for the first time, the meridional variations of diacetylene (C4H2) and methylacetylene (CH3C2H) mixing ratios in Saturn's stratosphere, from 5 hPa up to 0.05 hPa and 80 deg S to 45 deg N. We find that the C4H2 and CH3C2H meridional distributions mimic that of acetylene (C2H2), exhibiting small-scale variations that are not present in photochemical model predictions. The most striking feature of the meridional distribution of both molecules is an asymmetry between mid-southern and mid-northern latitudes. The mid-southern latitudes are found depleted in hydrocarbons relative to their northern counterparts. In contrast, photochemical models predict similar abundances at north and south mid-latitudes. We favor a dynamical explanation for this asymmetry, with upwelling in the south and downwelling in the north, the latter coinciding with the region undergoing ring shadowing. The depletion in hydrocarbons at mid-southern latitudes could also result from chemical reactions with oxygen-bearing molecules. Poleward of 60 deg S, at 0.1 and 0.05 hPa, we find that the CH3C2H and C4H2 abundances increase dramatically. This behavior is in sharp contradiction with photochemical model predictions, which exhibit a strong decrease towards the south pole. Several processes could explain our observations, such as subsidence, a large vertical eddy diffusion coefficient at high altitudes, auroral chemistry that enhances CH3C2H and C4H2 production, or shielding from photolysis by aerosols or molecules produced from auroral chemistry. However, problems remain with all these hypotheses, including the lack of similar behavior at lower altitudes. Our derived mean mixing ratios at 0.5 hPa of (2.4 +/- 0.3) 10(exp -10) for C4H2 and of (1.1 +/- 0.3) 10(exp -9) for CH3C2H are compatible with the analysis of global-average ISO observations performed by Moses et al. Finally, we provide

  14. 1,2-Dichlorohexafluoro-Cyclobutane (1,2-c-C4F6Cl2, R-316c) a Potent Ozone Depleting Substance and Greenhouse Gas: Atmospheric Loss Processes, Lifetimes, and Ozone Depletion and Global Warming Potentials for the (E) and (Z) stereoisomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadimitriou, Vassileios C.; McGillen, Max R.; Smith, Shona C.; Jubb, Aaron M.; Portmann, Robert W.; Hall, Bradley D.; Fleming, Eric L.; Jackman, Charles H.; Burkholder, James B.

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric processing of (E)- and (Z)-1,2-dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane (1,2-c-C4F6Cl2, R-316c) was examined in this work as the ozone depleting (ODP) and global warming (GWP) potentials of this proposed replacement compound are presently unknown. The predominant atmospheric loss processes and infrared absorption spectra of the R-316c isomers were measured to provide a basis to evaluate their atmospheric lifetimes and, thus, ODPs and GWPs. UV absorption spectra were measured between 184.95 to 230 nm at temperatures between 214 and 296 K and a parametrization for use in atmospheric modeling is presented. The Cl atom quantum yield in the 193 nm photolysis of R- 316c was measured to be 1.90 +/- 0.27. Hexafluorocyclobutene (c-C4F6) was determined to be a photolysis co-product with molar yields of 0.7 and 1.0 (+/-10%) for (E)- and (Z)-R-316c, respectively. The 296 K total rate coefficient for the O(1D) + R-316c reaction, i.e., O(1D) loss, was measured to be (1.56 +/- 0.11) × 10(exp -10)cu cm/ molecule/s and the reactive rate coefficient, i.e., R-316c loss, was measured to be (1.36 +/- 0.20) × 10(exp -10)cu cm/molecule/s corresponding to a approx. 88% reactive yield. Rate coefficient upper-limits for the OH and O3 reaction with R-316c were determined to be <2.3 × 10(exp -17) and <2.0 × 10(exp -22)cu cm/molecule/s, respectively, at 296 K. The quoted uncertainty limits are 2(sigma) and include estimated systematic errors. Local and global annually averaged lifetimes for the (E)- and (Z)-R-316c isomers were calculated using a 2-D atmospheric model to be 74.6 +/- 3 and 114.1 +/-10 years, respectively, where the estimated uncertainties are due solely to the uncertainty in the UV absorption spectra. Stratospheric photolysis is the predominant atmospheric loss process for both isomers with the O(1D) reaction making a minor, approx. 2% for the (E) isomer and 7% for the (Z) isomer, contribution to the total atmospheric loss. Ozone depletion potentials for (E)- and (Z

  15. Chemical studies of H chondrites. 4: New data and comparison of Antarctic suites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Stephen F.; Lipschutz, Michael E.

    1995-01-01

    We report data for the trace elements Au, Co, Sb, Ga, Rb, Ag, Se, Cs, Te, Zn, Cd, Bi, Ti, and In (ordered by putative volatility during nebular condensation and accretion) determined by neutron activation analysis in 13 H5 chondrites from Victoria Land and 20 H4-6 chondrites from Queen Maud Land, Antarctica. These and earlier results provide Antarctic sample suites of 34 chondrites from Victoria Land and 25 from Queen Maud Land. Treatment of data for the most volatile 10 elements (Rb to In) in these studies by multivariate statistical techniques more robust, as well as more conservative, than conventional linear discriminant analysis and logistic regression demonstrates that compositions differ at marginally significant levels. This difference cannot be explained by trivial (terrestrial) causes and becomes more significant, despite the smaller size of the database, when comparisons are limited to data from a single analyst and when all upper limits are eliminated from consideration. The Victoria Land and Queen Maud Land suites have different mean terrestrial ages (approximately 300 kyr and approximately 100 kyr, respectively) and age distributions, suggesting that a time-dependent variation of chondritic sources with different thermal histories is responsible. As a result, these two Antarctic suites are, on average, chemically distinguishable from each other. Since H chondrites serve as a paradigm for other meteorite classes, these results indicate that the near-Earth populations of planetary materials varied with time on the 10(exp 5)-year timescale.

  16. Turbulent Aeroheating Testing of Mars Science Laboratory Entry Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Collier, Arnold S.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental investigation of turbulent aeroheating on the Mars Science Laboratory entry vehicle heat shield has been conducted in the Arnold Engineering Development Center Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel No. 9. Testing was performed on a 6-in. (0.1524 m) diameter MSL model in pure N2 gas in the tunnel's Mach 8 and Mach 10 nozzles at free stream Reynolds numbers of 4.1 x 10(exp 6)/ft to 49 x 10(exp 6)/ft (1.3 x 10(exp 7)/m to 19 x 10(exp 6/ft) and 1.2 x 10(exp 6)/ft to 19 x 10(exp 6)/ft (0.39 x 10(exp 7)/m to 62 x 10(exp 7)/m), respectively. These conditions were sufficient to span the regime of boundary-layer flow from completely laminar to fully-developed turbulent flow over the entire forebody. A supporting aeroheating test was also conducted in the Langley Research Center 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel at free stream Reynolds number of 1 x 10(exp 6)/ft to 7 x 10(exp 6)/ft (0.36 x 10(exp 7)/m to 2.2 x 10(exp 7)/m) in order to help corroborate the Tunnel 9 results. A complementary computational fluid dynamics study was conducted in parallel to the wind tunnel testing. Laminar and turbulent predictions were generated for the wind tunnel test conditions and comparisons were performed with the data for the purpose of helping to define uncertainty margins on predictions for aeroheating environments during entry into the Martian atmosphere. Data from both wind tunnel tests and comparisons with the predictions are presented herein. It was concluded from these comparisons that for perfect-gas conditions, the computational tools could predict fully-laminar or fully-turbulent heating conditions to within 12% or better of the experimental data.

  17. Turbulent Aeroheating Testing of Mars Science Laboratory Entry Vehicle in Perfect-Gas Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Collier, Arnold S.

    2007-01-01

    An experimental investigation of turbulent aeroheating on the Mars Science Laboratory entry vehicle heat shield has been conducted in the Arnold Engineering Development Center Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel No. 9. Testing was performed on a 6-in. (0.1524 m) diameter MSL model in pure N2 gas in the tunnel s Mach 8 and Mach 10 nozzles at free stream Reynolds numbers of 4.1x10(exp 6)/ft to 49x10(exp 6)/ft (1.3x10(exp 7)/m to 16x10(exp 7)/m) and 1.2x10(exp 6)/ft to 19x10(exp 6)/ft (0.39x10(exp 7)/m to 62x10(exp 7)/m), respectively. These conditions were sufficient to span the regime of boundary-layer flow from completely laminar to fully-developed turbulent flow over the entire forebody. A supporting aeroheating test was also conducted in the Langley Research Center 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel at free stream Reynolds number of 1x10(exp 6)/ft to 7x10(exp 6)/ft (0.36x10(exp 7)/m to 2.2x10(exp 7)/m) in order to help corroborate the Tunnel 9 results. A complementary computational fluid dynamics study was conducted in parallel to the wind tunnel testing. Laminar and turbulent predictions were generated for all wind tunnel test conditions and comparisons were performed with the data for the purpose of helping to define uncertainty margins on predictions for aeroheating environments during entry into the Martian atmosphere. Data from both wind tunnel tests and comparisons with the predictions are presented herein. It was concluded from these comparisons that for perfect-gas conditions, the computational tools could predict fully-laminar or fully-turbulent heating conditions to within 10% of the experimental data

  18. Electron paramagnetic resonance and spinlattice relaxation of Cu2+ ions in ZnSeO4·6H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al'-Sufi, A. R.; Bulka, G. R.; Vinokurov, V. M.; Kurkin, I. N.; Nizamutdinov, N. M.; Salikhov, I. Kh.

    1993-06-01

    In this paper, we present detailed studies of the EPR spectra of Cu2+ ions in single crystals of ZnSeO4·6H2O. We describe the spectrum with a rhombic spin Hamiltonian with the following parameters: gz=2.427; gy=2.095; gx=2.097; A{z/65}=138.4·10-4 cm-1; A{x/65}=22.3·10-4 cm-1. We studied spin-lattice relaxation in the temperature range 4 300 K at the frequency v≈9.3 GHz. The measured spin-lattice relaxation rate for the orientation H∥L4 is described well at T<5 K by a linear dependence, while at T>5 K it is described by the sum of three exponentials: T_1^{ - 1} = 0.27T + 3.3 \\cdot 10^{text{s}} exp left( {{ - 69.5}/T} right) + 2.6 \\cdot 10^7 exp left( {{ - 140}/T} right) + 1.36 \\cdot 10^{10} exp left( {{ - 735.6}/T} right){text{ sec}}^{{text{ - 1}}} .We discuss possible reasons for the exponential dependence of T{1/-1} for the Raman process.

  19. Ionospheric Convection in the Postnoon Auroral Oval: SuperDARN and Polar UVI Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlovsky, A.; Koustov, A.; Lyatsky, W.; Kangas, J.; Parks, G.; Chua, D.

    2002-01-01

    Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) observations, ultraviolet imaging from the Polar satellite (UVI), and particle precipitation data from DMSP satellites have been used to investigate the electrodynamics of the postnoon auroral oval in the Northern hemisphere. We show that: (1) For negative IMF By, the convection reversal (CR) was co-located with the maximum of auroral luminosity, but during positive IMF By the convection reversal was poleward of the auroral oval up to several degrees in latitude; (2) Postnoon auroral oval was associated with a large-scale upward field-aligned current (FAC) of the order of 6x10(exp -7). A m(exp -2) in magnitude (the FAC was inferred from the SuperDARN and UVI data). For negative IMF By, maximum of the auroral intensity coincides in latitude with the maximum of the upward field-aligned current. However, for positive IMF By. the maximum of the upward FAC was shifted to the poleward edge of the auroral oval; (3) In response to the IMF By turning from positive to negative, the maximum of the auroral luminosity did not change its position noticeably, but the position of the convection reversal changed considerably from 80-81 degs to about 76 degs MLAT, and the maximum of FAC moved from 77-78 degs to about 76 degs MLAT. Thus, after IMF By turns negative, both the FAC maximum and CR tend to coincide with the auroral maximum; (4) The IMF Bz positive deflection was followed by a decrease in both field-aligned current intensity and auroral luminosity. However, the decrease in the auroral luminosity lags behind the FAC decrease by about 12 min. Firstly, these observations allow us to suggest that the IMF By-related electric field can penetrate into the closed magnetosphere and produce convection and FAC changes in the region of the postnoon auroral oval. Secondly, we suggest that the interchange instability is a promising mechanism for the postnoon auroras.

  20. Performance of Soviet and US hydrogen masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uljanov, Adolph A.; Demidov, Nikolai A.; Mattison, Edward M.; Vessot, Robert F. C.; Allan, David W.; Winkler, Gernot M. R.

    1990-01-01

    The frequencies of Soviet- and U.S.-built hydrogen masers located at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and at the United States Naval Observatory (USNO) were compared with each other and, via Global Positioning System (GPS) common-view measurements, with three primary frequency-reference scales. The best masers were found to have fractional frequency stabilities as low as 6 times 10(exp -16) for averaging times of approximately 10(exp 4) s. Members of the USNO maser ensemble provided frequency prediction better than 1 times 10(exp 14) for periods up to a few weeks. The frequency residuals of these masers, after removal of frequency drift and rate of change of drift, had stabilities of a few parts in 10(exp -15), with serveral masers achieving residual stabilities well below 1 times 10(exp -15) for intervals from 10(exp 5)s to 2 times 10(exp 6)s. The fractional frequency drifts of the 13 masers studied, relative to the primary reference standards, ranged from -0.2 times 10(exp -15)/day to +9.6 times 10(exp -15)/day.

  1. Fourier transform-infrared studies of thin H2SO4/H2O films: Formation, water uptake, and solid-liquid phase changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middlebrook, Ann M.; Iraci, Laura T.; Mcneill, Laurie S.; Koehler, Birgit G.; Wilson, Margaret A.; Saastad, Ole W.; Tolbert, Margaret A.; Hanson, David R.

    1993-01-01

    Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to examine films representative of stratospheric sulfuric acid aerosols. Thin films of sulfuric acid were formed in situ by the condensed phase reaction of SO3 with H2O. FTIR spectra show that the sulfuric acid films absorb water while cooling in the presence of water vapor. Using stratospheric water pressures, the most dilute solutions observed were greater than 40 wt % before simultaneous ice formation and sulfuric acid freezing occurred. FTIR spectra also revealed that the sulfuric acid films crystallized mainly as sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT). Crystallization occurred either when the composition was about 60 wt% H2SO4 or after ice formed on the films at temperatures 1-4 K below the ice frost point. Finally, we determined that the melting point for SAT depended on the background water pressure and was 216-219 K in the presence of 4 x 10(exp -4) Torr H2O. Our results suggest that once frozen, sulfuric acid aerosols in the stratosphere are likely to melt at these temperatures, 30 K colder than previously thought.

  2. WISE Discovery of Hyper Luminous Galaxies at z=2-4 and Their Implications for Galaxy and AGN Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Chao Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter; Wu, Jingwen; Bridge, Carrie; Assef, Roberto; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Cutri, Roc; Griffith, Robert L.; Jarrett, Thomas; Lonsdale, Carol; Petty, Sara; Sayers, Jack; Stanford, Adam; Stern, Daniel; Wright, Edward L.; Yan, Lin

    2014-01-01

    On behalf of the WISE Science team, we present the discovery of a class of distant dust-enshrouded galaxies with extremely high luminosity. These galaxies are selected to have extreme red colors in the mid-IR using NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). They are faint in the optical and near-IR, predominantly at zeta = 2-4, and with IR luminosity > 10(exp 13) Solar Luminosity, making them Hyper-Luminous Infrared Galaxies (HyLIRGs). SEDs incorporating the WISE, Spitzer, and Herschel PACS and SPIRE photometry indicate hot dust dominates the bolometric luminosity, presumably powered by AGN. Preliminary multi-wavelength follow-up suggests that they are different from normal populations in the local M-sigma relation. Their low source density implies that these objects are either intrinsically rare, or a short-lived phase in a more numerous population. If the latter is the case, these hot, dust-enshrouded galaxies may be an early stage in the interplay between AGN and galaxies.

  3. Distributions and Seasonal Variations of Tropospheric Ethene (C2H4) from Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE-FTS) Solar Occultation Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbin, H.; Hurtmans, D.; Clarisse, L.; Turquety, S.; Clerbaux, C.; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Boone, C.; Bernath, P. F.; Coheur, P.-F.

    2009-01-01

    This work reports the first measurements of ethene (C2H4) distributions in the upper troposphere. These are obtained by retrieving vertical profiles from 5 to 20 km from infrared solar occultation spectra recorded in 2005 and 2006 by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS). Background volume mixin^ ratios (vmrs) ranging from a few to about 50 pptv (10(exp -1) are measured at the different altitudes, while for certain occultations, vmrs as high as 200 pptv are observed. Zonal distributions and vertically resolved latitudinal distributions are derived for the two year period analyzed, highlighting spatial - including a North-South gradient - as well as seasonal variations. We show the latter to be more pronounced at the highest latitudes, presumably as a result of less active photochemistry during winter. The observation of C2H4 enhancements in remote Arctic regions at high latitudes is consistent with the occurrence of fast transport processes of gaseous pollution from the continents leading to Arctic haze. Citation: Herbin, H., D. Hurtmans, L. Clarisse, S. Turquety, C. Clerbaux, C. P. Rinsland, C. Boone, P. F. Bernath, and P.-F. Colieur (2009), Distributions and seasonal variations of tropospheric ethene (C2H4) from Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE-FTS) solar occultation spectra,

  4. Dynamical timescales in the Jupiter family

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindgren, Mats

    1992-01-01

    Numerically integrated fictitious comets starting in orbits perihelion tangent to Jupiter have been used to estimate the duration of a typical visit to the observable Jupiter family of comets. The results show values of 3 to 6 thousand years, narrowing the previously estimated interval of 10(exp 3) to 10(exp 4) years.

  5. Flight Test of a 30-Foot Nominal-Diameter Disk-Gap-Band Parachute Deployed at Mach 1.56 and Dynamic Pressure of 11.4 Pounds per Square Foot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckstrom, Clinton V.; Preisser, John S.

    1967-01-01

    A 30-foot (9.1 meter) nominal-diameter disk-gap-band parachute (reference area 707 sq ft (65.7 m(exp 2)) was flight tested with a 200-pound (90.7 kg) instrumented payload as part of the NASA Planetary Entry Parachute Program. A deployment mortar ejected the test parachute when the payload was at a Mach number of 1.56 and a dynamic pressure of 11.4 lb/sq ft (546 newtons per m 2 ) at an altitude of 127,500 feet (38.86 km). The parachute reached suspension line stretch in 0.37 second resulting in a snatch force loading of 1270 pounds (5650 N). Canopy inflation began 0.10 second after line stretch. A delay in the opening process occurred and was apparently due to a momentary interference of the glass-fiber shroud used in packing the parachute bag in the mortar. Continuous canopy inflation began 0.73 second after initiation of deployment and 0.21 second later full inflation was attained for a total elapsed time from mortar fire of 0.94 second. The maximum opening load of 3915 pounds (17,400 newtons) occurred at the time the canopy was first fully opened. The parachute exhibited an average drag coefficient of 0.52 during the deceleration period and pitch-yaw oscillations of the canopy were less than 5 degrees. During the steady-state descent portion of the test period, the average effective drag coefficient was about 0.47 (based on vertical descent velocity and total system weight).

  6. First measurement of helium on Mars: Implications for the problem of radiogenic gases on the terrestrial planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Gladstone, G. R.; Mcdonald, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    The 108 photons of the Martian He 584 A airglow detected by the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite during a two-day exposure (22-23 Jan. 1993) correspond to the effective disk average intensity of 43 (+/-) 10 Rayleigh. Radiative transfer calculations, using a model atmosphere appropriate to the conditions of the observation and having an exospheric temperature of 210 (+/-) 20 K, result in an He mixing ratio of 1.1 (+/-) 0.4 ppm in the lower atmosphere. Nonthermal escape of helium is due to the following: electron impact ionization and pickup of He(+) by the solar wind; collisions with hot oxygen atoms; and charge exchange with molecular species with corresponding column loss rates of 1.4 x 10(exp 5), 3 x 10(exp 4), and 7 x 10(exp 3) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1), respectively. The lifetime of helium on Mars is 5 x 10(exp 4) yr. The He outgassing rate, coupled with the Ar-40 atmospheric abundance and with the K:U:Th ratio measured in the surface rocks, is used as input to a simple two-reservoir degassing model which presumes the loss of all argon accumulated in the atmosphere during the first Byr by large-scale impacts. The model results in total planet mass ratios of 10(exp -5) g/g for K, 2.3 x 10(exp -9) g/g for U, 8.5 x 10(exp -9) g/g for Th, 4 x 10(exp -10) g/g for He, and 1.5 x 10(exp -9) g/g for Ar-40. The predicted radiogenic heat flux is 2 erg cm(exp -2)s(exp -1). Similar modeling for Venus results in total plant mass ratios of 4.7 x 10(exp -5) g/g for K, 6.7 x 10(exp -9) g/g for U, 2.2 x 10(exp -8) g/g for Th, 1.3 x 10(exp -9) for He, 6.7 x 10(exp -9) g/g for Ar-40, and a radiogenic heat flux of 15 erg cm(exp -2)s(exp -1). The implications of these results are discussed. The modeling shows that the radioactive elements were not distributed uniformly in the protoplanetary nebula, and their relative abundances differ very much in the terrestrial planets.

  7. The Complex Spin State of 103P-Hartley 2: Kinematics and Orientation in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belton, Michael J. S.; Thomas, Peter; Li, Jian-Yang; Williams, Jade; Carcich, Brian; A'Hearn, Michael F.; McLaughlin, Stephanie; Farnham, Tony; McFadden, Lucy; Lisse, Carey M.; Collins, Steven; Besse, Sebastien; Klaasen, Kenneth; Sunshine, Jessica; Meech, Karen J.; Lindler, Don

    2013-01-01

    long axis changed by approx. -4.4 min/d at perihelion. M decreased at a rate of 0.038 (sq m/s) per day in a roughly linear fashion. Assuming a bulk density between 230-300 kg/m3 and a total volume for the nucleus of 8.09 X 10(exp 8) cubic m, the net torque acting on the nucleus was in the range 0.8-1.1 X 10(exp 5) kg m(exp 2) /s(exp 2). In order to bring the spacecraft photometric and imaging data into alignment on the direction of M, the directions of the intermediate and short principal axes of inertia had to be adjusted by 33 deg (on the sky) from the values indicated by the shape model with an assumed homogeneous interior. The adjusted direction of the intermediate axis is RA, Dec = 302 deg., -16.5 deg.. The morning and evening terminators in the images are identified, and the variation of the insolation at three regions on the nucleus associated with active areas calculated. The plume of water vapor observed in the inner coma is found to be directed close to the direction of local gravity over the sub-solar region for a range of reasonable bulk densities. The plume does not follow the projected normal to the surface at the sub-solar point.

  8. ASCA and Radio/RXTE Observations of GX 339-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowak, M. A.; Wilms, J.; Dove, J. B.; Fender, R. P.

    1999-01-01

    We have analyzed three separate archival Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) observations and eight separate Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the black hole candidate GX 339-4 in its low luminosity, spectrally hard state. Three of the RXTE observations were strictly simultaneous with 843 MHz and 8.3- 9.1 GHz radio observations. All data sets show evidence for an approximately 6.4 keV Fe line with equivalent widths approximately 20-100 eV. 'Reflection models' show a hardening of the RXTE spectra with decreasing X-ray flux; however, these models do not exhibit evidence of a correlation between the photon index of the incident power law flux and the solid angle subtended by the reflector. None of the models fit to the X-ray data, however, simultaneously explain the observed radio properties. We argue that the spatial extent of the observed radio emission is at least 0(10(exp 7 GM/c squared). Timing analysis reveals that all observations save one show evidence of a persistent f(qpo approximately equals 0.3 Hz quasi-periodic oscillations(quasi-periodic oscillations)). The broad band (10-3-102 Hz) power appears to be dominated by two independent processes that can be modeled as very broad Lorentzians with Q approximately less than 1. Similar to Cyg X-1, the hard photon variability is seen to lag the soft photon vaxiability with the lag time increasing with decreasing Fourier frequency. The magnitude of this time lag is seen to be positively correlated with the flux of GX 339-4.

  9. Atomic layer epitaxy of group 4 materials: Surface processes, thin films, devices and their characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Robert F.; Bedair, S.; El-Masry, N. A.; Glass, J. T.; King, S.

    1994-12-01

    Residual surface contaminants were removed from vicinal 6H-SiC(0001) surfaces in UHV via high temperature annealing in SiH4. Characterization via AES, EELS, LEED, XPS, and UPS was conducted. At T greater than 850 C, the surface oxide was rapidly removed. Exposure to approx. 400 Langmuir (10(exp -6) Torr(dot)liter/s) of SiH4 resulted in complete surface oxide removal and a nearly stoichiometric (l x l) 6H-SiC surface suitable for ALE of SiC. Further exposure resulted in a (3 x 3)R30 deg Si-rich reconstructed surface. Subsequent annealing in UHV resulted in a (square root of 3 x square root of 3)R30 deg Si deficient/graphitic reconstructed surface. The first set of wafers containing HBT device structures were fabricated on SiC films grown via ALE. No transistor activity was detected. Electrical characterization and SEM showed the most likely fault to be inaccurate etching of the SiC emitter. Nucleation and growth of oriented diamond particles on seeded, group of zone axes (0001) oriented single crystal Co substrates was achieved via multi-step, hot-filament CVD process involving seeding, annealing, nucleation and growth. Diamond particles oriented group of zone axes (111) were obtained. Micro-Raman showed a FWHM of 4.3/cm. A very weak graphitic peak was observed on regions of the substrate not covered by the diamond particles. A nucleation model has been proposed. Initial results showed that CeO2 film grows epitaxially on (111) Si substrates. The CeO2 films had density of interfacial traps and fixed oxide charge values comparable to that of amorphous SiO2/Si.

  10. Fall-Back Disks in Long and Short GRBS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannizo, John K.; Troja, E.; Gehrels, N.

    2011-01-01

    We present numerical time-dependent calculations for fall-back disks relevant for GRBs in which the disk of material surrounding the black hole (BH) powering the GRB jet modulates the mass flow, and hence the strength of the jet. Given the initial existence of a small mass appr oximately less than 10(exp -4) M(solar) near the progenitor with a circularization radius approximately 10(exp 10) - 10(exp 11) cm, an una voidable consequence will be the formation of an "external disk" whose outer edge continually moves to larger radii due to angular momentum transport and lack of a confining torque. For long GRBs, if the mass distribution in the initial fall-back disk traces the progenitor envelope, then a radius approximates 10(exp 11) cm gives a time scale app roximately 10(exp 4) s for the X-ray plateau. For late times t > 10(exp 7) s a steepening due to a cooling front in the disk may have obser vational support in GRB 060729. For short GRBs, one expects most of t he mass initially to lie at small radii < 10(exp 8) cm; however the presence of even a trace amount approximately 10(exp -9) M(solar) of hi gh angular material can give a brief plateau in the light curve.

  11. Magnetic fields and nonuniform structures of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolginov, A. Z.

    1993-01-01

    Direct magnetic measurements performed by space probes demonstrated the existence of small-scale, stationary surface magnetic fields on the Moon. The magnetic field averaged over a region of approximately 600 km was found to be no larger than approximately 10(exp -5) G, that of the regions approximately 100-200 km is approximately 10(exp -5) to 10(exp -4) G, and that of approximately 10-100 km reaches approximately 10(exp -3) G. Investigations of certain lunar rocks reveal stable residual magnetization, which could have been acquired during the crystallization of the rocks in the presence of the outer magnetic field, provided such a field existed at the initial stage of lunar evolution. Estimates show that 4 x 10(exp 9) yr ago the field was small, then it rose to approximately 1.3 G at the beginning of 3.9 x 10(exp 9) yr with a subsequent exponential decrease during the period of 3.9 x 10(exp 9) yr to 3.2 x 10(exp 9) yr ago. Small-scale fields have been explained by some authors as due to mechanical impacts produced by meteors. The theory of this effect is not elaborated in detail. This can in no way explain the paleomagnetic data. These data are commonly explained as a result of the dynamo action in the liquid lunar core.

  12. Annealing temperature and O2 partial pressure dependence of T(sub c) in HgBa2CuO(4+delta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Q.; Cao, Y.; Chen, F.; Xue, Y. Y.; Chu, C. W.

    1994-01-01

    Samples of HgBa2CuO(4+delta) (Hg-1201) were annealed under various conditions. After carefully controlling annealing time, annealing temperature (T(sub a)) and O2 partial pressure (P(sub 0)), we were able to find the reversible annealing conditions for Hg-1201. Under 1 atm O2 at 260 C less than or equal to T(sub a) less than or equal to 400 C, the obtained T(sub c) is nearly the same (approximately 97 K). However, it decreases quickly with T(sub a) greater than 300 C in high vacuum (P(sub 0) approximately 10(exp -8) atm), and reaches zero at T(sub a) = 400 C. On the other hand, T(sub c) decreases with the decrease of T(sub a) in high-pressure O2 (approximately 500 atm) and reaches approximately 20 K at about 240 C. In the entire annealing region, the oxygen surplus varies significantly from 0.03 to 0.4, and a wide range of T(sub c) variation (0 goes to 97 K goes to 20 K) was obtained with anion doping alone.

  13. A Comprehensive Spectral Analysis of the X-Ray Pulsar 4U 1907+09 from Two Observations with the Suzaku X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, Elizabeth; Markowitz, Alex; Pottschmidt, Katja; Roth, Stefanie; Barragan, Laura; Furst, Felix; Suchy, Slawomir; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Wilms, Jorn; Rothschild, Richard

    2009-01-01

    We present results from two observations of the wind-accreting X-ray pulsar 4U 1907+09 using the Suzaku observatory, The broadband time-averaged spectrum allows us to examine the continuum emission of the source and the cyclotron resonance scattering feature at approx. 19 keV. Additionally, using the narrow CCD response of Suzaku near 6 ke V allows us to study in detail the Fe K bandpass and to quantify the Fe Kp line for this source for the first time. The source is absorbed by fully-covering material along the line of sight with a column density of N(sub H) approx. 2 x 10(exp 22)/sq cm, consistent with a wind accreting geometry, and a high Fe abundance (approx. 3 - 4 x solar). Time and phase-resolved analyses allow us to study variations in the source spectrum. In particular, dips found in the 2006 observation which are consistent with earlier observations occur in the hard X-ray bandpass, implying a variation of the whole continuum rather than occultation by intervening material, while a dip near the end of the 2007 observation occurs mainly in the lower energies implying an increase in NH along the line of sight, perhaps indicating clumpiness in the stellar wind

  14. Eddy correlation measurements of methane fluxes using a tunable diode laser at the Kinosheo Lake tower site during the Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, G. C.; Neumann, H. H.; Den Hartog, G.; Thurtell, G. W.; Kidd, G.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the Canadian Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES) measurements of methane flux were made at the Kinosheo Lake tower site for a 1-month period during the 1990 summer intensive. The measurements were made with a diode-laser-based methane sensor using the eddy correlation technique. Measurements of the methane fluxes were made at two levels, 5 or 18 m. Approximately 900 half-hour average methane flux measurements were obtained. Weak temporal and diurnal trends were observed in the data. Fluxes averaged over the study period showed an overall methane emission of 16 mg CH4 m(exp -2)/d with a daytime average of 20 mg CH4 m(exp -2)/d and a nighttime average of 9 mg CH4 m(exp -2)/d. The effect of emission footprint was evident in the data. A strong relationship between the daily average methane flux and wet bog temperature at 20-cm depth was observed.

  15. 2.4 Micrometer Cutoff Wavelength AlGaAsSb/InGaAsSb Phototransistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulima, O. V.; Swaminathan, K.; Refaat, T. F.; Faleev, N. N.; Semenov, A. N.; Solov'ev, V. A.; Ivanov, S. V.; Abedin, M. N.; Singh, U. N.; Prather, D.

    2006-01-01

    We report the first AlGaAsSb/InGaAsSb phototransistors with a cutoff wavelength (50% of peak responsivity) of 2.4 micrometers operating in a broad range of temperatures. These devices are also the first AlGaAsSb/InGaAsSb heterojunction phototransistors (HPT) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). This work is a continuation of a preceding study, which was carried out using LPE (liquid phase epitaxy)-grown AlGaAsSb/InGaAsSb/GaSb heterostructures. Although the LPE-related work resulted in the fabrication of an HPT with excellent parameters [1-4], the room temperature cutoff wavelength of these devices (approximately 2.15 micrometers) was determined by fundamental limitations implied by the close-to-equilibrium growth from Al-In-Ga-As-Sb melts. As the MBE technique is free from the above limitations, AlGaAsSb/InGaAsSb/GaSb heterostructures for HPT with a narrower bandgap of the InGaAsSb base and collector - and hence sensitivity at longer wavelengths (lambda) - were grown in this work. Moreover, MBE - compared to LPE - provides better control over doping levels, composition and width of the AlGaAsSb and InGaAsSb layers, compositional and doping profiles, especially with regard to abrupt heterojunctions. The new MBE-grown HPT exhibited both high responsivity R (up to 2334 A/W for lambda=2.05 micrometers at -20 deg C.) and specific detectivity D* (up to 2.1 x 10(exp 11) cmHz(exp 1/2)/W for lambda=2.05 micrometers at -20 deg C).

  16. Evidence for Live Cl-36 in Ca-Al-rich Inclusions from the Ningqiang Carbonaceous Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Y.; Guan, Y.; Leshin, L. A.; Ouyang, Z.; Wang, D.

    2004-01-01

    The short-lived radionuclide Cl-36 decays to either Ar-36 (98.1%, beta(sup -)) or S-36 (1.9%, epsilon and beta(sup +)), with a half life of 3.01 x 10(exp 5) yr. Both the nucleosynthetic and spallation models suggest high initial Cl-36/Cl-35 ratios ((Cl-36/Cl-35)o up to approximately 10(exp -4)) in the early solar system. Previous observed excess Ar-36 in Efremovka matrix has been interpreted to represent a much lower (Cl-36/Cl-35)o ratio of approximately 1 x 10(exp -6). From the observed S-36 excesses in sodalite in calcium aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), we report in this study the first direct evidence of the presence of Cl-36 in primitive meteorites. The inferred (Cl-36/Cl-35)o ratios range from approximately 5 x 10(exp -6) to approximately 1 x 10(exp -5).

  17. Relic gravitational waves and extended inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Michael S.; Wilczek, Frank

    1990-01-01

    In extended inflation, a new version of inflation where the transition from the false-vacuum phase to a radiation-dominated Universe is accomplished by bubble nucleation and percolation, bubble collisions supply a potent-and potentially detectable-source of gravitational waves. The present energy density in relic gravity waves from bubble collisions is expected to be about 10(exp -5) of closure density-many orders of magnitude greater than that of the gravity waves produced by quantum fluctuations. Their characteristic wavelength depends upon the reheating temperature T(sub RH): lambda is approximately 10(exp 4) cm (10(exp 14) GeV/T(sub RH)). If large numbers of black holes are produced, a not implausible outcome, they will evaporate producing comparable amounts of shorter wavelength waves, lambda is approximately 10(exp -6) cm (T(sub RH)/10(exp 14) GeV).

  18. Experimental Surface Pressure Data Obtained on 65 deg Delta Wing Across Reynolds Number and Mach Number Ranges. Vol. 3: Medium-radius leading edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Julio; Luckring, James M.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental wind tunnel test of a 65 deg delta wing model with interchangeable leading edges was conducted in the Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF). The objective was to investigate the effects of Reynolds and Mach numbers on slender-wing leading-edge vortex flows with four values of wing leading-edge bluntness. Experimentally obtained pressure data are presented without analysis in tabulated and graphical formats across a Reynolds number range of 6 x 10(exp 6) to 120 x 10(exp 6) at a Mach number of 0.85 and across a Mach number range of 0.4 to 0.9 at Reynolds numbers of 6 x 10(exp 6), 60 x 10(exp 6), and 120 x 10(exp 6). Normal-force and pitching-moment coefficient plots for these Reynolds number and Mach number ranges are also presented.

  19. 4 CFR 4.4 - Incentive awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incentive awards. 4.4 Section 4.4 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND UTILIZATION § 4.4 Incentive awards. The provisions of chapter 45 of title 5, United States Code and Office of Personnel Management...

  20. 4 CFR 4.4 - Incentive awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Incentive awards. 4.4 Section 4.4 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND UTILIZATION § 4.4 Incentive awards. The provisions of chapter 45 of title 5, United States Code and Office of Personnel Management...

  1. 4 CFR 4.4 - Incentive awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Incentive awards. 4.4 Section 4.4 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND UTILIZATION § 4.4 Incentive awards. The provisions of chapter 45 of title 5, United States Code and Office of Personnel Management...

  2. A calibration of the production rate ratio P-21/P-26 by low energy secondry neutrons: Identification of Ne spallation components at the 10(exp 6) atoms/g level in terrestrial samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, TH.; Niedermann, S.; Marti, K.

    1993-01-01

    The spallation ratio (Ne-22/Ne-21)(sub c) from Si was determined as 1.243 plus or minus 0.022 in a terrestrial quartz sample. We carried out a calibration of the in-situ production rate ratio P-21/P-26 in quartz samples for which Be-10 and Al-26 production rates were previously measured. A ratio P-21/P-26 of 0.67 plus or minus 0.12 is obtained.

  3. High-temperature photochemistry and BAC-MP4 studies of the reaction between ground-state H atoms and N/sub 2/O

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, P.; Fontijn, A.; Melius, C.F.

    1987-05-15

    The H+N/sub 2/O reaction has been investigated using the high-temperature photochemistry (HTP) technique. H(1 /sup 2/S) atoms were generated by flash photolysis of NH/sub 3/ and monitored by time-resolved atomic resonance fluorescence with pulse counting. The bimolecular rate coefficient for H-atom consumption, leading essentially to N/sub 2/+OH, from 390 to 1310 K is found to be given by k/sub 1/(T) = 5.5 x 10/sup -14/ exp(-2380 K/T)+7.3 x 10/sup -10/ exp(-9690 K/T) cm/sup 3/ molecule/sup -1/ s/sup -1/; the accuracy is assessed as approximately 25% at the 2sigma confidence level. Above 750 K, k/sub 1/ closely follows the Arrhenius behavior of the second term alone. Distinct curvature is evident below 750 K. k/sub 1/ is compared to theoretical BAC-MP4 predictions and good agreement is found for a model involving rearrangement of an HNNO intermediate coupled with tunneling through an Eckart potential barrier, which dominates at the lower temperatures. The branching ratio for the channel leading to NH+NO is discussed in the context of recent thermochemical information and a maximum rate coefficient of <1 x 10/sup -9/ exp(-15800 K/T) cm/sup 3/ molecule/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ is set for temperatures up to 2000 K.

  4. Direct detection optical intersatellite link at 220 Mbps using AlGaAs laser diode and silicon APD with 4-ary PPM signaling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Davidson, Frederic M.

    1990-01-01

    A newly developed 220 Mbps free-space 4-ary pulse position modulation (PPM) direct detection optical communication system is described. High speed GaAs integrated circuits were used to construct the PPM encoder and receiver electronic circuits. Both PPM slot and word timing recovery were provided in the PPM receiver. The optical transmitter consisted of an AlGaAs laser diode (Mitsubishi ML5702A, lambda=821nm) and a high speed driver unit. The photodetector consisted of a silicon avalanche photodiode (APD) (RCA30902S) preceded by an optical interference filter (delta lambda=10nm). Preliminary tests showed that the self-synchronized PPM receiver could achieve a receiver bit error rate of less than 10(exp -6) at 25 nW average received optical signal power or 360 photons per transmitted information bit. The relatively poor receiver sensitivity was believed to be caused by the insufficient electronic bandwidth of the APD preamplifier and the poor linearity of the preamplifier high frequency response.

  5. Laser Radar Measurements of Atmospheric Potassium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felix, F.; Keenliside, W.; Kent, G. S.; Sandford, M. C. W.

    1973-01-01

    A dye laser capable of transmitting in the near infra red region of the spectrum has been constructed to be used in conjunction with the large Mark II laser system at present in existence at Kingston, Jamaica. Preliminary measurements have been obtained of concentration of atomic potassium in the 70-100 km region of the atmosphere. The data indicates the likelihood of a double peak in the height distribution. The lower peak, which is the" larger, is at a height of about 82 kIn, the upper peak is at a height of 94 kIn. Although an exact value for the scattering cross-section has not been obtained, a reasonable approximation of this parameter yields a value of about 1-15 x 10(exp 11) m(exp -2) for the column density of atomic potassium, which is in agreement with other data.

  6. Development of a Method for Local Electron Temperature and Density Measurements in the Divertor of the JET Tokamak

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jupen, C.; Meigs, A.; Bhatia, A. K.; Brezinsek, S.; OMullane, M.

    2004-01-01

    Plasma volume recombination in the divertor, a process in which charged particles recombine to neutral atoms, contributes to plasma detachment and hence cooling at the divertor target region. Detachment has been observed at JET and other tokamaks and is known to occur at low electron temperatures (T(sub e)<1 eV) and at high electron density (n(sub e)>10(exp 20)/m(exp 3)). The ability to measure such low temperatures is therefore of interest for modelling the divertor. In present work we report development of a new spectroscopic technique for investigation of local electron density (n(sub e)) and temperature (T,) in the outer divertor at JET.

  7. Heat-Transfer Measurements on the Apexes of Two 60 deg Sweptback Delta Wings (Panel Semiapex Angle of 30 deg) Having 0 deg and 45 deg Dihedral at a Mach Number of 4.95

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunn, Charles R.

    1961-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to evaluate the heat-transfer rates at the apex of two 60 degree sweptback delta wings (panel semi-apex angle of 30 degrees) having cylindrical leading edges and 0 degrees and 45 degree positive dihedral. The models tested might correspond to the first several feet of a hypersonic reentry vehicle. The tests were conducted at a Mach number of 4.95 and a stagnation temperature of 400 F. nominal test-section unit Reynolds numbers varied from 2 x 10(exp 6) to 12 x 10(exp 6) per foot. The results of the investigation indicated that the laminar heat-transfer distributions (ratio of local to stagnation-line heating rate) about the models normal to the leading edges were in close agreement with two-dimensional blunt-body theory. The three-dimensional stagnation point heat-transfer rate on the 0 degree dihedral model was in excellent agreement with theory and the stagnation-line heat transfer on the straight portion of the leading edge of both models approached a constant level 12 percent above the theoretical stagnation-line level on an isolated swept infinite cylinder. When the heating rates on the 45 degree dihedral model (planform sweep of 69.3 degree) were compared with those on the 0 degree dihedral model (planform sweep of 60 degrees) at equal angles of attack and equal lifts greater than zero, the stagnation-line heating rates on the 45 degrees dihedral model were, in general, considerably lower as a result of the difference in effective sweeps of the leading edges. On the wing panels inboard from the stagnation lines, the differences in heating were very small. The stagnation-line heat-transfer variation with angle of attack, the shift in stagnation-line location, and the reduction in stagnation-line heat transfer resulting from the increase in effective sweep when positive dihedral is incorporated into a constant-panel 0 degree dihedral wing, all agreed with the results of a theoretical study made of highly swept delta

  8. Assimilation by Lunar Mare Basalts: Melting of Crustal Material and Dissolution of Anorthite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finnila, A. B.; Hess, P. C.; Rutherford, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss techniques for calculating the amount of crustal assimilation possible in lunar magma chambers and dikes based on thermal energy balances, kinetic rates, and simple fluid mechanical constraints. Assuming parent magmas of picritic compositions, we demonstrate the limits on the capacity of such magmas to melt and dissolve wall rock of anorthitic, troctolitic, noritic, and KREEP (quartz monzodiorite) compositions. Significant melting of the plagioclase-rich crustal lithologies requires turbulent convection in the assimilating magma and an efficient method of mixing in the relatively buoyant and viscous new melt. Even when this occurs, the major element chemistry of the picritic magmas will change by less than 1-2 wt %. Diffusion coefficients measured for Al2O3 from an iron-free basalt and an orange glass composition are 10(exp -12) m(exp 2) s(exp -1) at 1340 C and 10(exp -11) m(exp 2) s(exp -1) at 1390 C. These rates are too slow to allow dissolution of plagioclase to significantly affect magma compositions. Picritic magmas can melt significant quantities of KREEP, which suggests that their trace element chemistry may still be affected by assimilation processes; however, mixing viscous melts of KREEP composition with the fluid picritic magmas could be prohibitively difficult. We conclude that only a small part of the total major element chemical variation in the mare basalt and volcanic glass collection is due to assimilation/fractional crystallization processes near the lunar surface. Instead, most of the chemical variation in the lunar basalts and volcanic glasses must result from assimilation at deeper levels or from having distinct source regions in a heterogeneous lunar mantle.

  9. Relationship Between Ecosystem Productivity and Photosynthetically Active Radiation for Northern Peatlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frolking, S. E.; Bubier, J. L.; Moore, T. R.; Ball, T.; Bellisario, L. M.; Bhardwaj, A.; Carroll, P.; Crill, P. M.; Lafleur, P. M.; McCaughey, J. H.; Roulet, N. T.; Suyker, A. E.; Verma, S. B.; Waddington, J. M.; Whiting, G. J.

    1998-01-01

    We analyzed the relationship between net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (NEE) and irradiance (as photosynthetic photon flux density or PPFD), using published and unpublished data that have been collected during midgrowing season for carbon balance studies at seven peatlands in North America and Europe, NEE measurements included both eddy-correlation tower and clear, static chamber methods, which gave very similar results. Data were analyzed by site, as aggregated data sets by peatland type (bog, poor fen, rich fen, and all fens) and as a single aggregated data set for all peatlands. In all cases, a fit with a rectangular hyperbola (NEE = alpha PPFD P(sub max)/(alpha PPFD + P(sub max) + R) better described the NEE-PPFD relationship than did a linear fit (NEE = beta PPFD + R). Poor and rich fens generally had similar NEE-PPFD relationships, while bogs had lower respiration rates (R = -2.0 micro mol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) for bogs and -2.7 micro mol m(exp -2) s(exp -1)) for fens) and lower NEE at moderate and high light levels (P(sub max)= 5.2 micro mol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) for bogs and 10.8 micro mol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) for fens). As a single class, northern peatlands had much smaller ecosystem respiration (R = -2.4 micro mol m(exp -2) s(exp -1)) and NEE rates (alpha = 0.020 and P(sub max)= 9.2 micro mol m(exp -2) s(exp -1)) than the upland ecosystems (closed canopy forest, grassland, and cropland). Despite this low productivity, northern peatland soil carbon pools are generally 5-50 times larger than upland ecosystems because of slow rates of decomposition caused by litter quality and anaerobic, cold soils.

  10. Evidence for Orbital Decay of RX J1914.4+2456: Gravitational Radiation and the Nature of the X-Ray Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    RX J1914.4+2456 is a candidate double-degenerate binary (AM CVn) with a putative 569 s orbital period. If this identification is correct, then it has one of the shortest binary orbital periods known, and gravitational radiation should drive the orbital evolution and mass transfer if the binary is semi-detached. Here we report the results of a coherent timing study of the archival ROSAT data for RX J1914.4+2456. We performed a phase coherent timing analysis using all five ROSAT observations spanning a four-year period. We demonstrate that all the data can be phase connected, and we show that the 1.756 mHz orbital frequency is increasing at a rate of 1.5 +/- 0.4 x 10(exp -17) Hz/s consistent with the expected loss of angular momentum from the binary system via gravitational radiation. In addition to providing evidence for the emission of gravitational waves, our measurement of the orbital v(dot) constrains models for the X-ray emission and the nature of the secondary. If stable mass accretion drives the X-ray flux, then a positive v(dot) is inconsistent with a degenerate donor. A helium burning dwarf is compatible if indeed such systems can have periods as short as that of RX J1914.4+2456, an open theoretical question. Our measurement of a positive v(dot) is consistent with the unipolar induction model of Wu et al. which does not require accretion to drive the X-ray flux. We discuss how future timing measurements of RX J1914.4+2456 (and systems like it) with for example, Chandra and XMM-Newton, can provide a unique probe of the interaction between mass loss and gravitational radiation. We also discuss the importance of such measurements in the context of gravitational wave detection from space, such as is expected in the future with the LISA mission.

  11. The Composition of Titan's Lower Atmosphere and Simple Surface Volatiles as Measured by the Cassini-Huygens Probe Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niemann, H. B.; Atreya, S. K.; Demick, J. E.; Gautier, D.; Haberman, J. A.; Harpold, D. N.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Lunine, J. I.; Owen, T. C.; Raulin, F.

    2010-01-01

    The Cassini-Huygens Probe Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) determined the composition of the Titan atmosphere from 140km altitude to the surface. After landing, it returned composition data of gases evaporated from the surface. Height profiles of molecular nitrogen (N2), methane (CH4) and molecular hydrogen (H2) were determined. Traces were detected on the surface of evaporating methane, ethane (C2H6), acetylene (C2H2), cyanogen (C2N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The methane data showed evidence that methane precipitation occurred recently. The methane mole fraction was (1.48+/-0.09) x 10(exp -2) in the lower stratosphere (139.8 km to 75.5 km) and (5.65+/-0.18) x 10(exp -2) near the surface (6.7 km to the surface). The molecular hydrogen mole fraction was (1.01+/-0.16) x 10(exp -3) in the atmosphere and (9.90+/-0.17) x 10(exp -4) on the surface. Isotope ratios were 167.7+/-0.6 for N-14/N-15 in molecular nitrogen, 91.1+/-1.4 for C-12/C-13 in methane and (1.35+/-0.30) x 10(exp -4) for D/H in molecular hydrogen. The mole fractions of Ar-36 and radiogenic Ar-40 are (2.1+/-0.8) x 10(exp -7) and (3.39 +/-0.12) x 10(exp -5) respectively. Ne-22 has been tentatively identified at a mole fraction of (2.8+/-2.1) x 10(exp -7) Krypton and xenon were below the detection threshold of 1 x 10(exp -8) mole fraction. Science data were not retrieved from the gas chromatograph subsystem as the abundance of the organic trace gases in the atmosphere and on the ground did not reach the detection threshold. Results previously published from the GCMS experiment are superseded by this publication.

  12. Environmental Perturbations Caused by the Impacts of Comets and Asteroids on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Owen B.; Lawless, James G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The extinction mechanisms proposed at the Cretaceous-Tertiary geological boundary are reviewed and related to the impact of asteroids or comets in general. For impact energies below 10(exp 4) Megatons (less than 6 x 10(exp 4) years; asteroid diameter less than 650 m), blast, earthquake, and fire may destroy local areas up to 10(exp 5) square m. Tidal waves could flood a kilometer inland over entire ocean basins. The energy range from 105 to 106 Megatons (less than 2 x 10(exp 6) years; asteroid diameter less than 3 km) is transitional. Dust lifted, sulfur released from within impacting asteroids, and soot from fires started by comets can produce climatologically significant optical depths of 10. At energies beyond 10(exp 7) Megatons, blast and earthquake damage is regional (10(exp 6) square cm). Tsunami cresting to 100 m and flooding 20 km inland will sweep the coastal zones of the world's oceans. Fires will be set globally. Light levels may drop so low from the smoke, dust and sulfate that vision is not possible. At energies approaching 10(exp 9) Megatons the ocean surface waters may be acidified by sulfur. The combination of these effects would be devastating.

  13. Population of Nitrifying Bacteria and Nitrification in Ammonium Saturated Clinoptilolite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGilloway, R. L.; Weaver, R. W.; Ming, Douglas W.; Gruener, J.

    1999-01-01

    As humans begin to spend longer periods of time in space, plants will be incorporated into life support systems. Ammonium saturated clinoptilolite is one plant growth substrate but a balance between ammonium and nitrate is needed. A laboratory study was conducted to determine effects of nitrifying bacteria on ammonium concentrations and kinetics of nitrification. Columns containing clinoptilolite substrate amended with nitrifying bacteria obtained from soil enrichment were analyzed weekly for a 90 day period. The enrichment culture initially contained 1 x 10(exp 5) ammonium oxidizing bacteria and 1 x 10(exp 2) nitrite oxidizing bacteria per gram of substrate. Populations of ammonium oxidizing bacteria increased to 1 x 10(exp 6) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria increased to 1 x 10(exp 3) per gram of substrate. The nitrification rate was approximately 0.25mg NO3(-)-N/kg.hr. Experiments were also conducted to enumerate nitrifying bacteria in a clinoptilolite substrate used to grow wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Seventy days following the initial inoculation with an unknown number of commercial nitrifying bacteria, 1 x 10(exp 5) ammonium oxidizing bacteria per gram of substrate were present. The number of nitrite oxidizing bacteria was between 1 x 10(exp 3) to 10(exp 4) per gram of substrate as measured by the most probable number method. Nitrification rates were approximately 0.20mg NO3(-)-N/kg.hr. Clinoptilolite readily exchanged sufficient concentrations of ammonium to support nitrifying bacteria and they survived well in this medium.

  14. Evidence for a Millisecond Pulsar in 4U 1636-53 During a Superburst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Markwardt, Craig B.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We report the discovery with the Proportional Counter Array on board the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer of highly coherent 582 Hz pulsations during the February 22, 2001 (UT) 'superburst' from 4U 1636-53. The pulsations are detected during an 800 s interval spanning the flux maximum of the burst. Within this interval the barycentric oscillation frequency increases in a monotonic fashion from 581.89 to 581.93 Hz. The predicted orbital motion of the neutron star during this interval is consistent with such an increase as long as optical maximum corresponds roughly with superior conjunction of V801 Arae, the optical companion to the neutron star in 4U 1636-53. We show that a range of circular orbits with 90 < v(sub ns) sin i < 175 km/s and 0.336 > phi(sub 0) > 0.277 for the neutron star can provide an excellent description of the frequency and phase evolution. The brevity of the observed pulse train with respect to the 3.8 hour orbital period unfortunately does not allow more precise constraints. The average pulse profile is sinusoidal and the time averaged pulsation amplitude, as inferred from the half amplitude of the sinusoid is 1%, smaller than typical for burst oscillations observed in normal thermonuclear bursts. We do not detect any higher harmonics nor the putative subharmonic near 290 Hz. The 90% upper limits on signal amplitude at the subharmonic and first harmonic are 0.1 and 0.06%, respectively. The highly coherent pulsation, with a Q = v(sub 0)/delta-v > 4.5 x 10(exp 5) provides compelling evidence for a rapidly rotating neutron star in 4U 1636-53, and further supports the connection of burst oscillation frequencies with the spin frequencies of neutron stars. Our results provide further evidence that some millisecond pulsars are spun up via accretion in LMXBs. We also discuss the implications of our orbital velocity constraint for the masses of the components of 4U 1636-53.

  15. TID and SEE Response of an Advanced Samsung 4G NAND Flash Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oldham, Timothy R.; Friendlich, M.; Howard, J. W.; Berg, M. D.; Kim, H. S.; Irwin, T. L.; LaBel, K. A.

    2007-01-01

    Initial total ionizing dose (TID) and single event heavy ion test results are presented for an unhardened commercial flash memory, fabricated with 63 nm technology. Results are that the parts survive to a TID of nearly 200 krad (SiO2), with a tractable soft error rate of about 10(exp -l2) errors/bit-day, for the Adams Ten Percent Worst Case Environment.

  16. A performance comparison of two small rocket nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrington, Lynn A.; Reed, Brian D.; Rivera, Angel, Jr.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted on two small rockets (110 N thrust class) to directly compare a standard conical nozzle with a bell nozzle optimized for maximum thrust using the Rao method. In large rockets, with throat Reynolds numbers of greater than 1 x 10(exp 5), bell nozzles outperform conical nozzles. In rockets with throat Reynolds numbers below 1 x 10(exp 5), however, test results have been ambiguous. An experimental program was conducted to test two small nozzles at two different fuel film cooling percentages and three different chamber pressures. Test results showed that for the throat Reynolds number range from 2 x 10(exp 4) to 4 x 10(exp 4), the bell nozzle outperformed the conical nozzle. Thrust coefficients for the bell nozzle were approximately 4 to 12 percent higher than those obtained with the conical nozzle. As expected, testing showed that lowering the fuel film cooling increased performance for both nozzle types.

  17. Micron-Sized Particles Detected in the Vicinity of Jupiter by the Voyager Plasma Wave Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsintikidis, D.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Granroth, L. J.

    1996-01-01

    Wideband waveform data obtained by the plasma wave instruments onboard the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft have been used to study micron-sized dust particles in the vicinity of Jupiter. The technique used was developed during the flybys of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, and makes use of the fact that a particle striking the spacecraft at 10-20 km/s causes a voltage pulse in the plasma wave receiver. The waveform of the voltage pulse is much different than the waveform of plasma waves and provides a highly reliable method of detecting micron-sized dust particles. Although the dust impact rate observed in the vicinity of Jupiter is much lower than the rates at Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, the particles are easily detectable. Approximately 1200 48-second frames of wideband waveform data were examined in the vicinity of Jupiter. Dust impact signatures were found in approximately 20% of these frames. The peak impact rates are about 1 impact per second, and the peak number densities are about 10(exp -5) m(exp -3). Most of the impacts occurred near the equatorial plane at radial distances less than about 35 R(sub j) from Jupiter. Analysis of the detection threshold indicates that the particles have masses greater than 10(exp -11) g, which corresponds to particles with diameters of a few micrometers or larger.

  18. A Balloon Sounding Technique for Measuring SO2 Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Gary A.; Komhyr, Walter D.; Hirokawa, Jun; Lefer, Barry; Krotkov, Nicholay; Ngan, Fong

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a new technique for inexpensive measurements of SO2 profiles using a modified dual-ozonesonde instrument payload. The presence of SO2 interferes with the standard electrochemical cell (ECC) ozonesonde measurement, resulting in -1 molecule of O3 reported for each molecule of SO2 present (provided [O3] > [SO2]). In laboratory tests, an SO2 filter made with Cr03 placed on the inlet side of the sonde removes nearly 100% of the SO2 present for concentrations up to 60 ppbv and remained effective after exposure to 2.8 X 10(exp 16) molecules of SO2 [equivalent to a column approximately 150 DU (1 DU = 2.69 X 10(exp 20) molecules m(exp -2))]. Flying two ECC instruments on the same payload with one filtered and the other unfiltered yields SO2 profiles, inferred by subtraction. Laboratory tests and field experience suggest an SO2 detection limit of approximately 3 pbb with profiles valid from the surface to the ozonopause [i.e., approximately (8-10 km)]. Two example profiles demonstrate the success of this technique for both volcanic and industrial plumes.

  19. Limits on the UV Photodecomposition of Carbonates on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Richard; Zent, Aaron P.; McKay, Christopher P.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The effect of UV (ultraviolet) light on the stability of calcium carbonate in a simulated martian atmosphere was experimentally investigated. Sample cells containing C-13 labeled calcite were irradiated with a Xe arc lamp in 10 mbar of simulated martian atmosphere and a quadrupole mass spectrometer was used to monitor the headspace gases for the production of (13)CO2. We found no experimental evidence of the UV photodecomposition of calcium carbonate in a simulated martian atmosphere. Extrapolating the lower limit of detection of our experimental system to an upper limit of carbonate decomposition on Mars yields a quantum efficiency of 3.5 x 10(exp -8) molecules/photon over the wavelength interval of 190-390 nm and a maximum UV photodecomposition rate of 1.2 x 10(exp -13) kg m(exp -2) s(exp -1) from a calcite surface. The maximum loss of bulk calcite due to this process would be 2.5 nm yr(exp -1). However, calcite is expected to be thermodynamically stable on the surface of Mars and potential UV photodecomposition reaction mechanisms indicate that while calcium carbonate may decompose under vacuum, it would be stable in a CO2 atmosphere. Given the expected stability of carbonate on Mars and our inability to detect carbonate decomposition, we conclude that it is unlikely that the apparent absence of carbonate on the martian surface is due to UV photo decomposition of calcite in the current environment.

  20. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE): Initial Science Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Hine, B.; Delory, G. T.; Salute, J. S.; Noble, S.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M.; Mahaffy, P.

    2014-01-01

    between 0.7 and sev-eral micrometers in size, present over the pre-dawn and morning sector of the Moon. This tenuous dust exosphere, with densities of approximately 10(exp -5) m(exp -3), appears to be sustained by the ejecta of micrometeoroid impacts.

  1. Far-infrared emissivity measurements of reflective surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, J.; Lange, A. E.; Bock, J. J.

    1996-01-01

    An instrument developed to measure the emissivity of reflective surfaces by comparing the thermal emission of a test sample to that of a reference surface is reported. The instrument can accurately measure the emissivity of mirrors made from lightweight thermally insulating materials such as glass and metallized carbon fiber reinforced plastics. Far infrared measurements at a wavelength of 165 micrometers are reported. The instrument has an absolute accuracy of Delta epsilon = 9 x 10(exp -4) and can reproducibly measure an emissivity of as small as 2 x 10(exp -4) between flat reflective surfaces. The instrument was used to measure mirror samples for balloon-borne and spaceborne experiments. An emissivity of (6.05 +/- 1.24) x 10(exp -3) was measured for gold evaporated on glass, and (6.75 +/- 1.17) x 10(exp -3) for aluminum evaporated on glass.

  2. Measurement of the cosmic microwave background spectrum by the COBE FIRAS instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, J. C.; Cheng, E. S.; Cottingham, D. A.; Eplee, R. E., Jr.; Fixsen, D. J.; Hewagama, T.; Isaacman, R. B.; Jensen, K. A.; Meyer, S. S.; Noerdlinger, P. D.

    1994-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) has a blackbody spectrum within 3.4 x 10(exp -8) ergs/sq cm/s/sr cm over the frequency range from 2 to 20/cm (5-0.5 mm). These measurements, derived from the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotomer (FIRAS) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, imply stringent limits on energy release in the early universe after t approximately 1 year and redshift z approximately 3 x 10(exp 6). The deviations are less than 0.30% of the peak brightness, with an rms value of 0.01%, and the dimensionless cosmological distortion parameters are limited to the absolute value of y is less than 2.5 x 10(exp -5) and the absolute value of mu is less than 3.3 x 10(exp -4) (95% confidence level). The temperature of the CMBR is 2.726 +/- 0.010 K (95% confidence level systematic).

  3. A Study of Saturn's E-Ring Particles Using the Voyager 1 Plasma Wave Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsintikidis, D.; Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Barbosa, D. D.

    1993-01-01

    The flyby of Voyager 1 at Saturn resulted in the detection of a large variety of plasma waves, e.g., chorus, hiss, and electron cyclotron harmonics. Just before the outbound equator crossing, at about 6.1 R(sub s), the Voyager 1 plasma wave instrument detected a strong, well-defined low-frequency enhancement. Initially it was suggested that plasma waves might be responsible for the spectral feature but more recently dust was suggested as at least a partial contributor to the enhancement. In this report we present evidence which supports the conclusion that dust contributes to the low-frequency enhancement. A new method has been used to derive the dust impact rate. The method relies mainly on the 16-channel spectrum analyzer data. The few wide band waveform observations available (which have been used to study dust impacts during the Voyager 2 ring plane crossing) were useful for calibrating the impact rate from the spectrum analyzer data. The mass and, hence, the size of the dust particles were also obtained by analyzing the response of the plasma wave spectrum analyzer. The results show that the region sampled by Voyager 1 is populated by dust particles that have rms masses of up to few times 10(exp -11) g and sizes of up to a few microns. The dust particle number density is on the order of 10(exp -3) m(exp 3). The optical depth of the region sampled by the spacecraft is 1.04 x 10(exp -6). The particle population is centered about 2500 km south of the equatorial plane and has a north-south thickness of about 4000 km. Possible sources of these particles are the moons Enceladus and Tethys whose orbits lie within the E-ring radial extent. These results are in reasonable agreement with photometric studies and numerical simulations.

  4. Free-Flight Skin-Temperature and Surface-Pressure Measurements on a Highly Polished Nose Having a 100 deg Total-Angle Cone and a 10 deg Half-Angle Conical Flare Section up to a Mach Number of 4.08

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashis, Bernard; Bond, Aleck C.

    1961-01-01

    The skin temperature and surface pressure were measured on a large-scale, highly polished nose having a relatively sharp-tipped 100 deg total-angle cone followed by a conical flare section of 10 deg half-angle. The measurements were obtained in flight from a rocket-propelled model up to a peak Mach number of 4.08 and a peak Reynolds number of 22 x 10(exp 6) per foot. Temperature distributions indicated that the heating on the forward 3.5 inches of the 100 deg cone was lower than the heating on the rearward portion. Likewise, measured temperatures on the flare portion of the test nose were generally lower than the temperatures on the 100 deg cone portion. The data indicated that the local Reynolds numbers of transition, based on calculated boundary-layer momentum thicknesses, ranged from 530 to 940 for a Mach number range from 2.72 to 3.75. Comparison of measured cone pressures with theory for a sharp cone showed that theory overestimates the cone pressures. Pressure measurements on the flare portion of the nose showed that in the lower speed range the flow expands below atmospheric pressure in going from the cone to the flare; however, as the speed increased, the expansion diminished and for speeds greater than a Mach number of approximately 3.0 the flare pressure coefficients were at or near a value of zero.

  5. Outburst from 4U 1145-619: A Transient X-Ray Pulsar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Colleen; Finger, Mark H.; Scott, Matthew

    1998-01-01

    4U 1145-619, a 293 second Be/X-ray pulsar, was discovered with Uhuru (Forman 1978, ApJS, 38, 357) and first identified as a pulsar in 1977 with Ariel V (White 1978, Nature, 274, 664). From 1991 to 1998, BATSE observed 4U 1145-619 in a series of 12 periodic outbursts, each with durations of 8-30 days. Combining these data with previously published results yielded an outburst ephemeris of T(sub out) = MJD 448871.s (+/- 0.6) +/- 186.68 (+/- 0.05)E(sub out), Where T(sub out) is the time of peak intensity and E(sub out) is the cycle number. Most outbursts occur within phases +/- 0.1 of the outburst ephemeris. Pulse frequency measurements were consistent with a long-term average frequency derivative of the first derivative of v = -3 x 10(exp -14) Hz/s. Most outbursts reached peak total fluxes of approximately equal 100 mCrab (20-50 keV) and had 20-50 keV r.m.s. pulse fractions of about 30%. (A pulse fraction of 70% was observed for one outburst). Two outbursts reached 20-50 keV peak total fluxes of 550 mCrab, but had very different 20-50 keV pulse fractions of about 30% and about 50%. Three outbursts with peak total fluxes of 120, 134, and 180 mCrab, had r.m.s. pulse fractions of about 28%, 34%, and 52%. During the brightest 3 outbursts observed with BATSE, the pulse frequency increased. Fainter outbursts observed with BATSE appeared to reach peak intensity at a later phase (relative to the ephemeris) than brighter outbursts, and were typically not detectable at the expected times of peak intensity. The pulse profile showed significant intensity and energy dependent pulse shape variations. We present histories of pulse frequency, 20-50 keV intensity, and pulse profiles.

  6. Numerical Modeling of Solidification in Space With MEPHISTO-4. Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, James E.; Yoa, Minwu; deGroh, Henry C., III; Garimella, V. Suresh

    1998-01-01

    A pre-flight analysis of the directional solidification of BiSn with MEPHISTO-4 is presented. Simplified Bridgman growth under microgravity conditions is simulated using a two dimensional finite element model. This numerical model is a single domain, pseudo-steady state model, and includes the effects of both thermal and solutal convection. The results show that for all orientations of the applied steady state gravity vector, of magnitude 1 micro-g, the directional solidification process remains diffusion controlled. The maximum convective velocity was found to be 4.424 x 10(exp -5) cm/s for the horizontal Bridgman growth configuration. This value is an order of magnitude lower than the growth velocity. The maximum and minimum values or solute concentration in the liquid at the crystal-melt interface were 13.867 at.% and 13.722 at.%, respectively. This gives a radial segregation value of xi = 1.046% at the interface. A secondary objective of this work was to compare the results obtained to those that consider thermal convection only (no solutal convection). It was found that the convective flow patterns in simulations which included solutal convection were significantly different from those which ignored solutal convection. The level of radial segregation predicted by the current simulations is an order of magnitude lower than that found in simulations which ignore solutal convection. The final aim was to investigate the effect of g-jitter on the crystal growth process. A simulation was performed to calculate the system response to a 1 second, 100 micro-g gravity impulse acting normal to the direction of growth. This pulse is consistent with that induced by Orbiter thruster firings. The results obtained indicate that such a gravity pulse causes an increase in the level of radial solute segregation at the interface from the steady state values. The maximum value of solute concentration in the liquid was found to be 13.888 at.%, the minimum value calculated was 13

  7. Time Dependent Models of Grain Formation Around Carbon Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, M. P.; Shipman, R. F.

    1996-01-01

    Carbon-rich Asymptotic Giant Branch stars are sites of dust formation and undergo mass loss at rates ranging from 10(exp -7) to 10(exp -4) solar mass/yr. The state-of-the-art in modeling these processes is time-dependent models which simultaneously solve the grain formation and gas dynamics problem. We present results from such a model, which also includes an exact solution of the radiative transfer within the system.

  8. The transition region and coronal explorer (TRACE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Title, Alan; Bruner, M.; Jurcevich, B.; Lemen, J.; Strong, K.; Tarbell, Ted; Wolfson, C. Jacob; Golub, L.; Bookbinder, J.; Fisher, R.

    1995-01-01

    The transition region and coronal explorer (TRACE) NASA small explorer mission and instrument are presented. The TRACE scientific investigation explores the relationships between fine-scale magnetic fields and the associated solar plasma structures. The instrument collects images of solar plasmas at temperatures from 10(exp 4) to 10(exp 7) K with one arcsec spatial resolution. The design specifications of the trace instrument are presented.

  9. Heterogeneous Reaction of ClONO2(g) + NaCl(s) to Cl2(g) + NaNO3(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timonen, Raimo S.; Chu, Liang T.; Leu, Ming-Taun; Keyser, Leon F.

    1994-01-01

    The heterogeneous reaction of ClON02 + NaCl yields Cl2 + NaNO3 (eq 1) was investigated over a temperature range 220-300 K in a flow-tube reactor interfaced with a differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer. Partial pressures of ClON02 in the range 10(exp -8) - 10(exp -5) Torr were used. Granule sizes and surface roughness of the NaCl substrates were determined by using a scanning electron microscope, and in separate experiments, surface areas of the substrates were measured by using BET analysis of gas-adsorption isotherms. For dry NaCl substrates, both the decay rates of ClON02 and the growth rates Of C12 were used to obtain reaction probabilities, gamma(sub l) = (4.6 +/- 3.0) x 10(exp -3) at 296 K and (6.7 +/- 3.2) x 10(exp -1) at 225 K, after considering the internal surface area, The error bars represent 1 standard deviation. The Cl2 yield based on the ClONO2 reacted was measured to be 1.0 +/- 0.2. In order to mimic the conditions encountered in the lower stratosphere, the effect of water vapor pressures between 5 x 10(exp -5) and 3 x 10(exp -4) Torr on reaction 1 was also studied. With added H20, reaction probabilities, gamma = (4.1 +/- 2.1) x 10(exp -3) at 296 K and (4.7 +/- 2.9) x 10(exp -3) at 225 K, were obtained. A trace of HOCl, the reaction product from the ClON02 + H20 yield HOCl + HN03 reaction, was observed in addition to the C12 product from reaction 1. The implications of this result for the enhancement of hydrogen chloride in the stratosphere after the El Chichon volcanic eruption and for the marine troposphere are discussed.

  10. Advanced Doppler tracking experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    The Doppler tracking method is currently the only technique available for broadband gravitational wave searches in the approx. 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -1) Hz low frequency band. A brief review is given of the Doppler method, a discussion of the main noise sources, and a review of experience with current spacecraft and the prospects for sensitivity improvements in an advanced Doppler tracking experiment.

  11. Line strength and self-broadening coefficient of the pure rotational S(1) quadrupole line in H2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, Dennis C.; Sirota, J. Marcos

    1994-01-01

    The absolute intensity, S(sub 1), and self-broadening coefficient, gamma(sub L), for H2 S(sub zero)(1) pure rotational line at 17.0348 micrometers (587.032 cm(exp -1)) have been measured for the first time using a tunable diode laser spectrometer with a resolution of approximately 1 x 10(exp -3) cm(exp -1). By fitting a Galatry line shape convolved with a 1 x 10(exp -3) cm(exp -1) Gaussian instrument profile to absorption profiles, for H2 pressures ranging from 0.34 to 1.30 atm, values of s(sub 1) = (7.0 +/- 0.4) x 10(exp -8) cm(exp -2) atm(exp -1) and gamma(sub L) = (1.73 +/- 0.12) x 10(exp -3) cm(exp -1) atm(exp -1) were obtained.

  12. Rosat Observations of Nine Globular Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rappaport, S.; Dewey, D.; Levine, A.; Macri, L.

    1994-01-01

    The ROSAT HRI was used to image fields around nine Galactic globular clusters that have central densities in the range of 10(exp 4) - 10(exp 5) solar mass pc(exp -3) and that had not previously been observed with the Einstein Observatory. We detected X-ray sources associated with Pal 2 and NGC 6304 with luminosities of 1.1 x 10(exp 34) ergs/s and 1.2 x 10(exp 33) ergs/s, respectively. No X-ray emission was detected from the source in Ter 6, thus confirming its transient nature. In all, there were 23 serendipitous sources found in the nine fields; none was apparently associated with any of the other seven clusters. The results are discussed in the context of low-luminosity cluster X-ray sources, in general.

  13. Microbiological characterization of a regenerative life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, D. W.; Bruce, R. J.; Mishra, S. K.; Barta, D. J.; Pierson, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    A Variable Pressure Plant Growth Chamber (VPGC), at the Johnson Space Center's (JSC) ground based Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) test bed, was used to produce crops of soil-grown lettuce. The crops and chamber were analyzed for microbiological diversity during lettuce growth and after harvest. Bacterial counts for the rhizosphere, spent nutrient medium, heat exchanger condensate, and atmosphere were approximately 10(exp 11) Colony Forming Units (CFU)/g, 10(exp 5) CFU/ml, 10(exp 5)CFU/ml, and 600 CFU/m sq, repectively. Pseudomonas was the predominant bacterial genus. Numbers of fungi were about 10(exp 5) CFU/g in the rhizosphere, 4-200 CFU/ml in the spent nutient medium, 110 CFU/ml in the heat exchanger condensate, and 3 CFU/cu m in the atmosphere. Fusarium and Trichoderma were the predominant fungal genera.

  14. Stratospheric OClO and NO2 measured by groundbased UV/Vis-spectroscopy in Greenland in January and February 1990 and 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, A.; Perner, D.

    1994-01-01

    Groundbased UV/Vis-spectroscopy of zenith scattered sunlight was performed at Sondre Stromfjord (Greenland) during Jan/Feb 1990 and Jan/Feb 1991. Considerable amounts of OClO were observed during both campaigns. Maximum OClO vertical column densities at 92 deg solar zenith angle (SZA) were 7.4 x 10(exp 13) molec/sq cm in 1990 and 5.7 x 10(exp 13) molec/sq cm in 1991 (chemical enhancement is included in the calculation of the air mass factor (AMF)). A threshold seems to exist for OClO detection: OClO was detected on every day when the potential vorticity at the 475 K level of potential temperature was higher than 35 x 10(exp -6)Km(exp 2)kg(exp -1)s(exp -1). NO2 vertical columns lower than 1 x 10(exp 15) molec/sq cm were frequently observed in both winters.

  15. Experimental Surface Pressure Data Obtained on 65 deg Delta Wing Across Reynolds Number and Mach Number Ranges. Volume 2; Small-Radius Leading Edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Julio; Luckring, James M.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental wind tunnel test of a 65 deg. delta wing model with interchangeable leading edges was conducted in the Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF). The objective was to investigate the effects of Reynolds and Mach numbers on slender-wing leading-edge vortex flows with four values of wing leading-edge bluntness. Experimentally obtained pressure data are presented without analysis in tabulated and graphical formats across a Reynolds number range of 6 x 10(exp 6) to 84 x 10(exp 6) at a Mach number of 0.85 and across a Mach number range of 0.4 to 0.9 at Reynolds numbers of 6 x 10(exp 6) and 60 x 10(exp 6). Normal-force and pitching-moment coefficient plots for these Reynolds number and Mach number ranges are also presented.

  16. The interaction with the lower ionosphere of electromagnetic pulses from lightning: Excitation of optical emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taranenko, Y. N.; Inan, U. S.; Bell, T. F.

    1993-01-01

    A self consistent and fully kinetic simulation of the interaction of lightning radiated electromagnetic (EM) pulses with the nighttime lower ionosphere indicates that optical emissions observable with conventional instruments would be excited. For example, emissions of the 1st and 2nd positive bands of N2 occur at rates reaching 7 x 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 7) cu cm/s respectively at 92 km altitude for a lightning discharge with an electric field E(sub 100) = 20 V/m (normalized to a 100 km distance). The maximum height integrated intensities of these emissions are 4 x 10(exp 7) and 6 x 10(exp 6) R respectively, lasting for approx. 50 micrometers.

  17. Discovery of X-ray emission associated with the GUM Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy, D. A.; Nousek, J.; Garmire, G.

    1992-02-01

    The Gum Nebula was observed by the A-2 LED proportional counters on the HEAO-1 satellite as part of the all-sky survey. The first detection of X-ray emission associated with the Gum Nebula is reported. Soft X-ray spectra were constructed from the A-2 LED PHA data. Single temperature Raymond-Smith models were fitted to the observed spectra to yield temperature, column density and emission measure. The temperature is 6 x 10 exp 5 K, the column density 4 x 10 exp 20/sq cm, and the emission measure 5 cm exp-6 pc. The X-ray and optical properties of the Gum Nebula are consistent with a supernova remnant in the shell stage of evolution, which was the product of an energetic (3 x 10 exp 51 ergs) supernova explosion which occurred about 2 x 10 exp 6 yr ago.

  18. A Hot-electron Direct Detector for Radioastronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karasik, Boris S.; McGrath, William R.; LeDuc, Henry G.; Gershenson, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    A hot-electron transition-edge superconducting bolometer with adjustable thermal relaxation speed is proposed. The bolometer contacts are made from a superconductor with high critical temperature which blocks the thermal diffusion of hot carriers into the contacts. Thus electron-phonon interaction is the only mechanism for heat removal. The speed of thermal relaxation for hot electrons in a nanometer-size superconducting bolometer with T(sub c) = 100-300 mK is controlled by the elastic electron mean free path l. The relaxation rate behaves as T(sup 4)l at subkelvin temperatures and can be reduced by a factor of 10-100 by decreasing 1. Then an antenna- or wave guide-coupled bolometer with a time constant approx. = 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -4) s will exhibit photon-noise limited performance at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. The bolometer will have a figure-of-merit NEPtau = 10(exp -22) - 10(exp -21) W/Hz at 100 mK which is 10(exp 3) to 10(exp 4) times better (ie: smaller) than that of a state-of-the-art bolometer. A tremendous increase in speed and sensitivity will have a significant impact for observational mapping applications.

  19. The microgravity environment of the Space Shuttle Columbia middeck during STS-32

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, Bonnie J.; Thomas, Donald A.; Schoess, Jeff N.

    1991-01-01

    Four hours of three-axis microgravity accelerometer data were successfully measured at the MA9F locker location in the Orbiter middeck of Columbia as part of the Microgravity Disturbances Experiment (MDE) on STS-32. These data were measured using the Honeywell In-Space Accelerometer, a small three-axis accelerometer that was hard-mounted onto the Fluid Experiment Apparatus to record the microgravity environment at the exact location of the MDE. Data were recorded during specific mission events such as Orbiter quiescent periods, crew exercise on the treadmill, and numerous Orbiter engine burns. Orbiter background levels were measured to be in the 3 x 10(exp -5) to 2 x 10(exp -4) G range, treadmill operations in the 6 x 10(exp -4) to 5 x 10(exp -3) G range, and Orbiter engine burns from 4 x 10(exp -3) to in excess of 1 x 10(exp -2) G. These data represent some of the first microgravity accelerometer data ever recorded in the middeck area of the Orbiter.

  20. UK-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcroberts, J. J.

    1971-01-01

    The launch of the UK-4 satellite (United Kingdom) and its expected operations in the upper ionosphere are discussed. The satellite is designed to study radio noise, low frequency radio waves, electron temperature, and count low energy charged particles.

  1. The fate of atmospheric phosgene and the stratospheric chlorine loadings of its parent compounds: CCl4, C2Cl4, C2HCL3, CH3CCl3, and CHCl3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kindler, T. P.; Chameides, W. L.; Wine, P. H.; Cunnold, D. M.; Alyea, F. N.; Franklin, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    of reaction of phosgene with sulfate aerosols. However, on the basis of the observed vertical distribution of COCl2, we estimate that the reaction of COCl2 with sulfate aerosol most likely has a gamma less than 5 x 10(exp -5) and, as a result, has a negligible impact on the stratospheric chlorine loadings of the phosgene parent compounds.

  2. Modelling Temporal Variability in the Carbon Balance of a Spruce/Moss Boreal Forest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frolking, S.; Goulden, M. L.; Wofsy, S. C.; Fan, S.-M.; Sutton, D. J.; Munger, J. W.; Bazzaz, A. M.; Daube, B. C.; Crill, P. M.; Aber, J. D.; Band, L. E.; Wang, X.; Savages, K.; Moore, T.; Harriss, R. C.

    1996-01-01

    A model of the daily carbon balance of a black spruce/feathermoss boreal forest ecosystem was developed and results compared to preliminary data from the 1994 BOREAS field campaign in northern Manitoba, Canada. The model, driven by daily weather conditions, simulated daily soil climate status (temperature and moisture profiles), spruce photosynthesis and respiration, moss photosynthesis and respiration, and litter decomposition. Model agreement with preliminary field data was good for net ecosystem exchange (NEE), capturing both the asymmetrical seasonality and short-term variability. During the growing season simulated daily NEE ranged from -4 g C m(exp -2) d(exp -1) (carbon uptake by ecosystem) to + 2 g C m(exp -2) d(exp -1) (carbon flux to atmosphere), with fluctuations from day to day. In the early winter simulated NEE values were + 0.5 g C m(exp -2) d(exp -1), dropping to + 0.2 g C m(exp -2) d(exp -1) in mid-winter. Simulated soil respiration during the growing season (+ 1 to + 5 g C m(exp -2) d(exp -1)) was dominated by metabolic respiration of the live moss, with litter decomposition usually contributing less than 30% and live spruce root respiration less than 10% of the total. Both spruce and moss net primary productivity (NPP) rates were higher in early summer than late summer. Simulated annual NEE for 1994 was -51 g C m(exp -2) y(exp -1), with 83% going into tree growth and 17% into the soil carbon accumulation. Moss NPP (58 g C m(exp -2) d(exp -1)) was considered to be litter (i.e. soil carbon input; no net increase in live moss biomass). Ecosystem respiration during the snow-covered season (84 g Cm(exp -2)) was 58% of the growing season net carbon uptake. A simulation of the same site for 1968-1989 showed about 10-20% year-to-year variability in heterotrophic respiration (mean of + 113 g C m-2 y@1). Moss NPP ranged from 19 to 114 g C m(exp -2) y(exp -1); spruce NPP from 81 to 150 g C nt-2 y,@l; spruce growth (NPP minus litterfall) from 34 to 103 g C m(exp

  3. Boeing F4B-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1932-01-01

    The Boeing F4B-4 was seen to differ from earlier F4Bs in having a vertical fin with slightly more area. The Boeing model 235 was not fitted with a NACA cowling, but rather the less efficient 'Townend' ring around the Pratt & Whitney Wasp radials cylinders. This aircraft was much used by both the Navy and the Army Air Corps in the late 1920's and early 1930's. The Army variation was known as the P-12E. The engine cowling was a British development known as the 'Townend' ring. It differed from the NACA cowling and was less effective in reducing the drag.

  4. Charge Transfer Between Ground-State N(2+) and H2, N2, and CO at Electron-Volt Energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, Z.; Kwong, Victor H. S.

    1997-01-01

    The charge-transfer rate coefficients for reactions of N(2+)(2 S(sup 2)2p(sup 2)P(sup 0)) with H2, N2, and CO are measured using ion storage. A cylindrical rf ion trap was used to store N(2+) ions produced by laser ablation of a solid titanium nitride target. The rate coefficients were derived from the decay rate of the ion signal. The rate coefficients for the above three reactions are 3.38(0.35) x 10(exp -11)sq sm/s at T(sub equiv.)=2.9 x 10(exp 3) K, 2.10(0.18) x 10(exp -9)sq sm/s at T(sub equiv.) = 1.3 x 10(exp 4) K, and 3.37(0.29) x 10(exp -9)sq cm/s at T(sub equiv.) = 1.3 x 10(exp 4) K, respectively. No theoretical or other experimental values are available at this energy range.

  5. X-ray lines from MG VIII and SI X ions and their diagnostic use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Bhola N.

    The solar X-ray emission lines from Mg VIII and Si X ions have been studied. The variation of the theoretical line-intensity ratios from Mg VIII and Si X as functions of electron density are found to be good density monitors of the emitting regions of solar plasma. The computed values of line intensity from these ions based on the Kopp and Orrall model have been used to derive the electron density of the quiet sun and coronal holes. Electron densities of 10 exp 9/cu cm and 4.6 x 10 exp 8/cu cm are estimated at the electron temperatures of 8 x 10 exp 5 K and 1.6 x 10 exp 6 K for the quiet sun whereas the respective values of 5.4 x 10 exp 8/cu cm and 1.7 x 10 exp 8/cu cm are obtained for the coronal holes. The line-intensity ratios studied here are independent of temperature variation and are therefore excellent candidates for electron-density diagnostics. However, observational data with improved spectral resolution is needed for using X-ray-line pairs studied for their diagnostic use.

  6. Formation, early evolution, and gravitational stability of protoplanetary disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamoto, Taishi; Nakagawa, Yoshitsugo

    1994-01-01

    The formation, viscous evolution, and gravitational stability of protoplanetary disks are investigated. The formation process is parameterized by the angular velocity of the molecular cloud core omega, while the viscous evolution is parameterized by the viscosity parameter alpha in the disk; in this study we consider a range of (0.4-6) x 10(exp -14)/s for omega and from 10(exp -5) to 10(exp -1) for alpha. The axisymmetric gravitational stabilities of the disks are checked using Toomre's criterion. The resulting disk surface temperature distribution, (d log T(sub s)/d log R) approximately = -0.6 (R is the cylindrical radius), can be attributed to two heating sources: the viscous heating dominant in the inner disk region, and the accretion shock heating dominant in the outer disk region. This surface temperature distribution matches that observed in many disks around young stellar objects. During the infall stage, disks with alpha less than 10(exp -1.5) become gravitationally unstable independent of omega. The gravitational instabilities occur at radii ranging from 5 to 40 AU. The ratio of the disk mass to the central star mass ranges from 0.2 to 0.5 at the times of instability, about 4 x 10(exp -5) x (omega/10(exp -14)/s)(exp -0.67) yr. Most disks with low alpha and high omega become gravitationally unstable during their formation phase.

  7. 4-Aminopyridine

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    4 - Aminopyridine ; CASRN 504 - 24 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  8. 4-Methylphenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    4 - Methylphenol ; CASRN 106 - 44 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  9. Stability Characteristics of Two Missiles of Fineness Ratios 12 and 18 with Six Rectangular Fins of Very Low Aspect Ratio Over a Mach Number Range of 1.4 to 3.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henning, Allen B.

    1959-01-01

    Two rocket-propelled missiles have been test flown by the Langley Pilotless Aircraft Research Division in order to study the stability characteristics of a body with six rectangular fins of very low aspect ratio. The fins, which had exposed aspect ratios of approximately o.o4 and 0.02 per fin, were mounted on bodies of fineness ratios of 12 and 18, respectively. Each body had a nose with a fineness ratio of 3.5 and a cylindrical afterbody. The body and the fin chord of the model having a fineness ratio of 12 were extended the length of 6 body diameters to produce the model with a fineness ratio of 18. The missiles were disturbed in flight by pulse rockets in order to obtain the stability data. The tests were performed over a Mach number range of 1.4 to 3.2 and a Reynolds number range of 2 x 10(exp 6) to 21 x l0(exp 6). The results of these tests indicate that these configurations with the long rectangular fins of very low aspect ratio showed little induced roll" with the missile of highest fineness ratio and longest fin chord exhibiting the least amount. Extending the body and fin chord of the shorter missile six body diameters and thereby increasing the fin area approximately 115 percent increased the lift-curve slope based on body cross-sectional area approximately 40 to 55 percent, increased the dynamic stability by a substantial amount, and increased the drag from 14 to 33 percent throughout the comparable Mach number range. The center-of-pressure location of both missiles remained constant over the Mach number range.

  10. 17 CFR 4.2-4.4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 4.2-4.4 Section 4.2-4.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS General Provisions, Definitions and Exemptions §§ 4.2-4.4...

  11. Evaluation of Several Space Lubricants using a Vacuum Four-Ball Tribometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William R., Jr.; Poslowski, Agnieszka K.; Shogrin, Bradley A.; Herrera-Fierro, Pilar; Jansen, Mark J.

    1998-01-01

    The friction and wear behavior of seven space lubricants was investigated under boundary lubrication conditions using a vacuum four-ball tribometer. Three of the lubricants were perfluoropolyethers (143AC, S-200, and Z-25). Three were synthetic hydrocarbons (a multiply alkylated cyclopentane, 2001a), and a formulated version with an antiwear and an antioxidant additive (2001). The third hydrocarbon was an unformulated polyalphaolefin (PAO-100). An unformulated silahydrocarbon (SiHC) was also evaluated. Test conditions included: a pressure less than 6.7 x 10(exp 4) Pa, a 200 N load, a sliding velocity of 28.8 mm/sec (100 RPM), and room temperature (approx. 23 C). The wear rate for each lubricant was determined from the slope of wear volume as a function of sliding distance. The lowest wear rate (0.033 x 10(exp-9) cu mm/mm) was obtained with the silahydrocarbon. The formulated synthetic hydrocarbon had a wear rate off O.037 x 10(exp -9)cu mm/mm, which was a 36% reduction compared to the unformulated fluid. The polyalphaolefin had the highest wear rate of the non-PFPE fluids. Of the perfluoropolyethers (PFPEs), wear rates decreased by about 50% from Z-25 (1.7 x 10(exp -9)cu mm/mm) to S-200 (0.70 x 10(exp -9)cu mm/mm) to 143AC (0.21 x 10(exp -9)cu mm/mm).

  12. Neutral Solar Wind Generated by Lunar Exospheric Dust at the Terminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    We calculate the flux of neutral solar wind observed on the lunar surface at the terminator due to solar wind protons penetrating exospheric dust with: (1) grains larger that 0.1 microns and (2) grains larger than 0.01 microns. For grains larger than 0.1 microns, the ratio of the neutral solar wind to solar wind flux is estimated to be approx.10(exp -4)-10(exp -3) at solar wind speeds in excess of 800 km/s, but much lower (less than 10(exp -5) at average to low solar wind speeds. However, when the smaller grain sizes are considered, the ratio of the neutral solar wind flux to solar wind flux is estimated to be greater than or equal to 10(exp -5) at all speeds and at speeds in excess of 700 km/s reaches 10(exp -3)-10(exp -2). These neutral solar wind fluxes are easily measurable with current low energy neutral atom instrumentation. Observations of neutral solar wind from the surface of the Moon could provide a very sensitive determination of the distribution of very small dust grains in the lunar exosphere and would provide data complementary to optical measurements at ultraviolet and visible wavelengths. Furthermore, neutral solar wind, unlike its ionized counterpart, is .not held-off by magnetic anomalies, and may contribute to greater space weathering than expected in certain lunar locations.

  13. TA×4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagawa, Hiroyuki

    How cosmic rays obtain energies of about 1020 eV and where they come from are big mysteries in physics. The Telescope Array (TA) is comprised of Surface Detectors (SDs) and Fluorescence Detectors (FDs) located in Utah, U.S.A., and aims to explore the origin of highest-energy cosmic rays. The SD array consists of 507 scintillation detectors arranged on a square grid of 1.2-km spacing, covering approximately 700 km2. The FD telescopes, located at three sites, look over the surface array. Using the first five years of data collected by the surface detectors, we found a cluster of cosmic rays with energies greater than 5.7 × 1019 eV that we call the hot spot. With enhanced statistics, we expect to observe the structure of that hot spot along with other possible excesses, and point sources along with the correlations with extreme phenomena in the nearby universe. We plan to make the area of the TA SD array four times larger to approximately 3,000 km2, by adding 500 SDs on a square grid of 2.08-km spacing. Two FD stations will be built viewing the new SD array. This TA extension that we call TA×4 will greatly accelerate the speed at which we will reach the goals mentioned above, and will enhance cosmic-ray energy spectrum measurement and composition study at the highest energies by TA. At this conference, we present our plan for TA×4.

  14. Photochemistry of Triton's Atmosphere and Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.; Cruikshank, Dale P.

    1995-01-01

    The photochemistry of 32 neutral and 21 ion species in Triton's atmosphere is considered. Parent species N2, CH4, and CO (with a mixing ratio of 3 x 10(exp -4) in our basic model) sublime from the ice with rates of 40, 208, and 0.3 g/sq cm/b.y., respectively. Chemistry below 50 km is driven mostly by photolysis of methane by the solar and interstellar medium Lyman-alpha photons, producing hydrocarbons C2H4, C2H6, and C2H2 which form haze particles with precipitation rates of 135, 28, and 1.3 g/sq cm/b.y., respectively. Some processes are discussed which increase the production of HCN (by an order of magnitude to a value of 29 g/sq cm/b.y.) and involve indirect photolysis of N2 by neutrals. Reanalysis of the measured methane profiles gives an eddy diffusion coefficient K = 4 x 10(exp 3) sq cm/s above the tropopause and a more accurate methane number density near the surface, (3.1 +/- 0.8) x 10(exp 11)/cc cm. Chemistry above 200 km is driven by the solar EUV radiation (lambda less than 1000 A)) and by precipitation of magnetospheric electrons with a total energy input of 10(exp 8) W (based on thermal balance calculations). The most abundant photochemical species are N, H2, H, O, and C. They escape with the total rates of 7.7 x 10(exp 24)/ s, 4.5 x 10(exp 25)/ s, 2.4 x 10(exp 25)/ s, 4.4 x 10(exp 22)/ s, and 1.1 x 10(exp 24)/ s, respectively. Atomic species are transported to a region of 50-200 km and drive the chemistry there. Iono- spheric chemistry explains the formation of an E region at 150-240 km with HCO(+) as a major ion, and of an F region above 240 km with a peak at 320 km and C(+) as a major ion. The ionosphere above 500 km consists of almost equal densities of C(+) and N(+) ions. The model profiles agree with the measured atomic nitrogen and electron density profiles. A number of other models with varying rate coefficients of some reactions, differing properties of the haze particles (chemically passive or active), etc., were developed. These models show

  15. Venusian hydrology: Steady state reconsidered

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grinspoon, David H.

    1992-01-01

    In 1987, Grinspoon proposed that the data on hydrogen abundance, isotopic composition, and escape rate were consistent with the hypothesis that water on Venus might be in steady state rather than monotonic decline since the dawn of time. This conclusion was partially based on a derived water lifetime against nonthermal escape of approximately 10(exp 8) yr. De Bergh et al., preferring the earlier Pioneer Venus value of 200 ppm water to the significantly lower value detected by Bezard et al., found H2O lifetimes of greater than 10(exp 9) yr. Donahue and Hodges derived H2O lifetimes of 0.4-5 x 10 (exp 9) yr. Both these analyses used estimates of H escape flux between 0.4 x 10(exp 7) and 1 x 10(exp 7) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1) from Rodriguez et al. Yet in more recent Monte Carlo modeling, Hodges and Tinsley found an escape flux due to charge exchange with hot H(+) of 2.8 x 10(exp 7) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1). McElroy et al. estimated an escape flux of 8 x 10(exp 6) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1) from collisions with hot O produced by dissociative recombination of O2(+). Brace et al. estimated an escape flux of 5 x 10(exp 6) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1) from ion escape from the ionotail of Venus. The combined estimated escape flux from all these processes is approximately 4 x 10(exp 7) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1). The most sophisticated analysis to date of near-IR radiation from Venus' nightside reveals a water mixing ratio of approximately 30 ppm, suggesting a lifetime against escape for water of less than 10(exp 8) yr. Large uncertainties remain in these quantities, yet the data point toward a steady state. Further evaluation of these uncertainties, and new evolutionary modeling incorporating estimates of the outgassing rate from post-Magellan estimates of the volcanic resurfacing rate are presented.

  16. Evolutionary implications of a steady-state water abundance on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grinspoon, David H.

    1993-01-01

    In 1987, Grinspoon proposed that the data on hydrogen abundance, isotopic composition, and escape rate were consistent with the hypothesis that water on Venus might be in steady-state rather than monotonic decline since the dawn of time. This conclusion was partially based on a derived water lifetime against nonthermal escape of approximately 10(exp 8) years. Others have questioned this conclusion. De Bergh et al. found H2O lifetimes of greater than 10(exp 9) years. Donahue and Hodges derived H2O lifetimes of 0.4 - 5 x 10(exp 9) years. The most sophisticated analysis to date of near-IR radiation from Venus' nightside reveals a water mixing ratio of approximately 30 ppm. Recent re-analysis of Pioneer Venus Mass Spectrometer Data are consistent with a water abundance of 30 ppm. Hodges and Tinsley found an escape flux due to charge exchange with hot H(+) of 2.8 x 10(exp 7) cm(exp -2) s(exp -1). Gurwell and Yung estimated an escape flux of 3.5 x 10(exp 6) cm(exp -2) s(exp -1) from collisions with hot O produced by dissociative recombination of O2(+). Brace et al. estimated an escape flux of 5 x 10(exp 6) cm(exp -2) s(exp -1) from ion escape from the ionotail of Venus. The combined estimated escape flux from all of these processes is 3.7 x 10(exp 7) cm(exp -2) s(exp -1), suggesting a lifetime against escape for water of less than 10(exp 8) years. A recent estimate of H escape flux employing a different ionospheric model and using Pioneer Venus reentry data to estimate the response of the escape flux to the solar cycle finds a somewhat lower escape flux of 1.4 x 10(exp 7) cm(exp -2) s(exp -1), suggesting a water lifetime closer to 2 x 10(exp 8) years, significantly less than the age of the planet. Large uncertainties remain in these quantities, yet the data suggest that a source of water more recent than primordial sources is required and that a steady-state is likely. To obvious candidates for this source water are cometary impact and volcanic outgassing. Other aspects

  17. Environmental Perturbations Caused by the Impacts of Asteroids and Comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Owen B.; Zahnle, Kevin; Morrison, David; Turco, Richard; Covey, Curt

    1997-01-01

    We review the major mechanisms proposed to cause extinctions at the Cretaceous-Tertiary geological boundary following an asteroid impact. We then discuss how the proposed extinction may relate to the impact of asteroids or comets in general. We discuss the limitations of these mechanisms in terms of the spatial scale that may be affected, and the time scale over which the effects may last. Our goal is to provide relatively simple prescriptions for evaluating the importance of colliding objects having a range of energies and compositions. We also identify the many uncertainties concerning the environmental effects of impacts. We conclude that, for impact energies below about 10(exp 4) Mts (megatons of TNT equivalent) - i.e., impact frequencies less than in 6 x 10(exp 4) yr, corresponding to comets and asteroids with diameters smaller than about 400 m and 650 m, respectively - blast damage, earthquakes, and fires should be important on a scale of 10(exp 4) or 10(exp 5) km (exp 2), which corresponds to the area damaged in many natural disasters of recent history. However, tsunami could be more damaging, flooding a kilometer of coastal plane over entire ocean basins. In the energy range of 10(exp 4) to 10 (exp 5) Mts (intervals up to 3 x 10(exp 5) yr; comets and asteroids with sizes up to 800 m and 1.5 km, respectively) water vapor injections and ozone loss become significant on the global scale. In the submicrometer dust injection fraction from the pulverized target material is much higher than is presently thought to be most likely, then dust injection could be important in this energy range.

  18. 10 CFR 4.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 4.4 Section 4.4 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... operations of any entity described in paragraphs (g)(1) through (4) of this section, any part of which is... ASSISTANCE FROM THE COMMISSION General Provisions § 4.4 Definitions. (a) Applicant means one who submits...

  19. Electrical characterization of 6H crystalline silicon carbide. M.S. Thesis Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lempner, Stephen E.

    1994-01-01

    Crystalline silicon carbide (SiC) substrates and epilayers, undoped as well as n- and p-doped, have been electrically characterized by performing Hall effect and resistivity measurements (van der Pauw) over the temperature range of approximately 85 K to 650 K (200 K to 500 K for p-type sample). By fitting the measured temperature dependent carrier concentration data to the single activation energy theoretical model: (1) the activation energy for the nitrogen donor ranged from 0.078 eV to 0.101 eV for a doping concentration range of 10(exp 17) cm(exp -3) to 10(exp 18) cm(exp -3) and (2) the activation energy for the aluminum acceptor was 0.252 eV for a doping concentration of 4.6 x 10(exp 18) cm(exp -3). By fitting the measured temperature dependent carrier concentration data to the double activation energy level theoretical model for the nitrogen donor: (1) the activation energy for the hexagonal site was 0.056 eV and 0.093 eV corresponding to doping concentrations of 3.33 x 10 (exp 17) cm(exp -3) and 1.6 x 10(exp 18) cm(exp -3) and (2) the activation energy for the cubic site was 0.113 and 0.126 eV corresponding to doping concentrations of 4.2 x 10(exp 17) cm(exp -3) and 5.4 x 10(exp 18) cm(exp -3).

  20. Microwave Conductivity of Laser Ablated YBa2Cu3O7-delta Superconducting Films and Its Relation to Microstrip Transmission Line Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Warner, J. D.; Chorey, C. M.; Ebihara, B. T.; Romanofsky, R. R.; Heinen, V. O.

    1990-01-01

    We report on the values of the microwave conductivity in the normal (sigma(subN)) and superconducting (sigma*=sigma(sub1)-j sigma(sub2)) states of two laser ablated YBa2CU3O7(sigma) thin films at 35 GHz, in the temperature range from 20 to 300 K. The films 0.7 and 0.4 micrometers) were deposited on LaA10(sub3) by laser ablation. The conductivity was obtained from the microwave power transmitted through the films and assuming a two-fluid model. Values of sigma(subN) approximately 2.3 X 10(exp5) S/m at room temperature for both films, and of sigma(sub1) approximately 6.3 X 10(exp5) and 4.6 X 10(exp5) S/m at temperatures around 80 K were obtained for the 0.7 and 0.4 micrometer films respectively. For sigma(sub2) values of 4.9 X 10(exp6) and 5.4 X 10(exp6) S/m were obtained for the 0.7 and 0.4 micrometer films at 80 K. The expected conductor losses and Q-factor of a superconducting ring resonator were calculated using these conductivity values. The theoretical values were then compared with the experimental results obtained for a resonator fabricated from one of these films.

  1. Is HL Tauri and FU Orionis system in quiescence?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, D. N. C.; Hayashi, M.; Bell, K. R.; Ohashi, N.

    1994-01-01

    A recent Nobeyama map of HL Tau reveals that gas is infalling in a flattened region approximately 1400 AU around the central star. The apparent motion of the gas provides the necessary condition for the formation of a Keplerian disk with a radius comparable to the size of the primordial solar nebula. The inferred mass infall rate onto the disk is approximately equal to 5 x 10(exp -6) solar mass/yr, which greatly exceeds the maximum estimate of the accretion rate onto the central star (approximately 7 x 10(exp -7) solar mass/yr). Consequently, mass must currently be accumulating in the disk. The estimated age and disk mass of HL Tau suggest that the accumulated matter has been flushed repeatedly on a timescale less than 10(exp 4) yr. Based on the similarites between their evolution patterns, we propose that HL Tau is an FU Orionis system in quiescence. In addition to HL Tau, 14 out of 86 pre-main-sequence stars in the Taurus-Auriga dark clouds have infrared luminosities much greater than their otherwise normal extinction-corrected stellar luminosities. These sources also tend to have flat spectra which may be due to the reprocessing of radiation by dusty, flattened, collapsing envelopes with infall rates a few 10(exp -6) solar mass/yr. Such rates are much larger than estimated central accretion rates for these systems, which suggests that mass must also be accumulating in these disks. If these sources are FU Orionis stars in quiescence, similar to HL Tau, their age and relative abundance imply that the FU Orionis phase occurs over a timescale of approixmately 10(exp 5) yr, and the quiescent phase between each outburst lasts approximately 10(exp 3) =10(exp 4) yr. These inferred properties are compatible with the scenario that FU Orionis outbursts are regulated by a thermal instability in the inner region of the disk.

  2. Absorption of water and lubricating oils into porous nylon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertrand, P. A.

    1995-01-01

    Oil and water absorption from air into sintered porous nylon can be described by infiltration into the pores of the material. This process can be modeled by a diffusion-like mechanism. For water absorption, we find a formal diffusion coefficient of 1.5 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min when the nylon is initially dry. The diffusion coefficient is 4 x 10(exp -6)sq cm/min when the nylon is oil-impregnated prior to air exposure. In a 52% RH atmosphere, dry nylon absorbs 3% w/w water, and oil-impregnated nylon absorbs 0.6% w/w water. For oil absorption there are three steps: (1) surface absorption and infiltration into (2) larger and (3) smaller pores. Surface absorption is too fast to be measured in these experiments. The diffusion coefficient for the second step is 6 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min for SRG-60 oil into dry nylon and 4 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min for air-equilibrated nylon. The diffusion coefficient for the third step is about 1 x 10(exp -6)sq cm/min for both cases. The total amount of oil absorbed is 31% w/w. The interaction between water and nylon is not as strong as that between water and cotton-phenolic: oil can replace water, and only a small amount of water can enter previously oil-impregnated nylon.

  3. 15 CFR 4a.4 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification authority. 4a.4 Section 4a.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.4 Classification authority. Authority to originally classify information as Secret...

  4. 15 CFR 4a.4 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification authority. 4a.4 Section 4a.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.4 Classification authority. Authority...

  5. 12 CFR 4.4 - Washington office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Washington office. 4.4 Section 4.4 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS, AVAILABILITY... EXAMINERS Organization and Functions § 4.4 Washington office. The Washington office of the OCC is the...

  6. Photochemistry of Triton's Atmosphere and Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.; Cruikshank, Dale P.

    1995-01-01

    The photochemistry of 32 neutral and 21 ion species in Triton's atmosphere is considered. Parent species N2, CH4, and CO (with a mixing ratio of 3 x 10(exp -4) in our basic model) sublime from the ice with rates of 40, 208, and 0.3 g/sq cm/b.y., respectively. Chemistry below 50 km is driven mostly by photolysis of methane by the solar and interstellar medium Lyman-alpha photons, producing hydrocarbons C2H4, C2H6, and C2H2 which form haze particles with precipitation rates of 135, 28, and 1.3 g/sq cm/b.y., respectively. Some processes are discussed which increase the production of HCN (by an order of magnitude to a value of 29 g/sq cm/b.y.) and involve indirect photolysis of N2 by neutrals. Reanalysis of the measured methane profiles gives an eddy diffusion coefficient K = 4 x 10(exp 3)sq cm/s above the tropopause and a more accurate methane number density near the surface, (3.1 +/- 0.8)x IO(exp 11)/cu cm. Chemistry above 200 km is driven by the solar EUV radiation (lambda less than 1000 A) and by precipitation of magnetospheric electrons with a total energy input of 10(exp 8) W (based on thermal balance calculations). The most abundant photochemical species are N, H2, H, 0, and C. They escape with the total rates of 7.7 x 10(exp 24)/ s, 4.5 x 10(exp 25)/s, 2.4 x 10(exp 25)/s, 4.4 x 10(exp 22)/s, and 1.1 x 10(exp 24), respectively. Atomic species are transported to a region of 50-200 km and drive the chemistry there. Ionospheric chemistry explains the formation of an E region at 150-240 km with HCO(+) as a major ion, and of an F region above 240 km with a peak at 320 km and C(+) as a major ion. The ionosphere above 500 km consists of almost equal densities of C(+) and N(+) ions. The model profiles agree with the measured atomic nitrogen and electron density profiles. A number of other models with varying rate coefficients of some reactions, differing properties of the haze particles (chemically passive or active), etc., were developed. These models show that there

  7. Comparative Studies for the Sodium and Potassium Atmospheres of the Moon and Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, William H.

    1999-01-01

    A summary discussion of recent sodium and potassium observations for the atmospheres of the Moon and Mercury is presented with primary emphasis on new full-disk images that have become available for sodium. For the sodium atmosphere, image observations for both the Moon and Mercury are fitted with model calculations (1) that have the same source speed distribution, one recently measured for electron-stimulated desorption and thought to apply equally well to photon-stimulated desorption, (2) that have similar average surface sodium fluxes, about 2.8 x 10(exp 5) to 8.9 x 10(exp 5) atoms cm(exp -2)s(exp -1) for the Moon and approximately 3.5 x 10(exp 5) to 1.4 x 10(exp 6) atoms cm(exp -2)s(exp -1) for Mercury, but (3) that have very different distributions for the source surface area. For the Moon, a sunlit hemispherical surface source of between approximately 5.3 x 10(exp 22) to 1.2 x 10(exp 23) atoms/s is required with a spatial dependence at least as sharp as the square of the cosine of the solar zenith angle. For Mercury, a time dependent source that varies from 1.5 x 10(exp 22) to 5.8 x l0(exp 22) atoms/s is required which is confined to a small surface area located at, but asymmetrically distributed about, the subsolar point. The nature of the Mercury source suggest that the planetary magnetopause near the subsolar point acts as a time varying and partially protective shield through which charged particles may pass to interact with and liberate gas from the planetary surface. Suggested directions for future research activities are discussed.

  8. Microorganisms, Organic Carbon, and Their Relationship with Oxidant Activity in Hyper-Arid Mars-Like Soils: Implications for Soil Habitability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdivia-Silva, Julio E.; Karouia, Fathi; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; McKay, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Soil samples from the hyper-arid region in the Atacama 23 Desert in Southern Peru (La Joya Desert) were analyzed for total and labile organic carbon (TOC & LOC), phospholipid fatty acids analysis (PLFA), quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), 4',6- diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-fluorescent microscopy, culturable microorganisms, and oxidant activity, in order to understand the relationship between the presence of organic matter and microorganisms in these types of soils. TOC content levels were similar to the labile pool of carbon suggesting the absence of recalcitrant carbon in these soils. The range of LOC was from 2 to 60 micro-g/g of soil. PLFA analysis indicated a maximum of 2.3 x 10(exp 5) cell equivalents/g. Culturing of soil extracts yielded 1.1 x 10(exp 2)-3.7 x 10(exp 3) CFU/g. qRT-PCR showed between 1.0 x 10(exp 2) and 8 x 10(exp 3) cells/g; and DAPI fluorescent staining indicated bacteria counts up to 5 x 104 cells/g. Arid and semiarid samples (controls) showed values between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 11) cells/g with all of the methods used. Importantly, the concentration of microorganisms in hyper-arid soils did not show any correlation with the organic carbon content; however, there was a significant dependence on the oxidant activity present in these soil samples evaluated as the capacity to decompose sodium formate in 10 hours. We suggest that the analysis of oxidant activity could be a useful indicator of the microbial habitability in hyper-arid soils, obviating the need to measure water activity over time. This approach could be useful in astrobiological studies on other worlds.

  9. Infrared Measurements of Atmospheric Gases Above Mauna Loa, Hawaii, in February 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Murcray, F. H.; Blatherwick, R. D.; Murcray, D. G.

    1988-01-01

    Infrared solar absorption spectra recorded at 0.02/ cm resolution from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geophysical Monitoring for Climate Change (GMCC) program station at Mauna Loa, Hawaii (latitude 19.5 deg N, longitude 155.6 deg W, elevation 3.40 km), in February 1997 have been analyzed to determine simultaneous total vertical column amounts for 13 atmospheric gases. Average tropospheric concentrations of CO2, N2O, CH4, and CHCIF2 and the daytime diurnal variations or the total columns of NO and NO2 have also been inferred. The retrieved total columns (in molecules /sq cm) of the nondiurnally varying gases are 1.6 +/- 0.2 x 10(exp 15) for HCl, 5.9 +/- 1.2 x 10(exp 15) for HNO3, 2.0 +/- 0.2 x 10(exp 21) for H2O16, 4.4 +/- 0.7 x 10(exp 18) for H2O18, 2.7 +/- 0.1 x 10(exp 17) for HDO, 2.3 +/- 0.2 x 10(exp 19) for CH4, 5.0 +/- 0.5 x 10(exp 21) for CO2, 6.7 +/- 0.8 x 10(exp 18) for O3, 4.3 +/- 0.4 x 10(exp 18) for N2O, 1.0 +/- 0.2 x 10(exp 16) for C2H6, and 9.7 +/- 2.5 x 10(exp 14) for CHClF2. We compare the total column measurements of HCl and HNO3 with previously reported ground-based, aircraft, and satellite measurements. The results for HCl are or particular interest because of the expected temporal increase in the concentration of this gas in the stratosphere. However, systematic differences among stratospheric HCl total column measurements from 1978 to 1980 and the absence of observations of free tropospheric HCl above Mauna Loa make it impossible to obtain a reliable estimate of the trend in the total burden of HCl. The measured HNO3 total column is consistent with aircraft measurements from approx. 12 km altitude. The O3 total column deduced from the IR spectra agrees with correlative Mauna Loa Umkehr measurements within the estimated error limits. The column-averaged D/H ratio of water vapor is (68 +/- 9) x- 10(exp -6), which is 0.44 +/- 0.06 times the reference value of 155.76 x 10(exp -6) for standard mean ocean water (SMOW). This

  10. 4 CFR 22.4 - Appeal File [Rule 4].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appeal File . 22.4 Section 22.4 Accounts GOVERNMENT... APPEALS BOARD § 22.4 Appeal File . (a) Duties of the Contracting Officer. (1) Within 30 days after receipt... contracting officer shall assemble and transmit to the Board an appeal file consisting of all...

  11. 4 CFR 4.2 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Performance appraisal. 4.2 Section 4.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND UTILIZATION § 4.2 Performance... appraisal period on such standards. (4) Recognizing and rewarding employees whose performance so...

  12. 4 CFR 4.2 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Performance appraisal. 4.2 Section 4.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND UTILIZATION § 4.2 Performance appraisal. (a) The... appraisal period on such standards. (4) Recognizing and rewarding employees whose performance so...

  13. Turbulent mixing layers in the interstellar medium of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, J. D.; Shull, J. M.; Begelman, M. C.

    1993-01-01

    We propose that turbulent mixing layers are common in the interstellar medium (ISM). Injection of kinetic energy into the ISM by supernovae and stellar winds, in combination with density and temperature inhomogeneities, results in shear flows. Such flows will become turbulent due to the high Reynolds number (low viscosity) of the ISM plasma. These turbulent boundary layers will be particularly interesting where the shear flow occurs at boundaries of hot (approximately 10(exp 6) K) and cold or warm (10(exp 2) - 10(exp 4) K) gas. Mixing will occur in such layers producing intermediate-temperature gas at T is approximately equal to 10(exp 5.0) - 10(exp 5.5) that radiates strongly in the optical, ultraviolet, and EUV. We have modeled these layers under the assumptions of rapid mixing down to the atomic level and steady flow. By including the effects of non-equilibrium ionization and self-photoionization of the gas as it cools after mixing, we predict the intensities of numerous optical, infrared, and ultraviolet emission lines, as well as absorption column densities of C 4, N 5, Si 4, and O 6.

  14. On possible Mn-53 heterogeneity in the early solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavrukhina, A. K.; Ustinova, G. K.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of influence of shock wave propagation on the energy spectrum of accelerated particles that lead to different production rates of radionuclides, in particular, Mn-53, on small scales in the early solar system are shown. Search for evidence for extinct Mn-53 has stimulated investigations of Cr isotope anomalies in meteorites. The linear correlation between the magnitude of the Cr-53* excesses and the Mn/Cr ratio that unambiguously proves the in situ decay of Mn-53 was detected, really, in different mineral phases of some carbonaceous and enstatite chondrites, primitive achondrites, pallasites and iron meteorites. However, the data on the Cr-53* excess rarely defines a single linear array on a Mn-53-Cr-52 evolution diagram even for meteorites of the same chemical group. A clear isochron with Mn-53/Mn-55 = 4.4 plus or minus 1.0 x 10(exp -5) (in range of approximately 2.4 to approximately 9 x 10(exp -5)) is observed for CAI of the Allende C3-chondrite while the data for the Murchison C2- and Orgueil C1-chondrites fall much lower corresponding rather to Mn-53/Mn-55 less than 2 x 10(exp -5). In the case of iron meteorites it ranges from less than 5 x 10(exp -8) to less than 5 x 10(exp -5).

  15. Long-term survival of bacterial spores in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horneck, G.; Bucker, H.; Reitz, G.

    1994-01-01

    On board of the NASA Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), spores of Bacillus subtilis in monolayers (10(exp 6)/sample) or multilayers (10(exp 8)/sample) were exposed to the space environment for nearly six years and their survival was analyzed after retrieval. The response to space parameters, such as vacuum (10(exp -6) Pa), solar electromagnetic radiation up to the highly energetic vacuum-ultraviolet range 10(exp 9) J/sq m) and/or cosmic radiation (4.8 Gy), was studied and compared to the results of a simultaneously running ground control experiment. If shielded against solar ultraviolet (UV)-radiation, up to 80% of spores in multilayers survive in space. Solar UV-radiation, being the most deleterious parameter of space, reduces survival by 4 orders of magnitude or more. However, up to 10(exp 4) viable spores were still recovered, even in completely unprotected samples. Substances, such as glucose or buffer salts serve as chemical protectants. With this 6 year study in space, experimental data are provided to the discussion on the likelihood of 'Panspermia'.

  16. X-ray Characterization of Detached-Grown Germanium Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Schweizer, M.; Raghothamachar, B.; Dudley, M.; Szoke, J.; Cobb, S. D.; Szofran, F. R.

    2005-01-01

    Germanium (111)-oriented crystals have been grown by the vertical Bridgman technique, in both detached and attached configurations. Microstructural characterization of these crystals has been performed using synchrotron white beam x-ray topography (SWBXT) and double axis x-ray diffraction. Dislocation densities were measured from x-ray topographs obtained using the reflection geometry. For detached-grown crystals, the dislocation density is 4-6 x 10(exp 4) per square centimeter in the seed region, and decreases in the direction of growth to less than 10(exp 3) per square centimeter, and in some crystals reaches less than 10(exp 2) per square centimeter. For crystals grown in the attached configuration, dislocation densities were on the order of 10(exp 4) per square centimeter in the middle of the crystals, increasing to greater than 10(exp 5) per square centimeter near the edge. The measured dislocation densities are in excellent agreement with etch pit density results. The rocking curve linewidths were relatively insensitive to the dislocation densities. However, broadening and splitting of the rocking curves were observed in the vicinity of subgrain boundaries identified by x-ray topography in some of the attached-grown crystals.

  17. Material properties and device evaluations of ECR-deposited a-Si:H and a-SiC:H films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shing, Y. H.; Pool, F. S.; Essick, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    Device-quality a-Si:H and a-SiC:H films have been deposited using electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) microwave plasmas of SiH4, CH4, and H2 mixtures. Typical material properties of ECR-deposited, photosensitive a-Si:H films are: (1) high photosensitivity up to 2 x 106 with a photoconductivity of 10 exp -5 to 10 exp -4/(Ohm-cm), (2) a Tauc gap of 1.75 to 1.85 eV, (3) an Urbach slope of 50-60 meV determined by the constant photocurrent method, and (4) an integrated defect density of 1-2 x 10 exp 16/cu cm determined by junction capacitance measurements. Highly conductive, p-type a-SiC:H films have been produced by ECR plasmas with a conductivity of 0.2/(Ohm-cm).

  18. Aerodynamic characteristics and pressure distributions for an executive-jet baseline airfoil section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Dennis O.; Mineck, Raymond E.

    1993-01-01

    A wind tunnel test of an executive-jet baseline airfoil model was conducted in the adaptive-wall test section of the NASA Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. The primary goal of the test was to measure airfoil aerodynamic characteristics over a wide range of flow conditions that encompass two design points. The two design Mach numbers were 0.654 and 0.735 with corresponding Reynolds numbers of 4.5 x 10(exp 6) and 8.9 x 10(exp 6) based on chord, respectively, and normal-force coefficients of 0.98 and 0.51, respectively. The tests were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.250 to 0.780 and a chord Reynolds number range from 3 x 10(exp 6) to 18 x 10(exp 6). The angle of attack was varied from -2 deg to a maximum below 10 deg with one exception in which the maximum was 14 deg for a Mach number of 0.250 at a chord Reynolds number of 4.5 x 10(exp 6). Boundary-layer transition was fixed at 5 percent of chord on both the upper and lower surfaces of the model for most of the test. The adaptive-wall test section had flexible top and bottom walls and rigid sidewalls. Wall interference was minimized by the movement of the adaptive walls, and the airfoil aerodynamic characteristics were corrected for any residual top and bottom wall interference.

  19. 4 CFR 21.4 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protective orders. 21.4 Section 21.4 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES BID PROTEST REGULATIONS § 21.4 Protective orders. (a) At the request of... copies of documents omitting protected information. Because a protective order serves to facilitate...

  20. 16 CFR 4.4 - Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Service. 4.4 Section 4.4 Commercial... Service. (a) By the Commission. (1) Service of complaints, initial decisions, final orders and other..., registered or certified, and mailed; service under this provision is complete upon delivery of the...

  1. 4 CFR 21.4 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protective orders. 21.4 Section 21.4 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES BID PROTEST REGULATIONS § 21.4 Protective orders. (a) At the request of a party or on its own initiative, GAO may issue a protective order controlling the treatment of protected information. Such...

  2. 4 CFR 4.1 - Training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training. 4.1 Section 4.1 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND UTILIZATION § 4.1 Training. The provisions of chapter 41, of title 5, United States Code, and Office of Personnel Management implementing...

  3. 4 CFR 4.2 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Performance appraisal. 4.2 Section 4.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND UTILIZATION § 4.2 Performance..., promoting, reducing in grade, retaining, and removing employees. (b) Each performance appraisal system...

  4. 4 CFR 5.4 - Pay administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay administration. 5.4 Section 5.4 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.4 Pay administration. The provisions of chapter 55 of title 5, U.S. Code and the Office of Personnel Management implementing regulations apply to...

  5. 4 CFR 4.2 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance appraisal. 4.2 Section 4.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND UTILIZATION § 4.2 Performance..., promoting, reducing in grade, retaining, and removing employees. (b) Each performance appraisal system...

  6. 4 CFR 5.4 - Pay administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pay administration. 5.4 Section 5.4 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.4 Pay administration. The provisions of chapter 55 of title 5, U.S. Code and the Office of Personnel Management implementing regulations apply to...

  7. 4 CFR 4.1 - Training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Training. 4.1 Section 4.1 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND UTILIZATION § 4.1 Training. The provisions of chapter 41, of title 5, United States Code, and Office of Personnel Management implementing...

  8. 4 CFR 5.4 - Pay administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Pay administration. 5.4 Section 5.4 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.4 Pay administration. The provisions of chapter 55 of title 5, U.S. Code and the Office of Personnel Management implementing regulations apply to...

  9. 4 CFR 4.1 - Training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Training. 4.1 Section 4.1 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND UTILIZATION § 4.1 Training. The provisions of chapter 41, of title 5, United States Code, and Office of Personnel Management implementing...

  10. 4 CFR 21.4 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Protective orders. 21.4 Section 21.4 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES BID PROTEST REGULATIONS § 21.4 Protective orders. (a) At the request of a party or on its own initiative, GAO may issue a protective order controlling the treatment...

  11. 4 CFR 21.4 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Protective orders. 21.4 Section 21.4 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES BID PROTEST REGULATIONS § 21.4 Protective orders. (a) At the request of a party or on its own initiative, GAO may issue a protective order controlling the treatment...

  12. A search for gamma-ray lines from the decay of Fe-59 in Supernova 1987A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, M. J.; Leising, M. D.

    1994-01-01

    We have searched spectra of Supernova (SN) 1987A, accumulated during several 35-day intervals after the explosion by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS), for gamma-ray lines at 1.099 and 1.292 MeV from the decay of Fe-59 which may have been produced in the progenitor's helium shell. We find no evidence for these lines, down to 3-sigma upper limits approximately = 7 x 10(exp -4) gamma/sq cm/s for the 1.099 MeV line, or approximately = 4.5 x 10(exp -4) gamma/sq cm/s for the 1.292 MeV line, in any 35-day interval. We derive a conservative 3-sigma upper limit on the mass fraction of Fe-59 in the helium shell of 2.9 x 10(exp -3).

  13. Micromechanical and Electrical Properties of Monolithic Aluminum Nitride at High Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsby, Jon C.

    2001-01-01

    Micromechanical spectroscopy of aluminum nitride reveals it to possess extremely low background internal friction at less than 1 x 10 (exp -4) logarithmic decrement (log dec.) from 20 to 1200 C. Two mechanical loss peaks were observed, the first at 350 C approximating a single Debye peak with a peak height of 60 x 10 (exp -4) log dec. The second peak was seen at 950 C with a peak height of 20 x 10 (exp -4) log dec. and extended from 200 to over 1200 C. These micromechanical observations manifested themselves in the electrical behavior of these materials. Electrical conduction processes were predominately intrinsic. Both mechanical and electrical relaxations appear to be thermally activated processes, with activation energies of 0.78 and 1.32 eV respectively.

  14. Electron Field Emission Properties of Textured Platinum Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.

    2002-01-01

    During ground tests of electric microthrusters and space tests of electrodynamic tethers the electron emitters must successfully operate at environmental pressures possibly as high as 1x10(exp -4) Pa. High partial pressures of oxygen, nitrogen, and water vapor are expected in such environments. A textured platinum surface was used in this work for field emission cathode assessments because platinum does not form oxide films at low temperatures. Although a reproducible cathode conditioning process did not evolve from this work, some short term tests for periods of 1 to 4 hours showed no degradation of emission current at an electric field of 8 V/mm and background pressures of about 1x10(exp -6) Pa. Increases of background pressure by air flow to about 3x10(exp -4) Pa yield a hostile environment for the textured platinum field emission cathode.

  15. Chiral Hexahalogenated 4,4'-Bipyridines.

    PubMed

    Mamane, V; Peluso, P; Aubert, E; Cossu, S; Pale, P

    2016-06-01

    The preparation of 27 isomers of chiral hexahalogeno-4,4'-bipyridines by means of two complementary methods is described. The first one is convergent and based on the LDA-induced 4,4'-dimerization of trihalopyridines, whereas the second method is divergent and achieved through regioselective halogenation reactions of 4,4'-bipyridine-2,2'-diones. Iodine in 2,2'-positions of the 4,4'-bipyridines was introduced by a copper-catalyzed Finkelstein reaction (Buchwald procedure) performed on 2,2'-dibromo derivatives. Selected compounds of this new family of atropisomeric 4,4'-bipyridines were enantioseparated by high performance liquid chromatography on chiral stationary phases, and the absolute configurations of the separated enantiomers were assigned by using X-ray diffraction analysis. The latter revealed that various halogen bond types are responsible for crystal cohesion. PMID:27149320

  16. An assessment of volatile release from recent volcanism in Elysium, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B.

    1993-01-01

    The amount and rate of release of volatiles (H2O, CO2, etc.) from recent volcanism in Elysium, Mars, are estimated. Possible implications of these volatiles on the climate, weathering, and surface morphology are discussed. Total eruptic volcanics may amount to about 4 x 10 exp 5 cu km and would have released large quantities of volatiles into the Martian environment. Assuming that the lavas contained 1.0 wt pct water, about 7.6 x 10 exp 15 kg of the water, or about 1000 times the present atmospheric water inventory, would have been released. Release amounts of other volatiles are estimated to be 10 exp 15 kg of S, 10 exp 13 kg of Cl, and 10 exp 13 kg of F. The short-term effect of the SO2 gas would be to warm the climate due to its greenhouse properties. Conversion to sulfate aerosols might have resulted in a net surface cooling due to scattering of sunlight. As the sulfate aerosols settled from the atmosphere, the climate could have returned to its preeruption equilibrium.

  17. Rosat observations of FK comae berenices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welty, Alan D.; Ramsey, Lawrence W.

    1994-01-01

    We obtained ROSAT PSPC observations of FK Com over a period of 24.4 h, or 0.42 rotation. During the observations the x-ray flux increased by a factor of at least 5 before declining toward its previous level. A single temperature Raymond-Smith model is adequate to model the low signal-to-noise ratio spectrum from each observation interval. Initially the spectrum was that of a 8.5 x 10(exp 6) K plasma, with L9sub x)=0.66 x 10(exp 31) erg s(exp -1). When the x-ray flux was greatest, the model plasma temperature rose to 2.5 x 10(exp 7) K, and L(sub x)=3.46 x 10(exp 31) ergs(exp -1). During the post-maximum decline in luminosity the plasma temperature was approximately 12 x 10(exp 6) K. We conclude that the increase of x-ray flux recorded by ROSAT was due to an x-ray flare with a 1.5 h decline time scale.

  18. An assessment of volatile release from recent volcanism in Elysium, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plescia, J. B.

    1993-07-01

    The amount and rate of release of volatiles (H2O, CO2, etc.) from recent volcanism in Elysium, Mars, are estimated. Possible implications of these volatiles on the climate, weathering, and surface morphology are discussed. Total eruptic volcanics may amount to about 4 x 10 exp 5 cu km and would have released large quantities of volatiles into the Martian environment. Assuming that the lavas contained 1.0 wt pct water, about 7.6 x 10 exp 15 kg of the water, or about 1000 times the present atmospheric water inventory, would have been released. Release amounts of other volatiles are estimated to be 10 exp 15 kg of S, 10 exp 13 kg of Cl, and 10 exp 13 kg of F. The short-term effect of the SO2 gas would be to warm the climate due to its greenhouse properties. Conversion to sulfate aerosols might have resulted in a net surface cooling due to scattering of sunlight. As the sulfate aerosols settled from the atmosphere, the climate could have returned to its preeruption equilibrium.

  19. Optimal and Local Connectivity Between Neuron and Synapse Array in the Quantum Dot/Silicon Brain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A.; Assad, Christopher; Thakoor, Anikumar P.

    2010-01-01

    This innovation is used to connect between synapse and neuron arrays using nanowire in quantum dot and metal in CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) technology to enable the density of a brain-like connection in hardware. The hardware implementation combines three technologies: 1. Quantum dot and nanowire-based compact synaptic cell (50x50 sq nm) with inherently low parasitic capacitance (hence, low dynamic power approx.l0(exp -11) watts/synapse), 2. Neuron and learning circuits implemented in 50-nm CMOS technology, to be integrated with quantum dot and nanowire synapse, and 3. 3D stacking approach to achieve the overall numbers of high density O(10(exp 12)) synapses and O(10(exp 8)) neurons in the overall system. In a 1-sq cm of quantum dot layer sitting on a 50-nm CMOS layer, innovators were able to pack a 10(exp 6)-neuron and 10(exp 10)-synapse array; however, the constraint for the connection scheme is that each neuron will receive a non-identical 10(exp 4)-synapse set, including itself, via its efficacy of the connection. This is not a fully connected system where the 100x100 synapse array only has a 100-input data bus and 100-output data bus. Due to the data bus sharing, it poses a great challenge to have a complete connected system, and its constraint within the quantum dot and silicon wafer layer. For an effective connection scheme, there are three conditions to be met: 1. Local connection. 2. The nanowire should be connected locally, not globally from which it helps to maximize the data flow by sharing the same wire space location. 3. Each synapse can have an alternate summation line if needed (this option is doable based on the simple mask creation). The 10(exp 3)x10(exp 3)-neuron array was partitioned into a 10-block, 10(exp 2)x10(exp 3)-neuron array. This building block can be completely mapped within itself (10,000 synapses to a neuron).

  20. The effect of fluctuations on the electrical transport behavior in YBa2Cu3O(7-x)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vitta, Satish; Alterovitz, S. A.; Stan, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    The excess conductivity behavior of highly oriented YBa2Cu3O(7-x) thin films prepared by both coevaporation and laser ablation was studied in detail in the reduced-temperature range 9 x 10(exp -4) is less than t is less than 1. The excess conductivity in all the films studied was found to diverge sharply near T(sub c), in agreement with the conventional mean-field theory. However, the detailed temperature dependence could not be fitted to either the power-law or the logarithmic functional forms as predicted by the theory. The excess conductivity of all the films was found to be exponentially dependent on the temperature over nearly three decades for 9 x 10(exp -4) is less than t is less than 10(exp -1), in contradiction to the mean-field theory.

  1. Precision Mass Property Measurements Using a Five-Wire Torsion Pendulum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swank, Aaron J.

    2012-01-01

    A method for measuring the moment of inertia of an object using a five-wire torsion pendulum design is described here. Typical moment of inertia measurement devices are capable of 1 part in 10(exp 3) accuracy and current state of the art techniques have capabilities of about one part in 10(exp 4). The five-wire apparatus design shows the prospect of improving on current state of the art. Current measurements using a laboratory prototype indicate a moment of inertia measurement precision better than a part in 10(exp 4). In addition, the apparatus is shown to be capable of measuring the mass center offset from the geometric center. Typical mass center measurement devices exhibit a measurement precision up to approximately 1 micrometer. Although the five-wire pendulum was not originally designed for mass center measurements, preliminary results indicate an apparatus with a similar design may have the potential of achieving state of the art precision.

  2. 41 CFR 51-4.4 - Subcontracting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 4-NONPROFIT AGENCIES § 51-4.4... employment for persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities. (c) Nonprofit agencies may... persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities. Subcontracting intended to be a routine part...

  3. Can Asian Dust Trigger Phytoplankton Blooms in the Oligotrophic Northern South China Sea?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Sheng Hsiang; Hsu, Nai-Yung Christina; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lin, Neng-Huei; Sayer, Andrew M.; Huang, Shih-Jen; Lau, William K. M.

    2012-01-01

    Satellite data estimate a high dust deposition flux (approximately 18 g m(exp-2 a(exp-1) into the northern South China Sea (SCS). However, observational evidence concerning any biological response to dust fertilization is sparse. In this study, we combined long-term aerosol and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) measurements from satellite sensors (MODIS and SeaWiFS) with a 16-year record of dust events from surface PM10 observations to investigate dust transport, flux, and the changes in Chl-a concentration over the northern SCS. Our result revealed that readily identifiable strong dust events over this region, although relatively rare (6 cases since 1994) and accounting for only a small proportion of the total dust deposition (approximately 0.28 g m(exp-2 a(exp-1), do occur and could significantly enhance phytoplankton blooms. Following such events, the Chl-a concentration increased up to 4-fold, and generally doubled the springtime background value (0.15 mg m(exp-3). We suggest these heavy dust events contain readily bioavailable iron and enhance the phytoplankton growth in the oligotrophic northern SCS.

  4. Lunar Laser Ranging Science: Gravitational Physics and Lunar Interior and Geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, James G.; Turyshev, Slava G.; Boggs, Dale H.; Ratcliff, J. Todd

    2004-01-01

    Laser pulses fired at retroreflectors on the Moon provide very accurate ranges. Analysis yields information on Earth, Moon, and orbit. The highly accurate retroreflector positions have uncertainties less than a meter. Tides on the Moon show strong dissipation, with Q=33+/-4 at a month and a weak dependence on period. Lunar rotation depends on interior properties; a fluid core is indicated with radius approx.20% that of the Moon. Tests of relativistic gravity verify the equivalence principle to +/-1.4x10(exp -13), limit deviations from Einstein's general relativity, and show no rate for the gravitational constant G/G with uncertainty 9x10(exp -13)/yr.

  5. Light domain walls, massive neutrinos and the large scale structure of the Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massarotti, Alessandro

    1991-01-01

    Domain walls generated through a cosmological phase transition are considered, which interact nongravitationally with light neutrinos. At a redshift z greater than or equal to 10(exp 4), the network grows rapidly and is virtually decoupled from the matter. As the friction with the matter becomes dominant, a comoving network scale close to that of the comoving horizon scale at z of approximately 10(exp 4) gets frozen. During the later phases, the walls produce matter wakes of a thickness d of approximately 10h(exp -1)Mpc, that may become seeds for the formation of the large scale structure observed in the Universe.

  6. Compressible Boundary Layer Predictions at High Reynolds Number using Hybrid LES/RANS Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Jung-Il; Edwards, Jack R.; Baurle, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Simulations of compressible boundary layer flow at three different Reynolds numbers (Re(sub delta) = 5.59x10(exp 4), 1.78x10(exp 5), and 1.58x10(exp 6) are performed using a hybrid large-eddy/Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes method. Variations in the recycling/rescaling method, the higher-order extension, the choice of primitive variables, the RANS/LES transition parameters, and the mesh resolution are considered in order to assess the model. The results indicate that the present model can provide good predictions of the mean flow properties and second-moment statistics of the boundary layers considered. Normalized Reynolds stresses in the outer layer are found to be independent of Reynolds number, similar to incompressible turbulent boundary layers.

  7. The Deep Space Network stability analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breidenthal, Julian C.; Greenhall, Charles A.; Hamell, Robert L.; Kuhnle, Paul F.

    1995-01-01

    A stability analyzer for testing NASA Deep Space Network installations during flight radio science experiments is described. The stability analyzer provides realtime measurements of signal properties of general experimental interest: power, phase, and amplitude spectra; Allan deviation; and time series of amplitude, phase shift, and differential phase shift. Input ports are provided for up to four 100 MHz frequency standards and eight baseband analog (greater than 100 kHz bandwidth) signals. Test results indicate the following upper bounds to noise floors when operating on 100 MHz signals: -145 dBc/Hz for phase noise spectrum further than 200 Hz from carrier, 2.5 x 10(exp -15) (tau =1 second) and 1.5 x 10(exp -17) (tau =1000 seconds) for Allan deviation, and 1 x 10(exp -4) degrees for 1-second averages of phase deviation. Four copies of the stability analyzer have been produced, plus one transportable unit for use at non-NASA observatories.

  8. Terrestrial Applications of a Nano-g Accelerometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.

    1996-01-01

    The ultra-sensitive accelerometer, developed for NASA to monitor the microgravity environments of Space Shuttle, five orbiters and Space Station, needed to measure accelerations up to 10 mg with an absolute accuracy of 10 nano-g (10(exp -8)g) for at least two orbits (10(exp 4) seconds) to resolve accelerations associated with orbital drag. Also, the accelerometers needed to have less than 10(exp -9) F.S. off-axis sensitivity; to be thermally and magnetically inert; to be immune to quiescent shock, and to have an in-situ calibration capability. Multi-axis compact seismometers, designs that have twelve decades of dynamic range will be described. Density profilometers, precision gradiometers, gyros and vibration isolation designs and applications will be discussed. Finally, examples of transformations of the accelerometer into sensitive anemometers and imaging spectrometers will be presented.

  9. High-Resolution Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of an Equivalent Width-Selected Sample of Starbursting Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maseda, Michael V.; VanDerWeL, Arjen; DaChuna, Elisabete; Rix, Hans-Walter; Pacafichi, Camilla; Momcheva, Ivelina; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Franx, Marijn; VanDokkum, Pieter; Bell, Eric F.; Ferguson, Harry C.; Fumagalli, Mattia; Grogin, Norman A.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Lundgren, Britt F.; Marchesini, Danilo; Nelson, Erica J.; Patel, Shannon; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Straughn, Amber N.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Wuyts, Stijn

    2013-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations from the Large Binocular Telescope and the Very Large Telescope reveal kinematically narrow lines (approx. 50 km/s) for a sample of 14 Extreme Emission Line Galaxies (EELGs) at redshifts 1.4 < zeta < 2.3. These measurements imply that the total dynamical masses of these systems are low ( 3 × 10(exp 9) M). Their large [O III]5007 equivalent widths (500 - 1100 A) and faint blue continuum emission imply young ages of 10-100 Myr and stellar masses of 10(exp 8)-10(exp 9) M, confirming the presence of a violent starburst. The stellar mass formed in this vigorous starburst phase thus represents a large fraction of the total (dynamical) mass, without a significantly massive underlying population of older stars. The occurrence of such intense events in shallow potentials strongly suggests that supernova-driven winds must be of critical importance in the subsequent evolution of these systems.

  10. A Noachian/Hesperian Hiatus and Erosive Reactivation of Martian Valley Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, R. P., III.; Maxwell, T. A.; Howard, A. D.; Craddock, R. A.; Moore, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    Despite new evidence for persistent flow and sedimentation on early Mars, it remains unclear whether valley networks were active over long geologic timescales (10(exp 5)-10(exp 8) yr), or if flows were persistent only during multiple discrete episodes of moderate (approx. 10(exp 4) yr) to short (<10 yr) duration. Understanding the long-term stability/variability of valley network hydrology would provide an important control on paleoclimate and groundwater models. Here we describe geologic evidence for a hiatus in highland valley network activity while the fretted terrain formed, followed by a discrete reactivation of persistent (but possibly variable) erosive flows. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  11. Experimental Surface Pressure Data Obtained on 65 deg Delta Wing Across Reynolds Number and Mach Number Ranges. Volume 1; Sharp Leading Edge; [conducted in the Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Julio; Luckring, James M.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental wind tunnel test of a 65 deg delta wing model with interchangeable leading edges was conducted in the Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF). The objective was to investigate the effects of Reynolds and Mach numbers on slender-wing leading-edge vortex flows with four values of wing leading-edge bluntness. Experimentally obtained pressure data are presented without analysis in tabulated and graphical formats across a Reynolds number range of 6 x 10(exp 6) to 36 x 10(exp 6) at a Mach number of 0.85 and across a Mach number range of 0.4 to 0.9 at a Reynolds number of 6 x 10(exp 6). Normal-force and pitching-moment coefficient plots for these Reynolds number and Mach number ranges are also presented.

  12. The GRADIO spaceborne gravity gradiometer: Development and accommodation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, A.

    1989-01-01

    The European ARISTOTELES mission aims at the determination of the Earth's gravity field at short wavelength with a global coverage. Gravity gradient measurements will be achieved during six months by the GRADIO instrument onboard a dedicated satellite in a near dawn-dusk sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 200 km. The objective is an accuracy of better than 5 mgals for gravity anomalies, at ground level for blocks of 1 x 1 deg. According to present knowledge of the potential, the recovery of higher spherical harmonics (degree and order greater than 30) is of main importance. This leads to focus on the variations of the measured components T(sub ij) of the gravity gradient tensor, at frequencies greater than 5 x 10(exp -3) Hz. The resolution, required for the gradiometer is 10(exp -2) Eotvos (i.e., 10(exp -11)/s squared) with an averaging time of 4 s.

  13. Doppler experiments with Cassini radio system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comoretto, G.; Bertotti, B.; Iess, L.; Ambrosini, R.

    1992-01-01

    The radio system of the Cassini orbiter will include a K-alpha band downlink channel, mainly intended for telemetry. A K-alpha uplink has also been proposed to allow for a highly accurate gravitational wave experiment. The fourfold increase in frequency will reduce the plasma noise by a factor of 12 and will allow a Doppler accuracy better than 10 exp -15 for time scales of 10 exp 3 - 10 exp 4 s. Extensive Doppler measurements of the gravitational field of Saturn and its satellites can be performed, exploiting the induced change in the velocity of the spacecraft. Possible sources of low-frequency gravitational waves and errors in the Doppler link are discussed.

  14. Gamma-Ray, Cosmic Ray and Neutrino Tests of Lorentz Invariance and Quantum Gravity Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, Floyd

    2011-01-01

    High-energy astrophysics observations provide the best possibilities to detect a very small violation of Lorentz invariance such as may be related to the structure of space-time near the Planck scale of approximately 10(exp -35) m. I will discuss here the possible signatures of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) from observations of the spectra, polarization, and timing of gamma-rays from active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts. Other sensitive tests are provided by observations of the spectra of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and neutrinos. Using the latest data from the Pierre Auger Observatory one can already derive an upper limit of 4.5 x 10(exp -23) to the amount of LIV of at a proton Lorentz factor of approximately 2 x 10(exp 11). This result has fundamental implications for quantum gravity models. I will also discuss the possibilities of using more sensitive space based detection techniques to improve searches for LIV in the future.

  15. A Preliminary Model for Spacecraft Propulsion Performance Analysis Based on Nuclear Gain and Subsystem Mass-Power Balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, S.; Schmidt, G. R.; Thio, Y. C.; Hurst, C. M.

    1999-01-01

    Rapid transportation of human crews to destinations throughout the solar system will require propulsion systems having not only very high exhaust velocities (i.e., I(sub sp) >= 10(exp 4) to 10(exp 5) sec) but also extremely low mass-power ratios (i.e., alpha <= 10(exp -2) kg/kW). These criteria are difficult to meet with electric propulsion and other power-limited systems, but may be achievable with propulsion concepts that use onboard power to produce a net gain in energy via fusion or some other nuclear process. This paper compares the fundamental performance of these gain-limited systems with that of power-limited systems, and determines from a generic power balance the gains required for ambitious planetary missions ranging up to 100 AU. Results show that energy gain reduces the required effective mass-power ratio of the system, thus enabling shorter trip times than those of power-limited concepts.

  16. Tests of the Rockwell Si:As Back-Illuminated Blocked-Impurity Band (BIBIB) detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, J.; Groezinger, U.; Burgdorf, M.; Salama, A.

    1989-01-01

    Two arrays of Rockwell's Si:As back-illuminated blocked-impurity-band detectors were tested at the Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy (MPIA) at low background and low temperature for possible use in the astronomical space experiment ISOPHOT. For these measurements special test equipment was put together. A cryostat was mechanically modified to accommodate the arrays and special peripheral electronics was added to a microprocessor system to drive the cold multiplexer and to acquire the output data. The first device, a 16x50 element array on a fan-out board was used to test individual pixels with a trans-impedance-amplifier at a photon background of 10(exp 8) Ph s(-1)cm(-2) and at temperatures of 2.7 to 4.4 K. The noise-equivalent-power NEP is in the range 5 - 7 x 10(exp -18) WHz(exp -1/2), the responsivity is less than or equal to 100 AW(exp -1)(f = 10 Hz). The second device was a 10x50 array including a cold readout electronics of switched FETs (SWIFET). Measurements of this array were done in a background range of 5 x 10(exp 5) to 5 x 10(exp 11) Ph s(exp-1)cm(exp-2) and at operating temperatures between 3.0 and 4.8 K. The NEP ranges from less than 10(exp -18) at the lowest background to 2 x 10(exp -16) WHz(exp -1/2) at the highest flux.

  17. Electron beam induced damage in PECVD Si3N4 and SiO2 films on InP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pantic, Dragan M.; Kapoor, Vik J.; Young, Paul G.; Williams, Wallace D.; Dickman, John E.

    1990-01-01

    Phosphorus rich plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of silicon nitride and silicon dioxide films on n-type indium phosphide (InP) substrates were exposed to electron beam irradiation in the 5 to 40 keV range for the purpose of characterizing the damage induced in the dielectic. The electron beam exposure was on the range of 10(exp -7) to 10(exp -3) C/sq cm. The damage to the devices was characterized by capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements of the metal insulator semiconductor (MIS) capacitors. These results were compared to results obtained for radiation damage of thermal silicon dioxide on silicon (Si) MOS capacitors with similar exposures. The radiation induced damage in the PECVD silicon nitride films on InP was successfully annealed out in an hydrogen/nitrogen (H2/N2) ambient at 400 C for 15 min. The PECVD silicon dioxide films on InP had the least radiation damage, while the thermal silicon dioxide films on Si had the most radiation damage.

  18. Comparative enzymology of (2S,4R)4-fluoroglutamine and (2S,4R)4-fluoroglutamate

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Arthur J. L.; Krasnikov, Boris F.; Pinto, John T.; Kung, Hank F.; Li, Jianyong; Ploessl, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Many cancer cells have a strong requirement for glutamine. As an aid for understanding this phenomenon the 18F-labeled 2S,4R stereoisomer of 4-fluoroglutamine [(2S,4R)4-FGln] was previously developed for in vivo positron emission tomography (PET). In the present work, comparative enzymological studies of unlabeled (2S,4R)4-FGln and its deamidated product (2S,4R)4-FGlu were conducted as an adjunct to these PET studies. Our findings are as follows: Rat kidney preparations catalyze the deamidation of (2S,4R)4-FGln. (2S,4R)4-FGln and (2S,4R)4-FGlu are substrates of various aminotransferases. (2S,4R)4-FGlu is a substrate of glutamate dehydrogenase, but not of sheep brain glutamine synthetase. The compound is, however, a strong inhibitor of this enzyme. Rat liver cytosolic fractions catalyze a γ-elimination reaction with (2S,4R)4-FGlu, generating α-ketoglutarate. Coupling of a deamidase reaction with this γ- elimination reaction provides an explanation for the previous detection of 18F− in tumors exposed to [18F](2S,4R)4-FGln. One enzyme contributing to this reaction was identified as alanine aminotransferase, which catalyzes competing γ-elimination and aminotransferase reactions with (2S,4R)4-FGlu. This appears to be the first description of an aminotransferase catalyzing a γ-elimination reaction. The present results demonstrate that (2S,4R)4-FGln and (2S,4R)4-FGlu are useful analogues for comparative studies of various glutamine- and glutamate-utilizing enzymes in normal and cancerous mammalian tissues, and suggest that tumors may metabolize (2S,4R)4-FGln in a generally similar fashion to glutamine. In plants, yeast and bacteria a major route for ammonia assimilation involves the consecutive action of glutamate synthase plus glutamine synthetase (glutamate synthase cycle). It is suggested that (2S,4R)4-FGln and (2S,4R)4-FGlu will be useful probes in studies of ammonia assimilation by the glutamate synthase pathway in these organisms. Finally, glutamine

  19. Intumescent coatings containing 4,4'-dinitrosulfanilide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawko, P. M.; Riccitiello, S. R. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A coating which is stable to the environment and to exposure to water, and which intumesces at a favorable temperature was developed. The composition comprises a mixture of 4, 4 prime dinitrousulfanilide as the intumescent agent in a polymer binder mixture of a chlorinated polyolefin, a bisphenol A epoxy resin, and a rubber-like amine hardener.

  20. Evaluation of 4 X 4 Block Schedule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutter, Davida W.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes 4 X 4 block scheduling and its advantages and disadvantages. Examines block scheduling's effects on a Virginia high school's students, teachers, and administration, based on school data and survey results. Most participants preferred block scheduling over the six-period schedule. Grades, attendance, and discipline improved; students…

  1. SR90, strontium shaped-charge critical ionization velocity experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, Eugene M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, Hans; Swift, Daniel W.; Valenzuela, Arnoldo; Rees, David

    1990-01-01

    In May 1986 an experiment was performed to test Alfven's critical ionization velocity (CIV) effect in free space, using the first high explosive shaped charge with a conical liner of strontium metal. The release, made at 540 km altitude at dawn twilight, was aimed at 48 deg to B. The background electron density was 1.5 x 10(exp 4) cu cm. A faint field-aligned Sr(+) ion streak with tip velocity of 2.6 km/s was observed from two optical sites. Using two calibration methods, it was calculated that between 4.5 x 10(exp 20) and 2 x 10(exp 21) ions were visible. An ionization time constant of 1920 s was calculated for Sr from the solar UV spectrum and ionization cross section which combined with a computer simulation of the injection predicts 1.7 x 10(exp 21) solar UV ions in the low-velocity part of the ion streak. Thus all the observed ions are from solar UV ionization of the slow (less than critical) velocity portion of the neutral jet. The observed neutral Sr velocity distribution and computer simulations indicate that 2 x 10(exp 21) solar UV ions would have been created from the fast (greater than critical) part of the jet. They would have been more diffuse, and were not observed. Using this fact it was estimated that any CIV ions created were less than 10(exp 21). It was concluded that future Sr CIV free space experiments should be conducted below the UV shadow height and in much larger background plasma density.

  2. The Radio Luminosity Function and Galaxy Evolution in the Coma Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Neal A.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Mabasher, Bahram; Brudgesm Terrry J.; Hudson, Michael J.; Marzke, Ronald O.; Smith, Russell J.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the radio luminosity function and radio source population for two fields within the Coma cluster of galaxies, with the fields centered on the cluster core and southwest infall region and each covering about half a square degree. Using VLA data with a typical rms sensitivity of 28 (mu)Jy per 4.4" beam, we identify 249 radio sources with optical counterparts brighter than r = 22 (equivalent to M(sub r) = -13 for cluster member galaxies). Comprehensive optical spectroscopy identifies 38 of these as members of the Coma cluster, evenly split between sources powered by an active nucleus and sources powered by active star formation. The radio-detected star-forming galaxies are restricted to radio luminosities between about 10(exp 21) and 10(exp 22) W/Hz, an interesting result given that star formation dominates field radio luminosity functions below about 10(exp 23) W/Hz. The majority of the radio-detected star-forming galaxies have characteristics of starbursts, including high specific star formation rates and optical spectra with strong emission lines. In conjunction with prior studies on post-starburst galaxies within the Coma cluster, this is consistent with a picture in which late-type galaxies entering Coma undergo a starburst prior to a rapid cessation of star formation. Optically bright elliptical galaxies (Mr less than or equals -20.5) make the largest contribution to the radio luminosity function at both the high (> approx. 3x10(exp 22) W/Hz) and low (< approx. 10(exp 21) W/Hz) ends. Through a stacking analysis of these optically-bright ellipticals we find that they continue to harbor radio sources down to luminosities as faint as 3x10(exp 19) W/Hz. However, contrary to published results for the Virgo cluster we find no evidence for the existence of a population of optically faint (M(sub r) approx. equals -14) dwarf ellipticals hosting strong radio AGN.

  3. The FU Orionis Outburst as a Thermal Disk Accretion Event: Detailed Calculations and Comparison to Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, K. R.

    1994-01-01

    FU Orionis outbursts are temporary large increases in luminosity: x(40-250) thought to occur repeatedly in all low mass young stellar systems. We discuss detailed calculations of viscous accretion disks suggesting that FU Ori events signify the existence of a protostellar disk transporting mass at a rate of (1-10) x 10(exp -6) Solar Mass/yr, in agreement with theoretical and observational estimates of molecular cloud core collapse rates. Accretion through the inner edge of disks subject to outburst is self-regulated through the thermal ionization instability such that long periods (approximately 1000 yrs) of low mass flux: (1-10) x 10(exp -8) Solar Mass/yr, are punctuated by short periods (approximately 100 yrs) of high mass flux: (1-10) x 10(exp -5) Solar Mass/yr. The unstable region of the disk extends radially only to a distance of approximately 1/4 AU. Beyond this region matter is transported stably at the infall rate. In systems for which M = 1 Solar Mass, with an inner disk edge of 3 Solar Radius, the critical rate for outbursts is 5 x 10(exp -7) Solar Mass/yr independent of the magnitude of the viscous alpha parameter consistent with estimates of boundary layer mass flux in T Tauri stars. We use timescales of observed outbursts to constrain the magnitude of the alpha parameter to be 10(exp -4) where hydrogen is neutral and 10(exp -3) where ionized. Light curves of V1515 Cyg, FU Ori, and V1057 Cyg are reproduced; the latter two require application of a small perturbation in surface density to produce observed rapid rise times. Detailed reply is made to objections to the accretion disk model for outbursts. Comparison to observations are made of time dependent spectral energy distributions, colors, and line-width velocity evolution.

  4. The FU Orionis Outburst as a Thermal Disk Accretion Event: Detailed Calculations and Comparison to Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, K. R.; Cuzzi, Jeff (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    FU Orionis outbursts are temporary large increases in luminosity: x (40 - 250) thought to occur repeatedly in all low mass young stellar systems. We discuss detailed calculations of viscous accretion disks suggesting that FU Ori events signify the existence of a protostellar disk transporting mass at a rate of (1 - 10) x 10(exp 6) solar mass / yr, in agreement with theoretical and observational estimates of molecular cloud core collapse rates. Accretion through the inner edge of disks subject to outburst is self-regulated through the thermal ionization instability such that long periods (approx. 1000 yrs) of low mass flux: (1 - 10) x 10(exp -5) solar mass / yr, are punctuated by short periods (approx. 100 yrs) of high mass flux: (1-10) x 10(exp -5) solar mass / yr. The unstable region of the disk extends radially only to a distance of approx. = 1/4 AU. Beyond this region matter is transported stably at the infall rate. In systems for which M(sum *) = 1 solar mass with an inner disk edge of 3 solar radius, the critical rate for outbursts is 5 x 10(exp -7) solar mass / yr independent of the magnitude of the viscous ce parameter consistent with estimates of boundary layer mass flux in T Tauri stars. We use timescales of observed outbursts to constrain the magnitude of the alpha parameter to be 10(exp -4) where hydrogen is neutral and 10(exp -3) where ionized. Light curves of V1515 Cyg, FU Ori, and V1057 Cya are reproduced; the latter two require application of a small perturbation in surface density to produce observed rapid rise times. Detailed reply is made to objections to the accretion disk model for outbursts. Comparison to observations are made of time dependent spectral energy distributions, colors, and line-width velocity evolution.

  5. Basic features of the STS/Spacelab vibration environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baugher, Charles R.; Ramachandran, N.

    1994-01-01

    The Space Shuttle acceleration environment is characterized. The acceleration environment is composed of a residual or quasi-steady component and higher frequency components induced by vehicle structural modes and the operation of onboard machinery. Quasi-steady accelerations are generally due to atmospheric drag, gravity gradient effects, and rotational forces. These accelerations tend to vary with the orbital frequency (approx. 10(exp -4) Hz) and have magnitudes less than or equal to 10(exp -6) g(sub 0) (where 1 g(sub 0) is terrestrial gravity). Higher frequency g-jitter is characterized by oscillatory disturbances in the 1-100 Hz range and transient components. Oscillatory accelerations are related to the response of large flexible structures like antennae, the Spacelab module, and the Orbiter itself, and to the operation of rotating machinery. The Orbiter structural modes in the 1-10 Hz range, are excited by oscillatory and transient disturbances and tend to dominate the energy spectrum of the acceleration environment. A comparison of the acceleration measurements from different Space Shuttle missions reveals the characteristic signature of the structural modes of the Orbiter overlaid with mission specific hardware induced disturbances and their harmonics. Transient accelerations are usually attributed to crew activity and Orbiter thruster operations. During crew sleep periods, the acceleration levels are typically on the order of 10(exp -6) g(sub 0) (1 micro-g). Crew work and exercise tend to raise the accelerations to the 10(exp -3) g(sub 0) (1 milli-g) level. Vernier reaction control system firings tend to cause accelerations of 10(exp -4) g(sub 0), while primary reaction control system and Orbiter maneuvering system firings cause accelerations as large as 10(exp -2) g(sub 0). Vibration isolation techniques (both active and passive systems) used during crew exercise have been shown to significantly reduce the acceleration magnitudes.

  6. Fractionation of hydrogen and deuterium on Venus due to collisional ejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurwell, Mark A.; Yung, Yuk L.

    1993-01-01

    The collisional ejection process for hydrogen on Venus is reanalyzed. Improved values for the efficiency of H and D escape as a function of the ionospheric temperature are reported. It is proposed that the reduction of the hydrogen flux for collisional ejection be reduced from 8 to 3.5 x 10 exp 6/sq cm/s, and a revised D/H fractional factor of 0.47 due to collisional ejection is suggested. The resulting deuterium flux is 3.1 x 10 exp 4/sq cm/s, roughly six times the flux due to charge exchange, making collisional ejection the dominant escape mechanism for deuterium on Venus.

  7. Quantification of hydrochloric acid and particulate deposition resulting from Space Shuttle launches at John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida, U.S.A.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreschel, Thomas W.; Hall, Carlton R.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented from studies designed to identify deposition patterns and quantify the ecosystem loading rates of exhaust constituents (which are primarily Al2O3 and HCl) from the Space Shuttle solid rocket motors in the area of the Kennedy Space Center launch pad. Results of measurements indicate that, under certain meteorological conditions, as much as 7.1 x 10 exp 3 kg of particulates and 3.4 x 10 exp 3 kg HCL can be deposited to the near-field environment beyond the launch pad perimeter fence during one STS launch.

  8. Statistics of cosmological gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermer, Charles D.

    1992-01-01

    A phenomenological model of gamma-ray burst spectra is used to calculate the statistics of gamma-ray bursts originating at cosmological distances. A model of bursters with no source evolution in a q sub 0 = 1/2 Friedmann cosmology is in accord with recent observations of the differential V/Vmax distribution. The data are best fit with an average peak-burst luminosity of (4 +/- 2) x 10 exp 51 ergs/s and a present-day source emissivity of 940 +/- 440 bursts/(10 exp 10 yr) cu Mpc. A spectral test of the cosmological hypothesis is proposed.

  9. Fractionation of hydrogen and deuterium on Venus due to collisional ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurwell, M. A.; Yung, Y. L.

    1993-02-01

    The collisional ejection process for hydrogen on Venus is reanalyzed. Improved values for the efficiency of H and D escape as a function of the ionospheric temperature are reported. It is proposed that the reduction of the hydrogen flux for collisional ejection be reduced from 8 to 3.5 x 10 exp 6/sq cm/s, and a revised D/H fractional factor of 0.47 due to collisional ejection is suggested. The resulting deuterium flux is 3.1 x 10 exp 4/sq cm/s, roughly six times the flux due to charge exchange, making collisional ejection the dominant escape mechanism for deuterium on Venus.

  10. Tables of square-law signal detection statistics for Hann spectra with 50 percent overlap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deans, Stanley R.; Cullers, D. Kent

    1991-01-01

    The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, currently being planned by NASA, will require that an enormous amount of data be analyzed in real time by special purpose hardware. It is expected that overlapped Hann data windows will play an important role in this analysis. In order to understand the statistical implication of this approach, it has been necessary to compute detection statistics for overlapped Hann spectra. Tables of signal detection statistics are given for false alarm rates from 10(exp -14) to 10(exp -1) and signal detection probabilities from 0.50 to 0.99; the number of computed spectra ranges from 4 to 2000.

  11. LISA Instrument Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.; Thorpe, James Ira

    2008-01-01

    Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is designed to observe gravitational waves in the frequency band from 10(exp -1) to 10(exp -4) Hz where a rich spectrum of sources is expected. The measurements must be made from space to avoid the large motions of the earth that prevent the current generations (eg. LIGO) from operating at these freq8uencies. The technology and expected performance behind this measurement capability will be reviewed with an emphasis on the interferometric measurement system., including recent laboratory results showing a novel tunable frequency stabilized laser.

  12. Exoplanet Direct Imaging: Coronagraph Probe Mission Study EXO-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapelfeldt, Karl R.

    2013-01-01

    Flagship mission for spectroscopy of ExoEarths is a long-term priority for space astrophysics (Astro2010). Requires 10(exp 10) contrast at 3 lambda/D separation, ( (is) greater than 10,000 times beyond HST performance) and large telescope (is) greater than 4m aperture. Big step. Mission for spectroscopy of giant planets and imaging of disks requires 10(exp 9) contrast at 3 lambda/D (already demonstrated in lab) and (is) approximately 1.5m telescope. Should be much more affordable, good intermediate step.Various PIs have proposed many versions of the latter mission 17 times since 1999; no unified approach.

  13. Dust torus around Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Antal; Horanyi, Mihaly

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the orbital dynamics of small dust particles generated via the continuous micrometeoroid bombardment of the Martian moons. In addition to Mar's oblateness, we also consider the radiation pressure perturbation that is complicated by the planet's eccentric orbit and tilted rotational axis. Considering the production rates and the lifetimes of dust grains, we show that particles from Deimos with radii of about 15 micrometers are expected to dominate the population of a permanently present and tilted dust torus. This torus has an estimated peak number density of approximately equals 5 x 10(exp -12)/cu cm and an optical depth of approximately equals 4 x 10(exp -8).

  14. Quantum Cohesion Oscillation of Electron Ground State in Low Temperature Laser Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Qingxun; Zhang, Ping; Dong, Lifang; Zhang, Kaixi

    1996-01-01

    The development of radically new technological and economically efficient methods for obtaining chemical products and for producing new materials with specific properties requires the study of physical and chemical processes proceeding at temperature of 10(exp 3) to 10(exp 4) K, temperature range of low temperature plasma. In our paper, by means of Wigner matrix of quantum statistical theory, a formula is derived for the energy of quantum coherent oscillation of electron ground state in laser plasma at low temperature. The collective behavior would be important in ion and ion-molecule reactions.

  15. The Swift Discovery of X-ray Afterglows Accompanying Short Bursts from SGR 1900+14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakagawa, Y. E.; Sakamoto, T.; Sato, G.; Gehrels, N.; Hurley, K.; Palmer, D. M.

    2008-01-01

    The discovery of X-ray afterglows accompanying two short bursts from SGR1900+14 is presented. The afterglow luminosities at the end of each observation are lower by 30-50% than their initial luminosities, and decay with power law indices p approx. 0.2-0.4. Their initial bolometric luminosities are L approx. 10(exp 34)- 10(exp 35) erg/s. We discuss analogies and differences between the X-ray afterglows of SGR short bursts and short gamma-ray bursts.

  16. Hard X-ray Observation of Cygnus X-1 By the Marshall Imaging X-ray Experiment (MIXE2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minamitani, Takahisa; Apple, J. A.; Austin, R. A.; Dietz, K. L.; Koloziejczak, J. J.; Ramsey, B. D.; Weisskopf, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    The second generation of the Marshall Imaging X-ray Experiment (MIXE2) was flown from Fort Sumner, New Mexico on May 7-8, 1997. The experiment consists of coded-aperture telescope with a field of view of 1.8 degrees (FWHM) and an angular resolution of 6.9 arcminutes. The detector is a large (7.84x10(exp 4) sq cm) effective area microstrip proportional counter filled with 2.0x10(exp5) Pascals of xenon with 2% isobutylene. We present MIXE2 observation of the 20-80keV spectrum and timing variability of Cygnus X-1 made during balloon flight.

  17. X-Ray Emission from the Sun in Its Youth and Old Age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorren, J. D.; Gudel, M.; Guinan, E. F.

    1995-01-01

    We have obtained ROSAT PSPC (Roentgen Satellite Position Sensitive Proportional Counter) pointed observations of two nearby G stars of ages 70 Myr and 9.5 Gyr that are of unique importance as proxies for the Sun at the two extremes of its main-sequence evolutionary lifetime. The younger star, HD 129333 (EK Dra; G0 V), a rapid rotator with a 2.7 day period, is a strong source with an X-ray luminosity L(x)(0.2-2.4 keV) = (7.5-11.5) x 10(exp 29) erg/s. Modeling suggests a two-temperature corona with T(1) = (2.0 +/- 0.3) x 10(exp 6) K and T(2) = (9.7 +/- 0.3) x 10(exp 6) K (formal uncertainties). A continuous emission measure distribution, increasing to higher temperatures and with a cutoff at (20-30) x 10(exp 6) K, yields even better fits to the data. The old star, beta Hyi (HR 98; G2 IV), represents the Sun in the future, near the end of its hydrogen-core burning stage, when it should be rotating more slowly (present P(rot) = 25.4 day) and should have lower levels of activity. The ROSAT measurements yield L(x) = (0.9-3.0) x 10(exp 27) ergs/s and a rather cool, single coronal temperature of T = (1.7 +/- 0.4) x 10(exp 6) K. For comparison, the Sun has L(x) approx. equal to 2 x 10(exp 27) ergs/s and a coronal temperature of about T = 2 x 10(exp 6) K. These stars provide information on the decline of the stellar (and specifically solar) magnetic activity from extreme youth to old age. HD 129333 is also important in that it yields an estimate of the solar soft X-ray flux in the early solar system at the epoch of the terminal stages of planetary accretion.

  18. RADTRAN 4: Volume 4, Programmer's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Kanipe, F.L. ); Neuhauser, K.S. )

    1992-07-01

    The RADTRAN 4 computer code is designed to analyze radiological consequences and accident risks of transporting radioactive material. This manual provides information useful for interpreting, troubleshooting, or debugging components of the code during development or revision of the program.

  19. TRPC4- and TRPC4-containing channels.

    PubMed

    Freichel, Marc; Tsvilovskyy, Volodymyr; Camacho-Londoño, Juan E

    2014-01-01

    TRPC4 proteins comprise six transmembrane domains, a putative pore-forming region, and an intracellularly located amino- and carboxy-terminus. Among eleven splice variants identified so far, TRPC4α and TRPC4β are the most abundantly expressed and functionally characterized. TRPC4 is expressed in various organs and cell types including the soma and dendrites of numerous types of neurons; the cardiovascular system including endothelial, smooth muscle, and cardiac cells; myometrial and skeletal muscle cells; kidney; and immune cells such as mast cells. Both recombinant and native TRPC4-containing channels differ tremendously in their permeability and other biophysical properties, pharmacological modulation, and mode of activation depending on the cellular environment. They vary from inwardly rectifying store-operated channels with a high Ca(2+) selectivity to non-store-operated channels predominantly carrying Na(+) and activated by Gαq- and/or Gαi-coupled receptors with a complex U-shaped current-voltage relationship. Thus, individual TRPC4-containing channels contribute to agonist-induced Ca(2+) entry directly or indirectly via depolarization and activation of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. The differences in channel properties may arise from variations in the composition of the channel complexes, in the specific regulatory pathways in the corresponding cell system, and/or in the expression pattern of interaction partners which comprise other TRPC proteins to form heteromultimeric channels. Additional interaction partners of TRPC4 that can mediate the activity of TRPC4-containing channels include (1) scaffolding proteins (e.g., NHERF) that may mediate interactions with signaling molecules in or in close vicinity to the plasma membrane such as Gα proteins or phospholipase C and with the cytoskeleton, (2) proteins in specific membrane microdomains (e.g., caveolin-1), or (3) proteins on cellular organelles (e.g., Stim1). The diversity of TRPC4-containing channels

  20. G4beamline

    2011-05-24

    G4beamline is a single-particle-tracking simulation code based on the Geant4 toolkit. It is specifically optimized for the realistic evaluation of beam lines. It is especially useful for evaluating future muon facilities.

  1. 43 CFR 4.450-4 - Complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... acquisition of title to, or an interest, in such land: (4) A statement in clear and concise language of the... personal knowledge of the alleged fact and such fact must be set forth in the statement. All statements by... the contestee files an answer to the complaint in such office within 30 days after service of...

  2. Time-Dependent Photodissociation Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, David; Natta, Antonella

    1995-01-01

    We present theoretical models of the time-dependent thermal and chemical structure of molecular gas suddenly exposed to far-ultraviolet (FUV) (6 eV less than hv less than 13.6 eV) radiation fields and the consequent time- dependent infrared emission of the gas. We focus on the response of molecular hydrogen for cloud densities ranging from n = 10(exp 3) to 10(exp 6)/cu cm and FUV fluxes G(sub 0) = 10(exp 3)-10(exp 6) times the local FUV interstellar flux. For G(sub 0)/n greater than 10(exp -2) cu cm, the emergent H(sub 2) vibrational line intensities are initially larger than the final equilibrium values. The H(sub 2) lines are excited by FUV fluorescence and by collisional excitation in warm gas. Most of the H(sub 2) intensity is generated at a characteristic hydrogen column density of N approximately 10(exp 21)/sq cm, which corresponds to an FUV optical depth of unity caused by dust opacity. The time dependence of the H(sub 2) intensities arises because the initial abundances of H(sub 2) at these depths is much higher than the equilibrium values, so that H(sub 2) initially competes more effectively with dust in absorbing FUV photons. Considerable column densities of warm (T approximately 1000) K H(sub 2) gas can be produced by the FUV pumping of H(sub 2) vibrational levels followed by collisional de-excitation, which transfers the energy to heat. In dense (n greater than or approximately 10(exp 5)/cu cm) gas exposed to high (G(sub 0) greater than or approximately 10(exp 4)) fluxes, this warm gas produces a 2-1 S(1)/1-0 S(l) H(sub 2) line ratio of approximately 0.1, which mimics the ratio found in shocked gas. In lower density regions, the FUV pumping produces a pure-fluorescent ratio of approximately 0.5. We also present calculations of the time dependence of the atomic hydrogen column densities and of the intensities of 0 I 6300 A, S II 6730 A, Fe II 1.64 microns, and rotational OH and H20 emission. Potential applications include star-forming regions, clouds

  3. In vitro Catecholamine Exposure Produces Variable Effects on the B7 Costimulatory Pathway in Human Monocytic Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salicru, A. N.; Crucian, B.; Sams, Clarence; Actor, J. K.; Marshall, G. D., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Catecholamines have been associated with immunomodulation of the adaptive immune system towards a Th2 response in vitro. We therefore examined the role of in vitro epinephrine (EPI) and norepinephrine (NE) exposure on the B7 costimulatory expression of antigen presenting cells (APC) from human monocytic cell lines and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). THP1 monocytic cells and CD14+ cells from normal human PBMC were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and incubated with physiologic stress levels (10(exp -6) - 10(exp -8)M) of EPI or NE for 24 hours. Cells were subsequently stained with CD80 FITC, CD86 PE, and CD14 PC5 antibodies and analyzed by flow cytometry for changes in fluorescence and mean fluorescence intensity (MFI). Exposure of THP1 to EPI in vitro at concentrations of 10(exp -6), 10(exp -7) and 10(exp -8)M significantly decreased mean CD80 from 42 plus or minus 0.7% to 11 plus or minus 0.44%, 19.1 plus or minus 2.0%, and 30.7 plus or minus 2.1% expression, respectively (p less than 0.01). In addition, CD86 expression increased with EPI at 10(exp -6), 10(exp -7) and 10(exp -8) M from 9.2 plus or minus 0.52% to 41 plus or minus 3.8%, 26.4 plus or minus 1.9%, and 15.74 plus or minus 1.8% expression, respectively (p less than 0.01). Similar results for mean CD80 and CD86 percent expression were observed for CD14+ cells from PBMC with a sample size of N = 6 and for NE when substituted for EPI. The data show that in vitro exposure to catecholamines significantly decreases %CD86 expression and significantly increases %CD86 expression in THP1 cells and human CD14+ APC. Previous studies have suggested an association between increased CD86 expression and TH2 activity. Thus, these data suggest that immunomodulation by catecholamines results in part by the variable effects of the B7 costimulatory pathway in APC.

  4. 14 CFR 4 - General

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General Section 4 Section Section 4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Balance...

  5. 4-H and Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This issue focuses on Iowa's role in the historical development of the 4-H youth program. "Roots in Iowa" and "Jessie Field Shambaugh: The Mother of 4-H" (J. Friedel) describes the rural Iowan roots of the 4-H program, which today is located in 80 different countries, and give the story of its founder. Jessie Shambaugh, a rural Iowa teacher and…

  6. COMPTEL observations of Ti-44 gamma-ray line emission from Cas A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyudin, A. F.; Diehl, R.; Bloemen, H.; Hermsen, W.; Lichti, G. G.; Morris, D.; Ryan, J.; Schoenfelder, V.; Steinle, H.; Varendorff, M.

    1994-01-01

    The Compton Telescope (COMPTEL) telescope aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) is capable of imaging gamma-ray line sources in the MeV region with a sensitivity of the order 10(exp -5) photons/(sq cm s). During two observations periods in July 1992 and February 1993 the Galactic plane in the region of the young supernova remnant Cas A was observed, showing evidence for line emission at 1.16 MeV from the decay of Ti-44 at a significance level of approximately 4 sigma. This is the first time a supernova remnant has been detected in the gamma-ray line from Ti-44 decay. Adopting a distance of 2.8 kpc to the Cas A remnant, the measured line flux (7.0 +/- 1.7) x 10(exp -5) photons/(sq cm s), can be translated into a Ti-44 mass ejected during the Cas A supernova explosion, between (1.4 +/- 0.4) x 10(exp -4) solar mass and (3.2 +/- 0.8) x 10(exp -4) solar mass, depending on the precise value of the Ti-44 mean life time and on the precise date of the event. Implications of this result for supernova nucleosynthesis models are discussed.

  7. Mineralogy of artificially heated carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Lipschutz, M. E.; Hiroi, T.

    1994-01-01

    We have examined suites of heated Murchison (CM2) and Allende (CV3) samples heated in the range 400-1200 C, in a H2 atmosphere with a pressure of 10(exp 5) bar for periods of 1 to 4 weeks. We used a combination of X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe and TEM analyses to determine the mineralogy of these samples.

  8. Experimental investigation of the Marangoni effect on the stability of a double-diffusive layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanny, Josef; Chen, Chuan F.

    1994-01-01

    Stability experiments were carried out in 4-cm-thick, salt-stratified fluid layer by heating from below and cooling from above. The bottom boundary was rigid while the top was either free or rigid. The initial solute Rayleigh number varied from 2.5 x 10(exp 6) to 4.6 x 10(exp 7). For the rigid-free case, at initial solute Rayleigh numbers R(sub s) greater than 5.4 x 10(exp 6), thermal Marangoni instabilities were observed to onset along the free surface at a relatively low thermal Rayleigh number, R(sub t). The convection was very weak, and it had almost no effect on the concentration and temperature distributions. Double-diffusive instabilities along the top free surface were observed to onset at a higher R(sub t), with much stronger convection causing changes in the concentration and temperature distributions near the top. At a yet higher R(sub t), double-diffusive convection was observed to onset along the bottom boundary. Fluid motion in the layer then evolved into fully developed thermal convection of a homogeneous fluid without any further increase in the imposed Delta T. For layers with R(sub s) less than 5.4 x 10(exp 6), Marangoni and double-diffusive instabilities onset simultaneously along the free surface first, while double-diffusive instabilities along the bottom wall onset at a higher R(sub t).

  9. New Molecular Species In Comet C/1995 (Hale-Bopp) Observed with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lis, D. C.; Mehringer, D. M.; Benford, D.; Gardner, M.; Phillips, T. G.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Biver, N.; Colom, P.; Crovisier, J.; Despois, D.; Rauer, H.

    1998-01-01

    We present millimeter-wave observations of HNCO, HC3N, SO, NH2CHO, H(13)CN, and H3O(+) in comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) obtained in February-April, 1997 with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). HNCO, first detected at the CSO in comet C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake), is securely confirmed in comet Hale-Bopp via observations of three rotational transitions. The derived abundance with respect to H2O is (4-13) x 10(exp -4). HC3N, SO, and NH2CHO are detected for the first time in a comet. The fractional abundance of HC3N based on observations of three rotational lines is (1.9 +/- 0.2) x 10(exp -4). Four transitions of SO are detected and the derived fractional abundance, (2-8) x 10(exp -3), is higher than the upper limits derived from UV observations of previous comets. Observations of NH2CHO imply a fractional abundance of (1-8) x 10(exp -4). H3O(+) is detected for the first time from the ground. The H(13)CN (3-2) transition is also detected and the derived HCN/H(13)CN abundance ratio is 90 +/- 15, consistent with the terrestrial C-13/C-12 ratio. in addition, a number of other molecular species are detected, including HNC, OCS, HCO(+), CO(+), and CN (the last two are first detections in a comet at radio wavelengths).

  10. An Experimental Investigation of the Pressure Distribution on A 1/15-Scale Model of the Lockheed WS-117L Vehicle Plus Booster "B" at Mach Numbers from 0.70 to 1.45

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahey, Russell E.; Marker, Ralph D.

    1959-01-01

    Results obtained with two nose shapes tested at a Reynolds number per foot of 5 x 10(exp 6) at angles of attack from -4 deg to +10 deg at 0 deg angle of sideslip are presented in tabulated pressure coefficient form without analysis.

  11. DPP4 in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Röhrborn, Diana; Wronkowitz, Nina; Eckel, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP4) is a glycoprotein of 110 kDa, which is ubiquitously expressed on the surface of a variety of cells. This exopeptidase selectively cleaves N-terminal dipeptides from a variety of substrates, including cytokines, growth factors, neuropeptides, and the incretin hormones. Expression of DPP4 is substantially dysregulated in a variety of disease states including inflammation, cancer, obesity, and diabetes. Since the incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), are major regulators of post-prandial insulin secretion, inhibition of DPP4 by the gliptin family of drugs has gained considerable interest for the therapy of type 2 diabetic patients. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the DPP4–incretin axis and evaluate most recent findings on DPP4 inhibitors. Furthermore, DPP4 as a type II transmembrane protein is also known to be cleaved from the cell membrane involving different metalloproteases in a cell-type-specific manner. Circulating, soluble DPP4 has been identified as a new adipokine, which exerts both para- and endocrine effects. Recently, a novel receptor for soluble DPP4 has been identified, and data are accumulating that the adipokine-related effects of DPP4 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Importantly, circulating DPP4 is augmented in obese and type 2 diabetic subjects, and it may represent a molecular link between obesity and vascular dysfunction. A critical evaluation of the impact of circulating DPP4 is presented, and the potential role of DPP4 inhibition at this level is also discussed. PMID:26284071

  12. PADI4 and tumourigenesis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    PADI4 post-translationally converts peptidylarginine to citrulline, a process called citrullination. Studies have demonstrated the high expression of PADI4 in various malignant tumour tissues. PADI4 is also expressed at high levels in the blood of patients with some malignant tumours. Thus far, citrullination of histone, cytokeratin, antithrombin and fibronectin have been confirmed to be involved in abnormal apoptosis, high coagulation, and disordered cell proliferation and differentiation, all of which are main features of malignant tumours. PADI4 is expressed in CD34+ stem cells in normal tissues, and many more CD34+ cells expressing PADI4 are present in tumour tissues. These findings suggest that PADI4 may play an important role in tumourigenesis. PMID:20222985

  13. Preliminary DMR measurements of the CMB isotropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smoot, G. F.; Bennett, C. L.; Kogut, A.; Aymon, J.; Backus, C.; De Amici, G.; Galuk, K.; Jackson, P. D.; Keegstra, P.; Rokke, L.

    1991-01-01

    The COBE Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) instrument has produced preliminary full-sky maps at frequencies 31.5, 53, and 90 GHz. The redundant channels and matched beams at three frequencies distinguish the DMR from previous large-scale surveys. Galactic emission is seen unambiguously at all three frequencies. The only large-scale anisotropy detected in the cosmic microwave background is the dipole anisotropy. There is no clear evidence for any other large-angular-scale feature in the maps. Without correcting for any systematic effects, we are able to place limits DeltaT/T sub 0 less than 3 x 10 exp -5 for the rms quadrupole amplitude, DeltaT/T sub 0 less than 4 x 10 exp -5 for monochromatic fluctuations, and DeltaT/T sub 0 less than 4 x 10 exp -5 for Gaussian fluctuations (all limits are 95 percent C.L. with TO = 2.735 K). The data limit DeltaT/T sub 0 less than 10 exp -4 for any feature larger than 7 deg. We briefly review the DMR and discuss some implications of these results in cosmology.

  14. Uptake and Dissolution of Gaseous Ethanol in Sulfuric Acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michelsen, Rebecca R.; Staton, Sarah J. R.; Iraci, Laura T.

    2006-01-01

    The solubility of gas-phase ethanol (ethyl alcohol, CH3CH2OH, EtOH) in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions was measured in a Knudsen cell reactor over ranges of temperature (209-237 K) and acid composition (39-76 wt % H2SO4). Ethanol is very soluble under these conditions: effective Henry's law coefficients, H*, range from 4 x 10(exp 4) M/atm in the 227 K, 39 wt % acid to greater than 10(exp 7) M/atm in the 76 wt % acid. In 76 wt % sulfuric acid, ethanol solubility exceeds that which can be precisely determined using the Knudsen cell technique but falls in the range of 10(exp 7)-10(exp 10) M/atm. The equilibrium concentration of ethanol in upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric (UT/LS) sulfate particles is calculated from these measurements and compared to other small oxygenated organic compounds. Even if ethanol is a minor component in the gas phase, it may be a major constituent of the organic fraction in the particle phase. No evidence for the formation of ethyl hydrogen sulfate was found under our experimental conditions. While the protonation of ethanol does augment solubility at higher acidity, the primary reason H* increases with acidity is an increase in the solubility of molecular (i.e., neutral) ethanol.

  15. GB 790305 as a very strongly magnetized neutron star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paczynski, Bohdan

    1992-01-01

    The March 5 1979 event was the strongest gamma-ray burst ever observed. Its location in the sky is known with an accuracy of about 10 arcsec, and it coincides with the N49 supernova remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The main burst was followed by a soft tail with the periodic 8 s modulation, and 16 soft gamma events over the following few years. If the source is a magnetic neutron star with the 8 s rotation period and the age of about 10 exp 4 years as indicated by N49 then the field strength of about 5 x 10 exp 14 gauss is implied. The corresponding critical luminosity is about 10 exp 4 L(Edd), as the electron scattering opacity is suppressed by the strong magnetic field. This luminosity is consistent with the observed peak flux of the soft tail and the soft repeaters. The soft spectrum may be approximated with the photospheric emission at kT(eff) = 17 keV. The corresponding photospheric radius is about 14 km, compatible with a neutron star hypothesis. The total magnetic energy of the star is about 4 x 10 exp 46 erg, more than enough to power the March 5 event and all its repeaters.

  16. Accretion Disks Around Binary Black Holes of Unequal Mass: GRMHD Simulations Near Decoupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, Roman; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Etienne, Zachariah B.; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Pfeiffer, Harald, P.

    2013-01-01

    We report on simulations in general relativity of magnetized disks onto black hole binaries. We vary the binary mass ratio from 1:1 to 1:10 and evolve the systems when they orbit near the binary disk decoupling radius. We compare (surface) density profiles, accretion rates (relative to a single, non-spinning black hole), variability, effective alpha-stress levels and luminosities as functions of the mass ratio. We treat the disks in two limiting regimes: rapid radiative cooling and no radiative cooling. The magnetic field lines clearly reveal jets emerging from both black hole horizons and merging into one common jet at large distances. The magnetic fields give rise to much stronger shock heating than the pure hydrodynamic flows, completely alter the disk structure, and boost accretion rates and luminosities. Accretion streams near the horizons are among the densest structures; in fact, the 1:10 no-cooling evolution results in a refilling of the cavity. The typical effective temperature in the bulk of the disk is approx. 10(exp5) (M / 10(exp 8)M solar mass (exp -1/4(L/L(sub edd) (exp 1/4K) yielding characteristic thermal frequencies approx. 10 (exp 15) (M /10(exp 8)M solar mass) (exp -1/4(L/L (sub edd) (1+z) (exp -1)Hz. These systems are thus promising targets for many extragalactic optical surveys, such as LSST, WFIRST, and PanSTARRS.

  17. MOBILE4 SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report identifies the MOB1LE4 input variables that can have significant impacts on highway vehicle emissions inventories and gives priorities for the development of improved guidance for specifying MOB1LE4 inputs. wo major factors are considered: (1) the likelihood and potent...

  18. 4.1 Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.1 Introduction' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy' with the contents:

  19. Energy level properties of 4p4d, 4p4d4f, and 4p4d configurations of the W ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanovich, P.; Kisielius, R.

    2014-11-01

    The ab initio quasirelativistic Hartree-Fock method developed specifically for the calculation of spectroscopic parameters of heavy atoms and highly charged ions was used to derive spectral data for the multicharged tungsten ion W35+. The configuration interaction method was applied to include the electron-correlation effects. The relativistic effects were taken into account in the Breit-Pauli approximation for quasirelativistic Hartree-Fock radial orbitals. The energy level spectra, radiative lifetimes τ, and Lande g-factors have been calculated for the 4p64d3, 4p64d24f, and 4p54d4 configurations of the W35+ ion.

  20. Processing and testing of high toughness silicon nitride ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tikare, Veena; Sanders, William A.; Choi, Sung R.

    1993-01-01

    High toughness silicon nitride ceramics were processed with the addition of small quantities of beta-Si3N4 whiskers in a commercially available alpha-Si3N4 powder. These whiskers grew preferentially during sintering resulting in large, elongated beta-grains, which acted to toughen the matrix by crack deflection and grain pullout. The fracture toughness of these samples seeded with beta-Si3N4 whiskers ranged from 8.7 to 9.5 MPa m(exp 0.5) depending on the sintering additives.

  1. Bacteriophage T4 Genome†

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Eric S.; Kutter, Elizabeth; Mosig, Gisela; Arisaka, Fumio; Kunisawa, Takashi; Rüger, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    Phage T4 has provided countless contributions to the paradigms of genetics and biochemistry. Its complete genome sequence of 168,903 bp encodes about 300 gene products. T4 biology and its genomic sequence provide the best-understood model for modern functional genomics and proteomics. Variations on gene expression, including overlapping genes, internal translation initiation, spliced genes, translational bypassing, and RNA processing, alert us to the caveats of purely computational methods. The T4 transcriptional pattern reflects its dependence on the host RNA polymerase and the use of phage-encoded proteins that sequentially modify RNA polymerase; transcriptional activator proteins, a phage sigma factor, anti-sigma, and sigma decoy proteins also act to specify early, middle, and late promoter recognition. Posttranscriptional controls by T4 provide excellent systems for the study of RNA-dependent processes, particularly at the structural level. The redundancy of DNA replication and recombination systems of T4 reveals how phage and other genomes are stably replicated and repaired in different environments, providing insight into genome evolution and adaptations to new hosts and growth environments. Moreover, genomic sequence analysis has provided new insights into tail fiber variation, lysis, gene duplications, and membrane localization of proteins, while high-resolution structural determination of the “cell-puncturing device,” combined with the three-dimensional image reconstruction of the baseplate, has revealed the mechanism of penetration during infection. Despite these advances, nearly 130 potential T4 genes remain uncharacterized. Current phage-sequencing initiatives are now revealing the similarities and differences among members of the T4 family, including those that infect bacteria other than Escherichia coli. T4 functional genomics will aid in the interpretation of these newly sequenced T4-related genomes and in broadening our understanding of the

  2. Extreme Emission Line Galaxies in CANDELS: Broad-Band Selected, Star-Bursting Dwarf Galaxies at Z greater than 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanderWel, A.; Straughn, A. N.; Rix, H.-W.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Weiner, B. J.; Wuyts, S.; Bell, E. F.; Faber, S. M.; Trump, J. R.; Koo, D. C.; Ferguson, H. C.; Scarlata, C.; Hathi, N. P.; Dunlop, J. S.; Newman, J. A.; Dickinson, M.; Jahnke, K.; Salmon, B. W.; deMello, D. F.; Kkocevski, D. D.; Lai, K.; Grogin, N. A.; Rodney, S. A.; Guo, Yicheng

    2012-01-01

    We identify an abundant population of extreme emission line galaxies (EELGs) at redshift z approx. 1.7 in the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) imaging from Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3). 69 EELG candidates are selected by the large contribution of exceptionally bright emission lines to their near-infrared broad-band magnitudes. Supported by spectroscopic confirmation of strong [OIII] emission lines . with rest-frame equivalent widths approx. 1000A in the four candidates that have HST/WFC3 grism observations, we conclude that these objects are galaxies with approx.10(exp 8) Solar Mass in stellar mass, undergoing an enormous starburst phase with M*/M* of only approx. 15 Myr. These bursts may cause outflows that are strong enough to produce cored dark matter profiles in low-mass galaxies. The individual star formation rates and the co-moving number density (3.7x10(exp -4) Mpc(sup -3) can produce in approx.4 Gyr much of the stellar mass density that is presently contained in 10(exp 8) - 10(exp 9) Solar Mass dwarf galaxies. Therefore, our observations provide a strong indication that many or even most of the stars in present-day dwarf galaxies formed in strong, short-lived bursts, mostly at z > 1.

  3. Ultra-Sensitive Transition-Edge Sensors for the Background Limited Infrared/Sub-mm Spectrograph (BLISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyer, A. D.; Kenyon, M. E.; Echternach, P. M.; Chui, T.; Eom, B.-H.; Day, P. K.; Bock, J. J.; Holmes, W.A.; Bradford, C. M.

    2011-01-01

    We report progress in fabricating ultra-sensitive superconducting transition-edge sensors (TESs) for BLISS. BLISS is a suite of grating spectrometers covering 35-433 micron with R approx. 700 cooled to 50 mK that is proposed to fly on the Japanese space telescope SPICA. The detector arrays for BLISS are TES bolometers readout with a time domain SQUID multiplexer. The required noise equivalent power (NEP) for BLISS is NEP = 10(exp -19) W/Hz(exp 1/2) with an ultimate goal of NEP= 5 x 10(exp -20) W/Hz(exp 1/2) to achieve background limited noise performance. The required and goal response times are tau = 150 ms and tau = 50ms respectively to achieve the NEP at the required and goal optical chop frequency 1-5 Hz. We measured prototype BLISS arrays and have achieved NEP = 6 x 10(exp -18) W/Hz(exp 1/2) and tau = 1.4 ms with a Ti TES (T(sub C) = 565 mK) and NEP approx. 2.5 x 10(exp -19) W/Hz(exp 1/2) and tau approximates 4.5 ms with an Ir TES (T(sub C) = 130 mK). Dark power for these tests is estimated at 1-5 fW.

  4. On reaction kinetics and atmospheric lifetimes of CF3CFHCF3 and CF3CH2Br

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. D., Jr.; Zahniser, M. S.; Kolb, C. E.

    1993-01-01

    The rate constants for the reaction of the OH radical with CF3CFHCF3 and with CF3CH2Br have been measured as a function of temperature using the discharge flow technique with laser induced fluorescence detection of the OH radicals. The temperature dependent rate coefficients are well described by a simple Arrhenius expression, k(T) = A exp(E/(RT)). For the reaction of OH with CF3CFHCF3 we find A = 3.7 x 10 exp -13 cu cm/molecules/s and E/R = 1615 K; for the reaction of OH with CF3CH2Br we report A = 1.4 x 10 exp -12 cu cm/molecule/s and E/R = 1350 K. These Arrhenius parameters imply rate coefficients at 277 K of 1.09 x 10 exp -15 cu cm/molecule/s for CF3CFHCF3 and 1.06 x 10 exp -14 cu cm/molecule/s for CF3CH2Br. We find atmospheric lifetimes for CF3CFHCH3 and CF3CH2Br of 42 years and 4.1 years, respectively. We also estimate the steady state ozone depletion potential (ODP) of the brominated species relative to CFCl3 as about 0.84 using a semiempirical model.

  5. Observations of the Minor Species Al, Fe and Ca(+) in Mercury's Exosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bida, Thomas A.; Killen, Rosemary M.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first detections of Al and Fe, and strict upper limits for Ca(+) in the exosphere of Mercury, using the HIRES spectrometer at the Keck I telescope. We report observed 4-sigma tangent columns of 1.5x10(exp 7) Al atoms per square centimeter at an altitude of 1220 km (1.5 Mercury radii (R(sub M)) from planet center), and that for Fe of 1.6 x 10 per square centimeter at an altitude of 950 km (1.4 R(sub M)). The observed 3-sigma Ca(+) column was 3.9x10(exp 6) ions per square centimeter at an altitude of 1630 km (1.67 R(sub M). A simple model for zenith column abundances of the neutral species were 9.5 x 10(exp 7) Al per square centimeter, and 3.0 x 10(exp 8) Fe per square centimeter. The observations appear to be consistent with production of these species by impact vaporization with a large fraction of the ejecta in molecular form. The scale height of the Al gas is consistent with a kinetic temperature of 3000 - 9000 K while that of Fe is 10500 K. The apparent high temperature of the Fe gas would suggest that it may be produced by dissociation of molecules. A large traction of both Al and Fe appear to condense in a vapor cloud at low altitudes.

  6. Search for Antihelium with the BESS-Polar Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasaki, M.; Mitchell, J. W.; Hams, T.; Abe, K.; Fuke, H.; Haino, S.; Hasegawa, M.; Horikoshi, A.; Itazaki, A.; Kim, K. C.; Kumazawa, T.; Kusumoto, A.; Lee, M. H.; Makida, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Matsukawa, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Streitmatter, R. E.; Myers, Z.; Nishimura, J.; Nozaki, M.; Orito, R.; Ormes, J. F.; Sakai, K.; Seo, E. S.

    2012-01-01

    In two long-duration balloon flights over Antarctica, the BESS-Polar collaboration has searched for antihelium in the cosmic radiation with higher sensitivity than any reported investigation. BESSPolar I flew in 2004, observing for 8.5 days. BESS-Polar II flew in 2007-2008, observing for 24.5 days. No antihelium candidate was found in BESS-Polar I data among 8.4 x 10(exp 6) [Z] = 2 nuclei from 1.0 to 20 GV or in BESS-Polar II data among 4.0 x 10(exp 7) [Z] = 2 nuclei from 1.0 to 14 GV. Assuming antihelium to have the same spectral shape as helium, a 95% confidence upper limit of 6.9 x 10(exp -8) was determined by combining all the BESS data, including the two BESS-Polar flights. With no assumed antihelium spectrum and a weighted average of the lowest antihelium efficiencies from 1.6 to 14 GV, an upper limit of 1.0 x 10(exp -7) was determined for the combined BESS-Polar data. These are the most stringent limits obtained to date.

  7. A Versatile Low Temperature Synthetic Route to Zintl Phase Precursors: Na4Si4, Na4Ge4 and K4Ge4 as Examples

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xuchu; Xu, Fen; Atkins, Tonya; Goforth, Andrea M.; Neiner, Doinita; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Kauzlarich, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Na4Si4 and Na4Ge4 are ideal chemical precursors for inorganic clathrate structures, clusters, and nanocrystals. The monoclinic Zintl phases, Na4Si4 and Na4Ge4, contain isolated homo-tetrahedranide [Si4]4− and [Ge4]4− clusters surrounded by alkali metal cations. In this study, a simple scalable route has been applied to prepare Zintl phases of composition Na4Si4 and Na4Ge4 using the reaction between NaH and Si or Ge at low temperature (420 °C for Na4Si4 and 270 °C for Na4Ge4). The method was also applied to K4Ge4, using KH and Ge as raw materials, to show the versatility of this approach. The influence of specific reaction conditions on the purity of these Zintl phases has been studied by controlling five factors: the method of reagent mixing (manual or ball milled), the stoichiometry between raw materials, the reaction temperature, the heating time and the gas flow rate. Moderate ball-milling and excess NaH or KH facilitate the formation of pure Na4Si4, Na4Ge4 or K4Ge4 at 420 °C (Na4Si4) or 270 °C (both M4Ge4 compounds, M = Na, K). TG/DSC analysis of the reaction of NaH and Ge indicates that ball milling reduces the temperature for reaction and confirms the formation temperature. This method provides large quantities of high quality Na4Si4 and Na4Ge4 without the need for specialized laboratory equipment, such as Schlenk lines, niobium/tantalum containers, or an arc welder, thereby expanding the accessibility and chemical utility of these phases by making them more convenient to prepare. This new synthetic method may also be extended to lithium-containing Zintl phases (LiH is commercially available) as well as to alkali metal-tetrel Zintl compounds of other compositions, e.g. K4Ge9. PMID:19921060

  8. SPOT4 Management Centre

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labrune, Yves; Labbe, X.; Roussel, A.; Vielcanet, P.

    1994-01-01

    In the context of the CNES SPOT4 program CISI is particularly responsible for the development of the SPOT4 Management Centre, part of the SPOT4 ground control system located at CNES Toulouse (France) designed to provide simultaneous control over two satellites. The main operational activities are timed to synchronize with satellite visibilities (ten usable passes per day). The automatic capability of this system is achieved through agenda services (sequence of operations as defined and planned by operator). Therefore, the SPOT4 Management Centre offers limited, efficient and secure human interventions for supervision and decision making. This paper emphasizes the main system characteristics as degree of automation, level of dependability and system parameterization.

  9. 4 Top Healthy Snacks

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Reducing Childhood Obesity 4 Top Healthy Snacks Past Issues / Spring - Summer ... looking at whether or not the risks for childhood obesity could actually start before birth. The subject needs ...

  10. T4 test

    MedlinePlus

    ... in which the thyroid produces too much hormone) Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid, in which the thyroid does not ... normal level of T4 may be due to: Hypothyroidism (including Hashimoto disease and other disorders involving an ...

  11. SPOT4 Management Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labrune, Yves; Labbe, X.; Roussel, A.; Vielcanet, P.

    1994-11-01

    In the context of the CNES SPOT4 program CISI is particularly responsible for the development of the SPOT4 Management Centre, part of the SPOT4 ground control system located at CNES Toulouse (France) designed to provide simultaneous control over two satellites. The main operational activities are timed to synchronize with satellite visibilities (ten usable passes per day). The automatic capability of this system is achieved through agenda services (sequence of operations as defined and planned by operator). Therefore, the SPOT4 Management Centre offers limited, efficient and secure human interventions for supervision and decision making. This paper emphasizes the main system characteristics as degree of automation, level of dependability and system parameterization.

  12. Biodegradation of 4-nitrotoluene by Pseudomonas sp. strain 4NT.

    PubMed Central

    Haigler, B E; Spain, J C

    1993-01-01

    A strain of Pseudomonas spp. was isolated from nitrobenzene-contaminated soil on 4-nitrotoluene as the sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. The organism also grew on 4-nitrobenzaldehyde, and 4-nitrobenzoate. 4-Nitrobenzoate and ammonia were detected in the culture fluid of glucose-grown cells after induction with 4-nitrotoluene. Washed suspensions of 4-nitrotoluene- or 4-nitrobenzoate-grown cells oxidized 4-nitrotoluene, 4-nitrobenzaldehyde, 4-nitrobenzyl alcohol, and protocatechuate. Extracts from induced cells contained 4-nitrobenzaldehyde dehydrogenase, 4-nitrobenzyl alcohol dehydrogenase, and protocatechuate 4,5-dioxygenase activities. Under anaerobic conditions, cell extracts converted 4-nitrobenzoate or 4-hydroxylaminobenzoate to protocatechuate. Conversion of 4-nitrobenzoate to protocatechuate required NADPH. These results indicate that 4-nitrotoluene was degraded by an initial oxidation of the methyl group to form 4-nitrobenzyl alcohol, which was converted to 4-nitrobenzoate via 4-nitrobenzaldehyde. The 4-nitrobenzoate was reduced to 4-hydroxylaminobenzoate, which was converted to protocatechuate. A protocatechuate 4,5-dioxygenase catalyzed meta-ring fission of the protocatechuate. The detection of 4-nitrobenzaldehyde and 4-nitrobenzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and 4-nitrotoluene oxygenase activities in 4-nitrobenzoate-grown cells suggests that 4-nitrobenzoate is an inducer of the 4-nitrotoluene degradative pathway. PMID:8357257

  13. Trajectory Optimization: OTIS 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riehl, John P.; Sjauw, Waldy K.; Falck, Robert D.; Paris, Stephen W.

    2010-01-01

    The latest release of the Optimal Trajectories by Implicit Simulation (OTIS4) allows users to simulate and optimize aerospace vehicle trajectories. With OTIS4, one can seamlessly generate optimal trajectories and parametric vehicle designs simultaneously. New features also allow OTIS4 to solve non-aerospace continuous time optimal control problems. The inputs and outputs of OTIS4 have been updated extensively from previous versions. Inputs now make use of objectoriented constructs, including one called a metastring. Metastrings use a greatly improved calculator and common nomenclature to reduce the user s workload. They allow for more flexibility in specifying vehicle physical models, boundary conditions, and path constraints. The OTIS4 calculator supports common mathematical functions, Boolean operations, and conditional statements. This allows users to define their own variables for use as outputs, constraints, or objective functions. The user-defined outputs can directly interface with other programs, such as spreadsheets, plotting packages, and visualization programs. Internally, OTIS4 has more explicit and implicit integration procedures, including high-order collocation methods, the pseudo-spectral method, and several variations of multiple shooting. Users may switch easily between the various methods. Several unique numerical techniques such as automated variable scaling and implicit integration grid refinement, support the integration methods. OTIS4 is also significantly more user friendly than previous versions. The installation process is nearly identical on various platforms, including Microsoft Windows, Apple OS X, and Linux operating systems. Cross-platform scripts also help make the execution of OTIS and post-processing of data easier. OTIS4 is supplied free by NASA and is subject to ITAR (International Traffic in Arms Regulations) restrictions. Users must have a Fortran compiler, and a Python interpreter is highly recommended.

  14. 45 CFR 4.4 - Acknowledgement of mailed process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acknowledgement of mailed process. 4.4 Section 4.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 4.4... acknowledgement specified by Rule 4(c)(2)(C) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure....

  15. X-Ray Emission from the Millisecond Pulsar J1012+5307

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P.; Wang, F. Y.-H.; Oliversen, Ronald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The recently discovered 5.3 ms pulsar J1012+5307 at a distance of 520 pc is in an area of the sky which is particularly deficient in absorbing gas. The column density along the line of sight is less than 7.5 x 10(exp 19)/sq cm, which facilitates soft X-ray observations. Halpern reported a possible ROSAT PSPC detection of the pulsar in a serendipitous, off-axis observation. We have now confirmed the X-ray emission of PSR J1012+5307 in a 23 ksec observation with the ROSAT HRI. A point source is detected within 3 sec. of the radio position. Its count rate of 1.6 +/- 0.3 x 10(exp -3)/s corresponds to an unabsorbed 0.1 - 2.4 keV flux of 6.4 x 10(exp -14) ergs/sq cm s, similar to that reported previously. This counts-to-flux conversion is valid for N(sub H) = 5 x 10(exp 19)/sq cm, and either a power-law spectrum of photon index 2.5 or a blackbody of kT = 0.1 keV. The implied X-ray luminosity of 2.0 x 10(exp 30) ergs/ s is 5 x 10(exp -4) of the pulsar's spin-down power E, and similar to that of the nearest millisecond pulsar J0437-4715, which is nearly a twin of J1012+5307 in P and E. We subjected the 37 photons (and 13 background counts) within the source region to a pulsar search, but no evidence for pulsation was found. The pulsar apparently emits over a large fraction of its rotation cycle, and the absence of sharp modulation can be taken as evidence for surface thermal emission, as favored for PSR J0437-4715, rather than magnetospheric X-ray emission which is apparent in the sharp pulses of the much more energetic millisecond pulsar B1821-24. A further test of of the interpretation will be made with a longer ROSAT observation, which will increase the number of photons collected by a factor of 5, and permit a more sensitive examination of the light curve for modulation due to emission from heated polar caps. If found, such modulation will be further evidence that surface reheating by the impact of particles accelerated along open field lines operates in these approx

  16. Aerosol Abundances and Optical Characteristics in the Pacific Basin Free Troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, R. F.; Livingston, J. M.; Ferry, G. V.; deFelice, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    During NASA's Global Backscatter Experiment (GLOBE) mission flights in November 1989 and May 1990, a DC-8 research aircraft probed the Pacific Basin free troposphere for about 90 flight hours in each month between +72 and -62 degrees latitude, +130 and -120 degrees longitude, and up to 39,000 feet pressure altitudes. Aerosols were sampled continuously in situ by optical particle counters to measure concentration and particle size, and during 48 10-min intervals during each mission by wire impactors for concentration, size, composition, phase and shape analyses. The optical particle counters cover a particle diameter range between 0.3 and 20 microns; wire impactors extend the range down to 0.03 microns. Results of particle number, size, shape, together with the assumption of a refractive index corresponding to (NH4)2SO4 to account for the prevalence of aerosol sulfur, were utilized in a Mie algorithm to calculate aerosol extinction and backscatter for a range of wavelengths (0.385 less than lambda less than 10.64 microns). Computations for 22 randomly selected size distributions yield coefficients of extinction E(0.525) = (2.03 +/- 1.20) x 10(exp -4) km(exp -1) and backscatter beta(0.525) = (6.45 +/- 3.49) x 10(exp -6) km(exp -1) sr(exp -1) in the visible, and E(10.64) = (8.13 +/- 6.47) x 10(exp -6) km(exp -1) and beta(10.64) = (9.98 +/- 10.69) x 10(exp -8) km(exp -1) sr(exp -1) in the infrared, respectively. Large particles (D greater than 0.3 microns) contribute two-thirds to the total extinction in the visible (lambda = 0.525 microns), and almost 100% in the infrared (lambda = 10.64 microns). These results have been used to define an IR optical aerosol climatology of the Pacific Basin free troposphere, from which it follows that the infrared backscatter coefficient at lambda = 9.25 microns wavelength fluctuates between 5.0 x 10(exp -10) and 2.0 x 10(exp -7) km(exp -1) sr(exp -1) with a modal value 2.0 x 10(exp -8) km(exp -1) sr(exp -1).

  17. Aquaporin-4 autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Zekeridou, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and a related spectrum of inflammatory CNS disorders are unified by detection of a serum autoantibody specific for the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel, which is abundant in astrocytic foot processes. The classic clinical manifestations of NMO are optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. Newly recognized manifestations of AQP4 autoimmunity include lesions of circumventricular organs and skeletal muscle. NMO is commonly relapsing, is frequently accompanied by other autoimmune disorders, and sometimes occurs in a paraneoplastic context. The goals of treatment are to minimize neurologic disability in the acute attack and thereafter to prevent relapses and cumulative disability. The disease specificity of AQP4 immunoglobulin (Ig) G approaches 100% using optimized molecular-based detection assays. Clinical, immunohistopathologic, and in vitro evidence support this antibody being central to NMO pathogenesis. Current animal models yield limited histopathologic characteristics of NMO, with no clinical deficits to date. Recent descriptions of a myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein autoantibody in a minority of patients with NMO spectrum phenotype who lack AQP4-IgG predict serologic delineation of additional distinctive disease entities. PMID:26185772

  18. SLC4A Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Inyeong

    2016-01-01

    SLC4A gene family proteins include bicarbonate transporters that move HCO3− across the plasma membrane and regulate intracellular pH and transepithelial movement of acid–base equivalents. These transporters are Cl/HCO3 exchangers, electrogenic Na/HCO3 cotransporters, electroneutral Na/HCO3 cotransporters, and Na+-driven Cl/HCO3 exchanger. Studies of the bicarbonate transporters in vitro and in vivo have demonstrated their physiological importance for acid–base homeostasis at the cellular and systemic levels. Recent advances in structure/function analysis have also provided valuable information on domains or motifs critical for regulation, ion translocation, and protein topology. This chapter focuses on the molecular mechanisms of ion transport along with associated structural aspects from mutagenesis of particular residues and from chimeric constructs. Structure/function studies have helped to understand the mechanism by which ion substrates are moved via the transporters. This chapter also describes some insights into the structure of SLC4A1 (AE1) and SLC4A4 (NBCe1) transporters. Finally, as some SLC4A transporters exist in concert with other proteins in the cells, the structural features associated with protein–protein interactions are briefly discussed. PMID:23177984

  19. Record Low NEP in the Hot-Electron Titanium Nanobolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karasik, Boris S.; Olaya, David; Wei, Jian; Pereverzev, Sergey; Gershenson, Michael E.; Kawamura, Jonathan H.; McGrath, William R.; Sergeev, Andrei V.

    2006-01-01

    We are developing hot-electron superconducting transition-edge sensors (TES) capable of counting THz photons and operating at T = 0.3K. We fabricated superconducting Ti nanosensors with Nb contacts with a volume of approx. 3x10(exp -3) cu microns on planar Si substrate and have measured the thermal conductance due to the weak electron-phonon coupling in the material G = 4x10(exp -14) W/K at 0.3 K. The corresponding phonon-noise NEP = 3x10(exp -19) W/Hz(sup 1/2). Detection of single optical photons (1550nm and 670nm wavelength) has been demonstrated for larger devices and yielded the thermal time constants of 30 microsec at 145 mK and of 25 microsec at 190 mK. This Hot-Electron Direct Detector (HEDD) is expected to have a sufficient energy resolution for detecting individual photons with (nu) > 1 THz where NEP approx. 3x10(exp -20) W/Hz(sup 1/2) is needed for spectroscopy in space.

  20. Detection of the 158 Micrometers[CII] Transition at z=1.3: Evidence for a Galaxy-Wide Starburst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Nikola, T.; Oberst, T. E.; Parshley, S. C.; Benford, D. J.; Staguhn, J. G.; Tucker, C. E.

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of 158 micron [C II] fine-structure line emission from MIPS J142824.0+352619, a hyperluminous ( L(sub IR) approximates 10(exp 13) L (sub solar)) starburst galaxy at z = 1.3. The line is bright, corresponding to a fraction L(sub [Cu II] L(sub Fir) approximates 2 x 10(exp -3) of the far-IR (FIR) continuum. The [C II], CO, and FIR continuum emission may be modeled as arising from photodissociation regions (PDRs) that have a characteristic gas density of n approximates 10(exp 4.2) /cm(exp 3) , and that are illuminated by a far-UV radiation field approximately 10(exp 3.2) times more intense than the local interstellar radiation field. The mass in these PDRs accounts for approximately half of the molecular gas mass in this galaxy. The L(sub [CII])/L(sub FIR) ratio is higher than observed in local ultralummous infrared galaxies or in the few high-redshift QSOs detected in [C II], but the L(sub [CII])/L(sub FIR) and L(sub CO)/L(sub FIR) ratios are similar to the values seen in nearby starburst galaxies. This suggests that MIPS J142824.0+352619 is a scaled-up version of a starburst nucleus, with the burst extended over several kiloparsecs.

  1. Wear-Resistant, Self-Lubricating Surfaces of Diamond Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1995-01-01

    In humid air and dry nitrogen, as-deposited, fine-grain diamond films and polished, coarse-grain diamond films have low steady-state coefficients of friction (less than 0.1) and low wear rates (less than or equal to 10(exp -6) mm(exp 3)/N-m). In an ultrahigh vacuum (10(exp -7) Pa), however, they have high steady-state coefficients of friction (greater than 0.6) and high wear rates (greater than or equal to 10(exp -4) mm(exp 3)/N-m). Therefore, the use of as-deposited, fine-grain and polished, coarse-grain diamond films as wear-resistant, self-lubricating coatings must be limited to normal air or gaseous environments such as dry nitrogen. On the other hand, carbon-ion-implanted, fine-grain diamond films and nitrogen-ion-implanted, coarse-grain diamond films have low steady-state coefficients of friction (less than 0.1) and low wear rates (less than or equal to 10(exp -6) mm(exp 3)/N-m) in all three environments. These films can be effectively used as wear-resistant, self-lubricating coatings in an ultrahigh vacuum as well as in normal air and dry nitrogen.

  2. Electric Propulsion Options for 10 kW Class Earth-Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, M. J.; Curran, Francis M.

    1989-01-01

    Five and 10 kW ion and arcjet propulsion system options for a near-term space demonstration experiment were evaluated. Analyses were conducted to determine first-order propulsion system performance and system component mass estimates. Overall mission performance of the electric propulsion systems was quantified in terms of the maximum thrusting time, total impulse, and velocity increment capability available when integrated onto a generic spacecraft under fixed mission model assumptions. Maximum available thrusting times for the ion-propelled spacecraft options, launched on a DELTA 2 6920 vehicle, range from approximately 8,600 hours for a 4-engine 10 kW system to more than 29,600 hours for a single-engine 5 kW system. Maximum total impulse values and maximum delta-v's range from 1.2x10 (exp 7) to 2.1x10 (exp 7) N-s, and 3550 to 6200 m/s, respectively. Maximum available thrusting times for the arcjet propelled spacecraft launched on the DELTA 2 6920 vehicle range from approximately 528 hours for the 6-engine 10 kW hydrazine system to 2328 hours for the single-engine 5 kW system. Maximum total impulse values and maximum delta-v's range from 2.2x10 (exp 6) to 3.6x10 (exp 6) N-s, and approximately 662 to 1072 m/s, respectively.

  3. Observed temporal variations in the Earth's gravity field from 16-year Starlette orbit analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, M. K.; Eanes, R. L.; Shum, C. K.; Schutz, B. E.; Tapley, B. D.

    1992-01-01

    Satellite laser ranging data to Starlette, collected during the period from 1975 to 1990, are analyzed to determine yearly values of the second degree annual (Sa) and semiannual (Ssa) tides, simultaneously with average values of other low degree and order tide parameters. The yearly fluctuations in the values for Sa and Ssa are associated with changes in the Earth's second degree zonal harmonic caused by meteorological excitation. The Starlette-determined mean values for the amplitude of the annual and semiannual variations in J2 are 32.3 x 10 exp -11 and 19.5 x 10 exp -11, respectively; while the rms about the mean values are 4.1 x 10 exp -11 and 6.3 x 10 exp -11, respectively. The annual delta-J2 is in good agreement with the value obtained from the combined effects of air mass redistribution without the oceanic inverted-barometer effects (non-IB) and hydrological change. Approximately 90 percent of the observed annual variation from Starlette is attributed to the meteorological mass redistribution occurring on the Earth's surface.

  4. Fourier transform infrared studies of the interaction of HCl with model polar stratospheric cloud films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehler, Birgit G.; Mcneill, Laurie S.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1993-01-01

    Heterogeneous reactions involving hydrochloric acid adsorbed on the surfaces of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are postulated to contribute to polar ozone loss. Using FTIR spectroscopy to probe the condensed phase, we have examined the interaction of HCl with ice and nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) films representative of types II and I PSCs, respectively. For HCl pressures in the range of 10 exp -7 to 10 exp -5 Torr, our FTIR studies show that a small amount of crystalline HCl-6H2O formed on or in ice at 155 K. However, for higher HCl pressures, we observed that the entire film of ice rapidly converted into an amorphous 4:1 H2O:HCl mixture. From HCl-uptake experiments with P(HCl) = 8 x 10 exp -7 Torr, we estimate roughly that the diffusion coefficient of HCl in ice is around 2 x 10 exp -12 sq cm/s at 158 K. For higher temperatures more closely approximating those found in the stratosphere, we were unable to detect bulk HCl uptake by ice. Indirect evidence suggests that HCl adsorption onto the surface of model PSC films inhibited the evaporation of both ice and NAT by 3-5 K.

  5. The heating of nova ejecta by radioactive decays of the beta-unstable nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pistinner, Shlomi; Shaviv, Giora; Starrfield, Sumner

    1994-01-01

    Recent nucleosynthesis and hydrodynamic calculations of the consequences of accretion onto massive ONeMg white dwarf stars show that under certain circumstances significant amounts of the beta-unstable nuclei can be produced and ejected by the resulting explosion. We use these calculations as a guide in order to obtain the conditions under which the heating of the ejected material by the nonthermal electrons and positrons produced by the decays of the beta-unstable nuclei is sufficient to overcome the cooling from adiabatic expansion and lead to the production of X-ray-emitting coronal gas. These conditions are as follows: (1) a mass fraction for Na-22 of the order of 10(exp -3) or greater, (2) an expansion velocity in the range approximately 10(exp 2) - 10(exp 3) km/s, (3) a photospheric radius of approximately 10(exp 14) cm, (4) if the density distribution in the atmosphere satisfies a power law, then the exponent must be less than 3 for heating to overcome adiabatic cooling. Both the simulations of the outburst and the model atmosphere fits to the observed energy distributions, however, imply that the exponent is greater than or = 3 during the early phases of the outburst. Nevertheless, for a value of the exponent of 2, we predict the time when hot coronal gas can form during the expansion phases of the envelope.

  6. Test Status for Proposed Coupling of a Gravitational Force to Extreme Type II YBCO Ceramic Superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David; Li, Ning; Robertson, Tony; Koczor, Ron; Brantley, Whitt

    1999-01-01

    As a Bose condensate, superconductors provide novel conditions for revisiting previously proposed couplings between electromagnetism and gravity. Strong variations in Cooper pair electron density, large conductivity and low magnetic permeability define superconductive and degenerate condensates without the traditional density limits imposed by the Fermi energy (about 10-6 g/cu cm). Recent experiments have reported anomalous weight loss for a test mass suspended above a rotating Type II, YBCO superconductor, with the percentage change (0.05-2.1%) independent of the test mass' chemical composition and diamagnetic properties. A variation of 5 parts per 10(exp 4) was reported above a stationary (non-rotating) superconductor. In the present experiments reported using a sensitive gravimeter (resolution <10(exp -9) unit gravity or variation of 10(exp -6) cm/sq s in accelerations), bulk YBCO superconductors were stably levitated in a DC magnetic field (0.6 Tesla) subject to lateral AC fields (60 Gauss at 60 Hz) and rotation. With magnetic shielding, thermal control and buoyancy compensation, changes in acceleration were measured to be less than 2 parts in 10(exp 8) of the normal gravitational acceleration. This result puts new limits on the strength and range of the proposed coupling between high-Tc superconductors and gravity. Latest test results will be reported, along with status for future improvements and prospects.

  7. Long slit spectroscopy of NH2 in comets Halley, Wilson, and Nishikawa-Takamizawa-Tago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rettig, Terrence W.; Tegler, Stephen C.; Wyckoff, Susan; Heyd, Rodney; Stathkis, Raylee; Ramsay, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    Long-slit spectra of comets Halley, Wilson and Nishikawa-Takamizawa-Tago were obtained with the 3.9 meter Anglo-Australian Telescope. Spectra of comets Halley and Wilson were obtained with the IPCS at a spectral resolution of 0.5 A and a spatial resolution of 10(exp 3) km. Spectra of comets Wilson and Nishikawa-Takamizawa-Tago were obtained with a CCD at a spectral resolution of 1.5 A and a spatial resolution of approximately 3 x 10(exp 3) km. Surface brightness profiles for NH2 were extracted from the long-slit spectra of each comet. The observed surface brightness profiles extend along the slit to approximately 6 x 10(exp 4) km from the nucleus in both sunward and tailward directions. By comparing surface distribution calculated from an appropriate coma model with observed surface brightness distributions, the photodissociation timescale of the parent molecule of NH2 can be inferred. The observed NH2 surface brightness profiles in all three comets compares well with a surface brightness profile calculated using the vectorial model, an NH3 photodissociation timescale of 7 x 10(exp 3) seconds, and an NH2 photodissociation timescale of 34,000 seconds.

  8. Activation energy and capture cross section of majority carrier traps in Zn doped InP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybicki, George; Williams, Wendell

    1993-01-01

    Schottky barrier diodes were fabricated on Zn doped InP Wafers. The diodes were radiation damaged with 2 MeV protons to a dose of 2 x 10(exp 12)cm(sup -2). The damage was analyzed by DLTS (deep level transient spectroscopy) using the double correlation technique. Capture cross sections were measured directly. Two major defects were observed in the DLTS spectra. The first defect, was H4 at Ev + 0.29 eV, with capture cross section 1.1 x 10(exp -17)cm(sup 2). The second defect, was H5 at Ev + 0.53 eV. Its capture cross section varied with temperature as described by the relationship sigma = sigma(sub 0) exp(delta(E)/kT) where sigma(sub 0) = 1.3 x 10(exp -19)cm(sup 2) and delta(E) = .08 eV. This relationship yields a sigma of 5.9 x 10(exp -21)cm(sup 2) at room temperature. The surprisingly small capture cross section of H5 and its temperature dependence are discussed in terms of the multiphonon emission process for carrier capture at the defect. The advantages of the improved experimental techniques used are also discussed.

  9. Microgravity monitoring instrument development and application to vernier guidance, navigation, and vehicle control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Joseph J.

    1992-01-01

    The fact that a spacecraft traveling through the 'vacuum' of space conforms to the classical Keplerian ellipse has recently been disproven. It is now well known that such a vehicle is acted on by many external forces such as drag in the rarefied particle atmosphere, solar wind and particle impact. This paper discusses the development of sensors and sensor systems to measure these minute forces of acceleration/deceleration. Four systems will be discussed: a 10 exp -4 g system, a 10 exp -6 g system, a 10 exp -(6-8) g system and a 10 exp -9 g system. The design of each system will be explained along with the advantages/disadvantages of each. Various applications unique to each system will be discussed. Configurations, design schemes, test plans and calibration procedures, both in the ground laboratory and inflight, will be presented. The current design/development/operational status of each system will be examined and future plans discussed. Application to aerodynamic studies and vernier guidance, navigation, and vehicle control will also be examined.

  10. Two-dimensional velocity, optical risetime, and peak current estimates for natural positive lightning return strokes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Rust, W. D.

    1993-01-01

    Velocities, optical risetimes, and transmission line model peak currents for seven natural positive return strokes are reported. The average 2D positive return stroke velocity for channel segments of less than 500 m in length starting near the base of the channel is 0.8 +/- 0.3 x 10 exp 8 m/s, which is slower than the present corresponding average velocity for natural negative first return strokes of 1.7 +/- 0.7 x 10 exp 8/s. It is inferred that positive stroke peak currents in the literature, which assume the same velocity as negative strokes, are low by a factor of 2. The average 2D positive return stroke velocity for channel segments of greater than 500 m starting near the base of the channel is 0.9 +/- 0.4 x 10 exp 8 m/s. The corresponding average velocity for the present natural negative first strokes is 1.2 +/- 0.6 x 10 exp 8 m/s. No significant velocity change with height is found for positive return strokes.

  11. X-33 Turbulent Aeroheating Measurements and Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements and predictions of the X-33 turbulent aeroheating environment have been performed for Mach 6, perfect-gas air conditions. The purpose of this investigation was to compare turbulent aeroheating predictions from two Navier-Stokes codes, LAURA and GASP, with each other and with experimental data in which turbulent flow was produced through either natural transition or forced transition using roughness elements. The wind tunnel testing was conducted at free stream Reynolds numbers of 0.72 x 10(exp 7)/m to 2.4 x 10(exp 7)/m (2.2 x 10(exp 6)/ft to 7.3 x 10(exp 6)/ft) on 0.254 m (10.0-in.) X-33 models at alpha = 40 deg with smooth surfaces, smooth surfaces with discrete trips, and surfaces with simulated bowed thermal protection system panels. Turbulent flow was produced by the discrete trips and bowed panels for all but the lowest Reynolds number, while turbulent flow on the smooth model was produced only at the highest Reynolds number. Turbulent aeroheating levels on each of the three model types were measured using global phosphor thermography and agreed to within the experimental accuracy (+/= 15%) of the test technique. Computations were performed at the wind tunnel free stream conditions using both codes. Turbulent aeroheating levels predicted using the LAURA code were generally 5%-10% lower than those from GASP, although both sets of predictions fell within the experimental accuracy of the wind tunnel data.

  12. Boundary Layer Transition Correlations and Aeroheating Predictions for Mars Smart Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Liechty, Derek S.

    2002-01-01

    Laminar and turbulent perfect-gas air, Navier-Stokes computations have been performed for a proposed Mars Smart Lander entry vehicle at Mach 6 over a free stream Reynolds number range of 6.9 x 10(exp 6/m to 2.4 x 10(exp 7)m(2.1 x 10(exp 6)/ft to 7.3 x 10(exp 6)ft) for angles-of-attack of 0-deg, 11-deg, 16-deg, and 20-deg, and comparisons were made to wind tunnel heating data obtained at the same conditions. Boundary layer edge properties were extracted from the solutions and used to correlate experimental data on the effects of heat-shield penetrations (bolt-holes where the entry vehicle would be attached to the propulsion module during transit to Mars) on boundary-layer transition. A non-equilibrium Martian-atmosphere computation was performed for the peak heating point on the entry trajectory in order to determine if the penetrations would produce boundary-layer transition by using this correlation.

  13. Boundary Layer Transition Correlations and Aeroheating Predictions for Mars Smart Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Liechty, Derek S.

    2002-01-01

    Laminar and turbulent perfect-gas air, Navier-Stokes computations have been performed for a proposed Mars Smart Lander entry vehicle at Mach 6 over a free stream Reynolds number range of 6.9 x 10(exp 6)/m to 2.4 x 10(exp 7)/m (2.1 x 10(exp 6)/ft to 7.3 x 10(exp 6)/ft) for angles-of-attack of 0-deg, 11-deg, 16-deg, and 20-deg, and comparisons were made to wind tunnel heating data obtained a t the same conditions. Boundary layer edge properties were extracted from the solutions and used to correlate experimental data on the effects of heat-shield penetrations (bolt-holes where the entry vehicle would be attached to the propulsion module during transit to Mars) on boundary-layer transition. A non-equilibrium Martian-atmosphere computation was performed for the peak heating point on the entry trajectory in order to determine if the penetrations would produce boundary-layer transition by using this correlation.

  14. Forced Rolling Oscillation of a 65 deg-Delta Wing in Transonic Vortex-Breakdown Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, Margaret A.; Kandil, Osama A.; Kandil, Hamdy A.

    1996-01-01

    Unsteady, transonic, vortex dominated flow over a 65 deg. sharp-edged, cropped-delta wing of zero thickness undergoing forced rolling oscillations is investigated computationally. The wing angle of attack is 20 deg. and the free stream Mach number and Reynolds number are 0.85 and 3.23 x 10(exp 6), respectively. The initial condition of the flow is characterized by a transverse terminating shock which induces vortex breakdown of the leading edge vortex cores. The computational investigation uses the time accurate solution of the laminar, unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes equations with the implicit, upwind, Roe flux difference splitting, finite-volume scheme. While the maximum roll amplitude is kept constant at 4.0 deg., both Reynolds number and roll frequency are varied covering three cases of forced sinusoidal rolling. First, the Reynolds number is held at 3.23 x 10(exp 6) and the wing is forced to oscillate in roll around the axis of geometric symmetry at a reduced frequency of 2(pi). Second, the Reynolds number is reduced to 0.5 x 10(exp 6) to observe the effects of added viscosity on the vortex breakdown. Third, with the Reynolds number held at 0.5 x 10(exp 6), the roll frequency is reduced to 1(pi) to complete the study.

  15. Star formation in NGC 4449: MAMA-detector UV imagery and Fabry-Perot Balmer-line imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Robert S.; Home, Allen T.; Smith, Andrew M.; Bruhweiler, Fred C.; Cheng, K.P.; Hintzen, Paul M. N.; Oliversen, Ronald J.

    1994-01-01

    Using far-ultraviolet (FUV) and Balmer-line imagery, we investigate the star formation history of 22 large OB complexes in the Magellanic irregular galaxy NGC 4449. The FUV luminosity of NGC 4449 is comparable to those of late-type spirals and is greater than that of the LMC by approximately 2.4 mag, indicating substantial star formation in the last 10(exp 8) yr. FUV data were taken using a sounding-rocket telescope with a Multianode Microchannel Array (MAMA) detector, and Balmer-line data were taken using the Goddard Fabry-Perot Imager. The resulting imagery shows bright, roughly coincident FUV and H alpha sources throughout the extent of the visible galaxy. We model these sources using cluster-evolution codes. Although all sources are a few Myr old, clear age differences are found. In particular, several of the most recently active star formation regions are located together in the galaxy's northern periphery, which is apparently coincident with a large H I reservoir. The brightest and most massive OB complexes are found along the northeast-southwest surface brightness ridgeline (the 'bar'). Over the entire galaxy, star formation rates are consistent on timescales of 10(exp 6), 10(exp 8), and 10(exp 9) yr. A history of recent star formation is suggested with two main episodes, one predominantly in the bar ending approximately 5 Myr ago, and an ongoing one associated with an observed H I cloud.

  16. Search for Gravitational Waves Associated with the August 2006 Timing Glitch of the Vela Pulsar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Stroeer, A.

    2011-01-01

    The physical mechanisms responsible for pulsar timing glitches are thought to excite quasinormal mode oscillations in their parent neutron star that couple to gravitational-wave emission, In August 2006, a timing glitch was observed in the radio emission of PSR B0833-45, the Vela pulsar. At the time of the glitch, the two colocated Hanford gravitational-wave detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave observatory (LIGO) were operational and taking data as part of the fifth LIGO science run (S5). We present the first direct search for the gravitational-wave emission associated with oscillations of the fundamental quadrupole mode excited by a pulsar timing glitch. No gravitational-wave detection candidate was found. We place Bayesian 90% confidence upper limits of 6,3 x 10(exp -21) to 1.4 x 10(exp -20) on the peak: intrinsic strain amplitude of gravitational-wave ring-down signals, depending on which spherical harmonic mode is excited. The corresponding range of energy upper limits is 5.0 x 10(exp 44) to 1.3 x 10(exp 45) erg.

  17. Uptake of Organic Vapors by Sulfate Aerosols: Physical and Chemical Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michelsen, R. R.; Ashbourn, S. F. M.; Iraci, L.T.; Staton, S. J. R.

    2003-01-01

    While it is known that upper tropospheric sulfate particles contain a significant amount of organic matter, both the source of the organic fraction and its form in solution are unknown. These studies explore how the chemical characteristics of the molecules and surfaces in question affect heterogeneous interactions. The solubilities of acetaldehyde [CH3CHO] and ethanol [CH3CH20H] in cold, aqueous sulfuric acid solutions have been measured by Knudsen cell studies. Henry's law solubility coefficients range from 10(exp 2) to 10(exp 5) M/atm for acetaldehyde, and from 10(exp 4) to 10(exp 9) M/atm for ethanol under upper tropospheric conditions (210-240 K, 40-80 wt. % H2S04). The multiple solvation pathways (protonation, enolization, etc.) available to these compounds in acidic aqueous environments will be discussed. Preliminary results from the interaction of acetaldehyde with solutions of formaldehyde in sulfuric acid will be presented as well. The physical and chemical processes that affect organic uptake by aqueous aerosols will be explored, with the aim of evaluating organic species not yet studied in low temperature aqueous sulfuric acid.

  18. TMAP4 User's Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, G.R.; Holland, D.F.; Jones, J.L.; Merrill, B.J.

    1992-06-12

    The Tritium Migration Analysis Program, Version 4 (TMAP4) has been developed by the Fusion Safety Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) as a safety analysis code, mainly to analyze tritium retention and loss in fusion reactor structures and systems during normal operation and accident conditions. TMAP4 incorporates one-dimensional thermal- and mass-diffusive transport and trapping calculations through structures and zero dimensional fluid transport between enclosures and across the interface between enclosures and structures. A key feature is the ability to input problem definition parameters as constants, interpolation tables, or FORTRAN equations. The code is specifically intended for use under a DOS operating system on PC-type mini-computers, but it has also been run successfully on workstations and mainframe computer systems. Use of the equation-input feature requires access to a FORTRAN-77 compiler and a linker program.

  19. 4-D Photoacoustic Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Liangzhong; Wang, Bo; Ji, Lijun; Jiang, Huabei

    2013-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) offers three-dimensional (3D) structural and functional imaging of living biological tissue with label-free, optical absorption contrast. These attributes lend PAT imaging to a wide variety of applications in clinical medicine and preclinical research. Despite advances in live animal imaging with PAT, there is still a need for 3D imaging at centimeter depths in real-time. We report the development of four dimensional (4D) PAT, which integrates time resolutions with 3D spatial resolution, obtained using spherical arrays of ultrasonic detectors. The 4D PAT technique generates motion pictures of imaged tissue, enabling real time tracking of dynamic physiological and pathological processes at hundred micrometer-millisecond resolutions. The 4D PAT technique is used here to image needle-based drug delivery and pharmacokinetics. We also use this technique to monitor 1) fast hemodynamic changes during inter-ictal epileptic seizures and 2) temperature variations during tumor thermal therapy. PMID:23346370

  20. Sulfotransferase 4A1.

    PubMed

    Minchin, Rodney F; Lewis, Aaron; Mitchell, Deanne; Kadlubar, Fred F; McManus, Michael E

    2008-01-01

    In this review, we highlight the physical and enzymatic properties of the novel human sulfotransferase, SULT4A1. The gene is most highly expressed in selective regions of the brain, although work to date has failed to identify any specific endogenous substrate for the enzyme. SULT4A1 shares low homology with other human sulfotransferases. Nevertheless, it is highly conserved between species. Despite the low homology, it is structurally very similar to other cytosolic sulfotransferases with a conserved substrate binding domain, dimerization site and partial cofactor binding sites. However, the catalytic cavity is much smaller, and it has been suggested that the cofactor may not be accommodated within it. A recent link between variability in the 5'UTR of the SULT4A1 gene and schizophrenia has heightened interest in the endogenous function of the enzyme and its possible role in human disease. PMID:18248844

  1. History of interleukin-4.

    PubMed

    Paul, William E

    2015-09-01

    The history of the discovery and the development of our knowledge of IL-4 exemplifies the path of progress in biomedical science. There are unanticipated twists and turns although progress is made, sometimes quickly, other times far too slowly. Illustrative is the extended time from the first report of IL-4 in 1982 to the establishment of the efficacy of blocking IL-4 and its congener IL-13 in the treatment of moderate to severe asthma and atopic dermatitis, a period of 31years. The author was "present at the creation" and has been a participant or a witness to virtually all the major advances and recounts here his recollection of this history. PMID:25814340

  2. 4-D Photoacoustic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Liangzhong; Wang, Bo; Ji, Lijun; Jiang, Huabei

    2013-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) offers three-dimensional (3D) structural and functional imaging of living biological tissue with label-free, optical absorption contrast. These attributes lend PAT imaging to a wide variety of applications in clinical medicine and preclinical research. Despite advances in live animal imaging with PAT, there is still a need for 3D imaging at centimeter depths in real-time. We report the development of four dimensional (4D) PAT, which integrates time resolutions with 3D spatial resolution, obtained using spherical arrays of ultrasonic detectors. The 4D PAT technique generates motion pictures of imaged tissue, enabling real time tracking of dynamic physiological and pathological processes at hundred micrometer-millisecond resolutions. The 4D PAT technique is used here to image needle-based drug delivery and pharmacokinetics. We also use this technique to monitor 1) fast hemodynamic changes during inter-ictal epileptic seizures and 2) temperature variations during tumor thermal therapy.

  3. X-4 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1951-01-01

    In the early days of transonic flight research, many aerodynamicists believed that eliminating conventional tail surfaces could reduce the problems created by shock wave interaction with the tail's lifting surfaces. To address this issue, the Army Air Forces's Air Technical Service awarded a contract to Northrop Aircraft Corporation on 5 April 1946 to build a piloted 'flying laboratory.' Northrop already had experience with tailless flying wing designs such as the N-1M, N-9M, XB-35, and YB-49. Subsequently, the manufacturer built two semi-tailless X-4 research aircraft, the first of which flew half a century ago. The X-4 was designed to investigate transonic compressibility effects at speeds near Mach 0.85 to 0.88, slightly below the speed of sound. Northrop project engineer Arthur Lusk designed the aircraft with swept wings and a conventional fuselage that housed two turbojet engines. It had a vertical stabilizer, but no horizontal tail surfaces. It was one of the smallest X-planes ever built, and every bit of internal space was used for systems and instrumentation. The first X-4 arrived at Muroc Air Force Base by truck on 15 November 1948. Over the course of several weeks, engineers conducted static tests, and Northrop test pilot Charles Tucker made initial taxi runs. Although small of stature, he barely fit into the diminutive craft. Tucker, a veteran Northrop test pilot, had previously flown the XB-35 and YB-49 flying wing bomber prototypes. Prior to flying for Northrop, he had logged 400 hours in jet airplanes as a test pilot for Lockheed and the Air Force. He would now be responsible for completing the contractor phase of the X-4 flight test program. Finally, all was ready. Tucker climbed into the cockpit, and made the first flight on 15 December 1948. It only lasted 18 minutes, allowing just enough time for the pilot to become familiar with the basic handling qualities of the craft. The X-4 handled well, but Tucker noted some longitudinal instability at all

  4. A comparison of low-gravity measurements on-board Columbia during STS-40

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Baugher, C. R.; Blanchard, R. C.; Delombard, R.; Durgin, W. W.; Matthiesen, D. H.; Neupert, W.; Roussel, P.

    1993-01-01

    The first NASA Spacelab Life Sciences mission (SLS-1) flew 5 Jun. to 14 Jun. 1991 on the orbiter Columbia (STS-40). The purpose of the mission was to investigate the human body's adaptation to the low-gravity conditions of space flight and the body's readjustment after the mission to the 1 g environment of earth. In addition to the life sciences experiments manifested for the Spacelab module, a variety of experiments in other scientific disciplines flew in the Spacelab and in Get Away Special (GAS) Canisters on the GAS Bridge Assembly. Several principal investigators designed and flew specialized accelerometer systems to better assess the results of their experiments by means of a low-gravity environment characterization. This was also the first flight of the NASA Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) sponsored Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) and the first flight of the NASA Orbiter Experiments Office (OEX) sponsored Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment accelerometer (OARE). A brief introduction to seven STS-40 accelerometer systems are presented and the resulting data are discussed and compared. During crew sleep periods, acceleration magnitudes in the 10(exp -6) to 10(exp -5) g range were recorded in the Spacelab module and on the GAS Bridge Assembly. Magnitudes increased to the 10(exp -4) g level during periods of nominal crew activity. Vernier thruster firings caused acceleration shifts on the order of 10(exp -4) g and primary thruster firings caused accelerations as great as 10(exp -2) g. Frequency domain analysis revealed typical excitation of Orbiter and Spacelab structural modes at 3.5, 4.7, 5.2, 6.2, 7, and 17 Hz.

  5. Flat microwave spectra seen at X-class flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jeongwoo W.; Gary, Dale E.; Zirin, H.

    1994-01-01

    We report peculiar spectral activity of four large microwave bursts as obtained from the Solar Arrays at the Owens Valey Radio Observatory during observations of X-class flares on 24 May 1990 and 7, 8, 22 March 1991. Main observational points that we newly uncovered are: (1) flat flux spectra over 1-18 GHz in large amounts of flux ranging from 10(exp 2) to 10(exp 4) s.f.u. at the maximum phase, (2) a common evolutionary pattern in which the spectral region of dominant flux shifts from high frequencies at the initial rise to low frequencies at the decaying phase, and (3) unusual time profiles that are impulsive at high frequencies but more extended at lower frequencies. We carry out the model calculations of microwave spectra under assumptions of gyrosynchrotron mechanism and a dipole field configuration to reproduce the observational characteristics. Our results are summarized as follows. First, a flat microwave spectrum reaching up to 10(exp 2) - 10(exp 4) s.f.u. may occur in a case where a magnetic loop is extended to an angular size of approximately (0.7-7.0) x 10(exp -7) sterad and contains a huge number (N(E greater than 10 keV) approx. 10(exp 36) - 10(exp 38)) of nonthermal electrons with power-law index approx. 3-3.5 over the entire volume. Second, the observed spectral activity could adequately be accounted for by the shrinking of the region of nonthermal electrons to the loop top and by the softening of the power-law spectrum of electrons in a time scale ranging 3-45 min depending on the event. Third, the extended microwave activity at lower frequencies is probably due to electrons trapped in the loop top where magnetic fields are low. Finally, we clarify the physical distinction between these large, extended microwave bursts and the gradual/post-microwave bursts often seen in weak events, both of which are characterized by long-period activity and broadband spectra.

  6. 42 CFR 4.4 - Use of Library facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of Library facilities. 4.4 Section 4.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE § 4.4 Use of Library facilities. (a) General. The Library facilities are available to any person seeking to make use of...

  7. 42 CFR 4.4 - Use of Library facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of Library facilities. 4.4 Section 4.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE § 4.4 Use of Library facilities. (a) General. The Library facilities are available to any person seeking to make use of...

  8. 43 CFR 3862.4-4 - Charges for publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Charges for publication. 3862.4-4 Section 3862.4-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Lode Mining Claim Patent Applications § 3862.4-4 Charges...

  9. 38 CFR 4.80-4.84 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 4.80-4.84 Section 4.80-4.84 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Organs of Special Sense §§ 4.80-4.84 Impairment of Auditory Acuity...

  10. 38 CFR 4.80-4.84 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 4.80-4.84 Section 4.80-4.84 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Organs of Special Sense §§ 4.80-4.84 Impairment of Auditory Acuity...

  11. 38 CFR 4.80-4.84 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 4.80-4.84 Section 4.80-4.84 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Organs of Special Sense §§ 4.80-4.84 Impairment of Auditory Acuity...

  12. 12 CFR 4.4 - Washington office and web site.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Washington office and web site. 4.4 Section 4.4... EXAMINERS Organization and Functions § 4.4 Washington office and web site. The Washington office of the OCC...'s Web site is at http://www.occ.gov....

  13. 12 CFR 4.4 - Washington office and web site.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Washington office and web site. 4.4 Section 4.4... EXAMINERS Organization and Functions § 4.4 Washington office and web site. The Washington office of the OCC...'s Web site is at http://www.occ.gov....

  14. 12 CFR 4.4 - Washington office and web site.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Washington office and web site. 4.4 Section 4.4... EXAMINERS Organization and Functions § 4.4 Washington office and web site. The Washington office of the OCC...'s Web site is at http://www.occ.gov....

  15. 43 CFR 3430.4-4 - Environmental costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Environmental costs. 3430.4-4 Section 3430.4-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) NONCOMPETITIVE LEASES Preference Right Leases § 3430.4-4 Environmental costs. Prior...

  16. 29 CFR 4.4 - Obtaining a wage determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... wage determination(s). If the initial computer analysis cannot identify the applicable wage... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Obtaining a wage determination. 4.4 Section 4.4 Labor... Standards Provisions and Procedures § 4.4 Obtaining a wage determination. (a)(1) Sections 2(a)(1) and (2)...

  17. 38 CFR 4.80-4.84 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 4.80-4.84 Section 4.80-4.84 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Organs of Special Sense §§ 4.80-4.84 Impairment of Auditory Acuity...

  18. 39 CFR 4.4 - Deputy Postmaster General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deputy Postmaster General. 4.4 Section 4.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE OFFICIALS (ARTICLE IV) § 4.4 Deputy Postmaster General. The appointment and role of the Deputy Postmaster General...

  19. 18 CFR 4.4 - Service of report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Service of report. 4.4 Section 4.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF... PROJECT COSTS Determination of Cost of Projects Constructed Under License § 4.4 Service of report....

  20. 37 CFR 4.4 - Invention promoter reply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Invention promoter reply. 4.4 Section 4.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.4 Invention promoter reply. (a) If...

  1. 11 CFR 4.4 - Availability of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of records. 4.4 Section 4.4 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PUBLIC RECORDS AND THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 4.4... materials available for public inspection and copying: (1) Statements of policy and interpretation...

  2. 15 CFR 4.4 - Requirements for making requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for making requests. 4.4 Section 4.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce DISCLOSURE OF GOVERNMENT INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act § 4.4 Requirements for making requests. (a) A request for records...

  3. 38 CFR 4.101-4.103 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 4.101-4.103 Section 4.101-4.103 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Cardiovascular System §§ 4.101-4.103...

  4. 38 CFR 4.101-4.103 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 4.101-4.103 Section 4.101-4.103 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Cardiovascular System §§ 4.101-4.103...

  5. 38 CFR 4.101-4.103 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 4.101-4.103 Section 4.101-4.103 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Cardiovascular System §§ 4.101-4.103...

  6. 38 CFR 4.101-4.103 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 4.101-4.103 Section 4.101-4.103 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Cardiovascular System §§ 4.101-4.103...

  7. 38 CFR 4.80-4.84 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 4.80-4.84 Section 4.80-4.84 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Organs of Special Sense §§ 4.80-4.84 Impairment of Auditory Acuity...

  8. Accelerators (4/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

  9. Rescue Manual. Module 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The fourth of 10 modules contains 8 chapters: (1) construction and characteristics of rescue rope; (2) knots, bends, and hitches; (3) critical angles; (4) raising systems; (5) rigging; (6) using the brake-bar rack for rope rescue; (7) rope…

  10. 2,4-Dinitrophenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4 - Dinitrophenol ; CASRN 51 - 28 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  11. 1,4-Dioxane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,4 - Dioxane ; CASRN 123 - 91 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  12. 2,4-Dichlorophenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4 - Dichlorophenol ; CASRN 120 - 83 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  13. 1,4-Dithiane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,4 - Dithiane ; CASRN 505 - 29 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  14. 3,4-Dimethylphenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    3,4 - Dimethylphenol ; CASRN 95 - 65 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  15. 2,4-Dimethylphenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4 - Dimethylphenol ; CASRN 105 - 67 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  16. 2,4-Diaminotoluene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4 - Diaminotoluene ; CASRN 95 - 80 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  17. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,4 - Dichlorobenzene ; CASRN 106 - 46 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  18. 2,4-Dinitrotoluene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4 - Dinitrotoluene ; CASRN 121 - 14 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  19. 1,4-Dibromobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,4 - Dibromobenzene ; CASRN 106 - 37 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  20. R4A

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains the shallowest principal aquifers of Region 4. The data set was developed as part of the effort to produce the maps published at 1:2,500,000 in the printed series "Ground Water Atlas of the United States". The published maps contain base and cult...

  1. 3.4 Radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, H.-M.; Selbach, H.-J.; Vatnitsky, S.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '3.4 Radiotherapy' of the Chapter '3 Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology and Radiotherapy' with the contents:

  2. SVX4 User's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Christofek, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hoff, J.; Kreiger, B.; Rapidis, P.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Utes, M.; Weber, M.; Yarema, R.; Zimmerman, T.; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    We present and describe the operation of the SVX4 chip. The SVX4 is a custom 128-channel analog to digital converter chip used by D0 and CDF in Run IIb to read out their respective silicon strip detectors. Each channel consists of an integrator (Front-End device, or FE) and a digitize/readout section (Back-End device, or BE). The input to each channel is sampled and temporarily stored in its own storage capacitor. Upon receiving a trigger signal, the relevant pipeline cell is reserved. Subsequent signals cause reserved cells to be digitized by a 128 parallel channel Wilkinson type 8-bit ADC, and then readout in byte-serial mode with optional zero suppression (sparsification). Salient features include (1) operation in either D0 mode or CDF mode (CDF mode features ''dead timeless operation'' or continued acquisition during digitization and readout) with an additional mixed mode of operation, (2) adjustable, loadable control parameters, including the integrator bandwidth and ADC polarity (only one input charge polarity will be used for Run IIb, but this feature remains for diagnostic purposes), (3) sparsified readout with nearest neighbor logic, (4) built-in charge injection with the ability for external voltage overriding for testing and calibration, and (5) a channel mask that is used for either charge injection or for masking of channels with excessive DC current input during chip operation. This document is meant to familiarize the user with the functionality of the SVX4 and goes on to include specifications, pin outs, timings and electrical information. Additional information on the SVX4 can be found in Ref [1].

  3. Developmental milestones record - 4 months

    MedlinePlus

    Normal childhood growth milestones - 4 months; Childhood growth milestones - 4 months; Growth milestones for children - 4 months ... provider. PHYSICAL AND MOTOR SKILLS The typical 4-month-old baby should: Slow in weight gain to ...

  4. An Ultrasensitive Hot-Electron Bolometer for Low-Background SMM Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olayaa, David; Wei, Jian; Pereverzev, Sergei; Karasik, Boris S.; Kawamura, Jonathan H.; McGrath, William R.; Sergeev, Andrei V.; Gershenson, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    We are developing a hot-electron superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) that is capable of counting THz photons and operates at T = 0.3K. The main driver for this work is moderate resolution spectroscopy (R approx. 1000) on the future space telescopes with cryogenically cooled (approx. 4 K) mirrors. The detectors for these telescopes must be background-limited with a noise equivalent power (NEP) approx. 10(exp -19)-10(exp -20) W/Hz(sup 1/2) over the range v = 0.3-10 THz. Above about 1 THz, the background photon arrival rate is expected to be approx. 10-100/s), and photon counting detectors may be preferable to an integrating type. We fabricated superconducting Ti nanosensors with a volume of approx. 3x10(exp -3) cubic microns on planar substrate and have measured the thermal conductance G to the thermal bath. A very low G = 4x10(exp -14) W/K, measured at 0.3 K, is due to the weak electron-phonon coupling in the material and the thermal isolation provided by superconducting Nb contacts. This low G corresponds to NEP(0.3K) = 3x10(exp -19) W/Hz(sup 1/2). This Hot-Electron Direct Detector (HEDD) is expected to have a sufficient energy resolution for detecting individual photons with v > 0.3 THz at 0.3 K. With the sensor time constant of a few microseconds, the dynamic range is approx. 50 dB.

  5. High rotational CO lines in post-AGB stars and PNe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justtanont, K.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Skinner, C. J.; Haas, Michael R.

    1995-01-01

    A significant fraction of a star's initial mass is lost while it is on the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB). Mass loss rates range from 10(exp -7) solar mass/yr for early AGB stars to a few 10(exp -4) solar mass/yr for stars at the tip of the AGB. Dust grains condense from the outflow as the gas expands and form a dust shell around the central star. A superwind (approximately 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -3) solar mass/yr) is thought to terminate the AGB phase. In the post-AGB phase, the star evolves to a higher effective temperature, the mass loss decreases (approximately 10(exp -8) solar mass/yr), but the wind velocity increases (approximately 1000 km/s). During this evolution, dust and gas are exposed to an increasingly harsher radiation field and when T(sub eff) reaches about 30,000 K, the nebula is ionized and becomes a planetary nebula (PN). Photons from the central star can create a photodissociation region (PDR) in the expanding superwind. Gas can be heated through the photoelectric effect working on small grains and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's). This gas can cool via the atomic fine structure lines of O I (63 microns and 145 microns) and C II (158 microns), as well as the rotational lines of CO. In the post-AGB phase, the fast wind from the central star will interact with the material ejected during the AGB phase. The shock caused by this interaction will dissociate and heat the gas. This warm gas will cool through atomic fine structure lines of O I and the rotational lines of (newly formed) CO.

  6. Chemistry-Climate Interactions in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model. 2; New Insights into Modeling the Pre-Industrial Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grenfell, J. Lee; Shindell, D. T.; Koch, D.; Rind, D.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the chemical (hydroxyl and ozone) and dynamical response to changing from present day to pre-industrial conditions in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model (GISS GMC). We identify three main improvements not included by many other works. Firstly, our model includes interactive cloud calculations. Secondly we reduce sulfate aerosol which impacts NOx partitioning hence Ox distributions. Thirdly we reduce sea surface temperatures and increase ocean ice coverage which impact water vapor and ground albedo respectively. Changing the ocean data (hence water vapor and ozone) produces a potentially important feedback between the Hadley circulation and convective cloud cover. Our present day run (run 1, control run) global mean OH value was 9.8 x 10(exp 5) molecules/cc. For our best estimate of pre-industrial conditions run (run 2) which featured modified chemical emissions, sulfate aerosol and sea surface temperatures/ocean ice, this value changed to 10.2 x 10(exp 5) molecules/cc. Reducing only the chemical emissions to pre-industrial levels in run 1 (run 3) resulted in this value increasing to 10.6 x 10(exp 5) molecules/cc. Reducing the sulfate in run 3 to pre-industrial levels (run 4) resulted in a small increase in global mean OH (10.7 x 10(exp 5) molecules/cc). Changing the ocean data in run 4 to pre-industrial levels (run 5) led to a reduction in this value to 10.3 x 10(exp 5) molecules/cc. Mean tropospheric ozone burdens were 262, 181, 180, 180, and 182 Tg for runs 1-5 respectively.

  7. SWIFT BAT Survey of AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tueller, J.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Barthelmy, S.; Cannizzo, J. K.; Gehrels, N.; Markwardt, C. B.; Skinner, G. K.; Winter, L. M.

    2008-01-01

    We present the results1 of the analysis of the first 9 months of data of the Swift BAT survey of AGN in the 14-195 keV band. Using archival X-ray data or follow-up Swift XRT observations, we have identified 129 (103 AGN) of 130 objects detected at [b] > 15deg and with significance > 4.8-delta. One source remains unidentified. These same X-ray data have allowed measurement of the X-ray properties of the objects. We fit a power law to the logN - log S distribution, and find the slope to be 1.42+/-0.14. Characterizing the differential luminosity function data as a broken power law, we find a break luminosity logL*(ergs/s)= 43.85+/-0.26. We obtain a mean photon index 1.98 in the 14-195 keV band, with an rms spread of 0.27. Integration of our luminosity function gives a local volume density of AGN above 10(exp 41) erg/s of 2.4x10(exp -3) Mpc(sup -3), which is about 10% of the total luminous local galaxy density above M* = -19.75. We have obtained X-ray spectra from the literature and from Swift XRT follow-up observations. These show that the distribution of log nH is essentially flat from nH = 10(exp 20)/sq cm to 10(exp 24)/sq cm, with 50% of the objects having column densities of less than 10(exp 22)/sq cm. BAT Seyfert galaxies have a median redshift of 0.03, a maximum log luminosity of 45.1, and approximately half have log nH > 22.

  8. A potential cyclotron line signature in low-luminosity X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Robert W.; Wang, John C. L.; Salpeter, E. E.; Wasserman, Ira

    1995-01-01

    Estimates indicate there may be greater than or approximately equal to 10(exp 3) low-luminosity X-ray pulsars (L less than or approximately equal to 10(exp 34) ergs/s) in the Galaxy undergoing 'low-state' wind accretion in Be/X-ray binary systems, and approximately 10(exp 8)-10(exp 9) isolated neutron stars which may be accreting directly from the interstellar medium. Despite their low effective temperatures (kT(sub e) less than or approximately equal to 300 eV), low-luminosity accreting neutron stars with magnetic fields B approximately (0.7-7) x 10(exp 12) G could emit a substantial fraction (0.5%-5%) of their total luminosity in a moderately broadened (Epsilon/delta Epsilon approximately 2-4) cyclotron emission line which peaks in the energy range approximately 5-20 keV. The bulk of the thermal emission from these stars will be in the extreme ultraviolet/soft X-ray regime. In sharp contrast, the nonthermal cyclotron component predicted here will not be strongly absorbed, and consequently it may be the only distinguishing signature for the bulk of these low-luminosity sources. We propose a search for this cyclotron emission feature in long pointed observations of the newly discovered candidate isolated neutron star MS 0317.7-6477, and the Be/X-ray transient pulsar 4U 0115+63 in its quiescent state. We note that an emission-like feature similar to the one we predict here has been reported in the energy spectrum of the unusual X-ray pulsar 1E 2259+586.

  9. N=4 'fake' supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Zagermann, Marco

    2005-06-15

    We study curved and flat Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS)-domain walls in 5D, N=4 gauged supergravity and show that their effective dynamics along the flow is described by a generalized form of 'fake supergravity'. This generalizes previous work in N=2 supergravity and might hint towards a universal behavior of gauged supergravity theories in supersymmetric domain wall backgrounds. We show that BPS-domain walls in 5D, N=4 supergravity can never be curved if they are supported by the supergravity scalar only. Furthermore, a purely Abelian gauge group or a purely semisimple gauge group can never lead to a curved domain wall, and the flat walls for these gaugings always exhibit a runaway behavior.

  10. LANDSAT-4 sensor performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.; Gunther, F. J.

    1983-01-01

    Preflight and in-orbit sensor and data measurements indicate that TM meets or exceeds most specifications. Measured spectral band edges meet instrument specifications in 12 out of 14 cases; there is ample dynamic range. The signal-to-noise ratio exceeds specifications, except for band 3, channel 4; and band 7 channel 7 is very noisy but still meets specifications. The modulation transfer function of channel 4, band 2, is smaller than specified. Registration errors between the primary focal plane (PFP) and the cold focal plane (CFP) are about 0.75 pixels along-scan and 0.2 pixels across scan. Forward and reverse scan discontinuities, are well within ground-processing capabilities to rectify. Instrument gain variability, up to 7% for band 5, requires use of the internal calibration (IC) system to assure radiometric accuracy. Preliminary applications evaluation of image contents indicates that TM provides much better definition of edges than MSS.

  11. ARCHIMEDESV4.0

    2002-04-22

    The Archimedes 4.0 system is a constraint-based interactive assembly planning software tool used to plan, optimize, simulate, visualize, and document sequences of assembly. given a CAD model of the product, the program automatically finds part-to-part contacts, generates collision-free insertion motions, and chooses assembly order. The engineer specifies a quality metric in tems of application-specific costs for standard assembly process steps, such as part insertion, fastening, and subassembly inversion. Combined with an engineer's knowledge of application-specificmore » assembly process requirements, Archimedes 4.0 allows systematic exploration of the space of possible assembly sequences. The engineer uses a simple graphical interface to place constraints on the valid assembly sequences, such as defining subassemblies, requiring that certain parts be placed consecutively with or before other parts, declaring preferred directions, etc. The user interface is critical to effectiveness and user acceptance of an interactive planning system.« less

  12. ARCHIMEDESV4.0

    SciTech Connect

    Calton, Terri L.; Brown, Russell G.; Peters, Ralph R.; Mitchell, Emily A.; Trinkle, Jeff C.

    2002-04-22

    The Archimedes 4.0 system is a constraint-based interactive assembly planning software tool used to plan, optimize, simulate, visualize, and document sequences of assembly. given a CAD model of the product, the program automatically finds part-to-part contacts, generates collision-free insertion motions, and chooses assembly order. The engineer specifies a quality metric in tems of application-specific costs for standard assembly process steps, such as part insertion, fastening, and subassembly inversion. Combined with an engineer's knowledge of application-specific assembly process requirements, Archimedes 4.0 allows systematic exploration of the space of possible assembly sequences. The engineer uses a simple graphical interface to place constraints on the valid assembly sequences, such as defining subassemblies, requiring that certain parts be placed consecutively with or before other parts, declaring preferred directions, etc. The user interface is critical to effectiveness and user acceptance of an interactive planning system.

  13. LANDSAT-4 hightlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D.

    1983-01-01

    The LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper sensor possesses approximately twice the spectral resolution, three times the spatial resolution, and four times the spectral sensitivity of the MSS sensor on earlier LANDSAT satellites. Spectral bands on the TM, particularly those at wavelengths of 1.6 and 2.2 micrometers are useful for: (1) distinguishing crops such as rice and soybeans; (2) surveying areas that are cultivated in strip crop fashion; (3) determining clay variations and abundances and rock classifications; and (4) differentiating nutrients and sediments found in coastal waters. The sensor can identify surface features 30 meters on a side, which roughly corresponds to a standard city block. Highway construction, land excavation, urban growth, and the health and extent of vegetation can be detected.

  14. X-4 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1951-01-01

    In the early days of transonic flight research, many aerodynamicists believed that eliminating conventional tail surfaces could reduce the problems created by shock wave interaction with the tail's lifting surfaces. To address this issue, the Army Air Forces's Air Technical Service awarded a contract to Northrop Aircraft Corporation on 5 April 1946 to build a piloted 'flying laboratory.' Northrop already had experience with tailless flying wing designs such as the N-1M, N-9M, XB-35, and YB-49. Subsequently, the manufacturer built two semi-tailless X-4 research aircraft, the first of which flew half a century ago. The X-4 was designed to investigate transonic compressibility effects at speeds near Mach 0.85 to 0.88, slightly below the speed of sound. Northrop project engineer Arthur Lusk designed the aircraft with swept wings and a conventional fuselage that housed two turbojet engines. It had a vertical stabilizer, but no horizontal tail surfaces. It was one of the smallest X-planes ever built, and every bit of internal space was used for systems and instrumentation. The first X-4 arrived at Muroc Air Force Base by truck on 15 November 1948. Over the course of several weeks, engineers conducted static tests, and Northrop test pilot Charles Tucker made initial taxi runs. Although small of stature, he barely fit into the diminutive craft. Tucker, a veteran Northrop test pilot, had previously flown the XB-35 and YB-49 flying wing bomber prototypes. Prior to flying for Northrop, he had logged 400 hours in jet airplanes as a test pilot for Lockheed and the Air Force. He would now be responsible for completing the contractor phase of the X-4 flight test program. Finally, all was ready. Tucker climbed into the cockpit, and made the first flight on 15 December 1948. It only lasted 18 minutes, allowing just enough time for the pilot to become familiar with the basic handling qualities of the craft. The X-4 handled well, but Tucker noted some longitudinal instability at all

  15. Idiopathic CD4 Lymphocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Régent, Alexis; Autran, Brigitte; Carcelain, Guislaine; Cheynier, Rémi; Terrier, Benjamin; Charmeteau-De Muylder, Bénédicte; Krivitzky, Alain; Oksenhendler, Eric; Costedoat-Chalumeau, Nathalie; Hubert, Pascale; Lortholary, Olivier; Dupin, Nicolas; Debré, Patrice; Guillevin, Loïc; Mouthon, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Idiopathic CD4 T lymphocytopenia (ICL) is a rare and severe condition with limited available data. We conducted a French multicenter study to analyze the clinical and immunologic characteristics of a cohort of patients with ICL according to the Centers for Disease Control criteria. We recruited 40 patients (24 female) of mean age 44.2 ± 12.2 (19–70) years. Patients underwent T-lymphocyte phenotyping and lymphoproliferation assay at diagnosis, and experiments related to thymic function and interferon (IFN)-γ release by natural killer (NK) cell were performed. Mean follow-up was 6.9 ± 6.7 (0.14–24.3) years. Infectious, autoimmune, and neoplastic events were recorded, as were outcomes of interleukin 2 therapy. In all, 25 patients had opportunistic infections (12 with human papillomavirus infection), 14 had autoimmune symptoms, 5 had malignancies, and 8 had mild or no symptoms. At the time of diagnosis, the mean cell counts were as follows: mean CD4 cell count: 127/mm3 (range, 4–294); mean CD8: 236/mm3 (range, 1–1293); mean CD19: 113/mm3 (range, 3–547); and mean NK cell count: 122/mm3 (range, 5–416). Most patients had deficiency in CD8, CD19, and/or NK cells. Cytotoxic function of NK cells was normal, and patients with infections had a significantly lower NK cell count than those without (p = 0.01). Patients with autoimmune manifestations had increased CD8 T-cell count. Proliferation of thymic precursors, as assessed by T-cell rearrangement excision circles, was increased. Six patients died (15%). CD4 T-cell count <150/mm3 and NK cell count <100/mm3 were predictors of death. In conclusion, ICL is a heterogeneous disorder often associated with deficiencies in CD8, CD19, and/or NK cells. Long-term prognosis may be related to initial CD4 and NK cell deficiency. PMID:24646462

  16. (R)-4-(4-Aminophenyl)-2,2,4-trimethylchroman and (S)-4-(4-aminophenyl)-2,2,4-trimethylthiachroman.

    PubMed

    Frampton, Christopher S; MacNicol, David D; Wilson, Derek R

    2011-05-01

    The title compounds, C(18)H(21)NO and C(18)H(21)NS, in their enantiomerically pure forms are isostructural with the enantiomerically pure 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,2,4-trimethylchroman and 4-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2,2,4-trimethylchroman analogues and form extended linear chains via N-H···O or N-H···S hydrogen bonding along the [100] direction. The absolute configuration for both compounds was determined by anomalous dispersion methods with reference to both the Flack parameter and, for the light-atom compound, Bayesian statistics on Bijvoet differences. PMID:21540546

  17. 27 CFR 4.4 - Delegations of the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...'s Authorities in 27 CFR Part 4, Labeling and Advertising of Wine. You may obtain a copy of this... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Delegations of the Administrator. 4.4 Section 4.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE...

  18. 27 CFR 4.4 - Delegations of the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...'s Authorities in 27 CFR Part 4, Labeling and Advertising of Wine. You may obtain a copy of this... Administrator. 4.4 Section 4.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Administrator. Most of the regulatory authorities of the Administrator contained in this part are delegated...

  19. 27 CFR 4.4 - Delegations of the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...'s Authorities in 27 CFR Part 4, Labeling and Advertising of Wine. You may obtain a copy of this... Administrator. 4.4 Section 4.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Administrator. Most of the regulatory authorities of the Administrator contained in this part are delegated...

  20. 27 CFR 4.4 - Delegations of the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...'s Authorities in 27 CFR Part 4, Labeling and Advertising of Wine. You may obtain a copy of this... Administrator. 4.4 Section 4.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Administrator. Most of the regulatory authorities of the Administrator contained in this part are delegated...

  1. 4 CFR 28.4 - Computation of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computation of time. 28.4 Section 28.4 Accounts... Purpose, General Definitions, and Jurisdiction § 28.4 Computation of time. (a) To compute the number of... Board after 4 p.m., Monday through Friday....

  2. 4 CFR 28.4 - Computation of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Computation of time. 28.4 Section 28.4 Accounts... Purpose, General Definitions, and Jurisdiction § 28.4 Computation of time. (a) To compute the number of... Board after 4 p.m., Monday through Friday....

  3. 4 CFR 4.3 - Removal for unacceptable performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Removal for unacceptable performance. 4.3 Section 4.3 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND UTILIZATION § 4.3... by an attorney or other representative. (3) A reasonable time to answer orally and in writing. (4)...

  4. 4 CFR 28.4 - Computation of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Computation of time. 28.4 Section 28.4 Accounts GOVERNMENT... Definitions, and Jurisdiction § 28.4 Computation of time. (a) To compute the number of days for filing under... administrative judge. (d) No written submission shall be accepted by the Clerk of the Board after 4 p.m.,...

  5. 4 CFR 4.3 - Removal for unacceptable performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Removal for unacceptable performance. 4.3 Section 4.3 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND UTILIZATION § 4.3... by an attorney or other representative. (3) A reasonable time to answer orally and in writing. (4)...

  6. MICROWAVE SPECTROSCOPY OF THE CALCIUM 4snf→4s(n+1)d, 4sng, 4snh, 4sni, AND 4snk TRANSITIONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunkaew, Jirakan; Gallagher, Tom

    2015-06-01

    We use a delayed field ionization technique to observe the microwave transitions of calcium Rydberg states, from the 4snf states to the 4s(n+1)d, 4sng, 4snh, 4sni, and 4snk states for 18≤ n≤23. We analyze the observed intervals between the ℓ and (ℓ+1), ℓ≥5, states of the same n to determine the Ca^+ 4s dipole and quadrupole polarizabilities. We show that the adiabatic core polarization model is not adequate to extract the Ca^+ 4s dipole and quadrupole polarizabilities and a non adiabatic treatment is required. We use the non adiabatic core polarization model to determine the ionic dipole and quadrupole polarizabilities to be α_d=76.9(3);a_0^3 and α_q=206(9);a_0^5, respectively.

  7. 1,4-Bis(4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)benzene dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiu-Guang; Li, Jian-Hui; Ding, Bin; Du, Gui-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C10H8N6·2H2O, comprises half the organic species, the mol­ecule being completed by inversion symmetry, and one water mol­ecule. The dihedral angle between the 1,2,4-triazole ring and the central benzene ring is 32.2 (2)°. The water mol­ecules form O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds with N-atom acceptors of the triazole rings. C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds are also observed, giving a three-dimensional framework. PMID:22904851

  8. Imagine the Universe. 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas

    1999-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains compilations of three NASA Website pages from the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The three sites on the CD-ROM are: (1) the Imagine the Universe!, (for ages 14 on up), which is dedicated to discussion of the Universe, what we know, how it is evolving and the kinds of objects and phenomena it contains; (2) StarChild: A learning center for young astronomers, (for ages 4-14), contains information about the Solar System, the Universe and space explorations; and (3) the Astronomy picture of the day, which offers a new astronomical image and caption for each calendar day.

  9. A Hot-electron Direct Detector for Radioastronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karasik, B. S.; McGrath, W. R.; LeDuc, H. G.

    2000-01-01

    A new approach is proposed to improve the sensitivity of direct-detection bolometers. The idea is to adjust a speed of the thermal relaxation of hot-electrons in a nanometer size normal metal or superconductive transition edge bolometer by controlling the elastic electron mean free path. If the bolometer contacts are made of a superconductor with high critical temperature then the thermal diffusion into the contacts is absent because of the Andreev's reflection and the electron-phonon relaxation is the only mechanism for heat removal. The relaxation rate should behave as 7(exp 4)l at subkelvin temperatures (l is the electron elastic mean free path) and can be reduced by factor of 10 - 100 by decreasing l. Then an antenna- or waveguide-coupled bolometer with a time constant approx. 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -5) S at T approx. = 0.1 - 0.3 K will exhibit photon-noise limited performance in millimeter and subn-millimeter range. The bolometer will have a figure-of-merit NEk square root of tau approx. = 10(exp -22) 10(exp -21) W/Hz at 100 mK which is 10(exp 3) times smaller than that of a state-of-the-art bolometer. This will allow for a tremendous increase in speed which will have a significant impact for observational mapping applications. Alternatively, the bolometer could operate at higher temperature with still superior sensitivity This research was performed by the Center for Space Microelectronics Technology, JPL, California Institute of Technology, under the contract for NASA.

  10. Global Evolution of Solid Matter in Turbulent Protoplanetry Disks. Part 1; Aerodynamics of Solid Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Valageas, P.

    1996-01-01

    The problem of planetary system formation and its subsequent character can only be addressed by studying the global evolution of solid material entrained in gaseous protoplanetary disks. We start to investigate this problem by considering the space-time development of aerodynamic forces that cause solid particles to decouple from the gas. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that only the smallest particles are attached to the gas, or that the radial distribution of the solid matter has no momentary relation to the radial distribution of the gas. We present the illustrative example wherein a gaseous disk of 0.245 solar mass and angular momentum of 5.6 x 10(exp 52) g/sq cm/s is allowed to evolve due to turbulent viscosity characterized by either alpha = 10(exp -2) or alpha = 10(exp -3). The motion of solid particles suspended in a viscously evolving gaseous disk is calculated numerically for particles of different sizes. In addition we calculate the global evolution of single-sized, noncoagulating particles. We find that particles smaller than 0.1 cm move with the gas; larger particles have significant radial velocities relative to the gas. Particles larger than 0.1 cm but smaller than 10(exp 3) cm have inward radial velocities much larger than the gas, whereas particles larger than 10(exp 4) cm have inward velocities much smaller than the gas. A significant difference in the form of the radial distribution of solids and the gas develops with time. It is the radial distribution of solids, rather than the gas, that determines the character of an emerging planetary system.

  11. FUSE Observations of O VI Absorption in the Local Interstellar Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oegerle, W. R.; Jenkins, E. B.; Shelton, R. L.; Bowen, D. V.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We report the results of an initial Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) survey of O VI Lambda 1032 absorption along the lines of sight to eleven nearby white dwarfs, ten of which are within the Local Bubble (LB; d < or approximately equal 100 pc). A goal of this survey is to investigate the possible formation of O VI in the conductive interfaces between cool (about 10(exp 4) K) clouds immersed in the presumably hot (10(exp 6) K) gas within the LB. This mechanism is often invoked to explain the widespread presence of 0 VI throughout the Galactic disk. We find no 0 VI absorption toward two stars, and the column densities along three additional sight lines are quite low; N(O VI) about 5 x 10(exp 13)/sq cm. In several directions, we observe rather broad, shallow absorption with N(O VI) about 1 - 2 x 10(exp 13)/sq cm. Models of conductive interfaces predict narrow profiles with N(OVI) > or about equal to 10(exp 13)/sq cm per interface, in the absence of a significant transverse magnetic field. Hence, our observations of weak 0 VI absorption indicate that conduction is being quenched, possibly by non-radial magnetic fields. Alternatively, the gas within the LB may not be hot. Breitschwerdt & Schmutzler have proposed a model for the LB in which an explosive event within a dense cloud created rapid expansion and adiabatic cooling, resulting in a cavity containing gas with a kinetic temperature of T about 50,000 K, but with an ionization state characteristic of much hotter gas. This model has a number of attractive features, but appears to predict significantly more O VI than we observe.

  12. Atomic Oxygen (ATOX) simulation of Teflon FEP and Kapton H surfaces using a high intensity, low energy, mass selected, ion beam facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vered, R.; Grossman, E.; Lempert, G. D.; Lifshitz, Y.

    1994-01-01

    A high intensity (greater than 10(exp 15) ions/sq cm) low energy (down to 5 eV) mass selected ion beam (MSIB) facility was used to study the effects of ATOX on two polymers commonly used for space applications (Kapton H and Teflon FEP). The polymers were exposed to O(+) and Ne(+) fluences on 10(exp 15) - 10(exp 19) ions/sq cm, using 30eV ions. A variety of analytical methods were used to analyze the eroded surfaces including: (1) atomic force microscopy (AFM) for morphology measurements; (2) total mass loss measurements using a microbalance; (3) surface chemical composition using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and (4) residual gas analysis (RGA) of the released gases during bombardment. The relative significance of the collisional and chemical degradation processes was evaluated by comparing the effects of Ne(+) and O(+) bombardment. For 30 eV ions it was found that the Kapton is eroded via chemical mechanisms while Teflon FEP is eroded via collisional mechanisms. AFM analysis was found very powerful in revealing the evolution of the damage from its initial atomic scale (roughness of approx. 1 nm) to its final microscopic scale (roughness greater than 1 micron). Both the surface morphology and the average roughness of the bombarded surfaces (averaged over 1 micron x 1 micron images by the system's computer) were determined for each sample. For 30 eV a non linear increase of the Kapton roughness with the O(+) fluence was discovered (a slow increase rate for fluences phi less than 5 x 10(exp 17) O(+)/sq cm, and a rapid increase rate for phi greater than 5 x 10(exp 17) O(+)/sq cm). Comparative studies on the same materials exposed to RF and DC oxygen plasmas indicate that the specific details of the erosion depend on the simulation facility emphasizing the advantages of the ion beam facility.

  13. The origin and evolution of short-period Miras in the solar neighborhood: Constraints on the life cycle of old stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, M.

    1994-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the short-period (P less than 300 days) oxygen-rich Miras in the solar neighborhood can be fitted with an exponential scale height above the Galactic plane of about 600 pc. Using the Gliese catalog of local main-sequence stars, we estimate that the density of suitable G-type progenitor dwarfs within 20 pc of the Sun for these short-period Miras is 6 x 10(exp -4)/cu pc. The portion of the H-R diagram near the main-sequence turnoff of these velocity-selected Gliese stars is intermediate between that of the old open cluster NGC 188 and that of the metal-rich globular cluster, 47 Tuc. We infer that the main-sequence progenitors of the short-period Miras have masses near 1.0 solar mass, and we estimate that these Miras have ages approximately 9 x 10(exp 9). We also identify a few old disk red giants in the neighborhood of the Sun. On the basis of very limited information, we estimate that the total amount of mass lost from these stars during their first ascent up the red giant branch is less than or equal to 0.1 solar mass. We derive a duration of the short-period Mira phase of close to 5 x 10(exp 5) yr. This estimate for the duration of the short period Mira phase is longer than our estimate of 2 x 10(exp 5) yr for the duration of the Mira phase for stars with periods longer than 300 days. From their infrared colors, we estimate a typical mass-loss rate from the short-period Miras of approximately 1 x 10(exp -7) solar mass/yr.

  14. Black Holes in Bulgeless Galaxies: An XMM-Newton Investigation of NGC 3367 AND NGC 4536

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAlpine, W.; Satyapal, S.; Gliozzi, M.; Cheung, C. C.; Sambruna, R. M.; Eracleous, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of optically identified active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the local Universe reside in host galaxies with prominent bulges, supporting the hypothesis that black hole formation and growth is fundamentally connected to the build-up of galaxy bulges. However, recent mid-infrared spectroscopic studies with Spitzer of a sample of optically "normal" late-type galaxies reveal remarkably the presence of high-ionization [NeV] lines in several sources, providing strong evidence for AGNs in these galaxies. We present follow-up X-ray observations recently obtained with XMM-Newton of two such sources, the late-type optically normal galaxies NGC 3367 and NGC 4536. Both sources are detected in our observations. Detailed spectral analysis reveals that for both galaxies, the 2-10 keV emission is dominated by a power law with an X-ray luminosity in the L(sub 2- 10 keV) approximates 10(exp 39) - 10(exp 40) ergs/s range, consistent with low luminosity AGNs. While there is a possibility that X-ray binaries account for some fraction of the observed X-ray luminosity, we argue that this fraction is negligible. These observations therefore add to the growing evidence that the fraction of late-type galaxies hosting AGNs is significantly underestimated using optical observations alone. A comparison of the midinfrared [NeV] luminosity and the X-ray luminosities suggests the presence of an additional highly absorbed X-ray source in both galaxies, and that the black hole masses are in the range of 10(exp 5) - 10(exp 7) solar M for NGC 3367 and 10(exp 4) - (exp 10) solar M for NGC 4536

  15. FUSE Observations of Warm Gas in the Cooling Flow Clusters A1795 and A2597

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oegerle, W. R.; Cowie, L.; Davidsen, A.; Hu, E.; Hutchings, J.; Murphy, E.; Sembach, K.; Woodgate, B.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present far-ultraviolet spectroscopy of the cores of the massive cooling flow clusters Abell 1795 and 2597 obtained with FUSE. As the intracluster gas cools through 3 x 10(exp 5)K, it should emit strongly in the O VI lambda(lambda)1032,1038 resonance lines. We report the detection of O VI (lambda)1032 emission in A2597, with a line flux of 1.35 +/- 0.35 x 10(exp -15) erg/sq cm s, as well as detection of emission from C III (lambda)977. A marginal detection of C III (lambda)977 emission is also reported for A1795. These observations provide evidence for a direct link between the hot (10(exp 7) K) cooling flow gas and the cool (10(exp 4) K) gas in the optical emission line filaments. Assuming simple cooling flow models, the O VI line flux in A2597 corresponds to a mass deposition rate of approx. 40 solar mass /yr within the central 36 kpc. Emission from O VI (lambda)1032 was not detected in A1795, with an upper limit of 1.5 x 10(exp -15) erg/sq cm s, corresponding to a limit on the mass cooling flow rate of M(28 kpc) less than 28M solar mass/ yr. We have considered several explanations for the lack of detection of O VI emission in A1795 and the weaker than expected flux in A2597, including extinction by dust in the outer cluster, and quenching of thermal conduction by magnetic fields. We conclude that a turbulent mixing model, with some dust extinction, could explain our O VI results while also accounting for the puzzling lack of emission by Fe(sub XVII) in cluster cooling flows.

  16. Modeling of pickup ion distributions in the Halley cometosheath: Empirical limits on rates of ionization, diffusion, loss and creation of fast neutral atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huddleston, D. E.; Neugebauer, M.; Goldstein, B. E.

    1994-01-01

    The shape of the velocity distribution of water group ions observed by the Giotto ion mass spectrometer on its approach to comet Halley is modeled to derive empirical values for the rates of ionization, energy diffusion, and loss in the midcometosheath. The model includes the effect of rapid pitch angle scattering into a bispherical shell distribution as well as the effect of the magnetization of the plasma on the charge exchange loss rate. It is found that the average rate of ionization of cometary neutrals in this region of the cometosheath appears to be of the order of a factor 3 faster than the `standard' rates approx. 1 x 10(exp -6)/s that are generally assumed to model the observations in most regions of the comet environment. For the region of the coma studied in the present work (approx. 1 - 2 x 10(exp 5) km from the nucleus), the inferred energy diffusion coefficient is D(sub 0) approx. equals 0.0002 to 0.0005 sq km/cu s, which is generally lower than values used in other models. The empirically obtained loss rate appears to be about an order of magnitude greater than can be explained by charge exchange with the `standard' cross section of approx. 2 x 10(exp -15)sq cm. However such cross sections are not well known and for water group ion/water group neutral interactions, rates as high as 8 x 10(exp -15) sq cm have previously been suggested in the literature. Assuming the entire loss rate is due to charge exchange yields a rate of creation of fast neutral atoms of the order of approx. 10(exp -4)/s or higher, depending on the level of velocity diffusion. The fast neutrals may, in turn, be partly responsible for the higher-than-expected ionization rate.

  17. On a Solar Origin for the Cosmogenic Nuclide Event of 775 A.D.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliver, E. W.; Tylka, A. J.; Dietrich, W. F.; Ling, A. G.

    2014-01-01

    We explore requirements for a solar particle event (SPE) and flare capable of producing the cosmogenic nuclide event of 775 A.D., and review solar circumstances at that time. A solar source for 775 would require a greater than 1 GV spectrum approximately 45 times stronger than that of the intense high-energy SPE of 1956 February 23. This implies a greater than 30 MeV proton fluence (F(sub 30)) of approximately 8 × 10(exp 10) proton cm(exp -2), approximately 10 times larger than that of the strongest 3 month interval of SPE activity in the modern era. This inferred F(sub 30) value for the 775 SPE is inconsistent with the occurrence probability distribution for greater than 30 MeV solar proton events. The best guess value for the soft X-ray classification (total energy) of an associated flare is approximately X230 (approximately 9 × 10(exp 33) erg). For comparison, the flares on 2003 November 4 and 1859 September 1 had observed/inferred values of approximately X35 (approximately 10(exp 33) erg) and approximately X45 (approximately 2 × 10(exp 33) erg), respectively. The estimated size of the source active region for a approximately 10(exp 34) erg flare is approximately 2.5 times that of the largest region yet recorded. The 775 event occurred during a period of relatively low solar activity, with a peak smoothed amplitude about half that of the second half of the 20th century. The approximately 1945-1995 interval, the most active of the last approximately 2000 yr, failed to witness a SPE comparable to that required for the proposed solar event in 775. These considerations challenge a recent suggestion that the 775 event is likely of solar origin.

  18. Source Parameter Inversion for Recent Great Earthquakes from a Decade-long Observation of Global Gravity Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Shin-Chan; Riva, Ricccardo; Sauber, Jeanne; Okal, Emile

    2013-01-01

    We quantify gravity changes after great earthquakes present within the 10 year long time series of monthly Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity fields. Using spherical harmonic normal-mode formulation, the respective source parameters of moment tensor and double-couple were estimated. For the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, the gravity data indicate a composite moment of 1.2x10(exp 23)Nm with a dip of 10deg, in agreement with the estimate obtained at ultralong seismic periods. For the 2010 Maule earthquake, the GRACE solutions range from 2.0 to 2.7x10(exp 22)Nm for dips of 12deg-24deg and centroid depths within the lower crust. For the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, the estimated scalar moments range from 4.1 to 6.1x10(exp 22)Nm, with dips of 9deg-19deg and centroid depths within the lower crust. For the 2012 Indian Ocean strike-slip earthquakes, the gravity data delineate a composite moment of 1.9x10(exp 22)Nm regardless of the centroid depth, comparing favorably with the total moment of the main ruptures and aftershocks. The smallest event we successfully analyzed with GRACE was the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake with M(sub 0) approx. 5.0x10(exp 21)Nm. We found that the gravity data constrain the focal mechanism with the centroid only within the upper and lower crustal layers for thrust events. Deeper sources (i.e., in the upper mantle) could not reproduce the gravity observation as the larger rigidity and bulk modulus at mantle depths inhibit the interior from changing its volume, thus reducing the negative gravity component. Focal mechanisms and seismic moments obtained in this study represent the behavior of the sources on temporal and spatial scales exceeding the seismic and geodetic spectrum.

  19. 4. INTERIOR VIEW OF PORTSIDE PUMPROOM, DRYDOCK NO. 4, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR VIEW OF PORTSIDE PUMPROOM, DRYDOCK NO. 4, SHOWING DEWATERING PUMP - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Dry Dock No. 4, West of State Route 92, West of Nimitz Gate, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. 43 CFR 2812.4-4 - Arbitration procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Arbitration procedure. 2812.4-4 Section.... and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.4-4 Arbitration procedure. (a) Within 10 days after the delivery of a written request for arbitration under § 2812.4-1 or § 2812.4-3 of this subpart each of...

  1. Arizona Academic Standards: Grade 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 4. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 4; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4)…

  2. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 4. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 4; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4)…

  3. Capability 9.4 Servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, Rud

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on capability structure 9.4 servicing. The topics include: 1) Servicing Description; 2) Benefits of Servicing; 3) Drivers & Assumptions for Servicing; 4) Capability Breakdown Structure 9.4 Servicing; 5) Roadmap for Servicing; 6) 9.4 Servicing Critical Gaps; 7) Capability 9.4 Servicing; 8) Capability 9.4.1 Inspection; 9) State-of-the-Art /Maturity Level /Capabilities for 9.4.1 Inspection; 10) Capability 9.4.2 Diagnostics; 11) State-of-the-Art/Maturity Level /Capabilities for 9.4.2 Diagnostics; 12) Capability 9.4.3 Perform Planned Maintenance; 13) State-of-the-Art /Maturity Level /Capabilities for 9.4.3 Perform Planned Maintenance; 14) Capability 9.4.4 Perform Unplanned Repair; 15) State-of-the-Art /Maturity Level /Capabilities for 9.4.4 Perform Unplanned Repair; 16) Capability 9.4.5 Install Upgrade; 17) Capability 9.4.5 Install Upgrade; 18) State-of-the-Art /Maturity Level /Capabilities for 9.4.5 Install Upgrade; 19) Capability 9.4.6 Planning, Logistics, Training; and 20) State-of-the-Art /Maturity Level /Capabilities for 9.4.6 Planning, Logistics, & Training;

  4. Transonic-Wind-Tunnel Tests of the Aerodynamic Characteristics of a 0.15-Scale Model of the North American Aviation 255-Inch Fin-Stabilized External Store, Coord No. AF-AM-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischetti, Thomas L.

    1958-01-01

    An investigation has been made in the Langley 8-foot transonic tunnels on the aerodynamic characteristics of a 0.15-scale model of the North American Aviation 255-inch fin-stabilized external store over a maximum Mach number range of 0.60 to 1.2 and on the effects of mounting lugs, of fin orientation, of fin aspect ratio, and of fixed-transition. The Reynolds number (based on a body length of 37.50 inches) varied from 9.8 x 10(exp 6) to 13.1 x 10(exp 6). The results indicate that the static margin of the finned store at low lift coefficients was only 9 percent of body length at subsonic Mach numbers and was reduced to zero at a Mach number of 1.0, Increasing the fin aspect ratio from 1.82 to 2.41 increased the subsonic static margin to 18 percent and provided a minimum margin of 9 percent near a Mach number of l.O. Store mounting lugs or fin orientation had only small effects on the aerodynamic characteristics of the basic store.

  5. MAFIA Version 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiland, T.; Bartsch, M.; Becker, U.; Bihn, M.; Blell, U.; Clemens, M.; Dehler, M.; Dohlus, M.; Drevlak, M.; Du, X.; Ehmann, R.; Eufinger, A.; Gutschling, S.; Hahne, P.; Klatt, R.; Krietenstein, B.; Langstrof, A.; Pinder, P.; Podebrad, O.; Pröpper, T.; van Rienen, U.; Schmidt, D.; Schuhmann, R.; Schulz, A.; Schupp, S.; Schütt, P.; Thoma, P.; Timm, M.; Wagner, B.; Weber, R.; Wipf, S.; Wolter, H.; Min, Z.

    1997-02-01

    MAFIA Version 4.0 is an almost completely new version of the general purpose electromagnetic simulator known since 13 years. The major improvements concern the new graphical user interface based on state of the art technology as well as a series of new solvers for new physics problems. MAFIA now covers heat distribution, electro-quasistatics, S-parameters in frequency domain, particle beam tracking in linear accelerators, acoustics and even elastodynamics. The solvers that were available in earlier versions have also been improved and/or extended, as for example the complex eigenmode solver, the 2D-3D coupled PIC solvers. Time domain solvers have new waveguide boundary conditions with an extremely low reflection even near cutoff frequency, concentrated elements are available as well as a variety of signal processing options. Probably the most valuable addition are recursive sub-grid capabilities that enable modeling of very small details in large structures.

  6. Developmental milestones record - 4 years

    MedlinePlus

    Normal childhood growth milestones - 4 years; Growth milestones for children - 4 years; Childhood growth milestones - 4 years ... care provider. PHYSICAL AND MOTOR During the fourth year, a child typically: Gains weight at the rate ...

  7. Radiative Effects of Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valero, Francisco P. J.

    1996-01-01

    During the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) in June 1992, two descents in cloud-free regions allowed comparison of the change in aerosol optical depth as determined by an onboard total-direct-diffuse radiometer (TDDR) to the change calculated from measured size-resolved aerosol microphysics and chemistry. Both profiles included a pollution haze from Europe but the second also included the effect of a Saharan dust layer above the haze. The separate contributions of supermicrometer (coarse) and submicrometer (fine) aerosol were determined and thermal analysis of the pollution haze indicated that the fine aerosol was composed primarily of a sulfate/water mixture with a refractory soot-like core. The soot core increased the calculated extinction by about 10% in the most polluted drier layer relative to a pure sulfate aerosol but had significantly less effect at higher humidities. A 3 km descent through a boundary layer air mass dominated by pollutant aerosol with relative humidities (RH) 10-77% yielded a close agreement between the measured and calculated aerosol optical depths (550 nm) of 0.160 (+/- 0.07) and 0. 157 (+/- 0.034) respectively. During descent the aerosol mass scattering coefficient per unit sulfate mass varied from about 5 to 16 m(exp 2)/g and primarily dependent upon ambient RH. However, the total scattering coefficient per total fine mass was far less variable at about 4+/- 0.7 m(exp 2)/g. A subsequent descent through a Saharan dust layer located above the pollution aerosol layer revealed that both layers contributed similarly to aerosol optical depth. The scattering per unit mass of the coarse aged dust was estimated at 1.1 +/- 0.2 m(exp 2)/g. The large difference (50%) in measured and calculated optical depth for the dust layer exceeded measurements.

  8. 4 CFR 2.4 - Merit system principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Merit system principles. 2.4 Section 2.4 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM PURPOSE AND GENERAL PROVISION § 2.4 Merit system principles. (a) Merit personnel systems are based on the principle that an organization is best served by motivated, competent, honest and productive...

  9. 43 CFR 2812.4-4 - Arbitration procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Arbitration procedure. 2812.4-4 Section 2812.4-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over...

  10. 43 CFR 2812.4-4 - Arbitration procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Arbitration procedure. 2812.4-4 Section 2812.4-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over...

  11. 43 CFR 2812.4-4 - Arbitration procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Arbitration procedure. 2812.4-4 Section 2812.4-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over...

  12. 4 CFR 200.4 - Privacy Act inquiries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Privacy Act inquiries. 200.4 Section 200.4 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 200.4 Privacy Act inquiries. (a... Avenue, NW., Suite 700, Washington, DC 20006. Inquiries should be marked “Privacy Act Inquiry” on...

  13. 4 CFR 200.4 - Privacy Act inquiries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Privacy Act inquiries. 200.4 Section 200.4 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 200.4 Privacy Act inquiries. (a... Avenue, NW., Suite 700, Washington, DC 20006. Inquiries should be marked “Privacy Act Inquiry” on...

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Selected 4,4'-Diaminoalkoxyazobenzenes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of the -N(CH2CH20H)2 group in producing a mutagenic response from 4-«3-(2h) Uroxyethoxy)4-amino)phenylazo)-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-aniline has been investigated. To accomplish this goal, a group ofsubstituted 4,4'-diaminoazobenzene dyes was synthesized, and their struct...

  15. 37 CFR 4.4 - Invention promoter reply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Invention promoter reply. 4.4... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.4 Invention promoter reply. (a) If a submission appears to meet the requirements of a complaint, the invention promoter named in the...

  16. 37 CFR 4.4 - Invention promoter reply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Invention promoter reply. 4.4... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.4 Invention promoter reply. (a) If a submission appears to meet the requirements of a complaint, the invention promoter named in the...

  17. 37 CFR 4.4 - Invention promoter reply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Invention promoter reply. 4.4... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.4 Invention promoter reply. (a) If a submission appears to meet the requirements of a complaint, the invention promoter named in the...

  18. 37 CFR 4.4 - Invention promoter reply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Invention promoter reply. 4.4... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.4 Invention promoter reply. (a) If a submission appears to meet the requirements of a complaint, the invention promoter named in the...

  19. US EPA's SPECIATE 4.4 Database: Development and Uses

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPECIATE is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) repository of volatile organic gas and particulate matter (PM) speciation profiles of air pollution sources. EPA released SPECIATE 4.4 in early 2014 and, in total, the SPECIATE 4.4 database includes 5,728 PM, vola...

  20. US EPA's SPECIATE 4.4 Database: Development and Uses

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPECIATE is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) repository of volatile organic gas and particulate matter (PM) speciation profiles of air pollution sources. EPA released SPECIATE 4.4 in early 2014 and, in total, the SPECIATE 4.4 database includes 5,728 PM, volatile o...

  1. 43 CFR 3802.4-4 - Fire prevention and control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire prevention and control. 3802.4-4... Exploration and Mining, Wilderness Review Program § 3802.4-4 Fire prevention and control. The operator shall comply with all applicable Federal and State fire laws and regulations, and shall take all...

  2. 43 CFR 3802.4-4 - Fire prevention and control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire prevention and control. 3802.4-4... Exploration and Mining, Wilderness Review Program § 3802.4-4 Fire prevention and control. The operator shall comply with all applicable Federal and State fire laws and regulations, and shall take all...

  3. 43 CFR 4750.4-4 - Replacement animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Replacement animals. 4750.4-4 Section 4750... FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.4-4 Replacement animals. The authorized officer shall replace an animal, upon request by the adopter, if (a) within 6 months of the execution...

  4. 43 CFR 4750.4-4 - Replacement animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Replacement animals. 4750.4-4 Section 4750... FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.4-4 Replacement animals. The authorized officer shall replace an animal, upon request by the adopter, if (a) within 6 months of the execution...

  5. 43 CFR 4750.4-4 - Replacement animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Replacement animals. 4750.4-4 Section 4750... FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.4-4 Replacement animals. The authorized officer shall replace an animal, upon request by the adopter, if (a) within 6 months of the execution...

  6. 43 CFR 4750.4-4 - Replacement animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Replacement animals. 4750.4-4 Section 4750... FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.4-4 Replacement animals. The authorized officer shall replace an animal, upon request by the adopter, if (a) within 6 months of the execution...

  7. 4 CFR 200.4 - Privacy Act inquiries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Privacy Act inquiries. 200.4 Section 200.4 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 200.4 Privacy Act inquiries. (a) Inquiries regarding the contents of record systems. Any person wanting to know whether the Board's...

  8. 4 CFR 83.4 - Conditions of disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditions of disclosure. 83.4 Section 83.4 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE RECORDS PRIVACY PROCEDURES FOR PERSONNEL RECORDS § 83.4 Conditions of disclosure. GAO shall not disclose any record that is contained in a system of personnel records by any...

  9. 4 CFR 81.4 - Requests for identifiable records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requests for identifiable records. 81.4 Section 81.4 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE RECORDS PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE RECORDS § 81.4 Requests for identifiable records. (a) A request to inspect or obtain a copy of...

  10. 4 CFR 4.3 - Removal for unacceptable performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Removal for unacceptable performance. 4.3 Section 4.3 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND UTILIZATION § 4.3... employee whose reduction in grade/pay level or removal is proposed under this section is entitled to—...

  11. 4 CFR 25.4 - Preservation of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Preservation of property. 25.4 Section 25.4 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES CONDUCT IN THE GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.4 Preservation of property. The improper disposal of rubbish in the...

  12. 4 CFR 25.4 - Preservation of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preservation of property. 25.4 Section 25.4 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES CONDUCT IN THE GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.4 Preservation of property. The improper disposal of rubbish in the...

  13. 4 CFR 81.4 - Requests for identifiable records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requests for identifiable records. 81.4 Section 81.4 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE RECORDS PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE RECORDS § 81.4 Requests for identifiable records. (a) A request to inspect or obtain a copy of...

  14. 4 CFR 200.4 - Privacy Act inquiries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Privacy Act inquiries. 200.4 Section 200.4 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 200.4 Privacy Act inquiries. (a) Inquiries regarding the contents of record systems. Any person wanting to know whether the Board's...

  15. 4 CFR 81.4 - Requests for identifiable records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Requests for identifiable records. 81.4 Section 81.4 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE RECORDS PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE RECORDS § 81.4 Requests for identifiable records. (a) A request to inspect or obtain a copy of...

  16. 4 CFR 83.4 - Conditions of disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conditions of disclosure. 83.4 Section 83.4 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE RECORDS PRIVACY PROCEDURES FOR PERSONNEL RECORDS § 83.4 Conditions of... part 81 of this chapter, or authorized under § 83.5; or (c) For a routine use as defined in §...

  17. 4 CFR 83.4 - Conditions of disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Conditions of disclosure. 83.4 Section 83.4 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE RECORDS PRIVACY PROCEDURES FOR PERSONNEL RECORDS § 83.4 Conditions of... part 81 of this chapter, or authorized under § 83.5; or (c) For a routine use as defined in §...

  18. 4 CFR 200.4 - Privacy Act inquiries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Privacy Act inquiries. 200.4 Section 200.4 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 200.4 Privacy Act inquiries. (a) Inquiries regarding the contents of record systems. Any person wanting to know whether the Board's...

  19. 38 CFR 4.101-4.103 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 4.101-4.103 Section 4.101-4.103 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Cardiovascular System §§...

  20. 43 CFR 3802.4-4 - Fire prevention and control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire prevention and control. 3802.4-4... Exploration and Mining, Wilderness Review Program § 3802.4-4 Fire prevention and control. The operator shall comply with all applicable Federal and State fire laws and regulations, and shall take all...

  1. 43 CFR 3862.4-4 - Charges for publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Charges for publication. 3862.4-4 Section... Claim Patent Applications § 3862.4-4 Charges for publication. (a) The charge for the publication of... allowed by the laws of the several States for the publication of legal notices wherein the notice...

  2. A season of heat, water vapor, total hydrocarbon, and ozone fluxes at a subarctic fen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Kathleen E.; Fitzjarrald, David R.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Daube, Bruce C.; Munger, J. William; Bakwin, Peter S.; Crill, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    High-latitude environments are thought to play several critical roles in the global balance of radiatively active trace gases. Adequate documentation of the source and sink strengths for trace gases requires long time series of detailed measurements, including heat and moisture budgets. A fen near Schefferville, Quebec, was instrumented during the summer of 1990 for the measurement of the surface energy, radiation, and moisture balances as well as for eddy correlation estimates of ozone and methane flux. Despite the limited fetch at this site, analysis of the tower flux 'footprint' indicates that at least 80% of the flux observed originates from sources within the fen. Sensible heat fluxes averaged 25% of the daytime net radiation at the site, while the latent heat flux, determined from the energy balance, was 63%; the Bowen ratio varied from 0.2 to 0.8 from day to day, without a seasonal trend to the variation. The competing effects of rooted macrophyte development (with concomitant effects on roughness and transpiration) and the normal shift in synoptic pattern around day 200 to warm, dry conditions results in a lack of net seasonal effect on the energy partitioning. Over the period from days 170 to 230, the evaporation (167 mm) was double the rainfall, while the decline in water level was 107 mm, leaving a net runoff of 0.44 mm/d. The total hydrocarbon flux was 75-120 mg m(exp -2)/d, following a diurnal pattern similar to heat or moisture flux, while the daytime ozone flux was about -1.11 x 10(exp 11) molecules cm(exp -2)/s. A period near the end of the experiment, during week 30, produced the strongest total hydrocarbon flux, associated with warmer deep (1 m) soil temperatures, lower fen water levels, and the late summer shift in wind direction at that time. An early summer 'flush' of total hydrocarbon was not observed.

  3. 4X source

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.V. Jr.; Allison, P.; Sherman, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Our Penning surface-plasma source (SPS) discharge chamber was enlarged 4X in two dimensions. To date, three pulsed discharge modes have been studied: two with noisy arc (greater than or equal to 20% H/sup -/ current fluctuations) and one with quiescent arc (less than or equal to 1% H/sup -/ current fluctuations). Lower arc magnetic field and higher H/sub 2/ gas flow allow switching from the noisy to the quiescent mode. The noisy modes yield up to 120 mA of 29-keV H/sup -/ beam; for 110 mA at 29 keV, the two-dimensional normalized rms emittance is 0.017 x 0.018 ..pi...cm.mrad. The quiescent mode yields 75 mA of 29-keV H/sup -/beam; for 67 mA at 24 keV, the emittance is 0.011 x 0.012 ..pi...cm.mrad.

  4. Extraterrestrial Helium Trapped in Fullerenes in the Sudbury Impact Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Luann; Poreda, Robert J.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    1996-01-01

    Fullerenes (C60 and C70) in the Sudbury impact structure contain trapped helium with a He-3/He-4 ratio of 5.5 x 10(exp -4) to 5.9 x 10(exp -4). The He-3/He-4 ratio exceeds the accepted solar wind value by 20 to 30 percent and is higher by an order of magnitude than the maximum reported mantle value. Terrestrial nuclear reactions or cosmic-ray bombardment are not sufficient to generate such a high ratio. The He-3/He-4 ratios in the Sudbury fullerenes are similar to those found in meteorites and in some interplanetary dust particles. The implication is that the helium within the C60 molecules at Sudbury is of extraterrestrial origin.

  5. 14 CFR Section 4 - General

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Balance Sheet Classifications Section 4 General (a) The balance sheet accounts are designed to show the financial condition of the air... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General Section 4 Section 4 Aeronautics...

  6. 14 CFR Section 4 - General

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Balance Sheet Classifications Section 4 General (a) The balance sheet accounts are designed to show the financial condition of the air... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General Section 4 Section 4 Aeronautics...

  7. A high level computational study of the CH4/CF4 dimer: how does it compare with the CH4/CH4 and CF4/CF4 dimers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biller, Matthew J.; Mecozzi, Sandro

    2012-04-01

    The interaction within the methane-methane (CH4/CH4), perfluoromethane-perfluoromethane (CF4/CF4) methane-perfluoromethane dimers (CH4/CF4) was calculated using the Hartree-Fock (HF) method, multiple orders of Møller-Plesset perturbation theory [MP2, MP3, MP4(DQ), MP4(SDQ), MP4(SDTQ)], and coupled cluster theory [CCSD, CCSD(T)], as well as the PW91, B97D, and M06-2X density functional theory (DFT) functionals. The basis sets of Dunning and coworkers (aug-cc-pVxZ, x = D, T, Q), Krishnan and coworkers [6-311++G(d,p), 6-311++G(2d,2p)], and Tsuzuki and coworkers [aug(df, pd)-6-311G(d,p)] were used. Basis set superposition error (BSSE) was corrected via the counterpoise method in all cases. Interaction energies obtained with the MP2 method do not fit with the experimental finding that the methane-perfluoromethane system phase separates at 94.5 K. It was not until the CCSD(T) method was considered that the interaction energy of the methane-perfluoromethane dimer (-0.69 kcal mol-1) was found to be intermediate between the methane (-0.51 kcal mol-1) and perfluoromethane (-0.78 kcal mol-1) dimers. This suggests that a perfluoromethane molecule interacts preferentially with another perfluoromethane (by about 0.09 kcal mol-1) than with a methane molecule. At temperatures much lower than the CH4/CF4 critical solution temperature of 94.5 K, this energy difference becomes significant and leads perfluoromethane molecules to associate with themselves, forming a phase separation. The DFT functionals yielded erratic results for the three dimers. Further development of DFT is needed in order to model dispersion interactions in hydrocarbon/perfluorocarbon systems.

  8. AAS 227: Day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 4 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Helen B. Warner Prize: Origins of Structure in Planetary Systems (by Erika Nesvold)Another excellent prize lecture started off todays sessions. The Helen B. Warner Prize is awarded for achievement in observational or theoretical astrophysics by a young researcher (no more than eight years after their Ph.D.). This years Warner Prize was presented to Ruth Murray-Clay of UC Santa Barbara. For her award lecture, Murray-Clay told us all about planetary system architecture: the number, masses, and orbits of planets in a given system.Ruth Murray-Clay [photo from http://web.physics.ucsb.edu/ ~murray/biocv.html]The underlying question motivating this type of research is: How rare is the Solar System? In other words, how likely is it that a given planetary system will have rocky planets close to their star, gas giants farther out, and ice giants at the outer reaches of the system? Answering this question will help us solve the physics problem of how and where planets form, and will also help us on our search for other planets like Earth.The data on exoplanet population from transit and radial velocity observations and from direct imaging tell us that our Solar System is not common (many systems we observe have much more eccentric gas giants), but that doesnt

  9. The ternary system K2SO4MgSO4CaSO4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowe, J.J.; Morey, G.W.; Silber, C.C.

    1967-01-01

    Melting and subsolidus relations in the system K2SO4MgSO4CaSO4 were studied using heating-cooling curves, differential thermal analysis, optics, X-ray diffraction at room and high temperatures and by quenching techniques. Previous investigators were unable to study the binary MgSO4CaSO4 system and the adjacent area in the ternary system because of the decomposition of MgSO4 and CaSO4 at high temperatures. This problem was partly overcome by a novel sealed-tube quenching method, by hydrothermal synthesis, and by long-time heating in the solidus. As a result of this study, we found: (1) a new compound, CaSO4??3MgSO4 (m.p. 1201??C) with a field extending into the ternary system; (2) a high temperature form of MgSO4 with a sluggishly reversible inversion. An X-ray diffraction pattern for this polymorphic form is given; (3) the inversion of ??-CaSO4 (anhydrite) to ??-CaSO4 at 1195??C, in agreement with grahmann; (1) (4) the melting point of MgSO4 is 1136??C and that of CaSO4 is 1462??C (using sealed tube methods to prevent decomposition of the sulphates); (5) calcium langbeinite (K2SO4??2CaSO4) is the only compound in the K2SO4CaSO4 binary system. This resolved discrepancies in the results of previous investigators; (6) a continuous solid solution series between congruently melting K2SOP4??2MgSO4 (langbeinite) and incongruently melting K2SO4??2CaSO4 (calcium langbeinite); (7) the liquidus in the ternary system consists of primary phase fields of K2SO4, MgSO4, CaSO4, langbeinite-calcium langbeinite solid solution, and CaSO4??3MgSO4. The CaSO4 field extends over a large portion of the system. Previously reported fields for the compounds (K2SO4??MgSO4??nCaSO4), K2SO4??3CaSO4 and K2SO4??CaSO4 were not found; (8) a minimum in the ternary system at: 740??C, 25% MgSO4, 6% CaSO4, 69% K2SO4; and ternary eutectics at 882??C, 49% MgSO4, 19% CaSO4, 32% K2SO4; and 880??, 67??5% MgSO4, 5% CaSO4, 27??5% K2SO4. ?? 1967.

  10. C(4) eudicots are not younger than C(4) monocots.

    PubMed

    Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Osborne, Colin P; Sage, Rowan F; Arakaki, Mónica; Edwards, Erika J

    2011-05-01

    C(4) photosynthesis is a plant adaptation to high levels of photorespiration. Physiological models predict that atmospheric CO(2) concentration selected for C(4) grasses only after it dropped below a critical threshold during the Oligocene (∼30 Ma), a hypothesis supported by phylogenetic and molecular dating analyses. However the same models predict that CO(2) should have reached much lower levels before selecting for C(4) eudicots, making C(4) eudicots younger than C(4) grasses. In this study, different phylogenetic datasets were combined in order to conduct the first comparative analysis of the age of C(4) origins in eudicots. Our results suggested that all lineages of C(4) eudicots arose during the last 30 million years, with the earliest before 22 Ma in Chenopodiaceae and Aizoaceae, and the latest probably after 2 Ma in Flaveria. C(4) eudicots are thus not globally younger than C(4) monocots. All lineages of C(4) plants evolved in a similar low CO(2) atmosphere that predominated during the last 30 million years. Independent C(4) origins were probably driven by different combinations of specific factors, including local ecological characteristics such as habitat openness, aridity, and salinity, as well as the speciation and dispersal history of each clade. Neither the lower number of C(4) species nor the frequency of C(3)-C(4) intermediates in eudicots can be attributed to a more recent origin, but probably result from variation in diversification and evolutionary rates among the different groups that evolved the C(4) pathway. PMID:21393383

  11. Red-to-violet and near-infrared-to-green energy upconversion in LaF3:Er(3+)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, B. R.; Nash-Stevenson, S. K.

    1994-01-01

    When the (sup 4)F(sub 9/2) state was resonantly excited, emission was detected from the higher states (sup 4)S(sub 3/2)((sup 2)H(sub 11/2), (sup 4)G(sub 11/2), and (sup 2)P(sub 3/2) in addition to the resonant emission. Two- and three-photon processes were found to be responsible in populating the (sup 4)S(sub 3/2) and the (sup 2)P(sub 3/2) states, respectively. Energy upconversion efficiencies into the (sup 4)S(sub 3/2) and the (sup 2)P(sub 3/2) states were found to be 7.2 x 10(exp -3) and 1.4 x 10(exp -4), respectively. When the (sup 4)I(sub 9/2) state was resonantly excited we detected green emission from the (sup 4)S(sub 3/2)((sup 2)H(sub 11/2)). The energy upconversion efficiency of this process was found to be 1.4 x 10(exp -3).

  12. Reductive dechlorination of 2,4-dichlorobenzoate to 4-chlorobenzoate and hydrolytic dehalogenation of 4-chloro-, 4-bromo-, and 4-iodobenzoate by Alcaligenes denitrificans NTB-1.

    PubMed Central

    van den Tweel, W J; Kok, J B; de Bont, J A

    1987-01-01

    Alcaligenes denitrificans NTB-1, previously isolated on 4-chlorobenzoate, also utilized 4-bromo-, 4-iodo-, and 2,4-dichlorobenzoate but not 4-fluorobenzoate as a sole carbon and energy source. During growth, stoichiometric amounts of halide were released. Experiments with whole cells and cell extracts revealed that 4-bromo- and 4-iodobenzoate were metabolized like 4-chlorobenzoate, involving an initial hydrolytic dehalogenation yielding 4-hydroxybenzoate, which in turn was hydroxylated to 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate. The initial step in the metabolism of 2,4-dichlorobenzoate was catalyzed by a novel type of reaction for aerobic organisms, involving inducible reductive dechlorination to 4-chlorobenzoate. Under conditions of low and controlled oxygen concentrations, A. denitrificans NTB-1 converted all 4-halobenzoates and 2,4-dichlorobenzoate almost quantitatively to 4-hydroxybenzoate. PMID:3579283

  13. Summary of Almost 20 Years of Storm Overflight Electric Field, Conductivity, Flash Rate, and Current Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, Richard J.; Mach, Douglas M.; Bateman, Monte J.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.

    2011-01-01

    We present total conduction (Wilson) currents for more than 1000 high-altitude aircraft overflights of electrified clouds acquired over nearly two decades. The overflights include a wide geographical sample of storms over land and ocean, with and without lightning, and with positive (i.e., upward-directed) and negative current. Peak electric field, with lightning transients removed, ranged from -1.0 kV/m to 16. kV/m, with mean (median) of 0.9 kV/m (0.29 kV/m). Total conductivity at flight altitude ranged from 0.6 pS/m to 3.6 pS/m, with mean and median of 2.2 pS/m. Peak current densities ranged from -2.0 nA m(exp -2) to 33.0 nA m(exp -2) with mean (median) of 1.9 nA m(exp -2) (0.6 nA m(exp -2)). Total upward current flow from storms in our dataset ranged from -1.3 to 9.4 A. The mean current for storms with lightning is 1.7 A over ocean and 1.0 A over land. The mean current for electrified shower clouds (i.e. electrified storms without lightning) is 0.41 A for ocean and 0.13 A for land. About 78% (43%) of the land (ocean) storms have detectable lightning. Land storms have 2.8 times the mean flash rate as ocean storms (2.2 versus 0.8 flashes min-1, respectively). Approximately 7% of the overflights had negative current. The mean and median currents for positive (negative) polarity storms are 1.0 and 0.35 A (-0.30 and -0.26 A). We found no regional or latitudinal-based patterns in our storm currents, nor support for simple scaling laws between cloud top height and lightning flash rate.

  14. 4,4′-Bipyridinium bis(perchlorate)–4-aminobenzoic acid–4,4′-bipyridine–water (1/4/2/2)

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Qun-Hui; Han, Lu; Hou, Jian-Dong; Luo, Yi-Fan; Zeng, Rong-Hua

    2009-01-01

    In the structure of the title compound, C10H10N2 2+·2ClO4 −·4C7H7NO2·2C10H8N2·2H2O, the 4,4′-bipyridinium cation has a crystallographically imposed centre of symmetry. The cation is linked by N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds to adjacent 4,4′-bipyridine mol­ecules, which in turn inter­act via O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds with 4-amino­benzoic acid mol­ecules, forming chains running parallel to [30]. The chains are further connected into a three-dimensional network by N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions involving the perchlorate anion, the water mol­ecules and the 4-amino­benzoic acid mol­ecules. In addition, π–π stacking inter­actions with centroid–centroid distances ranging from 3.663 (6) to 3.695 (6) Å are present. The O atoms of the perchlorate anion are disordered over two sets of positions, with refined site occupancies of 0.724 (9) and 0.276 (9). PMID:21581593

  15. Electron transfer between [4Fe-4S] clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voityuk, Alexander A.

    2010-07-01

    Iron-sulfur clusters [4Fe-4S] are major components in biological electron transport (ET). Using the DFT/B3LYP method, we calculate electronic coupling for low- and high-potential ET between [4Fe-4S] clusters and explore its sensitivity to structural parameters of the system and external electric field. As an example, we consider a model of the bacterial respiratory complex I and estimate the role of neighboring amino acids in facilitating the ET process between the clusters. Our results suggest that the superexchange mechanism rather than hole hopping should be operative in ET between [4Fe-4S] redox centers.

  16. Comparative analysis of CD4-4B4 and CD4-2H4 lymphocyte subpopulations in HIV negative homosexual, HIV seropositive and healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Vuillier, F; Lapresle, C; Dighiero, G

    1988-01-01

    A comparative analysis of subsets (4B4 and 2H4) within the CD4 lymphocyte subpopulation was made by double marker analysis among 23 healthy heterosexual, 16 healthy HIV seronegative high-risk homosexuals and 82 HIV seropositive subjects. Data show that the significant increase in CD4 lymphocytes observed among seronegative homosexuals corresponds mainly to an increase in CD4-4B4 positive cells while CD4-2H4 subset levels remain comparable to healthy heterosexual controls. A decrease both in CD4-4B4 and CD4-2H4, parallel to a decrease in CD4 subpopulation, was observed in asymptomatic seropositive carriers (SPC) and patients with ARC syndrome (AIDS-related complex) or AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). Interestingly, an absolute decrease in CD4 subpopulation in patients with asymptomatic lymph node enlargement (LAS), is chiefly accounted for by a decrease in CD4-4B4 subset. The values of CD4-2H4 subset are significantly higher than those observed for SPC patients and are close to the normal values. These observations are of interest, as no differences between SPC and LAS patients could be detected when CD3, CD4 and CD8 subpopulations were studied. PMID:2964959

  17. E4BP4 overexpression: a protective mechanism in CD4+ T cells from SLE patients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; Liu, Qian; Liang, Gongping; Wang, Litao; Luo, Shuangyan; Tang, Qian; Zhao, Hongjun; Su, Yuwen; Yung, Susan; Chan, Tak Mao; Lu, Qianjin

    2013-03-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototype autoimmune disease characterized by various immunological abnormalities, including dysregulated activation of T and B lymphocytes, which trigger autoantibody production and immune-complex deposition. E4BP4, also known as NFIL3, has emerged as a major transcription factor that regulates the development and function of immune cells in a number of lineages. E4BP4 has been shown to regulate cytokines expression, and its synthesis is in turn controlled by various cytokines. To date, the roles of E4BP4 in immune dysregulation and autoimmune disorders are unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that E4BP4 expression is increased in CD4(+) T cells isolated from patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), especially in patients treated with glucocorticoid (GC). Increased expression of E4BP4 inhibited the activation and self-reactivity of T cells stimulated by anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies. In contrast, the self-reactivity was enhanced in CD4(+) T cells from SLE patients following E4BP4 gene silencing and the production of autoantibody was increased in autologous B cells. We further demonstrated that E4BP4 directly regulated CD40L expression by binding to the promoter region and altering histone acetylation and methylation of the CD40L loci. Taken together, our data provide evidence that E4BP4 can inhibit CD40L expression through epigenetic modifications in the promoter region of CD40L, thus negatively regulating self-reactivity of SLE CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that overexpression of E4BP4 initiates a protective mechanism in SLE CD4(+) T cells, which may be a promising target in the therapy for SLE. PMID:23340290

  18. Soft x-ray properties of the binary millisecond pulsar J0437-4715

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P.; Martin, Christopher; Marshall, Herman L.

    1995-01-01

    We obtained a light curve for the 5.75 ms pulsar J0437-4715 in the 65-120 A range with 0.5 ms time resolution using the Deep Survey instrument on the EUVE satellite. The single-peaked profile has a pulsed fraction of 0. 27 +/- 0.05, similar to the ROSAT data in the overlapping energy band. A combined analysis of the EUVE and ROSAT data is consistent with a power-law spectrum of energy index alpha = 1.2-1.5, intervening column density NH = (5-8) x 10(exp 19)/sq cm, and luminosity 5.0 x 10(exp 30) ergs/s in the 0.1-2. 4 keV band. We also use a bright EUVE/ROSAT source only 4.3 deg from the pulsar, the Seyfert galaxy RX J0437.4-4711 (= EUVE J0437-471 = lES 0435-472), to obtain an independent upper limit on the intervening absorption to the pulsar, NH less than 1.2 x 10(exp 20)/sq cm. Although a blackbody spectrum fails to fit the ROSAT data, two-component spectral fits to the combined EUVE/ROSAT data are used to limit the temperatures and surface areas of thermal emission that might make partial contributions to the flux. A hot polar cap of radius 50-600 m and temperature (1.0-3.3) x 10(exp 6) K could be present. Alternatively, a larger region with T = (4-12) x 10(exp 5) K and area less than 200 sq km, might contribute most of the EUVE and soft X-ray flux, but only if a hotter component were present as well. Any of these temperatures would require some mechanism(s) of surface reheating to be operating in this old pulsar, the most plausible being the impact of accelerated electrons and positrons onto the polar caps. The kinematically corrected spin-down power of PSR J0437-4715 is only 4 x 10(exp 33) ergs/s, which is an order of magnitude less than that of the lowest-luminosity gamma-ray pulsars Geminga and PSR B1055-52. The absence of high-energy gamma-rays from PSR J0437-4715 might signify an inefficient or dead outer gap accelerator, which in turn accounts for the lack of a more luminous reheated surface such as those intermediate-age gamma-ray pulsars may have.

  19. Soft X-Ray Properties of the Binary Millisecond Pulsar J0437-4715

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P.; Martin, Christopher; Marshall, Herman, L.; Oliversen, Ronald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We obtained a light curve for the 5.75 ms pulsar J0437-4715 in the 65-120 A range with 0.5 ms time resolution using the Deep Survey instrument on the EUVE satellite. The single-peaked profile has a pulsed fraction of 0.27 +/- 0.05, similar to the ROSAT data in the overlapping energy band. A combined analysis of the EUVE and ROSAT data is consistent with a power-law spectrum of energy index alpha = 1.2 - 1.5, intervening column density N(sub H) = (5 - 8) x 10(exp 19)/sq cm, and luminosity 5.0 x 10(exp 30) ergs/s in the 0.1 - 2.4 keV band. We also use a bright EUVE/ROSAT source only 4.2 min. from the pulsar, the Seyfert galaxy RX J0437.4-4711 (= EUVE J0437-471 = IES 0435-472), to obtain an independent upper limit on the intervening absorption to the pulsar, N(sub H) less than 1.2 x 10(exp 20)/sq cm. Although a blackbody spectrum fails to fit the ROSAT data, two-component spectral fits to the combined EUVE/ROSAT data are used to limit the temperatures and surface areas of thermal emission that might make partial contributions to the flux. A hot polar cap of radius 50 - 600 m and temperature (1.0 - 3.3) x 10(exp 6) K could be present. Alternatively, a larger region with T = (4 - 12) x 10(exp 5) K and area less than 200 sq km, might contribute most of the EUVE and soft X-ray flux, but only if a hotter component were present as well. Any of these temperatures would require some mechanism(s) of surface reheating to be operating in this old pulsar, the most plausible being the impact of accelerated electrons and positrons onto the polar caps. The kinematically corrected spin-down power of PSR J0437-4715 is only 4 x 10(exp 33) ergs/s, which is an order of magnitude less than that of the lowest-luminosity gamma-ray pulsars Geminga and PSR B1055-52. The absence of high-energy gamma-rays from PSR J0437-4715 might signify an inefficient or dead outer gap accelerator, which in turn accounts for the lack of a more luminous reheated surface such as those intermediate-age gamma

  20. Integration of g4tools in Geant4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hřivnáčová, Ivana

    2014-06-01

    g4tools, that is originally part of the inlib and exlib packages, provides a very light and easy to install set of C++ classes that can be used to perform analysis in a Geant4 batch program. It allows to create and manipulate histograms and ntuples, and write them in supported file formats (ROOT, AIDA XML, CSV and HBOOK). It is integrated in Geant4 through analysis manager classes, thus providing a uniform interface to the g4tools objects and also hiding the differences between the classes for different supported output formats. Moreover, additional features, such as for example histogram activation or support for Geant4 units, are implemented in the analysis classes following users requests. A set of Geant4 user interface commands allows the user to create histograms and set their properties interactively or in Geant4 macros. g4tools was first introduced in the Geant4 9.5 release where its use was demonstrated in one basic example, and it is already used in a majority of the Geant4 examples within the Geant4 9.6 release. In this paper, we will give an overview and the present status of the integration of g4tools in Geant4 and report on upcoming new features.

  1. 42 CFR 4.4 - Use of Library facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF MEDICINE § 4.4 Use of Library facilities. (a) General. The Library facilities are available to any... rules designed to provide adequate reading space and orderly conditions and procedures. (c) Study...

  2. 42 CFR 4.4 - Use of Library facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF MEDICINE § 4.4 Use of Library facilities. (a) General. The Library facilities are available to any... rules designed to provide adequate reading space and orderly conditions and procedures. (c) Study...

  3. 42 CFR 4.4 - Use of Library facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF MEDICINE § 4.4 Use of Library facilities. (a) General. The Library facilities are available to any... rules designed to provide adequate reading space and orderly conditions and procedures. (c) Study...

  4. Preparation of 4-amino-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid

    DOEpatents

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Glass, David R.

    2016-03-22

    A process for synthesizing 4-amino-2,4-dioxobutanoate involves reacting a dialkyl oxalate with an alkoxide in ethanol to form a reaction mixture, and afterward adding an alkyl cyano acetate to the reaction mixture and allowing a reaction to proceed under conditions suitable to form a first reaction product of the formula diethyl 2-cyano-3-hydroxy-butenedioate, and then isolating the diethyl 2-cyano-3-hydroxy-butenedioate, and afterward reacting the diethyl-2-cyano-3-hydroxy-butenedioate with an aqueous hydroxide under conditions suitable to form 4-amino-2,4-dioxobutanoate. The 4-amino-2,4-dioxobutanoate may be acidified into 4-amino-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid.

  5. Asymptotic Giant Branch stars as a source of short-lived radioactive nuclei in the solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasserburg, G. J.; Busso, M.; Gallino, R.; Raiteri, C. M.

    1994-01-01

    We carried out a theoretical evaluation of the contribution of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars to some short-lived (10(exp 6) less than or equal to Tau-bar less than or equal to 2 x 10(exp 7) yr) isotopes in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) and in the early solar system using stellar model calculations for thermally pulsing evolutionary phases of low-mass stars. The yields of s-process nuclei in the convective He-shell for different neutron exposures tau(sub 0) were obtained, and AGB stars were shown to produce several radioactive nuclei (especially Pd-107, Pb-205, Fe-60, Zr-93, Tc-99, Cs-135, and Hf-182) in diferent amounts. Assuming either contamination of the solar nebula from a single AGB star or models for continuous injection and mixing from many stars into the ISM, we calculate the ratios of radioactive to stable nuclei at the epoch of the Sun's formation. The dilution factor between the AGB ejecta and the early solar system matter is obtained by matching the observed Pd-107/Pd-108 and depends on the value of tau(sub 0). It is found that small masses M(sub He) of He-shell material (10(exp -4)-10(exp -7) solar mass) enriched in s-process nuclei are sufficient to contaminate 1 solar mass of the ISM to produce the Pd-107 found in the early solar system. Predictions are made for all of the other radioactive isotopes. The optimal model to explain several observed radioactive species at different states of the proto-solar nebula involves a single AGB star with a low neutron exposure (tau(sub 0) = 0.03 mbarn(sup -1)) which contaminated the cloud with a dilution factor of M(sub He)/solar mass approximately 1.5 x 10(exp -4). This will also contribute newly synthesized stable s-process nuclei in the amount of approximately 10(exp -4) of their abundances already present in the proto-solar cloud. Variations in the degree of homogenization (approximately 30%) of the injected material may account for some of the small general isotopic anomalies found in meteorites. It is

  6. Detection of Interstellar Ethylene Oxide (c-C2H4O)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickens, J. E.; Irvine, W. M.; Ohishi, M.; Ikeda, M.; Ishikawa, S.; Nummelin, A.; Hjalmarson, A.

    1997-01-01

    We report the identification of 10 transitions which support the detection of the small cyclic molecule ethylene oxide (c-C2H40) in SgrB2(N). Although one of these transitions is severely blended, such that an accurate intensity and linewidth could not be determined, and two other lines are only marginally detected, we have done gaussian fits to the remaining 7 lines and have performed a rotation diagram analysis. Our results indicate a rotation temperature, Trot = 18 K, and a molecular column density, N(c-C2H40) = 3.3 x 1014cm-2, corresponding to a fractional abundance relative to molecular hydrogen of order 6 x 10exp -11). This is a factor of more than 200 higher than the abundance for this molecule suggested by the "new standard" chemistry model of Lee, Bettens, & Herbst (1996). This result suggests that grain chemistry might play an effective role in the production Of c-C2H40. No transitions of this molecule were detected in either SgrB2(M) or SgrB2(NW).

  7. 32 CFR 1645.4 - Exclusion from Class 4-D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MINISTERS OF RELIGION § 1645.4 Exclusion from Class 4-D. A registrant is excluded from Class 4-D when his... duly ordained minister of religion in accordance with the ceremonial rite or discipline of a church... principles of religion and administer the ordinances of public worship, as embodied in the creed...

  8. 32 CFR 1645.4 - Exclusion from Class 4-D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MINISTERS OF RELIGION § 1645.4 Exclusion from Class 4-D. A registrant is excluded from Class 4-D when his... duly ordained minister of religion in accordance with the ceremonial rite or discipline of a church... principles of religion and administer the ordinances of public worship, as embodied in the creed...

  9. 32 CFR 1645.4 - Exclusion from Class 4-D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MINISTERS OF RELIGION § 1645.4 Exclusion from Class 4-D. A registrant is excluded from Class 4-D when his... duly ordained minister of religion in accordance with the ceremonial rite or discipline of a church... principles of religion and administer the ordinances of public worship, as embodied in the creed...

  10. 32 CFR 1645.4 - Exclusion from Class 4-D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MINISTERS OF RELIGION § 1645.4 Exclusion from Class 4-D. A registrant is excluded from Class 4-D when his... duly ordained minister of religion in accordance with the ceremonial rite or discipline of a church... principles of religion and administer the ordinances of public worship, as embodied in the creed...

  11. 41 CFR 60-4.4 - Affirmative action requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Affirmative action... OF LABOR 4-CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTORS-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS § 60-4.4 Affirmative action requirements. (a) To implement the affirmative action requirements of Executive Order 11246 in the...

  12. 41 CFR 60-4.4 - Affirmative action requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Affirmative action... OF LABOR 4-CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTORS-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS § 60-4.4 Affirmative action requirements. (a) To implement the affirmative action requirements of Executive Order 11246 in the...

  13. 41 CFR 60-4.4 - Affirmative action requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Affirmative action... OF LABOR 4-CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTORS-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS § 60-4.4 Affirmative action requirements. (a) To implement the affirmative action requirements of Executive Order 11246 in the...

  14. 41 CFR 60-4.4 - Affirmative action requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Affirmative action... OF LABOR 4-CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTORS-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS § 60-4.4 Affirmative action requirements. (a) To implement the affirmative action requirements of Executive Order 11246 in the...

  15. 41 CFR 60-4.4 - Affirmative action requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Affirmative action... OF LABOR 4-CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTORS-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS § 60-4.4 Affirmative action requirements. (a) To implement the affirmative action requirements of Executive Order 11246 in the...

  16. Dry dock no. 4. Service Building between dry docks 4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Dry dock no. 4. Service Building between dry docks 4 and 5. Floor plans (Navy Yard Public Works Office 1941). In files of Cushman & Wakefield, building 501. Philadelphia Naval Business Center. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Service Building, Dry Docks No. 4 & 5, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. 4 CFR 2.4 - Merit system principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... applicants for employment should receive fair and equitable treatment in all aspects of personnel management... information which the employee reasonably believes evidences: a violation of any law, rule or regulation; or... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Merit system principles. 2.4 Section 2.4...

  18. 4 CFR 4.3 - Removal for unacceptable performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Removal for unacceptable performance. 4.3 Section 4.3... Removal for unacceptable performance. GAO may reduce in grade/pay level or remove an employee for... employee whose reduction in grade/pay level or removal is proposed under this section is entitled to—...

  19. 4.4 Physical Properties of the Most Important Radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.4 Physical Properties of the Most Important Radionuclides' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy'.

  20. 32 CFR 1645.4 - Exclusion from Class 4-D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MINISTERS OF RELIGION § 1645.4 Exclusion from Class 4-D. A registrant is excluded from Class 4-D when his... duly ordained minister of religion in accordance with the ceremonial rite or discipline of a church... principles of religion and administer the ordinances of public worship, as embodied in the creed...

  1. First measurement of helium on Mars: Implications for the problem of radiogenic gases on the terrestrial planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasnopolsky, V. A.; Bowyer, S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Gladstone, G. R.; Mcdonald, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    108 +/- 11 photons of the martian He 584-A airglow detected by the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) satellite during a 2-day exposure (January 22-23, 1993) correspond to the effective disk average intensity of 43 +/- 10 Rayleigh (Ra). Radiative transfer calculations, using a model atmosphere appropriate to the conditions of the observation and having an exospheric temperature of 210 +/- 20 K, result in a He mixing ratio of 1.1 +/- 0.4 ppm in the lower atmosphere. Nonthermal escape of helium is due to electron impact ionization and pickup of He(+) by the solar wind, to collisions with hot oxygen atoms, and to charge exchange with molecular species with corresponding column loss rates of 1.4 x 10(exp 5), 3 x 10(exp 4), and 7 x 10(exp 3)/sq cm/s, respectively. The lifetime of helium on Mars is 5 x 10(exp 4) years. the He outgassing rate, coupled with the Ar-40 atmospheric abundance and with the K:U:Th ratio measured in the surface rocks, is used as input to a single two-reservoir degassing model which is applied to Mars and then to Venus. A similar model with known abundances if K, U, and Th is applied to Earth. The models for Earth and Mars presume loss of all argon accumulated in the atmospheres during the first billion years by large-scale meteorite and planetesimal impacts. The models show that the degassing coefficients for all three planets may be approximated by function delta = delta(sub 0) x (t(sub 0)/t)(exp 1/2) with delta(sub 0) = 0.1, 0.04, and 0.0125 Byr for Earth, Venus, and Mars, respectively. After a R(exp 2) correction this means that outgassing processes on Venus and Mars are weaker than on Earth by factors of 3 and 30, respectively. Mass ratios of U and Th are almost the same for all three planets, while potassiumis depleted by a factor of 2 in Venus and Mars. Mass ratio of helium and argon are close to 5 x 10(exp -9) and 2 x 10(exp -8) g/g in the interiors of all three planets. The implications of these results are discussed.

  2. AAS 227: Day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 4 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Helen B. Warner Prize: Origins of Structure in Planetary Systems (by Erika Nesvold)Another excellent prize lecture started off todays sessions. The Helen B. Warner Prize is awarded for achievement in observational or theoretical astrophysics by a young researcher (no more than eight years after their Ph.D.). This years Warner Prize was presented to Ruth Murray-Clay of UC Santa Barbara. For her award lecture, Murray-Clay told us all about planetary system architecture: the number, masses, and orbits of planets in a given system.Ruth Murray-Clay [photo from http://web.physics.ucsb.edu/ ~murray/biocv.html]The underlying question motivating this type of research is: How rare is the Solar System? In other words, how likely is it that a given planetary system will have rocky planets close to their star, gas giants farther out, and ice giants at the outer reaches of the system? Answering this question will help us solve the physics problem of how and where planets form, and will also help us on our search for other planets like Earth.The data on exoplanet population from transit and radial velocity observations and from direct imaging tell us that our Solar System is not common (many systems we observe have much more eccentric gas giants), but that doesnt

  3. MOLECULAR RESURFACING OF CARTILAGE WITH PROTEOGLYCAN 4 (PRG4)

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Kanika; Ham, Hyun Ok; Nguyen, Trung; Messersmith, Phillip B.

    2010-01-01

    Early loss of proteoglycan 4 (PRG4), a lubricating glycoprotein implicated in boundary lubrication, from the cartilage surface has been associated with degeneration of cartilage and early onset of osteoarthritis. Viscosupplementation with hyaluronic acid and other macromolecules has been proposed as a treatment of osteoarthritis, however efficacy of viscosupplementation is variable and may be influenced by the short residence time of lubricant in the knee joint after injection. Recent studies have demonstrated the use of aldehyde (CHO) modified extracellular matrix proteins for targeted adherence to a biological tissue surface. We hypothesized that CHO could be exploited to enhance binding of lubricating proteoglycans to the surface of PRG4 depleted cartilage. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of molecular resurfacing of cartilage with aldehyde modified PRG4. PRG4 was chemically functionalized with aldehyde (PRG4-CHO), and aldehyde plus Oregon Green (OG) fluorophore (PRG4-OG-CHO) to allow for differentiation of endogenous and exogenous PRG4. Cartilage disks depleted of native PRG4 were then treated with solutions of PRG4, PRG4-CHO, or PRG4-OG-CHO and then assayed for the presence of PRG4 by immunohistochemistry, ELISA, and fluorescence imaging. Repletion of cartilage surfaces was significantly enhanced with the inclusion of CHO compared to repletion with unmodified PRG4. These findings suggest a generalized approach that may be used for molecular resurfacing of tissue surfaces with PRG4 and other lubricating biomolecules, perhaps leading in the future to a convenient method for overcoming loss of lubrication during the early stages of osteoarthritis. PMID:20338268

  4. Microtubules regulate focal adhesion dynamics through MAP4K4.

    PubMed

    Yue, Jiping; Xie, Min; Gou, Xuewen; Lee, Philbert; Schneider, Michael D; Wu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-01

    Disassembly of focal adhesions (FAs) allows cell retraction and integrin detachment from the extracellular matrix, processes critical for cell movement. Growth of microtubules (MTs) can promote FA turnover by serving as tracks to deliver proteins essential for FA disassembly. The molecular nature of this FA "disassembly factor," however, remains elusive. By quantitative proteomics, we identified mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (MAP4K4) as an FA regulator that associates with MTs. Knockout of MAP4K4 stabilizes FAs and impairs cell migration. By exploring underlying mechanisms, we further show that MAP4K4 associates with ending binding 2 (EB2) and IQ motif and SEC7 domain-containing protein 1 (IQSEC1), a guanine nucleotide exchange factor specific for Arf6, whose activation promotes integrin internalization. Together, our findings provide critical insight into FA disassembly, suggesting that MTs can deliver MAP4K4 toward FAs through EB2, where MAP4K4 can, in turn, activate Arf6 via IQSEC1 and enhance FA dissolution. PMID:25490267

  5. Microtubules Regulate Focal Adhesion Dynamics through MAP4K4

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Jiping; Xie, Min; Gou, Xuewen; Lee, Philbert; Schneider, Michael D; Wu, Xiaoyang

    2014-01-01

    Disassembly of focal adhesions (FAs) allows cell retraction and integrin detachment from the ECM, processes critical for cell movement. Growth of MT (microtubule) can promote FA turnover by serving as tracks to deliver proteins essential for FA disassembly. The molecular nature of this FA “disassembly factor”, however, remains elusive. By quantitative proteomics, we identified MAP4K4 (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4) as a FA regulator that associates with MTs. Conditional knockout (cKO) of MAP4K4 in skin stabilizes FAs and impairs epidermal migration. By exploring underlying mechanisms, we further show that MAP4K4 associates with EB2, a MT binding protein, and IQSEC1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) specific for Arf6, whose activation promotes integrin internalization. Together, our findings provide critical insights into FA disassembly, suggesting that MTs can deliver MAP4K4 toward FAs through EB2, where MAP4K4 can in turn activate Arf6 via IQSEC1 and enhance FA dissolution. PMID:25490267

  6. Giovanni-4: The Next Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, C.; Hegde, M.; Smit, C.; Da Silva, D.; Bryant, K.; Zhao, P.; Liu, Z.; Shen, S.; Savtchenko, A.; Teng, W.; Wei, J.; Acker, J.

    2014-01-01

    This talk discusses the new aspects of Giovanni-4. Covered in the talk are new features in Giovanni-4, including shape fileservices, seasonal analysis services, the Omnibus Portal, navigation among variables, and comparison services.

  7. The GEANT4 Visualisation System

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, J.; Asai, M.; Barrand, G.; Donszelmann, M.; Minamimoto, K.; Tanaka, S.; Tcherniaev, E.; Tinslay, J.; /SLAC

    2007-11-02

    The Geant4 Visualization System is a multi-driver graphics system designed to serve the Geant4 Simulation Toolkit. It is aimed at the visualization of Geant4 data, primarily detector descriptions and simulated particle trajectories and hits. It can handle a variety of graphical technologies simultaneously and interchangeably, allowing the user to choose the visual representation most appropriate to requirements. It conforms to the low-level Geant4 abstract graphical user interfaces and introduces new abstract classes from which the various drivers are derived and that can be straightforwardly extended, for example, by the addition of a new driver. It makes use of an extendable class library of models and filters for data representation and selection. The Geant4 Visualization System supports a rich set of interactive commands based on the Geant4 command system. It is included in the Geant4 code distribution and maintained and documented like other components of Geant4.

  8. The NuSTAR Extragalactic Survey: A First Sensitive Look at the High-Energy Cosmic X-Ray Background Population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, D. M.; Stern, D.; DelMoro, A.; Lansbury, G. B.; Assef, R. J.; Aird, J.; Ajello, M.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Christensen, F. E.; Civano, F.; Cosmastri, A.; Craig, W. W.; Elvis, M.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Hickox, R. C.; Luo, B.; Madsen, K. K.; Alexander, D. M.; Zhang, W. W.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the first 10 identifications of sources serendipitously detected by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) to provide the first sensitive census of the cosmic X-ray background source population at approximately greater than 10 keV. We find that these NuSTAR-detected sources are approximately 100 times fainter than those previously detected at approximately greater than 10 keV and have a broad range in redshift and luminosity (z = 0.020-2.923 and L(sub 10-40 keV) approximately equals 4 × 10(exp 41) - 5 × 10(exp 45) erg per second; the median redshift and luminosity are z approximately equal to 0.7 and L(sub 10-40 keV) approximately equal to 3 × 10(exp 44) erg per second, respectively. We characterize these sources on the basis of broad-band approximately equal to 0.5 - 32 keV spectroscopy, optical spectroscopy, and broad-band ultraviolet-to-mid-infrared spectral energy distribution analyses. We find that the dominant source population is quasars with L(sub 10-40 keV) greater than 10(exp 44) erg per second, of which approximately 50% are obscured with N(sub H) approximately greater than 10(exp 22) per square centimeters. However, none of the 10 NuSTAR sources are Compton thick (N(sub H) approximately greater than 10(exp 24) per square centimeters) and we place a 90% confidence upper limit on the fraction of Compton-thick quasars (L(sub 10-40 keV) greater than 10(exp 44) erg per second) selected at approximately greater than 10 keV of approximately less than 33% over the redshift range z = 0.5 - 1.1. We jointly fitted the rest-frame approximately equal to 10-40 keV data for all of the non-beamed sources with L(sub 10-40 keV) greater than 10(exp 43) erg per second to constrain the average strength of reflection; we find R less than 1.4 for gamma = 1.8, broadly consistent with that found for local active galactic nuclei (AGNs) observed at approximately greater than 10 keV. We also constrain the host-galaxy masses and find a median stellar

  9. [Sb4Au4Sb4]2-: A designer all-metal aromatic sandwich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Wen-Juan; Guo, Jin-Chang; Li, Da-Zhi; You, Xue-Rui; Wang, Ying-Jin; Sun, Zhong-Ming; Zhai, Hua-Jin

    2016-07-01

    We report on the computational design of an all-metal aromatic sandwich, [Sb4Au4Sb4]2-. The triple-layered, square-prismatic sandwich complex is the global minimum of the system from Coalescence Kick and Minima Hopping structural searches. Following a standard, qualitative chemical bonding analysis via canonical molecular orbitals, the sandwich complex can be formally described as [Sb4]+[Au4]4-[Sb4]+, showing ionic bonding characters with electron transfers in between the Sb4/Au4/Sb4 layers. For an in-depth understanding of the system, one needs to go beyond the above picture. Significant Sb → Au donation and Sb ← Au back-donation occur, redistributing electrons from the Sb4/Au4/Sb4 layers to the interlayer Sb-Au-Sb edges, which effectively lead to four Sb-Au-Sb three-center two-electron bonds. The complex is a system with 30 valence electrons, excluding the Sb 5s and Au 5d lone-pairs. The two [Sb4]+ ligands constitute an unusual three-fold (π and σ) aromatic system with all 22 electrons being delocalized. An energy gap of ˜1.6 eV is predicted for this all-metal sandwich. The complex is a rare example for rational design of cluster compounds and invites forth-coming synthetic efforts.

  10. The Nimbus 4 user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabatini, R. R. (Editor)

    1970-01-01

    Background information on the Nimbus 4 spacecraft and experiments is provided for potential data users as a basis for selecting, obtaining, and utilizing Nimbus 4 data in research studies. The basic spacecraft system operation and the objectives of the Nimbus 4 flight are outlined, with a detailed discussion of each of the experiments included. The format, archiving, and access to the data are also described. Finally, the contents and format of the Nimbus 4 data catalogs are described.

  11. WFPC2 observations of the double cluster NGC 1850 in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmozzi, R.; Kinney, E. K.; Ewald, S. P.; Panagia, N.; Romaniello, M.

    1994-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope-Wide Field/Planetary Camera-2 (HST-WFPC2) optical and ultraviolet imaging observations of the young double cluster NGC 1850 in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) are presented. The main cluster, NGC 1850A, is a globular-like cluster and has an age of 50 +/- 10 Myr, while the subcluster, NGC 1850B, which is more loosely distributed, is very young at 4.3 +/- 0.9 Myr. Its young age is confirmed by the detection of a pre-main-sequence population of stars associated to it. The two clusters have considerably different IMF slopes, with the main cluster having a flat slope (f(m) proportional to m(exp -1.4 +/- 0.2)) and the young cluster a much steeper one (f(m) proportional to m(exp -2.6 +/- -0.1)). The LMC field star population displays a broad range of ages, from approximately 0.5 Gyr up to more than 4 Gyr.

  12. Douglas OA-4A Dolphin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1938-01-01

    Douglas OA-4A Dolphin: This twin-engine Douglas OA-4A Dolphin was unusual in comparison with other OA-4s in that it employed a nose wheel instead of a tail wheel during its NACA testing at Langley. Here is is seen in the NACA hangar in September 1938.

  13. Bacterial metabolism of 4-chlorophenoxyacetate

    PubMed Central

    Evans, W. C.; Smith, B. S. W.; Moss, P.; Fernley, H. N.

    1971-01-01

    1. A pseudomonad capable of utilizing 4-chlorophenoxyacetate (CPA) as sole source of organic carbon was isolated from soil. 2. The organism was grown in liquid culture and the following compounds were isolated and identified in culture extracts: 4-chloro-2-hydroxyphenoxyacetate, 4-chlorocatechol, β-chloromuconate probably the cis–trans isomer and γ-carboxymethylene-Δαβ-butenolide. 3. Cells grown on 4-chlorophenoxyacetate were able to metabolize 4-chloro-2-hydroxyphenoxyacetate, 4-chlorocatechol and γ-carboxymethylene-Δαβ-butenolide without a lag period. They were not adapted to 4-chlorophenol, or to either culture isolated or synthetic β-chloromuconate, possibly because of stereospecificity towards the cis–cis isomer. 4. On the basis of isolation and induction evidence, the following metabolic pathway is proposed for the breakdown of 4-chlorophenoxyacetate by this organism: 4-chlorophenoxyacetate → 4-chloro-2-hydroxyphenoxyacetate → 4-chlorocatechol → cis–cis-β-chloromuconate → γ-carboxymethylene-Δαβ-butenolide → maleylacetate and fumarylacetate → fumarate and acetate. PMID:5123884

  14. De Havilland DH-4B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1928-01-01

    De Havilland DH-4B: In one of the earliest engine studies conducted by the NACA at Langley, this De Havilland DH-4B had a Roots-type supercharger installed and tested. Direct measurements of engine power in flight were also performed with this DH-4B.

  15. Cyclopentadecanone 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone.

    PubMed

    Noe, Eric A; Pawar, Diwakar M; Fronczek, Frank R

    2008-03-01

    In the title compound, C(21)H(32)N(4)O(4), no disorder is present in the 15-membered hydrocarbon ring, which exists in an unsymmetrical quinquangular [12345] conformation. The 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone group is approximately perpendicular to the C(15) ring, with a dihedral angle of 84.66 (1) degrees between their best planes. PMID:18322339

  16. A multi-scale approach to characterize pure CH4, CF4, and CH4/CF4 mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattoraj, Joyjit; Risthaus, Tobias; Rubner, Oliver; Heuer, Andreas; Grimme, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we develop three intermolecular potentials for methane (CH4), tetrafluoromethane (CF4), and CH4/CF4 dimers using a novel ab initio method. The ultimate goal is to understand microscopically the phase-separation in CH4/CF4 systems, which takes place in the liquid states near their freezing points. Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations of the pure CH4 system are performed using the ab initio energies to verify the potential. The simulations reproduce quite well the experimentally known liquid densities, the internal energies, the second virial coefficients, and the radial distribution function. The essentially six-dimensional (6D) ab initio potential is then reduced to a one-dimensional (1D) effective potential using the inverse Monte-Carlo technique. This potential, too, successfully reproduces the experimental results. Interestingly, the MC study cannot be extended to the pure CF4 system and the CH4/CF4 mixed system because the two respective ab initio potentials present very rough potential landscapes. This renders the interpolation of energies for the MC simulations and thus the multi-scale approach unreliable. It suggests, however, a possible driving force for the experimentally observed phase separation of the CH4/CF4 system at low temperatures. Furthermore, we carefully study the determination of 1D effective potentials via inverse MC techniques. We argue that to a good approximation the temperature dependence of the 1D potentials can be estimated via reweighting techniques for a fixed temperature.

  17. Dynamical Model for the Zodiacal Cloud and Sporadic Meteors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesvorny, David; Janches, Diego; Vokrouhlicky, David; Pokorny, Petr; Bottke, William F.; Jenniskens, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The solar system is dusty, and would become dustier over time as asteroids collide and comets disintegrate, except that small debris particles in interplanetary space do not last long. They can be ejected from the solar system by Jupiter, thermally destroyed near the Sun, or physically disrupted by collisions. Also, some are swept by the Earth (and other planets), producing meteors. Here we develop a dynamical model for the solar system meteoroids and use it to explain meteor radar observations. We find that the Jupiter Family Comets (JFCs) are the main source of the prominent concentrations of meteors arriving to the Earth from the helion and antihelion directions. To match the radiant and orbit distributions, as measured by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR) and Advanced Meteor Orbit Radar (AMOR), our model implies that comets, and JFCs in particular, must frequently disintegrate when reaching orbits with low perihelion distance. Also, the collisional lifetimes of millimeter particles may be longer (approx. > 10(exp 5) yr at 1 AU) than postulated in the standard collisional models (approx 10(exp 4) yr at 1 AU), perhaps because these chondrule-sized meteoroids are stronger than thought before. Using observations of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) to calibrate the model, we find that the total cross section and mass of small meteoroids in the inner solar system are (1.7-3.5) 10(exp 11) sq km and approx. 4 10(exp 19) g, respectively, in a good agreement with previous studies. The mass input required to keep the Zodiacal Cloud (ZC) in a steady state is estimated to be approx. 10(exp 4)-10(exp 5) kg/s. The input is up to approx 10 times larger than found previously, mainly because particles released closer to the Sun have shorter collisional lifetimes, and need to be supplied at a faster rate. The total mass accreted by the Earth in particles between diameters D = 5 micron and 1 cm is found to be approx 15,000 tons/yr (factor of 2 uncertainty), which is

  18. Our Sun IV: The Standard Model and Helioseismology: Consequences of Uncertainties in Input Physics and in Observed Solar Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boothroyd, Arnold I.; Sackmann, I.-Juliana

    2001-01-01

    Helioseismic frequency observations provide an extremely accurate window into the solar interior; frequencies from the Michaelson Doppler Imager (MDI) on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft, enable the adiabatic sound speed and adiabatic index to be inferred with an accuracy of a few parts in 10(exp 4) and the density with an accuracy of a few parts in 10(exp 3). This has become a Serious challenge to theoretical models of the Sun. Therefore, we have undertaken a self-consistent, systematic study of the sources of uncertainties in the standard solar models. We found that the largest effect on the interior structure arises from the observational uncertainties in the photospheric abundances of the elements, which affect the sound speed profile at the level of 3 parts in 10(exp 3). The estimated 4% uncertainty in the OPAL opacities could lead to effects of 1 part in 10(exp 3); the approximately 5%, uncertainty in the basic pp nuclear reaction rate would have a similar effect, as would uncertainties of approximately 15% in the diffusion constants for the gravitational settling of helium. The approximately 50% uncertainties in diffusion constants for the heavier elements would have nearly as large an effect. Different observational methods for determining the solar radius yield results differing by as much as 7 parts in 10(exp 4); we found that this leads to uncertainties of a few parts in 10(exp 3) in the sound speed int the solar convective envelope, but has negligible effect on the interior. Our reference standard solar model yielded a convective envelope position of 0.7135 solar radius, in excellent agreement with the observed value of 0.713 +/- 0.001 solar radius and was significantly affected only by Z/X, the pp rate, and the uncertainties in helium diffusion constants. Our reference model also yielded envelope helium abundance of 0.2424, in good agreement with the approximate range of 0.24 to 0.25 inferred from helioseismic observations; only

  19. Crystal and molecular structure of 2,4,4-trisubstituted 5-amino-4 H-imidazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellanato, J.; Avendaño, C.; Ramos, M. T.; Smith-Verdier, P.; Florencio, F.; Garcia-Blanco, S.

    Three 5-amino-4 H-imidazole derivatives 2(2-pyridyl) and 2-ethoxycarbonyl-4,4-pentamethylene-5-amino-and 2(2-pyridyl)-4,4-dimethyl-5(2-pyridylamino)4 H-imidazoles have been studied by i.r. and Raman spectroscopy. The crystal structure of one has been determined by X-ray diffraction. The tautomeric amino-imino equilibrium in different working conditions is also studied from spectroscopic data. The amino and the unconjugated imino forms are characterized.

  20. Crystal structure of 4,4′-(disulfanediyl)dibutanoic acid–4,4′-bipyridine (1/1)

    PubMed Central

    Atria, Ana María; Garland, Maria Teresa; Baggio, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    4,4′-(Disulfanediyl)dibutanoic acid (dtba) and 4,4′-bipyridine (4,4′-bpy) crystallize in an 1:1 ratio, leading to the title co-crystal with composition C8H14O4S2·C10H8N2. A distinctive feature of the crystal structure is the geometry of the dtba moiety, which appears to be stretched [with a 9.98 (1) Å span between outermost carbons] and acts as an hydrogen-bonding connector, forming linear chains along [-211] with the 4,4′-bpy moiety by way of O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds and C—H⋯O interactions. The influence of the mol­ecular shape on the hydrogen-bonding pattern is analysed by comparing the title compound and two other 4,4′-bpy co-crystals with closely related mol­ecules of similar formulation but different geometry, showing the way in which this correlates with the packing arrangement. PMID:25309167