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Sample records for 10exp 4 sq

  1. (25884) 2000 SQ4: A New Hungaria Binary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Brian D.; Brinsfield, James W.; Vilagi, Jozef, Kornos, Leos; Harris, Alan W.

    2012-07-01

    CCD photometry observations of the Hungaria asteroid (25884) 2000 SQ4 were made at the Palmer Divide and Via Capote Observatories in 2011 November. This asteroid is of particular interest since it is part of an "asteroid pair", one of two asteroids believed to have once been a single object. Such pairs are believed to have been created due to fission after YORP spin up followed by the prompt ejection of the smaller body instead of it becoming a satellite. The two asteroids now occupy almost identical heliocentric orbits but do not circle one another. Analysis of the observations gives strong indications that 2000 SQ4 is a binary. If true, this would be the second member of an asteroid pair to have been found to have its own satellite.

  2. Measurements of Local Heat Transfer and Pressure on Six 2-Inch-Diameter Blunt Bodies at a Mach Number of 4.95 and at Reynolds Numbers Per Foot up to 81 x 10(exp 6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Morton; Mayo, Edward E.

    1959-01-01

    Measurements of the local heat transfer and pressure distribution have been made on six 2-inch-diameter, blunt, axially symmetric bodies in the Langley gas dynamics laboratory at a Mach number of 4.95 and at Reynolds numbers per foot up to 81 x 10(exp 6). During the investigation laminar flow was observed over a hemispherical-nosed body having a surface finish from 10 to 20 microinches at the highest test Reynolds number per foot (for this configuration) of 77.4 x 10(exp 6). Though it was repeatedly possible to measure completely laminar flow at this Reynolds number for the hemisphere, it was not possible to observe completely laminar flow on the flat-nosed body for similar conditions. The significance of this phenomenon is obscured by the observation that the effects of particle impacts on the surface in causing roughness were more pronounced on the flat-nosed body. For engineering purposes, a method developed by M. Richard Dennison while employed by Lockheed Aircraft Corporation appears to be a reasonable procedure for estimating turbulent heat transfer provided transition occurs at a forward location on the body. For rearward-transition locations, the method is much poorer for the hemispherical nose than for the flat nose. The pressures measured on the hemisphere agreed very well with those of the modified Newtonian theory, whereas the pressures on all other bodies, except on the flat-nosed body, were bracketed by modified Newtonian theory both with and without centrifugal forces. For the hemisphere, the stagnation-point velocity gradient agreed very well with Newtonian theory. The stagnation-point velocity gradient for the flat- nosed model was 0.31 of the value for the hemispherical-nosed model. If a Newtonian type of flow is assumed, the ratio 0.31 will be independent of Much number and real-gas effects.

  3. A geodetic laser radar rangefinder with 10(exp -7) resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizushima, Y.; Takeichi, M.; Warashima, Y.; Takeshima, A.; Ogawa, I.; Ichie, K.; Schiller, N. H.

    1992-01-01

    A novel geodetic laser radar rangefinder (GLRR) unit utilizing a pair of synchronized 10-psec streak camera systems was developed for displacement measurements of the earth's plates. In order to achieve minimum computing error and assure extremely high spatial resolution, an optical pulse registration clock was developed and used to register a fiducial mark on the time scale of the system. Conventional optical rangefinders have been limited to a relative resolution of 10(exp -6) even for short distances. The system to be reported on today has the capability of measuring a 50km range with an accuracy of 4mm corresponding to a relative resolution of 10(exp -7). With a gain of greater than 3 x 10(exp 3), the system has the capability of detecting extremely weak signals on the order of photon counting. This combined with temporal gating makes daytime measurements comparable in signal-to-noise ratio to nighttime viewing. This is useful for measuring faint signals returning over a range of several tens of kilometers. The present ranging system was designed to observe the mutual displacement of geodetic plates and was employed to measure the boundary between the Philippine and Asian geodetic plates that pass beneath the Suruga Bay near Hamamatsu City, Japan. The system has been in operation for over 3 years. In addition, the system has the ability of producing and detecting optical ranging pulses of several wavelengths simultaneously, making this a complete multicolor system. The basic GLRR system consists of a frequency stabilizing crystal, optical clock, YAG laser, KDP doubling crystal, DK*P tripling crystal, two matched streak cameras (A and B), a control computer, and an output/input periscope system.

  4. Pilot production of 4 sq cm ITO/InP photovoltaic solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gessert, T. A.; Li, X.; Coutts, T. J.; Tzafaras, N.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental results of a pilot production of 32 4-sq cm indium tin oxide (ITO)InP space solar cells are presented. The discussion includes analysis of the device performance of the best cells produced as well as the performance range of all production cells. The experience gained from the production is discussed, indicating other issues that may be encountered when large-scale productions are initiated. Available data on a 4-sq cm ITO/InP cell that was flown on the UoSAT-5 satellite is reported.

  5. Laboratory Demonstration of Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) Coronagraph with Better than 10(exp -9) Contrast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, Brian; Guyon, Olivier; Kuhnert, Andreas; Niessner, Albert; Martinache, Frantz; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham

    2013-01-01

    We present coronagraphic images from the Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph on NASA's High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT) at the Jet Propulsion Lab, showing contrasts of 5x10(exp -1) averaged from 2-4 lambda/D, in monochromatic light at 808 nm. In parallel with the coronagraph and its deformable mirror and coronagraphic wavefront control, we also demonstrate a low-order wavefront control system, giving 100 x rms suppression of introduced tip/tilt disturbances down to residual levels of 10(exp -3) lambda/D. Current limitations, as well as broadband (10% fractional bandpass) preliminary results are discussed.

  6. The study of pressure measurement techniques and devices in the range of 10(exp -1) to 10(exp -5) torr (2 millipsi to 0.2 micropsi)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, John H.

    1990-01-01

    The atmospheric pressure range was studied in a region where conventional pressure sensing devices do not provide meaningful measurements. However, a hot filament gauge was developed and miniaturized which will measure the pressure in the 10(exp -1) to 10(exp -5) torr (2 millipsi to 0.2 micropsi) region, hence the name Micropsi gauge. Laboratory studies were made comparing the currently available devices with the newly developed miniature low power 'Micropsi' pressure sensor.

  7. Fabrication and performance analysis of 4-sq cm indium tin oxide/InP photovoltaic solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gessert, T. A.; Li, X.; Phelps, P. W.; Coutts, T. J.; Tzafaras, N.

    1991-01-01

    Large-area photovoltaic solar cells based on direct current magnetron sputter deposition of indium tin oxide (ITO) into single-crystal p-InP substrates demonstrated both the radiation hardness and high performance necessary for extraterrestrial applications. A small-scale production project was initiated in which approximately 50 ITO/InP cells are being produced. The procedures used in this small-scale production of 4-sq cm ITO/InP cells are presented and discussed. The discussion includes analyses of performance range of all available production cells, and device performance data of the best cells thus far produced. Additionally, processing experience gained from the production of these cells is discussed, indicating other issues that may be encountered when large-scale productions are begun.

  8. A vacuum (10(exp -9) Torr) friction apparatus for determining friction and endurance life of MoSx films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Honecy, Frank S.; Abel, Phillip B.; Pepper, Stephen V.; Spalvins, Talivaldis; Wheeler, Donald R.

    1992-01-01

    The first part of this paper describes an ultrahigh vacuum friction apparatus (tribometer). The tribometer can be used in a ball-on-disk configuration and is specifically designed to measure the friction and endurance life of solid lubricating films such as MoS(x) in vacuum at a pressure of 10 exp -7 Pa. The sliding mode is typically unidirectional at a constant rotating speed. The second part of this paper presents some representative friction and endurance life data for magnetron sputtered MoS(x) films (110 nm thick) deposited on sputter-cleaned 440 C stainless-steel disk substrates, which were slid against a 6-mm-diameter 440 C stainless-steel bearing ball. All experiments were conducted with loads of 0.49 to 3.6 N (average Hertzian contact pressure, 0.33 to 0.69 GPa), at a constant rotating speed of 120 rpm (sliding velocity ranging from 31 to 107 mm/s due to the range of wear track radii involved in the experiments), in a vacuum of 7 x 10 exp -7 Pa and at room temperature. The results indicate that there are similarities in friction behavior of MoS(x) films overs their life cycles regardless of load applied. The coefficient of friction (mu) decreases as load W increases according to mu = kW exp -1/3. The endurance life E of MoS(x) films decreases as the load W increases according to E = KW exp -1.4 for the load range. The load- (or contract-pressure-) dependent endurance life allows us to reduce the time for wear experiments and to accelerate endurance life testing of MoS(x) films. For the magnetron-sputtered MoS(x) films deposited on 440 C stainless-steel disks: the specific wear rate normalized to the load and the number of revolutions was 3 x 10 exp -8 mm exp 3/N-revolution; the specific wear rate normalized to the load and the total sliding distance was 8 x 10 exp -7 mm exp 3/N-m; and the nondimensional wear coefficient of was approximately 5 x 10 exp -6. The values are almost independent of load in the range 0.49 to 3.6 N (average Hertzian contact

  9. Reconstruction of 10(exp 20)ev Showers in EUSO and JEM EUSO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreev, V.; Adams, J.; Cline, D.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the procedure to reconstruct 10(exp 20) ev showers in Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO). We show the angular and energy resolution is excellent. We now apply this to the newly proposed Japanese JEM-EUSO and will present results at the meeting.

  10. A 928 sq m (10000 sq ft) solar array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindberg, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    As the power requirements for space vehicles increases, the area of solar arrays that convert solar energy to usable electrical power increases. The requirements for a 928 sq m (10,000 sq ft) array, its design, and a full-scale demonstration of one quadrant (232 sq m (2500 sq ft)) deployed in a one-g field are described.

  11. 4H-SiC UV Photo Detector with Large Area and Very High Specific Detectivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Feng; Shahid, Aslam; Franz, David; Xin, Xiaobin; Zhao, Jian H.; Zhao, Yuegang; Winer, Maurice

    2004-01-01

    Pt/4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes have been fabricated with the device areas up to 1 sq cm. The I-V characteristics and photo-response spectra have been measured and analyzed. For a 5 mm x 5 mm area device leakage current of 1 x 10(exp 15)A at zero bias and 1.2 x 10(exp 14)A at -IV have been established. The quantum efficiency is over 30% from 240nm to 320nm. The specific detectivity, D(sup *), has been calculated from the directly measured leakage current and quantum efficiency data and are shown to be higher than 10(exp 15) cmHz(sup 1/2)/W from 210nm to 350nm with a peak D(sup *) of 3.6 x 10(exp 15)cmH(sup 1/2)/W at 300nm.

  12. The measurement of elemental abundances above 10 exp 15 eV at a lunar base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swordy, S. P.

    1990-03-01

    At about 10 exp 15 eV the slope of the energy spectrum of cosmic rays becomes significantly steeper than at lower energies. The measurement of relative elemental abundances at these energies is expected to provide a means to resolve the origin of this feature and greatly contribute to the understanding of the sources of cosmic rays. A moon-based detector for making well-resolved elemental measurements at these energies is described using hadronic calorimetry. This detector is particularly well suited for a site on the lunar surface because there is no overlying layer of atmosphere and the large mass required can be provided by the lunar regolith.

  13. An Instrument to Measure Elemental Energy Spectra of Cosmic Ray Nuclei Up to 10(exp 16) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Chilingarian, A.; Drury, L.; Egorov, N.; Golubkov,S.; Korotkova, N.; Panasyuk, M.; Podorozhnyi, D.; Procqureur, J.

    2000-01-01

    A longstanding goal of cosmic ray research is to measure the elemental energy spectra of cosmic rays up to and through the "knee" (approx. equal to 3 x 10 (exp 15) eV. It is not currently feasible to achieve this goal with an ionization calorimeter because the mass required to be deployed in Earth orbit is very large (at least 50 tonnes). An alternative method will be presented. This is based on measuring the primary particle energy by determining the angular distribution of secondaries produced in a target layer using silicon microstrip detector technology. The proposed technique can be used over a wide range of energies (10 (exp 11)- 10 (exp 16) eV) and gives an energy resolution of 60% or better. Based on this technique, a design for a new lightweight instrument with a large aperture (KLEM) will be described.

  14. Sq Currents and Neutral Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between ionospheric dynamo currents and neutral winds is examined using the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Electrodynamic General Circulation Model (TIME-GCM). The simulation is run for May and June 2009 with variable neutral winds but with constant solar and magnetospheric energy inputs, which ensures that day-to-day changes in the solar quiet (Sq) current system arise only from lower atmospheric forcing. The intensity and focus position of the simulated Sq current system exhibit large day-to-day variability, as is also seen in ground magnetometer data. We show how the day-to-day variation of the Sq current system relate to variable winds at various altitudes, latitudes, and longitudes.

  15. A vacuum (10 exp -9 torr) friction apparatus for determining friction and endurance life of MoS(x) films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Honecy, Frank S.; Abel, Phillip B.; Pepper, Stephen V.; Spalvins, Talivaldis; Wheeler, Donald R.

    1993-01-01

    An ultrahigh-vacuum tribometer for use in a ball-on-disk configuration was specially designed for measuring the friction and endurance life of magnetron-sputtered solid lubricating MoS(x) films deposited on sputter-cleaned 400 C stainless-steel disks, when slid against a 6-mm-diameter 440 C stainless-steel ball. The results of tests showed that the tribometer performs satisfactorily in unidirectional rotation in vacuum at a pressure of 10 exp -7 Pa, 10 exp -9 torr. Similarities are observed in the life cycle friction behavior and the coefficient of friction as a function of the number of disk revolutions, for MoS(x) films at average Hertzian contact from 0.33 to 0.69 GPa.

  16. Friction, Wear, and Evaporation Rates of Various Materials in Vacuum to 10(exp -7) mm Hg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, Donald H.; Swikert, Max; Johnson, Robert L.

    1961-01-01

    The requirements for bearings and seals to operate in the environment of space dictate a new area for lubrication research. The low ambient pressures encountered in space can be expected to influence the behavior of oil, grease, and solid-film lubricants. The property of these materials most significantly affected by low ambient pressures is the evaporation rate. Various investigators have therefore measured the evaporation rates of oils and greases in vacuum as one method of establishing their relative merit for space applications (1-3). The results of this work have given some indication as to the oils and greases with the greatest stability at reduced ambient pressures. Only limited experimental work, however, has been reported in the literature for inorganic solids and soft metals which have potential use as solid lubricant films or coatings for hard alloy substrates [e.g. Reference ( 4 )]. In general, the evaporation rates of these materials would be lower than those of oils and greases. These films might therefore be very attractive as lubricants for high vacuum service.

  17. 39 photons/bit direct detection receiver at 810 nm, BER = 1 x 10 exp -6, 60 Mb/s QPPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, Andrew; Dion, Bruno; Noeldeke, Christoph; Duchmann, Olivier

    1991-06-01

    39 photons/bit direct detection receiver sensitivity is reported, at a BER of 1 x 10 exp -6, for a 2-percent extinction ratio, 810 nm, 60 Mb/s QPPM signal. The sensitivity is 68 photons/bit at a BER of 1 x 10 exp -9. These figures represent a record sensitivity for a direct detection receiver. They are achieved by a combination of a novel silicon avalanche photodiode, an optimized preamplifier and a maximum likelihood demodulator. The work was a part of Phase B Breadboarding activities for the European Space Agency (ESA) SILEX (Semiconductor Intersatellite Link EXperiment) program on Intersatellite Optical Links.

  18. H2O-H2SO4 system in Venus' clouds and OCS, CO, and H2SO4 profiles in Venus' troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasnopolsky, V. A.; Pollack, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    A coupled problem of diffusion and condensation is solved for the H2SO4-H2O system in Venus' cloud layer. The position of the lower cloud boundary and profiles of the H2O and H2SO4 vapor mixing ratios and of the H2O/H2SO4 ratio of sulfuric acid aerosol and its flux are calculated as functions of the column photochemical production rate of sulfuric acid, Phi(sub H2SO4). Variations of the lower cloud boundary are considered. Our basic model, which is constrained to yield f(sub H2O) (30 km) = 30 ppm (Pollack et al. 1993), predicts the position of the lower cloud boundary at 48.4 km coinciding with the mean Pioneer Venus value, the peak H2SO4 mixing ratio of 5.4 ppm, and the H2SO4 production rate Phi(sub H2SO4) = 2.2 x 10(exp 12)/sq cm/s. The sulfur to sulfuric acid mass flux ratio in the clouds is 1:27 in this model, and the mass loading ratio may be larger than this value if sulfur particles are smaller than those of sulfuric acid. The model suggests that the extinction coefficient of sulfuric acid particles with radius 3.7 micrometers (mode 3) is equal to 0.3/km in the middle cloud layer. The downward flux of CO is equal to 1.7 x 10(exp 12)/sq cm/s in this model. Our second model, which is constrained to yield f(sub H2O) = 10 ppm at the lower cloud boundary, close to the value measured by the Magellan radiooccultations, predicts the position of this boundary to be at 46.5 km, which agrees with the Magellan data; f(sub H2O) (30 km) = 90 ppm, close to the data of Moroz et al. (1983) at this altitude; Phi(sub H2SO4) = 6.4 x 10(exp 12)/sq cm/s; and Phi(sub co) = 4.2 x 10(exp 12)/sq cm/s. The S/H2SO4 flux mass ratio is 1:18, and the extinction coefficient of the mode 3 sulfuric acid particles is equal to 0.9 km in the middle cloud layer. A strong gradient of the H2SO4 vapor mixing ratio near the bottom of the cloud layer drives a large upward flux of H2SO4, which condenses and forms the excessive downward flux of liquid sulfuric acid, which is larger by a factor of 4

  19. SQ109, a new drug lead for Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Veiga-Santos, Phercyles; Li, Kai; Lameira, Lilianne; de Carvalho, Tecia Maria Ulisses; Huang, Guozhong; Galizzi, Melina; Shang, Na; Li, Qian; Gonzalez-Pacanowska, Dolores; Hernandez-Rodriguez, Vanessa; Benaim, Gustavo; Guo, Rey-Ting; Urbina, Julio A; Docampo, Roberto; de Souza, Wanderley; Oldfield, Eric

    2015-04-01

    We tested the antituberculosis drug SQ109, which is currently in advanced clinical trials for the treatment of drug-susceptible and drug-resistant tuberculosis, for its in vitro activity against the trypanosomatid parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. SQ109 was found to be a potent inhibitor of the trypomastigote form of the parasite, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) for cell killing of 50 ± 8 nM, but it had little effect (50% effective concentration [EC50], ∼80 μM) in a red blood cell hemolysis assay. It also inhibited extracellular epimastigotes (IC50, 4.6 ± 1 μM) and the clinically relevant intracellular amastigotes (IC50, ∼0.5 to 1 μM), with a selectivity index of ∼10 to 20. SQ109 caused major ultrastructural changes in all three life cycle forms, as observed by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It rapidly collapsed the inner mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) in succinate-energized mitochondria, acting in the same manner as the uncoupler FCCP [carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone], and it caused the alkalinization of internal acidic compartments, effects that are likely to make major contributions to its mechanism of action. The compound also had activity against squalene synthase, binding to its active site; it inhibited sterol side-chain reduction and, in the amastigote assay, acted synergistically with the antifungal drug posaconazole, with a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) of 0.48, but these effects are unlikely to account for the rapid effects seen on cell morphology and cell killing. SQ109 thus most likely acts, at least in part, by collapsing Δψ/ΔpH, one of the major mechanisms demonstrated previously for its action against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Overall, the results suggest that SQ109, which is currently in advanced clinical trials for the treatment of drug-susceptible and drug

  20. SQ109, a New Drug Lead for Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Veiga-Santos, Phercyles; Li, Kai; Lameira, Lilianne; de Carvalho, Tecia Maria Ulisses; Huang, Guozhong; Galizzi, Melina; Shang, Na; Li, Qian; Gonzalez-Pacanowska, Dolores; Hernandez-Rodriguez, Vanessa; Benaim, Gustavo; Guo, Rey-Ting; Urbina, Julio A.; Docampo, Roberto; de Souza, Wanderley

    2015-01-01

    We tested the antituberculosis drug SQ109, which is currently in advanced clinical trials for the treatment of drug-susceptible and drug-resistant tuberculosis, for its in vitro activity against the trypanosomatid parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. SQ109 was found to be a potent inhibitor of the trypomastigote form of the parasite, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) for cell killing of 50 ± 8 nM, but it had little effect (50% effective concentration [EC50], ∼80 μM) in a red blood cell hemolysis assay. It also inhibited extracellular epimastigotes (IC50, 4.6 ± 1 μM) and the clinically relevant intracellular amastigotes (IC50, ∼0.5 to 1 μM), with a selectivity index of ∼10 to 20. SQ109 caused major ultrastructural changes in all three life cycle forms, as observed by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It rapidly collapsed the inner mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) in succinate-energized mitochondria, acting in the same manner as the uncoupler FCCP [carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone], and it caused the alkalinization of internal acidic compartments, effects that are likely to make major contributions to its mechanism of action. The compound also had activity against squalene synthase, binding to its active site; it inhibited sterol side-chain reduction and, in the amastigote assay, acted synergistically with the antifungal drug posaconazole, with a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) of 0.48, but these effects are unlikely to account for the rapid effects seen on cell morphology and cell killing. SQ109 thus most likely acts, at least in part, by collapsing Δψ/ΔpH, one of the major mechanisms demonstrated previously for its action against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Overall, the results suggest that SQ109, which is currently in advanced clinical trials for the treatment of drug-susceptible and drug

  1. Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of SQ109, a new diamine-based antitubercular drug.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lee; Tomaszewski, Joseph E; Hanrahan, Colleen; Coward, Lori; Noker, Patricia; Gorman, Gregory; Nikonenko, Boris; Protopopova, Marina

    2005-01-01

    SQ109 is a novel [1,2]-diamine-based ethambutol (EMB) analog developed from high-throughput combinatorial screening. The present study aimed at characterizing its pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. The antimicrobial activity of SQ109 was confirmed in vitro (Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected murine macrophages) and in vivo (M. tuberculosis-infected C57BL/6 mice) and compared to isoniazid (INH) and EMB. SQ109 showed potency and efficacy in inhibiting intracellular M. tuberculosis that was similar to INH, but superior to EMB. In vivo oral administration of SQ109 (0.1-25 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) to the mice for 28 days resulted in dose-dependent reductions of mycobacterial load in both spleen and lung comparable to that of EMB administered at 100 mg kg(-1) day(-1), but was less potent than INH at 25 mg kg(-1) day(-1). Monitoring of SQ109 levels in mouse tissues on days 1, 14 and 28 following 28-day oral administration (10 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) revealed that lungs and spleen contained the highest concentration of SQ109, at least 10 times above its MIC. Pharmacokinetic profiles of SQ109 in mice following a single administration showed its C(max) as 1038 (intravenous (i.v.)) and 135 ng ml(-1) (p.o.), with an oral T(max) of 0.31 h. The elimination t(1/2) of SQ109 was 3.5 (i.v.) and 5.2 h (p.o.). The oral bioavailability was 4%. However, SQ109 displayed a large volume of distribution into various tissues. The highest concentration of SQ109 was present in lung (>MIC), which was at least 120-fold (p.o.) and 180-fold (i.v.) higher than that in plasma. The next ranked tissues were spleen and kidney. SQ109 levels in most tissues after a single administration were significantly higher than that in blood. High tissue concentrations of SQ109 persisted for the observation period (10 h). This study demonstrated that SQ109 displays promising in vitro and in vivo antitubercular activity with favorable targeted tissue distribution properties.

  2. Behavior of the Sq Diurnal Magnetic Variation over Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghamry, E.; Mahrous, A.; El-Hawary, R.; Yumoto, K.

    2011-12-01

    The diurnal variation of the solar quiet (Sq) in the geomagnetic north-south component (H) and geomagnetic eastwest component (D), along the Magnetic Data Acquisition System (MAGDAS) stations in Egypt during year 2009 have been studied. MAGDAS was successfully installed at two stations in Egypt Fayum (FYM) and Aswan (ASW). Several forms of Abnormal Quiet Days (AQDs) have been found in both of Sq (H) and Sq (D). These AQDs of Sq (H) are expected to be related to counter or reversed electrojet while AQDs of Sq (D) is presumably due to the currents of the (2, 3) mode.

  3. Measured and predicted effects of gravity level on directional dendritic solidification of NH4Cl-H2O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccay, T. D.; Mccay, Mary H.

    1993-01-01

    Dendritic growth front rates during vertical directional solidification are predicted for gravity levels of 10 exp 0 g sub e (where e is earth gravity), 10 exp -1 g sub e, 10 exp -2 g sub e, 10 exp -3 g sub e, 10 exp -4 g sub e, and 10 exp -5 g sub e (microgravity) for the physical conditions used for a recent ammonium chloride-water solidification experiment on the International Microgravity Laboratory I (IMLI). The growth front rates at 10 exp 0 g sub e and 10 exp -5 g sub e are validated using ground based laboratory and IMLI experimental data. As the gravity decreases, the growth rates increase until they approach a maximum at approximately 10 exp -4 g sub e. The 10 exp -4 and 10 exp -5 levels are equivalent. Liquid concentration and volume fraction, temperature profiles and fluid flow velocities are also calculated. Kinetic energy calculations for each of the six gravity levels indicate that the threshold for fluid flow to affect the growth front rate is in the range of 10 exp -8 ergs.

  4. Chemical reaction of atomic oxygen with evaporated films of copper, part 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fromhold, A. T.; Williams, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    Evaporated copper films were exposed to an atomic oxygen flux of 1.4 x 10(exp 17) atoms/sq cm per sec at temperatures in the range 285 to 375 F (140 to 191 C) for time intervals between 2 and 50 minutes. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) was used to determine the thickness of the oxide layers formed and the ratio of the number of copper to oxygen atoms in the layers. Oxide film thicknesses ranged from 50 to 3000 A (0.005 to 0.3 microns, or equivalently, 5 x 10(exp -9) to 3 x 10(exp -7); it was determined that the primary oxide phase was Cu2O. The growth law was found to be parabolic (L(t) varies as t(exp 1/2)), in which the oxide thickness L(t) increases as the square root of the exposure time t. The analysis of the data is consistent with either of the two parabolic growth laws. (The thin-film parabolic growth law is based on the assumption that the process is diffusion controlled, with the space charge within the growing oxide layer being negligible. The thick-film parabolic growth law is also based on a diffusion controlled process, but space-charge neutrality prevails locally within very thick oxides.) In the absence of a voltage measurement across the growing oxide, a distinction between the two mechanisms cannot be made, nor can growth by the diffusion of neutral atomic oxygen be entirely ruled out. The activation energy for the reaction is on the order of 1.1 eV (1.76 x 10(exp -19) joule, or equivalently, 25.3 kcal/mole).

  5. Study of Bulk and Elementary Screw Dislocation Assisted Reverse Breakdown in Low-Voltage (<250 V) 4H-SiC p+n Junction Diodes - Part 1: DC Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Huang, Wei; Dudley, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Given the high density (approx. 10(exp 4)/sq cm) of elementary screw dislocations (Burgers vector = lc with no hollow core) in commercial SiC wafers and epilayers, all appreciable current (greater than 1 A) SiC power devices will likely contain elementary screw dislocations for the foreseeable future. It is therefore important to ascertain the electrical impact of these defects, particularly in high-field vertical power device topologies where SiC is expected to enable large performance improvements in solid-state high-power systems. This paper compares the DC-measured reverse-breakdown characteristics of low-voltage (less than 250 V) small-area (less than 5 x 10(exp -4) sq cm) 4H-SiC p(+)n diodes with and without elementary screw dislocations. Compared to screw dislocation-free devices, diodes containing elementary screw dislocations exhibited higher pre-breakdown reverse leakage currents, softer reverse breakdown I-V knees, and highly localized microplasmic breakdown current filaments. The observed localized 4H-SiC breakdown parallels microplasmic breakdowns observed in silicon and other semiconductors, in which space-charge effects limit current conduction through the local microplasma as reverse bias is increased.

  6. Study of Bulk and Elementary Screw Dislocation Assisted Reverse Breakdown in Low-Voltage (less than 250 V) 4H-SiC p(+)n Junction diodes. Part 1; DC Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Huang, Wei; Dudley, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Given the high density (approx. 10(exp 4)/sq cm) of elementary screw dislocations (Burgers vector = 1c with no hollow core) in commercial SiC wafers and epilayers, all appreciable current (greater than 1 A) SiC power devices will likely contain elementary screw dislocations for the foreseeable future. It is therefore important to ascertain the electrical impact of these defects, particularly in high-field vertical power device topologies where SiC is expected to enable large performance improvements in solid-state high-power systems. This paper compares the DC-measured reverse-breakdown characteristics of low-voltage (less than 250 V) small-area (less than 5 x 10(exp -4)/sq cm) 4H-SiC p(+)n diodes with and without elementary screw dislocations. Compared to screw dislocation-free devices, diodes containing elementary screw dislocations exhibited higher pre-breakdown reverse leakage currents, softer reverse breakdown I-V knees, and highly localized microplasmic breakdown current filaments. The observed localized 4H-SiC breakdown parallels microplasmic breakdowns observed in silicon and other semiconductors, in which space-charge effects limit current conduction through the local microplasma as reverse bias is increased.

  7. Improve emergency light design with lumens/sq ft method.

    PubMed

    Sieron, R L

    1981-05-01

    In summary, the "Lumens/sq ft Method" outlined here is proposed as a guideline for designing emergency lighting systems such as in the accompanying examples. With this method, the total lumens delivered by the emergency lighting units in the area is divided by the floor area (in sq ft) to yield a figure of merit. The author proposes that a range from 0.25 to 1.0 lumens/sq ft be specified for emergency lighting. The lower value may be used for non-critical areas (for example, warehouses), while the higher value would be used for areas such as school corridors and hospitals.

  8. A 2.2 sq m /24 sq ft/ self-controlled deployable heat pipe radiator - Design and test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, F.

    1975-01-01

    An all heat pipe, deployable radiator has been developed which can effectively control pumped fluid loop temperatures under varying loads using variable conductance panel heat pipes. The 2.2 sq m (24 sq ft) aluminum panel can be coupled to either a fluid header or a flexible heat pipe header capable of transporting 850 watts in a 90-deg bent configuration. Test results support the feasibility of using this system to passively control Freon-21 loop temperatures.

  9. Evolution of Iron K Alpha Line Emission in the Black Hole Candidate GX 339-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Y. X.; Zhang, S. N.; Sun, X.; Durouchoux, Ph.; Chen, Wan; Cui, Wei

    2001-01-01

    GX 339-4 was regularly monitored with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer during a period (in 1999) when its X-ray flux decreased significantly (from 4.26 x 10(exp -10) to 7.6 x 10(exp -12) ergs in the 3-20 keV band), as the source settled into the 'off state.' Our spectral analysis revealed the presence of a prominent iron K alpha line in the observed spectrum of the source for all observations. The line shows an interesting evolution: it is centered at approx. 6.4 keV when the measured flux is above 5 x 10(exp -1) ergs per sq cm/s but is shifted to approx. 6.7 keV at lower fluxes. The equivalent width of the line appears to increase significantly toward lower fluxes, although it is likely to be sensitive to calibration uncertainties. While the fluorescent emission of neutral or mildly ionized iron atoms in the accretion disk can perhaps account for the 6.4 keV line, as is often invoked for black hole candidates, it seems difficult to understand the 6.7 keV line with this mechanism because the disk should be less ionized at lower fluxes (unless its density changes drastically). On the other hand, the 6.7 keV line might be due to a recombination cascade of hydrogen- or helium-like iron ions in an optically thin, highly ionized plasma. We discuss the results in the context of proposed accretion models.

  10. Contributions from the data samples in NOC technique on the extracting of the Sq variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yingyan; Xu, Wenyao

    2015-04-01

    The solar quiet daily variation, Sq, a rather regular variation is usually observed at mid-low latitudes on magnetic quiet days or less-disturbed days. It is mainly resulted from the dynamo currents in the ionospheric E region, which are driven by the atmospheric tidal wind and different processes and flow as two current whorls in each of the northern and southern hemispheres[1]. The Sq exhibits a conspicuous day-to-day (DTD) variability in daily range (or strength), shape (or phase) and its current focus. This variability is mainly attributed to changes in the ionospheric conductivity and tidal winds, varying with solar radiation and ionospheric conditions. Furthermore, it presents a seasonal variation and solar cycle variation[2-4]. In generally, Sq is expressed with the average value of the five international magnetic quiet days. Using data from global magnetic stations, equivalent current system of daily variation can be constructed to reveal characteristics of the currents[5]. In addition, using the differences of H component at two stations on north and south side of the Sq currents of focus, Sq is extracted much better[6]. Recently, the method of Natural Orthoganal Components (NOC) is used to decompose the magnetic daily variation and express it as the summation of eigenmodes, and indicate the first NOC eigenmode as the solar quiet daily variation, the second as the disturbance daily variation[7-9]. As we know, the NOC technique can help reveal simpler patterns within a complex set of variables, without designed basic-functions such as FFT technique. But the physical explanation of the NOC eigenmodes is greatly depends on the number of data samples and data regular-quality. Using the NOC method, we focus our present study on the analysis of the hourly means of the H component at BMT observatory in China from 2001 to 2008. The contributions of the number and the regular-quality of the data samples on which eigenmode corresponds to the Sq are analyzed, by

  11. Preliminary Investigation of Molybdenum Disulfide-air-mist Lubrication for Roller Bearings Operating to DN Values of 1 x 10(exp 6) and Ball Bearings Operating to Temperatures of 1000 F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macks, E F; Nemeth, Z N; Anderson, W J

    1951-01-01

    The effectiveness of molybdenum disulfide MoS2 as a bearing lubricant was determined at high temperature and at high speeds. A 1-inch-bore ball bearing operated at temperatures to 1000 F, a speed of 1725 rpm, and a thrust load of 20 pounds when lubricated only with MoS2-air mist. A 75-millimeter-bore cageless roller bearing, provided with a MoS2-syrup coating before operation, operated at DN values to 1 x 10(exp 6) with a load of 368 pounds.

  12. Longitudinal-stability Investigation of High-lift and Stall-control Devices on a 52 Degree Sweptback Wing with and Without Fuselage and Horizontal Tail at a Reynolds Number of 6.8 x 10(exp 6).

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Gerald V; Fitzpatrick, James E

    1948-01-01

    Contains low-speed longitudinal stability characteristics of a 52 degree sweptback wing of aspect ratio 2.88, taper ratio 0.625, and NACA 64 (sub 1)-112 airfoil sections normal to the 0.282-chord line, in combination with split flaps, leading-edge flaps, and upper-surface fences. Low-wing and midwing-fuselage aerodynamic characteristics are presented with and without a horizontal tail at various vertical locations. Tests were conducted at a Reynolds number of 6.8 x 10(exp 6).

  13. GB 1508+5714, The First Z Greater than 4 Radio-Selected Quasar In X Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, Smita; Elvis, Martin

    1997-01-01

    We report the detection in X ray of a high redshift (z=4.30) radio-loud quasar, GB 1508+5714, the first radio-selected z greater than 4 quasar seen in X rays. The quasar was observed serendipitously with the Einstein observatory lPC at 0.02 +/- 0.003 counts/s. It is ten times brighter than the other two z greater than 4 X-ray detected quasars. The X-ray source is unusually hard, implying either alpha(sub E) less than 0.2, or N(sub H) greater than 10(exp 22) atoms/sq cm (1(sigma) limits) for a simple power-law plus intrinsic (z=4.3) absorption. Intrinsic absorption would make GB 1508+5714 similar to a large fraction of z approx. 3 radio-loud quasars.

  14. Diurnal changes of earthquake activity and geomagnetic Sq-variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duma, G.; Ruzhin, Y.

    Statistic analyses demonstrate that the probability of earthquake occurrence in many earthquake regions strongly depends on the time of day, that is on Local Time (e.g. Conrad, 1909, 1932; Shimshoni, 1971; Duma, 1997; Duma and Vilardo, 1998). This also applies to strong earthquake activity. Moreover, recent observations reveal an involvement of the regular diurnal variations of the Earth's magnetic field, commonly known as Sq-variations, in this geodynamic process of changing earthquake activity with the time of day (Duma, 1996, 1999). In the article it is attempted to quantify the forces which result from the interaction between the induced Sq-variation currents in the Earth's lithosphere and the regional Earth's magnetic field, in order to assess the influence on the tectonic stress field and on seismic activity. A reliable model is obtained, which indicates a high energy involved in this process. The effect of Sq-induction is compared with the results of the large scale electromagnetic experiment "Khibiny" (Velikhov, 1989), where a giant artificial current loop was activated in the Barents Sea.

  15. Approaches to 100 Gbit/sq. in. recording density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kryder, Mark H.

    1994-01-01

    A recording density of 10 Gbit/sq. in. is being pursued by a number of companies and universities in the National Storage Industry Consortium. It is widely accepted that this goal will be achieved in the laboratory within a few years. In this paper approaches to achieving 100 Gbit/sq. in. storage densities are considered. A major obstacle to continued scaling of magnetic recording to higher densities is that as the bit size is reduced, the grain size in the magnetic media must be reduced in order that media noise does not become so large that the signal to noise ratio (SNR) degrades sufficiently to make detection impossible. At 100 Gbit/sq. in., the bit size is only 0.006 square micrometers, which, in order to achieve 30 dB SNR, requires a grain size of about 2.5 nm. Such small grains are subject to thermal instability, and the recorded information will degrade over time unless the magnetic anisotropy of the materials used is increased significantly, or the media thickness is made much larger than expected on the basis of scaling today's longitudinal media thickness.

  16. Initial Results from a Search for Lunar Radio Emission from Interactions of >= 10(exp 19) eV Neutrinos and Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorham, P. W.; Liewer, K. M.; Naudet, C. J.

    2000-01-01

    Using the NASA Goldstone 70m antenna DSS 14 both singly and in coincidence with the 34 m antenna DSS 13 (21.7 km to the southeast), we have acquired approximately 12 hrs of livetime in a search for predicted pulsed radio emission from extremely-high energy cascades induced by neutrinos or cosmic rays in the lunar regolith. In about 4 hrs of single antenna observations, we reduced our sensitivity to impulsive terrestrial interference to a negligible level by use of a veto afforded by the unique capability of DSS 14. In the 8 hrs of dual-antenna observations, terrestrial interference is eliminated as a background. In both observing modes the thermal noise floor limits the sensitivity. We detected no events above statistical background. We report here initial limits based on these data which begin to constrain several predictions of the flux of EHE neutrinos.

  17. Assembly and Tests of SQ02, a Nb3Sn Racetrack Quadrupole Magnet for LARP

    SciTech Connect

    Ferracin, Paolo; Ambrosio, G.; Barzi, E.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D.R.; Feher, S.; Gourlay, S.A.; Hafalia, A.R.; Hannaford, C.R.; Lizarazo, J.; Lietzke, A.F.; McInturff, A.D.; Sabbi, G.L.; Zlobin, A.V.

    2007-06-01

    The US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) consists of four US laboratories (BNL, FNAL, LBNL, and SLAC) collaborating with CERN to achieve a successful commissioning of the LHC and to develop the next generation of Interaction Region magnets. In 2004, a large aperture Nb{sub 3}Sn racetrack quadrupole magnet (SQ01) has been fabricated and tested at LBNL. The magnet utilized four subscale racetrack coils and was instrumented with strain gauges on the support structure and directly over the coil's turns. SQ01 exhibited training quenches in two of the four coils and reached a peak field in the conductor of 10.4 T at a current of 10.6 kA. After the test, the magnet was disassembled, inspected with pressure indicating films, and reassembled with minor modifications. A second test (SQ01b) was performed at FNAL and included training studies, strain gauge measurements and magnetic measurements. Magnet inspection, test results, and magnetic measurements are reported and discussed, and a comparison between strain gauge measurements and 3D finite element computations is presented.

  18. Variation of tidal winds in the ionosphere inferred from geomagnetic SQ field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeda, M.; Araki, T.

    1985-01-01

    The geomagnetic Sq field is mainly generated by the dynamo action of tidal winds in the ionosphere, and therefore some information can be derived from the variation of the Sq field. The geomagnetic Sq field was analyzed during March 1 to 18, 1980, when the geomagnetic activity was exceptionally low, and the equivalent Sq currents calculated every 2 hours by using the spherical harmonics method. Then additional Sq currents were extracted by subtracting the currents averaged through all days in the period from the original currents at each UT. The change of the instantaneous Sq current system by the above-mentioned method is discussed.

  19. Climate changes associated with high-amplitude Sq geomagnetic variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabeh, Taha; Carvalho, Joao; Khalil, Ahmed; El-Aal, Esmat; El-Hemaly, Ibrahim

    2011-10-01

    When the solar irradiance propagates between the outer magnetospheric regions and the ionosphere, dynamic processes of the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system are affected at the lower end of their paths by the interaction of radiation with the neutral troposphere. The main target of this work is to investigate the relationship between the diurnal magnetic field variations resulting from solar activities and the variation in the troposphere temperature. Meteorological and geomagnetic data acquired from different observatories located in Egypt, Portugal and Slovakia in a long-term and daily-term scales were analyzed. The long-term results show that there is a close relationship between the diurnal Sq magnetic field variations and the tropospheric temperature. The rate of temperature increase at mid-latitude areas is higher than at high-latitude. During the period of investigation, it is found that the troposphere temperature has increased by about 0.033 °C/year at Helwan, Egypt, 0.03 °C/year at Coimbra, Portugal, and 0.028 °C/year in Hurbanovo/Stará Lesná, Slovakia. The Sq geomagnetic variations depend on the intensity of the electric currents generated by the effect of solar radiation in the ionosphere.

  20. Climate Changes Associated with High Amplitude Sq Geomagnetic Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabeh, Taha; Khalil, Ahmed; Abdel All, Esmat

    2010-05-01

    The Earth's climate has always been changing since the ancient geologic Epochs. When the solar irradiance propagates between the outer magnetospheric regions and the ionosphere, mediate dynamic processes of the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system are affected at the lower end of their paths by the interaction of the radiations with the neutral atmosphere. The ionosphere-thermosphere interactions play an important role for explaining the relationship between the magnetic field and the changes in the atmospheric temperature. The main target of this work is to investigate the relationship between the diurnal magnetic field variations resulted from solar activities and the variation in the Earth's temperature. The meteorological and geomagnetic data acquired from different observatories around the globe were analyzed. Three different locations in Egypt, Portugal and Slovakia for long and daily terms were presented. The results show that for long periods, there is a close relationship between the diurnal variations, Sq magnetic field and the atmospheric temperature. The increasing rate of the temperature at mid-latitude areas is higher than at high-latitude areas. During the period of investigation, it is found that the temperature increases at Helwan, Egypt by about 0.033 °C/year, 0.03 °C/year at Coimbra, Portugal and 0.028 °C/year in Hurbanovo/Stará Lesn, Slovakia. The Sq geomagnetic variations depend on the intensity of the electric currents generated by the effect of solar radiations in the Ionosphere.

  1. Improvement of critical current density in thallium-based (Tl,Bi)Sr(1.6)Ba(0.4)Ca2Cu3O(x) superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ren, Z. F.; Wang, C. A.; Wang, J. H.; Miller, D. J.; Goretta, K. C.

    1995-01-01

    Epitaxial (Tl,Bi)Sr(1.6)Ba(0.4)Ca2Cu3O(x) ((Tl,Bi)-1223) thin films on (100) single crystal LaAlO3 substrates were synthesized by a two-step procedure. Phase development, microstructure, and relationships between film and substrate were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Resistance versus temperature, zero-field-cooled and field cooled magnetization, and transport critical current density (J(sub c)) were measured. The zero-resistance temperature was 105-111 K. J(sub c) at 77 K and zero field was greater than 2 x 10(exp 6) A/sq cm. The films exhibited good flux pinning properties.

  2. Comprehensive Quantitative Analysis of SQ Injection Using Multiple Chromatographic Technologies.

    PubMed

    Chau, Siu-Leung; Huang, Zhi-Bing; Song, Yan-Gang; Yue, Rui-Qi; Ho, Alan; Lin, Chao-Zhan; Huang, Wen-Hua; Han, Quan-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Quality control of Chinese medicine injections remains a challenge due to our poor knowledge of their complex chemical profile. This study aims to investigate the chemical composition of one of the best-selling injections, Shenqi Fuzheng (SQ) injection (SQI), via a full component quantitative analysis. A total of 15 representative small molecular components of SQI were simultaneously determined using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with quadrupole tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS); saccharide composition of SQI was also quantitatively determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) on an amino column before and after acid hydrolysis. The existence of polysaccharides was also examined on a gel permeation chromatography column. The method was well validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and stability, and was successfully applied to analyze 13 SQI samples. The results demonstrate that up to 94.69% (w/w) of this injection product are quantitatively determined, in which small molecules and monosaccharide/sucrose account for 0.18%-0.21%, and 53.49%-58.2%, respectively. The quantitative information contributes to accumulating scientific evidence to better understand the therapy efficacy and safety of complex Chinese medicine injections. PMID:27548134

  3. Comprehensive Quantitative Analysis of SQ Injection Using Multiple Chromatographic Technologies.

    PubMed

    Chau, Siu-Leung; Huang, Zhi-Bing; Song, Yan-Gang; Yue, Rui-Qi; Ho, Alan; Lin, Chao-Zhan; Huang, Wen-Hua; Han, Quan-Bin

    2016-08-19

    Quality control of Chinese medicine injections remains a challenge due to our poor knowledge of their complex chemical profile. This study aims to investigate the chemical composition of one of the best-selling injections, Shenqi Fuzheng (SQ) injection (SQI), via a full component quantitative analysis. A total of 15 representative small molecular components of SQI were simultaneously determined using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with quadrupole tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS); saccharide composition of SQI was also quantitatively determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) on an amino column before and after acid hydrolysis. The existence of polysaccharides was also examined on a gel permeation chromatography column. The method was well validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and stability, and was successfully applied to analyze 13 SQI samples. The results demonstrate that up to 94.69% (w/w) of this injection product are quantitatively determined, in which small molecules and monosaccharide/sucrose account for 0.18%-0.21%, and 53.49%-58.2%, respectively. The quantitative information contributes to accumulating scientific evidence to better understand the therapy efficacy and safety of complex Chinese medicine injections.

  4. Low-Speed Longitudinal Stability and Lateral-Control Characteristics of a 0.3-Scale Model of the Republic RF-84F Airplane at a Reynolds Number of 9x10(exp 6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollech, Thomas V.; Kelly, H. Neale

    1954-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 19-foot pressure tunnel on a 0.3-scale model of the Republic RF-84F airplane to determine modifications which would eliminate the pitch-up that occurred near maximum lift during flight tests of the airplane. The effects of high-lift and stall-control devices, horizontal tail locations, external stores, and various inlets on the longitudinal characteristics of the model were investigated. For the most part, these tests were conducted at a Reynolds number of 9.0 x 10(exp 6) and a Mach number of 0.19. The results indicated that from the standpoint of stability the inlets should possess blunted side bodies. The horizontal tail located at either the highest or lowest position investigated improved the stability of the model. Three configurations were found for the model equipped with the production tail which eliminated the pitch-up through the lift range up to the maximum lift and provided a stable static margin which did not vary more than 15% of the mean aerodynamic chord through the lift range up to 85% of maximum lift. The three configurations are as follows: the production wing-fuselage-tail combination with an inlet similar to the production inlet but smaller in plan form in conjunction with either (1) a wing fence located at 65% of the win semispan or (2) an 11.7% chord leading-edge extension extending from 65.8 to 95.8% of the wing semispan and (3) the production wing-fuselage-tail combination with the production inlet and an 11.7% chord leading-edge extension extending from 70.8 to 95.8% of the wing semispan.

  5. A radioimmunoassay for SQ 27,519, the active phosphinic acid-carboxylic diacid of the prodrug fosinopril in human serum

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, J.I.; Brennan, J.; Stouffer, B.; Eckelman, W.C. )

    1990-07-01

    Fosinopril (SQ 28,555) is a member of a new chemical class of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors being developed by The Squibb Institute for Medical Research. During or following absorption, fosinopril, a prodrug, is hydrolyzed pharmacologically to the active diacid, SQ 27,519. A specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the measurement of SQ 27,519 in human serum has been developed. The assay utilizes a specific SQ 27,519 antibody, 125I-iodohistamine-SQ 27,519 radiolabel, and human serum standards. Satisfactory zero binding and assay sensitivity are achieved after a 2-h incubation at room temperature. Separation of the antibody-bound and free radiolabeled antigens is achieved by using polyethylene glycol-goat anti-rabbit gamma globulin separant. Recovery efficiencies ranged from 97.2 to 109.4%. The assay exhibited little or no cross-reactivity with captopril. Cross-reactivities for prodrug (SQ 28,555) and phenolic SQ 27,519 were 5 and 9%, respectively. Intra-assay variability (3.3-5.6%) and interassay variability (7.1-6.6%) were observed. Linear regression analysis indicates that RIA and (14C) thin-layer radiochromatography (TLRC) methods gave a highly significant correlation (RIA = 1.0 (14C)TLRC + 0.17, r = 0.991). Pharmacokinetic profiles of patient sera containing SQ 27,519 obtained by RIA and (14C)TLRC are identical. The RIA has been used routinely in support of the bioavailability and pharmacokinetic studies of fosinopril in humans.

  6. The SQ3R Study Technique Enhances Comprehension of an Introductory Psychology Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chastain, Garvin; Thurber, Steven

    1989-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of the SQ3R study technique in enhancing comprehension of material in an introductory psychology textbook. Finds significantly better performance on tests of recall or conceptual items for students using SQ3R than for those using individual study methods. (RS)

  7. Characterization of FGFR1 Locus in sqNSCLC Reveals a Broad and Heterogeneous Amplicon

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, Claire; Geh, Catherine; Williams, Victoria; Heuckmann, Johannes M.; Menon, Roopika; Schneider, Petra; Al-Kadhimi, Katherine; Dymond, Michael; Smith, Neil R.; Baker, Dawn; French, Tim; Smith, Paul D.; Harrington, Elizabeth A.; Barrett, J. Carl; Kilgour, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    FGFR1 amplification occurs in ~20% of sqNSCLC and trials with FGFR inhibitors have selected FGFR1 amplified patients by FISH. Lung cancer cell lines were profiled for sensitivity to AZD4547, a potent, selective inhibitor of FGFRs 1–3. Sensitivity to FGFR inhibition was associated with but not wholly predicted by increased FGFR1 gene copy number. Additional biomarker assays evaluating expression of FGFRs and correlation between amplification and expression in clinical tissues are therefore warranted. We validated nanoString for mRNA expression analysis of 194 genes, including FGFRs, from clinical tumour tissue. In a panel of sqNSCLC tumours 14.4% (13/90) were FGFR1 amplified by FISH. Although mean FGFR1 expression was significantly higher in amplified samples, there was significant overlap in the range of expression levels between the amplified and non-amplified cohorts with several non-amplified samples expressing FGFR1 to levels equivalent to amplified samples. Statistical analysis revealed increased expression of FGFR1 neighboring genes on the 8p12 amplicon (BAG4, LSM1 and WHSC1L1) in FGFR1 amplified tumours, suggesting a broad rather than focal amplicon and raises the potential for codependencies. High resolution aCGH analysis of pre-clinical and clinical samples supported the presence of a broad and heterogeneous amplicon around the FGFR1 locus. In conclusion, the range of FGFR1 expression levels in both FGFR1 amplified and non-amplified NSCLC tissues, together with the breadth and intra-patient heterogeneity of the 8p amplicon highlights the need for gene expression analysis of clinical samples to inform the understanding of determinants of response to FGFR inhibitors. In this respect the nanoString platform provides an attractive option for RNA analysis of FFPE clinical samples. PMID:26905262

  8. Characterization of FGFR1 Locus in sqNSCLC Reveals a Broad and Heterogeneous Amplicon.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Claire; Geh, Catherine; Williams, Victoria; Heuckmann, Johannes M; Menon, Roopika; Schneider, Petra; Al-Kadhimi, Katherine; Dymond, Michael; Smith, Neil R; Baker, Dawn; French, Tim; Smith, Paul D; Harrington, Elizabeth A; Barrett, J Carl; Kilgour, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    FGFR1 amplification occurs in ~20% of sqNSCLC and trials with FGFR inhibitors have selected FGFR1 amplified patients by FISH. Lung cancer cell lines were profiled for sensitivity to AZD4547, a potent, selective inhibitor of FGFRs 1-3. Sensitivity to FGFR inhibition was associated with but not wholly predicted by increased FGFR1 gene copy number. Additional biomarker assays evaluating expression of FGFRs and correlation between amplification and expression in clinical tissues are therefore warranted. We validated nanoString for mRNA expression analysis of 194 genes, including FGFRs, from clinical tumour tissue. In a panel of sqNSCLC tumours 14.4% (13/90) were FGFR1 amplified by FISH. Although mean FGFR1 expression was significantly higher in amplified samples, there was significant overlap in the range of expression levels between the amplified and non-amplified cohorts with several non-amplified samples expressing FGFR1 to levels equivalent to amplified samples. Statistical analysis revealed increased expression of FGFR1 neighboring genes on the 8p12 amplicon (BAG4, LSM1 and WHSC1L1) in FGFR1 amplified tumours, suggesting a broad rather than focal amplicon and raises the potential for codependencies. High resolution aCGH analysis of pre-clinical and clinical samples supported the presence of a broad and heterogeneous amplicon around the FGFR1 locus. In conclusion, the range of FGFR1 expression levels in both FGFR1 amplified and non-amplified NSCLC tissues, together with the breadth and intra-patient heterogeneity of the 8p amplicon highlights the need for gene expression analysis of clinical samples to inform the understanding of determinants of response to FGFR inhibitors. In this respect the nanoString platform provides an attractive option for RNA analysis of FFPE clinical samples. PMID:26905262

  9. Entner-Doudoroff pathway for sulfoquinovose degradation in Pseudomonas putida SQ1.

    PubMed

    Felux, Ann-Katrin; Spiteller, Dieter; Klebensberger, Janosch; Schleheck, David

    2015-08-01

    Sulfoquinovose (SQ; 6-deoxy-6-sulfoglucose) is the polar head group of the plant sulfolipid SQ-diacylglycerol, and SQ comprises a major proportion of the organosulfur in nature, where it is degraded by bacteria. A first degradation pathway for SQ has been demonstrated recently, a "sulfoglycolytic" pathway, in addition to the classical glycolytic (Embden-Meyerhof) pathway in Escherichia coli K-12; half of the carbon of SQ is abstracted as dihydroxyacetonephosphate (DHAP) and used for growth, whereas a C3-organosulfonate, 2,3-dihydroxypropane sulfonate (DHPS), is excreted. The environmental isolate Pseudomonas putida SQ1 is also able to use SQ for growth, and excretes a different C3-organosulfonate, 3-sulfolactate (SL). In this study, we revealed the catabolic pathway for SQ in P. putida SQ1 through differential proteomics and transcriptional analyses, by in vitro reconstitution of the complete pathway by five heterologously produced enzymes, and by identification of all four organosulfonate intermediates. The pathway follows a reaction sequence analogous to the Entner-Doudoroff pathway for glucose-6-phosphate: It involves an NAD(+)-dependent SQ dehydrogenase, 6-deoxy-6-sulfogluconolactone (SGL) lactonase, 6-deoxy-6-sulfogluconate (SG) dehydratase, and 2-keto-3,6-dideoxy-6-sulfogluconate (KDSG) aldolase. The aldolase reaction yields pyruvate, which supports growth of P. putida, and 3-sulfolactaldehyde (SLA), which is oxidized to SL by an NAD(P)(+)-dependent SLA dehydrogenase. All five enzymes are encoded in a single gene cluster that includes, for example, genes for transport and regulation. Homologous gene clusters were found in genomes of other P. putida strains, in other gamma-Proteobacteria, and in beta- and alpha-Proteobacteria, for example, in genomes of Enterobacteria, Vibrio, and Halomonas species, and in typical soil bacteria, such as Burkholderia, Herbaspirillum, and Rhizobium.

  10. Entner–Doudoroff pathway for sulfoquinovose degradation in Pseudomonas putida SQ1

    PubMed Central

    Felux, Ann-Katrin; Spiteller, Dieter; Klebensberger, Janosch; Schleheck, David

    2015-01-01

    Sulfoquinovose (SQ; 6-deoxy-6-sulfoglucose) is the polar head group of the plant sulfolipid SQ-diacylglycerol, and SQ comprises a major proportion of the organosulfur in nature, where it is degraded by bacteria. A first degradation pathway for SQ has been demonstrated recently, a “sulfoglycolytic” pathway, in addition to the classical glycolytic (Embden–Meyerhof) pathway in Escherichia coli K-12; half of the carbon of SQ is abstracted as dihydroxyacetonephosphate (DHAP) and used for growth, whereas a C3-organosulfonate, 2,3-dihydroxypropane sulfonate (DHPS), is excreted. The environmental isolate Pseudomonas putida SQ1 is also able to use SQ for growth, and excretes a different C3-organosulfonate, 3-sulfolactate (SL). In this study, we revealed the catabolic pathway for SQ in P. putida SQ1 through differential proteomics and transcriptional analyses, by in vitro reconstitution of the complete pathway by five heterologously produced enzymes, and by identification of all four organosulfonate intermediates. The pathway follows a reaction sequence analogous to the Entner–Doudoroff pathway for glucose-6-phosphate: It involves an NAD+-dependent SQ dehydrogenase, 6-deoxy-6-sulfogluconolactone (SGL) lactonase, 6-deoxy-6-sulfogluconate (SG) dehydratase, and 2-keto-3,6-dideoxy-6-sulfogluconate (KDSG) aldolase. The aldolase reaction yields pyruvate, which supports growth of P. putida, and 3-sulfolactaldehyde (SLA), which is oxidized to SL by an NAD(P)+-dependent SLA dehydrogenase. All five enzymes are encoded in a single gene cluster that includes, for example, genes for transport and regulation. Homologous gene clusters were found in genomes of other P. putida strains, in other gamma-Proteobacteria, and in beta- and alpha-Proteobacteria, for example, in genomes of Enterobacteria, Vibrio, and Halomonas species, and in typical soil bacteria, such as Burkholderia, Herbaspirillum, and Rhizobium. PMID:26195800

  11. Entner-Doudoroff pathway for sulfoquinovose degradation in Pseudomonas putida SQ1.

    PubMed

    Felux, Ann-Katrin; Spiteller, Dieter; Klebensberger, Janosch; Schleheck, David

    2015-08-01

    Sulfoquinovose (SQ; 6-deoxy-6-sulfoglucose) is the polar head group of the plant sulfolipid SQ-diacylglycerol, and SQ comprises a major proportion of the organosulfur in nature, where it is degraded by bacteria. A first degradation pathway for SQ has been demonstrated recently, a "sulfoglycolytic" pathway, in addition to the classical glycolytic (Embden-Meyerhof) pathway in Escherichia coli K-12; half of the carbon of SQ is abstracted as dihydroxyacetonephosphate (DHAP) and used for growth, whereas a C3-organosulfonate, 2,3-dihydroxypropane sulfonate (DHPS), is excreted. The environmental isolate Pseudomonas putida SQ1 is also able to use SQ for growth, and excretes a different C3-organosulfonate, 3-sulfolactate (SL). In this study, we revealed the catabolic pathway for SQ in P. putida SQ1 through differential proteomics and transcriptional analyses, by in vitro reconstitution of the complete pathway by five heterologously produced enzymes, and by identification of all four organosulfonate intermediates. The pathway follows a reaction sequence analogous to the Entner-Doudoroff pathway for glucose-6-phosphate: It involves an NAD(+)-dependent SQ dehydrogenase, 6-deoxy-6-sulfogluconolactone (SGL) lactonase, 6-deoxy-6-sulfogluconate (SG) dehydratase, and 2-keto-3,6-dideoxy-6-sulfogluconate (KDSG) aldolase. The aldolase reaction yields pyruvate, which supports growth of P. putida, and 3-sulfolactaldehyde (SLA), which is oxidized to SL by an NAD(P)(+)-dependent SLA dehydrogenase. All five enzymes are encoded in a single gene cluster that includes, for example, genes for transport and regulation. Homologous gene clusters were found in genomes of other P. putida strains, in other gamma-Proteobacteria, and in beta- and alpha-Proteobacteria, for example, in genomes of Enterobacteria, Vibrio, and Halomonas species, and in typical soil bacteria, such as Burkholderia, Herbaspirillum, and Rhizobium. PMID:26195800

  12. Assembly and Test of SQ01b, a Nb3Sn Quadrupole Magnet for the LHC Accelerator Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ferracin, P.; Ambrosio, G.; Bartlett, S. E.; Bordini, B.; Carcagno, R.H.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D.R.; Feher, S.; Gourlay, S.A.; Hafalia, A.R.; Lamm, M.J.; Lietzke, A.F.; Mattafirri, S.; McInturff, A.D.; Orris, D.F.; Pischalnikov, Y.M.; Sabbi, G.L.; Sylvester, C.D.; Tartaglia, M.A.; Velev, G.V.; Zlobin, A.V.; Kashikhin, V.V.

    2006-06-01

    The US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) consists of four US laboratories (BNL, FNAL, LBNL, and SLAC) collaborating with CERN to achieve a successful commissioning of the LHC and to develop the next generation of Interaction Region magnets. In 2004, a large aperture Nb{sub 3}Sn racetrack quadrupole magnet (SQ01) has been fabricated and tested at LBNL. The magnet utilized four subscale racetrack coils and was instrumented with strain gauges on the support structure and directly over the coil's turns. SQ01 exhibited training quenches in two of the four coils and reached a peak field in the conductor of 10.4 T at a current of 10.6 kA. After the test, the magnet was disassembled, inspected with pressure indicating films, and reassembled with minor modifications. A second test (SQ01b) was performed at FNAL and included training studies, strain gauge measurements and magnetic measurements. Magnet inspection, test results, and magnetic measurements are reported and discussed, and a comparison between strain gauge measurements and 3D finite element computations is presented

  13. Sq solar variation at Medea Observatory (Algeria), from 2008 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anad, F.; Amory-Mazaudier, C.; Hamoudi, M.; Bourouis, S.; Abtout, A.; Yizengaw, E.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the regular variations of terrestrial magnetic field recorded by a new magnetic Observatory Medea, Algeria (geographic latitude: 36.85°N, geographic longitude: 2.93°E, geomagnetic latitude: 27.98°N, geomagnetic longitude: 77.7°E) during 2008-2011. The diurnal and seasonal variations of the solar quiet (Sq) variations are analyzed. The results show differences in the diurnal pattern of the northward-component Sq variation (SqX) at different seasons. The seasonal variation of SqX is similar in different years. The diurnal pattern of SqX from July through September cannot be explained by an equivalent current system that is symmetric about the noon time sector. The observations indicate that the major axis of the elliptic current system is tilted towards the equator in the morning hours during those months. The diurnal pattern of SqY indicates southward currents in the morning and northward currents in the afternoon, except during February-March 2009 when there is apparently no southward current during the morning. For the other months, the observations indicate that the maximum northward current intensity in the afternoon tends to be greater than the maximum southward current intensity in the morning. This is because of the UT variation of the Sq current system. That is, the pattern and strength of the Sq current system are different when SqY is measured in the morning around 8 UT and in the afternoon around 14 UT. The amplitude of these extreme varies linearly with the solar cycle. For the SqY component, the changes in the morning maximum have an annual variation while that of the afternoon minimum has a semi-annual variation. These variations are attributed to seasonal variations in the ionospheric E-region conductivity and atmospheric tidal winds. The field-aligned currents can also contribute to the seasonal variation of SqY. However, the two-dimensional approach used in this article does not allow us to quantitatively determine their

  14. SQ3R Doesn't Work--Or Does It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopfstein, Robert Wm.

    The SQ3R method has been the backbone of textbook reading strategies for over 20 years. However, research indicates that students--even though they know how to use the technique--do not apply it because they believe it is too involved and too time consuming. Theoretically, SQ3R is a sound technique based on current knowledge about brain functions,…

  15. Possible Detection of an Emission Cyclotron Resonance Scattering Feature from the Accretion-Powered Pulsar 4U 1626-67

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwakiri, W. B.; Terada, Y.; Tashiro, M. S.; Mihara, T.; Angelini, L.; Yamada, S.; Enoto, T.; Makishima, K.; Nakajima, M.; Yoshida, A.

    2012-01-01

    We present analysis of 4U 1626-67, a 7.7 s pulsar in a low-mass X-ray binary system, observed with the hard X-ray detector of the Japanese X-ray satellite Suzaku in 2006 March for a net exposure of 88 ks. The source was detected at an average 10-60 keY flux of approx 4 x 10-10 erg / sq cm/ s. The phase-averaged spectrum is reproduced well by combining a negative and positive power-law times exponential cutoff (NPEX) model modified at approx 37 keY by a cyclotron resonance scattering feature (CRSF). The phase-resolved analysis shows that the spectra at the bright phases are well fit by the NPEX with CRSF model. On the other hand. the spectrum in the dim phase lacks the NPEX high-energy cutoff component, and the CRSF can be reproduced by either an emission or an absorption profile. When fitting the dim phase spectrum with the NPEX plus Gaussian model. we find that the feature is better described in terms of an emission rather than an absorption profile. The statistical significance of this result, evaluated by means of an F test, is between 2.91 x 10(exp -3) and 1.53 x 10(exp -5), taking into account the systematic errors in the background evaluation of HXD-PIN. We find that the emission profile is more feasible than the absorption one for comparing the physical parameters in other phases. Therefore, we have possibly detected an emission line at the cyclotron resonance energy in the dim phase.

  16. Sounding Rocket Experiments to Investigate Thermal Electron Heating in the Sq Current Focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, T.; Ishisaka, K.; Kumamoto, A.; Yoshikawa, A.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, M.

    2015-12-01

    Sounding rocket observations in the southern part of Japan suggest that the electron temperature profile occasionally exhibits the local increase by several hundred K at 100-110 km altitudes at 1100-1200 LT in winter. Detailed study of the temperature profiles indicates that such an increase is closely related to the existence of Sq current focus, because it becomes more significant when the measurement is made near the center of Sq focus. In order to understand a general feature of this unusual phenomena occurring in the Sq current focus, the sounding rocket experiment was conducted in Uchinoura of Japan. In this experiment, we launched "S-310-37" rocket equipped with a total of eight science instruments at 11:20 JST on January 16, 2007 after being convinced that the Sq current was approaching to the planned rocket trajectory. The geomagnetic activity had been successively quiet on that day so that we can estimate the position of Sq current focus. Our analysis of the obtained data indicates that the electron temperature was certainly increased by about 500-600 K at the altitude of 97-101 km with respect to the background. Strong electron density perturbation was also observed to exist above 97 km altitude, which corresponds to the lower boundary of the high electron temperatures. It is also noticeable that both the electric field and magnetic field data include unusual variation in the same altitude region as the temperature increase was observed, suggesting a possible connection between the thermal electron heating and variation of the electric and/or magnetic field. Thus, the first experiment in 2007 revealed a general feature of such unusual phenomena in the Sq current focus, and thereby our interest to the generation mechanism for increasing the electron temperature was more and more increased. We will conduct the second rocket experiment to investigate such unusual phenomena in the Sq current focus in January 2016. In this experiment, we will try to measure

  17. The ACE inhibitor ( sup 3 H)SQ29,852 identifies a high affinity recognition site located in the human temporal cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, N.M.; Costall, B.; Egli, P.; Horovitz, Z.P.; Ironside, J.W.; Naylor, R.J.; Williams, T.J. )

    1990-07-01

    The angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor ({sup 3}H)SQ29,852 identified a single high affinity recognition site (defined by 10.0 microM captopril) in the human temporal cortex (pKD 8.62 +/- 0.03; Bmax 248 +/- 24 fmol mg-1 protein, mean +/- S.E.M., n = 4). ACE inhibitors and thiorphan competed to a similar level for the ({sup 3}H)SQ29,852 binding site in the human temporal cortex with a rank order of affinity (pKi values mean +/- S.E.M., n = 3), lisinopril (9.49 +/- 0.02), captopril (9.16 +/- 0.08), SQ29,852 (8.58 +/- 0.04), epicaptopril (7.09 +/- 0.08), fosinopril (7.08 +/- 0.05) and thiorphan (6.40 +/- 0.04). Since this rank order of affinity is similar to the affinity of these compounds to inhibit brain ACE activity it is concluded that ({sup 3}H)SQ29,852 selectively labels the inhibitor recognition site of ACE in the human temporal cortex.

  18. Abnormal Development of Tapetum and Microspores Induced by Chemical Hybridization Agent SQ-1 in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Gaisheng; Song, Qilu; Zhang, Yingxin; Li, Zheng; Guo, Jialin; Niu, Na; Ma, Shoucai; Wang, Junwei

    2015-01-01

    Chemical hybridization agent (CHA)-induced male sterility is an important tool in crop heterosis. To demonstrate that CHA-SQ-1-induced male sterility is associated with abnormal tapetal and microspore development, the cytology of CHA-SQ-1-treated plant anthers at various developmental stages was studied by light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferasemediated dUTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL) assay and DAPI staining. The results indicated that the SQ-1-treated plants underwent premature tapetal programmed cell death (PCD), which was initiated at the early-uninucleate stage of microspore development and continued until the tapetal cells were completely degraded; the process of microspore development was then blocked. Microspores with low-viability (fluorescein diacetate staining) were aborted. The study suggests that premature tapetal PCD is the main cause of pollen abortion. Furthermore, it determines the starting period and a key factor in CHA-SQ-1-induced male sterility at the cell level, and provides cytological evidence to further study the mechanism between PCD and male sterility. PMID:25803723

  19. Abnormal development of tapetum and microspores induced by chemical hybridization agent SQ-1 in wheat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Gaisheng; Song, Qilu; Zhang, Yingxin; Li, Zheng; Guo, Jialin; Niu, Na; Ma, Shoucai; Wang, Junwei

    2015-01-01

    Chemical hybridization agent (CHA)-induced male sterility is an important tool in crop heterosis. To demonstrate that CHA-SQ-1-induced male sterility is associated with abnormal tapetal and microspore development, the cytology of CHA-SQ-1-treated plant anthers at various developmental stages was studied by light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferasemediated dUTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL) assay and DAPI staining. The results indicated that the SQ-1-treated plants underwent premature tapetal programmed cell death (PCD), which was initiated at the early-uninucleate stage of microspore development and continued until the tapetal cells were completely degraded; the process of microspore development was then blocked. Microspores with low-viability (fluorescein diacetate staining) were aborted. The study suggests that premature tapetal PCD is the main cause of pollen abortion. Furthermore, it determines the starting period and a key factor in CHA-SQ-1-induced male sterility at the cell level, and provides cytological evidence to further study the mechanism between PCD and male sterility.

  20. Brain Changes Associated with Thromboxane Receptor Antagonist, SQ 29,548, Treatment in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Rebel, Andrew A.; Urquhart, Siri A.; Puig, Kendra L.; Ghatak, Atreyi; Brose, Stephen A.; Golovko, Mikhail Y.; Combs, Colin K.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize behavioral and physiological effects of a selective thromboxane receptor (TP) antagonist, SQ 29,548, in the C57BL/6 mouse model. At six months of age, male mice were given either sham or drug intraperitoneal injections for three days at a dose of 2mg/kg each day. On the day after the final injection mice were subjected to behavioral testing paradigms before brain collection. Left hemisphere hippocampi were collected from all mice for protein analysis via western blot. Right brain hemispheres were fixed and imbedded in gelatin, and serially sectioned. The sections were immunostained using anti-c-Fos antibodies. Prostaglandin analysis was performed from remaining homogenized brain samples, minus the hippocampi. Injection of SQ 29,548 decreased selective brain prostaglandin levels compared to sham controls. This correlated with robust increases in limbic region c-Fos immunoreactivity in the SQ 29,548 injected mice. However, drug treated mice demonstrated no significant changes in relevant hippocampal protein levels compared to sham treatments, as determined by western blots. Surprisingly, injection of SQ 29,548 caused mixed changes in parameters of depression and anxiety-like behavior in the mice. In conclusion, the results indicate that administration of peripheral TP receptor antagonists alters brain levels of prostanoids and influences neuronal activity with only minimal alterations of behavior. Whether the drug affects neurons directly or through a secondary pathway involving endothelium or other tissues remains unclear. PMID:25703023

  1. SOAR versus SQ3R: A Test of Two Study Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jairam, Dharma; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Rogers-Kasson, Sarah; Patterson-Hazley, Melissa; Marxhausen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Although researchers have long investigated ways to improve study habits and raise achievement, few studies compare study strategy systems with one another. No study to date has compared the long popular SQ3R (Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review) system with the more modern SOAR (Select, Organize, Associate, Regulate) system. This study…

  2. Dating of vein specularite using internal (U+Th)/He-4 isochrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernicke, Rolf S.; Lippolt, Hans J.

    1994-03-01

    Hematite, an ubiquitous iron oxide, is commonly found enriched with uranium and other elements supplied by the ore solution from which it had formed. The decay of the incorporated uranium to stable lead produces alpha particles which become He-4 atoms via electron capture. In hematite this helium production may provide a convenient 'clock' which records the time elapsed since the iron oxide became closed enough to prevent quantitative helium escape (Wernicke and Lippolt, 1993a; 1993b). Recently, Lippolt et al. (1993) reported high retention qualities of specular hematite for He-4 over geologic periods of time (activation energies above 116 (KJ/mol) and diffusion coefficients smaller than 10(exp -30) sq m/s) at room temperature, and closure temperatures above 200 C). Here the concentrations of U and Th have been measured together with radiogenic He-4 at four different locations inside two specularites. The U-He concentrations co-varied sufficiently among the locations for an internal helium isochron of Late Jurassic age to be obtained from each specularite. The study suggests that specularite is a prolific chronometer and might allow a routine approach of the helium (isochron) method to obtain crystallization/cooling ages.

  3. Inverse agonism of SQ 29,548 and Ramatroban on Thromboxane A2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Raja; Bhullar, Rajinder P; Dakshinamurti, Shyamala; Hwa, John; Chelikani, Prashen

    2014-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) show some level of basal activity even in the absence of an agonist, a phenomenon referred to as constitutive activity. Such constitutive activity in GPCRs is known to have important pathophysiological roles in human disease. The thromboxane A2 receptor (TP) is a GPCR that promotes thrombosis in response to binding of the prostanoid, thromboxane A2. TP dysfunction is widely implicated in pathophysiological conditions such as bleeding disorders, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Recently, we reported the characterization of a few constitutively active mutants (CAMs) in TP, including a genetic variant A160T. Using these CAMs as reporters, we now test the inverse agonist properties of known antagonists of TP, SQ 29,548, Ramatroban, L-670596 and Diclofenac, in HEK293T cells. Interestingly, SQ 29,548 reduced the basal activity of both, WT-TP and the CAMs while Ramatroban was able to reduce the basal activity of only the CAMs. Diclofenac and L-670596 showed no statistically significant reduction in basal activity of WT-TP or CAMs. To investigate the role of these compounds on human platelet function, we tested their effects on human megakaryocyte based system for platelet activation. Both SQ 29,548 and Ramatroban reduced the platelet hyperactivity of the A160T genetic variant. Taken together, our results suggest that SQ 29,548 and Ramatroban are inverse agonists for TP, whereas, L-670596 and Diclofenac are neutral antagonists. Our findings have important therapeutic applications in the treatment of TP mediated pathophysiological conditions. PMID:24465800

  4. Finite Element Model of Training in the superconducting quadrupole magnet SQ02

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, Shlomo; Ferracin, Paolo

    2007-11-01

    This paper describes the use of 3D finite element models to study training in superconducting magnets. The simulations are used to examine coil displacements when the electromagnetic forces are cycled, and compute the frictional energy released during conductor motion with the resulting temperature rise. A computed training curve is then presented and discussed. The results from the numerical computations are compared with test results of the Nb{sub 3}Sn racetrack quadrupole magnet SQ02.

  5. Experimental Surface Pressure Data Obtained on 65 deg Delta Wing Across Reynolds Number and Mach Number Ranges. Vol. 4: Large-radius leading edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Julio; Luckring, James M.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental wind tunnel test of a 65 deg delta wing model with interchangeable leading edges was conducted in the Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF). The objective was to investigate the effects of Reynolds and Mach numbers on slender-wing leading-edge vortex flows with four values of wing leading-edge bluntness. Experimentally obtained pressure data are presented without analysis in tabulated and graphical formats across a Reynolds number range of 6 x 10(exp 6) to 120 x 10(exp 6) at a Mach number of 0.85 and across a Mach number range of 0.4 to 0.9 at Reynolds numbers of 6 x 10(exp 6) and 60 x 10(exp 6). Normal-force and pitching-moment coefficient plots for these Reynolds number and Mach number ranges are also presented.

  6. Heat-Transfer and Pressure Measurements from a Flight Test of the Third 1/18-Scale Model of the Titan Intercontinental Ballistic Missile up to a Mach Number of 3.86 and Reynolds Number per Foot of 23.5 x 10(exp 6) and a Comparison with Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, John B., Jr.

    1958-01-01

    Heat-transfer and pressure measurements were obtained from a flight test of a 1/18-scale model of the Titan intercontinental ballistic missile up to a Mach number of 3.86 and Reynolds number per foot of 23.5 x 10(exp 6) and are compared with the data of two previously tested 1/18-scale models. Boundary-layer transition was observed on the nose of the model. Van Driest's theory predicted heat-transfer coefficients reasonably well for the fully laminar flow but predictions made by Van Driest's theory for turbulent flow were considerably higher than the measurements when the skin was being heated. Comparison with the flight test of two similar models shows fair repeatability of the measurements for fully laminar or turbulent flow.

  7. Comparison of methods to assess adherence to small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) and dispersible tablets among young Burkinabé children participating in a community-based intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Abbeddou, Souheila; Hess, Sonja Y; Yakes Jimenez, Elizabeth; Somé, Jérôme W; Vosti, Stephen A; Guissou, Rosemonde M; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Brown, Kenneth H

    2015-12-01

    Adherence to supplementation provided during an intervention trial can affect interpretation of study outcomes. We compared different approaches for estimating adherence to small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) and dispersible tablets in a randomised clinical trial in Burkina Faso. A total of 2435 children (9-18 months) were randomly assigned to receive daily 20 g SQ-LNS with varying contents of zinc and a dispersible tablet containing 0 or 5 mg zinc. Adherence to SQ-LNS and tablets was assessed for all children through weekly caregiver interviews, and disappearance rate was calculated based on empty and unused packages returned during home visits. Additional adherence data were collected in different randomly selected subgroups of children: 12-h home observations were completed for children 11 and 16 months of age (n = 192) to assess consumption of SQ-LNS and dispersible tablets, and plasma zinc concentration was measured at baseline and 18 months (n = 310). Apparent adherence to SQ-LNS and dispersible tablets differed according to the assessment method used. Average daily caregiver-reported adherence to both SQ-LNS and dispersible tablets was 97 ± 6%. Disappearance rates showed similarly high average weekly adherence (98 ± 4%). In contrast, only 63% and 54% of children at 11 and 16 months, respectively, received SQ-LNS during the 12-h home observation periods, and fewer (32% and 27%) received a tablet. The lack of change in plasma zinc concentration after 9 months of supplementation suggests low adherence to the zinc tablet. Better methods are needed to assess adherence in community-based supplementation trials.

  8. Molecular identification of SqKv1A. A candidate for the delayed rectifier K channel in squid giant axon

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    We have cloned the cDNA for a squid Kvl potassium channel (SqKv1A). SqKv1A mRNA is selectively expressed in giant fiber lobe (GFL) neurons, the somata of the giant axons. Western blots detect two forms of SqKv1A in both GFL neuron and giant axon samples. Functional properties of SqKv1A currents expressed in Xenopus oocytes are very similar to macroscopic currents in GFL neurons and giant axons. Macroscopic K currents in GFL neuron cell bodies, giant axons, and in Xenopus oocytes expressing SqKv1A, activate rapidly and inactivate incompletely over a time course of several hundred ms. Oocytes injected with SqKv1A cRNA express channels of two conductance classes, estimated to be 13 and 20 pS in an internal solution containing 470 mM K. SqKv1A is thus a good candidate for the "20 pS" K channel that accounts for the majority of rapidly activating K conductance in both GFL neuron cell bodies and the giant axon. PMID:8882864

  9. Molecular identification of SqKv1A. A candidate for the delayed rectifier K channel in squid giant axon.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, J J; Vickery, R G; Gilly, W F

    1996-09-01

    We have cloned the cDNA for a squid Kvl potassium channel (SqKv1A). SqKv1A mRNA is selectively expressed in giant fiber lobe (GFL) neurons, the somata of the giant axons. Western blots detect two forms of SqKv1A in both GFL neuron and giant axon samples. Functional properties of SqKv1A currents expressed in Xenopus oocytes are very similar to macroscopic currents in GFL neurons and giant axons. Macroscopic K currents in GFL neuron cell bodies, giant axons, and in Xenopus oocytes expressing SqKv1A, activate rapidly and inactivate incompletely over a time course of several hundred ms. Oocytes injected with SqKv1A cRNA express channels of two conductance classes, estimated to be 13 and 20 pS in an internal solution containing 470 mM K. SqKv1A is thus a good candidate for the "20 pS" K channel that accounts for the majority of rapidly activating K conductance in both GFL neuron cell bodies and the giant axon.

  10. Asymptotically scale-invariant occupancy of phase space makes the entropy Sq extensive

    PubMed Central

    Tsallis, Constantino; Gell-Mann, Murray; Sato, Yuzuru

    2005-01-01

    Phase space can be constructed for N equal and distinguishable subsystems that could be probabilistically either weakly correlated or strongly correlated. If they are locally correlated, we expect the Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy SBG ≡ -k Σi pi ln pi to be extensive, i.e., SBG(N) ∝ N for N → ∞. In particular, if they are independent, SBG is strictly additive, i.e., SBG(N) = NSBG(1), ∀N. However, if the subsystems are globally correlated, we expect, for a vast class of systems, the entropy Sq ≡ k[1 - Σi pqi]/(q - 1) (with S1 = SBG) for some special value of q ≠ 1 to be the one which is extensive [i.e., Sq(N) ∝ N for N → ∞]. Another concept which is relevant is strict or asymptotic scale-freedom (or scale-invariance), defined as the situation for which all marginal probabilities of the N-system coincide or asymptotically approach (for N → ∞) the joint probabilities of the (N - 1)-system. If each subsystem is a binary one, scale-freedom is guaranteed by what we hereafter refer to as the Leibnitz rule, i.e., the sum of two successive joint probabilities of the N-system coincides or asymptotically approaches the corresponding joint probability of the (N - 1)-system. The kinds of interplay of these various concepts are illustrated in several examples. One of them justifies the title of this paper. We conjecture that these mechanisms are deeply related to the very frequent emergence, in natural and artificial complex systems, of scale-free structures and to their connections with nonextensive statistical mechanics. Summarizing, we have shown that, for asymptotically scale-invariant systems, it is Sq with q ≠ 1, and not SBG, the entropy which matches standard, clausius-like, prescriptions of classical thermodynamics. PMID:16230624

  11. Embodied Agents, E-SQ and Stickiness: Improving Existing Cognitive and Affective Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Diesbach, Pablo Brice

    This paper synthesizes results from two previous studies of embodied virtual agents on commercial websites. We analyze and criticize the proposed models and discuss the limits of the experimental findings. Results from other important research in the literature are integrated. We also integrate concepts from profound, more business-related, analysis that deepens on the mechanisms of rhetoric in marketing and communication, and the possible role of E-SQ in man-agent interaction. We finally suggest a refined model for the impacts of these agents on web site users, and limits of the improved model are commented.

  12. 2006 SQ372: A Likely Long-Period Comet from the Inner Oort Cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Kaib, Nathan A.; Becker, Andrew C.; Jones, R.Lynne; Puckett, Andrew W.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Dilday, Benjamin; Frieman, Joshua A.; Oravetz, Daniel J.; Pan, Kaike; Quinn, Thomas; Schneider, Donald P.; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys. /Apache Point Observ.

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery of a minor planet (2006 SQ{sub 372}) on an orbit with a perihelion of 24 AU and a semimajor axis of 796 AU. Dynamical simulations show that this is a transient orbit and is unstable on a timescale of {approx}200 Myr. Falling near the upper semimajor axis range of the scattered disk and the lower semimajor axis range of the Oort Cloud, previous membership in either class is possible. By modeling the production of similar orbits from the Oort Cloud as well as from the scattered disk, we find that the Oort Cloud produces 16 times as many objects on SQ{sub 372}-like orbits as the scattered disk. Given this result, we believe this to be the most distant long-period comet (LPC) ever discovered. Furthermore, our simulation results also indicate that 2000 OO{sub 67} has had a similar dynamical history. Unaffected by the 'Jupiter-Saturn Barrier', these two objects are most likely LPCs from the inner Oort Cloud.

  13. Rasch modeling and confirmatory factor analysis of the systemizing quotient-revised (SQ-R) scale.

    PubMed

    Allison, Carrie; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Stone, Mark H; Muncer, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the dimensionality of the Systemizing Quotient-Revised (SQ-R), a measure of how strong a person's interest is in systems, using two statistical approaches: Rasch modeling and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Participants included N = 675 with an autism spectrum condition (ASC), N = 1369 family members of people with ASC, and N = 2014 typical controls. Data were applied to the Rasch model (Rating Scale) using WINSTEPS. The data fit the Rasch model quite well lending support to the idea that systemizing could be seen as unidimensional. Reliability estimates were .99 for items and .92 for persons. A CFA parceling approach confirmed that a unidimensional model fit the data. There was, however, differential functioning by sex in some of these items. An abbreviated 44-item version of the scale, consisting of items without differential item functioning by sex was developed. This shorter scale also was tested from a Rasch perspective and confirmed through CFA. All measures showed differences on total scale scores between those participants with and without ASC (d = 0.71, p < .005), and between sexes (d = 0.53, p < .005). We conclude that the SQ-R is an appropriate measure of systemizing which can be measured along a single dimension.

  14. Assessments of Sequential Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Boost (SqIB) Treatments Using HART

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyakuryal, Anil

    2009-05-01

    A retrospective study was pursued to evaluate the SqIB treatments performed on ten head and neck cancer patients(n=10).Average prescription doses (PDs) of 39 Gy,15Gy and 17.8Gy were delivered consecutively from larger to smaller planning target volumes(ptvs) in three different treatment plans using 6 MV X-ray photon beams from a Linear accelerator (SLA Linac, Elekta) on BID weak on-weak off schedules. These plans were statistically evaluated on basis of plan indices (PIs),dose response of targets and critical structures, and dose tolerance(DT) of various organs utilizing the DVH analysis automated software known as Histogram Analysis in Radiation Therapy-HART(S.Jang et al., 2008, Med Phys 35, p.2812). Mean SqIB PIs were found consistent with the reported values for varying radio-surgical systems.The 95.5%(n=10)of each ptvs and the gross tumor volume also received 95% (n=10)of PDs in treatments. The average volume of ten organs (N=10) affected by each PDs shrank with decreasing size of ptvs in above plans.A largest volume of Oropharynx (79%,n=10,N=10) irradiated at PD, but the largest volume of Larynx (98%, n=10, N=10) was vulnerable to DT of structure (TD50).Thus, we have demonstrated the efficiency and accuracy of HART in the assessment of Linac based plans in radiation therapy treatments of cancer.

  15. A Comprehensive Spectral Analysis of the X-Ray Pulsar 4U 1907+09 from Two Observations with the Suzaku X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, Elizabeth; Markowitz, Alex; Pottschmidt, Katja; Roth, Stefanie; Barragan, Laura; Furst, Felix; Suchy, Slawomir; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Wilms, Jorn; Rothschild, Richard

    2009-01-01

    We present results from two observations of the wind-accreting X-ray pulsar 4U 1907+09 using the Suzaku observatory, The broadband time-averaged spectrum allows us to examine the continuum emission of the source and the cyclotron resonance scattering feature at approx. 19 keV. Additionally, using the narrow CCD response of Suzaku near 6 ke V allows us to study in detail the Fe K bandpass and to quantify the Fe Kp line for this source for the first time. The source is absorbed by fully-covering material along the line of sight with a column density of N(sub H) approx. 2 x 10(exp 22)/sq cm, consistent with a wind accreting geometry, and a high Fe abundance (approx. 3 - 4 x solar). Time and phase-resolved analyses allow us to study variations in the source spectrum. In particular, dips found in the 2006 observation which are consistent with earlier observations occur in the hard X-ray bandpass, implying a variation of the whole continuum rather than occultation by intervening material, while a dip near the end of the 2007 observation occurs mainly in the lower energies implying an increase in NH along the line of sight, perhaps indicating clumpiness in the stellar wind

  16. Application of solar quiet day (Sq) current in determining mantle electrical-depth conductivity structure - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okeke, Francisca N.; Obiora, Daniel N.

    2016-02-01

    This study has extensively reviewed the application of solar quiet day (Sq) current variation in determining mantle electrical-depth conductivity structure, in a number of countries and various hemispheres. The review includes basic theories and methods of analysis. There are few recent works on the determination of mantle conductivity-depth structure using Sq current. Results obtained have yielded very interesting and exciting information, hence, the need for this review. This review is expected to throw more light to the understanding of effects of Sq on mantle conductivity. There is evidence of controversy and marked differences in conductivity variation in the mantle when different methods are applied, from available literature on the application of Sq on mantle electrical depth conductivity. Other methods applying 1-D, 2-D and 3-D were also reviewed and hence, we recommend the need of combining the above methods with Sq method in future work for more robust results. We have discovered that findings emanating from this work could lead to more understanding of application of Sq current in determining mantle electrical depth conductivity structure.

  17. Application of CBZ dimer, C343 and SQ dye as photosensitizers for pn-tandem DSCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong Hyi; Park, Ji Young; Thogiti, Suresh; Cheruku, Rajesh; Kim, Jae Hong

    2016-07-01

    A pn-tandem dye-sensitized solar cell ( pn-DSC) was prepared with three different sensitized dyes CBZ Dimer (CBZD), C343, and SQ in two different compartments of the n-type or p-type cells. The constructed tandem solar cell was exhibited considerable improvement in experimental pn-DSCs parameters, open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current, fill factor, etc. These results were achieved under air mass 1.5 illumination with three different sensitized dyes in the upper and lower compartment of the pn-DSCs. These results demonstrate a complementary absorption among the two photoelectrodes in the pn-DSCs is a good approach to the efficient and low cost pn-DSCs. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Rocket-based vector magnetic measurements of Sq ionospheric currents near sporadic E.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cloutier, P. A.; Sandel, B. R.

    1972-01-01

    A rocket-borne vector magnetometer has been used to infer the current magnitude, direction, and distribution of midlatitude ionospheric currents near sporadic E. Complete vector information returned throughout the flight indicates that a southward equivalent surface current (vertically integrated current) of 0.15 amp/m was encountered between the altitudes of 104 and 118 km in both ascending and descending portions of the flight. Vertical distribution of the current within the layer was approximately uniform, and the layer was found to be horizontal within the accuracy of the experiment. The data are consistent with the assumption that a sporadic-E layer observed by Wallops Island ionosondes significantly altered the usual Sq current flow pattern by concentrating the current into a narrow altitude range, and by horizontally focusing the current flow into the sporadic-E region with attendant reduction of current density outside the region.

  19. A House for Two--Double Bacterial Infection in Euplotes woodruffi Sq1 (Ciliophora, Euplotia) Sampled in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Senra, Marcus V X; Dias, Roberto J P; Castelli, Michele; Silva-Neto, Inácio D; Verni, Franco; Soares, Carlos A G; Petroni, Giulio

    2016-02-01

    Several ciliated protists form symbiotic associations with a diversity of microorganisms, leading to drastic impact on their ecology and evolution. In this work, two Euplotes spp. sampled in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were identified based on morphological and molecular features as Euplotes woodruffi strain Sq1 and E. encysticus strain Sq2 and investigated for the presence of endosymbionts. While E. woodruffi Sq1 stably hosts two bacterial populations, namely Polynucleobacter necessarius (Betaproteobacteria) and a new member of the family "Candidatus Midichloriaceae" (Alphaproteobacteria, Rickettsiales), here described as "Candidatus Bandiella woodruffii," branching with a broad host range bacterial group found in association with cnidarians, sponges, euglenoids, and some arthropods; in E. encysticus Sq2 no symbiotic bacterium could be detected. The dispersion ability of this novel bacterium was tested by co-incubating E. woodruffi Sq1 with three different ciliate species. Among the tested strains "Ca. B. woodruffii" could only be detected in association with E. encysticus Sq2 with a prevalence of 20 % after 1 week and 40 % after 2 weeks, maintaining this level for up to 6 months. Nevertheless, this apparent in vitro association was abolished when E. woodruffi Sq1 donor was removed from the microcosm, suggesting that this bacterium has the capacity for at least a short-term survival outside its natural host and the aptitude to ephemerally interact with other organisms. Together, these findings strongly suggest the need for more detailed investigations to evaluate the host range for "Ca. B. woodruffii" and any possible pathogenic effect of this bacterium on other organisms including humans.

  20. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of 3-ketosteroid Δ1-dehydrogenase from Rhodococcus erythropolis SQ1

    PubMed Central

    Rohman, Ali; van Oosterwijk, Niels; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2012-01-01

    3-Ketosteroid Δ1-dehydrogenase plays a crucial role in the early steps of steroid degradation by introducing a double bond between the C1 and C2 atoms of the A-ring of its 3-ketosteroid substrates. The 3-ketosteroid Δ1-dehydrogenase from Rhodococcus erythropolis SQ1, a 56 kDa flavoprotein, was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method at room temperature. The crystals grew in various buffers over a wide pH range (from pH 5.5 to 10.5), but the best crystallization condition consisted of 2%(v/v) PEG 400, 0.1 M HEPES pH 7.5, 2.0 M ammonium sulfate. A native crystal diffracted X-rays to 2.0 Å resolution. It belonged to the primitive orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 107.4, b = 131.6, c = 363.2 Å, and contained eight molecules in the asymmetric unit. The initial structure of the enzyme was solved using multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) data collected from a Pt-derivatized crystal. PMID:22691786

  1. The electrochemical behaviour of the system polypyrrole/Nafion-117{sup {sq_bullet}}

    SciTech Connect

    Endres, F.; Schwitzgebel, G.

    1996-01-01

    The electrochemical synthesis of the polypyrrole/Nafion{sup {sq_bullet}} composite was carried out potentiodynamically in 0.1 M aqueous solutions of NaBr or NaF saturated with pyrrole. In NaBr solutions the starting potential of the polymerization reaction was determined to be 420 mV vs. SCE with a nucleation overvoltage of about 100 mV. The electropolymerization is strongly dependent on the anion of the supporting electrolyte and leads to the formation of at least 10{percent} polypyrrole doped with the anion of the electrolyte within the composite. The reversible cyclovoltammograms of the films in aqueous solutions containing Na{sup +} as cation (0.1 M) are governed by cation motion and show an increasing peak separation with the scan-rate. A double logarithmic plot of the peak currents vs. the scan-rates indicates that diffusion-control determines the ion exchange during charge variation. The Redox-potential of the composite with Na{sup +} as cation was determined to be ({minus}500{plus_minus}50)mV vs. SCE. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Aviation occupant survival factors: an empirical study of the SQ006 accident.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Hern; Yang, Hui-Hua

    2010-03-01

    We present an empirical study of Singapore Airline (SIA) flight SQ006 to illustrate the critical factors that influence airplane occupant survivability. The Fuzzy Delphi Method was used to identify and rank the survival factors that may reduce injury and fatality in potentially survivable accidents. This is the first attempt by a group from both the public and private sectors in Taiwan to focus on cabin-safety issues related to survival factors. We designed a comprehensive survey based on our discussions with aviation safety experts. We next designed an array of important cabin-safety dimensions and then investigated and selected the critical survival factors for each dimension. Our findings reveal important cabin safety and survivability information that should provide a valuable reference for developing and evaluating aviation safety programs. We also believe that the results will be practical for designing cabin-safety education material for air travelers. Finally, the major contribution of this research is that it has identified 47 critical factors that influence accident survivability; therefore, it may encourage improvements that will promote more successful cabin-safety management. PMID:20159096

  3. Absorption of water and lubricating oils into porous nylon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertrand, P. A.

    1995-01-01

    Oil and water absorption from air into sintered porous nylon can be described by infiltration into the pores of the material. This process can be modeled by a diffusion-like mechanism. For water absorption, we find a formal diffusion coefficient of 1.5 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min when the nylon is initially dry. The diffusion coefficient is 4 x 10(exp -6)sq cm/min when the nylon is oil-impregnated prior to air exposure. In a 52% RH atmosphere, dry nylon absorbs 3% w/w water, and oil-impregnated nylon absorbs 0.6% w/w water. For oil absorption there are three steps: (1) surface absorption and infiltration into (2) larger and (3) smaller pores. Surface absorption is too fast to be measured in these experiments. The diffusion coefficient for the second step is 6 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min for SRG-60 oil into dry nylon and 4 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min for air-equilibrated nylon. The diffusion coefficient for the third step is about 1 x 10(exp -6)sq cm/min for both cases. The total amount of oil absorbed is 31% w/w. The interaction between water and nylon is not as strong as that between water and cotton-phenolic: oil can replace water, and only a small amount of water can enter previously oil-impregnated nylon.

  4. Influence of insecticides and reflective mulch on watermelon vine decline caused by squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by the whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) has been a major limiting factor in watermelon production in southwest and west-central Florida for the past several years. Symptoms of WVD typically manifest as sudden decline of vines a few weeks ...

  5. Spatial and Temporal Variations of Solar Quiet Daily Sq Variation and Equatorial Electrojet Over Africa: Results From International Heliophysical Year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabiu, A.; Yumoto, K.; Bello, O.

    2010-12-01

    Space Environment Research Centre of Kyushu University, Japan, installed 13 units of Magnetic Data Acquisition Systems MAGDAS over Africa during the International Heliophysical Year IHY. Magnetic records from 10 stations along the African 96o Magnetic Meridian (Geographical 30o - 40o East) were examined for Solar quiet daily Sq variation in the three geomagnetic field components H, D and Z. Spatial variations of Sq in the geomagnetic components were examined. Signatures of equatorial electrojet and worldwide Sq were identified and studied in detail. H field experienced more variation within the equatorial electrojet zone. Diurnal and seasonal variations of the geomagnetic variations in the three components were discussed. Levels of inter-relationships between the Sq and its variability in the three components were statistically derived and interpreted in line with the mechanisms responsible for the variations of the geomagnetic field. Data from 2 magnetic observatories within equatorial electrojet EEJ strip and 2 stations outside the EEJ strip were employed to evaluate and study the signatures of the Equatorial electrojet over the African sector. The transient variations of the EEJ at two almost parallel axes using Lagos-Ilorin and Nairobi-Addis pairs were examined. The EEJ appear stronger in East than West Africa. The magnitudes and patterns of variation of EEJ strength along the two axes were examined for any simultaneity or otherwise of responses to ionospheric processes. The flow gradient of EEJ along the African sector was estimated and its diurnal variation studied.

  6. Design, Development and Flight Testing of the U.S. Army 4200 sq ft Parafoil Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Thomas W.; Fox, Roy, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the design, development and flight-testing of the U.S. Army 4200 sq ft parafoil recovery system built under NASA Contract NAS 9-00076. The 4200 f? parafoil described herein was a potential candidate to fulfill the U.S. Army requirement for a 10,000 lb useable payload precision guided recovery system. Design heritage as well as specific features, like lower surface inlets, confluence fitting, upper surface energy modulator design, deployment bag design and 60 ft diameter Ringslot drogue will be discussed. Initial flight test results, ground testing of various components to verify design margin and configuration changes will also be discussed. The 4200 sq ft parafoil recovery system completed three flight tests during 2003 at payload weights of over 15,000 Ibs

  7. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of Wheat with Male Sterility Induced by the Chemical Hybridizing Agent SQ-1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gaisheng; Ju, Lan; Zhang, Jiao; Yu, Yongang; Niu, Na; Wang, Junwei; Ma, Shoucai

    2015-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), one of the world’s most important food crops, is a strictly autogamous (self-pollinating) species with exclusively perfect flowers. Male sterility induced by chemical hybridizing agents has increasingly attracted attention as a tool for hybrid seed production in wheat; however, the molecular mechanisms of male sterility induced by the agent SQ-1 remain poorly understood due to limited whole transcriptome data. Therefore, a comparative analysis of wheat anther transcriptomes for male fertile wheat and SQ-1–induced male sterile wheat was carried out using next-generation sequencing technology. In all, 42,634,123 sequence reads were generated and were assembled into 82,356 high-quality unigenes with an average length of 724 bp. Of these, 1,088 unigenes were significantly differentially expressed in the fertile and sterile wheat anthers, including 643 up-regulated unigenes and 445 down-regulated unigenes. The differentially expressed unigenes with functional annotations were mapped onto 60 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. They were mainly involved in coding for the components of ribosomes, photosynthesis, respiration, purine and pyrimidine metabolism, amino acid metabolism, glutathione metabolism, RNA transport and signal transduction, reactive oxygen species metabolism, mRNA surveillance pathways, protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, protein export, and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. This study is the first to provide a systematic overview comparing wheat anther transcriptomes of male fertile wheat with those of SQ-1–induced male sterile wheat and is a valuable source of data for future research in SQ-1–induced wheat male sterility. PMID:25898130

  8. Development and validation of the 48-item Symptom Questionnaire (SQ-48) in patients with depressive, anxiety and somatoform disorders.

    PubMed

    Carlier, Ingrid; Schulte-Van Maaren, Yvonne; Wardenaar, Klaas; Giltay, Erik; Van Noorden, Martijn; Vergeer, Peter; Zitman, Frans

    2012-12-30

    Self-report measures of psychological distress or psychopathology are widely used and can be easily implemented as psychiatric screening tools. Positive psychological constructs such as vitality/optimism and work functioning have scarcely been incorporated. We aimed to develop and validate a psychological distress instrument, including measures of vitality and work functioning. A patient sample with suspected depressive, anxiety, and somatoform disorders (N=242) and a reference sample of the general population (N=516) filled in the 48-item Symptom Questionnaire (SQ-48) plus a battery of observer-rated and self-report scales (MINI Plus, MADR, BAS, INH, BSI), using a web-based ROM programme. The resulting SQ-48 is multidimensional and includes the following nine subscales: Depression (MOOD, six items), Anxiety (ANXI, six items), Somatization (SOMA, seven items), Agoraphobia (AGOR, four items), Aggression (AGGR, four items), Cognitive problems (COGN, five items), Social Phobia (SOPH, five items), Work functioning (WORK, five items), and Vitality (VITA, six items). The results showed good internal consistency as well as good convergent and divergent validity. The SQ-48 is meant to be available in the public domain for Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM) and can be used as a screening/ monitoring tool in clinical settings (psychiatric and non-psychiatric), as a benchmark tool, or for research purposes.

  9. Spectral and Timing Nature of the Symbiotic X-Ray Binary 4U 1954+319: The Slowest Rotating Neutron Star in AN X-Ray Binary System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enoto, Teruaki; Sasano, Makoto; Yamada, Shin'Ya; Tamagawa, Toru; Makishima, Kazuo; Pottschmidt, Katja; Marcu, Diana; Corbet, Robin H. D.; Fuerst, Felix; Wilms, Jorn

    2014-01-01

    The symbiotic X-ray binary (SyXB) 4U 1954+319 is a rare system hosting a peculiar neutron star (NS) and an M-type optical companion. Its approx. 5.4 hr NS spin period is the longest among all known accretion-powered pulsars and exhibited large (is approx. 7%) fluctuations over 8 yr. A spin trend transition was detected with Swift/BAT around an X-ray brightening in 2012. The source was in quiescent and bright states before and after this outburst based on 60 ks Suzaku observations in 2011 and 2012. The observed continuum is well described by a Comptonized model with the addition of a narrow 6.4 keV Fe-K alpha line during the outburst. Spectral similarities to slowly rotating pulsars in high-mass X-ray binaries, its high pulsed fraction (approx. 60%-80%), and the location in the Corbet diagram favor high B-field (approx. greater than 10(exp12) G) over a weak field as in low-mass X-ray binaries. The observed low X-ray luminosity (10(exp33)-10(exp35) erg s(exp-1)), probable wide orbit, and a slow stellar wind of this SyXB make quasi-spherical accretion in the subsonic settling regime a plausible model. Assuming a approx. 10(exp13) G NS, this scheme can explain the approx. 5.4 hr equilibrium rotation without employing the magnetar-like field (approx. 10(exp16) G) required in the disk accretion case. The timescales of multiple irregular flares (approx. 50 s) can also be attributed to the free-fall time from the Alfv´en shell for a approx. 10(exp13) G field. A physical interpretation of SyXBs beyond the canonical binary classifications is discussed.

  10. Fabrication and qualification of roughness reference samples for industrial testing of surface roughness levels below 0.5 nm Sq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faehnle, O.; Langenbach, E.; Zygalsky, F.; Frost, F.; Fechner, R.; Schindler, A.; Cumme, M.; Biskup, H.; Wünsche, C.; Rascher, R.

    2015-08-01

    Applying reactive ion beam etching (RIBE) processes at the Leibniz Institute of Surface Modification (IOM), several reference samples to be used in industry for calibrating of roughness testing equipment have been generated with the smoothest sample featuring 0.1 nm rms Sq. Subsequently these reference samples have been measured cross-site applying atomic force microscopy (AFM), white light interferometry (WLI), Nomarski1 microscopy (NM) and scatterometry (iTIRM2) determining the appropriate range of measurable rms surface roughness for each industrial measuring device.

  11. Search for chargino-neutralino production in pp collisions at sq rt[s] = 1.96 TeV.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Abulencia, A; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carillo, S; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Cilijak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Almenar, C Cuenca; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Daronco, S; Datta, M; D'Auria, S; Davies, T; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'orso, M; Delli Paoli, F; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Dörr, C; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Forrester, S; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garberson, F; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; da Costa, J Guimaraes; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kraan, A C; Kraus, J; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; Macqueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M; Fernandez, P Movilla; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltó, O; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; Denis, R St; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sun, H; Suslov, I; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuno, S; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vazquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, M; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vogel, M; Vollrath, I; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, J; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S

    2007-11-01

    We present a search for associated production of the chargino and neutralino supersymmetric particles using up to 1.1 fb{-1} of integrated luminosity collected by the CDF II experiment at the Tevatron pp collider at sq rt[s]=1.96 TeV. We analyze events with a large transverse momentum imbalance and either three charged leptons or two charged leptons of the same electric charge. The numbers of observed events are consistent with standard model expectations. Upper limits on the production cross section are derived in different theoretical models.

  12. Neutron-capture Cl-36, Ca-41, Ar-36, and Sm-150 in large chondrites: Evidence for high fluences of thermalized neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, D. D.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bansal, B. M.; Garrison, D. H.; Wiesmann, H.; Herzog, G. F.; Albrecht, A. A.; Vogt, S.; Klein, J.

    1995-01-01

    We have measured significant concentrations of Cl-36, Ca-41, Ar-36 from decay of Cl-36, and Sm-150 produced from the capture of thermalized neutrons in the large Chico L6 chondrite. Activities of Cl-36 and Ca-41, corrected for a high-energy spallogenic component and a terrestrial age of approximately 50 ka, give average neutron-capture production rates of 208 atoms/min/g-Cl and 1525 atoms/min/kg-Ca, which correspond to thermal neutron (n) fluxes of 6.2 n/sq cm/s and 4.3 n/sq cm/s, respectively. If sustained for the approximately 65 Ma single-stage, cosmic ray exposure age of Chico, these values correspond to thermal neutron fluences of approximately 1.3 x 10(exp 16) and 0.8 x 10(exp 16) n/sq cm for Cl-36 and Ca-41, respectively. Stepwise temperature extraction of Ar in Chico impact melt shows Ar-36/Ar-38 ratios as large as approximately 9. The correlation of high Ar-36/Ar-38 with high Cl/Ca phases in neutron-irradiated Chico indicates that the excess Ar-36 above that expected from spallation is due to decay of neutron-produced Cl-36. Excess Ar-36 in Chico requires a thermal neutron fluence of 0.9-1.7 x 10(exp 16) n/sq cm. Decreases in Sm-149/Sm-152 due to neutron-capture by Sm-149 correlate with increases in Sm-150/Sm-152 for three samples of Chico, and one of the Torino H-chondrite. The 0.08% decrease in Sm-149 shown by Chico corresponds to a neutron fluence of 1.23 x 10(exp 16) n/sq cm. This fluence derived from Sm considers capture of epithermal neutrons and effects of chemical composition on the neutron energy distribution. Excess Ar-36 identified in the Arapahoe, Bruderheim, and Torino chondrites and the Shallowater aubrite suggest exposure to neutron fluences of approximately 0.2-0.2 x 10(exp 16) n/sq cm. Depletion of Sm-149 in Torino and the LEW86010 angrite suggest neutron fluences of 0.8 x 10(exp 16) n/sq cm and 0.25 x 10(exp 16) n/sq cm, respectively. Neutron fluences of approximately 10(exp 16) n/sq cm in Chico are almost as large as those previously

  13. A Catalog of Soft X-Ray Shadows, and More Contemplation of the 1/4 KeV Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snowden, S. L.; Freyberg, M. J.; Kuntz, K. D.; Sanders, W. T.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a catalog of shadows in the 1/4 keV soft X-ray diffuse background 4 (SXRB) that were identified by a comparison between ROSAT All-Sky Survey maps and DIRB&corrected IRAS 100 micron maps. These "shadows" are the negative correlations between the surface brightness of the SXRB and the column density of the Galactic interstellar medium (ISIM) over limited angular regions (a few degrees in extent). We have compiled an extensive but not exhaustive set of 378 shadows in the polar regions of the Galaxy (Absolute value (beta) > and approximately equal 20 deg.), and determined their foreground and background X-ray intensities (relative to the absorbing features), and the respective hardness ratios of that emission. The portion of the sky that was examined to find these shadows was restricted in general to regions where the minimum column density is less than and approximately equal to 4 x 10(exp 20) H/square cm, i.e., relatively high Galactic latitudes, and to regions away from distinct extended features in the SXRB such as supernova remnants and superbubbles. The results for the foreground intensities agree well with the recent results of a general analysis of the local 1/4 KeV emission while the background intensities show additional. but not unexpected scatter. The results also confirm the existence of a gradient in the hardness of the local 1/4 keV emission along a Galactic center/ anticenter axis with a temperature that varies from 10(exp 6.13) K to 10(exp 6.02) K, respectively. The average temperature of the foreground component from this analysis is 10(exp 6.08) K, compared to 10(exp 6.06) K in the previous analysis. Likewise, the average temperature for the distant component for the current and previous analyses are 10(exp 6.06) K and 10(exp 6.02) K, respectively. Finally, the results for the 1/4 keV halo emission are compared to the observed fluxes at 3/4 keV, where the lack of correlation suggests that the Galactic halo's 1/4 keV and 3/4 ke

  14. Elliptic and hexadecapole flow of charged hadrons in Au+Au collisions at sq.rt(s(NN))=200  GeV.

    PubMed

    Adare, A; Afanasiev, S; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Aoki, K; Aramaki, Y; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Barish, K N; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bickley, A A; Bok, J S; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Butsyk, S; Camacho, C M; Campbell, S; Chen, C-H; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; Connors, M; Constantin, P; Csanád, M; Csörgo, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; David, G; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Ellinghaus, F; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Garishvili, I; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H-A; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Hanks, J; Han, R; Hartouni, E P; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; Heffner, M; Hegyi, S; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; He, X; Hill, J C; Hohlmann, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Ide, J; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Ivanischev, D; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jin, J; Johnson, B M; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kamin, J; Kang, J H; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kim, B I; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E J; Kim, E; Kim, S H; Kim, Y J; Kinney, E; Kiriluk, K; Kiss, A; Kistenev, E; Kochenda, L; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K B; Lee, K; Lee, K S; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Leitner, E; Lenzi, B; Liebing, P; Linden Levy, L A; Liska, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Li, X; Love, B; Luechtenborg, R; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; Means, N; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mignerey, A C; Mikes, P; Miki, K; Milov, A; Mishra, M; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moukhanova, T V; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Okada, K; Oka, M; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, J; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J-C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rosen, C A; Rosendahl, S S E; Rosnet, P; Rukoyatkin, P; Ruzicka, P; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakashita, K; Samsonov, V; Sano, S; Sato, T; Sawada, S; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Semenov, A Yu; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Slunecka, M; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Sparks, N A; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sziklai, J; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tanabe, R; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Tarján, P; Themann, H; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tomásek, L; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Vinogradov, A A; Virius, M; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Wei, F; Wei, R; Wessels, J; White, S N; Winter, D; Wood, J P; Woody, C L; Wright, R M; Wysocki, M; Xie, W; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yamaura, K; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Younus, I; You, Z; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zolin, L

    2010-08-01

    Differential measurements of the elliptic (v(2)) and hexadecapole (v(4)) Fourier flow coefficients are reported for charged hadrons as a function of transverse momentum (p(T)) and collision centrality or number of participant nucleons (N(part)) for Au+Au collisions at sq.rt(s(NN))=200  GeV. The v(2,4) measurements at pseudorapidity |η|≤0.35, obtained with four separate reaction-plane detectors positioned in the range 1.0<|η|<3.9, show good agreement, indicating the absence of significant Δη-dependent nonflow correlations. Sizable values for v(4)(p(T)) are observed with a ratio v(4)(p(T),N(part))/v(2)(2)(p(T),N(part))≈0.8 for 50≲N(part)≲200, which is compatible with the combined effects of a finite viscosity and initial eccentricity fluctuations. For N(part)≳200 this ratio increases up to 1.7 in the most central collisions.

  15. Fractionation of hydrogen and deuterium on Venus due to collisional ejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurwell, Mark A.; Yung, Yuk L.

    1993-01-01

    The collisional ejection process for hydrogen on Venus is reanalyzed. Improved values for the efficiency of H and D escape as a function of the ionospheric temperature are reported. It is proposed that the reduction of the hydrogen flux for collisional ejection be reduced from 8 to 3.5 x 10 exp 6/sq cm/s, and a revised D/H fractional factor of 0.47 due to collisional ejection is suggested. The resulting deuterium flux is 3.1 x 10 exp 4/sq cm/s, roughly six times the flux due to charge exchange, making collisional ejection the dominant escape mechanism for deuterium on Venus.

  16. Infrared photodetectors with tailorable response due to resonant plasmon absorption in epitaxial silicide particles embedded in silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathauer, R. W.; Dejewski, S. M.; George, T.; Jones, E. W.; Krabach, T. N.; Ksendzov, A.

    1993-01-01

    Tailorable infrared photoresponse in the 1-2 micron range are demonstrated in a device incorporating electrically floating metal silicide particles. Photons absorbed by excitation of the metallic-particle surface plasmon are shown to contribute to the photoresponse. Quantum efficiencies of roughly 0.2 percent are measured at 77 K, with dark currents of less than 2 nA/sq cm at a reverse bias of 1 V and detectivities of 4 x 10 exp 9 - 8 x 10 exp 9 cm sq rt Hz/W are obtained.

  17. Lightcurves for 1896 Beer, 2574 Ladoga, 3301 Jansje, 3339 Treshnikov 3833 Calingasta, 3899 Wichterle, 4106 Nada, 4801 Ohre, 4808 Ballaero, and (8487) 1989 SQ.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owings, Larry E.

    2013-01-01

    Lightcurve observations have yielded period determinations for the following asteroids: 1896 Beer, 2574 Ladoga, 3301 Jansje, 3339 Treshnikov, 3833 Calingasta, 3899 Wichterle, 4106 Nada, 4801 Ohre, 4808 Ballaero, and (8487) 1989 SQ.

  18. Suzaku View of the Neutron Star in the Dipping Source 4U 1822-37

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasano, Makoto; Makishima, Kazuo; Sakurai, Soki; Zhang, Zhongli; Enoto, Teruaki

    2013-01-01

    The dipping X-ray source 4U 1822-37 was observed by Suzaku on 2006 Octrober 20 for a net exposure of 37 ks. The source was detected with the XIS at a 1-10 keV flux of 5.5 ×10(exp -10) erg per square centimeter per second, and with the HXD (HXD-PIN) at a 10-50 keV flux of 8.9 ×10(exp -10) erg per square centimeter per second. With HXD-PIN, the pulsation was detected at a barycentric period of 0.592437 seconds, and its change rate was reconfirmed as -2.43 × 10(exp -12) seconds per second. The 1-50 keV spectra of 4U 1822-37 were found to be very similar to those of Her X- 1 in the slopes, cutoff and iron lines. Three iron lines (Fe Kalpha, Fe XXV, and Fe XXVI) were detected, on top of a 1-50 keV continuum that is described by an NPEX model plus a soft blackbody. In addition, a cyclotron resonance scattering feature was detected significantly ( greater than 99% confidence), at an energy of 33+/-2 keV with a depth of 0.4(sup +0.6)/(sub -0.3). Therefore, the neutron star in this source is concluded to have a strong magnetic field of 2.8 × 10(exp 12) G. Further assuming that the source has a relatively high intrinsic luminosity of several times 10(exp 37) erg per second, its spectral and timing properties are consistently explained.

  19. High Transverse Momentum Triggered Correlations over a Large Pseudorapidity Acceptance in Au+Au Collisions at sq root(s{sub NN})=200 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Alver, B.; Ballintijn, M.; Busza, W.; Decowski, M. P.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Henderson, C.; Kane, J. L.; Kulinich, P.; Li, W.; Loizides, C.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Vale, C.; Nieuwenhuizen, G. J. van; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wenger, E.

    2010-02-12

    A measurement of two-particle correlations with a high transverse momentum trigger particle (p{sub T}{sup trig}>2.5 GeV/c) is presented for Au+Au collisions at sq root(s{sub NN})=200 GeV over the uniquely broad longitudinal acceptance of the PHOBOS detector (-4<{Delta}{eta}<2). A broadening of the away-side azimuthal correlation compared to elementary collisions is observed at all {Delta}{eta}. As in p+p collisions, the near side is characterized by a peak of correlated partners at small angle relative to the trigger particle. However, in central Au+Au collisions an additional correlation extended in {Delta}{eta} and known as the 'ridge' is found to reach at least |{Delta}{eta}|approx =4. The ridge yield is largely independent of {Delta}{eta} over the measured range, and it decreases towards more peripheral collisions. For the chosen p{sub T}{sup trig} cut, the ridge yield is consistent with zero for events with less than roughly 100 participating nucleons.

  20. Sq and EEJ—A Review on the Daily Variation of the Geomagnetic Field Caused by Ionospheric Dynamo Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Y.; Maute, A.

    2016-09-01

    A record of the geomagnetic field on the ground sometimes shows smooth daily variations on the order of a few tens of nano teslas. These daily variations, commonly known as Sq, are caused by electric currents of several μA/m2 flowing on the sunlit side of the E-region ionosphere at about 90-150 km heights. We review advances in our understanding of the geomagnetic daily variation and its source ionospheric currents during the past 75 years. Observations and existing theories are first outlined as background knowledge for the non-specialist. Data analysis methods, such as spherical harmonic analysis, are then described in detail. Various aspects of the geomagnetic daily variation are discussed and interpreted using these results. Finally, remaining issues are highlighted to provide possible directions for future work.

  1. Sequential simulation (SqS) of clinical pathways: a tool for public and patient engagement in point-of-care diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Huddy, Jeremy R; Weldon, Sharon-Marie; Ralhan, Shvaita; Painter, Tim; Hanna, George B; Kneebone, Roger; Bello, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Public and patient engagement (PPE) is fundamental to healthcare research. To facilitate effective engagement in novel point-of-care tests (POCTs), the test and downstream consequences of the result need to be considered. Sequential simulation (SqS) is a tool to represent patient journeys and the effects of intervention at each and subsequent stages. This case study presents a process evaluation of SqS as a tool for PPE in the development of a volatile organic compound-based breath test POCT for the diagnosis of oesophagogastric (OG) cancer. Setting Three 3-hour workshops in central London. Participants 38 members of public attended a workshop, 26 (68%) had no prior experience of the OG cancer diagnostic pathway. Interventions Clinical pathway SqS was developed from a storyboard of a patient, played by an actor, noticing symptoms of oesophageal cancer and following a typical diagnostic pathway. The proposed breath testing strategy was then introduced and incorporated into a second SqS to demonstrate pathway impact. Facilitated group discussions followed each SqS. Primary and secondary outcome measures Evaluation was conducted through pre-event and postevent questionnaires, field notes and analysis of audiovisual recordings. Results 38 participants attended a workshop. All participants agreed they were able to contribute to discussions and like the idea of an OG cancer breath test. Five themes emerged related to the proposed new breath test including awareness of OG cancer, barriers to testing and diagnosis, design of new test device, new clinical pathway and placement of test device. 3 themes emerged related to the use of SqS: participatory engagement, simulation and empathetic engagement, and why participants attended. Conclusions SqS facilitated a shared immersive experience for participants and researchers that led to the coconstruction of knowledge that will guide future research activities and be of value to stakeholders concerned with the invention

  2. Measurement of the cosmic microwave background spectrum by the COBE FIRAS instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, J. C.; Cheng, E. S.; Cottingham, D. A.; Eplee, R. E., Jr.; Fixsen, D. J.; Hewagama, T.; Isaacman, R. B.; Jensen, K. A.; Meyer, S. S.; Noerdlinger, P. D.

    1994-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) has a blackbody spectrum within 3.4 x 10(exp -8) ergs/sq cm/s/sr cm over the frequency range from 2 to 20/cm (5-0.5 mm). These measurements, derived from the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotomer (FIRAS) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, imply stringent limits on energy release in the early universe after t approximately 1 year and redshift z approximately 3 x 10(exp 6). The deviations are less than 0.30% of the peak brightness, with an rms value of 0.01%, and the dimensionless cosmological distortion parameters are limited to the absolute value of y is less than 2.5 x 10(exp -5) and the absolute value of mu is less than 3.3 x 10(exp -4) (95% confidence level). The temperature of the CMBR is 2.726 +/- 0.010 K (95% confidence level systematic).

  3. A search for gamma-ray lines from the decay of Fe-59 in Supernova 1987A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, M. J.; Leising, M. D.

    1994-01-01

    We have searched spectra of Supernova (SN) 1987A, accumulated during several 35-day intervals after the explosion by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS), for gamma-ray lines at 1.099 and 1.292 MeV from the decay of Fe-59 which may have been produced in the progenitor's helium shell. We find no evidence for these lines, down to 3-sigma upper limits approximately = 7 x 10(exp -4) gamma/sq cm/s for the 1.099 MeV line, or approximately = 4.5 x 10(exp -4) gamma/sq cm/s for the 1.292 MeV line, in any 35-day interval. We derive a conservative 3-sigma upper limit on the mass fraction of Fe-59 in the helium shell of 2.9 x 10(exp -3).

  4. Subcutaneous (SQ) injections

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2015. Available at: www.cc.nih.gov/ccc/patient_education/pepubs/subq.pdf . Accessed February 8, 2016. Smith SF, Duell DJ, Martin BC. Medication administration. In: Smith SF, Duell DJ, Martin BC, ...

  5. Microbiological characterization of a regenerative life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, D. W.; Bruce, R. J.; Mishra, S. K.; Barta, D. J.; Pierson, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    A Variable Pressure Plant Growth Chamber (VPGC), at the Johnson Space Center's (JSC) ground based Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) test bed, was used to produce crops of soil-grown lettuce. The crops and chamber were analyzed for microbiological diversity during lettuce growth and after harvest. Bacterial counts for the rhizosphere, spent nutrient medium, heat exchanger condensate, and atmosphere were approximately 10(exp 11) Colony Forming Units (CFU)/g, 10(exp 5) CFU/ml, 10(exp 5)CFU/ml, and 600 CFU/m sq, repectively. Pseudomonas was the predominant bacterial genus. Numbers of fungi were about 10(exp 5) CFU/g in the rhizosphere, 4-200 CFU/ml in the spent nutient medium, 110 CFU/ml in the heat exchanger condensate, and 3 CFU/cu m in the atmosphere. Fusarium and Trichoderma were the predominant fungal genera.

  6. Rosat X-ray All-Sky Survey observations of hybrid stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haisch, Bernhard; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Rosso, C.

    1992-01-01

    Data from the Rosat All-Sky Survey for nine hybrid stars, objects showing spectroscopic evidence for cool massive winds and 500,000-K material, are presented. Two of the nine stars were detected above a limiting flux threshold of 2 x 10 exp -13 ergs/sq cm s. The K3 III star Delta And was detected just at this threshold. The K4 III star Alpha TrA was measured at 8 x 10 exp -13 ergs/sq cm s. Since these detections were made in both low- and high-energy bands of the Rosat 0.1-2.4-keV passband, it is suggested that the emissions originate in coronae of about 10 exp 7 K.

  7. Intermittent exposure of rats to 2450-MHz microwaves at 2. 5 MW cm sq: behavioral and physiological effects

    SciTech Connect

    D'Andrea, J.A.; DeWitt, J.R.; Emmerson, R.Y.; Bailey, C.; Stensaas, S.

    1986-01-01

    Long-Evans male adult rats were intermittently exposed for 14 weeks to continuous wave (c-w) 2450-MHz microwaves at an average power density of 2.5 mW/sq. cm. The mean specific absorption rate was 0.70 W/kg (plus or minus 0.02 SEM). The rats were exposed 7 h/day, 7 days/week in a radiation chamber with a monopole above ground, while housed in Plexiglas cages. Weekly measures of body mass and food intake did not indicate statistically significant effects of microwave irradiation. Assessments of threshold for electric-footshock detection revealed a significant difference between microwave and sham-exposed animals. Assessments of cholinesterase and sulfhydryl groups in blood and 17-ketosteriods, in urine did not distinguish the two groups of rats. Behavioral measures made at the end of the 14-week exposure included an open-field test, shuttlebox avoidance performance, and schedule-controlled lever-pressing for food pellets: Statistically significant differences between microwave- and sham-exposed rats were observed for these measures. Examination of adrenal tissue, plasma electrolytes, and organ masses after 14 weeks of exposure revealed no difference between the two group of rats.

  8. Crystal Structure and Site-directed Mutagenesis of 3-Ketosteroid Δ1-Dehydrogenase from Rhodococcus erythropolis SQ1 Explain Its Catalytic Mechanism*

    PubMed Central

    Rohman, Ali; van Oosterwijk, Niels; Thunnissen, Andy-Mark W. H.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2013-01-01

    3-Ketosteroid Δ1-dehydrogenases are FAD-dependent enzymes that catalyze the 1,2-desaturation of 3-ketosteroid substrates to initiate degradation of the steroid nucleus. Here we report the 2.0 Å resolution crystal structure of the 56-kDa enzyme from Rhodococcus erythropolis SQ1 (Δ1-KSTD1). The enzyme contains two domains: an FAD-binding domain and a catalytic domain, between which the active site is situated as evidenced by the 2.3 Å resolution structure of Δ1-KSTD1 in complex with the reaction product 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione. The active site contains four key residues: Tyr119, Tyr318, Tyr487, and Gly491. Modeling of the substrate 4-androstene-3,17-dione at the position of the product revealed its interactions with these residues and the FAD. The C1 and C2 atoms of the substrate are at reaction distance to the N5 atom of the isoalloxazine ring of FAD and the hydroxyl group of Tyr318, respectively, whereas the C3 carbonyl group is at hydrogen bonding distance from the hydroxyl group of Tyr487 and the backbone amide of Gly491. Site-directed mutagenesis of the tyrosines to phenylalanines confirmed their importance for catalysis. The structural features and the kinetic properties of the mutants suggest a catalytic mechanism in which Tyr487 and Gly491 work in tandem to promote keto-enol tautomerization and increase the acidity of the C2 hydrogen atoms of the substrate. With assistance of Tyr119, the general base Tyr318 abstracts the axial β-hydrogen from C2 as a proton, whereas the FAD accepts the axial α-hydrogen from the C1 atom of the substrate as a hydride ion. PMID:24165124

  9. Atmospheric gamma ray angle and energy distributions from sea level to 3.5 g/sq cm and 2 to 25 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, J. M.; Jennings, M. C.; Radwin, M. D.; Zych, A. D.; White, R. S.

    1979-01-01

    Differential fluxes of gamma rays were calculated for energies of 2-25 MeV, zenith angles of 0-50 deg and 180-130 deg, and atmospheric depths from nominal sea level, 1000 g/sq cm, to float altitude, 3.5 g/sq cm residual atmosphere. Above 100 g/sq cm growth curves were constructed to estimate the contribution of the extraterrestrial gamma ray flux to the total downward-moving flux, while the upward-moving gamma rays were taken to be strictly of atmospheric origin. Below 100 g/sq cm, all gamma rays originate in the atmosphere. The downward atmospheric flux increases by almost two orders of magnitude between float altitude and the Pfotzer maximum, while the extraterrestrial flux is attenuated exponentially. Gamma rays produced by neutron interactions with the carbon in the scintillator liquid are eliminated by constructing growth curves for downward-moving gamma rays at high altitudes and are negligible compared with downward-moving gamma rays at lower altitudes and upward-moving gamma rays at all altitudes.

  10. Thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist SQ29548 reduces ischemic stroke-induced microglia/macrophages activation and enrichment, and ameliorates brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Aijuan; Zhang, Tingting; Yang, Xiao; Shao, Jiaxiang; Fu, Ningzhen; Shen, Fanxia; Fu, Yi; Xia, Weiliang

    2016-01-01

    Thromboxane A2 receptor (TXA2R) activation is thought to be involved in thrombosis/hemostasis and inflammation responses. We have previously shown that TXA2R antagonist SQ29548 attenuates BV2 microglia activation by suppression of ERK pathway, but its effect is not tested in vivo. The present study aims to explore the role of TXA2R on microglia/macrophages activation after ischemia/reperfusion brain injury in mice. Adult male ICR mice underwent 90-min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Immediately and 24 h after reperfusion, SQ29548 was administered twice to the ipsilateral ventricle (10 μl, 2.6 μmol/ml, per dose). Cerebral infarction volume, inflammatory cytokines release and microglia/macrophages activation were measured using the cresyl violet method, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and immunofluorescence double staining, respectively. Expression of TXA2R was significantly increased in the ipsilateral brain tissue after ischemia/reperfusion, which was also found to co-localize with activated microglia/macrophages in the infarct area. Administration of SQ29548 inhibited microglia/macrophages activation and enrichment, including both M1 and M2 phenotypes, and attenuated ischemia-induced IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α up-regulation and iNOS release. TXA2R antagonist SQ29548 inhibited ischemia-induced inflammatory response and furthermore reduced microglia/macrophages activation and ischemic/reperfusion brain injury. PMID:27775054

  11. Electron beam induced damage in PECVD Si3N4 and SiO2 films on InP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pantic, Dragan M.; Kapoor, Vik J.; Young, Paul G.; Williams, Wallace D.; Dickman, John E.

    1990-01-01

    Phosphorus rich plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of silicon nitride and silicon dioxide films on n-type indium phosphide (InP) substrates were exposed to electron beam irradiation in the 5 to 40 keV range for the purpose of characterizing the damage induced in the dielectic. The electron beam exposure was on the range of 10(exp -7) to 10(exp -3) C/sq cm. The damage to the devices was characterized by capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements of the metal insulator semiconductor (MIS) capacitors. These results were compared to results obtained for radiation damage of thermal silicon dioxide on silicon (Si) MOS capacitors with similar exposures. The radiation induced damage in the PECVD silicon nitride films on InP was successfully annealed out in an hydrogen/nitrogen (H2/N2) ambient at 400 C for 15 min. The PECVD silicon dioxide films on InP had the least radiation damage, while the thermal silicon dioxide films on Si had the most radiation damage.

  12. Photochemistry of Triton's Atmosphere and Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.; Cruikshank, Dale P.

    1995-01-01

    The photochemistry of 32 neutral and 21 ion species in Triton's atmosphere is considered. Parent species N2, CH4, and CO (with a mixing ratio of 3 x 10(exp -4) in our basic model) sublime from the ice with rates of 40, 208, and 0.3 g/sq cm/b.y., respectively. Chemistry below 50 km is driven mostly by photolysis of methane by the solar and interstellar medium Lyman-alpha photons, producing hydrocarbons C2H4, C2H6, and C2H2 which form haze particles with precipitation rates of 135, 28, and 1.3 g/sq cm/b.y., respectively. Some processes are discussed which increase the production of HCN (by an order of magnitude to a value of 29 g/sq cm/b.y.) and involve indirect photolysis of N2 by neutrals. Reanalysis of the measured methane profiles gives an eddy diffusion coefficient K = 4 x 10(exp 3) sq cm/s above the tropopause and a more accurate methane number density near the surface, (3.1 +/- 0.8) x 10(exp 11)/cc cm. Chemistry above 200 km is driven by the solar EUV radiation (lambda less than 1000 A)) and by precipitation of magnetospheric electrons with a total energy input of 10(exp 8) W (based on thermal balance calculations). The most abundant photochemical species are N, H2, H, O, and C. They escape with the total rates of 7.7 x 10(exp 24)/ s, 4.5 x 10(exp 25)/ s, 2.4 x 10(exp 25)/ s, 4.4 x 10(exp 22)/ s, and 1.1 x 10(exp 24)/ s, respectively. Atomic species are transported to a region of 50-200 km and drive the chemistry there. Iono- spheric chemistry explains the formation of an E region at 150-240 km with HCO(+) as a major ion, and of an F region above 240 km with a peak at 320 km and C(+) as a major ion. The ionosphere above 500 km consists of almost equal densities of C(+) and N(+) ions. The model profiles agree with the measured atomic nitrogen and electron density profiles. A number of other models with varying rate coefficients of some reactions, differing properties of the haze particles (chemically passive or active), etc., were developed. These models show

  13. Recombination of N4(+) ions with electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, Y. S.; Johnsen, R.

    1991-01-01

    Using a modified high-pressure-afterglow/mass spectrometer apparatus similar to that described by Lee and Johnsen (1989), spectroscopic observations of afterglow helium plasmas, with N2 as a minor additive, were carried out in order to verify the mechanism suggested by Bates (1991) for dissociative recombination of electrons with N4(+) ions. It was found that dissociative recombination of electrons with N4(+) ions results in the formation of N2 molecules in the C 3Pi(u) (v = 0,1) state, with the recombination rate coefficient of (2.6 +/- 0.3) x 10 exp -6 cu cm/sec at 300 K.

  14. Centrality dependence of forward-backward multiplicity correlation in Au+Au collisions at sq root(s{sub NN})=200 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Yuliang; Li Xiaomei; Ma Hailiang; Zhou Daimei; Dong Baoguo; Sa Benhao

    2010-04-15

    We have studied the centrality dependence of charged-particle forward-backward multiplicity correlation strength in Au+Au collisions at sq root(s{sub NN})=200 GeV with a parton and hadron cascade model, PACIAE, based on PYTHIA. The calculated results are compared with the STAR data. The experimentally observed correlation strength characteristics, (1) the approximately flat pseudorapidity dependence in central collisions and (2) the monotonous decrease with decreasing centrality, are reproduced well. However, the theoretical results are larger than the STAR data for the peripheral collisions. We compare the different models and STAR data. A prediction for the forward-backward multiplicity correlation in Pb+Pb collisions at sq root(s{sub NN})=5500 GeV is also given.

  15. Performance of transonic fan stage with weight flow per unit annulus area of 208 kilograms per second per square meter (42.6 (lb/sec)/sq ft)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urasek, D. C.; Kovich, G.; Moore, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    Performance was obtained for a 50-cm-diameter compressor designed for a high weight flow per unit annulus area of 208 (kg/sec)/sq m. Peak efficiency values of 0.83 and 0.79 were obtained for the rotor and stage, respectively. The stall margin for the stage was 23 percent, based on equivalent weight flow and total-pressure ratio at peak efficiency and stall.

  16. Mutation of the BRCA1 SQ-cluster results in aberrant mitosis, reduced homologous recombination, and a compensatory increase in non-homologous end joining.

    PubMed

    Beckta, Jason M; Dever, Seth M; Gnawali, Nisha; Khalil, Ashraf; Sule, Amrita; Golding, Sarah E; Rosenberg, Elizabeth; Narayanan, Aarthi; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Xu, Bo; Povirk, Lawrence F; Valerie, Kristoffer

    2015-09-29

    Mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility 1 (BRCA1) gene are catalysts for breast and ovarian cancers. Most mutations are associated with the BRCA1 N- and C-terminal domains linked to DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. However, little is known about the role of the intervening serine-glutamine (SQ) - cluster in the DNA damage response beyond its importance in regulating cell cycle checkpoints. We show that serine-to-alanine alterations at critical residues within the SQ-cluster known to be phosphorylated by ATM and ATR result in reduced homologous recombination repair (HRR) and aberrant mitosis. While a S1387A BRCA1 mutant - previously shown to abrogate S-phase arrest in response to radiation - resulted in only a modest decrease in HRR, S1387A together with an additional alteration, S1423A (BRCA12P), reduced HRR to vector control levels and similar to a quadruple mutant also including S1457A and S1524A (BRCA14P). These effects appeared to be independent of PALB2. Furthermore, we found that BRCA14P promoted a prolonged and struggling HRR late in the cell cycle and shifted DSB repair from HRR to non-homologous end joining which, in the face of irreparable chromosomal damage, resulted in mitotic catastrophe. Altogether, SQ-cluster phosphorylation is critical for allowing adequate time for completing normal HRR prior to mitosis and preventing cells from entering G1 prematurely resulting in gross chromosomal aberrations.

  17. Mutation of the BRCA1 SQ-cluster results in aberrant mitosis, reduced homologous recombination, and a compensatory increase in non-homologous end joining.

    PubMed

    Beckta, Jason M; Dever, Seth M; Gnawali, Nisha; Khalil, Ashraf; Sule, Amrita; Golding, Sarah E; Rosenberg, Elizabeth; Narayanan, Aarthi; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Xu, Bo; Povirk, Lawrence F; Valerie, Kristoffer

    2015-09-29

    Mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility 1 (BRCA1) gene are catalysts for breast and ovarian cancers. Most mutations are associated with the BRCA1 N- and C-terminal domains linked to DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. However, little is known about the role of the intervening serine-glutamine (SQ) - cluster in the DNA damage response beyond its importance in regulating cell cycle checkpoints. We show that serine-to-alanine alterations at critical residues within the SQ-cluster known to be phosphorylated by ATM and ATR result in reduced homologous recombination repair (HRR) and aberrant mitosis. While a S1387A BRCA1 mutant - previously shown to abrogate S-phase arrest in response to radiation - resulted in only a modest decrease in HRR, S1387A together with an additional alteration, S1423A (BRCA12P), reduced HRR to vector control levels and similar to a quadruple mutant also including S1457A and S1524A (BRCA14P). These effects appeared to be independent of PALB2. Furthermore, we found that BRCA14P promoted a prolonged and struggling HRR late in the cell cycle and shifted DSB repair from HRR to non-homologous end joining which, in the face of irreparable chromosomal damage, resulted in mitotic catastrophe. Altogether, SQ-cluster phosphorylation is critical for allowing adequate time for completing normal HRR prior to mitosis and preventing cells from entering G1 prematurely resulting in gross chromosomal aberrations. PMID:26320175

  18. Characteristics of long-term variation in the amlitude of the geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily variation using the Inter-university Upper atmosphere Gobal Observation NETwork (IUGONET) data analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinbori, A.; Koyama, Y.; Nose, M.; Hori, T.; Otsuka, Y.; Yatagai, A. I.

    2014-12-01

    Characteristics of long-term variation in the amplitude of solar quiet geomagnetic field daily variation (Sq) have been investigated using 1-hour geomagnetic field data obtained from 69 geomagnetic stations in a period of 1947-2013. In the present data analysis, we took advantage of the IUGONET data analysis system. The Sq amplitude clearly showed a 10-12 year solar activity dependence and it tended to enhance during each solar maximum. During the minimum of solar cycle 23/24 in 2008-2009, the Sq amplitude became the smallest in the investigated period. The relationship between the solar F10.7 index and Sq amplitude is approximately linear but 64 percent of geomagnetic stations show a weak nonlinear dependence on the solar F10.7 index. In order to remove the effect of solar activity seen in the long-term variation of the Sq amplitude, we calculated a linear or second order fitting curve between the solar F10.7 index and Sq amplitude during 1947-2013, and examined the residual Sq amplitude, which is defined as the deviation from the fitting curve. As a result, a majority of the trends in the residual Sq amplitude that passed through a trend test showed a negative value in a wide region. This tendency was relatively strong in Europe, India, the eastern part of Canada, and New Zealand. The relationship between the magnetic field intensity and residual Sq amplitude showed an anti-correlation for about 71 percent of geomagnetic stations. On the other hand, the residual Sq amplitude in the equatorial station (Addis Ababa) was anti-correlated with the absolute value of the magnetic field inclination. This implies the movement of the equatorial electrojet due to the secular variation of the ambient magnetic field.

  19. Photochemistry of Triton's Atmosphere and Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.; Cruikshank, Dale P.

    1995-01-01

    The photochemistry of 32 neutral and 21 ion species in Triton's atmosphere is considered. Parent species N2, CH4, and CO (with a mixing ratio of 3 x 10(exp -4) in our basic model) sublime from the ice with rates of 40, 208, and 0.3 g/sq cm/b.y., respectively. Chemistry below 50 km is driven mostly by photolysis of methane by the solar and interstellar medium Lyman-alpha photons, producing hydrocarbons C2H4, C2H6, and C2H2 which form haze particles with precipitation rates of 135, 28, and 1.3 g/sq cm/b.y., respectively. Some processes are discussed which increase the production of HCN (by an order of magnitude to a value of 29 g/sq cm/b.y.) and involve indirect photolysis of N2 by neutrals. Reanalysis of the measured methane profiles gives an eddy diffusion coefficient K = 4 x 10(exp 3)sq cm/s above the tropopause and a more accurate methane number density near the surface, (3.1 +/- 0.8)x IO(exp 11)/cu cm. Chemistry above 200 km is driven by the solar EUV radiation (lambda less than 1000 A) and by precipitation of magnetospheric electrons with a total energy input of 10(exp 8) W (based on thermal balance calculations). The most abundant photochemical species are N, H2, H, 0, and C. They escape with the total rates of 7.7 x 10(exp 24)/ s, 4.5 x 10(exp 25)/s, 2.4 x 10(exp 25)/s, 4.4 x 10(exp 22)/s, and 1.1 x 10(exp 24), respectively. Atomic species are transported to a region of 50-200 km and drive the chemistry there. Ionospheric chemistry explains the formation of an E region at 150-240 km with HCO(+) as a major ion, and of an F region above 240 km with a peak at 320 km and C(+) as a major ion. The ionosphere above 500 km consists of almost equal densities of C(+) and N(+) ions. The model profiles agree with the measured atomic nitrogen and electron density profiles. A number of other models with varying rate coefficients of some reactions, differing properties of the haze particles (chemically passive or active), etc., were developed. These models show that there

  20. Toward 10(exp 9) GPS geodesy: Vector baselines, Earth rotation and reference frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutz, Bob E.

    1993-01-01

    The University of Texas Center for Space Research research efforts under NASA Grant No. NAG-1936 from 1 Jan. 1992 - 31 Dec. 1992 were in the following areas: GPS orbit accuracy assessments and efforts to improve the accuracy; analysis of global GPS data collected during the first three months of the IGS campaign, and analysis of regional data. A brief summary of each of the above activities is presented in the following.

  1. Towards 10(exp 9) GPS geodesy: Vector baselines, Earth rotation and reference frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutz, Bob E.

    1994-01-01

    Effort during the period form January 1, 1993 to December 31, 1993 were in the following areas: GPS orbit accuracy assessments and efforts to improve the accuracy; analysis and effects of GPS receiver antenna phase center variation; analysis of global GPS data being collected for the IGS campaign; and analysis of regional (south west Pacific) campaign data. A brief summary of each of the above activities is presented.

  2. Hard X-ray Observation of Cygnus X-1 By the Marshall Imaging X-ray Experiment (MIXE2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minamitani, Takahisa; Apple, J. A.; Austin, R. A.; Dietz, K. L.; Koloziejczak, J. J.; Ramsey, B. D.; Weisskopf, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    The second generation of the Marshall Imaging X-ray Experiment (MIXE2) was flown from Fort Sumner, New Mexico on May 7-8, 1997. The experiment consists of coded-aperture telescope with a field of view of 1.8 degrees (FWHM) and an angular resolution of 6.9 arcminutes. The detector is a large (7.84x10(exp 4) sq cm) effective area microstrip proportional counter filled with 2.0x10(exp5) Pascals of xenon with 2% isobutylene. We present MIXE2 observation of the 20-80keV spectrum and timing variability of Cygnus X-1 made during balloon flight.

  3. Low-Temperature Rate Coefficients of C2H with CH4 and CD4 from 154 to 359 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opansky, Brian J.; Leone, Stephen R.

    1996-01-01

    Rate coefficients for the reaction C2H + CH4 yields C2H2 + CH3 and C2H + CD4 yields C2HD + CD3 are measured over the temperature range 154-359 K using transient infrared laser absorption spectroscopy. Ethynyl radicals are produced by pulsed laser photolysis of C2H2 in a variable temperature flow cell, and a tunable color center laser probes the transient removal of C2H (Chi(exp 2) Sigma(+) (0,0,0)) in absorption. The rate coefficients for the reactions of C2H with CH4 and CD4 both show a positive temperature dependence over the range 154-359 K, which can be expressed as k(sub CH4) = (1.2 +/- 0.1) x 10(exp -11) exp((-491 +/- 12)/T) and k(sub CD4) = (8.7 +/- 1.8) x 10(exp -12) exp((-650 +/- 61)/T) cm(exp 3) molecule(exp -1) s(exp -1), respectively. The reaction of C2H + CH4 exhibits a significant kinetic isotope effect at 300 K of k(sub CH4)/k(sub CD4) = 2.5 +/- 0.2. Temperature dependent rate constants for C2H + C2H2 were also remeasured over an increased temperature range from 143 to 359 K and found to show a slight negative temperature dependence, which can be expressed as k(sub C2H2) = 8.6 x 10(exp -16) T(exp 1.8) exp((474 +/- 90)/T) cm(exp 3) molecule(exp -1) s(exp -1).

  4. High Silicate Crystalline-to-Amorphous Ratios in Comets C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) and Hale-Bopp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, D. H.; Harker, D. E.; Wodward, C. E.

    2004-01-01

    Crystalline silicates, by their apparent absence in the ISM, are dust grains that experienced high temperatures in the solar nebula. Mg-rich crystalline silicates formed either by condensation from hot nebular gases (1450 K) or by the annealing of Mg-rich amorphous silicates (approximately 1000 K) in shocks in the 5-10AU region or by radial transport into and out of the hot inner zones, e.g., T(sub d) greater than 1000K at r(sub h) less than 5AU, 10(exp -6) -10(exp -5) solar mass per year, alpha = 10(exp -4) of the early solar nebula. Mg-rich crystalline silicates are found in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and produce IR spectral features in many Oort cloud comets. In May 2004, we discovered strong crystalline silicate features in the dynamically new Oort cloud comet C/2001 Q4 (NEAT). Thermal emission modeling of comets Q4 and C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) demonstrate that both these comets have similar, high silicate crystalline-toamorphous ratios of 2.4 and 2.1, respectively, indicating that these icy planetesimals aggregated from similar reservoirs of material or that crystalline silicates were widely distributed within the comet-forming zone. This argues for efficient annealing mechanisms and radial mixing.

  5. High Silicate Crystalline-to-Amorphous Ratios in Comets C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) and Hale-Bopp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, D. H.; Harker, D. E.; Woodward, C. E.

    2004-01-01

    Crystalline silicates, by their apparent absence in the ISM, are dust grains that experienced high temperatures in the solar nebula. Mg-rich crystalline silicates formed either by condensation from hot nebular gases (1450 K) or by the annealing of Mg-rich amorphous silicates (approx. 1000 K) in shocks in the 5-10 AU region or by radial transport into and out of the hot inner zones, e.g., T(sub d) > 1000 K at r(sub h) < 5 AU, 10(exp -6) - 10(exp -5) M(sub O)/yr, alpha = 10(exp -4) of the early solar nebula. Mg-rich crystalline silicates are found in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and produce IR spectral features in many Oort cloud comets. In May 2004, we discovered strong crystalline silicate features in the dynamically new Oort cloud comet C/2001 Q4 (NEAT). Thermal emission modeling of comets Q4 and C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) demonstrate that both these comets have similar, high silicate crystalline-to-amorphous ratios of 2.4 and 2.1, respectively, indicating that these icy planetesimals aggregated from similar reservoirs of material or that crystalline silicates were widely distributed within the comet-forming zone. This argues for efficient annealing mechanisms and radial mixing.

  6. The performance of measurement-based simple models for the x-band complex permittivity of 370 ohms/sq. Kapton XC

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, Brian B; Whites, Kieth W; Amert, Tony

    2009-01-01

    The X-band complex permittivity of a commercially-available, carbon loaded, polyamide film is measured. Simple though approximate models are obtained which are shown to be necessary and suitable for analytic or computational modeling of thin absorbing structures realized with the thin lossy film. The utility of each model is tested against experimental results for thin high-impedance surface (HIS) enhanced Salisbury absorbers, enhanced in the sense that the HIS augmented absorber is much thinner than a conventional Salisbury absorber. Kapton XC(reg.) is a commercially-available, carbon-loaded polyamide film manufactured by Dupont(reg.). Though these films are exceptionally durable and available in a range of surface resistivities, their effective permittivity is complex valued and, therefore, their sheet impedance is frequency dependent as is typical of carbon-loaded dielectrics. We have measured the X-band complex permittivity of Kapton XC(reg.) with a manufacture's quoted direct current (DC) sheet resistivity of approximately 370 {Omega}/sq. and thicknesses of 40.0 {mu}m. This study showed the need for relatively precise knowledge of the real part of a carbon particulate loaded, lossy thin film's permittivity in order to accurately engineer the reflection coefficient of high-impedance surface enhanced electromagnetic absorbers. Specifically, simple, approximate models can be obtained for the X-band complex pennittivity of commercially available, carbon loaded, 370 {Omega}/sq., Kapton XC(reg.) thin film. These simple, approximate models can be used in the analytic modeling of high-impedance surface enhanced X-band absorbers or computational modeling of other possibly more complicated absorbing structures which are composed, in part, of 370 {Omega}/sq. Kapton XC(reg.) and designed to operate within the X-band. Finally, the results of this study illustrate the need for simgle models for calculating the complex permittivity spectra of 370 {Omega}/sq. Kapton XC

  7. Study of Polarized Sea Quark Distributions in Polarized Proton-Proton Collisions at sq root(s) = 500 GeV with PHENIX

    SciTech Connect

    Mibe, Tsutomu

    2009-08-04

    The PHENIX spin program studies the flavor structure of the polarized sea quark distributions in polarized proton-proton collisions. Starting from 2009 run, the quark and antiquark polarization, sorted by flavor, will be investigated with the parity-violating single-spin asymmetry of W-boson production at the collision energy of sq root(s) = 500 GeV. High momentum muons from W-boson decay are detected in the PHENIX muon arms. The muon trigger is being upgraded to allow one to select high momentum muons.

  8. Intensities and broadening coefficients for the Q branch of the 4nu-2 - nu-1 + nu-2 (471.511/cm) band of CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sirota, J. M.; Reuter, Dennis C.; Mumma, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    Absolute intensities for the Q-branch of the 4nu-2 - nu-1 + nu-1/2 (20,003-11,101) band in CO2 were measured for the first time. Measurements were performed for lines Q10 to Q28, at temperatures ranging from 385 to 426 K, for pressures from 3 to 40 torr, using our long wavelength tunable diode laser spectrometer. The combination of tunable diode lasers, a White cell, and a blocked impurity band detector made it possible to obtain signal to noise ratios greater than 1000 in the 471/cm spectral region, with about 3 x 10 exp -4/cm spectral resolution. The band strength was found to be 8.6(2) x 10 exp -25 cm/molec at 296 K, and the Hermann-Wallis factor was determined. Comparison with the values listed in the HITRAN 92 data base are presented. Self-, N2- and O2-broadening coefficients were also measured.

  9. Anomalous Variability in Antarctic Sea Ice Extents During the 1960s With the Use of Nimbus Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallaher, David W.; Campbell, G. Garrett; Meier, Walter N.

    2013-01-01

    The Nimbus I, II, and III satellites provide a new opportunity for climate studies in the 1960s. The rescue of the visible and infrared imager data resulted in the utilization of the early Nimbus data to determine sea ice extent. A qualitative analysis of the early NASA Nimbus missions has revealed Antarctic sea ice extents that are significant larger and smaller than the historic 1979-2012 passive microwave record. The September 1964 ice mean area is 19.7x10(exp 6) sq. km +/- 0.3x10(exp 6) sq. km. This is more the 250,000 sq. km greater than the 19.44x10(exp 6) sq. km seen in the new 2012 historic maximum. However, in August 1966 the maximum sea ice extent fell to 15.9x10(exp 6) sq. km +/- 0.3x10(exp 6) sq. km. This is more than 1.5x10(exp 6) sq. km below the passive microwave record of 17.5x10(exp 6) sq. km set in September of 1986. This variation between 1964 and 1966 represents a change of maximum sea ice of over 3x10(exp 6) sq. km in just two years. These inter-annual variations while large, are small when compared to the Antarctic seasonal cycle.

  10. Thermodynamic properties and theoretical rocket performance of hydrogen to 100,000 K and 1.01325 x 10 to the 8th power N/sq m

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patch, R. W.

    1971-01-01

    The composition and thermodynamic properties were calculated for 100 to 110,000 K and 1.01325 x 10 to the 2nd power to 1.01325 x 10 to the 8th power N/sq m for chemical equilibrium in the Debye-Huckel and ideal-gas approximations. Quantities obtained were the concentrations of hydrogen atoms, protons, free electrons, hydrogen molecules, negative hydrogen ions, hydrogen diatomic molecular ions, and hydrogen triatomic molecular ions, and the enthalpy, entropy, average molecular weight, specific heat at constant pressure, density, and isentropic exponent. Electronically excited states of H and H2 were included. Choked, isentropic, one-dimensional nozzle flow with shifting chemical equilibrium was calculated to the Debye-Huckel and ideal-gas approximations for stagnation temperatures from 2500 to 100,000 K. The mass flow per unit throat area and the sonic flow factor were obtained. The pressure ratio, temperature, velocity, and ideal and vacuum specific impulses at the throat and for pressure ratios as low as 0.000001 downstream were found. For high temperatures at pressures approaching 1.01325 x 10 to the 8th power N/sq m, the ideal-gas approximation was found to be inadequate for calculations of composition, precise thermodynamic properties, and precise nozzle flow. The greatest discrepancy in nozzle flow occurred in the exit temperature, which was as much as 21 percent higher when the Debye-Huckel approximation was used.

  11. Atomic Oxygen (ATOX) simulation of Teflon FEP and Kapton H surfaces using a high intensity, low energy, mass selected, ion beam facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vered, R.; Grossman, E.; Lempert, G. D.; Lifshitz, Y.

    1994-01-01

    A high intensity (greater than 10(exp 15) ions/sq cm) low energy (down to 5 eV) mass selected ion beam (MSIB) facility was used to study the effects of ATOX on two polymers commonly used for space applications (Kapton H and Teflon FEP). The polymers were exposed to O(+) and Ne(+) fluences on 10(exp 15) - 10(exp 19) ions/sq cm, using 30eV ions. A variety of analytical methods were used to analyze the eroded surfaces including: (1) atomic force microscopy (AFM) for morphology measurements; (2) total mass loss measurements using a microbalance; (3) surface chemical composition using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and (4) residual gas analysis (RGA) of the released gases during bombardment. The relative significance of the collisional and chemical degradation processes was evaluated by comparing the effects of Ne(+) and O(+) bombardment. For 30 eV ions it was found that the Kapton is eroded via chemical mechanisms while Teflon FEP is eroded via collisional mechanisms. AFM analysis was found very powerful in revealing the evolution of the damage from its initial atomic scale (roughness of approx. 1 nm) to its final microscopic scale (roughness greater than 1 micron). Both the surface morphology and the average roughness of the bombarded surfaces (averaged over 1 micron x 1 micron images by the system's computer) were determined for each sample. For 30 eV a non linear increase of the Kapton roughness with the O(+) fluence was discovered (a slow increase rate for fluences phi less than 5 x 10(exp 17) O(+)/sq cm, and a rapid increase rate for phi greater than 5 x 10(exp 17) O(+)/sq cm). Comparative studies on the same materials exposed to RF and DC oxygen plasmas indicate that the specific details of the erosion depend on the simulation facility emphasizing the advantages of the ion beam facility.

  12. Atomic Oxygen (ATOX) simulation of Teflon FEP and Kapton H surfaces using a high intensity, low energy, mass selected, ion beam facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vered, R.; Grossman, E.; Lempert, G. D.; Lifshitz, Y.

    1994-11-01

    A high intensity (greater than 10(exp 15) ions/sq cm) low energy (down to 5 eV) mass selected ion beam (MSIB) facility was used to study the effects of ATOX on two polymers commonly used for space applications (Kapton H and Teflon FEP). The polymers were exposed to O(+) and Ne(+) fluences on 10(exp 15) - 10(exp 19) ions/sq cm, using 30eV ions. A variety of analytical methods were used to analyze the eroded surfaces including: (1) atomic force microscopy (AFM) for morphology measurements; (2) total mass loss measurements using a microbalance; (3) surface chemical composition using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and (4) residual gas analysis (RGA) of the released gases during bombardment. The relative significance of the collisional and chemical degradation processes was evaluated by comparing the effects of Ne(+) and O(+) bombardment. For 30 eV ions it was found that the Kapton is eroded via chemical mechanisms while Teflon FEP is eroded via collisional mechanisms. AFM analysis was found very powerful in revealing the evolution of the damage from its initial atomic scale (roughness of approx. 1 nm) to its final microscopic scale (roughness greater than 1 micron). Both the surface morphology and the average roughness of the bombarded surfaces (averaged over 1 micron x 1 micron images by the system's computer) were determined for each sample. For 30 eV a non linear increase of the Kapton roughness with the O(+) fluence was discovered (a slow increase rate for fluences phi less than 5 x 10(exp 17) O(+)/sq cm, and a rapid increase rate for phi greater than 5 x 10(exp 17) O(+)/sq cm). Comparative studies on the same materials exposed to RF and DC oxygen plasmas indicate that the specific details of the erosion depend on the simulation facility emphasizing the advantages of the ion beam facility.

  13. COMPTEL observations of Ti-44 gamma-ray line emission from Cas A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyudin, A. F.; Diehl, R.; Bloemen, H.; Hermsen, W.; Lichti, G. G.; Morris, D.; Ryan, J.; Schoenfelder, V.; Steinle, H.; Varendorff, M.

    1994-01-01

    The Compton Telescope (COMPTEL) telescope aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) is capable of imaging gamma-ray line sources in the MeV region with a sensitivity of the order 10(exp -5) photons/(sq cm s). During two observations periods in July 1992 and February 1993 the Galactic plane in the region of the young supernova remnant Cas A was observed, showing evidence for line emission at 1.16 MeV from the decay of Ti-44 at a significance level of approximately 4 sigma. This is the first time a supernova remnant has been detected in the gamma-ray line from Ti-44 decay. Adopting a distance of 2.8 kpc to the Cas A remnant, the measured line flux (7.0 +/- 1.7) x 10(exp -5) photons/(sq cm s), can be translated into a Ti-44 mass ejected during the Cas A supernova explosion, between (1.4 +/- 0.4) x 10(exp -4) solar mass and (3.2 +/- 0.8) x 10(exp -4) solar mass, depending on the precise value of the Ti-44 mean life time and on the precise date of the event. Implications of this result for supernova nucleosynthesis models are discussed.

  14. Experimental Investigation of the Heat-Transfer Rate to a Series of 20 deg Cones of Various Surface Finishes at a Mach Number of 4.95

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jim J.

    1959-01-01

    The heat-transfer rates were measured on a series of cones of various surface finishes at a Mach number of 4.95 and Reynolds numbers per foot varying from 20 x 10(exp 6) to 100 x 10(exp 6). The range of surface finish was from a very smooth polish to smooth machining with no polish (65 micro inches rms). Some laminar boundary-layer data were obtained, since transition was not artificially tripped. Emphasis, however, is centered on the turbulent boundary layer. The results indicated that the turbulent heat-transfer rate for the highest roughness tested was only slightly greater than that for the smoothest surface. The laminar-sublayer thickness was calculated to be about half the roughness height for the roughest model at the highest value of unit Reynolds number tested.

  15. Evaluation of an analytical methodology using QuEChERS and GC-SQ/MS for the investigation of the level of pesticide residues in Brazilian melons.

    PubMed

    da Silva Sousa, Jonas; de Castro, Rubens Carius; de Albuquerque Andrade, Gilliane; Lima, Cleidiane Gomes; Lima, Lucélia Kátia; Milhome, Maria Aparecida Liberato; do Nascimento, Ronaldo Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    A multiresidue method based on the sample preparation by modified QuEChERS and detection by gas chromatography coupled to single quadruple mass spectrometers (GC-SQ/MS) was used for the analysis of 35 multiclass pesticides in melons (Cucumis melo inodorus) produced in Ceara-Brazil. The rates of recovery for pesticides studied were satisfactory (except for the etridiazole), ranging from 85% to 117% with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 15%, at concentrations between 0.05 and 0.20 mg kg(-1). The limit of quantification (LOQ) for most compounds was below the MRLs established in Brazil. The combined relative uncertainty (Uc) and expanded uncertainty (Ue) was determined using repeatability, recovery and calibration curves data for each pesticide. Analysis of commercial melons samples revealed the presence of pesticides bifenthrin and imazalil at levels below the MRLs established by ANVISA, EU and USEPA.

  16. Optimal and Local Connectivity Between Neuron and Synapse Array in the Quantum Dot/Silicon Brain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A.; Assad, Christopher; Thakoor, Anikumar P.

    2010-01-01

    This innovation is used to connect between synapse and neuron arrays using nanowire in quantum dot and metal in CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) technology to enable the density of a brain-like connection in hardware. The hardware implementation combines three technologies: 1. Quantum dot and nanowire-based compact synaptic cell (50x50 sq nm) with inherently low parasitic capacitance (hence, low dynamic power approx.l0(exp -11) watts/synapse), 2. Neuron and learning circuits implemented in 50-nm CMOS technology, to be integrated with quantum dot and nanowire synapse, and 3. 3D stacking approach to achieve the overall numbers of high density O(10(exp 12)) synapses and O(10(exp 8)) neurons in the overall system. In a 1-sq cm of quantum dot layer sitting on a 50-nm CMOS layer, innovators were able to pack a 10(exp 6)-neuron and 10(exp 10)-synapse array; however, the constraint for the connection scheme is that each neuron will receive a non-identical 10(exp 4)-synapse set, including itself, via its efficacy of the connection. This is not a fully connected system where the 100x100 synapse array only has a 100-input data bus and 100-output data bus. Due to the data bus sharing, it poses a great challenge to have a complete connected system, and its constraint within the quantum dot and silicon wafer layer. For an effective connection scheme, there are three conditions to be met: 1. Local connection. 2. The nanowire should be connected locally, not globally from which it helps to maximize the data flow by sharing the same wire space location. 3. Each synapse can have an alternate summation line if needed (this option is doable based on the simple mask creation). The 10(exp 3)x10(exp 3)-neuron array was partitioned into a 10-block, 10(exp 2)x10(exp 3)-neuron array. This building block can be completely mapped within itself (10,000 synapses to a neuron).

  17. SWIFT BAT Survey of AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tueller, J.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Barthelmy, S.; Cannizzo, J. K.; Gehrels, N.; Markwardt, C. B.; Skinner, G. K.; Winter, L. M.

    2008-01-01

    We present the results1 of the analysis of the first 9 months of data of the Swift BAT survey of AGN in the 14-195 keV band. Using archival X-ray data or follow-up Swift XRT observations, we have identified 129 (103 AGN) of 130 objects detected at [b] > 15deg and with significance > 4.8-delta. One source remains unidentified. These same X-ray data have allowed measurement of the X-ray properties of the objects. We fit a power law to the logN - log S distribution, and find the slope to be 1.42+/-0.14. Characterizing the differential luminosity function data as a broken power law, we find a break luminosity logL*(ergs/s)= 43.85+/-0.26. We obtain a mean photon index 1.98 in the 14-195 keV band, with an rms spread of 0.27. Integration of our luminosity function gives a local volume density of AGN above 10(exp 41) erg/s of 2.4x10(exp -3) Mpc(sup -3), which is about 10% of the total luminous local galaxy density above M* = -19.75. We have obtained X-ray spectra from the literature and from Swift XRT follow-up observations. These show that the distribution of log nH is essentially flat from nH = 10(exp 20)/sq cm to 10(exp 24)/sq cm, with 50% of the objects having column densities of less than 10(exp 22)/sq cm. BAT Seyfert galaxies have a median redshift of 0.03, a maximum log luminosity of 45.1, and approximately half have log nH > 22.

  18. CARS: the CFHTLS-Archive-Research Survey. I. Five-band multi-colour data from 37 sq. deg. CFHTLS-wide observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erben, T.; Hildebrandt, H.; Lerchster, M.; Hudelot, P.; Benjamin, J.; van Waerbeke, L.; Schrabback, T.; Brimioulle, F.; Cordes, O.; Dietrich, J. P.; Holhjem, K.; Schirmer, M.; Schneider, P.

    2009-01-01

    Context: We present the CFHTLS-Archive-Research Survey (CARS). It is a virtual multi-colour survey that is based on public archive images from the Deep and Wide components of the CFHT-Legacy-Survey (CFHTLS). Our main scientific interests in the CFHTLS Wide-part of CARS are optical searches for galaxy clusters from low to high redshift and their subsequent study with photometric and weak-gravitational lensing techniques. Aims: As a first step in the CARS project, we present multi-colour catalogues from 37 sq. degrees of the CFHTLS-Wide component. Our aims are first to create astrometrically and photometrically well-calibrated co-added images from publicly available CFHTLS data. Second, we offer five-band (u^*g'r'i'z') multi-band catalogues with an emphasis on reliable estimates for object colours. These are subsequently used for photometric redshift estimates. Methods: We consider all those CFHTLS-Wide survey pointings that were publicly available on January 2008 and that also have five-band coverage in u^*g'r'i'z'. The data were calibrated and processed with our GaBoDS/THELI image processing pipeline. The quality of the resulting images was thoroughly checked against the Sloan-Digital-Sky Survey (SDSS) and already public high-end CFHTLS data products. From the co-added images we extracted source catalogues and determined photometric redshifts using the public code Bayesian Photometric Redshifts (BPZ). Fifteen of our survey fields directly overlap with public spectra from the VIMOS VLT deep (VVDS), DEEP2 and SDSS redshift surveys, which we used for calibration and verification of our redshift estimates. Furthermore we applied a novel technique, based on studies of the angular galaxy cross-correlation function, to quantify the reliability of photo-z's. Results: With this paper we present 37 sq. degrees of homogeneous and high-quality five-colour photometric data from the CFHTLS-Wide survey. The median seeing of our data is better than 0.9 arcsec in all bands and our

  19. Alpha-2 Heremans Schmid Glycoprotein (AHSG) Modulates Signaling Pathways in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Line SQ20B

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Pamela D.; Sakwe, Amos; Koumangoye, Rainelli; Yarbrough, Wendell G.; Ochieng, Josiah; Marshall, Dana R.

    2014-02-15

    This study was performed to identify the potential role of Alpha-2 Heremans Schmid Glycoprotein (AHSG) in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) tumorigenesis using an HNSCC cell line model. HNSCC cell lines are unique among cancer cell lines, in that they produce endogenous AHSG and do not rely, solely, on AHSG derived from serum. To produce our model, we performed a stable transfection to down-regulate AHSG in the HNSCC cell line SQ20B, resulting in three SQ20B sublines, AH50 with 50% AHSG production, AH20 with 20% AHSG production and EV which is the empty vector control expressing wild-type levels of AHSG. Utilizing these sublines, we examined the effect of AHSG depletion on cellular adhesion, proliferation, migration and invasion in a serum-free environment. We demonstrated that sublines EV and AH50 adhered to plastic and laminin significantly faster than the AH20 cell line, supporting the previously reported role of exogenous AHSG in cell adhesion. As for proliferative potential, EV had the greatest amount of proliferation with AH50 proliferation significantly diminished. AH20 cells did not proliferate at all. Depletion of AHSG also diminished cellular migration and invasion. TGF-β was examined to determine whether levels of the TGF-β binding AHSG influenced the effect of TGF-β on cell signaling and proliferation. Whereas higher levels of AHSG blunted TGF-β influenced SMAD and ERK signaling, it did not clearly affect proliferation, suggesting that AHSG influences on adhesion, proliferation, invasion and migration are primarily due to its role in adhesion and cell spreading. The previously reported role of AHSG in potentiating metastasis via protecting MMP-9 from autolysis was also supported in this cell line based model system of endogenous AHSG production in HNSCC. Together, these data show that endogenously produced AHSG in an HNSCC cell line, promotes in vitro cellular properties identified as having a role in tumorigenesis. Highlights: • Head

  20. Modeling of pickup ion distributions in the Halley cometosheath: Empirical limits on rates of ionization, diffusion, loss and creation of fast neutral atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huddleston, D. E.; Neugebauer, M.; Goldstein, B. E.

    1994-01-01

    The shape of the velocity distribution of water group ions observed by the Giotto ion mass spectrometer on its approach to comet Halley is modeled to derive empirical values for the rates of ionization, energy diffusion, and loss in the midcometosheath. The model includes the effect of rapid pitch angle scattering into a bispherical shell distribution as well as the effect of the magnetization of the plasma on the charge exchange loss rate. It is found that the average rate of ionization of cometary neutrals in this region of the cometosheath appears to be of the order of a factor 3 faster than the `standard' rates approx. 1 x 10(exp -6)/s that are generally assumed to model the observations in most regions of the comet environment. For the region of the coma studied in the present work (approx. 1 - 2 x 10(exp 5) km from the nucleus), the inferred energy diffusion coefficient is D(sub 0) approx. equals 0.0002 to 0.0005 sq km/cu s, which is generally lower than values used in other models. The empirically obtained loss rate appears to be about an order of magnitude greater than can be explained by charge exchange with the `standard' cross section of approx. 2 x 10(exp -15)sq cm. However such cross sections are not well known and for water group ion/water group neutral interactions, rates as high as 8 x 10(exp -15) sq cm have previously been suggested in the literature. Assuming the entire loss rate is due to charge exchange yields a rate of creation of fast neutral atoms of the order of approx. 10(exp -4)/s or higher, depending on the level of velocity diffusion. The fast neutrals may, in turn, be partly responsible for the higher-than-expected ionization rate.

  1. FUSE Observations of O VI Absorption in the Local Interstellar Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oegerle, W. R.; Jenkins, E. B.; Shelton, R. L.; Bowen, D. V.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We report the results of an initial Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) survey of O VI Lambda 1032 absorption along the lines of sight to eleven nearby white dwarfs, ten of which are within the Local Bubble (LB; d < or approximately equal 100 pc). A goal of this survey is to investigate the possible formation of O VI in the conductive interfaces between cool (about 10(exp 4) K) clouds immersed in the presumably hot (10(exp 6) K) gas within the LB. This mechanism is often invoked to explain the widespread presence of 0 VI throughout the Galactic disk. We find no 0 VI absorption toward two stars, and the column densities along three additional sight lines are quite low; N(O VI) about 5 x 10(exp 13)/sq cm. In several directions, we observe rather broad, shallow absorption with N(O VI) about 1 - 2 x 10(exp 13)/sq cm. Models of conductive interfaces predict narrow profiles with N(OVI) > or about equal to 10(exp 13)/sq cm per interface, in the absence of a significant transverse magnetic field. Hence, our observations of weak 0 VI absorption indicate that conduction is being quenched, possibly by non-radial magnetic fields. Alternatively, the gas within the LB may not be hot. Breitschwerdt & Schmutzler have proposed a model for the LB in which an explosive event within a dense cloud created rapid expansion and adiabatic cooling, resulting in a cavity containing gas with a kinetic temperature of T about 50,000 K, but with an ionization state characteristic of much hotter gas. This model has a number of attractive features, but appears to predict significantly more O VI than we observe.

  2. Dependence of luminescence decays from GaAs/electrolyte contacts on excitation power and applied bias - Examination of the modified dead layer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, J. F.; Richmond, G. L.

    1993-02-01

    Photoluminescence decays from n-GaAs/Na2S contacts following picosecond pulse excitation are presented. Decays measured at several different potentials from depletion to accumulation regimes all exhibit a strong dependence on excitation power when the photon flux is greater than 10 exp 10 photons/sq cm/pulse. Using a flux of 4 x 10 exp 12 photons/sq cm, we model the potential dependence of the decays by adjusting only the value of the surface minority trapping velocity. These results are used to evaluate the applicability of the modified dead layer model in the analysis of photoluminescence intensity versus potential measurements as a means of measuring surface minority trapping velocities in photoelectrochemical cells.

  3. In-plane texturing control of Y-Ba-Cu-O thin films on polycrystalline substrates by ion-beam-modified intermediate buffer layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iijima, Y.; Onabe, K.; Futaki, N.; Tanabe, N.; Sadakata, N.; Kohno, O.; Ikeno, Y.

    1993-03-01

    Biaxially aligned YBCO thin films were successfully formed on polycrystalline Ni-based alloy by using ion-beam-modified yttria-stabilized-zirconia (YSZ) intermediate layers. YSZ layers were deposited by ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) with concurrent off-axis ion beam bombardment. The YSZ 100-line axis was oriented normal to the substrate, and a YSZ 111-line axis was aligned to the bombarding ion beam axis. Explicit in-plane ordering was achieved on polycrystalline metallic substrates without epitaxial relationships. C-axis-oriented YBCO thin films were grown on those buffer layers, with controlled in-plane a- and b-axes, by pulsed laser deposition. At 77 K, 0 T and at 77 K, 0.6 T, 4.3 x 10 exp 5 A/sq cm and 1.1 x 10 exp 5 A/sq cm were achieved, respectively.

  4. The Lyman alpha bulge of Jupiter - Effects of non-thermal velocity field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ben Jaffel, Lotfi; Clarke, John T.; Prange, Renee; Gladstone, G. R.; Vidal-Madjar, Alfred

    1993-01-01

    We outline for the first time the effect of such nonthermal line broadening processes as turbulence, random waves, convection, etc., on the shape and intensity of the H Ly-alpha line resonance scattered from the atmosphere of Jupiter. We show how a nonthermal velocity field confined to the bulge region, in the upper atmosphere of Jupiter, may account for most of the H Ly-alpha bulge features. Both the shape and the brightness of the Ly-alpha line from the bulge region as reported by the IUE instrument and the Voyager UV Spectrometer can be recovered assuming resonant scattering with a total atomic hydrogen of about 4 x 10 exp 17/sq cm, and a nonthermal component H of about 2 x 10 exp 15/sq cm above the thermopause.

  5. The Properties and Effects of Titan's Organic Haze

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Christopher P.; Young, Richard E. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Titan's organic haze is the the dominant absorber of solar energy in Titan's atmosphere, creating an anti-greenhouse effect. Its variation over time may have had important implications for Titan's surface temperature. The haze is potentially an important sink of photochemically produced carbon and nitrogen compounds. Laboratory simulations and microphysical models suggest that the haze is a sink for C of 4 x 10(exp 8)/ sq cm s, and a sink for N of 1 x 10(exp 8)sq cm s. The C sink is small compared to condensation of hydrocarbons but the sink for N is comparable to the total production rate of HCN. Because estimates of the eddy diffusion profile on Titan have been based on the HCN profile, inclusion of this additional sink for N will affect estimates for all transport processes in Titan's atmosphere.

  6. Correlation between fabrication factor and superconducting properties of the Tl-and-Bi-based high-Tc superconductor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maki, Naoki; Okada, Michiya; Doi, Toshiya J.; Kanai, Tsuneyuki; Sato, Junichi; Higashiyama, Kazutoshi

    1995-01-01

    Large critical current densities (J(sub c)) were obtained in c axis oriented Tl-1 223/Ag composite tapes fabricated by spraying methods without a vacuum. Transport measurements at 77K under a zero field indicated a J(sub c) of 9 x 10(exp 4) A/sq cm and 7 x 10(exp 3) A/sq cm at 1T for the tapes fabricated by spray pyrolysis. The novel GPM method was also applied for Bi-2212/Ag PIT composite wire, and found to be very effective for improving the distribution of voids, which caused from the melt-solidifying process. The GPM showed a marked effect for obtaining homogeneous long wire. A 1 T class coil was successfully fabricated with monocore wire.

  7. Measuring IPDE-SQ personality disorder prevalence in pre-sentence and early-stage prison populations, with sub-type estimates.

    PubMed

    Slade, Karen; Forrester, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the prevalence and type of personality disorder within prison systems allows for the effective targeting of resources to implement strategies to alleviate symptoms, manage behaviour and attempt to reduce re-offending. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of personality disorder (PD) traits within a local urban high-turnover adult male prison with a remand/recently sentenced population in London, UK. The International Personality Disorder Examination - Screening Questionnaire (IPDE-SQ) self-administered questionnaire (ICD-10 version) was completed by 283 prisoners (42% completion rate). 77% of respondents reached the threshold for one or more PDs. The most common PD types were Paranoid PD (44.5%), Anankastic PD (40.3%), Schizoid PD (35%) and Dissocial PD (25.8%). These results confirm and extend existing knowledge regarding the prevalence of PD in prison populations into a high-turnover, urban, remand population. The stark comparison with community samples indicates that a more equitable standard of service delivery within the criminal justice system, focussing on preventive and early intervention services, is now required.

  8. Transverse momentum dependence of eta meson suppression in Au+Au collisions at sq root(s{sub NN})=200 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Adare, A.; Bickley, A. A.; Ellinghaus, F.; Glenn, A.; Kinney, E.; Kiriluk, K.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Nagle, J. L.; Rosen, C. A.; Seele, J.; Wysocki, M.; Afanasiev, S.; Isupov, A.; Litvinenko, A.; Malakhov, A.; Peresedov, V.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Zolin, L.; Aidala, C.; Datta, A.

    2010-07-15

    New measurements by the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider for eta production at midrapidity as a function of transverse momentum (p{sub T}) and collision centrality in sq root(s{sub NN})=200 GeV Au+Au and p+p collisions are presented. They indicate nuclear modification factors (R{sub AA}) which are similar in both magnitude and trend to those found in earlier pi{sup 0} measurements. Linear fits to R{sub AA} as a function of p{sub T} in 5-20 GeV/c show that the slope is consistent with zero within two standard deviations at all centralities, although a slow rise cannot be excluded. Having different statistical and systematic uncertainties, the pi{sup 0} and eta measurements are complementary at high p{sub T}; thus, along with the extended p{sub T} range of these data they can provide additional constraints for theoretical modeling and the extraction of transport properties.

  9. Observation of Exclusive Charmonium Production and gammagamma->mu{sup +}mu{sup -} in pp Collisions at sq root(s)=1.96 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Maki, T.; Mehtala, P.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Saarikko, H.; Remortel, N. van; Adelman, J.; Brubaker, E.; Fedorko, W. T.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Kim, Y. K.; Krop, D.; Kwang, S.; Lee, H. S.; Paramonov, A. A.; Schmidt, M. A.; Shiraishi, S.; Shochet, M.; Wilbur, S.

    2009-06-19

    In CDF we have observed the reactions p+p->p+X+p, with X being a centrally produced J/psi, psi(2S), or chi{sub c0}, and gammagamma->mu{sup +}mu{sup -} in pp collisions at sq root(s)=1.96 TeV. The event signature requires two oppositely charged central muons, and either no other particles or one additional photon detected. Exclusive vector meson production is as expected for elastic photoproduction, gamma+p->J/psi(psi(2S))+p, observed here for the first time in hadron-hadron collisions. We also observe exclusive chi{sub c0}->J/psi+gamma. The cross sections (dsigma/dy)|{sub y=0} for J/psi, psi(2S), and chi{sub c0} are 3.92+-0.25(stat)+-0.52(syst) nb, 0.53+-0.09(stat)+-0.10(syst) nb, and 76+-10(stat)+-10(syst) nb, respectively, and the continuum is consistent with QED. We put an upper limit on the cross section for Odderon exchange in exclusive J/psi production.

  10. The Chandra Large Area Synoptic X-ray Survey (CLASXS) of the Lockman Hole-Northwest: The X-ray Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Y.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Steffen, A. T.; Barger, A. J.; Cowie, L. L.

    2004-01-01

    We present the X-ray catalog and basic results from our Chandra Large Area Synoptic X-ray Survey (CLASXS) of the Lockman Hole-Northwest field. Our 9 ACIS-I fields cover a contiguous solid angle of approx. 0.4 sq deg and reach fluxes of 5 x 10(exp -16) ergs/sq cm/s (0.4-2 keV) and 3 x 10(exp -15) ergs/sq cm/s (2-8 keV). Our survey bridges the gap between ultradeep pencil-beam surveys, such as the Chandra Deep Fields (CDFs), and shallower, large area surveys, allowing a better probe of the X-ray sources that contribute most of the 2-10 keV cosmic X-ray background (CXB). We find a total of 525 X-ray point sources and 4 extended sources. At approx. 10(exp -14)ergs/sq cm/s (2-8 keV), our number counts are significantly higher than those of several non-contiguous, large area surveys. Such a large difference is an indication of clustering in the X-ray sources. On the other hand, the integrated flux from the CLASXS field, combined with ASCA and Chandra ultradeep surveys, is consistent with results from other large area surveys, within the variance of the CXB. We see spectral evolution in the hardening of the sources at fluxes below 10(exp -14) ergs/sq cm/s, which agrees with previous observations from Chandra and XMM-Newton. About 1/3 of the sources in the CLASXS field have multiple observations, allowing variability tests. Above 4 x 10(exp -14) ergs/sq cm/s (0.4-8 keV), approx. 61% of the sources are variable. We also investigated the spectral variability of the variable sources. While most show spectral softening with increasing flux, or no significant spectral change, there are a few sources that show a different trend. Four extended sources in CLASXS is consistent with the previously measured LogN-LogS of galaxy clusters. Using X-ray spectra and optical colors, we argue that 3 of the 4 extended sources are galaxy clusters or galaxy groups. We report the discovery of a gravitational lensing arc associated with one of these sources. Using red sequence and brightest

  11. Preliminary Results of Field Emission Cathode Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Kovaleski, Scott D.

    2001-01-01

    Preliminary screening tests of field emission cathodes such as chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond, textured pyrolytic graphite, and textured copper were conducted at background pressures typical of electric thruster test facilities to assess cathode performance and stability. Very low power electric thrusters which provide tens to hundreds micronewtons of thrust may need field emission neutralizers that have a capability of tens to hundreds of microamperes. From current voltage characteristics, it was found that the CVD diamond and textured metals cathodes clearly satisfied the Fowler-Nordheim emission relation. The CVD diamond and a textured copper cathode had average current densities of 270 and 380 mA/sq cm, respectively, at the beginning-of-life. After a few hours of operation the cathode emission currents degraded by 40 to 75% at background pressures in the 10(exp -5) Pa to 10(exp -4) Pa range. The textured pyrolytic graphite had a modest current density at beginning-of-life of 84 mA/sq cm, but this cathode was the most stable of all. Extended testing of the most promising cathodes is warranted to determine if current degradation is a burn-in effect or whether it is a long-term degradation process. Preliminary experiments with ferroelectric emission cathodes, which are ceramics with spontaneous electric polarization, were conducted. Peak current densities of 30 to 120 mA/sq cm were obtained for pulse durations of about 500 ns in the 10(exp -4) Pa pressure range.

  12. Expression analysis of Type 1 and 2 Metallothionein genes in Rape (Brassica napus L.) during short-term stress using sqRT-PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Abdelmigid, Hala M

    2016-03-01

    With the extent of contamination in water and soil today, possibility of presence of toxic heavy metals in plants in everyday life can not be ruled out. In this context, understanding the influence of exogenenous factors on such plants gains importance. Here, we investigated expression of metallothioneins genes MT1 and MT2 in Rape Brassica napus L. as representatives of MT gene type 1, type 2 (BnMT1 and BnMT2), respectively to explore such influence, if there any. Seedlings of 7-day-old were exposed to various exogenous factors including plant hormones, heavy metals, abiotic and biotic stresses. The basal expression levels of two BnMT genes were determined using water-treated samples (control). Each treatment was replicated 3 times for statistical validity. SPSS computer software was used for statistical analyses. Expression profiles of BnMT1 and BnMT2 were generated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR (sqRT-PCR) to monitor stress-response gene expression of both genes. The BnMT1 and BnMT2 genes were expressed at the same level in control samples. In general, BnMT1 gene was better expressed in most treatments compared to BnMT2 throughout the 48 h experimental period. Moreover, BnMT2 expression was not affected by heavy metal stress. The results provide considerable insights into the molecular mechanism of MTs responses to environmental stress in B. napus which can be utilized for future plant manipulations to improve its ability to accumulate higher metal concentration from the soil. PMID:27145635

  13. Expression analysis of Type 1 and 2 Metallothionein genes in Rape (Brassica napus L.) during short-term stress using sqRT-PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Abdelmigid, Hala M

    2016-03-01

    With the extent of contamination in water and soil today, possibility of presence of toxic heavy metals in plants in everyday life can not be ruled out. In this context, understanding the influence of exogenenous factors on such plants gains importance. Here, we investigated expression of metallothioneins genes MT1 and MT2 in Rape Brassica napus L. as representatives of MT gene type 1, type 2 (BnMT1 and BnMT2), respectively to explore such influence, if there any. Seedlings of 7-day-old were exposed to various exogenous factors including plant hormones, heavy metals, abiotic and biotic stresses. The basal expression levels of two BnMT genes were determined using water-treated samples (control). Each treatment was replicated 3 times for statistical validity. SPSS computer software was used for statistical analyses. Expression profiles of BnMT1 and BnMT2 were generated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR (sqRT-PCR) to monitor stress-response gene expression of both genes. The BnMT1 and BnMT2 genes were expressed at the same level in control samples. In general, BnMT1 gene was better expressed in most treatments compared to BnMT2 throughout the 48 h experimental period. Moreover, BnMT2 expression was not affected by heavy metal stress. The results provide considerable insights into the molecular mechanism of MTs responses to environmental stress in B. napus which can be utilized for future plant manipulations to improve its ability to accumulate higher metal concentration from the soil.

  14. InP Tunnel Junctions for InP/InGaAs Tandem Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilela, M. F.; Medelci, N.; Bensaoula, A.; Freundlich, A.; Renaud, P.

    1995-01-01

    We report, for the first time, an epitaxially grown InP p(+)/n(++) tunnel junction. A diode with peak current densities up to 1600 Al/sq cm and maximum specific resistivities (Vp/lp - peak voltage to peak current ratio) in the range of 10(exp -4)Om sq cm is obtained. This peak current density is comparable to the highest results previously reported for lattice matched In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As tunnel junctions. Both results were obtained using chemical beam epitaxy (CBE). In this paper we discuss the electrical characteristics of these tunnel diodes and how the growth conditions influence them.

  15. Transport Between the Tropical and Midlatitude Lower Statosphere: Implications for Ozone Response to High-Speed Civil Transport Emissions. Appendix A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shia, R.-L.; Ko, M. K. W.; Weisenstein, D. K.; Scott, C.; Rodriguez, J.

    1998-01-01

    Several recent studies have quantified the air exchange rate between the tropics and midlatitudes in the lower stratosphere using airborne and satellite measurements of chemical species. It is found that the midlatitude air is mixed into the tropical lower stratosphere with a replacement timescale of 13.5 months (with 20% uncertainty) for the region from the tropopause to 21 km and at least 18 months for the region of 20-28 km. These estimates are used to adjust the horizontal eddy diffusion coefficients, K(sub yy), in a two-dimensional chemistry transport model. The value of K(sub yy) previously used to simulate the subtropical barrier, 0.03 x 10(exp 6) sq m/s, generates an exchange time of about 4 years, and the model without subtropical barrier (K(sub yy) = 0.3 x 10(exp 6) sq m/s) has an exchange time of 5 months. Adjusting the K(sub yy) to 0.13 x 10(exp 6) sq m/s from the tropopause to 21 km and 0.07 x 10(exp 6) sq m/s above 21 km produces the exchange timescales which match the estimates deduced from the measurements. The subtropical barrier prevents the engine emissions of the high-speed civil transport (HSCT) aircraft from being transported into the tropics and subsequently lifted into the upper atmosphere or mixed into the southern hemisphere. The model results show that the calculated ozone response to HSCT aircraft emissions using the K(sob yy) adjusted to observed mixing rates is substantially smaller than that simulated without the subtropical barrier.

  16. Transport Between the Tropical and Midlatitude Lower Stratosphere: Implications for Ozone Response to High Speed Civil Transport Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shia, R.-L.; Ko, M. K. W.; Weisenstein, D. K.; Scott, C.; Rodriquez, J.

    1998-01-01

    Several recent studies have quantified the air exchange rate between the tropics and midlatitudes in the lower stratosphere using airborne and satellite measurements of chemical species. It is found that the midlatitude air is mixed into the tropical lower stratosphere with a replacement timescale of 13.5 months (with 20% uncertainty) for the region from the tropopause to 21 km and at least 18 months for the region of 20-28 km. These estimates are used to adjust the horizontal eddy diffusion coefficients, K(sub yy), in a two-dimensional chemistry transport model. The value of K(sub yy) previously used to simulate the subtropical barrier, 0.03 x 10(exp 6)sq m/s, generates an exchange time of about 4 years, and the model without subtropical barrier (K(sub yy) = 0.3 x 10(exp 6)sq m/s) has an exchange time of 5 months. Adjusting the K(sub yy) to 0.13 x 10(exp 6) sq m/s from the tropopause to 21 km and 0.07 x 10(exp 6)sq m/s above 21 km produces the exchange timescales which match the estimates deduced from the measurements. The subtropical barrier prevents the engine emissions of the high-speed civil transport (HSCT) aircraft from being transported into the tropics and subsequently lifted into the upper atmosphere or mixed into the southern hemisphere. The model results show that the calculated ozone response to HSCT aircraft emissions using the K(sub yy), adjusted to observed mixing rates is substantially smaller than that simulated without the subtropical barrier.

  17. Microstructural Evolution of Ti-6Al-4V during High Strain Rate Conditions of Metal Cutting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dong, Lei; Schneider, Judy

    2009-01-01

    The microstructural evolution following metal cutting was investigated within the metal chips of Ti-6Al-4V. Metal cutting was used to impose a high strain rate on the order of approx.10(exp 5)/s within the primary shear zone as the metal was removed from the workpiece. The initial microstructure of the parent material (PM) was composed of a bi-modal microstructure with coarse prior grains and equiaxed primary located at the boundaries. After metal cutting, the microstructure of the metal chips showed coarsening of the equiaxed primary grains and lamellar. These metallographic findings suggest that the metal chips experienced high temperatures which remained below the transus temperature.

  18. Low Luminosity States of the Black Hole Candidate GX 339-4. 2; Timing Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowak, Michael A.; Wilms, Joern; Dove, James B.

    1999-01-01

    Here we present timing analysis of a set of eight Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the black hole candidate GX 339-4 that were taken during its hard/low state. On long time scales, the RXTE All Sky Monitor data reveal evidence of a 240 day periodicity, comparable to timescales expected from warped, precessing accretion disks. On short timescales all observations save one show evidence of a persistent f(qpo approximately equals 0.3 Hz quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO)). The broad band (10 (exp -3) to 10 (exp2) Hz) power appears to be dominated by two independent processes that can be modeled as very broad Lorentzians with Q approximately less than - 1. The coherence function between soft and hard photon variability shows that if these are truly independent processes, then they are individually coherent, but they are incoherent with one another. This is evidenced by the fact that the coherence function between the hard and soft variability is near unity between 5 x 10 (exp -3) but shows evidence of a dip at f approximately equals 1 Hz. This is the region of overlap between the broad Lorentzian fits to the Power Spectral Density (PSD). Similar to Cyg X-1, the coherence also drops dramatically at frequencies approximately greater than 1O Hz. Also similar to Cyg X-1, the hard photon variability is seen to lag the soft photon variability with the lag time increasing with decreasing Fourier frequency. The magnitude of this time lag appears to be positively correlated with the flux of GX 339-4. We discuss all of these observations in light of current theoretical models of both black hole spectra and temporal variability.

  19. Detection of high-energy gamma radiation from quasar 3C 279 by the EGRET telescope on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, R. C.; Bertsch, D. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hunter, S. D.; Kwok, P. W.; Thompson, D. J.; Mattox, J. R.; Kanbach, G.; Nel, H. I.; Sreekumar, P.

    1992-01-01

    Intense gamma radiation has been observed from the direction of the quasar 3C 279 throughout the energy range from 30 MeV to over 5 GeV by the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) during the period June 15-28, 1991. Its spectrum is well represented by a photon differential power-law exponent of 2.0 +/- 0.1, with a photon intensity above 100 MeV of (2.8 +/- 0.4) x 10 exp -6/sq cm s. For E is greater than 100 MeV, the 2-sigma upper limits were 1.0 x 10 exp -6/sq cm s in 1973 from the SAS 2 observations and 0.3 x 10 exp -6/sq cm s for the combined 1976, 1978, and 1980 COS B observations. Hence, there has been a large increase in high-energy gamma-ray intensity relative to the earlier times, as there has been in the radio, infrared, optical, and X-ray ranges. This source is the most distant and by far the most luminous gamma-ray source yet detected.

  20. Column measurements of stratospheric trace species over Are, Sweden in the winter of 1991-1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, W.; Martin, N. A.; Gardiner, T. D.; Swann, N. R.; Woods, P. T.; Fogal, P. F.; Waters, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    Total vertical column amounts of stratospheric HCl, HF, ClONO2 and HNO3 are reported from high resolution infrared solar absorption spectra taken during the European Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Experiment (EASOE) in the winter of 1991-1992. These ground based measurements were made near Are in North Sweden (63.4 deg N, 13.1 deg E) at an altitude of 800 m using a Fourier transform spectrometer and tunable diode laser heterodyne spectrometer. On 9th January 1992 the HCl vertical column dropped to 1.2 x 10(exp 15) molecules/sq cm from a November average of 3.6 x 10(exp 15) molecules/sq cm. The HCl drop occurred at a time when Are was below the polar vortex and the lower stratospheric ClO column above Are was elevated to approximately 2 x 10(exp 15) molecules/sq cm as measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder experiment on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. These measurements indicate conversion of lower stratospheric chlorine from reservoir to chemically active forms.

  1. Satellite Boreal Measurements over Alaska and Canada During June-July 2004: Simultaneous Measurements of Upper Tropospheric CO, C2H6, HCN, CH3Cl, CH4, C2H2, CH2OH, HCOOH, OCS, and SF6 Mixing Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, Curtis P.; Dufour, Gaelle; Boone, Chris D.; Bernath, Peter F.; Chiou, Linda; Coheur, Pierre-Francois; Turquety, Solene; Clerbaux, Cathy

    2007-01-01

    Simultaneous ACE (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment) upper tropospheric CO, C2H6, HCN, CH3Cl, CH4 , C2H2 , CH30H, HCOOH, and OCS measurements show plumes up to 185 ppbv (10 (exp -9) per unit volume) for CO, 1.36 ppbv for C2H6, 755 pptv (10(exp -12) per unit volume) for HCN, 1.12 ppbv for CH3C1, 1.82 ppmv, (10(exp -6) per unit volume) for CH4, 0.178 ppbv for C2H2, 3.89 ppbv for CH30H, 0.843 ppbv for HCOOH, and 0.48 ppbv for OCS in western Canada and Alaska at 50 deg N-68 deg N latitude between 29 June and 23 July 2004. Enhancement ratios and emission factors for HCOOH, CH30H, HCN, C2H6, and OCS relative to CO at 250-350 hPa are inferred from measurements of young plumes compared with lower mixing ratios assumed to represent background conditions based on a CO emission factor derived from boreal measurements. Results are generally consistent with the limited data reported for various vegetative types and emission phases measured in extratropical forests including boreal forests. The low correlation between fire product emission mixing ratios and the S176 mixing ratio is consistent with no significant SF6 emissions from the biomass fires.

  2. Diffusion of ion-implanted group 4 n-type dopants in gallium arsenide and gallium/arsenide-based superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Emily Lin

    1992-09-01

    As semiconductor device dimensions shrink, understanding and controlling dopant diffusion becomes increasingly important. For submicron FET's made in GaAs, dopant diffusion during post-implant anneal is undesirable. In addition, impurity induced intermixing of III-V heterostructures for optoelectronic devices requires a series of carefully controlled diffusion steps. A more complete understanding of the diffusion mechanisms of dopants and point defects in both GaAs and Al(x)Ga(1-x)As is thus required for several advanced technologies. Most of the published parameters for diffusion of dopants in III-V compound semiconductors are from thin film or vapor source diffusions. The effect of implant damage and extended defects on diffusion of implanted dopants in GaAs and Al(x)Ga(1-x)As has not been extensively studied. In this work we measure the carrier concentrations and diffusivities of the ion-implanted Group IV dopants Sn, Ge and Si in GaAs and Al(x)Ga(1-x)As, using SIMS, polaron and SUPREM 3.5 simulations. In the substrate, diffusion is modeled by an effective diffusivity which depends on the square of the electron concentration (n), due to enhancement of the negatively charged Ga vacancy concentration by the n-type doping. In the near-surface implanted region diffusion is suppressed for doses greater than 1 x 10(exp 14)/sq cm. The carrier concentrations for Sn implants are anomalously high in this region, and anomalously low for Ge and Si. Transmission electron microscopy shows that precipitates and dislocations form in the implanted region during annealing for doses greater than 1 x 10(exp 14)/sq cm. These extended defects may influence dopant diffusion by controlling the generation and recombination of point defects. The carrier concentration-dependent diffusion model is applied to interdiffusion of Al and Ga in AlAs/Al(x)Ga(1-x)As superlattice structures. We show that interdiffusion is enhanced more under an oxide film than under a nitride film, while a tungsten

  3. A Suzaku X-ray Observation of One Orbit of the Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient IGR J16479-4514

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidoli, L.; Esposito, P.; Sguera, V.; Bodaghee, A.; Tomsick, J. A.; Pottschmidt, K.; Rodriguez, J.; Ramano, P.; Wilms, J.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a 250 ks long X-ray observation of the supergiant fast X-ray transient (SFXT) IGR J16479-4514 performed with Suzaku in 2012 February. During this observation, about 80% of the short orbital period (P(sub orb) approximates 3.32 days) was covered as continuously as possible for the first time. The source light curve displays variability of more than two orders of magnitude, starting with a very low emission state (10(exp -13) erg / sq cm/s; 1-10 keV) lasting the first 46 ks, consistent with being due to the X-ray eclipse by the supergiant companion. The transition to the uneclipsed X-ray emission is energy dependent. Outside the eclipse, the source spends most of the time at a level of 6-7X10)(exp-12) erg/sq. cm/s) punctuated by two structured faint flares with a duration of about 10 and 15 ks, respectively, reaching a peak flux of 3-4X10(exp -11) erg/sq. cm./S, separated by about 0.2 in orbital phase. Remarkably, the first faint flare occurs at a similar orbital phase of the bright flares previously observed in the system. This indicates the presence of a phase-locked large scale structure in the supergiant wind, driving a higher accretion rate onto the compact object. The average X-ray spectrum is hard and highly absorbed, with a column density, NH, of 10*exp 23)/sq cm, clearly in excess of the interstellar absorption. There is no evidence for variability of the absorbing column density, except that during the eclipse, where a less absorbed X-ray spectrum is observed. A narrow Fe K-alpha emission line at 6.4 keV is viewed along the whole orbit, with an intensity which correlates with the continuum emission above 7 keV. The scattered component visible during the X-ray eclipse allowed us to directly probe the wind density at the orbital separation, resulting in rho(sub w)=7X10(exp -14) g/cubic cm. Assuming a spherical geometry for the supergiant wind, the derived wind density translates into a ratio M(sub w)/v(sub infinity) = 7X10(exp -17) Solar M

  4. High Mobility SiGe/Si n-Type Structures and Field Effect Transistors on Sapphire Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Ponchak, George E.; Mueller, Carl H.; Croke, Edward T.

    2004-01-01

    SiGe/Si n-type modulation doped field effect transistors (MODFETs) fabricated on sapphire substrates have been characterized at microwave frequencies for the first time. The highest measured room temperature electron mobility is 1380 sq cm/V-sec at a carrier density of 1.8 x 10(exp 12)/sq cm for a MODFET structure, and 900 sq cm/V-sec at a carrier density of 1.3 x 10/sq cm for a phosphorus ion implanted sample. A two finger, 2 x 200 micron gate n-MODFET has a peak transconductance of 37 mS/mm at a drain to source voltage of 2.5 V and a transducer gain of 6.4 dB at 1 GHz.

  5. Development of a Spectral Model Based on Charge Transport for the Swift/BAT 32K CdZnTe Detector Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Goro; Parsons, Ann; Hillinger, Derek; Suzuki, Masaya; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Tashiro, Makoto; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Okada, Yuu; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Watanabe, Shin

    2005-01-01

    The properties of 32K CdZnTe (4 x 4 sq mm large, 2 mm thick) detectors have been studied in the pre-flight calibration of the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on-board the Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer (scheduled for launch in November 2004). In order to understand the energy response of the BAT CdZnTe array, we first quantify the mobility-lifetime (mu tau) products of carriers in individual CdZnTe detectors, which produce a position dependency in the charge induction efficiency and results in a low energy tail in the energy spectrum. Based on a new method utilizing (57)Co spectra obtained at different bias voltages, the mu tau for electrons ranges from 5.0 x 10(exp -4) to 1.0 x 10(exp -2) sq cm/V while the mu tau for holes ranges from 1.3 x 10(exp -5 to 1.8 x 10(exp -4) sq cm/V. We find that this wide distribution of mu tau products explains the large diversity in spectral shapes between CdZnTe detectors well. We also find that the variation of mu tau products can be attributed to the difference of crystal ingots or manufacturing harness. We utilize the 32K sets of extracted mu tau products to develop a spectral model of the detector. In combination with Monte Carlo simulations, we can construct a spectral model for any photon energy or any incident angle.

  6. GRO source candidates: (A) Nearby modest-size molecular clouds; (B) Pulsar with Wolf-Rayet companion that has lost its H-envelope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silberberg, R.; Murphy, Ronald J.

    1989-01-01

    Within 100 pc of the sun there are over a hundred cirrus clouds with masses of approx. 60 solar mass and dense molecular clouds with masses of approx. 4 solar mass. If the local interstellar density of cosmic rays is also present in these clouds, the flux of neutral pion from the decay of gamma rays from the core of a cloud at a distance of 20 pc is approx. 13 x 10(exp -8) photons/sq cm/s. The flux from the more extensive cirrus cloud is approx 4 x 10(exp -7) photons/sq cm/s. A relativistic beam of particles generated by a compact stellar object and incident upon a large, close companion can be a strong gamma ray line source if more of the beam energy is used in interactions with C and O and heavier nuclei and less with H and He. This would be the case if the companion has lost its hydrogen envelope and nucleosynthesized much of its He into C, O, and Ne. Such objects are Wolf-Rayet stars and it is believed that some Wolf-Rayet stars do, in fact, have compact companions. For a beam of protons of 10(exp 37) erg/s, the flux at 1 kpc of the 4.4 MeV C-12 line could be as high as 5 x 10(exp -6) photons/sq cm/s. The fluxes of the deexcitation lines from the spallation products of O-16 are also presented.

  7. FUSE Observations of Warm Gas in the Cooling Flow Clusters A1795 and A2597

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oegerle, W. R.; Cowie, L.; Davidsen, A.; Hu, E.; Hutchings, J.; Murphy, E.; Sembach, K.; Woodgate, B.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present far-ultraviolet spectroscopy of the cores of the massive cooling flow clusters Abell 1795 and 2597 obtained with FUSE. As the intracluster gas cools through 3 x 10(exp 5)K, it should emit strongly in the O VI lambda(lambda)1032,1038 resonance lines. We report the detection of O VI (lambda)1032 emission in A2597, with a line flux of 1.35 +/- 0.35 x 10(exp -15) erg/sq cm s, as well as detection of emission from C III (lambda)977. A marginal detection of C III (lambda)977 emission is also reported for A1795. These observations provide evidence for a direct link between the hot (10(exp 7) K) cooling flow gas and the cool (10(exp 4) K) gas in the optical emission line filaments. Assuming simple cooling flow models, the O VI line flux in A2597 corresponds to a mass deposition rate of approx. 40 solar mass /yr within the central 36 kpc. Emission from O VI (lambda)1032 was not detected in A1795, with an upper limit of 1.5 x 10(exp -15) erg/sq cm s, corresponding to a limit on the mass cooling flow rate of M(28 kpc) less than 28M solar mass/ yr. We have considered several explanations for the lack of detection of O VI emission in A1795 and the weaker than expected flux in A2597, including extinction by dust in the outer cluster, and quenching of thermal conduction by magnetic fields. We conclude that a turbulent mixing model, with some dust extinction, could explain our O VI results while also accounting for the puzzling lack of emission by Fe(sub XVII) in cluster cooling flows.

  8. Kinetics of the Cl(2)P(J)) + CH4 Reaction: Effects of Secondary Chemistry Below 300 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. J.; Keyser, Leon F.

    2000-01-01

    Absolute rate data for the Cl(2)P(J) + CH4 yields HCl + CH3 reaction have been obtained from 218 to 298 K by using the discharge-flow resonance fluorescence technique at I Torr total pressure. The result at 298 K is (10.1 +/- 0.6) x 10(exp -14) cu cm/molecule/s. The temperature dependence in Arrhenius form is (6.5 +/- 0.9 ) x 10(exp -12) exp[(-1235 +/- 34 )/T]. The errors given are one standard deviation; overall experimental error is estimated at +/- 15%. Because of the relatively large disagreement among earlier measurements at low temperatures, the results were examined for possible effects of non-Boltzmann spin distribution and vibrational excitation of CH4, secondary chemistry of CH3 radicals, and impurities in the CH4 source. There was no significant change in the observed rate constant when an efficient spin quencher, CF4, was added and estimates indicate that vibrational partitioning in CH4 should be at the ambient reactor temperature before the start of the reaction. The results were also independent of the source of Cl atoms (microwave discharge or thermal decomposition of Cl2) and whether CH4 was purified in-situ. However, the observed rate constant did depend on initial Cl atom concentrations and to a lesser extent on CH4 concentrations. Numerical simulations were used to assess the importance of secondary chemistry over a range of reactant concentrations

  9. Toward 10(exp 10) Contrast for Terrestrial Exoplanet Detection: Demonstration of Wavefront Correction in a Shaped Pupil Coronagraph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belikov, Ruslan; Give'on, Amir; Trauger, John T.; Carr, Michael; Kasdin, Jeremy N.; Vanderbei, Robert J.; Shi, Fang; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Kuhnert, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Experimental demonstration of wavefront control with shaped pupils. Contrast level is maintained across different wavelengths and 10% broadband light. Further improvements in contrast believed to have been possible with more time and parameter optimizations.

  10. Soft x-ray properties of the binary millisecond pulsar J0437-4715

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P.; Martin, Christopher; Marshall, Herman L.

    1995-01-01

    We obtained a light curve for the 5.75 ms pulsar J0437-4715 in the 65-120 A range with 0.5 ms time resolution using the Deep Survey instrument on the EUVE satellite. The single-peaked profile has a pulsed fraction of 0. 27 +/- 0.05, similar to the ROSAT data in the overlapping energy band. A combined analysis of the EUVE and ROSAT data is consistent with a power-law spectrum of energy index alpha = 1.2-1.5, intervening column density NH = (5-8) x 10(exp 19)/sq cm, and luminosity 5.0 x 10(exp 30) ergs/s in the 0.1-2. 4 keV band. We also use a bright EUVE/ROSAT source only 4.3 deg from the pulsar, the Seyfert galaxy RX J0437.4-4711 (= EUVE J0437-471 = lES 0435-472), to obtain an independent upper limit on the intervening absorption to the pulsar, NH less than 1.2 x 10(exp 20)/sq cm. Although a blackbody spectrum fails to fit the ROSAT data, two-component spectral fits to the combined EUVE/ROSAT data are used to limit the temperatures and surface areas of thermal emission that might make partial contributions to the flux. A hot polar cap of radius 50-600 m and temperature (1.0-3.3) x 10(exp 6) K could be present. Alternatively, a larger region with T = (4-12) x 10(exp 5) K and area less than 200 sq km, might contribute most of the EUVE and soft X-ray flux, but only if a hotter component were present as well. Any of these temperatures would require some mechanism(s) of surface reheating to be operating in this old pulsar, the most plausible being the impact of accelerated electrons and positrons onto the polar caps. The kinematically corrected spin-down power of PSR J0437-4715 is only 4 x 10(exp 33) ergs/s, which is an order of magnitude less than that of the lowest-luminosity gamma-ray pulsars Geminga and PSR B1055-52. The absence of high-energy gamma-rays from PSR J0437-4715 might signify an inefficient or dead outer gap accelerator, which in turn accounts for the lack of a more luminous reheated surface such as those intermediate-age gamma-ray pulsars may have.

  11. Test Status for Proposed Coupling of a Gravitational Force to Extreme Type II YBCO Ceramic Superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David; Li, Ning; Robertson, Tony; Koczor, Ron; Brantley, Whitt

    1999-01-01

    As a Bose condensate, superconductors provide novel conditions for revisiting previously proposed couplings between electromagnetism and gravity. Strong variations in Cooper pair electron density, large conductivity and low magnetic permeability define superconductive and degenerate condensates without the traditional density limits imposed by the Fermi energy (about 10-6 g/cu cm). Recent experiments have reported anomalous weight loss for a test mass suspended above a rotating Type II, YBCO superconductor, with the percentage change (0.05-2.1%) independent of the test mass' chemical composition and diamagnetic properties. A variation of 5 parts per 10(exp 4) was reported above a stationary (non-rotating) superconductor. In the present experiments reported using a sensitive gravimeter (resolution <10(exp -9) unit gravity or variation of 10(exp -6) cm/sq s in accelerations), bulk YBCO superconductors were stably levitated in a DC magnetic field (0.6 Tesla) subject to lateral AC fields (60 Gauss at 60 Hz) and rotation. With magnetic shielding, thermal control and buoyancy compensation, changes in acceleration were measured to be less than 2 parts in 10(exp 8) of the normal gravitational acceleration. This result puts new limits on the strength and range of the proposed coupling between high-Tc superconductors and gravity. Latest test results will be reported, along with status for future improvements and prospects.

  12. Fourier transform infrared studies of the interaction of HCl with model polar stratospheric cloud films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehler, Birgit G.; Mcneill, Laurie S.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1993-01-01

    Heterogeneous reactions involving hydrochloric acid adsorbed on the surfaces of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are postulated to contribute to polar ozone loss. Using FTIR spectroscopy to probe the condensed phase, we have examined the interaction of HCl with ice and nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) films representative of types II and I PSCs, respectively. For HCl pressures in the range of 10 exp -7 to 10 exp -5 Torr, our FTIR studies show that a small amount of crystalline HCl-6H2O formed on or in ice at 155 K. However, for higher HCl pressures, we observed that the entire film of ice rapidly converted into an amorphous 4:1 H2O:HCl mixture. From HCl-uptake experiments with P(HCl) = 8 x 10 exp -7 Torr, we estimate roughly that the diffusion coefficient of HCl in ice is around 2 x 10 exp -12 sq cm/s at 158 K. For higher temperatures more closely approximating those found in the stratosphere, we were unable to detect bulk HCl uptake by ice. Indirect evidence suggests that HCl adsorption onto the surface of model PSC films inhibited the evaporation of both ice and NAT by 3-5 K.

  13. The Einstein All-Sky Slew Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, Martin S.

    1992-01-01

    The First Einstein IPC Slew Survey produced a list of 819 x-ray sources, with f(sub x) approximately 10(exp -12) - 10(exp -10) erg/sq cm s and positional accuracy of approximately 1.2 feet (90 percent radius). The aim of this program was to identify these x-ray sources.

  14. Modeling of the initiation and evolution of a laser-ionized column in the lower atmosphere - 314.5 nm wavelength resonant multiphoton ionization of naturally occurring argon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetzer, G. J.; Stockley, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    A 3+1 resonant multiphoton ionization process in naturally occurring argon is studied at 314.5 nm as a candidate for providing a long ionized channel through the atmosphere. Results are presented which indicate peak electron densities up to 10 exp 8/cu cm can be created using laser intensities on the order of 10 exp 8 W/sq cm.

  15. Rate Coefficients of C2H with C2H4, C2H6, and H2 from 150 to 359 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opansky, Brian J.; Leone, Stephen R.

    1996-01-01

    Rate coefficients for the reactions C2H with C2H4, C2H6, and H2 are measured over the temperature range 150-359 K using transient infrared laser absorption spectroscopy. The ethynyl radical is formed by photolysis of C2H2 with a pulsed excimer laser at 193 nm, and its transient absorption is monitored with a color center laser on the Q(sub 11)(9) line of the A(sup 2) Pi-Chi(sup 2) Sigma transition at 3593.68 cm(exp -1). Over the experimental temperature range 150-359 K the rate constants of C2H with C2H4, C2H6, and H2 can be fitted to the Arrhenius expressions k(sub C2H4) = (7.8 +/- 0.6) x 10(exp -11) exp[(134 +/- 44)/T], k(sub C2H6) = (3.5 +/- 0.3) x 10(exp -11) exp[(2.9 +/- 16)/T], and k(sub H2) = (1.2 +/- 0.3) x 10(exp -11) exp[(-998 +/- 57)]/T cm(exp 3) molecule(exp -1) sec(exp -1). The data for C2H with C2H4 and C2H6 indicate a negligible activation energy to product formation shown by the mild negative temperature dependence of both reactions. When the H2 data are plotted together with the most recent high-temperature results from 295 to 854 K, a slight curvature is observed. The H2 data can be fit to the non-Arrhenius form k(sub H2) = 9.2 x 10(exp -18) T(sup 2.17 +/- 0.50) exp[(-478 +/- 165)/T] cm(exp 3) molecules(exp -1) sec(exp -1). The curvature in the Arrhenius plot is discussed in terms of both quantum mechanical tunneling of the H atom from H2 to the C2H radical and bending mode contributions to the partition function.

  16. Defensive effects of fullerene-C60 dissolved in squalane against the 2,4-nonadienal-induced cell injury in human skin keratinocytes HaCaT and wrinkle formation in 3D-human skin tissue model.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shinya; Aoshima, Hisae; Saitoh, Yasukazu; Miwa, Nobuhiko

    2010-02-01

    We dissolved fullerene-C60 in squalane (LipoFullerene; LF-SQ, C60-eq.: 500 ppm) and examined its defensive effects against 2,4-nonadienal (NDA)-induced cell injury in HaCaT keratinocytes and wrinkle formation in three dimensional (3D)-human skin tissue model. NDA is an analog of 4-hydroxynonenal, one of major causes for human body odor indicative of aging and a lipophilic cell injury factor. Cell viability (% of the control) decreased to 31.6% on treatment with NDA (40 microM), but it increased to 66.0-97.5% when LF-SQ of 1-4% (C60-eq.: 5-20 ppm) was administered for 5 hr before NDA addition. The defensive effect by LF-SQ was superior to that of "squalane" alone at the same doses. NDA-induced DNA-fragmentation in HaCaT cells was suppressed by LF-SQ administered for 5 hr before NDA treatment, and LF-SQ protected HaCaT cells against apoptosis-like cell death. LF-SQ did not appreciably defend against hydrogen peroxide, though LF-SQ effectively defended against tert-butylhydroperoxide, a type of the intermediate hydrophilicity-lipophilicity degree out of other reactive oxygen species. The scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that NDA caused wrinkles and abnormal scales on keratinocytes of 3D-human skin tissue model, and structural homogeneity of the interstratum was broken, any of which were, however, markedly suppressed with LF-SQ. Squalane alone exhibited defensive effect against the skin tissue injury to some extent, but which was inferior to LF-SQ. LF-SQ might effectively capture and scavenge lipid radicals generated inside the cell membrane, because squalane acts as a lipophilic carrier of C60. C60 dissolved in squalane can be expected to serve as a cosmeceutical ingredient for anti-wrinkle formation.

  17. Electrospun Polyaniline/Polyethylene Oxide Nanofiber Field Effect Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinto, N. J.; Johnson, A. T.; MacDiarmid, A. G.; Mueller, C. H.; Theofylaktos, N.; Robinson, D. C.; Miranda, F. A.

    2003-01-01

    We report on the observation of field effect transistor (FET) behavior in electrospun camphorsulfonic acid doped polyaniline(PANi)/polyethylene oxide(PE0) nanofibers. Saturation channel currents are observed at surprisingly low source/drain voltages. The hole mobility in the depletion regime is 1.4 x 10(exp -4) sq cm/V s while the 1-D charge density (at zero gate bias) is calculated to be approximately 1 hole per 50 two-ring repeat units of polyaniline, consistent with the rather high channel conductivity (approx. 10(exp -3) S/cm). Reducing or eliminating the PEO content in the fiber is expected to enhance device parameters. Electrospinning is thus proposed as a simple method of fabricating 1-D polymer FET's.

  18. On the Extended Emission of the Anomalous X-ray Pulsar IE 1547.0-5408

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olausen, S. A.; Kaspi, V. M.; Ng, C. -Y.; Zhu, W. W.; Gavriil, F. P.; Woods, P. M.

    2012-01-01

    We present an analysis of the extended emission around the anomalous X-ray pulsar IE 1547.0-5408 using four XMM-Newton observations taken with the source in varying states of outburst as well as in quiescence. We find that the extended emission flux is highly variable and strongly correlated with the flux of the magnetar. Based on this result, as well as on spectral and energetic considerations, we conclude that the extended emission is dominated by a dust-scattering halo and not a pulsar wind nebula (P-VVN), as has been previously argued. We obtain an upper limit on the 2-10 keV flux of a possible PWN of 4.7 x 10(exp -14) erg/s/sq cm, three times less than the previously claimed value, implying an efficiency for conversion of spin-down energy into nebular luminosity of <9 x 10(exp -4) .

  19. Perspectives on high temperature superconducting electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatesan, T.

    1990-01-01

    The major challenges in making high temperature superconducting (HTSC) electronics viable are predominantly materials problems. Unlike their predecessors the metal oxide-based superconductors are integratable with other advanced technologies such as opto-electronics and micro-electronics. The materials problems to be addressed relate to the epitaxial growth of high quality films, highly oriented films on non-lattice matched substrates, heterostructures with atomically sharp interfaces of junctions and other novel devices, and the processing of these films with negligible deterioration of the superconducting properties. These issues are illustrated with results based on films prepared in-situ by a pulsed laser deposition process. Films with zero-transition temperatures of 90 K and critical current densities of 5 x 10(exp 6) A/sq cm at 77 K have been prepared by this technique. Ultra-thin films, less than 100 A show T(sub c) is greater than 80 K, supporting the idea of two-dimensional transport in these materials. By the use of appropriate buffer layers, films with T(sub c) of 87 K and J(sub c) of 6 x 10(exp 4) A/sq cm were fabricated on silicon substrates. Submicron structures with J(sub c) is greater than 2 x 10(exp 7) at 10 K were fabricated. Results on nonlinear switching elements, IR detectors, and microwave studies will be briefly summarized.

  20. Perspectives on high temperature superconducting electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatesan, T.

    1991-01-01

    The major challenges in making high temperature superconducting (HTSC) electronics viable are predominantly materials problems. Unlike their predecessors, the metal oxide-based superconductors are integratable with other advanced technologies such as opto-electronics and micro-electronics. The materials problems to be addressed relate to the epitaxial growth of high quality films, highly oriented films on non-lattice matched substrates, heterostructures with atomically sharp interfaces of junctions and other novel devices, and the processing of these films with negligible deterioration of the superconducting properties. These issues are illustrated with results based on films prepared in-situ by a pulsed laser deposition process. Films with zero-transition temperatures of 90 K and critical current densities of 5 x 10(exp 6) A/sq cm at 77 K have been prepared by this technique. Ultra-thin films, less than 100 A show T(sub c) is greater than 80 K, supporting the idea of two-dimensional transport in these materials. By the use of appropriate buffer layers, films with T(sub c) of 87 K and J(sub c) of 6 x 10(exp 4) A/sq cm were fabricated on silicon substrates. Submicron structures with J(sub c) is greater than 2 x 10(exp 7) at 10 K were fabricated. Results on nonlinear switching elements, IR detectors, and microwave studies will be briefly summarized.

  1. Heterogeneous Uptake and Conversion of HOBr on H2SO4 at Upper Tropospheric and Stratospheric Temperatures (255 - 210 K)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iraci, Laura T.; Ashbourn, Samantha F. M.; Rammer, Thomas A.; Golden, David M.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Halogen species are known to catalytically destroy ozone in several different regions of the atmosphere. In addition to directly destroying ozone, bromine compounds can indirectly enhance ozone loss through coupling to other radical families. Hypobromous acid (HOBr), a key species in the linkage of BrOx to ClOx and HOx, is produced by the hydrolysis of BrONO2 on sulfate aerosols, and thus the heterogeneous behavior of HOBr must be understood. We have measured the solubility of HOBr in 45 to 70 percent by weight sulfuric acid solutions. Over the temperature range 208 to 255 K, HOBr is very soluble in sulfuric acid, H(*) = 10(exp 4) to 10(exp 8) M/atm. The solubility is temperature dependent, and our results agree well with those of Waschewsky and Abbott for 60 percent by weight H2SO4. HOBr is nearly as soluble as HBr, indicating that equilibrium concentrations of HOBr could approach those of HBr in sulfuric acid aerosols. Despite the high solubility of HOBr, stratospheric aerosol volumes are not large enough to sequester a significant fraction of inorganic bromine from the gas phase. Uptake of HOBr was nearly always accompanied by reaction, producing Br2O and possibly Br2. The effect of this bromine conversion pathway on the HOx and ClOx families, particularly at temperatures as warm as 255 K, will be considered.

  2. Annual Cycles of Multiyear Sea Ice Coverage of the Arctic Ocean: 1999-2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, R.

    2004-01-01

    For the years 1999-2003, we estimate the time-varying perennial ice zone (PIZ) coverage and construct the annual cycles of multiyear (MY, including second year) ice coverage of the Arctic Ocean using QuikSCAT backscatter, MY fractions from RADARSAT, and the record of ice export from satellite passive microwave observations. An area balance approach extends the winter MY coverage from QuikSCAT to the remainder of the year. From these estimates, the coverage of MY ice at the beginning of each year is 3774 x 10(exp 3) sq km (2000), 3896 x 10(exp 3) sq km (2001), 4475 x 10(exp 3) sq km (2002), and 4122 x 10(exp 3) sq km (2003). Uncertainties in coverage are approx.150 x 10(exp 3) sq km. In the mean, on 1 January, MY ice covers approx.60% of the Arctic Ocean. Ice export reduces this coverage to approx.55% by 1 May. From the multiple annual cycles, the area of first-year (FY) ice that survives the intervening summers are 1192 x 10(exp 3) sq km (2000), 1509 x 10(exp 3) sq km (2001), and 582 x 10(exp 3) sq km (2002). In order for the MY coverage to remain constant from year to year, these replenishment areas must balance the overall area export and melt during the summer. The effect of the record minimum in Arctic sea ice area during the summer of 2002 is seen in the lowest area of surviving FY ice of the three summers. In addition to the spatial coverage, the location of the PIZ is important. One consequence of the unusual location of the PIZ at the end of the summer of 2002 is the preconditioning for enhanced export of MY ice into the Barents and Kara seas. Differences between the minimums in summer sea ice coverage from our estimates and passive microwave observations are discussed.

  3. Experimental Determination of the Recovery Factor and Analytical Solution of the Conical Flow Field for a 20 deg Included Angle Cone at Mach Numbers of 4.6 and 6.0 and Stagnation Temperatures to 2600 degree R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfyl, Frank A.; Presley, Leroy L.

    1961-01-01

    The local recovery factor was determined experimentally along the surface of a thin-walled 20 deg included angle cone for Mach numbers near 6.0 at stagnation temperatures between 1200 deg R and 2600 deg R. In addition, a similar cone configuration was tested at Mach numbers near 4.5 at stagnation temperatures of approximately 612 deg R. The local Reynolds number based on flow properties at the edge of the boundary layer ranged between 0.1 x 10(exp 4) and 3.5 x 10(exp 4) for tests at temperatures above 1200 deg R and between 6 x 10(exp 4) and 25 x 10(exp 4) for tests at temperatures near 612 deg R. The results indicated, generally, that the recovery factor can be predicted satisfactorily using the square root of the Prandtl number. No conclusion could be made as to the necessity of evaluating the Prandtl number at a reference temperature given by an empirical equation, as opposed to evaluating the Prandtl number at the wall temperature or static temperature of the gas at the cone surface. For the tests at temperatures above 1200 deg R (indicated herein as the tests conducted in the slip-flow region), two definite trends in the recovery data were observed - one of increasing recovery factor with decreasing stagnation pressure, which was associated with slip-flow effects and one of decreasing recovery factor with increasing temperature. The true cause of the latter trend could not be ascertained, but it was shown that this trend was not appreciably altered by the sources of error of the magnitude considered herein. The real-gas equations of state were used to determine accurately the local stream properties at the outer edge of the boundary layer of the cone. Included in the report, therefore, is a general solution for the conical flow of a real gas using the Beattie-Bridgeman equation of state. The largest effect of temperature was seen to be in the terms which were dependent upon the internal energy of the gas. The pressure and hence the pressure drag terms were

  4. Properties of insulator interfaces with p-HgCdTe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schacham, Samuel E.; Finkman, Eliezer

    1990-01-01

    Heat treatment at 70 C of low carrier concentration p-type HgCdTe samples (p sub o = 8 x 10 exp 14/cm) generates an inverted surface layer. A two day anneal process below 95 C did not affect the Hall coefficient, whereas an almost complete recovery was obtained by annealing at 120 C. While bulk electron mobility, obtained from PEM data, remained high (about 9 x 10 exp 4 sq cm/V s at 77 K), surface mobility is lower by more than an order of magnitude. Surface recombination velocity indicates a continuous improvement with increased temperature, and the activation energy remains equal to the vacancies energy level. The proposed mechanism is that of positive changes in the sulfide migrating towards the interface and generating an image inversion layer.

  5. Diffusion coefficients of energetic water group ions near Comet Giacobini-Zinner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, L. C.; Mason, G. M.; Richardson, I. G.; Ipavich, F. M.

    1993-01-01

    Data from the ultralow-energy charge analyzer and energetic particle anisotropy spectrometer sensors, acquired when the ICE spacecraft flew past Comet Giacobini-Zinner on September 11, 1985, are combined, and a single, self-consistent analysis technique is applied to derive a single-particle spectrum from about 200 to 1600 km/s. This information, together with the deduced bulk flow speed of the ions, is used to calculate a parallel diffusion coefficient in the transition region downstream of the bow wave (2.3 +/- 0.5) x 10 exp 17 sq cm/s; the corresponding scattering mean free path is (6 +/- 1) x 10 exp 4 km. The parallel diffusion coefficient is found to depend on the collision frequency of water group ions with Alfven waves, which are assumed to be propagating parallel (antiparallel) to the magnetic field.

  6. Diffusion coefficients of energetic water group ions near Comet Giacobini-Zinner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, L. C.; Mason, G. M.; Richardson, I. G.; Ipavich, F. M.

    1993-03-01

    Data from the ultralow-energy charge analyzer and energetic particle anisotropy spectrometer sensors, acquired when the ICE spacecraft flew past Comet Giacobini-Zinner on September 11, 1985, are combined, and a single, self-consistent analysis technique is applied to derive a single-particle spectrum from about 200 to 1600 km/s. This information, together with the deduced bulk flow speed of the ions, is used to calculate a parallel diffusion coefficient in the transition region downstream of the bow wave (2.3 +/- 0.5) x 10 exp 17 sq cm/s; the corresponding scattering mean free path is (6 +/- 1) x 10 exp 4 km. The parallel diffusion coefficient is found to depend on the collision frequency of water group ions with Alfven waves, which are assumed to be propagating parallel (antiparallel) to the magnetic field.

  7. Detection of C2H4 Neptune from ISO/PHT-S Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulz, B.; Encrenaz, Th.; Bezard, B.; Romani, P. N.; Lellouch, E.; Atreya, S. K.

    1999-01-01

    The 6-12 micrometer spectrum of Neptune has been recorded with the PHT-S instrument of the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) at a resolution of 0.095 micrometer. In addition to the emissions of CH4, CH3D and C2H6 previously identified, the spectrum shows the first firm identification of ethylene C2H4. The inferred column density above the 0.2-mbar level is in the range (1.1 - 3) x 10(exp 14) molecules/cm. To produce this low amount, previous photochemical models invoked rapid mixing between the source and sink regions of C2H4. We show that this requirement can be relaxed if recent laboratory measurements of CH4 photolysis branching ratios at Lyman alpha are used.

  8. Performance of transonic fan stage with weight flow per unit annulus area of 178 kilograms per second per square meter (6.5(lb/sec)/(sq ft))

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. D.; Urasek, D. C.; Kovich, G.

    1973-01-01

    The overall and blade-element performances are presented over the stable flow operating range from 50 to 100 percent of design speed. Stage peak efficiency of 0.834 was obtained at a weight flow of 26.4 kg/sec (58.3 lb/sec) and a pressure ratio of 1.581. The stall margin for the stage was 7.5 percent based on weight flow and pressure ratio at stall and peak efficiency conditions. The rotor minimum losses were approximately equal to design except in the blade vibration damper region. Stator minimum losses were less than design except in the tip and damper regions.

  9. Elevated Temperature Deformation of Fe-39.8Al and Fe-15.6Mn-39.4Al

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel

    2004-01-01

    The elevated temperature compressive properties of binary Fe-39.8 at % Al and Fe-15.6Mn-39.4Al have been measured between 1000 and 1300 K at strain rates between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 3)/ s. Although the Mn addition to iron aluminide did not change the basic deformation characteristics, the Mn-modified alloy was slightly weaker. In the regime where deformation of FeAl occurs by a high stress exponent mechanism (n = 6), strength increases as the grain size decreases at least for diameters between approx. 200 and approx. 10 microns. Due to the limitation in the grain size-flow stress-temperature-strain rate database, the influence of further reductions of the grain size on strength is uncertain. Based on the appearance of subgrains in deformed iron aluminide, the comparison of grain diameters to expected subgrain sizes, and the grain size exponent and stress exponent calculated from deformation experiments, it is believed that grain size strengthening is the result of an artificial limitation on subgrain size as proposed by Sherby, Klundt and Miller.

  10. South-North and radial traverses through the interplanetary dust cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruen, E.; Staubach, P.; Baguhl, M.; Hamilton, D. P.; Zook, H. A.; Dermott, S.; Fechtig, H.; Gustafson, B. A.; Hanner, M. S.; Horanyi, M.; Kissel, J.; Lindblad, B. A.; Linkert, D.; Linkert, G.; Mann, I.; McDonnell, J. A. M.; Morfill, G. E.; Polanskey, C.; Schwehm, G.; Srama, R.

    1998-01-01

    Identical in situ dust detectors are flown on board the Galileo and Ulysses spacecraft. They record impacts of micrometeoroids in the ecliptic plane at heliocentric distances from 0.7 to 5.4 AU and in a plane almost perpendicular to the ecliptic from -79 deg to +79 deg ecliptic latitude. The combination of both Ulysses and Galileo measurements yield information about the radial and latitudinal distributions of micron and sub-micron sized dust in the solar system. Two types of dust particles were found to dominate the dust flux in interplanetary space: (1) Interplanetary micrometeoroids covering a wide mass range from 10(exp -16) to 10(exp -6) gr are mostly recorded inside 3 AU, and at latitudes below 30 deg; and (2) Interstellar grains with masses between 10(exp -14) and 10(exp -12) gr have been positively identified outside 3 AU near the ecliptic plane and outside 1.8 AU at high ecliptic latitudes (> 50 deg). Interstellar grains move on hyperbolic trajectories through the planetary system and constitute the dominant dust flux (1.5 x 10(exp -4)/ sq m sec) in the outer solar system and at high ecliptic latitudes. In order to compare and analyze the Galileo and Ulysses data sets, a new model is developed based on Divine's (1993) "Five populations of interplanetary meteoroids" model. By using this model, which takes into account the measured velocities and the effect of radiation pressure on small particles, we define four populations of meteoroids on elliptical orbits plus one population on hyperbolic orbits that all can fit the micrometeoroid flux observed by Galileo and Ulysses.

  11. The effect of plasma heating on sublimation-driven flow in Io's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Mau C.; Johnson, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    The atmospheric flow on Io is numerically computed in a flat 2-D axisymmetric geometry for a sublimation atmosphere on the trailing hemisphere subjected to plasma bombardment, UV heating, and IR cooling. Calculations are performed for subsolar vapor pressures of approximately 6.5 x 10(exp -3) Pa (approximately 3 x 10(exp 18) SO2/sq cm) and 6.8 x 10(exp -4) Pa (approximately 4 x 10(exp 17) SO2/sq cm); the latter approximates the vapor pressure of F. P. Fanale et al. (1982). The amount of plasma energy deposited in the atmosphere is 20% of the plasma flow energy due to corotation (J. A. Linker et al., 1988). It is found that plasma heating significantly inflates the upper atmosphere, increasing both the exobase altitude and the amount of surface covered by more than an exospheric column of gas. This in turn controls the supply of the Io plasma torus (M. A. McGrath and R. E. Johnson, 1987). The horizontal flow of mass and energy is also important in determining the exobase altitude; and it is shown that IR cooling can be important, although our use of the equilibrium, cool-to-space approximation for a pure SO2 gas (E. Lellouch et al., 1992) may overestimate this effect. The calculated exobase altitudes are somewhat lower than those suggested by McGrath and Johnson (1987) for supplying the torus, indicating the details of the plasma energy deposition and sputter ejection rate near the exobase, as well as the IR emission from this region need to be examined. In addition, the molecules sublimed (or sputtered) from the surface are transported to the exobase in times short compared to the molecular photodissociation time. Therefore, the exobase is dominated by molecular species and the exobase is supplied by a small region of the surface.

  12. Global Evolution of Solid Matter in Turbulent Protoplanetry Disks. Part 1; Aerodynamics of Solid Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Valageas, P.

    1996-01-01

    The problem of planetary system formation and its subsequent character can only be addressed by studying the global evolution of solid material entrained in gaseous protoplanetary disks. We start to investigate this problem by considering the space-time development of aerodynamic forces that cause solid particles to decouple from the gas. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that only the smallest particles are attached to the gas, or that the radial distribution of the solid matter has no momentary relation to the radial distribution of the gas. We present the illustrative example wherein a gaseous disk of 0.245 solar mass and angular momentum of 5.6 x 10(exp 52) g/sq cm/s is allowed to evolve due to turbulent viscosity characterized by either alpha = 10(exp -2) or alpha = 10(exp -3). The motion of solid particles suspended in a viscously evolving gaseous disk is calculated numerically for particles of different sizes. In addition we calculate the global evolution of single-sized, noncoagulating particles. We find that particles smaller than 0.1 cm move with the gas; larger particles have significant radial velocities relative to the gas. Particles larger than 0.1 cm but smaller than 10(exp 3) cm have inward radial velocities much larger than the gas, whereas particles larger than 10(exp 4) cm have inward velocities much smaller than the gas. A significant difference in the form of the radial distribution of solids and the gas develops with time. It is the radial distribution of solids, rather than the gas, that determines the character of an emerging planetary system.

  13. A search for fast gamma-ray pulsars with OSSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertz, P.; Grove, J. E.; Grabelsky, D. A.; Matz, S. M.

    1995-01-01

    Pulsar mode data from the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE) onboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), with time resolution between 125 microsecs and 8 ms, have been analyzed for the presence of short-period gamma-ray pulsations. Observations of known point sources (including SN 1987A, SN 1993J, GRO J0422+32, and several pulsars) and of regions where higher densities of pulsars are expected (including the Galactic center, the Galactic plane and arms, and the Large Magellanic Cloud) are included in the study. Both isolated pulsars and pulsars in close binary systems are searched for; in the latter case, the quadratic coherence recovery technique is used to correct for broadening of the pulsar signal from orbital motion. No new gamma-ray pulsars have been detected. Upper limits on the pulsed gamma-ray flux from isolated pulsars in the 50-210 keV energy range of OSSE are between 0.2 x 10(exp -3) and 2.0 x 10(exp -3) photons/s/sq cm for pulse periods between 250 microsecs and 0.5 s. Upper limits on the pulsed flux from binary pulsars are between 1.5 x 10(exp -3) and 6.4 x 10(exp -3) photons/s/sq cm for the same energy band and pulse period range. We estimate that, in the Galaxy, there are fewer than approximately 125 isolated pulsars similar to PSR B1509-58 with radiation peaks in the OSSE band but undetected in the radio and X-rays bands.

  14. The 2006-2007 Active Phase Of Anomalous X-Ray Pulsar 4U 0142+61: Radiative and Timing Changes, Bursts, and Burst Spectral Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavril, Fotis P.; Dib, Rim; Kaspi, Victoria M.

    2009-01-01

    After at least 6 years of quiescence, Anomalous X-ray Pulsar (AXP) 4U 0142+61 entered an active phase in 2006 March that lasted several months and included six X-ray bursts as well as many changes in the persistent X-ray emission. The bursts, the first seen from this AXP in >11 years of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer monitoring, all occurred in the interval between 2006 April 6 and 2007 February 7. The burst durations ranged from 8-3x10(exp 3)s. The first five burst spectra are well modeled by blackbodies, with temperatures kT approx. 2 - 6 keV. However, the sixth burst had a complicated spectrum that is well characterized by a blackbody plus three emission features whose amplitude varied throughout the burst. The most prominent feature was at 14.0 keV. Upon entry into the active phase the pulsar showed a significant change in pulse morphology and a likely timing glitch. The glitch had a total frequency jump of (1.9+/-0.4)x10(exp -7) Hz, which recovered with a decay time of 17+/-2 days by more than the initial jump, implying a net spin-down of the pulsar. We discuss these events in the context of the magnetar model.

  15. Imaging Large Scale Structure in the X-ray Sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Y.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Barger, A. J.; Cowie, L. L.; Sanders, D. B.; Steefen, A. T.

    2003-01-01

    We present the first results of a wide solid angle, moderately deep Chandra survey of the Lockman Hole North West Region. Our 9 ACIS-I fields cover an effective solid angle of 0.33 sq deg and reach a depth of 3 x 10(exp -16) erg/sq cm/s in the 0.4-2 keV band, and 3 x 10(exp -15) erg/sq cm/s in the 2-8 keV band. The best fit logN-logS for the entire field, the largest contiguous Chandra field yet observed, matches well onto that of the Chandra Deep Field North. This indicates that over 90% of the 2-8 keV X-ray background is resolved into point sources. We show that the full range of the 'cosmic variance' previously seen in different Chandra fields can be reproduced in a small region of the sky. The count-in-cells analysis shows that the 2-10 keV band sources have much larger angular correlation scale than that of the 0.4-2 keV band. We found the large difference is likely to be caused by a stronger spatial correlation in the hard band sources rather than the redshift effect.

  16. The relative importance of prebiotic synthesis on the Earth and input from comets and meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, S. L.

    1991-01-01

    The prebiotic synthesis of hydrogen cyanide and formaldehyde was studied by the action of electric discharges on various model primitive atmospheres containing CH4, CO, and CO2. Photochemical production rates would also have been important and were calculated for HCN and H2CO. A reasonable rate of synthesis of amino acids from these sources is about 10 n moles/(sq cm yr) or 0.10 moles/sq cm in 10(exp 7) yrs. This would give a concentration of 3 x 10(exp -4) M in an ocean of the present size (300 liters/sq cm). The amino acids cannot accumulate over a longer period because the entire ocean passes through the 350 C submarine vents in 10(exp 7) yrs, which decomposes all the organic compounds. A number of workers have calculated the influx of comets and meteorites on the primitive earth, both as a destructive process for organic compounds and for any life that was present, as well as a source of organic compounds. Some of the amino acids from the meteorite proposed to have hit the earth 65 x 10(exp 6) yrs ago were detected at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary sediments. The problem with proposing a large scale input of organic compounds from meteorites and comets is that they must survive passage through the atmosphere and impact. There are some processes that would allow survival such as showers of centimeter to meter sized meteorites and various aerodynamic braking processes for larger objects. Even if a significant amount of the organic material survived impact, the destructive processes in the hydrothermal vents would remove these compounds on the average in 10(exp 7) yrs or less. If it is assumed that the input rate was sufficient to overcome these destructive processes, then too much carbon and water, especially from comets, would have been added to the surface of the earth. It was concluded that while some organic material was added to the earth from comets and meteorites, the amount available from these sources at a given time was only a few percent of that from

  17. Photochemistry Saturn's Atmosphere. 2; Effects of an Influx of External Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Julianne I.; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Bezard, Bruno; Gladstone, G. Randall; Allen, Mark

    2000-01-01

    We use a one-dimensional diurnally averaged model of photochemistry and diffusion in Saturn's stratosphere to investigate the influence of extraplanetary debris on atmospheric chemistry. In particular, we consider the effects of an influx of oxygen from micrometeoroid ablation or from ring-particle diffusion; the contribution from cometary impacts, satellite debris, or ring vapor is deemed to be less important. The photochemical model results are compared directly with Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) observations to constrain the influx of extraplanetary oxygen to Saturn. From the ISO observations, we determine that the column densities of CO2 and H2O above 10 mbar in Saturn's atmosphere are (6.3 +/- 1) x 10(exp 14) and (1.4 +/- 0.4) x 10(exp 15)/ square cm, respectively; our models indicate that a globally averaged oxygen influx of (4+/-2) x 10(exp 6) O atoms /sq cm/s is required to explain these observations. Models with a locally enhanced influx of H20 operating over a small fraction of the projected area do not provide as good a fit to the ISO H2O observations. If volatile oxygen compounds comprise one-third to one-half of the exogenic source by mass, then Saturn is currently being bombarded with (3 +/- 2) x 10(exp -16) g/square cm/s of extraplanetary material. To reproduce the observed CO2/H2O ratio in Saturn's stratosphere, some of the exogenic oxygen must arrive in the form of a carbon-oxygen bonded species such as CO or CO2. An influx consistent with the composition of cometary ices fails to reproduce the high observed CO2/H2O ratio, suggesting that (i) the material has ices that are slightly more carbon-rich than is typical for comets, (ii) a contribution from an organic-rich component is required, or (iii) some of the hydrogen-oxygen bonded material is converted to carbon-oxygen bonded material without photochemistry (e.g., during the ablation process). We have also reanalyzed the 5-micron CO observations of Noll and Larson and determine that the CO

  18. The Steady Spin-down Rate of 4U 1907+09

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baykal, Altan; Inam, Cagdas; Alpar, M. Ali; intZhand, Jean; Strohmayer, Tod; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Using X-ray data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, we report the pulse timing results of the accretion-powered, high-mass X-ray binary pulsar 4UU 1907+09, covering a time-span of almost two years. We measured three new pulse periods in addition to the previously measured four pulse periods. We are able to connect pulse arrival times in phase for more than a year. The source has been spinning down almost at a constant rate, with a spin-down rate of v = (- 3.54 +/- 0.02) x 10(exp -14) Hz s(exp -1) for more than 15 yr. Residuals of pulse arrival times yield a very low level of random-walk noise, with a strength of approximately 2 x 10(exp -20) rad(exp 2) s(exp -3) on a time-scale of 383 d, which is 40 times lower than that of the high-mass X-ray binary pulsar Vela X-1. The noise strength is only a factor of five greater than that of the low-mass X-ray binary pulsar 4U 1626-67. The low level of the timing noise and the very stable spin-down rate of 4U 1907+09 make this source unique among the high-mass X-ray binary pulsars, providing another example, in addition to 4U 1626-67, of long-term quiet spin down from an accruing source. These examples show that the extended quiet spin-down episodes observed in the anomalous X-ray pulsars 1RXS J170849.0-400910 and 1E 2259+586 do not necessarily imply that these sources are not accreting pulsars.

  19. Micrometeorological measurements of CH4 and CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and subarctic tundra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, S. M.; Wofsy, S. C.; Bakwin, P. S.; Jacob, D. J.; Anderson, S. M.; Kebabian, P. L.; Mcmanus, J. B.; Kolb, C. E.; Fitzjarrald, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    Eddy correlation flux measurements and concentration profiles of total hydrocarbons (THC) and CO2 were combined to provide a comprehensive record of atmosphere-biosphere exchange for these gases over a 30-day period in July-August 1988 in the Yukon-Kuskokwin River Delta of Alaska. Over 90 percent of net ecosystem exchanges of THC were due to methane. Lakes and wet meadow tundra provided the major sources of methane. The average fluxes from lake, dry tundra, and wet tundra were 11 +/- 3, 29 +/- 3, and 57 +/- 6 mg CH4/sq m/d, respectively. The mean remission rate for the site was 25 mg/sq m/d. Maximum uptake of CO2 by the tundra was 1.4 gC/sq m/d between 1000 and 1500 hrs, and nocturnal respiration averaged 0.73 gC/sq m/d. Net uptake of CO2 was 0.30 gC/sq m/d for the 30 days of measurement; methane flux accounted for 6 percent of CO2 net uptake.

  20. The orbital evolution of real asteroids near the 4:1 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahlgren, Mats; Hahn, Gerhard; Lagerkvist, C.-I.; Lundstroem, M.

    1992-01-01

    Numerical integrations of the orbits of ten asteroids with osculating elements near the 4:1 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter have been performed over 200,000 years into the future. A variety of orbital evolutions was found, depending on the start values of the semi-major axis. The orbit of asteroid 1983 RJ4, which lies almost exactly at the resonance center, experiences large variations in eccentricity, evolving into an Earth-crosser on a time-scale of a few 10(exp 4) years. This makes this region a potential source for Apollo objects and meteoritic material, although the width of the resonance region in semi-major axis seems to be very narrow.

  1. Design of an electronic charged particle spectrometer to measure (rho R), yield, and implosion symmetry on the OMEGA Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, D. G.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Wenzel, K. W.; Knauer, J. P.

    1994-11-01

    The preliminary design for a state-of-the-art diagnostic that will measure a broad energy spectrum of charged particles generated in the OMEGA Upgrade facility is investigated. Using a set of photodiodes approximately 10 and a 0.8 Tesla permanent magnet, the diagnostic will uniquely determine particle energies and identities from 0.2 MeV up to the maximum charged particle energies (10.6 MeV tritons, 12.5 MeV deuterons and 17.4 MeV protons). With its high density picture elements, each photodiode has 10(exp 6) single-hit detectors, giving the spectrometer a dynamic range of 1 - 10(exp 5) particles/shot. For example, in the case of a DT yield of 10(exp 9) neutrons, about 100 knock-on charged particles will be detected when the spectrometer aperture is 60 cm from the implosion. Furthermore, the measurement of knock-on D and T spectra will allow rho R's up to 0.15 g/sq cm to be measured (for a 1 keV plasma), or 0.3 g/sq cm if hydrogen doping is used. In addition, the yield and slowing down of secondary protons may be used to determine rho R up to 0.3 g/sq cm. Significantly, this diagnostic will also directly measure the DD fusion yield and energy degradation of nascent 3 MeV protons. By using two such compact spectrometers to measure the yield and spectra on widely separated ports around the OMEGA Upgrade target chamber, the implosion and bum symmetry can be determined. Furthermore, the ion temperature, and, in principle, even the electron temperature can be measured. The diagnostic and its development will be fully tested at several critical steps, utilizing 0.2-16 MeV protons (and several other charged particles and neutrons) from our absolutely calibrated Cockcroft-Walton facility.

  2. Simultaneous ROSAT/Ginga observations of 4U 1820-30

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Der Klis, M.; Hasinger, G.; Dotani, T.; Mitsuda, K.; Verbunt, F.; Murphy, B. W.; Van Paradijs, J.; Belloni, T.; Makishima, K.; Morgan, E.

    1993-01-01

    We have made simultaneous Ginga LAC and ROSAT PSPC observations of 4U 1820-30. The 685-s orbital light curves obtained with the two instruments are very similar, indicating that the energy dependence of the orbital modulation is small. Our measurements extend the baseline over which the period variations can be measured to 15 yr. The previous possibility, that the changes in the period are themselves periodic, with a period of about 8 yr, is no longer preferred over a constant P(dot). Over the interval 1976-91 the period has decreased, rather than increasing as predicted by the standard model for the orbital evolution of the binary. The average period derivative P(dot)/P was (-0.88 +/- 0.16) x 10 exp -7/yr, different by 11 sigma from the predicted value. Under the assumption that there are no intrinsic changes in the light curve that mimic a period change, we discuss three possible explanations.

  3. Rate constant for the reaction of OH with CH3CCl2F (HCFC-141b) determined by relative rate measurements with CH4 and CH3CCl3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huder, Karin; Demore, William B.

    1993-01-01

    Determination of accurate rate constants for OH abstraction is of great importance for the calculation of lifetimes for HCFCs and their impact on the atmosphere. For HCFC-141b there has been some disagreement in the literature for absolute measurements of this rate constant. In the present work rate constant ratios for HCFC-141b were measured at atmospheric pressure in the temperature range of 298-358 K, with CH4 and CH3CCl3 as reference gases. Ozone was photolyzed at 254 nm in the presence of water vapor to produce OH radicals. Relative depletions of 141b and the reference gases were measured by FTIR. Arrhenius expressions for 141b were derived from each reference gas and found to be in good agreement with each other. The combined expression for HCFC-141b which we recommend is 1.4 x 10 exp -12 exp(-1630/T) with k at 298 K being 5.9 x 10 exp -15 cu cm/molec-s. This value is in excellent agreement with the JPL 92-20 recommendation.

  4. A search for interstellar CH3D: Limits to the methane abundance in Orion-KL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Womack, Maria; Ziurys, L. M.; Apponi, A. J.

    1995-01-01

    A search has been performed for interstellar CH3D via its J(K) = 1(0) - 0(0) transition at 230 GHz and its J(K) = 2(0) - l(0) and J(K) = 2(1) - 1(1) lines at 465 GHz using the NRAO 12 m and CSO 10 m telescopes towards Orion-KL. This search was done in conjunction with laboratory measurements of all three transitions of CH3D using mm/sub-mm direct absorption spectroscopy. The molecule was not detected down to a 3 sigma level of T(A) less than 0.05 K towards Orion, which suggests an upper limit to the CH3D column density of N less than 6 x 10(exp 18)/sq cm in the hot core region and a fractional abundance (with respect to H2) of less than 6 x 10(exp -6). These measurements suggest that the methane abundance in the Orion hot core is f less than 6 x 10-4, assuming D/H approximately 0.01. Such findings are in agreement with recent hot core chemical models, which suggest CH4/H2 approximately 10(exp -4).

  5. Hard X-Ray Detection of the High Redshift Quasar 4C 71.07

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malizia, A.; Bassani, L.; Dean, A. J.; McCollough, M. L.; Stephen, J. B.; Zhang, S. N.

    1999-01-01

    BATSE/OSSE observations of the high redshift quasar 4C 71.07 indicate that this is the brightest and furthest AGN so far detected 20 keV. BATSE Earth occultation data have been used to search for emission from 4C 71.07 from nearly 3 years of observation. The mean source flux over the- whole period in the BATSE energy range 20-100 keV is (13.2 +/- 1.06) x 10(exp -11) erg/square cm/s corresponding to a luminosity of 2 x 10(exp 48 erg/s. The BATSE light curve over the 3 years of observations shows several flare-like events, one of which (in January 1996) is associated with an optical flare (R=16.1) but with a delay of 55 days. The OSSE/BATSE spectral analysis indicates that the source is characterized by a flat power spectrum (Gamma is approximately 1.1- 1.3) when in a low state: this spectral form is consistent within errors with the ASCA and ROSAT spectra. This means that the power law observed from 0.1 to 10 keV extends up to at least 1 MeV but steepens soon after to meet EGRET high energy data. BATSE data taken around the January 1996 flare suggests that the spectrum could be steeper when the source is in a bright state. The upsilon-F-upsilon representation of the source is typical of a low frequency peaked/ gamma- ray dominated blazar, with the synchrotron peak in the mm-FIR band and the Compton peak in the MeV band. The BATSE and OSSE spectral data seem to favour a model in which the high energy - flux is due to the sum of the synchrotron self-Compton and the external Compton contributions: this is also supported by the- variability behaviour of the source.

  6. 2.4 Micron Cutoff AlGaAsSb/InGaAsSb Phototransistors for Shortwave IR Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Abedin, Nurul; Sulima, Oleg V.; Swaminathan, Krishna; Ismail, Syed; Singh, Upendra N.

    2006-01-01

    Shortwave infrared detectors are critical for several applications including remote sensing and optical communications. Several detectors are commercially available for this wavelength range, but they lack sufficient gain, which limits their detectivity. The characterization results of an AlGaAsSb/InGaAsSb phototransistor for shortwave IR application are reported. The phototransistor is grown using molecular beam epitaxy technique. Spectral response measurements showed a uniform responsivity between 1.2 and 2.4 micron region with a mean value of 1000 A/W. A maximum detectivity of 3.4 X 10(exp 11) cmHz1/2/W was obtained at 2 micron at -20 C and 1.3 V.

  7. Electron-Temperature Dependence of the Recombination of NH4(+)((NH3)(sub n) Ions with Electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skrzypkowski, M. P.; Johnson, R.

    1997-01-01

    The two-body recombination of NH4(+)(NH3)(sub 2,3) cluster-ions with electrons has been studied in an afterglow experiment in which the electron temperature T, was elevated by radio-frequency heating from 300 K up to 900 K. The recombination coefficients for the n = 2 and n = 3 cluster ions were found to be equal, alpha(sub 2, sup(2)) = alpha(sub 3, sup(2)) = (4.8 +/- 0.5) x 10(exp - 6)cu cm/s, and to vary with electron temperature as T(sub c, sup -0.65) rather than to be nearly temperature-independent as had been inferred from measurements in microwave-heated plasmas.

  8. X-ray Transients in the Advanced LIGO/Virgo Horizon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanner, Jonah; Baker, John G.; Blackburn, Lindy L.; Camp, Jordan B.; Mooley, Kunal; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Ptak, Andrew Francis

    2013-01-01

    Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo will be all-sky monitors for merging compact objects within a few hundred megaparsecs. Finding the electromagnetic counterparts to these events will require an understanding of the transient sky at low redshift (z < 0.1). We performed a systematic search for extragalactic, low redshift, transient events in the XMM-Newton Slew Survey. In a flux limited sample, we found that highly variable objects comprised 10% of the sample, and that of these, 10% were spatially coincident with cataloged optical galaxies. This led to 4 × 10(exp -4) transients per square degree above a flux threshold of 3×10(exp -12) erg/sq cm/s (0.2-2 keV) which might be confused with LIGO/Virgo counterparts. This represents the first extragalactic measurement of the soft X-ray transient rate within the Advanced LIGO/Virgo horizon. Our search revealed six objects that were spatially coincident with previously cataloged galaxies, lacked evidence for optical active galactic nuclei, displayed high luminosities approx. 10(exp 43) erg/s, and varied in flux by more than a factor of 10 when compared with the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. At least four of these displayed properties consistent with previously observed tidal disruption events.

  9. One year duration of immunity of the modified live bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 and type 2 and bovine herpesvirus-1 fractions of Vista® Once SQ vaccine.

    PubMed

    Purtle, Lisa; Mattick, Debra; Schneider, Corey; Smith, Linda; Xue, Wenzhi; Trigo, Emilio

    2016-03-18

    Three studies were performed to determine the duration of immunity of the bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 and type 2 (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2) and bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) fractions of a commercially prepared modified-live vaccine. Vista® Once SQ (Vista®) vaccine contains five modified-live viruses, BVDV-1, BVDV-2, BHV-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, and bovine parainfluenza 3 virus, and two modified-live bacteria, Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica. For all three studies, calves were administered a single dose of vaccine or placebo vaccine subcutaneously, and were challenged with one of the three virulent viruses at least one year following vaccination. Calves were evaluated daily following challenge for clinical signs of disease associated with viral infection, nasal swab samples were evaluated for virus shedding, and serum was tested for neutralizing antibodies. Following the BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 challenges, whole blood was evaluated for white blood cell counts, and for the BVDV-2 study, whole blood was also evaluated for platelet counts. Calves vaccinated with BVDV type 1a, were protected from challenge with BVDV type 1b, and had significant reductions in clinical disease, fever, leukopenia, and virus shedding compared to control calves. Vaccinated calves in the BVDV-2 study were protected from clinical disease, mortality, fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and virus shedding compared to controls. Vaccinated calves in the BHV-1 study were protected from clinical disease and fever, and had significantly reduced duration of nasal virus shedding. These three studies demonstrated that a single administration of the Vista® vaccine to healthy calves induces protective immunity against BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and BHV-1 that lasts at least one year following vaccination.

  10. Micrometeorological measurements of CH[sub 4] and CO[sub 2] exchange between the atmosphere and subarctic tundra

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, S.M.; Wofsy, S.C.; Bakwin, P.S.; Jacob, D.J.; Anderson, S.M.; Kebabian, P.L.; Mcmanus, J.B.; Kolb, C.E.; Fitzjarrald, D.R. Aerodyne Research, Inc., Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics, Billerica, MA New York State Univ., Albany )

    1992-10-01

    Eddy correlation flux measurements and concentration profiles of total hydrocarbons (THC) and CO[sub 2] were combined to provide a comprehensive record of atmosphere-biosphere exchange for these gases over a 30-day period in July-August 1988 in the Yukon-Kuskokwin River Delta of Alaska. Over 90 percent of net ecosystem exchanges of THC were due to methane. Lakes and wet meadow tundra provided the major sources of methane. The average fluxes from lake, dry tundra, and wet tundra were 11 +/- 3, 29 +/- 3, and 57 +/- 6 mg CH4/sq m/d, respectively. The mean remission rate for the site was 25 mg/sq m/d. Maximum uptake of CO[sub 2] by the tundra was 1.4 gC/sq m/d between 1000 and 1500 hrs, and nocturnal respiration averaged 0.73 gC/sq m/d. Net uptake of CO[sub 2] was 0.30 gC/sq m/d for the 30 days of measurement; methane flux accounted for 6 percent of CO2 net uptake. 53 refs.

  11. Swift J2058.4+0516: Discovery of a Possible Second Relativistic Tidal Disruption Flare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cenko, S. Bradely; Krimm, Hans A.; Horesh, Assaf; Rau, Arne; Frail, Dale A.; Kennea, Jamie A.; Levan, Andrew J.; Holland, Stephen T.; Butler, Nathaniel R.; Quimby, Robert M.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Greiner, Jochen; Kulkarni, S. R.; Ofek, Eran O.; Olivares, Felipe E.; Schady, Patricia; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Tanvir, Nial R.; Xu, Dong

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery by the Swift hard X-ray monitor of the transient source Swift J2058.4+0516 (Sw J2058+05). Our multi-wavelength follow-up campaign uncovered a long-lived (duration approximately greater than months), luminous X-ray (L(sub x.iso) approximates 3 X 10(exp47) erg/s) and radio (vL(sub v.iso) approximates 10(exp 42) erg/s) counterpart. The associated optical emission, however, from which we measure a redshift of 1.1853, is relatively faint, and this is not due to a large amount of dust extinction in the host galaxy. Based on numerous similarities with the recently discovered GRB 110328A / Swift 1164449.3+573451 (Sw 11644+57), we suggest that Sw J2058+05 may be the second member of a new class of relativistic outbursts resulting from the tidal disruption of a star by a supermassive black hole. If so, the relative rarity of these sources implies that either these outflows are extremely narrowly collimated (theta < 1 deg), or only a small fraction of tidal disruptions generate relativistic ejecta. Analogous to the case of long duration gamma-ray bursts and core-collapse supernovae, we speculate that the spin of the black hole may be a necessary condition to generate the relativistic component. Alternatively, if powered by gas accretion (i.e., an active galactic nucleus), this would imply that some galaxies can transition from apparent quiescence to a radiatively efficient state of accretion on quite short time scales.

  12. First measurement of helium on Mars: Implications for the problem of radiogenic gases on the terrestrial planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasnopolsky, V. A.; Bowyer, S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Gladstone, G. R.; Mcdonald, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    108 +/- 11 photons of the martian He 584-A airglow detected by the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) satellite during a 2-day exposure (January 22-23, 1993) correspond to the effective disk average intensity of 43 +/- 10 Rayleigh (Ra). Radiative transfer calculations, using a model atmosphere appropriate to the conditions of the observation and having an exospheric temperature of 210 +/- 20 K, result in a He mixing ratio of 1.1 +/- 0.4 ppm in the lower atmosphere. Nonthermal escape of helium is due to electron impact ionization and pickup of He(+) by the solar wind, to collisions with hot oxygen atoms, and to charge exchange with molecular species with corresponding column loss rates of 1.4 x 10(exp 5), 3 x 10(exp 4), and 7 x 10(exp 3)/sq cm/s, respectively. The lifetime of helium on Mars is 5 x 10(exp 4) years. the He outgassing rate, coupled with the Ar-40 atmospheric abundance and with the K:U:Th ratio measured in the surface rocks, is used as input to a single two-reservoir degassing model which is applied to Mars and then to Venus. A similar model with known abundances if K, U, and Th is applied to Earth. The models for Earth and Mars presume loss of all argon accumulated in the atmospheres during the first billion years by large-scale meteorite and planetesimal impacts. The models show that the degassing coefficients for all three planets may be approximated by function delta = delta(sub 0) x (t(sub 0)/t)(exp 1/2) with delta(sub 0) = 0.1, 0.04, and 0.0125 Byr for Earth, Venus, and Mars, respectively. After a R(exp 2) correction this means that outgassing processes on Venus and Mars are weaker than on Earth by factors of 3 and 30, respectively. Mass ratios of U and Th are almost the same for all three planets, while potassiumis depleted by a factor of 2 in Venus and Mars. Mass ratio of helium and argon are close to 5 x 10(exp -9) and 2 x 10(exp -8) g/g in the interiors of all three planets. The implications of these results are discussed.

  13. Search for X-Ray Emission Associated with the Shapley Supercluster with Suzaku

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Gupta, Anjali; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.; Takei, Yoh; Ohashi, Takaya; Sato, Kosuke; Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Henry, J. Patrick; Kelley, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    Suzaku performed observations of 3 regions in and around the Shapley supercluster: a region located between A3558 and A3556, at approx 0.9 times the virial radii of both clusters, and two other regions at 1 deg and 4 away from the first pointing. The 4 deg -otfset observation was used to evaluate the Galactic foreground emission. We did not detect significant redshifted Oxygen emission lines (O VII and O VIII) in the spectra of all three pointings, after subtracting the contribution of foreground and background emission. An upper limit for the redshifted O VIII Ka line intensity of the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) is 1.5 x 10(exp -7) photons / s / sq cm / sq arcmin, which corresponds to an overdensity of approx 380 (Z/0.1 Solar Z)(exp -1/2)(L/3 Mpc)(exp -1/2), assuming T = 3 x 10(exp 6) K. We found excess continuum emission in the 1 deg-offset and on-filament regions, represented by thermal models with kT approximates 1 keV and approximates 2 keV, respectively. The redshifts of both 0 and that of the supercluster (0.048) are consistent with the observed spectra. The approx 1 keV emission can be also fitted with Ne-rich Galactic (zero redshift) thin thermal emission. Radial intensity profile of 2 keV component suggests contribution from A3558 and A3556, but with significant steepening of the intensity slope in the outer region of A3558. Finally, we summarized the previous Suzaku search for the WHIM and discussed the feasibility of constraining the WHIM. An overdensity of <400 can be detectable using O VII and O VIII emission lines in a range of 1.4 x 10(exp 6) K < T < 5 x 10(exp 6) K or a continuum emission in a relatively high temperature range T > 5 x 10 (exp 6) K with the Suzaku XIS. The non detection with Suzaku suggests that typical line-of-sight average overdensity is < 400.

  14. Five years of Project META - An all-sky narrow-band radio search for extraterrestrial signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, Paul; Sagan, Carl

    1993-01-01

    We have conducted a five-year search of the northern sky (delta between 30 and 60 deg) for narrow-band radio signals near the 1420 MHz line of neutral hydrogen, and its second harmonic, using an 8.4 x 10 exp 6 channel Fourier spectrometer of 0.05 Hz resolution and 400 kHz instantaneous bandwidth. The observing frequency was corrected both for motions with respect to three astronomical inertial frames, and for the effect of Earth's rotation, which provides a characteristic changing Doppler signature for narrow-band signals of extraterrestrial origin. Among the 6 x 10 exp 13 spectral channels searched, we have found 37 candidate events exceeding the average detection threshold of 1.7 x 10 exp -23 W/sq m, none of which was detected upon reobservation. The strongest of these appear to be dominated by rare processor errors. However, the strongest signals that survive culling for terrestrial interference lie in or near the Galactic plane. We describe the search and candidate events, and set limits on the prevalence of supercivilizations transmitting Doppler-precompensated beacons at H I or its second harmonic. We conclude with recommendations for future searches, based upon these findings, and a description of our next-generation search system.

  15. The State and Future of Mars Polar Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, Stephen M.; Crisp, David; Fisher, David A.; Herkenhoff, Ken E.; Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Thomas, Peter C.; Wynn-Williams, David D.; Zurek, Richard W.; Barnes, Jeffrey R.; Bills, Bruce G.

    2000-01-01

    As the planet's principal cold traps, the martian polar regions have accumulated extensive mantles of ice and dust that cover individual areas of approx. 10(exp 6)sq km and total as much as 3-4 km thick. From the scarcity of superposed craters on their surface, these layered deposits are thought to he comparatively young-preserving a record of the seasonal and climatic cycling of atmospheric CO2, H2O, and dust over the past approx. 10(exp 5)-10(exp 8) years. For this reason, the martian polar deposits may serve as a Rosetta Stone for understanding the geologic and climatic history of the planet-documenting variations in insolation (due to quasiperiodic oscillations in the planet's obliquity and orbital elements), volatile mass balance, atmospheric composition, dust storm activity, volcanic eruptions, large impacts, catastrophic floods, solar luminosity, supernovae, and perhaps even a record of microbial life. Beyond their scientific value, the polar regions may soon prove important for another reason-providing a valuable and accessible reservoir of water to support the long-term human exploration of Mars. In this paper we assess the current state of Mars polar research, identify the key questions that motivate the exploration of the polar regions, discuss the extent to which current missions will address these questions, and speculate about what additional capabilities and investigations may be required to address the issues that remain outstanding.

  16. Aerosol optical properties at Mauna Loa Observatory - Long-range transport from Kuwait?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodhaine, B. A.; Harris, J. M.; Ogren, J. A.; Hofmann, D. J.

    1992-03-01

    Aerosol light absorption has been measured continuously at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii (MLO), since April 1990. During the spring of 1991, after oil wells were fired in Kuwait, there was speculation among scientists concerning long-range transport of smoke particles and its possible effect on global climate. The MLO light absorption record from April 1990 to June 1991 shows low values in the 0.1-1 x 10 exp -7 per m range in the summer of 1990, and an increased baseline level of about 2-4 x 10 exp -7 per m with numerous superimposed events in the 5-10 x 10 exp -7 per m range in the spring of 1991. These levels correspond to black carbon (BC) concentrations of 1-10, 20-40, and 50-100 ng/cu m, respectively, under the assumption that BC is the dominant light absorbing species and has a specific absorption of 10 sq m/g. Large-scale 500-hPa trajectories calculated backwards from MLO sometimes show direct transport paths from China and Kuwait to Hawaii that coincide with the black carbon events. These measurements set an upper limit on the possible contribution of Kuwaiti black carbon to the background troposphere near MLO during periods of rapid transport. The aerosol observed at MLO is expected to cause a net cooling of the atmosphere.

  17. The formation of protostellar disks. I - 1 M(solar)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yorke, Harold W.; Bodenheimer, Peter; Laughlin, Gregory

    1993-01-01

    Hydrodynamical calculations of the collapse of an axisymmetric, rotating one solar mass protostellar cloud, including the effects of radiative transfer and radiative acceleration but without magnetic fields, are presented. The results include calculations of infrared protostellar spectra as a function of time and viewing angle. A numerical algorithm involving explicit nested grids is used to resolve the region of initial disk formation and at the same time to include the outer regions in the calculation. The central part of the protostar is modeled approximately. Initial conditions are systematically varied to investigate their influence on the evolution and final configuration of central star plus circumstellar disk. The initial state for the standard case is a centrally condensed molecular cloud core of one solar mass with a mean density of 8 x 10 exp -18 g/cu cm and a specific angular momentum at the outer edge of 7 x 10 exp 20 sq cm/s. The collapse is followed for 8 x 10 exp 4 yr, at which point 0.45 solar mass is contained in a rapidly rotating central object and most of the remainder in a surrounding equilibrium disk. The stability of this final structure is qualitatively analyzed.

  18. Baryonic Content in the Warm-Hot IGM at Low Redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George; Shull, M.; Danforth, C.; Moos, W.

    2007-01-01

    Baryons are 4.5% of the universe's mass/energy density; only 10% of these are in stars, galaxies, and clusters. At low-redshift 90% of baryons are in the IGM, 30% in Ly-alpha forest, but most are in hot gas (10(exp 5-7) K) produced by shocks during structure formation. O VI 1032-38 A are the best tracers of this gas. The distribution of O VI absorbers observed by FUSE rises as N(sup -2+/-0.2, down to 10(exp 13)/sq cm. Integrated to logN=13, 7% of baryons reside in the O VI-bearing IGM at 10% solar metallicity, T approx. 10(exp 5.5) K. At redshift z<0.1 metals have been transported less than 800/h kpc from L* galaxies and 200/h kpc from 0.1 L* galaxies. The steepness of dN/dz means that low-N absorbers contribute an equal mass of hot IGM as higher N gas. The total mass of O VI-bearing gas in the IGM depends on determining the turnover in dN/dz at low N(O VI). Future observations by FUSE are needed to reach lower N and to reduce the uncertainty in the dN/dz power law.

  19. Dynamical Model for the Zodiacal Cloud and Sporadic Meteors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesvorny, David; Janches, Diego; Vokrouhlicky, David; Pokorny, Petr; Bottke, William F.; Jenniskens, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The solar system is dusty, and would become dustier over time as asteroids collide and comets disintegrate, except that small debris particles in interplanetary space do not last long. They can be ejected from the solar system by Jupiter, thermally destroyed near the Sun, or physically disrupted by collisions. Also, some are swept by the Earth (and other planets), producing meteors. Here we develop a dynamical model for the solar system meteoroids and use it to explain meteor radar observations. We find that the Jupiter Family Comets (JFCs) are the main source of the prominent concentrations of meteors arriving to the Earth from the helion and antihelion directions. To match the radiant and orbit distributions, as measured by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR) and Advanced Meteor Orbit Radar (AMOR), our model implies that comets, and JFCs in particular, must frequently disintegrate when reaching orbits with low perihelion distance. Also, the collisional lifetimes of millimeter particles may be longer (approx. > 10(exp 5) yr at 1 AU) than postulated in the standard collisional models (approx 10(exp 4) yr at 1 AU), perhaps because these chondrule-sized meteoroids are stronger than thought before. Using observations of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) to calibrate the model, we find that the total cross section and mass of small meteoroids in the inner solar system are (1.7-3.5) 10(exp 11) sq km and approx. 4 10(exp 19) g, respectively, in a good agreement with previous studies. The mass input required to keep the Zodiacal Cloud (ZC) in a steady state is estimated to be approx. 10(exp 4)-10(exp 5) kg/s. The input is up to approx 10 times larger than found previously, mainly because particles released closer to the Sun have shorter collisional lifetimes, and need to be supplied at a faster rate. The total mass accreted by the Earth in particles between diameters D = 5 micron and 1 cm is found to be approx 15,000 tons/yr (factor of 2 uncertainty), which is

  20. A Novel Tungsten-Nickel Alloy Ohmic Contact to SiC at 900 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okojie, Robert S.; Evans, Laura J.; Lukco, Dorothy; Morris, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    A novel tungsten-nickel ohmic contact metallization on 4H-SiC and 6H-SiC capable of surviving temperatures as high as 900 C is reported. Preliminary results revealed the following: 1) ohmic contact on n-type 4H-SiC having net doping levels (Nd's) of 1.4 and 2 x 10(exp 19) per cubic centimeter, with specific contact resistances rhosNd's of 7.69 x 10(exp -4) and 5.81 x 10(exp -4) OMEGA (raised dot) square centimeters, respectively, after rapid thermal annealing (RTA), and 5.9 x 10(exp -3) and 2.51 x 10(exp -4) OMEGA (raised dot) square centimeters, respectively, after subsequent soak at 900 C for 1 h in argon, and 2) ohmic contact on n- and p-type 6H-SiC having Nd > 2 x 10(exp 19) and Na > 1 x 10(exp 20) per cubic centimeter, with rhosNd = 5 x 10(exp -5) and rhosNa = 2 X 10(exp -4) OMEGA (raised dot) square centimeter, respectively, after RTA, and rhosNd = 2.5 x 10 (exp -5) and rhosNa = 1.5 x 10(exp -4) OMEGA (raised dot) square centimeter after subsequent treatment at 900 C for 1 h in argon, respectively.

  1. High-Field Fast-Risetime Pulse Failures in 4H- and 6H-SiC pn Junction Diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Fazi, Christian

    1996-01-01

    We report the observation of anomalous reverse breakdown behavior in moderately doped (2-3 x 10(exp 17 cm(exp -3)) small-area micropipe-free 4H- and 6H-SiC pn junction diodes. When measured with a curve tracer, the diodes consistently exhibited very low reverse leakage currents and sharp repeatable breakdown knees in the range of 140-150 V. However, when subjected to single-shot reverse bias pulses (200 ns pulsewidth, 1 ns risetime), the diodes failed catastrophically at pulse voltages of less than 100 V. We propose a possible mechanism for this anomalous reduction in pulsed breakdown voltage relative to dc breakdown voltage. This instability must be removed so that SiC high-field devices can operate with the same high reliability as silicon power devices.

  2. Tunable CW diode-pumped Tm,Ho:YLiF4 laser operating at or near room temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguckin, Brendan T. (Inventor); Menzies, Robert T. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A conversion efficiency of 42% and slope efficiency of 60% relative to absorbed pump power are obtained from a continuous wave diode-pumped Tm,Ho:YLiF4 laser at 2 microns with output power of 84 mW at a crystal temperature of 275 K. The emission spectrum is etalon tunable over a range of7 nm (16.3/cm) centered on 2.067 microns with fine tuning capability of the transition frequency with crystal temperature at a measured rate of -0.03/(cm)K. The effective emission cross-section is measured to be 5 x 10(exp -21) cm squared. These and other aspects of the laser performance are disclosed in the context of calculated atmospheric absorption characteristics in this spectral region and potential use in remote sensing applications. Single frequency output and frequency stabilization are achieved using an intracavity etalon in conjunction with an external reference etalon.

  3. New insights into nonradiative heating in late A star chromospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Frederick M.; Matthews, Lynn D.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    1995-01-01

    Using new and archival spectra from the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph, we have searched for evidence of chromospheric and transition region emission in six stars of mid to late A spectral type. Two of the stars, alpha Aq1 (A7 IV-V) and alpha Cep (A7 IV-V), show emission in the C II 1335 A doublet, confirming the presence of hot plasma with temperatures comparable to that of the solar transition region. Using radiative equilibrium photospheric models, we estimate the net surface fluxes in the CII emission line to be 9.4 x 10(exp 4) ergs/sq cm/s for alpha Aq1 and 6.5 x 10(exp 4)ergs/sq cm/s for alpha Cep. These are comparable to fluxes observed in stars as hot as approximately 8000 K (B-V = 0.22). We find no evidence for the blueshifted emission reported by Simon et al. (1994). We estimate the basal flux level to be about 30% of that seen in early F stars, and that the bulk of the emission is not basal in origin. We conclude that the basal flux level drops rapidly for B-V approximately less than 0.3, but that magnetic activity may persist to B-v as small as 0.22.

  4. Low Luminosity States of the Black Hole Candidate GX 339-4. 1; ASCA and Simultaneous Radio/RXTE Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilms, Joern; Nowak, Michael A.; Dove, James B.; Fender, Robert P.; DiMatteo, Tiziana

    1998-01-01

    We discuss a series of observations of the black hole candidate GX 339-4 in low luminosity, spectrally hard states. We present spectral analysis of three separate archival Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) data sets and eight separate Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) data sets. Three of the RXTE observations were strictly simultaneous with 843 Mega Hertz and 8.3-9.1 Giga Hertz radio observations. All of these observations have (3-9 keV) flux approximately less than 10(exp-9) ergs s(exp-1) CM(exp -2). The ASCA data show evidence for an approximately 6.4 keV Fe line with equivalent width approximately 40 eV, as well as evidence for a soft excess that is well-modeled by a power law plus a multicolor blackbody spectrum with peak temperature approximately equals 150-200 eV. The RXTE data sets also show evidence of an Fe line with equivalent widths approximately equal to 20-1OO eV. Reflection models show a hardening of the RXTE spectra with decreasing X-ray flux; however, these models do not exhibit evidence of a correlation between the photon index of the incident power law flux and the solid angle subtended by the reflector. 'Sphere+disk' Comptonization models and Advection Dominated Accretion Flow (ADAF) models also provide reasonable descriptions of the RXTE data. The former models yield coronal temperatures in the range 20-50 keV and optical depths of r approximately equal to 3. The model fits to the X-ray data, however, do not simultaneously explain the observed radio properties. The most likely source of the radio flux is synchrotron emission from an extended outflow of extent greater than O(10 (exp7) GM/c2).

  5. Determining the Composition of the Vela Pulsar's Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogelman, Hakki

    1997-01-01

    The pulsar jet is significant in explaining how the Vela pulsar's rotational energy is transported outward to the rest of the SNR, since direct radiation from the pulsar only accounts for a small percentage of the total power. Our previous ROSAT observations presented the first evidence that the pulsar is driving a narrow, collimated, and remarkably symmetrical jet into the SNR (Markwardt, C. and Oegelman, H., 1995, Nature, 375, p. 40) which we interpret to be from a 'cocoon' of hot gas surrounding the jet itself. We obtained an ASCA exposure of the jet in order to determine whether the spectrum is thermal or power-law continuum. The jet cocoon is detected with ASCA at approximately 2-3 x 10(exp -3) ct/s. The X-ray spectrum of the jet is remarkably similar to the surrounding supernova remnant spectrum and extends to X-ray energies of at least 7 keV, with a total flux of approximately 2 x 10(exp -13) erg/s sq cm sq arcmin. The only strong emission line is from He-like Neon at approx. 0.9 keV; otherwise the spectrum is quite smooth. The spectrum cannot be fit by any one standard plasma emission model, so we used models with two-components. The lower energy component is thermal and has a temperature of 0.29 +/- 0.03 keV; the higher energy portion can either be fit by a thermal component of temperature approx. 4 keV or a power law with photon index approx. 2.0. If the observed spectrum is of a 'traditional' jet cocoon, then we estimate the speed of the jet to be at least 800 km/s, depending on the angle of inclination of the jet axis to our line of sight. The mechanical power driving the jet is greater than or equal to 10(exp 36) erg/s which is comparable to the pulsar's spin-down luminosity of 7 x 10(exp 36) erg/s. and the mass flow rate at the head is greater than or equal to 10(exp -6) solar radius/yr. We conclude that the jet must be entraining material all along its length in order to generate such a large mass flow rate.

  6. Viscoelastic Response of the Titanium Alloy Ti-6-4: Experimental Identification of Time- and Rate-Dependent Reversible and Irreversible Deformation Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Bradley A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    In support of an effort on damage prognosis, the viscoelastic behavior of Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-6-4) was investigated. This report documents the experimental characterization of this titanium alloy. Various uniaxial tests were conducted to low load levels over the temperature range of 20 to 538 C to define tensile, creep, and relaxation behavior. A range of strain rates (6x10(exp -7) to 0.001/s) were used to document rate effects. All tests were designed to include an unloading portion, followed by a hold time at temperature to allow recovery to occur either at zero stress or strain. The titanium alloy was found to exhibit viscoelastic behavior below the "yield" point and over the entire range of temperatures (although at lower temperatures the magnitude is extremely small). These experimental data will be used for future characterization of a viscoelastic model.

  7. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Gilmore Load Cell Machine: Load Cell Calibrations to 2.22 x 10(exp 7) Newtons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, Michael W.

    2000-01-01

    Designed in 1964 and erected in 1966, the mission of the Gilmore Load Cell Machine was to provide highly accurate calibrations for large capacity load cells in support of NASA's Apollo Program. Still in use today, the Gilmore Machine is a national treasure with no equal.

  8. High Electron Mobility SiGe/Si Transistor Structures on Sapphire Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Mueller, Carl H.; Croke, Edward T.; Ponchak, George E.

    2003-01-01

    SiGe/Si n-type modulation doped field effect structures and transistors (n-MODFETs) have been fabricated on r-plane sapphire substrates. The structures were deposited using molecular beam epitaxy, and antimony dopants were incorporated via a delta doping process. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) indicates that the peak antimony, concentration was approximately 4 x 10(exp19) per cubic cm. The electron mobility was over 1,200 and 13,000 sq cm/V-sec at room temperature and 0.25 K, respectively. At these two temperatures, the electron carrier densities were 1.6 and 1.33 x 10(exp 12) per sq cm, thus demonstrating that carrier confinement was excellent. Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations were observed at 0.25 K, thus confirming the two-dimensional nature of the carriers. Transistors, with gate lengths varying from 1 micron to 5 microns, were fabricated using these structures and dc characterization was performed at room temperature. The saturated drain current region extended over a wide source-to-drain voltage (V(sub DS)) range, with (V(sub DS)) knee voltages of approximately 0.5 V and increased leakage starting at voltages slightly higher than 4 V.

  9. EGRET detection of high-energy gamma radiation from the OVV quasar 3C 454.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, R. C.; Bertsch, D. L.; Dingus, B. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.; Kniffen, D. A.; Lin, Y. C.; Mattox, J. R.; Mayer-Hasselwander, H. A.

    1993-01-01

    High-energy gamma radiation has been observed from the optically violent variable quasar 3C 454.3 (PKS 2251 + 158) by the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope on the Compton Observatory. During the 1992 January-February observation, the emission showed a power-law photon spectrum with an exponent of -2.18 +/- 0.08. The flux density (greater than 100 MeV) was observed to vary within the range (0.4-1.4) x 10 exp -6 photon/sq cm s on a time scale of less than a week. Lower sensitivity observations during 1992 April and May also detected emission within that range, but with lower statistical significance. An earlier low-sensitivity exposure during 1991 August gave a 95 percent confidence upper limit of 0.26 x 10 exp 6 photon/sq cm s. The similarity of the gamma-ray emission of 3C 454.3 to that of 3C 279 parallels the similarity of these two objects at lower frequencies.

  10. The lunar environment and its effect on optical astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. Jeffrey

    1992-01-01

    The Moon's geologic environment features: (1) gravity field one-sixth that of Earth; (2) sidereal rotation period of 27.3 days; (3) surface with greater curvature than Earth's surface (a chord along a 10 km baseline would have a bulge of 7.2 m); (4) seismically and tidally stable platform on which to make astronomical observations (most moonquakes have magnitudes of 1 to 2 on the Richter scale, within the earth's seismic noise, resulting in ground motions only 1 nm); (5) tenuous atmosphere (the total mass at night is only 10(exp 4) kg) that has an optical depth of 10(exp -6) and does not cause wind induced stresses and vibrations on structures; (6) large diurnal temperature variation (100 to 385 K in equatorial regions), which telescopes must be designed to withstand; (7) weak magnetic field, ranging from 3 to 330 x 10(exp -9) T, compared to 3 x 10(exp -5) T on Earth at the equator; (8) surface exposed to radiation, the most dangerous of which are high energy (1 to 100 Mev) particles resulting from solar flares; (9) high flux of micrometeorites which are not slowed down from their cosmic velocities because of the lack of air (data indicate that microcraters greater than 10 microns across will form at the rate of 3000/sq m/yr); (10) regolith 2 to 30 m thick which blankets the entire lunar surface (this layer is fine-grained (average grain sizes range from 40 to 268 microns), has a low density (800 to 1000 kg/cu m in the upper few mm, rising to 1500 to 1800 kg/cu m at depths of 10 to 20 cm), is porous (35 to 45 pct), cohesive (0.1 to 1.0 kN/sq m), and has a low thermal diffusivity (0.7 to 1.0 x 110-8 sq m/sec); about 29 pct of the regolith is less than 20 micron in size (this dust could pose a hazard to optical telescopes); (11) rubbly upper several hundred meters in which intact bedrock is uncommon, especially in the lunar highlands; and (12) craters with diameter-to-depth ratios of 5 if fresh and less than km across (larger and eroded craters have diameter

  11. Activity of the 1998 Leonid Shower From the Video Records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenniskens, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Video observations of the Leonid shower aboard two aircraft in the 1998 Leonid multi-instrument aircraft campaign and from ground locations in China are presented. Observing at altitude proved particularly effective, with four times higher rates due to low extinction and low angular velocity at the horizon. The rates, derived from a total of 2500 Leonid meteors, trace at least two distinct dust components. One dominated the night of 1998 November 16/17. This two-day wide component was rich in bright meteors with r = N (m + 1)/N (m) approximately equal 1.5 (s = 1.4) and peaked at an influx of 3.1 +/- 0.4 x 10(exp -12) /sq m.s (for particles of mass < 7 x 10(exp -5) g) at solar longitude lambda(sub 0) approximately equal 234.52 (Eq. J2000). The other more narrow component peaked on 1998 November 17/18 at lambda(sub 0) = 235.31 +/- 0.01. Rates were elevated above the broad component between lambda(sub 0) = 235.15 and 235.40, symmetric around the current node of the parent comet 55P/Tempel-Tuttle, peaking at 5.1 +/- 0.2 x 10(exp -12) /sq m.s. The population index was higher, r = 1.8 +/- 0.1 (s = 1.7), but not as high as in past Leonid storms (r = 3.0). The flux profile of this component has an unusual asymmetric shape, which implies a blend of contributions from at least two different but relatively recent epochs of ejection. The variation of r across the profile might be due to mass-dependent ejection velocities of the narrowest component. High rates of faint meteors occurred only in an isolated five-minute interval at lambda(sub 0) = 235.198, which is likely the result of a single meteoroid breakup in space.

  12. Effects of Low Earth Orbit on Docking Seal Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imka, Emily C.; Asmar, Olivia C.; deGroh, Henry C., III; Banks, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft docking seals are typically made of silicone elastomers. When such seals are exposed to low Earth orbit (LEO) conditions, they can suffer damage from ultraviolet (UV) radiation and atomic oxygen (AO, or monoatomic oxygen, the predominant oxygen species in LEO). An experiment flew on the International Space Station (ISS) to measure the effects of LEO on seal materials S0383-70 and ELA-SA-401 and various mating counterface materials which included anodized aluminum. Samples flown in different orientations received different amounts of UV and AO. The hypotheses were that most of the damage would be from UV, and 10 days or more of exposure in LEO would badly damage the seals. Eighteen seals were exposed for 543 days in ram (windward), zenith (away from Earth), or wake (leeward) orientations, and 15 control samples (not flown) provided undamaged baseline leakage. To determine post-flight leak rates, each of the 33 seals were placed in an O-ring groove of a leak test fixture and pressure tested over time. Resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), pressure transducers, and LabVIEW (National Instruments) programs were used to measure and analyze the temperature and pressure and calculate leakage. Average leakage of control samples was 2.6 x 10(exp -7) lbs/day. LEO exposure did not considerably damage ELA-SA-401. The S0383-70 flight samples leaked at least 10 times more than ELA-SA-401 in all cases except one, demonstrating that ELA-SA-401 may be a more suitable sealing material in LEO. AO caused greater damage than UV; samples in ram orientation (receiving an AO fluence of 4.3 x 10(exp 21) atoms/(sq cm) and in wake (2.9x 10(exp 20) atoms/(sq cm)) leaked more than those in zenith orientation (1.58 x 10(exp 20) atoms/(sq cm)), whereas variations in UV exposure did not seem to affect the samples. Exposure to LEO did less damage to the seals than hypothesized, and the data did not support the conjecture that UV causes more damage than AO.

  13. Modeling the Oxygen K Absorption in the Interstellar Medium: An XMM-Newton View of Sco X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, J.; Ramirez, J. M.; Kallman, T. R.; Witthoeft, M.; Bautista, M. A.; Mendoza, C.; Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the absorption structure of the oxygen in the interstellar medium by analyzing XMM-Newton observations of the low mass X-ray binary Sco X-1. We use simple models based on the O I atomic cross section from different sources to fit the data and evaluate the impact of the atomic data in the interpretation of astrophysical observations. We show that relatively small differences in the atomic calculations can yield spurious results. We also show that the most complete and accurate set of atomic cross sections successfully reproduce the observed data in the 21 - 24.5 Angstrom wavelength region of the spectrum. Our fits indicate that the absorption is mainly due to neutral gas with an ionization parameter of Epsilon = 10(exp -4) erg/sq cm, and an oxygen column density of N(sub O) approx. = 8-10 x 10(exp 17)/sq cm. Our models are able to reproduce both the K edge and the K(alpha) absorption line from O I, which are the two main features in this region. We find no conclusive evidence for absorption by other than atomic oxygen.

  14. Observations of cumulene carbenes, H2CCCC and H2CCC, in TMC-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawaguchi, Kentarou; Kaifu, Norio; Ohishi, Masatoshi; Ishikawa, Shin-Ichi; Hirahara, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Saito, Shuji; Takano, Shuro; Murakami, Akinori; Vrtilek, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    Attention is given to the carbon chain molecule H2CCCC, detected in the dark cloud TMC-1 for the first time in the course of a molecular line survey using the Nobeyama 45-m telescope. From nine transitions observed in the frequency region of 17-45 GHz, the total column density of H2CCCC in TMC-1 is derived to be 7.5(+/-2.0) x 10 exp 12/sq cm, which is about half of the value reported in IRC + 10216. Five transitions of a related carbon chain molecule, H2CCC, were also detected in TMC-1. The column density of H2CCC obtained in TMC-1, 2.8(+/-0.9) x 10 exp 12/sq cm, is a factor of three smaller than that of H2CCCC. The ortho-to-para abundance ratios of H2CCCC and H2CCC were found to be 4.2 +/-1.5 and 5.9 +/-2.0, respectively. The chemical reactions of these carbon-chain molecules in dark clouds are discussed.

  15. Diffuse galactic light observations at 206 selected areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toller, Gary N.

    1989-01-01

    Space-based, observational diffuse galactic light (DGL) levels at 4400 A are presented as a function of galactic latitude (b). A peak in the ratio of DGL to direct starlight is apparent at the absolute value of b = 5 to 15 deg, where one third of the celestial brightness is due to scattered light. Another salient feature is the general decrease in the relative contribution of the DGL at intermediate and high galactic latitudes. The relationship DGL (S sub 10(V)sub G2V, 4400 A) = 2.4 x 10 (exp -20 N(sub H I) atoms/sq cm may be used to estimate the brightness of DGL from neutral hydrogen column densities when N(sub H I) is less than 2 x 10(exp 21) atoms/sq cm. The results presented here have been used to characterize the interstellar dust in the general interstellar medium. A galaxy model that reproduces observed brightness levels was used to compare theoretical and observed DGL values. This determines two grain parameters - the albedo and the asymmetry of the scattering phase function (g). The results are albedo = .61 + or - .07, and g = .6 + or - .2.

  16. The Effect of Porosity on the Lift and Drag of Bird's Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichter, Seth

    1974-01-01

    Bird's wings are porous. The mass flux through the wings for various simulated wing loadings was measured and found to average about 2 x 10(exp -4) g/s.sq cm for one feather thickness at the average pigeon wing loading of 45 newtons/sq m. The calculated effect of the flux on lift was found to be less than 1/2 of 1%. Experiments at a typical pigeon flight Reynolds number of 10(exp 5) on flat plates with 3.5% and 14.5% open area spread over the trailing 58% of the chord showed that it is possible to both increase and decrease profile drag, relative to the drag on a non-porous flat plate, by < or = 5%. Stall on the porous plates occurred up to 3 deg earlier than stall on the non-porous plates. From lift calculations and drag measurements it is shown that the effects of porosity on the gliding characteristics of birds are negligible.

  17. Atomic oxygen beam source for erosion simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuthbertson, J. W.; Langer, W. D.; Motley, R. W.; Vaughn, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    A device for the production of low energy (3 to 10 eV) neutral atomic beams for surface modification studies is described that reproduces the flux of atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit. The beam is produced by the acceleration of plasma ions onto a negatively biased plate of high-Z metal; the ions are neutralized and reflected by the surface, retaining some fraction of their incident kinetic energy, forming a beam of atoms. The plasma is generated by a coaxial RF exciter which produces a magnetically-confined (4 kG) plasma column. At the end of the column, ions fall through the sheath to the plate, whose bias relative to the plasma can be varied to adjust the beam energy. The source provides a neutral flux approximately equal to 5 x 10(exp 16)/sq cm at a distance of 9 cm and a fluence approximately equal to 10(exp 20)/sq cm in five hours. The composition and energy of inert gas beams was diagnosed using a mass spectometer/energy analyzer. The energy spectra of the beams demonstrate energies in the range 5 to 15 eV, and qualitatively show expected dependences upon incident and reflecting atom species and potential drop. Samples of carbon film, carbon-based paint, Kapton, mylar, and teflon exposed to atomic O beams show erosion quite similar to that observed in orbit on the space shuttle.

  18. The 2006-2007 Active Phase of Anomalous X-Ray Pulsar 4U 0142+61: Radiative and Timing Changes, Bursts,and Burst Spectral Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavriil, Fotis P.; Dib, Rim; Kaspi, Victoria M.

    2011-01-01

    After at least 6 years of quiescence, Anomalous X-ray Pulsar (AXP) 4U 0142+61 entered an active phase in 2006 March that lasted several months and included six X-ray bursts as well as many changes in the persistent X-ray emission. The bursts, the first seen from this AXP in > 11 years of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer monitoring, all occurred in the interval between 2006 April 6 and 2007 February 7. The burst durations ranged from 0.4 - 1.8 x 10(exp 3) s. The first five burst spectra are well modeled by blackbodies, with temperatures kT approx 2 - 9 keV. However, the sixth burst had a complicated spectrum that is well characterized by a blackbody plus two emission features whose amplitude varied throughout the burst. The most prominent feature was at 14.0 keV. Upon entry into the active phase the pulsar showed a significant change in pulse morphology and a likely timing glitch. The glitch had a total frequency jump of (1.9+/-0.4) x 10(exp -7) Hz, which recovered with a decay time of 17+/-2 days by more than the initial jump, implying a net spin-down of the pulsar. Within the framework of the magnetar model, the net spin-down of the star could be explained by regions of the superfluid that rotate. slower than the rest. The bursts, flux enhancements, and pulse morphology changes can be explained as arising from crustal deformations due to stresses imposed by the highly twisted internal magnetic field. However, unlike other AXP outbursts, we cannot account for a major twist being implanted in the magnetosphere.

  19. Identifications of Four Integral Sources in the Galactic Plane via CHANDRA Localizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomsick, John A.; Chaty, Sylvain; Rodriquez, Jerome; Foschini, Luigi; Walter, Roland; Kaaret, Philip

    2006-01-01

    Hard X-ray imaging of the Galactic plane by the INTEGRAL satellite is uncovering large numbers of 20-100 keV "IGR" sources. We present results from Chandra, INTEGRAL, optical, and IR observations of four IGR sources: three sources in the Norma region of the Galaxy(1GR J16195-4945,IGR J16207-5129, and IGR J16167-4957) and one that is closer to the Galactic center (IGR 5171 95-4100). In all four cases, one relatively bright Chandra source is seen in the INTEGRAL error circle, and these are likely to be the soft X-ray counterparts of the IGR sources. They have hard 0.3-10 keV spectra with power-law photon indices of Gamma = 0.5-1.1. While many previously studied IGR sources show high column densities (NH approx. 10(exp 23)-10(exp 24)/sq cm), only IGR J16195-4945 has a column density that could be as high as 10(exp 23)/sq cm. Using optical and IR sky survey catalogs and our own photometry, we have obtained identifications for all four sources. The J-band magnitudes are in the range 14.9-10.4, and we have used the optical/IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to constrain the nature of the sources. Blackbody components with temperature lower limits of >9400 K for IGR J16195-4945 and >18,000 K for IGR J16207-5129 indicate that these are very likely high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs). However, for IGR 516167-4957 and IGR J17195-4100, low extinction and the SEDs indicate later spectral types for the putative companions, suggesting that these are not HMXBs.

  20. Exotic fluoride molecules in IRC +10216: Confirmation of AlF and searches for MgF and CaF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziurys, L. M.; Apponi, A. J.; Phillips, T. G.

    1994-01-01

    Three new rotational transitions of aluminum fluoride (AlF) at 0.8 and 1.2 mm have been observed. The J = 10-9, J = 8-7, and J = 7-6 lines of AlF at 230, 263, and 329 GHz, respectively, were seen toward IRC +10216 using the Caltech Submillimter Observatory (CSO). Combined with the earlier data obtained for this species at IRAM at 2 and 3 mm, these measurements confirm the presence of the metal halide in this carbon-rich circumstellar shell. Analysis of the CSO and IRAM data suggests that AlF arises from a source with a diameter of theta(sub s) approximately = 5-10 sec and hence is present chiefly in the inner envelope of IRC +10216. In this region, the molecule has a column density of (0.3-1.1) x 10(exp 15)/sq cm, which indicates a fractional abundance of at least approximately 10(exp -9), relative to H2. Searches for the metal fluoride species CaF and MgF have also been conducted toward IRC +10216, but with negative results. The column density upper limits for MgF and CaF are N(sub tot) less than (1-4) x 10(exp 14)/sq cm. Relative abundances of these metal fluoride molecules can be understood in terms of chemical thermodynamic equilibrium. The presence of AlF in IRC +10216 also indicates that large quantities of fluorine must be present in the inner stellar envelope, suggesting that this element may be produced not primarily in explosive nucleosynthesis but rather in helium shell flashes, as indicated also by HF spectroscopy of red giant stars.

  1. On The Nature of the Ultraluminous X-Ray Transient in Cen A (NGC 5128)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosh, Kajal K.; Finger, Mark H.; Swartz, Douglas A.; Tennant, Allyn F.; Wu, Kinwah

    2005-01-01

    We combine 20 ROSAT, Chandra, and XMM-Newton observations of the Cen A galaxy to obtain the X-ray light curve of 1RXH J132519.8-430312 (=CXOU J132519.9-430317) spanning 1990 to 2003. The source reached a peak 0.1-2.4 keV flux F(sub X) > 10(exp -12) ergs/sq cm/s during a 10 day span in 1995 July. The inferred peak isotropic luminosity of the source therefore exceeded 3 x 10(exp 39) ergs/s, which places the source in the class of ultra-luminous X-ray sources. Coherent pulsations at 13.264 Hz are detected at the 3 sigma level during a second bright episode (F(sub x) > 3 x 10(exp -13) ergs/sq cm/s) in 1999 December. The source is detected and varies significantly within three additional observations but is below the detection threshold in 7 observations. The X-ray spectrum in 1999 December is best described as a cut-off power law or a disk-blackbody (multi-colored disk). We also detect an optical source, m(sub F555W) approx. 24.1 mag, within the Chandra error circle of 1RXH J132519.8-430312 in Hubble images taken 195 days before the nearest X-ray observation. The optical brightness of this source is consistent with a late O or early B star at the distance of Cen A. The X-ray and optical behavior of 1RXH J132519.8-430312 is therefore similar to the transient Be/X-ray pulsar A 0538-66.

  2. Burst Oscillation Periods from 4U 1636-53: A Constraint on the Binary Doppler Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, A. B.; Hill, K. M.; Strohmayer, T. E.; Cummings, N.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The burst oscillations seen during Type 1 X-ray bursts from low mass X-ray binaries (LMXB) typically evolve in period towards an asymptotic limit that likely reflects the spin of the underlying neutron star. If the underlying period is stable enough, measurement of it at different orbital phases may allow a detection of the Doppler modulation caused by the motion of the neutron star with respect to the center of mass of the binary system. Testing this hypothesis requires enough X-ray bursts and an accurate optical ephemeris to determine the binary phases at which they occurred. We present here a study of the distribution of asymptotic burst oscillation periods for a sample of 26 bursts from 4U 1636-53 observed with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The burst sample includes both archival and proprietary data and spans more than 4.5 years. We also present new optical light curves of V801 Arae, the optical counterpart of 4U 1636-53, obtained during 1998-2001. We use these optical data to refine the binary period measured by Augusteijn et al. to 3.7931206(152) hours. We show that a subset of approx. 70% of the bursts form a tightly clustered distribution of asymptotic periods consistent with a period stability of approx. 1 x 10(exp -4). The tightness of this distribution, made up of bursts spanning more than 4 years in time, suggests that the underlying period is highly stable, with a time to change the period of approx. 3 x 10(exp 4) yr. This is comparable to similar numbers derived for X-ray pulsars. We investigate the period and orbital phase data for our burst sample and show that it is consistent with binary motion of the neutron star with v(sub ns) sin i < 38 and 50 km/s at 90 and 99% confidence, respectively. We use this limit as well as previous radial velocity data to constrain the binary geometry and component masses in 4U 1636-53. Our results suggest that unless the neutron star is significantly more massive than 1.4 solar masses the secondary is

  3. Irradiation effects on 17-7 PH stainless steel, A-201 carbon steel, and titanium-6-percent-aluminum-4-percent-vanadium alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasse, R. A.; Hartley, C. B.

    1972-01-01

    Irradiation effects on three materials from the NASA Plum Brook Reactor Surveillance Program were determined. An increase of 105 K in the nil-ductility temperature for A-201 steel was observed at a fluence of approximately 3.1 x 10 to the 18th power neutrons/sq cm (neutron energy E sub n greater than 1.0 MeV). Only minor changes in the mechanical properties of 17-7 PH stainless steel were observed up to a fluence of 2 x 10 to the 21st power neutrons/sq cm (E sub n greater than 1.0 MeV). The titanium-6-percent-aluminum-4-percent-vanadium alloy maintained its notch toughness up to a fluence of 1 x 10 to the 21st power neutrons/sq cm (E sub n greater than 1.0 MeV).

  4. A Remarkable Three Hour Thermonuclear Burst from 4U 1820-30

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Brown, Edward F.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present a detailed observational and theoretical study of an approximately three hour long X-ray burst (the "super burst") observed by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) from the low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) 4U 1820-30. This is the longest X-ray burst ever observed from this source, and perhaps one of the longest ever observed in great detail from any source. We show that the super burst is thermonuclear in origin. Its peak luminosity of approximately 3.4 x 10(exp 38) ergs s(exp -1) is consistent with the helium Eddington limit for a neutron star at approximately 7 kpc, as well as the peak luminosity of other, shorter, thermonuclear bursts from the same source. The super burst begins in the decaying tail of a more typical (approximately equal to 20 s duration) thermonuclear burst. These shorter, more frequent bursts are well known helium flashes from this source. The level of the accretion driven flux as well as the observed energy release of upwards of 1.5 x 10(exp 42) ergs indicate that helium could not be the energy source for the super burst. We outline the physics relevant to carbon production and burning on helium accreting neutron stars and present calculations of the thermal evolution and stability of a carbon layer and show that this process is the most likely explanation for the super burst. Ignition at the temperatures in the deep carbon "ocean" requires greater than 30 times the mass of carbon inferred from the observed burst energetics unless the He flash is able to trigger a deflagration from a much smaller mass of carbon. We show, however, that for large columns of accreted carbon fuel, a substantial fraction of the energy released in the carbon burning layer is radiated away as neutrinos, and the heat that is conducted from the burning layer in large part flows inward, only to be released on timescales longer than the observed burst. Thus the energy released during the event possibly exceeds that observed in X-rays by more than a factor of

  5. Mobility spectrum of air ions at Tahkuse Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horrak, U.; Iher, H.; Luts, A.; Salm, J.; Tammet, H.

    1994-05-01

    Mobility spectra of air ions have been measured at a rural site in Estonia during several periods. The annual average mobility spectrum of natural small air ions is presented. The concentrations of two groups of air ions with mobilities 0.32-0.5 sq cm/(V s) and 0.5-2.5 sq cm/(V s) are not correlated; this fact indicates the different nature of the ions of the two groups. The air ions with mobilities 0.5-2.5 sq cm/(V s) are interpreted as cluster ions and the air ions with mobilities 0.32-0.5 sq cm/(V s) as charged aerosol particles that can be created in the process of ion-induced nucleation. A half-year average mobility spectrum of the large ions with mobilities 3.2 x 10(exp -4) - 1.5/(V s) is presented. The spectrum is well interpreted on the basis of the average size distribution of aerosol particles and on the theory of diffusion charging of the particles.

  6. Debinding Process of Fe-6Ni-4Cu Compact Fabricated by Metal Injection Molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jenn-Shing; Lin, Shih-Pin; Hon, Min-Hsiung; Wang, Moo-Chin

    2000-02-01

    The debinding process in the case of metal injection molding for fabrication of the Fe-6Ni-4Cu compact and variables such as temperature and time has been studied. The debinding process of multiple organic binders in the Fe-6Ni-4Cu compact was investigated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) weight loss and mercury porosimetry analysis. The weight loss of wax and SA dramatically increases from below 10 wt% to 76.0 wt% and 86.0 wt% after immersion in 35°C and 40°C n-hexane for 6 h, respectively. The interdiffusion coefficients of the binder and solvent are 9.763× 10-7 cm2/s and 1.295× 10-6 cm2/s, respectively. The temperature dependent interdiffusion coefficient for the Fe-6Ni-4Cu compact can be expressed as Dx=4.534× 10\\exp({-}5437.2/T). The distribution of pore size is about 0.1-1.9 μm for the Fe-6Ni-4Cu compact.

  7. The Effect of the Wall Contact and Post-Growth C001-Down on Defects in CdTe Crystals Grown by Contactless PVT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosz, W.; Grasza, K.; Dudley, M.; Raghothamachar, B.; Cai, L.; Durose, K.; Halliday, D.; Boyall, N. M.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In crystal growth, the quality of the final material may depend, among other factors, on its interaction with the walls of the ampoule during and after the growth, and on the rate of the crystal cool-down at the end of ate the process. To investigate the above phenomena, a series of CdTe crystal growth processes was carried out, The crystals were grown by physical vapor transport without contact with the side walls of the silica glass ampoules, applying the Low Supersaturation Nucleation technique. The source temperature was 930 C, the undercooling was a few degrees. The crystals, having the diameter of 25 mm, grew at the rate of a few mm per day. The post-growth cool-down to the room temperature was conducted at different rates, and lasted from a few minutes to four days. The crystals were characterized using chemical etching low temperature luminescence, and Synchrotron White Beam X-ray Topography techniques. The dislocation (etch pit) density was measured and its distribution was analyzed by comparison with Poisson curves and with the Normalized Radial Distribution Correlation Function. It was found that the contact of the crystal with silica leads to a strain field and high (in the 105 sq cm range) dislocation (etch pit) density. Similar defect concentrations were found in crystals subjected to fast post-growth cool-down. Typical EPD values for lower cool-down rates and in regions not affected by wall interactions are in the lower 10(exp 4) sq cm range. In some areas the actual dislocation density was about 10(exp 3) sq cm or even less. No apparent effect of the cool-down rate on polygonization was observed. A fine structure could be discerned in low-temperature PL spectra of crystals with low dislocation density.

  8. Study of the effects of MeV Ag, Cu, Au, and Sn implantation on the optical properties of LiNbO3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, E. K.; Ila, D.; Sarkisov, S.; Curley, M.; Poker, D. B.; Hensley, D. K.; Borel, C.

    1998-01-01

    The authors present the results of characterization of linear absorption and nonlinear refractive index of Au, Ag, Cu and Sn ion implantation into LiNbO3. Ag was implanted at 1.5 MeV to fluences of 2 to 17 x 17(exp 16)/sq cm at room temperature. Au and Cu were implanted to fluences of 5 to 20 x 10(exp 16)/sq cm at an energy of 2.0 MeV. Sn was implanted to a fluence of 1.6 x 10(exp 17)/sq cm at 160 kV. Optical absorption spectrometry indicated an absorption peak for the Au implanted samples after heat treatment at 1,000 C at approx. 620 nm. The Ag implanted samples absorption peaks shifted from approx. 450 nm before heat treatment to 550 nm after 500 C for 1h. Heat treatment at 800 C returned the Ag implanted crystals to a clear state. Cu nanocluster absorption peaks disappears at 500 C. No Sn clusters were observed by optical absorption or XRD. The size of the Ag and Au clusters as a function of heat treatment were determined from the absorption peaks. The Ag clusters did not change appreciably in size with heat treatment. The Au clusters increased from 3 to 9 nm diameter upon heat treatment at 1000 C. TEM analysis performed on a Au implanted crystal indicated the formation of Au nanocrystals with facets normal to the c-axis. Measurements of the nonlinear refractive indices were carried out using the Z-scan method with a tunable dye laser pumped by a frequency doubled mode-locked Nd:YAG laser. The dye laser had a 4.5 ps pulse duration time and 76 MHz pulse repetition rate (575 nm).

  9. Protein Crystals Grow Purer in Space: Physics of Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernov, Alex A.

    2000-01-01

    This presentation will summarize the quantitative experimental and theoretical results obtained by B.R. Thomas, P.G. Vekilov, D.C. Carter, A.M. Holmes, W.K. Widierow and the Author, the team with expertise in physics, biochemistry, crystallography and engineering. Impurities inhomogeneously trapped by a growing crystal - e.g., producing sectorial structure and/or striations - may induce macroscopic internal stress in it if an impurity molecule has slightly (less than 10%) different shape or volume than the regular one(s) they replace. We tested for the first time plasticity and measured Young modulus E of the triclinic, not cross-linked lysozyme by triple point bending technique. Triclinic lysozyme crystals are purely elastic with E similar or equal to 1/5 (raised dot) 10 (exp 9) partial derivative yn/sq cm. The strength limit, sigma (sub c) similar or equal to 10 (exp -3)E similar or equal to Epsilon (sub c), where sigma (sub c) and epsilon (sub c) are critical stress and strain, respectively. Scaling E and sigma (sub c) with the lattice spacing suggests similar binding stiffness in inorganic and biomolecular crystals. The inhomogeneous internal stress may be resolved in these brittle crystals either by cracking or by creation of misoriented mosaic blocks during, not after growth. If each impurity molecule induces in the lattice elementary strain epsilon (sub 0) similar or equal to 3 (raised dot) 10 (exp -2) (this is maximal elementary strain that can arise at the supersaturation DELTA mu/kT similar or equal to 2 and macroscopic molecular concentration difference between subsequent macrolayers or growth sectors is partial derivativeC similar or equal to 5 (raised dot) 10 (exp -3), the internal strain epsilon similar or equal to epsilon (sub 0) partial derivative C similar or equal to 10 (exp -4). Mosaic misorientation resolving such strain is approximately 30 arcsec. Tenfold increase of impurity concentration may cause cracking. Estimates of stress in an isometric

  10. Photodissociation of Peroxynitric Acid in the Near-IR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roehl, Coleen M.; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.; Zhang, Hui; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Wennberg, Paul O.

    2002-01-01

    Temperature-dependent near-IR photodissociation spectra were obtained for several vibrational overtone transitions of peroxynitric acid (HNO4) with a tunable OPO photolysis/OH laser-induced-fluorescence system. Band-integrated photodissociation cross-sections (definity integral of sigma(sub diss)), determined relative to that for the 3nu(sub 1), OH stretching overtone, were measured for three dissociative bands. Assuming unit quantum efficiency for photodissociation of 3nu(sub 1), we find 2nu(sub 1) + nu(sub 3)(8242/cm) = (1.21 x 10(exp -20) (independent of temperature), 2nu(sub 1) (6900/cm) = 4.09 x 10(exp 18) * e(sup (-826,5/T)) (295 K greater than T greater than 224 K), and nu(sub 1) + 2nu(sub 3) (6252/cm) = 1.87 x 10(exp -19) * e(sup (- 1410.7/T)) (278 K greater than T greater than 240 K) sq cm/molecule cm. The photodissociation cross-sections are independent of pressure over the range 2 to 40 Torr. Temperature-dependent quantum yields (phi) for these transitions were obtained using integrated absorption cross-sections (definity integral of sigma(sub abs)) of HNO4 overtone vibrations measured with a FTIR spectrometer. In the atmosphere, photodissociation in the infrared is dominated by excitation of the first overtone of the OH stretching vibration (2nu((sub 1)). Inclusion of all dissociative HNO4 overtone and combination transitions yields a daytime IR photolysis rate of approximately 1 x 10(esp -1)/s. This process significantly shortens the estimated lifetime of HNO4 in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere.

  11. Organic Chemistry of Low-Mass Star-Forming Cores. I. 7 mm Spectroscopy of Chamaeleon MMSl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordiner, Martn A.; Charnley, Steven B.; Wirtstroem, Eva S.; Smith, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Observations are presented of emission lines from organic molecules at frequencies 32-50 GHz in the vicinity of Chamaeleon MMS1. This chemically rich dense cloud core harbors an extremely young, very low luminosity protostellar object and is a candidate first hydrostatic core. Column densities are derived and emission maps are presented for species including polyynes, cyanopolyynes, sulphuretted carbon chains, and methanol. The polyyne emission peak lies about 5000 AU from the protostar, whereas methanol peaks about 15,000 AU away. Averaged over the telescope beam, the molecular hydrogen number density is calculated to be 10(exp 6) / cubic cm and the gas kinetic temperature is in the range 5-7 K. The abundances of long carbon chains are very large and are indicative of a nonequilibrium carbon chemistry; C6H and HC7N column densities are 5.9(sup +2.9) (sub -1.3) x 10(exp 11) /cubic cm and 3.3 (sup +8.0)(sub -1.5) x 10(exp 12)/sq cm, respectively, which are similar to the values found in the most carbon-chain-rich protostars and prestellar cores known, and are unusually large for star-forming gas. Column density upper limits were obtained for the carbon chain anions C4H(-) and C6H(-), with anion-to-neutral ratios [C4H(-)]/[C4H] < 0.02% and [C6H(-l)]/[C6H] < 10%, consistent with previous observations in interstellar clouds and low-mass protostars. Deuterated HC,3 and c-C3H2 were detected. The [DC3N]/[HC,N] ratio of approximately 4% is consistent with the value typically found in cold interstellar gas.

  12. Photochemistry of Saturn's Atmosphere. 1; Hydrocarbon Chemistry and Comparisons with ISO Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Julianne I.; Bezard, Bruno; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Gladstone, G. Randall; Feuchtgruber, Helmut; Allen, Mark

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the details of hydrocarbon photochemistry on Saturn, we have developed a one-dimensional diurnally averaged model that couples hydrocarbon and oxygen photochemistry, molecular and eddy diffusion, radiative transfer, and condensation. The model results are compared with observations from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) to place tighter constraints on molecular abundances, to better define Saturn's eddy diffusion coefficient profile, and to identify important chemical schemes that control the abundances of the observable hydrocarbons in Saturn's upper atmosphere. From the ISO observations, we determine that the column 12 densities of CH3, CH3C2H, and C4H2 above 10 mbar are 4 (sup +2) (sub -1.5) x 10 (exp 13) cm (sup -2), (1.1 plus or minus 0.3) x 10 (exp 15) cm (exp -2), and (1.2 plus or minus 0.3) x 10 (exp 14) cm (sup -2), respectively. The observed ISO emission features also indicate C2H2 mixing ratios of 1.2 (sup +0.9) (sub -0.6) x 10 (exp -6) at 0.3 mbar and (2.7 plus or minus 0.8) x 10 (exp -7) at 1.4 mbar, and a C2H6 mixing ratio of (9 plus or minus 2.5) x 10 (exp -6) at 0.5 mbar. Upper limits are provided for C2H4, CH2CCH2, C3H8, and C6H2 sensitivity of the model results to variations in the eddy diffusion coefficient profile, the solar flux, the CH4 photolysis branching ratios, the atomic hydrogen influx, and key reaction rates are discussed in detail. We find that C4H2 and CH3C2H are particularly good tracers of important chemical processes and physical conditions in Saturn's upper atmosphere, and C2H6 is a good tracer of the eddy diffusion coefficient in Saturn's lower stratosphere. The eddy diffusion coefficient must be smaller than approximately 3 x 10 (exp 4) sq cm s (sup -1) at pressures greater than 1 mbar in order to reproduce the C2H6 abundance inferred from ISO observations. The eddy diffusion coefficients in the upper stratosphere could be constrained by observations of CH3 radicals if the low-temperature chemistry of CH3 were

  13. Flexural rigidity of the Basin and Range-Colorado Plateau-Rocky Mountain transition from coherence analysis of gravity and topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowery, Anthony R.; Smith, Robert B.

    1994-01-01

    Stochastic inversion for flexural loads and flexural rigidity of the continental elastic layer can be accomplished most effectively by using the coherence of gravity and topography. However, the spatial resolution of coherence analysis has been limited by use of two-dimensional periodogram spectra from very large (greater than 10(exp 5)sq km) windows that generally include multiple tectonic features. Using a two-dimensional spectral estimator based on the maximum entropy method, the spatial resolution of flexural proerties can be enhanced by a factor of 4 or more, enabling more detailed analysis at the scale of individual tectonic features. This new approach is used to map the spatial variation of flexural rigidity along the Basin and Range transition to the Colorado Plateau and Middle Rocky Mountains physiographic provinces. Large variations in flexural isostatic responses are found, with rigidities ranging from as low as 8.7 x 10(exp 20) N m (elastic thickness (T(sub e) = 4.6 km) in the Basin and Range to as high as 4.1 x 10(exp 24) N m T(sub e) = 77 km) in the Middle Rocky Mountains. These results compare favorably woith independent determinations of flexural rigidity in the region. Areas of low flexural rigidity correlate strongly with areas of high surface heat flow, as is expected from the contingence of flexural rigidity on a temperature-dependent flow law. Also, late Cenozoic normal faults with large displacements are found primarily in area of low flexural rigidity region. The highest flexural rigidity is found within the Archean Wyoming craton, where evidence suggests that deeply rooted cratonic lithosphere may play a role in determining the distribution of tectonism at the surface.

  14. Observations of 4U 1700-37 with BATSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, B. C.; Finger, M. H.; Harmon, B. A.; Paciesas, W. S.; Fishman, G. J.; Wilson, R. B.; Wilson, C. A.; Brock, M. N.; Briggs, M. S.; Pendleton, G. N.; Cominsky, L. R.; Roberts, M. S.

    1996-01-01

    The eclipsing binary X-ray source 4U 1700-37 has been continually monitored by the BATSE experiment on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory since the spring of 1991. Using source measurements at times of Earth occultation, we observe an average (uneclipsed) flux of 0.23 crab in the 20-120 keV band. The flux is highly variable, with occasional flaring behavior on timescales from hundreds of seconds to several hours and intensities as bright as 1 crab. The uneclipsed spectrum is well represented by an optically thin thermal bremsstrahlung model with a temperature of 25 keV independent of source intensity or orbital phase. An upper limit of 4% on the pulse fraction has been obtained for pulse periods between 2 and 700 s. Average orbital light curves from almost 1000 days of occultation measurements have been constructed. These profiles are used to measure: (1) the eclipse semiangle, Theta(sub E) = 28.6 deg +/- 2.1 deg in the 20-120 keV band, and (2) the decrease in orbital period, P(dot)/P = -(3.3 +/- 0.6) x 10(exp -7) 1/ yr. Estimates of system physical parameters are obtained using Monte Carlo simulations to propagate errors in measured and assumed parameters. For the X-ray source mass we find M(sub x) = 2.6(sub -1.4)(sup +2.3) solar mass, and for the mass and radius of the optical companion, M(sub 0) = 30(sub -7)(sup +11) solar mass and R(sub 0) = 18(sub -2)(sup +2) solar radius.

  15. Effect of Nb2O5 and V2O5 addition on the superconducting properties of YBa2Cu3O(y) thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivas, S.; Bhatnagar, A. K.; Pinto, R.; Pai, S. P.; Apte, P. R.; Purandare, S. C.; Souza, C. P. D.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of Nb2O5 and V2O5 addition on the superconducting properties and microstructure of YBa2Cu3O(y) has been studied in thin films. Polycrystalline targets for laser ablation were prepared by mixing high purity V2O5 or Nb2O5 powders with a well characterized YBa2Cu3O(y) powder in the range 0 to 4 wt percent by solid state reaction method. Thin films (approximately 1500 A thickness) of the above targets were grown on (100) SrTiO3 (STO) and (100) LaAlO3 (LAO) substrates at 700 C temperature by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. In the case of Nb2O5 addition we have noticed an increase in J(sub c) up to 0.5 wt percent and higher additive concentration (greater than 0.5 wt percent) have degraded the superconducting properties. However, in the case of V2O3 addition, there is an improvement in current density and microstructural properties up to 1 wt percent and the superconducting properties degrade for concentrations greater than 1 wt percent. The best J(sub c) for 0.5 wt percent of Nb2O5 added YBCO thin film is 1.6 x 10(exp 6) A/sq cm and for that of V2O5 added sample is 3.4 x 10(exp 6) A/sq cm at 77 K as compared to the pure YBa2Cu3O(y) (YBCO) film J(sub c) (1.2 x 10(exp 6) A/sq cm) observed on STO substrates. The reason for improvement in J(sub c) and microstructural properties in the case of V2O5 addition could be due to the low melting of V2O5 (690 C) which can act as a very good surfactant during deposition. Over all, we have realized that Nb2O5 addition or V2O5 addition to YBCO have shown significant improvement over the undoped YBa2Cu3O(7-x) films grown under identical conditions.

  16. The Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph: Instrument, goals, and science results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.; Heap, S. R.; Beaver, E. A.; Boggess, A.; Carpenter, K. G.; Ebbets, D. C.; Hutchings, J. B.; Jura, M.; Leckrone, D. S.; Linsky, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS), currently in Earth orbit on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), operates in the wavelength range 1150-3200 A with spectral resolutions (lambda/delta lambda) of approximately 2 x 10(exp 3), 2 x 10(exp 4), and 1 x 10(exp 3). The instrument and its development from inception, its current status, the approach to operations, representative results in the major areas of the scientific goals, and prospects for the future are described.

  17. Properties of large area ErBa2Cu3O(7-x) thin films deposited by ionized cluster beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levenson, L. L.; Stan, Mark A.; Bhasin, Kul B.

    1991-01-01

    ErBa2Cu3O(7-x) films have been produced by simultaneous deposition of Er, Ba, and Cu from three ionized cluster beam (ICB) sources at acceleration voltages of 0.3 to 0.5 kV. Combining ozone oxidation with ICB deposition at 650 C eliminated any need of post annealing processing. The substrates were rotated at 10 rotations per minute during the deposition which took place at a rate of about 3 to 4 nm. Films with areas up to 70 mm in diameter have been made by ICB deposition. These films, 100 nm thick, were deposited on SrTiO3 (100) substrates at 650 C in a mixture of six percent O3 in O2 at a total pressure of 4 x 10(exp -4) Torr. They had T(sub c) ranging from 84.3 K to 86.8 K over a 70 mm diameter and J(sub c) above 10(exp 6) A/sq cm at 77 K. X ray diffraction measurements of the three samples showed preferential c-axis orientation normal to the substrate surface. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) of the three samples also show some texture dependence on sample position. For the three samples, there is a correlation between SEM texture, full width at half-maximum of rocking curves and J(sub c) versus temperature curves.

  18. Search for nuclearites using the MACRO detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlen, S.; Ambrosio, M.; Antolini, R.; Auriemma, G.; Baker, R.; Baldini, A.; Barbarino, G. C.; Barish, B. C.; Battistoni, G.; Bellotti, R.

    1992-09-01

    A negative search using 1/12 of the eventual MACRO detector has yielded nuclearite flux limits of 1.1 x 10 exp -14/sq cm/sr/s for in between 10 exp -10 and 0.1 g, and 5.5 x 10 exp -15/sq cm/sr/s for m greater than 0.1 g. We have modified the formula of De Rujula and Glashow for the light yield of nuclearites to include the UV light absorbed and reemitted in the visible region, and proved that the MACRO sensitivity extends almost to the escape velocity of the earth. Our flux limit, therefore, can be used to address nuclearites that are possibly trapped in the solar system.

  19. Thermal annealing of GaAs concentrator solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, H. B.; Brinker, David J.

    1991-01-01

    Isochronal and isothermal annealing tests were performed on GaAs concentrator cells which were irradiated with electrons of various energies to fluences up to 1 x 10(exp 16) e/sq cm. The results include: (1) For cells irradiated with electrons from 0.7 to 2.3 MeV, recovery decreases with increasing electron energy. (2) As determined by the un-annealed fractions, isothermal and isochronal annealing produce the same recovery. Also, cells irradiated to 3 x 10(exp 15) or 1 x 10(exp 16) e/sq cm recover to similar un-annealed fractions. (3) Some significant annealing is being seen at 150 C although very long times are required.

  20. Radio Detections During Two State Transitions of the Intermediate-Mass Black Hole HLX-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Natalie; Cseh, David; Lenc, Emil; Godet, Olivier; Barret, Didier; Corbel, Stephane; Farrell, Sean; Fender, Robert; Gehrels, Neil; Heywood, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Relativistic jets are streams of plasma moving at appreciable fractions of the speed of light. They have been observed from stellar-mass black holes (approx. 3 to 20 solar masses) as well as supermassive black holes (approx.. 10(exp 6) to 10(exp 9) Solar Mass) found in the centers of most galaxies. Jets should also be produced by intermediate-mass black holes (approx. 10(exp 2) to 10(exp 5) Solar Mass), although evidence for this third class of black hole has, until recently, been weak. We report the detection of transient radio emission at the location of the intermediate-mass black hole candidate ESO 243-49 HLX-1, which is consistent with a discrete jet ejection event. These observations also allow us to refine the mass estimate of the black hole to be between approx. 9 × 10(exp 3) Solar Mass and approx. 9 × 10(exp 4) Solar Mass.

  1. RXTE All-Sky Slew Survey. Catalog of X-Ray Sources at B Greater Than 10 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Revnivtsev, M.; Sazonov, S.; Jahoda, K.; Gilfanov, M.

    2004-01-01

    We report results of a serendipitous hard X-ray (3-20 keV), nearly all-sky (absolute value of b greater than l0 deg.) survey based on RXTE/PCA observations performed during satellite reorientations in 1996-2002. The survey is 80% (90%) complete to a 4(sigma) limiting flux of approx. = 1.8 (2.5) x 10(exp -l1) erg/s sq cm in the 3-20 keV band. The achieved sensitivity in the 3-8 keV and 8-20 keV subbands is similar to and an order of magnitude higher than that of the previously record HEAO-1 A1 and HEAO-1 A4 all-sky surveys, respectively. A combined 7 x 10(exp 3) sq. deg area of the sky is sampled to flux levels below l0(exp -11) erg/ s sq cm (3-20 keV). In total 294 sources are detected and localized to better than 1 deg. 236 (80%) of these can be confidently associated with a known astrophysical object; another 22 likely result from the superposition of 2 or 3 closely located known sources. 35 detected sources remain unidentified, although for 12 of these we report a likely soft X-ray counterpart from the ROSAT all-sky survey bright source catalog. Of the reliably identified sources, 63 have local origin (Milky Way, LMC or SMC), 64 are clusters of galaxies and 100 are active galactic nuclei (AGN). The fact that the unidentified X-ray sources have hard spectra suggests that the majority of them are AGN, including highly obscured ones (N(sub H) greater than l0(exp 23)/sq cm). For the first time we present a log N-log S diagram for extragalactic sources above 4 x l0(exp -12) erg/ s sq cm at 8-20 keV. Key words. cosmo1ogy:observations - diffuse radiation - X-rays general

  2. Vertical Distributions of PH3 in Saturn from Observations of Its 1-0 and 3-2 Rotational Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orton, G. S.; Serabyn, E.; Lee, Y. T.

    2000-01-01

    Far-infrared Fourier-transform spectrometer measurements of the 1-0 and 3-2 PH3 transitions in Saturn's disk near 267 and 800 GHz (8.9 and 26.7/cm), respectively, were analyzed simultaneously to derive a global mean profile for the PH3 vertical mixing ratio between 100 and 600 mbar total pressure. The far-infrared spectrum is relatively free from spectral interlopers, suffers minimal absorption or scattering by atmospheric particulates, and contains intrinsically weak PH3 lines that are sensitive to a range of atmospheric depths. The combined spectra are inconsistent with a uniform tropospheric mixing ratio, even with a stratospheric cut-off. They are consistent with a volume mixing ratio of PH3 that drops from 1.2 x 10(exp -5) at 645 mbar pressure to a value of 4.1 x 10(exp -7) at 150 mbar pressure, a decrease that is linear is log abundance vs log pressure. The mixing ratio could drop even more quickly at atmospheric pressures below 150 mbar and still be consistent with the data. The mixing ratio may well remain constant with depth for pressures above 630 mbar. The maximum PH3 mixing ratio in this model is consistent with a [P]/[H] ratio in the deep atmosphere that is about a factor of 10 higher than solar composition. Such a model is consistent with rapid mixing up to the radiative-convective boundary and transport by, for example, vertical waves just above this boundary. In the best fitting model, the eddy diffusion coefficient is approximately 10(exp 4) sq cm near 630 mbar, and it must increase with altitude. The predominant PH3 loss mechanisms are direct photolysis by UV radiation and scavenging by H atoms produced by the photolysis.

  3. An XMM-Newton Observation of 4U1755-33 in Quiescence: Evidence for a Fossil X-Ray Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelini, Lorella; White, Nicholas E.

    2003-01-01

    We report an XMM-Newton observation of the Low mass X-ray Binary (LMXB) and black hole candidate 4U1755-33. This source had been a bright persistent source for at least 25 yrs, but in 1995 entered an extended quiescent phase. 4U1755-33 was not detected with an upper limit to the 2-10 keV luminosity of 5 x 10(exp 31) d(sup 2) (sub 4kpc) ergs per second (where d(sub 4kpc) is the distance in units of 4 kpc) - consistent with the luminosity of other black hole candidates in a quiescent state. An unexpected result is the discovery of a narrow 7 arc min long X-ray jet centered on the position of 4Ul755-33. The spectrum of the jet is similar to that of jets observed from other galactic and extragalactic sources, and may have been ejected from 4Ul755-33 when it was bright. Jets are a feature of accreting black holes, and the detection of a fossil jet provides additional evidence supporting the black hole candidacy of 4U1755-33. The spectral properties of three bright serendipitous sources in the field are reported and it is suggested these are background active galactic nuclei sources.

  4. Meridional Distribution of CH3C2H and C4H2 in Saturn's Stratosphere from CIRS/Cassini Limb and Nadir Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerlet, Sandrine; Fouchet, Thierry; Bezard, Bruno; Moses, Julianne I.; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Flasar, F. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Limb and nadir spectra acquired by Cassini/CIRS (Composite InfraRed Spectrometer) are analyzed in order to derive, for the first time, the meridional variations of diacetylene (C4H2) and methylacetylene (CH3C2H) mixing ratios in Saturn's stratosphere, from 5 hPa up to 0.05 hPa and 80 deg S to 45 deg N. We find that the C4H2 and CH3C2H meridional distributions mimic that of acetylene (C2H2), exhibiting small-scale variations that are not present in photochemical model predictions. The most striking feature of the meridional distribution of both molecules is an asymmetry between mid-southern and mid-northern latitudes. The mid-southern latitudes are found depleted in hydrocarbons relative to their northern counterparts. In contrast, photochemical models predict similar abundances at north and south mid-latitudes. We favor a dynamical explanation for this asymmetry, with upwelling in the south and downwelling in the north, the latter coinciding with the region undergoing ring shadowing. The depletion in hydrocarbons at mid-southern latitudes could also result from chemical reactions with oxygen-bearing molecules. Poleward of 60 deg S, at 0.1 and 0.05 hPa, we find that the CH3C2H and C4H2 abundances increase dramatically. This behavior is in sharp contradiction with photochemical model predictions, which exhibit a strong decrease towards the south pole. Several processes could explain our observations, such as subsidence, a large vertical eddy diffusion coefficient at high altitudes, auroral chemistry that enhances CH3C2H and C4H2 production, or shielding from photolysis by aerosols or molecules produced from auroral chemistry. However, problems remain with all these hypotheses, including the lack of similar behavior at lower altitudes. Our derived mean mixing ratios at 0.5 hPa of (2.4 +/- 0.3) 10(exp -10) for C4H2 and of (1.1 +/- 0.3) 10(exp -9) for CH3C2H are compatible with the analysis of global-average ISO observations performed by Moses et al. Finally, we provide

  5. Dissociation of CH4 by electron impact: Production of metastable hydrogen and carbon fragments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, T. G.; Carnahan, B. L.; Zipf, E. C.

    1974-01-01

    Metastable fragments produced by electron impact excitation of CH4 have been investigated for incident electron energies from threshold to 300 eV. Only metastable hydrogen and carbon atoms were observed. Onset energies for the production of metastable hydrogen atoms were observed at electron impact energies of 22.0 + or - .5 eV, 25.5 + or - .6 eV, 36.7 + or - .6 eV and 66 + or - 3 eV, and at 26.6 + or - .6 eV for the production of metastable carbon atoms. Most of the fragments appear to have been formed in high-lying Rydberg states. The total metastable hydrogen cross section reaches a maximum value of approximately 1 X 10 to the minus 18th power sq cm at 100 eV. At the same energy, the metastable carbon cross section is 2 x 10 to the minus 19th power sq cm.

  6. Gamma-ray observations of Ophiuchus with EGRET: The diffuse emission and point sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, S. D.; Digel, S. W.; De Geus, E. J.; Kanbach, G.

    1994-01-01

    Observations of the Ophiuchus region made with the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) during the first 2 1/2 years of operation show the diffuse emission from the interstellar gas in Ophiuchus as well as variable emission from two point sources. The gamma-ray emission is modeled in terms of cosmic-ray interactions with atomic and molecular hydrogen in Ophiuchus and with low-energy photons along the line of sight. The model also includes the flux from the two point sources and an isotropic diffuse contribution. The cosmic-ray density is assumed to be uniform. The derived ratio of molecular hydrogen column density to integrated CO intensity is (1.1 +/- 0.2) x 10(exp 20) H-mols/sq cm (K km/s)(exp -1). At the sensitivity and resolution of the gamma-ray data, no variation of this ratio over the modeled region is discernible, nor are any regions of enhanced cosmic-ray density apparent. The model was fitted to seven narrow energy bands to obtain the energy depedence of the gamma-ray production function and the spectra of the point sources. The derived production function is in good agreement with theoretical calculations and the local cosmic-ray electron and proton spectra. The positions of the point sources were determined from maximum likelihood analysis of the gamma-ray emission observed in excess of the diffuse model. We identify one point source with the quasar PKS 1622-253, which has an average flux, E greater than 100 MeV, of (2.5 +/- 0.5) x 10(exp -7) photons/sq cm/s and photon spectral index -1.9 +/- 0.3. The other source, denoted GRO J1631-27, has not yet been identified at other wavelengths. Its average flux, E greater than 100 MeV, is (1.1 +/- 0.4) x 10(exp -7) photons/sq cm/s; however, its spectral index is poorly determined. The spectral index and intensity of the isotropic contribution to the model agree well with the extragalactic diffuse emission derived from the SAS 2 data.

  7. BeppoSAX Observation of NGC 7582: Constraints on the X-Ray Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, T. J.; Fiore, F.; Perola, G. C.; Matt, G.; George, I. M.; Piro, L.; Bassani, L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a BeppoSAX observation of NGC 7582 made during 1998 November and an optical spectrum taken in 1998 October. The new X-ray data reveal a previously unknown hard X-ray component in NGC 7582, peaking close to 20 keV. Rapid variability is observed with correlated changes in the 5-10 and 13-60 keV bands indicating that a single continuum component, produced by the active nucleus, provides the, dominant flux across both bands. Comparison between RXTE and BeppoSAX data reveals changes in the 2 - 10 keV flux on timescales of months. Changes in the nuclear X-ray flux appear unrelated to the gradual decline in optical flux noted since the high-state in 1998 July. The 0.5 - 2 keV flux of NGC 7582 is not significantly variable within the BeppoSAX observation, but has brightened by a factor of approximately 2 since the ASCA observation of 1994. While there is some concern about contamination from spatially-unresolved sources, the long-term variability in soft X-ray flux seems most likely associated with the nucleus or an event within the host galaxy of NGC 7582. The 2 - 100 keV spectrum is well fit by a powerlaw of photon index Gamma = 1.95(sup +0.09, sub -0.18) steeper by Delta.Gamma approximately equal 0.40 than the index during the 1994 ASCA observation. The X-ray continuum is attenuated by a thick absorber of N(H) approximately 1.6 x10(exp 24)/sq cm covering approximately 60(sup +10%, sub -14%) of the nucleus plus a screen with N(sub H) approximately 1.4 x 10(exp 23)/ sq cm covering the entire nucleus. Comparison of the BeppoSAX and ASCA spectra shows an increase in the full screen by Delta.N(sub H) approximately equal 7 x 10(exp 22)/sq cm since 1994, confirming the absorption variability found by Xue et al. The increase in soft X-ray flux between 1994 and 1998 is consistent with the appearance of holes in the full screen allowing approximately < 1% of the nuclear flux to escape, and producing some clear lines-of-sight to the broad-line-region. The data

  8. Growth of carbon-doped base GaAs/AlGaAs HBT by gas-source MBE using TEG, TEA, TMG, AsH3, and Si2H6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Hideyasu; Fujii, Toshio; Sandhu, Adarsh; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Ishikawa, Hideaki; Okamoto, Naoya; Yokoyama, Naoki

    1992-05-01

    High-performance carbon-doped-base GaAs/AlGaAs heterobipolar transistors (HBTs) were grown by gas-source MBE using only gaseous sources including dopant sources. The AlGaAs emitter layer was doped with Si from uncracked SI2H6 and the base layer was doped with carbon from TMG. From SIMS analysis it was confirmed that a well-defined emitter-base junction with sharp carbon profile was obtained. The base-current ideality factor from the Gummel plot was 1.47, and the emitter-base junction ideality factor was 1.12. A high dc current gain of 53 was obtained at a current density of 4 x 10 exp 4 A/sq cm. The device characteristics of our carbon-doped HBTs were found to be stable under current stress.

  9. Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Cavalieri, Donald J.

    2005-01-01

    Sea ice covers vast areas of the polar oceans, with ice extent in the Northern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 7 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September to approximately 15 x 10(exp 6) sq km in March and ice extent in the Southern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 3 x 10(exp 6) sq km in February to approximately 18 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September. These ice covers have major impacts on the atmosphere, oceans, and ecosystems of the polar regions, and so as changes occur in them there are potential widespread consequences. Satellite data reveal considerable interannual variability in both polar sea ice covers, and many studies suggest possible connections between the ice and various oscillations within the climate system, such as the Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and Antarctic Oscillation, or Southern Annular Mode. Nonetheless, statistically significant long-term trends are also apparent, including overall trends of decreased ice coverage in the Arctic and increased ice coverage in the Antarctic from late 1978 through the end of 2003, with the Antarctic ice increases following marked decreases in the Antarctic ice during the 1970s. For a detailed picture of the seasonally varying ice cover at the start of the 21st century, this chapter includes ice concentration maps for each month of 2001 for both the Arctic and the Antarctic, as well as an overview of what the satellite record has revealed about the two polar ice covers from the 1970s through 2003.

  10. Sea Ice Concentration and Extent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2014-01-01

    Among the most seasonal and most dynamic parameters on the surface of the Earth is sea ice which at any one time covers about 3-6% of the planet. In the Northern Hemisphere, sea ice grows in extent from about 6 x 10(exp 6) sq km to 16 x 10(exp 6) sq km, while in the Southern Hemisphere, it grows from about 3 x 10(exp 6) sq km to about 19 x 10(exp 6) sq km (Comiso, 2010; Gloersen et al., 1992). Sea ice is up to about 2-3 m thick in the Northern Hemisphere and about 1 m thick in the Southern Hemisphere (Wadhams, 2002), and compared to the average ocean depth of about 3 km, it is a relatively thin, fragile sheet that can break due to waves and winds or melt due to upwelling of warm water. Being constantly advected by winds, waves, and currents, sea ice is very dynamic and usually follows the directions of the many gyres in the polar regions. Despite its vast expanse, the sea ice cover was previously left largely unstudied and it was only in recent years that we have understood its true impact and significance as related to the Earths climate, the oceans, and marine life.

  11. A degree scale anisotropy measurement of the cosmic microwave background near the star Gamma Ursae Minoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundersen, J. O.; Clapp, A. C.; Devlin, M.; Holmes, W.; Fischer, M. L.; Meinhold, P. R.; Lange, A. E.; Lubin, P. M.; Richards, P. L.; Smoot, G. F.

    1993-08-01

    Results from a search for anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) are presented from the third flight of the Millimeter-wave Anisotropy experiment. The CMB observation occurred over 1.37 hours and covered a 6.24 sq deg area of the sky where very little foreground emission is expected. Significant correlated structure is observed at 6 and 9/cm. At 12/cm we place an upper limit on the structure. The relative amplitudes at 6, 9, and 12/cm are consistent with a CMB spectrum. The spectrum of the structure is inconsistent with thermal emission from known forms of interstellar dust. Synchrotron and free-free emission would both require unusually flat spectral indices at cm wavelengths in order to account for the amplitude of the observed structure. Although known systematic errors are not expected to contribute significantly to any of the three optical channels, excess sidelobe contamination cannot be definitively ruled out. If all the structure is attributed to CMB anisotropy, a value of the weighted rms of the 6 and 9/cm channels of Delta T/T(CMB) = 4.7 +/- 0.8 x 10 exp -5 (+/- 1 sigma) was measured. If the CMB anisotropy is assumed to have a Gaussian autocorrelation function with a coherence angle of 25 arcmin, then the most probable value is Delta T/T(CMB) = 4.2 +1.7 or -1.1 x 10 exp -5, where the +/- refers to the 95 percent confidence limits.

  12. Suzaku Observes Weak Flares from IGRJ17391-3021 Representing a Common Low-Activity State in this SFXT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodaghee, A.; Tomsick, J. A.; Rodriquez, J.; Chaty, S.; Pottschmidt, K.; Walter, R.; Romano, P.

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of a 37-ks observation of the supergiant fast X-ray transient (SFXT) IGRJ17391 -3021 (=XTEJ1739-302) gathered with Suzaku. The source evolved from quiescence to a low-activity level culminating in three weak flares lasting approx.3 ks each in which the peak luminosity is only a factor of 5 times that of the pre-flare luminosity. The minimum observed luminosity was 1.3 x 10(exp 33) erg/s (d/2.7 kpc)(exp 2) in the 0.5-10 keV range. The weak flares are accompanied by significant changes in the spectral parameters including a column density (N(sub H) = (4.1(+0.4/-0.5)) x 10(exp 22)/sq cm) that is approx.2-9 times the absorption measured during quiescence. Accretion of obscuring clumps of stellar wind material can explain both the small flares and the increase in NH. Placing this observation in the context of the recent Swift monitoring campaign, we find that weak-flaring episodes, or at least epochs of enhanced activity just above the quiescent level but well below the moderately bright or high-luminosity outbursts, represent more than 60+/-5% of all observations in the 0.5-10keV energy range making this the most common state in the emission behavior of IGRJ17391 -3021.

  13. An observation of the Galactic center region with the HEXAGONE high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matteson, J.; Pelling, M.; Bowman, B.; Briggs, M.; Gruber, D.; Lingenfelter, R.; Peterson, L.; Lin, R.; Smith, D.; Feffer, P.

    1991-01-01

    The Galactic center region was observed for 6 hours on May 22, 1989 from a high altitude balloon with the HEXAGONE high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer. The instrument had a 285 sq/cm array of cooled germanium detectors with an energy resolution of 2.2 keV at 511 keV and an 18 deg FWHM field of view. The 511 keV gamma-rays from electron-positron annihilation and 1809 keV gamma-rays from the radioactive decay of Al-26 were observed to have fluxes of 8.9 x 10 exp -4 and 1.9 x 10 exp -4 ph/cm-s, respectively. Continuum emission was detected from 20 to 800 keV and preliminary results have been obtained for the spectrum. Below 120 keV this is well described by power law with a slope of -2.6. In the 120-250 keV band the spectrum contains a broad linelike feature. This is interpreted as the result of Compton backscattering of about 511 keV photons from a compact source of electron-positron annihilation radiation.

  14. Detection of interstellar N2O: A new molecule containing an N-O bond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziurys, L. M.; Apponi, A. J.; Hollis, J. M.; Snyder, L. E.

    1994-01-01

    A new interstellar molecule, N2O, known as nitrous oxide or 'laughing gas,' has been detected using the NRAO 12 m telescope. The J = 3 - 2, 4 - 3, 5 - 4, and 6 - 5 rotational transitions of this species at 75, 100, 125, and 150 GHz, respectively, were observed toward Sgr B2(M). The column density derived for N2O in this source is N(sub tot) approx. 10(exp 15)/sq. cm, which corresponds to a fractional abundance of approx. 10(exp -9), relative to H2. This value implies abundance ratios of N2O/NO approx. 0.1 and N2O/HNO approx. 3 in the Galactic center. Such ratios are in excellent agreement with predictions of ion-molecule models of interstellar chemistry using early-time calculations and primarily neutral-neutral reactions. N2O is the third interstellar molecule detected thus far containing an N-O bond. Such bonds cannot be so rare as previously thought.

  15. ZnGeP2 grown by the liquid encapsulated Czochralski method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobgood, H. M.; Henningsen, T.; Thomas, R. N.; Hopkins, R. H.; Ohmer, M. C.; Mitchel, W. C.; Fischer, D. W.; Hegde, S. M.; Hopkins, F. K.

    1993-04-01

    The growth of ZnGeP2 by the liquid encapsulated Czochralski method is reported for the first time herein. Large boules Of ZnGeP2, with diameters up to 40 mm and weights up to 400 gm were grown by Czochralski pulling from B2O3 encapsulated melts under high pressure (20 atm Ar) using axial gradients lower than 120 C/cm. Boules pulled at less than 4 mm/h exhibited large (50 x 20 x 15 cu mm) monocrystalline grains of alpha-phase ZnGeP2 with room temperature electrical properties of p-type conduction, carrier concentrations ranging from 10 exp 12 to 10 exp 16/cu cm, and mobilities of 20 sq cm/V sec or less. Optical samples exhibited broad IR transmission (0.7 to 12.5 microns), second harmonic generation at 4.7 microns with 7.2 percent conversion efficiency, a broad subband gap photoluminescence signature, and near band-edge absorption similar to that observed in Bridgman-grown ZnGeP2.

  16. A degree scale anisotropy measurement of the cosmic microwave background near the star Gamma Ursae Minoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundersen, J. O.; Clapp, A. C.; Devlin, M.; Holmes, W.; Fischer, M. L.; Meinhold, P. R.; Lange, A. E.; Lubin, P. M.; Richards, P. L.; Smoot, G. F.

    1993-01-01

    Results from a search for anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) are presented from the third flight of the Millimeter-wave Anisotropy experiment. The CMB observation occurred over 1.37 hours and covered a 6.24 sq deg area of the sky where very little foreground emission is expected. Significant correlated structure is observed at 6 and 9/cm. At 12/cm we place an upper limit on the structure. The relative amplitudes at 6, 9, and 12/cm are consistent with a CMB spectrum. The spectrum of the structure is inconsistent with thermal emission from known forms of interstellar dust. Synchrotron and free-free emission would both require unusually flat spectral indices at cm wavelengths in order to account for the amplitude of the observed structure. Although known systematic errors are not expected to contribute significantly to any of the three optical channels, excess sidelobe contamination cannot be definitively ruled out. If all the structure is attributed to CMB anisotropy, a value of the weighted rms of the 6 and 9/cm channels of Delta T/T(CMB) = 4.7 +/- 0.8 x 10 exp -5 (+/- 1 sigma) was measured. If the CMB anisotropy is assumed to have a Gaussian autocorrelation function with a coherence angle of 25 arcmin, then the most probable value is Delta T/T(CMB) = 4.2 +1.7 or -1.1 x 10 exp -5, where the +/- refers to the 95 percent confidence limits.

  17. Heterogeneous Interactions of ClONO2 and HCl with Sulfuric Acid Tetrahydrate: Implications for the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Renyi; Jayne, John T.; Molina, Mario J.

    1994-01-01

    The reaction probabilities for ClONO2+H2O- HOCl + HNO3 and ClONO2+ HCl Cl2 +HNO3 have been investigated on sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT, H2SO4-4H2O)surfaces at temperatures between 190 and 230 K and at reactant concentrations that are typical in the lower stratosphere, using a fast-flow reactor coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The results indicate that the reaction probabilities as well as HCl uptake depend strongly on the thermodynamic state of SAT surface: they decrease significantly with decreasing H2O partial pressure at a given temperature, and decrease with increasing temperature at a given H2O partial pressure, as the SAT changes from the H2O-rich form to the H2SO4-rich form. For H2O-rich SAT at 195 K gamma(sub 1) approx. = -0.01 and gamma(sub 2) greater or equal to 0.1, whereas the values for H2SO4-rich SAT decrease by more than 2 orders of magnitude. At low concentrations of HCl, close to those found in the stratosphere, the amount of HCl taken up by H2O-rich SAT films corresponds to a coverage of the order of a tenth of a monolayer (approx. = 10(exp 14) molecules/sq cm); H2SO4-rich SAT films take up 2 orders of magnitude less HCl (les than 10(exp 12) molecules/sq cm). Substantial HCl uptake at high HCl concentrations is also observed, as a result of surface melting. The data reveal that frozen stratospheric sulfate aerosols may play an important role in chlorine activation in the winter polar stratosphere via processes similar to those occurring on the surfaces of polar stratospheric cloud particles.

  18. 1,2-Dichlorohexafluoro-Cyclobutane (1,2-c-C4F6Cl2, R-316c) a Potent Ozone Depleting Substance and Greenhouse Gas: Atmospheric Loss Processes, Lifetimes, and Ozone Depletion and Global Warming Potentials for the (E) and (Z) stereoisomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadimitriou, Vassileios C.; McGillen, Max R.; Smith, Shona C.; Jubb, Aaron M.; Portmann, Robert W.; Hall, Bradley D.; Fleming, Eric L.; Jackman, Charles H.; Burkholder, James B.

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric processing of (E)- and (Z)-1,2-dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane (1,2-c-C4F6Cl2, R-316c) was examined in this work as the ozone depleting (ODP) and global warming (GWP) potentials of this proposed replacement compound are presently unknown. The predominant atmospheric loss processes and infrared absorption spectra of the R-316c isomers were measured to provide a basis to evaluate their atmospheric lifetimes and, thus, ODPs and GWPs. UV absorption spectra were measured between 184.95 to 230 nm at temperatures between 214 and 296 K and a parametrization for use in atmospheric modeling is presented. The Cl atom quantum yield in the 193 nm photolysis of R- 316c was measured to be 1.90 +/- 0.27. Hexafluorocyclobutene (c-C4F6) was determined to be a photolysis co-product with molar yields of 0.7 and 1.0 (+/-10%) for (E)- and (Z)-R-316c, respectively. The 296 K total rate coefficient for the O(1D) + R-316c reaction, i.e., O(1D) loss, was measured to be (1.56 +/- 0.11) × 10(exp -10)cu cm/ molecule/s and the reactive rate coefficient, i.e., R-316c loss, was measured to be (1.36 +/- 0.20) × 10(exp -10)cu cm/molecule/s corresponding to a approx. 88% reactive yield. Rate coefficient upper-limits for the OH and O3 reaction with R-316c were determined to be <2.3 × 10(exp -17) and <2.0 × 10(exp -22)cu cm/molecule/s, respectively, at 296 K. The quoted uncertainty limits are 2(sigma) and include estimated systematic errors. Local and global annually averaged lifetimes for the (E)- and (Z)-R-316c isomers were calculated using a 2-D atmospheric model to be 74.6 +/- 3 and 114.1 +/-10 years, respectively, where the estimated uncertainties are due solely to the uncertainty in the UV absorption spectra. Stratospheric photolysis is the predominant atmospheric loss process for both isomers with the O(1D) reaction making a minor, approx. 2% for the (E) isomer and 7% for the (Z) isomer, contribution to the total atmospheric loss. Ozone depletion potentials for (E)- and (Z

  19. A Search for X-Ray Evidence of a Compact Companion to the Unusual Wolf-Rayet Star HD 50896 (EZ CMa)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, Stephen L.; Itoh, Masayuki; Nagase, Fumiaki

    1998-01-01

    We analyze results of a approx.25 ksec ASCA X-ray observation of the unusual Wolf-Rayet star HD 50896 (= EZ CMa). This WN5 star shows optical and ultraviolet variability at a 3.766 day period, which has been interpreted as a possible signature of a compact companion. Our objective was to search for evidence of hard X-rays (greater than or equal to 5 keV) which could be present if the WN5 wind is accreting onto a compact object. The ASCA spectra are dominated by emission below 5 keV and show no significant emission in the harder 5-10 keV range. Weak emission lines are present, and the X-rays arise in an optically thin plasma which spans a range of temperatures from less than or equal to 0.4 keV up to at least approx. 2 keV. Excess X-ray absorption above the interstellar value is present, but the column density is no larger than N(sub H) approx. 10(exp 22)/sq cm. The absorption-corrected X-ray luminosity L(sub x)(0.5 - 10 keV) = 10(exp 32.85) erg/s gives L(sub x)/ L(sub bol) approx. 10(exp -6), a value that is typical of WN stars. No X-ray variability was detected. Our main conclusion is that the X-ray properties of HD 50896 are inconsistent with the behavior expected for wind accretion onto a neutron star or black hole companion. Alternative models based on wind shocks can explain most aspects of the X-ray behavior, and we argue that the hotter plasma near approx. 2 keV could be due to the WR wind shocking onto a normal (nondegenerate) companion.

  20. Fermi-LAT Constraints on the Pulsar Wind Nebula Nature of HESS J1857+026

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseau, R.; Grondin, M.-H.; VanEtten, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Bogdanov, S.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Kaspi, V. M.; Arzoumanian, Z.; Camilo, F.; Casandjian, J. M.; Espinoza, C. M.; Johnston, S.; Lyne, A. G.; Smith, D. A.; Stappers, B. W.; Caliandro, G. A.

    2012-01-01

    Since its launch, the Fermi satellite has firmly identified 5 pulsar wind nebulae plus a large number of candidates, all powered by young and energetic pulsars. HESS J1857+026 is a spatially extended gamma-ray source detected by H.E.S.S. and classified as a possible pulsar wind nebula candidate powered by PSR J1856+0245. Aims. We search for -ray pulsations from PSR J1856+0245 and explore the characteristics of its associated pulsar wind nebula. Methods. Using a rotational ephemeris obtained from the Lovell telescope at Jodrell Bank Observatory at 1.5 GHz, we phase.fold 36 months of gamma-ray data acquired by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard Fermi. We also perform a complete gamma-ray spectral and morphological analysis. Results. No pulsation was detected from PSR J1856+0245. However, significant emission is detected at a position coincident with the TeV source HESS J1857+026. The gamma-ray spectrum is well described by a simple power law with a spectral index of Gamma = 1.53 +/- 0.11(sub stat) +/- 0.55(sub syst) and an energy flux of G(0.1 C100 GeV) = (2.71 +/- 0.52(sub stat) +/- 1.51(sub syst) X 10(exp -11) ergs/ sq cm/s. This implies a gamma.ray efficiency of approx 5 %, assuming a distance of 9 kpc, the gamma-ray luminosity of L(sub gamma) (sub PWN) (0.1 C100 GeV) = (2.5 +/- 0.5(sub stat) +/- 1.5(sub syst)) X 10(exp 35)(d/(9kpc))(exp 2) ergs/s and E-dot = 4.6 X 10(exp 36) erg /s, in the range expected for pulsar wind nebulae. Detailed multi-wavelength modeling provides new constraints on its pulsar wind nebula nature.

  1. Optimization of the Orbiting Wide-Angle Light Collectors (OWL) Mission for Charged-Particle and Neutrino Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krizmanic, John F.; Mitchell, John W.; Streitmatter, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    OWL [1] uses the Earth's atmosphere as a vast calorimeter to fully enable the emerging field of charged-particle astronomy with high-statistics measurements of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECR) and a search for sources of UHE neutrinos and photons. Confirmation of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) suppression above approx. 4 x 10(exp 19) eV suggests that most UHECR originate in astrophysical objects. Higher energy particles must come from sources within about 100 Mpc and are deflected by approx. 1 degree by predicted intergalactic/galactic magnetic fields. The Pierre Auger Array, Telescope Array and the future JEM-EUSO ISS mission will open charged-particle astronomy, but much greater exposure will be required to fully identify and measure the spectra of individual sources. OWL uses two large telescopes with 3 m optical apertures and 45 degree FOV in near-equatorial orbits. Simulations of a five-year OWL mission indicate approx. 10(exp 6) sq km/ sr/ yr of exposure with full aperture at approx. 6 x 10(exp 19) eV. Observations at different altitudes and spacecraft separations optimize sensitivity to UHECRs and neutrinos. OWL's stereo event reconstruction is nearly independent of track inclination and very tolerant of atmospheric conditions. An optional monocular mode gives increased reliability and can increase the instantaneous aperture. OWL can fully reconstruct horizontal and upward-moving showers and so has high sensitivity to UHE neutrinos. New capabilities in inflatable structures optics and silicon photomultipliers can greatly increase photon sensitivity, reducing the energy threshold for n detection or increasing viewed area using a higher orbit. Design trades between the original and optimized OWL missions and the enhanced science capabilities are described.

  2. Chemical studies of H chondrites. 4: New data and comparison of Antarctic suites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Stephen F.; Lipschutz, Michael E.

    1995-01-01

    We report data for the trace elements Au, Co, Sb, Ga, Rb, Ag, Se, Cs, Te, Zn, Cd, Bi, Ti, and In (ordered by putative volatility during nebular condensation and accretion) determined by neutron activation analysis in 13 H5 chondrites from Victoria Land and 20 H4-6 chondrites from Queen Maud Land, Antarctica. These and earlier results provide Antarctic sample suites of 34 chondrites from Victoria Land and 25 from Queen Maud Land. Treatment of data for the most volatile 10 elements (Rb to In) in these studies by multivariate statistical techniques more robust, as well as more conservative, than conventional linear discriminant analysis and logistic regression demonstrates that compositions differ at marginally significant levels. This difference cannot be explained by trivial (terrestrial) causes and becomes more significant, despite the smaller size of the database, when comparisons are limited to data from a single analyst and when all upper limits are eliminated from consideration. The Victoria Land and Queen Maud Land suites have different mean terrestrial ages (approximately 300 kyr and approximately 100 kyr, respectively) and age distributions, suggesting that a time-dependent variation of chondritic sources with different thermal histories is responsible. As a result, these two Antarctic suites are, on average, chemically distinguishable from each other. Since H chondrites serve as a paradigm for other meteorite classes, these results indicate that the near-Earth populations of planetary materials varied with time on the 10(exp 5)-year timescale.

  3. Discovery of a 6.4 keV Emission Line in a Burst from SGR 1900+14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Ibrahim, Alaa I.

    2000-01-01

    We present evidence of a 6.4 key emission line during a burst from the soft gamma repeater SGR 1900+14. The Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) monitored this source extensively during its outburst in the summer of 1998. A strong burst observed on 1998 August 29 revealed a number of unique properties. The burst exhibits a precursor and is followed by a long (approx. 10(exp 3) s) tail modulated at the 5.16 s stellar rotation period. The precursor has a duration of approx. equals 0.85 s and shows both significant spectral evolution as well as an emission feature centered near 6.4 keV during the first 0.3 s of the event, when the X-ray spectrum was hardest. The continuum during the burst is well fit with an optically thin thermal bremsstrahlung spectrum with the temperature ranging from approx. equals 40 to 10 keV. The line is strong, with an equivalent width of approx. 400 eV, and is consistent with Fe K(alpha) fluorescence from relatively coot material. If the rest-frame energy is indeed 6.4 keV, then the lack of an observed redshift indicates that the source is at least approx. 80 km above the neutron star surface. We discuss the implications of the line detection in the context of models for SGRs.

  4. Radiation experiments on Cosmos 2044: K-7-41, parts A, B, C, D, E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. V.; Benton, E. R.; Dudkin, V. E.; Marenny, A. M.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmos 2044 biosatellite mission offered the opportunity for radiation measurements under conditions which are seldom available (an inclination of 82.3 deg and attitude of 294 x 216 km). Measurements were made on the outside of the spacecraft under near-zero shielding conditions. Also, this mission was the first in which active temperature recorders (the ATR-4) were flown to record the temperature profiles of detector stacks. Measurements made on this mission provide a comparison and test for modeling of depth doses and LET spectra for orbital parameters previously unavailable. Tissue absorbed doses from 3480 rad (252 rad/d) down to 0.115 rad (8.33 mrad/d) were measured at different depths (0.0146 and 3.20 g/sq cm, respectively) with averaged TLD readings. The LET spectra yielded maximum and minimum values of integral flux of 27.3 x 10(exp -4) and 3.05 x 10(exp -4)/sq cm/s/sr, of dose rate of 7.01 and 1.20 mrad/d, and of dose equivalent rate of 53.8 and 11.6 mrem/d, for LET(sub infinity)-H2O is greater than or equal to 4 keV/micron. Neutron measurements yielded 0.018 mrem/d in the thermal region, 0.25 mrem/d in the resonance region and 3.3 mrem/d in the high energy region. The TLD depth dose and LET spectra were compared with calculations from the modeling codes. The agreement is good but some further refinements are in order. In comparing measurements on Cosmos 2044 with those from previous Cosmos missions (orbital inclinations of 62.8 deg) there is a greater spread (maximum to minimum) in depth doses and an increased contribution from GCRs, and higher LET particles, in the heavy particle fluxes.

  5. Turbulent Aeroheating Testing of Mars Science Laboratory Entry Vehicle in Perfect-Gas Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Collier, Arnold S.

    2007-01-01

    An experimental investigation of turbulent aeroheating on the Mars Science Laboratory entry vehicle heat shield has been conducted in the Arnold Engineering Development Center Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel No. 9. Testing was performed on a 6-in. (0.1524 m) diameter MSL model in pure N2 gas in the tunnel s Mach 8 and Mach 10 nozzles at free stream Reynolds numbers of 4.1x10(exp 6)/ft to 49x10(exp 6)/ft (1.3x10(exp 7)/m to 16x10(exp 7)/m) and 1.2x10(exp 6)/ft to 19x10(exp 6)/ft (0.39x10(exp 7)/m to 62x10(exp 7)/m), respectively. These conditions were sufficient to span the regime of boundary-layer flow from completely laminar to fully-developed turbulent flow over the entire forebody. A supporting aeroheating test was also conducted in the Langley Research Center 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel at free stream Reynolds number of 1x10(exp 6)/ft to 7x10(exp 6)/ft (0.36x10(exp 7)/m to 2.2x10(exp 7)/m) in order to help corroborate the Tunnel 9 results. A complementary computational fluid dynamics study was conducted in parallel to the wind tunnel testing. Laminar and turbulent predictions were generated for all wind tunnel test conditions and comparisons were performed with the data for the purpose of helping to define uncertainty margins on predictions for aeroheating environments during entry into the Martian atmosphere. Data from both wind tunnel tests and comparisons with the predictions are presented herein. It was concluded from these comparisons that for perfect-gas conditions, the computational tools could predict fully-laminar or fully-turbulent heating conditions to within 10% of the experimental data

  6. Turbulent Aeroheating Testing of Mars Science Laboratory Entry Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Collier, Arnold S.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental investigation of turbulent aeroheating on the Mars Science Laboratory entry vehicle heat shield has been conducted in the Arnold Engineering Development Center Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel No. 9. Testing was performed on a 6-in. (0.1524 m) diameter MSL model in pure N2 gas in the tunnel's Mach 8 and Mach 10 nozzles at free stream Reynolds numbers of 4.1 x 10(exp 6)/ft to 49 x 10(exp 6)/ft (1.3 x 10(exp 7)/m to 19 x 10(exp 6/ft) and 1.2 x 10(exp 6)/ft to 19 x 10(exp 6)/ft (0.39 x 10(exp 7)/m to 62 x 10(exp 7)/m), respectively. These conditions were sufficient to span the regime of boundary-layer flow from completely laminar to fully-developed turbulent flow over the entire forebody. A supporting aeroheating test was also conducted in the Langley Research Center 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel at free stream Reynolds number of 1 x 10(exp 6)/ft to 7 x 10(exp 6)/ft (0.36 x 10(exp 7)/m to 2.2 x 10(exp 7)/m) in order to help corroborate the Tunnel 9 results. A complementary computational fluid dynamics study was conducted in parallel to the wind tunnel testing. Laminar and turbulent predictions were generated for the wind tunnel test conditions and comparisons were performed with the data for the purpose of helping to define uncertainty margins on predictions for aeroheating environments during entry into the Martian atmosphere. Data from both wind tunnel tests and comparisons with the predictions are presented herein. It was concluded from these comparisons that for perfect-gas conditions, the computational tools could predict fully-laminar or fully-turbulent heating conditions to within 12% or better of the experimental data.

  7. Condensed Water in Tropical Cyclone "Oliver", 8 February 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, R. F.; Allen, D. A.; Black, C.; Faisant, S.; Ferry, G. V.; Howard, S. D.; Livingston, J. M.; Redemann, J.; Sorenson, C. E.; Verma, S.

    1995-01-01

    On February 8, 1993, the NASA DC-8 aircraft profiled from 10,000 to 37,000 feet (3.1-11.3 km) pressure altitude in a stratified section of tropical cyclone "Oliver" over the Coral Sea northeast of Australia. Size, shape and phase of cloud and precipitation particles were measured with a 2-D Greyscale probe. Cloud/precipitation particles changed from liquid to ice as soon as the freezing level was reached near 17,000 feet (5.2 km) pressure altitude. The cloud was completely glaciated at -5 C. There was no correlation between ice particle habit and ambient temperature. In the liquid phase, the precipitation-cloud drop concentration was 4.0 x 10(exp 3)/cu m, the geometric mean diameter D(sub g) = 0.5-0.7 mm, and the liquid water content 0.7-1.9 g m(exp-3). The largest particles anywhere in the cloud, dominated by fused dendrites at concentrations similar to that of raindrops (2.5 x 10(exp 3) m(exp -3)) but a higher condensed water content(5.4 g/cu m estimated) were found in the mixed phase; condensed water is removed very effectively from the mixed layer due to high settling velocities of the large mixed particles. The highest number concentration (4.9 x 10(exp 4)/cu m, smallest size (D(sub g) = 0.3-0.4 mm), largest surface area (up to 2.6 x 10 (exp 2) sq cm/cu m at 0.4- 1.0 g/cu m of condensate) existed in the ice phase at the coldest temperature (- 40 C) at 35,000 feet ( 10.7 km). Each cloud contained aerosol (haze particles) in addition to cloud particles. The aerosol total surface area exceeded that of the cirrus particles at the coldest temperature. Thus, aerosols must play a significant role in the upscattering of solar radiation. Light extinction (6.2/km) and backscatter (0.8/sr/km) was highest in the coldest portion of the cirrus cloud at the highest altitude.

  8. Search for Cm-248 in the early solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavielle, B.; Marti, K.; Pellas, P.; Perron, C.

    1992-01-01

    Possible evidence for the presence of Cm-248 in the early solar system was reported from fission gas studies (Rao and Gopalan, 1973) and recently from studies of very high nuclear track densities (not less than 5 x 10 exp 8/sq cm) in the merrillite of the H4 chondrite Forest Vale (F.V.) (Pellas et al., 1987). We report here an analysis of the isotopic abundances of xenon in F.V. phosphates and results of track studies in phosphate/pyroxene contacts. The fission xenon isotopic signature clearly identifies Pu-244 as the extinct progenitor. We calculate an upper limit Cm-248/Pu-244 to be less than 0.0015 at the beginning of Xe retention in F.V. phosphates. This corresponds to an upper limit of the ratio Cm-248/U-235 of not greater than 5 x 10 exp -5 further constraining the evidence for any late addition of freshly synthesized actinide elements just prior to solar system formation. The fission track density observed after annealing the phosphates at 290C (1 hr, which essentially erases spallation recoil tracks) is also in agreement with the Pu-244 abundance inferred from fission Xe. The spallation recoil tracks produced during the 76 Ma cosmic-ray exposure account for the very high track density in merrillites.

  9. High voltage thermally diffused p(+)n solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faur, M.; Faur, M.; Flood, D. J.; Brinker, D. J.; Weinberg, I.; Goradia, C.; Fatemi, N.; Goradia, M.; Thesling, W.

    1991-01-01

    The possibility of fabricating thermally diffused p(+)n InP solar-cells with high open-circuit voltage without sacrificing the short circuit current is discussed. The p(+)n InP junctions were formed by Cd and Zn diffusion through a 3-5-nm-thick anodic or chemical phosphorus-rich oxide cap layer grown on n:InP:S (with ND-NA = 3.5 x 10 exp 16 and 4.5 x 10 exp 17/cu cm) Czochralski LEC-grown substrates. After thinning the emitter from its initial thickness of 1 to 2.5 micron down to 0.06-0.15 micron, the maximum efficiency was found when the emitter was 0.2 to 0.3 micron thick. Typical AM0, 25 C values of 854-860 mV were achieved for Voc, Jsc values were from 25.9 to 29.1 mA/sq cm using only the P-rich passivating layer left after the thinning process as an antireflection coating.

  10. Fermi/LAT Observations of Swift/BAT Seyfert Galaxies: On the Contribution of Radio-Quiet Active Galactic Nuclei to the Extragalactic gamma-Ray Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Sambruna, Rita M.; Davis, David S.; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    We present the analysis of 2.1 years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data on 491 Seyfert galaxies detected by the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) survey. Only the two nearest objects, NGC 1068 and NGC 4945, which were identified in the Fermi first year catalog, are detected. Using Swift/BAT and radio 20 cm fluxes, we define a new radio-loudness parameter R(sub X,BAT) where radio-loud objects have logR(sub X,BAT) > -4.7. Based on this parameter, only radio-loud sources are detected by Fermi/LAT. An upper limit to the flux of the undetected sources is derived to be approx.2x10(exp -11) photons/sq cm/s, approximately seven times lower than the observed flux of NGC 1068. Assuming a median redshift of 0.031, this implies an upper limit to the gamma-ray (1-100 GeV) luminosity of < approx.3x10(exp 41) erg/s. In addition, we identified 120 new Fermi/LAT sources near the Swift/BAT Seyfert galaxies with significant Fermi/LAT detections. A majority of these objects do not have Swift/BAT counterparts, but their possible optical counterparts include blazars, flat-spectrum radio quasars, and quasars.

  11. Flow of Supercritical Hydrogen in a Uniformly Heated Circular Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youn, B.; Mills, A. F.

    1993-01-01

    Turbulent flow of supercritical hydrogen through a uniformly heated circular tube has been investigated using numerical methods, for the range of 4 x 10(exp 5) less than Re less than 3 x 10(exp 6), 5 less than or equal to q(sub W) less than or equal to 10 MW/sq m, 30 less than or equal to T(sub in) less than or equal to 90 K, and 5 less than or equal to P(sub in) less than or equal to 15 MPa. The purpose is to validate a turbulence model and calculation method for the design of active cooling systems of hydrogen-fueled hypersonic aircraft, where the hydrogen fuel a used as coolant. The PHOENICS software package was used for the computations, which required special provision for evaluation of the thermophysical properties of the supercritical hydrogen, and a low Reynolds number form of the k-epsilon turbulence model. Pressure drop and heat transfer data were compared with experiment and existing correlations and good agreement was demonstrated. For the pressure range considered here a "thermal spike" was observed and shown to be due to the secondary peak in specific heat, rather than the primary peak.

  12. The Morphology of Passively Evolving Galaxies at Z-2 from HST/WFC3 in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassata, P.; Giavalisco, M.; Guo, Yicheng; Ferguson, H.; Koekemoer, A.; Renzini, A.; Fontana, A.; Salimbeni, S.; Dickinson, M.; Casertano, S.; Conselice, C.J.; Grogin, N.; Lotz, J.M.; Papovich, C.; Lucas, R.A.; Straughn, A.; Gardner, J.P.; Moustakas, L.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss near-IR images of six passive galaxies (SSFR< 10(exp -2)/Gyr) at redshift 1.3 < z < 2.4 with stellar mass M approx 10(exp 11) solar mass, selected from the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS), obtained with WFC3/IR and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). These WFC3 images provide the deepest and highest angular resolution view of the optical rest-frame morphology of such systems to date. We find that the light profile of these; galaxies is generally regular and well described by a Sersic model with index typical of today's spheroids. We confirm the existence of compact and massive early-type galaxies at z approx. 2: four out of six galaxies have T(sub e) approx. 1 kpc or less. The WFC3 images achieve limiting surface brightness mu approx. 26.5 mag/sq arcsec in the F160W bandpass; yet there is no evidence of a faint halo in the five compact galaxies of our sample, nor is a halo observed in their stacked image. We also find very weak "morphological k-correction" in the galaxies between the rest-frame UV (from the ACS z band), and the rest-frame optical (WFC3 H band): the visual classification, Sersic indices and physical sizes of these galaxies are independent or only mildly dependent on the wavelength, within the errors.

  13. On th meridional surface profile of the Gulf Stream at 55 deg W

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallock, Zachariah R.; Teague, William J.

    1995-01-01

    Nine-month records from nine inverted echo sounders (IESs) are analyzed to describe the mean baroclinic Gulf Stream at 55 deg W. IES acoustic travel times are converted to thermocline depth which is optimally interpolated. Kinematic and dynamic parameters (Gulf Stream meridional position, velocity, and vorticity) are calculated. Primary Gulf Stream variabiltiy is attributed to meandering and and changes in direction. A mean, stream-coordinate (relative to Gulf Stream instantaneous position and direction) meridional profile is derived and compared with results presented by other investigators. The mean velocity is estimated at 0.84 m/s directed 14 deg to the right eastward, and the thermocline (12 c) drops 657 m (north to south), corresponding to a baroclinic rise of the surface of 0.87 m. The effect of Gulf Stream curvature on temporal mean profiles is found to be unimportant and of minimal importance overall. The derived, downstream current profile is well represented by a Gaussian function and is about 190 km wide where it crosses zero. Surface baroclinic transport is estimated to be 8.5 x 10(exp 4) sq m/s, and maximum shear (flanking the maximum) is 1.2 x 10(exp -5). Results compare well with other in situ observational results from the same time period. On the other hand, analyses (by others) of concurrent satellite altimetry (Geosat) suggest a considerable narrower, more intense mean Gulf Stream.

  14. Particles and fields measurements at Neptune with Voyager 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krimigis, S. M.

    1992-01-01

    The first results of measurements performed on the Voyager 2 spacecraft with the Neptune system on August 24-28, 1989 are summarized. These include measurements of the magnetic field, plasma, energetic and high energy particles, plasma waves and radio emissions, and additional information relating to UV emissions. The planetary magnetic field outside about 4 R(N) may be described by an offset, tilted, dipole of moment 0.133 Gauss-R(N) exp 3; inside that distance the field is dominated by higher order terms. Plasma densities are found to be generally low (about 5 exp -3/cu cm), except at magnetic equatorial crossings when densities are up to about 1/cu cm. A variety of plasma wave emissions were seen, including chorus, hiss, electroncyclotron waves, and upper hybrid resonance in the inner magnetosphere. The measured flux of soft electrons and ions over the polar region of about 2 x 10 exp -3 erg/sq cm sec results in an estimated power input of about 3 x 10 exp 7 W, which is substantially less than that at other planets.

  15. Carbon Nanotube-Based Digital Vacuum Electronics and Miniature Instrumentation for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manohara, H.; Toda, R.; Lin, R. H.; Liao, A.; Mojarradi, M.

    2010-01-01

    JPL has developed high performance cold cathodes using arrays of carbon nanotube bundles that produce > 15 A/sq cm at applied fields of 5 to 8 V/micron without any beam focusing. They have exhibited robust operation in poor vacuums of 10(exp -6) to 10(exp -4) Torr- a typically achievable range inside hermetically sealed microcavities. Using these CNT cathodes JPL has developed miniature X-ray tubes capable of delivering sufficient photon flux at acceleration voltages of <20kV to perform definitive mineralogy on planetary surfaces; mass ionizers that offer two orders of magnitude power savings, and S/N ratio better by a factor of five over conventional ionizers. JPL has also developed a new class of programmable logic gates using CNT vacuum electronics potentially for Venus in situ missions and defense applications. These digital vacuum electronic devices are inherently high-temperature tolerant and radiation insensitive. Device design, fabrication and DC switching operation at temperatures up to 700 C are presented in this paper.

  16. Performance of Soviet and US hydrogen masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uljanov, Adolph A.; Demidov, Nikolai A.; Mattison, Edward M.; Vessot, Robert F. C.; Allan, David W.; Winkler, Gernot M. R.

    1990-01-01

    The frequencies of Soviet- and U.S.-built hydrogen masers located at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and at the United States Naval Observatory (USNO) were compared with each other and, via Global Positioning System (GPS) common-view measurements, with three primary frequency-reference scales. The best masers were found to have fractional frequency stabilities as low as 6 times 10(exp -16) for averaging times of approximately 10(exp 4) s. Members of the USNO maser ensemble provided frequency prediction better than 1 times 10(exp 14) for periods up to a few weeks. The frequency residuals of these masers, after removal of frequency drift and rate of change of drift, had stabilities of a few parts in 10(exp -15), with serveral masers achieving residual stabilities well below 1 times 10(exp -15) for intervals from 10(exp 5)s to 2 times 10(exp 6)s. The fractional frequency drifts of the 13 masers studied, relative to the primary reference standards, ranged from -0.2 times 10(exp -15)/day to +9.6 times 10(exp -15)/day.

  17. Prompt ionization in the CRIT II barium releases. [Critical Ionization Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torbert, R. B.; Kletzing, C. A.; Liou, K.; Rau, D.

    1992-01-01

    Observations of electron and ion distributions inside a fast neutral barium jet in the ionosphere show significant fluxes within 4 km of release, presumably related to beam plasma instability processes involved in the Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) effect. Electron fluxes exceeding 5 x 10 exp 12/sq cm-str-sec-keV were responsible for ionizing both the streaming barium and ambient oxygen. Resulting ion fluxes seem to be consistent with 1-2 percent ionization of the fast barium, as reported by optical observations, although the extended spatial distribution of the optically observed ions is difficult to reconcile with the in situ observations. When the perpendicular velocity of the neutrals falls below critical values, these processes shut off. Although these observations resemble the earlier Porcupine experimental results (Haerendel, 1982), theoretical understanding of the differences between these data and that of earlier negative experiments is still lacking.

  18. An observation of the Galactic center hard X-ray source, 1E 1740.7-2942, with the Caltech coded-aperture telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heindl, William A.; Cook, Walter R.; Grunsfeld, John M.; Palmer, David M.; Prince, Thomas A.; Schindler, Stephen M.; Stone, Edward C.

    1993-01-01

    The Galactic center region hard X-ray source IE 1740.7-2942 has been observed with the Caltech Gamma-Ray Imaging Payload (GRIP) from Alice Springs, Australia, on 1988 April 12 and on 1989 April 3 and 4. We report here results from the 1989 measurements based on 14 hr of observation of the Galactic center region. The observations showed IE 1740.7-2942 to be in its normal state, having a spectrum between 35 and 200 keV characterized by a power law with an exponent of -2.2 +/- 0.3 and flux at 100 keV of (7.0 +/- 0.7) x 10 exp -5 sq cm s keV. No flux was detected above 200 keV. A search for time variability in the spectrum of IE 1740.7-2942 on one hour time scales showed no evidence for variability.

  19. Effect of particle size and particle size distribution on physical characteristics, morphology and crystal structure of explosively compacted high-T(sub c) superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotsis, I.; Enisz, M.; Oravetz, D.; Szalay, A.

    1995-01-01

    A superconductor, of composition Y(Ba,K,Na)2Cu3O(x)/F(y) and a composite of composition Y(Ba,K,Na)2Cu3O(x)/F(y) + Ag, with changing K, Na and F content but a constant silver content (Ag = 10 mass%) was prepared using a single heat treatment. the resulting material was ground in a corundum lined mill, separated to particle size fractions of 0-40 micron, 0-63 micron and 63-900 micron and explosively compacted, using an explosive pressure of 10(exp 4) MPa and a subsequent heat treatment. Best results were obtained with the 63-900 micron fraction of composition Y(Ba(1.95) K(0.01)Cu3O(x)F(0),(05)/Ag: porosity less than 0.01 cu cm/g and current density 2800 A/sq cm at 77K.

  20. Prompt ionization in the CRIT II barium releases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torbert, R. B.; Kletzing, C. A.; Liou, K.; Rau, D.

    1992-05-01

    Observations of electron and ion distributions inside a fast neutral barium jet in the ionosphere show significant fluxes within 4 km of release, presumably related to beam plasma instability processes involved in the Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) effect. Electron fluxes exceeding 5 x 10 exp 12/sq cm-str-sec-keV were responsible for ionizing both the streaming barium and ambient oxygen. Resulting ion fluxes seem to be consistent with 1-2 percent ionization of the fast barium, as reported by optical observations, although the extended spatial distribution of the optically observed ions is difficult to reconcile with the in situ observations. When the perpendicular velocity of the neutrals falls below critical values, these processes shut off. Although these observations resemble the earlier Porcupine experimental results (Haerendel, 1982), theoretical understanding of the differences between these data and that of earlier negative experiments is still lacking.

  1. Gas Scintillation Proportional Counters for High-Energy X-ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, Mikhail; Ramsey, Brian; Apple, Jeffery

    2003-01-01

    A focal plane array of high-pressure gas scintillation proportional counters (GSPC) for a balloon-borne hard-x-ray telescope is under development at the Marshall Space Flight Center. These detectors have an active area of approx. 20 sq cm, and are filled with a high pressure (10(exp 6) Pa) xenon-helium mixture. Imaging is via crossed-grid position-sensitive phototubes sensitive in the UV region. The performance of the GSPC is well matched to that of the telescopes x-ray optics which have response to 75 keV and a focal spot size of approx. 500 microns. The detector s energy resolution, 4% FWHM at 60 keV, is adequate for resolving the broad spectral lines of astrophysical importance and for accurate continuum measurements. Full details of the instrument and its performance will be provided.

  2. Physical processes in the plasma mantle of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szego, K.; Shapiro, V. S.; Shevchenko, V. I.; Sagdeev, R. Z.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Nagy, A. F.

    1991-01-01

    The results are presented of a study, which analyzed data from 10 Pioneer Venus orbits in order to see whether similar wave particle interaction processes also exist in the corresponding region around Venus. The first conclusion is that the apparent physical processes in the mantle are indeed similar around Venus and Mars. The planetary thermal O(+) ions outside the ionopause interact with the shocked solar wind and excite electrostatic waves close to the lower hybrid frequency. These waves propagate inwards, heating first the electron and deeper down in the ionosphere the thermal ion population. The observed superthermal ions are believed to be the product of this wave particle interaction process. It is also concluded that the wave energy transferred to the thermal electrons is of the right magnitude (about 4 x 10 exp 9 eV/sq cm s) to provide the supplemental heat source necessary to reconcile observed and calculated electron temperatures in the ionosphere.

  3. Unusual features in the persistent emission of the Rapid Burster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubin, Lori M.; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Van Paradijs, Jan; Van Der Klis, Michiel

    1993-01-01

    Several distinct features in the persistent X-ray emission after long (greater than 30 s) type II bursts from the Rapid Burster were discovered in August 1985. A specific pattern characterized by a 'hump' was observed in the early portion of the persistent emission after type II bursts with integrated fluxes less than about 4.8 x 10 exp -6 erg/sq cm. This hump which typically lasts about 200 s is almost never observed after bursts with fluences greater than this value. The emission during the hump is found to be always harder than the average persistent emission. Quasi-periodic oscillations with frequencies of about 40 mHz observed in 10 cases occur exclusively during a hump. The persistent emission also exhibited sharp 'glitches' and small 'bumps' lasting about 20-100 s. The glitches always occurred at the same phase in the intervals between bursts. In seven cases the glitches were followed by a bump.

  4. On the possible source of the ionization in the nighttime Martian ionosphere. I - Phobos 2 HARP electron spectrometer measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verigin, M. I.; Gringauz, K. I.; Shutte, N. M.; Haider, S. A.; Szego, K.; Kiraly, P.; Nagy, A. F.; Gombosi, T. I.

    1991-01-01

    The measurements of electron spectra in the Martian magnetosphere by the HARP instrument on board the Phobos 2 orbiter are presented. The energy of the electrons (a few tens of electron volts) is sufficient for the impact ionization of the planetary neutral gas, and the characteristic flux of electrons (about 10 exp 8/sq cm per sec) could produce the nightside ionospheric layer with a peak density of a few thousands of electrons per cubic centimeter, which corresponds to densities observed earlier during radio occultations of the Mars 4 and 5 and Viking 1 and 2 spacecraft. The possibility of magnetospheric electron precipitation into the nightside atmosphere of Mars is in agreement with the mainly induced nature of the magnetic field in the planetary magnetotail (as at Venus), while the variability of the Martian nightside ionosphere may be explained by the partial screening of the atmosphere by a weak intrinsic magnetic field of the planet.

  5. Swift, INTEGRAL, RXTE, and Spitzer Reveal IGR J16283-4838

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckmann, V.; Gehrels, N.; Markwardt, C.; Barthelmy S.; Soldi, S.; Paizis, A.; Mowlavi, N.; Kennca, J. A.; Burrows, D. N.; Chester, M.

    2005-01-01

    We present the first combined study of the recently discovered source IGR J16283-4838 with Swift, INTEGRAL, and RXTE. The source, discovered by INTEGRAL on April 7, 2005, shows a highly absorbed (variable N(sub H) = 0.4-1.7 x 10(exp 23) /sq cm) and flat (Gamma approx. 1) spectrum in the Swift/XRT and RXTE/PCA data. No optical counterpart is detectable (V > 20 mag), but a possible infrared counterpart within the Swift/XRT error radius is detected in the 2MASS and Spitzer/GLIMPSE survey. The observations suggest that IGR J16283-4838 is a high mass X-ray binary containing a neutron star embedded in Compton thick material. This makes IGR J16283-4838 a member of the class of highly absorbed HMXBs, discovered by INTEGRAL.

  6. Identification of the HNO3 3 nu(sub 9) - nu(sub 9) band Q branch in stratospheric solar occultation spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrin, A.; Flaud, J.-M.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Goldman, A.; Rinsland, C. P.; Gunson, M. R.

    1994-01-01

    The spectroscopic identification for the HNO3 3 nu(sub 9) - nu(sub 9) band Q branch at 830.4/cm is reported based on 0.01/cm resolution solar occultation spectra of the lower stratosphere recorded by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Fourier transform spectrometer and a recent analysis of this band. Least-squares fits to 0.0025/cm resolution laboratory spectra in the Q branch region indicate an integrated intensity of 0.529 x 10(exp -18)/cm/mol/sq cm at 296 K for this weak band. Stratospheric HNO3 retrievals derived from the ATMOS data are consistent with this value within its estimated uncertainty of about +/- 30%. A set of spectroscopic line parameters suitable for atmospheric studies has been generated.

  7. Relations between surface conductance and spectral vegetation indices at intermediate (100 m sq to 15 km sq) length scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, Piers J.; Heiser, Mark D.; Hall, Forrest G.

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between surface conductance and spectral vegetation indices is investigated utilizing the FIFE data set, principally the surface flux station data and images from the TM instrument. It is found that the unstressed canopy conductance for a given site for a given day is near-linearly related to the incident PAR flux. Estimates of unstressed canopy conductance were acquired via a model inversion that separated the soil and vegetation contributions to evapotranspiration and made adjustments for the effects of vapor pressure deficit and soil moisture stress.

  8. Relations between surface conductance and spectral vegetation indices at intermediate (100 m sq to 15 km sq) length scales

    SciTech Connect

    Sellers, P.J.; Heiser, M.D.; Hall, F.G. Maryland Univ., College Park )

    1992-11-01

    The relationship between surface conductance and spectral vegetation indices is investigated utilizing the FIFE data set, principally the surface flux station data and images from the TM instrument. It is found that the unstressed canopy conductance for a given site for a given day is near-linearly related to the incident PAR flux. Estimates of unstressed canopy conductance were acquired via a model inversion that separated the soil and vegetation contributions to evapotranspiration and made adjustments for the effects of vapor pressure deficit and soil moisture stress. 30 refs.

  9. A study of the superconducting properties of YBa2Cu(9-x)Nb(x)O(y) thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivas, S.; Bhatnagar, A. K.; Pinto, R.; Pai, S. P.; Apte, P. R.; Purandare, S. C.; Dsousa, C. P.

    1995-01-01

    Effect of Niobium substitution at the copper site in YBa2Cu3O(7-x) was studied in thin film form. The films were deposited by laser ablation technique using the targets of the YBa2Cu(3-x)Nb(x)O(y) where x = 0.0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.0 under identical deposition conditions on SrTiO3 (100) substrates. Films were characterized by XRD, resistivity, I-V and J(sub c) measurements. Films made from x = 0.025 and 0.05 concentrations of Nb substituted targets showed relatively improved superconducting properties compared to that of undoped films. the best J(sub c) realized for x - 0.025 Nb concentration was 1.8 x 10(exp 6) A/sq cm and for 0.05 Nb concentration it was 3.2 x 10(exp 6) A/sq cm at 77 K. However, degradation of the superconducting properties, with the increase of x is greater than or equal to 0.1 Nb concentration and drastic suppression and complete loss of superconductivity was noticed for x is greater than or equal to 0.4. The growth of impurity phase YBa2NbO6 for x = 0.1 and above of Nb concentration was noted from XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) patterns. However, the site occupancy of Nb could not be confirmed from these studies.

  10. Proton irradiation effects on advanced digital and microwave III-V components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hash, G. L.; Schwank, J. R.; Shaneyfelt, M. R.; Sandoval, C. E.; Connors, M. P.; Sheridan, T. J.; Sexton, F. W.; Slayton, E. M.; Heise, J. A.; Foster, C.

    1994-01-01

    A wide range of advanced III-V components suitable for use in high-speed satellite communication systems were evaluated for displacement damage and single-event effects in high-energy, high-fluence proton environments. Transistors and integrated circuits (both digital and MMIC) were irradiated with protons at energies from 41 to 197 MeV and at fluences from 10(exp 10) to 2 x 10(exp 14) protons/sq cm. Large soft-error rates were measured for digital GaAs MESFET (3 x 10(exp -5) errors/bit-day) and heterojunction bipolar circuits (10(exp -5) errors/bit-day). No transient signals were detected from MMIC circuits. The largest degradation in transistor response caused by displacement damage was observed for 1.0-(mu)m depletion- and enhancement-mode MESFET transistors. Shorter gate length MESFET transistors and HEMT transistors exhibited less displacement-induced damage. These results show that memory-intensive GaAs digital circuits may result in significant system degradation due to single-event upset in natural and man-made space environments. However, displacement damage effects should not be a limiting factor for fluence levels up to 10(exp 14) protons/sq cm (equivalent to total doses in excess of 10 Mrad(GaAs)).

  11. PSR J0007+7303 in the CTA1 SNR: New Gamma-ray Results from Two Years of Fermi-LAT Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Wood, K. S.; DeCesar, M. E.; Gargano, F.; Giordano, F.; Ray, P. S.; Parent, D.; Harding, A. K.; Miller, M. Coleman; Wood, D. L.; Wolff, M. T.

    2011-01-01

    One of the main results of the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope is the discovery of gamma-ray selected pulsars. The high magnetic field pulsar, PSR J0007+7303 in CTA1, was the first ever to be discovered through its gamma-ray pulsations. Based on analysis of 2 years of LAT survey data, we report on the discovery of I-ray emission in the off-pulse phase interval at the approx. 6sigma level. The flux from this emission in the energy range E > or =::: 100 MeV is F(sub 100) = (1.73+/-0.40) x 10(exp -8) photons/sq cm/s and is best fitted by a power law with a photon index of Gamma = 2.54+/-0.14. The pulsed gamma-ray flux in the same energy range is F(sub 100) = (3.95+/-0.07) x 10(exp -7) photons/sq cm/s and is best fitted by an exponentially-cutoff power-law spectrum with a photon index of Gamma = 1.41+/-0.23 and a cutoff energy E(sub c) = 4.04+/-0.20 GeV. We find no flux variability neither at the 2009 May glitch nor in the long term behavior. We model the gamma-ray light curve with two high-altitude emission models, the outer gap and slot gap, and find that the model that best fits the data depends strongly on the assumed origin of the off-pulse emission. Both models favor a large angle between the magnetic axis and observer line of sight, consistent with the nondetection of radio emission being a geometrical effect. Finally we discuss how the LAT results bear on the understanding of the cooling of this neutron star.

  12. Resolving the Structure of Ionized Helium in the Intergalactic Medium with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. 2.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriss, G. A.; Shull, J. M.; Oegerle, W.; Zheng, W.; Davidsen, A. F.; Songaila, A.; Tumlinson, J.; Cowie, L. L.; Dehavreng, J.-M.; Friedman, S. D.

    2001-01-01

    The neutral hydrogen and the ionized helium absorption in the spectra of high-redshift quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) are unique probes of structure in the universe at epochs intermediate between the earliest density fluctuations seen in the cosmic background radiation and the distribution of galaxies visible today. We present Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) observations of the line of sight to the QSO HE2347-4342 in the 1000-1187 angstrom band at a resolving power of 15,000. Above redshift z = 2.7, the IGM is largely opaque in He II Ly-alpha (304 angstroms). At lower redshifts, the optical depth gradually decreases to a mean value tau = 1 at z = 2.4. We resolve the He II Ly-alpha absorption as a discrete forest of absorption lines in the z = 2.3 - 2.7 redshift range. Approximately 50% of these spectral features have H I counterparts with column densities N(sub HI) > 10(exp 12.3)/sq cm visible in a Keck spectrum. These account for most of the observed opacity in He II Ly-alpha. The remainder have N(sub HI) < 10(exp 12.3)/sq cm, below the threshold for current observations. A short extrapolation of the power-law distribution of H I column densities to lower values can account for these new absorbers. The He II to H I column density ratio eta averages approximately 80, consistent with photoionization of the IGM by a hard ionizing spectrum resulting from the integrated light of quasars at high redshift, but there is considerable scatter. Values of eta > 100 in many locations indicate that there may be localized contributions from starbursts or heavily filtered QSO radiation.

  13. On Ba(+) production in the CRIT 2 experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, K.; Torbert, R. B.

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of partical data from the CRIT 2 experiment, studying Alfven's critical ionization velocity (CIV) effect, shows that the density of newly created ions (presumably Ba(+) from the shaped-charge beam) is consistent with the increase in total plasma density measured by the independent RF plasma probe on board (Swenson et al., 1990) at the most active time period. We model this ion production using the measured electron flux data and the neutral barium model of Stenbaek-Nielsen et al. (1990a). To identify the main source mechanisms which may contribute most to the barium ionization, a simple model for the barium ion density at the payload location is developed based on Liouvilles theorem. We estimate that the electron impact ionization is responsible for 90% of the barium ion production observed by CRIT 2 in the first release and up to 45% in the second release. By employing a two-state approximation calculation (Rapp and Francis, 1962), the Ba-O(+) charge exchange cross section is found to range from about 2.0 X 10(exp -17) sq cm at a velocity of 4 km/s to 2.0 X 10(exp -15) sq cm at a velocity of 20 km/s. This result suggests that the Ba-O(+) charge exchange is probably dominant among all the non-CIV ionization processes. By considering the charge exchange process in our density model, the barrium ion densities are calculated for the two releases on CRIT II. The comparison between the model results and the observed data is found to be resonably consistent if the cross sections, as calculated above, are multiplied by 0.3 for the first release and 1.0 for the second release. Our result suggests that the charge exchange process could be the most important non-CIV ionization mechanism in the CRIT II experiment and it should be considered carefully case by case in CIV experiments.

  14. Simultaneous X-ray and Far-Ultraviolet Spectra of AGN with ASCA and HUT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriss, Gerard A.

    1997-01-01

    We obtained ASCA spectra of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 3516 in March 1995. Simultaneous far-UV observations were obtained with the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope on the Astro-2 shuttle mission. The ASCA spectrum shows a lightly absorbed power law of energy index 0.78. The low energy absorbing column is significantly less than previously seen. Prominent 0 VII and 0 VIII absorption edges are visible, but, consistent with the much lower total absorbing column, no Fe K absorption edge is detectable. A weak, narrow Fe K(alpha) emission line from cold material is present as well as a broad Fe K(alpha) line. These features are similar to those reported in other Seyfert 1 galaxies. A single warm absorber model provides only an imperfect description of the low energy absorption. In addition to a highly ionized absorber with ionization parameter U = 1.66 and a total column density of 1.4 x 10(exp 22)/sq cm, adding a lower ionization absorber with U = 0.32 and a total column of 6.9 x 10(exp 21)/sq cm significantly improves the fit. The contribution of resonant line scattering to our warm absorber models limits the Doppler parameter to less than 160 km/s at 90% confidence. Turbulence at the sound speed of the photoionized gas provides the best fit. None of the warm absorber models fit to the X-ray spectrum can match the observed equivalent widths of all the UV absorption lines. Accounting for the X-ray and UV absorption simultaneously requires an absorbing region with a broad range of ionization parameters and column densities.

  15. The SWIFT Gamma-Ray Burst X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J. E.; Burrows, D. N.; Nousek, J. A.; Wells, A.; Chincarini, G.; Abbey, A. F.; Angelini, L.; Beardmore, A.; Brauninger, H. W.; Chang, W.

    2006-01-01

    The Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer is designed to make prompt multi-wavelength observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts and GRB afterglows. The X-ray Telescope enables Swift to determine GRB positions with a few arcseconds accuracy within 100 seconds of the burst onset. The XRT utilizes a mirror set built for JET-X and an XMM-Newton/ EPIC MOS CCD detector to provide a sensitive broad-band (0.2-10 keV) X-ray imager with an effective area of more than 120 sq cm at 1.5 keV, a field of view of 23.6 x 23.6 arcminutes, and an angular resolution of 18 arcseconds (HPD). The detection sensitivity is 2x10(exp 14) erg/sq cm/s in 10(exp 4) seconds. The instrument provides automated source detection and position reporting within 5 seconds of target acquisition. It can also measure the redshifts of GRBs with Iron line emission or other spectral features. The XRT operates in an auto-exposure mode, adjusting the CCD readout mode automatically to optimize the science return as the source intensity fades. The XRT measures spectra and lightcurves of the GRB afterglow beginning about a minute after the burst and follows each burst for days or weeks. We provide an overview of the X-ray Telescope scientific background from which the systems engineering requirements were derived, with specific emphasis on the design and qualification aspects from conception through to launch. We describe the impact on cleanliness and vacuum requirements for the instrument low energy response and to maintain the high sensitivity to the fading signal of the Gamma-ray Bursts.

  16. On Ba(+) production in the CRIT 2 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, K.; Torbert, R. B.

    1995-04-01

    Analysis of partical data from the CRIT 2 experiment, studying Alfven's critical ionization velocity (CIV) effect, shows that the density of newly created ions (presumably Ba(+) from the shaped-charge beam) is consistent with the increase in total plasma density measured by the independent RF plasma probe on board (Swenson et al., 1990) at the most active time period. We model this ion production using the measured electron flux data and the neutral barium model of Stenbaek-Nielsen et al. (1990a). To identify the main source mechanisms which may contribute most to the barium ionization, a simple model for the barium ion density at the payload location is developed based on Liouvilles theorem. We estimate that the electron impact ionization is responsible for 90% of the barium ion production observed by CRIT 2 in the first release and up to 45% in the second release. By employing a two-state approximation calculation (Rapp and Francis, 1962), the Ba-O(+) charge exchange cross section is found to range from about 2.0 X 10(exp -17) sq cm at a velocity of 4 km/s to 2.0 X 10(exp -15) sq cm at a velocity of 20 km/s. This result suggests that the Ba-O(+) charge exchange is probably dominant among all the non-CIV ionization processes. By considering the charge exchange process in our density model, the barrium ion densities are calculated for the two releases on CRIT II. The comparison between the model results and the observed data is found to be resonably consistent if the cross sections, as calculated above, are multiplied by 0.3 for the first release and 1.0 for the second release. Our result suggests that the charge exchange process could be the most important non-CIV ionization mechanism in the CRIT II experiment and it should be considered carefully case by case in CIV experiments.

  17. WISE Discovery of Hyper Luminous Galaxies at z=2-4 and Their Implications for Galaxy and AGN Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Chao Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter; Wu, Jingwen; Bridge, Carrie; Assef, Roberto; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Cutri, Roc; Griffith, Robert L.; Jarrett, Thomas; Lonsdale, Carol; Petty, Sara; Sayers, Jack; Stanford, Adam; Stern, Daniel; Wright, Edward L.; Yan, Lin

    2014-01-01

    On behalf of the WISE Science team, we present the discovery of a class of distant dust-enshrouded galaxies with extremely high luminosity. These galaxies are selected to have extreme red colors in the mid-IR using NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). They are faint in the optical and near-IR, predominantly at zeta = 2-4, and with IR luminosity > 10(exp 13) Solar Luminosity, making them Hyper-Luminous Infrared Galaxies (HyLIRGs). SEDs incorporating the WISE, Spitzer, and Herschel PACS and SPIRE photometry indicate hot dust dominates the bolometric luminosity, presumably powered by AGN. Preliminary multi-wavelength follow-up suggests that they are different from normal populations in the local M-sigma relation. Their low source density implies that these objects are either intrinsically rare, or a short-lived phase in a more numerous population. If the latter is the case, these hot, dust-enshrouded galaxies may be an early stage in the interplay between AGN and galaxies.

  18. Outburst of the 2 s Anomalous X-ray Pulsar 1E 1547.0-5408

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, J. P.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Camilo, F.; Reynolds, J.; Ransom, S. M.

    2008-01-01

    Following our discovery of radio pulsations from the newly recognized anomalous X-ray pulsar (AXP) 1E 1547.0-5408, we initiated X-ray monitoring with the Swift X-ray telescope and obtained a single target-of-opportunity observation with the Newton X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission (XMM-Newton). In comparison with its historic minimum flux of 3 x 10(exp -l3)ergs/sq cm/s, the source was found to be in a record high state, f(sub x)(1-8 keV) = 5 x 10(exp -12)ergs/sq cm/s, or L(sub x) = 1.7 x 10(exp 35)(d/9 kpc )(sup 2)ergs/s, and declining by 25% in 1 month. Extrapolating the decay, we bound the total energy in this outburst to 1042 ergs < E < ergs. The spectra (fitted with a Comptonized blackbody) show that an increase in the temperature and area of a hot region, to 0.5 keV and -16% of the surface area of the neutron star, respectively, are primarily responsible for its increase in luminosity. The energy, spectrum, and timescale of decay are consistent with a deep crustal heating event, similar to an interpretation of the X-ray turn-on of the transient AXP XTE J18 10- 197. Simultaneous with the 4.6 hr ATdA4-Newton observation, we observed at 6.4 GHz with the Parkes telescope, measuring the phase relationship of the radio and X-ray pulse. The X-ray pulsed fraction of 1E 1547.0-5408 is only approx. 7 %, while its radio pulse is relatively broad for such a slow pulsar, which may indicate a nearly aligned rotator. As also inferred from the transient behavior of XTE J18 10-197, the only other AXP known to emit in the radio, the magnetic field rearrangement responsible for this X-ray outburst of 1E 1547.0-5408 is probably the cause of its radio turn-on.

  19. A Multi-Wavelength Search for a Counterpart of the Unidentified Gamma-ray source 3EG J2020+4017 (2CG078+2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Werner; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Lorimer, Duncan; Camilo, Fernando; Elsner, Ronald F.; Kanbach, Gottfried; Reimer, Olaf; Swartz, Douglas A.; Tennant, Allyn F.

    2004-01-01

    In search of the counterpart to the brightest unidentified gamma-ray source 3EG J2020+4017 (2CG078+2) we report on new X-ray and radio observations of the gamma-Cygni field with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). We also report on reanalysis of archival ROSAT data. With Chandra it became possible for the first time to measure the position of the putative gamma-ray counterpart RX J2020.2+4026 with sub-arcsec accuracy and to deduce its X-ray spectral characteristics. These observations demonstrate that RX J2020.2+4026 is associated with a K field star and therefore is unlikely to be the counterpart of the bright gamma-ray source 2CG078+2 in the SNR G78.2+2.1 as had been previously suggested. The Chandra observation detected 37 additional X-ray sources which were correlated with catalogs of optical and infrared data. Subsequent GBT radio observations covered the complete 99% EGRET likelihood contour of 3EG J2020+4017 with a sensitivity limit of L(sub 820) approx. 0.1 mJy kpc(exp 2) which is lower than most of the recent deep radio search limits. If there is a pulsar operating in 3EG J2020+4017, this sensitivity limit suggests that the pulsar either does not produce significant amounts of radio emission or that its geometry is such that the radio beam does not intersect with the line of sight. Finally, reanalysis of archival ROSAT data leads to a flux upper limit of f(sub x)(0.1-2.4 keV) < 1.8 x 10(exp -13) erg/s/sq cm for a putative point-like X-ray source located within the 68% confidence contour of 3EG J2020+4017. Adopting the SNR age of 5400 yrs and assuming a spin-down to X-ray energy conversion factor of 10(exp -3) this upper limit constraints the parameters of a putative neutron star as a counterpart for 3EG J2020+4017 to be P > or approx. 160/(d/1.5 kpc) ms, P > or approx. 5 x 10(exp -13)/(d/1.5kpc) s s1 and B > or approx. 9 x 10(exp 12)/(d/1.5 kpc) G.

  20. On the Relationship Between High Speed Solar Wind Streams and Radiation Belt Electron Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Yihua

    2011-01-01

    Both past and recent research results indicate that solar wind speed has a close connection to radiation belt electron fluxes [e.g., Paulikas and Blake, 1979; Reeves et aI., 2011]: a higher solar wind speed is often associated with a higher level of radiation electron fluxes. But the relationship can be very complex [Reeves et aI., 2011]. The study presented here provides further corroboration of this viewpoint by emphasizing the importance of a global perspective and time history. We find that all the events during years 2010 and 2011 where the >0.8 MeV integral electron flux exceeds 10(exp 5) particles/sq cm/sr/s (pfu) at GEO orbit are associated with the high speed streams (HSS) following the onset of the Stream Interaction Region (SIR), with most of them belonging to the long-lasting Corotating Interaction Region (CIR). Our preliminary results indicate that during HSS events, a maximum speed of 700 km/s and above is a sufficient but not necessary condition for the > 0.8 MeV electron flux to reach 10(exp 5) pfu. But in the exception cases of HSS events where the electron flux level exceeds the 10(exp 5) pfu value but the maximum solar wind speed is less than 700 km/s, a prior impact can be noted either from a CME or a transient SIR within 3-4 days before the arrival of the HSS - stressing the importance of time history. Through superposed epoch analysis and studies providing comparisons with the CME events and the HSS events where the flux level fails to reach the 10(exp 5) pfu, we will present the quantitative assessment of behaviors and relationships of various quantities, such as the time it takes to reach the flux threshold value from the stream interface and its dependence on different physical parameters (e.g., duration of the HSS event, its maximum or average of the solar wind speed, IMF Bz, Kp). The ultimate goal is to apply what is derived to space weather forecasting.

  1. Two new hot white dwarfs in a region of exceptionally low hi density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barstow, M. A.; Wesemael, F.; Holberg, J. B.; Werner, K.; Buckley, D. A. H.; Stobie, R. S.; Fontaine, G.; Rosen, S. R.; Demers, S.; Lamontagne, R.

    1993-01-01

    We report the discovery of two hot white dwarfs which have the lowest line-of-sight neutral hydrogen column densities yet measured. The stars were found independently by the ROSAT EUV, Montreal-Cambridge-Tololo, and Edinburgh-Cape surveys. Follow-up observations made using the Voyager 2 ultraviolet spectrometer reveal strong continua shortward of the 912A Lyman limit from which we deduce that the neutral hydrogen column densities are 1.3 x 10(exp 17) and 2.0 x 10(exp 17) atoms/sq cm.

  2. The Einstein All-Sky IPC slew survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, Martin; Plummer, David; Fabbiano, G.

    1989-01-01

    The construction of the Einstein All-Sky Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) slew survey is considered. It contains approximately 1000 sources between 10(exp -12) and 10(exp -10) erg/sq cm/s with a concentration toward the ecliptic poles and away from the galactic plane. Several sizable samples of bright soft X-ray selected objects for follow-up ROSAT and ASTRO-D observations and statistical study are presented. The survey source list is expected to be available by late 1989. Both paper and remote access online data base versions are to be available. An identification program is considered.

  3. Micro-Raman Analysis of Irradiated Diamond Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, Robert L.

    2003-01-01

    Owing to its unique and robust physical properties, diamond is a much sought after material for use in advanced technologies, even in Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS). The volume and weight savings promised by MEMS-based devices are of particular interest to spaceflight applications. However, much basic materials science research remains to be completed in this field. Results of micro-Raman analysis of proton (10(exp 15) - 10(exp 17) H(+)/sq cm doses) irradiated chemical vapor deposited (CVD) films are presented and indicate that their microstructure is retained even after high radiation exposure.

  4. Gas phase hydrogen permeation in a Ni-Fe-Co superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shanabarger, Mickey R.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogen permeation measurements have been conducted for the Incoloy 909 Ni-Fe-Co superalloy via the 'membrane' technique, in which the gaseous hydrogen at the entrance of a thin membrane is transposed through the bulk to the exit side of the membrane, at 400-810 C; the pressure range explored was 2.7 x 10 exp 3 to 1.3 x 10 exp 5 N/sq m. The lattice hydrogen solubility of Incoloy 909 is found to be only weakly temperature-dependent. These results are compared with those obtained for Incoloy 903.

  5. Carbon Nanotube Interconnect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jun (Inventor); Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Method and system for fabricating an electrical interconnect capable of supporting very high current densities ( 10(exp 6)-10(exp 10) Amps/sq cm), using an array of one or more carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The CNT array is grown in a selected spaced apart pattern, preferably with multi-wall CNTs, and a selected insulating material, such as SiOw, or SiuNv is deposited using CVD to encapsulate each CNT in the array. An exposed surface of the insulating material is planarized to provide one or more exposed electrical contacts for one or more CNTs.

  6. Determination of Ground-Laboratory to In-Space Effective Atomic Oxygen Fluence for DC 93?500 Silicone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Ma, David

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research was to calibrate the ground-to-space effective atomic oxygen fluence for DC 93-500 silicone in a thermal energy electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) oxygen plasma facility. Silicones, commonly used spacecraft materials, do not chemically erode with atomic oxygen attack like other organic materials but form an oxidized hardened silicate surface layer. Therefore, the effective atomic oxygen fluence in a ground test facility should not be determined based on mass loss measurements, as they are with organic polymers. A technique has been developed at the Glenn Research Center to determine the equivalent amount of atomic oxygen exposure in an ECR ground test facility to produce the same degree of atomic oxygen damage as in space. The approach used was to compare changes in the surface hardness of ground test (ECR) exposed DC 93-500 silicone with DC 93-500 exposed to low Earth orbit (LEO) atomic oxygen as part of a shuttle flight experiment. The ground to in-space effective atomic oxygen fluence correlation was determined based on the fluence in the ECR source that produced the same hardness for the fluence in-space. Nanomechanical hardness versus contact depth measurements were obtained for five ECR exposed DC 93-500 samples (ECR exposed for 18 to 40 hrs, corresponding to Kapton effective fluences of 4.2 x 10(exp 20) to 9.4 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm, respectively) and for space exposed DC 93-500 from the Evaluation of Oxygen Interactions with Materials III (EOIM III) shuttle flight experiment, exposed to LEO atomic oxygen for 2.3 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm. Pristine controls were also evaluated. A ground-to-space correlation value was determined based on correlation values for four contact depths (150, 200, 250, and 300 nm), which represent the near surface depth data. The results indicate that the Kapton effective atomic oxygen fluence in the ECR facility needs to be 2.64 times higher than in LEO to replicate equivalent exposure damage in the

  7. Evaluation of the effect of 4 types of knots on the mechanical properties of 4 types of suture material used in small animal practice.

    PubMed

    Avoine, Xytilis; Lussier, Bertrand; Brailovski, Vladimir; Inaekyan, Karine; Beauchamp, Guy

    2016-04-01

    The influence of the type of material used, knot configuration, and use of an additional throw on the tensile force at failure, the elongation, and the mode of failure of different configurations of linear sutures and knotted suture loops was evaluated in this in-vitro mechanical study. We hypothesized that all types of knots would significantly influence the initial force and elongation of suture materials and would influence the force and elongation at which the knotted loops break, but not their mode of failure. A total of 432 samples of 4 types of size 3-0 suture material (polydioxanone, polyglecaprone 25, polyglactin 910, and nylon), representing 9 configurations, were tested in a tensiometer. The configurations were 1 linear suture without a knot and the following loops: square (SQ) knot; surgeon's (SU) knot; granny (GR) knot; and sliding half-hitch (SHH) knot using either 4 and 5 or 3 and 4 throws, depending on the material. For polydioxanone, SQ and SU knots did not decrease the initial force at failure of the suture. Granny (GR) and SHH knots decreased the tensile force at failure and elongation by premature failure of the loop. For polyglecaprone 25, all knots decreased the initial force at failure of the suture, with SHH being weaker than the other knots. For coated polyglactin 910, all knots decreased the initial force at failure of the suture and slippage increased significantly compared with the other 3 sutures. The use of SQ knots with 3 throws did not result in a safe knot. For nylon, knots did not alter the original mechanics of the suture. In conclusion, all knots and types of suture material do not necessarily have the same effect on the initial tensile force at failure of suture materials. PMID:27127344

  8. First measurement of helium on Mars: Implications for the problem of radiogenic gases on the terrestrial planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Gladstone, G. R.; Mcdonald, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    The 108 photons of the Martian He 584 A airglow detected by the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite during a two-day exposure (22-23 Jan. 1993) correspond to the effective disk average intensity of 43 (+/-) 10 Rayleigh. Radiative transfer calculations, using a model atmosphere appropriate to the conditions of the observation and having an exospheric temperature of 210 (+/-) 20 K, result in an He mixing ratio of 1.1 (+/-) 0.4 ppm in the lower atmosphere. Nonthermal escape of helium is due to the following: electron impact ionization and pickup of He(+) by the solar wind; collisions with hot oxygen atoms; and charge exchange with molecular species with corresponding column loss rates of 1.4 x 10(exp 5), 3 x 10(exp 4), and 7 x 10(exp 3) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1), respectively. The lifetime of helium on Mars is 5 x 10(exp 4) yr. The He outgassing rate, coupled with the Ar-40 atmospheric abundance and with the K:U:Th ratio measured in the surface rocks, is used as input to a simple two-reservoir degassing model which presumes the loss of all argon accumulated in the atmosphere during the first Byr by large-scale impacts. The model results in total planet mass ratios of 10(exp -5) g/g for K, 2.3 x 10(exp -9) g/g for U, 8.5 x 10(exp -9) g/g for Th, 4 x 10(exp -10) g/g for He, and 1.5 x 10(exp -9) g/g for Ar-40. The predicted radiogenic heat flux is 2 erg cm(exp -2)s(exp -1). Similar modeling for Venus results in total plant mass ratios of 4.7 x 10(exp -5) g/g for K, 6.7 x 10(exp -9) g/g for U, 2.2 x 10(exp -8) g/g for Th, 1.3 x 10(exp -9) for He, 6.7 x 10(exp -9) g/g for Ar-40, and a radiogenic heat flux of 15 erg cm(exp -2)s(exp -1). The implications of these results are discussed. The modeling shows that the radioactive elements were not distributed uniformly in the protoplanetary nebula, and their relative abundances differ very much in the terrestrial planets.

  9. Sea Ice Variability in the Sea of Okhotsk from Passive Microwave Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, Donald J.; Zukor, Dorothy (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Sea of Okhotsk, located between 50 and 60 N, is bounded by the Kamchatka Peninsula, Siberia, Sakhalin Island, and the Kuril Island chain and is the largest midlatitude seasonal sea ice zone in the Northern Hemisphere. The winter sea ice cover begins to form in November and expands to cover most of the sea by March. Over the following three months, the ice retreats with only small ice-covered areas remaining by the beginning of June. The sea is ice free or nearly ice free on average for six months of the year, from June through November. The recent compilation of a consistent, long-term record of Northern Hemisphere sea ice extents based on passive microwave satellite observations from the Nimbus 7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer and from four Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Special Sensor Microwave Imagers provides the basis for assessing long-term sea ice extent variability in the Sea of Okhotsk. Analysis of this 20-year data record (1979-1998) shows that based on yearly averages the overall extent of the Sea of Okhotsk ice cover is decreasing at the rate of -8.1+/-2.1x10(exp 3) sq km/yr (-17.2%/decade), in contrast to the rate of decrease of -33.3+/-0.7x10(exp 3) sq km/yr (-2.7%/decade) for the Northern Hemisphere as a whole. There is large regional sea ice extent variability of the Arctic ice cover. Two of the nine Arctic regions analyzed, the Bering Sea and the Gulf of St. Lawrence, show increases of 0.8+/-1.4xl0(exp 3) sq km/yr (2.7%/decade) and 1.2+/-0.5xl0(exp 3) sq km/yr (17.1%/decade), respectively. Interestingly, the Sea of Okhotsk and the Gulf of St. Lawrence show about equal percentage changes, but of opposite sign. The Sea of Okhotsk exhibits its greatest percent decrease (-24.3%/decade) during spring (April-June). The year of maximum winter sea ice extent for the Sea of Okhotsk was 1979, whereas the minimum winter sea ice extent occurred in 1984.

  10. 'Heat from Above' Heat Capacity Measurements in Liquid He-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. A. M.; Chatto, A.; Sergatskov, D. A.; Babkin, A. V.; Boyd, S. T. P.; Churilov, A. M.; McCarson, T. D.; Chui, T. C. P.; Day, P. K.; Dunca, R. V.

    2003-01-01

    We have made heat capacity measurements of superfluid He-4 at temperatures very close to the lambda point, T(sub lambda) , in a constant heat flux, Q, when the helium sample is heated from above. In this configuration the helium enters a self-organized (SOC) heat transport state at a temperature T(sub SOC)(Q), which for Q greater than or = 100 nW/sq cm lies below T(sub lambda). At low Q we observe little or no deviation from the bulk Q = 0 heat capacity up to T(sub SOC)(Q); beyond this temperature the heat capacity appears to be sharply depressed, deviating dramatically from its bulk behaviour. This marks the formation and propagation of a SOC/superfluid two phase state, which we confirm with a simple model. The excellent agreement between data and model serves as an independent confirmation of the existence of the SOC state. As Q is increased (up to 6 micron W/sq cm) we observe a Q dependant depression in the heat capacity that occurs just below T(sub SOC)(Q), when the entire sample is still superfluid. This is due to the emergence of a large thermal resistance in the sample, which we have measured and used to model the observed heat capacity depression. Our measurements of the superfluid thermal resistivity are a factor of ten larger than previous measurements by Baddar et al.

  11. ASCA and Radio/RXTE Observations of GX 339-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowak, M. A.; Wilms, J.; Dove, J. B.; Fender, R. P.

    1999-01-01

    We have analyzed three separate archival Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) observations and eight separate Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the black hole candidate GX 339-4 in its low luminosity, spectrally hard state. Three of the RXTE observations were strictly simultaneous with 843 MHz and 8.3- 9.1 GHz radio observations. All data sets show evidence for an approximately 6.4 keV Fe line with equivalent widths approximately 20-100 eV. 'Reflection models' show a hardening of the RXTE spectra with decreasing X-ray flux; however, these models do not exhibit evidence of a correlation between the photon index of the incident power law flux and the solid angle subtended by the reflector. None of the models fit to the X-ray data, however, simultaneously explain the observed radio properties. We argue that the spatial extent of the observed radio emission is at least 0(10(exp 7 GM/c squared). Timing analysis reveals that all observations save one show evidence of a persistent f(qpo approximately equals 0.3 Hz quasi-periodic oscillations(quasi-periodic oscillations)). The broad band (10-3-102 Hz) power appears to be dominated by two independent processes that can be modeled as very broad Lorentzians with Q approximately less than 1. Similar to Cyg X-1, the hard photon variability is seen to lag the soft photon vaxiability with the lag time increasing with decreasing Fourier frequency. The magnitude of this time lag is seen to be positively correlated with the flux of GX 339-4.

  12. Coronal electron stream and Langmuir wave detection inside a propagation channel at 4.3 AU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buttighoffer, A.; Pick, M.; Roelof, E. C.; Hoang, S.; Mangeney, A.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Forsyth, R. J.; Phillips, J. L.

    1995-01-01

    Observations of an energetic interplanetary electron event associated with the production of Langmuir waves, both of which are identified at 4.3 AU by instruments on the Ulysses spacecraft, are presented in this paper. This electron event propagates inside a well-defined magnetic structure. The existence of this structure is firmly established by joint particle and plasma observations made by Ulysses instruments. Its local estimated radial width is of the order of 2.3 x 10(exp 7) km (0.15 AU). The electron beam is associated with a type III burst observed from Earth at high frequencies and at low frequencies from Ulysses in association with Langmuir waves detected inside the structure. The consistency of local (Ulysses) and remote (Earth) observations in terms of temporal and geometrical considerations establishes that the structure is anchored in the solar corona near the solar active region responisble for the observed type III emission and gives an accurate determination of the injection time for the observed electron beam. Propagation analysis of the electron event is presented. In order to quantify the magnetic field properties, a variance analysis has been performed and is presented in this paper. The analysis establishes that inside the structure the amount of magnetic energy involved in the fluctuations is less than 4% of the total magnetic energy; the minimal variance direction is well defined and in coincidence with the direction of the mean magnetic field. This configuration may produce conditions favorable for scatter free streaming of energetic electrons and/or Langmuir wave production. The results presented show that the magnetic field might play a role in stabilizing the coronal-origin plasma structures and then preserving them to large, approximately 4 AU, distances in the heliosphere.

  13. Fall-Back Disks in Long and Short GRBS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannizo, John K.; Troja, E.; Gehrels, N.

    2011-01-01

    We present numerical time-dependent calculations for fall-back disks relevant for GRBs in which the disk of material surrounding the black hole (BH) powering the GRB jet modulates the mass flow, and hence the strength of the jet. Given the initial existence of a small mass appr oximately less than 10(exp -4) M(solar) near the progenitor with a circularization radius approximately 10(exp 10) - 10(exp 11) cm, an una voidable consequence will be the formation of an "external disk" whose outer edge continually moves to larger radii due to angular momentum transport and lack of a confining torque. For long GRBs, if the mass distribution in the initial fall-back disk traces the progenitor envelope, then a radius approximates 10(exp 11) cm gives a time scale app roximately 10(exp 4) s for the X-ray plateau. For late times t > 10(exp 7) s a steepening due to a cooling front in the disk may have obser vational support in GRB 060729. For short GRBs, one expects most of t he mass initially to lie at small radii < 10(exp 8) cm; however the presence of even a trace amount approximately 10(exp -9) M(solar) of hi gh angular material can give a brief plateau in the light curve.

  14. Stratospheric aerosols from CH4 photochemistry on Neptune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romani, P. N.; Atreya, S. K.

    1989-08-01

    A combined photochemical-condensation model has been used to study hydrocarbon ices produced from CH4 photolysis in the stratosphere of Neptune. A total stratospheric haze production rate of 4.2 x 10 to the -15th g/sq cm/s. The total production rate is insensitive to within a factor of two to order of magnitude changes in the eddy diffusion coefficient and methane mixing ratio, which is within the present estimate of uncertainty for this number. The condensation temperatures are 97 K for C4H2, 71 K for C2H2, and 64 K for C2H6. Voyager 2 images of Neptune will be able to confirm the presence of stratospheric aerosols and provide constraints on their production rate and location.

  15. Stratospheric aerosols from CH4 photochemistry on Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romani, Paul N.; Atreya, Sushil K.

    1989-01-01

    A combined photochemical-condensation model has been used to study hydrocarbon ices produced from CH4 photolysis in the stratosphere of Neptune. A total stratospheric haze production rate of 4.2 x 10 to the -15th g/sq cm/s. The total production rate is insensitive to within a factor of two to order of magnitude changes in the eddy diffusion coefficient and methane mixing ratio, which is within the present estimate of uncertainty for this number. The condensation temperatures are 97 K for C4H2, 71 K for C2H2, and 64 K for C2H6. Voyager 2 images of Neptune will be able to confirm the presence of stratospheric aerosols and provide constraints on their production rate and location.

  16. InP tunnel junction for InGaAs/InP tandem solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilela, M. F.; Freundlich, A.; Bensaoula, A.; Medelci, N.; Renaud, P.

    1995-01-01

    Chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) has been shown to allow the growth of high quality materials with reproducible complex compositional and doping profiles. The main advantage of CBE compared to metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), the most popular technique for InP-based photovoltaic device fabrication, is the ability to grow high purity epilayers at much lower temperatures (450-530 C). We have previously shown that CBE is perfectly suited toward the fabrication of complex photovoltaic devices such as InP/InGaAs monolithically integrated tandem solar cells, because its low process temperature preserves the electrical characteristics of the InGaAs tunnel junction commonly used as an ohmic interconnect. In this work using CBE for the fabrication of optically transparent (with respect to the bottom cell) InP tunnel diodes is demonstrated. Epitaxial growth were performed in a Riber CBE 32 system using PH3 and TMIn as III and V precursors. Solid Be (p-type) and Si (n-type) have been used as doping sources, allowing doping levels up to 2 x 10(exp -19)/cu cm and 1 x 10(exp -19)/cu cm for n and p type respectively. The InP tunnel junction characteristics and the influence of the growth's conditions (temperature, growth rate) over its performance have been carefully investigated. InP p(++)/n(++) tunnel junction with peak current densities up to 1600 A/sq cm and maximum specific resistivities (V(sub p)/I(sub p) - peak voltage to peak current ratio) in the range of 10(exp -4) Omega-sq cm were obtained. The obtained peak current densities exceed the highest results previously reported for their lattice matched counterparts, In(0.53)Ga( 0.47)As and should allow the realization of improved minimal absorption losses in the interconnect InP/InGaAs tandem devices for Space applications. Owing to the low process temperature required for the top cell, these devices exhibit almost no degradation of its characteristics after the growth of subsequent thick InP layer suggesting

  17. Disentangling the Hard X-ray Background ROSAT HRI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Stephen S.

    1999-01-01

    The goal of our investigation was to improve our understanding of the properties of the discrete X-ray sources that produce the X-ray background (XRB). Many surveys have shown that the XRB at energies of 0.5-3.0 keV is dominated by emission from extragalactic point sources and that a significant fraction of the XRB at higher energies also is produced by discrete sources. In spite of the fact that the bulk of the 0.5-10 keV XRB was demonstrated to arise from extragalactic point sources, the spectral shape of the background presented a difficulty, referred to as the "spectral paradox". Spectra for classes of individual sources generally have been found to be incompatible with the observed energy index, alpha = 0.4 of the XRB over the 2-10 keV energy range. For the 0.3-3.0 keV Einstein band, Macca'caro et al. (1988) derived a mean energy spectral index of a approx. 0.95 for 599 extragalactic sources and for a subset of X-ray selected AGN, found alpha = 1.03(sup +0-05, sub -0.06) . Wilkes and Elvis showed that radio "loudness" was strongly correlated with the source spectrum, such that radio-load quasars exhibited flatter spectra (alpha approx. 0.5), while radio-quiet quasars had steeper spectra (alpha approx. 1). Studies of moderately faint sources in the 0.1-2.0 keV ROSAT band also found rather steep spectra (alpha = 0.96 +/- 0.11 for sources with an average flux of 1.5 x 10(exp -14) ergs/sq cm sec). At higher energies and much higher fluxes, energy spectra of individual AGN suggested a "canonical" alpha = 0.7 energy spectrum. Thus, the best evidence suggested that known classes of AGN could not readily explain the observed X-ray background spectrum. In our ROSAT PSPC analysis, we studied not only the traditional log N - log S, but also the spectral properties of the sources. We computed hardness ratios for individual sources and performed spectral fits to the summed source spectra, averaged in flux bins from 10(exp -15) to 10(exp -12) ergs/sq cm sec. We found that

  18. Canaveral National Seashore Water Quality and Aquatic Resource Inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, C. R.; Provancha, J. A.; Oddy, D. M.; Lowers, R. L.; Drese, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Mosquito Lagoon is a shallow, bar-built estuary located on the east central Florida Coast, primarily within the KSC boundary. The lagoon and watershed cover approximately 327 sq km (79422 acres) .The Lagoon occupies 159 sq km (37853 acres). Water depths average approximately 1m. The lagoon volume is approximately 1.6 x 10(exp 8)cu m. Water quality in Mosquito Lagoon is good. Salinity data typically range between 20 ppt and 35 ppt. The lowest value recorded was 4.5 ppt and the highest value was 37 ppt. Water temperatures fluctuate 2 - 3 C over a 24 h period. Cold front passage can rapidly alter water temperatures by 5 - 10 C or more in a short period of time. The highest temperature was 33.4 C and the lowest temperature was 8.8 C after a winter storm. Dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged from a low of 0.4 mg/l to a high of 15.3 mg/l. Extended periods of measurements below the Florida Department of Environmental Protection criteria of 4.0 mg/l were observed in fall and spring months suggesting high system respiration and oxygen demand. Metals such as antimony, arsenic, molybdenum and mercury were report as below detection limits for all samples. Cadmium, copper, chromium, silver, and zinc were found to be periodically above the Florida Department of Environmental Protection criteria for Class II and Class III surface waters.

  19. A calibration of the production rate ratio P-21/P-26 by low energy secondry neutrons: Identification of Ne spallation components at the 10(exp 6) atoms/g level in terrestrial samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, TH.; Niedermann, S.; Marti, K.

    1993-01-01

    The spallation ratio (Ne-22/Ne-21)(sub c) from Si was determined as 1.243 plus or minus 0.022 in a terrestrial quartz sample. We carried out a calibration of the in-situ production rate ratio P-21/P-26 in quartz samples for which Be-10 and Al-26 production rates were previously measured. A ratio P-21/P-26 of 0.67 plus or minus 0.12 is obtained.

  20. Clouds, hazes, and the stratospheric methane abundance in Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baines, Kevin H.; Hammel, Heidi B.

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of high-spatial-resolution (approximately 0.8 arcsec) methane band and continuum imagery of Neptune's relatively homogeneous Equatorial Region yields significant constraints on (1) the stratospheric gaseous methane mixing ratio (f(sub CH4, S)), (2) the column abundances and optical properties of stratospheric and tropospheric hydrocarbon hazes, and (3) the wavelength-dependent single-scattering albedo of the 3-bar opaque cloud. From the center-to-limb behavior of the 7270-A and 8900-A CH4 bands, the stratospheric methane mixing ratios is limited to f(sub CH4, S) less than 1.7 x 10(exp -3), with a nominal value of f(sub CH4, S) = 3.5 x 10(exp -4), one to two orders of magnitude less than pre-Voyager estimates, but in agreement with a number of recent ultraviolet and thermal infrared measurements, and largely in agreement with the tropopause mixing ratio implied by Voyager temperature measurements. Upper limits to the stratospheric haze mass column abundance and 6190-A and 8900-A haze opacities are 0.61 micrograms/sq cm and 0.075 and 0.042, respectively, with nominal values of 0.20 micrograms/sq cm and 0.025 and 0.014 for the 0.2 micrometers radius particles preferred by the recent Voyager PPS analysis of Pryor et al. (1992). The tropospheric CH4 haze opacities are comparable to that found in the stratosphere, i.e., upper limits of 0.104 and 0.065 at 6190 A and 8900 A, respectively, with nominal values of 0.085 and 0.058. This indicates a column abundance less than 11.0 micrograms/sq cm, corresponding to the methane gas content within a well-mixed 3% methane tropospheric layer only 0.1 cm thick near the 1.5-bar CH4 condensation level. Conservative scattering is ruled out for the opaque cloud near 3 bars marking the bottom of the visible atmosphere. Specifically, we find cloud single-scattering albedos of 0.915 +/- 0.006 at 6340 A, 0.775 +/- 0.012 at 7490 A, and 0.803 +/- 0.010 at 8260 A. Global models utilizing a complete global spectrum confirm the red

  1. 4 CFR 4.4 - Incentive awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incentive awards. 4.4 Section 4.4 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND UTILIZATION § 4.4 Incentive awards. The... regulations apply to Government Accountability Office employees....

  2. Relic gravitational waves and extended inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Michael S.; Wilczek, Frank

    1990-01-01

    In extended inflation, a new version of inflation where the transition from the false-vacuum phase to a radiation-dominated Universe is accomplished by bubble nucleation and percolation, bubble collisions supply a potent-and potentially detectable-source of gravitational waves. The present energy density in relic gravity waves from bubble collisions is expected to be about 10(exp -5) of closure density-many orders of magnitude greater than that of the gravity waves produced by quantum fluctuations. Their characteristic wavelength depends upon the reheating temperature T(sub RH): lambda is approximately 10(exp 4) cm (10(exp 14) GeV/T(sub RH)). If large numbers of black holes are produced, a not implausible outcome, they will evaporate producing comparable amounts of shorter wavelength waves, lambda is approximately 10(exp -6) cm (T(sub RH)/10(exp 14) GeV).

  3. Experimental Surface Pressure Data Obtained on 65 deg Delta Wing Across Reynolds Number and Mach Number Ranges. Vol. 3: Medium-radius leading edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Julio; Luckring, James M.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental wind tunnel test of a 65 deg delta wing model with interchangeable leading edges was conducted in the Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF). The objective was to investigate the effects of Reynolds and Mach numbers on slender-wing leading-edge vortex flows with four values of wing leading-edge bluntness. Experimentally obtained pressure data are presented without analysis in tabulated and graphical formats across a Reynolds number range of 6 x 10(exp 6) to 120 x 10(exp 6) at a Mach number of 0.85 and across a Mach number range of 0.4 to 0.9 at Reynolds numbers of 6 x 10(exp 6), 60 x 10(exp 6), and 120 x 10(exp 6). Normal-force and pitching-moment coefficient plots for these Reynolds number and Mach number ranges are also presented.

  4. Evidence for Live Cl-36 in Ca-Al-rich Inclusions from the Ningqiang Carbonaceous Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Y.; Guan, Y.; Leshin, L. A.; Ouyang, Z.; Wang, D.

    2004-01-01

    The short-lived radionuclide Cl-36 decays to either Ar-36 (98.1%, beta(sup -)) or S-36 (1.9%, epsilon and beta(sup +)), with a half life of 3.01 x 10(exp 5) yr. Both the nucleosynthetic and spallation models suggest high initial Cl-36/Cl-35 ratios ((Cl-36/Cl-35)o up to approximately 10(exp -4)) in the early solar system. Previous observed excess Ar-36 in Efremovka matrix has been interpreted to represent a much lower (Cl-36/Cl-35)o ratio of approximately 1 x 10(exp -6). From the observed S-36 excesses in sodalite in calcium aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), we report in this study the first direct evidence of the presence of Cl-36 in primitive meteorites. The inferred (Cl-36/Cl-35)o ratios range from approximately 5 x 10(exp -6) to approximately 1 x 10(exp -5).

  5. The electron excited ultraviolet spectrum of HD : cross sections and transition probabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajello, Joseph; Palle, Prahlad Vatti; Abgrall, Herve'; Roueff, Evelyne; Bhardwaj, Anil; Gustin, Jacques

    2005-01-01

    We have analyzed the high-resolution ultraviolet (UV) emission spectrum of molecular deuterium hydride (HD) excited by electron impact at 100 eV under optically thin, single-scattering experimental conditions. The high-resolution spectrum (FWHM=160 mA) spans the wavelength range from 900 to 1650 A and contains the two Rydberg series of HD: (sup 1)Sigma(sub u)(sup +)1s(sigma), np(si n=2, 3, 4) --> X(sup 1)Sigma(sub g)(sup +) and (sup 1)Pi(sub u)(sup +)1s(sigma), np(pi)(C,D,D',D'', n=2, 3, 4, 5) -->X(sup 1)Sigma(sub g)(sup +). A model spectrum of HD, based on newly calculated tra rovibrational coupling for the strongest band systems, B (sup 1)Sigma(sub u)(sup +)-X(sup 1)Sigma(sub g)(sup +),B'(sup 1)Sigma(sub g)(sup +)-X(sup 1)Sigma(sub g)(sup +),C(sup 1)Pi(sub u)-X(sup 1)Sigm sections for direct excitation at 100 eV of the B (sup 1)Sigma(sub u)(sup +), B' (sup 1)Sigma(sub u)(sup +), C(sup 1)Pi(sub u), and D(sup 1)Pi(sub u) states were derived from a model analysis of the state. The absolute cross section values for excitation to the B (sup 1)Sigma(sub u)(sup +), B' (sup 1)Sigma(sub u)(sup +), C(sup 1)Pi(sub u), and D(sup 1)Pi(sub u) states were found to be (2.57+/-0. and (0.17+/-0.04)x10(exp -17) sq cm, respectively. We have also determined the dissociative excitation cross sections at 100 eV for the emission of Ly(alpha) at 1216 A and Ly(Beta) at 1025 A lines, which are (7.98+/-1.12)x10(exp -18) and (0.40+/-0.10)x10(exp -18) sq cm, respectively. The summed excitation function of the closely spaced pair of lines, H Ly(alpha) and D Ly(Beta), resulting from excitation of HD, has been measured from the threshold to 800 eV and is analytically modeled with a semiempirical relation. The model cross sections are in good agreement with the corrected Ly(alpha) cross sections of Mohlmann et al. up to 2 keV. Based on measurements of H, D (2s) production cross section values by Mohlmann et al., the H, D (n=2) cross section is estimated to be 1.6 x 10(exp -17) sq cm at 100 eV.

  6. Relative abundance of the helium isotopes He-3 and He-4 in the cosmic radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, S. P.; Meyer, P.

    1984-01-01

    The geomagnetic field near the equator is used to measure the He-3/He-4 abundance ratio near 6 GeV/nucleon. This ratio is found to be 0.24 + or - 0.05, under the assumption that the helium rigidity spectrum has the form dI/dR = about R exp(-2.65). If all He-3 is of secondary origin, this implies an interstellar mean escape-path length of about 15 g/sq cm, a value considerably larger than that determined from observations of heavier elements but compatible with measurements of the helium isotopic ratio at lower energies.

  7. Direct detection optical intersatellite link at 220 Mbps using AlGaAs laser diode and silicon APD with 4-ary PPM signaling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Davidson, Frederic M.

    1990-01-01

    A newly developed 220 Mbps free-space 4-ary pulse position modulation (PPM) direct detection optical communication system is described. High speed GaAs integrated circuits were used to construct the PPM encoder and receiver electronic circuits. Both PPM slot and word timing recovery were provided in the PPM receiver. The optical transmitter consisted of an AlGaAs laser diode (Mitsubishi ML5702A, lambda=821nm) and a high speed driver unit. The photodetector consisted of a silicon avalanche photodiode (APD) (RCA30902S) preceded by an optical interference filter (delta lambda=10nm). Preliminary tests showed that the self-synchronized PPM receiver could achieve a receiver bit error rate of less than 10(exp -6) at 25 nW average received optical signal power or 360 photons per transmitted information bit. The relatively poor receiver sensitivity was believed to be caused by the insufficient electronic bandwidth of the APD preamplifier and the poor linearity of the preamplifier high frequency response.

  8. A miniature high-resolution accelerometer utilizing electron tunneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockstad, Howard K.; Kenny, T. W.; Reynolds, J. K.; Kaiser, W. J.; Vanzandt, T. R.; Gabrielson, Thomas B.

    1992-01-01

    New methods have been developed to implement high-resolution position sensors based on electron tunneling. These methods allow miniaturization while utilizing the position sensitivity of electron tunneling to give high resolution. A single-element tunneling accelerometer giving a displacement resolution of 0.002 A/sq rt Hz at 10 Hz, corresponding to an acceleration resolution of 5 x 10 exp -8 g/sq rt Hz, is described. A new dual-element tunneling structure which overcomes the narrow bandwidth limitations of a single-element structure is described. A sensor with an operating range of 5 Hz to 10 kHz, which can have applications as an acoustic sensor, is discussed. Noise is analyzed for fundamental thermal vibration of the suspended masses and is compared to electronic noise. It is shown that miniature tunnel accelerometers can achieve resolution such that thermal noise in the suspended masses is the dominant cause of the resolution limit. With a proof mass of order 100 mg, noise analysis predicts limiting resolutions approaching 10 exp -9 g/sq rt Hz in a 300 Hz band and 10 exp -8 g/sq rt Hz at 1 kHz.

  9. Products and kinetics of the liquid-phase reaction of glyoxal catalyzed by ammonium ions (NH4(+)).

    PubMed

    Nozière, Barbara; Dziedzic, Pawel; Córdova, Armando

    2009-01-01

    Glyoxal, a common atmospheric gas, has been reported to be depleted in some regions of the atmosphere. The corresponding sink could be accounted for by reactions in or at the surface of atmospheric particles, but these reactions were not identified. Recently, we showed that inorganic ammonium ions, NH(4)(+), are efficient catalysts for reactions of carbonyl compounds, including glyoxal, in the liquid phase. To determine whether ammonium-catalyzed reactions can contribute to depletion of glyoxal in the atmosphere, the reactivity of this compound in aqueous solutions containing ammonium salts (ammonium sulfate, chloride, fluoride, and phosphate) at 298 K has been studied. The products identified by LC-HRMS and UV absorption revealed a mechanism involving two distinct pathways: a Bronsted acid pathway and an iminium pathway. The kinetics of the iminium pathway was studied by monitoring formation of a specific product. This pathway was second order in glyoxal in most of the solutions studied and should therefore be second order in most ammonium-containing aerosols in the atmosphere. The corresponding rate constant, k(II) (M(-1) s(-1)), increased strongly with ammonium ion activity, a(NH(4)(+)), and pH: k(II) (M(-1) s(-1)) = (2 +/- 1) x 10(-10) exp((1.5 +/- 0.8)aNH(4)(+)) exp((2.5 +/- 0.2)pH). This iminium pathway is a lower limit for the ammonium-catalyzed consumption of glyoxal, but the contribution of the acid pathway is expected to be small in tropospheric aerosols. With these results the reactive uptake of glyoxal on ammonium-containing aerosols was estimated and shown to be a possible explanation for depletion of this compound in Mexico City.

  10. The Titan haze revisted: Magnetospheric energy sorces quantitative tholin yields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. Reid; Mcdonald, Gene D.; Sagan, Carl

    1994-01-01

    We present laboratory measurements of the radiation yields of complex organic solids produced from N2/CH4 gas mixtures containing 10 or 0.1% CH4. These tholins are thought to resemble organic aerosols produced in the atmospheres of Titan, Pluto, and Triton. The tholin yields are large compared to the total yield of gaseous products: nominally, 13 (C + N)/100 eV for Titan tholin and 2.1 (C + N)/100 eV for Triton tholin. High-energy magnetospheric electrons responsible for tholin production represents a class distinct from the plasma electrons considered in models of Titan's aiglow. Electrons with E greater than 20 keV provide an energy flux approximately 1 x 10(exp -2) erg/cm/sec, implying from our measured tholin yields a mass flux of 0.5 to 4.0 x 10(exp -14) g/sq cm/sec of tholin. (The corresponding thickness of the tholin sedimentary column accumulated over 4 Gyr on Titan's surface is 4 to 30 m). This figure is in agreement with required mass fluxes computed from recent radiative transfer and sedimentation models. If, however, theses results, derived from experiments at approximately 2 mb, are applied to lower pressure levels toward peak auroral electron energy deposition and scaled with pressure as the gas-phase organic yields, the derived tholin mass flux is at least an order of magnitude less. We attrribute this difference to the fact that tholin synthesis occurs well below the level of maximum electron energy depositon and to possible contributions to tholis from UV-derived C2-hydrocarbons. We conclude that Tita tholin, produced by magnetospheric electrons, is alone sufficient to supply at least a significant fraction of Titan's haze-a result consistent with the fact that the optical properties of Titan tholin, among all proposed material, are best at reproducing Titan's geometric albedo spectrum from near UV to mid-IR in light-scattering models.

  11. The Complex Spin State of 103P-Hartley 2: Kinematics and Orientation in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belton, Michael J. S.; Thomas, Peter; Li, Jian-Yang; Williams, Jade; Carcich, Brian; A'Hearn, Michael F.; McLaughlin, Stephanie; Farnham, Tony; McFadden, Lucy; Lisse, Carey M.; Collins, Steven; Besse, Sebastien; Klaasen, Kenneth; Sunshine, Jessica; Meech, Karen J.; Lindler, Don

    2013-01-01

    We derive the spin state of the nucleus of Comet 103P/Hartley 2, its orientation in space, and its short-term temporal evolution from a mixture of observations taken from the DIXI (Deep Impact Extended Investigation) spacecraft and radar observations. The nucleus is found to spin in an excited long-axis mode (LAM) with its rotational angular momentum per unit mass, M, and rotational energy per unit mass, E, slowly decreasing while the degree of excitation in the spin increases through perihelion passage. M is directed toward (RA, Dec; J2000) = 8+/-+/- 4 deg., 54 +/- 1 deg. (obliquity = 48 +/- 1 deg.). This direction is likely changing, but the change is probably <6 deg. on the sky over the approx. 81.6 days of the DIXI encounter. The magnitudes of M and E at closest approach (JD 2455505.0831866 2011-11-04 13:59:47.310) are 30.0 +/- 0.2 sq. m/s and (1.56 +/- 0.02) X 10(exp -3) sq. m /sq. s respectively. The period of rotation about the instantaneous spin vector, which points in the direction (RA, Dec; J2000) = 300 +/- 3.2deg., 67 +/- 1.3 deg. at the time of closest approach, was 14.1 +/- 0.3 h. The instantaneous spin vector circulates around M, inclined at an average angle of 33.2 +/- 1.3 deg. with an average period of 18.40 +/- 0.13 h at the time of closest approach. The period of roll around the principal axis of minimum inertia (''long'' axis) at that time is 26.72 +/- 0.06 h. The long axis is inclined to M by approx. 81.2 +/- 0.6 deg. on average, slowly decreasing through encounter. We infer that there is a periodic nodding motion of the long axis with half the roll period, i.e., 13.36+/- 0.03 h, with amplitude of 1 again decreasing through encounter. The periodic variability in the circulation and roll rates during a cycle was at the 2% and 10-14% level respectively. During the encounter there was a secular lengthening of the circulation period of the long axis by 1.3 +/- 0.2 min/d, in agreement with ground-based estimates, while the period of roll around the

  12. H2O-H2SO4 system in Venus' clouds and OCS, CO, and H2SO4 profiles in Venus' troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnopolsky, V. A.; Pollack, J. B.

    1994-05-01

    A coupled problem of diffusion and condensation is solved for the H2SO4-H2O system in Venus' cloud layer. The position of the lower cloud boundary and profiles of the H2O and H2SO4 vapor mixing ratios and of the H2O/H2SO4 ratio of sulfuric acid aerosol and its flux are calculated as functions of the column photochemical production rate of sulfuric acid, PhiH2SO4. Variations of the lower cloud boundary are considered. Our basic model, which is constrained to yield fH2O (30 km) = 30 ppm (Pollack et al. 1993), predicts the position of the lower cloud boundary at 48.4 km coinciding with the mean Pioneer Venus value, the peak H2SO4 mixing ratio of 5.4 ppm, and the H2SO4 production rate PhiH2SO4 = 2.2 x 1012/sq cm/s. The sulfur to sulfuric acid mass flux ratio in the clouds is 1:27 in this model, and the mass loading ratio may be larger than this value if sulfur particles are smaller than those of sulfuric acid. The model suggests that the extinction coefficient of sulfuric acid particles with radius 3.7 micrometers (mode 3) is equal to 0.3/km in the middle cloud layer. The downward flux of CO is equal to 1.7 x 1012/sq cm/s in this model. Our second model, which is constrained to yield fH2O = 10 ppm at the lower cloud boundary, close to the value measured by the Magellan radio occultations, predicts the position of this boundary to be at 46.5 km, which agrees with the Magellan data; fH2O (30 km) = 90 ppm, close to the data of Moroz et al. (1983) at this altitude; PhiH2SO4 = 6.4 x 1012/sq cm/s; and Phico = 4.2 x 1012/sq cm/s. The S/H2SO4 flux mass ratio is 1:18, and the extinction coefficient of the mode 3 sulfuric acid particles is equal to 0.9 km in the middle cloud layer. A strong gradient of the H2SO4 vapor mixing ratio near the bottom of the cloud layer drives a large upward flux of H2SO4, which condenses and forms the excessive downward flux of liquid sulfuric acid, which is larger by a factor of 4-7 than the flux in the middle cloud layer. This is the mechanism of

  13. The Observed Galactic Annihilation Line: Possible Signature of Accreting Small Mass Black Holes in the Galactic Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Chardonnet, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    Various balloon and satellite observatories have revealed what appears to be an extended source of 0.511 MeV annihilation radiation with flux of approx. 10(exp -3) photons/sq cm/s centered on the Galactic Center. Positrons from radioactive products of stellar explosions can account for a significant fraction of the emission. We discuss an additional source for this emission: namely e(+)e(-) pairs produced when X-rays generated from the approx. 2.6 x 10(exp 6) solar mass Galactic Center Black Hole interact with approx. 10 MeV temperature blackbody emission from 10(exp 17) g black holes within 10(exp 14-l5) cm of the center. The number of such Small Mass Black Holes (SMMBHs) can account for the production of the 10(exp 42) e(+)/s that produces the observed annihilation in the inner Galaxy when transport effects are taken into account. We consider the possibility for confirming the presence of these SMMBHs in the Galactic Center region with future generations of gamma-ray instruments if a blackbody like emission of approx. 10 MeV temperature would be detected by them. Small Mass Black Hole can be a potential candidate for dark (invisible) matter hal

  14. Nitrogen sulfide in quiescent dark clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgonagle, Douglas; Irvine, William M.; Ohishi, Masatoshi

    1994-01-01

    We report the first detection of interstellar nitrogen sulfide (NS) in cold dark clouds. Several components of the (2)Pi(sub 1/2), J = 3/2 to 1/2 and J = 5/2 to 3/2 transitions were observed in TMC-1 and L134N. The inferred column density for TMC-1 is N(sub NS) approximately 8 x 10(exp 12)/sq cm toward the NH3 peak in that cloud, and in L134N is N(sub NS) approximately 3 x 10(exp 12)/sq cm toward the position of peak NH3 emission. These values correspond to fractional abundances relative to molecular hydrogen of f(sub NS) approximately 8 x 10(exp -10) for TMC-1, and f(sub NS) approximately 6 x 10(exp -10) for L134N. The NS emission is extended along the TMC-1 ridge and is also extended in L134N. The measured abundances are significantly higher than those predicted by some recent gas phase ion-molecule models.

  15. Dry etching of beta-SiC in CF4 and CF4 + O2 mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmour, J. W.; Davis, R. F.; Wallett, T. M.; Bhasin, K. B.

    1986-01-01

    Dry etching of cubic (100) beta-SiC single-crystal thin films produced via chemical-vapor deposition (CVD) has been performed in CF4 and CF4 + O2 mixtures, in both the reactive-ion-etching (RIE) and plasma-etching modes. The latter process yielded measurable etch rates, but produced a dark surface layer which appears, from the results of secondary-ion mass spectrometry, to be residual SiC. The RIE samples had no residual layer, but Auger electron spectroscopy did reveal a C-rich surface. The optimal RIE conditions were obtained with 10 sccm of pure CF4 at 40 mtorr and a power density of 0.548 W/sq cm, giving an etch rate of 23.3 nm/min. Neither the increase of temperature between 293 and 573 K, nor the incremental addition of O2 to CF4 to 50 percent, produced any strong effect on the etch rates of SiC during RIE. Pictorial evidence of fine line structures produced by RIE of beta-SiC films are also presented.

  16. Chandra Deep X-ray Observation of a Typical Galactic Plane Region and Near-Infrared Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebisawa, K.; Tsujimoto, M.; Paizis, A.; Hamaguichi, K.; Bamba, A.; Cutri, R.; Kaneda, H.; Maeda, Y.; Sato, G.; Senda, A.

    2004-01-01

    Using the Chandra Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer Imaging array (ACIS-I), we have carried out a deep hard X-ray observation of the Galactic plane region at (l,b) approx. (28.5 deg,0.0 deg), where no discrete X-ray source has been reported previously. We have detected 274 new point X-ray sources (4 sigma confidence) as well as strong Galactic diffuse emission within two partidly overlapping ACIS-I fields (approx. 250 sq arcmin in total). The point source sensitivity was approx. 3 x 10(exp -15)ergs/s/sq cm in the hard X-ray band (2-10 keV and approx. 2 x 10(exp -16) ergs/s/sq cm in the soft band (0.5-2 keV). Sum of all the detected point source fluxes account for only approx. 10 % of the total X-ray fluxes in the field of view. In order to explain the total X-ray fluxes by a superposition of fainter point sources, an extremely rapid increase of the source population is required below our sensitivity limit, which is hardly reconciled with any source distribution in the Galactic plane. Therefore, we conclude that X-ray emission from the Galactic plane has truly diffuse origin. Only 26 point sources were detected both in the soft and hard bands, indicating that there are two distinct classes of the X-ray sources distinguished by the spectral hardness ratio. Surface number density of the hard sources is only slightly higher than observed at the high Galactic latitude regions, strongly suggesting that majority of the hard X-ray sources are active galaxies seen through the Galactic plane. Following the Chandra observation, we have performed a near-infrared (NIR) survey with SOFI at ESO/NTT to identify these new X-ray sources. Since the Galactic plane is opaque in NIR, we did not see the background extragalactic sources in NIR. In fact, only 22 % of the hard sources had NIR counterparts which are most likely to be Galactic origin. Composite X-ray energy spectrum of those hard X-ray sources having NIR counterparts exhibits a narrow approx. 6.7 keV iron emission line, which

  17. The Infrared Properties of Sources Matched in the Wise All-Sky and Herschel ATLAS Surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Nicholas A.; Benford, Dominic J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Amblard, Alexandre; Fleuren, Simone; Blain, Andrew W.; Dunne, Loretta; Smith, Daniel J. B.; Maddox, Steve J.; Hoyos, Carlos; Auld, Robbie; Bales, Maarten; Bonfield, David; Bourne, Nathan; Bridge, Carrie; Buttiglione, Sara; Cava, Antonio; Clements, David; Cooray, Asantha; Dariush, Ali; deZotti, Gianfranco; Driver, Simon; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Wright, Edward L.; Yan, Lin

    2012-01-01

    We describe the infrared properties of sources detected over approx 36 sq deg of sky in the GAMA 15-hr equatorial field, using data from both the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large-Area Survey (HATLAS) and Wide-field Infrared Survey (WISE). With 5sigma point-source depths of 34 and 0.048 mJy at 250 micron and 3.4 micron, respectively, we are able to identify 50.6% of the H-ATLAS sources in the WISE survey, corresponding to a surface density of approx 630 deg(exp -2). Approximately two-thirds of these sources have measured spectroscopic or optical/near-IR photometric redshifts of z < 1. For sources with spectroscopic redshifts at z < 0.3, we find a linear correlation between the infrared luminosity at 3.4 micron and that at 250 micron, with +/- 50% scatter over approx 1.5 orders of magnitude in luminosity, approx 10(exp 9) - 10(exp 10.5) Solar Luminosity By contrast, the matched sources without previously measured redshifts (r approx > 20.5) have 250-350 micron flux density ratios that suggest either high-redshift galaxies (z approx > 1.5) or optically faint low-redshift galaxies with unusually low temperatures (T approx < 20). Their small 3.4-250 micron flux ratios favor a high-redshift galaxy population, as only the most actively star-forming galaxies at low redshift (e.g., Arp 220) exhibit comparable flux density ratios. Furthermore, we find a relatively large AGN fraction (approx 30%) in a 12 micron flux-limited subsample of H-ATLAS sources, also consistent with there being a significant population of high-redshift sources in the no-redshift sample

  18. Evidence for Orbital Decay of RX J1914.4+2456: Gravitational Radiation and the Nature of the X-Ray Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    RX J1914.4+2456 is a candidate double-degenerate binary (AM CVn) with a putative 569 s orbital period. If this identification is correct, then it has one of the shortest binary orbital periods known, and gravitational radiation should drive the orbital evolution and mass transfer if the binary is semi-detached. Here we report the results of a coherent timing study of the archival ROSAT data for RX J1914.4+2456. We performed a phase coherent timing analysis using all five ROSAT observations spanning a four-year period. We demonstrate that all the data can be phase connected, and we show that the 1.756 mHz orbital frequency is increasing at a rate of 1.5 +/- 0.4 x 10(exp -17) Hz/s consistent with the expected loss of angular momentum from the binary system via gravitational radiation. In addition to providing evidence for the emission of gravitational waves, our measurement of the orbital v(dot) constrains models for the X-ray emission and the nature of the secondary. If stable mass accretion drives the X-ray flux, then a positive v(dot) is inconsistent with a degenerate donor. A helium burning dwarf is compatible if indeed such systems can have periods as short as that of RX J1914.4+2456, an open theoretical question. Our measurement of a positive v(dot) is consistent with the unipolar induction model of Wu et al. which does not require accretion to drive the X-ray flux. We discuss how future timing measurements of RX J1914.4+2456 (and systems like it) with for example, Chandra and XMM-Newton, can provide a unique probe of the interaction between mass loss and gravitational radiation. We also discuss the importance of such measurements in the context of gravitational wave detection from space, such as is expected in the future with the LISA mission.

  19. Mt. Pinatubo SO2 column measurements from Mauna Loa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Rinsland, C. P.; Blatherwick, R. D.; David, S. J.; Murcray, F. H.; Murcray, D. G.

    1992-01-01

    Absorption features of the nu sub 1 band of SO2 are identified in high-resolution IR solar-absorption spectra recorded from Mauna Loa, Hawaii, on July 9 and 12, 1991, shortly after the arrival of the first eruption plume from the Mt. Pinatubo volcano. A total SO2 vertical column amount of (5.1 +/- 0.5) x 10 exp 16 molecules/sq cm on July 9 is retrieved based on nonlinear least-squares spectral fittings of 9 selected SO2 absorption features with an updated set of SO2 spectral parameters. A SO2 total-column upper limit of 0.9 x 10 exp 16 molecules/sq cm deduced from measurements on September 20-24, 1991, is consistent with the dispersion of the SO2 cloud and the rapid conversion of the SO2 vapor into volcanic aerosol particles.

  20. Flight- and ground-test correlation study of BMDO SDS materials: Phase 1 report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Shirley Y.; Brinza, David E.; Minton, Timothy K.; Stiegman, Albert E.; Kenny, James T.; Liang, Ranty H.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Evaluation of Oxygen Interactions with Materials-3 (EOIM-3) experiment served as a test bed for a variety of materials that are candidates for Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) space assets. The materials evaluated on this flight experiment were provided by BMDO contractors and technology laboratories. A parallel ground exposure evaluation was conducted using the FAST atomic-oxygen simulation facility at Physical Sciences, Inc. The EOIM-3 materials were exposed to an atomic oxygen fluence of approximately 2.3 x 10(exp 2) atoms/sq. cm. The ground-exposed materials' fluence of 2.0 - 2.5 x 10(exp 2) atoms/sq. cm permits direct comparison of ground-exposed materials' performance with that of the flight-exposed specimens. The results from the flight test conducted aboard STS-46 and the correlative ground exposure are presented in this publication.

  1. The Composition of Titan's Lower Atmosphere and Simple Surface Volatiles as Measured by the Cassini-Huygens Probe Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niemann, H. B.; Atreya, S. K.; Demick, J. E.; Gautier, D.; Haberman, J. A.; Harpold, D. N.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Lunine, J. I.; Owen, T. C.; Raulin, F.

    2010-01-01

    The Cassini-Huygens Probe Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) determined the composition of the Titan atmosphere from 140km altitude to the surface. After landing, it returned composition data of gases evaporated from the surface. Height profiles of molecular nitrogen (N2), methane (CH4) and molecular hydrogen (H2) were determined. Traces were detected on the surface of evaporating methane, ethane (C2H6), acetylene (C2H2), cyanogen (C2N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The methane data showed evidence that methane precipitation occurred recently. The methane mole fraction was (1.48+/-0.09) x 10(exp -2) in the lower stratosphere (139.8 km to 75.5 km) and (5.65+/-0.18) x 10(exp -2) near the surface (6.7 km to the surface). The molecular hydrogen mole fraction was (1.01+/-0.16) x 10(exp -3) in the atmosphere and (9.90+/-0.17) x 10(exp -4) on the surface. Isotope ratios were 167.7+/-0.6 for N-14/N-15 in molecular nitrogen, 91.1+/-1.4 for C-12/C-13 in methane and (1.35+/-0.30) x 10(exp -4) for D/H in molecular hydrogen. The mole fractions of Ar-36 and radiogenic Ar-40 are (2.1+/-0.8) x 10(exp -7) and (3.39 +/-0.12) x 10(exp -5) respectively. Ne-22 has been tentatively identified at a mole fraction of (2.8+/-2.1) x 10(exp -7) Krypton and xenon were below the detection threshold of 1 x 10(exp -8) mole fraction. Science data were not retrieved from the gas chromatograph subsystem as the abundance of the organic trace gases in the atmosphere and on the ground did not reach the detection threshold. Results previously published from the GCMS experiment are superseded by this publication.

  2. Environmental Perturbations Caused by the Impacts of Comets and Asteroids on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Owen B.; Lawless, James G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The extinction mechanisms proposed at the Cretaceous-Tertiary geological boundary are reviewed and related to the impact of asteroids or comets in general. For impact energies below 10(exp 4) Megatons (less than 6 x 10(exp 4) years; asteroid diameter less than 650 m), blast, earthquake, and fire may destroy local areas up to 10(exp 5) square m. Tidal waves could flood a kilometer inland over entire ocean basins. The energy range from 105 to 106 Megatons (less than 2 x 10(exp 6) years; asteroid diameter less than 3 km) is transitional. Dust lifted, sulfur released from within impacting asteroids, and soot from fires started by comets can produce climatologically significant optical depths of 10. At energies beyond 10(exp 7) Megatons, blast and earthquake damage is regional (10(exp 6) square cm). Tsunami cresting to 100 m and flooding 20 km inland will sweep the coastal zones of the world's oceans. Fires will be set globally. Light levels may drop so low from the smoke, dust and sulfate that vision is not possible. At energies approaching 10(exp 9) Megatons the ocean surface waters may be acidified by sulfur. The combination of these effects would be devastating.

  3. Evaluation of an NH4VO3 derived electrolyte for the vanadium-redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menictas, C.; Cheng, M.; Skyllas-Kazascos, M.

    1993-05-01

    The electrolyte used in the vanadium-redox flow battery provides an energy storage system that produces no waste products. Initially, the electrolyte was derived from VOSO4 and significant cost of reductions were obtained by using an electrolyte derived from V2O5. The use of NH4VO3 as the starting material for electrolyte production offers further possible cost reductions. A Coulombic efficiency of 98%, a voltage efficiency of 94%, and an overall energy efficiency of 91.8% are obtained at a constant charging and discharging current density of 14.5 mA/sq cm for a test vanadium-redox flow cell that employs an electrolyte derived from NH4VO3. The electrolyte has been further treated to examine the possibility of ammonium removal. Cell-resistance measurements and cyclic voltammetry studies are reported for the treated and untreated NH4VO3 electrolyte.

  4. NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program test results

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, J.A.

    1995-11-01

    The objectives of the NASA Wiring for Space Applications program were to investigate the effects of atomic oxygen (AO), ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and AO with UV synergistic effects on wire insulation materials. The AO exposure was on the order of 10(exp 21) atoms/sq cm and the vacuum UV radiation was on the order of 10,000 ESH. The results of these tests are presented in this document.

  5. Measurement of the methyl cyanide E/A ratio in TMC-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minh, Y. C.; Irvine, W. M.; Ohishi, M.; Ishikawa, S.; Saito, S.; Kaifu, N.

    1993-01-01

    We have observed the methyl cyanide (CH3CN) J = 2-1 K = 0 and 1 transitions toward the cyanopolyyne peak of TMC-1 and have derived an E/A (ortho/para)abundance ratio N(E)/N(A) = 0.75 +/- 0.10. The total methyl cyanide column density is N(total) = 5 x 10 exp 12/sq cm toward TMC-1, in agreement with earlier results from the J = 1-0 lines.

  6. TiC growth in C fiber/Ti alloy composites during liquid infiltration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warrier, S. G.; Lin, R. Y.

    1993-01-01

    A cylindrical model is developed for predicting the reaction zone thickness of carbon fiber-reinforced Ti-matrix composites, and good agreement is obtained between its predicted values and experimental results. The reaction-rate constant for TiC formation is estimated to be 1.5 x 10 exp -9 sq cm/sec. The model is extended to evaluate the relationship between C-coating thicknesses on SiC fibers and processing times.

  7. Field Effect Transistor Behavior in Electrospun Polyaniline/Polyethylene Oxide Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Carl H.; Theofylaktos, Onoufrios; Robinson, Daryl C.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2004-01-01

    Novel transistors and logic devices based on nanotechnology concepts are under intense development. The potential for ultra-low-power circuitry makes nanotechnology attractive for applications such as digital electronics and sensors. For NASA applications, nanotechnology offers tremendous opportunities for increased onboard data processing, and thus autonomous decisionmaking ability, and novel sensors that detect and respond to environmental stimuli with little oversight requirements. Polyaniline/polyethylene oxide (PANi/PEO) nanofibers are of interest because they have electrical conductivities that can be changed from insulating to metallic by varying the doping levels and conformations of the polymer chain. At the NASA Glenn Research Center, we have observed field effect transistor (FET) behavior in electrospun PANi/PEO nanofibers doped with camphorsulfonic acid. The nanofibers were deposited onto Au electrodes, which had been prepatterned onto oxidized silicon substrates. The preceding scanning electron image shows the device used in the transistor measurements. Saturation channel currents are observed at surprisingly low source/drain voltages (see the following graph). The hole mobility in the depletion regime is 1.4x10(exp -4)sq cm/V sec, whereas the one-dimensional charge density (at zero gate bias) is calculated to be approximately 1 hole per 50 two-ring repeat units of polyaniline, consistent with the rather high channel conductivity (approx.10(exp -3) S/cm). Reducing or eliminating the PEO content in the fiber is expected to enhance device parameters. Electrospinning is thus proposed as a simple method of fabricating one-dimensional polymer FET's.

  8. Measuring electrically charged particle fluxes in space using a fiber optic loop sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this program was to demonstrate the potential of a fiber optic loop sensor for the measurement of electrically charged particle fluxes in space. The key elements of the sensor are a multiple turn loop of low birefringence, single mode fiber, with a laser diode light source, and a low noise optical receiver. The optical receiver is designed to be shot noise limited, with this being the limiting sensitivity factor for the sensor. The sensing element is the fiber optic loop. Under a magnetic field from an electric current flowing along the axis of the loop, there is a non-vanishing line integral along the fiber optic loop. This causes a net birefringence producing two states of polarization whose phase difference is correlated to magnetic field strength and thus, current in the optical receiver electronic processing. The objectives in this program were to develop a prototype laser diode powered fiber optic sensor. The performance specification of a minimum detectable current density of 1 (mu)amp/sq m-(radical)Hz, should be at the shot noise limit of the detection electronics. OPTRA has successfully built and tested a 3.2 m diameter loop with 137 turns of low birefringence optical fiber and achieved a minimum detectable current density of 5.4 x 10(exp-5) amps/(radical)Hz. If laboratory space considerations were not an issue, with the length of optical fiber available to us, we would have achieved a minimum detectable current density of 4 x 10(exp -7) amps/(radical)Hz.

  9. Thermal Vacuum Integrated System Test at B-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudlac, Maureen T.; Weaver, Harold F.; Cmar, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) Space Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is NASA s third largest thermal vacuum facility. It is the largest designed to store and transfer large quantities of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, and is perfectly suited to support developmental testing of chemical propulsion systems as well as fully integrated stages. The facility is also capable of providing thermal-vacuum simulation services to support testing of large lightweight structures, Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) systems, electric propulsion test programs, and other In-Space propulsion programs. A recently completed integrated system test demonstrated the refurbished thermal vacuum capabilities of the facility. The test used the modernized data acquisition and control system to monitor the facility during pump down of the vacuum chamber, operation of the liquid nitrogen heat sink (or cold wall) and the infrared lamp array. A vacuum level of 1.3x10(exp -4)Pa (1x10(exp -6)torr) was achieved. The heat sink provided a uniform temperature environment of approximately 77 K (140deg R) along the entire inner surface of the vacuum chamber. The recently rebuilt and modernized infrared lamp array produced a nominal heat flux of 1.4 kW/sq m at a chamber diameter of 6.7 m (22 ft) and along 11 m (36 ft) of the chamber s cylindrical vertical interior. With the lamp array and heat sink operating simultaneously, the thermal systems produced a heat flux pattern simulating radiation to space on one surface and solar exposure on the other surface. The data acquired matched pretest predictions and demonstrated system functionality.

  10. Transferring profile of dietary sulphaquinoxaline into eggs.

    PubMed

    Furusawa, N; Tsuzukida, Y; Kubota, M; Yamaguchi, H

    1998-05-01

    Sulphaquinoxaline (SQ) was fed to laying hens at the dietary levels of 25, 50, 100 and 200 ppm, respectively, for 7 successive days. The increasing amount of SQ transferred into the whole egg during SQ feeding could be well described by the following equation: [equation: see text] where y is the SQ content (ppm) in the whole egg, x is the dietary SQ level (ppm), T is days on SQ feeding (T < or = 4). After 4 days of SQ feeding, the SQ content in the homogenized eggs reached a plateau at 0.0292.x (= 0.007318.4x) ppm. This equation permits to predict SQ content in the eggs. PMID:9697423

  11. Population of Nitrifying Bacteria and Nitrification in Ammonium Saturated Clinoptilolite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGilloway, R. L.; Weaver, R. W.; Ming, Douglas W.; Gruener, J.

    1999-01-01

    As humans begin to spend longer periods of time in space, plants will be incorporated into life support systems. Ammonium saturated clinoptilolite is one plant growth substrate but a balance between ammonium and nitrate is needed. A laboratory study was conducted to determine effects of nitrifying bacteria on ammonium concentrations and kinetics of nitrification. Columns containing clinoptilolite substrate amended with nitrifying bacteria obtained from soil enrichment were analyzed weekly for a 90 day period. The enrichment culture initially contained 1 x 10(exp 5) ammonium oxidizing bacteria and 1 x 10(exp 2) nitrite oxidizing bacteria per gram of substrate. Populations of ammonium oxidizing bacteria increased to 1 x 10(exp 6) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria increased to 1 x 10(exp 3) per gram of substrate. The nitrification rate was approximately 0.25mg NO3(-)-N/kg.hr. Experiments were also conducted to enumerate nitrifying bacteria in a clinoptilolite substrate used to grow wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Seventy days following the initial inoculation with an unknown number of commercial nitrifying bacteria, 1 x 10(exp 5) ammonium oxidizing bacteria per gram of substrate were present. The number of nitrite oxidizing bacteria was between 1 x 10(exp 3) to 10(exp 4) per gram of substrate as measured by the most probable number method. Nitrification rates were approximately 0.20mg NO3(-)-N/kg.hr. Clinoptilolite readily exchanged sufficient concentrations of ammonium to support nitrifying bacteria and they survived well in this medium.

  12. Evidence for a Millisecond Pulsar in 4U 1636-53 During a Superburst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Markwardt, Craig B.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We report the discovery with the Proportional Counter Array on board the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer of highly coherent 582 Hz pulsations during the February 22, 2001 (UT) 'superburst' from 4U 1636-53. The pulsations are detected during an 800 s interval spanning the flux maximum of the burst. Within this interval the barycentric oscillation frequency increases in a monotonic fashion from 581.89 to 581.93 Hz. The predicted orbital motion of the neutron star during this interval is consistent with such an increase as long as optical maximum corresponds roughly with superior conjunction of V801 Arae, the optical companion to the neutron star in 4U 1636-53. We show that a range of circular orbits with 90 < v(sub ns) sin i < 175 km/s and 0.336 > phi(sub 0) > 0.277 for the neutron star can provide an excellent description of the frequency and phase evolution. The brevity of the observed pulse train with respect to the 3.8 hour orbital period unfortunately does not allow more precise constraints. The average pulse profile is sinusoidal and the time averaged pulsation amplitude, as inferred from the half amplitude of the sinusoid is 1%, smaller than typical for burst oscillations observed in normal thermonuclear bursts. We do not detect any higher harmonics nor the putative subharmonic near 290 Hz. The 90% upper limits on signal amplitude at the subharmonic and first harmonic are 0.1 and 0.06%, respectively. The highly coherent pulsation, with a Q = v(sub 0)/delta-v > 4.5 x 10(exp 5) provides compelling evidence for a rapidly rotating neutron star in 4U 1636-53, and further supports the connection of burst oscillation frequencies with the spin frequencies of neutron stars. Our results provide further evidence that some millisecond pulsars are spun up via accretion in LMXBs. We also discuss the implications of our orbital velocity constraint for the masses of the components of 4U 1636-53.

  13. Pulsed high-energy gamma-radiation from Geminga (1E0630 + 178)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertsch, D. L.; Brazier, K. T. S.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.; Kniffen, D. A.; Kwok, P. W.; Lin, Y. C.; Mattox, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    The detection of pulsed gamma rays with energy above 50 MeV from the soft X-ray source 1E0630 + 178 is reported, confirming the identification of Geminga with this X-ray source. The period derivative (11.4 +/- 1.7) x 10 exp -15 s/s suggests that Geminga is a nearby isolated rotating neutron star with a magnetic field of 1.6 x 10 exp 12 gauss, a characteristic age of 300,000 yr, and a spin-down energy loss rate of 3.5 x 10 exp 34 erg/s.

  14. TID and SEE Response of an Advanced Samsung 4G NAND Flash Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oldham, Timothy R.; Friendlich, M.; Howard, J. W.; Berg, M. D.; Kim, H. S.; Irwin, T. L.; LaBel, K. A.

    2007-01-01

    Initial total ionizing dose (TID) and single event heavy ion test results are presented for an unhardened commercial flash memory, fabricated with 63 nm technology. Results are that the parts survive to a TID of nearly 200 krad (SiO2), with a tractable soft error rate of about 10(exp -l2) errors/bit-day, for the Adams Ten Percent Worst Case Environment.

  15. High Mobility SiGe/Si Transistor Structures on Sapphire Substrates Using Ion Implantation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, S. A.; Mueller, C. H.; Croke, E. T.

    2003-01-01

    High mobility n-type SiGe/Si transistor structures have been fabricated on sapphire substrates by ion implanting phosphorus ions into strained 100 Angstrom thick silicon channels for the first time. The strained Si channels were sandwiched between Si(sub 0.7)Ge(sub 0.3) layers, which, in turn, were deposited on Si(sub 0.7)Ge(sub 0.3) virtual substrates and graded SiGe buffer layers. After the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) film growth process was completed, ion thick silicon channels implantation and post-annealing were used to introduce donors. The phosphorous ions were preferentially located in the Si channel at a peak concentration of approximately 1x10(exp 18)/cu cm. Room temperature electron mobilities exceeding 750 sq cm/V-sec at carrier densities of 1x10(exp 12)/sq cm were measured. Electron concentration appears to be the key factor that determines mobility, with the highest mobility observed for electron densities in the 1 - 2x10(exp 12)/sq cm range.

  16. Measurements of NO(x) and NO(y) concentrations and fluxes over Arctic tundra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakwin, Peter S.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Fan, Song-Miao; Fitzjarrald, David R.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of the atmospheric concentrations of NO, NO2, total NO(y), and O3 were made during the NASA Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A) at a remote location in a tundra bog ecosystem in southeastern Alaska during the growing season (July-August 1988). Concentrations of NO(x) and NO(y) were found to be very low compared to other remote continental sites, indicating that anthropogenic influences were small at this site during this time of year. The NO(y) emission rate from the soil were 0.13 +/- 0.05 x 10 exp 9 molecules/sq cm/s. Direct measurements of the flux of total NO(y) were made for the first time, indicating downward flux of NO(y) at all times of day, with maximum deposition of 2.5 +/- 0.9 x 10 exp 9 molecules/sq cm/s in the afternoon. Deposition of HNO3 appears to dominate the atmosphere/surface exchange of NO(y). The mean dry deposition rate of NO(y) to the tundra was 1.8 +/- 1.0 x 10 exp 9 molecules/sq cm/s.

  17. Measurements of NO(x) and NO(y) concentrations and fluxes over Arctic tundra

    SciTech Connect

    Bakwin, P.S.; Wofsy, S.C.; Fan, Songmiao; Fitzjarrald, D.R. New York State Univ., Albany )

    1992-10-01

    Measurements of the atmospheric concentrations of NO, NO[sub 2], total NO(y), and O[sub 3] were made during the NASA Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A) at a remote location in a tundra bog ecosystem in southeastern Alaska during the growing season (July-August 1988). Concentrations of NO(x) and NO(y) were found to be very low compared to other remote continental sites, indicating that anthropogenic influences were small at this site during this time of year. The NO(y) emission rate from the soil were 0.13 +/- 0.05 x 10 exp 9 molecules/sq cm/s. Direct measurements of the flux of total NO(y) were made for the first time, indicating downward flux of NO(y) at all times of day, with maximum deposition of 2.5 +/- 0.9 x 10 exp 9 molecules/sq cm/s in the afternoon. Deposition of HNO3 appears to dominate the atmosphere/surface exchange of NO(y). The mean dry deposition rate of NO(y) to the tundra was 1.8 +/- 1.0 x 10 exp 9 molecules/sq cm/s. 58 refs.

  18. Self-Gravity Modeling for LISA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkowitz, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission, a space based gravitational wave detector, uses laser metrology to measure distance fluctuations between proof masses aboard three spacecraft. The total acceleration disturbance to each proof mass is required to be below 3 x 10(exp 15) m/sq square root of Hz. Self-gravity noise due to spacecraft distortion and spacecraft motion is expected to be a significant contributor to the acceleration noise budget. To minimize these effects, the gravitational field at each proof mass must be kept as small, flat, and constant as possible. It is estimated that the static field must be kept below 5 x 10(exp -10) m/sq s with a gradient below 3 x 10(exp -8)/sq s in order to meet the required noise levels. Most likely it will not be possible to directly verify by measurements that the LISA spacecraft meets these requirements; they must be verified by models. The LISA Integrated Modeling team developed a new self-gravity tool that calculates the gravitational forces and moments on the proof masses to aid in the design and verification of the LISA spacecraft. We present here an overview of&e tool and the latest self-gravity results calculated using the current baseline design of LISA. We also present results of a self-gravity analysis of the ST-7 DRS package that will fly on the LISA Pathfinder mission.

  19. Single-Event Effect Performance of a Conductive-Bridge Memory EEPROM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Dakai; Wilcox, Edward; Berg, Melanie; Kim, Hak; Phan, Anthony; Figueiredo, Marco; Seidleck, Christina; LaBel, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the heavy ion SEE characteristics of an EEPROM based on CBRAM technology. SEFI is the dominant type of SEE for each operating mode (standby, read-only, write/read). We also observed single bit upsets in the CBRAM cell, during write/read tests. the SEULET threshold is between 10 and 20 MeV * sq cm/mg, with an upper fluence limit of 3 × 10(exp 6) cm(exp -2) at 10 MeV * sq cm/mg. In the stand by mode, the CBRAM array appears immune to bit upsets.

  20. 1SXPS: A Deep Swift X-Ray Telescope Point Source Catalog with Light Curves and Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, P. A.; Osborne, J. P.; Beardmore, A. P.; Page, K. L.; Willingale, R.; Mountford, C. J.; Pagani, C.; Burrows, D. N.; Kennea, J. A.; Perri, M.; Tagliaferri, G.; Gehrels, N.

    2013-01-01

    We present the 1SXPS (Swift-XRT point source) catalog of 151,524 X-ray point sources detected by the Swift-XRT in 8 yr of operation. The catalog covers 1905 sq deg distributed approximately uniformly on the sky. We analyze the data in two ways. First we consider all observations individually, for which we have a typical sensitivity of approximately 3 × 10(exp -13) erg cm(exp -2) s(exp -1) (0.3-10 keV). Then we co-add all data covering the same location on the sky: these images have a typical sensitivity of approximately 9 × 10(exp -14) erg cm(exp -2) s(exp -1) (0.3-10 keV). Our sky coverage is nearly 2.5 times that of 3XMM-DR4, although the catalog is a factor of approximately 1.5 less sensitive. The median position error is 5.5 (90% confidence), including systematics. Our source detection method improves on that used in previous X-ray Telescope (XRT) catalogs and we report greater than 68,000 new X-ray sources. The goals and observing strategy of the Swift satellite allow us to probe source variability on multiple timescales, and we find approximately 30,000 variable objects in our catalog. For every source we give positions, fluxes, time series (in four energy bands and two hardness ratios), estimates of the spectral properties, spectra and spectral fits for the brightest sources, and variability probabilities in multiple energy bands and timescales.

  1. Fermi/GBM Observations of SGRJ0501 + 4516 Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Lin; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Baring, Matthew G.; van der Horst, Alexander J.; Guiriec, Sylvain; Woods, Peter M.; Goegues, Ersin; Kaneko, Yuki; Scargle, Jeffrey; Granot, Jonathan; Preece, Robert; von Kienlin, Andreas; Chaplin, Vandiver; Watts, Anna L.; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; Zhang, Shuang Nan; Bhat, Narayan; Finger, Mark H.; Gehrels. Neil; Harding, Alice; Kaper, Lex; Kaspi, Victoria; Mcenery, Julie; Meegan, Charles A.; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    We present our temporal and spectral analyses of 29 bursts from SGRJ0501+4516, detected with the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope during the 13 days of the source activation in 2008 (August 22 to September 3). We find that the T(sub 90) durations of the bursts can be fit with a log-normal distribution with a mean value of approx. 123 ms. We also estimate for the first time event durations of Soft Gamma Repeater (SGR) bursts in photon space (i.e., using their deconvolved spectra) and find that these are very similar to the T(sub 90)s estimated in count space (following a log-normal distribution with a mean value of approx. 124 ms). We fit the time-integrated spectra for each burst and the time-resolved spectra of the five brightest bursts with several models. We find that a single power law with an exponential cutoff model fits all 29 bursts well, while 18 of the events can also be fit with two black body functions. We expand on the physical interpretation of these two models and we compare their parameters and discuss their evolution. We show that the time-integrated and time-resolved spectra reveal that E(sub peak) decreases with energy flux (and fluence) to a minimum of approx. 30 keV at F = 8.7 x 10(exp -6)erg/sq cm/s, increasing steadily afterwards. Two more sources exhibit a similar trend: SGRs J1550 - 5418 and 1806 - 20. The isotropic luminosity, L(sub iso), corresponding to these flux values is roughly similar for all sources (0.4 - l.5 x 10(exp 40) erg/s.

  2. Observation of gamma rays with a 4.8 hour periodicity from CYG X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, R. C.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Thompson, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    Energetic (E35 MeV) Gamma rays were observed from Cyg X-3 with the SAS-2 Gamma ray telescope. They are modulated at the 4.8 sup h period observed in the X-ray and infrared regions, and within the statistical error are in phase with this emission. The flux above 100 MeV has an average value of (4.4 + or - 1.1)x 10 to the -6 power/sq cm/sec. If the distance to Cyg X-3 is 10 kpcs, this flux implies a luminosity of more than 10 to the 37th power ergs/s if the radiation is isotropic and about 10 to the 36th power ergs/s if the radiation is restricted to a cone of one steradian, as it might be in a pulsar.

  3. A Jet Break in the X-ray Light Curve of Short GRB 111020A: Implications for Energetics and Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, W.; Berger, E.; Margutti, R.; Zauderer, B. A.; Troja, E.; Czekala, I.; Chornock, R.; Gehrels, N.; Sakamoto, T.; Fox, D. B.; Podsiadlowski, P.

    2012-01-01

    We present broadband observations of the afterglow and environment of the short GRB 111020A. An extensive X-ray light curve from Swift/XRT, XMM-Newton, and Chandra, spanning approx.100 s to 10 days after the burst, reveals a significant break at (delta)t approx. = 2 days with pre- and post-break decline rates of (alpha)X,1 approx. = -0.78 and (alpha)X,2 < or approx. 1.7, respectively. Interpreted as a jet break, we infer a collimated outflow with an opening angle of (theta)j approx. = 3deg - 8deg. The resulting beaming-corrected gamma-ray (10-1000 keV band) and blast-wave kinetic energies are (2-3) x 10(exp 48) erg and (0.3-2) x 10(exp 49) erg, respectively, with the range depending on the unknown redshift of the burst. We report a radio afterglow limit of <39 micro-Jy (3(sigma)) from Expanded Very Large Array observations that, along with our finding that v(sub c) < v(sub X), constrains the circumburst density to n(sub 0) approx.0.01 0.1/cu cm. Optical observations provide an afterglow limit of i > or approx.24.4 mag at 18 hr after the burst and reveal a potential host galaxy with i approx. = 24.3 mag. The subarcsecond localization from Chandra provides a precise offset of 0".80+/-0".11 (1(sigma))from this galaxy corresponding to an offset of 5.7 kpc for z = 0.5-1.5. We find a high excess neutral hydrogen column density of (7.5+/-2.0) x 10(exp 21)/sq cm (z = 0). Our observations demonstrate that a growing fraction of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are collimated, which may lead to a true event rate of > or approx.100-1000 Gpc(sup -3)/yr, in good agreement with the NS-NS merger rate of approx. = 200-3000 Gpc(sup -3)/ yr. This consistency is promising for coincident short GRB-gravitational wave searches in the forthcoming era of Advanced LIGO/VIRGO.

  4. The Physics of AGN, a Deep Understanding of the Quasar 3C 273

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courvoisier, T.; Bottcher, Markus

    2004-01-01

    Upon our successful AO-1 proposal no. 120023, the quasar 3C 273 has been observed with INTEGRAL in 3 epochs in January 2003. The first observation, on January 5, 2003, with a total INTEGRAL exposure of 1.2 x 10(exp 5) s, was simultaneous with RXTE and XMM- Newton observations. Two more INTEGRAL observations were carried out on January 11, 2003 (exposure: lo4 s) and January 17, 2003 (exposure: 1.1 x 10(exp 5) s). The source was detected with high significance by all INTEGRAL instruments, the OMC, JEM-X, SPI, and IBIS/ISGRI. Being one of the first INTEGRAL observations simultaneous with XMM and RXTE, our observations were also used to fix the cross calibration with those instruments. The combined spectrum resulting from the XMM-Newton, JEM-X, RXTE, SPI and ISGRI X-ray / soft gamma-ray observations is consistent with a straight power-law of photon index Gamma = (1.73 +/- 0.015) between 3 keV and at least 200 keV. A possible detection in the 200 keV - 500 keV band by SPI can not be confirmed with our observations. The normalization of the X/gamma-ray spectrum is (2.24 +/- 0.05) x 10(exp -2) photons /sq cm keV at 1 keV. The source showed a moderate amount of optical variability as observed with the OMC onboard INTEGRAL. No evidence for variability at X-rays and gamma-rays could be reported, which may have been a result of insufficient photon statistics. The X-/gamma-ray spectrum observed in our 2003 observations is consistent with previously measured and modelled broadband spectral energy distributions of 3C 273. It has been included in the U.S. lead Col's work on spectral and variability modelling of gamma-ray blazars, supporting the trend of flat-spectrum radio quasars such as 3C 273 being 7-ray dominated due to a strong contribution from Compton upscattering of external radiation by ultrarelativistic electrons in a relativistic jet. 3C 273 is a particularly convincing example for such a picture since it provides very direct evidence for a strong external radiation

  5. X-ray variability and period determinations in the eclipsing polar DP Leonis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Craig R.; Cordova, France A.

    1994-01-01

    We present an analysis of our ROSAT position sensitive proportional counter (PSPC) observations on the eclipsing magnetic cataclysmic variable DP Leo. The soft X-ray spectrum is modeled by a blackbody of kT = 24.8(sup +2.6 sub -8.1) eV. Severe limits are placed upon the flux from any hard bremsstrahlung component. A strong soft X-ray excess, with respect to hard X-ray emission, is found. The soft X-ray blackbody luminosity is larger than both the cyclotron and bremsstrahlung luminosities. An upper limit of 500 pc is obtained for the system's distance based upon the X-ray absorption (N(sub H) less than 5 x 10(exp 19)/sq cm) and an estimate of 260(sup +150 sub -100) pc is determined from a published measurement of the secondary's flux. For the derived blackbody fit, the bolometric luminosity is found to be L(sub bb, bol) = 1.4(sup +7.1 sub -0.3) x 10(exp 31)(d/260 pc)(exp 2) ergs/s. Absorption by the accretion stream produces an intensity dip prior to each eclipse. Extreme variability in the shape of the light curve from eclipse to eclipse demonstrates that changes in the rate of accretion onto the white dwarf, the sizes of accretion filaments, or variations in the location or amount of absorbing matter in the system occur on timescales shorter than the orbital period (89.8 minutes). No evidence exists for accretion onto the stronger (59 MG) magnetic pole in the ROSAT data. A new ephemeris is presented for the eclipse of the white dwarf emission region by the secondary star and another is produced for the orbital conjunction of the two components. The rotation of the white dwarf is shown to be faster than the orbital period by (5.3 +/- 1.1) x 10(exp -3) s. The origin of the asynchronous rotation may be activity cycle included orbital period variations or oscillations of the white dwarf's main pole about an equilibirium position. The accretion stream is modeled assuming that disruption of the stream along magnetic field lines occurs close to the white dwarf. The ROSAT

  6. Far-infrared emissivity measurements of reflective surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, J.; Lange, A. E.; Bock, J. J.

    1996-01-01

    An instrument developed to measure the emissivity of reflective surfaces by comparing the thermal emission of a test sample to that of a reference surface is reported. The instrument can accurately measure the emissivity of mirrors made from lightweight thermally insulating materials such as glass and metallized carbon fiber reinforced plastics. Far infrared measurements at a wavelength of 165 micrometers are reported. The instrument has an absolute accuracy of Delta epsilon = 9 x 10(exp -4) and can reproducibly measure an emissivity of as small as 2 x 10(exp -4) between flat reflective surfaces. The instrument was used to measure mirror samples for balloon-borne and spaceborne experiments. An emissivity of (6.05 +/- 1.24) x 10(exp -3) was measured for gold evaporated on glass, and (6.75 +/- 1.17) x 10(exp -3) for aluminum evaporated on glass.

  7. Monolith catalysts for closed-cycle carbon dioxide lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herz, Richard K.; Badlani, Ajay

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to explore ways of making a monolithic form of catalyst for CO2 lasers. The approach chosen was to pelletize the catalyst material, Au/MnO2 powder, and epoxy the pellets to stainless steel sheets as structural supports. The CO oxidation reaction over Au/MnO2 powder was found to be first overall, and the reaction rate constant at room temperature was 4.4 +/- 0.3 cc/(g x sec). The activation energy was 5.7 kcal/mol. The BET surface area of the pellets was found to vary from 125 to 140 sq m/g between different batches of catalyst. Pellets epoxied to stainless steel strips showed no sign of fracture or dusting when subjected to thermal tests. Pellets can be dropped onto hard surfaces with chipping of edges but no breakage of the pellets. Mechanical strength tests performed on the pellets showed that the crush strength is roughly one-fourth of the pelletizing force. The apparent activity and activation energy over the pellets were found to be less than over the powdered form of the catalyst. The lower apparent activity and activation energy of the pellets are due to the fact that the internal surface area of a pellet is not exposed to the reactant concentration present in the flowing gas as a result of intrapellet diffusion resistance. Effectiveness factors varied from 0.44, for pellets having thickness of 2 mm and attached with epoxy to a stainless steel strip. The epoxy and the stainless steel strip were found to simply block off one of the circular faces of the pellets. The epoxy did not penetrate the pellets and block the active sites. The values of the effective diffusivities were estimated to be between 2.3 x 10(exp -3) and 4.9 x 10(exp -3) sq cm/s. With measurements performed on one powder sample and one pellet configuration, reasonable accurate predictions can be made of conversions that would be obtained with other pellet thickness and configurations.

  8. 18F9 (4-(3,6-bis (ethoxycarbonyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrothieno (2,3-c) pyridin-2-ylamino)-4-oxobutanoic acid) enhances insulin-mediated glucose uptake in vitro and exhibits antidiabetic activity in vivo in db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Anandharajan, Rathinasabapathy; Sayyed, Sufyan G; Doshi, Lalit S; Dixit, Pooja; Chandak, Prakash G; Dixit, Amol V; Brahma, Manoja K; Deshmukh, Nitin J; Gupte, Ravindra; Damre, Anagha; Suthar, Jaspreet; Padigaru, Muralidhara; Sharma, Somesh D; Nemmani, Kumar V S

    2009-10-01

    Insulin resistance is central to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Previous studies have demonstrated that compounds that cause adipogenesis and improve glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells are potential insulin sensitizers. Therefore, we evaluated one such compound, 18F9, for (1) adipogenesis in human subcutaneous preadipocyte (SQ) cells, (2) glucose uptake in human skeletal muscle myotubes and SQ cells, and (3) antidiabetic activity in db/db mice. We also investigated its effect on ex vivo glucose uptake in soleus muscle isolated from continuously treated db/db mice. Gene expression profiling in soleus muscle and epididymal fat of db/db mice was performed to understand its effect on glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and thermogenesis. 18F9 enhanced adipogenesis in SQ cells and increased glucose uptake in SQ and human skeletal muscle myotubes cells. In db/db mice, 18F9 exhibited dose-dependent reduction in plasma glucose and insulin level. Interestingly, 18F9 was as efficacious as rosiglitazone but did not cause body weight gain and hepatic adverse effects. In addition, 18F9 demonstrated no change in plasma volume in Wistar rats. Furthermore, it enhanced ex vivo glucose uptake in soleus muscles in these mice, which substantiates our in vitro findings. Human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma transactivation assay revealed a weak peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma transactivation potential (44% of rosiglitazone at 10 mumol/L) of 18F9. Gene expression profiling indicated that 18F9 increased insulin sensitivity mainly through a phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent mechanism. 18F9 also up-regulated genes involved in lipid transport and synthesis at par with rosiglitazone. Unlike rosiglitazone, 18F9 elevated the expression of Pdk4. In addition, 18F9 elevated the expression of glycogen synthase and adiponectin significantly higher than rosiglitazone. Taken together, these observations suggest that 18F9 is a safer and potent insulin

  9. Stimulated-emission cross section at 1064 and 1342 nm in Nd:YVO4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, A. W.; Birnbaum, M.; Fincher, C. L.; Erler, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    The stimulated-emission cross sections at 1064 and 1342 nm in Nd:YVO4 were determined by measurement of laser thresholds as a function of output mirror reflectivity. Small samples of Nd:YVO4 and Nd:YAG were end pumped at room temperature with a CW 514.5-nm argon ion laser in an almost identical geometrical arrangement which permitted comparative values to be obtained. Assuming that the pumping quantum efficiency of Nd:YVO is similar to that of Nd:YAG, the stimulated-emission cross sections obtained for the 1064- and 1342-nm transitions were respectively 12 x 10 to the -19th and 6.0 x 10 to the -19th/sq cm.

  10. Deployment loads data from a free-flight investigation of all flexible parawings having 371.612 sq meters (4000 sq feet) of wing area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croom, D. R.

    1971-01-01

    A free-flight test program to determine the deployment characteristics of all-flexible parawings was conducted. Both single-keel and twin-keel parawings having a wing area of 4000 square feet with a five-stage reefing system were tested by use of a bomb-type instrumented test vehicle. Several twin-keel-parawing tests were also made by using an instrumented controllable sled-type test vehicle. The systems were launched from either a C-130 or a C-119 carrier airplane, and a programer parachute was used to bring the test vehicle to a proper dynamic pressure and near-vertical flight path prior to deployment of the parawing system. The free-flight deployment loads data are presented in the form of time histories of individual suspension-line loads and total loads.

  11. Outburst from 4U 1145-619: A Transient X-Ray Pulsar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Colleen; Finger, Mark H.; Scott, Matthew

    1998-01-01

    4U 1145-619, a 293 second Be/X-ray pulsar, was discovered with Uhuru (Forman 1978, ApJS, 38, 357) and first identified as a pulsar in 1977 with Ariel V (White 1978, Nature, 274, 664). From 1991 to 1998, BATSE observed 4U 1145-619 in a series of 12 periodic outbursts, each with durations of 8-30 days. Combining these data with previously published results yielded an outburst ephemeris of T(sub out) = MJD 448871.s (+/- 0.6) +/- 186.68 (+/- 0.05)E(sub out), Where T(sub out) is the time of peak intensity and E(sub out) is the cycle number. Most outbursts occur within phases +/- 0.1 of the outburst ephemeris. Pulse frequency measurements were consistent with a long-term average frequency derivative of the first derivative of v = -3 x 10(exp -14) Hz/s. Most outbursts reached peak total fluxes of approximately equal 100 mCrab (20-50 keV) and had 20-50 keV r.m.s. pulse fractions of about 30%. (A pulse fraction of 70% was observed for one outburst). Two outbursts reached 20-50 keV peak total fluxes of 550 mCrab, but had very different 20-50 keV pulse fractions of about 30% and about 50%. Three outbursts with peak total fluxes of 120, 134, and 180 mCrab, had r.m.s. pulse fractions of about 28%, 34%, and 52%. During the brightest 3 outbursts observed with BATSE, the pulse frequency increased. Fainter outbursts observed with BATSE appeared to reach peak intensity at a later phase (relative to the ephemeris) than brighter outbursts, and were typically not detectable at the expected times of peak intensity. The pulse profile showed significant intensity and energy dependent pulse shape variations. We present histories of pulse frequency, 20-50 keV intensity, and pulse profiles.

  12. Advanced Doppler tracking experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    The Doppler tracking method is currently the only technique available for broadband gravitational wave searches in the approx. 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -1) Hz low frequency band. A brief review is given of the Doppler method, a discussion of the main noise sources, and a review of experience with current spacecraft and the prospects for sensitivity improvements in an advanced Doppler tracking experiment.

  13. Heterogeneous Reaction of ClONO2(g) + NaCl(s) to Cl2(g) + NaNO3(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timonen, Raimo S.; Chu, Liang T.; Leu, Ming-Taun; Keyser, Leon F.

    1994-01-01

    The heterogeneous reaction of ClON02 + NaCl yields Cl2 + NaNO3 (eq 1) was investigated over a temperature range 220-300 K in a flow-tube reactor interfaced with a differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer. Partial pressures of ClON02 in the range 10(exp -8) - 10(exp -5) Torr were used. Granule sizes and surface roughness of the NaCl substrates were determined by using a scanning electron microscope, and in separate experiments, surface areas of the substrates were measured by using BET analysis of gas-adsorption isotherms. For dry NaCl substrates, both the decay rates of ClON02 and the growth rates Of C12 were used to obtain reaction probabilities, gamma(sub l) = (4.6 +/- 3.0) x 10(exp -3) at 296 K and (6.7 +/- 3.2) x 10(exp -1) at 225 K, after considering the internal surface area, The error bars represent 1 standard deviation. The Cl2 yield based on the ClONO2 reacted was measured to be 1.0 +/- 0.2. In order to mimic the conditions encountered in the lower stratosphere, the effect of water vapor pressures between 5 x 10(exp -5) and 3 x 10(exp -4) Torr on reaction 1 was also studied. With added H20, reaction probabilities, gamma = (4.1 +/- 2.1) x 10(exp -3) at 296 K and (4.7 +/- 2.9) x 10(exp -3) at 225 K, were obtained. A trace of HOCl, the reaction product from the ClON02 + H20 yield HOCl + HN03 reaction, was observed in addition to the C12 product from reaction 1. The implications of this result for the enhancement of hydrogen chloride in the stratosphere after the El Chichon volcanic eruption and for the marine troposphere are discussed.

  14. Experimental Surface Pressure Data Obtained on 65 deg Delta Wing Across Reynolds Number and Mach Number Ranges. Volume 2; Small-Radius Leading Edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Julio; Luckring, James M.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental wind tunnel test of a 65 deg. delta wing model with interchangeable leading edges was conducted in the Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF). The objective was to investigate the effects of Reynolds and Mach numbers on slender-wing leading-edge vortex flows with four values of wing leading-edge bluntness. Experimentally obtained pressure data are presented without analysis in tabulated and graphical formats across a Reynolds number range of 6 x 10(exp 6) to 84 x 10(exp 6) at a Mach number of 0.85 and across a Mach number range of 0.4 to 0.9 at Reynolds numbers of 6 x 10(exp 6) and 60 x 10(exp 6). Normal-force and pitching-moment coefficient plots for these Reynolds number and Mach number ranges are also presented.

  15. Reaction mechanism of homoprotocatechuate 2,3-dioxygenase with 4-nitrocatechol: implications for the role of substrate.

    PubMed

    Dong, Geng; Lai, Wenzhen

    2014-02-20

    The reaction mechanism of the dioxygen activation by homoprotocatechuate 2,3-dioxygenase (HPCD) with the substrate 4-nitrocatechol was investigated by quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical calculations. Our results demonstrated that the experimentally determined side-on iron-oxygen complex in crystallo is a semiquinone substrate radical (SQ(•))-Fe(III)-hydroperoxo species, which could not act as the reactive species. In fact, the Fe(III)-superoxo species with a hydrogen bond between His200 and the proximal oxygen is the reactive oxygen species. The second-sphere His200 residue was found to play an important role in manipulating the orientation of the superoxide in the Fe-O2 adduct for the further reaction. The rate-limiting step is the attack of the superoxo group on the substrate with a barrier of 17.2 kcal/mol, in good agreement with the experimental value of 16.8 kcal/mol. The reaction mechanism was then compared with the one for HPCD with its native substrate homoprotocatechuate studied recently by the same methods, in which a hybrid SQ(•)-Fe(II)-O2(•-)/Fe(III)-O2(•-) was suggested to be the reactive species. Therefore, our studies suggested that the substrate plays important roles in the dioxygen activation by HPCD.

  16. A Hot-electron Direct Detector for Radioastronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karasik, Boris S.; McGrath, William R.; LeDuc, Henry G.; Gershenson, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    A hot-electron transition-edge superconducting bolometer with adjustable thermal relaxation speed is proposed. The bolometer contacts are made from a superconductor with high critical temperature which blocks the thermal diffusion of hot carriers into the contacts. Thus electron-phonon interaction is the only mechanism for heat removal. The speed of thermal relaxation for hot electrons in a nanometer-size superconducting bolometer with T(sub c) = 100-300 mK is controlled by the elastic electron mean free path l. The relaxation rate behaves as T(sup 4)l at subkelvin temperatures and can be reduced by a factor of 10-100 by decreasing 1. Then an antenna- or wave guide-coupled bolometer with a time constant approx. = 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -4) s will exhibit photon-noise limited performance at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. The bolometer will have a figure-of-merit NEPtau = 10(exp -22) - 10(exp -21) W/Hz at 100 mK which is 10(exp 3) to 10(exp 4) times better (ie: smaller) than that of a state-of-the-art bolometer. A tremendous increase in speed and sensitivity will have a significant impact for observational mapping applications.

  17. The fate of atmospheric phosgene and the stratospheric chlorine loadings of its parent compounds: CCl4, C2Cl4, C2HCL3, CH3CCl3, and CHCl3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kindler, T. P.; Chameides, W. L.; Wine, P. H.; Cunnold, D. M.; Alyea, F. N.; Franklin, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    of reaction of phosgene with sulfate aerosols. However, on the basis of the observed vertical distribution of COCl2, we estimate that the reaction of COCl2 with sulfate aerosol most likely has a gamma less than 5 x 10(exp -5) and, as a result, has a negligible impact on the stratospheric chlorine loadings of the phosgene parent compounds.

  18. Spin-on Bi4Sr3Ca3Cu4O(16+x) superconducting thin films from citrate precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furcone, S. L.; Chiang, Y.-M.

    1988-06-01

    Thin films in the Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system have been synthesized from homogeneous liquid citrate precursors by a spin-coating and pyrolysis method. Films prepared on SrTiO3 substrates of 100-line orientation show strongly textured orientations with the c axis of the predominant Bi4Sr3Ca3Cu(4)O(16+x) phase normal to the film plane. In a single coating and firing, crack-free films of 0.2-0.5 thickness are obtained. For films fired to peak temperatures of 850-875 C, linearly decreasing resistance with temperature is observed. Clear onsets of superconductivity are observed at 90-100 K, with occasional films showing smaller resistant drops at 110-120 K. For all films, T(c) (R = 0) occurs in the range 70-75 K. High critical current densities at 4.2 K of 500,000-800,000 A/sq cm are measured by direct transport.

  19. Boeing F4B-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1932-01-01

    The Boeing F4B-4 was seen to differ from earlier F4Bs in having a vertical fin with slightly more area. The Boeing model 235 was not fitted with a NACA cowling, but rather the less efficient 'Townend' ring around the Pratt & Whitney Wasp radials cylinders. This aircraft was much used by both the Navy and the Army Air Corps in the late 1920's and early 1930's. The Army variation was known as the P-12E. The engine cowling was a British development known as the 'Townend' ring. It differed from the NACA cowling and was less effective in reducing the drag.

  20. Constraints on Saturn's Tropospheric General Circulation from Cassini ISS Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelGenio, Anthony D.; Barbara, John M.

    2013-01-01

    An automated cloud tracking algorithm is applied to Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem high-resolution apoapsis images of Saturn from 2005 and 2007 and moderate resolution images from 2011 and 2012 to define the near-global distribution of zonal winds and eddy momentum fluxes at the middle troposphere cloud level and in the upper troposphere haze. Improvements in the tracking algorithm combined with the greater feature contrast in the northern hemisphere during the approach to spring equinox allow for better rejection of erroneous wind vectors, a more objective assessment at any latitude of the quality of the mean zonal wind, and a population of winds comparable in size to that available for the much higher contrast atmosphere of Jupiter. Zonal winds at cloud level changed little between 2005 and 2007 at all latitudes sampled. Upper troposphere zonal winds derived from methane band images are approx. 10 m/s weaker than cloud level winds in the cores of eastward jets and approx. 5 m/s stronger on either side of the jet core, i.e., eastward jets appear to broaden with increasing altitude. In westward jet regions winds are approximately the same at both altitudes. Lateral eddy momentum fluxes are directed into eastward jet cores, including the strong equatorial jet, and away from westward jet cores and weaken with increasing altitude on the flanks of the eastward jets, consistent with the upward broadening of these jets. The conversion rate of eddy to mean zonal kinetic energy at the visible cloud level is larger in eastward jet regions (5.2x10(exp -5) sq m/s) and smaller in westward jet regions (1.6x10(exp -5) sqm/s) than the global mean value (4.1x10(ep -5) sq m/s). Overall the results are consistent with theories that suggest that the jets and the overturning meridional circulation at cloud level on Saturn are maintained at least in part by eddies due to instabilities of the large-scale flow near and/or below the cloud level.

  1. Serendipitous Detections of XTE J1906+09 with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Colleen A.; Finger, Mark H.; Gogus, Ersin; Woods, Peter M.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2002-01-01

    The 89 s X-ray pulsar XTE J1906+09 was discovered during Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of SGR 1900+14 in 1996. Because of monitoring campaigns of SGR 1900+14, XTE J1906+09 was also monitored regularly in 1996 September, 1998 May-June, 1998 August-1999 July, and 2000 March-2001 January. A search for pulsations resulted in detections of only the two previously reported outbursts in 1996 September and 1998 August-September. Pulsed flux upper limits for the rest of the observations show that XTE J1906+09 is a transient X-ray pulsar and likely has a Be star companion. The RXTE all-sky monitor did not reveal XTE J1906+09. Pulse-timing analysis of the second outburst discovered a sinusoidal signature in the pulse frequencies that is likely produced by an orbital periastron passage. Fits to pulse phases using an orbital model and quadratic phase model have chi(exp 2) minima at orbital periods of 26-30 days for fixed mass functions of 5, 10, 15, and 20 solar masses. The pulse shape showed energy- and intensity-dependent variations. Pulse-phase spectroscopy quantified the energy-dependent variations. The phase-averaged spectrum used the pulse minimum spectrum as the background spectrum to eliminate effects from SGR 1900+14 and the Galactic ridge and was well fitted by an absorbed power law with a high-energy cutoff with column density N(sub H) = 6 +/- 1 x 10(exp 22)/sq cm, a photon index of 1.01 +/- 0.08, cutoff energy E(sub cut) = 11 +/- 1 keV, and e-folding energy E(sub fold) = 19 +/- 4 keV. Estimated 2-10 keV peak fluxes, corrected for contributions from the Galactic ridge and SGR 1900+14, are 6 x l0(exp -12) and 1.1 x 10(exp -10) ergs/sq cm/s for the 1996 and 1998 outbursts, respectively. XTE J1906+09 may be part of an unusual class of Be/X-ray binaries that do not lie on the general spin period versus orbital period correlation with the majority of Be/X-ray binaries.

  2. X-ray Properties of an Unbiased Hard X-ray Detected Sample of AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, Lisa M.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Tueller, Jack; Markwardt, Craig

    2007-01-01

    The SWIFT gamma ray observatory's Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) has detected a sample of active galactic nuclei (AGN) based solely on their hard X-ray flux (14-195keV). In this paper, we present for the first time XMM-Newton X-ray spectra for 22 BAT AGXs with no previously analyzed X-ray spectra. If our sources are a representative sample of the BAT AGN, as we claim, our results present for the first time global X-ray properties of an unbiased towards absorption (n(sub H) < 3 x 10(exp 25)/sq cm), local (< z >= 0.03), AGN sample. We find 9/22 low absorption (n(sub H) < 10(exp 23)/sq cm), simple power law model sources, where 4 of these sources have a statistically significant soft component. Among these sources, we find the presence of a warm absorber statistically significant for only one Seyfert 1 source, contrasting with the ASCA results of Reynolds (1997) and George et al. (1998), who find signatures of warm absorption in half or more of their Seyfert 1 samples at similar redshifts. Additionally, the remaining sources (13122) have more complex spectra, well-fit by an absorbed power law at E > 2.0 keV. Five of the complex sources (NGC 612, ESO 362-G018, MRK 417, ESO 506-G027, and NGC 6860) are classified as Compton-thick candidates. Further, we find four more sources (SWIFT J0641.3+3257, SWIFT J0911.2+4533, SWIFT J1200.8+0650, and NGC 4992) with properties consistent with the hidden/buried AGN reported by Ueda et al. (2007). Finally, we include a comparison of the XMM EPIC spectra with available SWIFT X-ray Telescope (XRT) observations. From these comparisons, we find 6/16 sources with varying column densities, 6/16 sources with varying power law indices, and 13/16 sources with varying fluxes, over periods of hours to months. Flux and power law index are correlated for objects where both parameters vary.

  3. High and ultra high magnetic field studies of newly synthesized organic superconductors. Final report, 30 September 1992-29 September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Agosta, C.C.

    1995-09-29

    To understand the nature of the superconducting state, the authors studied the new organic superconductor (BETS)2GaCl4, that was synthesized by their collaborator L. K. Montgomery. The BETS donor molecule is a variant of the BEDT molecule where four of the inner sulfur atoms are replaced with selenium atoms. The larger selenium atoms produce a larger overlap of the orbitals in the conducting sheets of the crystals and hence produce wider electronic bands. The authors used RF penetration depth measurements at 24 MHz initially to map out the H{sub c2} diagram of (BETS)2GaCl4. The measurements were much more successful than they expected yielding many details about the superconducting state and the vortex lattice. As an example, the authors were able to measure the pinning force potential, often called the Labush parameter, as a function of temperature from 100 mK to 4.5 K. Knowing this parameter enabled them to calculate a critical current at zero temperature of 2 x 10(exp 4) A/sq cm for this material.

  4. Chromium Diffusion Doping on ZnSe Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Journigan, Troy D.; Chen, K.-T.; Chen, H.; Burger, A.; Schaffers, K.; Page, R. H.; Payne, S. A.

    1997-01-01

    Chromium doped zinc selenide crystal have recently been demonstrated to be a promising material for near-IR room temperature tunable lasers which have an emission range of 2-3 micrometers. In this study a new diffusion doping process has been developed for incorporation of Cr(+2) ion into ZnSe wafers. This process has been successfully performed under isothermal conditions, at temperatures above 800 C. Concentrations in excess of 10(exp 19) Cr(+2) ions/cu cm, an order of magnitude larger than previously reported in melt grown ZnSe material, have been obtained by diffusion doping, as estimated from optical absorption measurements. The diffusivity was estimated to be about 10(exp -8) sq cm/sec using a thin film diffusion model. Resistivity was derived from current-voltage measurements and in the range of 10(exp 13) and 10(exp 16) omega-cm. The emission spectra and temperature dependent lifetime data will also be presented and discussed.

  5. Ammonia Observations of NGC 6334 I(N)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Peters, W. L., III; Foster, J. R.; Gardner, F. F.; Whiteoak, J. B.

    1995-01-01

    Coincident with the far-infrared source NGC 6334 I(N) and water maser source E is a massive dense cloud which has the most intense ammonia (1, 1) emission of any known interstellar cloud. We have mapped the (3, 3) emission and find the cloud is extended 0.8 pc in the direction parallel to the Galactic plane, and 0.5 pc perpendicular to it. It has a velocity gradient of 1 km/s.pc perpendicular to the Galactic plane. The gas kinetic temperature is about 30 K and the density is greater than 10(exp 6)/cc. The mass of the cloud is about 3000 solar mass, 3 times greater than previously estimated. The para-ammonia column density is 6 - 8 x 10(exp 15)/sq cm. An ammonia abundance of 0.5 - 1.5 x 10(exp -8) is inferred, where the larger number assumes an early time ortho/para ratio. This suggests either a cloud age of less than approximately 10(exp 6) yr, or substantial depletion of ammonia.

  6. Real-time Characterization of Near-Earth Objects: New Spectral Capabilities at the Magdalena Ridge Observatory 2.4-meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, William; Ryan, Eileen V.; Johnson, Lee K.

    2014-11-01

    Researchers at the Magdalena Ridge Observatory's (MRO) 2.4-meter telescope facility have been contributing to the Near-Earth Object (NEO) project by working in tandem with discovery survey programs since 2008 to provide real-time, rapid response astrometric and photometric characterization follow-up (i.e., lightcurves to deduce spin rates). We are now extending this to include rapid spectroscopic follow-up using the Magdalena Optical Spectroscopy System (MOSS). This 300 visible wavelength spectrometer is permanently mounted at the Nasmyth port opposite the imager port (CCD camera) and is accessible in 30 seconds via repositioning of a tertiary mirror. A second spectroscopic capability is available via a simple filter wheel-mounted grating when MOSS is not in use. By having these instruments mounted (CCD, spectrometer, and stand alone grating) while performing our normal astrometric follow-up tasks, determination of rotation rates and spectral classification are possible as soon as an interesting target is identified, even within minutes of discovery.We report on the first spectral characterization results of NEOs utilizing this new capability at MRO. In particular, we will present spectra for the Sq/Q-type asteroids 2010 XZ67 and 2000 DK79; and the more S-like 2012 HM. In addition, we will present the near simultaneous lightcurve and spectral observations of 2014 EC. The lightcurve observations reveal a period of 0.54 +/- 0.01 hours that hint at non-principle axis rotation. The MOSS-acquired spectra imply its spectral class is Sq/Q as well. A simple grating spectrum of this object was also obtained and was of sufficient quality to corroborate an Sq/Q classification. As an ancillary benefit, this demonstrates that the grating technique can be reliable for rough classification of targets-of-opportunity when it is the only instrumentation option available.

  7. Exosat observations of 4U 1705-44 - Type I bursts and persistent emission

    SciTech Connect

    Langmeier, A.; Sztajno, M.; Hasinger, G.; Truemper, J.; Gottwald, M.

    1987-12-01

    During four Exosat observations, the bright galactic X-ray source 4U 1705-44 exhibited persistent emission variations from 1.3 to 10.7 x 10 to the -9th ergs/sq cm per sec in the 1-20 keV band. Type I X-ray bursts have been detected from this source whose properties correlate with source intensity. The burst shape changed with increasing intensity from a slow burst profile with a decay time of 100 sec to a feast profile with a decay time of 25 sec. The spectrum during maximum was best-fitted by a two-component model involving a blackbody together with a Boltzmann-Wien law, and an additional iron K emission line. 28 references.

  8. Detection of a new circumstellar carbon chain molecule, C4Si

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohishi, Masatoshi; Kaifu, Norio; Kawaguchi, Kentarou; Murakami, Akinori; Saito, Shuji

    1989-01-01

    A new interstellar carbon chain molecule, C4Si, has been detected in the envelope of the evolved star IRC + 10216. This molecule is the carrier of six unidentified lines which had been detected during the molecular line survey at Nobeyama Radio Observatory. The identification was made through astronomical detections followed by quantum chemical calculations and laboratory spectroscopic experiments. The rotational constant and the centrifugal distortion constant were B(0) = 1533.77206(146) MHz and D(0) = 0.00005827(35) MHz, respectively, where the numbers in parentheses represent one standard deviation in units of the last significant digits. The rotation temperature and the column density were 15 + or - 2 K and (7 + or - 1) x 10 to the 12th/sq cm, respectively, assuming a source size of 25 arcsec.

  9. Development of lightweight graphite/polyimide sandwich panels, phases 3, 4 and 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merlette, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    Work performed in the last three phases of the program included: (1) face sheet processing; (2) honeycomb core manufacture; (3) face sheet-to-core bonding development; and (4) sandwich panel fabrication and testing. Resin cure studies were a major portion of this effort since processing problems traced to the polyimide matrix resin had to be resolved before quality core and face sheets could be fabricated. Honeycomb core fabrication and testing were conducted by Hexcel Corporation. A total of four graphite/polyimide resin composite cores were fabricated, tested, and reported. Two sandwich panels weighing .48 and .58 lb/sq ft, respectively were designed and fabricated which meet the support structure loads for the shuttle orbiter thermal protection system.

  10. Spectroscopic studies and analysis of the laser states of Nd/3+/ in YVO4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappas Yaney, P.; Deshazer, L. G.

    1976-01-01

    Polarized absorption and dye-laser excited fluorescence spectra of Nd/3+/ in the Y(3+) site of yttrium orthovanadate at 85 and 300 K are presented and analyzed. The absence of allowed transitions and the unusual concentration of line strength into one transition in pi polarization within a given line group is shown by the Judd-Ofelt theory to be a consequence of the D2d symmetry of the site and ion placements in the unit cell. An energy level scheme giving level positions, level identities, and observed transitions is presented. The principal laser line in this group at about 10640.9 A was found to be predominately pi polarized and to have a cross section of 30 x 10 to the 19th/sq cm, which is 4.6 times larger than the laser transition of Nd/3+/ in YAG.

  11. 4-Aminopyridine

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    4 - Aminopyridine ; CASRN 504 - 24 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  12. 4-Methylphenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    4 - Methylphenol ; CASRN 106 - 44 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  13. Field-emitter arrays for vacuum microelectronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spindt, C. A.; Holland, C. E.; Rosengreen, A.; Brodie, Ivor

    1991-01-01

    An ongoing program on microfabricated field-emitter arrays has produced a gated field-emitter tip structure with submicrometer dimensions and techniques for fabricating emitter arrays with tip packaging densities of up to 1.5 x 10 exp 7 tips/sq cm. Arrays have been fabricated over areas varying from a few micrometers up to 13 cm in diameter. Very small overall emitter size, materials selection, and rigorous emitter-tip processing procedures have contributed to reducing the potential required for field emission to tens of volts. Emission current densities of up to 100 A/sq cm have been achieved with small arrays of tips, and 100-mA total emission is commonly produced with arrays 1 mm in diameter containing 10,000 tips. Transconductances of 5.0 micro-S per tip have been demonstrated, indicating that 50 S/sq cm should be achievable with tip densities of 10 exp 7 tips/sq cm. Details of the cathode arrays and a variety of performance characteristics are discussed.

  14. Energy of Cohesion, Compressibility, and the Potential Energy Functions of the Graphite System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girifalco, L. A.; Lad, R. A.

    1956-01-01

    The lattice summations of the potential energy of importance in the graphite system have been computed by direct summation assuming a Lennard-Jones 6-12 potential between carbon atoms. From these summations, potential energy curves were constructed for interactions between a carbon atom and a graphite monolayer, between a carbon atom and a graphite surface, between a graphite monolayer and a semi-infinite graphite crystal and between two graphite semi-infinite crystals. Using these curves, the equilibrium distance between two isolated physically interacting carbon atoms was found to be 2.70 a, where a is the carbon-carbon distance in a graphite sheet. The distance between a surface plane and the rest of the crystal was found to be 1.7% greater than the interlayer spacing. Theoretical values of the energy of cohesion and the compressibility were calculated from the potential curve for the interaction between two semi-infinite crystals. They were (delta)E(sub c) = -330 ergs/sq cm and beta =3.18x10(exp -12)sq cm/dyne, respectively. These compared favorably with the experimental values of (delta)E(sub c) = -260 ergs/sq cm and beta = 2.97 X 10(exp -2) sq cm/dyne.

  15. Four micron high-resolution spectra of Jupiter in the North Equatorial Belt: H3(+) emissions and the C-12/C-13 ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marten, A.; De Bergh, C.; Owen, T.; Gautier, D.; Maillard, J. P.; Drossart, P.; Lutz, B. L.; Orton, G. S.

    1994-01-01

    Spectra of the North Equatorial Belt of Jupiter were obtained in March 1992 at an unapodized resolution of 0.1/cm between 2450 and 2600/cm with the Fourier Transform Spectrometer at the 3.6 m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) on Mauna Kea. Several emissions from the nu(sub 2) band of H3(+) were detected. The excitation temperature derived from the relative intensities of these emissions averaged over a wide range of longitudes is 800 +/- 100 K, and the H3(+) column density is 1.56(sup +1.0)(sub -0.5) x 10(exp 11)/sq. cm. In addition, several strong absorption features due to (13)CH4 were observed. A comparison between (12)CH4 and (13)CH4 absorptions allowed us to obtain a new measurement of the C-12/C-13 ratio. We found that this ratio, estimated for the first time in this spectral range, is 89 (+/- 25), in agreement with the terrestrial value.

  16. Stability Characteristics of Two Missiles of Fineness Ratios 12 and 18 with Six Rectangular Fins of Very Low Aspect Ratio Over a Mach Number Range of 1.4 to 3.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henning, Allen B.

    1959-01-01

    Two rocket-propelled missiles have been test flown by the Langley Pilotless Aircraft Research Division in order to study the stability characteristics of a body with six rectangular fins of very low aspect ratio. The fins, which had exposed aspect ratios of approximately o.o4 and 0.02 per fin, were mounted on bodies of fineness ratios of 12 and 18, respectively. Each body had a nose with a fineness ratio of 3.5 and a cylindrical afterbody. The body and the fin chord of the model having a fineness ratio of 12 were extended the length of 6 body diameters to produce the model with a fineness ratio of 18. The missiles were disturbed in flight by pulse rockets in order to obtain the stability data. The tests were performed over a Mach number range of 1.4 to 3.2 and a Reynolds number range of 2 x 10(exp 6) to 21 x l0(exp 6). The results of these tests indicate that these configurations with the long rectangular fins of very low aspect ratio showed little induced roll" with the missile of highest fineness ratio and longest fin chord exhibiting the least amount. Extending the body and fin chord of the shorter missile six body diameters and thereby increasing the fin area approximately 115 percent increased the lift-curve slope based on body cross-sectional area approximately 40 to 55 percent, increased the dynamic stability by a substantial amount, and increased the drag from 14 to 33 percent throughout the comparable Mach number range. The center-of-pressure location of both missiles remained constant over the Mach number range.

  17. Central Siberian taiga mapping using by SPOT 4 and inventory data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov, Aleksey

    2013-04-01

    One of the main purposes of this research was evaluation of the suitability of satellite data middle resolution for Central Siberian forest mapping. The study area is located on the right bank of the Yenisei River between Podkamennaya Tunguska and Nizhnyaya Tunguska rivers (the Central Siberian Plateau) on the Central Siberian Natural Biosphere reserve. Nowadays there are several maps for this region which could be divided for two types conditionally: cartographic material obtained through field work of the 1930-1980 (for some part the last inventory was conducted in 1990) and satellite maps based on the coarse resolution images (such as AVHRR, SPOT VEGETATION and MODIS). General idea was to develop methodology main trees species precision mapping by SPOT 4 data sets. Training samples for the images classification was based on the results of the field inventory researches conducted in 2009-2011. A technology sample plot lying was oriented on the spatial resolution of SPOT4 multispectral bands. Each point geometrically represented a square of 20 x 20 meters and describes the following each of trees species parameters: max and min diameters, numbers of stems, max/min height, density, plot's altitude. During the field works was prepared 43 sample plots spread over a total area of 70 sq km (total Reserve area is about 1 million sq ha); each point's location determined by the landscape oriented approach, geo-referencing was carried out with the GPS. Also during the project the digital elevation model of the Reserve has been adjusted using the updated field data. Time series of satellite images was selected not only for summer periods of 2009-2011 but also a few clouds free winter images. Mapping technology involves several stages thematic processing: initially classification carried out strictly according to the results of fields' works data sets inside the local area of 70 sq km; processing was based on statistical supervised methods of classification. On the next step

  18. The determination of HNO3 column amounts from tunable diode laser heterodyne spectrometer spectra taken at Jungfruajoch, Switzerland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, P. F.; Murcray, D. G.; Martin, N. A.; Swann, N. R.; Woods, P. T.; Mcelroy, C. T.

    1994-01-01

    In May of 1991 a tunable diode laser heterodyne spectrometer built by the National Physical Laboratory was operated at the International Scientific Station of the Jungfraujoch (46.5 deg N, 8.0 deg E, altitude 3.56 km). Nitric acid spectra in the region of 868 wavenumbers were recorded at sunset and sunrise on two separate days at a resolution of 0.0013 wavenumbers with a signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 130:1. A vertical column amount of HNO3 of 1.61 x 10(exp 16) molecules/sq cm was determined using an atmospheric transmission model developed at the University of Denver. The mean of a number of mid-latitude, northern hemisphere profiles was used as the initial profile for the inversion. A comparison of different initial profiles provides information on the sensitivity of the retrieved column amount of 1.61 x 10(exp 16) molecules/sq cm lies within the range of values published in the World Meteorological Organization Report no. 16 (1986), but is considerably larger than the value of (0.99 - 1.29) x 10(exp 16) reported by Rinsland et al. (1991) for June during the period 1986 to 1990.

  19. The nuclear X-ray source in NGC 3628: A strange active galactic nucleus or the most luminous high-mass X-ray binary known?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahlem, Michael; Heckman, Timothy M.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina

    1995-01-01

    After 12 years, during which its unabsorbed soft X-ray flux in the 0.1-2.0 keV band was almost constant at about f(sub x) approximately 10(exp -12) ergs/s/sq cm, the compact nuclear source in NGC 3628 was not detected in one of our ROSAT observations, with a limiting sensitivity of f(sub x) approximately 5 x 10(exp -14) ergs/s/sq cm. Our data can be explained in two ways. The source is either the most massive X-ray binary known so far, with a greater than and approximately equal to 75 solar mass black hole, or an unusual low-luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). The X-ray spectrum is typical of a high-mass X-ray binary, while the luminosity of the source of L(sub x) is approximately equal to 10(exp 40) ergs/s is more similar to those of low-luminosity AGNs. If it is an AGN, variable obscuration might explain the observed light curve.

  20. Impact winter and the Cretaceous/Tertiary extinctions: Results of a Chicxulub asteroid impact model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, Kevin O.; Baines, Kevin H.; Ocampo, Adriana C.; Ivanov, Boris A.

    1994-01-01

    The Chicxulub impact crater in Mexico is the site of the impact purported to have caused mass extinctions at the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary. 2-D hydrocode modeling of the impact, coupled with studies of the impact site geology, indiate that between 0.4 and 7.0 x 10(exp 17) g of sulfur were vaporized by the impact into anhydrite target rocks. A small portion of the sulfur was released as SO3 or SO4, which converted rapidly into H2SO4 aerosol and fell as acid rain. A radiative transfer model, coupled with a model of coagulation indicates that the aerosol prolonged the initial blackout period caused by impact dust only if the aerosol contained impurities. A larger portion of sulfur was released as SO2, which converted to aerosol slowly, due to the rate-limiting oxidation of SO2. Our radiative transfer calculations, combined with rates of acid production, coagulation, and diffusion indicate that solar transmission was reduced to 10-20% of normal for a period of 8-13 yr. This reduction produced a climate forcing (cooling) of -300 W/sq.m, which far exceeded the +8 W/sq.m greenhouse warming, caused by the CO2 released through the vaporization of carbonates, and therefore produced a decade of freezing and near-freezing temperatures. Several decades of moderate warming followed the decade of severe cooling due to the long residence time of CO2. The prolonged impact winter may have been a major cause of the K/T extinctions.

  1. Evaluation of Several Space Lubricants using a Vacuum Four-Ball Tribometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William R., Jr.; Poslowski, Agnieszka K.; Shogrin, Bradley A.; Herrera-Fierro, Pilar; Jansen, Mark J.

    1998-01-01

    The friction and wear behavior of seven space lubricants was investigated under boundary lubrication conditions using a vacuum four-ball tribometer. Three of the lubricants were perfluoropolyethers (143AC, S-200, and Z-25). Three were synthetic hydrocarbons (a multiply alkylated cyclopentane, 2001a), and a formulated version with an antiwear and an antioxidant additive (2001). The third hydrocarbon was an unformulated polyalphaolefin (PAO-100). An unformulated silahydrocarbon (SiHC) was also evaluated. Test conditions included: a pressure less than 6.7 x 10(exp 4) Pa, a 200 N load, a sliding velocity of 28.8 mm/sec (100 RPM), and room temperature (approx. 23 C). The wear rate for each lubricant was determined from the slope of wear volume as a function of sliding distance. The lowest wear rate (0.033 x 10(exp-9) cu mm/mm) was obtained with the silahydrocarbon. The formulated synthetic hydrocarbon had a wear rate off O.037 x 10(exp -9)cu mm/mm, which was a 36% reduction compared to the unformulated fluid. The polyalphaolefin had the highest wear rate of the non-PFPE fluids. Of the perfluoropolyethers (PFPEs), wear rates decreased by about 50% from Z-25 (1.7 x 10(exp -9)cu mm/mm) to S-200 (0.70 x 10(exp -9)cu mm/mm) to 143AC (0.21 x 10(exp -9)cu mm/mm).

  2. Airborne spectrophotometry of Eta Carinae from 4.5 to 7.5 microns and a model for source morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Ray W.; Lynch, David K.; Hackwell, John A.; Rudy, Richard J.; Rossano, George S.; Castelaz, M. W.

    1987-01-01

    Spectrophotometric observations of Eta Car between 4.5 and 7.5 microns show a featureless thermal-like spectrum with no fine-structure lines or broad emission or absorption features. The color temperature of the spectrum is approximately 375 K. High spatial resolution maps at 3.5, 4.8, and 10 microns obtained from the ground are used to discuss the dust distribution and temperature structure, and to present a model for general source morphology. The upper limit to the brightness of the forbidden Ar II fine-structure emission line at 6.98 microns is less than 7 x 10 to the -16th W/sq cm, which still allows for a significant overabundance of argon and is consistent with the evolved nature of the source.

  3. Transition from Gaseous Compounds to Aerosols in Titan's Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebonnois, Sebastien; Bakes, E. L. O.; McKay, Christopher P.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the chemical transition of simple molecules like C2H2 and HCN into aerosol particles in the context of Titan's atmosphere. Experiments that synthesize analogs (tholins) for these aerosols can help understand and constrain these polymerization mechanisms. Using information available from these experiments, we suggest chemical pathways that can link simple molecules to macromolecules, that will be the precursors to aerosol particles: polymers of acetylene and cyanoacetylene, polycyclic aromatics (PAHs), polymers of HCN and other nitriles, and polynes. Although our goal here is not to build a detailed kinetic model for this transition, we propose parameterizations to estimate the production rates of these macromolecules, their C/N and C/H ratios, and the loss of parent molecules (C2H2, HCN, HC3N and other nitriles, C6H6) from the gas phase to the haze. We use a 1-dimensional photochemical model of Titan's atmosphere to estimate the formation rate of precursors macromolecules. We find a production zone slightly lower than 200 km altitude with a total production rate of 4 x 10(exp -14) g/ sq cm s and a C/N approx. = 4. These results are compared with experimental data, and to microphysical models requirements. The Cassini/Huygens mission will bring a detailed picture of the haze distribution and properties, that will be a great challenge for our understanding of those chemical processes.

  4. What's on the Surface? Physics and Chemistry of Delta-Doped Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoenk, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Outline of presentation: 1. Detector surfaces and the problem of stability 2. Delta-doped detectors 3. Physics of Delta-doped Silicon 4. Chemistry of the Si-SiO2 Interface 5. Physics and Chemistry of Delta-doped Surfaces a. Compensation b. Inversion c. Quantum exclusion. Conclusions: 1. Quantum confinement of electrons and holes dominates the behavior of delta-doped surfaces. 2. Stability of delta-doped detectors: Delta-layer creates an approx 1 eV tunnel barrier between bulk and surface. 3. At high surface charge densities, Tamm-Shockley states form at the surface. 4. Surface passivation by quantum exclusion: Near-surface delta-layer suppresses T-S trapping of minority carriers. 5. The Si-SiO2 interface compensates the surface 6. For delta-layers at intermediate depth, surface inversion layer forms 7. Density of Si-SiO2 interface charge can be extremely high (>10(exp 14)/sq cm)

  5. Flux creep in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8(sub +x) single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agostinelli, E.; Balestrino, G.; Fiorani, D.; Muzi, R.; Paroli, P.; Tejada, J.; Testa, A. M.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a magnetic study on a Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(8+x) single crystal are reported. Low field susceptibility (dc and ac), magnetization cycles and time dependent measurements were performed. With increasing the temperature the irreversible regime of the magnetization cycles is rapidly restricted to low fields, showing that the critical current J(sub c) becomes strongly field dependent well below T(sub c). At 2.4 K the critical current in zero field, determined from the remanent magnetization by using the Bean formula for the critical state, is J(sub c) = 2 10(exp 5) A/sq cm. The temperature dependence of J(sub c) is satisfactorily described by the phenomenological law J(sub c) = J(sub c) (0) (1 - T/T(sub c) (sup n), with n = 8. The time decay of the zero field cooled magnetization and of the remanent magnetization was studied at different temperatures for different magnetic fields. The time decay was found to be logarithmic in both cases, at least at low temperatures. At T = 4.2 K for a field of 10 kOe applied parallel to the c axis, the average pinning energy, determined by using the flux creep model, is U(sub o) = 0.010 eV.

  6. Detection of H3(+) from Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trafton, L. M.; Geballe, T. R.; Miller, S.; Tennyson, J.; Ballester, G. E.

    1993-01-01

    The detection of H3(+) in Uranus is reported. Using the CGS4 spectrometer on the UKIRT telescope, we clearly detected 11 emission features of the H3(+) fundamental vibration-rotation band between 3.89 and 4.09 microns. These features are composed primarily of lines from the Q-branch; the strongest of them is the Q(3) blend at 3.985 microns. Analysis of these features indicates a rotational temperature of 740 +/- 25 K, an ortho-H3(+) fraction of 0.51 +/- 0.03, and a disk-averaged H3(+) column abundance of 6.5 x 10 exp 10 (+/- 10 percent) molecules/sq cm. Comparison is made with Jupiter, Saturn, and Neptune. A detection of the H2 1-0 S(1) line in Uranus and an upper limit to H3(+) emission from Neptune also are reported. The rate of energy deposition into Uranus appears to be significantly higher than the rate reported during the Voyager 2 flyby in January of 1986.

  7. Low Earth orbital atomic oxygen environmental simulation facility for space materials evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stidham, Curtis R.; Banks, Bruce A.; Stueber, Thomas J.; Dever, Joyce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Bruckner, Eric J.

    1993-01-01

    Simulation of low Earth orbit atomic oxygen for accelerated exposure in ground-based facilities is necessary for the durability evaluation of space power system component materials for Space Station Freedom (SSF) and future missions. A facility developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations's (NASA) Lewis Research Center provides accelerated rates of exposure to a directed or scattered oxygen beam, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, and offers in-situ optical characterization. The facility utilizes an electron-cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma source to generate a low energy oxygen beam. Total hemispherical spectral reflectance of samples can be measured in situ over the wavelength range of 250 to 2500 nm. Deuterium lamps provide VUV radiation intensity levels in the 115 to 200 nm range of three to five equivalent suns. Retarding potential analyses show distributed ion energies below 30 electron volts (eV) for the operating conditions most suited for high flux, low energy testing. Peak ion energies are below the sputter threshold energy (approximately 30 eV) of the protective coatings on polymers that are evaluated in the facility, thus allowing long duration exposure without sputter erosion. Neutral species are expected to be at thermal energies of approximately .04 eV to .1 eV. The maximum effective flux level based on polyimide Kapton mass loss is 4.4 x 10 exp 6 atoms/((sq. cm)*s), thus providing a highly accelerated testing capability.

  8. HST eclipse mapping of dwarf nova OY Carinae in quiescence: An 'Fe II curtain' with Mach approx. = 6 velocity dispersion veils the white dwarf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, Keith; Marsh, T. R.; Cheng, F. H.; Hubeny, Ivan; Lanz, Theirry

    1994-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the eclipsing dwarf nova OY Car in its quiescent state are used to isolate the ultraviolet spectrum (1150-2500 A at 9.2 A Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) resolution) of the white dwarf, the accretion disk, and the bright spot. The white dwarf spectrum has a Stark-broadened photospheric L(alpha) absorption, but is veiled by a forest of blended Fe II features that we attribute to absorption by intervening disk material. A fit gives T(sub w) approx. = 16.5 x 10(exp 3) K for the white dwarf with a solar-abundance, log g = 8 model atmosphere, and T approx. = 10(exp 4) K, n(sub e) approx. = 10(exp 13)/cu cm, N(sub H) approx. = 10(exp 22) sq cm, and velocity dispersion delta V approx. = 60 km/s for the veil of homogeneous solar-abundance local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) gas. The veil parameters probably measure characteristic physical conditions in the quiescent accretion disk or its chromosphere. The large velocity dispersion is essential for a good fit; it lowers (chi square)/778 from 22 to 4. Keplerian shear can produce the velocity dispersion if the veiling gas is located at R approx. = 5 R(sub W) with (delta R)/R approx. = 0.3, but this model leaves an unobscured view to the upper hemisphere of the white dwarf, incompatible with absorptions that are up to 80% deep. The veiling gas may be in the upper atmosphere of the disk near its outer rim, but we then require supersonic (Mach approx. = 6) but sub-Keplerian (delta V/V(sub Kep) approx. = 0.07) velocity disturbances in this region to produce both the observed radial velocity dispersion and vertical motions sufficient to elevate the gas to z/R = cos i = 0.12. Such motions might be driven by the gas stream, since it may take several Kepler periods to reestablish the disk's vertical hydrostatic equilibrium. The temperature and column density of the gas we see as Fe II absorption in the ultraviolet are similar to what is required to produce the strong Balmer jump and

  9. The X-ray Emitting Components towards l = 111 deg: The Local Hot Bubble and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuntz, K. D.; Snowden, S. L.

    2006-01-01

    We have obtained an XMM-Newton spectrum of the diffuse X-ray emission towards (l, b) = (111.14,1.11), a line of sight with a relatively simple distribution of absorbing clouds; > 9 x 10(exp 19)/sq cm at R>170 pc, a 6 x 10(exp 21)/sq cm molecular cloud at 2.5-3.3 kpc, and a total column of 1.2 x 10(exp 22)/sq cm. We find that the analysis of the XMM-Newton spectrum in conjunction with the RASS spectral energy distribution for the same direction requires three thermal components to be well fit: a "standard" Local Hot Bubble component with kT = 0.089, a component beyond the molecular cloud with kT = 0.59, and a component before the molecular cloud with kT = 0.21. The strength of the O VII 0.56 keV line from the Local Hot Bubble, 2.1+/-0.7 photons/sq cm/s/sr, is consistent with other recent measures. The 0.21 keV component has an emission measure of 0.0022+/-0.0006 pc and is not localized save as diffuse emission within the Galactic plane; it is the best candidate for a pervasive hot medium. The spatial separation of the approx. 0.2 keV component from the approx. 0.6 keV component suggests that the spectral decompositions of the emission from late-type spiral disks found in the literature do represent real temperature components rather than reflecting more complex temperature distributions.

  10. Kinetics and Thermochemistry of the Br((sup 2)P3/2) + NO2 Association Reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreutter, K. D.; Nicovich, J. M.; Wine, P. H.

    1997-01-01

    )/sq molecule/s range from 2.75 for M = He to 6.54 for M = CO2; 2 sigma uncertainties are estimated to be +/- 20%. Values for k(sub 0)(N2,T) in units of 10(exp -31) cm(exp 6)/sq molecule/s are 5.73 at 259 K, 4.61 at 298 K, and 3.21 at 346 K; the observed temperature dependence for k(sub 0)(N2,T) is consistent with the theoretical temperature dependence for Beta(sub c)k(sub 0)(sup SC). Values for k(sub infinity)(T) in units of 10(exp -11) cu cm/molecule/s are 2.86 at 259 K, 3.22 at 298 K, and 3.73 at 346 K; 2 sigma uncertainties are estimated to be a factor of 2. Approximate falloff parameters in a convenient format for atmospheric modeling are also derived.

  11. Pyridine-4-carbaldehyde 4-phenylsemicarbazone

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Meroño, Rafael; Menéndez-Taboada, Laura; Fernández-Zapico, Eva; García-Granda, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, C13H12N4O, the semicarbazone fragment links a benzene and a pyridine ring in the structure. The crystal packing is stabilized by strong inter­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, which connect two mol­ecules to form a synthon unit, and by N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds and weak C—H⋯π inter­actions. The mol­ecular conformation is stabil­ized by intra­molecular N—H⋯N and C—H⋯O inter­actions. PMID:21754444

  12. Base Heating Sensitivity Study for a 4-Cluster Rocket Motor Configuration in Supersonic Freestream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Manish; Canabal, Francisco; Tashakkor, Scott B.; Smith, Sheldon D.

    2011-01-01

    In support of launch vehicle base heating and pressure prediction efforts using the Loci-CHEM Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics solver, 35 numerical simulations of the NASA TND-1093 wind tunnel test have been modeled and analyzed. This test article is composed of four JP-4/LOX 500 lbf rocket motors exhausting into a Mach 2 - 3.5 wind tunnel at various ambient pressure conditions. These water-cooled motors are attached to a base plate of a standard missile forebody. We explore the base heating profiles for fully coupled finite-rate chemistry simulations, one-way coupled RAMP (Reacting And Multiphase Program using Method of Characteristics)-BLIMPJ (Boundary Layer Integral Matrix Program - Jet Version) derived solutions and variable and constant specific heat ratio frozen flow simulations. Variations in turbulence models, temperature boundary conditions and thermodynamic properties of the plume have been investigated at two ambient pressure conditions: 255 lb/sq ft (simulated low altitude) and 35 lb/sq ft (simulated high altitude). It is observed that the convective base heat flux and base temperature are most sensitive to the nozzle inner wall thermal boundary layer profile which is dependent on the wall temperature, boundary layer s specific energy and chemical reactions. Recovery shock dynamics and afterburning significantly influences convective base heating. Turbulence models and external nozzle wall thermal boundary layer profiles show less sensitivity to base heating characteristics. Base heating rates are validated for the highest fidelity solutions which show an agreement within +/-10% with respect to test data.

  13. Building and mining web-based questionnaires and surveys with SySQ.

    PubMed

    Sarica, Alessia; Guzzi, Pietro Hiram; Cannataro, Mario

    2013-09-01

    A questionnaire is a method for collecting data that can come from many sources such as observations, telephone interviews or documentary sources. Whatever the source of data is, the questionnaire provides a framework of questions that facilitate researcher's work. A manual approach for collecting data using questionnaire presents some limitations and introduces several sources of errors. A second issue regards the statistical and data mining of data that often is conducted using different tools than the questionnaire system, which may introduce errors in the analysis pipeline. For instance, common methods applied to data set concern the normality test, the association and correlation discovery, linear regression, classification and clustering. Usually this analysis is performed using external tools, often not free, such as SPSS, SAS, STATA, Weka, or Clementine.We present a web-based software system, to automatize the analysis pipeline and to support researchers involved in the collection of questionnaire data, such as in epidemiology, aiming to reduce the errors listed above and including some basic functions to conduct statistical analysis on collected data. Our system allows researchers to create questionnaires, adding sections and structured questions. It provides a preview of the questionnaire, the exportation of saved data into statistical software compatible formats, or it permits to analyze them directly applying statistical methods and common data mining techniques from the main interface.

  14. Design, Development & Flight Testing Of The U.S. Army 4200 sq ft Parafoil Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Thomas W.; Fox, Roy

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the design, development and flight testing of the U.S. Army 4200 ft(sup 2) parafoil recovery system built under NASA Contract NAS9-00076. The 4200 ft(sup 2) parafoil described herein was a potential candidate to fulfill the U.S. Army requirement for a 10,000 lb useable payload precision guided recovery system. Design heritage as well as specific features, like lower surface inlets, confluence fitting, upper surface energy modulator design, deployment bag design and 60 ft diameter Ringslot drogue will be discussed. Initial flight test results, ground testing of various components to verify design margin and configuration changes will also be discussed. The 4200 ft(sup 2) parafoil recovery system completed three flight tests during 2003 at payload weights of over 15,000 lbs.

  15. Removing cosmic-ray hits from multiorbit HST Wide Field Camera images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windhorst, Rogier A.; Franklin, Barbara E.; Neuschaefer, Lyman W.

    1994-01-01

    We present an optimized algorithm that removes cosmic rays ('CRs') from multiorbit Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field/Planetary Camera ('WF/PC') images. It computes the image noise in every iteration from the WF/PC CCD equation. This includes all known sources of random and systematic calibration errors. We test this algorithm on WF/PC stacks of 2-12 orbits as a function of the number of available orbits and the formal Poissonian sigma-clipping level. We find that the algorithm needs greater than or equal 4 WF/PC exposures to locate the minimal sky signal (which is noticeably affected by CRs), with an optimal clipping level at 2-2.5 x sigma(sub Poisson). We analyze the CR flux detected on multiorbit 'CR stacks,' which are constructed by subtracting the best CR filtered images from the unfiltered 8-12 orbit average. We use an automated object finder to determine the surface density of CRS as a function of the apparent magnitude (or ADU flux) they would have generated in the images had they not been removed. The power law slope of the CR 'counts' (gamma approximately = 0.6 for N(m) m(exp gamma)) is steeper than that of the faint galaxy counts down to V approximately = 28 mag. The CR counts show a drop off between 28 less than or approximately V less than or approximately 30 mag (the latter is our formal 2 sigma point source sensitivity without spherical aberration). This prevents the CR sky integral from diverging, and is likely due to a real cutoff in the CR energy distribution below approximately 11 ADU per orbit. The integral CR surface density is less than or approximately 10(exp 8)/sq. deg, and their sky signal is V approximately = 25.5-27.0 mag/sq. arcsec, or 3%-13% of our NEP sky background (V = 23.3 mag/sq. arcsec), and well above the EBL integral of the deepest galaxy counts (B(sub J) approximately = 28.0 mag/sq. arcsec). We conclude that faint CRs will always contribute to the sky signal in the deepest WF/PC images. Since WFPC2 has approximately 2.7x

  16. Measurement of Charge Transfer Rate Coefficient Between Ground-State N(2+) Ion and He at Electron-Volt Energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, Z.; Kwong, Victor H. S.

    1997-01-01

    The charge transfer rate coefficient for the reaction N(2+)(2p(sup 2)P(sup 0)) + He yields products is measured by recording the time dependence of the N(2+) ions stored in an ion trap. A cylindrical radio-frequency ion trap was used to store N(2+) ions produced by laser ablation of a solid titanium nitride target. The decay of the ion signals was analyzed by single exponential least-squares fits to the data. The measured rate coefficient is 8.67(0.76) x 10(exp -11)sq cm/s. The N(2+) ions were at a mean energy of 2.7 eV while He gas was at room temperature, corresponding to an equivalent temperature of 3.9 x 10(exp 3) K. The measured value is in good agreement with a recent calculation.

  17. Detection of the quadrupole hyperfine structure in HCNH(+)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziurys, L. M.; Apponi, A. J.; Yoder, J. T.

    1992-01-01

    We report the first measurement of the electric quadrupole hyperfine structure of HCNH(+). The J = 1-0 transition of this interstellar molecular ion was observed toward the cold, dark cloud TMC-1, using the NRAO 12 m telescope at 74 GHz. The three hyperfine components of this transition were clearly detected and resolved, enabling the first experimental determination of the quadrupole coupling constant eqQ of HCNH(+). The value of this constant is calculated to be eqQ = -0.49 +/- 0.07 MHz. The column density of HCNH(+) toward TMC-1 was found to be N(tot) about 2.8 x 10 exp 13/sq cm, corresponding to a fractional abundance relative to H2 of f about 3 x 10 exp -9. This abundance is at least one order of magnitude higher than the predictions of ion-molecule chemistry. Detection of the hyperfine structure clearly establishes the presence of HCNH(+) in interstellar space.

  18. Development of the high sensitivity GRADIO accelerometers - The Aristoteles gradiometer mission preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, A.; Touboul, P.

    ESA and NASA are preparing the cooperative geopotential mission ARISTOTELES that will combine, for the global and fine recovery of the earth's gravity field, gradiometric measurements on board a dedicated satellite at 200-km altitude and satellite-to-satellite tracking using GPS network. The gradiometer required accuracy is 0.01 Eotvos, leading for the GRADIO ultrasensitive accelerometers composing this instrument to a resolution of 5 x 10 exp -12 per sq ms in the bandwidth (5 x 10 exp -3 Hz, 0.125 Hz) in microgravity conditions. Two laboratory models and a specific test bench have been realized. In spite of the presence of gravity and of the seismic noise, differential tests at a level of better than one nanoG are achieved on ground.

  19. The first identification of C2 emission bands in comet Scorichenko-George (1989e1) spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Churyumov, Klim I.; Chorny, G. F.

    1992-01-01

    Wave lengths from 360 emissions within the spectral range lambda lambda 3380-6290 A in the spectrum of the comet Scorichenko-George, obtained with the help of the TV spectral scanner of a 6-meter reflector BTA (in Special AO) have been determined. The CN, C2, C3, NH, CH, CO, Na, NH2, N2(+), CO(+), CO2(+), H2O(+), and C2(-) emissions have been identified. For the first time, it has been shown that emissions of C2(-) (the transitions 0-0, 0-1, et al.) in the cometary spectrum possibly exist. Molecular ions C2(-) column density with cross-section 1 sq cm is N = 1.44 10(exp -12) cm(exp -2) and their upper limits of gas C2(-) productivity is Q(C2(-)) = 2 10(exp 28) c(exp -1).

  20. Cr(+2) Diffusion Doping in ZnSe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Journigan, Troy D.; Chen, K.-T.; Chen, H.; Burger, A.; Schaffers, K.; Page, R. H.; Payne, S. A.

    1997-01-01

    Chromium doped zinc selenides crystals have recently been demonstrated to be a promising material for near-IR room temperature tunable lasers which has an emission range of 2-3 pm. In this study, a new diffusion doping process has been developed for incorporation of Cr(+2) ion into ZnSe wafers. This process has been successfully performed under isothermal conditions, at temperatures above 800 degrees Celsius. Concentrations in excess of 10(exp 19) Cr(+2) ions/cu cm, an order of magnitude larger than previously reported in melt grown ZnSe material, have been obtained. The diffusivity was estimated to be about 10-* sq cm/sec using a classical diffusion model. Resistivity was derived from current-voltage measurements and in the 107-10(exp 16) Ohms-cm and increased as function of Cr concentration.

  1. Gamma-ray emission from Cataclysmic variables. 1: The Compton EGRET survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Eric M.; Barrett, Paul E.; De Jager, O. C.; Chanmugam, G.; Hunter, S.; Mattox, J.

    1995-01-01

    We report the results of the first gamma-ray survey of cataclysmic variables (CVs) using observations obtained with the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) instrument on the Compton Observatory. We briefly describe the theoretical models that are applicable to gamma-ray emission from CVs. These models are particularly relevant to magnetic CVs containing asynchronously rotating white dwarfs. No magnetic CV was detected with an upper limit on the flux at 1 GeV of approximately 2 x 10(exp -8)/sq cm/sec, which corresponds to an upper limit on the gamma-ray luminosity of approximately 10(exp 31) ergs/sec, assuming a typical CV distance of 100 pc.

  2. Physics data base for the Beam Plasma Neutron Source (BPNS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coensgen, F. H.; Casper, T. A.; Correll, D. L.; Damm, C. C.; Futch, A. H.; Molvik, A. W.

    1990-10-01

    A 14-MeV deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron source for accelerated end-of-life testing of fusion reactor materials has been designed on the basis of a linear two-component collisional plasma system. An intense flux (up to 5 x 10(exp 18)/sq m sec) of 14 MeV neutrons is produced in a fully ionized high-density (n sub e approx. = 3 x 10(exp 21) per cu m) tritium target by transverse injection of 60 MW of neutral beam power. Power deposited in the target is removed by thermal electron conduction to large end chambers, where it is deposited in gaseous plasma collectors. We show in this paper that the major physics issues have now been experimentally demonstrated. These include magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium and stability, microstability, startup, fueling, Spitzer electron thermal conductivity, and power deposition in a gaseous plasma collector. However, an integrated system was not demonstrated.

  3. Carbon Nanotube Vacuum Gauges Utilizing Long, Dissipative Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Anupama B.; Manohara, Harish M.

    2008-01-01

    CNT Vacuum Gauges: a) have a broad range of pressure response from 760 - 10(exp -6) Torr. b) have current changes approx. 100's nA in high vacuum regime (10(exp -6) Torr) and sensitivity increases with power and substrate removal. c) have a negative dR/dT (TCR negative) where a thermal hopping energy E(sub a) was determined to be approx. 40 meV. d) have compatible fabrication requirements for their integration with micromachined structures. e) can be operated at low power (nW - micro-W). f) have an active device region footprint of < 10 sq microns. g) are non-intrusive due to small size and passive operation.

  4. Venusian hydrology: Steady state reconsidered

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grinspoon, David H.

    1992-01-01

    In 1987, Grinspoon proposed that the data on hydrogen abundance, isotopic composition, and escape rate were consistent with the hypothesis that water on Venus might be in steady state rather than monotonic decline since the dawn of time. This conclusion was partially based on a derived water lifetime against nonthermal escape of approximately 10(exp 8) yr. De Bergh et al., preferring the earlier Pioneer Venus value of 200 ppm water to the significantly lower value detected by Bezard et al., found H2O lifetimes of greater than 10(exp 9) yr. Donahue and Hodges derived H2O lifetimes of 0.4-5 x 10 (exp 9) yr. Both these analyses used estimates of H escape flux between 0.4 x 10(exp 7) and 1 x 10(exp 7) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1) from Rodriguez et al. Yet in more recent Monte Carlo modeling, Hodges and Tinsley found an escape flux due to charge exchange with hot H(+) of 2.8 x 10(exp 7) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1). McElroy et al. estimated an escape flux of 8 x 10(exp 6) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1) from collisions with hot O produced by dissociative recombination of O2(+). Brace et al. estimated an escape flux of 5 x 10(exp 6) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1) from ion escape from the ionotail of Venus. The combined estimated escape flux from all these processes is approximately 4 x 10(exp 7) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1). The most sophisticated analysis to date of near-IR radiation from Venus' nightside reveals a water mixing ratio of approximately 30 ppm, suggesting a lifetime against escape for water of less than 10(exp 8) yr. Large uncertainties remain in these quantities, yet the data point toward a steady state. Further evaluation of these uncertainties, and new evolutionary modeling incorporating estimates of the outgassing rate from post-Magellan estimates of the volcanic resurfacing rate are presented.

  5. High quality InP-on-Si for solar cell applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shellenbarger, Zane A.; Goodwin, Thomas A.; Collins, Sandra R.; Dinetta, Louis C.

    1994-01-01

    InP on Si solar cells combine the low-cost and high-strength of Si with the high efficiency and radiation tolerance of InP. The main obstacle in the growth of single crystal InP-on-Si is the high residual strain and high dislocation density of the heteroepitaxial InP films. The dislocations result from the large differences in lattice constant and thermal expansion mismatch of InP and Si. Adjusting the size and geometry of the growth area is one possible method of addressing this problem. In this work, we conducted a material quality study of liquid phase epitaxy overgrowth layers on selective area InP grown by a proprietary vapor phase epitaxy technique on Si. The relationship between growth area and dislocation density was quantified using etch pit density measurements. Material quality of the InP on Si improved both with reduced growth area and increased aspect ratio (length/width) of the selective area. Areas with etch pit density as low as 1.6 x 10(exp 4) sq cm were obtained. Assuming dislocation density is an order of magnitude greater than etch pit density, solar cells made with this material could achieve the maximum theoretical efficiency of 23% at AMO. Etch pit density dependence on the orientation of the selective areas on the substrate was also studied.

  6. Exposure of LDEF materials to atomic oxygen: Results of EOIM 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggers, C. H.; Meshishnek, M. J.

    1995-01-01

    The third Effects of Oxygen Atom Interaction with Materials (EOIM 3) experiment flew on STS-46 from July 31 to August 8, 1992. The EOIM-3 sample tray was exposed to the low-earth orbit space environment for 58.55 hours at an altitude of 124 nautical miles resulting in a calculated total atomic oxygen (AO) fluence of 1.99 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm. Five samples previously flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Experiment M0003 were included on the Aerospace EOIM 3 experimental tray: (1) Chemglaze A276 white thermal control paint from the LDEF trailing edge (TE); (2) S13GLO white thermal control paint from the LDEF TE; (3) S13GLO from the LDEF leading edge (LE) with a visible contamination layer from the LDEF mission; (4) Z306 black thermal control paint from the LDEF TE with a contamination layer from the LDEF mission; and (5) anodized aluminum from the LDEF TE with a contamination layer from the LDEF mission. The purpose of this experiment was twofold: (l) investigate the response of trailing edge LDEF materials to atomic oxygen exposure, thereby simulating LDEF leading edge phenomena; (2) investigate the response of contaminated LDEF samples to atomic oxygen in attempts to understand LDEF contamination-atomic oxygen interactions. This paper describes the response of these materials to atomic oxygen exposure, and compares the results of the EOIM 3 experiment to the LDEF mission and to ground-based atomic oxygen exposure studies.

  7. Detection of a flaring low-energy gamma-ray source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharya, Dipen; Owens, Alan

    1994-01-01

    We report the detection of a flaring gamma-ray source by the University of New Hampshire (UNH) balloon-borne coded aperture gamma-ray telescope (DGT) on 1984 October 2. The source was detected at the significance level of 7.2 sigma over the energy range 160-2000 keV. The intensity in the range (160-200) keV was 1.1 Crab. The best-fit position of the source is given by R.A. = 3h 25.8m and Decl. = 67 deg 653 min and is located in the constellation of Camelopardia. The source was visible within the Field of View (FOV) of the telescope for approximately = 2 hr and exhibited signs of flaring. The derived photon spectrum can be equally fitted by an optically thin bremsstrahlung distribution of kT approximately = 52 keV or a power law of the form, dN(E)/dE = 3.7 x 10(exp -6) (E/400)(exp -4.5) photons/sq cm/keV. We compare its spectral characteristics ad energy output to various types of fast X-ray transients. No measurable flux could be detected from CG 135+1, the COS B source which was in the FOV and therefore, we present 2 sigma upper flux limits on its spectral emission over the energy range 160 keV to 9.3 MeV.

  8. Light ion flow in the nightside ionosphere of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartle, R. E.; Grebowsky, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    The flow characteristics of the light ions H(+) and He(+) have been studied in the midnight region of the ionosphere of Venus. Measurements of ion composition, electron and ion temperatures and magnetic fields by instruments onboard the Pioneer Venus Orbiter have been used in rite electron and ion equations of conservation of mass and momentum to derive the vertical flow velocities of H(+) and He(+). When average height profiles of the measured quantities were used, H(+) was found to flow upward, accelerating to speeds of almost 1 km/s at the ion-exobase. In a similar fashion, He(+) was found to flow downward into the neutral atmosphere where it is readily quenched by charge transfer reactions. The polarization electric field played an important role in forcing H(+) upward, but did not contribute enough to the He(+) force balance to produce upward flow. At the ion-exobase, the outward electric polarization force on H(+) was shown to be five times the gravitational force. Using an analogy with the terrestrial ion-exosphere, H(+) was inferred to flow upward into the ionotail of Venus and accelerate to escape speeds. A planet averaged escape flux of 1.4 x 10 exp 7/sq cm/s was calculated, which is comparable to hydrogen loss rates estimated by other investigators.

  9. Search for Interstellar Water in the Translucent Molecular Cloud Toward HD 154368

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaans, Marco; Neufeld, David; Lepp, Stephen; Melnick, Gary J.; Stauffer, John

    1998-01-01

    We report an upper limit of 9 x 10(exp 12)/sq cm on the column density of water in the translucent cloud along the line of sight toward HD 154368. This result is based on a search for the C-X band of water near 1240 A carried out using the Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) of the Hubble Space Telescope. Our observational limit on the water abundance, together with detailed chemical models of translucent clouds and previous measurements of OH along the line of sight, constrains the branching ratio in the dissociative recombination of H3O(+) to form water. We find at the 3 sigma level that no more than 30% of dissociative recombinations of H3O(+) can lead to H2O. The observed spectrum also yielded high-resolution observations of the Mg II doublet at 1239.9 A and 1240.4 A, allowing the velocity structure of the dominant ionization state of magnesium to be studied along the line of sight. The Mg II spectrum is consistent with GHRS observations at lower spectral resolution that were obtained previously but allow an additional velocity component to be identified.

  10. Deposition of ozone to tundra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, D. J.; Fan, S.-M.; Wofsy, S. C.; Spiro, P. A.; Bakwin, P. S.; Ritter, J. A.; Browell, E. V.; Gregory, G. L.; Fitzjarrald, D. R.; Moore, K. E.

    1992-01-01

    Eddy correlation measurements of O3 deposition fluxes to tundra during the Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A) are reported. The mean O3 deposition velocity was 0.24 cm/s in the daytime and 0.12 cm/s at night. The day-to-day difference in deposition velocity was driven by both atmospheric stability and surface reactivity. The mean surface resistance to O3 deposition was 2.6 s/cm in the daytime and 3.4 s/cm at night. The relatively low surface resistance at night is attributed to light-insensitive uptake of O3 at dry upland tundra surfaces. The small day-tonight difference in surface resistance is attributed to additional stomatal uptake by wet meadow tundra plants in the daytime. The mean O3 deposition flux to the world north of 60 deg N in July-August is estimated at 8.2 x 10 exp 10 molecules/sq cm/s. Suppression of photochemical loss by small anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen oxides could have a major effect on O3 concentrations in the summertime Arctic troposphere.

  11. Deposition of ozone to tundra

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, D.J.; Fan, S.M.; Wofsy, S.C.; Spiro, P.A.; Bakwin, P.S.; Ritter, J.A.; Browell, E.V.; Gregory, G.L.; Fitzjarrald, D.R.; Moore, K.E. NASA, Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA New York State Univ., Albany )

    1992-10-01

    Eddy correlation measurements of O3 deposition fluxes to tundra during the Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A) are reported. The mean O[sub 3] deposition velocity was 0.24 cm/s in the daytime and 0.12 cm/s at night. The day-to-day difference in deposition velocity was driven by both atmospheric stability and surface reactivity. The mean surface resistance to O[sub 3] deposition was 2.6 s/cm in the daytime and 3.4 s/cm at night. The relatively low surface resistance at night is attributed to light-insensitive uptake of O[sub 3] at dry upland tundra surfaces. The small day-tonight difference in surface resistance is attributed to additional stomatal uptake by wet meadow tundra plants in the daytime. The mean O[sub 3] deposition flux to the world north of 60 deg N in July-August is estimated at 8.2 x 10 exp 10 molecules/sq cm/s. Suppression of photochemical loss by small anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen oxides could have a major effect on O[sub 3] concentrations in the summertime Arctic troposphere. 34 refs.

  12. Constructing the Coronal Magnetic Field: by Correlating Parameterized Magnetic Field Lines with Observed Coronal Plasma Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, G. A.

    1998-01-01

    The reconstruction of the coronal magnetic field is carried out using a perturbation procedure. A set of magnetic field lines generated from magnetogram data is parameterized and then deformed by varying the parameterized values. The coronal fluxtubes associated with this field are adjusted until the correlation between the field lines and the observed coronal loops is maximized. A mathematical formulation is described which ensures (1) that the normal component of the photospheric field remains unchanged, (2) that the field is given in the entire corona, (3) that the field remains divergence free, and (4) that electrical currents are introduced into the field. It is demonstrated that a simple radial parameterization of a potential field, comprising a radial stretching of the field, can provide a match for a simple bipolar active region, AR 7999, which crossed the central meridian on 1996 Nov 26. At a coronal height of 30 km, the resulting magnetic field is a non-force free magnetic field with the maximum Lorentz force being on the order of 2.6 x 10(exp -9) dyn resulting from an electric current density of $0.13 mu A/ sq m. This scheme is an important tool in generating a magnetic field solution consistent with the coronal flux tube observations and the observed photospheric magnetic field.

  13. ART: Surveying the Local Universe at 2-11 keV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, S. L.; Ramsey, B. D.; Adams, M. L.; Brandt, W. N.; Bubarev, M. V.; Hassinger, G.; Pravlinski, M.; Predehl, P.; Romaine, S. E.; Swartz, D. A.; Urry, C. M.; Vikhlinin, A.; Weisskopf, M. C.

    2008-01-01

    The Astronomical Rontgen Telescope (ART) is a medium-energy x-ray telescope system proposed for the Russian-led mission Spectrum Rontgen-Gamma (SRG). Optimized for performance over the 2-11-keV band, ART complements the softer response of the SRG prime instrument-the German eROSITA x-ray telescope system. The anticipated number of ART detections is 50,000-with 1,000 heavily-obscured (N(sub H)> 3x10(exp 23)/sq cm) AGN-in the SRG 4-year all-sky survey, plus a comparable number in deeper wide-field (500 deg(sup 2) total) surveys. ART's surveys will provide a minimally-biased, nearly-complete census of the local Universe in the medium-energy x-ray band (including Fe-K lines), at CCD spectral resolution. During long (approx.100-ks) pointed observations, ART can obtain statistically significant spectral data up to about 15 keY for bright sources and medium-energy x-ray continuum and Fe-K-line spectra of AGN detected with the contemporaneous NuSTAR hard-x-ray mission.

  14. Large Abundances of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Titan's Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez-Puertas, M.; Dinelli, B. M.; Adriani, A.; Funke, B.; Garcia-Comas, M.; Moriconi, M. L.; D'Aversa, E.; Boersma, C.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the strong unidentified emission near 3.28 micron in Titan's upper daytime atmosphere recently discovered by Dinelli et al.We have studied it by using the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), after absorbing UV solar radiation, are able to emit strongly near 3.3 micron. By using current models for the redistribution of the absorbed UV energy, we have explained the observed spectral feature and have derived the vertical distribution of PAH abundances in Titan's upper atmosphere. PAHs have been found to be present in large concentrations, about (2-3) × 10(exp 4) particles / cubic cm. The identified PAHs have 9-96 carbons, with a concentration-weighted average of 34 carbons. The mean mass is approx 430 u; the mean area is about 0.53 sq. nm; they are formed by 10-11 rings on average, and about one-third of them contain nitrogen atoms. Recently, benzene together with light aromatic species as well as small concentrations of heavy positive and negative ions have been detected in Titan's upper atmosphere. We suggest that the large concentrations of PAHs found here are the neutral counterpart of those positive and negative ions, which hence supports the theory that the origin of Titan main haze layer is located in the upper atmosphere.

  15. Surprises from a Deep ASCA Spectrum of the Broad Absorption Line Quasar PHL 5200

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, Smita; Matt, G.; Green, P. J.; Elvis, M.; Singh, K. P.

    2002-01-01

    We present a deep (approx. 85 ks) ASCA observation of the prototype broad absorption line quasar (BALQSO) PHL 5200. This is the best X-ray spectrum of a BALQSO yet. We find the following: (1) The source is not intrinsically X-ray weak. (2) The line-of-sight absorption is very strong, with N(sub H) = 5 x 10(exp 23)/sq cm. (3) The absorber does not cover the source completely; the covering fraction is approx. 90%. This is consistent with the large optical polarization observed in this source, implying multiple lines of sight. The most surprising result of this observation is that (4) the spectrum of this BALQSO is not exactly similar to other radio-quiet quasars. The hard X-ray spectrum of PHL 5200 is steep, with the power-law spectral index alpha approx. 1.5. This is similar to the steepest hard X-ray slopes observed so far. At low redshifts, such steep slopes are observed in narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies, believed to be accreting at a high Eddington rate. This observation strengthens the analogy between BALQSOs and NLS1 galaxies and supports the hypothesis that BALQSOs represent an early evolutionary state of quasars. It is well accepted that the orientation to the line of sight determines the appearance of a quasar: age seems to play a significant role as well.

  16. Simulation of magnetic field line stochasticity at the magnetopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Zhi; Ashour-Abdalla, Maha

    1994-01-01

    We have conducted a three-dimensional particle simulation to study the magnetic field line stochasticity at the magnetopause current layer. Our results show that the magnetic field lines become stochastic due to the overlap of the destabilized multiple tearing mode islands, which agrees with the percolation model suggested by Galeev et al. (1986). After the field lines become stochastic, these tearing modes grow even 2-3 times faster than in the linear stage and saturate at an amplitude level 3-4 times bigger than the single tearing mode without mode-mode coupling. The field line stochasticity also causes a strong particle diffusion across the current layer. The diffusion coefficient reaches to 10(exp 9) sq m/s for typical magnetopause parameters. Associated with the particle diffusion, the current layer becomes broader in width. As a result, the magnetic energy is dissipated into particle energy by heating parallel to the local magnetic field. The particle energy increases by 60%, while the magnetic helicity, which has always been regarded as a good invariant, changes by 20%.

  17. Facility Designed and Built to Investigate the Combined Effects of Contaminant and Atomic Oxygen on a Light-Transmitting Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sechkar, Edward A.; Stueber, Thomas J.; Tutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.

    2000-01-01

    A need exists to investigate changes in the transparency of a light-transmitting surface during simultaneous exposure to a contaminant and an atomic oxygen (AO) flux. This mechanism may be responsible for the degradation of the light-transmitting surfaces of both photovoltaic cells and photodiodes currently in use on many low-Earth-orbit spacecraft. To address this need, researchers from the Electro-Physics Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field built such a test system within their AO beam facility. This facility produces an effective AO flux of 1.4 10(exp 16) atoms/sq cm/sec and contains a three-axis positioning system that provides the motion capability necessary for test operations. During testing, a target surface is held directly within the AO beam and close to two contaminant effusion cells. The effusion cells are shielded from the AO beam, and the outgassing contaminant is constrained to move across the target surface when heat is applied to either of the reservoirs. A light source is periodically moved over the target surface, and the transmitted light intensity is checked with a photodiode located below the target. This light source is also periodically checked with a separate photodiode, which is protected from contamination and AO exposure, to allow adjustments necessary to maintain a consistent light intensity.

  18. Discovery of a Nonblazar Gamma-Ray Transient Source Near the Galactic Plane: GRO J1838-04

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavani, M.; Oliversen, Ronald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We report the discovery of a remarkable gamma-ray transient source near the Galactic plane, GRO J1838-04. This source was serendipitously discovered by EGRET in 1995 June with a peak intensity of approx. (4 +/- 1) x 10(exp -6) photons/sq cm s (for photon energies larger than 100 MeV) and a 5.9 sigma significance. At that time, GRO J1838-04 was the second brightest gamma-ray source in the sky. A subsequent EGRET pointing in 1995 late September detected the source at a flux smaller than its peak value by a factor of approx. 7. We determine that no radio-loud spectrally flat blazar is within the error box of GRO J1838-04. We discuss the origin of the gamma-ray transient source and show that interpretations in terms of active galactic nuclei or isolated pulsars are highly problematic. GRO J1838-04 provides strong evidence for the existence of a new class of variable gamma-ray sources.

  19. The interaction of atomic oxygen with thin copper films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, B. C.; Williams, J. R.; Fromhold, A. T., Jr.; Bozack, M. J.; Neely, W. C.; Whitaker, Ann F.

    1992-01-01

    A source of thermal, ground-state atomic oxygen has been used to expose thin copper films at a flux of 1.4 x 10 exp 17 atoms/sq cm s for times up to 50 min for each of five temperatures between 140 and 200 C. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy was used to characterize the oxide formed during exposure. The observations are consistent with the oxide phase Cu2O. The time dependence and the temperature dependence of the oxide layer thickness can be described using oxide film growth theory based on rate limitation by diffusion. Within the time and temperature ranges of this study, the growth of the oxide layers is well described by the equation L(T,t) = 3.6 x 10 to 8th exp(- 1.1/2k sub B T)t exp 1/2, where L,T, and t are measured in angstroms, degrees Kelvin, and minutes, respectively. The deduced activation energy is 1.10 +/- 0.15 eV, with the attendant oxidation rate being greater than that for the corresponding reaction in molecular oxygen.

  20. Thermal inertias in the upper millimeters of the Martian surace derived using Phobus' shadow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Bruce H.; Murray, Bruce C.; Svitek, Tomas

    1995-01-01

    The first thermal images of Phobos' shadow on the surface of Mars, in addition to simultaneous visible images, were obtained by the Phobus '88 Termoskan instrument. The best observed shadow occurence was on the flanks of Arsia Mons. For this occurence, we combined the observed decrease in visible illumination of the surface with the observed decrease in brightness temperature to calculate thermal inertias of the Martian surface. The most realistic of our three models of eclipse cooling improves upon our preliminary model by including nonisothermal initial conditions and downward atmospheric flux. Most of our derived inertias fall within the range 38 to 59 J/Sq m/S(exp 0.5)K (0.9 to 1.4 10(exp -3)Cal/Sq m/S(exp 0.5)/K), corresponding to dust-sized particles (for a homogeneous surface), consistent with previous theories of Tharsis as a currrent area of dust deposition. Viking infrared thermal mapper (IRTM) inertias are diurnally derived and are sensitive to centimeter depths, whereas the shadow-derived inertias sample the upper tenths of a millimeter of the surface. The shadow-derived inertias are lower than those derived from Viking IRTM measurements (84 to 147), however, uncertainties in both sets of derived inertias make conclusions about layering tenuous. Thus, near-surface millimeter versus centimeter layering may exist in this region, but if it does, it is likely not very significant. Both eclipse and diurnal inertias appear to increase near the eastern end of the shadow occurence. We also analyzed a shadow occurence near the crater Herschel that showed no observed cooling. This analysis was limited by cool morning temperatures and instrument sensitivity, but yielded a lower bound of 80 on eclipse inertias in that region. Based upon our results, we strongly recommend future spacecraft thermal observations of Phobus' shadow, and suggest that they will be most useful if they improve upon Termoskan's geographic and temporal coverage and its accuracy.

  1. Long-Term Reliability of SiGe/Si HBTs From Accelerated Lifetime Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharya, Pallab

    2001-01-01

    Accelerated lifetime tests were performed on double-mesa structure Si(0.7)Ge(0.3)/Si npn heterojunction bipolar transistors, grown by molecular beam epitaxy, in the temperature range of 175 C-275 C. The transistors (with 5x20 sq micron emitter area) have DC current gains approx. 40-50 and f(sub T) and f(sub max) of up to 22 GHz and 25 GHz, respectively. It is found that a gradual degradation in these devices is caused by the recombination enhanced impurity diffusion (REID) of boron atoms from the p-type base region and the associated formation of parasitic energy barriers to electron transport from the emitter to collector layers. This REED has been quantitatively modeled and explained, to the first order of approximation, and the agreement with the measured data is good. The mean time to failure (MTTF) of these devices at room temperature under 1.35 x 10(exp 4) A/sq cm current density operation is estimated from the extrapolation of the Arrhenius plots of device lifetime versus reciprocal temperature. The results of the reliability tests offer valuable feedback for SiGe heterostructure design in order to improve the long-term reliability of the devices and circuits made with them. Hot electron induced degradation of the base-emitter junction was also observed during the accelerated lifetime testing. In order to improve the HBT reliability endangered by the hot electrons, deuterium sintered techniques have been proposed. The preliminary results from this study show that a deuterium-sintered HBT is, indeed, more resistant to hot-electron induced base-emitter junction degradation.

  2. Thermal inertias in the upper millimeters of the Martian surface derived using Phobos' shadow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Bruce H.; Murray, Bruce C.; Svitek, Tomas

    1995-01-01

    The first thermal images of Phobos' shadow on the surface of Mars, in addition to simultaneous visible images, were obtained by the Phobos'88 Termoskan instrument. The best observed shadow occurrence was on the flanks of Arsia Mons. For this occurrence, we combined the observed decrease in visible illumination of the surface with the observed decrease in brightness temperature to calculate thermal inertias of the Martian surface. The most realistic of our three models of eclipse cooling improves upon our preliminary model by including nonisothermal initial conditions and downward atmospheric flux. Most of our derived inertias fall within the range 38 to 59 J/(sq m s(exp 1/2) K), (0.9 to 1.4 x 10(exp -3) cal/(sq cm s(exp 1/2) K)) corresponding to dust-sized particles (for a homogeneous surface), consistent with previous theories of Tharsis as a current area of dust deposition. Viking infrared thermal mapper (IRTM) inertias are diurnally derived and are sensitive to centimeter depths, whereas the shadow-derived inertias sample the upper tenths of a millimeter of the surface. The shadow-derived inertias are lower than those derived from Viking IRTM measurements (84 to 147), however, uncertainties in both sets of derived inertias make conclusions about layering tenuous. Thus, near-surface millimeter versus centimeter layering may exist in this region, but if it does, it is likely not very significant. Both eclipse and diurnal inertias appear to increase near the eastern end of the shadow occurrence. We also analyzed a shadow occurrence near the crater Herschel that showed no observed cooling. This analysis was limited by cool morning temperatures and instrument sensitivity, but yielded a lower bound of 80 on eclipse inertias in that region. Based upon our results, we strongly recommend future spacecraft thermal observations of Phobos' shadow, and suggest that they will be most useful if they improve upon Terinoskan's geographic and temporal coverage and its accuracy.

  3. Interaction Between Eddies and Mean Flow in Jupiter's Atmosphere: Analysis of Cassini Imaging Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salyk, Colette; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Lorre, Jean; Vasavada, Ashwin; DelGenio, Anthony D.

    2006-01-01

    Beebe et al. [Beebe, R.F., et al., 1980. Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 1-4] and Ingersoll et al. [Ingersoll, A.P., et al., 1981. J. Geophys. Res. 86, 8733-8743] used images from Voyagers 1 and 2 to analyze the interaction between zonal winds and eddies in Jupiter's atmosphere. They reported a high positive correlation between Jupiter's eddy momentum flux, pu'v', and the variation of zonal velocity with latitude, du/dy. This correlation implied a surprisingly high rate of conversion of energy from eddies to zonal flow: approx. 1.5-3.0 W/sq m, a value more than 10% of Jupiter s thermal flux emission. However, Sromovsky et al. [Sromovsky, L.A., et al., 1982. J. Atmos. Sci. 39,1413-1432] argued that possible biases in the analysis could have caused an artificially high correlation. In addition, significant differences in the derived eddy flux between datasets put into question the robustness of any one result. We return to this long-standing puzzle using images of Jupiter from the Cassini flyby of December 2000. Our method is similar to previous analyses, but utilizes an automatic feature tracker instead of the human eye. The number of velocity vectors used in this analysis is over 200,000, compared to the 14,000 vectors used by Ingersoll et al. We also find a positive correlation between u'v' and du/dy and derive a global average power per unit mass, u'v' du/dy, ranging from (7.1-12.3) x 10(exp -5)W/kg. Utilizing Ingersoll et al.'s estimate of the mass per unit area involved in the transport, this would imply a rate of energy conversion of approx.0.7-1.2 W/sq m. We discuss the implications of this result and employ several tests to demonstrate its robustness.

  4. Environmental Perturbations Caused by the Impacts of Asteroids and Comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Owen B.; Zahnle, Kevin; Morrison, David; Turco, Richard; Covey, Curt

    1997-01-01

    We review the major mechanisms proposed to cause extinctions at the Cretaceous-Tertiary geological boundary following an asteroid impact. We then discuss how the proposed extinction may relate to the impact of asteroids or comets in general. We discuss the limitations of these mechanisms in terms of the spatial scale that may be affected, and the time scale over which the effects may last. Our goal is to provide relatively simple prescriptions for evaluating the importance of colliding objects having a range of energies and compositions. We also identify the many uncertainties concerning the environmental effects of impacts. We conclude that, for impact energies below about 10(exp 4) Mts (megatons of TNT equivalent) - i.e., impact frequencies less than in 6 x 10(exp 4) yr, corresponding to comets and asteroids with diameters smaller than about 400 m and 650 m, respectively - blast damage, earthquakes, and fires should be important on a scale of 10(exp 4) or 10(exp 5) km (exp 2), which corresponds to the area damaged in many natural disasters of recent history. However, tsunami could be more damaging, flooding a kilometer of coastal plane over entire ocean basins. In the energy range of 10(exp 4) to 10 (exp 5) Mts (intervals up to 3 x 10(exp 5) yr; comets and asteroids with sizes up to 800 m and 1.5 km, respectively) water vapor injections and ozone loss become significant on the global scale. In the submicrometer dust injection fraction from the pulverized target material is much higher than is presently thought to be most likely, then dust injection could be important in this energy range.

  5. The Properties and the Evolution of the Highly Ionized Gas in MR 2251-178

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaspi, Shai; Netzer, hagai; Chelouche, Doron; George, Ian M.; Nandra, Kirpal; Turner, T. J.

    2004-01-01

    We present the first XMM-Newton observations of the radio-quiet quasar MR 2251-178 obtained in 2000 and 2002. The EPIC-pn spectra show a power-law continuum with a slope of Gamma = 1.6 at high energies absorbed by at least two warm absorbers (WAs) intrinsic to the source. The underlying continuum in the earlier observation shows a soft excess at low X-ray energies which can be modeled as an additional power-law with Gamma = 2.9. The spectra also show a weak narrow iron K alpha emission line. The high-resolution grating spectrum obtained in 2002 shows emission lines from N VI, O VII, O VIII, Ne IX, and Ne X, as well as absorption lines from the low-ionization ions of O III, O IV, and O V, and other confirmed and suspected weaker absorption lines. The O III - O V lines are consistent with the properties of the emission line gas observed as extended optical (O III) emission in this source. The signal-to-noise of the 2000 grating data is too low to detect any lines. We suggest a model for the high-resolution spectrum which consist of two or three warm-absorber (WA) components. The two-components model has a high-ionization WA with a column density of 10(exp 21.5)-10 (exp 21.8) sq cm and a low-ionization absorber with a column density of 10(exp 20.3) sq cm. In the three-components model we add a lower ionization component that produces the observed iron M-shell absorption lines. We investigate the spectral variations in MR 2251-178 over a period of 8.5 years using data from ASCA, BeppoSAX, and XMM-Newton. All X-ray observations can be fitted with the above two power laws and the two absorbers. The observed luminosity variations seems to correlate with variations in the soft X-ray continuum. The 8.5 year history of the source suggests a changing X-ray absorber due to material that enters and disappears from the line-of-sight on timescales of several months. We also present, for the first time, the entire FUSE spectrum of MR 2251-178. We detect emission from N III, C III

  6. He-Ne laser frequencies near 2.4 microns and their application to hydrogen fluoride detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberhardt, J. E.; Pryor, A. W.

    1983-06-01

    Eberhardt and Pryor (1982) have reported that emission near 2.40 microns from an He-Ne laser coincides very closely with the 1R(5) absorption frequency of hydrogen fluoride and may, therefore, be used to monitor the presence of HF in the atmosphere. The mismatch between the center frequency of the laser line and that of the 1R(5) HF absorption line appears to be on the order of 100 MHz and, therefore, is negligible when the HF line is broadened to a width of approximately 1000 MHz in the atmosphere. The absorption cross section (2.0 x 10 to the -18th sq cm/HF molecule in the atmosphere) is sufficient to detect HF at a level of approximately 20 microgram/cu m in a 500 m atmospheric path. It is found that three frequencies near 2.4 microns can be conveniently obtained from an He-Ne laser.

  7. An experiment to measure cosmic ray 2H and 3He in the 4-10 GV range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Golden, R. L.; Stephens, S. A.

    1975-01-01

    It is known that the mean matter traversed by cosmic rays, X, can be obtained from the observed ratio of the flux of daughter nuclei to that of the parent nuclei provided X is much less than the attenuation mean free of the daughter nuclei. This condition is well satisfied in the case of 2H and 3He. We propose to measure the 2H/1H and 3He/4He ratios, using a multiwire proportional counter array and a superconducting magnet to measure the rigidity, and a set of aerogel Cerenkov counters to measure the velocity, thus yielding the mass of the particle. Results of a Monte-Carlo calculation based on actual experimental conditions are presented to show the resolution of the instrument. The area solid angle of the telescope is 90 sq cm sr with an average maximum detectable momentum of 140 GV.

  8. Results of apparent atomic oxygen reactions on Ag, C, and Os exposed during the Shuttle STS-4 orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, P. N.; Linton, R. C.; Miller, E. R.

    1983-01-01

    Films selected for anticipated reaction with atomic oxygen, namely carbon, silver, and osmium, were exposed during the Shuttle STS-4 mission. A silver film within 5 nm of 225 nm thick was converted to a transparent blue-green interference film within 5 nm of 355 nm thick. Both carbon and osmium films 10-30 nm thick apparently formed volatile oxides and disappeared, except where well shielded. A calculated total of approximately 7 x 10 to the 19th oxygen atoms per sq cm struck the surfaces, which could have removed on the order of 3 microns of material if only 10 percent reacted. The absence of apparent effects on adjacent thin and thick gold films is offered as evidence that sputtering is not responsible.

  9. Physisorption of Ar, Kr, CH4, and N2 on 304 stainless steel at very low pressures.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troy, M.; Wightman, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    Determination of physisorption isotherms of these gases on stainless steel by pressure change measurements in very low pressure cryogenic baths where a steel nipple was brought in contact with the test gas at 77 to 90 K in a sealed constant-volume system. The position of the nipple in the gas was changed in such a manner that gas adsorption on a 47.5 sq cm area of the steel surface could be measured. The Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) equation (1947) was used for an empirical description of isotherms at different temperatures. The mean adsorption energies calculated from the DR plots were 1290, 1545, 1490 and 1903 cal/mol for Ar, Kr, CH4 and N2, respectively, being about 10% higher than the corresponding values on Pyrex.

  10. Actual versus predicted performance of an active solar heating system - A comparison using FCHART 4.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetzel, P. E.

    1981-11-01

    The performance of an active solar heating system added to a house in Denver, CO was compared with predictions made by the FCHART 4.0 computer program. The house featured 43.23 sq m of collectors with an ethylene-glycol/water heat transfer fluid, and a 3.23 cu m storage tank. The house hot water was preheated in the storage tank, and home space heat was furnished whenever the storage water was above 32 C. Actual meteorological and heating demand data were used for the comparison, rather than long-term averages. Although monthly predictions by the FCHART program were found to diverge from measured data, the annual demand and supply predictions provided a good fit, i.e. within 9%, and were within 1% of the measured solar energy contributed to storage.

  11. Electrical characterization of 6H crystalline silicon carbide. M.S. Thesis Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lempner, Stephen E.

    1994-01-01

    Crystalline silicon carbide (SiC) substrates and epilayers, undoped as well as n- and p-doped, have been electrically characterized by performing Hall effect and resistivity measurements (van der Pauw) over the temperature range of approximately 85 K to 650 K (200 K to 500 K for p-type sample). By fitting the measured temperature dependent carrier concentration data to the single activation energy theoretical model: (1) the activation energy for the nitrogen donor ranged from 0.078 eV to 0.101 eV for a doping concentration range of 10(exp 17) cm(exp -3) to 10(exp 18) cm(exp -3) and (2) the activation energy for the aluminum acceptor was 0.252 eV for a doping concentration of 4.6 x 10(exp 18) cm(exp -3). By fitting the measured temperature dependent carrier concentration data to the double activation energy level theoretical model for the nitrogen donor: (1) the activation energy for the hexagonal site was 0.056 eV and 0.093 eV corresponding to doping concentrations of 3.33 x 10 (exp 17) cm(exp -3) and 1.6 x 10(exp 18) cm(exp -3) and (2) the activation energy for the cubic site was 0.113 and 0.126 eV corresponding to doping concentrations of 4.2 x 10(exp 17) cm(exp -3) and 5.4 x 10(exp 18) cm(exp -3).

  12. Microwave Conductivity of Laser Ablated YBa2Cu3O7-delta Superconducting Films and Its Relation to Microstrip Transmission Line Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Warner, J. D.; Chorey, C. M.; Ebihara, B. T.; Romanofsky, R. R.; Heinen, V. O.

    1990-01-01

    We report on the values of the microwave conductivity in the normal (sigma(subN)) and superconducting (sigma*=sigma(sub1)-j sigma(sub2)) states of two laser ablated YBa2CU3O7(sigma) thin films at 35 GHz, in the temperature range from 20 to 300 K. The films 0.7 and 0.4 micrometers) were deposited on LaA10(sub3) by laser ablation. The conductivity was obtained from the microwave power transmitted through the films and assuming a two-fluid model. Values of sigma(subN) approximately 2.3 X 10(exp5) S/m at room temperature for both films, and of sigma(sub1) approximately 6.3 X 10(exp5) and 4.6 X 10(exp5) S/m at temperatures around 80 K were obtained for the 0.7 and 0.4 micrometer films respectively. For sigma(sub2) values of 4.9 X 10(exp6) and 5.4 X 10(exp6) S/m were obtained for the 0.7 and 0.4 micrometer films at 80 K. The expected conductor losses and Q-factor of a superconducting ring resonator were calculated using these conductivity values. The theoretical values were then compared with the experimental results obtained for a resonator fabricated from one of these films.

  13. An analogue of atrial natriuretic peptide (C-ANP4-23) modulates glucose metabolism in human differentiated adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ojeda, Francisco Javier; Aguilera, Concepción María; Rupérez, Azahara Iris; Gil, Ángel; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina

    2016-08-15

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of C-atrial natriuretic peptide (C-ANP4-23) in human adipose-derived stem cells differentiated into adipocytes over 10 days (1 μM for 4 h). The intracellular cAMP, cGMP and protein kinase A levels were determined by ELISA and gene and protein expression were determined by qRT-PCR and Western blot, respectively, in the presence or absence of C-ANP4-23. The levels of lipolysis and glucose uptake were also determined. C-ANP4-23 treatment significantly increased the intracellular cAMP levels and the gene expression of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) and protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 1 catalytic subunit (AMPK). Western blot showed a significant increase in GLUT4 and phosphor-AMPKα levels. Importantly, the adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 abolished these effects. Additionally, C-ANP4-23 increased glucose uptake by 2-fold. Our results show that C-ANP4-23 enhances glucose metabolism and might contribute to the development of new peptide-based therapies for metabolic diseases. PMID:27181211

  14. Structure of the Circumnuclear Region of Seyfert 2 Galaxies Revealed by RXTE Hard X-Ray Observations of NGC 4945

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madejski, G.; Zycki, P.; Done, C.; Valinia, A.; Blanco, P.; Rothschild, R.; Turek, B.

    2000-01-01

    NGC 4945 is one of the brightest Se.yfert galaxies on the sky at 100 keV, but is completely absorbed below 10 keV, implying an optical depth of the absorber to electron scattering of a few; its absorption column is probably the largest which still allows a direct view of the nucleus at hard X-ray energies. Our observations of it with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) satellite confirm the large absorption, which for a simple phenomenological fit using an absorber with Solar abundances implies a column of 4.5(sup 0.4, sub -0.4) x 10(exp 24) /sq cm. Using a a more realistic scenario (requiring Monte Carlo modeling of the scattering), we infer the optical depth to Thomson scattering of approximately 2.4. If such a scattering medium were to subtend a large solid angle from the nucleus, it should smear out any intrinsic hard X-ray variability on time scales shorter than the light travel time through it. The rapid (with a time scale of approximately a day) hard X-ray variability of NGC 4945 we observed with the RXTE implies that the bulk of the extreme absorption in this object does not originate in a parsec-size, geometrically thick molecular torus. Limits on the amount of scattered flux require that the optically thick material on parsec scales must be rather geometrically thin, subtending a half-angle < 10 deg. This is only marginally consistent with the recent determinations of the obscuring column in hard X-rays, where only a quarter of Seyfert 2s have columns which are optically thick, and presents a problem in accounting for the Cosmic X-ray Background primarily with AGN possessing the geometry as that inferred by us. The small solid angle of the obscuring material, together with the black hole mass (of approximately 1.4 x 10(exp 6) solar mass) from megamaser measurements. allows a robust determination of the source luminosity, which in turn implies that the source radiates at approximately 10% of the Eddington limit.

  15. 15 CFR 4a.4 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classification authority. 4a.4 Section 4a.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.4 Classification authority. Authority...

  16. 15 CFR 4a.4 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification authority. 4a.4 Section 4a.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.4 Classification authority. Authority...

  17. 15 CFR 4a.4 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification authority. 4a.4 Section 4a.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.4 Classification authority. Authority...

  18. 15 CFR 4a.4 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification authority. 4a.4 Section 4a.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.4 Classification authority. Authority...

  19. 12 CFR 4.4 - Washington office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... supervision. The Washington office is located at 250 E Street, SW, Washington, DC 20219. ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Washington office. 4.4 Section 4.4 Banks and... EXAMINERS Organization and Functions § 4.4 Washington office. The Washington office of the OCC is the...

  20. 16 CFR 4.4 - Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Service. 4.4 Section 4.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE MISCELLANEOUS RULES § 4.4 Service. (a) By the Commission. (1) Service of complaints, initial decisions, final orders and other processes of the Commission under 15 U.S.C....

  1. 44 CFR 4.4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false 4.4 Section 4.4 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY (FEMA) PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 4.4...

  2. 44 CFR 4.4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false 4.4 Section 4.4 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY (FEMA) PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 4.4...

  3. 44 CFR 4.4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 4.4 Section 4.4 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY (FEMA) PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 4.4...

  4. 44 CFR 4.4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true 4.4 Section 4.4 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY (FEMA) PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 4.4...

  5. 44 CFR 4.4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 4.4 Section 4.4 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY (FEMA) PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 4.4...

  6. 15 CFR 4a.4 - Classification authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification authority. 4a.4 Section 4a.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.4 Classification authority. Authority...

  7. Histamine H4 receptor agonists have more activities than H4 agonism in antigen-specific human T-cell responses.

    PubMed

    Sugata, Yuji; Okano, Mitsuhiro; Fujiwara, Tazuko; Matsumoto, Rie; Hattori, Hisashi; Yamamoto, Miki; Nishibori, Masahiro; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2007-06-01

    Histamine not only mediates immediate allergic reactions, it also regulates cellular immune responses. H4R is the most recently identified histamine receptor (HR). In the present study, we examined the in vitro effect of histamine and H4R agonists on the responses of human T cells to purified protein derivative from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (PPD) and to Cry j1, the major allergen of Cryptomeria japonica pollen. Dimaprit, clobenpropit and clozapine, which are H4R agonists, dose-dependently blocked both PPD-induced interferon-gamma and Cry j1-induced interleukin-5 production by both peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and antigen-specific T-cell lines. However, the addition of thioperamide, an H3R/H4R antagonist, as well as a mixture of d-chlropheniramine, famotidine and thioperamide, did not reverse the inhibition. Pretreatment of PBMCs with SQ22536 and 8-bromoadenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp-isomer, had varying abilities to reverse the inhibitory effects of H4R agonists, except for clobenpropit. Moreover, the addition of H4R agonists induced annexin-V expression on PBMCs, especially in CD19(+) and CD4(+) cells. cDNA microarray analysis revealed that, among 16,600 genes tested, increased expression following treatment with clozapine was seen in 0 x 8% of the genes, whereas decreased expression was seen in 3 x 0% of the genes. These results suggest that H4R agonists inhibit antigen-specific human T-cell responses, although H4R does not appear to be important for this effect. In addition, the present study indicated that there may be orphan receptors or HR subtypes which can bind dimaprit, clobenpropit and clozapine, and that can exert an inhibitory effect on antigen-specific cellular responses via a cAMP/cAMP-dependent protein kinase-dependent, apoptotic pathway.

  8. Histamine H4 receptor agonists have more activities than H4 agonism in antigen-specific human T-cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Sugata, Yuji; Okano, Mitsuhiro; Fujiwara, Tazuko; Matsumoto, Rie; Hattori, Hisashi; Yamamoto, Miki; Nishibori, Masahiro; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2007-01-01

    Histamine not only mediates immediate allergic reactions, it also regulates cellular immune responses. H4R is the most recently identified histamine receptor (HR). In the present study, we examined the in vitro effect of histamine and H4R agonists on the responses of human T cells to purified protein derivative from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (PPD) and to Cry j1, the major allergen of Cryptomeria japonica pollen. Dimaprit, clobenpropit and clozapine, which are H4R agonists, dose-dependently blocked both PPD-induced interferon-γ and Cry j1-induced interleukin-5 production by both peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and antigen-specific T-cell lines. However, the addition of thioperamide, an H3R/H4R antagonist, as well as a mixture of d-chlropheniramine, famotidine and thioperamide, did not reverse the inhibition. Pretreatment of PBMCs with SQ22536 and 8-bromoadenosine-3′,5′-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp-isomer, had varying abilities to reverse the inhibitory effects of H4R agonists, except for clobenpropit. Moreover, the addition of H4R agonists induced annexin-V expression on PBMCs, especially in CD19+ and CD4+ cells. cDNA microarray analysis revealed that, among 16 600 genes tested, increased expression following treatment with clozapine was seen in 0·8% of the genes, whereas decreased expression was seen in 3·0% of the genes. These results suggest that H4R agonists inhibit antigen-specific human T-cell responses, although H4R does not appear to be important for this effect. In addition, the present study indicated that there may be orphan receptors or HR subtypes which can bind dimaprit, clobenpropit and clozapine, and that can exert an inhibitory effect on antigen-specific cellular responses via a cAMP/cAMP-dependent protein kinase-dependent, apoptotic pathway. PMID:17346280

  9. Search for the Identification of 3EG J1835+5918: Evidence for a New Type of High-Energy Gamma-Ray Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirabal, N.; Halpern, Jules P.; Eracleous, M.; Becker, R. H.; Oliversen, Ronald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The EGRET source 3EG J1835+5918 is the brightest and most accurately positioned of the as-yet unidentified high-energy gamma-ray sources at high Galactic latitude (l, b = 89 deg, 25 deg). We present a multiwavelength study of the region around it, including X-ray, radio, and optical imaging surveys, as well as optical spectroscopic classification of most of the active objects in this area. Identifications are made of all but one of the ROSAT and ASCA sources in this region to a flux limit of approximately 5 x 10(exp -14) erg/sq cm s, which is 10(exp -4) of the gamma-ray flux. The identified X-ray sources in or near the EGRET error ellipse are radio-quiet QSOs, a galaxy cluster, and coronal emitting stars. We also find eight quasars using purely optical color selection, and we have monitored the entire field for variable optical objects on short and long time scales without any notable discoveries. The radio sources inside the error ellipse are all fainter than 4 mJy at 1.4 GHz. There are no flat-spectrum radio sources in the vicinity; the brightest neighboring radio sources are steep-spectrum radio galaxies or quasars. Since no blazar-like or pulsar-like candidate has been found as a result of these searches, 3EG J1835+5918 must be lacking one or more of the physically essential attributes of these known classes of gamma-ray emitters. If it is an AGN it lacks the beamed emission radio of blazars by at least a factor of 100 relative to identified EGRET blazars. If it is an isolated neutron star, it lacks the steady thermal X-rays from a cooling surface and the magnetospheric non-thermal X-ray emission that is characteristic of all EGRET pulsars. If a pulsar, 3EG J1835+5918 must be either older or more distant than Geminga, and probably an even more efficient or beamed gamma-ray engine. One intermittent ROSA T source falls on a blank optical field to a limit of B greater than 23.4, V greater than 23.3, and R greater than 22.5. In view of this conspicuous absence, RX

  10. Microorganisms, Organic Carbon, and Their Relationship with Oxidant Activity in Hyper-Arid Mars-Like Soils: Implications for Soil Habitability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdivia-Silva, Julio E.; Karouia, Fathi; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; McKay, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Soil samples from the hyper-arid region in the Atacama 23 Desert in Southern Peru (La Joya Desert) were analyzed for total and labile organic carbon (TOC & LOC), phospholipid fatty acids analysis (PLFA), quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), 4',6- diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-fluorescent microscopy, culturable microorganisms, and oxidant activity, in order to understand the relationship between the presence of organic matter and microorganisms in these types of soils. TOC content levels were similar to the labile pool of carbon suggesting the absence of recalcitrant carbon in these soils. The range of LOC was from 2 to 60 micro-g/g of soil. PLFA analysis indicated a maximum of 2.3 x 10(