Science.gov

Sample records for 10exp 5 mexp

  1. Laboratory Demonstration of Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) Coronagraph with Better than 10(exp -9) Contrast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, Brian; Guyon, Olivier; Kuhnert, Andreas; Niessner, Albert; Martinache, Frantz; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham

    2013-01-01

    We present coronagraphic images from the Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph on NASA's High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT) at the Jet Propulsion Lab, showing contrasts of 5x10(exp -1) averaged from 2-4 lambda/D, in monochromatic light at 808 nm. In parallel with the coronagraph and its deformable mirror and coronagraphic wavefront control, we also demonstrate a low-order wavefront control system, giving 100 x rms suppression of introduced tip/tilt disturbances down to residual levels of 10(exp -3) lambda/D. Current limitations, as well as broadband (10% fractional bandpass) preliminary results are discussed.

  2. Heat-Transfer and Pressure Measurements from a Flight Test of the Third 1/18-Scale Model of the Titan Intercontinental Ballistic Missile up to a Mach Number of 3.86 and Reynolds Number per Foot of 23.5 x 10(exp 6) and a Comparison with Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, John B., Jr.

    1958-01-01

    Heat-transfer and pressure measurements were obtained from a flight test of a 1/18-scale model of the Titan intercontinental ballistic missile up to a Mach number of 3.86 and Reynolds number per foot of 23.5 x 10(exp 6) and are compared with the data of two previously tested 1/18-scale models. Boundary-layer transition was observed on the nose of the model. Van Driest's theory predicted heat-transfer coefficients reasonably well for the fully laminar flow but predictions made by Van Driest's theory for turbulent flow were considerably higher than the measurements when the skin was being heated. Comparison with the flight test of two similar models shows fair repeatability of the measurements for fully laminar or turbulent flow.

  3. A vacuum (10(exp -9) Torr) friction apparatus for determining friction and endurance life of MoSx films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Honecy, Frank S.; Abel, Phillip B.; Pepper, Stephen V.; Spalvins, Talivaldis; Wheeler, Donald R.

    1992-01-01

    The first part of this paper describes an ultrahigh vacuum friction apparatus (tribometer). The tribometer can be used in a ball-on-disk configuration and is specifically designed to measure the friction and endurance life of solid lubricating films such as MoS(x) in vacuum at a pressure of 10 exp -7 Pa. The sliding mode is typically unidirectional at a constant rotating speed. The second part of this paper presents some representative friction and endurance life data for magnetron sputtered MoS(x) films (110 nm thick) deposited on sputter-cleaned 440 C stainless-steel disk substrates, which were slid against a 6-mm-diameter 440 C stainless-steel bearing ball. All experiments were conducted with loads of 0.49 to 3.6 N (average Hertzian contact pressure, 0.33 to 0.69 GPa), at a constant rotating speed of 120 rpm (sliding velocity ranging from 31 to 107 mm/s due to the range of wear track radii involved in the experiments), in a vacuum of 7 x 10 exp -7 Pa and at room temperature. The results indicate that there are similarities in friction behavior of MoS(x) films overs their life cycles regardless of load applied. The coefficient of friction (mu) decreases as load W increases according to mu = kW exp -1/3. The endurance life E of MoS(x) films decreases as the load W increases according to E = KW exp -1.4 for the load range. The load- (or contract-pressure-) dependent endurance life allows us to reduce the time for wear experiments and to accelerate endurance life testing of MoS(x) films. For the magnetron-sputtered MoS(x) films deposited on 440 C stainless-steel disks: the specific wear rate normalized to the load and the number of revolutions was 3 x 10 exp -8 mm exp 3/N-revolution; the specific wear rate normalized to the load and the total sliding distance was 8 x 10 exp -7 mm exp 3/N-m; and the nondimensional wear coefficient of was approximately 5 x 10 exp -6. The values are almost independent of load in the range 0.49 to 3.6 N (average Hertzian contact

  4. An Instrument to Measure Elemental Energy Spectra of Cosmic Ray Nuclei Up to 10(exp 16) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Chilingarian, A.; Drury, L.; Egorov, N.; Golubkov,S.; Korotkova, N.; Panasyuk, M.; Podorozhnyi, D.; Procqureur, J.

    2000-01-01

    A longstanding goal of cosmic ray research is to measure the elemental energy spectra of cosmic rays up to and through the "knee" (approx. equal to 3 x 10 (exp 15) eV. It is not currently feasible to achieve this goal with an ionization calorimeter because the mass required to be deployed in Earth orbit is very large (at least 50 tonnes). An alternative method will be presented. This is based on measuring the primary particle energy by determining the angular distribution of secondaries produced in a target layer using silicon microstrip detector technology. The proposed technique can be used over a wide range of energies (10 (exp 11)- 10 (exp 16) eV) and gives an energy resolution of 60% or better. Based on this technique, a design for a new lightweight instrument with a large aperture (KLEM) will be described.

  5. A direct gravitational lensing test for 10 exp 6 solar masses black holes in halos of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wambsganss, Joachim; Paczynski, Bohdan

    1992-01-01

    We propose a method that will be able to detect or exclude the existence of 10 exp 6 solar masses black holes in the halos of galaxies. VLBA radio maps of two milliarcsecond jets of a gravitationally lensed quasar will show the signature of these black holes - if they exist. If there are no compact objects in this mass range along the line of sight, the two jets should be linear mappings of each other. If they are not, there must be compact objects of about 10 exp 6 solar masses in the halo of the galaxy that deform the images by gravitational deflection. We present numerical simulations for the two jets A and B of the double quasar 0957 + 561, but the method is valid for any gravitationally lensed quasar with structure on milliarcsecond scales. As a by-product from high-quality VLBA maps of jets A and B, one will be able to tell which features in the maps are intrinsic in the original jet and which are only an optical illusion, i.e., gravitational distortions by black holes along the line of sight.

  6. Heat Transfer and Boundary-Layer Transition on a Highly Polished Hemisphere-Cone in Free Flight at Mach Numbers Up to 3.14 and Reynolds Numbers Up to 24 x 10(exp 6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buglia, James J.

    1961-01-01

    A highly polished hemisphere-cone having a ratio of nose radius to base radius of 0.74 and a half-angle of 14.5 was flight tested at Mach numbers up to 4.70. Temperature and pressure data were obtained at Mach numbers up to 3.14 and a free-stream Reynolds number of 24 x 10(exp 6) based on body diameter. The nose of the model had a surface roughness of 2 to 5 microinches as measured with an interferometer. The measured Stanton numbers were in good agreement with theory. Transition Reynolds numbers based on the laminar boundary-layer momentum thickness at transition ranged from 2,190 to 794. Comparison with results from previous tests of blunt shapes having a surface roughness of 20 to 40 microinches showed that the high degree of polish was instrumental in delaying the transition from laminar to turbulent flow.

  7. Preliminary Investigation of Molybdenum Disulfide-air-mist Lubrication for Roller Bearings Operating to DN Values of 1 x 10(exp 6) and Ball Bearings Operating to Temperatures of 1000 F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macks, E F; Nemeth, Z N; Anderson, W J

    1951-01-01

    The effectiveness of molybdenum disulfide MoS2 as a bearing lubricant was determined at high temperature and at high speeds. A 1-inch-bore ball bearing operated at temperatures to 1000 F, a speed of 1725 rpm, and a thrust load of 20 pounds when lubricated only with MoS2-air mist. A 75-millimeter-bore cageless roller bearing, provided with a MoS2-syrup coating before operation, operated at DN values to 1 x 10(exp 6) with a load of 368 pounds.

  8. Measurements of Local Heat Transfer and Pressure on Six 2-Inch-Diameter Blunt Bodies at a Mach Number of 4.95 and at Reynolds Numbers Per Foot up to 81 x 10(exp 6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Morton; Mayo, Edward E.

    1959-01-01

    Measurements of the local heat transfer and pressure distribution have been made on six 2-inch-diameter, blunt, axially symmetric bodies in the Langley gas dynamics laboratory at a Mach number of 4.95 and at Reynolds numbers per foot up to 81 x 10(exp 6). During the investigation laminar flow was observed over a hemispherical-nosed body having a surface finish from 10 to 20 microinches at the highest test Reynolds number per foot (for this configuration) of 77.4 x 10(exp 6). Though it was repeatedly possible to measure completely laminar flow at this Reynolds number for the hemisphere, it was not possible to observe completely laminar flow on the flat-nosed body for similar conditions. The significance of this phenomenon is obscured by the observation that the effects of particle impacts on the surface in causing roughness were more pronounced on the flat-nosed body. For engineering purposes, a method developed by M. Richard Dennison while employed by Lockheed Aircraft Corporation appears to be a reasonable procedure for estimating turbulent heat transfer provided transition occurs at a forward location on the body. For rearward-transition locations, the method is much poorer for the hemispherical nose than for the flat nose. The pressures measured on the hemisphere agreed very well with those of the modified Newtonian theory, whereas the pressures on all other bodies, except on the flat-nosed body, were bracketed by modified Newtonian theory both with and without centrifugal forces. For the hemisphere, the stagnation-point velocity gradient agreed very well with Newtonian theory. The stagnation-point velocity gradient for the flat- nosed model was 0.31 of the value for the hemispherical-nosed model. If a Newtonian type of flow is assumed, the ratio 0.31 will be independent of Much number and real-gas effects.

  9. Modeling of the initiation and evolution of a laser-ionized column in the lower atmosphere - 314.5 nm wavelength resonant multiphoton ionization of naturally occurring argon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetzer, G. J.; Stockley, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    A 3+1 resonant multiphoton ionization process in naturally occurring argon is studied at 314.5 nm as a candidate for providing a long ionized channel through the atmosphere. Results are presented which indicate peak electron densities up to 10 exp 8/cu cm can be created using laser intensities on the order of 10 exp 8 W/sq cm.

  10. An Atomic Clock with 10 (exp -18) Instability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-13

    from the effects of strong initial density fluctuations in quench up experi ments and finite temperature (20). The space time dependence of the...experimental tools to address exciting topics in cosmology and gravitational physics such as Hawking radiation (13) or Unruh effect (27). References...3.2 x 10- 16/y’t (red solid lile). The blue dashed line represents the estimated combined instabiliy contributions from the Dick effect (1.4 x 10-16

  11. Meteoroid Flux from Lunar Impact Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suggs, Robert; Moser, Danielle; Cooke, William; Suggs, Ronnie

    2015-01-01

    The flux of kilogram-sized meteoroids has been determined from the first 5 years of observations by NASA's Lunar Impact Monitoring Program (Suggs et al. 2014). Telescopic video observations of 126 impact flashes observed during photometric conditions were calibrated and the flux of meteoroids to a limiting mass of 30 g was determined to be 6.14 x 10(exp -10) m(exp -2) yr(exp -1) at the Moon, in agreement with the Grun et al. (1985) model value of 7.5 x 10(exp -10) m(exp -2) yr(exp -1). After accounting for gravitational focusing effects, the flux at the Earth to a limiting impact energy of 3.0 x10(exp -6) kilotons of TNT (1.3 x 10(exp 7) J) was determined to be consistent with the results in Brown et al. (2002). Approximately 62% of the impact flashes were correlated with major meteor showers as cataloged in visual/optical meteor shower databases. These flux measurements, coupled with cratering and ejecta models, can be used to develop impact ejecta engineering environments for use in lunar surface spacecraft design and risk analyses.

  12. Friction and Wear Properties of As-Deposited and Carbon Ion-Implanted Diamond Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1996-01-01

    Recent work on the friction and wear properties of as-deposited and carbon ion-implanted diamond films was reviewed. Diamond films were produced by the microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. Diamond films with various grain sizes and surface roughnesses were implanted with carbon ions at 60 keV ion energy, resulting in a dose of 1.2 x 10(exp 17) carbon ions per cm(exp 2). Various analytical techniques, including Raman spectroscopy, proton recoil analysis, Rutherford backscattering, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, were utilized to characterize the diamond films. Sliding friction experiments were conducted with a polished natural diamond pin in contact with diamond films in the three environments: humid air (40% relative humidity), dry nitrogen (less than 1 percent relative humidity), and ultrahigh vacuum (10(exp -7) Pa). The CVD diamond films indeed have friction and wear properties similar to those of natural diamond in the three environments. The as-deposited, fine-grain diamond films can be effectively used as self-lubricating, wear-resistant coatings that have low coefficients of friction (0.02 to 0.04) and low wear rates (10(exp -7) to lO(exp -8) mm(exp 3) N(exp -1) m(exp -1)) in both humid air and dry nitrogen. However, they have high coefficients of friction (1.5 to 1.7) and a high wear rate (10(exp -4) mm(exp 7) N(exp -1) m(exp -1)) in ultrahigh vacuum. The carbon ion implantation produced a thin surficial layer (less than 0.1 micron thick) of amorphous, non-diamond carbon on the diamond films. In humid air and dry nitrogen, the ion-implanted, fine and coarse-grain diamond films have a low coefficient of friction (around 0.1) and a low wear rate (10(exp -7) mm(exp 3) N(exp -1) m(exp-1)). Even in ultrahigh vacuum, the presence of the non-diamond carbon layer reduced the coefficient of friction of fine-grain diamond films to 0.1 or lower and the wear rate to 10(exp -6

  13. Measurements of Aerodynamic Heat Transfer and Boundary-Layer Transition on a 15 deg. Cone in Free Flight at Supersonic Mach Numbers up to 5.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, Charles B.; Lee, Dorothy B.

    1961-01-01

    Measurements of aerodynamic heat transfer have been made at several stations on the 15 deg total-angle conical nose of a rocket-propelled model in free flight at Mach numbers up to 5.2. Data are presented for a range of local Mach number just outside the boundary layer from 1.40 to 4.65 and a range of local Reynolds number from 3.8 x 10(exp 6) to 46.5 x 10(exp 6), based on length from the nose tip to a measurement station. Laminar, transitional, and turbulent heat-transfer coefficients were measured. The laminar data were in agreement with laminar theory for cones, and the turbulent data agreed well with turbulent theory for cones using Reynolds number based on length from the nose tip. At a nearly constant ratio of wall to local static temperature of 1.2 the Reynolds number of transition increased from 14 x 10(exp 6) to 30 x 10(exp 6) as Mach number increased from 1.4 to 2.9 and then decreased to 17 x 10(exp 6) as Mach number increased to 3.7. At Mach numbers near 3.5, transition Reynolds numbers appeared to be independent of skin temperature at skin temperatures very cold with respect to adiabatic wall temperature. The transition Reynolds number was 17.7 x 10(exp 6) at a condition of Mach number and ratio of wall to local static temperature near that for which three-dimensional disturbance theory has been evaluated and has predicted laminar boundary-layer stability to very high Reynolds numbers (approximately 10(exp 12)).

  14. Measurements of Aerodynamic Heat Transfer and Boundary-Layer Transition on a 10 deg Cone in Free Flight at Supersonic Mach Numbers up to 5.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, Charles B.; Lee, Dorothy B.

    1961-01-01

    Measurements of aerodynamic heat transfer have been made at six stations on the 40-inch-long 10 deg. total-angle conical nose of a rocket- propelled model which was flight tested at Mach numbers up to 5.9. are presented for a range of local Mach number just outside the bound- ary layer on the cone from 1.57 to 5.50, and a range of local Reynolds number from 6.6 x 10(exp 6) to 55.2 x 10(exp 6) based on length from the nose tip.

  15. Specific Volumes of the Zr(41.2)Ti(13.8)Cu(12.5)Ni(10.0)Be(22.5) Alloy in the Liquid, Glass, and Crystalline States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohsaka, K.; Chung, S. K.; Rhim, W. K.; Johnson, W. L.; Peker, A.; Scruggs, D.

    1997-01-01

    The specific volumes of the Zr(41.2)Ti(3.8)Cu(2.5)Ni(10.0)Be(22.5) alloy as a function of temperature, T, are determined by employing an image digitizing technique and numerical calculation methods applied to the electrostatically levitated spherical alloy. The linear fitting of the volumes of the alloy in the liquid, V(sub l), glass, V(sub g) and crystalline V(sub c), states in the temperature ranges shown in parentheses are V(sub l)(T) = 0.1583 + 8.877 x 10(exp -6) T(cu cm/g) (700-1300 K);V(sub g)(T) = 0.1603 + 5.528 x 10(exp -6) T (400-550 K);V(sub c)(T) = 0.1583 + 6.21 x 10(exp -6)T(400-850 K). The average volume thermal expansion coefficients within the temperature ranges are determined to be 5.32, 3.39. and 3.83 x 10(exp -5) (1/K) for the liquid, glass, and crystalline states, respectively.

  16. Characterization of voids formed during liquid impregnation of nonwoven multifilament glass networks as related to composite processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahale, Anant D.; Prudhomme, Robert K.; Rebenfeld, Ludwig

    1993-01-01

    A technique based on matching the refractive index of an invading liquid to that of a fiber mat was used to study entrapment of air ('voids') that occurs during forced in-plane radial flow into nonwoven multifilament glass networks. The usefulness of this technique is demonstrated in quantifying and mapping the air pockets. Experiments with a series of fluids with surface tensions varying from 28 x 10(exp -3) to 36 x 10(exp -3) N/m, viscosities from 45 x 10(exp -3) to 290 x 10(exp -3) Pa.s, and inlet flow rates from 0.15 x 10(exp -6) to 0.75 x 10(exp -6) m(exp 3)/s, showed that void content is a function of the capillary number characterizing the flow process. A critical value of capillary number, Ca = 2.5 x 10(exp -3), identifies a zone below which void content increases exponentially with decreasing capillary number. Above this critical value, negligible entrapment of voids is observed. Similar experiments carried out on surface treated nonwoven mats spanning a range of equilibrium contact angles from 20 deg to 78 deg showed that there is a critical contact angle above which negligible entrapment is observed. Below this value, there is no apparent effect of contact angle on the void fraction - capillary number relationship described earlier. Studies on the effect of filament wettability, and fluid velocity and viscosity on the size of the entrapment (voids) were also carried out. These indicate that larger sized entrapments which envelop more than one pore are favored by a low capillary number in comparison to smaller, pore level bubbles. Experiments were carried out on deformed mats - imposing high permeability spots at regular intervals on a background of low permeability. The effect of these spatial fluctuations in heterogeneity of the mat on entrapment is currently being studied.

  17. Delayed Alumina Scale Spallation on Rene'n5+y: Moisture Effects and Acoustic Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.; Morscher, Gregory N.

    2001-01-01

    The single crystal superalloy Rene'N5 (with or without Y-doping and hydrogen annealing) was cyclically oxidized at 1150 C for 1000 hours. After considerable scale growth (>= 500 hours), even the adherent alumina scales formed on Y-doped samples exhibited delayed interfacial spallation during subsequent water immersion tests, performed up to one year after oxidation. Spallation was characterized by weight loss, the amount of spalled area, and acoustic emission response. Hydrogen annealing (prior to oxidation) reduced spallation both before and after immersion, but without measurably reducing the bulk sulfur content of the Y-doped alloys. The duration and frequency of sequential, co-located acoustic emission events implied an interfacial crack growth rate at least 10(exp -3) m/s, but possibly higher than 10(exp 2) m/s. This is much greater than classic moisture-assisted slow crack growth rates in bulk alumina (10(exp -6) to 10(exp -3) m/s), which may still have occurred undetected by acoustic emission. An alternative failure sequence is proposed: an incubation process for preferential moisture ingress leads to a local decrease in interfacial toughness, thus allowing fast fracture driven by stored strain energy.

  18. Theoretical modeling of GHRS observations of the Of/WN-type star R136a5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koter, Alex DE; Hubeny, Ivan; Heap, Sara R.; Lanz, Thierry

    1994-01-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) spectrum of R136a5, an O3fWN star in the R136a cluster in 30 Doradus. Using non-LTE extended and expanding model atmospheres, we find a surprisingly high mass-loss rate dot-M = 1.8 +/- 0.5 x 10(exp -5) solar mass/yr and an effective temperature T(sub eff) = 42.5 +/- 2.5 kK. With the observed visual magnitude, this implies a radius R(sub *) = 17 +/- 2 solar radius and a solar luminosity L = 8.5 +/- 1 x 10(exp 5) solar luminosity. We discuss possible sources of the uncertainties in the derived stellar parameters and conclude that the effective temperature may be underestimated; however, if so, the value of the mass-loss rate would not be affected.

  19. Evolution of Intrinsic Scatter in the SFR-Stellar Mass Correlation at 0.5 less than z Less Than 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurczynski, Peter; Gawiser, Eric; Acquaviva, Viviana; Bell, Eric F.; Dekel, Avishai; De Mello, Duilia F.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Grogin, Norman A.

    2016-01-01

    We present estimates of intrinsic scatter in the star formation rate (SFR)--stellar mass (M*) correlation in the redshift range 0.5 less than z less than 3.0 and in the mass range 10(exp 7) less than M* less than 10(exp 11) solar mass. We utilize photometry in the Hubble Ultradeep Field (HUDF12) and Ultraviolet Ultra Deep Field (UVUDF) campaigns and CANDELS/GOODS-S and estimate SFR, M* from broadband spectral energy distributions and the best-available redshifts. The maximum depth of the UDF photometry (F160W 29.9 AB, 5 sigma depth) probes the SFR--M* correlation down to M* approximately 10(exp 7) solar mass, a factor of 10-100 x lower in M* than previous studies, and comparable to dwarf galaxies in the local universe. We find the slope of the SFR-M* relationship to be near unity at all redshifts and the normalization to decrease with cosmic time. We find a moderate increase in intrinsic scatter with cosmic time from 0.2 to 0.4 dex across the epoch of peak cosmic star formation. None of our redshift bins show a statistically significant increase in intrinsic scatter approximately 100 Myr. Our results are consistent with a picture of gradual and self-similar assembly of galaxies across more than three orders of magnitude in stellar mass from as low as 10(exp 7) solar mass.

  20. Observations of Environmental Quenching in Groups in the 11 GYR Since z = 2.5: Different Quenching For Central and Satellite Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tal, Tomer; Dekel, Avishai; Marchesini, Danilo; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica J.; Patel, Shannon G.; Quadri, Ryan F.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Wake, David A.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Oesch, Pascal; Muzzin, Adam; Brammer, Gabriel B.; vanDokkum, Peter G.; Franx, Marijn; Illingworth, Garth D.; Leja, Joel; Magee, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We present direct observational evidence for star formation quenching in galaxy groups in the redshift range 0 less than z less than 2.5. We utilize a large sample of nearly 6000 groups, selected by fixed cumulative number density from three photometric catalogs, to follow the evolving quiescent fractions of central and satellite galaxies over roughly 11 Gyr. At z approximately 0, central galaxies in our sample range in stellar mass from Milky Way/M31 analogs (M=6.5x10(exp 10) M/solar mass) to nearby massive ellipticals (M=1.5x10(exp 11) M/solar mass). Satellite galaxies in the same groups reach masses as low as twice that of the Large Magellanic Cloud (M=6.5x10(exp 9) M/solar mass). Using statistical background subtraction, we measure the average rest-frame colors of galaxies in our groups and calculate the evolving quiescent fractions of centrals and satellites over seven redshift bins. Our analysis shows clear evidence for star formation quenching in group halos, with a different quenching onset for centrals and their satellite galaxies. Using halo mass estimates for our central galaxies, we find that star formation shuts off in centrals when typical halo masses reach between 10(exp 12) and 10(exp 13) M/solar mass, consistent with predictions from the halo quenching model. In contrast, satellite galaxies in the same groups most likely undergo quenching by environmental processes, whose onset is delayed with respect to their central galaxy. Although star formation is suppressed in all galaxies over time, the processes that govern quenching are different for centrals and satellites. While mass plays an important role in determining the star formation activity of central galaxies, quenching in satellite galaxies is dominated by the environment in which they reside.

  1. Toward 10(exp 9) GPS geodesy: Vector baselines, Earth rotation and reference frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutz, Bob E.

    1993-01-01

    The University of Texas Center for Space Research research efforts under NASA Grant No. NAG-1936 from 1 Jan. 1992 - 31 Dec. 1992 were in the following areas: GPS orbit accuracy assessments and efforts to improve the accuracy; analysis of global GPS data collected during the first three months of the IGS campaign, and analysis of regional data. A brief summary of each of the above activities is presented in the following.

  2. Towards 10(exp 9) GPS geodesy: Vector baselines, Earth rotation and reference frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutz, Bob E.

    1994-01-01

    Effort during the period form January 1, 1993 to December 31, 1993 were in the following areas: GPS orbit accuracy assessments and efforts to improve the accuracy; analysis and effects of GPS receiver antenna phase center variation; analysis of global GPS data being collected for the IGS campaign; and analysis of regional (south west Pacific) campaign data. A brief summary of each of the above activities is presented.

  3. Friction, Wear, and Evaporation Rates of Various Materials in Vacuum to 10(exp -7) mm Hg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, Donald H.; Swikert, Max; Johnson, Robert L.

    1961-01-01

    The requirements for bearings and seals to operate in the environment of space dictate a new area for lubrication research. The low ambient pressures encountered in space can be expected to influence the behavior of oil, grease, and solid-film lubricants. The property of these materials most significantly affected by low ambient pressures is the evaporation rate. Various investigators have therefore measured the evaporation rates of oils and greases in vacuum as one method of establishing their relative merit for space applications (1-3). The results of this work have given some indication as to the oils and greases with the greatest stability at reduced ambient pressures. Only limited experimental work, however, has been reported in the literature for inorganic solids and soft metals which have potential use as solid lubricant films or coatings for hard alloy substrates [e.g. Reference ( 4 )]. In general, the evaporation rates of these materials would be lower than those of oils and greases. These films might therefore be very attractive as lubricants for high vacuum service.

  4. Directional Limits on Persistent Gravitational Waves Using LIGO S5 Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G. S.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amin, R. S.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Antonucci, F.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M. C.; Aronsson, M.; Arun, K. G.; Aso, Y.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Cannizzo, J.; Stroeer, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    The gravitational-wave (GW) sky may include nearby pointlike sources as well as astrophysical and cosmological stochastic backgrounds. Since the relative strength and angular distribution of the many possible sources of GWs are not well constrained, searches for GW signals must be performed in a model-independent way. To that end we perform two directional searches for persistent GWs using data from the LIGO S5 science run: one optimized for pointlike sources and one for arbitrary extended sources. The latter result is the first of its kind. Finding no evidence to support the detection of GWs, we present 90% confidence level (CL) upper-limit maps of GW strain power with typical values between 2 - 20 X 10 (exp -50) strain2Hz(exp -1) and 5 - 35 X 10 (exp -49) strain2Hz(exp -1)/sr for pointlike and extended sources respectively. The limits on pointlike sources constitute a factor of 30 improvement over the previous best limits. We also set 90% CL limits on the narrow-band root-mean-square GW strain from interesting targets including Sco X-1, SN1987A and the Galactic Center as low as approximately equal 7 X 10(exp -25) in the most sensitive frequency range near 160Hz. These limits are the most constraining to date and constitute a factor of 5 improvement over the previous best limits.

  5. Observations of 13.5 micron rotation-vibration lines of SiS in IRC +10216

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R. J.; Keady, J. J.; Jennings, D. E.; Hirsch, K. L.; Wiedemann, G. R.

    1994-01-01

    We report the first observations of the 13.5 micron fundamental band of SiS in the spectrum of the heavily obscured carbon star IRC +10216. The lines are formed in the inner region of the circumstellar envelope where the gas is accerlerating and where the temperature ranges from 800-500 K. We have carried out a detailed model of the observed line profiles. Our observations are best fit by a gradient in the abundance of SiS. We derive an abundance relative to molecular hydrogen of x(SiS) = 4.3 x 10(exp -6) at a distance of twelve stellar radii from the central star rising to x(SiS) = 4.3 x 10(exp -5) at a few stellar radii from the surface of the star.

  6. Radiation hardness of Ga0.5In0.5 P/GaAs tandem solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, Sarah R.; Olson, J. M.; Bertness, K. A.; Friedman, D. J.; Kibbler, A.; Cavicchi, B. T.; Krut, D. D.

    1991-01-01

    The radiation hardness of a two-junction monolithic Ga sub 0.5 In sub 0.5 P/GaAs cell with tunnel junction interconnect was investigated. Related single junction cells were also studied to identify the origins of the radiation losses. The optimal design of the cell is discussed. The air mass efficiency of an optimized tandem cell after irradiation with 10(exp 15) cm (-2) 1 MeV electrons is estimated to be 20 percent using currently available technology.

  7. Search for Gravitational Waves from Compact Binary Coalescence in LIGO and Virgo Data from S5 and VSR1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Ceron, E. Amador; Amin, R. S.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Antonucci, F.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M.; Aronsson, M.; Arun, K. G.; Aso, Y.; Aston, S.; Astone, P.; Atkinson, D. E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of the first search for gravitational waves from compact binary coalescence using data from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo detectors. Five months of data were collected during the concurrent S5 (UGO) and VSRI (Virgo) science runs. The search focused on signals from binary mergers with a total mass between 2 and 35 Solar Mass. No gravitational waves are identified. The cumulative 90%-confidence upper limits on the rate of compact binary coalescence are calculated for non-spinning binary neutron stars, black hole-neutron star systems, and binary black holes to be 8.7 x 10(exp -3) / yr-1/L(sub 10) 2.2 x 10-3 yr-1L101, and 4.4 x 10(exp -4)3) / yr-1/L(sub 10) respectively, where L (sub 10) is 10(exp 10) times the blue solar luminosity. These upper limits are compared with astrophysical expectations.

  8. The Rate Constant for the Reaction H + C2H5 at T = 295 - 150K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pimentel, Andre S.; Payne, Walter A.; Nesbitt, Fred L.; Cody, Regina J.; Stief, Louis J.

    2004-01-01

    The reaction between the hydrogen atom and the ethyl (C2H3) radical is predicted by photochemical modeling to be the most important loss process for C2H5 radicals in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn. This reaction is also one of the major sources for the methyl radicals in these atmospheres. These two simplest hydrocarbon radicals are the initial species for the synthesis of larger hydrocarbons. Previous measurements of the rate constant for the H + C2H5 reaction varied by a factor of five at room temperature, and some studies showed a dependence upon temperature while others showed no such dependence. In addition, the previous studies were at higher temperatures and generally higher pressures than that needed for use in planetary atmospheric models. The rate constant for the reaction H + C2H5 has been measured directly at T = 150, 202 and 295 K and at P = 1.0 Torr He for all temperatures and additionally at P = 0.5 and 2.0 Torr He at T = 202 K. The measurements were performed in a discharge - fast flow system. The decay of the C2H5 radical in the presence of excess hydrogen was monitored by low-energy electron impact mass spectrometry under pseudo-first order conditions. H atoms and C2H5 radicals were generated rapidly and simultaneously by the reaction of fluorine atoms with H2 and C2H6, respectively. The total rate constant was found to be temperature and pressure independent. The measured total rate constant at each temperature are: k(sub 1)(295K) = (1.02+/-0.24)x10(exp -10), k(sub 1)(202K) = (1.02+/-0.22)x10(exp -10) and k(sub 1)(150K) = (0.93+/-0.21)x10(exp -10), all in units of cu cm/molecule/s. The total rate constant derived from all the combined measurements is k(sub 1) = (l.03+/-0.17)x10(exp -10) cu cm/molecule/s. At room temperature our results are about a factor of two higher than the recommended rate constant and a factor of three lower than the most recently published study.

  9. EPIC Study of Two Enigmatic Sources: The Mouse and SNR 359.1-0.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlov, George

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the original proposal was to observe the Mouse pulsar wind nebula (associated with PSR J1744-2958) and the nearby supernova remnant G359.1-0.5, where the pulsar was probably born, with the XMM-Newton observatory to study the properties of these objects. SNR G359.1-0.5 was accepted as a Category C target and has not been observed. The Mouse was observed on April 27,2003 for 52 ks. The image analysis has shown that the Mouse is extended in the East-West direction, possibly along the direction of the pulsar's proper motion. The spectrum of this pulsar wind nebula can be described as an absorbed power law with the photon index GAMMA = 1.9 plus or minus 0.1, effective hydrogen column density n(sub H) = (2.6 plus or minus 0.1) x 10(exp 22) per square centimeter, and flux F = 1.8 x 10(exp -11) erg per square centimeter per second in the 1-10 keV energy range. Based on the n(sub H) value, the distance to the source is about 5 kpc, which results in the luminosity 3.7 x 10(exp 34) erg per second. We conclude that PSR J1744-2958 and the Mouse are not physically associated with G359.1-0.5, which lies at a larger distance. In addition to the Mouse, we also detected two Low-Mass X-ray Binaries, SLX 1744-299 and 1744-300, in the EPIC MOS and PN fields of view. The latter of these objects showed a Type I X-ray burst during our observation, with a rise time of 5 s and decay time of 60 s. A very strong pileup during the burst made the analysis of the burst properties unreliable. The spectral analysis of the persistent radiation from SLX 1744-299 and 1744-300 yields the hydrogen column densities of 3.2 plus or minus 0.1 and (3.6 plus or minus 0.2) x 10(exp 22) per square centimeter, respectively, which suggests that the sources are close to the Galactic center (d = 8-9 kpc). The spectra can be reasonably well fitted with a blackbody plus thin disk model, with the blackbody temperatures of 1.7 plus or minus 0.2 and 1.8 plus or minus 0.2 keV, respectively.

  10. Summary of Data from the Sixth AIAA CFD Drag Prediction Workshop: CRM Cases 2 to 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinoco, Edward N.; Brodersen, Olaf P.; Keye, Stefan; Laflin, Kelly R.; Feltrop, Edward; Vassberg, John C.; Mani, Mori; Rider, Ben; Wahls, Richard A.; Morrison, Joseph H.; Hue, David; Gariepy, Martin; Roy, Christopher J.; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Murayama, Mitsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Results from the Sixth AIAA CFD Drag Prediction Workshop Common Research Model Cases 2 to 5 are presented. As with past workshops, numerical calculations are performed using industry-relevant geometry, methodology, and test cases. Cases 2 to 5 focused on force/moment and pressure predictions for the NASA Common Research Model wing-body and wing-body-nacelle-pylon configurations, including Case 2 - a grid refinement study and nacelle-pylon drag increment prediction study; Case 3 - an angle-of-attack buffet study; Case 4 - an optional wing-body grid adaption study; and Case 5 - an optional wing-body coupled aero-structural simulation. The Common Research Model geometry differed from previous workshops in that it was deformed to the appropriate static aeroelastic twist and deflection at each specified angle-of-attack. The grid refinement study used a common set of overset and unstructured grids, as well as user created Multiblock structured, unstructured, and Cartesian based grids. For the supplied common grids, six levels of refinement were created resulting in grids ranging from 7x10(exp 6) to 208x10(exp 6) cells. This study (Case 2) showed further reduced scatter from previous workshops, and very good prediction of the nacelle-pylon drag increment. Case 3 studied buffet onset at M=0.85 using the Medium grid (20 to 40x10(exp 6) nodes) from the above described sequence. The prescribed alpha sweep used finely spaced intervals through the zone where wing separation was expected to begin. Although the use of the prescribed aeroelastic twist and deflection at each angle-of-attack greatly improved the wing pressure distribution agreement with test data, many solutions still exhibited premature flow separation. The remaining solutions exhibited a significant spread of lift and pitching moment at each angle-of-attack, much of which can be attributed to excessive aft pressure loading and shock location variation. Four Case 4 grid adaption solutions were submitted. Starting

  11. Limits on the UV Photodecomposition of Carbonates on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Richard; Zent, Aaron P.; McKay, Christopher P.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The effect of UV (ultraviolet) light on the stability of calcium carbonate in a simulated martian atmosphere was experimentally investigated. Sample cells containing C-13 labeled calcite were irradiated with a Xe arc lamp in 10 mbar of simulated martian atmosphere and a quadrupole mass spectrometer was used to monitor the headspace gases for the production of (13)CO2. We found no experimental evidence of the UV photodecomposition of calcium carbonate in a simulated martian atmosphere. Extrapolating the lower limit of detection of our experimental system to an upper limit of carbonate decomposition on Mars yields a quantum efficiency of 3.5 x 10(exp -8) molecules/photon over the wavelength interval of 190-390 nm and a maximum UV photodecomposition rate of 1.2 x 10(exp -13) kg m(exp -2) s(exp -1) from a calcite surface. The maximum loss of bulk calcite due to this process would be 2.5 nm yr(exp -1). However, calcite is expected to be thermodynamically stable on the surface of Mars and potential UV photodecomposition reaction mechanisms indicate that while calcium carbonate may decompose under vacuum, it would be stable in a CO2 atmosphere. Given the expected stability of carbonate on Mars and our inability to detect carbonate decomposition, we conclude that it is unlikely that the apparent absence of carbonate on the martian surface is due to UV photo decomposition of calcite in the current environment.

  12. Toward 10(exp 10) Contrast for Terrestrial Exoplanet Detection: Demonstration of Wavefront Correction in a Shaped Pupil Coronagraph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belikov, Ruslan; Give'on, Amir; Trauger, John T.; Carr, Michael; Kasdin, Jeremy N.; Vanderbei, Robert J.; Shi, Fang; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Kuhnert, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Experimental demonstration of wavefront control with shaped pupils. Contrast level is maintained across different wavelengths and 10% broadband light. Further improvements in contrast believed to have been possible with more time and parameter optimizations.

  13. The morphology of 20 x 10 exp 6 K plasma in large non-impulsive solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, Loren W.; Feldman, Uri; Bruner, Marilyn E.; Doschek, George A.; Hirayama, Tadashi; Hudson, Hugh S.; Lemen, James R.; Ogawara, Yoshiaki; Strong, Keith T.; Tsuneta, Saku

    1992-01-01

    We have examined images of 10 flares observed by the Soft X-ray Telescope on-board the Yohkoh spacecraft. These images show that the hottest portion of the soft X-ray flare is located in compact regions that appear to be situated at the tops of loops. These compact regions form at, or shortly after, flare onset, and persist well into the decay phase of the flares. In some cases, the compact regions are only a few thousand kilometers in size and are small compared to the lengths of flaring loops. This is inconsistent with the smoother intensity distribution along the loops expected from models of chromospheric evaporation.

  14. Measurements of anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation at 0.5 deg angular scales near the star gamma ursae minoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devlin, M. J.; Clapp, A. C.; Gundersen, J. O.; Hagmann, C. A.; Hristov, V. V.; Lange, A. E.; Lim, M. A.; Lubin, P. M.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Meinhold, P. R.

    1994-01-01

    We present results from a four-frequency observation of a 6 deg x 0.6 deg strip of the sky centered near the star Gamma Ursae Minoris (GUM) during the fourth flight of the Millimeter-wave Anistropy experiment(MAX). The observation was made with a 1.4 deg peak-to-peak sinusoidal chop in all bands. The FWHM beam sizes were 0.55 deg +/- 0.05 deg at 3.5 per cm and 0.75 deg +/- 0.05 deg at 6, 9, and 14 per cm. During this observation significant correlated structure was observed at 3.5, 6 and 9 per cm with amplitudes similar to those observed in the GUM region during the second and third fligts of MAX. The frequency spectrum is consistent with cosmic microwave background (CMB) and inconsistent with thermal emission from interstellar dust. The extrapolated amplitudes of synchrotron and free-free emission are too small to account for the amplitude of the observed structure, If all of the structure is attributed to CMB anisotropy with a Gaussian autocorrelation function and a coherence angle of 25 min, then the most probable values of delta T/T(sub CMB) in the 3.5, 6 and 9 per cm bads are (4.3 +2.7/-1.6) x 10(exp -5), 2.8 (+4.3/-1/1) x 10(exp -5), and 3.5 (+3.0/-1.6) x 10(exp -5) (95% confidence upper and lower limits), respectively.

  15. Micron-Sized Particles Detected in the Vicinity of Jupiter by the Voyager Plasma Wave Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsintikidis, D.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Granroth, L. J.

    1996-01-01

    Wideband waveform data obtained by the plasma wave instruments onboard the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft have been used to study micron-sized dust particles in the vicinity of Jupiter. The technique used was developed during the flybys of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, and makes use of the fact that a particle striking the spacecraft at 10-20 km/s causes a voltage pulse in the plasma wave receiver. The waveform of the voltage pulse is much different than the waveform of plasma waves and provides a highly reliable method of detecting micron-sized dust particles. Although the dust impact rate observed in the vicinity of Jupiter is much lower than the rates at Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, the particles are easily detectable. Approximately 1200 48-second frames of wideband waveform data were examined in the vicinity of Jupiter. Dust impact signatures were found in approximately 20% of these frames. The peak impact rates are about 1 impact per second, and the peak number densities are about 10(exp -5) m(exp -3). Most of the impacts occurred near the equatorial plane at radial distances less than about 35 R(sub j) from Jupiter. Analysis of the detection threshold indicates that the particles have masses greater than 10(exp -11) g, which corresponds to particles with diameters of a few micrometers or larger.

  16. Effect of Nb2O5 and V2O5 addition on the superconducting properties of YBa2Cu3O(y) thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivas, S.; Bhatnagar, A.K.; Pinto, R.; Pai, S.P.; Apte, P.R.; Purandare, S.C.; Souza, C.P.D.

    1995-04-01

    The effect of Nb2O5 and V2O5 addition on the superconducting properties and microstructure of YBa2Cu3O(y) has been studied in thin films. Polycrystalline targets for laser ablation were prepared by mixing high purity V2O5 or Nb2O5 powders with a well characterized YBa2Cu3O(y) powder in the range 0 to 4 wt percent by solid state reaction method. Thin films (approximately 1500 A thickness) of the above targets were grown on (100) SrTiO3 (STO) and (100) LaAlO3 (LAO) substrates at 700 C temperature by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. In the case of Nb2O5 addition the authors have noticed an increase in J(sub c) up to 0.5 wt percent and higher additive concentration (greater than 0.5 wt percent) have degraded the superconducting properties. However, in the case of V2O3 addition, there is an improvement in current density and microstructural properties up to 1 wt percent and the superconducting properties degrade for concentrations greater than 1 wt percent. The best J{sub c} for 0.5 wt percent of Nb2O5 added to YBCO thin film is 1.6 x 10(exp 6) A/sq cm and for that of V2O5 added sample is 3.4 x 10(exp 6) A/sq cm at 77 K as compared to the pure YBa2Cu3O(y) (YBCO) film J{sub c} (1.2 x 10(exp 6) A/sq cm) observed on STO substrates. The reason for improvement in J{sub c} and microstructural properties in the case of V2O5 addition could be due to the low melting of V2O5 (690 C) which can act as a very good surfactant during deposition. Over all, the authors have realized that Nb2O5 addition or V2O5 addition to YBCO have shown significant improvement over the undoped YBa2Cu3O(7-x) films grown under identical conditions.

  17. Effect of Nb2O5 and V2O5 addition on the superconducting properties of YBa2Cu3O(y) thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivas, S.; Bhatnagar, A. K.; Pinto, R.; Pai, S. P.; Apte, P. R.; Purandare, S. C.; Souza, C. P. D.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of Nb2O5 and V2O5 addition on the superconducting properties and microstructure of YBa2Cu3O(y) has been studied in thin films. Polycrystalline targets for laser ablation were prepared by mixing high purity V2O5 or Nb2O5 powders with a well characterized YBa2Cu3O(y) powder in the range 0 to 4 wt percent by solid state reaction method. Thin films (approximately 1500 A thickness) of the above targets were grown on (100) SrTiO3 (STO) and (100) LaAlO3 (LAO) substrates at 700 C temperature by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. In the case of Nb2O5 addition we have noticed an increase in J(sub c) up to 0.5 wt percent and higher additive concentration (greater than 0.5 wt percent) have degraded the superconducting properties. However, in the case of V2O3 addition, there is an improvement in current density and microstructural properties up to 1 wt percent and the superconducting properties degrade for concentrations greater than 1 wt percent. The best J(sub c) for 0.5 wt percent of Nb2O5 added YBCO thin film is 1.6 x 10(exp 6) A/sq cm and for that of V2O5 added sample is 3.4 x 10(exp 6) A/sq cm at 77 K as compared to the pure YBa2Cu3O(y) (YBCO) film J(sub c) (1.2 x 10(exp 6) A/sq cm) observed on STO substrates. The reason for improvement in J(sub c) and microstructural properties in the case of V2O5 addition could be due to the low melting of V2O5 (690 C) which can act as a very good surfactant during deposition. Over all, we have realized that Nb2O5 addition or V2O5 addition to YBCO have shown significant improvement over the undoped YBa2Cu3O(7-x) films grown under identical conditions.

  18. Long term microparticle impact fluxes on LDEF determined from optical survey of Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, C. G.; Oliver, J. P.; Cooke, W. J.; Downey, K. I.; Kassel, P. C.

    1995-01-01

    Many of the IDE metal-oxide-silicon (MOS) capacitor-discharge impact sensors remained active during the entire Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) mission. An optical survey of impact sites on the active surfaces of these sensors has been extended to include all sensors from the low-flux sides of LDEF (i.e. the west or trailing side, the earth end, and the space end) and 5-7 active sensors from each LDEF's high-flux sides (i.e. the east or leading side, the south side, and the north side). This survey was facilitated by the presence of a relatively large (greater than 50 micron diameter) optical signature associated with each impact site on the active sensor surfaces. Of the approximately 4700 impacts in the optical survey data set, 84% were from particles in the 0.5 to 3 micron size range. An estimate of the total number of hypervelocity impacts on LDEF from particles greater than 0.5 micron diameter yields a value of approximately 7 x 10(exp 6). Impact feature dimensions for several dozen large craters on MOS sensors and germanium witness plates are also presented. Impact fluxes calculated from the IDE survey data closely matched surveys of similar size impacts (greater than or equal to 3 micron diameter craters in Al, or marginal penetrations of a 2.4 micron thick Al foil) by other LDEF investigators. Since the first year IDE data were electronically recorded, the flux data could be divided into three long term time periods: the first year, the entire 5.8 year mission, and the intervening 4.8 years (by difference). The IDE data show that there was an order of magnitude decrease in the long term microparticle impact flux on the trailing side of LDEF, from 1.01 to 0.098 x 10(exp -4) m(exp 2)/s, from the first year in orbit compared to years 2-6. The long term flux on the leading edge showed an increase from 8.6 to 11.2 x 10(exp -4) m(exp -2)/s over this same time period. (Short term flux increases up to 10,000 times the background rate were recorded on the

  19. Tabulated Pressure Coefficient Data from a Tail Loads Investigation on a 1/15-Scale Model of the Goodyear XZP5K Airship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Michael D.

    1956-01-01

    This paper contains tail and hull loads data obtained in an investigation of a l/15-scale model of the Goodyear XZP5K airship. Data are presented in the form of tabulated pressure coefficients over a pitch and yaw range of +/-20 deg and 0 deg to 30 deg respectively, with various rudder and elevator deflections. Two tail configurations of different plan forms were tested on the model. The investigation was conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel at a Reynolds number of approximately 16.5 x 10(exp 6) based on hull length, which corresponds to a Mach number of about 0.12.

  20. Measurements of the anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation at 0.5 deg scale near the star Mu Pegasi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meinhold, P.; Clapp, A.; Devlin, M.; Fischer, M.; Gundersen, J.; Holmes, W.; Lange, A.; Lubin, P.; Richards, P.; Smoot, G.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented from the third flight of the MAX experiment, an attitude-controlled balloon-borne millimeter-wave telescope with a 0.5 deg beam, a 1 deg chop, and a three-channel bolometric photometer. Several hours of high-quality data were obtained during a flight on 1991 June 5, including long integrations to search for CBR anisotropy, two separate measurements of dust in the Galactic plane, a brief scan of the Coma Cluster to search for the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect, and a number of important systematic tests. Data from one of the long CBR integrations, carried out in a region of sky near the star Mu Pegasi, are presented. The primary structure in the data is shown to be emission from Galactic dust via its spectrum and correlation with the IRAS 100/micron map. Several approaches are used to fit this dust component and remove it from the data. An upper limit to CBR anisotropy of deltaT/T less than 2.5 x 10 exp -5 is obtained for a Gaussian autocorrelation function with coherence angle omega(c) = 25'. This limit is significantly higher than the measurement sensitivity of deltaT/T about 1 x 10 exp -5 due to the presence of residual structure in the data after removal of the dust component.

  1. Upper limits to the detection of ammonia from protoplanetary disks around HL Tauri and L1551-IRS 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Jose F.; Torrelles, Jose M.; Ho, Paul T. P.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Canto, Jorge

    1993-01-01

    We present NH3(1, 1) and (2, 2) observations of the young stellar sources HL Tau and L1551-IRS 5 using the VLA in its B-configuration, which provides an angular resolution of about 0.4 arcsec (about 50 AU at 140 pc) at 1.3 cm wavelength. Our goal was to detect and resolve circumstellar molecular disks with radius of the order of 100 AU around these two sources. No ammonia emission was detected toward either of them. The 3-sigma levels were 2.7 mJy/beam and 3.9 mJy/beam for HL Tau and L1551-IRS 5, respectively, with a velocity resolution of about 5 km/s. With this nondetection, we estimate upper limits to the mass of the proposed protoplanetary molecular disks (within a radius of 10 AU from the central stars) on the order of 0.02/(X(NH3)/10 exp -8) solar mass for HL Tau and 0.1/(X(NH3)/10 exp -8) solar mass for L1551-IRS 5.

  2. RXTE and BeppoSAX Observations of MCG-5-23-16: Reflection From Distant Cold Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattson, B. J.; Weaver, K. A.

    2003-01-01

    We examine the spectral variability of the Seyfert 1.9 galaxy MCG-5-23-16 using RXTE and BeppoSAX observations spanning 2 years from April 1996 to April 1998. During the first year the X-ray source brightens by a factor of approximately 25% on timescales of days to months. During this time, the reprocessed continuum emission seen with RXTE does not respond measurably to the continuum increase. However, by the end of the second year during the BeppoSAX epoch the X-ray source has faded again. This time, the reprocessed emission has also faded, indicating that the reprocessed flux has responded to the continuum. If these effects are caused by time delays due to the distance between the X-ray source and the reprocessing region, we derive a light crossing time of between approximately 1 light day and approximately 1.5 light years. This corresponds to a distance of 0.001 pc to 0.55 pc, which implies that the reprocessed emission originates between 3 x 10(exp 15) cm and 1.6 x 10(exp l8) cm from the X-ray source. In other words, the reprocessing in MCG-5-23-16 is not dominated by the inner regions of a standard accretion disk.

  3. The 5 Hour Pulse Period and Broadband Spectrum of the Symbiotic X-Ray Binary 3A 1954+319

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcu, Diana M.; Fuerst, Felix; Pottschmidt, Katja; Grinberg, Victoria; Miller, Sebstian; Wilms, Joern; Postnov, Konstantin A.; Corbet, Robin H. D.; Markwardt, Craig B.; Cadolle Bel, Marion

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the highly variable accreting X-ray pulsar 3A 1954+319 using 2005-2009 monitoring data obtained with INTEGRAL and Swift. This considerably extends the pulse period history and covers flaring episodes in 2005 and 2008. In 2006 the source was identified as one of only a few known symbiotic X-ray binaries, Le" systems composed of a neutron star accreting from the inhomogeneous medium around an M-giant star. The extremely long pulse period of approximately 5.3 h is directly visible in the 2008 INTEGRAL-ISGRI outburst light curve. The pulse profile is double peaked and not significantly energy dependent. During the outburst a strong spin-up of -1.8 x 10(exp -4) h h(exp -1) occurred. Between 2005 and 2008 a long term spin-down trend of 2.1 x 10(exp -5) h h(exp -1) was observed for the first time for this source. The 3-80 keV pulse peak spectrum of 3A 1954+319 during the 2008 flare could be well described by a thermal Comptonization model. We interpret the results within the framework of a recently developed quasi-spherical accretion model for symbiotic X-ray binaries.

  4. Experimental aerodynamic characteristics of a generic hypersonic accelerator configuration at Mach numbers 1.5 and 2.0. [conducted in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Ira J.; Covell, Peter F.; Forrest, Dana K.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the static longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics of a generic hypersonic research vehicle was conducted in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT). A parametric study was performed to determine the interference effects of various model components. Configuration variables included delta and trapezoidal canards; large and small centerline-mounted vertical tails, along with a set of wing-mounted vertical tails; and a set of model noses with different degrees of bluntness. Wing position was varied by changing the longitudinal location and the incidence angle. The test Mach numbers were 1.5 and 2.0 at Reynolds numbers of 1 x 10(exp 6) per foot, 2 x 10(exp 6) per foot, and 4 x 10(exp 6) per foot. Angle of attack was varied from -4 degrees to 27 degrees, and sideslip angle was varied from -8 degrees to 8 degrees. Generally, the effect of Reynolds number did not deviate from conventional trends. The longitudinal stability and lift-curve slope decreased with increasing Mach number. As the wing was shifted rearward, the lift-curve slope decreased and the longitudinal stability increased. Also, the wing-mounted vertical tails resulted in a more longitudinally stable configuration. In general, the lift-drag ratio was not significantly affected by vertical-tail arrangement. The best lateral-directional stability was achieved with the large centerline-mounted tail, although the wing-mounted vertical tails exhibited the most favorable characteristics at the higher angles of attack.

  5. RX J1856.5-3754: A Strange Star with Solid Quark Surface?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Xu, Renxin; Zhang, Shuangnan

    2003-01-01

    The featureless spectra of isolated 'neutron stars' may indicate that they are actually bare strange stars but a definitive conclusion on the nature of the compact objects cannot be reached until accurate and theoretically calculated spectra of the bare quark surface are known. However due to the complex nonlinearity of quantum chromodynamics it is almost impossible to present a definitive and accurate calculation of the density-dominated quark-gluon plasma from the first principles. Nevertheless it was suggested that cold quark matter with extremely high baryon density could be in a solid state. Within the realms of this possibility we have fitted the 500ks Chandra LETG/HRC data for the brightest isolated neutron star RX 51856.5-3754 with a phenomenological spectral model and found that electric conductivity of quark matter on the stellar surface is about 1.5 x 10(exp 16)/s.

  6. X-ray Spectra and Pulse Frequency Changes in SAX J2103.5+4545

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baykal, A.; Stark, M. J.; Swank, J. H.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The November 1999 outburst of the transient pulsar SAX J2103.5+4545 was monitored with the large area detectors of the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer until the pulsar faded after a year. The 358 s pulsar was spun up for 150 days, at which point the flux dropped quickly by a factor of approximately 7, the frequency saturated and, as the flux continued to decline, a weak spin-down began. The pulses remained strong during the decay and the spin-up/flux correlation can be fit to the Ghosh and Lamb derivations for the spin-up caused by accretion from a thin, pressure-dominated disk, for a distance approximately 3.2 kpc and a surface magnetic field approximately 1.2 x 10(exp 13) Gauss. During the bright spin-up part of the outburst, the flux was subject to strong orbital modulation, peaking approximately 3 days after periastron of the eccentric 12.68 day orbit, while during the faint part, there was little orbital modulation. The X-ray spectra were typical of accreting pulsars, describable by a cut-off power-law, with an emission line near the 6.4 keV of Kappa(sub alpha) fluorescence from cool iron. The equivalent width of this emission did not share the orbital modulation, but nearly doubled during the faint phase, despite little change in the column density. The outburst could have been caused by an episode of increased wind from a Be star, such that a small accretion disk is formed during each periastron passage. A change in the wind and disk structure apparently occurred after 5 months such that the accretion rate was no longer modulated or the diffusion time was longer. The distance estimate implies the X-ray luminosity observed was between 1 X 10(exp 36) ergs s(exp -1) and 6 x 10(exp 34) ergs s(exp -1), with a small but definite correlation of the intrinsic power-law spectral index.

  7. Estimation of the viscosities of silicate liquids at high pressure from measurements of oxygen diffusivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubie, D. C.; Ross, C. R., II; Carroll, M. R.; Elphick, S. C.

    1992-01-01

    The dynamics and evolution of a magma ocean depend significantly on the structure and physical properties of silicate liquids at high pressure. Viscosity is particularly important because of its effect on the dynamics of convection and crystal setting. Traditionally, the viscosities of silicate liquids have been measured at high pressure by falling sphere viscometry but, due to some limitations of this technique, few measurements have been made at pressures exceeding 2.5 GPa. An alternative approach, which has previously been proven up to 2 GPa, is to use high pressure measurements of oxygen self-diffusivity (D) to estimate viscosity (eta) from the Eyring relationship eta = kT/D lambda (where k is the Boltzmann constant, T is absolute temperature, and lambda is the diffusive jump distance). We have performed preliminary experiments on Na2Si4O9 liquid in order to explore the feasibility of this method up to pressures in excess of 10 GPa. Diffusion couples were prepared from glass starting materials with one half of the sample enriched in O-18 and the other half containing the natural abundance (0.2 wt percent). Diffusion experiments were performed at 1600 to 1800 C at pressures in the range of 2.5 to 10 GPa for times up to 6 minutes using a 1200 ton multianvil apparatus. Oxygen diffusivities were derived from the resulting O-18 concentration profiles, which were analyzed using an ion microprobe. At 1800 C, oxygen diffusivities increase continuously from 1 x 10(exp -10) m(exp -2) s(exp -1) at 2.5 Gpa to 5 x 10(exp -10) m(exp -2) s(exp -1) at 10 GPa. From the Eyring relationship, the viscosity of Na2SiO9 liquid is predicted to decrease by approx. 0.7 log units over this pressure range at 1800 C. These trends, which can be related to changes in the structure of the liquid at high pressure, are in agreement with results of molecular dynamics calculations. These results suggest that it should be possible to estimate the viscosities of silicate liquids up to at least 15

  8. NuSTAR Observations of Heavily Obscured Quasars at z Is Approximately 0.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansbury, G. B.; Alexander, D. M.; Del Moro, A.; Gandhi, P.; Assef, R. J.; Stern, D.; Aird, J.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Balokovic, M.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Elvis, M.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Hickox, R. C.; Koss, M.; LaMassa, S. M.; Luo, B.; Mullaney, J. R.; Teng, S. H.; Urry, C. M.; Zhang, W. W.

    2014-01-01

    We present NuSTAR hard X-ray observations of three Type 2 quasars at z approx. = 0.4-0.5, optically selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Although the quasars show evidence for being heavily obscured, Compton-thick systems on the basis of the 2-10 keV to [O(sub III)] luminosity ratio and multiwavelength diagnostics, their X-ray absorbing column densities (N(sub H)) are poorly known. In this analysis, (1) we study X-ray emission at greater than 10 keV, where X-rays from the central black hole are relatively unabsorbed, in order to better constrain N(sub H). (2) We further characterize the physical properties of the sources through broad-band near-UV to mid-IR spectral energy distribution analyses. One of the quasars is detected with NuSTAR at greater than 8 keV with a no-source probability of less than 0.1%, and its X-ray band ratio suggests near Compton-thick absorption with N(sub H) is approximately greater than 5 × 10(exp 23) cm(exp -2). The other two quasars are undetected, and have low X-ray to mid-IR luminosity ratios in both the low-energy (2-10 keV) and high-energy (10-40 keV) X-ray regimes that are consistent with extreme, Compton-thick absorption (N(sub H) is approximately greater than 10(exp 24) cm(exp -2)). We find that for quasars at z is approximately 0.5, NuSTAR provides a significant improvement compared to lower energy (less than 10 keV) Chandra and XMM-Newton observations alone, as higher column densities can now be directly constrained.

  9. Sloshing Gas in the Core of the Most Luminous Galaxy Cluster RXJ1347.5-1145

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Ryan E.; Zuhone, John; Jones, Christine; Forman, William R.; Markevitvh, Maxim

    2011-01-01

    We present new constraints on the merger history of the most X-ray luminous cluster of galaxies, RXJ1347.5-1145, based on its unique multiwavelength morphology. Our X-ray analysis confirms the core gas is undergoing "sloshing" resulting from a prior, large scale, gravitational perturbation. In combination with extensive multiwavelength observations, the sloshing gas points to the primary and secondary clusters having had at least two prior strong gravitational interactions. The evidence supports a model in which the secondary subcluster with mass M=4.8+/-2.4x10(exp 14) solar Mass has previously (> or approx.0.6 Gyr ago) passed by the primary cluster, and has now returned for a subsequent crossing where the subcluster's gas has been completely stripped from its dark matter halo. RXJ1347 is a prime example of how core gas sloshing may be used to constrain the merger histories of galaxy clusters through multiwavelength analyses.

  10. Sloshing Gas in the Core of the Most Luminous Galaxy Cluster RXJ1347.5-1145

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markevitch, Maxim; Giacintucci, S.; Dallacasa, D.; Venturi, T.; Brunetti, G.; Cassano, R.; Athreya, R. M.; Johnson, Ryan E.; Zuhone, John; Jones, Christine; Forman, William R.

    2011-01-01

    We present new constraints on the merger history of the most X-ray luminous cluster of galaxies, RXJ1347.5-1145, based its unique multiwavelength morphology. Our X-ray analysis confirms the core gas is undergoing "sloshing" resulting from a prior, large scale, gravitational perturbation. In combination with extensive multiwavelength observations, the sloshing gas points to the primary and secondary clusters having had at least two prior strong gravitational interactions. The evidence supports a model in which the secondary subcluster with mass M=4.8+/-2.4 x 10(exp 14) Stellar Mass has previously (> or approx.=0.6 Gyr ago) passed by the primary cluster, and has now returned for a subsequent crossing where the subcluster's gas has been completely stripped from its dark matter halo. RXJ1347 is a prime example of how core gas sloshing may be used to constrain the merger histories of galaxy clusters through multiwavelength analyses.

  11. Transonic Aerodynamic Loading Characteristics of a Wing-Body-Tail Combination Having a 52.5 deg. Sweptback Wing of Aspect Ratio 3 With Conical Wing Camber and Body Indentation for a Design Mach Number of Square Root of 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassetti, Marlowe D.; Re, Richard J.; Igoe, William B.

    1961-01-01

    An investigation has been made of the effects of conical wing camber and body indentation according to the supersonic area rule on the aerodynamic wing loading characteristics of a wing-body-tail configuration at transonic speeds. The wing aspect ratio was 3, taper ratio was 0.1, and quarter-chord-line sweepback was 52.5 deg. with 3-percent-thick airfoil sections. The tests were conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.80 to 1.05 and at angles of attack from 0 deg. to 14 deg., with Reynolds numbers based on mean aerodynamic chord varying from 7 x 10(exp 6) to 8 x 10(exp 6). Conical camber delayed wing-tip stall and reduced the severity of the accompanying longitudinal instability but did not appreciably affect the spanwise load distribution at angles of attack below tip stall. Body indentation reduced the transonic chordwise center-of-pressure travel from about 8 percent to 5 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord.

  12. Confirmation of a Steep Luminosity Function for Ly alpha Emitters at z 5.7: a Major Component of Reionization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dressler, Alan; Henry, Alaina L.; Martin, Crystal L.; Sawicki, Marcin; McCarthy, Patrick; Villaneuva, Edward

    2014-01-01

    We report the first direct and robust measurement of the faint-end slope of the Ly-alpha emitter (LAE) luminosity function at z = 5.7. Candidate LAEs from a low-spectral-resolution blind search with IMACS on Magellan- Baade were targeted at higher resolution to distinguish high redshift LAEs from foreground galaxies. All but 2 of our 42 single-emission-line systems are fainter than F = 2.0×10(exp-17) ergs s(exp-1) cm(exp-2), making these the faintest emission-lines observed for a z = 5.7 sample with known completeness, an essential property for determining the faint end slope of the LAE luminosity function. We find 13 LAEs as compared to 29 foreground galaxies, in very good agreement with the modeled foreground counts predicted in Dressler et al. (2011a) that had been used to estimate a faint-end slope of alpha = -2.0 for the LAE luminosity function. A 32% LAE fraction, LAE/(LAE+foreground) within the flux interval F = 2-20 × 10(exp-18) ergs s(exp-1) cm(exp-2) constrains the faint end slope of the luminosity function to -1.95 greater than alpha greater than -2.35 (1 delta). We show how this steep LF should provide, to the limit of our observations, more than 20% of the flux necessary to maintain ionization at z = 5.7, with a factor-of-ten extrapolation in flux reaching more than 55%. We suggest that this bodes well for a comparable contribution by similar, low-mass star forming galaxies at higher-redshift - within the reionization epoch at z greater than approximately 7, only 250 Myr earlier - and that such systems provide a substantial, if not dominant, contribution to the late-stage reionization of the IGM.

  13. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Gilmore Load Cell Machine: Load Cell Calibrations to 2.22 x 10(exp 7) Newtons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, Michael W.

    2000-01-01

    Designed in 1964 and erected in 1966, the mission of the Gilmore Load Cell Machine was to provide highly accurate calibrations for large capacity load cells in support of NASA's Apollo Program. Still in use today, the Gilmore Machine is a national treasure with no equal.

  14. Initial Results from a Search for Lunar Radio Emission from Interactions of >= 10(exp 19) eV Neutrinos and Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorham, P. W.; Liewer, K. M.; Naudet, C. J.

    2000-01-01

    Using the NASA Goldstone 70m antenna DSS 14 both singly and in coincidence with the 34 m antenna DSS 13 (21.7 km to the southeast), we have acquired approximately 12 hrs of livetime in a search for predicted pulsed radio emission from extremely-high energy cascades induced by neutrinos or cosmic rays in the lunar regolith. In about 4 hrs of single antenna observations, we reduced our sensitivity to impulsive terrestrial interference to a negligible level by use of a veto afforded by the unique capability of DSS 14. In the 8 hrs of dual-antenna observations, terrestrial interference is eliminated as a background. In both observing modes the thermal noise floor limits the sensitivity. We detected no events above statistical background. We report here initial limits based on these data which begin to constrain several predictions of the flux of EHE neutrinos.

  15. A Giant Radio Halo in a Low-Mass Sz-selected Galaxy Cluster: ACT-CLJ0256.5+0006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowles, Kendra; Intema, H. T.; Baker, A. J.; Bharadwaj, V.; Bond, J. R.; Cress, C.; Gupta, N.; Hajian, A.; Hilton, M.; Hincks, A. D.; Hlozek, R.; Hughes, J. P.; Lindner, R. R.; Marriage, T. A.; Menanteau, F.; Moodley, K.; Niemack, M. D.; Reese, E. D.; Sievers, J.; Sifon, C.; Srianand, R.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    We present the detection of a giant radio halo (GRH) in the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ)- selected merging galaxy cluster ACT-CL J0256.5+ 0006 (z = 0.363), observed with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope at 325 and 610 MHz. We find this cluster to host a faint (S610 = 5.6 +/- 1.4mJy) radio halo with an angular extent of 2.6 arcmin, corresponding to 0.8 Mpc at the cluster redshift, qualifying it as a GRH. J0256 is one of the lowest mass systems, M500, SZ = (5.0 +/- 1.2) × 10(exp14) M, found to host a GRH. We measure the GRH at lower significance at 325 MHz (S325 = 10.3 +/- 5.3mJy), obtaining a spectral index measurement of a610 325 = 1.0+ 0.7 - 0.9. This result is consistent with the mean spectral index of the population of typical radio haloes, alpha = 1.2 +/- 0.2. Adopting the latter value, we determine a 1.4 GHz radio power of P1.4 GHz = (1.0 +/- 0.3) × 10(exp 24)W/Hz, placing this cluster within the scatter of known scaling relations. Various lines of evidence, including the intracluster medium morphology, suggest that ACT-CL J0256.5+ 0006 is composed of two subclusters. We determine a merger mass ratio of 7:4, and a line-of-sight velocity difference of v? = 1880 +/- 210 km/s. We construct a simple merger model to infer relevant time-scales in the merger. From its location on the P1.4GHz-LX scaling relation, we infer that we observe ACT-CL J0256.5+ 0006 just before first core crossing.

  16. Thermal decomposition of explosives studied by chemiluminescence techniques. [Hexanitrostilbene, 2-(5-cyanotetrazolato)pentaumine cobalt perchlorate

    SciTech Connect

    Volltrauer, H.N.

    1982-01-01

    The thermal decomposition rates of pentaerythritol-tetranitrate, PETN; hexanitrostilbene, HNS; and 2-(5-cyanotetrazolato)pentaamminecobalt(III) perchlorate, CP, have been investigated using a chemiluminescence NO/NO/sub x/ analyzer to detect decomposition products from these substances in real time. For PETN two samples were tested over the 50 to 105/sup 0/C temperature range. The results are interpreted in terms of two NO/sub x/ evolution mechanisms; one appears to be desorption of NO/sub x/ and the other is due to decomposition for which the rate coefficients are 1.3 x 10/sup 14/ exp(-37800/RT)s/sup -1/ and 8.3 x 10/sup 14/ exp(-40800/RT)s/sup -1/ for the two samples. Over the 160 to 250/sup 0/C temperature range the rate coefficient describing the NO evolution from HNSI is k(T) = 3 x 10/sup 10/ exp(-42000/RT)s/sup -1/. For two HNSII samples k(T) = 1.6 x 10/sup 10/ exp(-42000/RT)s/sup -1/. Much larger NO evolution rates than predicted by the k(T) (as well as NO/sub 2/ evolution) are obtained with fresh samples. Increasing NO evolution rates were measured at fixed temperatures above 250/sup 0/C. The k(T) for NH/sub 3/ evolution from CP is k(T) = 5.2 x 10/sup 8/ exp(-32000/RT)s/sup -1/ over the 90 to 185/sup 0/C temperature range. Increasing NH/sub 3/ evolution rates were measured at fixed temperatures of 185/sup 0/C or above. The units of k(T) are moles NO/sub x/ (or NH/sub 3/) evolved per mole of substance investigated per second.

  17. File Specification for GEOS-5 FP-IT (Forward Processing for Instrument Teams)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchesi, R.

    2013-01-01

    The GEOS-5 FP-IT Atmospheric Data Assimilation System (GEOS-5 ADAS) uses an analysis developed jointly with NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), which allows the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) to take advantage of the developments at NCEP and the Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation (JCSDA). The GEOS-5 AGCM uses the finite-volume dynamics (Lin, 2004) integrated with various physics packages (e.g, Bacmeister et al., 2006), under the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF) including the Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM) (e.g., Koster et al., 2000). The GSI analysis is a three-dimensional variational (3DVar) analysis applied in grid-point space to facilitate the implementation of anisotropic, inhomogeneous covariances (e.g., Wu et al., 2002; Derber et al., 2003). The GSI implementation for GEOS-5 FP-IT incorporates a set of recursive filters that produce approximately Gaussian smoothing kernels and isotropic correlation functions. The GEOS-5 ADAS is documented in Rienecker et al. (2008). More recent updates to the model are presented in Molod et al. (2011). The GEOS-5 system actively assimilates roughly 2 × 10(exp 6) observations for each analysis, including about 7.5 × 10(exp 5) AIRS radiance data. The input stream is roughly twice this volume, but because of the large volume, the data are thinned commensurate with the analysis grid to reduce the computational burden. Data are also rejected from the analysis through quality control procedures designed to detect, for example, the presence of cloud. To minimize the spurious periodic perturbations of the analysis, GEOS-5 FP-IT uses the Incremental Analysis Update (IAU) technique developed by Bloom et al. (1996). More details of this procedure are given in Appendix A. The analysis is performed at a horizontal resolution of 0.625-degree longitude by 0.5-degree latitude and at 72 levels, extending to 0.01 hPa. All products are generated at the native resolution of the

  18. Preparation and Dielectric Measurements of the Rare Earth Green Phases R2BaCuO(5-x) (R = Y, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez-Titman, Carlos

    1994-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that R2BaCuO(5-x) (R = Y, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb) does not undergo significant densification unless the sintering temperatures are near the incongruent melting point or the sintering times are long. Good quality powders of Y2BaCuO(5-x) have been synthesized by using oxide raw materials or precursors such as acetates and nitrates. The acetates- and the nitrates-derived yttrium green phase resulted in finer particle sizes, acceptable dielectric properties and lower melting temperatures than those processed via oxide raw materials. The hot pressing technique has been employed to produce a dense R2BaCuO(5-x) (R=Y,Gd) substrate with satisfactory dielectric properties. Reactivity to reducing conditions, i.e. graphite die, limited the optimization of the properties. A high sensitivity to the annealing atmosphere has been demonstrated in Y2BaCuO,.,,. Oxygen treatment at 950 OC has been shown to improve the dielectric properties while treatment in nitrogen, at the same temperature, degraded desirable properties. A high sensitivity to the annealing atmosphere has been demonstrated in Y2BaCuO(5-x). Oxygen treatment at 950 C has been shown to improve the dielectric properties while treatment in nitrogen, at the same temperature, degraded desirable properties. The dielectric constants of the rare earth green phases R2BaCuO(5-x) were found to be low. Relaxation peaks were detected at low temperatures (T less than 150 K) and at high temperatures (150 less than T greater than 420 K). The dielectric losses and conductivities at 77 K were measured to be in the range of 10(exp -4) and 10(exp -12) (Omega-cm)(exp -1), respectively. Many parameters were found to exhibit dependencies on the rare earth cation sizes.

  19. Erosion Results of the MISSE 7 Polymers Experiment and Zenith Polymers Experiment After 1.5 Years of Space Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Groh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Yi, Grace T.; Haloua, Athena; Imka, Emily C.; Mitchell, Gianna G.; Asmar, Olivia C.; Leneghan, Halle A.; Sechkar, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    Polymers and other oxidizable materials on the exterior of spacecraft in the low Earth orbit (LEO) space environment can be eroded due to reaction with atomic oxygen (AO). Therefore, in order to design durable spacecraft it is important to know the LEO AO erosion yield (E(sub y), volume loss per incident oxygen atom) of materials susceptible to AO reaction. Two spaceflight experiments, the Polymers Experiment and the Zenith Polymers Experiment, were developed to determine the AO E(sub y) of various polymers flown in ram, wake or zenith orientations in LEO. These experiments were flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 7 (MISSE 7) mission for 1.5 years on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). The experiments included Kapton H(TradeMark) witness samples for AO fluence determination in ram and zenith orientations. The Polymers Experiment also included samples to determine whether AO erosion of high and low ash containing polymers is dependent on fluence. This paper provides an overview of the MISSE 7 mission, a description of the flight experiments with details on the polymers flown, the characterization techniques used, the AO fluence for each exposure orientation, and the LEO E(sub y) results. The E(sub y) values ranged from 7.99x10(exp -28)cu cm/atom for TiO2/Al2O3 coated Teflon(TradeMark) fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) flown in the ram orientation to 1.22x10(exp -23cu cm/atom for polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) flown in the zenith orientation. The E(sub y) of similar samples flown in different orientations has been compared to help determine solar exposure and associated heating effects on AO erosion. The E(sub y) data from these ISS spaceflight experiments provides valuable information for LEO spacecraft design purposes.

  20. A Novel Tungsten-Nickel Alloy Ohmic Contact to SiC at 900 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okojie, Robert S.; Evans, Laura J.; Lukco, Dorothy; Morris, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    A novel tungsten-nickel ohmic contact metallization on 4H-SiC and 6H-SiC capable of surviving temperatures as high as 900 C is reported. Preliminary results revealed the following: 1) ohmic contact on n-type 4H-SiC having net doping levels (Nd's) of 1.4 and 2 x 10(exp 19) per cubic centimeter, with specific contact resistances rhosNd's of 7.69 x 10(exp -4) and 5.81 x 10(exp -4) OMEGA (raised dot) square centimeters, respectively, after rapid thermal annealing (RTA), and 5.9 x 10(exp -3) and 2.51 x 10(exp -4) OMEGA (raised dot) square centimeters, respectively, after subsequent soak at 900 C for 1 h in argon, and 2) ohmic contact on n- and p-type 6H-SiC having Nd > 2 x 10(exp 19) and Na > 1 x 10(exp 20) per cubic centimeter, with rhosNd = 5 x 10(exp -5) and rhosNa = 2 X 10(exp -4) OMEGA (raised dot) square centimeter, respectively, after RTA, and rhosNd = 2.5 x 10 (exp -5) and rhosNa = 1.5 x 10(exp -4) OMEGA (raised dot) square centimeter after subsequent treatment at 900 C for 1 h in argon, respectively.

  1. Recovery Temperature, Transition, and Heat Transfer Measurements at Mach 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinich, Paul F.

    1961-01-01

    Schlieren, recovery temperature, and heat-transfer measurements were made on a hollow cylinder and a cone with axes alined parallel to the stream. Both the cone and cylinder were equipped with various bluntnesses, and the tests covered a Reynolds number range up to 20 x 10(exp 6) at a free-stream Mach number of 4.95 and wall to free-stream temperature ratios from 1.8 to 5.2 (adiabatic). A substantial transition delay due to bluntness was found for both the cylinder and the cone. For the present tests (Mach 4.95), transition was delayed by a factor of 3 on the cylinder and about 2 on the cone, these delays being somewhat larger than those observed in earlier tests at Mach 3.1. Heat-transfer tests on the cylinder showed only slight effects of wall temperature level on transition location; this is to be contrasted to the large transition delays observed on conical-type bodies at low surface temperatures at Mach 3.1. The schlieren and the peak-recovery-temperature methods of detecting transition were compared with the heat-transfer results. The comparison showed that the first two methods identified a transition point which occurred just beyond the end of the laminar run as seen in the heat-transfer data.

  2. The Orbits of Meteorites from Natural Thermoluminescence. Attachment 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, P. H.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1997-01-01

    The natural thermoluminescence (TL) of meteorites reflects their irradiation and thermal histories. Virtually all ordinary chondrites have been irradiated long enough to reach saturation natural TL levels, and thus natural TL levels in these meteorites are determined largely by thermal history. The primary heat source for most meteorites is the Sun, and thus natural TL levels are determined primarily by the closest approach to the Sun, i.e., perihelion. By converting natural TL levels to perihelia, using an assumed albedo typical of meteoroid bodies, it is found that most ordinary chondrites had perihelia of 0.85 to 1.0 AU prior to reaching Earth. This range is similar to that calculated from meteor and fireball observations. All common classes of ordinary chondrites exhibit similar perihelia distributions; however, H and LL chondrites that fell in the local morning differ in their natural TL distribution from those that fell in the local afternoon or evening. This is consistent with earlier suggestions that time of fall reflects orbital distribution. The data also suggest that the orbits of some of the H chondrites cluster and may have come from a debris 'stream' of meteoroids. If meteorites can exist in "orbital groups," significant changes in the types and number of meteorites reaching Earth could occur on the less than 10(exp 5)-year time scale.

  3. Preliminary Heat-Transfer Measurements on a Hypersonic Glide Configuration Having 79.5 degree Sweepback and 45 degree Dihedral at a Mach Number of 4.95

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stainback, Calvin

    1960-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to evaluate the heat-transfer characteristics of a hypersonic glide configuration having 79.5 deg of sweepback (measured in the plane of the leading edges) and 45 of dihedral. The tests were conducted at a nominal Mach number of 4.95 and a stagnation temperature of 400 F. The test-section unit Reynolds number was varied from 1.95 x 10(exp 6) to 12.24 x 10(exp 6) per foot. The results indicated that the laminar-flow heat-transfer rate to the lower surface of the model decreased as the distance from the ridge line increased except for thermocouples located near the semispan at an angle of attack of 00 with respect to the plane of the leading edges. The heat-transfer distribution (local heating rate relative to the ridge-line heating rate) was similar to the theoretical heat-transfer distribution for a two-dimensional blunt body, if the ridge line was assumed to be the stagnation line, and could be predicted by this theory provided a modified Newtonian pressure distribution was used. Except in the vicinity of the apex, the ridge-line heat-transfer rate could also be predicted from two-dimensional blunt-body heat-transfer theory provided it was assumed that the stagnation-line heat-transfer rate varied as the cosine of the effective sweep (sine of the angle of attack of the ridge line). The heat-transfer level on the lower surface and the nondimensional heat-transfer distribution around the body on the lower surface were in qualitative agreement with the results of a geometric study of highly swept delta wings with large positive dihedrals made in reference 1.

  4. File Specification for GEOS-5 FP (Forward Processing)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchesi, R.

    2013-01-01

    The GEOS-5 FP Atmospheric Data Assimilation System (GEOS-5 ADAS) uses an analysis developed jointly with NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), which allows the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) to take advantage of the developments at NCEP and the Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation (JCSDA). The GEOS-5 AGCM uses the finite-volume dynamics (Lin, 2004) integrated with various physics packages (e.g, Bacmeister et al., 2006), under the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF) including the Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM) (e.g., Koster et al., 2000). The GSI analysis is a three-dimensional variational (3DVar) analysis applied in grid-point space to facilitate the implementation of anisotropic, inhomogeneous covariances (e.g., Wu et al., 2002; Derber et al., 2003). The GSI implementation for GEOS-5 FP incorporates a set of recursive filters that produce approximately Gaussian smoothing kernels and isotropic correlation functions. The GEOS-5 ADAS is documented in Rienecker et al. (2008). More recent updates to the model are presented in Molod et al. (2011). The GEOS-5 system actively assimilates roughly 2 × 10(exp 6) observations for each analysis, including about 7.5 × 10(exp 5) AIRS radiance data. The input stream is roughly twice this volume, but because of the large volume, the data are thinned commensurate with the analysis grid to reduce the computational burden. Data are also rejected from the analysis through quality control procedures designed to detect, for example, the presence of cloud. To minimize the spurious periodic perturbations of the analysis, GEOS-5 FP uses the Incremental Analysis Update (IAU) technique developed by Bloom et al. (1996). More details of this procedure are given in Appendix A. The assimilation is performed at a horizontal resolution of 0.3125-degree longitude by 0.25- degree latitude and at 72 levels, extending to 0.01 hPa. All products are generated at the native resolution of the

  5. A preliminary characterization of applied-field MPD thruster plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.; Wehrle, David; Vernyi, Mark; Biaglow, James; Reese, Shawn

    1991-01-01

    Electric probes, quantitative imaging, and emission spectroscopy were used to study the plume characteristics of applied field magnetohydrodynamic thrusters. The measurements showed that the applied magnetic field plays the dominant role in establishing the plume structure, followed in importance by the cathode geometry and propellant. The anode radius had no measurable impact on the plume characteristics. For all cases studied the plume was highly ionized, though spectral lines of neutral species were always present. Centerline electron densities and temperatures ranged from 2 times 10 (exp 18) to 8 times 10 (exp 18) m(exp -3) and from 7500 to 20,000 K, respectively. The plume was strongly confined by the magnetic field, with radial density gradients increasing monotonically with applied field strength. Plasma potential measurements show a strong effect of the magnetic field on the electrical conductivity and indicate the presence of radial current conduction in the plume.

  6. How Dead are Dead Galaxies? Mid-Infrared Fluxes of Quiescent Galaxies at Redshift 0.3< Z< 2.5: Implications for Star Formation Rates and Dust Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fumagalli, Mattia; Labbe, Ivo; Patel, Shannon G.; Franx, Marijn; vanDokkum, Pieter; Brammer, Gabriel; DaCunha, Elisabete; FoersterSchreiber, Natascha M.; Kriek, Mariska; Quadri, Ryan; Rix, Hans-Walter; Wake, David; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Lundgren, Britt; Marchesini, Danilo; Maseda, Michael; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica; Pacifici, Camilla; Skelton, Rosalind E.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate star formation rates of quiescent galaxies at high redshift (0.3 < z < 2.5) using 3D-HST WFC3 grism spectroscopy and Spitzer mid-infrared data. We select quiescent galaxies on the basis of the widely used UVJ color-color criteria. Spectral energy distribution fitting (rest frame optical and near-IR) indicates very low star formation rates for quiescent galaxies (sSFR approx. 10(exp -12)/yr. However, SED fitting can miss star formation if it is hidden behind high dust obscuration and ionizing radiation is re-emitted in the mid-infrared. It is therefore fundamental to measure the dust-obscured SFRs with a mid-IR indicator. We stack the MIPS-24 micron images of quiescent objects in five redshift bins centered on z = 0.5, 0.9, 1.2, 1.7, 2.2 and perform aperture photometry. Including direct 24 micron detections, we find sSFR approx. 10(exp -11.9) × (1 + z)(sup 4)/yr. These values are higher than those indicated by SED fitting, but at each redshift they are 20-40 times lower than those of typical star forming galaxies. The true SFRs of quiescent galaxies might be even lower, as we show that the mid-IR fluxes can be due to processes unrelated to ongoing star formation, such as cirrus dust heated by old stellar populations and circumstellar dust. Our measurements show that star formation quenching is very efficient at every redshift. The measured SFR values are at z > 1.5 marginally consistent with the ones expected from gas recycling (assuming that mass loss from evolved stars refuels star formation) and well above that at lower redshifts.

  7. The Mystery of Io's Warm Polar Regions: Implications for Heat Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, D. L.; Veeder, G. J.; Johnson, T. V.; Blaney, D. L.; Davies, A. G.

    2002-01-01

    Unexpectedly warm polar temperatures further support the idea that Io is covered virtually everywhere by cooling lava flows. This implies a new heat flow component. Io's heat flow remains constrained between a lower bound of (approximately) 2.5 W m(exp -2) and an upper bound of (approximately) 13 W m(exp -2). Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  8. NuSTAR Detection of the Blazar B2 1023+25 at Redshift 5.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sbarrato, T.; Tagliaferri, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Perri, M.; Puccetti, S.; Balokovic, M.; Nardini, M.; Stern, D.; Boggs, S. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Christensen, F. E.; Giommi, P.; Greiner, J.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Hovatta, T.; Madejski, G. M.; Rau, A.; Schady, P.; Sudilovsky, V.; Urry, C. M.; Zhang, William W.

    2013-01-01

    B2 1023+25 is an extremely radio-loud quasar at zeta = 5.3 that was first identified as a likely high-redshift blazar candidate in the SDSS+FIRST quasar catalog. Here, we use the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) to investigate its non-thermal jet emission, whose high-energy component we detected in the hard X-ray energy band. The X-ray flux is approximately 5.5 × 10 (exp -14) erg cm(exp -2) s(exp -1) (5-10 keV) and the photon spectral index is Gamma(x) approx. =1.3-1.6. Modeling the full spectral energy distribution, we find that the jet is oriented close to the line of sight, with a viewing angle of approximately 3deg, and has significant Doppler boosting, with a large bulk Lorentz factor approximately 13, which confirms the identification of B2 1023+25 as a blazar. B2 1023+25 is the first object at redshift larger than 5 detected by NuSTAR, demonstrating the ability of NuSTAR to investigate the early X-ray universe and to study extremely active supermassive black holes located at very high redshift.

  9. Mineralogy and Thermal Properties of V-Type Asteroid 956 Elisa: Evidence for Diogenitic Material from the Spitzer IRS (5-35 Micrometers) Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Lucy F.; Emery, Joshua P.; Moskovitz, Nicholas A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the thermal infrared (5-35 micrometer) spectrum of 956 Elisa as measured by the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph ("IRS"; Houck,1.R. et .11. [20041. Astrophys, 1. SuppL 154, 18-24) together with new ground-based lightcurve data and near-IR spectra. From the visible lightcurve photometry, we determine a rotation period of 16.494 +/- 0.001 h, identify the rotational phase of the Spitzer observations, and estimate the visible absolute magnitude (Hv) at that rotational phase to be 12.58 +/- 0.04. From radiometric analysis of the thermal flux spectrum, we find that at the time of observation 956 Elisa had a projected radius of 5.3 +/- 0.4 km with a visible albedo pv = 0.142+/- 0.022, significantly lower than that of the prototype V-type asteroid, 4 Vesta. (This corresponds to a radius of 5.2 +/- 0.4 km at lightcurve mean.) Analysis with the standard thermal model (STM) results in a sub-solar temperature of 292.3 +/- 2.8 K and beaming parameter eta = 1.16 +/- 0.05. Thermophysical modeling places a lower limit of 20 J m(exp -2)K(exp -1)s(exp -1/2) on the thermal inertia of the asteroid's surface layer (if the surface is very smooth) but more likely values fall between 30 and 150 J m(exp -2)K(exp -1)s(exp -1/2) depending on the sense of rotation. The emissivity spectrum, calculated by dividing the measured thermal flux spectrum by the modeled thermal continuum, exhibits mineralogically interpretable spectral features within the 9-12 micrometer reststrahlen band, the 15-16.5 micrometer Si-O-Si stretching region, and the 16-25 micrometer reststrahlen region that are consistent with pyroxene of diogenitic composition: extant diogenitic pyroxenes fall within the narrow compositional range W0(sub 2+/-1)En(sub 74+/-2)Fs(sub 24+/-1). Spectral deconvolution of the 9-12 micrometer reststrahlen features indicates that up to approximately 20% olivine may also be present, suggesting an olivine-diogenite-like mineralogy. The mid-IR spectrum is inconsistent with non

  10. HST Observations of Star Formation in Interacting Galaxies: NGC 4194, the "Medusa"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weistrop, D.; Eggers, D.; Nelson, C. H.; Kaiser, M. E.

    2001-01-01

    Ultraviolet and visible imaging of the blue compact galaxy NGC4194 was obtained to survey the star-forming knots in the center of this galaxy. Photometry and image analysis were performed on these regions. Comparison with evolutionary tracks indicates many of the knots are reddened with a typical E(B-V)approx.0.3. The knot ages range from 10(exp 6-10(exp 8)years. Some of the knots may have masses 3-5x10(exp 5) solar mass. The FUV fluxes correspond to the flux from 60-3.8x10(exp 3) O5V stars.

  11. Post-Flight Analysis of Selected Fluorocarbon and Other Thin Film Polymer Specimens Flown on MISSE-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeGroh, Kim; Finckenor, Miria; Minton, Tim; Brunsvold, Amy; Pippin, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Twenty thin film specimens were flown on M1SSE-5 as a cooperative effort between several organizations. This presentation will report results of initial inspections and post-flight measurements of the optical properties and recession of these materials due to the approx.13 month exposure period on the exterior of the International Space Station. These specimens were located on the "anti-solar" side of the MISSE-5 container and received a low number of Equivalent Sun Hours of solar UV exposure. Profilometry and/or ATF measurements will be conducted to determine thickness changes and atomic oxygen-induced recession rates Six of the specimens were covered with thin Kapton films, 0.1 and 0.3 mil in thickness. The 0.1 mil Kapton was almost completely eroded, suggesting that the atomic oxygen fluence is <8 x 10(exp 19) atoms/sq cm, similar to levels experienced during Space Shuttle materials experiments in the 1980's and 1990's. A comparison of results from MISSE-5 and Space Shuttle experiments will be included for those materials common to both the short and long-term exposures.

  12. Radio Detections During Two State Transitions of the Intermediate-Mass Black Hole HLX-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Natalie; Cseh, David; Lenc, Emil; Godet, Olivier; Barret, Didier; Corbel, Stephane; Farrell, Sean; Fender, Robert; Gehrels, Neil; Heywood, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Relativistic jets are streams of plasma moving at appreciable fractions of the speed of light. They have been observed from stellar-mass black holes (approx. 3 to 20 solar masses) as well as supermassive black holes (approx.. 10(exp 6) to 10(exp 9) Solar Mass) found in the centers of most galaxies. Jets should also be produced by intermediate-mass black holes (approx. 10(exp 2) to 10(exp 5) Solar Mass), although evidence for this third class of black hole has, until recently, been weak. We report the detection of transient radio emission at the location of the intermediate-mass black hole candidate ESO 243-49 HLX-1, which is consistent with a discrete jet ejection event. These observations also allow us to refine the mass estimate of the black hole to be between approx. 9 × 10(exp 3) Solar Mass and approx. 9 × 10(exp 4) Solar Mass.

  13. Accelerators (5/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

  14. Tracking performance and cycle slipping in the all-digital symbol synchronizer loop of the block 5 receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aung, M.

    1992-01-01

    Computer simulated noise performance of the symbol synchronizer loop (SSL) in the Block 5 receiver is compared with the theoretical noise performance. Good agreement is seen at the higher loop SNR's (SNR(sub L)'s), with gradual degradation as the SNR(sub L) is decreased. For the different cases simulated, cycle slipping is observed (within the simulation time of 10(exp 4) seconds) at SNR(sub L)'s below different thresholds, ranging from 6 to 8.5 dB, comparable to that of a classical phase-locked loop. An important point, however, is that to achieve the desired loop SNR above the seemingly low threshold to avoid cycle slipping, a large data-to-loop-noise power ratio, P(sub D)/(N(sub 0)B(sub L)), is necessary (at least 13 dB larger than the desired SNR(sub L) in the optimum case and larger otherwise). This is due to the large squaring loss (greater than or equal to 13 dB) inherent in the SSL. For the special case of symbol rates approximately equaling the loop update rate, a more accurate equivalent model accounting for an extra loop update period delay (characteristic of the SSL phase detector design) is derived. This model results in a more accurate estimation of the noise-equivalent bandwidth of the loop.

  15. Constructing the Coronal Magnetic Field by Correlating Parameterized Magnetic Field Lines with Observed Coronal Plasma Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Gary G.; Alexander, David

    1999-01-01

    A method is presented for constructing the coronal magnetic field from photospheric magnetograms and observed coronal loops. A set of magnetic field lines generated from magnetogram data is parameterized and then deformed by varying the parameterized values. The coronal flux tubes associated with this field are adjusted until the correlation between the field lines and the observed coronal loops is maximized. A mathematical formulation is described which ensures that (1) the normal component of the photospheric field remains unchanged, (2) the field is given in the entire corona over an active region, (3) the field remains divergence-free, and 4electric currents are introduced into the field. It is demonstrated that a parameterization of a potential field, comprising a radial stretching of the field, can provide a match for a simple bipolar active region, AR 7999, which crossed the central meridian on 1996 November 26. The result is a non-force-free magnetic field with the Lorentz force being of the order of 10(exp -5.5) g per s(exp 2) resulting from an electric current density of 0.79 micro A per m(exp 2). Calculations show that the plasma beta becomes larger than unity at a strong non-radial currents requires low height of about 0.25 solar radii supporting the non-force-free conclusion. The presence of such strong non-radial currents requires large transverse pressure gradients fo maintain a magnetostatic atmosphere, required by the relatively persistent nature of the coronal structures observed in AR 7999. This scheme is an important tool in generating a magnetic field solution consistent with the coronal flux tube observations and the observed photospheric magnetic field.

  16. The C IV Mass Density of the Universe at Redshift 5(exp 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettini, Max; Madau, Piero; Bolte, Michael; Prochaska, Jason X.; Ellison, Sara L.; Fan, Xiao-Hui

    2003-01-01

    In order to search for metals in the Ly alpha forest at redshifts z(sub abs) > 4, we have obtained spectra of high signal-to-noise ratio and moderately high resolution of three QSOs at z(sub em) > 5.4 discovered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. These data allow us to probe to metal enrichment of the intergalactic medium at early times with higher sensitivity than previous studies. We find 16 C IV absorption systems with column densities logN(C IV) = 12.50-13.98 over a total redshift path Delta X = 3.29. In the redshift interval z = 4.5-5.0, where our statistics are most reliable, we deduce a comoving mass density of C(3+) ions Omega(sub C IV) = (4.3 +/- 2.5) x 10(exp -8) (90% confidence limits) for absorption systems with log N(C IV) > or = 13.0 (for an Einstein-de Sitter cosmology with h = 0.65). This value of Omega(sub C IV) is entirely consistent with those measured at z < 4; we confirm the earlier finding by Songaila that neither the column density distribution of C IV absorbers nor its integral show significant redshift evolution over a period of time that stretches from approx. 1.25 to approx. 4.5 Gyr after the big bang. This somewhat surprising conclusion may be an indication that the intergalactic medium was enriched in metals at z >> 5, perhaps by the sources responsible for its reionization. Alternatively, the C IV systems we see may be associated with outflows from massive star-forming galaxies at later times, while the truly intergalactic metals may reside in regions of the Ly alpha forest of lower density than those probed up to now.

  17. The 2017 Meteor Shower Activity Forecast for Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorehead, Althea; Cooke, Bill; Moser, Danielle

    2017-01-01

    Most meteor showers will display typical activity levels in 2017. Perseid activity is expected to be higher than normal but less than in 2016; rates may reach 80% of the peak ZHR in 2016. Despite this enhancement, the Perseids rank 4th in flux for 0.04-cm-equivalent meteoroids: the Geminids (GEM), Daytime Arietids (ARI), and Southern delta Aquariids (SDA) all produce higher fluxes. Aside from heightened Perseid activity, the 2017 forecast includes a number of changes. In 2016, the Meteoroid Environment Office used 14 years of shower flux data to revisit the activity profiles of meteor showers included in the annual forecast. Both the list of showers and the shape of certain major showers have been revised. The names and three-letter shower codes were updated to match those in the International Astronomical Union (IAU) Meteor Data Center, and a number of defunct or insignificant showers were removed. The most significant of these changes are the increased durations of the Daytime Arietid (ARI) and Geminid (GEM) meteor showers. This document is designed to supplement spacecraft risk assessments that incorporate an annual averaged meteor shower flux (as is the case with all NASA meteor models). Results are presented relative to this baseline and are weighted to a constant kinetic energy. Two showers - the Daytime Arietids (ARI) and the Geminids (GEM) - attain flux levels approaching that of the baseline meteoroid environment for 0.1-cm-equivalent meteoroids. This size is the threshold for structural damage. These two showers, along with the Quadrantids (QUA) and Perseids (PER), exceed the baseline flux for 0.3-cm-equivalent particles, which is near the limit for pressure vessel penetration. Please note, however, that meteor shower fluxes drop dramatically with increasing particle size. As an example, the Arietids contribute a flux of about 5x10(exp -6) meteoroids m(exp -2) hr-1 in the 0.04-cm-equivalent range, but only 1x10(exp -8) meteoroids m(sub -2) hr-1 for the 0

  18. Performance of Soviet and US hydrogen masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uljanov, Adolph A.; Demidov, Nikolai A.; Mattison, Edward M.; Vessot, Robert F. C.; Allan, David W.; Winkler, Gernot M. R.

    1990-01-01

    The frequencies of Soviet- and U.S.-built hydrogen masers located at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and at the United States Naval Observatory (USNO) were compared with each other and, via Global Positioning System (GPS) common-view measurements, with three primary frequency-reference scales. The best masers were found to have fractional frequency stabilities as low as 6 times 10(exp -16) for averaging times of approximately 10(exp 4) s. Members of the USNO maser ensemble provided frequency prediction better than 1 times 10(exp 14) for periods up to a few weeks. The frequency residuals of these masers, after removal of frequency drift and rate of change of drift, had stabilities of a few parts in 10(exp -15), with serveral masers achieving residual stabilities well below 1 times 10(exp -15) for intervals from 10(exp 5)s to 2 times 10(exp 6)s. The fractional frequency drifts of the 13 masers studied, relative to the primary reference standards, ranged from -0.2 times 10(exp -15)/day to +9.6 times 10(exp -15)/day.

  19. Exploration of the Eltanin Impact Area (Bellingshausen Sea): Expedition ANT XVIII5a

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gersonde, Rainer; Kyte, Frank T.

    2001-01-01

    The impact of the Eltanin asteroid into the Bellingshausen Sea (2.15 Ma) is the only known impact in a deep-ocean (approx. 5 km) basin. On 26 March 2001, the FS Polarstern returned to the impact area during expedition ANT XVIII/5a. Over a period of 14 days, this region was explored by detailed bathymetric mapping, acoustic profiling of sediment deposits, and direct sampling with 18 piston cores and four gravity cores. Preliminary shipboard examination of microfossils showed that sixteen of the piston cores and three gravity cores contained sediments at least as old as the impact event and have a high probability of containing a record of the disturbances caused by the impact. During the expedition, portions of eleven piston cores were opened for preliminary examination of the impact deposits. Visual examination of cores and microscopic identification of suspect impact melt particles were were used to identify ejecta and X-ray radiographs of the opened core segments permitted analysis of sediment structures. Impact deposits were found in nine of the eleven opened cores, and a similar success rate is anticipated in the seven cores remaining to be opened. These preliminary observations indicate that the highest concentrations of meteoritic ejecta and the largest particle sizes appear to occur in the region north of the San Martin seamounts. Recovered debris includes cm-sized melt rocks and a 2.5 cm meteorite. This expedition has confirmed the presence of high concentrations of meteoritic ejecta across a region at least as large as 10(exp 5) sq km. Quantitative analyses of ejecta distribution within this region will require further study, but previous estimates of 1 km for the minimum diameter of the Eltanin asteroid, appear safe.

  20. Stellar Laboratories: 3. New Ba 5, Ba 6, and Ba 7 Oscillator Strengths and the Barium Abundance in the Hot White Dwarfs G191-B2B and RE 0503-289

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Quinet, P.; Kruk, Jeffrey Walter

    2014-01-01

    Context. For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. Aims. Reliable Ba 5-7 oscillator strengths are used to identify Ba lines in the spectra of the DA-type white dwarf G191-B2B and the DO-type white dwarf RE 0503-289 and to determine their photospheric Ba abundances. Methods. We newly calculated Ba v-vii oscillator strengths to consider their radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of Ba lines exhibited in high-resolution and high-S/N UV observations of G191-B2B and RE 0503-289. Results. For the first time, we identified highly ionized Ba in the spectra of hot white dwarfs. We detected Ba vi and Ba vii lines in the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectrum of RE 0503-289. The Ba vi/Ba vii ionization equilibrium is well reproduced with the previously determined effective temperature of 70 000 K and surface gravity of log g=7.5. The Ba abundance is 3.5 +/- 0.5 × 10(exp-4) (mass fraction, about 23 000 times the solar value). In the FUSE spectrum of G191-B2B, we identified the strongest Ba vii line (at 993.41 Å) only, and determined a Ba abundance of 4.0 +/- 0.5 × 10(exp-6) (about 265 times solar). Conclusions. Reliable measurements and calculations of atomic data are a pre-requisite for stellar-atmosphere modeling. Observed Ba vi-vii line profiles in two white dwarfs' (G191-B2B and RE 0503-289) far-ultraviolet spectra were well reproduced with our newly calculated oscillator strengths. This allowed to determine the photospheric Ba abundance of these two stars precisely.

  1. Gallium Electromagnetic (GEM) Thruster Performance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Robert E.; Burton, Rodney L.; Polzin, K. A.

    2009-01-01

    Discharge current, terminal voltage, and mass bit measurements are performed on a coaxial gallium electromagnetic thruster at discharge currents in the range of 7-23 kA. It is found that the mass bit varies quadratically with the discharge current which yields a constant exhaust velocity of 20 km/s. Increasing the electrode radius ratio of the thruster from to 2.6 to 3.4 increases the thruster efficiency from 21% to 30%. When operating with a central gallium anode, macroparticles are ejected at all energy levels tested. A central gallium cathode ejects macroparticles when the current density exceeds 3.7 10(exp 8) A/square m . A spatially and temporally broad spectroscopic survey in the 220-520 nm range is used to determine which species are present in the plasma. The spectra show that neutral, singly, and doubly ionized gallium species are present in the discharge, as well as annular electrode species at higher energy levels. Axial Langmuir triple probe measurements yield electron temperatures in the range of 0.8-3.8 eV and electron densities in the range of 8 x 10(exp )20 to 1.6 x 10(exp 21) m(exp -3) . Triple probe measurements suggest an exhaust plume with a divergence angle of 9 , and a completely doubly ionized plasma at the ablating thruster cathode.

  2. A calibration of the production rate ratio P-21/P-26 by low energy secondry neutrons: Identification of Ne spallation components at the 10(exp 6) atoms/g level in terrestrial samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, TH.; Niedermann, S.; Marti, K.

    1993-01-01

    The spallation ratio (Ne-22/Ne-21)(sub c) from Si was determined as 1.243 plus or minus 0.022 in a terrestrial quartz sample. We carried out a calibration of the in-situ production rate ratio P-21/P-26 in quartz samples for which Be-10 and Al-26 production rates were previously measured. A ratio P-21/P-26 of 0.67 plus or minus 0.12 is obtained.

  3. Emplacement of a Debris Ocean on Mars by Regional-Scale Collapse and Flow at the Crustal Dichotomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, N.; Tanaka, K. L.; Kargel, J. S.; Banerdt, W. B.

    2001-01-01

    Giant debris flows could have filled the northern lowlands with approx. 2 km of sediment in 10(exp 3) to 10(exp 5) years by catastrophic regional terrain collapse. The outburst floods and chaos zones are probably the waning stage of this process. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. A YBCO RF-squid variable temperature susceptometer and its applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Luwei; Qiu, Jinwu; Zhang, Xianfeng; Tang, Zhimin; Cai, Yimin; Qian, Yongjia

    1991-01-01

    The Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) susceptibility using a high-temperature radio-frequency (rf) SQUID and a normal metal pick-up coil is employed in testing weak magnetization of the sample. The magnetic moment resolution of the device is 1 x 10(exp -6) emu, and that of the susceptibility is 5 x 10(exp -6) emu/cu cm.

  5. CO2 exchange in the Hudson Bay lowlands: Community characteristics and multispectral reflectance properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiting, Gary J.

    1994-01-01

    Net ecosystem CO2 exchange was measured during the 1990 growing season (June to August) along a transect starting 10 km inland from James Bay and extending 100 km interior to Kinosheo Lake, Ontario. Sites were chosen in three distinct areas: a coastal fen, an interior fen, and a bog. For the most productive sites in the bog, net daily uptake rates reached a maximum of 2.5 g C-CO2 m(exp -2)/d with an area-weighted exchange of 0.3 g C-CO2 m(exp -2)/d near midsummer. This site was estimated to be a net carbon source of 9 g C-CO2 m(exp -2) to the atmosphere over a 153-day growing season. The interior fen was less productive on a daily basis with a net maximum uptake of 0.5 g C-CO2 m(exp -2)/d and with corresponding area-weighted uptake of 0.1 g C-CO2 m(exp -2)/d during midsummer. Early and late season release of carbon to the atmosphere resulted in a net loss of 21 g C-CO2 m(exp -2) over the growing season from this site. The coastal fen was the most productive site with uptake rates peaking near 1.7 g C-CO2 m(exp -2)/d which corresponded to an area-weighted uptake of 0.8 g C-CO2 m(exp -2)/d during midsummer and an estimated net uptake of 6 g C-CO2 m(exp -2) for the growing season. Associated with net CO2 exchange measurements, multispectral reflectance properties of the sites were measured over the growing season using portable radiometers. These properties were related to exchange rates with the goal of examining the potential for satellite remote sensing to monitor biosphere/atmosphere CO2 exchange in this biome. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) computed from surface reflectance was correlated with net CO2 exchange for all sites with the exception of areas with large proportions of Sphagnum moss cover. These mosses have greater near-infrared reflectance than typical surrounding vegetation and may require special adjustment for regional exchange/remote sensing applications.

  6. Evidence for Live Cl-36 in Ca-Al-rich Inclusions from the Ningqiang Carbonaceous Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Y.; Guan, Y.; Leshin, L. A.; Ouyang, Z.; Wang, D.

    2004-01-01

    The short-lived radionuclide Cl-36 decays to either Ar-36 (98.1%, beta(sup -)) or S-36 (1.9%, epsilon and beta(sup +)), with a half life of 3.01 x 10(exp 5) yr. Both the nucleosynthetic and spallation models suggest high initial Cl-36/Cl-35 ratios ((Cl-36/Cl-35)o up to approximately 10(exp -4)) in the early solar system. Previous observed excess Ar-36 in Efremovka matrix has been interpreted to represent a much lower (Cl-36/Cl-35)o ratio of approximately 1 x 10(exp -6). From the observed S-36 excesses in sodalite in calcium aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), we report in this study the first direct evidence of the presence of Cl-36 in primitive meteorites. The inferred (Cl-36/Cl-35)o ratios range from approximately 5 x 10(exp -6) to approximately 1 x 10(exp -5).

  7. Anomalous Variability in Antarctic Sea Ice Extents During the 1960s With the Use of Nimbus Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallaher, David W.; Campbell, G. Garrett; Meier, Walter N.

    2013-01-01

    The Nimbus I, II, and III satellites provide a new opportunity for climate studies in the 1960s. The rescue of the visible and infrared imager data resulted in the utilization of the early Nimbus data to determine sea ice extent. A qualitative analysis of the early NASA Nimbus missions has revealed Antarctic sea ice extents that are significant larger and smaller than the historic 1979-2012 passive microwave record. The September 1964 ice mean area is 19.7x10(exp 6) sq. km +/- 0.3x10(exp 6) sq. km. This is more the 250,000 sq. km greater than the 19.44x10(exp 6) sq. km seen in the new 2012 historic maximum. However, in August 1966 the maximum sea ice extent fell to 15.9x10(exp 6) sq. km +/- 0.3x10(exp 6) sq. km. This is more than 1.5x10(exp 6) sq. km below the passive microwave record of 17.5x10(exp 6) sq. km set in September of 1986. This variation between 1964 and 1966 represents a change of maximum sea ice of over 3x10(exp 6) sq. km in just two years. These inter-annual variations while large, are small when compared to the Antarctic seasonal cycle.

  8. The Complex Spin State of 103P-Hartley 2: Kinematics and Orientation in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belton, Michael J. S.; Thomas, Peter; Li, Jian-Yang; Williams, Jade; Carcich, Brian; A'Hearn, Michael F.; McLaughlin, Stephanie; Farnham, Tony; McFadden, Lucy; Lisse, Carey M.; Collins, Steven; Besse, Sebastien; Klaasen, Kenneth; Sunshine, Jessica; Meech, Karen J.; Lindler, Don

    2013-01-01

    long axis changed by approx. -4.4 min/d at perihelion. M decreased at a rate of 0.038 (sq m/s) per day in a roughly linear fashion. Assuming a bulk density between 230-300 kg/m3 and a total volume for the nucleus of 8.09 X 10(exp 8) cubic m, the net torque acting on the nucleus was in the range 0.8-1.1 X 10(exp 5) kg m(exp 2) /s(exp 2). In order to bring the spacecraft photometric and imaging data into alignment on the direction of M, the directions of the intermediate and short principal axes of inertia had to be adjusted by 33 deg (on the sky) from the values indicated by the shape model with an assumed homogeneous interior. The adjusted direction of the intermediate axis is RA, Dec = 302 deg., -16.5 deg.. The morning and evening terminators in the images are identified, and the variation of the insolation at three regions on the nucleus associated with active areas calculated. The plume of water vapor observed in the inner coma is found to be directed close to the direction of local gravity over the sub-solar region for a range of reasonable bulk densities. The plume does not follow the projected normal to the surface at the sub-solar point.

  9. Calculational and Experimental Investigations of the Pressure Effects on Radical - Radical Cross Combinations Reactions: C2H5 + C2H3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahr, Askar; Halpern, Joshua B.; Tardy, Dwight C.

    2007-01-01

    of C-C and C-H bond ruptures, cyclization, decyclization, and complex decompositions are discussed in terms of energetics and structural properties. The pressure dependence of the product yields were computed and dominant reaction paths in this chemically activated system were determined. Both modeling and experiment suggest that the observed pressure dependence of [1-C4H8]/[C4H10] is due to decomposition of the chemically activated combination adduct 1-C4H8* in which the weaker allylic C-C bond is broken: H2C=CHCH2CH3 yields C3H5 + CH3. This reaction occurs even at moderate pressures of approx.200 Torr (26 kPa) and becomes more significant at lower pressures. The additional products detected at lower pressures are formed from secondary radical-radical reactions involving allyl, methyl, ethyl, and vinyl radicals. The modeling studies have extended the predictions of product distributions to different temperatures (200-700 K) and a wider range of pressures (10(exp -3) - 10(exp 5) Torr). These calculations indicate that the high-pressure [1-C4H8]/[C4H10] yield ratio is 1.3 +/- 0.1.

  10. Relic gravitational waves and extended inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Michael S.; Wilczek, Frank

    1990-01-01

    In extended inflation, a new version of inflation where the transition from the false-vacuum phase to a radiation-dominated Universe is accomplished by bubble nucleation and percolation, bubble collisions supply a potent-and potentially detectable-source of gravitational waves. The present energy density in relic gravity waves from bubble collisions is expected to be about 10(exp -5) of closure density-many orders of magnitude greater than that of the gravity waves produced by quantum fluctuations. Their characteristic wavelength depends upon the reheating temperature T(sub RH): lambda is approximately 10(exp 4) cm (10(exp 14) GeV/T(sub RH)). If large numbers of black holes are produced, a not implausible outcome, they will evaporate producing comparable amounts of shorter wavelength waves, lambda is approximately 10(exp -6) cm (T(sub RH)/10(exp 14) GeV).

  11. C5HIO5W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhova, B. M.

    This document is part of Subvolume D5 `Chemical Shifts and Coupling Constants for Carbon-13. Part 5: Organometallic Compounds' of Volume 35 `Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Data' of Landolt-Börnstein Group III: `Condensed Matter'.

  12. Highly ionized gas absorption in the disk and halo toward HD 167756 at 3.5 kilometers per second resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Blair D.; Sembach, Kenneth R.; Cardelli, Jason A.

    1994-01-01

    High-resolution spectra of interstellar Si IV, C IV, and N V absorption lines along the 4 kpc path to the inner Galaxy star HD 167756 at z = -0.85 kpc are presented. The spectra were obtained with the echelle mode of Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and have signal-to-noise ratios ranging from 23 to 38. The high resolution of the measurements full width at half maximum (FWHM = 3.5 km/s) results in fully resolved line profiles for the highly ionized gas absorption. The measurements provide information on the column density per unit velocity, N(v), as a function of velocity for Si IV, C IV, and N V. The C IV and N V profiles extend from -70 to +70 km/s, while the Si IV profiles extend from -40 to +70 km/s. The integrated logarithmic column densities are long N(Si IV) = 13.09 +/- 0.02, log N(C IV) = 13.83 +/- 0.02, and log N(N V) = 13.56 +/- 0.03. The N V profile is broad, asymmetric, and featureless, while the Si IV profile contains narrow absorption components near V(sub LSR) = -19, 0, +20, and +52 km/s with Doppler spread parameters, b about = 10-12 km/s. The C IV profile contains both broad and narrow structure. The high ion feature near +52 km/s is also detected in the low-ionization lines of Ca II, O I, Si II, and Fe II. The other narrow Si IV and C IV components occur within several km/s of components seen in low-ionization species. The sight line contains at least two types of highly ionized gas. One type gives rise to a broad N V profile, and the other results in the more structured Si IV profile. The C IV profile contains contributions from both types of highly ionized gas. The broad but asymmetric N V profile is well represented by a large Galactic scale height gas which is participating in Galactic rotation and has a combination of thermal and turbulent broadening with b(sub tot) about = 42 km/s. The C IV to N V abundance ratio of 1.0 +/- 0.3 for the gas implies T about 1.6 x 10(exp 5) K or about 8 x 10

  13. Eddy correlation measurements of methane fluxes using a tunable diode laser at the Kinosheo Lake tower site during the Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, G. C.; Neumann, H. H.; Den Hartog, G.; Thurtell, G. W.; Kidd, G.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the Canadian Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES) measurements of methane flux were made at the Kinosheo Lake tower site for a 1-month period during the 1990 summer intensive. The measurements were made with a diode-laser-based methane sensor using the eddy correlation technique. Measurements of the methane fluxes were made at two levels, 5 or 18 m. Approximately 900 half-hour average methane flux measurements were obtained. Weak temporal and diurnal trends were observed in the data. Fluxes averaged over the study period showed an overall methane emission of 16 mg CH4 m(exp -2)/d with a daytime average of 20 mg CH4 m(exp -2)/d and a nighttime average of 9 mg CH4 m(exp -2)/d. The effect of emission footprint was evident in the data. A strong relationship between the daily average methane flux and wet bog temperature at 20-cm depth was observed.

  14. Discovery of a Similar to 5 Day Characteristic Timescale in the Kepler Power Spectrum of Zw 229-15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, R.; Vaughan, S.; Malkan, M.; Kelly, B. C.; Smith, K. L.; Boyd, P. T.; Mushotzky, R.

    2014-01-01

    We present time series analyses of the full Kepler dataset of Zw 229- 15. This Kepler light curve- with a baseline greater than three years, composed of virtually continuous, evenly sampled 30-minute measurements - is unprecedented in its quality and precision. We utilize two methods of power spectral analysis to investigate the optical variability and search for evidence of a bend frequency associated with a characteristic optical variability timescale. Each method yields similar results. The first interpolates across data gaps to use the standard Fourier periodogram. The second, using the CARMA-based time-domain modeling technique of Kelly et al., does not need evenly-sampled data. Both methods find excess power at high frequencies that may be due to Kepler instrumental effects. More importantly both also show strong bends (delta alpha is approx. 2) at timescales of approx. 5 days, a feature similar to those seen in the X-ray PSDs of AGN but never before in the optical. This observed approx. 5 day timescale may be associated with one of several physical processes potentially responsible for the variability. A plausible association could be made with light -crossing, dynamical or thermal timescales, depending on the assumed value of the accretion disk size and on unobserved disk parameters such as alpha and H¬R. This timescale is not consistent with the viscous timescale, which would be years in a approx. 10(exp7) solar mass AGN such as Zw 229- 15. However there must be a second bend on long (& 1 year) timescales, and that feature could be associated with the viscous timescale.

  15. Development of a Method for Local Electron Temperature and Density Measurements in the Divertor of the JET Tokamak

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jupen, C.; Meigs, A.; Bhatia, A. K.; Brezinsek, S.; OMullane, M.

    2004-01-01

    Plasma volume recombination in the divertor, a process in which charged particles recombine to neutral atoms, contributes to plasma detachment and hence cooling at the divertor target region. Detachment has been observed at JET and other tokamaks and is known to occur at low electron temperatures (T(sub e)<1 eV) and at high electron density (n(sub e)>10(exp 20)/m(exp 3)). The ability to measure such low temperatures is therefore of interest for modelling the divertor. In present work we report development of a new spectroscopic technique for investigation of local electron density (n(sub e)) and temperature (T,) in the outer divertor at JET.

  16. Relationship Between Ecosystem Productivity and Photosynthetically Active Radiation for Northern Peatlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frolking, S. E.; Bubier, J. L.; Moore, T. R.; Ball, T.; Bellisario, L. M.; Bhardwaj, A.; Carroll, P.; Crill, P. M.; Lafleur, P. M.; McCaughey, J. H.; Roulet, N. T.; Suyker, A. E.; Verma, S. B.; Waddington, J. M.; Whiting, G. J.

    1998-01-01

    We analyzed the relationship between net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (NEE) and irradiance (as photosynthetic photon flux density or PPFD), using published and unpublished data that have been collected during midgrowing season for carbon balance studies at seven peatlands in North America and Europe, NEE measurements included both eddy-correlation tower and clear, static chamber methods, which gave very similar results. Data were analyzed by site, as aggregated data sets by peatland type (bog, poor fen, rich fen, and all fens) and as a single aggregated data set for all peatlands. In all cases, a fit with a rectangular hyperbola (NEE = alpha PPFD P(sub max)/(alpha PPFD + P(sub max) + R) better described the NEE-PPFD relationship than did a linear fit (NEE = beta PPFD + R). Poor and rich fens generally had similar NEE-PPFD relationships, while bogs had lower respiration rates (R = -2.0 micro mol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) for bogs and -2.7 micro mol m(exp -2) s(exp -1)) for fens) and lower NEE at moderate and high light levels (P(sub max)= 5.2 micro mol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) for bogs and 10.8 micro mol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) for fens). As a single class, northern peatlands had much smaller ecosystem respiration (R = -2.4 micro mol m(exp -2) s(exp -1)) and NEE rates (alpha = 0.020 and P(sub max)= 9.2 micro mol m(exp -2) s(exp -1)) than the upland ecosystems (closed canopy forest, grassland, and cropland). Despite this low productivity, northern peatland soil carbon pools are generally 5-50 times larger than upland ecosystems because of slow rates of decomposition caused by litter quality and anaerobic, cold soils.

  17. 5-HTP

    MedlinePlus

    ... taking 5-HTP with D-phenylalanine and L-glutamine for 40 days can reduce alcohol withdrawal symptoms. ... 6 days together with tyrosine, phosphatidylcholine, and L-glutamine, might reduce insomnia and withdrawal symptoms in recovering ...

  18. Assimilation by Lunar Mare Basalts: Melting of Crustal Material and Dissolution of Anorthite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finnila, A. B.; Hess, P. C.; Rutherford, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss techniques for calculating the amount of crustal assimilation possible in lunar magma chambers and dikes based on thermal energy balances, kinetic rates, and simple fluid mechanical constraints. Assuming parent magmas of picritic compositions, we demonstrate the limits on the capacity of such magmas to melt and dissolve wall rock of anorthitic, troctolitic, noritic, and KREEP (quartz monzodiorite) compositions. Significant melting of the plagioclase-rich crustal lithologies requires turbulent convection in the assimilating magma and an efficient method of mixing in the relatively buoyant and viscous new melt. Even when this occurs, the major element chemistry of the picritic magmas will change by less than 1-2 wt %. Diffusion coefficients measured for Al2O3 from an iron-free basalt and an orange glass composition are 10(exp -12) m(exp 2) s(exp -1) at 1340 C and 10(exp -11) m(exp 2) s(exp -1) at 1390 C. These rates are too slow to allow dissolution of plagioclase to significantly affect magma compositions. Picritic magmas can melt significant quantities of KREEP, which suggests that their trace element chemistry may still be affected by assimilation processes; however, mixing viscous melts of KREEP composition with the fluid picritic magmas could be prohibitively difficult. We conclude that only a small part of the total major element chemical variation in the mare basalt and volcanic glass collection is due to assimilation/fractional crystallization processes near the lunar surface. Instead, most of the chemical variation in the lunar basalts and volcanic glasses must result from assimilation at deeper levels or from having distinct source regions in a heterogeneous lunar mantle.

  19. X-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1957-01-01

    This NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station photograph of the X-5 was taken at Edwards Air Force Base in the mid 1950s. The photograph shows the aircraft in flight with the wings swept back. The Bell, X-5 was flight tested at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station (now the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California) from 1952 to 1955. The X-5 was the first aircraft capable of sweeping its wings in flight. It helped provide data about wing-sweep at angles of up to 60 degrees at subsonic and transonic speeds. There were two X-5 vehicles. Ship 1 was flown at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station (High-Speed Flight Station, as it was redesignated in 1954) from 1951 to 1955. Ship 2 was operated by Bell and the U.S. Air Force and was lost in a spin accident in 1953. Following the conclusion of the contractor's test program, the X-5 was grounded for installation of a NACA instrument package. The Air Force conducted a short, six-flight, evaluation program. Since the Air Force evaluation program included data collection, it was considered as part of the overall NACA effort and flights were logged as AF/NACA. In the NACA test program, the X-5 demonstrated severe stall-spin instability. The X-5 was also used as a chase plane for other research aircraft because it could vary its flying characteristics to suit the airplane it was chasing. Ship 1 flew a total of 133 flights during its three years of service. In spite of the problems with the aircraft, the X-5 provided a significant full-scale verification of NACA wind-tunnel predictions for reduced drag and improved performance that resulted from this configuration's increasing the wing sweep as the speed of the aircraft approached the speed of sound. The X-5 flight tests provided some of the design data for the Air Force F-111 and Navy F-14 tactical aircraft. Although the mechanism by which the X-5 changed its wing sweep made this particular design impractical, development of a viable variable

  20. 5 experiments in 5 minutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hut, Rolf

    2015-04-01

    Show, don't tell. When kids ask about your research, show, don't tell. We, the ambassadors of science, shouldn't be boring our nieces and nephews at family dinners with parameter distributions, we should make them excited about science. Getting people excited: show, don't tell. In 5 minutes, I will perform 5 experiments that anyone can do using everyday household items to get kids interested in science. Bring safety glasses.

  1. All-Sky Search for Periodic Gravitational Waves in the Full S5 LIGO Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G. S.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amariutei, D.; Amin, R. S.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Arain, M. S.; Araya, M. C.; Aston, S. M.; Blackburn, L.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.

    2011-01-01

    We report on an all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves in the frequency band 50-800 Hz and with the frequency time derivative in the range of 0 through -6 x 10(exp -9) Hz/s. Such a signal could be produced by a nearby spinning and slightly non-axisymmetric isolated neutron star in our galaxy. After recent improvements in the search program that yielded a 10x increase in computational efficiency, we have searched in two years of data. collected during LIGO's fifth science run and have obtained the most sensitive all-sky upper limits on gravitational wave strain to date. Near 150 Hz our upper limit on worst-case linearly polarized strain amplitude h(sub 0) is 1 x 10(exp -24), while at the high end of our frequency ra.nge we achieve a worst-case upper limit of 3.8 x 10(exp -24) for all polarizations and sky locations. These results constitute a factor of two improvement upop. previously published data. A new detection pipeline utilizing a Loosely Coherent algorithm was able to follow up weaker outliers, increasing the volume of space where signals can be detected by a factor of 10, but has not revealed any gravitational wave signals. The pipeline has been tested for robustness with respect to deviations from the model of an isolated neutron star, such as caused by a low-mass or long.period binary companion.

  2. [5]Radialene.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Emily G; Newton, Christopher G; Toombs-Ruane, Henry; Lindeboom, Erik Jan; Fallon, Thomas; Willis, Anthony C; Paddon-Row, Michael N; Sherburn, Michael S

    2015-11-25

    The [n]radialenes are a unique family of fundamental [n]-membered carbocyclic structures with radiating alkenes, which have attracted significant synthetic and theoretical attention. Whereas [3]-, [4]-, and [6]radialenes have been prepared and studied, all efforts to synthesize the five-membered ring compound have thus far met with failure. Here we describe the first synthesis of the fundamental hydrocarbon [5]radialene, C10H10. Our approach was a departure from previous radialene syntheses in that it utilized a low-temperature decomplexation of a stable organometallic compound, rather than high-temperature elimination or rearrangement. Our strategy was guided by analysis of previous radialene syntheses, which indicated rapid decomposition in oxygen, and ab initio calculations, which revealed an extraordinary susceptibility of [5]radialene to undergo Diels-Alder dimerization/polymerization. The origin of this susceptibility was traced to a small distortion energy associated with the formation of the transition structure geometry from the relaxed reactant monomers and to a narrow HOMO-LUMO gap.

  3. Population of Nitrifying Bacteria and Nitrification in Ammonium Saturated Clinoptilolite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGilloway, R. L.; Weaver, R. W.; Ming, Douglas W.; Gruener, J.

    1999-01-01

    As humans begin to spend longer periods of time in space, plants will be incorporated into life support systems. Ammonium saturated clinoptilolite is one plant growth substrate but a balance between ammonium and nitrate is needed. A laboratory study was conducted to determine effects of nitrifying bacteria on ammonium concentrations and kinetics of nitrification. Columns containing clinoptilolite substrate amended with nitrifying bacteria obtained from soil enrichment were analyzed weekly for a 90 day period. The enrichment culture initially contained 1 x 10(exp 5) ammonium oxidizing bacteria and 1 x 10(exp 2) nitrite oxidizing bacteria per gram of substrate. Populations of ammonium oxidizing bacteria increased to 1 x 10(exp 6) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria increased to 1 x 10(exp 3) per gram of substrate. The nitrification rate was approximately 0.25mg NO3(-)-N/kg.hr. Experiments were also conducted to enumerate nitrifying bacteria in a clinoptilolite substrate used to grow wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Seventy days following the initial inoculation with an unknown number of commercial nitrifying bacteria, 1 x 10(exp 5) ammonium oxidizing bacteria per gram of substrate were present. The number of nitrite oxidizing bacteria was between 1 x 10(exp 3) to 10(exp 4) per gram of substrate as measured by the most probable number method. Nitrification rates were approximately 0.20mg NO3(-)-N/kg.hr. Clinoptilolite readily exchanged sufficient concentrations of ammonium to support nitrifying bacteria and they survived well in this medium.

  4. The Composition of Titan's Lower Atmosphere and Simple Surface Volatiles as Measured by the Cassini-Huygens Probe Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niemann, H. B.; Atreya, S. K.; Demick, J. E.; Gautier, D.; Haberman, J. A.; Harpold, D. N.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Lunine, J. I.; Owen, T. C.; Raulin, F.

    2010-01-01

    The Cassini-Huygens Probe Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) determined the composition of the Titan atmosphere from 140km altitude to the surface. After landing, it returned composition data of gases evaporated from the surface. Height profiles of molecular nitrogen (N2), methane (CH4) and molecular hydrogen (H2) were determined. Traces were detected on the surface of evaporating methane, ethane (C2H6), acetylene (C2H2), cyanogen (C2N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The methane data showed evidence that methane precipitation occurred recently. The methane mole fraction was (1.48+/-0.09) x 10(exp -2) in the lower stratosphere (139.8 km to 75.5 km) and (5.65+/-0.18) x 10(exp -2) near the surface (6.7 km to the surface). The molecular hydrogen mole fraction was (1.01+/-0.16) x 10(exp -3) in the atmosphere and (9.90+/-0.17) x 10(exp -4) on the surface. Isotope ratios were 167.7+/-0.6 for N-14/N-15 in molecular nitrogen, 91.1+/-1.4 for C-12/C-13 in methane and (1.35+/-0.30) x 10(exp -4) for D/H in molecular hydrogen. The mole fractions of Ar-36 and radiogenic Ar-40 are (2.1+/-0.8) x 10(exp -7) and (3.39 +/-0.12) x 10(exp -5) respectively. Ne-22 has been tentatively identified at a mole fraction of (2.8+/-2.1) x 10(exp -7) Krypton and xenon were below the detection threshold of 1 x 10(exp -8) mole fraction. Science data were not retrieved from the gas chromatograph subsystem as the abundance of the organic trace gases in the atmosphere and on the ground did not reach the detection threshold. Results previously published from the GCMS experiment are superseded by this publication.

  5. Environmental Perturbations Caused by the Impacts of Comets and Asteroids on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Owen B.; Lawless, James G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The extinction mechanisms proposed at the Cretaceous-Tertiary geological boundary are reviewed and related to the impact of asteroids or comets in general. For impact energies below 10(exp 4) Megatons (less than 6 x 10(exp 4) years; asteroid diameter less than 650 m), blast, earthquake, and fire may destroy local areas up to 10(exp 5) square m. Tidal waves could flood a kilometer inland over entire ocean basins. The energy range from 105 to 106 Megatons (less than 2 x 10(exp 6) years; asteroid diameter less than 3 km) is transitional. Dust lifted, sulfur released from within impacting asteroids, and soot from fires started by comets can produce climatologically significant optical depths of 10. At energies beyond 10(exp 7) Megatons, blast and earthquake damage is regional (10(exp 6) square cm). Tsunami cresting to 100 m and flooding 20 km inland will sweep the coastal zones of the world's oceans. Fires will be set globally. Light levels may drop so low from the smoke, dust and sulfate that vision is not possible. At energies approaching 10(exp 9) Megatons the ocean surface waters may be acidified by sulfur. The combination of these effects would be devastating.

  6. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE): Initial Science Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Hine, B.; Delory, G. T.; Salute, J. S.; Noble, S.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M.; Mahaffy, P.

    2014-01-01

    between 0.7 and sev-eral micrometers in size, present over the pre-dawn and morning sector of the Moon. This tenuous dust exosphere, with densities of approximately 10(exp -5) m(exp -3), appears to be sustained by the ejecta of micrometeoroid impacts.

  7. The electrical conductivities of the DSS-13 beam-waveguide antenna shroud material and other antenna reflector surface materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otoshi, T. Y.; Franco, M. M.; Reilly, H. F., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A significant amount of noise temperature can potentially be generated by currently unknown dissipative losses in the beam waveguide (BWG) shroud. The amount of noise temperature contribution from this source is currently being studied. In conjunction with this study, electrical conductivity measurements were made on samples of the DSS-13 BWG shroud material at 8.420 GHz. The effective conductivities of unpainted and painted samples of the BWG shroud were measured to be 0.01 x 10(exp 7) and 0.0036 x 10(exp 7) mhos/m, respectively. This value may be compared with 5.66 x 10(exp 7) mhos/m for high conductivity copper.

  8. Pulsed high-energy gamma-radiation from Geminga (1E0630 + 178)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertsch, D. L.; Brazier, K. T. S.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.; Kniffen, D. A.; Kwok, P. W.; Lin, Y. C.; Mattox, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    The detection of pulsed gamma rays with energy above 50 MeV from the soft X-ray source 1E0630 + 178 is reported, confirming the identification of Geminga with this X-ray source. The period derivative (11.4 +/- 1.7) x 10 exp -15 s/s suggests that Geminga is a nearby isolated rotating neutron star with a magnetic field of 1.6 x 10 exp 12 gauss, a characteristic age of 300,000 yr, and a spin-down energy loss rate of 3.5 x 10 exp 34 erg/s.

  9. Thermal studies of Martian channels and valleys using Termoskan data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Bruce H.; Murray, Bruce C.

    1994-01-01

    The Termoskan instrument on board the Phobos '88 spacecraft acquired the highest spatial resolution thermal infrared emission data ever obtained for Mars. Included in the thermal images 2 km/pixel, midday observations of several major channel and valley systems including significant portions of Shalbatana, Ravi, Al-Qahira, and Ma'adim Valles, the channel connecting Valles Marineris with Hydraotes Chaos, and channel material in Eos Chasma. Termoskan also observed small portions of the southern beginnings of Simud, Tiu, and Ares Valles and some channel material in Gangis Chasma. Simultaneous broadband visible reflectance data were obtained for all but Ma'adim Vallis. We find that most of the channels and valleys have higher thermal inertias than their surroundings, consistent with previous thermal studies. We show for the first time that the thermal inertia boundaries closely match flat channel floor boundaries. Also, buttes within channels have inertias similiar to the plains surrounding the channels, suggesting the buttes are remnants of a contiguous plains surface. Lower bounds on typical channel thermal inertias range from 8.4 to 12.5 (10(exp -3) cal cm(exp -2) s(exp -1/2)/K) (352 to 523 in SI units of J m(exp -2) s(exp -1/2)/K). Lower bounds on inertia differences with the surrounding heavily cratered plains range from 1.1 to 3.5 (46 to 147 SI). Atmospheric and geometric effects are not sufficient to cause the observed channel inertia enhancements. We favor nonaeolian explanations of the overall channel inertia enhancements based primarily upon the channel floors' thermal homogeneity and the strong correlation of thermal boundaries with floor boundaries. However, localized, dark regions within some channels are likely aeolian in nature as reported previously. Most channels with increased inertias have fretted morphologies such as flat floors with steep walls. Eastern Ravi and southern Ares Valles, the only major channel sections observed that have obvious

  10. Removing cosmic-ray hits from multiorbit HST Wide Field Camera images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windhorst, Rogier A.; Franklin, Barbara E.; Neuschaefer, Lyman W.

    1994-01-01

    We present an optimized algorithm that removes cosmic rays ('CRs') from multiorbit Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field/Planetary Camera ('WF/PC') images. It computes the image noise in every iteration from the WF/PC CCD equation. This includes all known sources of random and systematic calibration errors. We test this algorithm on WF/PC stacks of 2-12 orbits as a function of the number of available orbits and the formal Poissonian sigma-clipping level. We find that the algorithm needs greater than or equal 4 WF/PC exposures to locate the minimal sky signal (which is noticeably affected by CRs), with an optimal clipping level at 2-2.5 x sigma(sub Poisson). We analyze the CR flux detected on multiorbit 'CR stacks,' which are constructed by subtracting the best CR filtered images from the unfiltered 8-12 orbit average. We use an automated object finder to determine the surface density of CRS as a function of the apparent magnitude (or ADU flux) they would have generated in the images had they not been removed. The power law slope of the CR 'counts' (gamma approximately = 0.6 for N(m) m(exp gamma)) is steeper than that of the faint galaxy counts down to V approximately = 28 mag. The CR counts show a drop off between 28 less than or approximately V less than or approximately 30 mag (the latter is our formal 2 sigma point source sensitivity without spherical aberration). This prevents the CR sky integral from diverging, and is likely due to a real cutoff in the CR energy distribution below approximately 11 ADU per orbit. The integral CR surface density is less than or approximately 10(exp 8)/sq. deg, and their sky signal is V approximately = 25.5-27.0 mag/sq. arcsec, or 3%-13% of our NEP sky background (V = 23.3 mag/sq. arcsec), and well above the EBL integral of the deepest galaxy counts (B(sub J) approximately = 28.0 mag/sq. arcsec). We conclude that faint CRs will always contribute to the sky signal in the deepest WF/PC images. Since WFPC2 has approximately 2.7x

  11. Measurement of the cosmic microwave background spectrum by the COBE FIRAS instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, J. C.; Cheng, E. S.; Cottingham, D. A.; Eplee, R. E., Jr.; Fixsen, D. J.; Hewagama, T.; Isaacman, R. B.; Jensen, K. A.; Meyer, S. S.; Noerdlinger, P. D.

    1994-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) has a blackbody spectrum within 3.4 x 10(exp -8) ergs/sq cm/s/sr cm over the frequency range from 2 to 20/cm (5-0.5 mm). These measurements, derived from the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotomer (FIRAS) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, imply stringent limits on energy release in the early universe after t approximately 1 year and redshift z approximately 3 x 10(exp 6). The deviations are less than 0.30% of the peak brightness, with an rms value of 0.01%, and the dimensionless cosmological distortion parameters are limited to the absolute value of y is less than 2.5 x 10(exp -5) and the absolute value of mu is less than 3.3 x 10(exp -4) (95% confidence level). The temperature of the CMBR is 2.726 +/- 0.010 K (95% confidence level systematic).

  12. Discovery of Soft Spectral Component and Transient 22.7s Quasi Periodic Oscillations of SAX J2103.5+4545

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inam, S. C.; Baykal, A.; Swank, J.; Stark, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    XMM-Newton observed SAX J2103.5+4545 on January 6, 2003, while RXTE was monitoring the source. Using RXTE-PCA dataset between December 3, 2002 and January 29, 2003, the spin period and average spin-up rate during the XMM-Newton observations were found to be 354.7940+/-0.0008 s and (7.4 +/- 0.9) x 10(exp -13) Hz/s respectively. In the power spectrum of the 0.9-11 keV EPIC-PN lightcurve, we found quasi periodic oscillations around 0.044 Hz (22.7 s) with an rms fractional amplitude approx. 6.6 %. We interpreted this QPO feature as the Keplerian motion of inhomogeneities through the inner disk. In the X-ray spectrum, in addition to the power law component with high energy cutoff and approx. 6.4 keV fluorescent iron emission line, we discovered a soft component consistent with a blackbody emission with kT approx. 1.9 keV. The pulse phase spectroscopy of the source revealed that the blackbody flux peaked at the peak of the pulse with an emission radius approx. 0.3 km, suggesting the polar cap on the neutron star approx. 6.42 keV was shown to peak at the off-pulse phase, supporting the idea that this feature arises from fluorescent emission of the circumstellar material around the neutron star rather than the hot region in the vicinity of the neutron star polar cap.

  13. Supersonic Disk Gap Band Parachute Performance in the Wake of a Viking-Type Aeroshell from Mach 2 to 2.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sengupta, Anita; Roeder, James; Kelsch, Richard; Wernet, Mark; Machalick, Walt; Reuter, James; Witkowski, Al

    2008-01-01

    Supersonic wind tunnel testing of 0.813 m diameter Disk-Gap-Band parachutes is being conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) 10' x 10' wind-tunnel. The tests are conducted in support of the Mars Science Laboratory Parachute Decelerator System development and qualification. Four percent of full-scale parachutes were constructed similarly to the flight-article in material and construction techniques. The parachutes are attached to a 4% scale MSL entry-vehicle to simulate the free-flight configuration. The parachutes are tested from Mach 2 to 2.5 over a Reynolds number (Re) range of 1 to 3 x 10(exp 6), representative of the MSL deployment envelope. Constrained and unconstrained test configurations are investigated to quantify the effects of parachute trim, suspension line interaction, and alignment with the capsule wake. The parachute is constrained horizontally through the vent region, to measure canopy breathing and wake interaction for fixed trim angles of 0 and 10 degrees from the velocity vector. In the unconstrained configuration the parachute is permitted to trim and cone, similar to the free-flight varying its alignment relative to the entry-vehicle wake. Test diagnostics were chosen to quantify parachute performance and to provide insight into the flow field structure. An in-line load cell provided measurement of unsteady and mean drag as a function of Mach and Re. High-speed shadowgraph video of the upstream parachute flow field was used to capture bow-shock motion and stand of distance. Particle image velocimetry of the upstream parachute flow field provides spatially and temporally resolved measurement velocity and turbulent statistics. Multiple high speed video views of targets placed in the interior of the canopy enable photo-grammetric measurement of the fabric motion in time and space from reflective. High speed video is also used to document the supersonic inflation and measure trim angle, projected area, and frequency of area oscillations.

  14. Microbiological characterization of a regenerative life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, D. W.; Bruce, R. J.; Mishra, S. K.; Barta, D. J.; Pierson, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    A Variable Pressure Plant Growth Chamber (VPGC), at the Johnson Space Center's (JSC) ground based Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) test bed, was used to produce crops of soil-grown lettuce. The crops and chamber were analyzed for microbiological diversity during lettuce growth and after harvest. Bacterial counts for the rhizosphere, spent nutrient medium, heat exchanger condensate, and atmosphere were approximately 10(exp 11) Colony Forming Units (CFU)/g, 10(exp 5) CFU/ml, 10(exp 5)CFU/ml, and 600 CFU/m sq, repectively. Pseudomonas was the predominant bacterial genus. Numbers of fungi were about 10(exp 5) CFU/g in the rhizosphere, 4-200 CFU/ml in the spent nutient medium, 110 CFU/ml in the heat exchanger condensate, and 3 CFU/cu m in the atmosphere. Fusarium and Trichoderma were the predominant fungal genera.

  15. Comparison of the impact of volcanic eruptions and aircraft emissions on the aerosol mass loading and sulfur budget in the stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, Glenn K.; Poole, Lamont R.

    1992-01-01

    Data obtained by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) 1 and 2 were used to study the temporal variation of aerosol optical properties and to assess the mass loading of stratospheric aerosols from the eruption of volcanos Ruiz and Kelut. It was found that the yearly global average of optical depth at 1.0 micron for stratospheric background aerosols in 1979 was 1.16 x 10(exp -3) and in 1989 was 1.66 x 10(exp -3). The eruptions of volcanos Ruiz and Kelut ejected at least 5.6 x 10(exp 5) and 1.8 x 10(exp 5) tons of materials into the stratosphere, respectively. The amount of sulfur emitted per year from the projected subsonic and supersonic fleet is comparable to that contained in the background aerosol particles in midlatitudes from 35 deg N to 55 deg N.

  16. Growth of potatoes for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Cao, W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes research on the utilization of white potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) for space life support systems at the University of Wisconsin-Madison over the period of 1984 to 1993. At full maturity the tuber productivity was 37.5 gm(exp -2) d(exp -1), equating to a growing area requirement for one human (2800 kcal d(exp -1)) of 10.1 m(exp -2). A recirculating nutrient system using slanted trays produced best potato growth and tuber yields when a 2-3 cm layer of gravel or arcillite media was utilized. Potato production was close to maximum under lighting levels of 400 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) of photosynthetic photo flux (PPF) for 24 hours or 800 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) for 12 hours, alternating diurnal temperatures of 22 C and 14 C, relative humidity of 85 percent, and a carbon dioxide level of 1000 micromol m(exp -1). The range of effective concentrations of each separate nutrient is reported. The extensive studies with potatoes in this project have demonstrated that this crop has high productivity of nutritous tubers with a high harvest index in controlled environments, and can fulfill a significant portion of the energy and protein requirements for humans in space.

  17. Measurement of atmospheric OH by titration of near-IR fluorescent dyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betterton, Eric A.; Gast, Karl

    1994-01-01

    Recent research has shown that certain polymethine dyes can be detected at ultratrace levels (greater than or equal to 6x10(exp -14) M) in solution by fluorimetry. These detection limits are possible because of the inherent sensitivity of fluorescence techniques, because the dyes fluoresce in the near infrared region where background interference is negligible, and because powerful infrared diode lasers are now available to improve the signal to noise ratio. Other work has shown that the hydroxyl radical destroys the ability of polymethine dyes to fluoresce. These observations form the basis for a new hydroxyl radical detector that is essentially a fluorometric titrator. Theoretically, the detector should show an acceptable sensitivity and response time. Assuming that the atmospheric HO concentration is about 10(exp -11) moles m(exp -3) (i.e. 10(exp 6) molecules cm(exp -3)), then 10 L of air 'titrated' with 20 mL of 10(exp -11) M dye solution (an easily detected concentration) should result in a drop in the fluorescent signal of 50 percent - a readily detectable change. At a flow rate of 3 L min(exp -1) the sampling time would be 3 minutes. The biggest potential problem is selectivity: other oxidants may also cause the fluorescence signal to be lost. The chemistry of polymethine dyes has not been studied in detail and so no quantitative data are available. However, a survey of the literature suggests that in general HO should react up to six orders of magnitude faster than HO2 and other radicals such as RO2 and RO. It should also react much more rapidly than H2O2 and O3. Thus it may be possible to discriminate kinetically against potential interfering substances. It was shown in the laboratory that 10(exp -4) M H2O2 has little effect on the absorption spectrum of the dye IR125 over a period of hours but that the band at 780 nm is slowly lost in water over a period of days even under argon in the dark. By contrast, DMSO solutions of IR125 are stable.

  18. A Study of Saturn's E-Ring Particles Using the Voyager 1 Plasma Wave Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsintikidis, D.; Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Barbosa, D. D.

    1993-01-01

    The flyby of Voyager 1 at Saturn resulted in the detection of a large variety of plasma waves, e.g., chorus, hiss, and electron cyclotron harmonics. Just before the outbound equator crossing, at about 6.1 R(sub s), the Voyager 1 plasma wave instrument detected a strong, well-defined low-frequency enhancement. Initially it was suggested that plasma waves might be responsible for the spectral feature but more recently dust was suggested as at least a partial contributor to the enhancement. In this report we present evidence which supports the conclusion that dust contributes to the low-frequency enhancement. A new method has been used to derive the dust impact rate. The method relies mainly on the 16-channel spectrum analyzer data. The few wide band waveform observations available (which have been used to study dust impacts during the Voyager 2 ring plane crossing) were useful for calibrating the impact rate from the spectrum analyzer data. The mass and, hence, the size of the dust particles were also obtained by analyzing the response of the plasma wave spectrum analyzer. The results show that the region sampled by Voyager 1 is populated by dust particles that have rms masses of up to few times 10(exp -11) g and sizes of up to a few microns. The dust particle number density is on the order of 10(exp -3) m(exp 3). The optical depth of the region sampled by the spacecraft is 1.04 x 10(exp -6). The particle population is centered about 2500 km south of the equatorial plane and has a north-south thickness of about 4000 km. Possible sources of these particles are the moons Enceladus and Tethys whose orbits lie within the E-ring radial extent. These results are in reasonable agreement with photometric studies and numerical simulations.

  19. Discovery of X-ray emission associated with the Gum Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leahy, D. A.; Nousek, J.; Garmire, G.

    1992-01-01

    The Gum Nebula was observed by the A-2 LED proportional counters on the HEAO-1 satellite as part of the all-sky survey. The first detection of X-ray emission associated with the Gum Nebula is reported. Soft X-ray spectra were constructed from the A-2 LED PHA data. Single temperature Raymond-Smith models were fitted to the observed spectra to yield temperature, column density and emission measure. The temperature is 6 x 10 exp 5 K, the column density 4 x 10 exp 20/sq cm, and the emission measure 5 cm exp-6 pc. The X-ray and optical properties of the Gum Nebula are consistent with a supernova remnant in the shell stage of evolution, which was the product of an energetic (3 x 10 exp 51 ergs) supernova explosion which occurred about 2 x 10 exp 6 yr ago.

  20. Observations of X-ray jets with the Yohkoh Soft X-ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibata, Kazunari; Ishido, Yoshinori; Acton, Loren W.; Strong, Keith T.; Hirayama, Tadashi; Uchida, Yutaka; Mcallister, Alan H.; Matsumoto, Ryoji; Tsuneta, Saku; Shimizu, Toshifumi

    1992-01-01

    The features of the multiple X-ray jets in the solar corona, revealed by the time series of the Yohkoh Soft X-ray Telescope images are described. The typical size of a jet was from 5 x 10 exp 3 to 4 x 10 exp 5 km, the translational velocity was 30-300 km/s, and the corresponding kinetic energy was estimated to be from 10 exp 25 to 10 exp 28 erg. Many of the jets were found to be associated with flares in X-ray bright points, emerging flux regions, or active regions, and they sometimes occurred several times from the same X-ray feature. One of the jets associated with a flaring bright point was identified as being an H-alpha surge.

  1. 4H-SiC UV Photo Detector with Large Area and Very High Specific Detectivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Feng; Shahid, Aslam; Franz, David; Xin, Xiaobin; Zhao, Jian H.; Zhao, Yuegang; Winer, Maurice

    2004-01-01

    Pt/4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes have been fabricated with the device areas up to 1 sq cm. The I-V characteristics and photo-response spectra have been measured and analyzed. For a 5 mm x 5 mm area device leakage current of 1 x 10(exp 15)A at zero bias and 1.2 x 10(exp 14)A at -IV have been established. The quantum efficiency is over 30% from 240nm to 320nm. The specific detectivity, D(sup *), has been calculated from the directly measured leakage current and quantum efficiency data and are shown to be higher than 10(exp 15) cmHz(sup 1/2)/W from 210nm to 350nm with a peak D(sup *) of 3.6 x 10(exp 15)cmH(sup 1/2)/W at 300nm.

  2. A performance comparison of two small rocket nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrington, Lynn A.; Reed, Brian D.; Rivera, Angel, Jr.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted on two small rockets (110 N thrust class) to directly compare a standard conical nozzle with a bell nozzle optimized for maximum thrust using the Rao method. In large rockets, with throat Reynolds numbers of greater than 1 x 10(exp 5), bell nozzles outperform conical nozzles. In rockets with throat Reynolds numbers below 1 x 10(exp 5), however, test results have been ambiguous. An experimental program was conducted to test two small nozzles at two different fuel film cooling percentages and three different chamber pressures. Test results showed that for the throat Reynolds number range from 2 x 10(exp 4) to 4 x 10(exp 4), the bell nozzle outperformed the conical nozzle. Thrust coefficients for the bell nozzle were approximately 4 to 12 percent higher than those obtained with the conical nozzle. As expected, testing showed that lowering the fuel film cooling increased performance for both nozzle types.

  3. Formation, early evolution, and gravitational stability of protoplanetary disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamoto, Taishi; Nakagawa, Yoshitsugo

    1994-01-01

    The formation, viscous evolution, and gravitational stability of protoplanetary disks are investigated. The formation process is parameterized by the angular velocity of the molecular cloud core omega, while the viscous evolution is parameterized by the viscosity parameter alpha in the disk; in this study we consider a range of (0.4-6) x 10(exp -14)/s for omega and from 10(exp -5) to 10(exp -1) for alpha. The axisymmetric gravitational stabilities of the disks are checked using Toomre's criterion. The resulting disk surface temperature distribution, (d log T(sub s)/d log R) approximately = -0.6 (R is the cylindrical radius), can be attributed to two heating sources: the viscous heating dominant in the inner disk region, and the accretion shock heating dominant in the outer disk region. This surface temperature distribution matches that observed in many disks around young stellar objects. During the infall stage, disks with alpha less than 10(exp -1.5) become gravitationally unstable independent of omega. The gravitational instabilities occur at radii ranging from 5 to 40 AU. The ratio of the disk mass to the central star mass ranges from 0.2 to 0.5 at the times of instability, about 4 x 10(exp -5) x (omega/10(exp -14)/s)(exp -0.67) yr. Most disks with low alpha and high omega become gravitationally unstable during their formation phase.

  4. 44 CFR 5.5 - Exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemptions. 5.5 Section 5.5 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION General Provisions § 5.5 Exemptions. Requests for...

  5. 34 CFR 5.5 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Records. 5.5 Section 5.5 Education Office of the.... until 7-14-10) Definitions § 5.5 Records. As used in this part: (a) Record includes books, brochures, punch cards, magnetic tapes, paper tapes, sound recordings, maps, pamphlets, photographs, slides,...

  6. Adhesion between Polymers and Evaporated Gold and Nickel Films.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    on PTFE, about 5.49x10(exp 6) N/sq m on UHMWPE , and 6.54 x 10(exp 6) N/sq m on 6/6 nylon. The adhesion strengths for nickel films evaporated on PTFE... UHMWPE , and 6/6 nylon were found to be a factor of 1.7 higher than those for the gold-coated PTFE, UHMWPE , and 6/6 nylon. To confirm quantitatively

  7. Modelling Temporal Variability in the Carbon Balance of a Spruce/Moss Boreal Forest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frolking, S.; Goulden, M. L.; Wofsy, S. C.; Fan, S.-M.; Sutton, D. J.; Munger, J. W.; Bazzaz, A. M.; Daube, B. C.; Crill, P. M.; Aber, J. D.; Band, L. E.; Wang, X.; Savages, K.; Moore, T.; Harriss, R. C.

    1996-01-01

    A model of the daily carbon balance of a black spruce/feathermoss boreal forest ecosystem was developed and results compared to preliminary data from the 1994 BOREAS field campaign in northern Manitoba, Canada. The model, driven by daily weather conditions, simulated daily soil climate status (temperature and moisture profiles), spruce photosynthesis and respiration, moss photosynthesis and respiration, and litter decomposition. Model agreement with preliminary field data was good for net ecosystem exchange (NEE), capturing both the asymmetrical seasonality and short-term variability. During the growing season simulated daily NEE ranged from -4 g C m(exp -2) d(exp -1) (carbon uptake by ecosystem) to + 2 g C m(exp -2) d(exp -1) (carbon flux to atmosphere), with fluctuations from day to day. In the early winter simulated NEE values were + 0.5 g C m(exp -2) d(exp -1), dropping to + 0.2 g C m(exp -2) d(exp -1) in mid-winter. Simulated soil respiration during the growing season (+ 1 to + 5 g C m(exp -2) d(exp -1)) was dominated by metabolic respiration of the live moss, with litter decomposition usually contributing less than 30% and live spruce root respiration less than 10% of the total. Both spruce and moss net primary productivity (NPP) rates were higher in early summer than late summer. Simulated annual NEE for 1994 was -51 g C m(exp -2) y(exp -1), with 83% going into tree growth and 17% into the soil carbon accumulation. Moss NPP (58 g C m(exp -2) d(exp -1)) was considered to be litter (i.e. soil carbon input; no net increase in live moss biomass). Ecosystem respiration during the snow-covered season (84 g Cm(exp -2)) was 58% of the growing season net carbon uptake. A simulation of the same site for 1968-1989 showed about 10-20% year-to-year variability in heterotrophic respiration (mean of + 113 g C m-2 y@1). Moss NPP ranged from 19 to 114 g C m(exp -2) y(exp -1); spruce NPP from 81 to 150 g C nt-2 y,@l; spruce growth (NPP minus litterfall) from 34 to 103 g C m(exp

  8. Optical interferometer in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Peter L.; Faller, J. E.; Hall, J. L.; Hils, D.; Stebbins, R. T.; Vincent, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    The present design concepts for a Laser Gravitational Wave Observatory in Space are described. Laser heterodyne distance measurements are made between test masses located in three spacecraft separated by roughly 10(exp 6) km. The major technology issues are: the reduction of spurious acceleration noise for the test masses to below 2 x 10(exp -15) cm/sq sec/Hz(0.5) from 10(exp -5) to 10(exp -3) Hz; and the measurement of changes in the difference of the antenna arm lengths to 5 x 10(exp -11) cm/Hz(0.5) from 10(exp -3) to 1 Hz with high reliability. The science objectives are: to measure discrete sinusoidal gravitational wave signals from individual sources with periods of 1 second to 1 day; to measure the stochastic background due to unresolved binaries; and to search for gravitational wave pulses with periods longer than 1 sec from possible exotic sources such as gravitational collapse of very massive objects.

  9. Energetic particle-induced enhancements of stratospheric nitric acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, Arthur C.

    1994-01-01

    Inclusion of complete ion chemistry in the calculation of minor species production during energetic particle deposition events leads to significant enhancement in the calculated nitric acid concentration during precipitation. An ionization rate of 1.2 x 10(exp 3)/cu cm/s imposed for 1 day increases HNO3 from 3 x 10(exp 5) to 6 x 10(exp 7)/cu cm at 50 km. With an ionization rate of 600 cu cm/s, the maximum HNO3 is 3 x 10(exp 7)/cu cm. Calculations which neglect negative ions predict the nitric acid will fall during precipitation events. The decay time for converting HNO3 into odd nitrogen and hydrogen is more than 1 day for equinoctial periods at 70 deg latitude. Examination of nitric acid data should yield important information on the magnitude and frequency of charged particle events.

  10. Stratospheric OClO and NO2 measured by groundbased UV/Vis-spectroscopy in Greenland in January and February 1990 and 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, A.; Perner, D.

    1994-01-01

    Groundbased UV/Vis-spectroscopy of zenith scattered sunlight was performed at Sondre Stromfjord (Greenland) during Jan/Feb 1990 and Jan/Feb 1991. Considerable amounts of OClO were observed during both campaigns. Maximum OClO vertical column densities at 92 deg solar zenith angle (SZA) were 7.4 x 10(exp 13) molec/sq cm in 1990 and 5.7 x 10(exp 13) molec/sq cm in 1991 (chemical enhancement is included in the calculation of the air mass factor (AMF)). A threshold seems to exist for OClO detection: OClO was detected on every day when the potential vorticity at the 475 K level of potential temperature was higher than 35 x 10(exp -6)Km(exp 2)kg(exp -1)s(exp -1). NO2 vertical columns lower than 1 x 10(exp 15) molec/sq cm were frequently observed in both winters.

  11. Rosat Observations of Nine Globular Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rappaport, S.; Dewey, D.; Levine, A.; Macri, L.

    1994-01-01

    The ROSAT HRI was used to image fields around nine Galactic globular clusters that have central densities in the range of 10(exp 4) - 10(exp 5) solar mass pc(exp -3) and that had not previously been observed with the Einstein Observatory. We detected X-ray sources associated with Pal 2 and NGC 6304 with luminosities of 1.1 x 10(exp 34) ergs/s and 1.2 x 10(exp 33) ergs/s, respectively. No X-ray emission was detected from the source in Ter 6, thus confirming its transient nature. In all, there were 23 serendipitous sources found in the nine fields; none was apparently associated with any of the other seven clusters. The results are discussed in the context of low-luminosity cluster X-ray sources, in general.

  12. Model atmospheres and radiation of magnetic neutron stars. I - The fully ionized case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibanov, Iu. A.; Zavlin, V. E.; Pavlov, G. G.; Ventura, J.

    1992-01-01

    Model neutron star atmospheres are calculated for typical cooling stars with a strong magnetic field and effective temperatures of 10 exp 5 to 10 exp 6 K. The effect of anisotropic photon diffusion in two normal modes are examined under the assumption that the opacity is due solely to the bremsstrahlung and Thomson scattering processes under conditions of LTE that are expected to prevail at the temperatures and densities obtained. The main aspects of anisotropic photon diffusion, and an original procedure for calculating model atmospheres and emitted spectra are discussed. Representative calculated spectra are given, and it is found that the hard spectral excess characterizing the nonmagnetic case, while still present, becomes less prominent in the presence of magnetic fields in the range of 10 exp 11 to 10 exp 13 G.

  13. Heterogeneous Reaction of ClONO2(g) + NaCl(s) to Cl2(g) + NaNO3(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timonen, Raimo S.; Chu, Liang T.; Leu, Ming-Taun; Keyser, Leon F.

    1994-01-01

    The heterogeneous reaction of ClON02 + NaCl yields Cl2 + NaNO3 (eq 1) was investigated over a temperature range 220-300 K in a flow-tube reactor interfaced with a differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer. Partial pressures of ClON02 in the range 10(exp -8) - 10(exp -5) Torr were used. Granule sizes and surface roughness of the NaCl substrates were determined by using a scanning electron microscope, and in separate experiments, surface areas of the substrates were measured by using BET analysis of gas-adsorption isotherms. For dry NaCl substrates, both the decay rates of ClON02 and the growth rates Of C12 were used to obtain reaction probabilities, gamma(sub l) = (4.6 +/- 3.0) x 10(exp -3) at 296 K and (6.7 +/- 3.2) x 10(exp -1) at 225 K, after considering the internal surface area, The error bars represent 1 standard deviation. The Cl2 yield based on the ClONO2 reacted was measured to be 1.0 +/- 0.2. In order to mimic the conditions encountered in the lower stratosphere, the effect of water vapor pressures between 5 x 10(exp -5) and 3 x 10(exp -4) Torr on reaction 1 was also studied. With added H20, reaction probabilities, gamma = (4.1 +/- 2.1) x 10(exp -3) at 296 K and (4.7 +/- 2.9) x 10(exp -3) at 225 K, were obtained. A trace of HOCl, the reaction product from the ClON02 + H20 yield HOCl + HN03 reaction, was observed in addition to the C12 product from reaction 1. The implications of this result for the enhancement of hydrogen chloride in the stratosphere after the El Chichon volcanic eruption and for the marine troposphere are discussed.

  14. ROSAT X-ray observations of late-type evolved stars: On the relationship between coronal temperatures and luminosities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maggio, A.; Sciortino, S.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    We present ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counters (PSPC) X-ray observations of three near-solar-mass stars, in different evolutionary phases beyond the main sequence: eta Sco (F3 III-IV), iota Vir (F6 III), and HD 74772 (G5 III). All three of these nearby, presumably single stars have been detected, and we have collected enough counts to perform a detailed analysis of their soft X-ray spectra. While the X-ray spectra of eta Sco and HD 74772 can be fitted with Raymond-Smith thermal models with temperatures around 2 x 10(exp 6) K, the high signal-to-noise spectrum of iota Vir provides unambiguous evidence of a multitemperature plasma, with a two-temperature best-fit model with components at approximately 2 x 10(exp 6) K and 8 x 10(exp 6) K. Evidence of some hot plasma (T approximately 10(exp 7) K) has been also found for HD 74772. The present data, compared with spectral fitting results for other late-type stars observed with the Einstein Observatory, indicate that the low X-ray luminosity giants (L(sub x) is less than 5 x 10(exp 28) ergs/s) do not share with the higher X-ray luminosity stars of the same class the property of having substantial amount of 10(exp 7) K plasma. Moreover, our results confirm the trend of increasing X-ray luminosities with increasing coronal temperatures.

  15. 15 CFR 5.5 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Vending machines. 5.5 Section 5.5... machines. (a) The income from any vending machines which are located within reasonable proximity to and are... shall be assigned to the operator of such stand. (b) If a vending machine vends articles of a...

  16. 15 CFR 5.5 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Vending machines. 5.5 Section 5.5... machines. (a) The income from any vending machines which are located within reasonable proximity to and are... shall be assigned to the operator of such stand. (b) If a vending machine vends articles of a...

  17. 15 CFR 5.5 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Vending machines. 5.5 Section 5.5... machines. (a) The income from any vending machines which are located within reasonable proximity to and are... shall be assigned to the operator of such stand. (b) If a vending machine vends articles of a...

  18. 15 CFR 5.5 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Vending machines. 5.5 Section 5.5... machines. (a) The income from any vending machines which are located within reasonable proximity to and are... shall be assigned to the operator of such stand. (b) If a vending machine vends articles of a...

  19. 15 CFR 5.5 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vending machines. 5.5 Section 5.5... machines. (a) The income from any vending machines which are located within reasonable proximity to and are... shall be assigned to the operator of such stand. (b) If a vending machine vends articles of a...

  20. 5 CFR 1650.5 - Returned funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Returned funds. 1650.5 Section 1650.5 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN General § 1650.5 Returned funds. If a withdrawal is returned as undeliverable, the TSP...

  1. 36 CFR 5.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commercial photography. 5.5 Section 5.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... motion picture may be filmed or any television production or sound track may be made, which involves...

  2. 36 CFR 5.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial photography. 5.5 Section 5.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... motion picture may be filmed or any television production or sound track may be made, which involves...

  3. 36 CFR 5.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial photography. 5.5... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any... Federal Regulations. (b) Still photography. The taking of photographs of any vehicle, or other articles...

  4. 5 CFR 2500.5 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 2500.5 Section 2500.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.5 Derivative classification. The Office of Administration serves only as...

  5. 5 CFR 2500.5 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Derivative classification. 2500.5 Section 2500.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.5 Derivative classification. The Office of Administration serves only as...

  6. 5 CFR 2500.5 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Derivative classification. 2500.5 Section 2500.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.5 Derivative classification. The Office of Administration serves only as...

  7. 5 CFR 2500.5 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Derivative classification. 2500.5 Section 2500.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.5 Derivative classification. The Office of Administration serves only as...

  8. 5 CFR 2500.5 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Derivative classification. 2500.5 Section 2500.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.5 Derivative classification. The Office of Administration serves only as...

  9. 36 CFR 5.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Commercial photography. 5.5... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any... Federal Regulations. (b) Still photography. The taking of photographs of any vehicle, or other articles...

  10. .beta.-glucosidase 5 (BGL5) compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2010-06-01

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl5, and the corresponding BGL5 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL5, recombinant BGL5 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  11. 43 CFR 1610.5-5 - Amendment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Resource Management Planning § 1610.5-5 Amendment. A resource management plan may be changed through amendment. An...

  12. 5 CFR 1653.5 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Payment. 1653.5 Section 1653.5 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD COURT ORDERS AND LEGAL PROCESSES AFFECTING... other, or a legal separation is terminated, a new court order will be required to prevent...

  13. 5 CFR 1320.5 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General requirements. 1320.5 Section 1320.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CONTROLLING PAPERWORK... use of automated, electronic, mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other...

  14. 41 CFR 51-5.5 - Prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in § 51-5.6. (c) Price changes for commodities and services shall usually apply to orders received by... the views of the contracting activity, the Committee may make price changes applicable to orders... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Prices. 51-5.5 Section...

  15. Comparative Studies for the Sodium and Potassium Atmospheres of the Moon and Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, William H.

    1999-01-01

    A summary discussion of recent sodium and potassium observations for the atmospheres of the Moon and Mercury is presented with primary emphasis on new full-disk images that have become available for sodium. For the sodium atmosphere, image observations for both the Moon and Mercury are fitted with model calculations (1) that have the same source speed distribution, one recently measured for electron-stimulated desorption and thought to apply equally well to photon-stimulated desorption, (2) that have similar average surface sodium fluxes, about 2.8 x 10(exp 5) to 8.9 x 10(exp 5) atoms cm(exp -2)s(exp -1) for the Moon and approximately 3.5 x 10(exp 5) to 1.4 x 10(exp 6) atoms cm(exp -2)s(exp -1) for Mercury, but (3) that have very different distributions for the source surface area. For the Moon, a sunlit hemispherical surface source of between approximately 5.3 x 10(exp 22) to 1.2 x 10(exp 23) atoms/s is required with a spatial dependence at least as sharp as the square of the cosine of the solar zenith angle. For Mercury, a time dependent source that varies from 1.5 x 10(exp 22) to 5.8 x l0(exp 22) atoms/s is required which is confined to a small surface area located at, but asymmetrically distributed about, the subsolar point. The nature of the Mercury source suggest that the planetary magnetopause near the subsolar point acts as a time varying and partially protective shield through which charged particles may pass to interact with and liberate gas from the planetary surface. Suggested directions for future research activities are discussed.

  16. THERM 5 / WINDOW 5 NFRC simulation manual

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Robin; Kohler, Christian; Arasteh, Dariush; Carmody, John; Huizenga, Charlie; Curcija, Dragan

    2003-06-01

    This document, the ''THERM 5/WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual', discusses how to use the THERM and WINDOW programs to model products for NFRC certified simulations and assumes that the user is already familiar with those programs. In order to learn how to use these programs, it is necessary to become familiar with the material in both the ''THERM User's Manual'' and the ''WINDOW User's Manual''. In general, this manual references the User's Manuals rather than repeating the information. If there is a conflict between either of the User Manual and this ''THERM 5/''WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual'', the ''THERM 5/WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual'' takes precedence. In addition, if this manual is in conflict with any NFRC standards, the standards take precedence. For example, if samples in this manual do not follow the current taping and testing NFRC standards, the standards not the samples in this manual, take precedence.

  17. Environmental Perturbations Caused by the Impacts of Asteroids and Comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Owen B.; Zahnle, Kevin; Morrison, David; Turco, Richard; Covey, Curt

    1997-01-01

    We review the major mechanisms proposed to cause extinctions at the Cretaceous-Tertiary geological boundary following an asteroid impact. We then discuss how the proposed extinction may relate to the impact of asteroids or comets in general. We discuss the limitations of these mechanisms in terms of the spatial scale that may be affected, and the time scale over which the effects may last. Our goal is to provide relatively simple prescriptions for evaluating the importance of colliding objects having a range of energies and compositions. We also identify the many uncertainties concerning the environmental effects of impacts. We conclude that, for impact energies below about 10(exp 4) Mts (megatons of TNT equivalent) - i.e., impact frequencies less than in 6 x 10(exp 4) yr, corresponding to comets and asteroids with diameters smaller than about 400 m and 650 m, respectively - blast damage, earthquakes, and fires should be important on a scale of 10(exp 4) or 10(exp 5) km (exp 2), which corresponds to the area damaged in many natural disasters of recent history. However, tsunami could be more damaging, flooding a kilometer of coastal plane over entire ocean basins. In the energy range of 10(exp 4) to 10 (exp 5) Mts (intervals up to 3 x 10(exp 5) yr; comets and asteroids with sizes up to 800 m and 1.5 km, respectively) water vapor injections and ozone loss become significant on the global scale. In the submicrometer dust injection fraction from the pulverized target material is much higher than is presently thought to be most likely, then dust injection could be important in this energy range.

  18. Technical Evaluation Motor no. 5 (TEM-5)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.

    1990-01-01

    Technical Evaluation Motor No. 5 (TEM-5) was static test fired at the Thiokol Corporation Static Test Bay T-97. TEM-5 was a full scale, full duration static test fire of a high performance motor (HPM) configuration solid rocket motor (SRM). The primary purpose of TEM static tests is to recover SRM case and nozzle hardware for use in the redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM) flight program. Inspection and instrumentation data indicate that the TEM-5 static test firing was successful. The ambient temperature during the test was 41 F and the propellant mean bulk temperature (PMBT) was 72 F. Ballistics performance values were within the specified requirements. The overall performance of the TEM-5 components and test equipment was nominal. Dissembly inspection revealed that joint putty was in contact with the inner groove of the inner primary seal of the ignitor adapter-to-forward dome (inner) joint gasket; this condition had not occurred on any previous static test motor or flight RSRM. While no qualification issues were addressed on TEM-5, two significant component changes were evaluated. Those changes were a new vented assembly process for the case-to-nozzle joint and the installation of two redesigned field joint protection systems. Performance of the vented case-to-nozzle joint assembly was successful, and the assembly/performance differences between the two field joint protection system (FJPS) configurations were compared.

  19. STAT5 acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Kosan, Christian; Ginter, Torsten; Heinzel, Thorsten; Krämer, Oliver H

    2013-01-01

    The cytokine-inducible transcription factors signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A and 5B (STAT5A and STAT5B) are important for the proper development of multicellular eukaryotes. Disturbed signaling cascades evoking uncontrolled expression of STAT5 target genes are associated with cancer and immunological failure. Here, we summarize how STAT5 acetylation is integrated into posttranslational modification networks within cells. Moreover, we focus on how inhibitors of deacetylases and tyrosine kinases can correct leukemogenic signaling nodes involving STAT5. Such small molecules can be exploited in the fight against neoplastic diseases and immunological disorders. PMID:24416653

  20. Is HL Tauri and FU Orionis system in quiescence?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, D. N. C.; Hayashi, M.; Bell, K. R.; Ohashi, N.

    1994-01-01

    A recent Nobeyama map of HL Tau reveals that gas is infalling in a flattened region approximately 1400 AU around the central star. The apparent motion of the gas provides the necessary condition for the formation of a Keplerian disk with a radius comparable to the size of the primordial solar nebula. The inferred mass infall rate onto the disk is approximately equal to 5 x 10(exp -6) solar mass/yr, which greatly exceeds the maximum estimate of the accretion rate onto the central star (approximately 7 x 10(exp -7) solar mass/yr). Consequently, mass must currently be accumulating in the disk. The estimated age and disk mass of HL Tau suggest that the accumulated matter has been flushed repeatedly on a timescale less than 10(exp 4) yr. Based on the similarites between their evolution patterns, we propose that HL Tau is an FU Orionis system in quiescence. In addition to HL Tau, 14 out of 86 pre-main-sequence stars in the Taurus-Auriga dark clouds have infrared luminosities much greater than their otherwise normal extinction-corrected stellar luminosities. These sources also tend to have flat spectra which may be due to the reprocessing of radiation by dusty, flattened, collapsing envelopes with infall rates a few 10(exp -6) solar mass/yr. Such rates are much larger than estimated central accretion rates for these systems, which suggests that mass must also be accumulating in these disks. If these sources are FU Orionis stars in quiescence, similar to HL Tau, their age and relative abundance imply that the FU Orionis phase occurs over a timescale of approixmately 10(exp 5) yr, and the quiescent phase between each outburst lasts approximately 10(exp 3) =10(exp 4) yr. These inferred properties are compatible with the scenario that FU Orionis outbursts are regulated by a thermal instability in the inner region of the disk.

  1. Microorganisms, Organic Carbon, and Their Relationship with Oxidant Activity in Hyper-Arid Mars-Like Soils: Implications for Soil Habitability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdivia-Silva, Julio E.; Karouia, Fathi; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; McKay, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Soil samples from the hyper-arid region in the Atacama 23 Desert in Southern Peru (La Joya Desert) were analyzed for total and labile organic carbon (TOC & LOC), phospholipid fatty acids analysis (PLFA), quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), 4',6- diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-fluorescent microscopy, culturable microorganisms, and oxidant activity, in order to understand the relationship between the presence of organic matter and microorganisms in these types of soils. TOC content levels were similar to the labile pool of carbon suggesting the absence of recalcitrant carbon in these soils. The range of LOC was from 2 to 60 micro-g/g of soil. PLFA analysis indicated a maximum of 2.3 x 10(exp 5) cell equivalents/g. Culturing of soil extracts yielded 1.1 x 10(exp 2)-3.7 x 10(exp 3) CFU/g. qRT-PCR showed between 1.0 x 10(exp 2) and 8 x 10(exp 3) cells/g; and DAPI fluorescent staining indicated bacteria counts up to 5 x 104 cells/g. Arid and semiarid samples (controls) showed values between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 11) cells/g with all of the methods used. Importantly, the concentration of microorganisms in hyper-arid soils did not show any correlation with the organic carbon content; however, there was a significant dependence on the oxidant activity present in these soil samples evaluated as the capacity to decompose sodium formate in 10 hours. We suggest that the analysis of oxidant activity could be a useful indicator of the microbial habitability in hyper-arid soils, obviating the need to measure water activity over time. This approach could be useful in astrobiological studies on other worlds.

  2. Photochemistry of Triton's Atmosphere and Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.; Cruikshank, Dale P.

    1995-01-01

    The photochemistry of 32 neutral and 21 ion species in Triton's atmosphere is considered. Parent species N2, CH4, and CO (with a mixing ratio of 3 x 10(exp -4) in our basic model) sublime from the ice with rates of 40, 208, and 0.3 g/sq cm/b.y., respectively. Chemistry below 50 km is driven mostly by photolysis of methane by the solar and interstellar medium Lyman-alpha photons, producing hydrocarbons C2H4, C2H6, and C2H2 which form haze particles with precipitation rates of 135, 28, and 1.3 g/sq cm/b.y., respectively. Some processes are discussed which increase the production of HCN (by an order of magnitude to a value of 29 g/sq cm/b.y.) and involve indirect photolysis of N2 by neutrals. Reanalysis of the measured methane profiles gives an eddy diffusion coefficient K = 4 x 10(exp 3) sq cm/s above the tropopause and a more accurate methane number density near the surface, (3.1 +/- 0.8) x 10(exp 11)/cc cm. Chemistry above 200 km is driven by the solar EUV radiation (lambda less than 1000 A)) and by precipitation of magnetospheric electrons with a total energy input of 10(exp 8) W (based on thermal balance calculations). The most abundant photochemical species are N, H2, H, O, and C. They escape with the total rates of 7.7 x 10(exp 24)/ s, 4.5 x 10(exp 25)/ s, 2.4 x 10(exp 25)/ s, 4.4 x 10(exp 22)/ s, and 1.1 x 10(exp 24)/ s, respectively. Atomic species are transported to a region of 50-200 km and drive the chemistry there. Iono- spheric chemistry explains the formation of an E region at 150-240 km with HCO(+) as a major ion, and of an F region above 240 km with a peak at 320 km and C(+) as a major ion. The ionosphere above 500 km consists of almost equal densities of C(+) and N(+) ions. The model profiles agree with the measured atomic nitrogen and electron density profiles. A number of other models with varying rate coefficients of some reactions, differing properties of the haze particles (chemically passive or active), etc., were developed. These models show

  3. 5 CFR 1632.5 - Exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD RULES REGARDING PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF MEETINGS § 1632.5 Exemptions. (a) Except in a case where the Board finds that the public interest requires...), provided that such statute: (i) Requires that the matters be withheld from the public in such a manner...

  4. Rosat observations of FK comae berenices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welty, Alan D.; Ramsey, Lawrence W.

    1994-01-01

    We obtained ROSAT PSPC observations of FK Com over a period of 24.4 h, or 0.42 rotation. During the observations the x-ray flux increased by a factor of at least 5 before declining toward its previous level. A single temperature Raymond-Smith model is adequate to model the low signal-to-noise ratio spectrum from each observation interval. Initially the spectrum was that of a 8.5 x 10(exp 6) K plasma, with L9sub x)=0.66 x 10(exp 31) erg s(exp -1). When the x-ray flux was greatest, the model plasma temperature rose to 2.5 x 10(exp 7) K, and L(sub x)=3.46 x 10(exp 31) ergs(exp -1). During the post-maximum decline in luminosity the plasma temperature was approximately 12 x 10(exp 6) K. We conclude that the increase of x-ray flux recorded by ROSAT was due to an x-ray flare with a 1.5 h decline time scale.

  5. Microwave Conductivity of Laser Ablated YBa2Cu3O7-delta Superconducting Films and Its Relation to Microstrip Transmission Line Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Warner, J. D.; Chorey, C. M.; Ebihara, B. T.; Romanofsky, R. R.; Heinen, V. O.

    1990-01-01

    We report on the values of the microwave conductivity in the normal (sigma(subN)) and superconducting (sigma*=sigma(sub1)-j sigma(sub2)) states of two laser ablated YBa2CU3O7(sigma) thin films at 35 GHz, in the temperature range from 20 to 300 K. The films 0.7 and 0.4 micrometers) were deposited on LaA10(sub3) by laser ablation. The conductivity was obtained from the microwave power transmitted through the films and assuming a two-fluid model. Values of sigma(subN) approximately 2.3 X 10(exp5) S/m at room temperature for both films, and of sigma(sub1) approximately 6.3 X 10(exp5) and 4.6 X 10(exp5) S/m at temperatures around 80 K were obtained for the 0.7 and 0.4 micrometer films respectively. For sigma(sub2) values of 4.9 X 10(exp6) and 5.4 X 10(exp6) S/m were obtained for the 0.7 and 0.4 micrometer films at 80 K. The expected conductor losses and Q-factor of a superconducting ring resonator were calculated using these conductivity values. The theoretical values were then compared with the experimental results obtained for a resonator fabricated from one of these films.

  6. 5-HIAA Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page helpful? Also known as: HIAA; Serotonin Metabolite Formal name: 5-hydroxyindoleacetic Acid Related tests: Serotonin ; ... chromogranin A level . 5-HIAA is the primary metabolite of serotonin that is excreted in the urine. ...

  7. GEOS-5 Modeled Clouds

    NASA Video Gallery

    This visualization shows clouds from a simulation using the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Verison 5 (GEOS-5). The global atmospheric simulation covers a period from Feb 3, 2010 through Feb ...

  8. 5-HIAA urine test

    MedlinePlus

    HIAA; 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid; Serotonin metabolite ... This test measures the level of 5-HIAA in the urine. It is often done to detect certain tumors in the digestive tract ( carcinoid tumors ) ...

  9. Electrical characterization of 6H crystalline silicon carbide. M.S. Thesis Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lempner, Stephen E.

    1994-01-01

    Crystalline silicon carbide (SiC) substrates and epilayers, undoped as well as n- and p-doped, have been electrically characterized by performing Hall effect and resistivity measurements (van der Pauw) over the temperature range of approximately 85 K to 650 K (200 K to 500 K for p-type sample). By fitting the measured temperature dependent carrier concentration data to the single activation energy theoretical model: (1) the activation energy for the nitrogen donor ranged from 0.078 eV to 0.101 eV for a doping concentration range of 10(exp 17) cm(exp -3) to 10(exp 18) cm(exp -3) and (2) the activation energy for the aluminum acceptor was 0.252 eV for a doping concentration of 4.6 x 10(exp 18) cm(exp -3). By fitting the measured temperature dependent carrier concentration data to the double activation energy level theoretical model for the nitrogen donor: (1) the activation energy for the hexagonal site was 0.056 eV and 0.093 eV corresponding to doping concentrations of 3.33 x 10 (exp 17) cm(exp -3) and 1.6 x 10(exp 18) cm(exp -3) and (2) the activation energy for the cubic site was 0.113 and 0.126 eV corresponding to doping concentrations of 4.2 x 10(exp 17) cm(exp -3) and 5.4 x 10(exp 18) cm(exp -3).

  10. A burst from a thermonuclear runaway on an ONeMg white dwarf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starrfield, S.; Politano, M.; Truran, J. W.; Sparks, W. M.

    1992-01-01

    Studies which examine the consequences of accretion, at rates of 10(exp -9) solar mass/yr and 10(exp -10) solar mass/yr, onto an ONeMg white dwarf with a mass of 1.35 solar masses are performed. In these studies, a Lagrangian, hydrodynamic, one-dimensional computer code was used. The code now includes a network with 89 nuclei up to Ca-40, elemental diffusion, new opacities, and new equation of state. The initial abundance distribution corresponded to a mixture that was enriched to either 25, 50, or 75 percent in products of carbon burning. The remaining material in each case is assumed to have a solar composition. The evolution of the thermonuclear runaway in the 1.35 solar mass white dwarf, with M = 10(exp -9) solar mass, produced peak temperatures in the shell source exceeding 300 million degrees. The sequence produced significant amounts of Na-22 from proton captures onto Ne-20 and significant amounts of Al-26 from proton captures on Mg-24. This sequence ejected 5.2 x 10(exp -6) solar mass moving with speeds from approximately 100 km/s to 2300 km/s. When the mass accretion rate was decreased to 10(exp -10) solar mass, the resulting thermonuclear runaway produced a shock that moved through the outer envelope of the white dwarf and raised the surface luminosity to L greater than 10(exp 7) solar luminosity and the effective temperature to values exceeding 10(exp 7) K. The interaction of the material expanding from off of the white dwarf with the accretion disk should produce a burst of gamma-rays.

  11. LAURA Users Manual: 5.5-64987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazaheri, Alireza; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Johnston, Christopher O.; Kleb, William L.

    2013-01-01

    This users manual provides in-depth information concerning installation and execution of LAURA, version 5. LAURA is a structured, multi-block, computational aerothermodynamic simulation code. Version 5 represents a major refactoring of the original Fortran 77 LAURA code toward a modular structure afforded by Fortran 95. The refactoring improved usability and maintain ability by eliminating the requirement for problem dependent recompilations, providing more intuitive distribution of functionality, and simplifying interfaces required for multi-physics coupling. As a result, LAURA now shares gas-physics modules, MPI modules, and other low-level modules with the Fun3D unstructured-grid code. In addition to internal refactoring, several new features and capabilities have been added, e.g., a GNU standard installation process, parallel load balancing, automatic trajectory point sequencing, free-energy minimization, and coupled ablation and flowfield radiation.

  12. 5.5 billion -- and growing.

    PubMed

    Robey, B

    1992-07-17

    On World Population Day in 1992 the total world population reached 5.5 billion, 100 million more than on July 11, 1991, and it is expected to pass the 6 billion figure by 2000. In developed countries the average number of children is 2/family, while in developing countries the norm is 4 children, a substantial drop from 6 children in the 1960s. The 2 billion level was reached in 1930, the world population doubled from 1 billion in 100 years. The billion mark in 1960 took only 30 years, the 4 billion figure was reached in 1975 in only 15 years, and to grow to 5 billion in 1987 took only 12 years. A 20-year delay to reach replacement level adds another 1 billion to the population size. If the 2-children-per family size had been reached in 1990, the total would still have increased to 8 billion by 2100. Provided the present trend of 3.4 children/couple continues, there will be 102 billion people in 2100. Some claim that the resources of the Earth are already overtaxed with ever-worsening environmental pollution. Family planning information and services have to me made available to those millions who want to avoid pregnancy and ensure a better future for fewer children.

  13. 5-Second Rule

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness The 5-Second Rule KidsHealth > For Teens > The 5-Second Rule Print A A A Almost everyone has ... to eat it. Some people apply the "5-second rule" — that random saying about how food won' ...

  14. The 5-Second Rule

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? The 5-Second Rule KidsHealth > For Kids > The 5-Second Rule Print A A A en español La ... it, he or she might have yelled, "5-second rule!" This so-called rule says food is ...

  15. Aerodynamic characteristics and pressure distributions for an executive-jet baseline airfoil section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Dennis O.; Mineck, Raymond E.

    1993-01-01

    A wind tunnel test of an executive-jet baseline airfoil model was conducted in the adaptive-wall test section of the NASA Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. The primary goal of the test was to measure airfoil aerodynamic characteristics over a wide range of flow conditions that encompass two design points. The two design Mach numbers were 0.654 and 0.735 with corresponding Reynolds numbers of 4.5 x 10(exp 6) and 8.9 x 10(exp 6) based on chord, respectively, and normal-force coefficients of 0.98 and 0.51, respectively. The tests were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.250 to 0.780 and a chord Reynolds number range from 3 x 10(exp 6) to 18 x 10(exp 6). The angle of attack was varied from -2 deg to a maximum below 10 deg with one exception in which the maximum was 14 deg for a Mach number of 0.250 at a chord Reynolds number of 4.5 x 10(exp 6). Boundary-layer transition was fixed at 5 percent of chord on both the upper and lower surfaces of the model for most of the test. The adaptive-wall test section had flexible top and bottom walls and rigid sidewalls. Wall interference was minimized by the movement of the adaptive walls, and the airfoil aerodynamic characteristics were corrected for any residual top and bottom wall interference.

  16. Synthesis of CORONA 5 (Ti-4.5Al-5Mo-1.5Cr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froes, F. H.; Highberger, W. T.

    1980-05-01

    The synthesis of CORONA 5 (Ti-4.5Al-5Mo-1.5Cr) is described from the viewpoints of alloy chemistry and microstructure. Lenticular alpha is shown to maximize fracture resistance parameters, while a globular alpha optimizes hightemperature flow characteristics. The processing and application of CORONA 5 as forging, plate, sheet and powder metallurgy products are presented. The weldability of the alloy is described and potential use of the alloy for engine applications discussed. The improved mechanical property behavior over the "workhorse" Ti-6Al-4V alloy combined with cost-effective production should result in use of CORONA 5 in many applications. Future developments for CORONA 5 are suggested both in terms of further mechanical property optimization and in light of the economics of producing the alloy.

  17. RF Manipulation of Ions in the High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, J. Boise; Martin, James J.; Sims, William H.; Chakrabarti, Suman; Lewis, Raymond A.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The annihilation of antimatter provides the highest mass specific energy of any other known reaction. Proper harnessing of this energy holds great promise for future space propulsion systems. Many different propulsion concepts have been proposed that take advantage of antimatter, either using matter-antimatter as the primary fuel, or as a 'spark plug' for fusion and fission systems. In order to begin to address these concepts experimentally, a method of storing and transporting antimatter must be developed. The High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT) is a first-generation storage and transportation device designed to store and transport 10(exp 12) antiprotons with a storage half-life of 18 days. It uses a Penning-Malmberg ion trap with a 4T magnetic field and 20 kV potential. This will enable researchers much more flexibility in the design of antimatter experiments related to propulsion. Ions cannot be stored indefinitely in a real trap, as ion cloud instabilities develop from imperfections in manufacturing and misalignments in assembly. Previous work has been done at both the National Institute of Standards and University of California in San Diego in using RF (radio frequency) signals to both diagnose and confine the ion cloud. Two electrodes in the trap have been segmented to allow both reception and transmission of RF waves in the ion cloud. Experiments are underway to determine the number of ions and density in the cloud by "listening" to protons contained in the HiPAT. Currently we believe the density of ions stored in the trap is roughly 10(exp 15) m(exp -3). Development of non-destructive techniques is vital to the project goals, enabling continuous monitoring of the quantities stored in the system. Experimental work is also being done in identifying RF transmission frequencies that can manipulate the density of the cloud, by exchanging energy and momentum between the RF wave and the ions. Preliminary experiments have demonstrated this interaction.

  18. QCD for Postgraduates (5/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Modern QCD - Lecture 5 We will introduce and discuss in some detail the two main classes of jets: cone type and sequential-recombination type. We will discuss their basic properties, as well as more advanced concepts such as jet substructure, jet filtering, ways of optimizing the jet radius, ways of defining the areas of jets, and of establishing the quality measure of the jet-algorithm in terms of discriminating power in specific searches. Finally we will discuss applications for Higgs searches involving boosted particles.

  19. Infrared Measurements of Atmospheric Gases Above Mauna Loa, Hawaii, in February 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Murcray, F. H.; Blatherwick, R. D.; Murcray, D. G.

    1988-01-01

    Infrared solar absorption spectra recorded at 0.02/ cm resolution from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geophysical Monitoring for Climate Change (GMCC) program station at Mauna Loa, Hawaii (latitude 19.5 deg N, longitude 155.6 deg W, elevation 3.40 km), in February 1997 have been analyzed to determine simultaneous total vertical column amounts for 13 atmospheric gases. Average tropospheric concentrations of CO2, N2O, CH4, and CHCIF2 and the daytime diurnal variations or the total columns of NO and NO2 have also been inferred. The retrieved total columns (in molecules /sq cm) of the nondiurnally varying gases are 1.6 +/- 0.2 x 10(exp 15) for HCl, 5.9 +/- 1.2 x 10(exp 15) for HNO3, 2.0 +/- 0.2 x 10(exp 21) for H2O16, 4.4 +/- 0.7 x 10(exp 18) for H2O18, 2.7 +/- 0.1 x 10(exp 17) for HDO, 2.3 +/- 0.2 x 10(exp 19) for CH4, 5.0 +/- 0.5 x 10(exp 21) for CO2, 6.7 +/- 0.8 x 10(exp 18) for O3, 4.3 +/- 0.4 x 10(exp 18) for N2O, 1.0 +/- 0.2 x 10(exp 16) for C2H6, and 9.7 +/- 2.5 x 10(exp 14) for CHClF2. We compare the total column measurements of HCl and HNO3 with previously reported ground-based, aircraft, and satellite measurements. The results for HCl are or particular interest because of the expected temporal increase in the concentration of this gas in the stratosphere. However, systematic differences among stratospheric HCl total column measurements from 1978 to 1980 and the absence of observations of free tropospheric HCl above Mauna Loa make it impossible to obtain a reliable estimate of the trend in the total burden of HCl. The measured HNO3 total column is consistent with aircraft measurements from approx. 12 km altitude. The O3 total column deduced from the IR spectra agrees with correlative Mauna Loa Umkehr measurements within the estimated error limits. The column-averaged D/H ratio of water vapor is (68 +/- 9) x- 10(exp -6), which is 0.44 +/- 0.06 times the reference value of 155.76 x 10(exp -6) for standard mean ocean water (SMOW). This

  20. FIFI: The MPE Garching/UC Berkeley Far-Infrared Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geis, Norbert; Genzel, Reinhard; Haggerty, M.; Herrmann, F.; Jackson, J.; Madden, Suzanne C.; Nikola, T.; Poglitsch, Albrecht; Rumitz, M.; Stacey, G. J.

    1995-01-01

    We describe the performance characteristics of the MPE Garching/UC Berkeley Far-Infrared Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FIFI) for the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). The spectrometer features two or three cryogenic tunable Fabry-Perot filters in series giving spectral resolution R of up to 10(exp 5) in the range of 40 microns less than lambda less than 200 microns, and an imaging 5x5 array of photoconductive detectors with variable focal plane plate scale. The instrument works at background limited sensitivity of up to 2 x 10(exp -19) W cm(exp -2) Hz(exp -1/2) per pixel per resolution element at R = 10(exp 5) on the KAO.

  1. Radioimmunoassay for 5-methyltetrahydrohomofolate

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, K.L.; Ho, D.H.; Benjamin, R.S.; Yang, F.; Sickler, J.; Brown, N.S.; Bodey, G.P.

    1981-08-01

    A radioimmunoassay for 5-methyltetrahydrohomofolate has been developed by using antibody induced in rabbits by 5-methyltetrahydrohomofolate-bovine serum albumin conjugates. The labeled drug was prepared by condensing it with (/sub 3/H)histamine or (/sub 125/I)histamine. The assay employing either isotope was simple and reproducible and had identical sensitivities. The specificity of the antibody was characterized by comparing the effectiveness of various related compounds in displacing labeled 5-methyltetrahydrohomofolate from the binding site of the antisera. At concentrations up to 1000 microgram/ml, homofolate acid, tetrahydrohomofolic acid, folic acid and methotrexate showed no competition for the binding. 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid and 5-formyltetrahydrofolic acid cross-reacted with the antisera; the concentrations producing 50% binding inhibition were 2.8 and 24 microgram, respectively, as compared to 0.01 microgram for 5-methyltetrahydrohomofolate. The assay can be used for measuring the drug in plasma and tissues. This study supports its usability for clinical pharmacologic studies.

  2. Adenosine(5') oligophospho-(5') guanosines and guanosine(5') oligophospho-(5') guanosines in human platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Schlüter, H; Grobeta, I; Bachmann, J; Kaufmann, R; van der Giet, M; Tepel, M; Nofer, J R; Assmann, G; Karas, M; Jankowski, J; Zidek, W

    1998-01-01

    We isolated and identified nucleoside(5') oligophospho-(5') nucleosides containing adenosine and guanosine (ApnG; n = 3-6) as well as diguanosine polyphosphates (GpnG; n = 3-6) in human platelets. For identification, UV spectrometry, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization, postsource decay matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, and enzymatic cleavage experiments were used. The adenosine(5') oligophospho-(5') guanosines act as vasoconstrictors and growth factors. The diguanosine polyphosphates are potent modulators of growth in vascular smooth muscle cells, but do not affect vascular tone. PMID:9449703

  3. Neuropharmacology of 5-hydroxytryptamine

    PubMed Central

    Richard Green, A

    2006-01-01

    This review outlines the history of our knowledge of the neuropharmacology of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin), focusing primarily on the work of U.K. scientists. The existence of a vasoconstrictive substance in the blood has been known for over 135 years. The substance was named serotonin and finally identified as 5-HT in 1949. The presence of 5-HT in the brain was reported by Gaddum in 1954 and it was Gaddum who also demonstrated that the action of 5-HT (in the gut) was antagonised by the potent hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide. This provoked the notion that 5-HT played a pivotal role in the control of mood and subsequent investigations have generally confirmed this hypothesis. Over the last 50 years a good understanding has been gained of the mechanisms involved in control of the storage, synthesis and degradation of 5-HT in the brain. Knowledge has also been gained on control of the functional activity of this monoamine, often by the use of behavioural models. A considerable literature also now exists on the mechanisms by which many of the drugs used to treat psychiatric illness alter the functional activity of 5-HT, particularly the drugs used to treat depression. Over the last 20 years the number of identified 5-HT receptor subtypes has increased from 2 to 14, or possibly more. A major challenge now is to utilise this knowledge to develop receptor-specific drugs and use the information gained to better treat central nervous system disorders. PMID:16402098

  4. Spark-hdf5

    SciTech Connect

    Asplund, Joshua; Jiang, Ming; Gallagher, Brian; Miller, Mark; Harrison, Cyrus

    2016-07-05

    The spark-hdf5 package is an extension to the Apache Spark program to allow native access to HDF5 files. It allows users to query the structured files using SQL-like syntax, and can parallelize large queries across several workers.

  5. 14 CFR 5 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Section 5 Section Section 5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Balance Sheet Classifications Section...

  6. Geostationary Meteorological Satellite-5 (GMS-5)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horii, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (GMS-5), which is being developed by the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), is the fifth geostationary, spin stabilized, weather satellite. Its purposes are to observe cataclysmic events such as hurricanes, typhoons, and regional weather phenomena; to relay meteorological data from surface collection points to the Data Processing Center in Japan; and to transmit processing imaging data for facsimile reproduction. The satellite will be launched from the Tanegashima Space Center (TaSC) in Japan by a type H-II launch vehicle. The Deep Space Network (DSN) will support the transfer and drift orbit mission phases. The coverage will consist of the 26-m antennas as prime and the 34-m antenna at Madrid as backup support for launch through drift orbit. Maximum support will consist of two 8-hour tracks per station for a seven day period, plus 23 days of contingency support from all complexes. Information is given in tabular form for DSN support, frequency assignments, telemetry, command and tracking station responsibility.

  7. Photochemistry of Triton's Atmosphere and Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.; Cruikshank, Dale P.

    1995-01-01

    The photochemistry of 32 neutral and 21 ion species in Triton's atmosphere is considered. Parent species N2, CH4, and CO (with a mixing ratio of 3 x 10(exp -4) in our basic model) sublime from the ice with rates of 40, 208, and 0.3 g/sq cm/b.y., respectively. Chemistry below 50 km is driven mostly by photolysis of methane by the solar and interstellar medium Lyman-alpha photons, producing hydrocarbons C2H4, C2H6, and C2H2 which form haze particles with precipitation rates of 135, 28, and 1.3 g/sq cm/b.y., respectively. Some processes are discussed which increase the production of HCN (by an order of magnitude to a value of 29 g/sq cm/b.y.) and involve indirect photolysis of N2 by neutrals. Reanalysis of the measured methane profiles gives an eddy diffusion coefficient K = 4 x 10(exp 3)sq cm/s above the tropopause and a more accurate methane number density near the surface, (3.1 +/- 0.8)x IO(exp 11)/cu cm. Chemistry above 200 km is driven by the solar EUV radiation (lambda less than 1000 A) and by precipitation of magnetospheric electrons with a total energy input of 10(exp 8) W (based on thermal balance calculations). The most abundant photochemical species are N, H2, H, 0, and C. They escape with the total rates of 7.7 x 10(exp 24)/ s, 4.5 x 10(exp 25)/s, 2.4 x 10(exp 25)/s, 4.4 x 10(exp 22)/s, and 1.1 x 10(exp 24), respectively. Atomic species are transported to a region of 50-200 km and drive the chemistry there. Ionospheric chemistry explains the formation of an E region at 150-240 km with HCO(+) as a major ion, and of an F region above 240 km with a peak at 320 km and C(+) as a major ion. The ionosphere above 500 km consists of almost equal densities of C(+) and N(+) ions. The model profiles agree with the measured atomic nitrogen and electron density profiles. A number of other models with varying rate coefficients of some reactions, differing properties of the haze particles (chemically passive or active), etc., were developed. These models show that there

  8. Chromosome 5 workshop.

    PubMed

    Crowe, R R; Vieland, V

    1998-01-01

    In schizophrenia, evidence consistent with linkage in the 5q23.3-q31.1 region emerged from three independent samples. In addition, a moderately retarded woman with schizophrenia with an interstitial deletion overlapping this region was reported at the workshop. A second region of interest for schizophrenia is the 5p14.1-p13.1 region, where lod scores as high as 4.37 were found in one pedigree. Chromosome 5p15 gave a non-parametric linkage (NPL) score of 2.18 (p < 0.02) in one study. Several genome scans have not found evidence of excess allele sharing in these regions, although in most cases the genome scans did not include the markers that had resulted in provisional evidence of linkage. A large pedigree of bipolar illness has shown provisional evidence of linkage at, or near, the dopamine transporter locus at 5p15.3; the maximum lod score obtained was 2.72 at D5S417. In other regions, a genome scan of bipolar disorder gave NPL scores of 2.98 at D5S812 and 3.76 at D5S423. The third disorder of interest is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) because two studies have reported an association with the 480 bp allele at the dopamine transporter locus. A poster presented at the Congress reported a failure to replicate the association in a sample with considerable power to detect the effect size previously reported.

  9. The E5 Proteins

    PubMed Central

    DiMaio, Daniel; Petti, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The E5 proteins are short transmembrane proteins encoded by many animal and human papillomaviruses. These proteins display transforming activity in cultured cells and animals, and they presumably also play a role in the productive virus life cycle. The E5 proteins are thought to act by modulating the activity of cellular proteins. Here, we describe the biological activities of the best-studied E5 proteins and discuss the evidence implicating specific protein targets and pathways in mediating these activities. The primary target of the 44-amino acid BPV1 E5 is the PDGF β receptor, whereas the EGF receptor appears to be an important target of the 83-amino acid HPV16 E5 protein. Both E5 proteins also bind to the vacuolar ATPase and affect MHC class I expression and cell-cell communication. Continued studies of the E5 proteins will elucidate important aspects of transmembrane protein-protein interactions, cellular signal transduction, cell biology, virus replication, and tumorigenesis. PMID:23731971

  10. Tracking the global generation and exports of e-waste. Do existing estimates add up?

    PubMed

    Breivik, Knut; Armitage, James M; Wania, Frank; Jones, Kevin C

    2014-01-01

    The transport of discarded electronic and electrical appliances (e-waste) to developing regions has received considerable attention, but it is difficult to assess the significance of this issue without a quantitative understanding of the amounts involved. The main objective of this study is to track the global transport of e-wastes by compiling and constraining existing estimates of the amount of e-waste generated domestically in each country MGEN, exported from countries belonging to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) MEXP, and imported in countries outside of the OECD MIMP. Reference year is 2005 and all estimates are given with an uncertainty range. Estimates of MGEN obtained by apportioning a global total of ∼ 35,000 kt (range 20,000-50,000 kt) based on a nation's gross domestic product agree well with independent estimates of MGEN for individual countries. Import estimates MIMP to the countries believed to be the major recipients of e-waste exports from the OECD globally (China, India, and five West African countries) suggests that ∼ 5,000 kt (3,600 kt-7,300 kt) may have been imported annually to these non-OECD countries alone, which represents ∼ 23% (17%-34%) of the amounts of e-waste generated domestically within the OECD. MEXP for each OECD country is then estimated by applying this fraction of 23% to its MGEN. By allocating each country's MGEN, MIMP, MEXP and MNET = MGEN + MIMP - MEXP, we can map the global generation and flows of e-waste from OECD to non-OECD countries. While significant uncertainties remain, we note that estimated import into seven non-OECD countries alone are often at the higher end of estimates of exports from OECD countries.

  11. 5-fluorouracil induced pericarditis.

    PubMed

    Killu, Ammar; Madhavan, Malini; Prasad, Kavita; Prasad, Abhiram

    2011-04-15

    Cardiac toxicity is an infrequent, but potentially serious side effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The reported incidence of 5-FU-induced cardiotoxicity is approximately 3%, although estimates vary from 1.2% to 18%. Cardiac death occurs in less than 1%. The prompt recognition of cardiac toxicity demands a thorough understanding of the myriad of potential cardiac manifestations and a high index of suspicion. The most common presentation is angina pectoris while other manifestations, namely myocardial infarction, left ventricular dysfunction, arrhythmias and sudden death have been recognised. The authors report an unusual case of myopericarditis masquerading as myocardial infarction.

  12. X-ray-emitting gas surrounding the spiral galaxy NGC 891

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, Joel N.; Pidis, Rachel A.

    1994-01-01

    We observed the edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 891 with the Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) on Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT) to search for how extraplanar gas expected in the galactic fountain model. Diffuse X-ray emission surrounds the disk with a Half Width at Half Maximum (HWHM) for the surface brightness perpendicular to the disk of 50 sec (2.4 kpc) and a radial extent of approximately 6.5 kpc, both of which are similar in extent to the extended H(alpha) and radio halo component; the implied density scale height for the hot gas is 7 kpc. The spectrum is best fitted with a hard stellar component and a soft diffuse gas component of temperature 3.6 x 10(exp 6) K. The density of this gas is 2 x 10(exp -3)/cu cm, the luminosity is 4.4 x 10(exp 39) ergs/s, the mass is 1 x 10(exp 8) solar mass, and the pressure (P/k) is 1.4 10(exp 4) K/cu cm. These data are consistent with this gas participating in a galactic fountain, where the material approaches hydrostatic equilibrium before cooling at a rate of 0.12 solar mass/yr. The cooled material may be responsible for some of the H(alpha) emission.

  13. Volatility and Wear Characteristics of a Variety of Liquid Lubricants for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quynhgiao N.; Jones, William R., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    The vapor pressures and near characteristics are critical properties for liquid lubricants to assure long-term reliability and performance in space applications. Vapor pressures, obtained using a Knudsen cell technique, and near properties, obtained using a vacuum four-ball apparatus, were measured for a series of unformulated liquid lubricants. These include: two multiple alkylated cyclopentanes (MACs) (X-1000 and X-2000), two linear perfluoropolyalkylethers (PFPAEs) (Z-25 and 815Z), and four silahydrocarbons (a tri-, a tetra-, and two pentas). Vapor pressures were measured at three elevated temperatures (423, 448, and 498 K) and extrapolated to room temperature 298 K. The lowest 298 K vapor pressure of 5.7 x 10(exp -14) Pa, was obtained with the PFPAE fluid (815Z) and the highest value with the low molecular weight MAC (X-1000) at 3.6 x 10(exp -7) Pa. In addition, vacuum near rates were determined for some of the lubricants. The lowest wear rates (approximately 3 x 10(exp -11) cubic mm/mm) were observed for three of the silahydrocarbons while the highest wear rate (approximately 2 x 10(exp-9) cubic mm/mm) were observed with the two PFPAE fluids (Z-25 and 815Z). The MAC (X-2000) yielded a wear rate of about 10(exp -10) cubic mm/mm. The results indicated that the silahydrocarbon class of liquid lubricants offers the better potential for space applications.

  14. Volatility and Wear Characteristics of a Variety of Liquid Lubricants for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, QuynhGiao N.; Jones, William R., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    The vapor pressures and wear characteristics are critical properties for liquid lubricants to assure long-term reliability and performance in space applications. Vapor pressures, obtained using a Knudsen cell technique, and wear properties, obtained using a vacuum four-ball apparatus, were measured for a series of unformulated liquid lubricants. These included two multiply alkylated cyclopentanes (MACs) (X-1000 and X2000), two linear perfluoropolyalkylethers (PFPAEs) (Z-25 and 815Z), and four silahydrocarbons (a tri, a tetra, and two pentas). Vapor pressures were measured at three elevated temperatures (423, 448, and 498 K) and extrapolated to room temperature 298 K. The lowest 298 K vapor pressure of 5.7 x 10(exp -14) Pa was obtained with the PFPAE fluid (815Z) and the highest value with the low molecular weight MAC (X-1000) at 3.6 x 10(exp -7) Pa. In addition, vacuum wear rates were determined for some of the lubricants. The lowest wear rates (approximately 3 x 10(exp -11) cubic mm/mm) were observed for three of the silahydrocarbons while the highest wear rates (approximately 2 x 10(exp -9) cubic mm/mm) were observed with the two PFPAE fluids (Z-25 and 815Z). The MAC (X-2000) yielded a wear rate of about 10(exp -10) cubic mm/mm. The results indicated that the silahydrocarbon class of liquid lubricants offers the better potential for space applications.

  15. X-ray Characterization of Detached-Grown Germanium Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Schweizer, M.; Raghothamachar, B.; Dudley, M.; Szoke, J.; Cobb, S. D.; Szofran, F. R.

    2005-01-01

    Germanium (111)-oriented crystals have been grown by the vertical Bridgman technique, in both detached and attached configurations. Microstructural characterization of these crystals has been performed using synchrotron white beam x-ray topography (SWBXT) and double axis x-ray diffraction. Dislocation densities were measured from x-ray topographs obtained using the reflection geometry. For detached-grown crystals, the dislocation density is 4-6 x 10(exp 4) per square centimeter in the seed region, and decreases in the direction of growth to less than 10(exp 3) per square centimeter, and in some crystals reaches less than 10(exp 2) per square centimeter. For crystals grown in the attached configuration, dislocation densities were on the order of 10(exp 4) per square centimeter in the middle of the crystals, increasing to greater than 10(exp 5) per square centimeter near the edge. The measured dislocation densities are in excellent agreement with etch pit density results. The rocking curve linewidths were relatively insensitive to the dislocation densities. However, broadening and splitting of the rocking curves were observed in the vicinity of subgrain boundaries identified by x-ray topography in some of the attached-grown crystals.

  16. Absorption of water and lubricating oils into porous nylon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertrand, P. A.

    1995-01-01

    Oil and water absorption from air into sintered porous nylon can be described by infiltration into the pores of the material. This process can be modeled by a diffusion-like mechanism. For water absorption, we find a formal diffusion coefficient of 1.5 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min when the nylon is initially dry. The diffusion coefficient is 4 x 10(exp -6)sq cm/min when the nylon is oil-impregnated prior to air exposure. In a 52% RH atmosphere, dry nylon absorbs 3% w/w water, and oil-impregnated nylon absorbs 0.6% w/w water. For oil absorption there are three steps: (1) surface absorption and infiltration into (2) larger and (3) smaller pores. Surface absorption is too fast to be measured in these experiments. The diffusion coefficient for the second step is 6 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min for SRG-60 oil into dry nylon and 4 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min for air-equilibrated nylon. The diffusion coefficient for the third step is about 1 x 10(exp -6)sq cm/min for both cases. The total amount of oil absorbed is 31% w/w. The interaction between water and nylon is not as strong as that between water and cotton-phenolic: oil can replace water, and only a small amount of water can enter previously oil-impregnated nylon.

  17. The Observed Galactic Annihilation Line: Possible Signature of Accreting Small Mass Black Holes in the Galactic Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Chardonnet, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    Various balloon and satellite observatories have revealed what appears to be an extended source of 0.511 MeV annihilation radiation with flux of approx. 10(exp -3) photons/sq cm/s centered on the Galactic Center. Positrons from radioactive products of stellar explosions can account for a significant fraction of the emission. We discuss an additional source for this emission: namely e(+)e(-) pairs produced when X-rays generated from the approx. 2.6 x 10(exp 6) solar mass Galactic Center Black Hole interact with approx. 10 MeV temperature blackbody emission from 10(exp 17) g black holes within 10(exp 14-l5) cm of the center. The number of such Small Mass Black Holes (SMMBHs) can account for the production of the 10(exp 42) e(+)/s that produces the observed annihilation in the inner Galaxy when transport effects are taken into account. We consider the possibility for confirming the presence of these SMMBHs in the Galactic Center region with future generations of gamma-ray instruments if a blackbody like emission of approx. 10 MeV temperature would be detected by them. Small Mass Black Hole can be a potential candidate for dark (invisible) matter hal

  18. The 5-Second Rule

    MedlinePlus

    ... to know about the 5-second rule: A clean-looking floor isn't necessarily clean. A floor that looks dirty is usually worse, but even dry floors that look clean can contain bacteria. Why? Some germs can survive ...

  19. Integrated developmental model of life-support capabilities in wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darnell, R. L.; Obrien, C. O.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a model for CO2, O2, H2O, and nitrogen use during the life cycle of wheat. Spreadsheets and accompanying graphs were developed to illustrate plant population reactions to environmental parameters established in the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) program at Kennedy Space Center, Fl. The spreadsheets and graphs were produced using validated biomass production chamber (BPC) data from BWT931. Conditions of the BPC during the 83 day plant growth period were as follows: The BPC area is 27.8 m(exp 2), volume is 113 m(exp 3). Temperatures during the 83 day plant growth period ranged from 16.3 to 24.8 C during the light cycle (except for day 69, when the minimum and maximum temperatures were 7.7 C and 7.9 C, respectively) and 14.5 C and 23.6 C during the dark cycle (except for day 49, when the minimum and maximum temperatures were 11.1 C and 11.3 C, respectively). Relative humidity was 85 percent for the first seven days of plant growth, and 70 percent thereafter. The plant leaf canopy area was 10 m(exp 2). Presented is a list and explanation of each spreadsheet and accompanying graph(s), conditions under which the data were collected, and formulas used to obtain each result.

  20. The Deep Space Network stability analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breidenthal, Julian C.; Greenhall, Charles A.; Hamell, Robert L.; Kuhnle, Paul F.

    1995-01-01

    A stability analyzer for testing NASA Deep Space Network installations during flight radio science experiments is described. The stability analyzer provides realtime measurements of signal properties of general experimental interest: power, phase, and amplitude spectra; Allan deviation; and time series of amplitude, phase shift, and differential phase shift. Input ports are provided for up to four 100 MHz frequency standards and eight baseband analog (greater than 100 kHz bandwidth) signals. Test results indicate the following upper bounds to noise floors when operating on 100 MHz signals: -145 dBc/Hz for phase noise spectrum further than 200 Hz from carrier, 2.5 x 10(exp -15) (tau =1 second) and 1.5 x 10(exp -17) (tau =1000 seconds) for Allan deviation, and 1 x 10(exp -4) degrees for 1-second averages of phase deviation. Four copies of the stability analyzer have been produced, plus one transportable unit for use at non-NASA observatories.

  1. Electron-Ion Recombination Rate Coefficient Measurements in a Flowing Afterglow Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gougousi, Theodosia; Golde, Michael F.; Johnsen, Rainer

    1996-01-01

    The flowing-afterglow technique in conjunction with computer modeling of the flowing plasma has been used to determine accurate dissociative-recombination rate coefficients alpha for the ions O2(+), HCO(+), CH5(+), C2H5(+), H3O(+), CO2(+), HCO2(+), HN2O(+), and N2O(+) at 295 K. We find that the simple form of data analysis that was employed in earlier experiments was adequate and we largely confirm earlier results. In the case of HCO(+) ions, published coefficients range from 1.1 X 10(exp -7) to 2.8 x 10(exp -7) cu cm/S, while our measurements give a value of 1.9 x 10(exp -7) cu cm/S.

  2. X-ray spectra from convective photospheres of neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavlin, V. E.; Pavlov, G. G.; Shibanov, Yu. A.; Rogers, F. J.; Iglesias, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    The preliminary results from the simulation of convective photospheres of neutron stars are presented. It is shown that in photospheres composed of light elements, convection arises at relatively low effective temperatures of between 3 x 10(exp 4) and 5 x 10(exp 4) K, whereas, in the case of iron composition, it arises at temperatures of less than or equal to 3 x 10(exp 5) K. Convection changes the depth dependence of the photosphere temperature and the shapes of the emergent spectra. It is concluded that depth should be taken into account for the correct interpretation of extreme ultraviolet/soft X-ray observations of the thermal radiation from neutron stars.

  3. A Numerical Method for Solving the Equations of Compressible Viscous Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacCormack, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    Although much progress has already been made In solving problems in aerodynamic design, many new developments are still needed before the equations for unsteady compressible viscous flow can be solved routinely. This paper describes one such development. A new method for solving these equations has been devised that 1) is second-order accurate in space and time, 2) is unconditionally stable, 3) preserves conservation form, 4) requires no block or scalar tridiagonal inversions, 5) is simple and straightforward to program (estimated 10% modification for the update of many existing programs), 6) is more efficient than present methods, and 7) should easily adapt to current and future computer architectures. Computational results for laminar and turbulent flows at Reynolds numbers from 3 x 10(exp 5) to 3 x 10(exp 7) and at CFL numbers as high as 10(exp 3) are compared with theory and experiment.

  4. The GRADIO spaceborne gravity gradiometer: Development and accommodation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, A.

    1989-06-01

    The European ARISTOTELES mission aims at the determination of the Earth's gravity field at short wavelength with a global coverage. Gravity gradient measurements will be achieved during six months by the GRADIO instrument onboard a dedicated satellite in a near dawn-dusk sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 200 km. The objective is an accuracy of better than 5 mgals for gravity anomalies, at ground level for blocks of 1 x 1 deg. According to present knowledge of the potential, the recovery of higher spherical harmonics (degree and order greater than 30) is of main importance. This leads to focus on the variations of the measured components T(sub ij) of the gravity gradient tensor, at frequencies greater than 5 x 10(exp -3) Hz. The resolution, required for the gradiometer is 10(exp -2) Eotvos (i.e., 10(exp -11)/s squared) with an averaging time of 4 s.

  5. Survey of electronics capability for SP-100 space reactor power system applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manvi, Ram; Fujita, Tosh

    1991-01-01

    Because of reports indicating improvements in the radiation tolerance of some electronic parts, a survey was recently performed by SP-100 project personnel to determine the advisability of revising SP-100 SRPS (space reactor power systems) allowable neutron and gamma dose rates in order to reduce the size and mass of the radiation shield and thereby achieve system mass reductions. The survey results indicate that recent developments to increase the radiation tolerance of a limited set of electronics parts do not justify increasing the allowable SP-100 dose rates for electronic components. Specifically, the recent improvements on a limited set of parts do not justify increasing the current SP-100 allowable specifications of 5 x 10 exp 5 rads gamma dose and 1 x 10 exp 13 neutrons/sq cm fluence. However, if the improvements of 108 rads for gammas and 10 exp 15 neutrons/sq cm can be extended to a wide range of parts, significant mass savings would result.

  6. Real-Tme Boron Nitride Erosion Measurements of the HiVHAc Thruster via Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Brian C.; Yalin, Azer P.; Gallimore, Alec; Huang, Wensheng; Kamhawi, Hani

    2013-01-01

    Cavity ring-down spectroscopy was used to make real-time erosion measurements from the NASA High Voltage Hall Accelerator thruster. The optical sensor uses 250 nm light to measure absorption of atomic boron in the plume of an operating Hall thruster. Theerosion rate of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator thruster was measured for discharge voltages ranging from 330 to 600 V and discharge powers ranging from 1 to 3 kW. Boron densities as high as 6.5 x 10(exp 15) per cubic meter were found within the channel. Using a very simple boronvelocity model, approximate volumetric erosion rates between 5.0 x 10(exp -12) and 8.2 x 10(exp -12) cubic meter per second were found.

  7. The GRADIO spaceborne gravity gradiometer: Development and accommodation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, A.

    1989-01-01

    The European ARISTOTELES mission aims at the determination of the Earth's gravity field at short wavelength with a global coverage. Gravity gradient measurements will be achieved during six months by the GRADIO instrument onboard a dedicated satellite in a near dawn-dusk sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 200 km. The objective is an accuracy of better than 5 mgals for gravity anomalies, at ground level for blocks of 1 x 1 deg. According to present knowledge of the potential, the recovery of higher spherical harmonics (degree and order greater than 30) is of main importance. This leads to focus on the variations of the measured components T(sub ij) of the gravity gradient tensor, at frequencies greater than 5 x 10(exp -3) Hz. The resolution, required for the gradiometer is 10(exp -2) Eotvos (i.e., 10(exp -11)/s squared) with an averaging time of 4 s.

  8. Compressible Boundary Layer Predictions at High Reynolds Number using Hybrid LES/RANS Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Jung-Il; Edwards, Jack R.; Baurle, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Simulations of compressible boundary layer flow at three different Reynolds numbers (Re(sub delta) = 5.59x10(exp 4), 1.78x10(exp 5), and 1.58x10(exp 6) are performed using a hybrid large-eddy/Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes method. Variations in the recycling/rescaling method, the higher-order extension, the choice of primitive variables, the RANS/LES transition parameters, and the mesh resolution are considered in order to assess the model. The results indicate that the present model can provide good predictions of the mean flow properties and second-moment statistics of the boundary layers considered. Normalized Reynolds stresses in the outer layer are found to be independent of Reynolds number, similar to incompressible turbulent boundary layers.

  9. Snow White 5 Trench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image was acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm Camera on the 35th Martian day of the mission, or Sol 34 (June 29, 2008), after the May 25, 2008, landing. This image shows the trench informally called 'Snow White 5.' The trench is 4-to-5 centimeters (about 1.5-to-1.9 inches) deep, 24 centimeters (about 9 inches) wide and 33 centimeters (13 inches) long.

    Snow White 5 is Phoenix's current active digging area after additional trenching, grooming, and scraping by Phoenix's Robotic Arm in the last few sols to trenches informally called Snow White 1, 2, 3, and 4. Near the top center of the image is the Robotic Arm's Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe.

    Snow White 5 is located in a patch of Martian soil near the center of a polygonal surface feature, nicknamed 'Cheshire Cat.' The digging site has been named 'Wonderland.'

    This image has been enhanced to brighten shaded areas.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. A study of liquid boric oxide particle growth rates in a gas stream from a simulated jet engine combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Setze, Paul C

    1957-01-01

    It was experimentally determined that the liquid boric oxide particles leaving a jet engine combustor, burning a boron-containing fuel, will have diameters of 1.0 x 10(exp -5) to 2.0 x 10(exp -5) centimeter. For this size range the particle heat-transfer and drag coefficients are essentially infinite. The results may be applied to any boron-containing fuel. Equations are developed that enable the calculation of the particle size-time history. A study of boric oxide deposition mechanisms is included, and suggestions for decreading deposition rates given.

  11. The Prolate Solar Chromosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auchere, F.; Boulade, S.; Koutchmy, S.; Smartt, R. N.; Delaboudiniere, J. P.; Georgakilas, A.; Gurman, J. B.; Artzner, G. E.

    1998-01-01

    We present a comparative analysis of the chromospheric solar limb prolateness, using strictly simultaneous H-alpha, ground-based observations and HeII space-based observations. The typical prolateness is found to be DeltaD/D = 5.5 x 10(exp -3) in HeII and 1.2 x 10(exp -3) in H-alpha. The first measurements in the 30.4 nm HeII line over a period of two years. as well as coronal data, are discussed to explore further the origin of the prolateness and its possible consequences.

  12. RADTRAN 5 user guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Kanipe, Frances L.; Neuhauser, Karen Sieglinde

    2003-07-01

    This User Guide for the RADTRAN 5 computer code for transportation risk analysis describes basic risk concepts and provides the user with step-by-step directions for creating input files by means of either the RADDOG input file generator software or a text editor. It also contains information on how to interpret RADTRAN 5 output, how to obtain and use several types of important input data, and how to select appropriate analysis methods. Appendices include a glossary of terms, a listing of error messages, data-plotting information, images of RADDOG screens, and a table of all data in the internal radionuclide library.

  13. Tests of the Rockwell Si:As Back-Illuminated Blocked-Impurity Band (BIBIB) detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, J.; Groezinger, U.; Burgdorf, M.; Salama, A.

    1989-01-01

    Two arrays of Rockwell's Si:As back-illuminated blocked-impurity-band detectors were tested at the Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy (MPIA) at low background and low temperature for possible use in the astronomical space experiment ISOPHOT. For these measurements special test equipment was put together. A cryostat was mechanically modified to accommodate the arrays and special peripheral electronics was added to a microprocessor system to drive the cold multiplexer and to acquire the output data. The first device, a 16x50 element array on a fan-out board was used to test individual pixels with a trans-impedance-amplifier at a photon background of 10(exp 8) Ph s(-1)cm(-2) and at temperatures of 2.7 to 4.4 K. The noise-equivalent-power NEP is in the range 5 - 7 x 10(exp -18) WHz(exp -1/2), the responsivity is less than or equal to 100 AW(exp -1)(f = 10 Hz). The second device was a 10x50 array including a cold readout electronics of switched FETs (SWIFET). Measurements of this array were done in a background range of 5 x 10(exp 5) to 5 x 10(exp 11) Ph s(exp-1)cm(exp-2) and at operating temperatures between 3.0 and 4.8 K. The NEP ranges from less than 10(exp -18) at the lowest background to 2 x 10(exp -16) WHz(exp -1/2) at the highest flux.

  14. Developmental milestones record - 5 years

    MedlinePlus

    ... Childhood growth milestones - 5 years; Growth milestones for children - 5 years; Well child - 5 years ... skill milestones for a typical 5-year-old child include: Gains about 4 to 5 pounds (1. ...

  15. The EDP-5E

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lottero-Perdue, Pamela; Bolotin, Sonja; Benyameen, Ruth; Brock, Erin; Metzger, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Many preservice and practicing elementary teachers are familiar with the 5E learning cycle. This cycle provides a relatively simple, alliteratively memorable framework for teaching science in which lessons (or even entire units of instruction) consist of five distinct phases: Engagement, Exploration, Explanation, Elaboration/Extension (hereafter,…

  16. SU(5) gravitating monopoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brihaye, Yves; Ioannidou, Theodora

    2005-03-01

    Spherically symmetric and purely magnetic (i.e. A0 = 0) solutions of the full second-order SU(5) Einstein Yang Mills Higgs equations are constructed using the harmonic map ansatz [1, 2]. In this way the problem reduces to solving a set of ordinary differential equations for the appropriate profile functions.

  17. 5-Year Budget Forecasting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conyers, John G.; Lingel, George; Piekarski, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Financial planning is the key to providing a high-quality instructional plan. A 5-year financial plan is typically updated by looking at district financial history, future instructional plans, staffing requirements, and revenue projections. Planning assumptions must be clearly understood by the financial team and the community. (MLH)

  18. Sociology 5 Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garlock, Jerry C.

    In order to deal with the problem of increasing failures and dropouts and the negative impact of large numbers of students lacking basic reading and language skills on instructional activities and materials, the Sociology Department at El Camino College made eligibility for English 1A a prerequisite for its Sociology 5 course in fall 1975. This…

  19. Accelerators (3/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

  20. 5-Second Rule

    MedlinePlus

    ... feel tempted by the 5-second rule: A clean-looking floor isn't necessarily clean. A shiny linoleum floor ... cleaner than a 1970s-era carpet. But even clean, dry floors can harbor bacteria. Newly washed floors are only ...

  1. Accelerators (4/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

  2. Elementary Science: Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll County Public Schools, Westminster, MD.

    This grade 5 science curriculum guide contains four activity units: (1) mineral identification; (2) earth science; (3) soil analysis; and (4) small friends community. Each unit contains a letter to the parents to introduce the unit, lesson plans, and word searches. The lesson plans list the science processes involved, content objectives,…

  3. Anxiety and DSM-5

    PubMed Central

    Kupfer, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The DSM-5 process, and the publication of DSM-5 in 2013, have had a considerable impact on the classification of anxiety disorders. Major changes included the reorganization of the chapter structure, individual groupings of disorders within each chapter from a life span viewpoint, and the use of specifiers. The DSM-5 chapter on anxiety disorders does not include obsessive-compulsive disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder. The chapter itself now reflects a developmental approach. The text of each disorder has been enhanced with short sections on development and course, risk and prognostic factors, etc. It is expected that the reformulation of anxiety disorders in DSM-5 will lead to greater precision in a variety of ways, as illustrated in the papers in this issue of Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience. In summary, these changes in the way we classify anxiety disorders reflect our best view on the clinical empirical data and should prove useful in the assessment of specific anxiety disorders. PMID:26487805

  4. BLG and M5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasti, Paolo; Samsonov, Igor; Sorokin, Dmitri; Tonin, Mario

    2011-05-01

    We discuss the interpretation of the three-dimensional N = 8 superconformal Chern-Simons-matter theory with the gauge group of volume preserving diffeomorphisms as a model describing a six-dimensional self-dual gauge field coupled to scalars and spinors and its possible relation to the M5-brane

  5. Effects of 5-FU.

    PubMed

    Wigmore, Peter M; Mustafa, Sarah; El-Beltagy, Maha; Lyons, Laura; Umka, Jariya; Bennett, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is a chemotherapeutical agent used to treat cancers including breast and colorectal. Working as an antimetabolite to prevent cell proliferation, it primarily inhibits the enzyme thymidylate synthase blocking the thymidine formation required for DNA synthesis. Although having a relatively short half-life (< 30 mins) it readily enters the brain by passive diffusion. Clinically, it is used both as a single agent or in combination with other chemotherapies and has been associated with the long-term side effects of cognitive impairment, known as "chemo brain" or "chemo fog" These accounts have come primarily from patients undergoing treatment for breast cancer who report symptoms including confusion and memory impairment, which can last for months to years. Psychometric studies of patients have suffered from confounding variables, which has led to the use of rodent models to assess the cognitive effects of this drug. Researchers have used behavioral and physiological tests including the Morris water maze, novel object location/recognition tests, shock motivated T-maze, sensory gating and conditioning, to investigate the effect of this drug on cognition. The variety of cognitive tests and the difference in dosing and administration of 5-FU has led to varied results, possibly due to the different brain regions associated with each test and the subtlety of the drug's effect, but overall these studies indicates that 5-FU has a negative effect on memory, executive function and sensory gating. 5-FU has also been demonstrated to have biochemical and structural changes on specific regions of the brain. Evidence shows it can induce apoptosis and depress cell proliferation in the neurogenic regions of the adult brain including the sub granular zone (SGZ) within the hippocampus and in oligodendrocyte precursor populations within white matter tracts. Furthermore, investigations indicate levels ofdoublecortin, a marker for newly formed neurons and brain derived

  6. 4 CFR 5.5 - Travel, transportation, and subsistence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Travel, transportation, and subsistence. 5.5 Section 5.5 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.5 Travel, transportation, and subsistence. The provisions of chapter 57 of title 5, U.S. Code and the implementing regulations for...

  7. 4 CFR 5.5 - Travel, transportation, and subsistence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel, transportation, and subsistence. 5.5 Section 5.5 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.5 Travel, transportation, and subsistence. The provisions of chapter 57 of title 5, U.S. Code and the implementing regulations for...

  8. 4 CFR 5.5 - Travel, transportation, and subsistence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Travel, transportation, and subsistence. 5.5 Section 5.5 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.5 Travel, transportation, and subsistence. The provisions of chapter 57 of title 5, U.S. Code and the implementing regulations for...

  9. 4 CFR 5.5 - Travel, transportation, and subsistence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Travel, transportation, and subsistence. 5.5 Section 5.5 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.5 Travel, transportation, and subsistence. The provisions of chapter 57 of title 5, U.S. Code and the implementing regulations for...

  10. 4 CFR 5.5 - Travel, transportation, and subsistence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Travel, transportation, and subsistence. 5.5 Section 5.5 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.5 Travel, transportation, and subsistence. The provisions of chapter 57 of title 5, U.S. Code and the implementing regulations for...

  11. Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5).

    PubMed

    2017-01-01

    Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5; CAS No. 541-02-6) is a precursor in the production of siloxane polymers for industry and medicine and is a carrier ingredient in many toiletries and cosmetics. D5 has a relatively low order of toxicity following acute administration via the oral, dermal, and inhalation routes of exposure. It is not considered to be a dermal or eye irritant or a dermal sensitizer. There is no appreciable dermal absorption of D5 based on results from in vivo and in vitro studies. It has not been shown to be genotoxic/mutagenic when tested in a number of short-term in vitro and in vivo assays and did not cause reproductive or developmental toxicity in rats. Inhalation exposure of rats to 160 ppm D5 for up to 24 months produced adverse effects in the liver (weight changes and hepatocellular hypertrophy) and uterus (increased incidence of endometrial adenocarcinoma, endometrial adenoma, and adenomatous polyps in several animals); however, the results of recent mode-of-action studies are consistent with a uterine tumorigenesis mechanism that is not relevant for humans. Based on the results of the chronic inhalation study, 160 ppm was determined to be the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) and was selected as the point of departure for the derivation of the workplace environmental exposure level (WEEL®) value. This NOAEL was adjusted to account for interindividual variability and residual uncertainty regarding upper respiratory tract changes still occurring at 160 ppm. The resulting 8-h time-weighted average WEEL value of 10 ppm is expected to provide a significant margin of safety against any potential adverse health effects in workers exposed to airborne D5.

  12. ADCY5-related dyskinesia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dong-Hui; Méneret, Aurélie; Friedman, Jennifer R.; Korvatska, Olena; Gad, Alona; Bonkowski, Emily S.; Stessman, Holly A.; Doummar, Diane; Mignot, Cyril; Anheim, Mathieu; Bernes, Saunder; Davis, Marie Y.; Damon-Perrière, Nathalie; Degos, Bertrand; Grabli, David; Gras, Domitille; Hisama, Fuki M.; Mackenzie, Katherine M.; Swanson, Phillip D.; Tranchant, Christine; Vidailhet, Marie; Winesett, Steven; Trouillard, Oriane; Amendola, Laura M.; Dorschner, Michael O.; Weiss, Michael; Eichler, Evan E.; Torkamani, Ali; Roze, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical spectrum and distinguishing features of adenylate cyclase 5 (ADCY5)–related dyskinesia and genotype–phenotype relationship. Methods: We analyzed ADCY5 in patients with choreiform or dystonic movements by exome or targeted sequencing. Suspected mosaicism was confirmed by allele-specific amplification. We evaluated clinical features in our 50 new and previously reported cases. Results: We identified 3 new families and 12 new sporadic cases with ADCY5 mutations. These mutations cause a mixed hyperkinetic disorder that includes dystonia, chorea, and myoclonus, often with facial involvement. The movements are sometimes painful and show episodic worsening on a fluctuating background. Many patients have axial hypotonia. In 2 unrelated families, a p.A726T mutation in the first cytoplasmic domain (C1) causes a relatively mild disorder of prominent facial and hand dystonia and chorea. Mutations p.R418W or p.R418Q in C1, de novo in 13 individuals and inherited in 1, produce a moderate to severe disorder with axial hypotonia, limb hypertonia, paroxysmal nocturnal or diurnal dyskinesia, chorea, myoclonus, and intermittent facial dyskinesia. Somatic mosaicism is usually associated with a less severe phenotype. In one family, a p.M1029K mutation in the C2 domain causes severe dystonia, hypotonia, and chorea. The progenitor, whose childhood-onset episodic movement disorder almost disappeared in adulthood, was mosaic for the mutation. Conclusions: ADCY5-related dyskinesia is a childhood-onset disorder with a wide range of hyperkinetic abnormal movements. Genotype-specific correlations and mosaicism play important roles in the phenotypic variability. Recurrent mutations suggest particular functional importance of residues 418 and 726 in disease pathogenesis. PMID:26537056

  13. A search for gamma-ray lines from the decay of Fe-59 in Supernova 1987A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, M. J.; Leising, M. D.

    1994-01-01

    We have searched spectra of Supernova (SN) 1987A, accumulated during several 35-day intervals after the explosion by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS), for gamma-ray lines at 1.099 and 1.292 MeV from the decay of Fe-59 which may have been produced in the progenitor's helium shell. We find no evidence for these lines, down to 3-sigma upper limits approximately = 7 x 10(exp -4) gamma/sq cm/s for the 1.099 MeV line, or approximately = 4.5 x 10(exp -4) gamma/sq cm/s for the 1.292 MeV line, in any 35-day interval. We derive a conservative 3-sigma upper limit on the mass fraction of Fe-59 in the helium shell of 2.9 x 10(exp -3).

  14. Origin of pulsed emission from the young supernova remnant SN 1987A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruderman, M.; Kluzniak, W.; Shaham, Jacob

    1989-01-01

    To overcome difficulties in understanding the origin of the submillisecond optical pulses from SN 1987A a model similar to that of Kundt and Krotscheck for pulsed synchrotron emission from the Crab was applied. The interaction of the expected ultrarelativistic e(sup + or -) pulsar wind with the pulsar dipole electromagnetic wave reflected from the walls of a pulsar cavity within the SN 1987A nubula can generate pulsed optical emission with efficiency at most eta(sub max) is approximately equal to 10(exp -3). The maximum luminosity of the source is reproduced and other observational constraints can be satisfied for an average wind energy flow is approximately equal to 10(exp 38) erg/(s steradian) and for electron Lorentz factor gamma is approximately equal to 10(exp 5). This model applied to the Crab yields pulsations of much lower luminosity and frequency.

  15. Possible applications of atomic frequency standards with an internal high resolution digital synthesizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Detoma, E.; Stern, A.

    1993-01-01

    The applications of Atomic Frequency Standards with an internal synthesizer (thereafter referred as 'Synthesized Frequency Standards or Oscillators') with a special emphasis on the Rb oscillator are reviewed. A fractional frequency synthesizer, developed by SEPA, was incorporated in the Frequency Locked Loop of a TFL Rubidium Frequency Standard. This combination allows a frequency settability in steps of 1.5 x 10(exp -12) (optional 1 x 10(exp -13) over a range of 6 x 10(exp -9) without having to resort to change the C-field to tune the output frequency of the device. This capability, coupled to the excellent short term stability of the Rb frequency standard, opens new possibilities for time and frequency users in the various fields (time metrology, navigation, communication, etc.) in which stable frequency standards find their application.

  16. Material properties and device evaluations of ECR-deposited a-Si:H and a-SiC:H films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shing, Y. H.; Pool, F. S.; Essick, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    Device-quality a-Si:H and a-SiC:H films have been deposited using electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) microwave plasmas of SiH4, CH4, and H2 mixtures. Typical material properties of ECR-deposited, photosensitive a-Si:H films are: (1) high photosensitivity up to 2 x 106 with a photoconductivity of 10 exp -5 to 10 exp -4/(Ohm-cm), (2) a Tauc gap of 1.75 to 1.85 eV, (3) an Urbach slope of 50-60 meV determined by the constant photocurrent method, and (4) an integrated defect density of 1-2 x 10 exp 16/cu cm determined by junction capacitance measurements. Highly conductive, p-type a-SiC:H films have been produced by ECR plasmas with a conductivity of 0.2/(Ohm-cm).

  17. The effects of electron and proton radiation on GaSb infrared solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruenbaum, P. E.; Avery, J. E.; Fraas, L. M.

    1991-01-01

    Gallium antimonide (GaSb) infrared solar cells were exposed to 1 MeV electrons and protons up to fluences of 1 times 10(exp 15) cm (-2) and 1 times 10(exp 12) cm (-2) respectively. In between exposures, current voltage and spectral response curves were taken. The GaSb cells were found to degrade slightly less than typical GaAs cells under electron irradiation, and calculations from spectral response curves showed that the damage coefficient for the minority carrier diffusion length was 3.5 times 10(exp 8). The cells degraded faster than GaAs cells under proton irradiation. However, researchers expect the top cell and coverglass to protect the GaSb cell from most damaging protons. Some annealing of proton damage was observed at low temperatures (80 to 160 C).

  18. A Noachian/Hesperian Hiatus and Erosive Reactivation of Martian Valley Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, R. P., III.; Maxwell, T. A.; Howard, A. D.; Craddock, R. A.; Moore, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    Despite new evidence for persistent flow and sedimentation on early Mars, it remains unclear whether valley networks were active over long geologic timescales (10(exp 5)-10(exp 8) yr), or if flows were persistent only during multiple discrete episodes of moderate (approx. 10(exp 4) yr) to short (<10 yr) duration. Understanding the long-term stability/variability of valley network hydrology would provide an important control on paleoclimate and groundwater models. Here we describe geologic evidence for a hiatus in highland valley network activity while the fretted terrain formed, followed by a discrete reactivation of persistent (but possibly variable) erosive flows. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  19. Gamma-Ray, Cosmic Ray and Neutrino Tests of Lorentz Invariance and Quantum Gravity Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, Floyd

    2011-01-01

    High-energy astrophysics observations provide the best possibilities to detect a very small violation of Lorentz invariance such as may be related to the structure of space-time near the Planck scale of approximately 10(exp -35) m. I will discuss here the possible signatures of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) from observations of the spectra, polarization, and timing of gamma-rays from active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts. Other sensitive tests are provided by observations of the spectra of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and neutrinos. Using the latest data from the Pierre Auger Observatory one can already derive an upper limit of 4.5 x 10(exp -23) to the amount of LIV of at a proton Lorentz factor of approximately 2 x 10(exp 11). This result has fundamental implications for quantum gravity models. I will also discuss the possibilities of using more sensitive space based detection techniques to improve searches for LIV in the future.

  20. Optical absorption by free holes in heavily doped GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huberman, M. L.; Ksendzov, A.; Larsson, A.; Terhune, R.; Maserjian, J.

    1991-01-01

    Optical absorption in p-type GaAs with hole concentrations between 10 exp 19 and 10 exp 20/cu cm has been measured for wavelengths between 2 and 20 microns and compared with results of theoretical calculations. In contrast to previous measurements at lower doping levels, the occupied hole states are far from the zone center, where the heavy- and light-hole bands become parallel. This gives rise to a large joint density of states for optical transitions. It is found that the overall magnitude of the observed absorption is explained correctly by the theory, with both the free-carrier (indirect) and the inter-valence-band (direct) transitions contributing significantly to the total absorption. The strength of the absorption (a about 20,000/cm for N(A) = 5 x 10 exp 19/cu cm) is attractive for long-wavelength infrared-detector applications.

  1. InGaAs/InP solar cells for space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlina, L. B.; Kazantsev, A. B.; Kozlovskii, V. V.; Mokina, I. A.; Shvarts, M. Z.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of irradiation of In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As/InP (InGaAs/InP) solar cells illuminated through a transparent InP substrate with 1 MeV electrons were measured. These solar cells were developed for bottom cells in tandem solar photovoltaic cell structures. Some InGaAs/InP heterostructures with four layers were grown by liquid phase epitaxy. The structure of the solar cells allowed lightly doped materials in n and p photoactive layers to be used. The base dopant levels ranged from 1.10(exp 17) to 5.10(exp 17) cm(exp -3). The open circuit voltage and the short circuit current were moderately degraded after irradiation with 10(exp 16) cm(exp-2) 1 MeV electrons. This behavior is explained in terms of the device structure and the n and p layer thicknesses.

  2. An accurate Galactic N(sub H) map of the north ecliptic pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, Martin; Lockman, Felix J.; Fassnacht, C.

    1994-01-01

    The Galactic HI column density was measured at 21 min angular resolution over an 8 deg x 9 deg region centered on the north ecliptic pole. Over the region N(sub H) varies smoothly between 3 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm and 8 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm; some structure is seen over most of the map on an 0.5 - 1 deg scale. There are other possible sources of interstellar opacity in this direction which may add an equivalent 10(exp 20)/sq cm of HI. We evaluate the effect of uncertainties in the HI column density on implied X-ray fluxes of extragalactic objects.

  3. A Preliminary Model for Spacecraft Propulsion Performance Analysis Based on Nuclear Gain and Subsystem Mass-Power Balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, S.; Schmidt, G. R.; Thio, Y. C.; Hurst, C. M.

    1999-01-01

    Rapid transportation of human crews to destinations throughout the solar system will require propulsion systems having not only very high exhaust velocities (i.e., I(sub sp) >= 10(exp 4) to 10(exp 5) sec) but also extremely low mass-power ratios (i.e., alpha <= 10(exp -2) kg/kW). These criteria are difficult to meet with electric propulsion and other power-limited systems, but may be achievable with propulsion concepts that use onboard power to produce a net gain in energy via fusion or some other nuclear process. This paper compares the fundamental performance of these gain-limited systems with that of power-limited systems, and determines from a generic power balance the gains required for ambitious planetary missions ranging up to 100 AU. Results show that energy gain reduces the required effective mass-power ratio of the system, thus enabling shorter trip times than those of power-limited concepts.

  4. TANK 5 SAMPLING

    SciTech Connect

    Vrettos, N; William Cheng, W; Thomas Nance, T

    2007-11-26

    Tank 5 at the Savannah River Site has been used to store high level waste and is currently undergoing waste removal processes in preparation for tank closure. Samples were taken from two locations to determine the contents in support of Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) development for chemical cleaning. These samples were obtained through the use of the Drop Core Sampler and the Snowbank Sampler developed by the Engineered Equipment & Systems (EES) group of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL).

  5. ATS-5 trilateration support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brisken, A. F.; Anderson, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The development of an L-band trilateration network capable of locating the ATS-5 satellite, determining the satellite's orbital elements, and predicting the satellite position was investigated. An automatic tone-code ranging transponder was used to compare ranging measurements and communications reliability for the VHF and L-band. The L-band transponder network, analytical techniques, and the determination of the Kepler orbit parameters are described along with the calibration procedures, operation procedures, and verification of trilateration position.

  6. MCNP™ Version 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, R. Arthur; Cox, Lawrence J.; Barrett, Richard F.; Booth, Thomas E.; Briesmeister, Judith F.; Brown, Forrest B.; Bull, Jeffrey S.; Geisler, Gregg C.; Goorley, John T.; Mosteller, Russell D.; Post, Susan E.; Prael, Richard E.; Selcow, Elizabeth C.; Sood, Avneet

    2004-01-01

    The Monte Carlo transport workhorse, MCNP [Los Alamos National Laboratory report LA-13709-M, 2000], is undergoing a massive renovation at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in support of the Eolus Project of the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASCI) Program. MCNP Version 5 (V5) (expected to be released to RSICC in Fall 2002) will consist of a major restructuring from FORTRAN-77 (with extensions) to ANSI-standard FORTRAN-90 [American National Standard for Programming Language - Fortran-Extended, ANSI X3. 198-1992, 1992] with support for all of the features available in the present release (MCNP-4C2/4C3). To most users, the look-and-feel of MCNP will not change much except for the improvements (improved graphics, easier installation, better online documentation). For example, even with the major format change, full support for incremental patching will still be provided. In addition to the language and style updates, MCNP V5 will have various new user features. These include improved photon physics, neutral particle radiography, enhancements and additions to variance reduction methods, new source options, improved parallelism support (PVM, MPI, OpenMP), and new nuclear and atomic data libraries. MCNP is a trademark of the Regents of the University of California, Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  7. Partial Northeast Elevation Mill #5 East & #5 West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Partial Northeast Elevation - Mill #5 East & #5 West (Part 4), Typical Floor - Partial Plan Mill #5 East & #5 West (Part 4) - Boott Cotton Mills, John Street at Merrimack River, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  8. Design definition of the Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS), phase 2. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The LAWS phase 1 and phase 2 studies have been completed on schedule and have led to significant advances in CO2 laser development. The Phase 2 Design Definition Study has shown that a large scanning mirror/high pulse energy laser LAWS Instrument is feasible and within the existing technology. The capability to monitor wind velocities with backscatter ratios of 10(exp 11) m(exp -1) SR(exp -1) is feasible. The weight budget allocated for the baseline LAWS is adequate, and sufficient reserves exist with the potential downsized configuration. With the possible decrease in available power from the baseline of 2.2 kW guideline, power and shot management is critical for the baseline configuration (15 to 20 J). This is particularly true during the 100 day occultation period each year. With the downsized configurations (5 to 7 J), power management is still necessary during the occultation but is primarily limited to shot management over the polar regions. The breadboard effort has produced significant laser advances for a tight 18 month schedule and the minimum budgets available from NASA, Lockheed, and TDS. Using the NASA funds and Lockheed and TDS fixed assets budgets, the breadboard was designed, fabricated, and brought on-line with first laser light within 16 months after ATP. First laser beam was obtained on 21 April 1992 at a 5 J power level. Tests since then have been conducted at sustained, repetitive pulse levels of over 7 J and 20 Hz. This is an increase of over two or three times greater than any system previously developed from this type laser. Increased power levels and additional life tests will be accomplished in the next LAWS phase. The Lockheed LAWS design will operate in the gravity gradient mode on-orbit, and all possible instrument vibration and jitter modes have been considered. Adequate pointing stability and control is state-of-the-art technology for the critical time periods, frequency rates, and control responses required by LAWS. Lockheed

  9. 36 CFR 5.11-5.12 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 5.11-5.12 Section 5.11-5.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS §§ 5.11-5.12...

  10. Spectral and Timing Nature of the Symbiotic X-Ray Binary 4U 1954+319: The Slowest Rotating Neutron Star in AN X-Ray Binary System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enoto, Teruaki; Sasano, Makoto; Yamada, Shin'Ya; Tamagawa, Toru; Makishima, Kazuo; Pottschmidt, Katja; Marcu, Diana; Corbet, Robin H. D.; Fuerst, Felix; Wilms, Jorn

    2014-01-01

    The symbiotic X-ray binary (SyXB) 4U 1954+319 is a rare system hosting a peculiar neutron star (NS) and an M-type optical companion. Its approx. 5.4 hr NS spin period is the longest among all known accretion-powered pulsars and exhibited large (is approx. 7%) fluctuations over 8 yr. A spin trend transition was detected with Swift/BAT around an X-ray brightening in 2012. The source was in quiescent and bright states before and after this outburst based on 60 ks Suzaku observations in 2011 and 2012. The observed continuum is well described by a Comptonized model with the addition of a narrow 6.4 keV Fe-K alpha line during the outburst. Spectral similarities to slowly rotating pulsars in high-mass X-ray binaries, its high pulsed fraction (approx. 60%-80%), and the location in the Corbet diagram favor high B-field (approx. greater than 10(exp12) G) over a weak field as in low-mass X-ray binaries. The observed low X-ray luminosity (10(exp33)-10(exp35) erg s(exp-1)), probable wide orbit, and a slow stellar wind of this SyXB make quasi-spherical accretion in the subsonic settling regime a plausible model. Assuming a approx. 10(exp13) G NS, this scheme can explain the approx. 5.4 hr equilibrium rotation without employing the magnetar-like field (approx. 10(exp16) G) required in the disk accretion case. The timescales of multiple irregular flares (approx. 50 s) can also be attributed to the free-fall time from the Alfv´en shell for a approx. 10(exp13) G field. A physical interpretation of SyXBs beyond the canonical binary classifications is discussed.

  11. SR90, strontium shaped-charge critical ionization velocity experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, Eugene M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, Hans; Swift, Daniel W.; Valenzuela, Arnoldo; Rees, David

    1990-01-01

    In May 1986 an experiment was performed to test Alfven's critical ionization velocity (CIV) effect in free space, using the first high explosive shaped charge with a conical liner of strontium metal. The release, made at 540 km altitude at dawn twilight, was aimed at 48 deg to B. The background electron density was 1.5 x 10(exp 4) cu cm. A faint field-aligned Sr(+) ion streak with tip velocity of 2.6 km/s was observed from two optical sites. Using two calibration methods, it was calculated that between 4.5 x 10(exp 20) and 2 x 10(exp 21) ions were visible. An ionization time constant of 1920 s was calculated for Sr from the solar UV spectrum and ionization cross section which combined with a computer simulation of the injection predicts 1.7 x 10(exp 21) solar UV ions in the low-velocity part of the ion streak. Thus all the observed ions are from solar UV ionization of the slow (less than critical) velocity portion of the neutral jet. The observed neutral Sr velocity distribution and computer simulations indicate that 2 x 10(exp 21) solar UV ions would have been created from the fast (greater than critical) part of the jet. They would have been more diffuse, and were not observed. Using this fact it was estimated that any CIV ions created were less than 10(exp 21). It was concluded that future Sr CIV free space experiments should be conducted below the UV shadow height and in much larger background plasma density.

  12. Hard X-ray Observation of Cygnus X-1 By the Marshall Imaging X-ray Experiment (MIXE2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minamitani, Takahisa; Apple, J. A.; Austin, R. A.; Dietz, K. L.; Koloziejczak, J. J.; Ramsey, B. D.; Weisskopf, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    The second generation of the Marshall Imaging X-ray Experiment (MIXE2) was flown from Fort Sumner, New Mexico on May 7-8, 1997. The experiment consists of coded-aperture telescope with a field of view of 1.8 degrees (FWHM) and an angular resolution of 6.9 arcminutes. The detector is a large (7.84x10(exp 4) sq cm) effective area microstrip proportional counter filled with 2.0x10(exp5) Pascals of xenon with 2% isobutylene. We present MIXE2 observation of the 20-80keV spectrum and timing variability of Cygnus X-1 made during balloon flight.

  13. Grand unified theories, topological defects and ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharjee, Pijushpani; Hill, Christopher T.; Schramm, David N.

    1991-01-01

    The ultrahigh-energy (UHE) proton and neutrino spectra resulting from collapse or annihilations of topological defects surviving from the GUT era are calculated. Irrespective of the specific process under consideration (which determines the overall normalization of the spectrum), the UHE proton spectrum always 'recovers' at approximately 1.8 x 10 exp 11 GeV after a partial Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min 'cutoff' at approximately 5 x 10 exp 10 GeV and continues to a GUT-scale energy with a universal shape determined by the physics of hadronic jet fragmentation. Implications of our results are discussed.

  14. A quantitative model of plasma in Neptune's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, J. D.

    1993-07-01

    A model encompassing plasma transport and energy processes is applied to Neptune's magnetosphere. Starting with profiles of the neutral densities and the electron temperature, the model calculates the plasma density and ion temperature profiles. Good agreement between model results and observations is obtained for a neutral source of 5 x 10 exp 25/s if the diffusion coefficient is 10 exp -8 L3R(N)/2s, plasma is lost at a rate 1/3 that of the strong diffusion rate, and plasma subcorotates in the region outside Triton.

  15. Photochemical Modeling of CH3 Abundances in the Outer Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Anthony Y. T.; Yung, Yuk L.; Moses, Julianne

    2000-01-01

    Recent measurements of methyl radicals (CH3) in the upper atmospheres of Saturn and Neptune by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) provide new constraints to photochemical models of hydrocarbon chemistry in the outer solar system. The derived column abundances of CH3 on Saturn above 10 mbar and Neptune above the 0.2 mbar pressure level are (2.5 - 6.0) x 10(exp 13) / sq cm and (0.7 - 2.8) x 10(exp 13) / sq cm, respectively. We use the updated Caltech/Jet Propulsion Laboratory photochemical model, which incorporates hydrocarbon photochemistry, vertical molecular and bulk atmospheric eddy diffusion, and realistic radiative transfer modeling, to study the CH3 abundances in the upper atmosphere of the giant planets and Titan. We identify the key reactions that control the concentrations of CH3 in the model, such as the three-body recombination reaction, CH3 + CH3 + M yields C2H6 + M. We evaluate and extrapolate the three-body rate constant of this reaction to the low-temperature limit (1.8 x 10(exp -16) T(sup -3.75) e(sup -300/T), T < 300 K) and compare methyl radical abundances in five atmospheres: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Titan. The sensitivity of our models to the rate coefficients for the reactions H + CH3 + M yields CH4 + M, H + C2H3 yields C2H2 + H2, (sup 1)CH2 + H2 yields CH3 + H, and H + C2H5 yields 2CH3, the branching ratios of CH4 photolysis, vertical mixing in the five atmospheres, and Lyman alpha photon enhancement at the orbit of Neptune have all been tested. The results of our model CH3 abundances for both Saturn (5.1 x 10(exp 13) / sq cm) and Neptune (2.2 x 10(exp 13) / sq cm) show good agreement with ISO Short Wavelength Spectrometer measurements. Using the same chemical reaction set, our calculations also successfully generate vertical profiles of stable hydrocarbons consistent with Voyager and ground-based measurements in these outer solar system atmospheres. Predictions of CH3 column concentrations (for p <= 0.2 mbar) in the atmospheres

  16. Fractionation of hydrogen and deuterium on Venus due to collisional ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurwell, M. A.; Yung, Y. L.

    1993-02-01

    The collisional ejection process for hydrogen on Venus is reanalyzed. Improved values for the efficiency of H and D escape as a function of the ionospheric temperature are reported. It is proposed that the reduction of the hydrogen flux for collisional ejection be reduced from 8 to 3.5 x 10 exp 6/sq cm/s, and a revised D/H fractional factor of 0.47 due to collisional ejection is suggested. The resulting deuterium flux is 3.1 x 10 exp 4/sq cm/s, roughly six times the flux due to charge exchange, making collisional ejection the dominant escape mechanism for deuterium on Venus.

  17. A three-axis ultrasensitive accelerometer for space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, A.

    A three-axis ultrasensitive accelerometer ASTRE (Accelerometre Spatial Triaxial Electrostatique) is a simplified version of the GRADIO accelerometer designed for the ARISTOTELES mission, which operates by measuring the force provided by a three-axis electrostatic suspension of the proof-mass. It covers the g-spectrum from 10 exp -8 to 10 exp -4 in the frequency range dc to 5 Hz. A dedicated test bench was developed in order to preserve the accelerometer from the seismic noise. The paper presents the performance parameters of the ASTRE accelerometer and some of the design schemes.

  18. A ROSAT Wide Field Camera search for XUV bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Alan; Page, Clive G.; Sembay, S.; Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1993-02-01

    We have searched the ROSAT Wide Field Camera all-sky survey for short time-scale (less than 50 s) XUV bursts down to a limiting count of 5 x 10 exp -3 count/sq arcmin, corresponding to an incident flux of about 3 x 10 exp -10 erg/sq cm. In a total observation period of 171 d covering the entire sky, we found no evidence for such events. The present results are used to place limits on the log N-log S relation for gamma-ray bursts and constraints on the spectral shape of the previously reported ultrasoft X-ray transients.

  19. Exoplanet Direct Imaging: Coronagraph Probe Mission Study EXO-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapelfeldt, Karl R.

    2013-01-01

    Flagship mission for spectroscopy of ExoEarths is a long-term priority for space astrophysics (Astro2010). Requires 10(exp 10) contrast at 3 lambda/D separation, ( (is) greater than 10,000 times beyond HST performance) and large telescope (is) greater than 4m aperture. Big step. Mission for spectroscopy of giant planets and imaging of disks requires 10(exp 9) contrast at 3 lambda/D (already demonstrated in lab) and (is) approximately 1.5m telescope. Should be much more affordable, good intermediate step.Various PIs have proposed many versions of the latter mission 17 times since 1999; no unified approach.

  20. Experimental findings on self-recovery and improvement of representative parameters of some semiconductor devices as irradiated in fast neutron flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, W.; Sterlinski, Sl.; Nazarov, V. M.; Bober, Z.

    Semiconductor devices (Si-Li detectors, diodes, transistors and integrated circuits) were irradiated at a nuclear reactor up to 2.8 x 10(exp14)n x cm(sup -2)(E sub n greater than 0.5 MeV) anda 14 MeV neutron generator up to 10(exp 13) n x cm(sup -2). While testing radiation damage it was seen that some Si-Li detectors and integrated circuits showed the effects of self-recovery and improvement of electrical characteristics.

  1. Nimbus-5 ITPR Experiment.

    PubMed

    Smith, W L; Hilleary, D T; Fischer, J C; Howell, H B; Woolf, H M

    1974-03-01

    The Nimbus-5 infrared temperature profile radiometer (ITPR) experiment was designed to measure upwelling infrared radiation in appropriate spectral intervals and with sufficient geographical resolution for sounding the atmosphere's temperature distribution down to the earth's surface even under partly cloudy sky conditions. A primary scientific goal of the experiment was the specification of the mesoscale features of surface and atmospheric temperature and water vapor that are associated with intense weather systems. In this paper the ITPR instrument is described and some initial spacecraft results are given that demonstrate the success of the experiment in achieving its scientific goals.

  2. Project Intelsat 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    With 12,000 voice circuits and 2 television channels, intelsat 5, the first of a new generation of international telecommunication satellites, has almost double the communication capability of early satellites in the series. The 1,928 kilogram (at a lunch) satellite will be placed into geosynchronous orbit over the Atlantic Ocean to provide communications between North America and Europe. The characteristics of the Atlas Centaur launch vehicle to be used are described and the flights events of the launch sequence are tabulated.

  3. X-Ray Emission from the Sun in Its Youth and Old Age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorren, J. D.; Gudel, M.; Guinan, E. F.

    1995-01-01

    We have obtained ROSAT PSPC (Roentgen Satellite Position Sensitive Proportional Counter) pointed observations of two nearby G stars of ages 70 Myr and 9.5 Gyr that are of unique importance as proxies for the Sun at the two extremes of its main-sequence evolutionary lifetime. The younger star, HD 129333 (EK Dra; G0 V), a rapid rotator with a 2.7 day period, is a strong source with an X-ray luminosity L(x)(0.2-2.4 keV) = (7.5-11.5) x 10(exp 29) erg/s. Modeling suggests a two-temperature corona with T(1) = (2.0 +/- 0.3) x 10(exp 6) K and T(2) = (9.7 +/- 0.3) x 10(exp 6) K (formal uncertainties). A continuous emission measure distribution, increasing to higher temperatures and with a cutoff at (20-30) x 10(exp 6) K, yields even better fits to the data. The old star, beta Hyi (HR 98; G2 IV), represents the Sun in the future, near the end of its hydrogen-core burning stage, when it should be rotating more slowly (present P(rot) = 25.4 day) and should have lower levels of activity. The ROSAT measurements yield L(x) = (0.9-3.0) x 10(exp 27) ergs/s and a rather cool, single coronal temperature of T = (1.7 +/- 0.4) x 10(exp 6) K. For comparison, the Sun has L(x) approx. equal to 2 x 10(exp 27) ergs/s and a coronal temperature of about T = 2 x 10(exp 6) K. These stars provide information on the decline of the stellar (and specifically solar) magnetic activity from extreme youth to old age. HD 129333 is also important in that it yields an estimate of the solar soft X-ray flux in the early solar system at the epoch of the terminal stages of planetary accretion.

  4. Verification and Validation of RADTRAN 5.5.

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, Douglas.; Weiner, Ruth F.; Mills, George Scott; Hamp, Steve C.

    2005-02-01

    This document contains a description of the verification and validation process used for the RADTRAN 5.5 code. The verification and validation process ensured the proper calculational models and mathematical and numerical methods were used in the RADTRAN 5.5 code for the determination of risk and consequence assessments. The differences between RADTRAN 5 and RADTRAN 5.5 are the addition of tables, an expanded isotope library, and the additional User-Defined meteorological option for accident dispersion. 3

  5. Cornering color SU(5)

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, E.D. ); Hall, L.J. ); Sarid, U. ); Burton, J.W. )

    1991-09-01

    Planned collider experiments will decisively test the color SU(5) model of Foot and Hernandez, in which an extended QCD group is broken at the TeV scale. Constraints from cosmology and from neutral-kaon mixing imply that exotic charge-1/2 fermions of this model cannot all be given masses above about 1 TeV. These quirks'' carry a new strong confining force, from the surviving unbroken gauge symmetry. Searches for the leptonic decay products of quirkonium at CERN LEP II will probe quirk masses up to near the beam energy, while searches at planned hadron colliders will be sensitive to quirk masses all the way up to the TeV upper bound.

  6. Constitution, 5 May 1989.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    This document contains provisions of Cambodia's Constitution of May 5, 1989. Article 7 gives men and women equal rights in marriage and the family, calls for monogamous marriages, and affords social protection to mothers and children. Article 8 guides parent-child relationships. The 14th article defines state property, and the 15th gives citizens full rights to own, use, and inherit land. The use of agricultural and forested land can only be changed with permission. Article 22 assigns educational responsibilities to the state, including free elementary education and a gradual expansion of higher education. Adult literacy classes are also promoted. Article 26 guarantees free medical consultations, and article 27 gives women a 90-day paid maternity leave. Breast-feeding women are also given special privileges. Article 33 guarantees the right to pay equity and to social security benefits. Article 36 grants the freedom to travel, the inviolability of homes, and privacy in correspondence of all types.

  7. 5-HT system and cognition.

    PubMed

    Meneses, A

    1999-12-01

    The study of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) system has benefited from the identification, classification and cloning of multiple 5-HT receptors (5-HT1 to 5-HT7). Growing evidence suggests that 5-HT is important in learning and memory and all its receptors might be implicated in this. Actually, 5-HT pathways, 5-HT reuptake site/transporter complex and 5-HT receptors show regional distribution in brain areas implicated in learning and memory. Likewise, the stimulation or blockade of presynaptic 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT(2A/2C) and 5-HT3 receptors, postsynaptic 5-HT(2B/2C) and 5-HT4 receptors and 5-HT uptake/transporter sites modulate these processes. Available evidence strongly suggests that the 5-HT system may be important in normal function, the treatment and/or pathogenesis of cognitive disorders. Further investigation will help to specify the 5-HT system nature involvement in cognitive processes, pharmacotherapies, their mechanisms and action sites and to determine under which conditions they could operate. In this regard, it is probable that selective drugs with agonists, neutral antagonist, agonists or inverse agonist properties for 5-HT1A, 5-HT(1B/1D), 5-HT(2A/2B/2C), 5-HT4 and 5-HT7 receptors could constitute a new therapeutic opportunity for learning and memory alterations.

  8. The Radio Luminosity Function and Galaxy Evolution in the Coma Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Neal A.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Mabasher, Bahram; Brudgesm Terrry J.; Hudson, Michael J.; Marzke, Ronald O.; Smith, Russell J.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the radio luminosity function and radio source population for two fields within the Coma cluster of galaxies, with the fields centered on the cluster core and southwest infall region and each covering about half a square degree. Using VLA data with a typical rms sensitivity of 28 (mu)Jy per 4.4" beam, we identify 249 radio sources with optical counterparts brighter than r = 22 (equivalent to M(sub r) = -13 for cluster member galaxies). Comprehensive optical spectroscopy identifies 38 of these as members of the Coma cluster, evenly split between sources powered by an active nucleus and sources powered by active star formation. The radio-detected star-forming galaxies are restricted to radio luminosities between about 10(exp 21) and 10(exp 22) W/Hz, an interesting result given that star formation dominates field radio luminosity functions below about 10(exp 23) W/Hz. The majority of the radio-detected star-forming galaxies have characteristics of starbursts, including high specific star formation rates and optical spectra with strong emission lines. In conjunction with prior studies on post-starburst galaxies within the Coma cluster, this is consistent with a picture in which late-type galaxies entering Coma undergo a starburst prior to a rapid cessation of star formation. Optically bright elliptical galaxies (Mr less than or equals -20.5) make the largest contribution to the radio luminosity function at both the high (> approx. 3x10(exp 22) W/Hz) and low (< approx. 10(exp 21) W/Hz) ends. Through a stacking analysis of these optically-bright ellipticals we find that they continue to harbor radio sources down to luminosities as faint as 3x10(exp 19) W/Hz. However, contrary to published results for the Virgo cluster we find no evidence for the existence of a population of optically faint (M(sub r) approx. equals -14) dwarf ellipticals hosting strong radio AGN.

  9. Time-Dependent Photodissociation Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, David; Natta, Antonella

    1995-01-01

    We present theoretical models of the time-dependent thermal and chemical structure of molecular gas suddenly exposed to far-ultraviolet (FUV) (6 eV less than hv less than 13.6 eV) radiation fields and the consequent time- dependent infrared emission of the gas. We focus on the response of molecular hydrogen for cloud densities ranging from n = 10(exp 3) to 10(exp 6)/cu cm and FUV fluxes G(sub 0) = 10(exp 3)-10(exp 6) times the local FUV interstellar flux. For G(sub 0)/n greater than 10(exp -2) cu cm, the emergent H(sub 2) vibrational line intensities are initially larger than the final equilibrium values. The H(sub 2) lines are excited by FUV fluorescence and by collisional excitation in warm gas. Most of the H(sub 2) intensity is generated at a characteristic hydrogen column density of N approximately 10(exp 21)/sq cm, which corresponds to an FUV optical depth of unity caused by dust opacity. The time dependence of the H(sub 2) intensities arises because the initial abundances of H(sub 2) at these depths is much higher than the equilibrium values, so that H(sub 2) initially competes more effectively with dust in absorbing FUV photons. Considerable column densities of warm (T approximately 1000) K H(sub 2) gas can be produced by the FUV pumping of H(sub 2) vibrational levels followed by collisional de-excitation, which transfers the energy to heat. In dense (n greater than or approximately 10(exp 5)/cu cm) gas exposed to high (G(sub 0) greater than or approximately 10(exp 4)) fluxes, this warm gas produces a 2-1 S(1)/1-0 S(l) H(sub 2) line ratio of approximately 0.1, which mimics the ratio found in shocked gas. In lower density regions, the FUV pumping produces a pure-fluorescent ratio of approximately 0.5. We also present calculations of the time dependence of the atomic hydrogen column densities and of the intensities of 0 I 6300 A, S II 6730 A, Fe II 1.64 microns, and rotational OH and H20 emission. Potential applications include star-forming regions, clouds

  10. 5. VIEW NORTHNORTHWEST FROM FLOOR OF DRYDOCK NO. 5; CRANE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW NORTH-NORTHWEST FROM FLOOR OF DRYDOCK NO. 5; CRANE LIFTING SHEET METAL SCRAP (JEFF DAVIS-CRANE OPERATOR). - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Dry Dock No. 5, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. Catatonia in DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Rajiv; Heckers, Stephan; Bustillo, Juan; Barch, Deanna M; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Gur, Raquel E; Malaspina, Dolores; Owen, Michael J; Schultz, Susan; Tsuang, Ming; van Os, Jim; Carpenter, William

    2013-10-01

    Although catatonia has historically been associated with schizophrenia and is listed as a subtype of the disorder, it can occur in patients with a primary mood disorder and in association with neurological diseases and other general medical conditions. Consequently, catatonia secondary to a general medical condition was included as a new condition and catatonia was added as an episode specifier of major mood disorders in DSM-IV. Different sets of criteria are utilized to diagnose catatonia in schizophrenia and primary mood disorders versus neurological/medical conditions in DSM-IV, however, and catatonia is a codable subtype of schizophrenia but a specifier for major mood disorders without coding. In part because of this discrepant treatment across the DSM-IV manual, catatonia is frequently not recognized by clinicians. Additionally, catatonia is known to occur in several conditions other than schizophrenia, major mood disorders, or secondary to a general medical condition. Four changes are therefore made in the treatment of catatonia in DSM-5. A single set of criteria will be utilized to diagnose catatonia across the diagnostic manual and catatonia will be a specifier for both schizophrenia and major mood disorders. Additionally, catatonia will also be a specifier for other psychotic disorders, including schizoaffective disorder, schizophreniform disorder, brief psychotic disorder, and substance-induced psychotic disorder. A new residual category of catatonia not otherwise specified will be added to allow for the rapid diagnosis and specific treatment of catatonia in severely ill patients for whom the underlying diagnosis is not immediately available. These changes should improve the consistent recognition of catatonia across the range of psychiatric disorders and facilitate its specific treatment.

  12. In vitro Catecholamine Exposure Produces Variable Effects on the B7 Costimulatory Pathway in Human Monocytic Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salicru, A. N.; Crucian, B.; Sams, Clarence; Actor, J. K.; Marshall, G. D., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Catecholamines have been associated with immunomodulation of the adaptive immune system towards a Th2 response in vitro. We therefore examined the role of in vitro epinephrine (EPI) and norepinephrine (NE) exposure on the B7 costimulatory expression of antigen presenting cells (APC) from human monocytic cell lines and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). THP1 monocytic cells and CD14+ cells from normal human PBMC were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and incubated with physiologic stress levels (10(exp -6) - 10(exp -8)M) of EPI or NE for 24 hours. Cells were subsequently stained with CD80 FITC, CD86 PE, and CD14 PC5 antibodies and analyzed by flow cytometry for changes in fluorescence and mean fluorescence intensity (MFI). Exposure of THP1 to EPI in vitro at concentrations of 10(exp -6), 10(exp -7) and 10(exp -8)M significantly decreased mean CD80 from 42 plus or minus 0.7% to 11 plus or minus 0.44%, 19.1 plus or minus 2.0%, and 30.7 plus or minus 2.1% expression, respectively (p less than 0.01). In addition, CD86 expression increased with EPI at 10(exp -6), 10(exp -7) and 10(exp -8) M from 9.2 plus or minus 0.52% to 41 plus or minus 3.8%, 26.4 plus or minus 1.9%, and 15.74 plus or minus 1.8% expression, respectively (p less than 0.01). Similar results for mean CD80 and CD86 percent expression were observed for CD14+ cells from PBMC with a sample size of N = 6 and for NE when substituted for EPI. The data show that in vitro exposure to catecholamines significantly decreases %CD86 expression and significantly increases %CD86 expression in THP1 cells and human CD14+ APC. Previous studies have suggested an association between increased CD86 expression and TH2 activity. Thus, these data suggest that immunomodulation by catecholamines results in part by the variable effects of the B7 costimulatory pathway in APC.

  13. Interactions of Perilipin-5 (Plin5) with Adipose Triglyceride Lipase*

    PubMed Central

    Granneman, James G.; Moore, Hsiao-Ping H.; Mottillo, Emilio P.; Zhu, Zhengxian; Zhou, Li

    2011-01-01

    Members of the perilipin family of lipid droplet scaffold proteins are thought to play important roles in tissue-specific regulation of triglyceride metabolism, but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. Present results indicate that adipose triglyceride lipase (Atgl) interacts with perilipin-5 (Plin5) but not perilipin-1 (Plin1). Protein interaction assays in live cells and in situ binding experiments showed that Atgl and its protein activator, α-β-hydrolase domain-containing 5 (Abhd5), each bind Plin5. Surprisingly, competition experiments indicated that individual Plin5 molecules bind Atgl or Abhd5 but not both simultaneously. Thus, the ability of Plin5 to concentrate these proteins at droplet surfaces involves binding to different Plin5 molecules, possibly in an oligomeric complex. The association of Plin5-Abhd5 complexes on lipid droplet surfaces was more stable than Plin5-Atgl complexes, and oleic acid treatment selectively promoted the interaction of Plin5 and Abhd5. Analysis of chimeric and mutant perilipin proteins demonstrated that amino acids 200–463 are necessary and sufficient to bind both Atgl and Abhd5 and that the C-terminal 64 amino acids of Plin5 are critical for the differential binding of Atgl to Plin5 and Plin1. Mutant Plin5 that binds Abhd5 but not Atgl was defective in preventing neutral lipid accumulation compared with wild type Plin5, indicating that the ability of Plin5 to concentrate these proteins on lipid droplets is critical to functional Atgl activity in cells. PMID:21148142

  14. 5 CFR 9800.5 - Public reading room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Public reading room. 9800.5 Section 9800.5 Administrative Personnel COUNCIL OF THE INSPECTORS GENERAL ON INTEGRITY AND EFFICIENCY FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT REGULATIONS § 9800.5 Public reading room. CIGIE maintains an electronic public reading room...

  15. 5 CFR 9800.5 - Public reading room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Public reading room. 9800.5 Section 9800.5 Administrative Personnel COUNCIL OF THE INSPECTORS GENERAL ON INTEGRITY AND EFFICIENCY FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT REGULATIONS § 9800.5 Public reading room. CIGIE maintains an electronic public reading room...

  16. 5 CFR 1310.5 - List of current circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false List of current circulars. 1310.5 Section 1310.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES OMB CIRCULARS § 1310.5 List of current circulars. The following list includes all circulars in effect as of December 1,...

  17. 18 CFR 5.5 - Notification of intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notification of intent. 5.5 Section 5.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... project works licensed, if any, such as dam and reservoir, powerhouse, or transmission lines. (6)...

  18. Synthesis of monomethyl 5,5'-dehydrodiferulic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synthesis of the internal reference compound, monomethyl 5,5’-dehydrodiferulic acid, is described. The synthetic scheme relies on a selective monomethylation of the known compound 5,5-dehydrodivanillin, followed by elaboration into the dehydrodiferulic framework through a dual Horner-Emmons-Wadswort...

  19. 43 CFR 3585.5-5 - Contents of notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contents of notice. 3585.5-5 Section 3585.5-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS White...

  20. 18 CFR 5.5 - Notification of intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notification of intent. 5.5 Section 5.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  1. 18 CFR 5.5 - Notification of intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notification of intent. 5.5 Section 5.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  2. 18 CFR 5.5 - Notification of intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification of intent. 5.5 Section 5.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  3. 18 CFR 5.5 - Notification of intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notification of intent. 5.5 Section 5.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  4. 5 CFR 5.1 - Civil Service regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil Service regulations. 5.1 Section 5.1 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES REGULATIONS, INVESTIGATION, AND ENFORCEMENT (RULE V) § 5.1 Civil Service regulations. The Director, Office of...

  5. 5 CFR 2100.5 - Access by individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Access by individuals. 2100.5 Section 2100.5 Administrative Personnel ARMED FORCES RETIREMENT HOME ARMED FORCES RETIREMENT HOME PRIVACY ACT PROCEDURES § 2100.5 Access by individuals. (a) No individual will be allowed access to any...

  6. 5 CFR 2100.5 - Access by individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Access by individuals. 2100.5 Section 2100.5 Administrative Personnel ARMED FORCES RETIREMENT HOME ARMED FORCES RETIREMENT HOME PRIVACY ACT PROCEDURES § 2100.5 Access by individuals. (a) No individual will be allowed access to any...

  7. 5 CFR 2100.5 - Access by individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Access by individuals. 2100.5 Section 2100.5 Administrative Personnel ARMED FORCES RETIREMENT HOME ARMED FORCES RETIREMENT HOME PRIVACY ACT PROCEDURES § 2100.5 Access by individuals. (a) No individual will be allowed access to any...

  8. 5 CFR 2100.5 - Access by individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Access by individuals. 2100.5 Section 2100.5 Administrative Personnel ARMED FORCES RETIREMENT HOME ARMED FORCES RETIREMENT HOME PRIVACY ACT PROCEDURES § 2100.5 Access by individuals. (a) No individual will be allowed access to any...

  9. Ultra-Sensitive Transition-Edge Sensors for the Background Limited Infrared/Sub-mm Spectrograph (BLISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyer, A. D.; Kenyon, M. E.; Echternach, P. M.; Chui, T.; Eom, B.-H.; Day, P. K.; Bock, J. J.; Holmes, W.A.; Bradford, C. M.

    2011-01-01

    We report progress in fabricating ultra-sensitive superconducting transition-edge sensors (TESs) for BLISS. BLISS is a suite of grating spectrometers covering 35-433 micron with R approx. 700 cooled to 50 mK that is proposed to fly on the Japanese space telescope SPICA. The detector arrays for BLISS are TES bolometers readout with a time domain SQUID multiplexer. The required noise equivalent power (NEP) for BLISS is NEP = 10(exp -19) W/Hz(exp 1/2) with an ultimate goal of NEP= 5 x 10(exp -20) W/Hz(exp 1/2) to achieve background limited noise performance. The required and goal response times are tau = 150 ms and tau = 50ms respectively to achieve the NEP at the required and goal optical chop frequency 1-5 Hz. We measured prototype BLISS arrays and have achieved NEP = 6 x 10(exp -18) W/Hz(exp 1/2) and tau = 1.4 ms with a Ti TES (T(sub C) = 565 mK) and NEP approx. 2.5 x 10(exp -19) W/Hz(exp 1/2) and tau approximates 4.5 ms with an Ir TES (T(sub C) = 130 mK). Dark power for these tests is estimated at 1-5 fW.

  10. MACMULTIVIEW 5.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norikane, L.

    1994-01-01

    format (standard format readable by MacMultiview and other image processing programs for the Macintosh). Images can also be printed on PostScript output devices. Polarization signatures can be saved in either a PICT format or as a text file containing PostScript commands and printed on any QuickDraw output device. The associated Stokes matrices can be stored in a text file. MacMultiview is written in C-language for Macintosh II series computers. MacMultiview will only run on Macintosh II series computers with 8-bit video displays (gray shades or color). The program also requires a minimum configuration of System 6.0, Finder 6.1, and 1Mb of RAM. MacMultiview is NOT compatible with System 7.0. It requires 32-Bit QuickDraw. Note: MacMultiview may not be fully compatible with preliminary versions of 32-Bit QuickDraw. Macintosh Programmer's Workshop and Macintosh Programmer's Workshop C (version 3.0) are required for recompiling and relinking. The standard distribution medium for this package is a set of three 800K 3.5 inch diskettes in Macintosh format. This program was developed in 1989 and updated in 1991. MacMultiview is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA. QuickDraw, Finder, Macintosh, and System 7 are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.

  11. Shape Shifting Satellites in Binary Near-Earth Asteroids: Do Meteoroid Impacts Play a Role in BYORP Orbital Evolution?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, David Parry

    2012-01-01

    Less than catastrophic meteoroid impacts over 10(exp 5) years may change the shape of small rubble-pile satellites in binary NEAs, lengthening the average BYORP (binary Yarkovsky-Radzievskii-Paddack) rate of orbital evolution. An estimate of shape-shifting meteoroid fluxes give numbers close enough to causing random walks in the semimajor axis of binary systems to warrant further investigation

  12. Pyroelectric detector development for the Radiation Measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, G. S.; Mcmurray, Robert E., Jr.; Hanel, R. P.; Dominguez, D. E.; Valero, F. P. J.; Baumann, Hilary; Hansen, W. L.; Haller, E. E.

    1993-01-01

    A new class of high detectivity pyroelectric detectors developed for optimization of the radiation measurement system within the framework of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program is described. These devices are intended to provide detectivities of up to about 10 exp 11 cm Hz exp 0.5/W with cooling to about 100 K required for the detector focal plane.

  13. All-optical Photonic Oscillator with High-Q Whispering Gallery Mode Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy A.; Matsko, Andrey B.; Strekalov, Dmitry; Mohageg, Makan; Iltchenko, Vladimir S.; Maleki, Lute

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrated low threshold optical photonic hyper-parametric oscillator in a high-Q 10(exp 10) CaF2 whispering gallery mode resonator which generates stable 8.5 GHz signal. The oscillations result from the resonantly enhanced four wave mixing occurring due to Kerr nonlinearity of the material.

  14. Preliminary DMR measurements of the CMB isotropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smoot, G. F.; Bennett, C. L.; Kogut, A.; Aymon, J.; Backus, C.; De Amici, G.; Galuk, K.; Jackson, P. D.; Keegstra, P.; Rokke, L.

    1991-01-01

    The COBE Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) instrument has produced preliminary full-sky maps at frequencies 31.5, 53, and 90 GHz. The redundant channels and matched beams at three frequencies distinguish the DMR from previous large-scale surveys. Galactic emission is seen unambiguously at all three frequencies. The only large-scale anisotropy detected in the cosmic microwave background is the dipole anisotropy. There is no clear evidence for any other large-angular-scale feature in the maps. Without correcting for any systematic effects, we are able to place limits DeltaT/T sub 0 less than 3 x 10 exp -5 for the rms quadrupole amplitude, DeltaT/T sub 0 less than 4 x 10 exp -5 for monochromatic fluctuations, and DeltaT/T sub 0 less than 4 x 10 exp -5 for Gaussian fluctuations (all limits are 95 percent C.L. with TO = 2.735 K). The data limit DeltaT/T sub 0 less than 10 exp -4 for any feature larger than 7 deg. We briefly review the DMR and discuss some implications of these results in cosmology.

  15. Formation of Nanometallic Clusters in Silica by Ion Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Ila, D., Sarkisov, S., Williams, E.K. , Smith, C.C. , Poker, D.B., Hensley, D.K.

    1997-10-01

    We have changed both linear and nonlinear optical properties of suprasil-1 by implanting 2.0 MeV copper, 350 keV tin, 1.5 MeV silver and 3.0 MeV gold.These changes were induced both by over implantation above the threshold fluence for spontaneous cluster formation and by subsequent thermal annealing,and are due to an increase in resonance optical absorption as well as an enhancement of the nonlinear optical properties. Using optical absorption spectrophotometry and Rutherford Backscattering spectrometry, we have measured the cluster size for each heat treatment temperature. Using Z-scan technique we have determined the third order electric susceptibility for each implanted species to be 1.5 x 10(exp -6) esu for Sn nanoclusters, 2.7 x 10(exp -6) esu for Cu nanoclusters, 5 x 10(exp -7) esu for Ag nanoclusters, to 6.5 x 10(exp-7) esu for Au nanoclusters in suprasil- 1.

  16. GHRS Observations of Cool, Low-Gravity Stars. 5; The Outer Atmosphere and Wind of the Nearby K Supergiant Lambda Velorum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Robinson, Richard D.; Harper, Graham M.; Bennett, Philip D.; Brown, Alexander; Mullan, Dermott J.

    1999-01-01

    -absorptions reflect a wind turbulence of approximately equal 9-21 km/s. We further characterize the wind by comparing the observations with synthetic profiles generated with the Lamers et al. Sobolev with Exact Integration (SEI) radiative transfer code, assuming simple models of the outer atmospheric structure. These comparisons indicate that the wind in 1994 can be described by a model with a wind acceleration parameter beta approximately 0.9, a terminal velocity of 29-33 km/s, and a mass-loss rate approximately 3 x 10(exp -9) solar M/yr. Modeling of the 3.6 cm radio flux observed in 1997 suggests a more slowly accelerating wind (higher beta) and/or a higher mass-loss rate than inferred from the UV line profiles. These differences may be due to temporal variations in the wind or from limitations in one or both of the models. The discrepancy is currently under investigation.

  17. 9. (5 X 7 enlargement from 4 X 5 negative) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. (5 X 7 enlargement from 4 X 5 negative) FIRST FLOOR, WINDOW MOLDING ON SOUTH WALL LOOKING SOUTH - Sites Homestead, Monongahela National Forest (Tract 390) East of Route 28, Seneca Rocks, Pendleton County, WV

  18. 5. INTERIOR, TWO 5' X 6' HIGH PRESSURE EMERGENCY GATES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR, TWO 5' X 6' HIGH PRESSURE EMERGENCY GATES, FOR BUREAU OF RECLAIMATION, WITH HYDRAULIC HOISTS, INSIDE OF MACHINE SHOP (CA 1930S). - Hardie-Tynes Manufacturing Company, Workshop, 800 Twenty-eighth Street North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  19. 43 CFR 3141.5-5 - Dating of lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.5-5 Dating of lease. A combined hydrocarbon lease shall be effective as of...

  20. 43 CFR 3141.5-5 - Dating of lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.5-5 Dating of lease. A combined hydrocarbon lease shall be effective as of...

  1. 43 CFR 3141.5-5 - Dating of lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.5-5 Dating of lease. A combined hydrocarbon lease shall be effective as of...

  2. 43 CFR 3141.5-5 - Dating of lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.5-5 Dating of lease. A combined hydrocarbon lease shall be effective as of...

  3. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Roger Sturtevant, Photographer Apr. 5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Roger Sturtevant, Photographer Apr. 5, 1934 JACOB R. GIDDIS AND JOEL A. CUMBACK, MOUNTAIN VIEW CEMETERY, COLUMBIA - Grave Stones, Mountain View Cemetery, Bigler Street, Columbia, Tuolumne County, CA

  4. 5 CFR 1315.5 - Accelerated payment methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... services. For interim payments under cost-reimbursement service contracts, agency heads may make payments... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accelerated payment methods. 1315.5 Section 1315.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES PROMPT...

  5. 5 CFR 1315.5 - Accelerated payment methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... services. For interim payments under cost-reimbursement service contracts, agency heads may make payments... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accelerated payment methods. 1315.5 Section 1315.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES PROMPT...

  6. 5 CFR 1315.5 - Accelerated payment methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... services. For interim payments under cost-reimbursement service contracts, agency heads may make payments... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accelerated payment methods. 1315.5 Section 1315.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES PROMPT...

  7. 5 CFR 1315.5 - Accelerated payment methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... services. For interim payments under cost-reimbursement service contracts, agency heads may make payments... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accelerated payment methods. 1315.5 Section 1315.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES PROMPT...

  8. 5 CFR 1315.5 - Accelerated payment methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... services. For interim payments under cost-reimbursement service contracts, agency heads may make payments... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accelerated payment methods. 1315.5 Section 1315.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES PROMPT...

  9. 5 CFR 1501.5 - Panels of the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Panels of the Board. 1501.5 Section 1501... INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS EMPLOYEES LOYALTY BOARD § 1501.5 Panels of the Board. All hearings shall be held by panels of the Board, the determinations of which shall be the determinations of the Board. Such panels...

  10. 37 CFR 5.31-5.33 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... atomic energy 1.14(d) Reservation for future application not permitted 1.79 Secrecy order 5.1-5.5 Tables... recording 3.21-3.41 What will be accepted for recording 3.11 Atomic energy applications reported to... connection with old structure 1.83(b) Incorporation by reference to prior application 1.57 In...

  11. Activation energy and capture cross section of majority carrier traps in Zn doped InP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybicki, George; Williams, Wendell

    1993-01-01

    Schottky barrier diodes were fabricated on Zn doped InP Wafers. The diodes were radiation damaged with 2 MeV protons to a dose of 2 x 10(exp 12)cm(sup -2). The damage was analyzed by DLTS (deep level transient spectroscopy) using the double correlation technique. Capture cross sections were measured directly. Two major defects were observed in the DLTS spectra. The first defect, was H4 at Ev + 0.29 eV, with capture cross section 1.1 x 10(exp -17)cm(sup 2). The second defect, was H5 at Ev + 0.53 eV. Its capture cross section varied with temperature as described by the relationship sigma = sigma(sub 0) exp(delta(E)/kT) where sigma(sub 0) = 1.3 x 10(exp -19)cm(sup 2) and delta(E) = .08 eV. This relationship yields a sigma of 5.9 x 10(exp -21)cm(sup 2) at room temperature. The surprisingly small capture cross section of H5 and its temperature dependence are discussed in terms of the multiphonon emission process for carrier capture at the defect. The advantages of the improved experimental techniques used are also discussed.

  12. Experimental investigation of the Marangoni effect on the stability of a double-diffusive layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanny, Josef; Chen, Chuan F.

    1994-01-01

    Stability experiments were carried out in 4-cm-thick, salt-stratified fluid layer by heating from below and cooling from above. The bottom boundary was rigid while the top was either free or rigid. The initial solute Rayleigh number varied from 2.5 x 10(exp 6) to 4.6 x 10(exp 7). For the rigid-free case, at initial solute Rayleigh numbers R(sub s) greater than 5.4 x 10(exp 6), thermal Marangoni instabilities were observed to onset along the free surface at a relatively low thermal Rayleigh number, R(sub t). The convection was very weak, and it had almost no effect on the concentration and temperature distributions. Double-diffusive instabilities along the top free surface were observed to onset at a higher R(sub t), with much stronger convection causing changes in the concentration and temperature distributions near the top. At a yet higher R(sub t), double-diffusive convection was observed to onset along the bottom boundary. Fluid motion in the layer then evolved into fully developed thermal convection of a homogeneous fluid without any further increase in the imposed Delta T. For layers with R(sub s) less than 5.4 x 10(exp 6), Marangoni and double-diffusive instabilities onset simultaneously along the free surface first, while double-diffusive instabilities along the bottom wall onset at a higher R(sub t).

  13. CN and HCN in the infrared spectrum of IRC + 10216

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedemann, G. R.; Deming, D.; Jennings, D. E.; Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Keady, John J.

    1991-01-01

    The abundance of HCN in the inner circumstellar shell of IRC + 10216 has been remeasured using the 12-micron nu2 band. The 12-micron lines are less saturated than HCN 3-micron lines previously detected in the spectrum of IRC + 10216. The observed 12-micron HCN line is formed in the circumstellar shell from about 4 to 12 R sub * in accord with a photospheric origin for HCN. The derived HCN abundance in the 4 to 12 R sub* region is 4 x 10 exp-5 and the column density is 7 x 10 exp 18/sq cm. The 5-micron CN vibration-rotation fundamental band was detected for the first time in an astronomical source. Using four CN lines, the CN column density was determined to be 2.6 x 10 exp 15/sq cm and the rotational temperature to be 8 +/-2 K. The peal radial abundance is 1 x 10 exp -5. The values for the temperature and abundance are in good agreement with microwave results and with the formation of CN from the photolysis of HCN.

  14. Observations of the Minor Species Al, Fe and Ca(+) in Mercury's Exosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bida, Thomas A.; Killen, Rosemary M.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first detections of Al and Fe, and strict upper limits for Ca(+) in the exosphere of Mercury, using the HIRES spectrometer at the Keck I telescope. We report observed 4-sigma tangent columns of 1.5x10(exp 7) Al atoms per square centimeter at an altitude of 1220 km (1.5 Mercury radii (R(sub M)) from planet center), and that for Fe of 1.6 x 10 per square centimeter at an altitude of 950 km (1.4 R(sub M)). The observed 3-sigma Ca(+) column was 3.9x10(exp 6) ions per square centimeter at an altitude of 1630 km (1.67 R(sub M). A simple model for zenith column abundances of the neutral species were 9.5 x 10(exp 7) Al per square centimeter, and 3.0 x 10(exp 8) Fe per square centimeter. The observations appear to be consistent with production of these species by impact vaporization with a large fraction of the ejecta in molecular form. The scale height of the Al gas is consistent with a kinetic temperature of 3000 - 9000 K while that of Fe is 10500 K. The apparent high temperature of the Fe gas would suggest that it may be produced by dissociation of molecules. A large traction of both Al and Fe appear to condense in a vapor cloud at low altitudes.

  15. Ammonia Observations of NGC 6334 I(N)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Peters, W. L., III; Foster, J. R.; Gardner, F. F.; Whiteoak, J. B.

    1995-01-01

    Coincident with the far-infrared source NGC 6334 I(N) and water maser source E is a massive dense cloud which has the most intense ammonia (1, 1) emission of any known interstellar cloud. We have mapped the (3, 3) emission and find the cloud is extended 0.8 pc in the direction parallel to the Galactic plane, and 0.5 pc perpendicular to it. It has a velocity gradient of 1 km/s.pc perpendicular to the Galactic plane. The gas kinetic temperature is about 30 K and the density is greater than 10(exp 6)/cc. The mass of the cloud is about 3000 solar mass, 3 times greater than previously estimated. The para-ammonia column density is 6 - 8 x 10(exp 15)/sq cm. An ammonia abundance of 0.5 - 1.5 x 10(exp -8) is inferred, where the larger number assumes an early time ortho/para ratio. This suggests either a cloud age of less than approximately 10(exp 6) yr, or substantial depletion of ammonia.

  16. CN and HCN in the infrared spectrum of IRC + 10216

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedemann, G. R.; Deming, D.; Jennings, D. E.; Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Keady, John J.

    1991-11-01

    The abundance of HCN in the inner circumstellar shell of IRC + 10216 has been remeasured using the 12-micron nu2 band. The 12-micron lines are less saturated than HCN 3-micron lines previously detected in the spectrum of IRC + 10216. The observed 12-micron HCN line is formed in the circumstellar shell from about 4 to 12 R* in accord with a photospheric origin for HCN. The derived HCN abundance in the 4 to 12 R sub* region is 4 x 10 exp-5 and the column density is 7 x 10 exp 18/sq cm. The 5-micron CN vibration-rotation fundamental band was detected for the first time in an astronomical source. Using four CN lines, the CN column density was determined to be 2.6 x 10 exp 15/sq cm and the rotational temperature to be 8 +/-2 K. The peal radial abundance is 1 x 10 exp -5. The values for the temperature and abundance are in good agreement with microwave results and with the formation of CN from the photolysis of HCN.

  17. Chemistry-Climate Interactions in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model. 2; New Insights into Modeling the Pre-Industrial Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grenfell, J. Lee; Shindell, D. T.; Koch, D.; Rind, D.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the chemical (hydroxyl and ozone) and dynamical response to changing from present day to pre-industrial conditions in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model (GISS GMC). We identify three main improvements not included by many other works. Firstly, our model includes interactive cloud calculations. Secondly we reduce sulfate aerosol which impacts NOx partitioning hence Ox distributions. Thirdly we reduce sea surface temperatures and increase ocean ice coverage which impact water vapor and ground albedo respectively. Changing the ocean data (hence water vapor and ozone) produces a potentially important feedback between the Hadley circulation and convective cloud cover. Our present day run (run 1, control run) global mean OH value was 9.8 x 10(exp 5) molecules/cc. For our best estimate of pre-industrial conditions run (run 2) which featured modified chemical emissions, sulfate aerosol and sea surface temperatures/ocean ice, this value changed to 10.2 x 10(exp 5) molecules/cc. Reducing only the chemical emissions to pre-industrial levels in run 1 (run 3) resulted in this value increasing to 10.6 x 10(exp 5) molecules/cc. Reducing the sulfate in run 3 to pre-industrial levels (run 4) resulted in a small increase in global mean OH (10.7 x 10(exp 5) molecules/cc). Changing the ocean data in run 4 to pre-industrial levels (run 5) led to a reduction in this value to 10.3 x 10(exp 5) molecules/cc. Mean tropospheric ozone burdens were 262, 181, 180, 180, and 182 Tg for runs 1-5 respectively.

  18. MEK5 suppresses osteoblastic differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneshiro, Shoichi; Otsuki, Dai; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Higuchi, Chikahisa

    2015-07-31

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family and is activated by its upstream kinase, MAPK kinase 5 (MEK5), which is a member of the MEK family. Although the role of MEK5 has been investigated in several fields, little is known about its role in osteoblastic differentiation. In this study, we have demonstrated the role of MEK5 in osteoblastic differentiation in mouse preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and bone marrow stromal ST2 cells. We found that treatment with BIX02189, an inhibitor of MEK5, increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the gene expression of ALP, osteocalcin (OCN) and osterix, as well as it enhanced the calcification of the extracellular matrix. Moreover, osteoblastic cell proliferation decreased at a concentration of greater than 0.5 μM. In addition, knockdown of MEK5 using siRNA induced an increase in ALP activity and in the gene expression of ALP, OCN, and osterix. In contrast, overexpression of wild-type MEK5 decreased ALP activity and attenuated osteoblastic differentiation markers including ALP, OCN and osterix, but promoted cell proliferation. In summary, our results indicated that MEK5 suppressed the osteoblastic differentiation, but promoted osteoblastic cell proliferation. These results implied that MEK5 may play a pivotal role in cell signaling to modulate the differentiation and proliferation of osteoblasts. Thus, inhibition of MEK5 signaling in osteoblasts may be of potential use in the treatment of osteoporosis. - Highlights: • MEK5 inhibitor BIX02189 suppresses proliferation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 knockdown and MEK5 inhibitor promote differentiation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 overexpression inhibits differentiation of osteoblasts.

  19. Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)

    MedlinePlus

    Pantothenic acid is a vitamin, also known as vitamin B5. It is widely found in both plants and animals ... Vitamin B5 is commercially available as D-pantothenic acid, as well as dexpanthenol and calcium pantothenate, which ...

  20. Interleukin-5 and IL-5 receptor in health and diseases

    PubMed Central

    TAKATSU, Kiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    While interleukin-5 (IL-5) is initially identified by its ability to support the growth and terminal differentiation of mouse B cells in vitro into antibody-secreting cells, recombinant IL-5 exerts pleiotropic activities on various target cells including B cells, eosinophils, and basophils. IL-5 is produced by both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells including T cells, granulocytes, and natural helper cells. IL-5 exerts its effects for proliferation and differentiation via receptors that comprise an IL-5-specific α and common β-subunit. IL-5Rα expression in activated B cells is regulated by a complex of transcription factors including E12, E47, Sp1, c/EBPβ, and Oct2. IL-5 signals are transduced through JAK–STAT, Btk, and Ras/Raf-ERK signaling pathways and lead to maintenance of survival and functions of B cells and eosinophils. Overexpression of IL-5 in vivo significantly increases eosinophils and B cells in number, while mice lacking a functional gene for IL-5 or IL-5 receptor display a number of developmental and functional impairments in B cells and eosinophil lineages. In humans, the biologic effects of IL-5 are best characterized for eosinophils. The recent expansion in our understanding of eosinophil development and activation and pathogenesis of eosinophil-dependent inflammatory diseases has led to advance in therapeutic options. Intravenous administration of humanized anti-IL-5 monoclonal antibody reduces baseline bronchial mucosal eosinophils in mild asthma; providing important implications for strategies that inhibit the actions of IL-5 to treat asthma and other allergic diseases. PMID:21986312

  1. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accounting. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME... Sec. 5 Accounting. The General Agent shall record the amounts of compensation paid from the NSA... Accounting Office, at which time the Maritime Administration will take custody of the records....

  2. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accounting. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME... Sec. 5 Accounting. The General Agent shall record the amounts of compensation paid from the NSA... Accounting Office, at which time the Maritime Administration will take custody of the records....

  3. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accounting. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME... Sec. 5 Accounting. The General Agent shall record the amounts of compensation paid from the NSA... Accounting Office, at which time the Maritime Administration will take custody of the records....

  4. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accounting. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME... Sec. 5 Accounting. The General Agent shall record the amounts of compensation paid from the NSA... Accounting Office, at which time the Maritime Administration will take custody of the records....

  5. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME... Sec. 5 Accounting. The General Agent shall record the amounts of compensation paid from the NSA... Accounting Office, at which time the Maritime Administration will take custody of the records....

  6. Search for Antihelium with the BESS-Polar Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasaki, M.; Mitchell, J. W.; Hams, T.; Abe, K.; Fuke, H.; Haino, S.; Hasegawa, M.; Horikoshi, A.; Itazaki, A.; Kim, K. C.; Kumazawa, T.; Kusumoto, A.; Lee, M. H.; Makida, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Matsukawa, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Streitmatter, R. E.; Myers, Z.; Nishimura, J.; Nozaki, M.; Orito, R.; Ormes, J. F.; Sakai, K.; Seo, E. S.

    2012-01-01

    In two long-duration balloon flights over Antarctica, the BESS-Polar collaboration has searched for antihelium in the cosmic radiation with higher sensitivity than any reported investigation. BESSPolar I flew in 2004, observing for 8.5 days. BESS-Polar II flew in 2007-2008, observing for 24.5 days. No antihelium candidate was found in BESS-Polar I data among 8.4 x 10(exp 6) [Z] = 2 nuclei from 1.0 to 20 GV or in BESS-Polar II data among 4.0 x 10(exp 7) [Z] = 2 nuclei from 1.0 to 14 GV. Assuming antihelium to have the same spectral shape as helium, a 95% confidence upper limit of 6.9 x 10(exp -8) was determined by combining all the BESS data, including the two BESS-Polar flights. With no assumed antihelium spectrum and a weighted average of the lowest antihelium efficiencies from 1.6 to 14 GV, an upper limit of 1.0 x 10(exp -7) was determined for the combined BESS-Polar data. These are the most stringent limits obtained to date.

  7. Energy Release from Impacting Prominence Material Following the 2011 June 7 Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, H. R.; Inglis, A. R.; Mays, M. L.; Ofman, L.; Thompson, B. J.; Young, C. A.

    2013-01-01

    Solar filaments exhibit a range of eruptive-like dynamic activity, ranging from the full or partial eruption of the filament mass and surrounding magnetic structure as a coronal mass ejection to a fully confined or failed eruption. On 2011 June 7, a dramatic partial eruption of a filament was observed by multiple instruments on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory. One of the interesting aspects of this event is the response of the solar atmosphere as non-escaping material falls inward under the influence of gravity. The impact sites show clear evidence of brightening in the observed extreme ultraviolet wavelengths due to energy release. Two plausible physical mechanisms for explaining the brightening are considered: heating of the plasma due to the kinetic energy of impacting material compressing the plasma, or reconnection between the magnetic field of low-lying loops and the field carried by the impacting material. By analyzing the emission of the brightenings in several SDO/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly wavelengths, and comparing the kinetic energy of the impacting material (7.6 × 10(exp 26) - 5.8 × 10(exp 27) erg) to the radiative energy (approx. 1.9 × 10(exp 25) - 2.5 × 10(exp 26) erg), we find the dominant mechanism of energy release involved in the observed brightening is plasma compression.

  8. Electric Propulsion Options for 10 kW Class Earth-Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, M. J.; Curran, Francis M.

    1989-01-01

    Five and 10 kW ion and arcjet propulsion system options for a near-term space demonstration experiment were evaluated. Analyses were conducted to determine first-order propulsion system performance and system component mass estimates. Overall mission performance of the electric propulsion systems was quantified in terms of the maximum thrusting time, total impulse, and velocity increment capability available when integrated onto a generic spacecraft under fixed mission model assumptions. Maximum available thrusting times for the ion-propelled spacecraft options, launched on a DELTA 2 6920 vehicle, range from approximately 8,600 hours for a 4-engine 10 kW system to more than 29,600 hours for a single-engine 5 kW system. Maximum total impulse values and maximum delta-v's range from 1.2x10 (exp 7) to 2.1x10 (exp 7) N-s, and 3550 to 6200 m/s, respectively. Maximum available thrusting times for the arcjet propelled spacecraft launched on the DELTA 2 6920 vehicle range from approximately 528 hours for the 6-engine 10 kW hydrazine system to 2328 hours for the single-engine 5 kW system. Maximum total impulse values and maximum delta-v's range from 2.2x10 (exp 6) to 3.6x10 (exp 6) N-s, and approximately 662 to 1072 m/s, respectively.

  9. Preliminary results of a balloon flight of the solar disk sextant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maier, E.; Twigg, L.; Sofia, S.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary results of a balloon flight on October 11, 1991, of the solar disk sextant (SDS) experiment are reported. The SDS is an instrument which measures the solar diameter at different orientations with respect to the solar polar axis. Fitting straight lines through two fixed-angle data sets with time as the independent variable yields slopes of (7.1 +/ - 1.5) x 10 exp -3 and (6.7 +/- 1.6) x 10 exp -3/mas s, consistent with the value of 6.47 x 10 exp -3/mas s expected from the earth's approach to the sun due to the orbital motion toward perihelion. Upon the instrument's rotation on its axis a sinusoidal component of the diameter measurement was observed in each rotation cycle, with a variable amplitude of about 150 mas. The present result is epsilon of (5.6 +/- 6.3) x 10 exp -6, about 30 deg offset from the polar-equator position. The absolute diameter obtained by means of the FFT definition is found to be 1919.269 +/- 0.240 arcsec or 1919.131 +/- 0.240 arcsec, depending on the orientation mode of the measurement.

  10. Search for Gravitational Waves Associated with the August 2006 Timing Glitch of the Vela Pulsar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Stroeer, A.

    2011-01-01

    The physical mechanisms responsible for pulsar timing glitches are thought to excite quasinormal mode oscillations in their parent neutron star that couple to gravitational-wave emission, In August 2006, a timing glitch was observed in the radio emission of PSR B0833-45, the Vela pulsar. At the time of the glitch, the two colocated Hanford gravitational-wave detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave observatory (LIGO) were operational and taking data as part of the fifth LIGO science run (S5). We present the first direct search for the gravitational-wave emission associated with oscillations of the fundamental quadrupole mode excited by a pulsar timing glitch. No gravitational-wave detection candidate was found. We place Bayesian 90% confidence upper limits of 6,3 x 10(exp -21) to 1.4 x 10(exp -20) on the peak: intrinsic strain amplitude of gravitational-wave ring-down signals, depending on which spherical harmonic mode is excited. The corresponding range of energy upper limits is 5.0 x 10(exp 44) to 1.3 x 10(exp 45) erg.

  11. Fourier transform infrared studies of the interaction of HCl with model polar stratospheric cloud films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehler, Birgit G.; Mcneill, Laurie S.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1993-01-01

    Heterogeneous reactions involving hydrochloric acid adsorbed on the surfaces of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are postulated to contribute to polar ozone loss. Using FTIR spectroscopy to probe the condensed phase, we have examined the interaction of HCl with ice and nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) films representative of types II and I PSCs, respectively. For HCl pressures in the range of 10 exp -7 to 10 exp -5 Torr, our FTIR studies show that a small amount of crystalline HCl-6H2O formed on or in ice at 155 K. However, for higher HCl pressures, we observed that the entire film of ice rapidly converted into an amorphous 4:1 H2O:HCl mixture. From HCl-uptake experiments with P(HCl) = 8 x 10 exp -7 Torr, we estimate roughly that the diffusion coefficient of HCl in ice is around 2 x 10 exp -12 sq cm/s at 158 K. For higher temperatures more closely approximating those found in the stratosphere, we were unable to detect bulk HCl uptake by ice. Indirect evidence suggests that HCl adsorption onto the surface of model PSC films inhibited the evaporation of both ice and NAT by 3-5 K.

  12. The New Millennium Program Space Technology 5 (ST-5) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Evan H.; Carlisle, Candace C.; Slavin, James A.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Technology 5 (ST-5) Project is part of NASA's New Millennium Program. ST-5 will consist of a constellation of three 25kg microsatellites. The mission goals are to demonstrate the research-quality science capability of the ST-5 spacecraft; to operate the three spacecraft as a constellation; and to design, develop and flight-validate three capable microsatellites with new technologies. ST-5 will be launched by a Pegasus XL into an elliptical polar (sun-synchronous) orbit. The three-month flight demonstration phase, beginning in March 2006, will validate the ability to perform science measurements, as well as the technologies and constellation operations. ST-5's technologies and concepts will enable future microsatellite science missions.

  13. CCN5 expression in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jennifer A.; Gray, Mark R.; Oliveira, Beatriz Enes; Koch, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    The six proteins of the CCN family have important roles in development, angiogenesis, cell motility, proliferation, and other fundamental cell processes. To date, CCN5 distribution in developing rodents and humans has not been mapped comprehensively. CCN5 strongly inhibits adult smooth muscle cell proliferation and motility. Its anti-proliferative action predicts that CCN5 would not be present in developing tissues until the proliferation phase of tissue morphogenesis is complete. However, estrogen induces CCN5 expression in epithelial and smooth muscle cells, suggesting that CCN5 might be widely expressed in embryonic tissues exposed to high levels of estrogen. 9–16 day murine embryos and fetuses and 3–7 month human fetal tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. CCN5 was detected in nearly all developing tissues. CCN5 protein expression was initially present in most tissues, and at later times in development tissue-specific expression differences were observed. CCN5 expression was particularly strong in vascular tissues, cardiac muscle, bronchioles, myotendinous junctions, and intestinal smooth muscle and epithelium. CCN5 expression was initially absent in bone cartilaginous forms but was increasingly expressed during bone endochondral ossification. Widespread CCN5 mRNA expression was detected in GD14.5 mice. Although CCN2 and CCN5 protein expression patterns in some adult pathologic conditions are inversely expressed, this expression pattern was not found in developing mouse and human tissues. The widespread expression pattern of CCN5 in most embryonic and fetal tissues suggests a diverse range of functions for CCN5. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12079-007-0012-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18481203

  14. Limiting Superluminal Electron and Neutrino Velocities Using the 2010 Crab Nebula Flare and the IceCube PeV Neutrino Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2014-01-01

    The observation of two PetaelectronVolt (PeV)-scale neutrino events reported by Ice Cube allows one to place constraints on Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) in the neutrino sector. After first arguing that at least one of the PetaelectronVolt IceCube events was of extragalactic origin, I derive an upper limit for the difference between putative superluminal neutrino and electron velocities of less than or equal to approximately 5.6 x 10(exp -19) in units where c = 1, confirming that the observed PetaelectronVolt neutrinos could have reached Earth from extragalactic sources. I further derive a new constraint on the superluminal electron velocity, obtained from the observation of synchrotron radiation from the Crab Nebula flare of September, 2010. The inference that the greater than 1 GigaelectronVolt gamma-rays from synchrotron emission in the flare were produced by electrons of energy up to approx. 5.1 PetaelectronVolt indicates the nonoccurrence of vacuum Cerenkov radiation by these electrons. This implies a new, strong constraint on superluminal electron velocities delta(sub e) less than or equal to approximately 5 x 10(exp -21). It immediately follows that one then obtains an upper limit on the superluminal neutrino velocity alone of delta(sub v) less than or equal to approximately 5.6 x 10(exp -19), many orders of magnitude better than the time-of-flight constraint from the SN1987A neutrino burst. However, if the electrons are subluminal the constraint on the absolute value of delta(sub e) less than or equal to approximately 8 x 10(exp -17), obtained from the Crab Nebula gamma-ray spectrum, places a weaker constraint on superluminal neutrino velocity of delta(sub v) less than or equal to approximately 8 x 10(exp -17).

  15. A comparison of low-gravity measurements on-board Columbia during STS-40

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Baugher, C. R.; Blanchard, R. C.; Delombard, R.; Durgin, W. W.; Matthiesen, D. H.; Neupert, W.; Roussel, P.

    1993-01-01

    The first NASA Spacelab Life Sciences mission (SLS-1) flew 5 Jun. to 14 Jun. 1991 on the orbiter Columbia (STS-40). The purpose of the mission was to investigate the human body's adaptation to the low-gravity conditions of space flight and the body's readjustment after the mission to the 1 g environment of earth. In addition to the life sciences experiments manifested for the Spacelab module, a variety of experiments in other scientific disciplines flew in the Spacelab and in Get Away Special (GAS) Canisters on the GAS Bridge Assembly. Several principal investigators designed and flew specialized accelerometer systems to better assess the results of their experiments by means of a low-gravity environment characterization. This was also the first flight of the NASA Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) sponsored Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) and the first flight of the NASA Orbiter Experiments Office (OEX) sponsored Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment accelerometer (OARE). A brief introduction to seven STS-40 accelerometer systems are presented and the resulting data are discussed and compared. During crew sleep periods, acceleration magnitudes in the 10(exp -6) to 10(exp -5) g range were recorded in the Spacelab module and on the GAS Bridge Assembly. Magnitudes increased to the 10(exp -4) g level during periods of nominal crew activity. Vernier thruster firings caused acceleration shifts on the order of 10(exp -4) g and primary thruster firings caused accelerations as great as 10(exp -2) g. Frequency domain analysis revealed typical excitation of Orbiter and Spacelab structural modes at 3.5, 4.7, 5.2, 6.2, 7, and 17 Hz.

  16. Processing and testing of high toughness silicon nitride ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tikare, Veena; Sanders, William A.; Choi, Sung R.

    1993-01-01

    High toughness silicon nitride ceramics were processed with the addition of small quantities of beta-Si3N4 whiskers in a commercially available alpha-Si3N4 powder. These whiskers grew preferentially during sintering resulting in large, elongated beta-grains, which acted to toughen the matrix by crack deflection and grain pullout. The fracture toughness of these samples seeded with beta-Si3N4 whiskers ranged from 8.7 to 9.5 MPa m(exp 0.5) depending on the sintering additives.

  17. 5 CFR 1305.5 - No private right of action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false No private right of action. 1305.5... private right of action. This part is intended only to provide guidance for the internal operations of OMB, and is not intended to, and does not, and may not be relied upon to create a right or...

  18. Room temperature elastic properties of V-5Cr-5Ti

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, W.A.

    1994-09-01

    Elastic moduli were measured for a specimen of the alloy V-5Cr-5Ti in the annealed condition using pulse-echo techniques. The value of Young`s modulus was determined to be 125.6 GPa, the shear modulus was determined to be 45.9 GPa, and the Poisson`s ratio to be 0.367.

  19. Science in Action Series: AGATE ( pt5/5 )

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This show was made for the Office of Education at NASA Langley. The objective is to make math and science appealing to a middle school audience. This clip (pt 5/5 ) answers more FAQ's: How will this be different from flying a normal aircraft? How will the cockpit be different? What will the next generation of computer controlled flight managemnt offer?

  20. 29 CFR 5.5 - Contract provisions and related matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... contain the name, address, and social security number of each such worker, his or her correct... maintained under 29 CFR 5.5(a)(3)(i), except that full social security numbers and home addresses shall not... identifying number for each employee (e.g., the last four digits of the employee's social security...

  1. 29 CFR 5.5 - Contract provisions and related matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... contain the name, address, and social security number of each such worker, his or her correct... maintained under 29 CFR 5.5(a)(3)(i), except that full social security numbers and home addresses shall not... identifying number for each employee (e.g., the last four digits of the employee's social security...

  2. 29 CFR 5.5 - Contract provisions and related matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... contain the name, address, and social security number of each such worker, his or her correct... maintained under 29 CFR 5.5(a)(3)(i), except that full social security numbers and home addresses shall not... identifying number for each employee (e.g., the last four digits of the employee's social security...

  3. 29 CFR 5.5 - Contract provisions and related matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... contain the name, address, and social security number of each such worker, his or her correct... maintained under 29 CFR 5.5(a)(3)(i), except that full social security numbers and home addresses shall not... identifying number for each employee (e.g., the last four digits of the employee's social security...

  4. 29 CFR 5.5 - Contract provisions and related matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... contain the name, address, and social security number of each such worker, his or her correct... maintained under 29 CFR 5.5(a)(3)(i), except that full social security numbers and home addresses shall not... identifying number for each employee (e.g., the last four digits of the employee's social security...

  5. 5 CFR 1310.5 - List of current circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1310.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES OMB CIRCULARS § 1310.5...-11—“Preparation and Submission of Budget Estimates” (Part 1) “Preparation and Submission of Strategic... Principles for Non-Profit Organizations” A-123—“Management Accountability and Control” A-125—“Prompt...

  6. 5 CFR 2412.5 - Individual access requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 2412.5 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY AND FEDERAL SERVICE IMPASSES PANEL GENERAL PROVISIONS PRIVACY § 2412.5... requester must sign a statement, to be furnished to the Authority, the General Counsel or the...

  7. 5 CFR 2412.5 - Individual access requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 2412.5 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY AND FEDERAL SERVICE IMPASSES PANEL GENERAL PROVISIONS PRIVACY § 2412.5... requester must sign a statement, to be furnished to the Authority, the General Counsel or the...

  8. Accretion Disks Around Binary Black Holes of Unequal Mass: GRMHD Simulations Near Decoupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, Roman; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Etienne, Zachariah B.; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Pfeiffer, Harald, P.

    2013-01-01

    We report on simulations in general relativity of magnetized disks onto black hole binaries. We vary the binary mass ratio from 1:1 to 1:10 and evolve the systems when they orbit near the binary disk decoupling radius. We compare (surface) density profiles, accretion rates (relative to a single, non-spinning black hole), variability, effective alpha-stress levels and luminosities as functions of the mass ratio. We treat the disks in two limiting regimes: rapid radiative cooling and no radiative cooling. The magnetic field lines clearly reveal jets emerging from both black hole horizons and merging into one common jet at large distances. The magnetic fields give rise to much stronger shock heating than the pure hydrodynamic flows, completely alter the disk structure, and boost accretion rates and luminosities. Accretion streams near the horizons are among the densest structures; in fact, the 1:10 no-cooling evolution results in a refilling of the cavity. The typical effective temperature in the bulk of the disk is approx. 10(exp5) (M / 10(exp 8)M solar mass (exp -1/4(L/L(sub edd) (exp 1/4K) yielding characteristic thermal frequencies approx. 10 (exp 15) (M /10(exp 8)M solar mass) (exp -1/4(L/L (sub edd) (1+z) (exp -1)Hz. These systems are thus promising targets for many extragalactic optical surveys, such as LSST, WFIRST, and PanSTARRS.

  9. Test Status for Proposed Coupling of a Gravitational Force to Extreme Type II YBCO Ceramic Superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David; Li, Ning; Robertson, Tony; Koczor, Ron; Brantley, Whitt

    1999-01-01

    As a Bose condensate, superconductors provide novel conditions for revisiting previously proposed couplings between electromagnetism and gravity. Strong variations in Cooper pair electron density, large conductivity and low magnetic permeability define superconductive and degenerate condensates without the traditional density limits imposed by the Fermi energy (about 10-6 g/cu cm). Recent experiments have reported anomalous weight loss for a test mass suspended above a rotating Type II, YBCO superconductor, with the percentage change (0.05-2.1%) independent of the test mass' chemical composition and diamagnetic properties. A variation of 5 parts per 10(exp 4) was reported above a stationary (non-rotating) superconductor. In the present experiments reported using a sensitive gravimeter (resolution <10(exp -9) unit gravity or variation of 10(exp -6) cm/sq s in accelerations), bulk YBCO superconductors were stably levitated in a DC magnetic field (0.6 Tesla) subject to lateral AC fields (60 Gauss at 60 Hz) and rotation. With magnetic shielding, thermal control and buoyancy compensation, changes in acceleration were measured to be less than 2 parts in 10(exp 8) of the normal gravitational acceleration. This result puts new limits on the strength and range of the proposed coupling between high-Tc superconductors and gravity. Latest test results will be reported, along with status for future improvements and prospects.

  10. Nitrogen sulfide in quiescent dark clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgonagle, Douglas; Irvine, William M.; Ohishi, Masatoshi

    1994-01-01

    We report the first detection of interstellar nitrogen sulfide (NS) in cold dark clouds. Several components of the (2)Pi(sub 1/2), J = 3/2 to 1/2 and J = 5/2 to 3/2 transitions were observed in TMC-1 and L134N. The inferred column density for TMC-1 is N(sub NS) approximately 8 x 10(exp 12)/sq cm toward the NH3 peak in that cloud, and in L134N is N(sub NS) approximately 3 x 10(exp 12)/sq cm toward the position of peak NH3 emission. These values correspond to fractional abundances relative to molecular hydrogen of f(sub NS) approximately 8 x 10(exp -10) for TMC-1, and f(sub NS) approximately 6 x 10(exp -10) for L134N. The NS emission is extended along the TMC-1 ridge and is also extended in L134N. The measured abundances are significantly higher than those predicted by some recent gas phase ion-molecule models.

  11. Uptake of Organic Vapors by Sulfate Aerosols: Physical and Chemical Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michelsen, R. R.; Ashbourn, S. F. M.; Iraci, L.T.; Staton, S. J. R.

    2003-01-01

    While it is known that upper tropospheric sulfate particles contain a significant amount of organic matter, both the source of the organic fraction and its form in solution are unknown. These studies explore how the chemical characteristics of the molecules and surfaces in question affect heterogeneous interactions. The solubilities of acetaldehyde [CH3CHO] and ethanol [CH3CH20H] in cold, aqueous sulfuric acid solutions have been measured by Knudsen cell studies. Henry's law solubility coefficients range from 10(exp 2) to 10(exp 5) M/atm for acetaldehyde, and from 10(exp 4) to 10(exp 9) M/atm for ethanol under upper tropospheric conditions (210-240 K, 40-80 wt. % H2S04). The multiple solvation pathways (protonation, enolization, etc.) available to these compounds in acidic aqueous environments will be discussed. Preliminary results from the interaction of acetaldehyde with solutions of formaldehyde in sulfuric acid will be presented as well. The physical and chemical processes that affect organic uptake by aqueous aerosols will be explored, with the aim of evaluating organic species not yet studied in low temperature aqueous sulfuric acid.

  12. Mach 10 computational study of a three-dimensional scramjet inlet flow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Scott D.

    1995-01-01

    The present work documents the computational results for a combined computational and experimental parametric study of the internal aerodynamics of a generic three-dimensional sidewall-compression scramjet inlet configuration at Mach 10. The three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code SCRAMIN was chosen for the computational portion of the study because it uses a well-known and well-proven numerical scheme and has shown favorable comparison with experiment at Mach numbers between 2 and 6. One advantage of CFD was that it provided flow field data for a detailed examination of the internal flow characteristics in addition to the surface properties. The experimental test matrix at mach 10 included three geometric contraction ratios (3, 5, and 9), three Reynolds numbers (0.55 x 10(exp 6) per foot, 1.14 x 10(exp 6) per foot, and 2.15 x 10(exp 6) per foot), and three cowl positions (at the throat and two forward positions). Computational data for two of these configurations (the contraction ratio of 3, Re = 2.15 x 10 (exp 6) per foot, at two cowl positions) are presented along with a detailed analysis of the flow interactions in successive computational planes.

  13. Mach 10 computational study of a three-dimensional scramjet inlet flow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Scott D.

    1995-01-01

    The present work documents the computational results for a combined computational and experimental parametric study of the internal aerodynamics of a generic three-dimensional sidewall-compression scramjet inlet configuration at Mach 10. The three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code SCRAMIN was chosen for the computational portion of the study because it uses a well-known and well-proven numerical scheme and has shown favorable comparison with experiment at Mach numbers between 2 and 6. One advantage of CFD was that it provided flow field data for a detailed examination of the internal flow characteristics in addition to the surface properties. The experimental test matrix at Mach 10 included three geometric contraction ratios (3, 5, and 9), three Reynolds numbers (0.55 x 10(exp 6) per foot, 1.14 x 10(exp 6) per foot, and 2.15 x 10(exp 6) per foot), and three cowl positions (at the throat and two forward positions). Computational data for two of these configurations (the contraction ratio of 3, Re = 2.15 x 10(exp 6) per foot, at two cowl positions) are presented along with a detailed analysis of the flow interactions in successive computational planes.

  14. Star formation in NGC 4449: MAMA-detector UV imagery and Fabry-Perot Balmer-line imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Robert S.; Home, Allen T.; Smith, Andrew M.; Bruhweiler, Fred C.; Cheng, K.P.; Hintzen, Paul M. N.; Oliversen, Ronald J.

    1994-01-01

    Using far-ultraviolet (FUV) and Balmer-line imagery, we investigate the star formation history of 22 large OB complexes in the Magellanic irregular galaxy NGC 4449. The FUV luminosity of NGC 4449 is comparable to those of late-type spirals and is greater than that of the LMC by approximately 2.4 mag, indicating substantial star formation in the last 10(exp 8) yr. FUV data were taken using a sounding-rocket telescope with a Multianode Microchannel Array (MAMA) detector, and Balmer-line data were taken using the Goddard Fabry-Perot Imager. The resulting imagery shows bright, roughly coincident FUV and H alpha sources throughout the extent of the visible galaxy. We model these sources using cluster-evolution codes. Although all sources are a few Myr old, clear age differences are found. In particular, several of the most recently active star formation regions are located together in the galaxy's northern periphery, which is apparently coincident with a large H I reservoir. The brightest and most massive OB complexes are found along the northeast-southwest surface brightness ridgeline (the 'bar'). Over the entire galaxy, star formation rates are consistent on timescales of 10(exp 6), 10(exp 8), and 10(exp 9) yr. A history of recent star formation is suggested with two main episodes, one predominantly in the bar ending approximately 5 Myr ago, and an ongoing one associated with an observed H I cloud.

  15. Space Weathering Rates in Lunar and Itokawa Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Berger, E. L.

    2017-01-01

    Space weathering alters the chemistry, microstructure, and spectral proper-ties of grains on the surfaces of airless bodies by two major processes: micrometeorite impacts and solar wind interactions. Investigating the nature of space weathering processes both in returned samples and in remote sensing observations provides information fundamental to understanding the evolution of airless body regoliths, improving our ability to determine the surface composition of asteroids, and linking meteorites to specific asteroidal parent bodies. Despite decades of research into space weathering processes and their effects, we still know very little about weathering rates. For example, what is the timescale to alter the reflectance spectrum of an ordinary chondrite meteorite to resemble the overall spectral shape and slope from an S-type asteroid? One approach to answering this question has been to determine ages of asteroid families by dynamical modeling and determine the spectral proper-ties of the daughter fragments. However, large differences exist between inferred space weathering rates and timescales derived from laboratory experiments, analysis of asteroid family spectra and the space weathering styles; estimated timescales range from 5000 years up to 108 years. Vernazza et al. concluded that solar wind interactions dominate asteroid space weathering on rapid timescales of 10(exp 4)-10(exp 6) years. Shestopalov et al. suggested that impact-gardening of regolith particles and asteroid resurfacing counteract the rapid progress of solar wind optical maturation of asteroid surfaces and proposed a space weathering timescale of 10(exp 5)-10(exp 6) years.

  16. Observed temporal variations in the Earth's gravity field from 16-year Starlette orbit analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, M. K.; Eanes, R. L.; Shum, C. K.; Schutz, B. E.; Tapley, B. D.

    1992-01-01

    Satellite laser ranging data to Starlette, collected during the period from 1975 to 1990, are analyzed to determine yearly values of the second degree annual (Sa) and semiannual (Ssa) tides, simultaneously with average values of other low degree and order tide parameters. The yearly fluctuations in the values for Sa and Ssa are associated with changes in the Earth's second degree zonal harmonic caused by meteorological excitation. The Starlette-determined mean values for the amplitude of the annual and semiannual variations in J2 are 32.3 x 10 exp -11 and 19.5 x 10 exp -11, respectively; while the rms about the mean values are 4.1 x 10 exp -11 and 6.3 x 10 exp -11, respectively. The annual delta-J2 is in good agreement with the value obtained from the combined effects of air mass redistribution without the oceanic inverted-barometer effects (non-IB) and hydrological change. Approximately 90 percent of the observed annual variation from Starlette is attributed to the meteorological mass redistribution occurring on the Earth's surface.

  17. Compatibility of a Diffractive Pupil and Coronagraphic Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bendek, Eduardo; Belikov, Rusian; Pluzhnyk, Yevgeniy; Guyon, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Detection and characterization of exo-earths require direct-imaging techniques that can deliver contrast ratios of 10(exp 10) at 100 milliarc-seconds or smaller angular separation. At the same time, astrometric data is required to measure planet masses and can help detect planets and constrain their orbital parameters. To minimize costs, a single space mission can be designed using a high efficiency coronograph to perform direct imaging and a diffractive pupil to calibrate wide-field distortions to enable high precision astrometric measurements. This paper reports the testing of a diffractive pupil on the high-contrast test bed at the NASA Ames Research Center to assess the compatibility of using a diffractive pupil with coronographic imaging systems. No diffractive contamination was found within our detectability limit of 2x10(exp -7) contrast outside a region of 12lambda/D and 2.5x10(exp -6) within a region spanning from 2 to 12lambda/D. Morphology of the image features suggests that no contamination exists even beyond the detectability limit specified or at smaller working angles. In the case that diffractive contamination is found beyond these stated levels, active wavefront control would be able to mitigate its intensity to 10(exp -7) or better contrast.

  18. Spherically symmetric, expanding, non-LTE model atmospheres for novae during their early stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauschildt, P. H.; Wehrse, R.; Starrfield, S.; Shaviv, G.

    1992-01-01

    In the continuum and line-blanketed models presented here, nova atmospheres are characterized by a very slow decrease of density with increasing radius. This feature leads to very large geometrical extensions so that there are large temperature differences between the inner and outer parts of the line-forming regions. The theoretical spectra show a large IR excess and a small Balmer jump which may be either in absorption or in emission. For the parameters considered (effective temperature of about 10 exp 4 K, L = 2 x 10 exp 4 solar luminosities, outer boundary density of about 3 x 10 exp -15 g cm exp -3, mass-loss rate of 10 exp -5 solar masses/yr), most lines are in absorption. The effects of changes in the abundances of the heavy elements on the emergent spectra are discussed. The strong unidentified features observed in ultraviolet spectra of novae are found in actuality to be regions of transparency within the Fe 'forest'. Ultraviolet spectra obtained from the IUE archives are displayed, and spectral synthesis of these spectra is done using the theoretical atmospheres.

  19. SMM observations of gamma-ray transients. 2: A search for gamma-ray lines between 400 and 600 keV from the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Michael J.; Share, Gerald H.; Leising, Mark D.

    1994-01-01

    We have search spectra obtained by the Solar Maximum Mission Gamma-Ray Spectrometer during 1981-1988 for evidence of transient gamma-ray lines from the Crab Nebula which have been reported by previous experiments at energies 400-460 keV and 539 keV. We find no evidence for significant emission in any of these lines on time scales between aproximately 1 day and approximately 1 yr. Our 3 sigma upper limits on the transient flux during 1 d intervals are approximately equal to 2.2 x 10(exp -3) photons/sq cm/s for narrow lines at any energy, and approximately equal to 2.9 x 10(exp -3) photons/sq cm/s for the 539 keV line if it is as broad as 42 keV Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM). We also searched our data during the approximately 5 hr period on 1981 June 6 during which Owens, Myers, & Thompson (1985) reported a strong line at 405 keV. We detected no line down to a 3 upper sigma limit of 3.3 x 10(exp -3) photons/sq cm/s in disagreement with the flux 7.2 +/- 2.1 x 10(exp -3) photos/sq cm/s measured by Owens et al.

  20. Constraints on decaying neutrinos from the far-ultraviolet extragalactic background light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overduin, J. M.; Wesson, P. S.; Bowyer, S.

    1993-01-01

    We consider light neutrinos as dark matter candidates, concentrating on those proposed by Sciama, with rest energies near 30 eV and decay lifetimes of (2 +/- 1) x 10 exp 23 s. Using equations developed by Wesson et al. (1987) for the visible extragalactic background light, and assuming that the neutrinos are clustered in galactic halos similar to that around our own Galaxy, we show that their decay would be capable of significant contributions to the far-ultraviolet background. Observations in this region by Martin and Bowyer (1989) limit the possible mass of the neutrino halos to 2 x 10 exp 11 M(solar), which is less than the required galactic 'missing mass'. In order to form galactic halos of mass 5 x 10 exp 11 M(solar), such neutrinos would have to decay with lifetimes of at least 3 x 10 exp 23 s to be consistent with the observations. Sciama's proposal remains marginally viable, but more observational data will test it and similar neutrino models critically.

  1. Atomic Oxygen (ATOX) simulation of Teflon FEP and Kapton H surfaces using a high intensity, low energy, mass selected, ion beam facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vered, R.; Grossman, E.; Lempert, G. D.; Lifshitz, Y.

    1994-01-01

    A high intensity (greater than 10(exp 15) ions/sq cm) low energy (down to 5 eV) mass selected ion beam (MSIB) facility was used to study the effects of ATOX on two polymers commonly used for space applications (Kapton H and Teflon FEP). The polymers were exposed to O(+) and Ne(+) fluences on 10(exp 15) - 10(exp 19) ions/sq cm, using 30eV ions. A variety of analytical methods were used to analyze the eroded surfaces including: (1) atomic force microscopy (AFM) for morphology measurements; (2) total mass loss measurements using a microbalance; (3) surface chemical composition using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and (4) residual gas analysis (RGA) of the released gases during bombardment. The relative significance of the collisional and chemical degradation processes was evaluated by comparing the effects of Ne(+) and O(+) bombardment. For 30 eV ions it was found that the Kapton is eroded via chemical mechanisms while Teflon FEP is eroded via collisional mechanisms. AFM analysis was found very powerful in revealing the evolution of the damage from its initial atomic scale (roughness of approx. 1 nm) to its final microscopic scale (roughness greater than 1 micron). Both the surface morphology and the average roughness of the bombarded surfaces (averaged over 1 micron x 1 micron images by the system's computer) were determined for each sample. For 30 eV a non linear increase of the Kapton roughness with the O(+) fluence was discovered (a slow increase rate for fluences phi less than 5 x 10(exp 17) O(+)/sq cm, and a rapid increase rate for phi greater than 5 x 10(exp 17) O(+)/sq cm). Comparative studies on the same materials exposed to RF and DC oxygen plasmas indicate that the specific details of the erosion depend on the simulation facility emphasizing the advantages of the ion beam facility.

  2. Atomic Oxygen (ATOX) simulation of Teflon FEP and Kapton H surfaces using a high intensity, low energy, mass selected, ion beam facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vered, R.; Grossman, E.; Lempert, G. D.; Lifshitz, Y.

    1994-11-01

    A high intensity (greater than 10(exp 15) ions/sq cm) low energy (down to 5 eV) mass selected ion beam (MSIB) facility was used to study the effects of ATOX on two polymers commonly used for space applications (Kapton H and Teflon FEP). The polymers were exposed to O(+) and Ne(+) fluences on 10(exp 15) - 10(exp 19) ions/sq cm, using 30eV ions. A variety of analytical methods were used to analyze the eroded surfaces including: (1) atomic force microscopy (AFM) for morphology measurements; (2) total mass loss measurements using a microbalance; (3) surface chemical composition using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and (4) residual gas analysis (RGA) of the released gases during bombardment. The relative significance of the collisional and chemical degradation processes was evaluated by comparing the effects of Ne(+) and O(+) bombardment. For 30 eV ions it was found that the Kapton is eroded via chemical mechanisms while Teflon FEP is eroded via collisional mechanisms. AFM analysis was found very powerful in revealing the evolution of the damage from its initial atomic scale (roughness of approx. 1 nm) to its final microscopic scale (roughness greater than 1 micron). Both the surface morphology and the average roughness of the bombarded surfaces (averaged over 1 micron x 1 micron images by the system's computer) were determined for each sample. For 30 eV a non linear increase of the Kapton roughness with the O(+) fluence was discovered (a slow increase rate for fluences phi less than 5 x 10(exp 17) O(+)/sq cm, and a rapid increase rate for phi greater than 5 x 10(exp 17) O(+)/sq cm). Comparative studies on the same materials exposed to RF and DC oxygen plasmas indicate that the specific details of the erosion depend on the simulation facility emphasizing the advantages of the ion beam facility.

  3. A model of Triton's role in Neptune's magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, R. B.; Cheng, A. F.

    1994-01-01

    Escape of neutral hydrogen (H) and nitrogen (N) from Triton's maintains a large neutral cloud, called the Triton torus, in Neptune's magnetosphere. We have developed the first detailed Monte Carlo simulation model of the Triton torus that includes the collisionality, the complex geometry, the injection of two neutral species from Triton (H and N), and the combined effects of photoionization, electron impact ionization, and charge exchange. Ionization in Neptune's plasma sheet was modeled using Voyager plasma observations. Collisions cause both the H and N neutral clouds to become more radially extended, both toward Neptune and out beyond the magnetopause, as well as more extended in latitude, when compared with collisionless models. Moreover, collisions of H with the much more massive N greatly enhance the collisional ejection of H from the system and into Neptune's atmosphere. This effect decreases the probability of H ionization within the magnetosphere relative to that for N, and furthermore causes model results for two-species injection from Triton to differ significantly from those for H injection alone. For a hydrogen escape rate from Triton of 5 x 10(exp 25)/s, as given by photo-chemical models of Triton's upper atmosphere, a nitrogen escape rate of 5 x 10(exp 24)/s gives proton and N(+) sources of 5.6 x 10(exp 24)/s and 3.3 x 10(exp 24)/s, respectively, whose ratio is close to the observed ratio of protons to heavies. A nitrogen escape rate of 2 x 10(exp 25)/s, yields an N(+) source more than twice that of protons, inconsistent with the Voyager data.

  4. A potential cyclotron line signature in low-luminosity X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Robert W.; Wang, John C. L.; Salpeter, E. E.; Wasserman, Ira

    1995-01-01

    Estimates indicate there may be greater than or approximately equal to 10(exp 3) low-luminosity X-ray pulsars (L less than or approximately equal to 10(exp 34) ergs/s) in the Galaxy undergoing 'low-state' wind accretion in Be/X-ray binary systems, and approximately 10(exp 8)-10(exp 9) isolated neutron stars which may be accreting directly from the interstellar medium. Despite their low effective temperatures (kT(sub e) less than or approximately equal to 300 eV), low-luminosity accreting neutron stars with magnetic fields B approximately (0.7-7) x 10(exp 12) G could emit a substantial fraction (0.5%-5%) of their total luminosity in a moderately broadened (Epsilon/delta Epsilon approximately 2-4) cyclotron emission line which peaks in the energy range approximately 5-20 keV. The bulk of the thermal emission from these stars will be in the extreme ultraviolet/soft X-ray regime. In sharp contrast, the nonthermal cyclotron component predicted here will not be strongly absorbed, and consequently it may be the only distinguishing signature for the bulk of these low-luminosity sources. We propose a search for this cyclotron emission feature in long pointed observations of the newly discovered candidate isolated neutron star MS 0317.7-6477, and the Be/X-ray transient pulsar 4U 0115+63 in its quiescent state. We note that an emission-like feature similar to the one we predict here has been reported in the energy spectrum of the unusual X-ray pulsar 1E 2259+586.

  5. The 55' global geoid model GGM2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, WenBin; Han, Jiancheng

    2016-04-01

    We provide an updated 55' global geoid model GGM2016, which is determined based on the shallow layer method (Shen 2006). We choose an inner surface S below the EGM2008 geoid, and the layer bounded by the inner surface S and the Earth's geographical surface E is referred to as the shallow layer. The Earth's geographical surface E is determined by the digital topographic model DTM2006.0 combining with the DNSC2008 mean sea surface. We determine the 3D shallow layer model (SLM) using the refined crust density model CRUST1.0-5min, which is an improved 55' density model of the CRUST1.0 with taking into account the corrections of the areas covered by ice sheets and the land-ocean crossing regions. Based on the SLM and the gravity field EGM2008 defined outside the Earth's geographical surface E, we determine the gravity field EGM2008S defined in the region outside the inner surface S, extending the gravity field's definition domain from the domain outside E to the domain outside S. Based on the geodetic equation W(P)=W0, where W0 is the geopotential constant on the geoid, we determine a 55' global geoid model GGM2016, which provides both the 55' grid values and spherical harmonic coefficient expressions. Comparisons show that the GGM2016 fits the globally available GPS/leveling points better than the EGM2008 geoid. This study is supported by National 973 Project China (grant Nos. 2013CB733301 and 2013CB733305), NSFC (grant Nos. 41174011, 41210006, 41429401, 41128003, 41021061).

  6. Data validation summary report 300-FF-5 round 5 groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Hulstrom, L.C.

    1993-07-15

    Laboratory data for Fifth Round Groundwater samples collected during the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit Remedial Investigation have been reviewed and validated to ensure that they are of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding further actions to be taken at the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit. Table 1-1 is a summary of the validated samples. This report summarizes the results previously presented to Westinghouse Hanford in a series of Preliminary Quality Assurance Reports (PQAR) for the 300-FF-5 Fifth Round Groundwater samples. In some instances, the data qualifiers originally presented in the PQARs have been changed based upon further review of the data; these changes are highlighted in the text.

  7. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains an updated academic standards of Arizona public schools for grade 5. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 5; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades…

  8. Fatigue behavior of unirradiated V-5Cr-5Ti

    SciTech Connect

    Gieseke, B.G.; Stevens, C.O.; Grossbeck, M.L.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this research is to determine the low cycle fatigue behavior of V-5Cr-5Ti alloys for a range of temperatures and the extent of environmental effects at ambient temperatures. The results of in-vacuum low cycle fatigue tests are presented for unirradiated V-5Cr-5Ti tested at room temperature, 240, and 400{degree}C. A comparison of the fatigue data generated in rough and high vacuums shows that a pronounced environmental degradation of the fatiuge properties exists in this alloy at room temperature. Fatigue life was reduced by as much as 84%. Cyclic stress range data and SEM observations suggest that this reduction is due to a combination of increases in rates of crack initiation and subsequent growth. The relative contribution of each difference is dependent upon the strain range.

  9. Xilinx Virtex-5QV (V5QV) Independent SEU Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Melanie D.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Pellish, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This is an independent study to determine the single event destructive and transient susceptibility of the Xilinx Virtex-5QV (SIRF) device. A framework for evaluating complex digital systems targeted for harsh radiation environments such as space is presented.

  10. Maintaining a Class M 5.5 environment in a Class M 6.5 cleanroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, David W.; Hedgeland, Randy J.; Geer, Wayne C.; Greenberg, Barry N.

    1994-10-01

    During Kennedy Space Center processing of the Hubble Space Telescope First Servicing Mission, critical optical components were integrated in a Class 100,000 (M 6.5 at 0.5 micrometers and 5.0 micrometers , per Fed-Std 209E) cleanroom. A Class 10,000 (M 5.5) environment was mandated by the 400B (per Mil-Std 1246B) surface cleanliness requirement of the Scientific Instruments. To maintain a Class M 5.5 environment, a contamination control plan was implemented which addressed personnel constraints, operations, and site management. This plan limited personnel access, imposed strict gowning requirements, and increased cleanroom janitorial operations, prohibited operations known to generate contamination while sensitive hardware was exposed to the environment, and controlled roadwork, insecticide spraying, and similar activities. Facility preparations included a ceiling to floor cleaning, sealing of vents and doors, and revising the garment change room entry patterns. The cleanroom was successfully run below Class 5000 while the instruments were present; certain operations, however, were observed to cause local contamination levels to increase above Class M 5.5.

  11. Mission Planning System Increment 5 (MPS Inc 5)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    Retrieval (DAMIR) UNCLASSIFIED MPS Inc 5 2016 MAR UNCLASSIFIED 2 Table of Contents Common Acronyms and Abbreviations for MAIS Programs 3...Automated Information System MAIS OE - MAIS Original Estimate MAR – MAIS Annual Report MDA - Milestone Decision Authority MDD - Materiel Development...U.S.C- United States Code USD(AT&L) - Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, & Logistics MPS Inc 5 2016 MAR UNCLASSIFIED 3 Col

  12. Time evolution of a miniflare as seen in H-alpha, UV lines, and X-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, J.; Schmieder, B.; Simnett, G. M.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.

    1994-01-01

    A miniflare that occurred in active region Hale 16896 on 1980 June 15 was observed in H-alpha, UV lines, and soft X-rays. These data allow us to analyze the flare emission and derive the energetics and dynamics of the chromospheric plasma involved. Our results indicate that the energy released by the miniflare was about 10(exp 28) ergs, about four orders of magnitude smaller than that of a large flare. However, hard X-rays (5.5-8.0 keV) were observed which indicated a plasma with temperature as high as 27 x 10(exp 6) K. The H-alpha wings, C IV, and X-rays all showed a short-lived and compact (3 sec x 3 sec) brightening in a location near the leading sunspot. At this location, small-scale changes in the magnetic field were observed from about 2 hr before to about 6 hr after the miniflare. Only very small velocities seem to have been associated with most of the event in H-alpha. The data are consistent with short and dense loops at temperatures above 10(exp 7) K which lost a large fraction of their energy via downward conduction through regions at the footpoints. Several secondary events appear to have been triggered by the miniflare along an arch filament which itself was not greatly affected. A number of much less energetic (10(exp 25)-10(exp 26) erg) events preceded and followed the mini-flare. One of these occurred 11 minutes after the mini-flare and displayed a highly Doppler-shifted signature from the foot-point of a C IV arch. This arch delineates the connection that existed between the location of the mini-flare and the location of secondary events triggered by the flare.

  13. Suzaku View of the Neutron Star in the Dipping Source 4U 1822-37

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasano, Makoto; Makishima, Kazuo; Sakurai, Soki; Zhang, Zhongli; Enoto, Teruaki

    2013-01-01

    The dipping X-ray source 4U 1822-37 was observed by Suzaku on 2006 Octrober 20 for a net exposure of 37 ks. The source was detected with the XIS at a 1-10 keV flux of 5.5 ×10(exp -10) erg per square centimeter per second, and with the HXD (HXD-PIN) at a 10-50 keV flux of 8.9 ×10(exp -10) erg per square centimeter per second. With HXD-PIN, the pulsation was detected at a barycentric period of 0.592437 seconds, and its change rate was reconfirmed as -2.43 × 10(exp -12) seconds per second. The 1-50 keV spectra of 4U 1822-37 were found to be very similar to those of Her X- 1 in the slopes, cutoff and iron lines. Three iron lines (Fe Kalpha, Fe XXV, and Fe XXVI) were detected, on top of a 1-50 keV continuum that is described by an NPEX model plus a soft blackbody. In addition, a cyclotron resonance scattering feature was detected significantly ( greater than 99% confidence), at an energy of 33+/-2 keV with a depth of 0.4(sup +0.6)/(sub -0.3). Therefore, the neutron star in this source is concluded to have a strong magnetic field of 2.8 × 10(exp 12) G. Further assuming that the source has a relatively high intrinsic luminosity of several times 10(exp 37) erg per second, its spectral and timing properties are consistently explained.

  14. Evolution of magnetized protoplanetary disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reyes-Ruiz, Mauricio; Stepinski, Tomasz F.

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the global evolution of a turbulent protoplanetary disk in its viscous stage, incorporating the effects of Maxwell stress due to a large-scale magnetic field permeating disk. We assume that the viscous stress is given by an alpha model. A magnetic field is produced contemporaneously by an alpha omega dynamo mechanism and the resultant Maxwell stress assists the viscous stress in providing the means for disk evolution. The aim of this work is to compare the evolution of magnetized and nonmagnetized disks driven by turbulent viscosity of the same magnitude and thus assess the effects of a self-generated magnetic field on the structure and dynamical evolution of protoplanetary disks. Two illustrative examples corresponding to two different initial conditions are considered: a high-mass case that starts with a disk of 0.245 solar mass and angular momentum of 5.6 x 10(exp 52)g sq cm/s, and a low-mass that case starts with a disk of 0.11 solar mass and angular momentum of 1.8 x 10(exp 52)g sq cm/s. For each of these two cases the radial development of a disk is calculated numerically assuming a fiducial value of the dimensionless viscosity parameter alpha(sub ss) = 0.01, as well as alpha(sub ss) = 2 x 10(exp -3). In all cases the central star has a mass equal to 1 solar mass. The most striking feature of magnetized disk evolution is the presence of the surface density bulge located in the region of the disk where the dynamo mechanism cannot support a magnetic field. The bulge persists for a time of the order of 10(exp 5)-10(exp 6) yr. The presence and persistence of the surface density bulge may have important implications for the process of planet formation and the overall characteristics of resultant planetary systems.

  15. Analysis of Free-Flight Laminar, Transitional, and Turbulent Heat-Transfer Results at Free-Stream Mach Numbers Near 20 (Reentry F)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoby, Ernest V.; Rumsey, Charles B.

    1971-01-01

    Laminar, transitional, and turbulent heat-transfer data were measured during a reentry flight at a Mach number of 20 on a 5 deg half-angle cone 3.962 m (13 ft) long with an initial nose tip radius of 0.254 cm (0.1 in.). The free-stream Reynolds number increased during the prime data period from 7.0 x 10(exp 6) to 51.5 x 10(exp 6) per meter (2.1 x 10(exp 6) to 15.7 x 10(exp 6) per foot) and the ratio of wall to total temperature varied from 0.053 to 0.12. The angle of attack was less than 1deg for the prime data period. The experimental laminar and turbulent heating rates are compared with results from existing flat-plate prediction methods. At conditions of minimal tip blunting and angle of attack (above 26.8 km (88 000 ft)), values from a flat-plate laminar method agreed within 20 percent with the laminar data. The Schultz-Grunow skin-friction equation with reference enthalpy; conditions, with the Reynolds number based on distance from the transition location, and with the Colburn Reynolds analogy agreed within 10 percent with the experimental turbuleiit heating data. The Van Driest n skin-friction equation with Reynolds number greater than 10(exp 7) based on distance from the peak heating point and the Colburn Reynolds analogy was also within approximately 10 percent of the experimental turbulent heating data. A data correlation jbf the extent of transition and a simple empirical transition-zone heating correlation were also presented.

  16. FUSE Observations of Warm Gas in the Cooling Flow Clusters A1795 and A2597

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oegerle, W. R.; Cowie, L.; Davidsen, A.; Hu, E.; Hutchings, J.; Murphy, E.; Sembach, K.; Woodgate, B.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present far-ultraviolet spectroscopy of the cores of the massive cooling flow clusters Abell 1795 and 2597 obtained with FUSE. As the intracluster gas cools through 3 x 10(exp 5)K, it should emit strongly in the O VI lambda(lambda)1032,1038 resonance lines. We report the detection of O VI (lambda)1032 emission in A2597, with a line flux of 1.35 +/- 0.35 x 10(exp -15) erg/sq cm s, as well as detection of emission from C III (lambda)977. A marginal detection of C III (lambda)977 emission is also reported for A1795. These observations provide evidence for a direct link between the hot (10(exp 7) K) cooling flow gas and the cool (10(exp 4) K) gas in the optical emission line filaments. Assuming simple cooling flow models, the O VI line flux in A2597 corresponds to a mass deposition rate of approx. 40 solar mass /yr within the central 36 kpc. Emission from O VI (lambda)1032 was not detected in A1795, with an upper limit of 1.5 x 10(exp -15) erg/sq cm s, corresponding to a limit on the mass cooling flow rate of M(28 kpc) less than 28M solar mass/ yr. We have considered several explanations for the lack of detection of O VI emission in A1795 and the weaker than expected flux in A2597, including extinction by dust in the outer cluster, and quenching of thermal conduction by magnetic fields. We conclude that a turbulent mixing model, with some dust extinction, could explain our O VI results while also accounting for the puzzling lack of emission by Fe(sub XVII) in cluster cooling flows.

  17. Cosmogenic Production of Be-7 and Be-10 in Water Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Finkel, R. C.; Klein, J.; Kohl, C. P.

    1996-01-01

    We have measured Be-10(t(sub 1/2) = 1.5 x 10(exp 6) years) and Be-7 (t(sub 1/2) = 53.28 days) concentrations in water targets exposed for 1 to 2 years at Echo Lake, Colorado (elevation = 3246 m) and at La Jolla, California (140 m). Neutron monitor data were used to normalize the measured concentrations in order to calculate production rates equivalent to the cosmic ray flux averaged over four solar cycles (43 years). The Be-7 production rates thus obtained correspond to 6.03 +/- 0.07 x 10(exp -6) atom/g.O/s at Echo Lake and 5.06 +/- 0.20 x 10(exp -7) atom/g.O/ s at La Jolla. The Be-10 production rates correspond to 3.14 +/- 0.18 x 10(exp -6) atom/g.O/s at Echo Lake and 2.68 +/- 0.47 x 10(exp -7) atom/g.O/s at La Jolla. When compared with Be-10 production rates determined in Be-10-saturated rocks from the Antarctic and with theoretical calculations based on meteorite and lunar sample data, we find that the million-year average production rate is about 14 - 17% greater than the present production rate averaged over the last four solar cycles. Comparison with production rates determined by measuring glacially polished rocks from the Sierra Nevada in California indicates that average production (based on a revised 13,000-year deglaciation age and a geographic latitude correction) is a about 11% greater than the average over the last four solar cycles. The measured Be-10/Be-7 production ratio in oxygen is 0.52 +/- 0.03 at Echo Lake and 0.55 +/- 0.07 at La Jolla.

  18. Goddard high-resolution spectrograph observations of narrow discrete stellar wind absorption features in the ultraviolet spectrum of the O7.5 III star Xi Persei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shore, Steven N.; Altner, Bruce; Bolton, C. T.; Cardelli, Jason A.; Ebbets, Dennis C.

    1993-01-01

    We report the observation of transient narrow absorption components (NACs) in the stellar wind of the O giant Xi Per. Two sets of GHRS observations of the Si IV ultraviolet resonance doublet have been obtained. These features are extremely weak, with column densities of approximately 10 exp 12/sq cm and optical depths of order 0.1. The features are narrow, less than 30 km/s, and seem to occur in groups. If the NACs are due to the 1393 A component, they represent previously undetected low-velocity discrete absorption components at V(rad) below -600 km/s. If they are high-velocity features on the 1402 A doublet component, they may represent the decay phase of the discrete absorption components at the terminal velocity. In either case, they are a new aspect of the NAC phenomenon that could not have been detected with previous ultraviolet spectrographs.

  19. Flat microwave spectra seen at X-class flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jeongwoo W.; Gary, Dale E.; Zirin, H.

    1994-01-01

    We report peculiar spectral activity of four large microwave bursts as obtained from the Solar Arrays at the Owens Valey Radio Observatory during observations of X-class flares on 24 May 1990 and 7, 8, 22 March 1991. Main observational points that we newly uncovered are: (1) flat flux spectra over 1-18 GHz in large amounts of flux ranging from 10(exp 2) to 10(exp 4) s.f.u. at the maximum phase, (2) a common evolutionary pattern in which the spectral region of dominant flux shifts from high frequencies at the initial rise to low frequencies at the decaying phase, and (3) unusual time profiles that are impulsive at high frequencies but more extended at lower frequencies. We carry out the model calculations of microwave spectra under assumptions of gyrosynchrotron mechanism and a dipole field configuration to reproduce the observational characteristics. Our results are summarized as follows. First, a flat microwave spectrum reaching up to 10(exp 2) - 10(exp 4) s.f.u. may occur in a case where a magnetic loop is extended to an angular size of approximately (0.7-7.0) x 10(exp -7) sterad and contains a huge number (N(E greater than 10 keV) approx. 10(exp 36) - 10(exp 38)) of nonthermal electrons with power-law index approx. 3-3.5 over the entire volume. Second, the observed spectral activity could adequately be accounted for by the shrinking of the region of nonthermal electrons to the loop top and by the softening of the power-law spectrum of electrons in a time scale ranging 3-45 min depending on the event. Third, the extended microwave activity at lower frequencies is probably due to electrons trapped in the loop top where magnetic fields are low. Finally, we clarify the physical distinction between these large, extended microwave bursts and the gradual/post-microwave bursts often seen in weak events, both of which are characterized by long-period activity and broadband spectra.

  20. Electron density power spectrum in the local interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. W.; Rickett, B. J.; Spangler, S. R.

    1995-01-01

    Interstellar scintillation (ISS), fluctuations in the amplitude and phase of radio waves caused by scattering in the interstellar medium, is important as a diagnostic of interstellar plasma turbulence. ISS is also of interest because it is noise for other radio astronomical observations. The unifying concern is the power spectrum of the interstellar electron density. Here we use ISS observations through the nearby (less than or approximately =1 kpc) (ISM) to estimate the spectrum. From measurements of angular broadening of pulsars and extragalactic sources, decorrelation bandwidth of pulsars, refractive steering of features in pulsar dynamic spectra, dispersion measured fluctuations of pulsars, and refractive scintillation index measurements, we construct a composite structure function that is approximately power law over 2 x 10(exp 6) m less than scale less than 10(exp 13) m. The data are consistent with the structure function having a logarithmic slope versus baseline less than 2; thus there is a meaningful connection between scales in the radiowave fluctuation field and the scales in the electron density field causing the scattering. The data give an upper limit to the inner scale, l(sub o) less than or approximately 10(exp 8) m and are consistent with much smaller values. We construct a composite electron density spectrum that is approximately power law over at least the approximately = 5 decade wavenumber range 10(exp -13)/m less than wavenumber less than 10(exp -8)/m and that may extend to higher wavenumbers. The average spectral index of electron density over this wavenumber range is approximately = 3.7, very close to the value expected for a Kolmogorov process. The outer scale size, L(sub o), must be greater than or approximately = 10(exp 13) m (determined from dispersion measure fluctuations). When the ISS data are combined with measurements of differential Faraday rotation angle, and gradients in the average electron density, constraints can be put on the

  1. Analysis of ATS-5 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    Data from the particle detectors on ATS-5 in synchronous orbit and from the meridian line of magnetometers at a ground station are correlated for periods of well defined substorm activity. Specific substorm events are presented whose region of maximum perturbation can be accurately identified using current systems modelling techniques. It was found that the impulsive particle response at ATS-5 is correlated with changes in the auroral electrojet structure during the development of the substorm expansive phase. The response of the particle detectors appears to differ from event to event depending on the geometry of the disturbed region of the magnetosphere. It is concluded that the substorm disturbance typically begins at low latitude and propagates poleward in impulsive steps and that energetic electron enhancements are observed at ATS-5 when the poleward border of the electrojet intensifies in the latitude range of the ATS-5 field line.

  2. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 5

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the conformity SIP adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 5 (IL, IN, MI, OH, WI) is provided here.

  3. Inflation in supersymmetric SU(5)

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, S.; Rehman, M. U.; Shafi, Q.; Zaakouk, E. A.

    2011-03-15

    We analyze the adjoint field inflation in supersymmetric (SUSY) SU(5) model. In minimal SUSY SU(5) hybrid inflation monopoles are produced at the end of inflation. We therefore explore the nonminimal model of inflation based on SUSY SU(5), like shifted hybrid inflation, which provides a natural solution for the monopole problem. We find that the supergravity corrections with nonminimal Kaehler potential are crucial to realize the central value of the scalar spectral index n{sub s{approx_equal}}0.96 consistent with the 7 yr WMAP data. The tensor to scalar ratio r is quite small, taking on values r < or approx. 10{sup -5}. Because of R symmetry massless SU(3) octet and SU(2) triplet supermultiplets are present and could spoil gauge coupling unification. To keep gauge coupling unification intact, light vectorlike particles are added which are expected to be observed at LHC.

  4. DSM-5: the debate continues.

    PubMed

    Buxbaum, Joseph D; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2013-05-15

    We are fortunate to have invited commentaries from the laboratories of Dr Cathy Lord and Dr Fred Volkmar offering their perspectives on the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-5 criteria for the autism spectrum. Both commentaries note how DSM-5 collapses the earlier diagnostic categories of the pervasive developmental disorders into a single category of autism spectrum disorder. In addition, DSM-5 collapses social and communication domains into a single combined domain. The commentaries go on to discuss the positive aspects of these changes and raise some areas of potential concern. We support the evidence-based changes to autism diagnosis found in DSM-5, and look forward to further studies on the autism phenotype as this has implications for diagnosis and treatment. As our mechanistic understanding of autism improves, diagnoses based on behavioral parameters will continue to provide opportunities for interventions targeting the behaviors, while etiological diagnoses will provide opportunities for interventions tailored to etiology.

  5. Upgrading to MARPLOT 5.x

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    MARPLOT 5.x versions include significant changes from both the previous 4.x versions and the 3.x versions. To ensure that your data is successfully transferred from your old MARPLOT, follow these instructions carefully.

  6. 25 Years of Landsat 5

    NASA Video Gallery

    Twenty-two years beyond its primary mission lifetime, Landsat 5 is still going strong. It has charted urban growth in Las Vegas, monitored fire scars in Yellowstone National Park, and tracked the r...

  7. Shape resonance spectra of uracil, 5-fluorouracil, and 5-chlorouracil

    SciTech Connect

    Kossoski, F.; Varella, M. T. do N.; Bettega, M. H. F.

    2014-01-14

    We report on the shape resonance spectra of uracil, 5-fluorouracil, and 5-chlorouracil, as obtained from fixed-nuclei elastic scattering calculations performed with the Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials. Our results are in good agreement with the available electron transmission spectroscopy data, and support the existence of three π* resonances in uracil and 5-fluorouracil. As expected, the anion states are more stable in the substituted molecules than in uracil. Since the stabilization is stronger in 5-chlorouracil, the lowest π* resonance in this system becomes a bound anion state. The present results also support the existence of a low-lying σ{sub CCl{sup *}} shape resonance in 5-chlorouracil. Exploratory calculations performed at selected C–Cl bond lengths suggest that the σ{sub CCl{sup *}} resonance could couple to the two lowest π* states, giving rise to a very rich dissociation dynamics. These facts would be compatible with the complex branching of the dissociative electron attachment cross sections, even though we cannot discuss any details of the vibration dynamics based only on the present fixed-nuclei results.

  8. Shape resonance spectra of uracil, 5-fluorouracil, and 5-chlorouracil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossoski, F.; Bettega, M. H. F.; Varella, M. T. do N.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the shape resonance spectra of uracil, 5-fluorouracil, and 5-chlorouracil, as obtained from fixed-nuclei elastic scattering calculations performed with the Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials. Our results are in good agreement with the available electron transmission spectroscopy data, and support the existence of three π* resonances in uracil and 5-fluorouracil. As expected, the anion states are more stable in the substituted molecules than in uracil. Since the stabilization is stronger in 5-chlorouracil, the lowest π* resonance in this system becomes a bound anion state. The present results also support the existence of a low-lying σ _CCl^* shape resonance in 5-chlorouracil. Exploratory calculations performed at selected C-Cl bond lengths suggest that the σ _CCl^* resonance could couple to the two lowest π* states, giving rise to a very rich dissociation dynamics. These facts would be compatible with the complex branching of the dissociative electron attachment cross sections, even though we cannot discuss any details of the vibration dynamics based only on the present fixed-nuclei results.

  9. CCR5 and HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Blanpain, Cédric; Libert, Frédérick; Vassart, Gilbert; Parmentier, Marc

    2002-01-01

    Chemokines and chemokine receptors play a crucial role in the trafficking of leukocyte populations across the body, and are involved in the development of a large variety of human diseases. CCR5 is the main coreceptor used by macrophage (M)-tropic strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2, which are responsible for viral transmission. CCR5 therefore plays an essential role in HIV pathogenesis. A number of inflammatory CC-chemokines, including MIP-1 alpha, MIP-1 beta, RANTES, MCP-2, and HCC-1[9-74] act as CCR5 agonists, while MCP-3 is a natural antagonist of the receptor. CCR5 is mainly expressed in memory T-cells, macrophages, and immature dendritic cells, and is upregulated by proinflammatory cytokines. It is coupled to the Gi class of heterotrimeric G-proteins, and inhibits cAMP production, stimulates Ca2+ release, and activates PI3-kinase and MAP kinases, as well as other tyrosine kinase cascades. A mutant allele of CCR5, CCR5 delta 32 is frequent in populations of European origin, and encodes a nonfunctional truncated protein that is not transported to the cell surface. Homozygotes for the delta 32 allele exhibit a strong, although incomplete, resistance to HIV infection, whereas heterozygotes display delayed progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Many other alleles, affecting the primary structure of CCR5 or its promoter have been described, some of which lead to nonfunctional receptors or otherwise influence AIDS progression. CCR5 is considered as a drug target in the field of HIV, but also in a growing number of inflammatory diseases. Modified chemokines, monoclonal antibodies and small chemical antagonists, as well as a number of gene therapy approaches have been developed in this frame.

  10. NOX5 in Human Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Musset, Boris; Clark, Robert A.; DeCoursey, Thomas E.; Petheo, Gabor L.; Geiszt, Miklos; Chen, Yumin; Cornell, John E.; Eddy, Carlton A.; Brzyski, Robert G.; El Jamali, Amina

    2012-01-01

    Physiological and pathological processes in spermatozoa involve the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the identity of the ROS-producing enzyme system(s) remains a matter of speculation. We provide the first evidence that NOX5 NADPH oxidase is expressed and functions in human spermatozoa. Immunofluorescence microscopy detected NOX5 protein in both the flagella/neck region and the acrosome. Functionally, spermatozoa exposed to calcium ionophore, phorbol ester, or H2O2 exhibited superoxide anion production, which was blocked by addition of superoxide dismutase, a Ca2+ chelator, or inhibitors of either flavoprotein oxidases (diphenylene iododonium) or NOX enzymes (GKT136901). Consistent with our previous overexpression studies, we found that H2O2-induced superoxide production by primary sperm cells was mediated by the non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Abl. Moreover, the HV1 proton channel, which was recently implicated in spermatozoa motility, was required for optimal superoxide production by spermatozoa. Immunoprecipitation experiments suggested an interaction among NOX5, c-Abl, and HV1. H2O2 treatment increased the proportion of motile sperm in a NOX5-dependent manner. Statistical analyses showed a pH-dependent correlation between superoxide production and enhanced sperm motility. Collectively, our findings show that NOX5 is a major source of ROS in human spermatozoa and indicate a role for NOX5-dependent ROS generation in human spermatozoa motility. PMID:22291013

  11. A deformation of AdS5 × S5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Gutowski, Jan B.; Suryanarayana, Nemani V.

    2004-11-01

    We analyse a one-parameter family of supersymmetric solutions of type IIB supergravity that includes AdS5 × S5. For small values of the parameter the solutions are causally well behaved, but beyond a critical value closed timelike curves (CTCs) appear. The solutions are holographically dual to {\\cal N}=4 supersymmetric Yang Mills theory on a non-conformally flat background with non-vanishing R-currents. We compute the holographic energy momentum tensor for the spacetime and show that it remains finite even when the CTCs appear. The solutions, as well as the uplift of some recently discovered AdS5 black-hole solutions, are shown to preserve precisely two supersymmetries.

  12. ED cuts LWBS from 5% to 0.5%.

    PubMed

    2010-04-01

    The leaders at King's Daughters Medical Center in Ashland, KY, firmly believe that solving ED throughput problems must be the responsibility of the entire hospital. They must be on the right track. A recent initiative has slashed the rate of patients who left without being seen from 5% to 0.5%. When beds are available in the ED, presenting patients are moved there immediately and then triaged by the bed nurse. Throughput assessments are conducted hourly so that problems can be addressed immediately. When the ED is in danger of becoming overwhelmed, all department leaders are paged and direct their units to take appropriate action.

  13. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 5. The Next Particle

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 5. The Next Particle The "sparticle" - a super symmetric partner to all the known particles could be the answer to uniting all the known particles and their interactions under one grand theoretical pattern of activity. But how do researchers know where to look for such phenomena and how do they know if they find them? Simon Singh reviews the next particle that physicists would like to find if the current particle theories are to ring true.

  14. Sensitivity of Spruce/Moss Boreal Forest Net Ecosystem Productivity to Seasonal Anomalies in Weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frolking, Steve

    1997-01-01

    Abstract. A process-oriented, daily time step model of a spruce/moss boreal ecosystem simulated 1994 and 1995 productivity for a Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study site near Thompson, Manitoba. Simulated black spruce net primary productivity (NPP) was 139 g C m(exp -2) in 1994 and 112 in 1995; feathermoss NPP was 13.0 g C m(exp -2) in 1994 and 9.7 in 1995; decomposition was 126 g C m(exp -2) in 1994 and 130 in 1995; net ecosystem productivity (NEP) was an uptake of 26.3 g C m(exp -2)in 1994 and 2.5 in 1995. A very dry period for the first half of the 1995 summer was the major cause of that year's lower productivity. Sensitivity simulations explored the impact of 2-month long warmer, cooler, wetter, and drier spells on ecosystem productivity. Warmer summers decreased spruce NPP, moss NPP, and NEP; cooler summers had the opposite effect. Earlier snowmelt (due to either warmer spring temperatures or reduced winter precipitation) increased moss and spruce NPP; later snowmelt had the opposite effect. The largest effect on decomposition was a 5% reduction due to a drier summer. One-month droughts (April through October) were also imposed on 1975 base year weather. Early summer droughts reduced moss annual NPP by -30-40%; summer droughts reduced spruce annual NPP by 10%; late summer droughts increased moss NPP by about 20% due to reduced respiration; May to September monthly droughts reduced heterotrophic respiration by about 10%. Variability in NEP was up to roughly +/- 35%. Finally, 1975 growing season precipitation was redistributed into frequent, small rainstorms and infrequent, large rainstorms. These changes had no effect on spruce NPP. Frequent rainstorms increased decomposition by a few percent, moss NPP by 50%, and NEP by 20%. Infrequent rainstorms decreased decomposition by 5%, moss NPP by 50% and NEP by 15%. The impact of anomalous weather patterns on productivity of this ecosystem depended on their timing during the year. Multiyear data sets are necessary to

  15. Black Holes in Bulgeless Galaxies: An XMM-Newton Investigation of NGC 3367 AND NGC 4536

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAlpine, W.; Satyapal, S.; Gliozzi, M.; Cheung, C. C.; Sambruna, R. M.; Eracleous, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of optically identified active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the local Universe reside in host galaxies with prominent bulges, supporting the hypothesis that black hole formation and growth is fundamentally connected to the build-up of galaxy bulges. However, recent mid-infrared spectroscopic studies with Spitzer of a sample of optically "normal" late-type galaxies reveal remarkably the presence of high-ionization [NeV] lines in several sources, providing strong evidence for AGNs in these galaxies. We present follow-up X-ray observations recently obtained with XMM-Newton of two such sources, the late-type optically normal galaxies NGC 3367 and NGC 4536. Both sources are detected in our observations. Detailed spectral analysis reveals that for both galaxies, the 2-10 keV emission is dominated by a power law with an X-ray luminosity in the L(sub 2- 10 keV) approximates 10(exp 39) - 10(exp 40) ergs/s range, consistent with low luminosity AGNs. While there is a possibility that X-ray binaries account for some fraction of the observed X-ray luminosity, we argue that this fraction is negligible. These observations therefore add to the growing evidence that the fraction of late-type galaxies hosting AGNs is significantly underestimated using optical observations alone. A comparison of the midinfrared [NeV] luminosity and the X-ray luminosities suggests the presence of an additional highly absorbed X-ray source in both galaxies, and that the black hole masses are in the range of 10(exp 5) - 10(exp 7) solar M for NGC 3367 and 10(exp 4) - (exp 10) solar M for NGC 4536

  16. Decline of the 2-10 keV Emission from Eta Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liburd, Jamar; Corcoran, Michael F.; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Gull, Theodore R.; Madura, Thomas; Teodoro, Mairan; Moffat, Anthony; Richardson, Noel; Russell, Chris; Pollock, Andrew; Owocki, Stan

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of Eta Car's X-ray spectrum in the 2-10 keV band using processed data from the X-ray Telescope on Swift reveals a peak flux on July 16, 2014 of 0.046 photons s(exp -1) cm(exp -2) (3.37+/-0.15×10(exp -10) ergs s(exp -1) cm(exp -2). This flux is similar to the previous maximum flux seen by the XRT, 3.53+/-0.13×10(exp -10) ergs s(exp -1) cm(exp -2) (0.049 photons s(exp -1) cm(exp -2), ATEL #6298). Since this peak on July 16, the most recent Swift XRT quicklook data show a drop in flux. On July 20, 2014 the XRT flux as seen in the quicklook data was 0.011 photons s(exp -1) cm(exp -2) (8.3+/-0.5×10(exp -11) ergs s(exp -1) cm(exp -2)). This most likely indicates that the 2-10 keV flux is in its declining phase as Eta Car approaches its deep X-ray minimum stage (Hamaguchi et al., 2014, ApJ, 784, 125) associated with periastron passage of the 2024-day binary orbit. The column density derived from analysis of the July 20 XRT quicklook data is 7.2×10(exp 22) cm(exp -2). This is consistent with the column density seen near the same orbital phase in 2003 (7.7×10(exp 22) cm(exp -2), Hamaguchi et al., 2007, ApJ, 663, 522). Eta Car's deep X-ray minimum phase is expected to begin on July 30, 2014. Weekly Swift/XRT observations of Eta Car in the 2-10 keV band are planned throughout the X-ray minimum.

  17. Global Evolution of Solid Matter in Turbulent Protoplanetry Disks. Part 1; Aerodynamics of Solid Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Valageas, P.

    1996-01-01

    The problem of planetary system formation and its subsequent character can only be addressed by studying the global evolution of solid material entrained in gaseous protoplanetary disks. We start to investigate this problem by considering the space-time development of aerodynamic forces that cause solid particles to decouple from the gas. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that only the smallest particles are attached to the gas, or that the radial distribution of the solid matter has no momentary relation to the radial distribution of the gas. We present the illustrative example wherein a gaseous disk of 0.245 solar mass and angular momentum of 5.6 x 10(exp 52) g/sq cm/s is allowed to evolve due to turbulent viscosity characterized by either alpha = 10(exp -2) or alpha = 10(exp -3). The motion of solid particles suspended in a viscously evolving gaseous disk is calculated numerically for particles of different sizes. In addition we calculate the global evolution of single-sized, noncoagulating particles. We find that particles smaller than 0.1 cm move with the gas; larger particles have significant radial velocities relative to the gas. Particles larger than 0.1 cm but smaller than 10(exp 3) cm have inward radial velocities much larger than the gas, whereas particles larger than 10(exp 4) cm have inward velocities much smaller than the gas. A significant difference in the form of the radial distribution of solids and the gas develops with time. It is the radial distribution of solids, rather than the gas, that determines the character of an emerging planetary system.

  18. Source Parameter Inversion for Recent Great Earthquakes from a Decade-long Observation of Global Gravity Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Shin-Chan; Riva, Ricccardo; Sauber, Jeanne; Okal, Emile

    2013-01-01

    We quantify gravity changes after great earthquakes present within the 10 year long time series of monthly Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity fields. Using spherical harmonic normal-mode formulation, the respective source parameters of moment tensor and double-couple were estimated. For the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, the gravity data indicate a composite moment of 1.2x10(exp 23)Nm with a dip of 10deg, in agreement with the estimate obtained at ultralong seismic periods. For the 2010 Maule earthquake, the GRACE solutions range from 2.0 to 2.7x10(exp 22)Nm for dips of 12deg-24deg and centroid depths within the lower crust. For the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, the estimated scalar moments range from 4.1 to 6.1x10(exp 22)Nm, with dips of 9deg-19deg and centroid depths within the lower crust. For the 2012 Indian Ocean strike-slip earthquakes, the gravity data delineate a composite moment of 1.9x10(exp 22)Nm regardless of the centroid depth, comparing favorably with the total moment of the main ruptures and aftershocks. The smallest event we successfully analyzed with GRACE was the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake with M(sub 0) approx. 5.0x10(exp 21)Nm. We found that the gravity data constrain the focal mechanism with the centroid only within the upper and lower crustal layers for thrust events. Deeper sources (i.e., in the upper mantle) could not reproduce the gravity observation as the larger rigidity and bulk modulus at mantle depths inhibit the interior from changing its volume, thus reducing the negative gravity component. Focal mechanisms and seismic moments obtained in this study represent the behavior of the sources on temporal and spatial scales exceeding the seismic and geodetic spectrum.

  19. On a Solar Origin for the Cosmogenic Nuclide Event of 775 A.D.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliver, E. W.; Tylka, A. J.; Dietrich, W. F.; Ling, A. G.

    2014-01-01

    We explore requirements for a solar particle event (SPE) and flare capable of producing the cosmogenic nuclide event of 775 A.D., and review solar circumstances at that time. A solar source for 775 would require a greater than 1 GV spectrum approximately 45 times stronger than that of the intense high-energy SPE of 1956 February 23. This implies a greater than 30 MeV proton fluence (F(sub 30)) of approximately 8 × 10(exp 10) proton cm(exp -2), approximately 10 times larger than that of the strongest 3 month interval of SPE activity in the modern era. This inferred F(sub 30) value for the 775 SPE is inconsistent with the occurrence probability distribution for greater than 30 MeV solar proton events. The best guess value for the soft X-ray classification (total energy) of an associated flare is approximately X230 (approximately 9 × 10(exp 33) erg). For comparison, the flares on 2003 November 4 and 1859 September 1 had observed/inferred values of approximately X35 (approximately 10(exp 33) erg) and approximately X45 (approximately 2 × 10(exp 33) erg), respectively. The estimated size of the source active region for a approximately 10(exp 34) erg flare is approximately 2.5 times that of the largest region yet recorded. The 775 event occurred during a period of relatively low solar activity, with a peak smoothed amplitude about half that of the second half of the 20th century. The approximately 1945-1995 interval, the most active of the last approximately 2000 yr, failed to witness a SPE comparable to that required for the proposed solar event in 775. These considerations challenge a recent suggestion that the 775 event is likely of solar origin.

  20. FUSE Observations of O VI Absorption in the Local Interstellar Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oegerle, W. R.; Jenkins, E. B.; Shelton, R. L.; Bowen, D. V.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We report the results of an initial Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) survey of O VI Lambda 1032 absorption along the lines of sight to eleven nearby white dwarfs, ten of which are within the Local Bubble (LB; d < or approximately equal 100 pc). A goal of this survey is to investigate the possible formation of O VI in the conductive interfaces between cool (about 10(exp 4) K) clouds immersed in the presumably hot (10(exp 6) K) gas within the LB. This mechanism is often invoked to explain the widespread presence of 0 VI throughout the Galactic disk. We find no 0 VI absorption toward two stars, and the column densities along three additional sight lines are quite low; N(O VI) about 5 x 10(exp 13)/sq cm. In several directions, we observe rather broad, shallow absorption with N(O VI) about 1 - 2 x 10(exp 13)/sq cm. Models of conductive interfaces predict narrow profiles with N(OVI) > or about equal to 10(exp 13)/sq cm per interface, in the absence of a significant transverse magnetic field. Hence, our observations of weak 0 VI absorption indicate that conduction is being quenched, possibly by non-radial magnetic fields. Alternatively, the gas within the LB may not be hot. Breitschwerdt & Schmutzler have proposed a model for the LB in which an explosive event within a dense cloud created rapid expansion and adiabatic cooling, resulting in a cavity containing gas with a kinetic temperature of T about 50,000 K, but with an ionization state characteristic of much hotter gas. This model has a number of attractive features, but appears to predict significantly more O VI than we observe.

  1. Modeling of pickup ion distributions in the Halley cometosheath: Empirical limits on rates of ionization, diffusion, loss and creation of fast neutral atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huddleston, D. E.; Neugebauer, M.; Goldstein, B. E.

    1994-01-01

    The shape of the velocity distribution of water group ions observed by the Giotto ion mass spectrometer on its approach to comet Halley is modeled to derive empirical values for the rates of ionization, energy diffusion, and loss in the midcometosheath. The model includes the effect of rapid pitch angle scattering into a bispherical shell distribution as well as the effect of the magnetization of the plasma on the charge exchange loss rate. It is found that the average rate of ionization of cometary neutrals in this region of the cometosheath appears to be of the order of a factor 3 faster than the `standard' rates approx. 1 x 10(exp -6)/s that are generally assumed to model the observations in most regions of the comet environment. For the region of the coma studied in the present work (approx. 1 - 2 x 10(exp 5) km from the nucleus), the inferred energy diffusion coefficient is D(sub 0) approx. equals 0.0002 to 0.0005 sq km/cu s, which is generally lower than values used in other models. The empirically obtained loss rate appears to be about an order of magnitude greater than can be explained by charge exchange with the `standard' cross section of approx. 2 x 10(exp -15)sq cm. However such cross sections are not well known and for water group ion/water group neutral interactions, rates as high as 8 x 10(exp -15) sq cm have previously been suggested in the literature. Assuming the entire loss rate is due to charge exchange yields a rate of creation of fast neutral atoms of the order of approx. 10(exp -4)/s or higher, depending on the level of velocity diffusion. The fast neutrals may, in turn, be partly responsible for the higher-than-expected ionization rate.

  2. 10 CFR 960.5-2-5 - Environmental quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., technical, social, economic, and environmental factors; and (2) the requirements specified in § 960.5-1(a)(2... programmatic, technical, social, economic, and environmental factors. (2) Any part of the restricted area or... of reasonable measures, taking into account programmatic, technical, social, economic,...

  3. 10 CFR 960.5-2-5 - Environmental quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., technical, social, economic, and environmental factors; and (2) the requirements specified in § 960.5-1(a)(2... programmatic, technical, social, economic, and environmental factors. (2) Any part of the restricted area or... of reasonable measures, taking into account programmatic, technical, social, economic,...

  4. 10 CFR 960.5-2-5 - Environmental quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., technical, social, economic, and environmental factors; and (2) the requirements specified in § 960.5-1(a)(2... programmatic, technical, social, economic, and environmental factors. (2) Any part of the restricted area or... of reasonable measures, taking into account programmatic, technical, social, economic,...

  5. 10 CFR 960.5-2-5 - Environmental quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., technical, social, economic, and environmental factors; and (2) the requirements specified in § 960.5-1(a)(2... programmatic, technical, social, economic, and environmental factors. (2) Any part of the restricted area or... of reasonable measures, taking into account programmatic, technical, social, economic,...

  6. 10 CFR 960.5-2-5 - Environmental quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., technical, social, economic, and environmental factors; and (2) the requirements specified in § 960.5-1(a)(2... programmatic, technical, social, economic, and environmental factors. (2) Any part of the restricted area or... of reasonable measures, taking into account programmatic, technical, social, economic,...

  7. 5 CFR 1312.5 - Authority to classify.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DOWNGRADING, DECLASSIFICATION AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification and Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.5 Authority to classify. (a) The authority to originally... of national security. The officials listed in this section are granted authority by the Director,...

  8. 5 CFR 1312.5 - Authority to classify.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DOWNGRADING, DECLASSIFICATION AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification and Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.5 Authority to classify. (a) The authority to originally... of national security. The officials listed in this section are granted authority by the Director,...

  9. 5 CFR 1312.5 - Authority to classify.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DOWNGRADING, DECLASSIFICATION AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification and Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.5 Authority to classify. (a) The authority to originally... of national security. The officials listed in this section are granted authority by the Director,...

  10. GEMPAK5 user's guide, version 5.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desjardins, Mary L.; Brill, Keith F.; Schotz, Steven S.

    1991-01-01

    GEMPAK is a general meteorological software package used to analyze and display conventional meteorological data as well as satellite derived parameters. The User's Guide describes the GEMPAK5 programs and input parameters and details the algorithms used for the meteorological computations.

  11. Observations for CMIP5 Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teixeira, J.; Waliser, D.; Crichton, D.; Braverman, A.; Boland, S.; Williams, D.; Gleckler, P.; Taylor, K.; Potter, J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this is to provide the community of researchers that will access and evaluate the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) model results access to analogous, analogous sets in terms of periods, variables, temporal/spatial frequency, sets of observational data. A collaborative effort between JPL/NASA and PCMDI is underway to provide the community of researchers that will access and evaluate the CMIP5 model results access to analogous sets of observational data. A number of NASA satellite data sets have been identified that have model equivalents. Thus far: AIRS, MLS, TES, QuikSCAT, CloudSat, Topex/Poseidon, CERES, TRMM, AMSR-E have been identified.

  12. DSM-5: Challenging diagnostic testimony.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Leigh D; Guilmette, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders' (DSM) 60-year evolution has not been particularly linear nor cumulative with respect to the process of its construction, its stated purpose, its framework, and inclusion of specific disorders. We consider DSM-5's stated purpose in light of the manual's explicit cautions and other complications encountered when presenting diagnoses in the course of psychological expert testimony under the applicable rules of evidence. This review considers the extent to which DSM-5 bears up under numerous criticisms when employed for forensic purposes and points out challenges that the expert should anticipate when offering diagnostic opinions underpinned by DSM-5 generally and by neurocognitive disorders in particular.

  13. La5Zn2Sn

    PubMed Central

    Oshchapovsky, Igor; Pavlyuk, Volodymyr; Dmytriv, Grygoriy; Chumak, Igor; Ehrenberg, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    A single crystal of penta­lanthanum dizinc stannide, La5Zn2Sn, was obtained from the elements in a resistance furnace. It belongs to the Mo5SiB2 structure type, which is a ternary ordered variant of the Cr5B3 structure type. The space is filled by bicapped tetra­gonal anti­prisms from lanthanum atoms around tin atoms sharing their vertices. Zinc atoms fill voids between these bicapped tetra­gonal anti­prisms. All four atoms in the asymmetric unit reside on special positions with the following site symmetries: La1 (..m); La2 (4/m..); Zn (m.2m); Sn (422). PMID:22219730

  14. 5-Bromo-phthalazine hemihydrate.

    PubMed

    Cai, Mingjian

    2012-08-01

    The title compound, C(8)H(5)BrN(2)·0.5H(2)O, is a phthalazine derivative synthesized from 3-bromo-benzene-1,2-dicarbaldehyde and hydrazine. The mol-ecule is essentially planar, the deviation from the mean plane of the phthalazine ring being 0.015 (3) Å. The O atom of the solvent water mol-ecule is situated on a twofold rotation axis. In the crystal, O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds and short N⋯Br [2.980 (3) Å] contacts lead to the formation of a two-dimensional network parallel to (101).

  15. C-5 Corrosion Program 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    Plastic Media Blasting (PMB) on C-5 • PMB (Type V media) on C-5 at Kelly AFB in 1990’s – Approval based upon testing by SwRI – PMB not possible on resin ...Masking Melamine Pads NSN 7920-01-526-9003 Scotch-Brite ™ Pads with Rubber Coating NSN 6850-01-496-4901 Cleaning efficiency for Melamine is superior...to white Scotch-Brite™ on soot. Melamine Pads tend to Wear Out Fast if Force Used Similar to Scotchbrite Pads Rubber Coating 3M #261 Conformable

  16. Radiative Effects of Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valero, Francisco P. J.

    1996-01-01

    During the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) in June 1992, two descents in cloud-free regions allowed comparison of the change in aerosol optical depth as determined by an onboard total-direct-diffuse radiometer (TDDR) to the change calculated from measured size-resolved aerosol microphysics and chemistry. Both profiles included a pollution haze from Europe but the second also included the effect of a Saharan dust layer above the haze. The separate contributions of supermicrometer (coarse) and submicrometer (fine) aerosol were determined and thermal analysis of the pollution haze indicated that the fine aerosol was composed primarily of a sulfate/water mixture with a refractory soot-like core. The soot core increased the calculated extinction by about 10% in the most polluted drier layer relative to a pure sulfate aerosol but had significantly less effect at higher humidities. A 3 km descent through a boundary layer air mass dominated by pollutant aerosol with relative humidities (RH) 10-77% yielded a close agreement between the measured and calculated aerosol optical depths (550 nm) of 0.160 (+/- 0.07) and 0. 157 (+/- 0.034) respectively. During descent the aerosol mass scattering coefficient per unit sulfate mass varied from about 5 to 16 m(exp 2)/g and primarily dependent upon ambient RH. However, the total scattering coefficient per total fine mass was far less variable at about 4+/- 0.7 m(exp 2)/g. A subsequent descent through a Saharan dust layer located above the pollution aerosol layer revealed that both layers contributed similarly to aerosol optical depth. The scattering per unit mass of the coarse aged dust was estimated at 1.1 +/- 0.2 m(exp 2)/g. The large difference (50%) in measured and calculated optical depth for the dust layer exceeded measurements.

  17. The Chervettaz (L5) meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominik, B.; Bussy, F.; Meisser, N.

    1994-09-01

    The Chervettaz meteorite was an observed fall on 1901 November 30. Our study confirms the previous classification as an L5 chondrite. Weak deformations indicate stage S3 of shock deformations. We present mineralogical and chemical studies of this undescribed and poorly known Swiss meteorite.

  18. 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,3,5 - Trinitrobenzene ; CASRN 99 - 35 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  19. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4,5 - Trichlorophenol ; CASRN 95 - 95 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  20. MC-5 Ismenius Lacus Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-5 quadrangle, Ismenius Lacus region of Mars. Heavily cratered highlands of the southern part are separated from the relatively smooth plains of the northern part by a belt of dissected terrain, containing mesas and buttes. Latitude range 30 to 65 degrees, longitude range -60 to 0 degrees.

  1. Transportation Fuels Markets, PADD 5

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    This study examines supply, demand, and distribution of transportation fuels in Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) 5, a region that includes the western states of California, Arizona, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and Hawaii. For this study, transportation fuels include gasoline, diesel fuel, and jet fuel.

  2. CRUST 5.1: A global crustal model at 5° x 5°

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mooney, Walter D.; Laske, Gabi; Masters, T. Guy

    1998-01-01

    We present a new global model for the Earth's crust based on seismic refraction data published in the period 1948–1995 and a detailed compilation of ice and sediment thickness. An extensive compilation of seismic refraction measurements has been used to determine the crustal structure on continents and their margins. Oceanic crust is modeled with both a standard model for normal oceanic crust, and variants for nonstandard regions, such as oceanic plateaus. Our model (CRUST 5.1) consists of 2592 5° × 5° tiles in which the crust and uppermost mantle are described by eight layers: (1) ice, (2) water, (3) soft sediments, (4) hard sediments, (5) crystalline upper, (6) middle, (7) lower crust, and (8) uppermost mantle. Topography and bathymetry are adopted from a standard database (ETOPO-5). Compressional wave velocity in each layer is based on field measurements, and shear wave velocity and density are estimated using recently published empirical Vp- Vs and Vp-density relationships. The crustal model differs from previous models in that (1) the thickness and seismic/density structure of sedimentary basins is accounted for more completely, (2) the velocity structure of unmeasured regions is estimated using statistical averages that are based on a significantly larger database of crustal structure, (3) the compressional wave, shear wave, and density structure have been explicitly specified using newly available constraints from field and laboratory studies. Thus this global crustal model is based on substantially more data than previous models and differs from them in many important respects. A new map of the thickness of the Earth's crust is presented, and we illustrate the application of this model by using it to provide the crustal correction for surface wave phase velocity maps. Love waves at 40 s are dominantly sensitive to crustal structure, and there is a very close correspondence between observed phase velocities at this period and those predicted by CRUST 5

  3. Prognosis of Hurricanes CATEGORIE-5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Peraza, Jorge; Velasco Herrera, Victor Manuel; Zapotitla Roman, Julian; Juarez Zuñiga, Alan

    Category-5 Hurricanes are the most devastating from the standpoint of human and economic losses. Approximately 80 cyclones per year occurring worldwide, from which 8.8 per year occur on average in different regions of the Atlantic. However, category-5 Hurricanes do not follow a cyclic pattern but ar rather of quasi-stochastic nature. To assist in the alert processes o of hurricanes, we propose here a method to predict those kinds of hurricanes based on the Wavelet Analysis and applying techniques of Fuzzy Logic. For our study we consider North Atlantic category-5 hurricanes since 1920. Data was transformed into a series of Pulses with unitary value at the dates of hurricanes occurrence and 0 for dates of no occurrence. By means of the Wavelet transform we determine dominant oscillation periods. Under the hypothesis that the occurrence of hurricanes of this category can be described by the certain periodicities, we can define the dominant periods of oscillation and establish correspondence rules using fuzzy logic. The fuzzy logic searches for associations between the hurricanes occurrence and the behavior of the harmonics, and then delimits the occurrence of the next hurricane. The Wavelet Power Spectrum yields the following periodicities 2, 9, 14 and 24 years. According to the behavior of the harmonics we found that their combination restricts regions of possible Hurricane occurrence. Interpolation of this sinusoidal behavior allows for a good reconstruction of past Hurricanes dates as well as extrapolation to the future. In this way we conclude that there is a good probability that the next category-5 Hurricane in the north Atlantic occur of 2014-2015. Regarding categorie-5 typhoons in the pacific we delimitate the genesis regions of western of these kind of typhoons.

  4. PELLISSIER H5 HYDROSTATIC LEVEL

    SciTech Connect

    Imfeld, Hans L.

    2003-05-01

    Conventional spirit leveling using double scale invar rods has been in use at SLAC for some time as the standard method of obtaining very precise height difference information. Typical accuracy of {+-} 100 {micro}m and better can routinely be achieved. Procedures and software have evolved to the point where the method is relatively fast and reliable. However, recent projects such as the Final Focus Test Beam have pushed the requested vertical positioning tolerances for alignment of quadrupoles to the 30 {mu}m level. It is apparent that conventional spirit leveling cannot achieve this level of accuracy. To meet the challenge, the alignment group contracted with Pellissier, Inc. to develop a portable hydrostatic leveling system. The H5 grew out of this development effort and is expected to provide the needed accuracy and ease of use required for such vertical positioning projects. The H5 hydrostatic level is a portable instrument that under ideal operating conditions will provide elevation differences with an accuracy of +/- 5 {mu}m over double leg closed loop surveys. The H5 incorporates several features that eliminate problems common with hydrostatic leveling, primarily errors due to thermal gradients along the fluid tube. It utilizes self-checking software and automatic water level detection to reduce observational errors. Design features also have made the instrument reasonably quick and easy to operate when used on a flat surface. The instrument can be adapted for use in a wide variety of environments by using support fixtures and brackets. The H5 is robust and operators require little training to become proficient in its use. It has been successfully employed on several projects including the FFTB project at SLAC, as well as the Green Bank Telescope project for the NRAO and the SSC project in Texas.

  5. A season of heat, water vapor, total hydrocarbon, and ozone fluxes at a subarctic fen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Kathleen E.; Fitzjarrald, David R.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Daube, Bruce C.; Munger, J. William; Bakwin, Peter S.; Crill, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    High-latitude environments are thought to play several critical roles in the global balance of radiatively active trace gases. Adequate documentation of the source and sink strengths for trace gases requires long time series of detailed measurements, including heat and moisture budgets. A fen near Schefferville, Quebec, was instrumented during the summer of 1990 for the measurement of the surface energy, radiation, and moisture balances as well as for eddy correlation estimates of ozone and methane flux. Despite the limited fetch at this site, analysis of the tower flux 'footprint' indicates that at least 80% of the flux observed originates from sources within the fen. Sensible heat fluxes averaged 25% of the daytime net radiation at the site, while the latent heat flux, determined from the energy balance, was 63%; the Bowen ratio varied from 0.2 to 0.8 from day to day, without a seasonal trend to the variation. The competing effects of rooted macrophyte development (with concomitant effects on roughness and transpiration) and the normal shift in synoptic pattern around day 200 to warm, dry conditions results in a lack of net seasonal effect on the energy partitioning. Over the period from days 170 to 230, the evaporation (167 mm) was double the rainfall, while the decline in water level was 107 mm, leaving a net runoff of 0.44 mm/d. The total hydrocarbon flux was 75-120 mg m(exp -2)/d, following a diurnal pattern similar to heat or moisture flux, while the daytime ozone flux was about -1.11 x 10(exp 11) molecules cm(exp -2)/s. A period near the end of the experiment, during week 30, produced the strongest total hydrocarbon flux, associated with warmer deep (1 m) soil temperatures, lower fen water levels, and the late summer shift in wind direction at that time. An early summer 'flush' of total hydrocarbon was not observed.

  6. Ionospheric Convection in the Postnoon Auroral Oval: SuperDARN and Polar UVI Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlovsky, A.; Koustov, A.; Lyatsky, W.; Kangas, J.; Parks, G.; Chua, D.

    2002-01-01

    Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) observations, ultraviolet imaging from the Polar satellite (UVI), and particle precipitation data from DMSP satellites have been used to investigate the electrodynamics of the postnoon auroral oval in the Northern hemisphere. We show that: (1) For negative IMF By, the convection reversal (CR) was co-located with the maximum of auroral luminosity, but during positive IMF By the convection reversal was poleward of the auroral oval up to several degrees in latitude; (2) Postnoon auroral oval was associated with a large-scale upward field-aligned current (FAC) of the order of 6x10(exp -7). A m(exp -2) in magnitude (the FAC was inferred from the SuperDARN and UVI data). For negative IMF By, maximum of the auroral intensity coincides in latitude with the maximum of the upward field-aligned current. However, for positive IMF By. the maximum of the upward FAC was shifted to the poleward edge of the auroral oval; (3) In response to the IMF By turning from positive to negative, the maximum of the auroral luminosity did not change its position noticeably, but the position of the convection reversal changed considerably from 80-81 degs to about 76 degs MLAT, and the maximum of FAC moved from 77-78 degs to about 76 degs MLAT. Thus, after IMF By turns negative, both the FAC maximum and CR tend to coincide with the auroral maximum; (4) The IMF Bz positive deflection was followed by a decrease in both field-aligned current intensity and auroral luminosity. However, the decrease in the auroral luminosity lags behind the FAC decrease by about 12 min. Firstly, these observations allow us to suggest that the IMF By-related electric field can penetrate into the closed magnetosphere and produce convection and FAC changes in the region of the postnoon auroral oval. Secondly, we suggest that the interchange instability is a promising mechanism for the postnoon auroras.

  7. RELAP5 assessment: LOFT large break L2-5

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, S L; Kmetyk, L N

    1984-02-01

    RELAP5 is part of an effort to determine the ability of various systems codes to predict the detailed thermal/hydraulic response of LWRs during accident and off-normal conditions. The RELAP5 code is being assessed at SNLA against test data from various integral and separate effects test facilities. As part of this assessment matrix, a large break transient performed at the LOFT facility has been analyzed. The results show that RELAP5/MOD1 correctly calculates many of the major system variables (i.e., pressure, break flows, peak clad temperature) early in a large break LOCA. The major problems encountered in the analyses were incorrect pump coastdown and loop seal clearing early in the calculation, excessive pump speedup later in the transient (probably due to too much condensation-induced pressure drop at the ECC injection point), and excess ECC bypass calculated throughout the later portions of the test; only the latter problem significantly affected the overall results. This excess ECC bypass through the downcomer and vessel-side break resulted in too-large late-time break flows and high system pressure due to prolonged choked flow conditions. It also resulted in a second core heatup being calculated after the accumulator emptied, since water was not being retained in the vessel. Analogous calculations with a split-downcomer nodalization delivered some ECC water to the lower plenum, which was then swept up the core and upper plenum and out the other (pump-side) break; thus no significant differences in long-term overall behavior were evident between the calculations.

  8. Separation in 5 Msun Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Nancy R.; Bond, H. E.; Schaefer, G.; Mason, B. D.; Karovska, M.; Tingle, E.

    2013-01-01

    Cepheids (5 Msun stars) provide an excellent sample for determining the binary properties of fairly massive stars. International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations of Cepheids brighter than 8th magnitude resulted in a list of ALL companions more massive than 2.0 Msun uniformly sensitive to all separations. Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) has resolved three of these binaries (Eta Aql, S Nor, and V659 Cen). Combining these separations with orbital data in the literature, we derive an unbiased distribution of binary separations for a sample of 18 Cepheids, and also a distribution of mass ratios. The distribution of orbital periods shows that the 5 Msun binaries prefer shorter periods than 1 Msun stars, reflecting differences in star formation processes.

  9. [Cardiac toxicity of 5-fluorouracil].

    PubMed

    Fournier, C; Benahmed, M; Blondeau, M

    1989-02-01

    A 67 year-old patient receives 5-fluorouracil for vocal chord cancer. During the perfusion, atypical angina pain occurs, accompanied with offset of ST above the baseline in standard leads and in V4 through V6. The pain subsides spontaneously in 45 minutes. These ECG alterations are followed 48 hours later by diffuse inverted T waves with lengthened QT. Cardiac ultrasonography and isotopic angiography do not show any abnormality of the left ventricular function, but myocardial tomoscintigraphy with labelled thallium show a lower hypofixation on exertion. The cardiac toxicity of 5-fluorouracil is in frequent. It is usually believed that it involves a coronary spasm, as suggested by the ECG tracing in the reported cases. The incident, which may be painful or painless, may result in a myocardial infarction or even sudden death during the perfusion. Therefore, it is advisable to discontinue the treatment as soon as an angina-type pain occurs.

  10. Timekeeping for the Space Technology 5 (ST-5) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raphael, Dave; Luers, Phil; Sank, Victor; Jackson, George

    2002-01-01

    Space Technology 5, or better known as ST-5, is a space technology development mission in the New Millennium Program (NMP) and NASA s first experiment in the design of miniaturized satellite constellations. The mission will design, integrate and launch multiple spacecraft into an orbit high above the Earth s protective magnetic field known as the magnetosphere. Each spacecraft incorporates innovative technology and constellation concepts which will be instrumental in future space science missions. A total of three ST-5 spacecraft will be launched as secondary payloads into a highly elliptical geo-synchronous transfer orbit, and will operate as a 3-element constellation for a minimum duration of 90 days. In order to correlate the time of science measurements with orbit position relative to the Earth, orbit position in space (with respect to other objects in space) and/or with events measured on Earth or other spacecraft, accurate knowledge of spacecraft and ground time is needed. Ground time as used in the USA (known as Universal Time Coordinated or UTC) is maintained by the U.S. Naval Observatory. Spacecraft time is maintained onboard within the Command and Data Handling (C&DH) system. The science requirements for ST-5 are that spacecraft time and ground time be correlatable to each other, with some degree of accuracy. Accurate knowledge of UTC time on a spacecraft is required so that science measurements can be correlated with orbit position relative to the Earth, orbit position in space and with events measured on Earth or other spacecraft. The most crucial parameter is not the clock oscillator frequency, but more importantly, how the clock oscillator frequency varies with time or temperature (clock oscillator drift). Even with an incorrect clock oscillator frequency, if there were no drift, the frequency could be assessed by comparing the spacecraft clock to a ground clock during a few correlation events. Once the frequency is accurately known, it is easy enough

  11. ALMA Band 5 Science Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, L.; Biggs, A.; Immer, K.; Laing, R.; Liu, H. B.; Marconi, G.; Mroczkowski, T.; Testi, L.; Yagoubov, P.

    2017-03-01

    ALMA Band 5 (163–211 GHz) was recently commissioned and Science Verification (SV) observations were obtained in the latter half of 2016. A primary scientific focus of this band is the H2O line at 183.3 GHz, which can be observed around 15% of the time when the precipitable water vapour is sufficiently low (< 0.5 mm). Many more lines are covered in Band 5 and can be observed for over 70% of the time on Chajnantor, requiring similar restrictions to those for ALMA Bands 4 and 6. Examples include the H218O line at 203 GHz, some of the bright (3–2) lines of singly and doubly deuterated forms of formaldehyde, the (2–1) lines of HCO+, HCN, HNC, N2H+ and several of their isotopologues. A young star-forming region near the centre of the Milky Way, an evolved star also in our Galaxy, and a nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) were observed as part of the SV process and the data are briefly described. The reduced data, along with imaged data products, are now public and demonstrate the power of ALMA for high-resolution studies of H2O and other molecules in a variety of astronomical targets.

  12. CH5+: chemistry's chameleon unmasked.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Keiran C; Crittenden, Deborah L; Jordan, Meredith J T

    2005-04-06

    The nuclear vibrational wave function and zero-point vibrational energy of CH5(+) are calculated using quantum diffusion Monte Carlo techniques on an interpolated potential energy surface constructed from CCSD(T)/aug'-cc-pVTZ ab initio data. From this multidimensional wave function, the vibrationally averaged rotational constants and radial distribution functions for atom-atom distances within the molecule are constructed. It is found that the distributions of all 10 H-H distances are bimodal and identical. The radial distribution functions obtained for the five C-H distances are also identical, but unimodal. The three rotational constants were found to be 3.78, 3.80, and 3.83 cm(-1). These values indicate that the ground state of CH5(+) is significantly more symmetric than its global minimum energy structure. We conclude that the zero-point motion of CH5(+) renders all five protons equivalent in the ground state and precludes the assignment of a unique structure to the molecule.

  13. MCNP(TM) Version 5.

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, L. J.; Barrett, R. F.; Booth, Thomas Edward; Briesmeister, Judith F.; Brown, F. B.; Bull, J. S.; Giesler, G. C.; Goorley, J. T.; Mosteller, R. D.; Forster, R. A.; Post, S. E.; Prael, R. E.; Selcow, Elizabeth Carol,; Sood, A.

    2002-01-01

    The Monte Carlo transport workhorse, MCNP, is undergoing a massive renovation at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in support of the Eolus Project of the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASCI) Program. MCNP Version 5 (V5) (expected to be released to RSICC in Spring, 2002) will consist of a major restructuring from FORTRAN-77 (with extensions) to ANSI-standard FORTRAN-90 with support for all of the features available in the present release (MCNP-4C2/4C3). To most users, the look-and-feel of MCNP will not change much except for the improvements (improved graphics, easier installation, better online documentation). For example, even with the major format change, full support for incremental patching will still be provided. In addition to the language and style updates, MCNP V5 will have various new user features. These include improved photon physics, neutral particle radiography, enhancements and additions to variance reduction methods, new source options, and improved parallelism support (PVM, MPI, OpenMP).

  14. HDF-EOS 5 Validator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullman, Richard; Bane, Bob; Yang, Jingli

    2008-01-01

    A computer program partly automates the task of determining whether an HDF-EOS 5 file is valid in that it conforms to specifications for such characteristics as attribute names, dimensionality of data products, and ranges of legal data values. ["HDF-EOS" and variants thereof are defined in "Converting EOS Data From HDF-EOS to netCDF" (GSC-15007-1), which is the first of several preceding articles in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs.] Previously, validity of a file was determined in a tedious and error-prone process in which a person examined human-readable dumps of data-file-format information. The present software helps a user to encode the specifications for an HDFEOS 5 file, and then inspects the file for conformity with the specifications: First, the user writes the specifications in Extensible Markup Language (XML) by use of a document type definition (DTD) that is part of the program. Next, the portion of the program (denoted the validator) that performs the inspection is executed, using, as inputs, the specifications in XML and the HDF-EOS 5 file to be validated. Finally, the user examines the output of the validator.

  15. Comparing earthquake models for the Corinth rift for Mw>=5.5/6/6.5 (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boiselet, Aurélien; Scotti, Oona; Lyon-Caen, Hélène; Ford, Mary; Meyer, NIcolas; Bernard, Pascal

    2013-04-01

    The Corinth rift (Greece) is identified as a site of major importance for earthquake studies in Europe, producing one of the highest seismic activity and strain in the Euro-Mediterranean region. It is characterized by an asymmetrical structure, with the most active normal faults dipping north and a north-south extension rate measured by GPS increasing from 0.6 mm/year in the eastern part of the rift to 15 mm/year in the western part. Frequent seismic swarms and destructive earthquakes are observed in this area. The Corinth rift Laboratory (CRL, http://crlab.eu) european project investigates fault mechanics, its relationship with earthquakes, fluid flow and the related hazards in the western part of the rift, covering an area about 50 km by 40 km, between the city of Patras to the west and the city of Aigion to the east. As part of this project, within the CRL-SISCOR group, we construct earthquake forecast models (EFM) for M>=5.5/6/6.5 events of the Corinth rift area based on the in-depth seismotectonic studies available for this region. We first present the methodology used to construct the earthquake and fault databases and to quantify the associated uncertainties. We then propose EFM following two approaches: one based on the definition of seimotectonic areas with similar geologic or strain characteristics, the second one based on the definition of fault sources mapped at the surface as well as blind ones. In order to compute the probability of occurrence for M>=5.5/6/6.5 for seismotectonic areas, we analyse two earthquake catalogues available for Greece (National Observatory of Athens, Thessaloniki), apply two declustering methods (Reasenberg and Gardner) to construct a Poissonian earthquake catalogue and test the influence of the minimal magnitude (3.5; 4.0). We compare the impact of maximum magnitude and corner magnitude (Kagan 1997, 2002) estimations. We then apply the Weichert method to estimate the probability of occurrence of M>=5.5/6/6.5 based on

  16. Electronic properties of functionalized (5,5) beryllium oxide nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Chigo Anota, Ernesto; Cocoletzi, Gregorio Hernández

    2013-05-01

    Using the density functional theory (DFT) we study the structural and electronic properties of functionalized (5,5) chirality single wall beryllium oxide nanotubes (SW-BeONTs), i.e. armchair nanotubes. The nanotube surface and ends are functionalized by the hydroxyl (OH) functional group. Our calculations consider the Hamprecht-Cohen-Tozer-Handy functional in the generalized gradient approximation (HCTH-GGA) to deal with the exchange-correlation energies, and the base function with double polarization (DNP). The geometry optimization of both defects free and with point defects nanotubes is done applying the criterion of minimum energy. Six configurations are considered: The OH oriented toward the Be (on the surface and at the end), toward the O (on the surface and at the end) and placed at the nanotube ends. Simulation results show that the nanotube functionalization takes place at the nanotube ends with the BeO bond displaying hydrogen-like bridge bonds. Moreover the nanotube semiconductor behavior remains unchanged. The polarity is high (it shows a transition from covalent to ionic) favoring solvatation. On the other hand, the work function low value suggests this to be a good candidate for the device fabrication. When the nanotube contains surface point defects the work function is reduced which provides excellent possibilities for the use of this material in the electronic industry.

  17. The EGS5 Code System

    SciTech Connect

    Hirayama, Hideo; Namito, Yoshihito; Bielajew, Alex F.; Wilderman, Scott J.; U., Michigan; Nelson, Walter R.; /SLAC

    2005-12-20

    In the nineteen years since EGS4 was released, it has been used in a wide variety of applications, particularly in medical physics, radiation measurement studies, and industrial development. Every new user and every new application bring new challenges for Monte Carlo code designers, and code refinements and bug fixes eventually result in a code that becomes difficult to maintain. Several of the code modifications represented significant advances in electron and photon transport physics, and required a more substantial invocation than code patching. Moreover, the arcane MORTRAN3[48] computer language of EGS4, was highest on the complaint list of the users of EGS4. The size of the EGS4 user base is difficult to measure, as there never existed a formal user registration process. However, some idea of the numbers may be gleaned from the number of EGS4 manuals that were produced and distributed at SLAC: almost three thousand. Consequently, the EGS5 project was undertaken. It was decided to employ the FORTRAN 77 compiler, yet include as much as possible, the structural beauty and power of MORTRAN3. This report consists of four chapters and several appendices. Chapter 1 is an introduction to EGS5 and to this report in general. We suggest that you read it. Chapter 2 is a major update of similar chapters in the old EGS4 report[126] (SLAC-265) and the old EGS3 report[61] (SLAC-210), in which all the details of the old physics (i.e., models which were carried over from EGS4) and the new physics are gathered together. The descriptions of the new physics are extensive, and not for the faint of heart. Detailed knowledge of the contents of Chapter 2 is not essential in order to use EGS, but sophisticated users should be aware of its contents. In particular, details of the restrictions on the range of applicability of EGS are dispersed throughout the chapter. First-time users of EGS should skip Chapter 2 and come back to it later if necessary. With the release of the EGS4 version

  18. Soft x-ray properties of the binary millisecond pulsar J0437-4715

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P.; Martin, Christopher; Marshall, Herman L.

    1995-01-01

    We obtained a light curve for the 5.75 ms pulsar J0437-4715 in the 65-120 A range with 0.5 ms time resolution using the Deep Survey instrument on the EUVE satellite. The single-peaked profile has a pulsed fraction of 0. 27 +/- 0.05, similar to the ROSAT data in the overlapping energy band. A combined analysis of the EUVE and ROSAT data is consistent with a power-law spectrum of energy index alpha = 1.2-1.5, intervening column density NH = (5-8) x 10(exp 19)/sq cm, and luminosity 5.0 x 10(exp 30) ergs/s in the 0.1-2. 4 keV band. We also use a bright EUVE/ROSAT source only 4.3 deg from the pulsar, the Seyfert galaxy RX J0437.4-4711 (= EUVE J0437-471 = lES 0435-472), to obtain an independent upper limit on the intervening absorption to the pulsar, NH less than 1.2 x 10(exp 20)/sq cm. Although a blackbody spectrum fails to fit the ROSAT data, two-component spectral fits to the combined EUVE/ROSAT data are used to limit the temperatures and surface areas of thermal emission that might make partial contributions to the flux. A hot polar cap of radius 50-600 m and temperature (1.0-3.3) x 10(exp 6) K could be present. Alternatively, a larger region with T = (4-12) x 10(exp 5) K and area less than 200 sq km, might contribute most of the EUVE and soft X-ray flux, but only if a hotter component were present as well. Any of these temperatures would require some mechanism(s) of surface reheating to be operating in this old pulsar, the most plausible being the impact of accelerated electrons and positrons onto the polar caps. The kinematically corrected spin-down power of PSR J0437-4715 is only 4 x 10(exp 33) ergs/s, which is an order of magnitude less than that of the lowest-luminosity gamma-ray pulsars Geminga and PSR B1055-52. The absence of high-energy gamma-rays from PSR J0437-4715 might signify an inefficient or dead outer gap accelerator, which in turn accounts for the lack of a more luminous reheated surface such as those intermediate-age gamma-ray pulsars may have.

  19. Soft X-Ray Properties of the Binary Millisecond Pulsar J0437-4715

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P.; Martin, Christopher; Marshall, Herman, L.; Oliversen, Ronald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We obtained a light curve for the 5.75 ms pulsar J0437-4715 in the 65-120 A range with 0.5 ms time resolution using the Deep Survey instrument on the EUVE satellite. The single-peaked profile has a pulsed fraction of 0.27 +/- 0.05, similar to the ROSAT data in the overlapping energy band. A combined analysis of the EUVE and ROSAT data is consistent with a power-law spectrum of energy index alpha = 1.2 - 1.5, intervening column density N(sub H) = (5 - 8) x 10(exp 19)/sq cm, and luminosity 5.0 x 10(exp 30) ergs/s in the 0.1 - 2.4 keV band. We also use a bright EUVE/ROSAT source only 4.2 min. from the pulsar, the Seyfert galaxy RX J0437.4-4711 (= EUVE J0437-471 = IES 0435-472), to obtain an independent upper limit on the intervening absorption to the pulsar, N(sub H) less than 1.2 x 10(exp 20)/sq cm. Although a blackbody spectrum fails to fit the ROSAT data, two-component spectral fits to the combined EUVE/ROSAT data are used to limit the temperatures and surface areas of thermal emission that might make partial contributions to the flux. A hot polar cap of radius 50 - 600 m and temperature (1.0 - 3.3) x 10(exp 6) K could be present. Alternatively, a larger region with T = (4 - 12) x 10(exp 5) K and area less than 200 sq km, might contribute most of the EUVE and soft X-ray flux, but only if a hotter component were present as well. Any of these temperatures would require some mechanism(s) of surface reheating to be operating in this old pulsar, the most plausible being the impact of accelerated electrons and positrons onto the polar caps. The kinematically corrected spin-down power of PSR J0437-4715 is only 4 x 10(exp 33) ergs/s, which is an order of magnitude less than that of the lowest-luminosity gamma-ray pulsars Geminga and PSR B1055-52. The absence of high-energy gamma-rays from PSR J0437-4715 might signify an inefficient or dead outer gap accelerator, which in turn accounts for the lack of a more luminous reheated surface such as those intermediate-age gamma

  20. Electrochemical and photoelectrochemical oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid and 2,5-diformylfuran

    DOEpatents

    Choi, Kyoung-Shin; Cha, Hyun Gil

    2017-03-21

    Electrochemical and photoelectrochemical cells for the oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid and/or 2,5-diformylfuran are provided. Also provided are methods of using the cells to carry out the electrochemical and photoelectrochemical oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid and/or 2,5-diformylfuran.

  1. The NuSTAR Extragalactic Survey: A First Sensitive Look at the High-Energy Cosmic X-Ray Background Population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, D. M.; Stern, D.; DelMoro, A.; Lansbury, G. B.; Assef, R. J.; Aird, J.; Ajello, M.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Christensen, F. E.; Civano, F.; Cosmastri, A.; Craig, W. W.; Elvis, M.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Hickox, R. C.; Luo, B.; Madsen, K. K.; Alexander, D. M.; Zhang, W. W.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the first 10 identifications of sources serendipitously detected by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) to provide the first sensitive census of the cosmic X-ray background source population at approximately greater than 10 keV. We find that these NuSTAR-detected sources are approximately 100 times fainter than those previously detected at approximately greater than 10 keV and have a broad range in redshift and luminosity (z = 0.020-2.923 and L(sub 10-40 keV) approximately equals 4 × 10(exp 41) - 5 × 10(exp 45) erg per second; the median redshift and luminosity are z approximately equal to 0.7 and L(sub 10-40 keV) approximately equal to 3 × 10(exp 44) erg per second, respectively. We characterize these sources on the basis of broad-band approximately equal to 0.5 - 32 keV spectroscopy, optical spectroscopy, and broad-band ultraviolet-to-mid-infrared spectral energy distribution analyses. We find that the dominant source population is quasars with L(sub 10-40 keV) greater than 10(exp 44) erg per second, of which approximately 50% are obscured with N(sub H) approximately greater than 10(exp 22) per square centimeters. However, none of the 10 NuSTAR sources are Compton thick (N(sub H) approximately greater than 10(exp 24) per square centimeters) and we place a 90% confidence upper limit on the fraction of Compton-thick quasars (L(sub 10-40 keV) greater than 10(exp 44) erg per second) selected at approximately greater than 10 keV of approximately less than 33% over the redshift range z = 0.5 - 1.1. We jointly fitted the rest-frame approximately equal to 10-40 keV data for all of the non-beamed sources with L(sub 10-40 keV) greater than 10(exp 43) erg per second to constrain the average strength of reflection; we find R less than 1.4 for gamma = 1.8, broadly consistent with that found for local active galactic nuclei (AGNs) observed at approximately greater than 10 keV. We also constrain the host-galaxy masses and find a median stellar

  2. Considering PTSD for DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Matthew J; Resick, Patricia A; Bryant, Richard A; Brewin, Chris R

    2011-09-01

    This is a review of the relevant empirical literature concerning the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Most of this work has focused on Criteria A1 and A2, the two components of the A (Stressor) Criterion. With regard to A1, the review considers: (a) whether A1 is etiologically or temporally related to the PTSD symptoms; (b) whether it is possible to distinguish "traumatic" from "non-traumatic" stressors; and (c) whether A1 should be eliminated from DSM-5. Empirical literature regarding the utility of the A2 criterion indicates that there is little support for keeping the A2 criterion in DSM-5. The B (reexperiencing), C (avoidance/numbing) and D (hyperarousal) criteria are also reviewed. Confirmatory factor analyses suggest that the latent structure of PTSD appears to consist of four distinct symptom clusters rather than the three-cluster structure found in DSM-IV. It has also been shown that in addition to the fear-based symptoms emphasized in DSM-IV, traumatic exposure is also followed by dysphoric, anhedonic symptoms, aggressive/externalizing symptoms, guilt/shame symptoms, dissociative symptoms, and negative appraisals about oneself and the world. A new set of diagnostic criteria is proposed for DSM-5 that: (a) attempts to sharpen the A1 criterion; (b) eliminates the A2 criterion; (c) proposes four rather than three symptom clusters; and (d) expands the scope of the B-E criteria beyond a fear-based context. The final sections of this review consider: (a) partial/subsyndromal PTSD; (b) disorders of extreme stress not otherwise specified (DESNOS)/complex PTSD; (c) cross- cultural factors; (d) developmental factors; and (e) subtypes of PTSD.

  3. The San Marco 5 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broglio, L.; Ponzi, U.; Arduini, C.

    1993-01-01

    The satellite San Marco 5 was injected into a low equatorial orbit on March 25, 1988 from the Italian San Marco Range (Kenya) and reentered on December 6, 1988. It was the last and most complex spacecraft of the San Marco aeronomic satellites, developed under a cooperative research program between the University of Rome and NASA, with the participation of DFVLR (Germany). The paper describes the scientific mission and the spacecraft design, which accommodates an integrated set of instruments in a very dense assembly. Particular aspects related to the management of the spacecraft in orbit and to the strategy for the satellite interrogation are also described.

  4. Virtex-5QV Self Scrubber

    SciTech Connect

    Wojahn, Christopher K.

    2015-10-20

    This HDL code (hereafter referred to as “software”) implements circuitry in Xilinx Virtex-5QV Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) hardware. This software allows the device to self-check the consistency of its own configuration memory for radiation-induced errors. The software then provides the capability to correct any single-bit errors detected in the memory using the device’s inherent circuitry, or reload corrupted memory frames when larger errors occur that cannot be corrected with the device’s built-in error correction and detection scheme.

  5. Type-1.5 superconductivity.

    PubMed

    Moshchalkov, Victor; Menghini, Mariela; Nishio, T; Chen, Q H; Silhanek, A V; Dao, V H; Chibotaru, L F; Zhigadlo, N D; Karpinski, J

    2009-03-20

    We demonstrate the existence of a novel superconducting state in high quality two-component MgB2 single crystalline superconductors where a unique combination of both type-1 (lambda{1}/xi{1}<1/sqrt[2]) and type-2 (lambda{2}/xi{2}>1/sqrt[2]) superconductor conditions is realized for the two components of the order parameter. This condition leads to a vortex-vortex interaction attractive at long distances and repulsive at short distances, which stabilizes unconventional stripe- and gossamerlike vortex patterns that we have visualized in this type-1.5 superconductor using Bitter decoration and also reproduced in numerical simulations.

  6. Reference Model 5 (RM5): Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Y. H.; Jenne, D. S.; Thresher, R.; Copping, A.; Geerlofs, S.; Hanna, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    This report is an addendum to SAND2013-9040: Methodology for Design and Economic Analysis of Marine Energy Conversion (MEC) Technologies. This report describes an Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter (OSWEC) reference model design in a complementary manner to Reference Models 1-4 contained in the above report. A conceptual design for a taut moored oscillating surge wave energy converter was developed. The design had an annual electrical power of 108 kilowatts (kW), rated power of 360 kW, and intended deployment at water depths between 50 m and 100 m. The study includes structural analysis, power output estimation, a hydraulic power conversion chain system, and mooring designs. The results were used to estimate device capital cost and annual operation and maintenance costs. The device performance and costs were used for the economic analysis, following the methodology presented in SAND2013-9040 that included costs for designing, manufacturing, deploying, and operating commercial-scale MEC arrays up to 100 devices. The levelized cost of energy estimated for the Reference Model 5 OSWEC, presented in this report, was for a single device and arrays of 10, 50, and 100 units, and it enabled the economic analysis to account for cost reductions associated with economies of scale. The baseline commercial levelized cost of energy estimate for the Reference Model 5 device in an array comprised of 10 units is $1.44/kilowatt-hour (kWh), and the value drops to approximately $0.69/kWh for an array of 100 units.

  7. 49 CFR 369.5 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Records. 369.5 Section 369.5 Transportation Other... TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS REPORTS OF MOTOR CARRIERS § 369.5 Records. Books, records... Records....

  8. RELAP5 based engineering simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Charlton, T.R.; Laats, E.T.; Burtt, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    The INEL Engineering Simulation Center was established in 1988 to provide a modern, flexible, state-of-the-art simulation facility. This facility and two of the major projects which are part of the simulation center, the Advance Test Reactor (ATR) engineering simulator project and the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) advanced reactor control system, have been the subject of several papers in the past few years. Two components of the ATR engineering simulator project, RELAP5 and the Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA), have recently been improved significantly. This paper will present an overview of the INEL Engineering Simulation Center, and discuss the RELAP5/MOD3 and NPA/MOD1 codes, specifically how they are being used at the INEL Engineering Simulation Center. It will provide an update on the modifications to these two codes and their application to the ATR engineering simulator project, as well as, a discussion on the reactor system representation, control system modeling, two phase flow and heat transfer modeling. It will also discuss how these two codes are providing desktop, stand-alone reactor simulation. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Relaxation Mechanisms of 5-Azacytosine.

    PubMed

    Giussani, Angelo; Merchán, Manuela; Gobbo, João Paulo; Borin, Antonio Carlos

    2014-09-09

    The photophysics and deactivation pathways of the noncanonical 5-azacytosine nucleobase were studied using the CASPT2//CASSCF protocol. One of the most significant differences with respect to the parent molecule cytosine is the presence of a dark (1)(nNπ*) excited state placed energetically below the bright excited state (1)(ππ*) at the Franck-Condon region. The main photoresponse of the system is a presumably efficient radiationless decay back to the original ground state, mediated by two accessible conical intersections involving a population transfer from the (1)(ππ*) and the (1)(nNπ*) states to the ground state. Therefore, a minor contribution of the triplet states in the photophysics of the system is expected, despite the presence of a deactivation path leading to the lowest (3)(ππ*) triplet state. The global scenario on the photophysics and photochemistry of the 5-azacytosine system gathered on theoretical grounds is consistent with the available experimental data, taking especially into account the low values of the singlet-triplet intersystem crossing and fluorescence quantum yields observed.

  10. Synthesis and properties of vanadium oxide aerogel films. Technical report, 1 June 1995-31 May 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, H.P.; Dunn, B.; Salloux, K.; Chaput, F.; Breiter, M.W.

    1996-06-18

    The fine colloid size, high surface area and controllable density of vanadium oxide aerogels make these materials interesting candidates for lithium insertion electrodes. Thin films of vanadium oxide aerogels were prepared using an alkoxide precursor sol and supercritical drying with CO2. Film preparation methods included spin coating of fine aerogel particles suspended in a solvent and dip coating of the precursor sol onto carbon paper substrates. The room temperature electrical conductivity of partially dehydrated materials (V2O5 0.5 H2O) varies from 10(exp {minus}5) S/cm to 10(exp {minus}4) S/cm depending upon the density of the final aerogel. Potential sweep measurements indicate that the films possess good insertion capacity (approx. 2 Li a per V2O5) and can be cycled reversibly.

  11. Determining the Covering Factor of Compton-Thick Active Galactic Nuclei with NuSTAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brightman, M.; Balokovic, M.; Stern, D.; Arevalo, P.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Christensen, F. E.; Zhang, W. W.

    2015-01-01

    The covering factor of Compton-thick (CT) obscuring material associated with the torus in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is at present best understood through the fraction of sources exhibiting CT absorption along the line of sight (N(sub H) greater than 1.5 x 10(exp 24) cm(exp -2)) in the X-ray band, which reveals the average covering factor. Determining this CT fraction is difficult, however, due to the extreme obscuration. With its spectral coverage at hard X-rays (greater than 10 keV), Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is sensitive to the AGNs covering factor since Compton scattering of X-rays off optically thick material dominates at these energies. We present a spectral analysis of 10 AGNs observed with NuSTAR where the obscuring medium is optically thick to Compton scattering, so-called CT AGNs. We use the torus models of Brightman and Nandra that predict the X-ray spectrum from reprocessing in a torus and include the torus opening angle as a free parameter and aim to determine the covering factor of the CT gas in these sources individually. Across the sample we find mild to heavy CT columns, with N(sub H) measured from 10(exp 24) to 10(exp 26) cm(exp -2), and a wide range of covering factors, where individual measurements range from 0.2 to 0.9. We find that the covering factor, f(sub c), is a strongly decreasing function of the intrinsic 2-10 keV luminosity, L(sub X), where f(sub c) = (-0.41 +/- 0.13)log(sub 10)(L(sub X)/erg s(exp -1))+18.31 +/- 5.33, across more than two orders of magnitude in L(sub X) (10(exp 41.5) - 10(exp 44) erg s(exp -1)). The covering factors measured here agree well with the obscured fraction as a function of LX as determined by studies of local AGNs with L(sub X) greater than 10(exp 42.5) erg s(exp -1).

  12. Dynamical Model for the Zodiacal Cloud and Sporadic Meteors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesvorny, David; Janches, Diego; Vokrouhlicky, David; Pokorny, Petr; Bottke, William F.; Jenniskens, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The solar system is dusty, and would become dustier over time as asteroids collide and comets disintegrate, except that small debris particles in interplanetary space do not last long. They can be ejected from the solar system by Jupiter, thermally destroyed near the Sun, or physically disrupted by collisions. Also, some are swept by the Earth (and other planets), producing meteors. Here we develop a dynamical model for the solar system meteoroids and use it to explain meteor radar observations. We find that the Jupiter Family Comets (JFCs) are the main source of the prominent concentrations of meteors arriving to the Earth from the helion and antihelion directions. To match the radiant and orbit distributions, as measured by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR) and Advanced Meteor Orbit Radar (AMOR), our model implies that comets, and JFCs in particular, must frequently disintegrate when reaching orbits with low perihelion distance. Also, the collisional lifetimes of millimeter particles may be longer (approx. > 10(exp 5) yr at 1 AU) than postulated in the standard collisional models (approx 10(exp 4) yr at 1 AU), perhaps because these chondrule-sized meteoroids are stronger than thought before. Using observations of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) to calibrate the model, we find that the total cross section and mass of small meteoroids in the inner solar system are (1.7-3.5) 10(exp 11) sq km and approx. 4 10(exp 19) g, respectively, in a good agreement with previous studies. The mass input required to keep the Zodiacal Cloud (ZC) in a steady state is estimated to be approx. 10(exp 4)-10(exp 5) kg/s. The input is up to approx 10 times larger than found previously, mainly because particles released closer to the Sun have shorter collisional lifetimes, and need to be supplied at a faster rate. The total mass accreted by the Earth in particles between diameters D = 5 micron and 1 cm is found to be approx 15,000 tons/yr (factor of 2 uncertainty), which is

  13. 5-foot Vertical Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1932-01-01

    The researcher is sitting above the exit cone of the 5-foot Vertical Wind Tunnel and is examining the new 6-component spinning balance. This balance was developed between 1930 and 1933. It was an important advance in the technology of rotating or rolling balances. As M.J. Bamber and C.H. Zimmerman wrote in NACA TR 456: 'Data upon the aerodynamic characteristics of a spinning airplane may be obtained in several ways; namely, flight tests with full-scale airplanes, flight tests with balanced models, strip-method analysis of wind-tunnel force and moment tests, and wind-tunnel tests of rotating models.' Further, they note: 'Rolling-balance data have been of limited value because it has not been possible to measure all six force and moment components or to reproduce a true spinning condition. The spinning balance used in this investigation is a 6-component rotating balance from which it is possible to obtain wind-tunnel data for any of a wide range of possible spinning conditions.' Bamber and Zimmerman described the balance as follows: 'The spinning balance consists of a balance head that supports the model and contains the force-measuring units, a horizontal turntable supported by streamline struts in the center of the jet and, outside the tunnel, a direct-current driving motor, a liquid tachometer, an air compressor, a mercury manometer, a pair of indicating lamps, and the necessary controls. The balance head is mounted on the turntable and it may be set to give any radius of spin between 0 and 8 inches.' In an earlier report, NACA TR 387, Carl Wenzinger and Thomas Harris supply this description of the tunnel: 'The vertical open-throat wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics ... was built mainly for studying the spinning characteristics of airplane models, but may be used as well for the usual types of wind-tunnel tests. A special spinning balance is being developed to measure the desired forces and moments with the model simulating the actual

  14. Acceleration mapping on Consort 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumann, Robert J.

    1994-09-01

    The Consort 5 rocket carrying a set of commercial low-gravity experiments experienced a significant side thrust from an apparent burn-through of the second-stage motor just prior to cut-off. The resulting angular momentum could not be removed by the attitude rate control system, thus the payload was left in an uncontrollable rocking/tumbling mode. Although the primary low-gravity emphasis mission requirements could not be met, it was hoped that some science could be salvaged by mapping the acceleration field over the vehicle so that each investigator could correlate his or her results with the acceleration environment at his or her experiment location. This required some detective work to obtain the body rates and moment of inertia ratios required to solve the full set of Euler equations for a tri-axial rigid body. The techniques for acceleration mapping described in this paper may be applicable to other low-gravity emphasis missions.

  15. The NMT-5 criticality database

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, B.; Perkins, B.; Cort, G.

    1995-05-01

    The NMT-5 Criticality Database maintains criticality-related data and documentation to ensure the safety of workers handling special nuclear materials at the Plutonium Facility (TA-55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The database contains pertinent criticality safety limit information for more than 150 separate locations at which special nuclear materials are handled. Written in 4th Dimension for the Macintosh, it facilitates the production of signs for posting at these areas, tracks the history of postings and related authorizing documentation, and generates in Microsoft Word a current, comprehensive representation of all signs and supporting documentation, such as standard operating procedures and signature approvals. It facilitates the auditing process and is crucial to full and effective compliance with Department of Energy regulations. It has been recommended for installation throughout the Nuclear Materials Technology Division at Los Alamos.

  16. [Anxiety disorders in DSM-5].

    PubMed

    Márquez, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The fifth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, the DSM-5 appeared officially in May 2013 during the development of the 166th Annual Meetingof the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in San Francisco. The drafting process was long and complex; much of the debate became public so that the expectations were great. And it must be said that the new edition did not disappoint, as many changes were made in relation to their predecessors. In Chapter of Anxiety Disorders, which is reviewed in this article, the changes were significant. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and Stress-related disorders were excluded and new clinical pictures, such as separation anxiety disorder and selective mutism, were included. And took place was the long awaited split between panic disorder and agoraphobia, now two separate disorders.

  17. Changes in Arctic Melt Season and Implications for Sea Ice Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroeve, J. C.; Markus, T.; Boisvert, L.; Miller, J.; Barrett, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Arctic-wide melt season has lengthened at a rate of 5 days dec-1 from 1979 to 2013, dominated by later autumn freeze-up within the Kara, Laptev, East Siberian, Chukchi and Beaufort seas between 6 and 11 days dec(exp -1). While melt onset trends are generally smaller, the timing of melt onset has a large influence on the total amount of solar energy absorbed during summer. The additional heat stored in the upper ocean of approximately 752MJ m(exp -2) during the last decade, increases sea surface temperatures by 0.5 to 1.5 C and largely explains the observed delays in autumn freeze-up within the Arctic Ocean's adjacent seas. Cumulative anomalies in total absorbed solar radiation from May through September for the most recent pentad locally exceed 300-400 MJ m(exp -2) in the Beaufort, Chukchi and East Siberian seas. This extra solar energy is equivalent to melting 0.97 to 1.3 m of ice during the summer.

  18. Asymptotic Giant Branch stars as a source of short-lived radioactive nuclei in the solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasserburg, G. J.; Busso, M.; Gallino, R.; Raiteri, C. M.

    1994-01-01

    We carried out a theoretical evaluation of the contribution of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars to some short-lived (10(exp 6) less than or equal to Tau-bar less than or equal to 2 x 10(exp 7) yr) isotopes in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) and in the early solar system using stellar model calculations for thermally pulsing evolutionary phases of low-mass stars. The yields of s-process nuclei in the convective He-shell for different neutron exposures tau(sub 0) were obtained, and AGB stars were shown to produce several radioactive nuclei (especially Pd-107, Pb-205, Fe-60, Zr-93, Tc-99, Cs-135, and Hf-182) in diferent amounts. Assuming either contamination of the solar nebula from a single AGB star or models for continuous injection and mixing from many stars into the ISM, we calculate the ratios of radioactive to stable nuclei at the epoch of the Sun's formation. The dilution factor between the AGB ejecta and the early solar system matter is obtained by matching the observed Pd-107/Pd-108 and depends on the value of tau(sub 0). It is found that small masses M(sub He) of He-shell material (10(exp -4)-10(exp -7) solar mass) enriched in s-process nuclei are sufficient to contaminate 1 solar mass of the ISM to produce the Pd-107 found in the early solar system. Predictions are made for all of the other radioactive isotopes. The optimal model to explain several observed radioactive species at different states of the proto-solar nebula involves a single AGB star with a low neutron exposure (tau(sub 0) = 0.03 mbarn(sup -1)) which contaminated the cloud with a dilution factor of M(sub He)/solar mass approximately 1.5 x 10(exp -4). This will also contribute newly synthesized stable s-process nuclei in the amount of approximately 10(exp -4) of their abundances already present in the proto-solar cloud. Variations in the degree of homogenization (approximately 30%) of the injected material may account for some of the small general isotopic anomalies found in meteorites. It is

  19. TASK 2.5.5 NATURAL EXPOSURE TESTING IN CALIFORNIA

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William A; Cheng, Mengdawn; New, Joshua Ryan; Ronnen, Levinson; Akbari, Hashem; Berhahl, Paul

    2010-03-01

    Airborne particulate matter that settles on a roof can either reflect or absorb incoming solar radiation, dependent on the chemical content and size of the particles. These light scattering and absorption processes occur within a few microns of the surface, and can affect the solar reflectance of the roof. Wilkes et al. (2000) tested 24 different roof coatings on a low-slope test stand and observed about a 25% decrease in the solar reflectance of white-coated and aluminum-coated surfaces as the time of exposure increased; however, the decrease leveled off after 2 years. SPRI Inc. and its affiliates studied the effect of climatic exposure on the surface properties of white thermoplastic single-ply membranes and determined that membranes lose from 30 to 50% of their reflectance over 3 years (Miller et al. 2002). The CMRC and its affiliates AISI, NamZAC, MBMA, MCA and NCCA exposed unpainted and painted metal roofing on both steep- and low-slope test roofs and found that after 3 years, the painted polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) metal roofs lost less than 5% of their original reflectance (Miller et al. 2004). The results of the three different weathering studies are very interesting in terms of their solar reflectance after 3 years of exposure. The white thermoplastic membrane and white ceramic coating with white topcoat had original reflectance measures that were about 20 percentage points higher than the painted metal; however, after 3-years of field exposure the solar reflectance of the painted metal exceeds that of the thermoplastic membrane and equals that of the coating. The long-term loss of reflectance appears driven by the ability of the particulate matter to cling to the roof and resist being washed off by wind and or rain. Miller et al. (2002) discovered that aerosol deposition introduced biomass of complex microbial consortia onto the test roofs and the combination of contaminants and biomass accelerated the loss of solar reflectance for the thermoplastic

  20. Environmental Monitoring Plan, Revision 5

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, G M; Blake, R G; Bertoldo, N A; Campbell, C G; Coty, J; Folks, K; Grayson, A R; Jones, H E; Nelson, J C; Revelli, M A; Wegrecki, T; Williams, R A; Wilson, K

    2010-01-27

    The purpose of environmental monitoring is to promote the early identification of, and response to, potential adverse environmental impacts associated with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operations. Environmental monitoring supports the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 Environmental Management Systems standard, and U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program. Specifically, in conformance with DOE Order 450.1A, Attachment 1, paragraph 1(b)(5), environmental monitoring enables LLNL to detect, characterize, and respond to releases from LLNL activities; assess impacts; estimate dispersal patterns in the environment; characterize the pathways of exposure to members of the public; characterize the exposures and doses to individuals and to the population; and to evaluate the potential impacts to the biota in the vicinity of LLNL. Environmental monitoring also serves to demonstrate compliance with permits and other regulatory requirements. The Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) addresses the sample collection and analytical work supporting environmental monitoring to ensure the following: (1) A consistent system for collecting, assessing, and documenting environmental data of known and documented quality. (2) A validated and consistent approach for sampling and analysis of samples to ensure laboratory data meets program-specific needs and requirements within the framework of a performance-based approach for analytical laboratory work. (3) An integrated sampling approach to avoid duplicative data collection. Until its cancellation in January 2003, DOE Order 5400.1 required the preparation of an environmental monitoring plan. Neither DOE Order 450.1A nor the ISO 14001 standard are as prescriptive as DOE Order 5400.1, in that neither expressly requires an EMP. However, LLNL continues to prepare the EMP because it provides an organizational framework for

  1. 40 CFR 5.300 - Admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Admission. 5.300 Section 5.300... in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 5.300 Admission. (a) General. No person shall, on the basis... which §§ 5.300 through §§ 5.310 apply, except as provided in §§ 5.225 and 5.230. (b)...

  2. Solution structure of nucleic acid photoadduct, deoxy-m5HO6-uridylyl(5-5)(3'-5')deoxyuridine by NMR and restrained molecular dynamics.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J K; Soni, S D; Wallace, J C; Alderfer, J L

    1993-01-01

    Sensitized UV-B irradiation (sunlamps) of the dinucleoside monophosphate, d-TpF (F = fluorouracil), produces the usual cyclobutane-type photodimer and an additional defluorinated 5-5 photoadduct, d-T5p5U. In d-T5p5U, the original C5 = C6 structure is modified such that the C5 (d-T5p-) is covalently bonded with the C5 (-p5U) (where the fluorine had been) and the C6 (d-T5p-) acquires an OH group. 2D NOE data and the results of J-coupling analysis are used as constraints to refine structures of d-T5p5U in restrained molecular dynamics calculations. The structures obtained show the most probable chiralities of the C5 and C6 atoms of the Thy-portion to be 5R and 6R, respectively. The orientation of the CH3- and uracil-groups are pseudo-axial and pseudo-equatorial, respectively, with respect to the C5 atom. Glycosidic angles are high-anti and anti for the d-T5p- and the -p5U residue, respectively. C3'-endo like sugar puckering is predominant in the d-T5p- residue while C2'-endo like puckering is predominant at the -p5U residue. PMID:8332471

  3. Chemical analyses of provided samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Christopher H.

    1993-01-01

    Two batches of samples were received and chemical analysis was performed of the surface and near surface regions of the samples by the surface analysis by laser ionization (SALI) method. The samples included four one-inch optics and several paint samples. The analyses emphasized surface contamination or modification. In these studies, pulsed sputtering by 7 keV Ar+ and primarily single-photon ionization (SPI) by coherent 118 nm radiation (at approximately 5 x 10(exp 5) W/cm(sup 2) were used. For two of the samples, also multiphoton ionization (MPI) at 266 nm (approximately 5 x 10(exp 11) W/cm(sup 2) was used. Most notable among the results was the silicone contamination on Mg2 mirror 28-92, and that the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) paint sample had been enriched in K and Na and depleted in Zn, Si, B, and organic compounds relative to the control paint.

  4. Microwave background anisotropies implied by large-scale galaxy correlations - The minimum of C(0) and cosmological parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashlinsky, A.

    1991-01-01

    Data from a recent APM survey are used to show that large-scale galaxy correlations found there imply the existence of measurable microwave background radiation (MBR) anisotropies on scales greater than several degrees. It is shown that sq rt C(0) is not less than 3.5 x 10 exp -5 if the APM data are used at Theta-0 = 20 deg, or sq rt C(0) is not less than 2.8 x 10 exp -5 if Theta-0 = 10 deg is used. These numbers are almost independent of the cosmological parameters Omega, Lambda, and the redshift of the last scattering surface. For finite-beamwidth experiments the minimal fluctuations depend on the cosmological parameters. The minimal anisotropies are smaller in a low-Omega universe.

  5. Observation of high-energy gamma rays from the quasi-stellar object CTA 102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolan, P. L.; Bertsch, D. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.; Kniffen, D. A.; Lin, Y. C.; Mattox, J. R.; Mayer-Hasselwander, H. A.

    1993-01-01

    The quasar CTA 102 (QSO 2230 + 114) was observed four times in 1991-1992 by the EGRET high-energy gamma-ray telescope on the Compton GRO satellite. In the 1992 January 23-February 6 observation, emission was detected at the level (2.4 +/- 0.5) x 10 exp 7 photons/sq cm s (E is greater than 100 MeV). The other observations produced upper limits or detections with lower significance which are consistent with the same flux. The photon spectrum can be represented by a power law with a number index of 2.6 +/- 0.2, the softest so far observed by EGRET. The emitted gamma-ray luminosity, if isotropic, is 5 x 10 exp 47 ergs/s (H(0) = 75 km/s Mpc , q(0) = 0.5), although there are good reasons to believe that the gamma emission is strongly beamed.

  6. Design and Predictions for High-Altitude (Low Reynolds Number) Aerodynamic Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, Donald; Harmory, Phil; Krake, Keith; Drela, Mark

    2000-01-01

    A sailplane being developed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center will support a high-altitude flight experiment. The experiment will measure the performance parameters or an airfoil at high altitudes (70,000 - 100,000 ft), low Reynolds numbers (2 x 10(exp 5) - 7 x 10(exp 5)), and high subsonic Mach numbers (0.5 and 0.65). The airfoil section lift and drag are determined from pilot and static pressure measurements. The locations of the separation bubble, Tollmien-Schlichting boundary-layer instability frequencies, and vortex shedding are measured from a hot-film strip. The details of the planned flight experiment are presented as well as several predictions of the airfoil performance.

  7. An aircraft instrument design for in situ tropospheric OH measurements by laser induced fluorescence at low pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brune, William H.; Stevens, Philip S.; Mather, James H.

    1993-01-01

    The hydroxyl radical (OH) is important for many processes involved in tropospheric chemistry. For instance, it initiates the photochemical degradation of gases that cause global climate change, such as methane and the chlorofluorocarbon substitutes (HCFCs). Because of its reactivity, its abundances are less than 0.1 pptv. Thus, OH has been very difficult to measure accurately, despite its importance. Techniques have evolved, however, so that good measurements of tropospheric OH abundances are now possible. One of these techniques that is adaptable to aircraft measurements is the laser induced fluorescence detection of the OH radical in a detection chamber at low pressures. The current ground-based instrument, which can be readily adapted to aircraft, can detect OH abundances of 1.4 x 10 exp 5 OH molecules/cu cm with S/N = 2 in 30 sec, and 5 x 10 exp 4/cu cm in 5 min.

  8. Extraterrestrial Helium Trapped in Fullerenes in the Sudbury Impact Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Luann; Poreda, Robert J.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    1996-01-01

    Fullerenes (C60 and C70) in the Sudbury impact structure contain trapped helium with a He-3/He-4 ratio of 5.5 x 10(exp -4) to 5.9 x 10(exp -4). The He-3/He-4 ratio exceeds the accepted solar wind value by 20 to 30 percent and is higher by an order of magnitude than the maximum reported mantle value. Terrestrial nuclear reactions or cosmic-ray bombardment are not sufficient to generate such a high ratio. The He-3/He-4 ratios in the Sudbury fullerenes are similar to those found in meteorites and in some interplanetary dust particles. The implication is that the helium within the C60 molecules at Sudbury is of extraterrestrial origin.

  9. RP-5 RENEWABLE ENERGY PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Neil Clifton; Eliza Jane Whitman; Jamal A. Zughbi

    2003-01-30

    This is the second quarterly technical report for the RP-5 Renewable Energy Project. The report summarizes the work progress, effort and activities that took place during the period of October 1, 2002 to December 31, 2002. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines. This technical report covers all meetings and discussions that were conducted in order to follow up on potential renewable energy technologies that were identified in the previous report; the technologies were analyzed for their feasibility, suitability and cost effectiveness for this project. This report covers the one-day conceptual design kickoff meeting that took place on November 4, 2002. The meeting was held to discuss the practicality and implementation of potential innovative technologies. Following the kickoff meeting, Inland Empire Utilities Agency (IEUA) and CH2M Hill, the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Consultant, held a meeting on December 2, 2002 to discuss the Conceptual Design Report outline and contents in order to clearly present each selected technology along with its evaluation, cost effectiveness and justification. A conference call also took place between the PIER Consultant and IEUA on December 13, 2002, to discuss the overall scope of work for this project. Major project activities in this period include expanded discussions on previous Energy Charrette decisions and recommendations, conceptual design kickoff meeting, conceptual design report, and deciding on the overall project scope of work.

  10. APGEN Version 5.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maldague, Pierre; Page, Dennis; Chase, Adam

    2005-01-01

    Activity Plan Generator (APGEN), now at version 5.0, is a computer program that assists in generating an integrated plan of activities for a spacecraft mission that does not oversubscribe spacecraft and ground resources. APGEN generates an interactive display, through which the user can easily create or modify the plan. The display summarizes the plan by means of a time line, whereon each activity is represented by a bar stretched between its beginning and ending times. Activities can be added, deleted, and modified via simple mouse and keyboard actions. The use of resources can be viewed on resource graphs. Resource and activity constraints can be checked. Types of activities, resources, and constraints are defined by simple text files, which the user can modify. In one of two modes of operation, APGEN acts as a planning expert assistant, displaying the plan and identifying problems in the plan. The user is in charge of creating and modifying the plan. In the other mode, APGEN automatically creates a plan that does not oversubscribe resources. The user can then manually modify the plan. APGEN is designed to interact with other software that generates sequences of timed commands for implementing details of planned activities.

  11. Some thoughts on ICPD+5.

    PubMed

    AbouZahr, C

    1999-01-01

    This article concerns the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. The 1960s were the years when the UNFPA was conceived and established with a mandate to raise awareness about the population problem and to assist developing countries in addressing these problems. At that time, the topics of discussion were focused on population bombs, demographic entrapment, scarcity of food, water, and renewable resources. The concern on population dates back much further of course to Malthus and his contemporaries and their analysis of the relationship between population growth and food availability. Many population programs and policies were implemented to address the population problems in developing countries such as the rapid increase in availability of technologies for reducing fertility. In contrast, the present Cairo agenda paid more attention to women's empowerment, autonomy and the improvement of their political, social, economic and health status for the attainment of sustainable development. The trend towards the feminist agenda explains the continuing tensions, so vociferously expressed during the ICPD+5 process, between conservatives and progressive groups.

  12. Dissociative disorders in DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, David; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Lanius, Ruth; Vermetten, Eric; Simeon, Daphne; Friedman, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The rationale, research literature, and proposed changes to the dissociative disorders and conversion disorder in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) are presented. Dissociative identity disorder will include reference to possession as well as identity fragmentation, to make the disorder more applicable to culturally diverse situations. Dissociative amnesia will include dissociative fugue as a subtype, since fugue is a rare disorder that always involves amnesia but does not always include confused wandering or loss of personality identity. Depersonalization disorder will include derealization as well, since the two often co-occur. A dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), defined by the presence of depersonalization or derealization in addition to other PTSD symptoms, is being recommended, based upon new epidemiological and neuroimaging evidence linking it to an early life history of adversity and a combination of frontal activation and limbic inhibition. Conversion disorder (functional neurological symptom disorder) will likely remain with the somatic symptom disorders, despite considerable dissociative comorbidity.

  13. Patient advocacy and DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J; Phillips, Katharine A

    2013-05-17

    The revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) provides a useful opportunity to revisit debates about the nature of psychiatric classification. An important debate concerns the involvement of mental health consumers in revisions of the classification. One perspective argues that psychiatric classification is a scientific process undertaken by scientific experts and that including consumers in the revision process is merely pandering to political correctness. A contrasting perspective is that psychiatric classification is a process driven by a range of different values and that the involvement of patients and patient advocates would enhance this process. Here we draw on our experiences with input from the public during the deliberations of the Obsessive Compulsive-Spectrum Disorders subworkgroup of DSM-5, to help make the argument that psychiatric classification does require reasoned debate on a range of different facts and values, and that it is appropriate for scientist experts to review their nosological recommendations in the light of rigorous consideration of patient experience and feedback.

  14. MRH-5 Robot/Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox Valley Technical Coll., Appleton, WI.

    This student manual for the Miller MRH-5 welding robot contains nine modules on how to: safely operate the MRH-5 robot; recognize different types of data; weld a part programming the MRH-5; re-teach an already taught program; weld various joints with the MRH-5 robot; weld a desk plaque with the MRH-5 robot; perform editing functions; check/edit…

  15. 22 CFR 5.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 5.1 Section 5.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 5.1 Introduction. The sections in this part 5 are issued pursuant to section 3 of the Administrative Procedure Act, 5 U.S.C. 552, effective July 4, 1967....

  16. 34 CFR 5.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Purpose. 5.1 Section 5.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION TO THE PUBLIC General Provisions § 5.1... regulations in 34 CFR part 5b. (Authority: 5 U.S.C. 552(a), 20 U.S.C. 3474)...

  17. Discovery of an Energetic Pulsar Associated with SNR G76.9+1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arzoumanian, Zaven; Gotthelf, E. V.; Ransom, S. M.; Safi-Harb, S.; Kothes, R.; Landecker, T. L.

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of PSR J2022-<-3842, a 24 ms radio and X-ray pulsar in the supernova remnant G76.9+i.0, in observations with the Chandra X-ray telescope, the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Radio Telescope, and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The pulsar's spin-down rate implies a rotation-powered luminosity E = 1.2 X 10(exp 38) erg/s, a surface dipole magnetic field strength B(sub S), = 1.0 X 10(exp 12) G, and a characteristic age of 8.9 kyr. PSR J2022+3842 is thus the second-most energetic Galactic pulsar known, after the Crab, as well as the most rapidly-rotating young, radio-bright pulsar known. The radio pulsations are highly dispersed and broadened by interstellar scattering, and we find that a large (delta f/f approximates 1.9 x 10(exp -6)) spin glitch must have occurred between our discovery and confirmation observations. The X-ray pulses are narrow (0.06 cycles FWHM) and visible up to 20 keV, consistent with magnetospheric emission from a rotation-powered pulsar. The Chandra X-ray image identifies the pulsar with a hard, unresolved source at the midpoint of the double-lobed radio morphology of G76.9+ 1.0 and embedded within faint, compact X-ray nebulosity. The spatial relationship of the X-ray and radio emissions is remarkably similar to extended structure seen around the Vela pulsar. The combined Chandra and RXTE pulsar spectrum is well-fitted by an absorbed power-law model with column density N(sub H) = (1.7 +/- 0.3) x 10(exp 22) / sq cm and photon index Gamma = 1.0 +/- 0.2; it implies that the Chandra point-source flux is virtually 100% pulsed. For a distance of 10 kpc, the X-ray luminosity of PSR J2022+3842 is L(sub x){2-1O keV) = 7.0 x 10(exp 33) erg/s. Despite being extraordinarily energetic, PSR J2022+3842 lacks a bright X-ray wind nebula and has an unusually low conversion efficiency of spin-down power to X-ray luminosity, Lx/E = 5.9 X 10(exp-5).

  18. Blue lobes in the Hydra A cluster central galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnamara, Brian R.

    1995-01-01

    We present new U- and I-band images of the centrally dominant galaxy in the Hydra A cluster, obtained with the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope at La Palma. The galaxy is centered in a poor, X-ray-luminous cluster whose gaseous intracluster medium is apparently cooling at a rate of m-dot(sub CF) approximately 3000 solar masses/yr. The galaxy's structure is that of a normal giant elliptical galaxy, apart from the central approximately 8 x 6 arcsec (approximately 12 x 9 kpc) region which contains an unusually blue, lobelike structure that is spatially coincident with a luminous emission-line nebula in rotation about the nucleus. Based on near spatial coincidence of the central continuum structure and the emission-line nebula, we suggest that the blue continuum is due to a warm stellar population in a central disk. In order to isolate and study the structure of the disk, we have subtracted a smooth galactic background model from the U-band image. The disk's surface brightness profiles along its major and minor axes decline roughly exponentially with radius. The disk's axial ratio is consistent with a nearly edge-on thick disk or a thin disk that is inclined with respect to the line of sight. The bluest regions, located a few arcsec on either side of the nucleus (giving the lobelike appearance), may be due to locally enhanced star formation or a seeing-blurred ring of young stars embedded in the disk observed nearly edge-on. If star-formation is occurring with the local initial mass function, the central color, surface brightness, and dynamical mass would be consistent with models for star formation at a rate of less than and approximately 1 solar masses/yr which has persisted for the past approximately 10(exp 9) yr, a short burst (10(exp 7) yr) of star formation at a rate of approximately 30 solar masses/yr which occurred less than and approximately 10(exp 8) yr ago, or an instantaneous burst of star formation which occurred approximately 5 x 10(exp 7) yr ago. While the

  19. High-level ab initio predictions for the ionization energy, electron affinity, and heats of formation of cyclopentadienyl radical, cation, and anion, C5H5/C5H5+/C5H5-.

    PubMed

    Lo, Po-Kam; Lau, Kai-Chung

    2014-04-03

    The ionization energy (IE), electron affinity (EA), and heats of formation (ΔH°f0/ΔH°f298) for cyclopentadienyl radical, cation, and anion, C5H5/C5H5(+)/C5H5(-), have been calculated by wave function-based ab initio CCSDT/CBS approach, which involves approximation to complete basis set (CBS) limit at coupled-cluster level with up to full triple excitations (CCSDT). The zero-point vibrational energy correction, core-valence electronic correction, scalar relativistic effect, and higher-order corrections beyond the CCSD(T) wave function are included in these calculations. The allylic [C5H5((2)A2)] and dienylic [C5H5((2)B1)] forms of cyclopentadienyl radical are considered: the ground state structure exists in the dienyl form and it is about 30 meV more stable than the allylic structure. Both structures are lying closely and are interconvertible along the normal mode of b2 in-plane vibration. The CCSDT/CBS predictions (in eV) for IE[C5H5(+)((3)A1')←C5H5((2)B1)] = 8.443, IE[C5H5(+)((1)A1)←C5H5((2)B1)] = 8.634 and EA[C5H5(-)((1)A1')←C5H5((2)B1)] = 1.785 are consistent with the respective experimental values of 8.4268 ± 0.0005, 8.6170 ± 0.0005, and 1.808 ± 0.006, obtained from photoelectron spectroscopic measurements. The ΔH°f0/ΔH°f298's (in kJ/mol) for C5H5/C5H5(+)/C5H5(-) have also been predicted by the CCSDT/CBS method: ΔH°f0/ΔH°f298[C5H5((2)B1)] = 283.6/272.0, ΔH°f0/ΔH°f298[C5H5(+)((3)A1')] = 1098.2/1086.9, ΔH°f0/ΔH°f298[C5H5(+)((1)A1)] = 1116.6/1106.0, and ΔH°f0/ΔH°f298[C5H5(-)((1)A1')] = 111.4/100.0. The comparisons between the CCSDT/CBS predictions and the experimental values suggest that the CCSDT/CBS procedure is capable of predicting reliable IE(C5H5)'s and EA(C5H5) with uncertainties of ± 17 and ± 23 meV, respectively.

  20. Serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT2A Receptor (5-HT2AR):5-HT2CR Imbalance in Medial Prefrontal Cortex Associates with Motor Impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Anastasio, Noelle C; Stutz, Sonja J; Fink, Latham H L; Swinford-Jackson, Sarah E; Sears, Robert M; DiLeone, Ralph J; Rice, Kenner C; Moeller, F Gerard; Cunningham, Kathryn A

    2015-07-15

    A feature of multiple neuropsychiatric disorders is motor impulsivity. Recent studies have implicated serotonin (5-HT) systems in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in mediating individual differences in motor impulsivity, notably the 5-HT2AR receptor (5-HT2AR) and 5-HT2CR. We investigated the hypothesis that differences in the ratio of 5-HT2AR:5-HT2CR protein expression in mPFC would predict the individual level of motor impulsivity and that the engineered loss of the 5-HT2CR would result in high motor impulsivity concomitant with elevated 5-HT2AR expression and pharmacological sensitivity to the selective 5-HT2AR antagonist M100907. High and low impulsive rats were identified in a 1-choice serial reaction time task. Native protein levels of the 5-HT2AR and the 5-HT2CR predicted the intensity of motor impulsivity and the 5-HT2AR:5-HT2CR ratio in mPFC positively correlated with levels of premature responses in individual outbred rats. The possibility that the 5-HT2AR and 5-HT2CR act in concert to control motor impulsivity is supported by the observation that high phenotypic motor impulsivity associated with a diminished mPFC synaptosomal 5-HT2AR:5-HT2CR protein:protein interaction. Knockdown of mPFC 5-HT2CR resulted in increased motor impulsivity and triggered a functional disruption of the local 5-HT2AR:5-HT2CR balance as evidenced by a compensatory upregulation of 5-HT2AR protein expression and a leftward shift in the potency of M100907 to suppress impulsive behavior. We infer that there is an interactive relationship between the mPFC 5-HT2AR and 5-HT2CR, and that a 5-HT2AR:5-HT2CR imbalance may be a functionally relevant mechanism underlying motor impulsivity.

  1. Serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT2A Receptor (5-HT2AR):5-HT2CR Imbalance in Medial Prefrontal Cortex Associates with Motor Impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Anastasio, Noelle C.; Stutz, Sonja J.; Fink, Latham H. L.; Swinford-Jackson, Sarah E.; Sears, Robert M; DiLeone, Ralph J.; Rice, Kenner C.; Moeller, F. Gerard; Cunningham, Kathryn A.

    2016-01-01

    A feature of multiple neuropsychiatric disorders is motor impulsivity. Recent studies have implicated serotonin (5-HT) systems in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in mediating individual differences in motor impulsivity, notably the 5-HT2AR receptor (5-HT2AR) and 5-HT2CR. We investigated the hypothesis that differences in the ratio of 5-HT2AR:5-HT2CR protein expression in mPFC would predict the individual level of motor impulsivity and that the engineered loss of the 5-HT2CR would result in high motor impulsivity concomitant with elevated 5-HT2AR expression and pharmacological sensitivity to the selective 5-HT2AR antagonist M100907. High and low impulsive rats were identified in a 1-choice serial reaction time task. Native protein levels of the 5-HT2AR and the 5-HT2CR predicted the intensity of motor impulsivity and the 5-HT2AR:5-HT2CR ratio in mPFC positively correlated with levels of premature responses in individual outbred rats. The possibility that the 5-HT2AR and 5-HT2CR act in concert to control motor impulsivity is supported by the observation that high phenotypic motor impulsivity associated with a diminished mPFC synaptosomal 5-HT2AR:5-HT2CR protein:protein interaction. Knockdown of mPFC 5-HT2CR resulted in increased motor impulsivity and triggered a functional disruption of the local 5-HT2AR:5-HT2CR balance as evidenced by a compensatory upregulation of 5-HT2AR protein expression and a leftward shift in the potency of M100907 to suppress impulsive behavior. We infer that there is an interactive relationship between the mPFC 5-HT2AR and 5-HT2CR, and that a 5-HT2AR:5-HT2CR imbalance may be a functionally-relevant mechanism underlying motor impulsivity. PMID:26120876

  2. 5-Fluorouracil catabolism to 5-fluoro-5,6-dihydrouracil is reduced by acute liver impairment in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Innocenti, Federico; Danesi, Romano; Bocci, Guido; Natale, Gianfranco . E-mail: gianfranco.natale@anist.med.unipi.it; Del Tacca, Mario

    2005-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of acute liver damage on the inactivation of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) to its main catabolite 5-fluoro-5,6-dihydrouracil (5-FUH{sub 2}) in mice. Plasma pharmacokinetics of 5-FU and 5-FUH{sub 2} in mice receiving 5-FU (10, 30, and 90 mg/kg) were compared to those in mice pretreated with carbon tetrachloride and receiving the same 5-FU doses. Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage was histopathologically examined under light microscopy and serum transaminases and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase activities were also measured. Liver histopathology and elevated aminotransferase activity levels confirmed the presence of liver damage. 5-FU C{sub max} and AUC both increased up to 71% in mice with liver damage. This was reflected by decreased 5-FUH{sub 2} production, since 5-FUH{sub 2} C{sub max} and AUC levels decreased up to 47% and 61%, respectively. Metabolic ratios between 5-FUH{sub 2} and 5-FU AUCs were considerably decreased as well, further suggesting that liver damage caused a reduction in 5-FU catabolism. DPD activity was not altered in damaged livers. The present results indicate that 5-FU disposition in mice could be profoundly altered in the presence of severe liver impairment, potentially leading to enhanced anabolic activation of 5-FU. This effect seems to be ascribed to a reduction of viable hepatocytes, rather than to an inactivation of DPD activity.

  3. Serotonin (5-HT) regulates neurite outgrowth through 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors in cultured hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Paulina S; Neira, David; Muñoz, Mauricio; Lavandero, Sergio; Fiedler, Jenny L

    2014-08-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) production and expression of 5-HT receptors (5-HTRs) occur early during prenatal development. Recent evidence suggests that, in addition to its classical role as a neurotransmitter, 5-HT regulates neuronal connectivity during mammalian development by modulating cell migration and neuronal cytoarchitecture. Given the variety of 5-HTRs, researchers have had difficulty clarifying the specific role of each receptor subtype in brain development. Signalling mediated by the G-protein-coupled 5-HT1A R and 5-HT7 R, however, has been associated with neuronal plasticity. Thus, we hypothesized that 5-HT promotes neurite outgrowth through 5-HT1A R and 5-HT7 R. The involvement of 5-HT1A R and 5-HT7 R in the morphology of rat hippocampal neurons was evaluated by treating primary cultures at 2 days in vitro with 5-HT and specific antagonists for 5-HT1A R and 5-HT7 R (WAY-100635 and SB269970, respectively). The stimulation of hippocampal neurons with 100 nM 5-HT for 24 hr produced no effect on either the number or the length of primary neurites. Nonetheless, after 5HT7 R was blocked, the addition of 5-HT increased the number of primary neurites, suggesting that 5HT7 R could inhibit neuritogenesis. In contrast, 5-HT induced secondary neurite outgrowth, an effect inhibited by 1 μM WAY-100635 or SB269970. These results suggest that both serotonergic receptors participate in secondary neurite outgrowth. We conclude that 5-HT1A R and 5-HT7 R regulate neuronal morphology in primary hippocampal cultures by promoting secondary neurite outgrowth.

  4. Overview of ICRP Committee 5.

    PubMed

    Larsson, C-M; Higley, K A; Real, A

    2015-06-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) established Committee 5 in 2005 in response to the need to provide direct demonstration of environmental protection from radiation in accordance with national law and international agreements. The development of the ICRP system for environmental protection was facilitated by research over the previous decades, as well as by ICRP's evaluation of the ethical and philosophical basis for environmental protection as laid out in ICRP Publication 91. The 2007 Recommendations (Publication 103) incorporated environmental protection as one of the integral elements of the radiation protection system. Over a relatively short time, the system has evolved to incorporate a set of 12 Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs), which is a small enough number to develop comprehensive databases for each RAP, but wide ranging enough to provide some insight into radiation impact and protection against such impact, as appropriate, in terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems. As necessary, the databases can be used to derive supplementary databases for Representative Organisms typical for a particular exposure situation of concern or under study. The system, to date, details biology of the RAPs (Publication 108); outlines transfer factors for estimation of internal concentrations of radionuclides of environmental significance under different situations (Publication 114); provides further information (Publication 108) on dosimetry, biological effects, and derived consideration reference levels (bands of environmental dose rates where potential detrimental effects may deserve attention); and provides information on application of the system in planned, emergency, and existing exposure situations (Publication 124). Currently, a review of experimental determinations of relative biological effectiveness, to guide derivation of specific weighting factors for use in environmental radiation protection if possible and necessary, is

  5. Measurement of feline serum interleukin-5 level.

    PubMed

    Nakazato, Ayumi; Momoi, Yasuyuki; Kadoya, Michiyo; Iwasaki, Toshiroh

    2007-08-01

    A bioassay was developed to measure feline interleukin-5 (IL-5). Human IL-5 receptor alpha chain transfected murine Ba/F3 cells (Ba/F3-IL-5R) showed feline IL-5-dependent proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. IL-5 levels in serum samples from 54 cats with suspected allergic dermatitis and from 11 control cats could be successfully measured using Ba/F3-IL-5R cells. The number of eosinophils in peripheral blood was not correlated with serum IL-5 level.

  6. Synthesis, solid-state structure, and bonding analysis of the beryllocenes [Be(C5Me4H)2], [Be(C5Me5)2], and [Be(C5Me5)(C5Me4H)].

    PubMed

    del Mar Conejo, M; Fernández, Rafael; del Río, Diego; Carmona, Ernesto; Monge, Angeles; Ruiz, Caridad; Márquez, Antonio M; Sanz, Javier Fernández

    2003-09-22

    The beryllocenes [Be(C(5)Me(4)H)(2)] (1), [Be(C(5)Me(5))(2)] (2), and [Be(C(5)Me(5))(C(5)Me(4)H)] (3) have been prepared from BeCl(2) and the appropriate KCp' reagent in toluene/diethyl ether solvent mixtures. The synthesis of 1 is facile (20 degrees C, overnight), but generation of decamethylberyllocene 2 demands high temperatures (ca. 115 degrees C) and extended reaction times (3-4 days). The mixed-ring beryllocene 3 is obtained when the known [(eta(5)-C(5)Me(5))BeCl] is allowed to react with K[C(5)Me(4)H], once more under somewhat forcing conditions (115 degrees C, 36 h). The structures of the three metallocenes have been determined by low-temperature X-ray studies. Both 1 and 3 present eta5/eta1 geometries of the slip-sandwich type, whereas 2 exhibits an almost regular, ferrocene-like, sandwich structure. In the mixed-ring compound 3, C(5)Me(5) is centrally bound to beryllium and the eta(1)-C(5)Me(4)H ring bonds to the metal through the unique CH carbon atom. This is also the binding mode of the eta(1)-ring of 1. To analyze the nature of the bonding in these molecules, theoretical calculations at different levels of theory have been performed on compounds 2 and 3, and a comparison with the bonding in [Be(C(5)H(5))(2)] has been made. As for the latter molecule, energy differences between the eta5/eta5 and the eta5/eta1 structures of 2 are very small, being of the order of a few kcal mol(-1). Constrained space orbital variations (CSOV) calculations show that the covalent character in the bonding is larger for [Be(C(5)Me(5))(2)] than for [Be(C(5)H(5))(2)] due to larger charge delocalization and to increased polarizability of the C(5)Me(5) fragment.

  7. Climate-Rotation Feedback on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bills, Bruce G.

    1999-01-01

    A new model is presented for the coupled evolution of climate and rotation, as applied to Mars. It has long been appreciated that changes in the orbital and rotational geometry of Mars will influence the seasonal and latitudinal pattern of insolation [1-5], and this will likely dominate climatic fluctuations on time scales of 10(exp 5) to 10(exp 7) years [6-9]. Equally important, but less widely appreciated, is the influence climatic change can have on rotational dynamics. The primary means by which climate influences rotation is via its influence on transport of mass (volatiles and dust) into and out of the polar regions. Many important issues remain unresolved: What are the ages of the polar caps? What climatic periods are recorded in the polar layered deposits? What is the long term obliquity history?

  8. Acoustics and Surface Pressure Measurements from Tandem Cylinder Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Lockard, David P.; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Stead, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic and unsteady surface pressure measurements from two cylinders in tandem configurations were acquired to study the effect of spacing, surface trip and freestream velocity on the radiated noise. The Reynolds number ranged from 1.15x10(exp 5) to 2.17x10(exp 5), and the cylinder spacing varied between 1.435 and 3.7 cylinder diameters. The acoustic and surface pressure spectral characteristics associated with the different flow regimes produced by the cylinders' wake interference were identified. The dependence of the Strouhal number, peak Sound Pressure Level and spanwise coherence on cylinder spacing and flow velocity was examined. Directivity measurements were performed to determine how well the dipole assumption for the radiation of vortex shedding noise holds for the largest and smallest cylinder spacing tested.

  9. The effect of oxygen fugacity on the partitioning of nickel and cobalt between olivine, silicate melt, and metal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, Karin; Grove, Timothy L.; Sisson, Thomas W.; Recca, Steven I.; Zervas, Deborah A.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of oxygen fugacity, f(O2), on the partitioning behavior of Ni and Co between olivine, silicate melt, and metal was investigated in the CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-FeO-Na2O system, an analogue of a chondrule composition from an ordinary chondrite. The conditions were 1350 C and 1 atm, with values of f(O2) varying between 10 exp -5.5 and 10 exp -12.6 atm (i.e., the f(O2) range relevant for crystal/liquid processes in terrestrial planets and meteorite parent bodies). Results of chemical analysis showed that the values of the Ni and Co partitioning coefficients begin to decrease at values of f(O2) that are about 3.9 log units below the nickel-nickel oxide and cobalt-cobalt oxide buffers, respectively, near the metal saturation for the chondrule analogue composition.

  10. 120 Mbit/s QPPM high power semiconductor transmitter performance and reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greulich, P.; Hespeler, B.; Spatscheck, Th.

    1991-06-01

    Optical and electrical performance of a high power semiconductor laser transmitter (HPST) and of the related driver electronics are presented. Stable single-lobed operation of the HPST is accomplished by retroreflection of one lobe of the dual-lobed far field using a GRIN lens and stripe mirror. The envisaged peak-power output power of 1 W is achieved and 120 Mbit/s data transmission applying QPPM is demonstrated. Preliminary results after 2400 h of a lifetest performed on a laser array without a stripe mirror yield a bias current increase of about 2.1 x 10 exp -5/h and an efficiency decrease of 1 x 10 exp -5 hr.

  11. Spectroscopic detection of molecular hydrogen frozen in interstellar ices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott A.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Geballe, Thomas R.

    1993-01-01

    A weak infrared absorption feature near 4141 wavenumbers (2.415 micrometers) in the spectrum of WL5, an infrared source in the rho Ophiuchus cloud complex, has been detected. It is attributed to molecular hydrogen created by irradiation and frozen in situ into water-rich ices. A second, broader absorption at 4125 wavenumbers centimeters (2.424 micrometers) is probably due to methanol in the ices. The column densities of frozen molecular hydrogen and methanol are inferred to be about 2.5 x 10(exp 18) and 3.0 x 10(exp 19), respectively. There is about three times more frozen molecular hydrogen than frozen carbon monoxide along this line of sight.

  12. Constraints on the cosmic rays in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sreekumar, P.; Bertsch, D. L.; Dingus, B. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.; Kniffen, D. A.; Lin, Y. C.; Mattox, J. R.

    1993-01-01

    Observations of the SMC using the Energetic Gamma Ray Experimental Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Observatory are reported. The findings yield an upper limit for gamma-ray emission above 100 MeV of 0.5 x 10 exp -7 photon/sq cm s. The expected flux if the cosmic rays (CR) are universal rather than Galactic in origin is (2.4 +/- 0.5) x 10 exp -7 photon/sq cm s, only a third of which arises from cosmic ray electron interactions. Thus, the bulk of the CR energy density is almost certainly neither metagalactic nor universal, but Galactic in origin. The results add to the evidence that the SMC is in a nonequilibrium state and indicate that the LMC is most likely in quasi-stable equilibrium, with a CR energy density near the maximum that can be contained.

  13. Development of the high sensitivity GRADIO accelerometers - The Aristoteles gradiometer mission preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, A.; Touboul, P.

    ESA and NASA are preparing the cooperative geopotential mission ARISTOTELES that will combine, for the global and fine recovery of the earth's gravity field, gradiometric measurements on board a dedicated satellite at 200-km altitude and satellite-to-satellite tracking using GPS network. The gradiometer required accuracy is 0.01 Eotvos, leading for the GRADIO ultrasensitive accelerometers composing this instrument to a resolution of 5 x 10 exp -12 per sq ms in the bandwidth (5 x 10 exp -3 Hz, 0.125 Hz) in microgravity conditions. Two laboratory models and a specific test bench have been realized. In spite of the presence of gravity and of the seismic noise, differential tests at a level of better than one nanoG are achieved on ground.

  14. Low earth orbit durability evaluation of Haynes 188 solar receiver material

    SciTech Connect

    De groh, K.K.; Rutledge, S.K.; Burke, C.A.; Dever, T.M.; Olle, R.M.; Terlep, J.A. Cleveland State University, OH Ohio Aerospace Institute, Cleveland )

    1992-01-01

    The effects of elevated-temperature vacuum and elevated-temperature atomic oxygen exposure on the mass, surface chemistry, surface morphology, and optical properties of Haynes 188, a possible heat receiver material for space-based solar dynamic power systems, have been studied. Pristine and surface modified Haynes 188 were exposed to vacuum less than or equal to 10 exp -6 torr at 820 C for 5215.5 h, and to atomic oxygen in an air plasma asher at 34 and 827 C for fluences up to 5.6 x 10 exp 21 atoms/sq cm. Results obtained indicate that vacuum heat treatment caused surface morphology and chemistry changes with corresponding optical property changes. Atomic oxygen exposure caused optical property changes which diminished with time. Mass changes are considered to be negligible for both exposures. 11 refs.

  15. Low earth orbit durability evaluation of Haynes 188 solar receiver material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Groh, Kim K.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Burke, Christopher A.; Dever, Therese M.; Olle, Raymond M.; Terlep, Judith A.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of elevated-temperature vacuum and elevated-temperature atomic oxygen exposure on the mass, surface chemistry, surface morphology, and optical properties of Haynes 188, a possible heat receiver material for space-based solar dynamic power systems, have been studied. Pristine and surface modified Haynes 188 were exposed to vacuum less than or equal to 10 exp -6 torr at 820 C for 5215.5 h, and to atomic oxygen in an air plasma asher at 34 and 827 C for fluences up to 5.6 x 10 exp 21 atoms/sq cm. Results obtained indicate that vacuum heat treatment caused surface morphology and chemistry changes with corresponding optical property changes. Atomic oxygen exposure caused optical property changes which diminished with time. Mass changes are considered to be negligible for both exposures.

  16. UV testing of solar cells: Effects of antireflective coating, prior irradiation, and UV source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meulenberg, A.

    1993-01-01

    Short-circuit current degradation of electron irradiated double-layer antireflective-coated cells after 3000 hours ultraviolet (UV) exposure exceeds 3 percent; extrapolation of the data to 10(exp 5) hours (11.4 yrs.) gives a degradation that exceeds 10 percent. Significant qualitative and quantitative differences in degradation were observed in cells with double- and single-layer antireflective coatings. The effects of UV-source age were observed and corrections were made to the data. An additional degradation mechanism was identified that occurs only in previously electron-irradiated solar cells since identical unirradiated cells degrade to only 6 +/- 3 percent when extrapolated 10(exp 5) hours of UV illumination.

  17. Catastrophic Disruption of Comet ISON

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keane, Jacqueline V.; Milam, Stefanie N.; Coulson, Iain M.; Kleyna, Jan T.; Sekanina, Zdenek; Kracht, Rainer; Riesen, Timm-Emmanuel; Meech, Karen J.; Charnley, Steven B.

    2016-01-01

    We report submillimeter 450 and 850 microns dust continuum observations for comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) obtained at heliocentric distances 0.31-0.08 au prior to perihelion on 2013 November 28 (rh?=?0.0125 au). These observations reveal a rapidly varying dust environment in which the dust emission was initially point-like. As ISON approached perihelion, the continuum emission became an elongated dust column spread out over as much as 60? (greater than 10(exp 5) km in the anti-solar direction. Deconvolution of the November 28.04 850 microns image reveals numerous distinct clumps consistent with the catastrophic disruption of comet ISON, producing approximately 5.2?×?10(exp 10) kg of submillimeter-sized dust. Orbital computations suggest that the SCUBA-2 emission peak coincides with the comet's residual nucleus.

  18. Carbon in Comet Halley dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomenkova, M. N.; Chang, S.

    Comets are small bodies of the solar system containing primarily a mixture of frozen gases and carbonaceous and mineral grains. They are likely to preserve volatile mineral from cold regions of the protosolar nebula and remnants of interstellar dust and gas. More than 2500 mass spectra of cometary grains with masses in the range 5 x 10 exp -17 to 5 x 10 exp -12 g were measured in situ by PUMA1 and PUMA2 mass spectrometers on board the VEGA spacecraft during flyby missions to Comet Halley. In this paper, we discuss different organic and inorganic C-containing components discovered so far in Comet Halley dust particles, the nature and abundance of which provide information about possible astrophysical sources of C and constrain models of interstellar grains.

  19. A high-performance Hg(+) trapped ion frequency standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prestage, J. D.; Tjoelker, R. L.; Dick, G. J.; Maleki, L.

    1992-01-01

    A high-performance frequency standard based on (199)Hg(+) ions confined in a hybrid radio frequency (RF)/dc linear ion trap is demonstrated. This trap permits storage of large numbers of ions with reduced susceptibility to the second-order Doppler effect caused by the RF confining fields. A 160-mHz-wide atomic resonance line for the 40.5-GHz clock transition is used to steer the output of a 5-mHz crystal oscillator to obtain a stability of 2 x 10(exp -15) for 24,000-second averaging times. Measurements with a 37-mHz line width for the Hg(+) clock transition demonstrate that the inherent stability for this frequency standard is better than 1 x 10(exp -15) at 10,000-second averaging times.

  20. Measuring neutron fluences and gamma/x ray fluxes with CCD cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, G. J.; Smith, G. W.; Zagarino, P.; Thomas, M. C.

    Volume and area measurements of transient radiation-induced pixel charge in English Electric Valve (EEV) Frame Transfer (FT) charge coupled devices (CCDs) from irradiation with pulsed neutrons (14 MeV) and Bremsstrahlung photons (16-MeV endpoint) are utilized to calibrate the devices as radiometric imaging sensors capable of distinguishing between the two types of ionizing radiation. Measurements indicate approximately 0.5 V/rad responsivity with greater than or equal to 1 rad required for saturation from photon irradiation. Neutron-generated localized charge centers or 'peaks' binned by area and amplitude as functions of fluence in the 10(exp 5) to 10(exp 7) n/sq cm range indicate smearing over approximately 1 to 10 percent of CCD array with charge per pixel ranging between noise and saturation levels.