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Sample records for 10exp 5 mexp

  1. The study of pressure measurement techniques and devices in the range of 10(exp -1) to 10(exp -5) torr (2 millipsi to 0.2 micropsi)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, John H.

    1990-01-01

    The atmospheric pressure range was studied in a region where conventional pressure sensing devices do not provide meaningful measurements. However, a hot filament gauge was developed and miniaturized which will measure the pressure in the 10(exp -1) to 10(exp -5) torr (2 millipsi to 0.2 micropsi) region, hence the name Micropsi gauge. Laboratory studies were made comparing the currently available devices with the newly developed miniature low power 'Micropsi' pressure sensor.

  2. Laboratory Demonstration of Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) Coronagraph with Better than 10(exp -9) Contrast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, Brian; Guyon, Olivier; Kuhnert, Andreas; Niessner, Albert; Martinache, Frantz; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham

    2013-01-01

    We present coronagraphic images from the Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph on NASA's High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT) at the Jet Propulsion Lab, showing contrasts of 5x10(exp -1) averaged from 2-4 lambda/D, in monochromatic light at 808 nm. In parallel with the coronagraph and its deformable mirror and coronagraphic wavefront control, we also demonstrate a low-order wavefront control system, giving 100 x rms suppression of introduced tip/tilt disturbances down to residual levels of 10(exp -3) lambda/D. Current limitations, as well as broadband (10% fractional bandpass) preliminary results are discussed.

  3. A geodetic laser radar rangefinder with 10(exp -7) resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizushima, Y.; Takeichi, M.; Warashima, Y.; Takeshima, A.; Ogawa, I.; Ichie, K.; Schiller, N. H.

    1992-01-01

    A novel geodetic laser radar rangefinder (GLRR) unit utilizing a pair of synchronized 10-psec streak camera systems was developed for displacement measurements of the earth's plates. In order to achieve minimum computing error and assure extremely high spatial resolution, an optical pulse registration clock was developed and used to register a fiducial mark on the time scale of the system. Conventional optical rangefinders have been limited to a relative resolution of 10(exp -6) even for short distances. The system to be reported on today has the capability of measuring a 50km range with an accuracy of 4mm corresponding to a relative resolution of 10(exp -7). With a gain of greater than 3 x 10(exp 3), the system has the capability of detecting extremely weak signals on the order of photon counting. This combined with temporal gating makes daytime measurements comparable in signal-to-noise ratio to nighttime viewing. This is useful for measuring faint signals returning over a range of several tens of kilometers. The present ranging system was designed to observe the mutual displacement of geodetic plates and was employed to measure the boundary between the Philippine and Asian geodetic plates that pass beneath the Suruga Bay near Hamamatsu City, Japan. The system has been in operation for over 3 years. In addition, the system has the ability of producing and detecting optical ranging pulses of several wavelengths simultaneously, making this a complete multicolor system. The basic GLRR system consists of a frequency stabilizing crystal, optical clock, YAG laser, KDP doubling crystal, DK*P tripling crystal, two matched streak cameras (A and B), a control computer, and an output/input periscope system.

  4. Heat-Transfer and Pressure Measurements from a Flight Test of the Third 1/18-Scale Model of the Titan Intercontinental Ballistic Missile up to a Mach Number of 3.86 and Reynolds Number per Foot of 23.5 x 10(exp 6) and a Comparison with Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, John B., Jr.

    1958-01-01

    Heat-transfer and pressure measurements were obtained from a flight test of a 1/18-scale model of the Titan intercontinental ballistic missile up to a Mach number of 3.86 and Reynolds number per foot of 23.5 x 10(exp 6) and are compared with the data of two previously tested 1/18-scale models. Boundary-layer transition was observed on the nose of the model. Van Driest's theory predicted heat-transfer coefficients reasonably well for the fully laminar flow but predictions made by Van Driest's theory for turbulent flow were considerably higher than the measurements when the skin was being heated. Comparison with the flight test of two similar models shows fair repeatability of the measurements for fully laminar or turbulent flow.

  5. A vacuum (10(exp -9) Torr) friction apparatus for determining friction and endurance life of MoSx films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Honecy, Frank S.; Abel, Phillip B.; Pepper, Stephen V.; Spalvins, Talivaldis; Wheeler, Donald R.

    1992-01-01

    The first part of this paper describes an ultrahigh vacuum friction apparatus (tribometer). The tribometer can be used in a ball-on-disk configuration and is specifically designed to measure the friction and endurance life of solid lubricating films such as MoS(x) in vacuum at a pressure of 10 exp -7 Pa. The sliding mode is typically unidirectional at a constant rotating speed. The second part of this paper presents some representative friction and endurance life data for magnetron sputtered MoS(x) films (110 nm thick) deposited on sputter-cleaned 440 C stainless-steel disk substrates, which were slid against a 6-mm-diameter 440 C stainless-steel bearing ball. All experiments were conducted with loads of 0.49 to 3.6 N (average Hertzian contact pressure, 0.33 to 0.69 GPa), at a constant rotating speed of 120 rpm (sliding velocity ranging from 31 to 107 mm/s due to the range of wear track radii involved in the experiments), in a vacuum of 7 x 10 exp -7 Pa and at room temperature. The results indicate that there are similarities in friction behavior of MoS(x) films overs their life cycles regardless of load applied. The coefficient of friction (mu) decreases as load W increases according to mu = kW exp -1/3. The endurance life E of MoS(x) films decreases as the load W increases according to E = KW exp -1.4 for the load range. The load- (or contract-pressure-) dependent endurance life allows us to reduce the time for wear experiments and to accelerate endurance life testing of MoS(x) films. For the magnetron-sputtered MoS(x) films deposited on 440 C stainless-steel disks: the specific wear rate normalized to the load and the number of revolutions was 3 x 10 exp -8 mm exp 3/N-revolution; the specific wear rate normalized to the load and the total sliding distance was 8 x 10 exp -7 mm exp 3/N-m; and the nondimensional wear coefficient of was approximately 5 x 10 exp -6. The values are almost independent of load in the range 0.49 to 3.6 N (average Hertzian contact

  6. Reconstruction of 10(exp 20)ev Showers in EUSO and JEM EUSO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreev, V.; Adams, J.; Cline, D.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the procedure to reconstruct 10(exp 20) ev showers in Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO). We show the angular and energy resolution is excellent. We now apply this to the newly proposed Japanese JEM-EUSO and will present results at the meeting.

  7. The measurement of elemental abundances above 10 exp 15 eV at a lunar base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swordy, S. P.

    1990-03-01

    At about 10 exp 15 eV the slope of the energy spectrum of cosmic rays becomes significantly steeper than at lower energies. The measurement of relative elemental abundances at these energies is expected to provide a means to resolve the origin of this feature and greatly contribute to the understanding of the sources of cosmic rays. A moon-based detector for making well-resolved elemental measurements at these energies is described using hadronic calorimetry. This detector is particularly well suited for a site on the lunar surface because there is no overlying layer of atmosphere and the large mass required can be provided by the lunar regolith.

  8. An Instrument to Measure Elemental Energy Spectra of Cosmic Ray Nuclei Up to 10(exp 16) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Chilingarian, A.; Drury, L.; Egorov, N.; Golubkov,S.; Korotkova, N.; Panasyuk, M.; Podorozhnyi, D.; Procqureur, J.

    2000-01-01

    A longstanding goal of cosmic ray research is to measure the elemental energy spectra of cosmic rays up to and through the "knee" (approx. equal to 3 x 10 (exp 15) eV. It is not currently feasible to achieve this goal with an ionization calorimeter because the mass required to be deployed in Earth orbit is very large (at least 50 tonnes). An alternative method will be presented. This is based on measuring the primary particle energy by determining the angular distribution of secondaries produced in a target layer using silicon microstrip detector technology. The proposed technique can be used over a wide range of energies (10 (exp 11)- 10 (exp 16) eV) and gives an energy resolution of 60% or better. Based on this technique, a design for a new lightweight instrument with a large aperture (KLEM) will be described.

  9. A vacuum (10 exp -9 torr) friction apparatus for determining friction and endurance life of MoS(x) films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Honecy, Frank S.; Abel, Phillip B.; Pepper, Stephen V.; Spalvins, Talivaldis; Wheeler, Donald R.

    1993-01-01

    An ultrahigh-vacuum tribometer for use in a ball-on-disk configuration was specially designed for measuring the friction and endurance life of magnetron-sputtered solid lubricating MoS(x) films deposited on sputter-cleaned 400 C stainless-steel disks, when slid against a 6-mm-diameter 440 C stainless-steel ball. The results of tests showed that the tribometer performs satisfactorily in unidirectional rotation in vacuum at a pressure of 10 exp -7 Pa, 10 exp -9 torr. Similarities are observed in the life cycle friction behavior and the coefficient of friction as a function of the number of disk revolutions, for MoS(x) films at average Hertzian contact from 0.33 to 0.69 GPa.

  10. 39 photons/bit direct detection receiver at 810 nm, BER = 1 x 10 exp -6, 60 Mb/s QPPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, Andrew; Dion, Bruno; Noeldeke, Christoph; Duchmann, Olivier

    1991-06-01

    39 photons/bit direct detection receiver sensitivity is reported, at a BER of 1 x 10 exp -6, for a 2-percent extinction ratio, 810 nm, 60 Mb/s QPPM signal. The sensitivity is 68 photons/bit at a BER of 1 x 10 exp -9. These figures represent a record sensitivity for a direct detection receiver. They are achieved by a combination of a novel silicon avalanche photodiode, an optimized preamplifier and a maximum likelihood demodulator. The work was a part of Phase B Breadboarding activities for the European Space Agency (ESA) SILEX (Semiconductor Intersatellite Link EXperiment) program on Intersatellite Optical Links.

  11. Preliminary Investigation of Molybdenum Disulfide-air-mist Lubrication for Roller Bearings Operating to DN Values of 1 x 10(exp 6) and Ball Bearings Operating to Temperatures of 1000 F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macks, E F; Nemeth, Z N; Anderson, W J

    1951-01-01

    The effectiveness of molybdenum disulfide MoS2 as a bearing lubricant was determined at high temperature and at high speeds. A 1-inch-bore ball bearing operated at temperatures to 1000 F, a speed of 1725 rpm, and a thrust load of 20 pounds when lubricated only with MoS2-air mist. A 75-millimeter-bore cageless roller bearing, provided with a MoS2-syrup coating before operation, operated at DN values to 1 x 10(exp 6) with a load of 368 pounds.

  12. Longitudinal-stability Investigation of High-lift and Stall-control Devices on a 52 Degree Sweptback Wing with and Without Fuselage and Horizontal Tail at a Reynolds Number of 6.8 x 10(exp 6).

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Gerald V; Fitzpatrick, James E

    1948-01-01

    Contains low-speed longitudinal stability characteristics of a 52 degree sweptback wing of aspect ratio 2.88, taper ratio 0.625, and NACA 64 (sub 1)-112 airfoil sections normal to the 0.282-chord line, in combination with split flaps, leading-edge flaps, and upper-surface fences. Low-wing and midwing-fuselage aerodynamic characteristics are presented with and without a horizontal tail at various vertical locations. Tests were conducted at a Reynolds number of 6.8 x 10(exp 6).

  13. Measurements of Local Heat Transfer and Pressure on Six 2-Inch-Diameter Blunt Bodies at a Mach Number of 4.95 and at Reynolds Numbers Per Foot up to 81 x 10(exp 6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Morton; Mayo, Edward E.

    1959-01-01

    Measurements of the local heat transfer and pressure distribution have been made on six 2-inch-diameter, blunt, axially symmetric bodies in the Langley gas dynamics laboratory at a Mach number of 4.95 and at Reynolds numbers per foot up to 81 x 10(exp 6). During the investigation laminar flow was observed over a hemispherical-nosed body having a surface finish from 10 to 20 microinches at the highest test Reynolds number per foot (for this configuration) of 77.4 x 10(exp 6). Though it was repeatedly possible to measure completely laminar flow at this Reynolds number for the hemisphere, it was not possible to observe completely laminar flow on the flat-nosed body for similar conditions. The significance of this phenomenon is obscured by the observation that the effects of particle impacts on the surface in causing roughness were more pronounced on the flat-nosed body. For engineering purposes, a method developed by M. Richard Dennison while employed by Lockheed Aircraft Corporation appears to be a reasonable procedure for estimating turbulent heat transfer provided transition occurs at a forward location on the body. For rearward-transition locations, the method is much poorer for the hemispherical nose than for the flat nose. The pressures measured on the hemisphere agreed very well with those of the modified Newtonian theory, whereas the pressures on all other bodies, except on the flat-nosed body, were bracketed by modified Newtonian theory both with and without centrifugal forces. For the hemisphere, the stagnation-point velocity gradient agreed very well with Newtonian theory. The stagnation-point velocity gradient for the flat- nosed model was 0.31 of the value for the hemispherical-nosed model. If a Newtonian type of flow is assumed, the ratio 0.31 will be independent of Much number and real-gas effects.

  14. Modeling of the initiation and evolution of a laser-ionized column in the lower atmosphere - 314.5 nm wavelength resonant multiphoton ionization of naturally occurring argon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetzer, G. J.; Stockley, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    A 3+1 resonant multiphoton ionization process in naturally occurring argon is studied at 314.5 nm as a candidate for providing a long ionized channel through the atmosphere. Results are presented which indicate peak electron densities up to 10 exp 8/cu cm can be created using laser intensities on the order of 10 exp 8 W/sq cm.

  15. Low-Speed Longitudinal Stability and Lateral-Control Characteristics of a 0.3-Scale Model of the Republic RF-84F Airplane at a Reynolds Number of 9x10(exp 6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollech, Thomas V.; Kelly, H. Neale

    1954-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 19-foot pressure tunnel on a 0.3-scale model of the Republic RF-84F airplane to determine modifications which would eliminate the pitch-up that occurred near maximum lift during flight tests of the airplane. The effects of high-lift and stall-control devices, horizontal tail locations, external stores, and various inlets on the longitudinal characteristics of the model were investigated. For the most part, these tests were conducted at a Reynolds number of 9.0 x 10(exp 6) and a Mach number of 0.19. The results indicated that from the standpoint of stability the inlets should possess blunted side bodies. The horizontal tail located at either the highest or lowest position investigated improved the stability of the model. Three configurations were found for the model equipped with the production tail which eliminated the pitch-up through the lift range up to the maximum lift and provided a stable static margin which did not vary more than 15% of the mean aerodynamic chord through the lift range up to 85% of maximum lift. The three configurations are as follows: the production wing-fuselage-tail combination with an inlet similar to the production inlet but smaller in plan form in conjunction with either (1) a wing fence located at 65% of the win semispan or (2) an 11.7% chord leading-edge extension extending from 65.8 to 95.8% of the wing semispan and (3) the production wing-fuselage-tail combination with the production inlet and an 11.7% chord leading-edge extension extending from 70.8 to 95.8% of the wing semispan.

  16. Meteoroid Flux from Lunar Impact Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suggs, Robert; Moser, Danielle; Cooke, William; Suggs, Ronnie

    2015-01-01

    The flux of kilogram-sized meteoroids has been determined from the first 5 years of observations by NASA's Lunar Impact Monitoring Program (Suggs et al. 2014). Telescopic video observations of 126 impact flashes observed during photometric conditions were calibrated and the flux of meteoroids to a limiting mass of 30 g was determined to be 6.14 x 10(exp -10) m(exp -2) yr(exp -1) at the Moon, in agreement with the Grun et al. (1985) model value of 7.5 x 10(exp -10) m(exp -2) yr(exp -1). After accounting for gravitational focusing effects, the flux at the Earth to a limiting impact energy of 3.0 x10(exp -6) kilotons of TNT (1.3 x 10(exp 7) J) was determined to be consistent with the results in Brown et al. (2002). Approximately 62% of the impact flashes were correlated with major meteor showers as cataloged in visual/optical meteor shower databases. These flux measurements, coupled with cratering and ejecta models, can be used to develop impact ejecta engineering environments for use in lunar surface spacecraft design and risk analyses.

  17. Friction and Wear Properties of As-Deposited and Carbon Ion-Implanted Diamond Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1996-01-01

    Recent work on the friction and wear properties of as-deposited and carbon ion-implanted diamond films was reviewed. Diamond films were produced by the microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. Diamond films with various grain sizes and surface roughnesses were implanted with carbon ions at 60 keV ion energy, resulting in a dose of 1.2 x 10(exp 17) carbon ions per cm(exp 2). Various analytical techniques, including Raman spectroscopy, proton recoil analysis, Rutherford backscattering, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, were utilized to characterize the diamond films. Sliding friction experiments were conducted with a polished natural diamond pin in contact with diamond films in the three environments: humid air (40% relative humidity), dry nitrogen (less than 1 percent relative humidity), and ultrahigh vacuum (10(exp -7) Pa). The CVD diamond films indeed have friction and wear properties similar to those of natural diamond in the three environments. The as-deposited, fine-grain diamond films can be effectively used as self-lubricating, wear-resistant coatings that have low coefficients of friction (0.02 to 0.04) and low wear rates (10(exp -7) to lO(exp -8) mm(exp 3) N(exp -1) m(exp -1)) in both humid air and dry nitrogen. However, they have high coefficients of friction (1.5 to 1.7) and a high wear rate (10(exp -4) mm(exp 7) N(exp -1) m(exp -1)) in ultrahigh vacuum. The carbon ion implantation produced a thin surficial layer (less than 0.1 micron thick) of amorphous, non-diamond carbon on the diamond films. In humid air and dry nitrogen, the ion-implanted, fine and coarse-grain diamond films have a low coefficient of friction (around 0.1) and a low wear rate (10(exp -7) mm(exp 3) N(exp -1) m(exp-1)). Even in ultrahigh vacuum, the presence of the non-diamond carbon layer reduced the coefficient of friction of fine-grain diamond films to 0.1 or lower and the wear rate to 10(exp -6

  18. Characterization of voids formed during liquid impregnation of nonwoven multifilament glass networks as related to composite processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahale, Anant D.; Prudhomme, Robert K.; Rebenfeld, Ludwig

    1993-01-01

    A technique based on matching the refractive index of an invading liquid to that of a fiber mat was used to study entrapment of air ('voids') that occurs during forced in-plane radial flow into nonwoven multifilament glass networks. The usefulness of this technique is demonstrated in quantifying and mapping the air pockets. Experiments with a series of fluids with surface tensions varying from 28 x 10(exp -3) to 36 x 10(exp -3) N/m, viscosities from 45 x 10(exp -3) to 290 x 10(exp -3) Pa.s, and inlet flow rates from 0.15 x 10(exp -6) to 0.75 x 10(exp -6) m(exp 3)/s, showed that void content is a function of the capillary number characterizing the flow process. A critical value of capillary number, Ca = 2.5 x 10(exp -3), identifies a zone below which void content increases exponentially with decreasing capillary number. Above this critical value, negligible entrapment of voids is observed. Similar experiments carried out on surface treated nonwoven mats spanning a range of equilibrium contact angles from 20 deg to 78 deg showed that there is a critical contact angle above which negligible entrapment is observed. Below this value, there is no apparent effect of contact angle on the void fraction - capillary number relationship described earlier. Studies on the effect of filament wettability, and fluid velocity and viscosity on the size of the entrapment (voids) were also carried out. These indicate that larger sized entrapments which envelop more than one pore are favored by a low capillary number in comparison to smaller, pore level bubbles. Experiments were carried out on deformed mats - imposing high permeability spots at regular intervals on a background of low permeability. The effect of these spatial fluctuations in heterogeneity of the mat on entrapment is currently being studied.

  19. Specific Volumes of the Zr(41.2)Ti(13.8)Cu(12.5)Ni(10.0)Be(22.5) Alloy in the Liquid, Glass, and Crystalline States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohsaka, K.; Chung, S. K.; Rhim, W. K.; Johnson, W. L.; Peker, A.; Scruggs, D.

    1997-01-01

    The specific volumes of the Zr(41.2)Ti(3.8)Cu(2.5)Ni(10.0)Be(22.5) alloy as a function of temperature, T, are determined by employing an image digitizing technique and numerical calculation methods applied to the electrostatically levitated spherical alloy. The linear fitting of the volumes of the alloy in the liquid, V(sub l), glass, V(sub g) and crystalline V(sub c), states in the temperature ranges shown in parentheses are V(sub l)(T) = 0.1583 + 8.877 x 10(exp -6) T(cu cm/g) (700-1300 K);V(sub g)(T) = 0.1603 + 5.528 x 10(exp -6) T (400-550 K);V(sub c)(T) = 0.1583 + 6.21 x 10(exp -6)T(400-850 K). The average volume thermal expansion coefficients within the temperature ranges are determined to be 5.32, 3.39. and 3.83 x 10(exp -5) (1/K) for the liquid, glass, and crystalline states, respectively.

  20. Delayed Alumina Scale Spallation on Rene'n5+y: Moisture Effects and Acoustic Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.; Morscher, Gregory N.

    2001-01-01

    The single crystal superalloy Rene'N5 (with or without Y-doping and hydrogen annealing) was cyclically oxidized at 1150 C for 1000 hours. After considerable scale growth (>= 500 hours), even the adherent alumina scales formed on Y-doped samples exhibited delayed interfacial spallation during subsequent water immersion tests, performed up to one year after oxidation. Spallation was characterized by weight loss, the amount of spalled area, and acoustic emission response. Hydrogen annealing (prior to oxidation) reduced spallation both before and after immersion, but without measurably reducing the bulk sulfur content of the Y-doped alloys. The duration and frequency of sequential, co-located acoustic emission events implied an interfacial crack growth rate at least 10(exp -3) m/s, but possibly higher than 10(exp 2) m/s. This is much greater than classic moisture-assisted slow crack growth rates in bulk alumina (10(exp -6) to 10(exp -3) m/s), which may still have occurred undetected by acoustic emission. An alternative failure sequence is proposed: an incubation process for preferential moisture ingress leads to a local decrease in interfacial toughness, thus allowing fast fracture driven by stored strain energy.

  1. Observations of Environmental Quenching in Groups in the 11 GYR Since z = 2.5: Different Quenching For Central and Satellite Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tal, Tomer; Dekel, Avishai; Marchesini, Danilo; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica J.; Patel, Shannon G.; Quadri, Ryan F.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Wake, David A.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Oesch, Pascal; Muzzin, Adam; Brammer, Gabriel B.; vanDokkum, Peter G.; Franx, Marijn; Illingworth, Garth D.; Leja, Joel; Magee, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We present direct observational evidence for star formation quenching in galaxy groups in the redshift range 0 less than z less than 2.5. We utilize a large sample of nearly 6000 groups, selected by fixed cumulative number density from three photometric catalogs, to follow the evolving quiescent fractions of central and satellite galaxies over roughly 11 Gyr. At z approximately 0, central galaxies in our sample range in stellar mass from Milky Way/M31 analogs (M=6.5x10(exp 10) M/solar mass) to nearby massive ellipticals (M=1.5x10(exp 11) M/solar mass). Satellite galaxies in the same groups reach masses as low as twice that of the Large Magellanic Cloud (M=6.5x10(exp 9) M/solar mass). Using statistical background subtraction, we measure the average rest-frame colors of galaxies in our groups and calculate the evolving quiescent fractions of centrals and satellites over seven redshift bins. Our analysis shows clear evidence for star formation quenching in group halos, with a different quenching onset for centrals and their satellite galaxies. Using halo mass estimates for our central galaxies, we find that star formation shuts off in centrals when typical halo masses reach between 10(exp 12) and 10(exp 13) M/solar mass, consistent with predictions from the halo quenching model. In contrast, satellite galaxies in the same groups most likely undergo quenching by environmental processes, whose onset is delayed with respect to their central galaxy. Although star formation is suppressed in all galaxies over time, the processes that govern quenching are different for centrals and satellites. While mass plays an important role in determining the star formation activity of central galaxies, quenching in satellite galaxies is dominated by the environment in which they reside.

  2. Directional Limits on Persistent Gravitational Waves Using LIGO S5 Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G. S.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amin, R. S.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Antonucci, F.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M. C.; Aronsson, M.; Arun, K. G.; Aso, Y.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Cannizzo, J.; Stroeer, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    The gravitational-wave (GW) sky may include nearby pointlike sources as well as astrophysical and cosmological stochastic backgrounds. Since the relative strength and angular distribution of the many possible sources of GWs are not well constrained, searches for GW signals must be performed in a model-independent way. To that end we perform two directional searches for persistent GWs using data from the LIGO S5 science run: one optimized for pointlike sources and one for arbitrary extended sources. The latter result is the first of its kind. Finding no evidence to support the detection of GWs, we present 90% confidence level (CL) upper-limit maps of GW strain power with typical values between 2 - 20 X 10 (exp -50) strain2Hz(exp -1) and 5 - 35 X 10 (exp -49) strain2Hz(exp -1)/sr for pointlike and extended sources respectively. The limits on pointlike sources constitute a factor of 30 improvement over the previous best limits. We also set 90% CL limits on the narrow-band root-mean-square GW strain from interesting targets including Sco X-1, SN1987A and the Galactic Center as low as approximately equal 7 X 10(exp -25) in the most sensitive frequency range near 160Hz. These limits are the most constraining to date and constitute a factor of 5 improvement over the previous best limits.

  3. Toward 10(exp 9) GPS geodesy: Vector baselines, Earth rotation and reference frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutz, Bob E.

    1993-01-01

    The University of Texas Center for Space Research research efforts under NASA Grant No. NAG-1936 from 1 Jan. 1992 - 31 Dec. 1992 were in the following areas: GPS orbit accuracy assessments and efforts to improve the accuracy; analysis of global GPS data collected during the first three months of the IGS campaign, and analysis of regional data. A brief summary of each of the above activities is presented in the following.

  4. Towards 10(exp 9) GPS geodesy: Vector baselines, Earth rotation and reference frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutz, Bob E.

    1994-01-01

    Effort during the period form January 1, 1993 to December 31, 1993 were in the following areas: GPS orbit accuracy assessments and efforts to improve the accuracy; analysis and effects of GPS receiver antenna phase center variation; analysis of global GPS data being collected for the IGS campaign; and analysis of regional (south west Pacific) campaign data. A brief summary of each of the above activities is presented.

  5. Friction, Wear, and Evaporation Rates of Various Materials in Vacuum to 10(exp -7) mm Hg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, Donald H.; Swikert, Max; Johnson, Robert L.

    1961-01-01

    The requirements for bearings and seals to operate in the environment of space dictate a new area for lubrication research. The low ambient pressures encountered in space can be expected to influence the behavior of oil, grease, and solid-film lubricants. The property of these materials most significantly affected by low ambient pressures is the evaporation rate. Various investigators have therefore measured the evaporation rates of oils and greases in vacuum as one method of establishing their relative merit for space applications (1-3). The results of this work have given some indication as to the oils and greases with the greatest stability at reduced ambient pressures. Only limited experimental work, however, has been reported in the literature for inorganic solids and soft metals which have potential use as solid lubricant films or coatings for hard alloy substrates [e.g. Reference ( 4 )]. In general, the evaporation rates of these materials would be lower than those of oils and greases. These films might therefore be very attractive as lubricants for high vacuum service.

  6. Radiation hardness of Ga0.5In0.5 P/GaAs tandem solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, Sarah R.; Olson, J. M.; Bertness, K. A.; Friedman, D. J.; Kibbler, A.; Cavicchi, B. T.; Krut, D. D.

    1991-01-01

    The radiation hardness of a two-junction monolithic Ga sub 0.5 In sub 0.5 P/GaAs cell with tunnel junction interconnect was investigated. Related single junction cells were also studied to identify the origins of the radiation losses. The optimal design of the cell is discussed. The air mass efficiency of an optimized tandem cell after irradiation with 10(exp 15) cm (-2) 1 MeV electrons is estimated to be 20 percent using currently available technology.

  7. Search for Gravitational Waves from Compact Binary Coalescence in LIGO and Virgo Data from S5 and VSR1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Ceron, E. Amador; Amin, R. S.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Antonucci, F.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M.; Aronsson, M.; Arun, K. G.; Aso, Y.; Aston, S.; Astone, P.; Atkinson, D. E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of the first search for gravitational waves from compact binary coalescence using data from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo detectors. Five months of data were collected during the concurrent S5 (UGO) and VSRI (Virgo) science runs. The search focused on signals from binary mergers with a total mass between 2 and 35 Solar Mass. No gravitational waves are identified. The cumulative 90%-confidence upper limits on the rate of compact binary coalescence are calculated for non-spinning binary neutron stars, black hole-neutron star systems, and binary black holes to be 8.7 x 10(exp -3) / yr-1/L(sub 10) 2.2 x 10-3 yr-1L101, and 4.4 x 10(exp -4)3) / yr-1/L(sub 10) respectively, where L (sub 10) is 10(exp 10) times the blue solar luminosity. These upper limits are compared with astrophysical expectations.

  8. Condensed Water in Tropical Cyclone "Oliver", 8 February 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, R. F.; Allen, D. A.; Black, C.; Faisant, S.; Ferry, G. V.; Howard, S. D.; Livingston, J. M.; Redemann, J.; Sorenson, C. E.; Verma, S.

    1995-01-01

    On February 8, 1993, the NASA DC-8 aircraft profiled from 10,000 to 37,000 feet (3.1-11.3 km) pressure altitude in a stratified section of tropical cyclone "Oliver" over the Coral Sea northeast of Australia. Size, shape and phase of cloud and precipitation particles were measured with a 2-D Greyscale probe. Cloud/precipitation particles changed from liquid to ice as soon as the freezing level was reached near 17,000 feet (5.2 km) pressure altitude. The cloud was completely glaciated at -5 C. There was no correlation between ice particle habit and ambient temperature. In the liquid phase, the precipitation-cloud drop concentration was 4.0 x 10(exp 3)/cu m, the geometric mean diameter D(sub g) = 0.5-0.7 mm, and the liquid water content 0.7-1.9 g m(exp-3). The largest particles anywhere in the cloud, dominated by fused dendrites at concentrations similar to that of raindrops (2.5 x 10(exp 3) m(exp -3)) but a higher condensed water content(5.4 g/cu m estimated) were found in the mixed phase; condensed water is removed very effectively from the mixed layer due to high settling velocities of the large mixed particles. The highest number concentration (4.9 x 10(exp 4)/cu m, smallest size (D(sub g) = 0.3-0.4 mm), largest surface area (up to 2.6 x 10 (exp 2) sq cm/cu m at 0.4- 1.0 g/cu m of condensate) existed in the ice phase at the coldest temperature (- 40 C) at 35,000 feet ( 10.7 km). Each cloud contained aerosol (haze particles) in addition to cloud particles. The aerosol total surface area exceeded that of the cirrus particles at the coldest temperature. Thus, aerosols must play a significant role in the upscattering of solar radiation. Light extinction (6.2/km) and backscatter (0.8/sr/km) was highest in the coldest portion of the cirrus cloud at the highest altitude.

  9. The Rate Constant for the Reaction H + C2H5 at T = 295 - 150K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pimentel, Andre S.; Payne, Walter A.; Nesbitt, Fred L.; Cody, Regina J.; Stief, Louis J.

    2004-01-01

    The reaction between the hydrogen atom and the ethyl (C2H3) radical is predicted by photochemical modeling to be the most important loss process for C2H5 radicals in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn. This reaction is also one of the major sources for the methyl radicals in these atmospheres. These two simplest hydrocarbon radicals are the initial species for the synthesis of larger hydrocarbons. Previous measurements of the rate constant for the H + C2H5 reaction varied by a factor of five at room temperature, and some studies showed a dependence upon temperature while others showed no such dependence. In addition, the previous studies were at higher temperatures and generally higher pressures than that needed for use in planetary atmospheric models. The rate constant for the reaction H + C2H5 has been measured directly at T = 150, 202 and 295 K and at P = 1.0 Torr He for all temperatures and additionally at P = 0.5 and 2.0 Torr He at T = 202 K. The measurements were performed in a discharge - fast flow system. The decay of the C2H5 radical in the presence of excess hydrogen was monitored by low-energy electron impact mass spectrometry under pseudo-first order conditions. H atoms and C2H5 radicals were generated rapidly and simultaneously by the reaction of fluorine atoms with H2 and C2H6, respectively. The total rate constant was found to be temperature and pressure independent. The measured total rate constant at each temperature are: k(sub 1)(295K) = (1.02+/-0.24)x10(exp -10), k(sub 1)(202K) = (1.02+/-0.22)x10(exp -10) and k(sub 1)(150K) = (0.93+/-0.21)x10(exp -10), all in units of cu cm/molecule/s. The total rate constant derived from all the combined measurements is k(sub 1) = (l.03+/-0.17)x10(exp -10) cu cm/molecule/s. At room temperature our results are about a factor of two higher than the recommended rate constant and a factor of three lower than the most recently published study.

  10. EPIC Study of Two Enigmatic Sources: The Mouse and SNR 359.1-0.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlov, George

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the original proposal was to observe the Mouse pulsar wind nebula (associated with PSR J1744-2958) and the nearby supernova remnant G359.1-0.5, where the pulsar was probably born, with the XMM-Newton observatory to study the properties of these objects. SNR G359.1-0.5 was accepted as a Category C target and has not been observed. The Mouse was observed on April 27,2003 for 52 ks. The image analysis has shown that the Mouse is extended in the East-West direction, possibly along the direction of the pulsar's proper motion. The spectrum of this pulsar wind nebula can be described as an absorbed power law with the photon index GAMMA = 1.9 plus or minus 0.1, effective hydrogen column density n(sub H) = (2.6 plus or minus 0.1) x 10(exp 22) per square centimeter, and flux F = 1.8 x 10(exp -11) erg per square centimeter per second in the 1-10 keV energy range. Based on the n(sub H) value, the distance to the source is about 5 kpc, which results in the luminosity 3.7 x 10(exp 34) erg per second. We conclude that PSR J1744-2958 and the Mouse are not physically associated with G359.1-0.5, which lies at a larger distance. In addition to the Mouse, we also detected two Low-Mass X-ray Binaries, SLX 1744-299 and 1744-300, in the EPIC MOS and PN fields of view. The latter of these objects showed a Type I X-ray burst during our observation, with a rise time of 5 s and decay time of 60 s. A very strong pileup during the burst made the analysis of the burst properties unreliable. The spectral analysis of the persistent radiation from SLX 1744-299 and 1744-300 yields the hydrogen column densities of 3.2 plus or minus 0.1 and (3.6 plus or minus 0.2) x 10(exp 22) per square centimeter, respectively, which suggests that the sources are close to the Galactic center (d = 8-9 kpc). The spectra can be reasonably well fitted with a blackbody plus thin disk model, with the blackbody temperatures of 1.7 plus or minus 0.2 and 1.8 plus or minus 0.2 keV, respectively.

  11. Limits on the UV Photodecomposition of Carbonates on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Richard; Zent, Aaron P.; McKay, Christopher P.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The effect of UV (ultraviolet) light on the stability of calcium carbonate in a simulated martian atmosphere was experimentally investigated. Sample cells containing C-13 labeled calcite were irradiated with a Xe arc lamp in 10 mbar of simulated martian atmosphere and a quadrupole mass spectrometer was used to monitor the headspace gases for the production of (13)CO2. We found no experimental evidence of the UV photodecomposition of calcium carbonate in a simulated martian atmosphere. Extrapolating the lower limit of detection of our experimental system to an upper limit of carbonate decomposition on Mars yields a quantum efficiency of 3.5 x 10(exp -8) molecules/photon over the wavelength interval of 190-390 nm and a maximum UV photodecomposition rate of 1.2 x 10(exp -13) kg m(exp -2) s(exp -1) from a calcite surface. The maximum loss of bulk calcite due to this process would be 2.5 nm yr(exp -1). However, calcite is expected to be thermodynamically stable on the surface of Mars and potential UV photodecomposition reaction mechanisms indicate that while calcium carbonate may decompose under vacuum, it would be stable in a CO2 atmosphere. Given the expected stability of carbonate on Mars and our inability to detect carbonate decomposition, we conclude that it is unlikely that the apparent absence of carbonate on the martian surface is due to UV photo decomposition of calcite in the current environment.

  12. Micron-Sized Particles Detected in the Vicinity of Jupiter by the Voyager Plasma Wave Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsintikidis, D.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Granroth, L. J.

    1996-01-01

    Wideband waveform data obtained by the plasma wave instruments onboard the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft have been used to study micron-sized dust particles in the vicinity of Jupiter. The technique used was developed during the flybys of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, and makes use of the fact that a particle striking the spacecraft at 10-20 km/s causes a voltage pulse in the plasma wave receiver. The waveform of the voltage pulse is much different than the waveform of plasma waves and provides a highly reliable method of detecting micron-sized dust particles. Although the dust impact rate observed in the vicinity of Jupiter is much lower than the rates at Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, the particles are easily detectable. Approximately 1200 48-second frames of wideband waveform data were examined in the vicinity of Jupiter. Dust impact signatures were found in approximately 20% of these frames. The peak impact rates are about 1 impact per second, and the peak number densities are about 10(exp -5) m(exp -3). Most of the impacts occurred near the equatorial plane at radial distances less than about 35 R(sub j) from Jupiter. Analysis of the detection threshold indicates that the particles have masses greater than 10(exp -11) g, which corresponds to particles with diameters of a few micrometers or larger.

  13. Measurements of anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation at 0.5 deg angular scales near the star gamma ursae minoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devlin, M. J.; Clapp, A. C.; Gundersen, J. O.; Hagmann, C. A.; Hristov, V. V.; Lange, A. E.; Lim, M. A.; Lubin, P. M.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Meinhold, P. R.

    1994-01-01

    We present results from a four-frequency observation of a 6 deg x 0.6 deg strip of the sky centered near the star Gamma Ursae Minoris (GUM) during the fourth flight of the Millimeter-wave Anistropy experiment(MAX). The observation was made with a 1.4 deg peak-to-peak sinusoidal chop in all bands. The FWHM beam sizes were 0.55 deg +/- 0.05 deg at 3.5 per cm and 0.75 deg +/- 0.05 deg at 6, 9, and 14 per cm. During this observation significant correlated structure was observed at 3.5, 6 and 9 per cm with amplitudes similar to those observed in the GUM region during the second and third fligts of MAX. The frequency spectrum is consistent with cosmic microwave background (CMB) and inconsistent with thermal emission from interstellar dust. The extrapolated amplitudes of synchrotron and free-free emission are too small to account for the amplitude of the observed structure, If all of the structure is attributed to CMB anisotropy with a Gaussian autocorrelation function and a coherence angle of 25 min, then the most probable values of delta T/T(sub CMB) in the 3.5, 6 and 9 per cm bads are (4.3 +2.7/-1.6) x 10(exp -5), 2.8 (+4.3/-1/1) x 10(exp -5), and 3.5 (+3.0/-1.6) x 10(exp -5) (95% confidence upper and lower limits), respectively.

  14. Long term microparticle impact fluxes on LDEF determined from optical survey of Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, C. G.; Oliver, J. P.; Cooke, W. J.; Downey, K. I.; Kassel, P. C.

    1995-01-01

    Many of the IDE metal-oxide-silicon (MOS) capacitor-discharge impact sensors remained active during the entire Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) mission. An optical survey of impact sites on the active surfaces of these sensors has been extended to include all sensors from the low-flux sides of LDEF (i.e. the west or trailing side, the earth end, and the space end) and 5-7 active sensors from each LDEF's high-flux sides (i.e. the east or leading side, the south side, and the north side). This survey was facilitated by the presence of a relatively large (greater than 50 micron diameter) optical signature associated with each impact site on the active sensor surfaces. Of the approximately 4700 impacts in the optical survey data set, 84% were from particles in the 0.5 to 3 micron size range. An estimate of the total number of hypervelocity impacts on LDEF from particles greater than 0.5 micron diameter yields a value of approximately 7 x 10(exp 6). Impact feature dimensions for several dozen large craters on MOS sensors and germanium witness plates are also presented. Impact fluxes calculated from the IDE survey data closely matched surveys of similar size impacts (greater than or equal to 3 micron diameter craters in Al, or marginal penetrations of a 2.4 micron thick Al foil) by other LDEF investigators. Since the first year IDE data were electronically recorded, the flux data could be divided into three long term time periods: the first year, the entire 5.8 year mission, and the intervening 4.8 years (by difference). The IDE data show that there was an order of magnitude decrease in the long term microparticle impact flux on the trailing side of LDEF, from 1.01 to 0.098 x 10(exp -4) m(exp 2)/s, from the first year in orbit compared to years 2-6. The long term flux on the leading edge showed an increase from 8.6 to 11.2 x 10(exp -4) m(exp -2)/s over this same time period. (Short term flux increases up to 10,000 times the background rate were recorded on the

  15. Effect of Nb2O5 and V2O5 addition on the superconducting properties of YBa2Cu3O(y) thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivas, S.; Bhatnagar, A. K.; Pinto, R.; Pai, S. P.; Apte, P. R.; Purandare, S. C.; Souza, C. P. D.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of Nb2O5 and V2O5 addition on the superconducting properties and microstructure of YBa2Cu3O(y) has been studied in thin films. Polycrystalline targets for laser ablation were prepared by mixing high purity V2O5 or Nb2O5 powders with a well characterized YBa2Cu3O(y) powder in the range 0 to 4 wt percent by solid state reaction method. Thin films (approximately 1500 A thickness) of the above targets were grown on (100) SrTiO3 (STO) and (100) LaAlO3 (LAO) substrates at 700 C temperature by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. In the case of Nb2O5 addition we have noticed an increase in J(sub c) up to 0.5 wt percent and higher additive concentration (greater than 0.5 wt percent) have degraded the superconducting properties. However, in the case of V2O3 addition, there is an improvement in current density and microstructural properties up to 1 wt percent and the superconducting properties degrade for concentrations greater than 1 wt percent. The best J(sub c) for 0.5 wt percent of Nb2O5 added YBCO thin film is 1.6 x 10(exp 6) A/sq cm and for that of V2O5 added sample is 3.4 x 10(exp 6) A/sq cm at 77 K as compared to the pure YBa2Cu3O(y) (YBCO) film J(sub c) (1.2 x 10(exp 6) A/sq cm) observed on STO substrates. The reason for improvement in J(sub c) and microstructural properties in the case of V2O5 addition could be due to the low melting of V2O5 (690 C) which can act as a very good surfactant during deposition. Over all, we have realized that Nb2O5 addition or V2O5 addition to YBCO have shown significant improvement over the undoped YBa2Cu3O(7-x) films grown under identical conditions.

  16. Tabulated Pressure Coefficient Data from a Tail Loads Investigation on a 1/15-Scale Model of the Goodyear XZP5K Airship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Michael D.

    1956-01-01

    This paper contains tail and hull loads data obtained in an investigation of a l/15-scale model of the Goodyear XZP5K airship. Data are presented in the form of tabulated pressure coefficients over a pitch and yaw range of +/-20 deg and 0 deg to 30 deg respectively, with various rudder and elevator deflections. Two tail configurations of different plan forms were tested on the model. The investigation was conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel at a Reynolds number of approximately 16.5 x 10(exp 6) based on hull length, which corresponds to a Mach number of about 0.12.

  17. Toward 10(exp 10) Contrast for Terrestrial Exoplanet Detection: Demonstration of Wavefront Correction in a Shaped Pupil Coronagraph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belikov, Ruslan; Give'on, Amir; Trauger, John T.; Carr, Michael; Kasdin, Jeremy N.; Vanderbei, Robert J.; Shi, Fang; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Kuhnert, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Experimental demonstration of wavefront control with shaped pupils. Contrast level is maintained across different wavelengths and 10% broadband light. Further improvements in contrast believed to have been possible with more time and parameter optimizations.

  18. Upper limits to the detection of ammonia from protoplanetary disks around HL Tauri and L1551-IRS 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Jose F.; Torrelles, Jose M.; Ho, Paul T. P.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Canto, Jorge

    1993-01-01

    We present NH3(1, 1) and (2, 2) observations of the young stellar sources HL Tau and L1551-IRS 5 using the VLA in its B-configuration, which provides an angular resolution of about 0.4 arcsec (about 50 AU at 140 pc) at 1.3 cm wavelength. Our goal was to detect and resolve circumstellar molecular disks with radius of the order of 100 AU around these two sources. No ammonia emission was detected toward either of them. The 3-sigma levels were 2.7 mJy/beam and 3.9 mJy/beam for HL Tau and L1551-IRS 5, respectively, with a velocity resolution of about 5 km/s. With this nondetection, we estimate upper limits to the mass of the proposed protoplanetary molecular disks (within a radius of 10 AU from the central stars) on the order of 0.02/(X(NH3)/10 exp -8) solar mass for HL Tau and 0.1/(X(NH3)/10 exp -8) solar mass for L1551-IRS 5.

  19. RXTE and BeppoSAX Observations of MCG-5-23-16: Reflection From Distant Cold Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattson, B. J.; Weaver, K. A.

    2003-01-01

    We examine the spectral variability of the Seyfert 1.9 galaxy MCG-5-23-16 using RXTE and BeppoSAX observations spanning 2 years from April 1996 to April 1998. During the first year the X-ray source brightens by a factor of approximately 25% on timescales of days to months. During this time, the reprocessed continuum emission seen with RXTE does not respond measurably to the continuum increase. However, by the end of the second year during the BeppoSAX epoch the X-ray source has faded again. This time, the reprocessed emission has also faded, indicating that the reprocessed flux has responded to the continuum. If these effects are caused by time delays due to the distance between the X-ray source and the reprocessing region, we derive a light crossing time of between approximately 1 light day and approximately 1.5 light years. This corresponds to a distance of 0.001 pc to 0.55 pc, which implies that the reprocessed emission originates between 3 x 10(exp 15) cm and 1.6 x 10(exp l8) cm from the X-ray source. In other words, the reprocessing in MCG-5-23-16 is not dominated by the inner regions of a standard accretion disk.

  20. The 5 Hour Pulse Period and Broadband Spectrum of the Symbiotic X-Ray Binary 3A 1954+319

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcu, Diana M.; Fuerst, Felix; Pottschmidt, Katja; Grinberg, Victoria; Miller, Sebstian; Wilms, Joern; Postnov, Konstantin A.; Corbet, Robin H. D.; Markwardt, Craig B.; Cadolle Bel, Marion

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the highly variable accreting X-ray pulsar 3A 1954+319 using 2005-2009 monitoring data obtained with INTEGRAL and Swift. This considerably extends the pulse period history and covers flaring episodes in 2005 and 2008. In 2006 the source was identified as one of only a few known symbiotic X-ray binaries, Le" systems composed of a neutron star accreting from the inhomogeneous medium around an M-giant star. The extremely long pulse period of approximately 5.3 h is directly visible in the 2008 INTEGRAL-ISGRI outburst light curve. The pulse profile is double peaked and not significantly energy dependent. During the outburst a strong spin-up of -1.8 x 10(exp -4) h h(exp -1) occurred. Between 2005 and 2008 a long term spin-down trend of 2.1 x 10(exp -5) h h(exp -1) was observed for the first time for this source. The 3-80 keV pulse peak spectrum of 3A 1954+319 during the 2008 flare could be well described by a thermal Comptonization model. We interpret the results within the framework of a recently developed quasi-spherical accretion model for symbiotic X-ray binaries.

  1. Experimental aerodynamic characteristics of a generic hypersonic accelerator configuration at Mach numbers 1.5 and 2.0. [conducted in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Ira J.; Covell, Peter F.; Forrest, Dana K.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the static longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics of a generic hypersonic research vehicle was conducted in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT). A parametric study was performed to determine the interference effects of various model components. Configuration variables included delta and trapezoidal canards; large and small centerline-mounted vertical tails, along with a set of wing-mounted vertical tails; and a set of model noses with different degrees of bluntness. Wing position was varied by changing the longitudinal location and the incidence angle. The test Mach numbers were 1.5 and 2.0 at Reynolds numbers of 1 x 10(exp 6) per foot, 2 x 10(exp 6) per foot, and 4 x 10(exp 6) per foot. Angle of attack was varied from -4 degrees to 27 degrees, and sideslip angle was varied from -8 degrees to 8 degrees. Generally, the effect of Reynolds number did not deviate from conventional trends. The longitudinal stability and lift-curve slope decreased with increasing Mach number. As the wing was shifted rearward, the lift-curve slope decreased and the longitudinal stability increased. Also, the wing-mounted vertical tails resulted in a more longitudinally stable configuration. In general, the lift-drag ratio was not significantly affected by vertical-tail arrangement. The best lateral-directional stability was achieved with the large centerline-mounted tail, although the wing-mounted vertical tails exhibited the most favorable characteristics at the higher angles of attack.

  2. Accurate positions of SiO masers in active star-forming regions - Orion-KL, W51-IRS2, and Sagittarius-B2 MD5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Koh-Ichiro; Hasegawa, Tetsuo; Ukita, Nobuharu; Okumura, Sachiko K.; Ishiguro, Masato

    1992-08-01

    Accurate positional measurements of SiO J = 1-0 masers in active star-forming regions, Orion-KL, W51-IRS2, and Sgr-B2 MD5, were made with the Nobeyama Millimeter Array. Absolute positional accuracies of 0.12-0.6 arcsec were achieved. The SiO maser in W51-IRS2 is located within 0.4 arcsec (0.5 x 10 exp 17 cm at the distance of W51-IRS2) of the strongest H2O masers. In Sgr-B2 MD5, the SiO maser coincides with the strongest H2O masers, most of the strong OH masers, and the peak of radio continuum emission from the ultracompact H II region within 0.7 arcsec (0.8 x 10 exp 17 cm at the distance of Sgr-B2). Peaks of the emission from hot NH3 were found to exist within about 1 arcsec of the SiO masers in both regions. The precise positional coincidence confirms our former conclusion that the SiO masers in W51-IRS2 and Sgr-B2 MD5 are actually associated with the ongoing activity of star formation, as is the case of Orion-KL.

  3. Modeling of the Dust and Gas Outflows from OH 26.5+0.6: The Superwind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justtanont, K.; Skinner, C. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Meixner, M.; Baas, F.

    1996-01-01

    We have observed the extreme OH/IR star, OH 26.5+0.6, in the infrared dust continuum and in the sub- millimeter rotational lines of CO. Mid-infrared images reveal the compact nature of the circumstellar shell (less than 0.5 sec). A deep 9.7 microns absorption feature and an absorption at 18 microns show that the dust mass-loss rate is very high. However, the low antenna temperatures of CO J = 1-0 and 2-1 lines suggest that the outer part of the circumstellar shell is much more tenuous. In order to resolve this discrepancy, we have observed the J = 3-2 and 4-3 CO rotational transitions. We have developed a model for the circumstellar shell for OH 26.5 + 0.6 which is consistent with the infrared and submillimeter observations. The dust and gas data are well fitted by a two-shell model, consisting of a dense shell surrounded by a more tenuous shell. The former we identify with the superwind (M = 5.5 x 10(exp -4) solar mass/ yr), and the latter we identify with mass loss on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) (M = 10(exp -6) solar mass/ yr). The transition between the two mass-loss phases is shown to be rather abrupt ((Delta)t less than 150 yr). Depending on the mass of the progenitor, this superwind phase may be the last thermal pulse (for M(sub *) less than 1.5 solar mass), or the first of a series of the superwind phases (for up to 8 solar mass), punctuated by a period of low mass-loss rates, before the star evolves off the AGB.

  4. RX J1856.5-3754: A Strange Star with Solid Quark Surface?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Xu, Renxin; Zhang, Shuangnan

    2003-01-01

    The featureless spectra of isolated 'neutron stars' may indicate that they are actually bare strange stars but a definitive conclusion on the nature of the compact objects cannot be reached until accurate and theoretically calculated spectra of the bare quark surface are known. However due to the complex nonlinearity of quantum chromodynamics it is almost impossible to present a definitive and accurate calculation of the density-dominated quark-gluon plasma from the first principles. Nevertheless it was suggested that cold quark matter with extremely high baryon density could be in a solid state. Within the realms of this possibility we have fitted the 500ks Chandra LETG/HRC data for the brightest isolated neutron star RX 51856.5-3754 with a phenomenological spectral model and found that electric conductivity of quark matter on the stellar surface is about 1.5 x 10(exp 16)/s.

  5. X-ray Spectra and Pulse Frequency Changes in SAX J2103.5+4545

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baykal, A.; Stark, M. J.; Swank, J. H.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The November 1999 outburst of the transient pulsar SAX J2103.5+4545 was monitored with the large area detectors of the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer until the pulsar faded after a year. The 358 s pulsar was spun up for 150 days, at which point the flux dropped quickly by a factor of approximately 7, the frequency saturated and, as the flux continued to decline, a weak spin-down began. The pulses remained strong during the decay and the spin-up/flux correlation can be fit to the Ghosh and Lamb derivations for the spin-up caused by accretion from a thin, pressure-dominated disk, for a distance approximately 3.2 kpc and a surface magnetic field approximately 1.2 x 10(exp 13) Gauss. During the bright spin-up part of the outburst, the flux was subject to strong orbital modulation, peaking approximately 3 days after periastron of the eccentric 12.68 day orbit, while during the faint part, there was little orbital modulation. The X-ray spectra were typical of accreting pulsars, describable by a cut-off power-law, with an emission line near the 6.4 keV of Kappa(sub alpha) fluorescence from cool iron. The equivalent width of this emission did not share the orbital modulation, but nearly doubled during the faint phase, despite little change in the column density. The outburst could have been caused by an episode of increased wind from a Be star, such that a small accretion disk is formed during each periastron passage. A change in the wind and disk structure apparently occurred after 5 months such that the accretion rate was no longer modulated or the diffusion time was longer. The distance estimate implies the X-ray luminosity observed was between 1 X 10(exp 36) ergs s(exp -1) and 6 x 10(exp 34) ergs s(exp -1), with a small but definite correlation of the intrinsic power-law spectral index.

  6. NuSTAR Observations of Heavily Obscured Quasars at z Is Approximately 0.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansbury, G. B.; Alexander, D. M.; Del Moro, A.; Gandhi, P.; Assef, R. J.; Stern, D.; Aird, J.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Balokovic, M.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Elvis, M.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Hickox, R. C.; Koss, M.; LaMassa, S. M.; Luo, B.; Mullaney, J. R.; Teng, S. H.; Urry, C. M.; Zhang, W. W.

    2014-01-01

    We present NuSTAR hard X-ray observations of three Type 2 quasars at z approx. = 0.4-0.5, optically selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Although the quasars show evidence for being heavily obscured, Compton-thick systems on the basis of the 2-10 keV to [O(sub III)] luminosity ratio and multiwavelength diagnostics, their X-ray absorbing column densities (N(sub H)) are poorly known. In this analysis, (1) we study X-ray emission at greater than 10 keV, where X-rays from the central black hole are relatively unabsorbed, in order to better constrain N(sub H). (2) We further characterize the physical properties of the sources through broad-band near-UV to mid-IR spectral energy distribution analyses. One of the quasars is detected with NuSTAR at greater than 8 keV with a no-source probability of less than 0.1%, and its X-ray band ratio suggests near Compton-thick absorption with N(sub H) is approximately greater than 5 × 10(exp 23) cm(exp -2). The other two quasars are undetected, and have low X-ray to mid-IR luminosity ratios in both the low-energy (2-10 keV) and high-energy (10-40 keV) X-ray regimes that are consistent with extreme, Compton-thick absorption (N(sub H) is approximately greater than 10(exp 24) cm(exp -2)). We find that for quasars at z is approximately 0.5, NuSTAR provides a significant improvement compared to lower energy (less than 10 keV) Chandra and XMM-Newton observations alone, as higher column densities can now be directly constrained.

  7. Free-Flight Investigation of Heat Transfer to an Unswept Cylinder Subjected to an Incident Shock and Flow Interference from an Upstream Body at Mach Numbers up to 5.50

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Howard S.; Carr, Robert E.

    1961-01-01

    Heat-transfer rates have been measured in free flight along the stagnation line of an unswept cylinder mounted transversely on an axial cylinder so that the shock wave from the hemispherical nose of the axial cylinder intersected the bow shock of the unswept transverse cylinder. Data were obtained at Mach numbers from 2.53 to 5.50 and at Reynolds numbers based on the transverse cylinder diameter from 1.00 x 10(exp 6) to 1.87 x 10(exp 6). Shadowgraph pictures made in a wind tunnel showed that the flow field was influenced by boundary-layer separation on the axial cylinder and by end effects on the transverse cylinder as well as by the intersecting shocks. Under these conditions, the measured heat-transfer rates had inconsistent variations both in magnitude and distribution which precluded separating the effects of these disturbances. The general magnitude of the measured heating rates at Mach numbers up to 3 was from 0.1 to 0.5 of the theoretical laminar heating rates along the stagnation line for an infinite unswept cylinder in undisturbed flow. At Mach numbers above 4 the measured heating rates were from 1.5 to 2 times the theoretical rates.

  8. Sloshing Gas in the Core of the Most Luminous Galaxy Cluster RXJ1347.5-1145

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Ryan E.; Zuhone, John; Jones, Christine; Forman, William R.; Markevitvh, Maxim

    2011-01-01

    We present new constraints on the merger history of the most X-ray luminous cluster of galaxies, RXJ1347.5-1145, based on its unique multiwavelength morphology. Our X-ray analysis confirms the core gas is undergoing "sloshing" resulting from a prior, large scale, gravitational perturbation. In combination with extensive multiwavelength observations, the sloshing gas points to the primary and secondary clusters having had at least two prior strong gravitational interactions. The evidence supports a model in which the secondary subcluster with mass M=4.8+/-2.4x10(exp 14) solar Mass has previously (> or approx.0.6 Gyr ago) passed by the primary cluster, and has now returned for a subsequent crossing where the subcluster's gas has been completely stripped from its dark matter halo. RXJ1347 is a prime example of how core gas sloshing may be used to constrain the merger histories of galaxy clusters through multiwavelength analyses.

  9. Transonic Aerodynamic Loading Characteristics of a Wing-Body-Tail Combination Having a 52.5 deg. Sweptback Wing of Aspect Ratio 3 With Conical Wing Camber and Body Indentation for a Design Mach Number of Square Root of 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassetti, Marlowe D.; Re, Richard J.; Igoe, William B.

    1961-01-01

    An investigation has been made of the effects of conical wing camber and body indentation according to the supersonic area rule on the aerodynamic wing loading characteristics of a wing-body-tail configuration at transonic speeds. The wing aspect ratio was 3, taper ratio was 0.1, and quarter-chord-line sweepback was 52.5 deg. with 3-percent-thick airfoil sections. The tests were conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.80 to 1.05 and at angles of attack from 0 deg. to 14 deg., with Reynolds numbers based on mean aerodynamic chord varying from 7 x 10(exp 6) to 8 x 10(exp 6). Conical camber delayed wing-tip stall and reduced the severity of the accompanying longitudinal instability but did not appreciably affect the spanwise load distribution at angles of attack below tip stall. Body indentation reduced the transonic chordwise center-of-pressure travel from about 8 percent to 5 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord.

  10. Confirmation of a Steep Luminosity Function for Ly alpha Emitters at z 5.7: a Major Component of Reionization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dressler, Alan; Henry, Alaina L.; Martin, Crystal L.; Sawicki, Marcin; McCarthy, Patrick; Villaneuva, Edward

    2014-01-01

    We report the first direct and robust measurement of the faint-end slope of the Ly-alpha emitter (LAE) luminosity function at z = 5.7. Candidate LAEs from a low-spectral-resolution blind search with IMACS on Magellan- Baade were targeted at higher resolution to distinguish high redshift LAEs from foreground galaxies. All but 2 of our 42 single-emission-line systems are fainter than F = 2.0×10(exp-17) ergs s(exp-1) cm(exp-2), making these the faintest emission-lines observed for a z = 5.7 sample with known completeness, an essential property for determining the faint end slope of the LAE luminosity function. We find 13 LAEs as compared to 29 foreground galaxies, in very good agreement with the modeled foreground counts predicted in Dressler et al. (2011a) that had been used to estimate a faint-end slope of alpha = -2.0 for the LAE luminosity function. A 32% LAE fraction, LAE/(LAE+foreground) within the flux interval F = 2-20 × 10(exp-18) ergs s(exp-1) cm(exp-2) constrains the faint end slope of the luminosity function to -1.95 greater than alpha greater than -2.35 (1 delta). We show how this steep LF should provide, to the limit of our observations, more than 20% of the flux necessary to maintain ionization at z = 5.7, with a factor-of-ten extrapolation in flux reaching more than 55%. We suggest that this bodes well for a comparable contribution by similar, low-mass star forming galaxies at higher-redshift - within the reionization epoch at z greater than approximately 7, only 250 Myr earlier - and that such systems provide a substantial, if not dominant, contribution to the late-stage reionization of the IGM.

  11. Measured and predicted effects of gravity level on directional dendritic solidification of NH4Cl-H2O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccay, T. D.; Mccay, Mary H.

    1993-01-01

    Dendritic growth front rates during vertical directional solidification are predicted for gravity levels of 10 exp 0 g sub e (where e is earth gravity), 10 exp -1 g sub e, 10 exp -2 g sub e, 10 exp -3 g sub e, 10 exp -4 g sub e, and 10 exp -5 g sub e (microgravity) for the physical conditions used for a recent ammonium chloride-water solidification experiment on the International Microgravity Laboratory I (IMLI). The growth front rates at 10 exp 0 g sub e and 10 exp -5 g sub e are validated using ground based laboratory and IMLI experimental data. As the gravity decreases, the growth rates increase until they approach a maximum at approximately 10 exp -4 g sub e. The 10 exp -4 and 10 exp -5 levels are equivalent. Liquid concentration and volume fraction, temperature profiles and fluid flow velocities are also calculated. Kinetic energy calculations for each of the six gravity levels indicate that the threshold for fluid flow to affect the growth front rate is in the range of 10 exp -8 ergs.

  12. File Specification for GEOS-5 FP-IT (Forward Processing for Instrument Teams)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchesi, R.

    2013-01-01

    The GEOS-5 FP-IT Atmospheric Data Assimilation System (GEOS-5 ADAS) uses an analysis developed jointly with NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), which allows the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) to take advantage of the developments at NCEP and the Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation (JCSDA). The GEOS-5 AGCM uses the finite-volume dynamics (Lin, 2004) integrated with various physics packages (e.g, Bacmeister et al., 2006), under the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF) including the Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM) (e.g., Koster et al., 2000). The GSI analysis is a three-dimensional variational (3DVar) analysis applied in grid-point space to facilitate the implementation of anisotropic, inhomogeneous covariances (e.g., Wu et al., 2002; Derber et al., 2003). The GSI implementation for GEOS-5 FP-IT incorporates a set of recursive filters that produce approximately Gaussian smoothing kernels and isotropic correlation functions. The GEOS-5 ADAS is documented in Rienecker et al. (2008). More recent updates to the model are presented in Molod et al. (2011). The GEOS-5 system actively assimilates roughly 2 × 10(exp 6) observations for each analysis, including about 7.5 × 10(exp 5) AIRS radiance data. The input stream is roughly twice this volume, but because of the large volume, the data are thinned commensurate with the analysis grid to reduce the computational burden. Data are also rejected from the analysis through quality control procedures designed to detect, for example, the presence of cloud. To minimize the spurious periodic perturbations of the analysis, GEOS-5 FP-IT uses the Incremental Analysis Update (IAU) technique developed by Bloom et al. (1996). More details of this procedure are given in Appendix A. The analysis is performed at a horizontal resolution of 0.625-degree longitude by 0.5-degree latitude and at 72 levels, extending to 0.01 hPa. All products are generated at the native resolution of the

  13. Preparation and Dielectric Measurements of the Rare Earth Green Phases R2BaCuO(5-x) (R = Y, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez-Titman, Carlos

    1994-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that R2BaCuO(5-x) (R = Y, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb) does not undergo significant densification unless the sintering temperatures are near the incongruent melting point or the sintering times are long. Good quality powders of Y2BaCuO(5-x) have been synthesized by using oxide raw materials or precursors such as acetates and nitrates. The acetates- and the nitrates-derived yttrium green phase resulted in finer particle sizes, acceptable dielectric properties and lower melting temperatures than those processed via oxide raw materials. The hot pressing technique has been employed to produce a dense R2BaCuO(5-x) (R=Y,Gd) substrate with satisfactory dielectric properties. Reactivity to reducing conditions, i.e. graphite die, limited the optimization of the properties. A high sensitivity to the annealing atmosphere has been demonstrated in Y2BaCuO,.,,. Oxygen treatment at 950 OC has been shown to improve the dielectric properties while treatment in nitrogen, at the same temperature, degraded desirable properties. A high sensitivity to the annealing atmosphere has been demonstrated in Y2BaCuO(5-x). Oxygen treatment at 950 C has been shown to improve the dielectric properties while treatment in nitrogen, at the same temperature, degraded desirable properties. The dielectric constants of the rare earth green phases R2BaCuO(5-x) were found to be low. Relaxation peaks were detected at low temperatures (T less than 150 K) and at high temperatures (150 less than T greater than 420 K). The dielectric losses and conductivities at 77 K were measured to be in the range of 10(exp -4) and 10(exp -12) (Omega-cm)(exp -1), respectively. Many parameters were found to exhibit dependencies on the rare earth cation sizes.

  14. A Novel Tungsten-Nickel Alloy Ohmic Contact to SiC at 900 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okojie, Robert S.; Evans, Laura J.; Lukco, Dorothy; Morris, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    A novel tungsten-nickel ohmic contact metallization on 4H-SiC and 6H-SiC capable of surviving temperatures as high as 900 C is reported. Preliminary results revealed the following: 1) ohmic contact on n-type 4H-SiC having net doping levels (Nd's) of 1.4 and 2 x 10(exp 19) per cubic centimeter, with specific contact resistances rhosNd's of 7.69 x 10(exp -4) and 5.81 x 10(exp -4) OMEGA (raised dot) square centimeters, respectively, after rapid thermal annealing (RTA), and 5.9 x 10(exp -3) and 2.51 x 10(exp -4) OMEGA (raised dot) square centimeters, respectively, after subsequent soak at 900 C for 1 h in argon, and 2) ohmic contact on n- and p-type 6H-SiC having Nd > 2 x 10(exp 19) and Na > 1 x 10(exp 20) per cubic centimeter, with rhosNd = 5 x 10(exp -5) and rhosNa = 2 X 10(exp -4) OMEGA (raised dot) square centimeter, respectively, after RTA, and rhosNd = 2.5 x 10 (exp -5) and rhosNa = 1.5 x 10(exp -4) OMEGA (raised dot) square centimeter after subsequent treatment at 900 C for 1 h in argon, respectively.

  15. Initial Results from a Search for Lunar Radio Emission from Interactions of >= 10(exp 19) eV Neutrinos and Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorham, P. W.; Liewer, K. M.; Naudet, C. J.

    2000-01-01

    Using the NASA Goldstone 70m antenna DSS 14 both singly and in coincidence with the 34 m antenna DSS 13 (21.7 km to the southeast), we have acquired approximately 12 hrs of livetime in a search for predicted pulsed radio emission from extremely-high energy cascades induced by neutrinos or cosmic rays in the lunar regolith. In about 4 hrs of single antenna observations, we reduced our sensitivity to impulsive terrestrial interference to a negligible level by use of a veto afforded by the unique capability of DSS 14. In the 8 hrs of dual-antenna observations, terrestrial interference is eliminated as a background. In both observing modes the thermal noise floor limits the sensitivity. We detected no events above statistical background. We report here initial limits based on these data which begin to constrain several predictions of the flux of EHE neutrinos.

  16. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Gilmore Load Cell Machine: Load Cell Calibrations to 2.22 x 10(exp 7) Newtons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, Michael W.

    2000-01-01

    Designed in 1964 and erected in 1966, the mission of the Gilmore Load Cell Machine was to provide highly accurate calibrations for large capacity load cells in support of NASA's Apollo Program. Still in use today, the Gilmore Machine is a national treasure with no equal.

  17. The Orbits of Meteorites from Natural Thermoluminescence. Attachment 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, P. H.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1997-01-01

    The natural thermoluminescence (TL) of meteorites reflects their irradiation and thermal histories. Virtually all ordinary chondrites have been irradiated long enough to reach saturation natural TL levels, and thus natural TL levels in these meteorites are determined largely by thermal history. The primary heat source for most meteorites is the Sun, and thus natural TL levels are determined primarily by the closest approach to the Sun, i.e., perihelion. By converting natural TL levels to perihelia, using an assumed albedo typical of meteoroid bodies, it is found that most ordinary chondrites had perihelia of 0.85 to 1.0 AU prior to reaching Earth. This range is similar to that calculated from meteor and fireball observations. All common classes of ordinary chondrites exhibit similar perihelia distributions; however, H and LL chondrites that fell in the local morning differ in their natural TL distribution from those that fell in the local afternoon or evening. This is consistent with earlier suggestions that time of fall reflects orbital distribution. The data also suggest that the orbits of some of the H chondrites cluster and may have come from a debris 'stream' of meteoroids. If meteorites can exist in "orbital groups," significant changes in the types and number of meteorites reaching Earth could occur on the less than 10(exp 5)-year time scale.

  18. Heterogeneous reactions of HNO3(g) + NaCl(s) yields HCl(g) + NaNO3(s) and N2O5(g) + NaCl(s) yields ClNO2(g) + NaNO3(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leu, Ming-Taun; Timonen, Raimo S.; Keyser, Leon F.; Yung, Yuk L.

    1995-01-01

    The heterogeneous reactions of HNO3(g) + NaCl(s) yields HCl(g) + NaNO3(s) (eq 1) and N2O5(g) + NaCl(s) yields ClNO2(g) + NaNO3(S) (eq 2) were investigated over the temperature range 223-296 K in a flow-tube reactor coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Either a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) or an electron-impact ionization mass spectrometer (EIMS) was used to provide suitable detection sensitivity and selectivity. In order to mimic atmospheric conditions, partial pressures of HNO3 and N2O5 in the range 6 x 10(exp -8) - 2 x 10(exp -6) Torr were used. Granule sizes and surface roughness of the solid NaCl substrates were determined by using a scanning electron microscope. For dry NaCl substrates, decay rates of HNO3 were used to obtain gamma(1) = 0.013 +/- 0.004 (1sigma) at 296 K and > 0.008 at 223 K, respectively. The error quoted is the statistical error. After all corrections were made, the overall error, including systematic error, was estimated to be about a factor of 2. HCl was found to be the sole gas-phase product of reaction 1. The mechanism changed from heterogeneous reaction to predominantly physical adsorption when the reactor was cooled from 296 to 223 K. For reaction 2 using dry salts, gamma(2) was found to be less than 1.0 x 10(exp -4) at both 223 and 296 K. The gas-phase reaction product was identified as ClNO2 in previous studies using an infrared spectrometer. An enhancement in reaction probability was observed if water was not completely removed from salt surfaces, probably due to the reaction of N2O5(g) + H2O(s) yields 2HNO3(g). Our results are compared with previous literature values obtained using different experimental techniques and conditions. The implications of the present results for the enhancement of the hydrogen chloride column density in the lower stratosphere after the El Chichon volcanic eruption and for the chemistry of HCl and HNO3 in the marine troposphere are discussed.

  19. Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect Imaging of Macs Galaxy Clusters at =>0.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaRoque, Samuel; Joy, Marshall; Carlstrom, John E.; Ebeling, Harald; Bonamente, Massimiliano; Dawson, Kyle S.; Edge, Alastair; Holzapfel, William L.; Miller, Amber D.; Nagai, Daisuke

    2003-01-01

    We present 30 GHz interferometric Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (SZE) measurements of a redshift-limited, X-ray-selected cluster sample from the Massive Cluster Survey (MACS). All eight of the high-redshift (z > 0.5, delta > -15 deg) galaxy clusters were detected. Additional observations were made at 4.8 GHz with the Very Large Array to help constrain the amount of point source contamination to the SZE decrements. From SZE data alone, we derive electron temperatures in the range 5.5-18.5 keV and total masses between 1.5 and 2.6 x 10(exp 14)/h solar masses within a 65 minute radius (0.28/h Mpc at z = 0.5) for the eight clusters. Six of the clusters are MACS discoveries, while two (C10016+1609 and MS 0451.6-0305) were detected by previous X-ray observations and have been recently observed with the Chandra observatory. The X-ray-derived temperatures and masses for C10016+1609 and MS 0451.6-0305 are in good agreement with the SZE derived values. Strong detections of the SZE signal in this sample of MACS objects confirm that they are hot, massive clusters.

  20. A preliminary characterization of applied-field MPD thruster plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.; Wehrle, David; Vernyi, Mark; Biaglow, James; Reese, Shawn

    1991-01-01

    Electric probes, quantitative imaging, and emission spectroscopy were used to study the plume characteristics of applied field magnetohydrodynamic thrusters. The measurements showed that the applied magnetic field plays the dominant role in establishing the plume structure, followed in importance by the cathode geometry and propellant. The anode radius had no measurable impact on the plume characteristics. For all cases studied the plume was highly ionized, though spectral lines of neutral species were always present. Centerline electron densities and temperatures ranged from 2 times 10 (exp 18) to 8 times 10 (exp 18) m(exp -3) and from 7500 to 20,000 K, respectively. The plume was strongly confined by the magnetic field, with radial density gradients increasing monotonically with applied field strength. Plasma potential measurements show a strong effect of the magnetic field on the electrical conductivity and indicate the presence of radial current conduction in the plume.

  1. File Specification for GEOS-5 FP (Forward Processing)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchesi, R.

    2013-01-01

    The GEOS-5 FP Atmospheric Data Assimilation System (GEOS-5 ADAS) uses an analysis developed jointly with NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), which allows the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) to take advantage of the developments at NCEP and the Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation (JCSDA). The GEOS-5 AGCM uses the finite-volume dynamics (Lin, 2004) integrated with various physics packages (e.g, Bacmeister et al., 2006), under the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF) including the Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM) (e.g., Koster et al., 2000). The GSI analysis is a three-dimensional variational (3DVar) analysis applied in grid-point space to facilitate the implementation of anisotropic, inhomogeneous covariances (e.g., Wu et al., 2002; Derber et al., 2003). The GSI implementation for GEOS-5 FP incorporates a set of recursive filters that produce approximately Gaussian smoothing kernels and isotropic correlation functions. The GEOS-5 ADAS is documented in Rienecker et al. (2008). More recent updates to the model are presented in Molod et al. (2011). The GEOS-5 system actively assimilates roughly 2 × 10(exp 6) observations for each analysis, including about 7.5 × 10(exp 5) AIRS radiance data. The input stream is roughly twice this volume, but because of the large volume, the data are thinned commensurate with the analysis grid to reduce the computational burden. Data are also rejected from the analysis through quality control procedures designed to detect, for example, the presence of cloud. To minimize the spurious periodic perturbations of the analysis, GEOS-5 FP uses the Incremental Analysis Update (IAU) technique developed by Bloom et al. (1996). More details of this procedure are given in Appendix A. The assimilation is performed at a horizontal resolution of 0.3125-degree longitude by 0.25- degree latitude and at 72 levels, extending to 0.01 hPa. All products are generated at the native resolution of the

  2. How Dead are Dead Galaxies? Mid-Infrared Fluxes of Quiescent Galaxies at Redshift 0.3< Z< 2.5: Implications for Star Formation Rates and Dust Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fumagalli, Mattia; Labbe, Ivo; Patel, Shannon G.; Franx, Marijn; vanDokkum, Pieter; Brammer, Gabriel; DaCunha, Elisabete; FoersterSchreiber, Natascha M.; Kriek, Mariska; Quadri, Ryan; Rix, Hans-Walter; Wake, David; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Lundgren, Britt; Marchesini, Danilo; Maseda, Michael; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica; Pacifici, Camilla; Skelton, Rosalind E.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate star formation rates of quiescent galaxies at high redshift (0.3 < z < 2.5) using 3D-HST WFC3 grism spectroscopy and Spitzer mid-infrared data. We select quiescent galaxies on the basis of the widely used UVJ color-color criteria. Spectral energy distribution fitting (rest frame optical and near-IR) indicates very low star formation rates for quiescent galaxies (sSFR approx. 10(exp -12)/yr. However, SED fitting can miss star formation if it is hidden behind high dust obscuration and ionizing radiation is re-emitted in the mid-infrared. It is therefore fundamental to measure the dust-obscured SFRs with a mid-IR indicator. We stack the MIPS-24 micron images of quiescent objects in five redshift bins centered on z = 0.5, 0.9, 1.2, 1.7, 2.2 and perform aperture photometry. Including direct 24 micron detections, we find sSFR approx. 10(exp -11.9) × (1 + z)(sup 4)/yr. These values are higher than those indicated by SED fitting, but at each redshift they are 20-40 times lower than those of typical star forming galaxies. The true SFRs of quiescent galaxies might be even lower, as we show that the mid-IR fluxes can be due to processes unrelated to ongoing star formation, such as cirrus dust heated by old stellar populations and circumstellar dust. Our measurements show that star formation quenching is very efficient at every redshift. The measured SFR values are at z > 1.5 marginally consistent with the ones expected from gas recycling (assuming that mass loss from evolved stars refuels star formation) and well above that at lower redshifts.

  3. The Mystery of Io's Warm Polar Regions: Implications for Heat Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, D. L.; Veeder, G. J.; Johnson, T. V.; Blaney, D. L.; Davies, A. G.

    2002-01-01

    Unexpectedly warm polar temperatures further support the idea that Io is covered virtually everywhere by cooling lava flows. This implies a new heat flow component. Io's heat flow remains constrained between a lower bound of (approximately) 2.5 W m(exp -2) and an upper bound of (approximately) 13 W m(exp -2). Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Mineralogy and Thermal Properties of V-Type Asteroid 956 Elisa: Evidence for Diogenitic Material from the Spitzer IRS (5-35 Micrometers) Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Lucy F.; Emery, Joshua P.; Moskovitz, Nicholas A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the thermal infrared (5-35 micrometer) spectrum of 956 Elisa as measured by the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph ("IRS"; Houck,1.R. et .11. [20041. Astrophys, 1. SuppL 154, 18-24) together with new ground-based lightcurve data and near-IR spectra. From the visible lightcurve photometry, we determine a rotation period of 16.494 +/- 0.001 h, identify the rotational phase of the Spitzer observations, and estimate the visible absolute magnitude (Hv) at that rotational phase to be 12.58 +/- 0.04. From radiometric analysis of the thermal flux spectrum, we find that at the time of observation 956 Elisa had a projected radius of 5.3 +/- 0.4 km with a visible albedo pv = 0.142+/- 0.022, significantly lower than that of the prototype V-type asteroid, 4 Vesta. (This corresponds to a radius of 5.2 +/- 0.4 km at lightcurve mean.) Analysis with the standard thermal model (STM) results in a sub-solar temperature of 292.3 +/- 2.8 K and beaming parameter eta = 1.16 +/- 0.05. Thermophysical modeling places a lower limit of 20 J m(exp -2)K(exp -1)s(exp -1/2) on the thermal inertia of the asteroid's surface layer (if the surface is very smooth) but more likely values fall between 30 and 150 J m(exp -2)K(exp -1)s(exp -1/2) depending on the sense of rotation. The emissivity spectrum, calculated by dividing the measured thermal flux spectrum by the modeled thermal continuum, exhibits mineralogically interpretable spectral features within the 9-12 micrometer reststrahlen band, the 15-16.5 micrometer Si-O-Si stretching region, and the 16-25 micrometer reststrahlen region that are consistent with pyroxene of diogenitic composition: extant diogenitic pyroxenes fall within the narrow compositional range W0(sub 2+/-1)En(sub 74+/-2)Fs(sub 24+/-1). Spectral deconvolution of the 9-12 micrometer reststrahlen features indicates that up to approximately 20% olivine may also be present, suggesting an olivine-diogenite-like mineralogy. The mid-IR spectrum is inconsistent with non

  5. NuSTAR Detection of the Blazar B2 1023+25 at Redshift 5.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sbarrato, T.; Tagliaferri, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Perri, M.; Puccetti, S.; Balokovic, M.; Nardini, M.; Stern, D.; Boggs, S. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Christensen, F. E.; Giommi, P.; Greiner, J.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Hovatta, T.; Madejski, G. M.; Rau, A.; Schady, P.; Sudilovsky, V.; Urry, C. M.; Zhang, William W.

    2013-01-01

    B2 1023+25 is an extremely radio-loud quasar at zeta = 5.3 that was first identified as a likely high-redshift blazar candidate in the SDSS+FIRST quasar catalog. Here, we use the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) to investigate its non-thermal jet emission, whose high-energy component we detected in the hard X-ray energy band. The X-ray flux is approximately 5.5 × 10 (exp -14) erg cm(exp -2) s(exp -1) (5-10 keV) and the photon spectral index is Gamma(x) approx. =1.3-1.6. Modeling the full spectral energy distribution, we find that the jet is oriented close to the line of sight, with a viewing angle of approximately 3deg, and has significant Doppler boosting, with a large bulk Lorentz factor approximately 13, which confirms the identification of B2 1023+25 as a blazar. B2 1023+25 is the first object at redshift larger than 5 detected by NuSTAR, demonstrating the ability of NuSTAR to investigate the early X-ray universe and to study extremely active supermassive black holes located at very high redshift.

  6. The effect of high-energy electron radiation on poly(arylene ether)s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, J. W.; Siochi, E. J.; Croall, C. I.

    1993-01-01

    Thin films of four experimental poly(arylene ether)s of similar chemical structure were exposed to 1 MeV electrons while under high vacuum. The films received total exposures of 5 x 10 exp 7 and 1 x 10 exp 9 rads at a dose rate of 5 x 10 exp 7 rads/h and a pressure of 2 x 10 exp -7 torr. Films exposed to 5 x 10 exp 7 rads showed dramatic changes in molecular weight distribution. After exposures of 1 x 10 exp 9 rads the films were only partially soluble in chloroform and exhibited no detectable changes in the glass transition temperatures. Thin-film tensile properties were also altered by the exposure to electron radiation. The effect of the exposures as determined by various analyses is discussed.

  7. HST Observations of Star Formation in Interacting Galaxies: NGC 4194, the "Medusa"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weistrop, D.; Eggers, D.; Nelson, C. H.; Kaiser, M. E.

    2001-01-01

    Ultraviolet and visible imaging of the blue compact galaxy NGC4194 was obtained to survey the star-forming knots in the center of this galaxy. Photometry and image analysis were performed on these regions. Comparison with evolutionary tracks indicates many of the knots are reddened with a typical E(B-V)approx.0.3. The knot ages range from 10(exp 6-10(exp 8)years. Some of the knots may have masses 3-5x10(exp 5) solar mass. The FUV fluxes correspond to the flux from 60-3.8x10(exp 3) O5V stars.

  8. Post-Flight Analysis of Selected Fluorocarbon and Other Thin Film Polymer Specimens Flown on MISSE-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeGroh, Kim; Finckenor, Miria; Minton, Tim; Brunsvold, Amy; Pippin, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Twenty thin film specimens were flown on M1SSE-5 as a cooperative effort between several organizations. This presentation will report results of initial inspections and post-flight measurements of the optical properties and recession of these materials due to the approx.13 month exposure period on the exterior of the International Space Station. These specimens were located on the "anti-solar" side of the MISSE-5 container and received a low number of Equivalent Sun Hours of solar UV exposure. Profilometry and/or ATF measurements will be conducted to determine thickness changes and atomic oxygen-induced recession rates Six of the specimens were covered with thin Kapton films, 0.1 and 0.3 mil in thickness. The 0.1 mil Kapton was almost completely eroded, suggesting that the atomic oxygen fluence is <8 x 10(exp 19) atoms/sq cm, similar to levels experienced during Space Shuttle materials experiments in the 1980's and 1990's. A comparison of results from MISSE-5 and Space Shuttle experiments will be included for those materials common to both the short and long-term exposures.

  9. Radio Detections During Two State Transitions of the Intermediate-Mass Black Hole HLX-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Natalie; Cseh, David; Lenc, Emil; Godet, Olivier; Barret, Didier; Corbel, Stephane; Farrell, Sean; Fender, Robert; Gehrels, Neil; Heywood, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Relativistic jets are streams of plasma moving at appreciable fractions of the speed of light. They have been observed from stellar-mass black holes (approx. 3 to 20 solar masses) as well as supermassive black holes (approx.. 10(exp 6) to 10(exp 9) Solar Mass) found in the centers of most galaxies. Jets should also be produced by intermediate-mass black holes (approx. 10(exp 2) to 10(exp 5) Solar Mass), although evidence for this third class of black hole has, until recently, been weak. We report the detection of transient radio emission at the location of the intermediate-mass black hole candidate ESO 243-49 HLX-1, which is consistent with a discrete jet ejection event. These observations also allow us to refine the mass estimate of the black hole to be between approx. 9 × 10(exp 3) Solar Mass and approx. 9 × 10(exp 4) Solar Mass.

  10. Constructing the Coronal Magnetic Field by Correlating Parameterized Magnetic Field Lines with Observed Coronal Plasma Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Gary G.; Alexander, David

    1999-01-01

    A method is presented for constructing the coronal magnetic field from photospheric magnetograms and observed coronal loops. A set of magnetic field lines generated from magnetogram data is parameterized and then deformed by varying the parameterized values. The coronal flux tubes associated with this field are adjusted until the correlation between the field lines and the observed coronal loops is maximized. A mathematical formulation is described which ensures that (1) the normal component of the photospheric field remains unchanged, (2) the field is given in the entire corona over an active region, (3) the field remains divergence-free, and 4electric currents are introduced into the field. It is demonstrated that a parameterization of a potential field, comprising a radial stretching of the field, can provide a match for a simple bipolar active region, AR 7999, which crossed the central meridian on 1996 November 26. The result is a non-force-free magnetic field with the Lorentz force being of the order of 10(exp -5.5) g per s(exp 2) resulting from an electric current density of 0.79 micro A per m(exp 2). Calculations show that the plasma beta becomes larger than unity at a strong non-radial currents requires low height of about 0.25 solar radii supporting the non-force-free conclusion. The presence of such strong non-radial currents requires large transverse pressure gradients fo maintain a magnetostatic atmosphere, required by the relatively persistent nature of the coronal structures observed in AR 7999. This scheme is an important tool in generating a magnetic field solution consistent with the coronal flux tube observations and the observed photospheric magnetic field.

  11. Tracking performance and cycle slipping in the all-digital symbol synchronizer loop of the block 5 receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aung, M.

    1992-01-01

    Computer simulated noise performance of the symbol synchronizer loop (SSL) in the Block 5 receiver is compared with the theoretical noise performance. Good agreement is seen at the higher loop SNR's (SNR(sub L)'s), with gradual degradation as the SNR(sub L) is decreased. For the different cases simulated, cycle slipping is observed (within the simulation time of 10(exp 4) seconds) at SNR(sub L)'s below different thresholds, ranging from 6 to 8.5 dB, comparable to that of a classical phase-locked loop. An important point, however, is that to achieve the desired loop SNR above the seemingly low threshold to avoid cycle slipping, a large data-to-loop-noise power ratio, P(sub D)/(N(sub 0)B(sub L)), is necessary (at least 13 dB larger than the desired SNR(sub L) in the optimum case and larger otherwise). This is due to the large squaring loss (greater than or equal to 13 dB) inherent in the SSL. For the special case of symbol rates approximately equaling the loop update rate, a more accurate equivalent model accounting for an extra loop update period delay (characteristic of the SSL phase detector design) is derived. This model results in a more accurate estimation of the noise-equivalent bandwidth of the loop.

  12. The C IV Mass Density of the Universe at Redshift 5(exp 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettini, Max; Madau, Piero; Bolte, Michael; Prochaska, Jason X.; Ellison, Sara L.; Fan, Xiao-Hui

    2003-01-01

    In order to search for metals in the Ly alpha forest at redshifts z(sub abs) > 4, we have obtained spectra of high signal-to-noise ratio and moderately high resolution of three QSOs at z(sub em) > 5.4 discovered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. These data allow us to probe to metal enrichment of the intergalactic medium at early times with higher sensitivity than previous studies. We find 16 C IV absorption systems with column densities logN(C IV) = 12.50-13.98 over a total redshift path Delta X = 3.29. In the redshift interval z = 4.5-5.0, where our statistics are most reliable, we deduce a comoving mass density of C(3+) ions Omega(sub C IV) = (4.3 +/- 2.5) x 10(exp -8) (90% confidence limits) for absorption systems with log N(C IV) > or = 13.0 (for an Einstein-de Sitter cosmology with h = 0.65). This value of Omega(sub C IV) is entirely consistent with those measured at z < 4; we confirm the earlier finding by Songaila that neither the column density distribution of C IV absorbers nor its integral show significant redshift evolution over a period of time that stretches from approx. 1.25 to approx. 4.5 Gyr after the big bang. This somewhat surprising conclusion may be an indication that the intergalactic medium was enriched in metals at z >> 5, perhaps by the sources responsible for its reionization. Alternatively, the C IV systems we see may be associated with outflows from massive star-forming galaxies at later times, while the truly intergalactic metals may reside in regions of the Ly alpha forest of lower density than those probed up to now.

  13. Accelerators (5/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

  14. Accelerators (5/5)

    SciTech Connect

    2009-07-09

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

  15. Performance of Soviet and US hydrogen masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uljanov, Adolph A.; Demidov, Nikolai A.; Mattison, Edward M.; Vessot, Robert F. C.; Allan, David W.; Winkler, Gernot M. R.

    1990-01-01

    The frequencies of Soviet- and U.S.-built hydrogen masers located at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and at the United States Naval Observatory (USNO) were compared with each other and, via Global Positioning System (GPS) common-view measurements, with three primary frequency-reference scales. The best masers were found to have fractional frequency stabilities as low as 6 times 10(exp -16) for averaging times of approximately 10(exp 4) s. Members of the USNO maser ensemble provided frequency prediction better than 1 times 10(exp 14) for periods up to a few weeks. The frequency residuals of these masers, after removal of frequency drift and rate of change of drift, had stabilities of a few parts in 10(exp -15), with serveral masers achieving residual stabilities well below 1 times 10(exp -15) for intervals from 10(exp 5)s to 2 times 10(exp 6)s. The fractional frequency drifts of the 13 masers studied, relative to the primary reference standards, ranged from -0.2 times 10(exp -15)/day to +9.6 times 10(exp -15)/day.

  16. Broadband Observations and Modeling of the Shell-Type Supernova Remnant G347.3-0.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellison, Donald C.; Slane, Patrick O.; Gaensler, Bryan M.

    2002-01-01

    The supernova remnant G347.3-0.5 emits a featureless power law in X-rays, thought to indicate shock acceleration of electrons to high energies. We here produce a broadband spectrum of the bright northwest limb of this source by combining radio observations from the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), X-ray observations from the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), and TeV gamma-ray observations from the CANGAROO imaging Cerenkov telescope. We assume that this emission is produced by an electron population generated by diffusive shock acceleration at the remnant forward shock. The nonlinear aspects of the particle acceleration force a connection between the widely different wavelength bands and between the electrons and the unseen ions, presumably accelerated simultaneously with the electrons. This allows us to infer the relativistic proton spectrum and estimate ambient parameters such as the supernova explosion energy, magnetic field, matter density in the emission region, and efficiency of the shock acceleration process. We find convincing evidence that the shock acceleration is efficient, placing greater than 25% of the shock kinetic energy flux into relativistic ions. Despite this high efficiency, the maximum electron and proton energies, while depending somewhat on assumptions for the compression of the magnetic field in the shock, are well below the observed 'knee' at 10(exp 15) eV in the Galactic cosmic-ray spectrum.

  17. Nobeyama Radio Heliograph and RHESSI Observations of the X 1.5 Flare of April 21, 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, Mukul R.; Garaimov, V. I.; White, S. M.; Krucker, S.

    2004-01-01

    We present an overview of the microwave (17 and 34 GHz) observations of the X1.5 flare of April 21,2002, along with RHESSI hard X-ray observations. The event lasted more than 2 hours and features a beautiful arcade of rising loops on the limb visible at X-ray, EUV and radio wavelengths. The main flare was preceded by a small event 90 minutes earlier showing a long loop ,connecting well-separated radio and hard X-ray sources. The main flare itself starts with a compact radio and hard X-ray source well inside the solar limb. As the flare proceeds a large set of loops is seen to rise well above the solar limb. Distinct regions of radio emission with very different time behavior can be identified in the radio images, and in particular a peculiar nonthermal source seen in radio and hard X-rays low in the corona at the base of the arcade is seen to turn on 30 minutes after the start of the impulsive phase. At about the same time an extremely intense burst of coherent radio emission is seen from 500 to 2000 MHz: we speculate that this lower-frequency burst is produced by electrons that are accelerated in the nonthermal source at the base of the arcade and injected into the loop system where they radiate plasma emission in the 10(exp 10)/cm(exp 3) density plasma at the top of the arcade of loops.

  18. Exploration of the Eltanin Impact Area (Bellingshausen Sea): Expedition ANT XVIII5a

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gersonde, Rainer; Kyte, Frank T.

    2001-01-01

    The impact of the Eltanin asteroid into the Bellingshausen Sea (2.15 Ma) is the only known impact in a deep-ocean (approx. 5 km) basin. On 26 March 2001, the FS Polarstern returned to the impact area during expedition ANT XVIII/5a. Over a period of 14 days, this region was explored by detailed bathymetric mapping, acoustic profiling of sediment deposits, and direct sampling with 18 piston cores and four gravity cores. Preliminary shipboard examination of microfossils showed that sixteen of the piston cores and three gravity cores contained sediments at least as old as the impact event and have a high probability of containing a record of the disturbances caused by the impact. During the expedition, portions of eleven piston cores were opened for preliminary examination of the impact deposits. Visual examination of cores and microscopic identification of suspect impact melt particles were were used to identify ejecta and X-ray radiographs of the opened core segments permitted analysis of sediment structures. Impact deposits were found in nine of the eleven opened cores, and a similar success rate is anticipated in the seven cores remaining to be opened. These preliminary observations indicate that the highest concentrations of meteoritic ejecta and the largest particle sizes appear to occur in the region north of the San Martin seamounts. Recovered debris includes cm-sized melt rocks and a 2.5 cm meteorite. This expedition has confirmed the presence of high concentrations of meteoritic ejecta across a region at least as large as 10(exp 5) sq km. Quantitative analyses of ejecta distribution within this region will require further study, but previous estimates of 1 km for the minimum diameter of the Eltanin asteroid, appear safe.

  19. Stellar Laboratories: 3. New Ba 5, Ba 6, and Ba 7 Oscillator Strengths and the Barium Abundance in the Hot White Dwarfs G191-B2B and RE 0503-289

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Quinet, P.; Kruk, Jeffrey Walter

    2014-01-01

    Context. For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. Aims. Reliable Ba 5-7 oscillator strengths are used to identify Ba lines in the spectra of the DA-type white dwarf G191-B2B and the DO-type white dwarf RE 0503-289 and to determine their photospheric Ba abundances. Methods. We newly calculated Ba v-vii oscillator strengths to consider their radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of Ba lines exhibited in high-resolution and high-S/N UV observations of G191-B2B and RE 0503-289. Results. For the first time, we identified highly ionized Ba in the spectra of hot white dwarfs. We detected Ba vi and Ba vii lines in the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectrum of RE 0503-289. The Ba vi/Ba vii ionization equilibrium is well reproduced with the previously determined effective temperature of 70 000 K and surface gravity of log g=7.5. The Ba abundance is 3.5 +/- 0.5 × 10(exp-4) (mass fraction, about 23 000 times the solar value). In the FUSE spectrum of G191-B2B, we identified the strongest Ba vii line (at 993.41 Å) only, and determined a Ba abundance of 4.0 +/- 0.5 × 10(exp-6) (about 265 times solar). Conclusions. Reliable measurements and calculations of atomic data are a pre-requisite for stellar-atmosphere modeling. Observed Ba vi-vii line profiles in two white dwarfs' (G191-B2B and RE 0503-289) far-ultraviolet spectra were well reproduced with our newly calculated oscillator strengths. This allowed to determine the photospheric Ba abundance of these two stars precisely.

  20. Gallium Electromagnetic (GEM) Thruster Performance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Robert E.; Burton, Rodney L.; Polzin, K. A.

    2009-01-01

    Discharge current, terminal voltage, and mass bit measurements are performed on a coaxial gallium electromagnetic thruster at discharge currents in the range of 7-23 kA. It is found that the mass bit varies quadratically with the discharge current which yields a constant exhaust velocity of 20 km/s. Increasing the electrode radius ratio of the thruster from to 2.6 to 3.4 increases the thruster efficiency from 21% to 30%. When operating with a central gallium anode, macroparticles are ejected at all energy levels tested. A central gallium cathode ejects macroparticles when the current density exceeds 3.7 10(exp 8) A/square m . A spatially and temporally broad spectroscopic survey in the 220-520 nm range is used to determine which species are present in the plasma. The spectra show that neutral, singly, and doubly ionized gallium species are present in the discharge, as well as annular electrode species at higher energy levels. Axial Langmuir triple probe measurements yield electron temperatures in the range of 0.8-3.8 eV and electron densities in the range of 8 x 10(exp )20 to 1.6 x 10(exp 21) m(exp -3) . Triple probe measurements suggest an exhaust plume with a divergence angle of 9 , and a completely doubly ionized plasma at the ablating thruster cathode.

  1. CO2 exchange in the Hudson Bay lowlands: Community characteristics and multispectral reflectance properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiting, Gary J.

    1994-01-01

    Net ecosystem CO2 exchange was measured during the 1990 growing season (June to August) along a transect starting 10 km inland from James Bay and extending 100 km interior to Kinosheo Lake, Ontario. Sites were chosen in three distinct areas: a coastal fen, an interior fen, and a bog. For the most productive sites in the bog, net daily uptake rates reached a maximum of 2.5 g C-CO2 m(exp -2)/d with an area-weighted exchange of 0.3 g C-CO2 m(exp -2)/d near midsummer. This site was estimated to be a net carbon source of 9 g C-CO2 m(exp -2) to the atmosphere over a 153-day growing season. The interior fen was less productive on a daily basis with a net maximum uptake of 0.5 g C-CO2 m(exp -2)/d and with corresponding area-weighted uptake of 0.1 g C-CO2 m(exp -2)/d during midsummer. Early and late season release of carbon to the atmosphere resulted in a net loss of 21 g C-CO2 m(exp -2) over the growing season from this site. The coastal fen was the most productive site with uptake rates peaking near 1.7 g C-CO2 m(exp -2)/d which corresponded to an area-weighted uptake of 0.8 g C-CO2 m(exp -2)/d during midsummer and an estimated net uptake of 6 g C-CO2 m(exp -2) for the growing season. Associated with net CO2 exchange measurements, multispectral reflectance properties of the sites were measured over the growing season using portable radiometers. These properties were related to exchange rates with the goal of examining the potential for satellite remote sensing to monitor biosphere/atmosphere CO2 exchange in this biome. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) computed from surface reflectance was correlated with net CO2 exchange for all sites with the exception of areas with large proportions of Sphagnum moss cover. These mosses have greater near-infrared reflectance than typical surrounding vegetation and may require special adjustment for regional exchange/remote sensing applications.

  2. A YBCO RF-squid variable temperature susceptometer and its applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Luwei; Qiu, Jinwu; Zhang, Xianfeng; Tang, Zhimin; Cai, Yimin; Qian, Yongjia

    1991-01-01

    The Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) susceptibility using a high-temperature radio-frequency (rf) SQUID and a normal metal pick-up coil is employed in testing weak magnetization of the sample. The magnetic moment resolution of the device is 1 x 10(exp -6) emu, and that of the susceptibility is 5 x 10(exp -6) emu/cu cm.

  3. Eruption Conditions of Pele Volcano on Io Inferred from Chemistry of Its Volcanic Plume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolotov, M. Yu.; Fegley, B., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    We used thermodynamic models and HST observations of Pele plume to calculate the temperature (1430 K) and oxidation state (log fO2 = -11.7) of volcanic gases and magmas of Pele. Our estimated vent pressure is 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -5) bars.

  4. Evidence for Live Cl-36 in Ca-Al-rich Inclusions from the Ningqiang Carbonaceous Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Y.; Guan, Y.; Leshin, L. A.; Ouyang, Z.; Wang, D.

    2004-01-01

    The short-lived radionuclide Cl-36 decays to either Ar-36 (98.1%, beta(sup -)) or S-36 (1.9%, epsilon and beta(sup +)), with a half life of 3.01 x 10(exp 5) yr. Both the nucleosynthetic and spallation models suggest high initial Cl-36/Cl-35 ratios ((Cl-36/Cl-35)o up to approximately 10(exp -4)) in the early solar system. Previous observed excess Ar-36 in Efremovka matrix has been interpreted to represent a much lower (Cl-36/Cl-35)o ratio of approximately 1 x 10(exp -6). From the observed S-36 excesses in sodalite in calcium aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), we report in this study the first direct evidence of the presence of Cl-36 in primitive meteorites. The inferred (Cl-36/Cl-35)o ratios range from approximately 5 x 10(exp -6) to approximately 1 x 10(exp -5).

  5. First measurement of helium on Mars: Implications for the problem of radiogenic gases on the terrestrial planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Gladstone, G. R.; Mcdonald, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    The 108 photons of the Martian He 584 A airglow detected by the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite during a two-day exposure (22-23 Jan. 1993) correspond to the effective disk average intensity of 43 (+/-) 10 Rayleigh. Radiative transfer calculations, using a model atmosphere appropriate to the conditions of the observation and having an exospheric temperature of 210 (+/-) 20 K, result in an He mixing ratio of 1.1 (+/-) 0.4 ppm in the lower atmosphere. Nonthermal escape of helium is due to the following: electron impact ionization and pickup of He(+) by the solar wind; collisions with hot oxygen atoms; and charge exchange with molecular species with corresponding column loss rates of 1.4 x 10(exp 5), 3 x 10(exp 4), and 7 x 10(exp 3) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1), respectively. The lifetime of helium on Mars is 5 x 10(exp 4) yr. The He outgassing rate, coupled with the Ar-40 atmospheric abundance and with the K:U:Th ratio measured in the surface rocks, is used as input to a simple two-reservoir degassing model which presumes the loss of all argon accumulated in the atmosphere during the first Byr by large-scale impacts. The model results in total planet mass ratios of 10(exp -5) g/g for K, 2.3 x 10(exp -9) g/g for U, 8.5 x 10(exp -9) g/g for Th, 4 x 10(exp -10) g/g for He, and 1.5 x 10(exp -9) g/g for Ar-40. The predicted radiogenic heat flux is 2 erg cm(exp -2)s(exp -1). Similar modeling for Venus results in total plant mass ratios of 4.7 x 10(exp -5) g/g for K, 6.7 x 10(exp -9) g/g for U, 2.2 x 10(exp -8) g/g for Th, 1.3 x 10(exp -9) for He, 6.7 x 10(exp -9) g/g for Ar-40, and a radiogenic heat flux of 15 erg cm(exp -2)s(exp -1). The implications of these results are discussed. The modeling shows that the radioactive elements were not distributed uniformly in the protoplanetary nebula, and their relative abundances differ very much in the terrestrial planets.

  6. Anomalous Variability in Antarctic Sea Ice Extents During the 1960s With the Use of Nimbus Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallaher, David W.; Campbell, G. Garrett; Meier, Walter N.

    2013-01-01

    The Nimbus I, II, and III satellites provide a new opportunity for climate studies in the 1960s. The rescue of the visible and infrared imager data resulted in the utilization of the early Nimbus data to determine sea ice extent. A qualitative analysis of the early NASA Nimbus missions has revealed Antarctic sea ice extents that are significant larger and smaller than the historic 1979-2012 passive microwave record. The September 1964 ice mean area is 19.7x10(exp 6) sq. km +/- 0.3x10(exp 6) sq. km. This is more the 250,000 sq. km greater than the 19.44x10(exp 6) sq. km seen in the new 2012 historic maximum. However, in August 1966 the maximum sea ice extent fell to 15.9x10(exp 6) sq. km +/- 0.3x10(exp 6) sq. km. This is more than 1.5x10(exp 6) sq. km below the passive microwave record of 17.5x10(exp 6) sq. km set in September of 1986. This variation between 1964 and 1966 represents a change of maximum sea ice of over 3x10(exp 6) sq. km in just two years. These inter-annual variations while large, are small when compared to the Antarctic seasonal cycle.

  7. The Complex Spin State of 103P-Hartley 2: Kinematics and Orientation in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belton, Michael J. S.; Thomas, Peter; Li, Jian-Yang; Williams, Jade; Carcich, Brian; A'Hearn, Michael F.; McLaughlin, Stephanie; Farnham, Tony; McFadden, Lucy; Lisse, Carey M.; Collins, Steven; Besse, Sebastien; Klaasen, Kenneth; Sunshine, Jessica; Meech, Karen J.; Lindler, Don

    2013-01-01

    long axis changed by approx. -4.4 min/d at perihelion. M decreased at a rate of 0.038 (sq m/s) per day in a roughly linear fashion. Assuming a bulk density between 230-300 kg/m3 and a total volume for the nucleus of 8.09 X 10(exp 8) cubic m, the net torque acting on the nucleus was in the range 0.8-1.1 X 10(exp 5) kg m(exp 2) /s(exp 2). In order to bring the spacecraft photometric and imaging data into alignment on the direction of M, the directions of the intermediate and short principal axes of inertia had to be adjusted by 33 deg (on the sky) from the values indicated by the shape model with an assumed homogeneous interior. The adjusted direction of the intermediate axis is RA, Dec = 302 deg., -16.5 deg.. The morning and evening terminators in the images are identified, and the variation of the insolation at three regions on the nucleus associated with active areas calculated. The plume of water vapor observed in the inner coma is found to be directed close to the direction of local gravity over the sub-solar region for a range of reasonable bulk densities. The plume does not follow the projected normal to the surface at the sub-solar point.

  8. 5-HIAA

    MedlinePlus

    HIAA; 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid; Serotonin metabolite ... interfere with the test. Medicines that can increase 5-HIAA measurements include acetaminophen (Tylenol), acetanilide, phenacetin, glyceryl ...

  9. A calibration of the production rate ratio P-21/P-26 by low energy secondry neutrons: Identification of Ne spallation components at the 10(exp 6) atoms/g level in terrestrial samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, TH.; Niedermann, S.; Marti, K.

    1993-01-01

    The spallation ratio (Ne-22/Ne-21)(sub c) from Si was determined as 1.243 plus or minus 0.022 in a terrestrial quartz sample. We carried out a calibration of the in-situ production rate ratio P-21/P-26 in quartz samples for which Be-10 and Al-26 production rates were previously measured. A ratio P-21/P-26 of 0.67 plus or minus 0.12 is obtained.

  10. Calculational and Experimental Investigations of the Pressure Effects on Radical - Radical Cross Combinations Reactions: C2H5 + C2H3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahr, Askar; Halpern, Joshua B.; Tardy, Dwight C.

    2007-01-01

    of C-C and C-H bond ruptures, cyclization, decyclization, and complex decompositions are discussed in terms of energetics and structural properties. The pressure dependence of the product yields were computed and dominant reaction paths in this chemically activated system were determined. Both modeling and experiment suggest that the observed pressure dependence of [1-C4H8]/[C4H10] is due to decomposition of the chemically activated combination adduct 1-C4H8* in which the weaker allylic C-C bond is broken: H2C=CHCH2CH3 yields C3H5 + CH3. This reaction occurs even at moderate pressures of approx.200 Torr (26 kPa) and becomes more significant at lower pressures. The additional products detected at lower pressures are formed from secondary radical-radical reactions involving allyl, methyl, ethyl, and vinyl radicals. The modeling studies have extended the predictions of product distributions to different temperatures (200-700 K) and a wider range of pressures (10(exp -3) - 10(exp 5) Torr). These calculations indicate that the high-pressure [1-C4H8]/[C4H10] yield ratio is 1.3 +/- 0.1.

  11. Relic gravitational waves and extended inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Michael S.; Wilczek, Frank

    1990-01-01

    In extended inflation, a new version of inflation where the transition from the false-vacuum phase to a radiation-dominated Universe is accomplished by bubble nucleation and percolation, bubble collisions supply a potent-and potentially detectable-source of gravitational waves. The present energy density in relic gravity waves from bubble collisions is expected to be about 10(exp -5) of closure density-many orders of magnitude greater than that of the gravity waves produced by quantum fluctuations. Their characteristic wavelength depends upon the reheating temperature T(sub RH): lambda is approximately 10(exp 4) cm (10(exp 14) GeV/T(sub RH)). If large numbers of black holes are produced, a not implausible outcome, they will evaporate producing comparable amounts of shorter wavelength waves, lambda is approximately 10(exp -6) cm (T(sub RH)/10(exp 14) GeV).

  12. Eddy correlation measurements of methane fluxes using a tunable diode laser at the Kinosheo Lake tower site during the Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, G. C.; Neumann, H. H.; Den Hartog, G.; Thurtell, G. W.; Kidd, G.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the Canadian Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES) measurements of methane flux were made at the Kinosheo Lake tower site for a 1-month period during the 1990 summer intensive. The measurements were made with a diode-laser-based methane sensor using the eddy correlation technique. Measurements of the methane fluxes were made at two levels, 5 or 18 m. Approximately 900 half-hour average methane flux measurements were obtained. Weak temporal and diurnal trends were observed in the data. Fluxes averaged over the study period showed an overall methane emission of 16 mg CH4 m(exp -2)/d with a daytime average of 20 mg CH4 m(exp -2)/d and a nighttime average of 9 mg CH4 m(exp -2)/d. The effect of emission footprint was evident in the data. A strong relationship between the daily average methane flux and wet bog temperature at 20-cm depth was observed.

  13. 5-HTP

    MedlinePlus

    ... does improve development, social skills, or language skills. Alcoholism. Early research shows that taking 5-HTP with ... drinking. The effect of 5-HTP alone for alcoholism is not clear. Alzheimer's disease. Early research suggests ...

  14. Highly ionized gas absorption in the disk and halo toward HD 167756 at 3.5 kilometers per second resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Blair D.; Sembach, Kenneth R.; Cardelli, Jason A.

    1994-01-01

    High-resolution spectra of interstellar Si IV, C IV, and N V absorption lines along the 4 kpc path to the inner Galaxy star HD 167756 at z = -0.85 kpc are presented. The spectra were obtained with the echelle mode of Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and have signal-to-noise ratios ranging from 23 to 38. The high resolution of the measurements full width at half maximum (FWHM = 3.5 km/s) results in fully resolved line profiles for the highly ionized gas absorption. The measurements provide information on the column density per unit velocity, N(v), as a function of velocity for Si IV, C IV, and N V. The C IV and N V profiles extend from -70 to +70 km/s, while the Si IV profiles extend from -40 to +70 km/s. The integrated logarithmic column densities are long N(Si IV) = 13.09 +/- 0.02, log N(C IV) = 13.83 +/- 0.02, and log N(N V) = 13.56 +/- 0.03. The N V profile is broad, asymmetric, and featureless, while the Si IV profile contains narrow absorption components near V(sub LSR) = -19, 0, +20, and +52 km/s with Doppler spread parameters, b about = 10-12 km/s. The C IV profile contains both broad and narrow structure. The high ion feature near +52 km/s is also detected in the low-ionization lines of Ca II, O I, Si II, and Fe II. The other narrow Si IV and C IV components occur within several km/s of components seen in low-ionization species. The sight line contains at least two types of highly ionized gas. One type gives rise to a broad N V profile, and the other results in the more structured Si IV profile. The C IV profile contains contributions from both types of highly ionized gas. The broad but asymmetric N V profile is well represented by a large Galactic scale height gas which is participating in Galactic rotation and has a combination of thermal and turbulent broadening with b(sub tot) about = 42 km/s. The C IV to N V abundance ratio of 1.0 +/- 0.3 for the gas implies T about 1.6 x 10(exp 5) K or about 8 x 10

  15. Relationship Between Ecosystem Productivity and Photosynthetically Active Radiation for Northern Peatlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frolking, S. E.; Bubier, J. L.; Moore, T. R.; Ball, T.; Bellisario, L. M.; Bhardwaj, A.; Carroll, P.; Crill, P. M.; Lafleur, P. M.; McCaughey, J. H.; Roulet, N. T.; Suyker, A. E.; Verma, S. B.; Waddington, J. M.; Whiting, G. J.

    1998-01-01

    We analyzed the relationship between net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (NEE) and irradiance (as photosynthetic photon flux density or PPFD), using published and unpublished data that have been collected during midgrowing season for carbon balance studies at seven peatlands in North America and Europe, NEE measurements included both eddy-correlation tower and clear, static chamber methods, which gave very similar results. Data were analyzed by site, as aggregated data sets by peatland type (bog, poor fen, rich fen, and all fens) and as a single aggregated data set for all peatlands. In all cases, a fit with a rectangular hyperbola (NEE = alpha PPFD P(sub max)/(alpha PPFD + P(sub max) + R) better described the NEE-PPFD relationship than did a linear fit (NEE = beta PPFD + R). Poor and rich fens generally had similar NEE-PPFD relationships, while bogs had lower respiration rates (R = -2.0 micro mol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) for bogs and -2.7 micro mol m(exp -2) s(exp -1)) for fens) and lower NEE at moderate and high light levels (P(sub max)= 5.2 micro mol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) for bogs and 10.8 micro mol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) for fens). As a single class, northern peatlands had much smaller ecosystem respiration (R = -2.4 micro mol m(exp -2) s(exp -1)) and NEE rates (alpha = 0.020 and P(sub max)= 9.2 micro mol m(exp -2) s(exp -1)) than the upland ecosystems (closed canopy forest, grassland, and cropland). Despite this low productivity, northern peatland soil carbon pools are generally 5-50 times larger than upland ecosystems because of slow rates of decomposition caused by litter quality and anaerobic, cold soils.

  16. Discovery of a Similar to 5 Day Characteristic Timescale in the Kepler Power Spectrum of Zw 229-15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, R.; Vaughan, S.; Malkan, M.; Kelly, B. C.; Smith, K. L.; Boyd, P. T.; Mushotzky, R.

    2014-01-01

    We present time series analyses of the full Kepler dataset of Zw 229- 15. This Kepler light curve- with a baseline greater than three years, composed of virtually continuous, evenly sampled 30-minute measurements - is unprecedented in its quality and precision. We utilize two methods of power spectral analysis to investigate the optical variability and search for evidence of a bend frequency associated with a characteristic optical variability timescale. Each method yields similar results. The first interpolates across data gaps to use the standard Fourier periodogram. The second, using the CARMA-based time-domain modeling technique of Kelly et al., does not need evenly-sampled data. Both methods find excess power at high frequencies that may be due to Kepler instrumental effects. More importantly both also show strong bends (delta alpha is approx. 2) at timescales of approx. 5 days, a feature similar to those seen in the X-ray PSDs of AGN but never before in the optical. This observed approx. 5 day timescale may be associated with one of several physical processes potentially responsible for the variability. A plausible association could be made with light -crossing, dynamical or thermal timescales, depending on the assumed value of the accretion disk size and on unobserved disk parameters such as alpha and H¬R. This timescale is not consistent with the viscous timescale, which would be years in a approx. 10(exp7) solar mass AGN such as Zw 229- 15. However there must be a second bend on long (& 1 year) timescales, and that feature could be associated with the viscous timescale.

  17. Assimilation by Lunar Mare Basalts: Melting of Crustal Material and Dissolution of Anorthite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finnila, A. B.; Hess, P. C.; Rutherford, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss techniques for calculating the amount of crustal assimilation possible in lunar magma chambers and dikes based on thermal energy balances, kinetic rates, and simple fluid mechanical constraints. Assuming parent magmas of picritic compositions, we demonstrate the limits on the capacity of such magmas to melt and dissolve wall rock of anorthitic, troctolitic, noritic, and KREEP (quartz monzodiorite) compositions. Significant melting of the plagioclase-rich crustal lithologies requires turbulent convection in the assimilating magma and an efficient method of mixing in the relatively buoyant and viscous new melt. Even when this occurs, the major element chemistry of the picritic magmas will change by less than 1-2 wt %. Diffusion coefficients measured for Al2O3 from an iron-free basalt and an orange glass composition are 10(exp -12) m(exp 2) s(exp -1) at 1340 C and 10(exp -11) m(exp 2) s(exp -1) at 1390 C. These rates are too slow to allow dissolution of plagioclase to significantly affect magma compositions. Picritic magmas can melt significant quantities of KREEP, which suggests that their trace element chemistry may still be affected by assimilation processes; however, mixing viscous melts of KREEP composition with the fluid picritic magmas could be prohibitively difficult. We conclude that only a small part of the total major element chemical variation in the mare basalt and volcanic glass collection is due to assimilation/fractional crystallization processes near the lunar surface. Instead, most of the chemical variation in the lunar basalts and volcanic glasses must result from assimilation at deeper levels or from having distinct source regions in a heterogeneous lunar mantle.

  18. All-Sky Search for Periodic Gravitational Waves in the Full S5 LIGO Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G. S.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amariutei, D.; Amin, R. S.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Arain, M. S.; Araya, M. C.; Aston, S. M.; Blackburn, L.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.

    2011-01-01

    We report on an all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves in the frequency band 50-800 Hz and with the frequency time derivative in the range of 0 through -6 x 10(exp -9) Hz/s. Such a signal could be produced by a nearby spinning and slightly non-axisymmetric isolated neutron star in our galaxy. After recent improvements in the search program that yielded a 10x increase in computational efficiency, we have searched in two years of data. collected during LIGO's fifth science run and have obtained the most sensitive all-sky upper limits on gravitational wave strain to date. Near 150 Hz our upper limit on worst-case linearly polarized strain amplitude h(sub 0) is 1 x 10(exp -24), while at the high end of our frequency ra.nge we achieve a worst-case upper limit of 3.8 x 10(exp -24) for all polarizations and sky locations. These results constitute a factor of two improvement upop. previously published data. A new detection pipeline utilizing a Loosely Coherent algorithm was able to follow up weaker outliers, increasing the volume of space where signals can be detected by a factor of 10, but has not revealed any gravitational wave signals. The pipeline has been tested for robustness with respect to deviations from the model of an isolated neutron star, such as caused by a low-mass or long.period binary companion.

  19. 5 experiments in 5 minutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hut, Rolf

    2015-04-01

    Show, don't tell. When kids ask about your research, show, don't tell. We, the ambassadors of science, shouldn't be boring our nieces and nephews at family dinners with parameter distributions, we should make them excited about science. Getting people excited: show, don't tell. In 5 minutes, I will perform 5 experiments that anyone can do using everyday household items to get kids interested in science. Bring safety glasses.

  20. Population of Nitrifying Bacteria and Nitrification in Ammonium Saturated Clinoptilolite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGilloway, R. L.; Weaver, R. W.; Ming, Douglas W.; Gruener, J.

    1999-01-01

    As humans begin to spend longer periods of time in space, plants will be incorporated into life support systems. Ammonium saturated clinoptilolite is one plant growth substrate but a balance between ammonium and nitrate is needed. A laboratory study was conducted to determine effects of nitrifying bacteria on ammonium concentrations and kinetics of nitrification. Columns containing clinoptilolite substrate amended with nitrifying bacteria obtained from soil enrichment were analyzed weekly for a 90 day period. The enrichment culture initially contained 1 x 10(exp 5) ammonium oxidizing bacteria and 1 x 10(exp 2) nitrite oxidizing bacteria per gram of substrate. Populations of ammonium oxidizing bacteria increased to 1 x 10(exp 6) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria increased to 1 x 10(exp 3) per gram of substrate. The nitrification rate was approximately 0.25mg NO3(-)-N/kg.hr. Experiments were also conducted to enumerate nitrifying bacteria in a clinoptilolite substrate used to grow wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Seventy days following the initial inoculation with an unknown number of commercial nitrifying bacteria, 1 x 10(exp 5) ammonium oxidizing bacteria per gram of substrate were present. The number of nitrite oxidizing bacteria was between 1 x 10(exp 3) to 10(exp 4) per gram of substrate as measured by the most probable number method. Nitrification rates were approximately 0.20mg NO3(-)-N/kg.hr. Clinoptilolite readily exchanged sufficient concentrations of ammonium to support nitrifying bacteria and they survived well in this medium.

  1. The Composition of Titan's Lower Atmosphere and Simple Surface Volatiles as Measured by the Cassini-Huygens Probe Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niemann, H. B.; Atreya, S. K.; Demick, J. E.; Gautier, D.; Haberman, J. A.; Harpold, D. N.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Lunine, J. I.; Owen, T. C.; Raulin, F.

    2010-01-01

    The Cassini-Huygens Probe Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) determined the composition of the Titan atmosphere from 140km altitude to the surface. After landing, it returned composition data of gases evaporated from the surface. Height profiles of molecular nitrogen (N2), methane (CH4) and molecular hydrogen (H2) were determined. Traces were detected on the surface of evaporating methane, ethane (C2H6), acetylene (C2H2), cyanogen (C2N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The methane data showed evidence that methane precipitation occurred recently. The methane mole fraction was (1.48+/-0.09) x 10(exp -2) in the lower stratosphere (139.8 km to 75.5 km) and (5.65+/-0.18) x 10(exp -2) near the surface (6.7 km to the surface). The molecular hydrogen mole fraction was (1.01+/-0.16) x 10(exp -3) in the atmosphere and (9.90+/-0.17) x 10(exp -4) on the surface. Isotope ratios were 167.7+/-0.6 for N-14/N-15 in molecular nitrogen, 91.1+/-1.4 for C-12/C-13 in methane and (1.35+/-0.30) x 10(exp -4) for D/H in molecular hydrogen. The mole fractions of Ar-36 and radiogenic Ar-40 are (2.1+/-0.8) x 10(exp -7) and (3.39 +/-0.12) x 10(exp -5) respectively. Ne-22 has been tentatively identified at a mole fraction of (2.8+/-2.1) x 10(exp -7) Krypton and xenon were below the detection threshold of 1 x 10(exp -8) mole fraction. Science data were not retrieved from the gas chromatograph subsystem as the abundance of the organic trace gases in the atmosphere and on the ground did not reach the detection threshold. Results previously published from the GCMS experiment are superseded by this publication.

  2. Environmental Perturbations Caused by the Impacts of Comets and Asteroids on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Owen B.; Lawless, James G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The extinction mechanisms proposed at the Cretaceous-Tertiary geological boundary are reviewed and related to the impact of asteroids or comets in general. For impact energies below 10(exp 4) Megatons (less than 6 x 10(exp 4) years; asteroid diameter less than 650 m), blast, earthquake, and fire may destroy local areas up to 10(exp 5) square m. Tidal waves could flood a kilometer inland over entire ocean basins. The energy range from 105 to 106 Megatons (less than 2 x 10(exp 6) years; asteroid diameter less than 3 km) is transitional. Dust lifted, sulfur released from within impacting asteroids, and soot from fires started by comets can produce climatologically significant optical depths of 10. At energies beyond 10(exp 7) Megatons, blast and earthquake damage is regional (10(exp 6) square cm). Tsunami cresting to 100 m and flooding 20 km inland will sweep the coastal zones of the world's oceans. Fires will be set globally. Light levels may drop so low from the smoke, dust and sulfate that vision is not possible. At energies approaching 10(exp 9) Megatons the ocean surface waters may be acidified by sulfur. The combination of these effects would be devastating.

  3. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE): Initial Science Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Hine, B.; Delory, G. T.; Salute, J. S.; Noble, S.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M.; Mahaffy, P.

    2014-01-01

    between 0.7 and sev-eral micrometers in size, present over the pre-dawn and morning sector of the Moon. This tenuous dust exosphere, with densities of approximately 10(exp -5) m(exp -3), appears to be sustained by the ejecta of micrometeoroid impacts.

  4. Pulsed high-energy gamma-radiation from Geminga (1E0630 + 178)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertsch, D. L.; Brazier, K. T. S.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.; Kniffen, D. A.; Kwok, P. W.; Lin, Y. C.; Mattox, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    The detection of pulsed gamma rays with energy above 50 MeV from the soft X-ray source 1E0630 + 178 is reported, confirming the identification of Geminga with this X-ray source. The period derivative (11.4 +/- 1.7) x 10 exp -15 s/s suggests that Geminga is a nearby isolated rotating neutron star with a magnetic field of 1.6 x 10 exp 12 gauss, a characteristic age of 300,000 yr, and a spin-down energy loss rate of 3.5 x 10 exp 34 erg/s.

  5. The electrical conductivities of the DSS-13 beam-waveguide antenna shroud material and other antenna reflector surface materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otoshi, T. Y.; Franco, M. M.; Reilly, H. F., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A significant amount of noise temperature can potentially be generated by currently unknown dissipative losses in the beam waveguide (BWG) shroud. The amount of noise temperature contribution from this source is currently being studied. In conjunction with this study, electrical conductivity measurements were made on samples of the DSS-13 BWG shroud material at 8.420 GHz. The effective conductivities of unpainted and painted samples of the BWG shroud were measured to be 0.01 x 10(exp 7) and 0.0036 x 10(exp 7) mhos/m, respectively. This value may be compared with 5.66 x 10(exp 7) mhos/m for high conductivity copper.

  6. A Balloon Sounding Technique for Measuring SO2 Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Gary A.; Komhyr, Walter D.; Hirokawa, Jun; Lefer, Barry; Krotkov, Nicholay; Ngan, Fong

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a new technique for inexpensive measurements of SO2 profiles using a modified dual-ozonesonde instrument payload. The presence of SO2 interferes with the standard electrochemical cell (ECC) ozonesonde measurement, resulting in -1 molecule of O3 reported for each molecule of SO2 present (provided [O3] > [SO2]). In laboratory tests, an SO2 filter made with Cr03 placed on the inlet side of the sonde removes nearly 100% of the SO2 present for concentrations up to 60 ppbv and remained effective after exposure to 2.8 X 10(exp 16) molecules of SO2 [equivalent to a column approximately 150 DU (1 DU = 2.69 X 10(exp 20) molecules m(exp -2))]. Flying two ECC instruments on the same payload with one filtered and the other unfiltered yields SO2 profiles, inferred by subtraction. Laboratory tests and field experience suggest an SO2 detection limit of approximately 3 pbb with profiles valid from the surface to the ozonopause [i.e., approximately (8-10 km)]. Two example profiles demonstrate the success of this technique for both volcanic and industrial plumes.

  7. Removing cosmic-ray hits from multiorbit HST Wide Field Camera images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windhorst, Rogier A.; Franklin, Barbara E.; Neuschaefer, Lyman W.

    1994-01-01

    We present an optimized algorithm that removes cosmic rays ('CRs') from multiorbit Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field/Planetary Camera ('WF/PC') images. It computes the image noise in every iteration from the WF/PC CCD equation. This includes all known sources of random and systematic calibration errors. We test this algorithm on WF/PC stacks of 2-12 orbits as a function of the number of available orbits and the formal Poissonian sigma-clipping level. We find that the algorithm needs greater than or equal 4 WF/PC exposures to locate the minimal sky signal (which is noticeably affected by CRs), with an optimal clipping level at 2-2.5 x sigma(sub Poisson). We analyze the CR flux detected on multiorbit 'CR stacks,' which are constructed by subtracting the best CR filtered images from the unfiltered 8-12 orbit average. We use an automated object finder to determine the surface density of CRS as a function of the apparent magnitude (or ADU flux) they would have generated in the images had they not been removed. The power law slope of the CR 'counts' (gamma approximately = 0.6 for N(m) m(exp gamma)) is steeper than that of the faint galaxy counts down to V approximately = 28 mag. The CR counts show a drop off between 28 less than or approximately V less than or approximately 30 mag (the latter is our formal 2 sigma point source sensitivity without spherical aberration). This prevents the CR sky integral from diverging, and is likely due to a real cutoff in the CR energy distribution below approximately 11 ADU per orbit. The integral CR surface density is less than or approximately 10(exp 8)/sq. deg, and their sky signal is V approximately = 25.5-27.0 mag/sq. arcsec, or 3%-13% of our NEP sky background (V = 23.3 mag/sq. arcsec), and well above the EBL integral of the deepest galaxy counts (B(sub J) approximately = 28.0 mag/sq. arcsec). We conclude that faint CRs will always contribute to the sky signal in the deepest WF/PC images. Since WFPC2 has approximately 2.7x

  8. Measurement of the cosmic microwave background spectrum by the COBE FIRAS instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, J. C.; Cheng, E. S.; Cottingham, D. A.; Eplee, R. E., Jr.; Fixsen, D. J.; Hewagama, T.; Isaacman, R. B.; Jensen, K. A.; Meyer, S. S.; Noerdlinger, P. D.

    1994-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) has a blackbody spectrum within 3.4 x 10(exp -8) ergs/sq cm/s/sr cm over the frequency range from 2 to 20/cm (5-0.5 mm). These measurements, derived from the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotomer (FIRAS) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, imply stringent limits on energy release in the early universe after t approximately 1 year and redshift z approximately 3 x 10(exp 6). The deviations are less than 0.30% of the peak brightness, with an rms value of 0.01%, and the dimensionless cosmological distortion parameters are limited to the absolute value of y is less than 2.5 x 10(exp -5) and the absolute value of mu is less than 3.3 x 10(exp -4) (95% confidence level). The temperature of the CMBR is 2.726 +/- 0.010 K (95% confidence level systematic).

  9. Supersonic Disk Gap Band Parachute Performance in the Wake of a Viking-Type Aeroshell from Mach 2 to 2.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sengupta, Anita; Roeder, James; Kelsch, Richard; Wernet, Mark; Machalick, Walt; Reuter, James; Witkowski, Al

    2008-01-01

    Supersonic wind tunnel testing of 0.813 m diameter Disk-Gap-Band parachutes is being conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) 10' x 10' wind-tunnel. The tests are conducted in support of the Mars Science Laboratory Parachute Decelerator System development and qualification. Four percent of full-scale parachutes were constructed similarly to the flight-article in material and construction techniques. The parachutes are attached to a 4% scale MSL entry-vehicle to simulate the free-flight configuration. The parachutes are tested from Mach 2 to 2.5 over a Reynolds number (Re) range of 1 to 3 x 10(exp 6), representative of the MSL deployment envelope. Constrained and unconstrained test configurations are investigated to quantify the effects of parachute trim, suspension line interaction, and alignment with the capsule wake. The parachute is constrained horizontally through the vent region, to measure canopy breathing and wake interaction for fixed trim angles of 0 and 10 degrees from the velocity vector. In the unconstrained configuration the parachute is permitted to trim and cone, similar to the free-flight varying its alignment relative to the entry-vehicle wake. Test diagnostics were chosen to quantify parachute performance and to provide insight into the flow field structure. An in-line load cell provided measurement of unsteady and mean drag as a function of Mach and Re. High-speed shadowgraph video of the upstream parachute flow field was used to capture bow-shock motion and stand of distance. Particle image velocimetry of the upstream parachute flow field provides spatially and temporally resolved measurement velocity and turbulent statistics. Multiple high speed video views of targets placed in the interior of the canopy enable photo-grammetric measurement of the fabric motion in time and space from reflective. High speed video is also used to document the supersonic inflation and measure trim angle, projected area, and frequency of area oscillations.

  10. Discovery of Soft Spectral Component and Transient 22.7s Quasi Periodic Oscillations of SAX J2103.5+4545

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inam, S. C.; Baykal, A.; Swank, J.; Stark, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    XMM-Newton observed SAX J2103.5+4545 on January 6, 2003, while RXTE was monitoring the source. Using RXTE-PCA dataset between December 3, 2002 and January 29, 2003, the spin period and average spin-up rate during the XMM-Newton observations were found to be 354.7940+/-0.0008 s and (7.4 +/- 0.9) x 10(exp -13) Hz/s respectively. In the power spectrum of the 0.9-11 keV EPIC-PN lightcurve, we found quasi periodic oscillations around 0.044 Hz (22.7 s) with an rms fractional amplitude approx. 6.6 %. We interpreted this QPO feature as the Keplerian motion of inhomogeneities through the inner disk. In the X-ray spectrum, in addition to the power law component with high energy cutoff and approx. 6.4 keV fluorescent iron emission line, we discovered a soft component consistent with a blackbody emission with kT approx. 1.9 keV. The pulse phase spectroscopy of the source revealed that the blackbody flux peaked at the peak of the pulse with an emission radius approx. 0.3 km, suggesting the polar cap on the neutron star approx. 6.42 keV was shown to peak at the off-pulse phase, supporting the idea that this feature arises from fluorescent emission of the circumstellar material around the neutron star rather than the hot region in the vicinity of the neutron star polar cap.

  11. Comparison of the impact of volcanic eruptions and aircraft emissions on the aerosol mass loading and sulfur budget in the stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, Glenn K.; Poole, Lamont R.

    1992-01-01

    Data obtained by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) 1 and 2 were used to study the temporal variation of aerosol optical properties and to assess the mass loading of stratospheric aerosols from the eruption of volcanos Ruiz and Kelut. It was found that the yearly global average of optical depth at 1.0 micron for stratospheric background aerosols in 1979 was 1.16 x 10(exp -3) and in 1989 was 1.66 x 10(exp -3). The eruptions of volcanos Ruiz and Kelut ejected at least 5.6 x 10(exp 5) and 1.8 x 10(exp 5) tons of materials into the stratosphere, respectively. The amount of sulfur emitted per year from the projected subsonic and supersonic fleet is comparable to that contained in the background aerosol particles in midlatitudes from 35 deg N to 55 deg N.

  12. Microbiological characterization of a regenerative life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, D. W.; Bruce, R. J.; Mishra, S. K.; Barta, D. J.; Pierson, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    A Variable Pressure Plant Growth Chamber (VPGC), at the Johnson Space Center's (JSC) ground based Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) test bed, was used to produce crops of soil-grown lettuce. The crops and chamber were analyzed for microbiological diversity during lettuce growth and after harvest. Bacterial counts for the rhizosphere, spent nutrient medium, heat exchanger condensate, and atmosphere were approximately 10(exp 11) Colony Forming Units (CFU)/g, 10(exp 5) CFU/ml, 10(exp 5)CFU/ml, and 600 CFU/m sq, repectively. Pseudomonas was the predominant bacterial genus. Numbers of fungi were about 10(exp 5) CFU/g in the rhizosphere, 4-200 CFU/ml in the spent nutient medium, 110 CFU/ml in the heat exchanger condensate, and 3 CFU/cu m in the atmosphere. Fusarium and Trichoderma were the predominant fungal genera.

  13. Growth of potatoes for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Cao, W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes research on the utilization of white potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) for space life support systems at the University of Wisconsin-Madison over the period of 1984 to 1993. At full maturity the tuber productivity was 37.5 gm(exp -2) d(exp -1), equating to a growing area requirement for one human (2800 kcal d(exp -1)) of 10.1 m(exp -2). A recirculating nutrient system using slanted trays produced best potato growth and tuber yields when a 2-3 cm layer of gravel or arcillite media was utilized. Potato production was close to maximum under lighting levels of 400 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) of photosynthetic photo flux (PPF) for 24 hours or 800 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) for 12 hours, alternating diurnal temperatures of 22 C and 14 C, relative humidity of 85 percent, and a carbon dioxide level of 1000 micromol m(exp -1). The range of effective concentrations of each separate nutrient is reported. The extensive studies with potatoes in this project have demonstrated that this crop has high productivity of nutritous tubers with a high harvest index in controlled environments, and can fulfill a significant portion of the energy and protein requirements for humans in space.

  14. Measurement of atmospheric OH by titration of near-IR fluorescent dyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betterton, Eric A.; Gast, Karl

    1994-01-01

    Recent research has shown that certain polymethine dyes can be detected at ultratrace levels (greater than or equal to 6x10(exp -14) M) in solution by fluorimetry. These detection limits are possible because of the inherent sensitivity of fluorescence techniques, because the dyes fluoresce in the near infrared region where background interference is negligible, and because powerful infrared diode lasers are now available to improve the signal to noise ratio. Other work has shown that the hydroxyl radical destroys the ability of polymethine dyes to fluoresce. These observations form the basis for a new hydroxyl radical detector that is essentially a fluorometric titrator. Theoretically, the detector should show an acceptable sensitivity and response time. Assuming that the atmospheric HO concentration is about 10(exp -11) moles m(exp -3) (i.e. 10(exp 6) molecules cm(exp -3)), then 10 L of air 'titrated' with 20 mL of 10(exp -11) M dye solution (an easily detected concentration) should result in a drop in the fluorescent signal of 50 percent - a readily detectable change. At a flow rate of 3 L min(exp -1) the sampling time would be 3 minutes. The biggest potential problem is selectivity: other oxidants may also cause the fluorescence signal to be lost. The chemistry of polymethine dyes has not been studied in detail and so no quantitative data are available. However, a survey of the literature suggests that in general HO should react up to six orders of magnitude faster than HO2 and other radicals such as RO2 and RO. It should also react much more rapidly than H2O2 and O3. Thus it may be possible to discriminate kinetically against potential interfering substances. It was shown in the laboratory that 10(exp -4) M H2O2 has little effect on the absorption spectrum of the dye IR125 over a period of hours but that the band at 780 nm is slowly lost in water over a period of days even under argon in the dark. By contrast, DMSO solutions of IR125 are stable.

  15. A Study of Saturn's E-Ring Particles Using the Voyager 1 Plasma Wave Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsintikidis, D.; Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Barbosa, D. D.

    1993-01-01

    The flyby of Voyager 1 at Saturn resulted in the detection of a large variety of plasma waves, e.g., chorus, hiss, and electron cyclotron harmonics. Just before the outbound equator crossing, at about 6.1 R(sub s), the Voyager 1 plasma wave instrument detected a strong, well-defined low-frequency enhancement. Initially it was suggested that plasma waves might be responsible for the spectral feature but more recently dust was suggested as at least a partial contributor to the enhancement. In this report we present evidence which supports the conclusion that dust contributes to the low-frequency enhancement. A new method has been used to derive the dust impact rate. The method relies mainly on the 16-channel spectrum analyzer data. The few wide band waveform observations available (which have been used to study dust impacts during the Voyager 2 ring plane crossing) were useful for calibrating the impact rate from the spectrum analyzer data. The mass and, hence, the size of the dust particles were also obtained by analyzing the response of the plasma wave spectrum analyzer. The results show that the region sampled by Voyager 1 is populated by dust particles that have rms masses of up to few times 10(exp -11) g and sizes of up to a few microns. The dust particle number density is on the order of 10(exp -3) m(exp 3). The optical depth of the region sampled by the spacecraft is 1.04 x 10(exp -6). The particle population is centered about 2500 km south of the equatorial plane and has a north-south thickness of about 4000 km. Possible sources of these particles are the moons Enceladus and Tethys whose orbits lie within the E-ring radial extent. These results are in reasonable agreement with photometric studies and numerical simulations.

  16. 4H-SiC UV Photo Detector with Large Area and Very High Specific Detectivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Feng; Shahid, Aslam; Franz, David; Xin, Xiaobin; Zhao, Jian H.; Zhao, Yuegang; Winer, Maurice

    2004-01-01

    Pt/4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes have been fabricated with the device areas up to 1 sq cm. The I-V characteristics and photo-response spectra have been measured and analyzed. For a 5 mm x 5 mm area device leakage current of 1 x 10(exp 15)A at zero bias and 1.2 x 10(exp 14)A at -IV have been established. The quantum efficiency is over 30% from 240nm to 320nm. The specific detectivity, D(sup *), has been calculated from the directly measured leakage current and quantum efficiency data and are shown to be higher than 10(exp 15) cmHz(sup 1/2)/W from 210nm to 350nm with a peak D(sup *) of 3.6 x 10(exp 15)cmH(sup 1/2)/W at 300nm.

  17. Modelling Temporal Variability in the Carbon Balance of a Spruce/Moss Boreal Forest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frolking, S.; Goulden, M. L.; Wofsy, S. C.; Fan, S.-M.; Sutton, D. J.; Munger, J. W.; Bazzaz, A. M.; Daube, B. C.; Crill, P. M.; Aber, J. D.; Band, L. E.; Wang, X.; Savages, K.; Moore, T.; Harriss, R. C.

    1996-01-01

    A model of the daily carbon balance of a black spruce/feathermoss boreal forest ecosystem was developed and results compared to preliminary data from the 1994 BOREAS field campaign in northern Manitoba, Canada. The model, driven by daily weather conditions, simulated daily soil climate status (temperature and moisture profiles), spruce photosynthesis and respiration, moss photosynthesis and respiration, and litter decomposition. Model agreement with preliminary field data was good for net ecosystem exchange (NEE), capturing both the asymmetrical seasonality and short-term variability. During the growing season simulated daily NEE ranged from -4 g C m(exp -2) d(exp -1) (carbon uptake by ecosystem) to + 2 g C m(exp -2) d(exp -1) (carbon flux to atmosphere), with fluctuations from day to day. In the early winter simulated NEE values were + 0.5 g C m(exp -2) d(exp -1), dropping to + 0.2 g C m(exp -2) d(exp -1) in mid-winter. Simulated soil respiration during the growing season (+ 1 to + 5 g C m(exp -2) d(exp -1)) was dominated by metabolic respiration of the live moss, with litter decomposition usually contributing less than 30% and live spruce root respiration less than 10% of the total. Both spruce and moss net primary productivity (NPP) rates were higher in early summer than late summer. Simulated annual NEE for 1994 was -51 g C m(exp -2) y(exp -1), with 83% going into tree growth and 17% into the soil carbon accumulation. Moss NPP (58 g C m(exp -2) d(exp -1)) was considered to be litter (i.e. soil carbon input; no net increase in live moss biomass). Ecosystem respiration during the snow-covered season (84 g Cm(exp -2)) was 58% of the growing season net carbon uptake. A simulation of the same site for 1968-1989 showed about 10-20% year-to-year variability in heterotrophic respiration (mean of + 113 g C m-2 y@1). Moss NPP ranged from 19 to 114 g C m(exp -2) y(exp -1); spruce NPP from 81 to 150 g C nt-2 y,@l; spruce growth (NPP minus litterfall) from 34 to 103 g C m(exp

  18. Energetic particle-induced enhancements of stratospheric nitric acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, Arthur C.

    1994-01-01

    Inclusion of complete ion chemistry in the calculation of minor species production during energetic particle deposition events leads to significant enhancement in the calculated nitric acid concentration during precipitation. An ionization rate of 1.2 x 10(exp 3)/cu cm/s imposed for 1 day increases HNO3 from 3 x 10(exp 5) to 6 x 10(exp 7)/cu cm at 50 km. With an ionization rate of 600 cu cm/s, the maximum HNO3 is 3 x 10(exp 7)/cu cm. Calculations which neglect negative ions predict the nitric acid will fall during precipitation events. The decay time for converting HNO3 into odd nitrogen and hydrogen is more than 1 day for equinoctial periods at 70 deg latitude. Examination of nitric acid data should yield important information on the magnitude and frequency of charged particle events.

  19. Heterogeneous Reaction of ClONO2(g) + NaCl(s) to Cl2(g) + NaNO3(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timonen, Raimo S.; Chu, Liang T.; Leu, Ming-Taun; Keyser, Leon F.

    1994-01-01

    The heterogeneous reaction of ClON02 + NaCl yields Cl2 + NaNO3 (eq 1) was investigated over a temperature range 220-300 K in a flow-tube reactor interfaced with a differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer. Partial pressures of ClON02 in the range 10(exp -8) - 10(exp -5) Torr were used. Granule sizes and surface roughness of the NaCl substrates were determined by using a scanning electron microscope, and in separate experiments, surface areas of the substrates were measured by using BET analysis of gas-adsorption isotherms. For dry NaCl substrates, both the decay rates of ClON02 and the growth rates Of C12 were used to obtain reaction probabilities, gamma(sub l) = (4.6 +/- 3.0) x 10(exp -3) at 296 K and (6.7 +/- 3.2) x 10(exp -1) at 225 K, after considering the internal surface area, The error bars represent 1 standard deviation. The Cl2 yield based on the ClONO2 reacted was measured to be 1.0 +/- 0.2. In order to mimic the conditions encountered in the lower stratosphere, the effect of water vapor pressures between 5 x 10(exp -5) and 3 x 10(exp -4) Torr on reaction 1 was also studied. With added H20, reaction probabilities, gamma = (4.1 +/- 2.1) x 10(exp -3) at 296 K and (4.7 +/- 2.9) x 10(exp -3) at 225 K, were obtained. A trace of HOCl, the reaction product from the ClON02 + H20 yield HOCl + HN03 reaction, was observed in addition to the C12 product from reaction 1. The implications of this result for the enhancement of hydrogen chloride in the stratosphere after the El Chichon volcanic eruption and for the marine troposphere are discussed.

  20. 45 CFR 5.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 5.5 Section 5.5 Public Welfare... Policy § 5.5 Definitions. As used in this part, Agency means any executive department, military... necessarily determinative. When a request is from a representative of the news media, a purpose or...

  1. 5-5-5 Creativity in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Mary; Hay, Penny

    2004-01-01

    5-5-5 Creativity in the Early Years has involved five early years' settings, five artists and five cultural centres working in partnership to support young children (3-6 years) in their exploration, communication and expression of creative ideas. This year-long research project has been inspired by the approach to education and the creative arts…

  2. 15 CFR 5.5 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Vending machines. 5.5 Section 5.5... machines. (a) The income from any vending machines which are located within reasonable proximity to and are... shall be assigned to the operator of such stand. (b) If a vending machine vends articles of a...

  3. 15 CFR 5.5 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Vending machines. 5.5 Section 5.5... machines. (a) The income from any vending machines which are located within reasonable proximity to and are... shall be assigned to the operator of such stand. (b) If a vending machine vends articles of a...

  4. 15 CFR 5.5 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Vending machines. 5.5 Section 5.5... machines. (a) The income from any vending machines which are located within reasonable proximity to and are... shall be assigned to the operator of such stand. (b) If a vending machine vends articles of a...

  5. 15 CFR 5.5 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vending machines. 5.5 Section 5.5... machines. (a) The income from any vending machines which are located within reasonable proximity to and are... shall be assigned to the operator of such stand. (b) If a vending machine vends articles of a...

  6. 15 CFR 5.5 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Vending machines. 5.5 Section 5.5... machines. (a) The income from any vending machines which are located within reasonable proximity to and are... shall be assigned to the operator of such stand. (b) If a vending machine vends articles of a...

  7. 36 CFR 5.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial photography. 5.5... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any... Federal Regulations. (b) Still photography. The taking of photographs of any vehicle, or other articles...

  8. 36 CFR 5.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commercial photography. 5.5... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any... Federal Regulations. (b) Still photography. The taking of photographs of any vehicle, or other articles...

  9. 36 CFR 5.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial photography. 5.5... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any... Federal Regulations. (b) Still photography. The taking of photographs of any vehicle, or other articles...

  10. 36 CFR 5.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Commercial photography. 5.5... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any... Federal Regulations. (b) Still photography. The taking of photographs of any vehicle, or other articles...

  11. 5 CFR 1215.5 - Hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Federal Claims Collection Standards 4 CFR 102.3(c). The burden shall be on the employee to demonstrate... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hearing. 1215.5 Section 1215.5... § 1215.5 Hearing. (a) Request for hearing. (1) An employee must file a petition for a hearing...

  12. 5 CFR 2500.5 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Derivative classification. 2500.5 Section 2500.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.5 Derivative classification. The Office of Administration serves only as...

  13. 5 CFR 2500.5 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Derivative classification. 2500.5 Section 2500.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.5 Derivative classification. The Office of Administration serves only as...

  14. 5 CFR 2500.5 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Derivative classification. 2500.5 Section 2500.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.5 Derivative classification. The Office of Administration serves only as...

  15. 5 CFR 1830.5 - Appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appeals. 1830.5 Section 1830.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF SPECIAL COUNSEL PRIVACY § 1830.5 Appeals. (a) Appeals of adverse determinations. A requester may appeal a denial of a Privacy Act request for access to or amendment of records...

  16. .beta.-glucosidase 5 (BGL5) compositions

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2010-06-01

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl5, and the corresponding BGL5 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL5, recombinant BGL5 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  17. 5 CFR 1320.5 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General requirements. 1320.5 Section 1320.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CONTROLLING PAPERWORK BURDENS ON THE PUBLIC § 1320.5 General requirements. (a) An agency shall not conduct or sponsor...

  18. 43 CFR 1610.5-5 - Amendment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amendment. 1610.5-5 Section 1610.5-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Resource...

  19. 34 CFR 5.5 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... as tangible exhibits, models, equipment, or processing materials; or formulae, designs, drawings, or... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Records. 5.5 Section 5.5 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION TO THE PUBLIC PURSUANT TO PUB. L. 90-23...

  20. 5 CFR 2500.5 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 2500.5 Section 2500.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.5 Derivative classification. The Office of Administration serves only as...

  1. Comparative Studies for the Sodium and Potassium Atmospheres of the Moon and Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, William H.

    1999-01-01

    A summary discussion of recent sodium and potassium observations for the atmospheres of the Moon and Mercury is presented with primary emphasis on new full-disk images that have become available for sodium. For the sodium atmosphere, image observations for both the Moon and Mercury are fitted with model calculations (1) that have the same source speed distribution, one recently measured for electron-stimulated desorption and thought to apply equally well to photon-stimulated desorption, (2) that have similar average surface sodium fluxes, about 2.8 x 10(exp 5) to 8.9 x 10(exp 5) atoms cm(exp -2)s(exp -1) for the Moon and approximately 3.5 x 10(exp 5) to 1.4 x 10(exp 6) atoms cm(exp -2)s(exp -1) for Mercury, but (3) that have very different distributions for the source surface area. For the Moon, a sunlit hemispherical surface source of between approximately 5.3 x 10(exp 22) to 1.2 x 10(exp 23) atoms/s is required with a spatial dependence at least as sharp as the square of the cosine of the solar zenith angle. For Mercury, a time dependent source that varies from 1.5 x 10(exp 22) to 5.8 x l0(exp 22) atoms/s is required which is confined to a small surface area located at, but asymmetrically distributed about, the subsolar point. The nature of the Mercury source suggest that the planetary magnetopause near the subsolar point acts as a time varying and partially protective shield through which charged particles may pass to interact with and liberate gas from the planetary surface. Suggested directions for future research activities are discussed.

  2. Venusian hydrology: Steady state reconsidered

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grinspoon, David H.

    1992-01-01

    In 1987, Grinspoon proposed that the data on hydrogen abundance, isotopic composition, and escape rate were consistent with the hypothesis that water on Venus might be in steady state rather than monotonic decline since the dawn of time. This conclusion was partially based on a derived water lifetime against nonthermal escape of approximately 10(exp 8) yr. De Bergh et al., preferring the earlier Pioneer Venus value of 200 ppm water to the significantly lower value detected by Bezard et al., found H2O lifetimes of greater than 10(exp 9) yr. Donahue and Hodges derived H2O lifetimes of 0.4-5 x 10 (exp 9) yr. Both these analyses used estimates of H escape flux between 0.4 x 10(exp 7) and 1 x 10(exp 7) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1) from Rodriguez et al. Yet in more recent Monte Carlo modeling, Hodges and Tinsley found an escape flux due to charge exchange with hot H(+) of 2.8 x 10(exp 7) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1). McElroy et al. estimated an escape flux of 8 x 10(exp 6) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1) from collisions with hot O produced by dissociative recombination of O2(+). Brace et al. estimated an escape flux of 5 x 10(exp 6) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1) from ion escape from the ionotail of Venus. The combined estimated escape flux from all these processes is approximately 4 x 10(exp 7) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1). The most sophisticated analysis to date of near-IR radiation from Venus' nightside reveals a water mixing ratio of approximately 30 ppm, suggesting a lifetime against escape for water of less than 10(exp 8) yr. Large uncertainties remain in these quantities, yet the data point toward a steady state. Further evaluation of these uncertainties, and new evolutionary modeling incorporating estimates of the outgassing rate from post-Magellan estimates of the volcanic resurfacing rate are presented.

  3. Environmental Perturbations Caused by the Impacts of Asteroids and Comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Owen B.; Zahnle, Kevin; Morrison, David; Turco, Richard; Covey, Curt

    1997-01-01

    We review the major mechanisms proposed to cause extinctions at the Cretaceous-Tertiary geological boundary following an asteroid impact. We then discuss how the proposed extinction may relate to the impact of asteroids or comets in general. We discuss the limitations of these mechanisms in terms of the spatial scale that may be affected, and the time scale over which the effects may last. Our goal is to provide relatively simple prescriptions for evaluating the importance of colliding objects having a range of energies and compositions. We also identify the many uncertainties concerning the environmental effects of impacts. We conclude that, for impact energies below about 10(exp 4) Mts (megatons of TNT equivalent) - i.e., impact frequencies less than in 6 x 10(exp 4) yr, corresponding to comets and asteroids with diameters smaller than about 400 m and 650 m, respectively - blast damage, earthquakes, and fires should be important on a scale of 10(exp 4) or 10(exp 5) km (exp 2), which corresponds to the area damaged in many natural disasters of recent history. However, tsunami could be more damaging, flooding a kilometer of coastal plane over entire ocean basins. In the energy range of 10(exp 4) to 10 (exp 5) Mts (intervals up to 3 x 10(exp 5) yr; comets and asteroids with sizes up to 800 m and 1.5 km, respectively) water vapor injections and ozone loss become significant on the global scale. In the submicrometer dust injection fraction from the pulverized target material is much higher than is presently thought to be most likely, then dust injection could be important in this energy range.

  4. THERM 5 / WINDOW 5 NFRC simulation manual

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Robin; Kohler, Christian; Arasteh, Dariush; Carmody, John; Huizenga, Charlie; Curcija, Dragan

    2003-06-01

    This document, the ''THERM 5/WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual', discusses how to use the THERM and WINDOW programs to model products for NFRC certified simulations and assumes that the user is already familiar with those programs. In order to learn how to use these programs, it is necessary to become familiar with the material in both the ''THERM User's Manual'' and the ''WINDOW User's Manual''. In general, this manual references the User's Manuals rather than repeating the information. If there is a conflict between either of the User Manual and this ''THERM 5/''WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual'', the ''THERM 5/WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual'' takes precedence. In addition, if this manual is in conflict with any NFRC standards, the standards take precedence. For example, if samples in this manual do not follow the current taping and testing NFRC standards, the standards not the samples in this manual, take precedence.

  5. 5 CFR 2414.5 - Communications prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... include: (a) Such communications, when written, if copies thereof are not contemporaneously served by the...; and (b) Such communications, when oral, unless advance notice thereof is given by the communicator to... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Communications prohibited. 2414.5...

  6. 5 CFR 2500.5 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2500.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.5 Derivative classification. The Office of Administration serves only as the temporary physical custodian of classified information which originated in other agencies of the...

  7. 5 CFR 1653.5 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... permitted by this paragraph (m) must be made pursuant to the rules described in 5 CFR 1650.25. (n) If the...-ordered payment to the payee's TSP account in accordance with the rules described in 5 CFR 1650.25... Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD COURT ORDERS AND LEGAL PROCESSES...

  8. 5 CFR 1653.5 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... permitted by this paragraph (m) must be made pursuant to the rules described in 5 CFR 1650.25. (n) If the...-ordered payment to the payee's TSP account in accordance with the rules described in 5 CFR 1650.25... Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD COURT ORDERS AND LEGAL PROCESSES...

  9. On possible Mn-53 heterogeneity in the early solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavrukhina, A. K.; Ustinova, G. K.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of influence of shock wave propagation on the energy spectrum of accelerated particles that lead to different production rates of radionuclides, in particular, Mn-53, on small scales in the early solar system are shown. Search for evidence for extinct Mn-53 has stimulated investigations of Cr isotope anomalies in meteorites. The linear correlation between the magnitude of the Cr-53* excesses and the Mn/Cr ratio that unambiguously proves the in situ decay of Mn-53 was detected, really, in different mineral phases of some carbonaceous and enstatite chondrites, primitive achondrites, pallasites and iron meteorites. However, the data on the Cr-53* excess rarely defines a single linear array on a Mn-53-Cr-52 evolution diagram even for meteorites of the same chemical group. A clear isochron with Mn-53/Mn-55 = 4.4 plus or minus 1.0 x 10(exp -5) (in range of approximately 2.4 to approximately 9 x 10(exp -5)) is observed for CAI of the Allende C3-chondrite while the data for the Murchison C2- and Orgueil C1-chondrites fall much lower corresponding rather to Mn-53/Mn-55 less than 2 x 10(exp -5). In the case of iron meteorites it ranges from less than 5 x 10(exp -8) to less than 5 x 10(exp -5).

  10. Microorganisms, Organic Carbon, and Their Relationship with Oxidant Activity in Hyper-Arid Mars-Like Soils: Implications for Soil Habitability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdivia-Silva, Julio E.; Karouia, Fathi; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; McKay, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Soil samples from the hyper-arid region in the Atacama 23 Desert in Southern Peru (La Joya Desert) were analyzed for total and labile organic carbon (TOC & LOC), phospholipid fatty acids analysis (PLFA), quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), 4',6- diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-fluorescent microscopy, culturable microorganisms, and oxidant activity, in order to understand the relationship between the presence of organic matter and microorganisms in these types of soils. TOC content levels were similar to the labile pool of carbon suggesting the absence of recalcitrant carbon in these soils. The range of LOC was from 2 to 60 micro-g/g of soil. PLFA analysis indicated a maximum of 2.3 x 10(exp 5) cell equivalents/g. Culturing of soil extracts yielded 1.1 x 10(exp 2)-3.7 x 10(exp 3) CFU/g. qRT-PCR showed between 1.0 x 10(exp 2) and 8 x 10(exp 3) cells/g; and DAPI fluorescent staining indicated bacteria counts up to 5 x 104 cells/g. Arid and semiarid samples (controls) showed values between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 11) cells/g with all of the methods used. Importantly, the concentration of microorganisms in hyper-arid soils did not show any correlation with the organic carbon content; however, there was a significant dependence on the oxidant activity present in these soil samples evaluated as the capacity to decompose sodium formate in 10 hours. We suggest that the analysis of oxidant activity could be a useful indicator of the microbial habitability in hyper-arid soils, obviating the need to measure water activity over time. This approach could be useful in astrobiological studies on other worlds.

  11. Photochemistry of Triton's Atmosphere and Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.; Cruikshank, Dale P.

    1995-01-01

    The photochemistry of 32 neutral and 21 ion species in Triton's atmosphere is considered. Parent species N2, CH4, and CO (with a mixing ratio of 3 x 10(exp -4) in our basic model) sublime from the ice with rates of 40, 208, and 0.3 g/sq cm/b.y., respectively. Chemistry below 50 km is driven mostly by photolysis of methane by the solar and interstellar medium Lyman-alpha photons, producing hydrocarbons C2H4, C2H6, and C2H2 which form haze particles with precipitation rates of 135, 28, and 1.3 g/sq cm/b.y., respectively. Some processes are discussed which increase the production of HCN (by an order of magnitude to a value of 29 g/sq cm/b.y.) and involve indirect photolysis of N2 by neutrals. Reanalysis of the measured methane profiles gives an eddy diffusion coefficient K = 4 x 10(exp 3) sq cm/s above the tropopause and a more accurate methane number density near the surface, (3.1 +/- 0.8) x 10(exp 11)/cc cm. Chemistry above 200 km is driven by the solar EUV radiation (lambda less than 1000 A)) and by precipitation of magnetospheric electrons with a total energy input of 10(exp 8) W (based on thermal balance calculations). The most abundant photochemical species are N, H2, H, O, and C. They escape with the total rates of 7.7 x 10(exp 24)/ s, 4.5 x 10(exp 25)/ s, 2.4 x 10(exp 25)/ s, 4.4 x 10(exp 22)/ s, and 1.1 x 10(exp 24)/ s, respectively. Atomic species are transported to a region of 50-200 km and drive the chemistry there. Iono- spheric chemistry explains the formation of an E region at 150-240 km with HCO(+) as a major ion, and of an F region above 240 km with a peak at 320 km and C(+) as a major ion. The ionosphere above 500 km consists of almost equal densities of C(+) and N(+) ions. The model profiles agree with the measured atomic nitrogen and electron density profiles. A number of other models with varying rate coefficients of some reactions, differing properties of the haze particles (chemically passive or active), etc., were developed. These models show

  12. Exceptional field theory: SO(5,5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abzalov, Aidar; Bakhmatov, Ilya; Musaev, Edvard T.

    2015-06-01

    We construct Exceptional Field Theory for the group SO(5, 5) based on the extended (6+16)-dimensional spacetime, which after reduction gives the maximal D = 6 supergravity. We present both a true action and a duality-invariant pseudo-action formulations. All the fields of the theory depend on the complete extended spacetime. The U-duality group SO(5, 5) is made a geometric symmetry of the theory by virtue of introducing the generalised Lie derivative that incorporates a duality transformation. Tensor hierarchy appears as a natural consequence of the algebra of generalised Lie derivatives that are viewed as gauge transformations. Upon truncating different subsets of the extra coordinates, maximal supergravities in D = 11 and D = 10 (type IIB) can be recovered from this theory.

  13. Technical Evaluation Motor no. 5 (TEM-5)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.

    1990-01-01

    Technical Evaluation Motor No. 5 (TEM-5) was static test fired at the Thiokol Corporation Static Test Bay T-97. TEM-5 was a full scale, full duration static test fire of a high performance motor (HPM) configuration solid rocket motor (SRM). The primary purpose of TEM static tests is to recover SRM case and nozzle hardware for use in the redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM) flight program. Inspection and instrumentation data indicate that the TEM-5 static test firing was successful. The ambient temperature during the test was 41 F and the propellant mean bulk temperature (PMBT) was 72 F. Ballistics performance values were within the specified requirements. The overall performance of the TEM-5 components and test equipment was nominal. Dissembly inspection revealed that joint putty was in contact with the inner groove of the inner primary seal of the ignitor adapter-to-forward dome (inner) joint gasket; this condition had not occurred on any previous static test motor or flight RSRM. While no qualification issues were addressed on TEM-5, two significant component changes were evaluated. Those changes were a new vented assembly process for the case-to-nozzle joint and the installation of two redesigned field joint protection systems. Performance of the vented case-to-nozzle joint assembly was successful, and the assembly/performance differences between the two field joint protection system (FJPS) configurations were compared.

  14. Microwave Conductivity of Laser Ablated YBa2Cu3O7-delta Superconducting Films and Its Relation to Microstrip Transmission Line Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Warner, J. D.; Chorey, C. M.; Ebihara, B. T.; Romanofsky, R. R.; Heinen, V. O.

    1990-01-01

    We report on the values of the microwave conductivity in the normal (sigma(subN)) and superconducting (sigma*=sigma(sub1)-j sigma(sub2)) states of two laser ablated YBa2CU3O7(sigma) thin films at 35 GHz, in the temperature range from 20 to 300 K. The films 0.7 and 0.4 micrometers) were deposited on LaA10(sub3) by laser ablation. The conductivity was obtained from the microwave power transmitted through the films and assuming a two-fluid model. Values of sigma(subN) approximately 2.3 X 10(exp5) S/m at room temperature for both films, and of sigma(sub1) approximately 6.3 X 10(exp5) and 4.6 X 10(exp5) S/m at temperatures around 80 K were obtained for the 0.7 and 0.4 micrometer films respectively. For sigma(sub2) values of 4.9 X 10(exp6) and 5.4 X 10(exp6) S/m were obtained for the 0.7 and 0.4 micrometer films at 80 K. The expected conductor losses and Q-factor of a superconducting ring resonator were calculated using these conductivity values. The theoretical values were then compared with the experimental results obtained for a resonator fabricated from one of these films.

  15. Turbulent mixing layers in the interstellar medium of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, J. D.; Shull, J. M.; Begelman, M. C.

    1993-01-01

    We propose that turbulent mixing layers are common in the interstellar medium (ISM). Injection of kinetic energy into the ISM by supernovae and stellar winds, in combination with density and temperature inhomogeneities, results in shear flows. Such flows will become turbulent due to the high Reynolds number (low viscosity) of the ISM plasma. These turbulent boundary layers will be particularly interesting where the shear flow occurs at boundaries of hot (approximately 10(exp 6) K) and cold or warm (10(exp 2) - 10(exp 4) K) gas. Mixing will occur in such layers producing intermediate-temperature gas at T is approximately equal to 10(exp 5.0) - 10(exp 5.5) that radiates strongly in the optical, ultraviolet, and EUV. We have modeled these layers under the assumptions of rapid mixing down to the atomic level and steady flow. By including the effects of non-equilibrium ionization and self-photoionization of the gas as it cools after mixing, we predict the intensities of numerous optical, infrared, and ultraviolet emission lines, as well as absorption column densities of C 4, N 5, Si 4, and O 6.

  16. A burst from a thermonuclear runaway on an ONeMg white dwarf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starrfield, S.; Politano, M.; Truran, J. W.; Sparks, W. M.

    1992-01-01

    Studies which examine the consequences of accretion, at rates of 10(exp -9) solar mass/yr and 10(exp -10) solar mass/yr, onto an ONeMg white dwarf with a mass of 1.35 solar masses are performed. In these studies, a Lagrangian, hydrodynamic, one-dimensional computer code was used. The code now includes a network with 89 nuclei up to Ca-40, elemental diffusion, new opacities, and new equation of state. The initial abundance distribution corresponded to a mixture that was enriched to either 25, 50, or 75 percent in products of carbon burning. The remaining material in each case is assumed to have a solar composition. The evolution of the thermonuclear runaway in the 1.35 solar mass white dwarf, with M = 10(exp -9) solar mass, produced peak temperatures in the shell source exceeding 300 million degrees. The sequence produced significant amounts of Na-22 from proton captures onto Ne-20 and significant amounts of Al-26 from proton captures on Mg-24. This sequence ejected 5.2 x 10(exp -6) solar mass moving with speeds from approximately 100 km/s to 2300 km/s. When the mass accretion rate was decreased to 10(exp -10) solar mass, the resulting thermonuclear runaway produced a shock that moved through the outer envelope of the white dwarf and raised the surface luminosity to L greater than 10(exp 7) solar luminosity and the effective temperature to values exceeding 10(exp 7) K. The interaction of the material expanding from off of the white dwarf with the accretion disk should produce a burst of gamma-rays.

  17. Electrical characterization of 6H crystalline silicon carbide. M.S. Thesis Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lempner, Stephen E.

    1994-01-01

    Crystalline silicon carbide (SiC) substrates and epilayers, undoped as well as n- and p-doped, have been electrically characterized by performing Hall effect and resistivity measurements (van der Pauw) over the temperature range of approximately 85 K to 650 K (200 K to 500 K for p-type sample). By fitting the measured temperature dependent carrier concentration data to the single activation energy theoretical model: (1) the activation energy for the nitrogen donor ranged from 0.078 eV to 0.101 eV for a doping concentration range of 10(exp 17) cm(exp -3) to 10(exp 18) cm(exp -3) and (2) the activation energy for the aluminum acceptor was 0.252 eV for a doping concentration of 4.6 x 10(exp 18) cm(exp -3). By fitting the measured temperature dependent carrier concentration data to the double activation energy level theoretical model for the nitrogen donor: (1) the activation energy for the hexagonal site was 0.056 eV and 0.093 eV corresponding to doping concentrations of 3.33 x 10 (exp 17) cm(exp -3) and 1.6 x 10(exp 18) cm(exp -3) and (2) the activation energy for the cubic site was 0.113 and 0.126 eV corresponding to doping concentrations of 4.2 x 10(exp 17) cm(exp -3) and 5.4 x 10(exp 18) cm(exp -3).

  18. RF Manipulation of Ions in the High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, J. Boise; Martin, James J.; Sims, William H.; Chakrabarti, Suman; Lewis, Raymond A.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The annihilation of antimatter provides the highest mass specific energy of any other known reaction. Proper harnessing of this energy holds great promise for future space propulsion systems. Many different propulsion concepts have been proposed that take advantage of antimatter, either using matter-antimatter as the primary fuel, or as a 'spark plug' for fusion and fission systems. In order to begin to address these concepts experimentally, a method of storing and transporting antimatter must be developed. The High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT) is a first-generation storage and transportation device designed to store and transport 10(exp 12) antiprotons with a storage half-life of 18 days. It uses a Penning-Malmberg ion trap with a 4T magnetic field and 20 kV potential. This will enable researchers much more flexibility in the design of antimatter experiments related to propulsion. Ions cannot be stored indefinitely in a real trap, as ion cloud instabilities develop from imperfections in manufacturing and misalignments in assembly. Previous work has been done at both the National Institute of Standards and University of California in San Diego in using RF (radio frequency) signals to both diagnose and confine the ion cloud. Two electrodes in the trap have been segmented to allow both reception and transmission of RF waves in the ion cloud. Experiments are underway to determine the number of ions and density in the cloud by "listening" to protons contained in the HiPAT. Currently we believe the density of ions stored in the trap is roughly 10(exp 15) m(exp -3). Development of non-destructive techniques is vital to the project goals, enabling continuous monitoring of the quantities stored in the system. Experimental work is also being done in identifying RF transmission frequencies that can manipulate the density of the cloud, by exchanging energy and momentum between the RF wave and the ions. Preliminary experiments have demonstrated this interaction.

  19. Aerodynamic characteristics and pressure distributions for an executive-jet baseline airfoil section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Dennis O.; Mineck, Raymond E.

    1993-01-01

    A wind tunnel test of an executive-jet baseline airfoil model was conducted in the adaptive-wall test section of the NASA Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. The primary goal of the test was to measure airfoil aerodynamic characteristics over a wide range of flow conditions that encompass two design points. The two design Mach numbers were 0.654 and 0.735 with corresponding Reynolds numbers of 4.5 x 10(exp 6) and 8.9 x 10(exp 6) based on chord, respectively, and normal-force coefficients of 0.98 and 0.51, respectively. The tests were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.250 to 0.780 and a chord Reynolds number range from 3 x 10(exp 6) to 18 x 10(exp 6). The angle of attack was varied from -2 deg to a maximum below 10 deg with one exception in which the maximum was 14 deg for a Mach number of 0.250 at a chord Reynolds number of 4.5 x 10(exp 6). Boundary-layer transition was fixed at 5 percent of chord on both the upper and lower surfaces of the model for most of the test. The adaptive-wall test section had flexible top and bottom walls and rigid sidewalls. Wall interference was minimized by the movement of the adaptive walls, and the airfoil aerodynamic characteristics were corrected for any residual top and bottom wall interference.

  20. 5 CFR 1632.5 - Exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... commodities, or (B) significantly endanger the stability of any financial institution; or (ii) Be likely to... financial information obtained from a person and privileged or confidential; (5) Involve accusing any person... regulation or supervision of financial institutions; (9) Disclose information the premature disclosure...

  1. 41 CFR 51-5.5 - Prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... under authority of the Javits-Wagner-O'Day Act (41 U.S.C. 47(b)). (b) Prices for commodities include... in § 51-5.6. (c) Price changes for commodities and services shall usually apply to orders received by... period a copy of the statement of work applicable to the new service period. (e) If a...

  2. 5 CFR 1653.5 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD COURT ORDERS AND LEGAL PROCESSES AFFECTING THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN ACCOUNTS Retirement Benefits Court Orders § 1653.5 Payment. (a) Payment date. Payment pursuant to a qualifying retirement benefits court order will generally be made: (1) 60 days after the...

  3. 5 CFR 1653.5 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD COURT ORDERS AND LEGAL PROCESSES AFFECTING THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN ACCOUNTS Retirement Benefits Court Orders § 1653.5 Payment. (a) Payment pursuant to a qualifying retirement benefits court order ordinarily will be made 60 days after the date of the TSP...

  4. 5 CFR 1653.5 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD COURT ORDERS AND LEGAL PROCESSES AFFECTING THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN ACCOUNTS Retirement Benefits Court Orders § 1653.5 Payment. (a) Payment pursuant to a qualifying retirement benefits court order ordinarily will be made 60 days after the date of the TSP...

  5. 28 CFR 5.5 - Registration fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... materials contained in the public files, produced by computer, such as tapes or printouts, under § 5.601: actual direct cost of producing the copy, including the apportionable salary costs; and (12) For computer searches of records through the use of existing programming: Direct actual costs, including the cost...

  6. 28 CFR 5.5 - Registration fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... materials contained in the public files, produced by computer, such as tapes or printouts, under § 5.601: actual direct cost of producing the copy, including the apportionable salary costs; and (12) For computer searches of records through the use of existing programming: Direct actual costs, including the cost...

  7. 28 CFR 5.5 - Registration fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... materials contained in the public files, produced by computer, such as tapes or printouts, under § 5.601: actual direct cost of producing the copy, including the apportionable salary costs; and (12) For computer searches of records through the use of existing programming: Direct actual costs, including the cost...

  8. 28 CFR 5.5 - Registration fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... materials contained in the public files, produced by computer, such as tapes or printouts, under § 5.601: actual direct cost of producing the copy, including the apportionable salary costs; and (12) For computer searches of records through the use of existing programming: Direct actual costs, including the cost...

  9. 28 CFR 5.5 - Registration fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... materials contained in the public files, produced by computer, such as tapes or printouts, under § 5.601: actual direct cost of producing the copy, including the apportionable salary costs; and (12) For computer searches of records through the use of existing programming: Direct actual costs, including the cost...

  10. FIFI: The MPE Garching/UC Berkeley Far-Infrared Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geis, Norbert; Genzel, Reinhard; Haggerty, M.; Herrmann, F.; Jackson, J.; Madden, Suzanne C.; Nikola, T.; Poglitsch, Albrecht; Rumitz, M.; Stacey, G. J.

    1995-01-01

    We describe the performance characteristics of the MPE Garching/UC Berkeley Far-Infrared Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FIFI) for the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). The spectrometer features two or three cryogenic tunable Fabry-Perot filters in series giving spectral resolution R of up to 10(exp 5) in the range of 40 microns less than lambda less than 200 microns, and an imaging 5x5 array of photoconductive detectors with variable focal plane plate scale. The instrument works at background limited sensitivity of up to 2 x 10(exp -19) W cm(exp -2) Hz(exp -1/2) per pixel per resolution element at R = 10(exp 5) on the KAO.

  11. GEOS-5 Modeled Clouds

    NASA Video Gallery

    This visualization shows clouds from a simulation using the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Verison 5 (GEOS-5). The global atmospheric simulation covers a period from Feb 3, 2010 through Feb ...

  12. LAURA Users Manual: 5.5-64987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazaheri, Alireza; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Johnston, Christopher O.; Kleb, William L.

    2013-01-01

    This users manual provides in-depth information concerning installation and execution of LAURA, version 5. LAURA is a structured, multi-block, computational aerothermodynamic simulation code. Version 5 represents a major refactoring of the original Fortran 77 LAURA code toward a modular structure afforded by Fortran 95. The refactoring improved usability and maintain ability by eliminating the requirement for problem dependent recompilations, providing more intuitive distribution of functionality, and simplifying interfaces required for multi-physics coupling. As a result, LAURA now shares gas-physics modules, MPI modules, and other low-level modules with the Fun3D unstructured-grid code. In addition to internal refactoring, several new features and capabilities have been added, e.g., a GNU standard installation process, parallel load balancing, automatic trajectory point sequencing, free-energy minimization, and coupled ablation and flowfield radiation.

  13. NAUA-MOD5

    2007-04-16

    NAUA-MOD5 and NAUA-MOD5/M calculate the behaviour of a polydisperse aerosol system in a closed container. This container can be subdivided into a number of subcompartments geometrically separated but coupled by gas flows. For NAUA-MOD5/M an arbitrary configuration of subcompartments and flow patterns can be treated.

  14. 5-Second Rule

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5-second rule" — that random saying about how food won't become contaminated with bacteria if you pick it up off the floor in 5 seconds or less. The 5-second rule has become such a part of our culture that scientists actually tested it. As you can ...

  15. Proton irradiation effects on advanced digital and microwave III-V components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hash, G. L.; Schwank, J. R.; Shaneyfelt, M. R.; Sandoval, C. E.; Connors, M. P.; Sheridan, T. J.; Sexton, F. W.; Slayton, E. M.; Heise, J. A.; Foster, C.

    1994-01-01

    A wide range of advanced III-V components suitable for use in high-speed satellite communication systems were evaluated for displacement damage and single-event effects in high-energy, high-fluence proton environments. Transistors and integrated circuits (both digital and MMIC) were irradiated with protons at energies from 41 to 197 MeV and at fluences from 10(exp 10) to 2 x 10(exp 14) protons/sq cm. Large soft-error rates were measured for digital GaAs MESFET (3 x 10(exp -5) errors/bit-day) and heterojunction bipolar circuits (10(exp -5) errors/bit-day). No transient signals were detected from MMIC circuits. The largest degradation in transistor response caused by displacement damage was observed for 1.0-(mu)m depletion- and enhancement-mode MESFET transistors. Shorter gate length MESFET transistors and HEMT transistors exhibited less displacement-induced damage. These results show that memory-intensive GaAs digital circuits may result in significant system degradation due to single-event upset in natural and man-made space environments. However, displacement damage effects should not be a limiting factor for fluence levels up to 10(exp 14) protons/sq cm (equivalent to total doses in excess of 10 Mrad(GaAs)).

  16. Time-dependent analysis of 8 days of CN spatial profiles in comet P/Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Combi, Michael; Huang, Bormin; Cochran, Anita; Fink, Uwe; Schulz, Rita

    1994-01-01

    CN profiles in comet P/Halley were constructed from observations taken at three observatories during an 8 day period in April 1986. These data provide a time series of CN spatial profiles spanning just over one 7.37 day period from 1986 April 7 to April 15 and sample distances from the nucleus from just over 10(exp 3) km to 10(exp 6) km. The effect of the 7.37 day periodic variation on the CN distribution in P/Halley has been examined by using the time-dependent model applied earlier to a subset of the data. Because of the large spatial scale of the data on April 7, 8, and 9 (approx. 10(exp 6) km), and the corresponding transport time in the coma, information present in the spatial profiles regarding the gas production rate actually covers nearly two full periods. These spatially extended profiles clearly show the wavy structures outside 10(exp 5) km. Such structures were predicted in a previous analysis (Combi & Fink 1993) that was based solely on the photometric light curve and on profiles which only extended to distances less than 10(exp 5) km. We are now able to reproduce the highly variable Halley correction for the variation in gas production rate.

  17. Synthesis of CORONA 5 (Ti-4.5Al-5Mo-1.5Cr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froes, F. H.; Highberger, W. T.

    1980-05-01

    The synthesis of CORONA 5 (Ti-4.5Al-5Mo-1.5Cr) is described from the viewpoints of alloy chemistry and microstructure. Lenticular alpha is shown to maximize fracture resistance parameters, while a globular alpha optimizes hightemperature flow characteristics. The processing and application of CORONA 5 as forging, plate, sheet and powder metallurgy products are presented. The weldability of the alloy is described and potential use of the alloy for engine applications discussed. The improved mechanical property behavior over the "workhorse" Ti-6Al-4V alloy combined with cost-effective production should result in use of CORONA 5 in many applications. Future developments for CORONA 5 are suggested both in terms of further mechanical property optimization and in light of the economics of producing the alloy.

  18. Water group ion distributions in the midcometosheath of comet Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huddleston, D. E.; Neugebauer, M.; Goldstein, Bruce E.

    1993-01-01

    In the midcometosheath of comet Halley (1 x 10(exp 5) to 2 x 10(exp 5) km from the nucleus) the center-of-mass plasma frame is approximately the bulk flow velocity of the cometary ions, and the Alfven wave speed is an appreciable fraction of the flow speed. Here, the peaks of the water group ion distributions observed by the Giotto ion mass spectrometer are at velocities consistently below the expected pickup speed. It is shown that this effect is consistent with the scattering of the new pickup ions onto a bispherical shell distribution. The model does not fit the data inside approximately 1.2 x 10(exp 5) km, however, possibly as a result of the growing importance of collisions or the presence of other processes such as scattering on obliquely propagating magnetosonic waves.

  19. QCD for Postgraduates (5/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Modern QCD - Lecture 5 We will introduce and discuss in some detail the two main classes of jets: cone type and sequential-recombination type. We will discuss their basic properties, as well as more advanced concepts such as jet substructure, jet filtering, ways of optimizing the jet radius, ways of defining the areas of jets, and of establishing the quality measure of the jet-algorithm in terms of discriminating power in specific searches. Finally we will discuss applications for Higgs searches involving boosted particles.

  20. Tracking the global generation and exports of e-waste. Do existing estimates add up?

    PubMed

    Breivik, Knut; Armitage, James M; Wania, Frank; Jones, Kevin C

    2014-01-01

    The transport of discarded electronic and electrical appliances (e-waste) to developing regions has received considerable attention, but it is difficult to assess the significance of this issue without a quantitative understanding of the amounts involved. The main objective of this study is to track the global transport of e-wastes by compiling and constraining existing estimates of the amount of e-waste generated domestically in each country MGEN, exported from countries belonging to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) MEXP, and imported in countries outside of the OECD MIMP. Reference year is 2005 and all estimates are given with an uncertainty range. Estimates of MGEN obtained by apportioning a global total of ∼ 35,000 kt (range 20,000-50,000 kt) based on a nation's gross domestic product agree well with independent estimates of MGEN for individual countries. Import estimates MIMP to the countries believed to be the major recipients of e-waste exports from the OECD globally (China, India, and five West African countries) suggests that ∼ 5,000 kt (3,600 kt-7,300 kt) may have been imported annually to these non-OECD countries alone, which represents ∼ 23% (17%-34%) of the amounts of e-waste generated domestically within the OECD. MEXP for each OECD country is then estimated by applying this fraction of 23% to its MGEN. By allocating each country's MGEN, MIMP, MEXP and MNET = MGEN + MIMP - MEXP, we can map the global generation and flows of e-waste from OECD to non-OECD countries. While significant uncertainties remain, we note that estimated import into seven non-OECD countries alone are often at the higher end of estimates of exports from OECD countries.

  1. Tracking the global generation and exports of e-waste. Do existing estimates add up?

    PubMed

    Breivik, Knut; Armitage, James M; Wania, Frank; Jones, Kevin C

    2014-01-01

    The transport of discarded electronic and electrical appliances (e-waste) to developing regions has received considerable attention, but it is difficult to assess the significance of this issue without a quantitative understanding of the amounts involved. The main objective of this study is to track the global transport of e-wastes by compiling and constraining existing estimates of the amount of e-waste generated domestically in each country MGEN, exported from countries belonging to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) MEXP, and imported in countries outside of the OECD MIMP. Reference year is 2005 and all estimates are given with an uncertainty range. Estimates of MGEN obtained by apportioning a global total of ∼ 35,000 kt (range 20,000-50,000 kt) based on a nation's gross domestic product agree well with independent estimates of MGEN for individual countries. Import estimates MIMP to the countries believed to be the major recipients of e-waste exports from the OECD globally (China, India, and five West African countries) suggests that ∼ 5,000 kt (3,600 kt-7,300 kt) may have been imported annually to these non-OECD countries alone, which represents ∼ 23% (17%-34%) of the amounts of e-waste generated domestically within the OECD. MEXP for each OECD country is then estimated by applying this fraction of 23% to its MGEN. By allocating each country's MGEN, MIMP, MEXP and MNET = MGEN + MIMP - MEXP, we can map the global generation and flows of e-waste from OECD to non-OECD countries. While significant uncertainties remain, we note that estimated import into seven non-OECD countries alone are often at the higher end of estimates of exports from OECD countries. PMID:25007134

  2. Photochemistry of Triton's Atmosphere and Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.; Cruikshank, Dale P.

    1995-01-01

    The photochemistry of 32 neutral and 21 ion species in Triton's atmosphere is considered. Parent species N2, CH4, and CO (with a mixing ratio of 3 x 10(exp -4) in our basic model) sublime from the ice with rates of 40, 208, and 0.3 g/sq cm/b.y., respectively. Chemistry below 50 km is driven mostly by photolysis of methane by the solar and interstellar medium Lyman-alpha photons, producing hydrocarbons C2H4, C2H6, and C2H2 which form haze particles with precipitation rates of 135, 28, and 1.3 g/sq cm/b.y., respectively. Some processes are discussed which increase the production of HCN (by an order of magnitude to a value of 29 g/sq cm/b.y.) and involve indirect photolysis of N2 by neutrals. Reanalysis of the measured methane profiles gives an eddy diffusion coefficient K = 4 x 10(exp 3)sq cm/s above the tropopause and a more accurate methane number density near the surface, (3.1 +/- 0.8)x IO(exp 11)/cu cm. Chemistry above 200 km is driven by the solar EUV radiation (lambda less than 1000 A) and by precipitation of magnetospheric electrons with a total energy input of 10(exp 8) W (based on thermal balance calculations). The most abundant photochemical species are N, H2, H, 0, and C. They escape with the total rates of 7.7 x 10(exp 24)/ s, 4.5 x 10(exp 25)/s, 2.4 x 10(exp 25)/s, 4.4 x 10(exp 22)/s, and 1.1 x 10(exp 24), respectively. Atomic species are transported to a region of 50-200 km and drive the chemistry there. Ionospheric chemistry explains the formation of an E region at 150-240 km with HCO(+) as a major ion, and of an F region above 240 km with a peak at 320 km and C(+) as a major ion. The ionosphere above 500 km consists of almost equal densities of C(+) and N(+) ions. The model profiles agree with the measured atomic nitrogen and electron density profiles. A number of other models with varying rate coefficients of some reactions, differing properties of the haze particles (chemically passive or active), etc., were developed. These models show that there

  3. Radioimmunoassay for 5-methyltetrahydrohomofolate

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, K.L.; Ho, D.H.; Benjamin, R.S.; Yang, F.; Sickler, J.; Brown, N.S.; Bodey, G.P.

    1981-08-01

    A radioimmunoassay for 5-methyltetrahydrohomofolate has been developed by using antibody induced in rabbits by 5-methyltetrahydrohomofolate-bovine serum albumin conjugates. The labeled drug was prepared by condensing it with (/sub 3/H)histamine or (/sub 125/I)histamine. The assay employing either isotope was simple and reproducible and had identical sensitivities. The specificity of the antibody was characterized by comparing the effectiveness of various related compounds in displacing labeled 5-methyltetrahydrohomofolate from the binding site of the antisera. At concentrations up to 1000 microgram/ml, homofolate acid, tetrahydrohomofolic acid, folic acid and methotrexate showed no competition for the binding. 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid and 5-formyltetrahydrofolic acid cross-reacted with the antisera; the concentrations producing 50% binding inhibition were 2.8 and 24 microgram, respectively, as compared to 0.01 microgram for 5-methyltetrahydrohomofolate. The assay can be used for measuring the drug in plasma and tissues. This study supports its usability for clinical pharmacologic studies.

  4. Absorption of water and lubricating oils into porous nylon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertrand, P. A.

    1995-01-01

    Oil and water absorption from air into sintered porous nylon can be described by infiltration into the pores of the material. This process can be modeled by a diffusion-like mechanism. For water absorption, we find a formal diffusion coefficient of 1.5 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min when the nylon is initially dry. The diffusion coefficient is 4 x 10(exp -6)sq cm/min when the nylon is oil-impregnated prior to air exposure. In a 52% RH atmosphere, dry nylon absorbs 3% w/w water, and oil-impregnated nylon absorbs 0.6% w/w water. For oil absorption there are three steps: (1) surface absorption and infiltration into (2) larger and (3) smaller pores. Surface absorption is too fast to be measured in these experiments. The diffusion coefficient for the second step is 6 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min for SRG-60 oil into dry nylon and 4 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min for air-equilibrated nylon. The diffusion coefficient for the third step is about 1 x 10(exp -6)sq cm/min for both cases. The total amount of oil absorbed is 31% w/w. The interaction between water and nylon is not as strong as that between water and cotton-phenolic: oil can replace water, and only a small amount of water can enter previously oil-impregnated nylon.

  5. The Observed Galactic Annihilation Line: Possible Signature of Accreting Small Mass Black Holes in the Galactic Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Chardonnet, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    Various balloon and satellite observatories have revealed what appears to be an extended source of 0.511 MeV annihilation radiation with flux of approx. 10(exp -3) photons/sq cm/s centered on the Galactic Center. Positrons from radioactive products of stellar explosions can account for a significant fraction of the emission. We discuss an additional source for this emission: namely e(+)e(-) pairs produced when X-rays generated from the approx. 2.6 x 10(exp 6) solar mass Galactic Center Black Hole interact with approx. 10 MeV temperature blackbody emission from 10(exp 17) g black holes within 10(exp 14-l5) cm of the center. The number of such Small Mass Black Holes (SMMBHs) can account for the production of the 10(exp 42) e(+)/s that produces the observed annihilation in the inner Galaxy when transport effects are taken into account. We consider the possibility for confirming the presence of these SMMBHs in the Galactic Center region with future generations of gamma-ray instruments if a blackbody like emission of approx. 10 MeV temperature would be detected by them. Small Mass Black Hole can be a potential candidate for dark (invisible) matter hal

  6. X-ray Characterization of Detached-Grown Germanium Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Schweizer, M.; Raghothamachar, B.; Dudley, M.; Szoke, J.; Cobb, S. D.; Szofran, F. R.

    2005-01-01

    Germanium (111)-oriented crystals have been grown by the vertical Bridgman technique, in both detached and attached configurations. Microstructural characterization of these crystals has been performed using synchrotron white beam x-ray topography (SWBXT) and double axis x-ray diffraction. Dislocation densities were measured from x-ray topographs obtained using the reflection geometry. For detached-grown crystals, the dislocation density is 4-6 x 10(exp 4) per square centimeter in the seed region, and decreases in the direction of growth to less than 10(exp 3) per square centimeter, and in some crystals reaches less than 10(exp 2) per square centimeter. For crystals grown in the attached configuration, dislocation densities were on the order of 10(exp 4) per square centimeter in the middle of the crystals, increasing to greater than 10(exp 5) per square centimeter near the edge. The measured dislocation densities are in excellent agreement with etch pit density results. The rocking curve linewidths were relatively insensitive to the dislocation densities. However, broadening and splitting of the rocking curves were observed in the vicinity of subgrain boundaries identified by x-ray topography in some of the attached-grown crystals.

  7. Volatility and Wear Characteristics of a Variety of Liquid Lubricants for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quynhgiao N.; Jones, William R., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    The vapor pressures and near characteristics are critical properties for liquid lubricants to assure long-term reliability and performance in space applications. Vapor pressures, obtained using a Knudsen cell technique, and near properties, obtained using a vacuum four-ball apparatus, were measured for a series of unformulated liquid lubricants. These include: two multiple alkylated cyclopentanes (MACs) (X-1000 and X-2000), two linear perfluoropolyalkylethers (PFPAEs) (Z-25 and 815Z), and four silahydrocarbons (a tri-, a tetra-, and two pentas). Vapor pressures were measured at three elevated temperatures (423, 448, and 498 K) and extrapolated to room temperature 298 K. The lowest 298 K vapor pressure of 5.7 x 10(exp -14) Pa, was obtained with the PFPAE fluid (815Z) and the highest value with the low molecular weight MAC (X-1000) at 3.6 x 10(exp -7) Pa. In addition, vacuum near rates were determined for some of the lubricants. The lowest wear rates (approximately 3 x 10(exp -11) cubic mm/mm) were observed for three of the silahydrocarbons while the highest wear rate (approximately 2 x 10(exp-9) cubic mm/mm) were observed with the two PFPAE fluids (Z-25 and 815Z). The MAC (X-2000) yielded a wear rate of about 10(exp -10) cubic mm/mm. The results indicated that the silahydrocarbon class of liquid lubricants offers the better potential for space applications.

  8. Volatility and Wear Characteristics of a Variety of Liquid Lubricants for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, QuynhGiao N.; Jones, William R., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    The vapor pressures and wear characteristics are critical properties for liquid lubricants to assure long-term reliability and performance in space applications. Vapor pressures, obtained using a Knudsen cell technique, and wear properties, obtained using a vacuum four-ball apparatus, were measured for a series of unformulated liquid lubricants. These included two multiply alkylated cyclopentanes (MACs) (X-1000 and X2000), two linear perfluoropolyalkylethers (PFPAEs) (Z-25 and 815Z), and four silahydrocarbons (a tri, a tetra, and two pentas). Vapor pressures were measured at three elevated temperatures (423, 448, and 498 K) and extrapolated to room temperature 298 K. The lowest 298 K vapor pressure of 5.7 x 10(exp -14) Pa was obtained with the PFPAE fluid (815Z) and the highest value with the low molecular weight MAC (X-1000) at 3.6 x 10(exp -7) Pa. In addition, vacuum wear rates were determined for some of the lubricants. The lowest wear rates (approximately 3 x 10(exp -11) cubic mm/mm) were observed for three of the silahydrocarbons while the highest wear rates (approximately 2 x 10(exp -9) cubic mm/mm) were observed with the two PFPAE fluids (Z-25 and 815Z). The MAC (X-2000) yielded a wear rate of about 10(exp -10) cubic mm/mm. The results indicated that the silahydrocarbon class of liquid lubricants offers the better potential for space applications.

  9. An assessment of volatile release from recent volcanism in Elysium, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B.

    1993-01-01

    The amount and rate of release of volatiles (H2O, CO2, etc.) from recent volcanism in Elysium, Mars, are estimated. Possible implications of these volatiles on the climate, weathering, and surface morphology are discussed. Total eruptic volcanics may amount to about 4 x 10 exp 5 cu km and would have released large quantities of volatiles into the Martian environment. Assuming that the lavas contained 1.0 wt pct water, about 7.6 x 10 exp 15 kg of the water, or about 1000 times the present atmospheric water inventory, would have been released. Release amounts of other volatiles are estimated to be 10 exp 15 kg of S, 10 exp 13 kg of Cl, and 10 exp 13 kg of F. The short-term effect of the SO2 gas would be to warm the climate due to its greenhouse properties. Conversion to sulfate aerosols might have resulted in a net surface cooling due to scattering of sunlight. As the sulfate aerosols settled from the atmosphere, the climate could have returned to its preeruption equilibrium.

  10. Neuropharmacology of 5-hydroxytryptamine

    PubMed Central

    Richard Green, A

    2006-01-01

    This review outlines the history of our knowledge of the neuropharmacology of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin), focusing primarily on the work of U.K. scientists. The existence of a vasoconstrictive substance in the blood has been known for over 135 years. The substance was named serotonin and finally identified as 5-HT in 1949. The presence of 5-HT in the brain was reported by Gaddum in 1954 and it was Gaddum who also demonstrated that the action of 5-HT (in the gut) was antagonised by the potent hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide. This provoked the notion that 5-HT played a pivotal role in the control of mood and subsequent investigations have generally confirmed this hypothesis. Over the last 50 years a good understanding has been gained of the mechanisms involved in control of the storage, synthesis and degradation of 5-HT in the brain. Knowledge has also been gained on control of the functional activity of this monoamine, often by the use of behavioural models. A considerable literature also now exists on the mechanisms by which many of the drugs used to treat psychiatric illness alter the functional activity of 5-HT, particularly the drugs used to treat depression. Over the last 20 years the number of identified 5-HT receptor subtypes has increased from 2 to 14, or possibly more. A major challenge now is to utilise this knowledge to develop receptor-specific drugs and use the information gained to better treat central nervous system disorders. PMID:16402098

  11. Plant 5-Methylthioribose Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Guranowski, Andrzej

    1983-01-01

    Activity of 5-methylthioribose kinase, the enzyme which catalyzes the ATP-dependent formation of 1-phospho-5-methylthioribose, has been revealed in the extracts from various higher plant species. Almost 2,000-fold-purified enzyme has been obtained from yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L. cv Topaz) seed extract. Molecular weight of the native enzyme is 70,000 as judged by gel filtration. The lupin 5-methylthioribose kinase exhibits a strict requirement for divalent metal ions. Among the ions tested, only Mg2+ and Mn2+ acted as cofactors. The curve of kinase initial velocity versus pH reaches plateau at pH 10 to 10.5. The Km values calculated for 5-methylthioribose and ATP are 4.3 and 8.3 micromolar, respectively. Among nucleoside triphosphates tested as potential phosphate donors, only dATP could substitute in the reaction for ATP. 5-Isobutylthioribose, an analog of 5-methylthioribose, proved to be the γ-ATP-phosphate acceptor, too. The compound inhibits competitively synthesis of 1-phospho-5-methylthioribose (Ki = 1.4 micromolar). Lupin 5-methylthioribose kinase is completely and irreversibly inhibited by the antisulfhydryl reagent, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. As in bacteria (Ferro, Barrett, Shapiro 1978 J Biol Chem 253: 6021-6025), the enzyme may be involved in a new, alternative pathway of methionine synthesis in plant tissues. PMID:16662931

  12. Integrated developmental model of life-support capabilities in wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darnell, R. L.; Obrien, C. O.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a model for CO2, O2, H2O, and nitrogen use during the life cycle of wheat. Spreadsheets and accompanying graphs were developed to illustrate plant population reactions to environmental parameters established in the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) program at Kennedy Space Center, Fl. The spreadsheets and graphs were produced using validated biomass production chamber (BPC) data from BWT931. Conditions of the BPC during the 83 day plant growth period were as follows: The BPC area is 27.8 m(exp 2), volume is 113 m(exp 3). Temperatures during the 83 day plant growth period ranged from 16.3 to 24.8 C during the light cycle (except for day 69, when the minimum and maximum temperatures were 7.7 C and 7.9 C, respectively) and 14.5 C and 23.6 C during the dark cycle (except for day 49, when the minimum and maximum temperatures were 11.1 C and 11.3 C, respectively). Relative humidity was 85 percent for the first seven days of plant growth, and 70 percent thereafter. The plant leaf canopy area was 10 m(exp 2). Presented is a list and explanation of each spreadsheet and accompanying graph(s), conditions under which the data were collected, and formulas used to obtain each result.

  13. Search for nuclearites using the MACRO detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlen, S.; Ambrosio, M.; Antolini, R.; Auriemma, G.; Baker, R.; Baldini, A.; Barbarino, G. C.; Barish, B. C.; Battistoni, G.; Bellotti, R.

    1992-09-01

    A negative search using 1/12 of the eventual MACRO detector has yielded nuclearite flux limits of 1.1 x 10 exp -14/sq cm/sr/s for in between 10 exp -10 and 0.1 g, and 5.5 x 10 exp -15/sq cm/sr/s for m greater than 0.1 g. We have modified the formula of De Rujula and Glashow for the light yield of nuclearites to include the UV light absorbed and reemitted in the visible region, and proved that the MACRO sensitivity extends almost to the escape velocity of the earth. Our flux limit, therefore, can be used to address nuclearites that are possibly trapped in the solar system.

  14. Real-Tme Boron Nitride Erosion Measurements of the HiVHAc Thruster via Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Brian C.; Yalin, Azer P.; Gallimore, Alec; Huang, Wensheng; Kamhawi, Hani

    2013-01-01

    Cavity ring-down spectroscopy was used to make real-time erosion measurements from the NASA High Voltage Hall Accelerator thruster. The optical sensor uses 250 nm light to measure absorption of atomic boron in the plume of an operating Hall thruster. Theerosion rate of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator thruster was measured for discharge voltages ranging from 330 to 600 V and discharge powers ranging from 1 to 3 kW. Boron densities as high as 6.5 x 10(exp 15) per cubic meter were found within the channel. Using a very simple boronvelocity model, approximate volumetric erosion rates between 5.0 x 10(exp -12) and 8.2 x 10(exp -12) cubic meter per second were found.

  15. Compressible Boundary Layer Predictions at High Reynolds Number using Hybrid LES/RANS Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Jung-Il; Edwards, Jack R.; Baurle, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Simulations of compressible boundary layer flow at three different Reynolds numbers (Re(sub delta) = 5.59x10(exp 4), 1.78x10(exp 5), and 1.58x10(exp 6) are performed using a hybrid large-eddy/Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes method. Variations in the recycling/rescaling method, the higher-order extension, the choice of primitive variables, the RANS/LES transition parameters, and the mesh resolution are considered in order to assess the model. The results indicate that the present model can provide good predictions of the mean flow properties and second-moment statistics of the boundary layers considered. Normalized Reynolds stresses in the outer layer are found to be independent of Reynolds number, similar to incompressible turbulent boundary layers.

  16. The Deep Space Network stability analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breidenthal, Julian C.; Greenhall, Charles A.; Hamell, Robert L.; Kuhnle, Paul F.

    1995-01-01

    A stability analyzer for testing NASA Deep Space Network installations during flight radio science experiments is described. The stability analyzer provides realtime measurements of signal properties of general experimental interest: power, phase, and amplitude spectra; Allan deviation; and time series of amplitude, phase shift, and differential phase shift. Input ports are provided for up to four 100 MHz frequency standards and eight baseband analog (greater than 100 kHz bandwidth) signals. Test results indicate the following upper bounds to noise floors when operating on 100 MHz signals: -145 dBc/Hz for phase noise spectrum further than 200 Hz from carrier, 2.5 x 10(exp -15) (tau =1 second) and 1.5 x 10(exp -17) (tau =1000 seconds) for Allan deviation, and 1 x 10(exp -4) degrees for 1-second averages of phase deviation. Four copies of the stability analyzer have been produced, plus one transportable unit for use at non-NASA observatories.

  17. The GRADIO spaceborne gravity gradiometer: Development and accommodation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, A.

    1989-06-01

    The European ARISTOTELES mission aims at the determination of the Earth's gravity field at short wavelength with a global coverage. Gravity gradient measurements will be achieved during six months by the GRADIO instrument onboard a dedicated satellite in a near dawn-dusk sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 200 km. The objective is an accuracy of better than 5 mgals for gravity anomalies, at ground level for blocks of 1 x 1 deg. According to present knowledge of the potential, the recovery of higher spherical harmonics (degree and order greater than 30) is of main importance. This leads to focus on the variations of the measured components T(sub ij) of the gravity gradient tensor, at frequencies greater than 5 x 10(exp -3) Hz. The resolution, required for the gradiometer is 10(exp -2) Eotvos (i.e., 10(exp -11)/s squared) with an averaging time of 4 s.

  18. The GRADIO spaceborne gravity gradiometer: Development and accommodation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, A.

    1989-01-01

    The European ARISTOTELES mission aims at the determination of the Earth's gravity field at short wavelength with a global coverage. Gravity gradient measurements will be achieved during six months by the GRADIO instrument onboard a dedicated satellite in a near dawn-dusk sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 200 km. The objective is an accuracy of better than 5 mgals for gravity anomalies, at ground level for blocks of 1 x 1 deg. According to present knowledge of the potential, the recovery of higher spherical harmonics (degree and order greater than 30) is of main importance. This leads to focus on the variations of the measured components T(sub ij) of the gravity gradient tensor, at frequencies greater than 5 x 10(exp -3) Hz. The resolution, required for the gradiometer is 10(exp -2) Eotvos (i.e., 10(exp -11)/s squared) with an averaging time of 4 s.

  19. Electron-Ion Recombination Rate Coefficient Measurements in a Flowing Afterglow Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gougousi, Theodosia; Golde, Michael F.; Johnsen, Rainer

    1996-01-01

    The flowing-afterglow technique in conjunction with computer modeling of the flowing plasma has been used to determine accurate dissociative-recombination rate coefficients alpha for the ions O2(+), HCO(+), CH5(+), C2H5(+), H3O(+), CO2(+), HCO2(+), HN2O(+), and N2O(+) at 295 K. We find that the simple form of data analysis that was employed in earlier experiments was adequate and we largely confirm earlier results. In the case of HCO(+) ions, published coefficients range from 1.1 X 10(exp -7) to 2.8 x 10(exp -7) cu cm/S, while our measurements give a value of 1.9 x 10(exp -7) cu cm/S.

  20. X-ray spectra from convective photospheres of neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavlin, V. E.; Pavlov, G. G.; Shibanov, Yu. A.; Rogers, F. J.; Iglesias, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    The preliminary results from the simulation of convective photospheres of neutron stars are presented. It is shown that in photospheres composed of light elements, convection arises at relatively low effective temperatures of between 3 x 10(exp 4) and 5 x 10(exp 4) K, whereas, in the case of iron composition, it arises at temperatures of less than or equal to 3 x 10(exp 5) K. Convection changes the depth dependence of the photosphere temperature and the shapes of the emergent spectra. It is concluded that depth should be taken into account for the correct interpretation of extreme ultraviolet/soft X-ray observations of the thermal radiation from neutron stars.

  1. 14 CFR 5 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Section 5 Section Section 5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Balance Sheet Classifications Section...

  2. Douglas SBD-5 Dauntless

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1945-01-01

    Douglas SBD-5 Dauntless: The Douglas SBD-5 Dauntless torpedo bomber came to Langley in the fall of 1944 and left a little over a year later. It had been preceded by its prototype, the XBT-2, in the Langley 30 x 60 Full Scale Tunnel.

  3. The Prolate Solar Chromosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auchere, F.; Boulade, S.; Koutchmy, S.; Smartt, R. N.; Delaboudiniere, J. P.; Georgakilas, A.; Gurman, J. B.; Artzner, G. E.

    1998-01-01

    We present a comparative analysis of the chromospheric solar limb prolateness, using strictly simultaneous H-alpha, ground-based observations and HeII space-based observations. The typical prolateness is found to be DeltaD/D = 5.5 x 10(exp -3) in HeII and 1.2 x 10(exp -3) in H-alpha. The first measurements in the 30.4 nm HeII line over a period of two years. as well as coronal data, are discussed to explore further the origin of the prolateness and its possible consequences.

  4. Micro-Structural Response of DP 600 to High Strain Rate Deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamburg, Brian; Schneider, Judy; Jones, Stanley E.

    2008-01-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the micro-structural response of DP 600 subjected to high strain rate, ballistic impact tests. The ballistic tests were conducted using normal impact of a hardened steel penetrator into a 2 mm thick sheet of DP 600. The average strain rates produced from this test method are on the order of 10(exp 5)/s. Electron microscopy was used to investigate the microstructure before and after high strain rate deformation. A variation in material response was observed between tests conducted at 0.8 x 105 and 25 x 10(exp 5)/s.

  5. Magnetic ropes in the solar wind

    SciTech Connect

    Ruzmaikin, A.; Shukurov, A.; Sokolov, D. IZMIRAN, Troitsk Moscow State Univ. )

    1992-10-01

    The generation of magnetic fluctuations by MHD turbulence in the solar wind is discussed. An estimate of the effective magnetic Reynolds number in the solar wind based on a width of the inertial range of the turbulence is proposed. Dynamo activity is predicted to lead to generation of magnetic ropes whose length is of the order of the energy range scale, 2.5 x 10 exp 11 cm, and whose thickness can be as low as 5 x 10 exp 8 cm. Experimental detection of the ropes would require determination of two-point and higher correlation functions for the magnetic fluctuations in the solar wind. 21 refs.

  6. Tests of the Rockwell Si:As Back-Illuminated Blocked-Impurity Band (BIBIB) detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, J.; Groezinger, U.; Burgdorf, M.; Salama, A.

    1989-01-01

    Two arrays of Rockwell's Si:As back-illuminated blocked-impurity-band detectors were tested at the Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy (MPIA) at low background and low temperature for possible use in the astronomical space experiment ISOPHOT. For these measurements special test equipment was put together. A cryostat was mechanically modified to accommodate the arrays and special peripheral electronics was added to a microprocessor system to drive the cold multiplexer and to acquire the output data. The first device, a 16x50 element array on a fan-out board was used to test individual pixels with a trans-impedance-amplifier at a photon background of 10(exp 8) Ph s(-1)cm(-2) and at temperatures of 2.7 to 4.4 K. The noise-equivalent-power NEP is in the range 5 - 7 x 10(exp -18) WHz(exp -1/2), the responsivity is less than or equal to 100 AW(exp -1)(f = 10 Hz). The second device was a 10x50 array including a cold readout electronics of switched FETs (SWIFET). Measurements of this array were done in a background range of 5 x 10(exp 5) to 5 x 10(exp 11) Ph s(exp-1)cm(exp-2) and at operating temperatures between 3.0 and 4.8 K. The NEP ranges from less than 10(exp -18) at the lowest background to 2 x 10(exp -16) WHz(exp -1/2) at the highest flux.

  7. The effects of electron and proton radiation on GaSb infrared solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruenbaum, P. E.; Avery, J. E.; Fraas, L. M.

    1991-01-01

    Gallium antimonide (GaSb) infrared solar cells were exposed to 1 MeV electrons and protons up to fluences of 1 times 10(exp 15) cm (-2) and 1 times 10(exp 12) cm (-2) respectively. In between exposures, current voltage and spectral response curves were taken. The GaSb cells were found to degrade slightly less than typical GaAs cells under electron irradiation, and calculations from spectral response curves showed that the damage coefficient for the minority carrier diffusion length was 3.5 times 10(exp 8). The cells degraded faster than GaAs cells under proton irradiation. However, researchers expect the top cell and coverglass to protect the GaSb cell from most damaging protons. Some annealing of proton damage was observed at low temperatures (80 to 160 C).

  8. A search for gamma-ray lines from the decay of Fe-59 in Supernova 1987A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, M. J.; Leising, M. D.

    1994-01-01

    We have searched spectra of Supernova (SN) 1987A, accumulated during several 35-day intervals after the explosion by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS), for gamma-ray lines at 1.099 and 1.292 MeV from the decay of Fe-59 which may have been produced in the progenitor's helium shell. We find no evidence for these lines, down to 3-sigma upper limits approximately = 7 x 10(exp -4) gamma/sq cm/s for the 1.099 MeV line, or approximately = 4.5 x 10(exp -4) gamma/sq cm/s for the 1.292 MeV line, in any 35-day interval. We derive a conservative 3-sigma upper limit on the mass fraction of Fe-59 in the helium shell of 2.9 x 10(exp -3).

  9. A Noachian/Hesperian Hiatus and Erosive Reactivation of Martian Valley Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, R. P., III.; Maxwell, T. A.; Howard, A. D.; Craddock, R. A.; Moore, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    Despite new evidence for persistent flow and sedimentation on early Mars, it remains unclear whether valley networks were active over long geologic timescales (10(exp 5)-10(exp 8) yr), or if flows were persistent only during multiple discrete episodes of moderate (approx. 10(exp 4) yr) to short (<10 yr) duration. Understanding the long-term stability/variability of valley network hydrology would provide an important control on paleoclimate and groundwater models. Here we describe geologic evidence for a hiatus in highland valley network activity while the fretted terrain formed, followed by a discrete reactivation of persistent (but possibly variable) erosive flows. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  10. Possible applications of atomic frequency standards with an internal high resolution digital synthesizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Detoma, E.; Stern, A.

    1993-01-01

    The applications of Atomic Frequency Standards with an internal synthesizer (thereafter referred as 'Synthesized Frequency Standards or Oscillators') with a special emphasis on the Rb oscillator are reviewed. A fractional frequency synthesizer, developed by SEPA, was incorporated in the Frequency Locked Loop of a TFL Rubidium Frequency Standard. This combination allows a frequency settability in steps of 1.5 x 10(exp -12) (optional 1 x 10(exp -13) over a range of 6 x 10(exp -9) without having to resort to change the C-field to tune the output frequency of the device. This capability, coupled to the excellent short term stability of the Rb frequency standard, opens new possibilities for time and frequency users in the various fields (time metrology, navigation, communication, etc.) in which stable frequency standards find their application.

  11. A Preliminary Model for Spacecraft Propulsion Performance Analysis Based on Nuclear Gain and Subsystem Mass-Power Balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, S.; Schmidt, G. R.; Thio, Y. C.; Hurst, C. M.

    1999-01-01

    Rapid transportation of human crews to destinations throughout the solar system will require propulsion systems having not only very high exhaust velocities (i.e., I(sub sp) >= 10(exp 4) to 10(exp 5) sec) but also extremely low mass-power ratios (i.e., alpha <= 10(exp -2) kg/kW). These criteria are difficult to meet with electric propulsion and other power-limited systems, but may be achievable with propulsion concepts that use onboard power to produce a net gain in energy via fusion or some other nuclear process. This paper compares the fundamental performance of these gain-limited systems with that of power-limited systems, and determines from a generic power balance the gains required for ambitious planetary missions ranging up to 100 AU. Results show that energy gain reduces the required effective mass-power ratio of the system, thus enabling shorter trip times than those of power-limited concepts.

  12. Origin of pulsed emission from the young supernova remnant SN 1987A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruderman, M.; Kluzniak, W.; Shaham, Jacob

    1989-01-01

    To overcome difficulties in understanding the origin of the submillisecond optical pulses from SN 1987A a model similar to that of Kundt and Krotscheck for pulsed synchrotron emission from the Crab was applied. The interaction of the expected ultrarelativistic e(sup + or -) pulsar wind with the pulsar dipole electromagnetic wave reflected from the walls of a pulsar cavity within the SN 1987A nubula can generate pulsed optical emission with efficiency at most eta(sub max) is approximately equal to 10(exp -3). The maximum luminosity of the source is reproduced and other observational constraints can be satisfied for an average wind energy flow is approximately equal to 10(exp 38) erg/(s steradian) and for electron Lorentz factor gamma is approximately equal to 10(exp 5). This model applied to the Crab yields pulsations of much lower luminosity and frequency.

  13. Gamma-Ray, Cosmic Ray and Neutrino Tests of Lorentz Invariance and Quantum Gravity Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, Floyd

    2011-01-01

    High-energy astrophysics observations provide the best possibilities to detect a very small violation of Lorentz invariance such as may be related to the structure of space-time near the Planck scale of approximately 10(exp -35) m. I will discuss here the possible signatures of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) from observations of the spectra, polarization, and timing of gamma-rays from active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts. Other sensitive tests are provided by observations of the spectra of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and neutrinos. Using the latest data from the Pierre Auger Observatory one can already derive an upper limit of 4.5 x 10(exp -23) to the amount of LIV of at a proton Lorentz factor of approximately 2 x 10(exp 11). This result has fundamental implications for quantum gravity models. I will also discuss the possibilities of using more sensitive space based detection techniques to improve searches for LIV in the future.

  14. Time Integration Schemes for the Unsteady Navier-stokes Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bijl, Hester; Carpenter, Mark H.; Vatsa, Veer N.

    2001-01-01

    The efficiency and accuracy of several time integration schemes are investigated for the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. This study focuses on the efficiency of higher-order Runge-Kutta schemes in comparison with the popular Backward Differencing Formulations. For this comparison an unsteady two-dimensional laminar flow problem is chosen, i.e., flow around a circular cylinder at Re = 1200. It is concluded that for realistic error tolerances (smaller than 10(exp -1)) fourth-and fifth-order Runge-Kutta schemes are the most efficient. For reasons of robustness and computer storage, the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method is recommended. The efficiency of the fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme exceeds that of second-order Backward Difference Formula by a factor of 2.5 at engineering error tolerance levels (10(exp -1) to 10(exp -2)). Efficiency gains are more dramatic at smaller tolerances.

  15. Modified 5 As

    PubMed Central

    Vallis, Michael; Piccinini–Vallis, Helena; Sharma, Arya M.; Freedhoff, Yoni

    2013-01-01

    Objective To adapt the 5 As model in order to provide primary care practitioners with a framework for obesity counseling. Sources of information A systematic literature search of MEDLINE using the search terms 5 A's (49 articles retrieved, all relevant) and 5 A's and primary care (8 articles retrieved, all redundant) was conducted. The National Institute of Health and the World Health Organization websites were also searched. Main message The 5 As (ask, assess, advise, agree, and assist), developed for smoking cessation, can be adapted for obesity counseling. Ask permission to discuss weight; be nonjudgmental and explore the patient's readiness for change. Assess body mass index, waist circumference, and obesity stage; explore drivers and complications of excess weight. Advise the patient about the health risks of obesity, the benefits of modest weight loss, the need for a long-term strategy, and treatment options. Agree on realistic weight-loss expectations, targets, behavioural changes, and specific details of the treatment plan. Assist in identifying and addressing barriers; provide resources, assist in finding and consulting with appropriate providers, and arrange regular follow-up. Conclusion The 5 As comprise a manageable evidence-based behavioural intervention strategy that has the potential to improve the success of weight management within primary care. PMID:23341653

  16. Snow White 5 Trench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image was acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm Camera on the 35th Martian day of the mission, or Sol 34 (June 29, 2008), after the May 25, 2008, landing. This image shows the trench informally called 'Snow White 5.' The trench is 4-to-5 centimeters (about 1.5-to-1.9 inches) deep, 24 centimeters (about 9 inches) wide and 33 centimeters (13 inches) long.

    Snow White 5 is Phoenix's current active digging area after additional trenching, grooming, and scraping by Phoenix's Robotic Arm in the last few sols to trenches informally called Snow White 1, 2, 3, and 4. Near the top center of the image is the Robotic Arm's Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe.

    Snow White 5 is located in a patch of Martian soil near the center of a polygonal surface feature, nicknamed 'Cheshire Cat.' The digging site has been named 'Wonderland.'

    This image has been enhanced to brighten shaded areas.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cockrill, Barbara A; Waxman, Aaron B

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) signaling plays a key role in modulating vascular tone and remodeling in the pulmonary circulation. The guanylate cyclase/cyclic guanylate monophosphate-signaling pathway primarily mediates nitric oxide signaling. This pathway is critical in normal regulation of the pulmonary vasculature, and is an important target for therapy in patients with pulmonary hypertension. In the pulmonary vasculature, degradation of cGMP is primarily regulated by PDE-5, and inhibition of this enzyme has important effects on pulmonary vasculature smooth muscle tone. Large randomized placebo-controlled trials of PDE-5 inhibitors demonstrated improved exercise capacity, hemodynamics and quality of life in adult patients with PAH. This chapter will discuss the mechanisms of NO signaling in the vasculature, characteristics of the PDE5-inhibitors approved for treatment of PH, and review available data on the use of phosphodiesterase inhibitors in PH. PMID:24092343

  18. H5Part

    2005-12-01

    Particle based simulations of accelerator beam-lines, especially in six dimensional phase space, generate vast amounts of data. Even though a subset of statistical information regarding phase space or analysis needs to be preserved, reading and writing such enormous restart files on massively parallel supercomputing systems remains challenging. H5Part is a very simple data storage schema and provides an API that simplifies the reading/writing of the data to the HDF5 file format. An important foundation formore » a stable visualization and data analysis environment is a stable and portable file storage format and its associated APIs. The presence of a "common file storage format," including associated APIs, will help foster a fundamental level of interoperability across the project’s software infrastructure. It will also haip ensure that key data analysis capabilities are present during the earliest phases of the software development effort. H5Part is built on top of the HDF5 (Hierarchical Data Format). HDF5 offers a self.describing machine-independent binary file format that supports scalable parallel I/O performance for MPI codes on a variety of supercomputlng systems, and works equally well on laptop computers. The API Is available (or C, C++, and Fortran codes. The H5Part file format and APIs enable disparate research groups with different simulation implementations to transparently share datasets and data analysis tools. For instance, the common file format will enable groups that depend on completely different simulation implementations to share data analysis tools like PartView and AVS/Express without any additional programming.« less

  19. Design definition of the Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS), phase 2. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The LAWS phase 1 and phase 2 studies have been completed on schedule and have led to significant advances in CO2 laser development. The Phase 2 Design Definition Study has shown that a large scanning mirror/high pulse energy laser LAWS Instrument is feasible and within the existing technology. The capability to monitor wind velocities with backscatter ratios of 10(exp 11) m(exp -1) SR(exp -1) is feasible. The weight budget allocated for the baseline LAWS is adequate, and sufficient reserves exist with the potential downsized configuration. With the possible decrease in available power from the baseline of 2.2 kW guideline, power and shot management is critical for the baseline configuration (15 to 20 J). This is particularly true during the 100 day occultation period each year. With the downsized configurations (5 to 7 J), power management is still necessary during the occultation but is primarily limited to shot management over the polar regions. The breadboard effort has produced significant laser advances for a tight 18 month schedule and the minimum budgets available from NASA, Lockheed, and TDS. Using the NASA funds and Lockheed and TDS fixed assets budgets, the breadboard was designed, fabricated, and brought on-line with first laser light within 16 months after ATP. First laser beam was obtained on 21 April 1992 at a 5 J power level. Tests since then have been conducted at sustained, repetitive pulse levels of over 7 J and 20 Hz. This is an increase of over two or three times greater than any system previously developed from this type laser. Increased power levels and additional life tests will be accomplished in the next LAWS phase. The Lockheed LAWS design will operate in the gravity gradient mode on-orbit, and all possible instrument vibration and jitter modes have been considered. Adequate pointing stability and control is state-of-the-art technology for the critical time periods, frequency rates, and control responses required by LAWS. Lockheed

  20. RADTRAN 5 user guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Kanipe, Frances L.; Neuhauser, Karen Sieglinde

    2003-07-01

    This User Guide for the RADTRAN 5 computer code for transportation risk analysis describes basic risk concepts and provides the user with step-by-step directions for creating input files by means of either the RADDOG input file generator software or a text editor. It also contains information on how to interpret RADTRAN 5 output, how to obtain and use several types of important input data, and how to select appropriate analysis methods. Appendices include a glossary of terms, a listing of error messages, data-plotting information, images of RADDOG screens, and a table of all data in the internal radionuclide library.

  1. Developmental milestones record - 5 years

    MedlinePlus

    Normal childhood growth milestones - 5 years; Childhood growth milestones - 5 years; Growth milestones for children - 5 years ... Physical and motor skill milestones for a typical 5-year-old child include: Gains about 4 - 5 ...

  2. Spectral and Timing Nature of the Symbiotic X-Ray Binary 4U 1954+319: The Slowest Rotating Neutron Star in AN X-Ray Binary System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enoto, Teruaki; Sasano, Makoto; Yamada, Shin'Ya; Tamagawa, Toru; Makishima, Kazuo; Pottschmidt, Katja; Marcu, Diana; Corbet, Robin H. D.; Fuerst, Felix; Wilms, Jorn

    2014-01-01

    The symbiotic X-ray binary (SyXB) 4U 1954+319 is a rare system hosting a peculiar neutron star (NS) and an M-type optical companion. Its approx. 5.4 hr NS spin period is the longest among all known accretion-powered pulsars and exhibited large (is approx. 7%) fluctuations over 8 yr. A spin trend transition was detected with Swift/BAT around an X-ray brightening in 2012. The source was in quiescent and bright states before and after this outburst based on 60 ks Suzaku observations in 2011 and 2012. The observed continuum is well described by a Comptonized model with the addition of a narrow 6.4 keV Fe-K alpha line during the outburst. Spectral similarities to slowly rotating pulsars in high-mass X-ray binaries, its high pulsed fraction (approx. 60%-80%), and the location in the Corbet diagram favor high B-field (approx. greater than 10(exp12) G) over a weak field as in low-mass X-ray binaries. The observed low X-ray luminosity (10(exp33)-10(exp35) erg s(exp-1)), probable wide orbit, and a slow stellar wind of this SyXB make quasi-spherical accretion in the subsonic settling regime a plausible model. Assuming a approx. 10(exp13) G NS, this scheme can explain the approx. 5.4 hr equilibrium rotation without employing the magnetar-like field (approx. 10(exp16) G) required in the disk accretion case. The timescales of multiple irregular flares (approx. 50 s) can also be attributed to the free-fall time from the Alfv´en shell for a approx. 10(exp13) G field. A physical interpretation of SyXBs beyond the canonical binary classifications is discussed.

  3. SR90, strontium shaped-charge critical ionization velocity experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, Eugene M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, Hans; Swift, Daniel W.; Valenzuela, Arnoldo; Rees, David

    1990-01-01

    In May 1986 an experiment was performed to test Alfven's critical ionization velocity (CIV) effect in free space, using the first high explosive shaped charge with a conical liner of strontium metal. The release, made at 540 km altitude at dawn twilight, was aimed at 48 deg to B. The background electron density was 1.5 x 10(exp 4) cu cm. A faint field-aligned Sr(+) ion streak with tip velocity of 2.6 km/s was observed from two optical sites. Using two calibration methods, it was calculated that between 4.5 x 10(exp 20) and 2 x 10(exp 21) ions were visible. An ionization time constant of 1920 s was calculated for Sr from the solar UV spectrum and ionization cross section which combined with a computer simulation of the injection predicts 1.7 x 10(exp 21) solar UV ions in the low-velocity part of the ion streak. Thus all the observed ions are from solar UV ionization of the slow (less than critical) velocity portion of the neutral jet. The observed neutral Sr velocity distribution and computer simulations indicate that 2 x 10(exp 21) solar UV ions would have been created from the fast (greater than critical) part of the jet. They would have been more diffuse, and were not observed. Using this fact it was estimated that any CIV ions created were less than 10(exp 21). It was concluded that future Sr CIV free space experiments should be conducted below the UV shadow height and in much larger background plasma density.

  4. 4 CFR 5.5 - Travel, transportation, and subsistence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Travel, transportation, and subsistence. 5.5 Section 5.5 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.5 Travel, transportation, and subsistence. The provisions of chapter 57 of title 5, U.S. Code and the implementing regulations for...

  5. 4 CFR 5.5 - Travel, transportation, and subsistence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Travel, transportation, and subsistence. 5.5 Section 5.5 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.5 Travel, transportation, and subsistence. The provisions of chapter 57 of title 5, U.S. Code and the implementing regulations for...

  6. 4 CFR 5.5 - Travel, transportation, and subsistence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Travel, transportation, and subsistence. 5.5 Section 5.5 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.5 Travel, transportation, and subsistence. The provisions of chapter 57 of title 5, U.S. Code and the implementing regulations for...

  7. 4 CFR 5.5 - Travel, transportation, and subsistence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel, transportation, and subsistence. 5.5 Section 5.5 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.5 Travel, transportation, and subsistence. The provisions of chapter 57 of title 5, U.S. Code and the implementing regulations for...

  8. 4 CFR 5.5 - Travel, transportation, and subsistence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Travel, transportation, and subsistence. 5.5 Section 5.5 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.5 Travel, transportation, and subsistence. The provisions of chapter 57 of title 5, U.S. Code and the implementing regulations for...

  9. Accelerators (4/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

  10. The EDP-5E

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lottero-Perdue, Pamela; Bolotin, Sonja; Benyameen, Ruth; Brock, Erin; Metzger, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Many preservice and practicing elementary teachers are familiar with the 5E learning cycle. This cycle provides a relatively simple, alliteratively memorable framework for teaching science in which lessons (or even entire units of instruction) consist of five distinct phases: Engagement, Exploration, Explanation, Elaboration/Extension (hereafter,…

  11. Elementary Science: Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll County Public Schools, Westminster, MD.

    This grade 5 science curriculum guide contains four activity units: (1) mineral identification; (2) earth science; (3) soil analysis; and (4) small friends community. Each unit contains a letter to the parents to introduce the unit, lesson plans, and word searches. The lesson plans list the science processes involved, content objectives,…

  12. Accelerators (3/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

  13. Accelerators (4/5)

    SciTech Connect

    2009-07-08

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

  14. Accelerators (3/5)

    SciTech Connect

    2009-07-07

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

  15. MOPITT V5 reprocessing

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-08-06

    ... V5 products. The original L1 filenames included the text string 'L1V3.36' whereas the reprocessed L1 files include 'L1V3.37'. The original L2 filenames included the text string 'L2V10.0' whereas the reprocessed L2 files include 'L2V10.1'.   ...

  16. Sociology 5 Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garlock, Jerry C.

    In order to deal with the problem of increasing failures and dropouts and the negative impact of large numbers of students lacking basic reading and language skills on instructional activities and materials, the Sociology Department at El Camino College made eligibility for English 1A a prerequisite for its Sociology 5 course in fall 1975. This…

  17. Fractionation of hydrogen and deuterium on Venus due to collisional ejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurwell, Mark A.; Yung, Yuk L.

    1993-01-01

    The collisional ejection process for hydrogen on Venus is reanalyzed. Improved values for the efficiency of H and D escape as a function of the ionospheric temperature are reported. It is proposed that the reduction of the hydrogen flux for collisional ejection be reduced from 8 to 3.5 x 10 exp 6/sq cm/s, and a revised D/H fractional factor of 0.47 due to collisional ejection is suggested. The resulting deuterium flux is 3.1 x 10 exp 4/sq cm/s, roughly six times the flux due to charge exchange, making collisional ejection the dominant escape mechanism for deuterium on Venus.

  18. Ultra-stable Hg(+) trapped ion frequency standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prestage, John D.; Dick, G. John; Maleki, Lute

    1990-01-01

    A fieldable trapped ion frequency standard based on Hg-199(+) ions confined in a hybrid rf/dc linear ion trap is developed. This trap permits storage of large numbers of ions with reduced susceptibility to the second-order Doppler effect caused by the rf confining fields. In preliminary measurements a stability of 2 to 3 x 10(exp -15) was obtained for 10000 second averaging times. These measurements were carried out with a 120 mHz wide atomic resonance line for the 40.5 GHz clock transition with a second order Doppler shift from the rf trapping field of 6 x 10(exp -13).

  19. Current loop models for the circumstellar matter in SN1987A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, S. J.

    1992-12-01

    The elliptical ring recently observed to be centered on the supernova can be interpreted as light from ions trapped in the magnetic field of a circular current loop. The current is 1.5 x 10 exp 12 A for a model where gravitational force on 0.03 solar masses of trapped matter balances the electrodynamic expansion of the loop. The magnetic energy of the loop is 2 x 10 exp 41 ergs. Consideration of the magnetized clouds in the solar wind as an analogous source for such a loop leads to the conclusion that the loop formed over the lifetime of the progenitor star.

  20. Grand unified theories, topological defects and ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharjee, Pijushpani; Hill, Christopher T.; Schramm, David N.

    1991-01-01

    The ultrahigh-energy (UHE) proton and neutrino spectra resulting from collapse or annihilations of topological defects surviving from the GUT era are calculated. Irrespective of the specific process under consideration (which determines the overall normalization of the spectrum), the UHE proton spectrum always 'recovers' at approximately 1.8 x 10 exp 11 GeV after a partial Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min 'cutoff' at approximately 5 x 10 exp 10 GeV and continues to a GUT-scale energy with a universal shape determined by the physics of hadronic jet fragmentation. Implications of our results are discussed.

  1. A three-axis ultrasensitive accelerometer for space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, A.

    A three-axis ultrasensitive accelerometer ASTRE (Accelerometre Spatial Triaxial Electrostatique) is a simplified version of the GRADIO accelerometer designed for the ARISTOTELES mission, which operates by measuring the force provided by a three-axis electrostatic suspension of the proof-mass. It covers the g-spectrum from 10 exp -8 to 10 exp -4 in the frequency range dc to 5 Hz. A dedicated test bench was developed in order to preserve the accelerometer from the seismic noise. The paper presents the performance parameters of the ASTRE accelerometer and some of the design schemes.

  2. Hard X-ray Observation of Cygnus X-1 By the Marshall Imaging X-ray Experiment (MIXE2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minamitani, Takahisa; Apple, J. A.; Austin, R. A.; Dietz, K. L.; Koloziejczak, J. J.; Ramsey, B. D.; Weisskopf, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    The second generation of the Marshall Imaging X-ray Experiment (MIXE2) was flown from Fort Sumner, New Mexico on May 7-8, 1997. The experiment consists of coded-aperture telescope with a field of view of 1.8 degrees (FWHM) and an angular resolution of 6.9 arcminutes. The detector is a large (7.84x10(exp 4) sq cm) effective area microstrip proportional counter filled with 2.0x10(exp5) Pascals of xenon with 2% isobutylene. We present MIXE2 observation of the 20-80keV spectrum and timing variability of Cygnus X-1 made during balloon flight.

  3. Propagation of a narrow plasma beam in an oblique magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidbrink, W. W.; Adams, D.; Drum, S.; Evans, K.; Manson, J.; Price, T.; Urayama, P.; Wessel, F. J.

    1992-01-01

    The propagation of an intense neutralized ion beam (v is about 5 x 10 exp 8 cm/sec, n is about 10 exp 10/cu cm) through a large insulated vacuum chamber is measured as a function of magnetic field strength and direction. When the beam propagates parallel to the applied field, beam divergence is reduced. When the beam propagates perpendicular to the applied fields, the downstream beam density decreases with increasing field strength. When the beam velocity vector intersects the magnetic field at an oblique angle, beam propagation is determined primarily by the perpendicular component of the field.

  4. A quantitative model of plasma in Neptune's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, J. D.

    1993-07-01

    A model encompassing plasma transport and energy processes is applied to Neptune's magnetosphere. Starting with profiles of the neutral densities and the electron temperature, the model calculates the plasma density and ion temperature profiles. Good agreement between model results and observations is obtained for a neutral source of 5 x 10 exp 25/s if the diffusion coefficient is 10 exp -8 L3R(N)/2s, plasma is lost at a rate 1/3 that of the strong diffusion rate, and plasma subcorotates in the region outside Triton.

  5. Exoplanet Direct Imaging: Coronagraph Probe Mission Study EXO-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapelfeldt, Karl R.

    2013-01-01

    Flagship mission for spectroscopy of ExoEarths is a long-term priority for space astrophysics (Astro2010). Requires 10(exp 10) contrast at 3 lambda/D separation, ( (is) greater than 10,000 times beyond HST performance) and large telescope (is) greater than 4m aperture. Big step. Mission for spectroscopy of giant planets and imaging of disks requires 10(exp 9) contrast at 3 lambda/D (already demonstrated in lab) and (is) approximately 1.5m telescope. Should be much more affordable, good intermediate step.Various PIs have proposed many versions of the latter mission 17 times since 1999; no unified approach.

  6. Gas phase hydrogen permeation in a Ni-Fe-Co superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shanabarger, Mickey R.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogen permeation measurements have been conducted for the Incoloy 909 Ni-Fe-Co superalloy via the 'membrane' technique, in which the gaseous hydrogen at the entrance of a thin membrane is transposed through the bulk to the exit side of the membrane, at 400-810 C; the pressure range explored was 2.7 x 10 exp 3 to 1.3 x 10 exp 5 N/sq m. The lattice hydrogen solubility of Incoloy 909 is found to be only weakly temperature-dependent. These results are compared with those obtained for Incoloy 903.

  7. X-Ray Emission from the Sun in Its Youth and Old Age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorren, J. D.; Gudel, M.; Guinan, E. F.

    1995-01-01

    We have obtained ROSAT PSPC (Roentgen Satellite Position Sensitive Proportional Counter) pointed observations of two nearby G stars of ages 70 Myr and 9.5 Gyr that are of unique importance as proxies for the Sun at the two extremes of its main-sequence evolutionary lifetime. The younger star, HD 129333 (EK Dra; G0 V), a rapid rotator with a 2.7 day period, is a strong source with an X-ray luminosity L(x)(0.2-2.4 keV) = (7.5-11.5) x 10(exp 29) erg/s. Modeling suggests a two-temperature corona with T(1) = (2.0 +/- 0.3) x 10(exp 6) K and T(2) = (9.7 +/- 0.3) x 10(exp 6) K (formal uncertainties). A continuous emission measure distribution, increasing to higher temperatures and with a cutoff at (20-30) x 10(exp 6) K, yields even better fits to the data. The old star, beta Hyi (HR 98; G2 IV), represents the Sun in the future, near the end of its hydrogen-core burning stage, when it should be rotating more slowly (present P(rot) = 25.4 day) and should have lower levels of activity. The ROSAT measurements yield L(x) = (0.9-3.0) x 10(exp 27) ergs/s and a rather cool, single coronal temperature of T = (1.7 +/- 0.4) x 10(exp 6) K. For comparison, the Sun has L(x) approx. equal to 2 x 10(exp 27) ergs/s and a coronal temperature of about T = 2 x 10(exp 6) K. These stars provide information on the decline of the stellar (and specifically solar) magnetic activity from extreme youth to old age. HD 129333 is also important in that it yields an estimate of the solar soft X-ray flux in the early solar system at the epoch of the terminal stages of planetary accretion.

  8. TANK 5 SAMPLING

    SciTech Connect

    Vrettos, N; William Cheng, W; Thomas Nance, T

    2007-11-26

    Tank 5 at the Savannah River Site has been used to store high level waste and is currently undergoing waste removal processes in preparation for tank closure. Samples were taken from two locations to determine the contents in support of Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) development for chemical cleaning. These samples were obtained through the use of the Drop Core Sampler and the Snowbank Sampler developed by the Engineered Equipment & Systems (EES) group of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL).

  9. MCNP™ Version 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, R. Arthur; Cox, Lawrence J.; Barrett, Richard F.; Booth, Thomas E.; Briesmeister, Judith F.; Brown, Forrest B.; Bull, Jeffrey S.; Geisler, Gregg C.; Goorley, John T.; Mosteller, Russell D.; Post, Susan E.; Prael, Richard E.; Selcow, Elizabeth C.; Sood, Avneet

    2004-01-01

    The Monte Carlo transport workhorse, MCNP [Los Alamos National Laboratory report LA-13709-M, 2000], is undergoing a massive renovation at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in support of the Eolus Project of the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASCI) Program. MCNP Version 5 (V5) (expected to be released to RSICC in Fall 2002) will consist of a major restructuring from FORTRAN-77 (with extensions) to ANSI-standard FORTRAN-90 [American National Standard for Programming Language - Fortran-Extended, ANSI X3. 198-1992, 1992] with support for all of the features available in the present release (MCNP-4C2/4C3). To most users, the look-and-feel of MCNP will not change much except for the improvements (improved graphics, easier installation, better online documentation). For example, even with the major format change, full support for incremental patching will still be provided. In addition to the language and style updates, MCNP V5 will have various new user features. These include improved photon physics, neutral particle radiography, enhancements and additions to variance reduction methods, new source options, improved parallelism support (PVM, MPI, OpenMP), and new nuclear and atomic data libraries. MCNP is a trademark of the Regents of the University of California, Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  10. A measurement of the medium-scale anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, E. S.; Cottingham, D. A.; Fixsen, D. J.; Inman, C. A.; Kowitt, M. S.; Meyer, S. S.; Page, L. A.; Puchalla, J. L.; Silverberg, R. F.

    1994-01-01

    Observations from the first flight of the Medium Scale Anisotropy Measurement (MSAM) are analyzed to place limits on Gaussian fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). This instrument chops a 30 min beam in a three-position pattern with a throw of +/- 40 min; the resulting data is analyzed in statistically independent single- and double-difference sets. We observe in four spectral channels at 5.6, 9.0, 16.5, and 22.5/cm, allowing the separation of interstellar dust emission from CMBR fluctuations. The dust component is correlated with the IRAS 100 micron map. The CMBR component has two regions where the signature of an unresolved source is seen. Rejecting these two source regions, we obtain a detection of fluctuations which match CMBR in our spectral bands of 0.6 x 10(exp -5) is less than Delta (T)/T is less than 2.2 x 10(exp -5) (90% CL interval) for total rms Gaussian fluctuations with correlation angle 0.5 deg, using the single-difference demodulation. Fore the double difference demodulation, the result is 1.1 x 10(exp -5) is less than Delta(T)/T is less than 3.1 x 10(exp -5) (90% CL interval) at a correlation angle of 0.3 deg.

  11. The Radio Luminosity Function and Galaxy Evolution in the Coma Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Neal A.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Mabasher, Bahram; Brudgesm Terrry J.; Hudson, Michael J.; Marzke, Ronald O.; Smith, Russell J.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the radio luminosity function and radio source population for two fields within the Coma cluster of galaxies, with the fields centered on the cluster core and southwest infall region and each covering about half a square degree. Using VLA data with a typical rms sensitivity of 28 (mu)Jy per 4.4" beam, we identify 249 radio sources with optical counterparts brighter than r = 22 (equivalent to M(sub r) = -13 for cluster member galaxies). Comprehensive optical spectroscopy identifies 38 of these as members of the Coma cluster, evenly split between sources powered by an active nucleus and sources powered by active star formation. The radio-detected star-forming galaxies are restricted to radio luminosities between about 10(exp 21) and 10(exp 22) W/Hz, an interesting result given that star formation dominates field radio luminosity functions below about 10(exp 23) W/Hz. The majority of the radio-detected star-forming galaxies have characteristics of starbursts, including high specific star formation rates and optical spectra with strong emission lines. In conjunction with prior studies on post-starburst galaxies within the Coma cluster, this is consistent with a picture in which late-type galaxies entering Coma undergo a starburst prior to a rapid cessation of star formation. Optically bright elliptical galaxies (Mr less than or equals -20.5) make the largest contribution to the radio luminosity function at both the high (> approx. 3x10(exp 22) W/Hz) and low (< approx. 10(exp 21) W/Hz) ends. Through a stacking analysis of these optically-bright ellipticals we find that they continue to harbor radio sources down to luminosities as faint as 3x10(exp 19) W/Hz. However, contrary to published results for the Virgo cluster we find no evidence for the existence of a population of optically faint (M(sub r) approx. equals -14) dwarf ellipticals hosting strong radio AGN.

  12. 10 CFR 960.5-2-5 - Environmental quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental quality. 960.5-2-5 Section 960.5-2-5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Environment, Socioeconomics, and Transportation § 960.5-2-5...

  13. 36 CFR 5.11-5.12 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 5.11-5.12 Section 5.11-5.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS §§ 5.11-5.12...

  14. 36 CFR 5.11-5.12 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 5.11-5.12 Section 5.11-5.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS §§ 5.11-5.12...

  15. 36 CFR 5.11-5.12 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 5.11-5.12 Section 5.11-5.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS §§ 5.11-5.12...

  16. 36 CFR 5.11-5.12 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 5.11-5.12 Section 5.11-5.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS §§ 5.11-5.12...

  17. 6 CFR 5.5 - Timing of responses to requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Timing of responses to requests. 5.5 Section 5.5 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS AND INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act § 5.5 Timing of responses to requests. (a) In general....

  18. Project Intelsat 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    With 12,000 voice circuits and 2 television channels, intelsat 5, the first of a new generation of international telecommunication satellites, has almost double the communication capability of early satellites in the series. The 1,928 kilogram (at a lunch) satellite will be placed into geosynchronous orbit over the Atlantic Ocean to provide communications between North America and Europe. The characteristics of the Atlas Centaur launch vehicle to be used are described and the flights events of the launch sequence are tabulated.

  19. REMIT3. 5

    SciTech Connect

    Cale, R.; Clark, T.; Dixson, P.; Hagemeyer; Hardwick, C.; Pippen, H. )

    1993-04-01

    The Radiation Exposure Monitoring and Information Transmittal (REMIT) system is designed to assist U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees in meeting the reporting requirements of the Revised 10 CFR Part 20 and in agreement with the guidance contained in Regulatory Guide 8.7, Rev.1, Instructions for Recording and Reporting Occupational Exposure Data. REMIT is a personal computer (PC)-based menu driven system that facilitates the manipulation of data base files to record and report radiation exposure information. REMIT is designed to be user-friendly and contains the full text of Regulatory Guide 8.7, Rev.1, on-line as well as context-sensitive help throughout the program. The user can enter data directly from NRC Form 5s or Form 4s. REMIT allows the user to view the individual's exposure in relation to regulatory or administrative limits and will alert the user to exposures in excess of these limits. The system also provides for the calculation and summation of dose from intakes and the determination of the dose to the maximally exposed extremity for the monitoring year. REMIT can produce NRC Form 5s and 4s in paper and electronic format and can import/export data from ASCII and data base files.

  20. Clouds in GEOS-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacmeister, Julio; Rienecker, Michele; Suarez, Max; Norris, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The GEOS-5 atmospheric model is being developed as a weather-and-climate capable model. It must perform well in assimilation mode as well as in weather and climate simulations and forecasts and in coupled chemistry-climate simulations. In developing GEOS-5, attention has focused on the representation of moist processes. The moist physics package uses a single phase prognostic condensate and a prognostic cloud fraction. Two separate cloud types are distinguished by their source: "anvil" cloud originates in detraining convection, and large-scale cloud originates in a PDF-based condensation calculation. Ice and liquid phases for each cloud type are considered. Once created, condensate and fraction from the anvil and statistical cloud types experience the same loss processes: evaporation of condensate and fraction, auto-conversion of liquid or mixed phase condensate, sedimentation of frozen condensate, and accretion of condensate by falling precipitation. The convective parameterization scheme is the Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert, or RAS, scheme. Satellite data are used to evaluate the performance of the moist physics packages and help in their tuning. In addition, analysis of and comparisons to cloud-resolving models such as the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model are used to help improve the PDFs used in the moist physics. The presentation will show some of our evaluations including precipitation diagnostics.

  1. Verification and Validation of RADTRAN 5.5.

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, Douglas.; Weiner, Ruth F.; Mills, George Scott; Hamp, Steve C.

    2005-02-01

    This document contains a description of the verification and validation process used for the RADTRAN 5.5 code. The verification and validation process ensured the proper calculational models and mathematical and numerical methods were used in the RADTRAN 5.5 code for the determination of risk and consequence assessments. The differences between RADTRAN 5 and RADTRAN 5.5 are the addition of tables, an expanded isotope library, and the additional User-Defined meteorological option for accident dispersion. 3

  2. Sirius-5 experimental rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerstein, A.; Omersel, P.; Goljuf, L.; Zidaric, M.

    1981-09-01

    After giving a historical account of multistage rocket development in Yugoslavia, a status report is presented for the three-stage Sirius-5 program. The rocket is composed of: (1) a solid-propellant first stage, consisting of a cluster of eight standard motors yielding 220 kN thrust for 1.3 sec; (2) a mixed amines/inhibited red fuming nitric acid, bipropellant second stage generating 50 kN thrust; and (3) a third stage of the same design as the second but with only 62 kg of fuel, by contrast to 168 kg. Among the design principles adhered to are: minimization of the number of components, conservative design margins, and specifications for key subsystems based on demonstration programs. The primary use of this system is in amateur rocketry, being able to carry a 20 kg payload to 150 km.

  3. Constitution, 5 May 1989.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    This document contains provisions of Cambodia's Constitution of May 5, 1989. Article 7 gives men and women equal rights in marriage and the family, calls for monogamous marriages, and affords social protection to mothers and children. Article 8 guides parent-child relationships. The 14th article defines state property, and the 15th gives citizens full rights to own, use, and inherit land. The use of agricultural and forested land can only be changed with permission. Article 22 assigns educational responsibilities to the state, including free elementary education and a gradual expansion of higher education. Adult literacy classes are also promoted. Article 26 guarantees free medical consultations, and article 27 gives women a 90-day paid maternity leave. Breast-feeding women are also given special privileges. Article 33 guarantees the right to pay equity and to social security benefits. Article 36 grants the freedom to travel, the inviolability of homes, and privacy in correspondence of all types.

  4. In vitro Catecholamine Exposure Produces Variable Effects on the B7 Costimulatory Pathway in Human Monocytic Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salicru, A. N.; Crucian, B.; Sams, Clarence; Actor, J. K.; Marshall, G. D., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Catecholamines have been associated with immunomodulation of the adaptive immune system towards a Th2 response in vitro. We therefore examined the role of in vitro epinephrine (EPI) and norepinephrine (NE) exposure on the B7 costimulatory expression of antigen presenting cells (APC) from human monocytic cell lines and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). THP1 monocytic cells and CD14+ cells from normal human PBMC were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and incubated with physiologic stress levels (10(exp -6) - 10(exp -8)M) of EPI or NE for 24 hours. Cells were subsequently stained with CD80 FITC, CD86 PE, and CD14 PC5 antibodies and analyzed by flow cytometry for changes in fluorescence and mean fluorescence intensity (MFI). Exposure of THP1 to EPI in vitro at concentrations of 10(exp -6), 10(exp -7) and 10(exp -8)M significantly decreased mean CD80 from 42 plus or minus 0.7% to 11 plus or minus 0.44%, 19.1 plus or minus 2.0%, and 30.7 plus or minus 2.1% expression, respectively (p less than 0.01). In addition, CD86 expression increased with EPI at 10(exp -6), 10(exp -7) and 10(exp -8) M from 9.2 plus or minus 0.52% to 41 plus or minus 3.8%, 26.4 plus or minus 1.9%, and 15.74 plus or minus 1.8% expression, respectively (p less than 0.01). Similar results for mean CD80 and CD86 percent expression were observed for CD14+ cells from PBMC with a sample size of N = 6 and for NE when substituted for EPI. The data show that in vitro exposure to catecholamines significantly decreases %CD86 expression and significantly increases %CD86 expression in THP1 cells and human CD14+ APC. Previous studies have suggested an association between increased CD86 expression and TH2 activity. Thus, these data suggest that immunomodulation by catecholamines results in part by the variable effects of the B7 costimulatory pathway in APC.

  5. Ultra-Sensitive Transition-Edge Sensors for the Background Limited Infrared/Sub-mm Spectrograph (BLISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyer, A. D.; Kenyon, M. E.; Echternach, P. M.; Chui, T.; Eom, B.-H.; Day, P. K.; Bock, J. J.; Holmes, W.A.; Bradford, C. M.

    2011-01-01

    We report progress in fabricating ultra-sensitive superconducting transition-edge sensors (TESs) for BLISS. BLISS is a suite of grating spectrometers covering 35-433 micron with R approx. 700 cooled to 50 mK that is proposed to fly on the Japanese space telescope SPICA. The detector arrays for BLISS are TES bolometers readout with a time domain SQUID multiplexer. The required noise equivalent power (NEP) for BLISS is NEP = 10(exp -19) W/Hz(exp 1/2) with an ultimate goal of NEP= 5 x 10(exp -20) W/Hz(exp 1/2) to achieve background limited noise performance. The required and goal response times are tau = 150 ms and tau = 50ms respectively to achieve the NEP at the required and goal optical chop frequency 1-5 Hz. We measured prototype BLISS arrays and have achieved NEP = 6 x 10(exp -18) W/Hz(exp 1/2) and tau = 1.4 ms with a Ti TES (T(sub C) = 565 mK) and NEP approx. 2.5 x 10(exp -19) W/Hz(exp 1/2) and tau approximates 4.5 ms with an Ir TES (T(sub C) = 130 mK). Dark power for these tests is estimated at 1-5 fW.

  6. 5. VIEW NORTHNORTHWEST FROM FLOOR OF DRYDOCK NO. 5; CRANE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW NORTH-NORTHWEST FROM FLOOR OF DRYDOCK NO. 5; CRANE LIFTING SHEET METAL SCRAP (JEFF DAVIS-CRANE OPERATOR). - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Dry Dock No. 5, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. LIME 0.5

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-14

    LIME 0.5 is an initial version of a Lightweight Integrating Multi-physics Environment for coupling codes. LIME by itself is not a code for doing multiphysics simulations. Instead, LIME provides the key high-level software, a flexible but defined approach, and interface requirements for a collection of (potentially disparate) physics codes to be combined with strong coupling (when needed) though non-linear solution methods (e.g. JFNK, fixed point), thus creating a new multi-physics simulation capability customized for a particular need. ! ! The approach taken is designed to! •! preserve and leverage any important specialized algorithms and/or functionality an existing application may provide,! •! minimize the requirements barrier for an application to participate,! •! work within advanced solver frameworks (e.g. as extensions to the Trilinos/NOX nonlinear solver libraries, PETSc, . . .),! Of note is that components/physics codes that can be coupled within LIME are NOT limited to:! •! components written in one particular language,! •! a particular numerical discretization approach ( e.g. Finite Element), or! •! physical models expressed as PDEʼs.!

  8. LIME 0.5

    2011-01-14

    LIME 0.5 is an initial version of a Lightweight Integrating Multi-physics Environment for coupling codes. LIME by itself is not a code for doing multiphysics simulations. Instead, LIME provides the key high-level software, a flexible but defined approach, and interface requirements for a collection of (potentially disparate) physics codes to be combined with strong coupling (when needed) though non-linear solution methods (e.g. JFNK, fixed point), thus creating a new multi-physics simulation capability customized for amore » particular need. ! ! The approach taken is designed to! •! preserve and leverage any important specialized algorithms and/or functionality an existing application may provide,! •! minimize the requirements barrier for an application to participate,! •! work within advanced solver frameworks (e.g. as extensions to the Trilinos/NOX nonlinear solver libraries, PETSc, . . .),! Of note is that components/physics codes that can be coupled within LIME are NOT limited to:! •! components written in one particular language,! •! a particular numerical discretization approach ( e.g. Finite Element), or! •! physical models expressed as PDEʼs.!« less

  9. Constitution, 5 October 1988.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of the constitution adopted by Brazil on 5 October 1988. This constitution seeks to promote the welfare of all citizens without discrimination. The equality of all citizens is guaranteed, and the equal rights of women are specifically mentioned. Property rights are also guaranteed and defined. Female inmates are granted the right to remain with their children while breast feeding. Workers are guaranteed a minimum wage, a family allowance for dependents, maternity/paternity leave, specific incentives to protect the labor market for women, retirement benefits, free day care for preschool-age children, pay equity, and equal rights between tenured and sporadically employed workers. Agrarian reform provisions are given, including the authority to expropriate land. Social and economic policies to promote health are called for, and public health services are to be decentralized, to be integrated, and to foster community participation. Pension plan and social assistance provisions are outlined as are duties of the state in regard to education. The amount of money to be dedicated to education is set out, and a national educational plan is called for to achieve such goals as the eradication of illiteracy, the universalization of school attendance, the improvement of instruction, and the provision of vocational training. Specific measures are set out to protect and preserve the environment. Family policy deals with issues of marriage, the definition of a family, divorce, the right to family planning services, and the deterrence of domestic violence. Social protection provisions cover mothers and children, handicapped persons, and protection of minors. Finally, the customs and rights of Indians are protected, with special provisions given to protect land tenure and to protect the rights of Indians in water resource development and prospecting and mining activities. PMID:12344286

  10. Catatonia in DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Rajiv; Heckers, Stephan; Bustillo, Juan; Barch, Deanna M; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Gur, Raquel E; Malaspina, Dolores; Owen, Michael J; Schultz, Susan; Tsuang, Ming; van Os, Jim; Carpenter, William

    2013-10-01

    Although catatonia has historically been associated with schizophrenia and is listed as a subtype of the disorder, it can occur in patients with a primary mood disorder and in association with neurological diseases and other general medical conditions. Consequently, catatonia secondary to a general medical condition was included as a new condition and catatonia was added as an episode specifier of major mood disorders in DSM-IV. Different sets of criteria are utilized to diagnose catatonia in schizophrenia and primary mood disorders versus neurological/medical conditions in DSM-IV, however, and catatonia is a codable subtype of schizophrenia but a specifier for major mood disorders without coding. In part because of this discrepant treatment across the DSM-IV manual, catatonia is frequently not recognized by clinicians. Additionally, catatonia is known to occur in several conditions other than schizophrenia, major mood disorders, or secondary to a general medical condition. Four changes are therefore made in the treatment of catatonia in DSM-5. A single set of criteria will be utilized to diagnose catatonia across the diagnostic manual and catatonia will be a specifier for both schizophrenia and major mood disorders. Additionally, catatonia will also be a specifier for other psychotic disorders, including schizoaffective disorder, schizophreniform disorder, brief psychotic disorder, and substance-induced psychotic disorder. A new residual category of catatonia not otherwise specified will be added to allow for the rapid diagnosis and specific treatment of catatonia in severely ill patients for whom the underlying diagnosis is not immediately available. These changes should improve the consistent recognition of catatonia across the range of psychiatric disorders and facilitate its specific treatment.

  11. Constitution, 5 October 1988.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of the constitution adopted by Brazil on 5 October 1988. This constitution seeks to promote the welfare of all citizens without discrimination. The equality of all citizens is guaranteed, and the equal rights of women are specifically mentioned. Property rights are also guaranteed and defined. Female inmates are granted the right to remain with their children while breast feeding. Workers are guaranteed a minimum wage, a family allowance for dependents, maternity/paternity leave, specific incentives to protect the labor market for women, retirement benefits, free day care for preschool-age children, pay equity, and equal rights between tenured and sporadically employed workers. Agrarian reform provisions are given, including the authority to expropriate land. Social and economic policies to promote health are called for, and public health services are to be decentralized, to be integrated, and to foster community participation. Pension plan and social assistance provisions are outlined as are duties of the state in regard to education. The amount of money to be dedicated to education is set out, and a national educational plan is called for to achieve such goals as the eradication of illiteracy, the universalization of school attendance, the improvement of instruction, and the provision of vocational training. Specific measures are set out to protect and preserve the environment. Family policy deals with issues of marriage, the definition of a family, divorce, the right to family planning services, and the deterrence of domestic violence. Social protection provisions cover mothers and children, handicapped persons, and protection of minors. Finally, the customs and rights of Indians are protected, with special provisions given to protect land tenure and to protect the rights of Indians in water resource development and prospecting and mining activities.

  12. Pyroelectric detector development for the Radiation Measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, G. S.; Mcmurray, Robert E., Jr.; Hanel, R. P.; Dominguez, D. E.; Valero, F. P. J.; Baumann, Hilary; Hansen, W. L.; Haller, E. E.

    1993-01-01

    A new class of high detectivity pyroelectric detectors developed for optimization of the radiation measurement system within the framework of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program is described. These devices are intended to provide detectivities of up to about 10 exp 11 cm Hz exp 0.5/W with cooling to about 100 K required for the detector focal plane.

  13. Preliminary DMR measurements of the CMB isotropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smoot, G. F.; Bennett, C. L.; Kogut, A.; Aymon, J.; Backus, C.; De Amici, G.; Galuk, K.; Jackson, P. D.; Keegstra, P.; Rokke, L.

    1991-01-01

    The COBE Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) instrument has produced preliminary full-sky maps at frequencies 31.5, 53, and 90 GHz. The redundant channels and matched beams at three frequencies distinguish the DMR from previous large-scale surveys. Galactic emission is seen unambiguously at all three frequencies. The only large-scale anisotropy detected in the cosmic microwave background is the dipole anisotropy. There is no clear evidence for any other large-angular-scale feature in the maps. Without correcting for any systematic effects, we are able to place limits DeltaT/T sub 0 less than 3 x 10 exp -5 for the rms quadrupole amplitude, DeltaT/T sub 0 less than 4 x 10 exp -5 for monochromatic fluctuations, and DeltaT/T sub 0 less than 4 x 10 exp -5 for Gaussian fluctuations (all limits are 95 percent C.L. with TO = 2.735 K). The data limit DeltaT/T sub 0 less than 10 exp -4 for any feature larger than 7 deg. We briefly review the DMR and discuss some implications of these results in cosmology.

  14. An Experimental Investigation of the Pressure Distribution on A 1/15-Scale Model of the Lockheed WS-117L Vehicle Plus Booster "B" at Mach Numbers from 0.70 to 1.45

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahey, Russell E.; Marker, Ralph D.

    1959-01-01

    Results obtained with two nose shapes tested at a Reynolds number per foot of 5 x 10(exp 6) at angles of attack from -4 deg to +10 deg at 0 deg angle of sideslip are presented in tabulated pressure coefficient form without analysis.

  15. Shape Shifting Satellites in Binary Near-Earth Asteroids: Do Meteoroid Impacts Play a Role in BYORP Orbital Evolution?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, David Parry

    2012-01-01

    Less than catastrophic meteoroid impacts over 10(exp 5) years may change the shape of small rubble-pile satellites in binary NEAs, lengthening the average BYORP (binary Yarkovsky-Radzievskii-Paddack) rate of orbital evolution. An estimate of shape-shifting meteoroid fluxes give numbers close enough to causing random walks in the semimajor axis of binary systems to warrant further investigation

  16. All-optical Photonic Oscillator with High-Q Whispering Gallery Mode Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy A.; Matsko, Andrey B.; Strekalov, Dmitry; Mohageg, Makan; Iltchenko, Vladimir S.; Maleki, Lute

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrated low threshold optical photonic hyper-parametric oscillator in a high-Q 10(exp 10) CaF2 whispering gallery mode resonator which generates stable 8.5 GHz signal. The oscillations result from the resonantly enhanced four wave mixing occurring due to Kerr nonlinearity of the material.

  17. 29 CFR 5.5 - Contract provisions and related matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor has found under 29 CFR 5.5(a)(1)(iv) that the wages of any laborer or mechanic include... Copeland Act (29 CFR part 3)), the full amount of wages and bona fide fringe benefits (or cash equivalents... maintained under 29 CFR 5.5(a)(3)(i), except that full social security numbers and home addresses shall...

  18. 29 CFR 5.5 - Contract provisions and related matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor has found under 29 CFR 5.5(a)(1)(iv) that the wages of any laborer or mechanic include... Copeland Act (29 CFR part 3)), the full amount of wages and bona fide fringe benefits (or cash equivalents... maintained under 29 CFR 5.5(a)(3)(i), except that full social security numbers and home addresses shall...

  19. 29 CFR 5.5 - Contract provisions and related matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor has found under 29 CFR 5.5(a)(1)(iv) that the wages of any laborer or mechanic include... Copeland Act (29 CFR part 3)), the full amount of wages and bona fide fringe benefits (or cash equivalents... maintained under 29 CFR 5.5(a)(3)(i), except that full social security numbers and home addresses shall...

  20. 5 CFR 1310.5 - List of current circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false List of current circulars. 1310.5 Section 1310.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES OMB CIRCULARS § 1310.5 List of current circulars. The following list includes all circulars in effect as of December 1,...

  1. 5 CFR 1310.5 - List of current circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false List of current circulars. 1310.5 Section 1310.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES OMB CIRCULARS § 1310.5 List of current circulars. The following list includes all circulars in effect as of December 1,...

  2. 5 CFR 1310.5 - List of current circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false List of current circulars. 1310.5 Section 1310.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES OMB CIRCULARS § 1310.5 List of current circulars. The following list includes all circulars in effect as of December 1,...

  3. 5 CFR 1310.5 - List of current circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false List of current circulars. 1310.5 Section 1310.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES OMB CIRCULARS § 1310.5 List of current circulars. The following list includes all circulars in effect as of December 1,...

  4. Synthesis of monomethyl 5,5'-dehydrodiferulic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synthesis of the internal reference compound, monomethyl 5,5’-dehydrodiferulic acid, is described. The synthetic scheme relies on a selective monomethylation of the known compound 5,5-dehydrodivanillin, followed by elaboration into the dehydrodiferulic framework through a dual Horner-Emmons-Wadswort...

  5. 43 CFR 3585.5-5 - Contents of notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contents of notice. 3585.5-5 Section 3585.5-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS White...

  6. 5 CFR 2421.5 - Primary national subdivision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary national subdivision. 2421.5 Section 2421.5 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL... § 2421.5 Primary national subdivision. Primary national subdivision of an agency means a...

  7. 5 CFR 2421.5 - Primary national subdivision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Primary national subdivision. 2421.5 Section 2421.5 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL... § 2421.5 Primary national subdivision. Primary national subdivision of an agency means a...

  8. 5 CFR 5.1 - Civil Service regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil Service regulations. 5.1 Section 5.1 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES REGULATIONS, INVESTIGATION, AND ENFORCEMENT (RULE V) § 5.1 Civil Service regulations. The Director, Office of...

  9. 5 CFR 9800.5 - Public reading room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Public reading room. 9800.5 Section 9800.5 Administrative Personnel COUNCIL OF THE INSPECTORS GENERAL ON INTEGRITY AND EFFICIENCY FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT REGULATIONS § 9800.5 Public reading room. CIGIE maintains an electronic public reading room...

  10. 5 CFR 9800.5 - Public reading room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Public reading room. 9800.5 Section 9800.5 Administrative Personnel COUNCIL OF THE INSPECTORS GENERAL ON INTEGRITY AND EFFICIENCY FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT REGULATIONS § 9800.5 Public reading room. CIGIE maintains an electronic public reading room...

  11. 29 CFR 5.5 - Contract provisions and related matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Copeland Act (29 CFR part 3)), the full amount of wages and bona fide fringe benefits (or cash equivalents... regard to skill, except as provided in § 5.5(a)(4). Laborers or mechanics performing work in more than... Secretary of Labor has found under 29 CFR 5.5(a)(1)(iv) that the wages of any laborer or mechanic...

  12. 10 CFR 960.5-2-5 - Environmental quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental quality. 960.5-2-5 Section 960.5-2-5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE... in the affected area during this and future generations will be adequately protected...

  13. 10 CFR 960.5-2-5 - Environmental quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental quality. 960.5-2-5 Section 960.5-2-5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE... in the affected area during this and future generations will be adequately protected...

  14. MACMULTIVIEW 5.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norikane, L.

    1994-01-01

    format (standard format readable by MacMultiview and other image processing programs for the Macintosh). Images can also be printed on PostScript output devices. Polarization signatures can be saved in either a PICT format or as a text file containing PostScript commands and printed on any QuickDraw output device. The associated Stokes matrices can be stored in a text file. MacMultiview is written in C-language for Macintosh II series computers. MacMultiview will only run on Macintosh II series computers with 8-bit video displays (gray shades or color). The program also requires a minimum configuration of System 6.0, Finder 6.1, and 1Mb of RAM. MacMultiview is NOT compatible with System 7.0. It requires 32-Bit QuickDraw. Note: MacMultiview may not be fully compatible with preliminary versions of 32-Bit QuickDraw. Macintosh Programmer's Workshop and Macintosh Programmer's Workshop C (version 3.0) are required for recompiling and relinking. The standard distribution medium for this package is a set of three 800K 3.5 inch diskettes in Macintosh format. This program was developed in 1989 and updated in 1991. MacMultiview is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA. QuickDraw, Finder, Macintosh, and System 7 are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.

  15. Experimental investigation of the Marangoni effect on the stability of a double-diffusive layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanny, Josef; Chen, Chuan F.

    1994-01-01

    Stability experiments were carried out in 4-cm-thick, salt-stratified fluid layer by heating from below and cooling from above. The bottom boundary was rigid while the top was either free or rigid. The initial solute Rayleigh number varied from 2.5 x 10(exp 6) to 4.6 x 10(exp 7). For the rigid-free case, at initial solute Rayleigh numbers R(sub s) greater than 5.4 x 10(exp 6), thermal Marangoni instabilities were observed to onset along the free surface at a relatively low thermal Rayleigh number, R(sub t). The convection was very weak, and it had almost no effect on the concentration and temperature distributions. Double-diffusive instabilities along the top free surface were observed to onset at a higher R(sub t), with much stronger convection causing changes in the concentration and temperature distributions near the top. At a yet higher R(sub t), double-diffusive convection was observed to onset along the bottom boundary. Fluid motion in the layer then evolved into fully developed thermal convection of a homogeneous fluid without any further increase in the imposed Delta T. For layers with R(sub s) less than 5.4 x 10(exp 6), Marangoni and double-diffusive instabilities onset simultaneously along the free surface first, while double-diffusive instabilities along the bottom wall onset at a higher R(sub t).

  16. Activation energy and capture cross section of majority carrier traps in Zn doped InP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybicki, George; Williams, Wendell

    1993-01-01

    Schottky barrier diodes were fabricated on Zn doped InP Wafers. The diodes were radiation damaged with 2 MeV protons to a dose of 2 x 10(exp 12)cm(sup -2). The damage was analyzed by DLTS (deep level transient spectroscopy) using the double correlation technique. Capture cross sections were measured directly. Two major defects were observed in the DLTS spectra. The first defect, was H4 at Ev + 0.29 eV, with capture cross section 1.1 x 10(exp -17)cm(sup 2). The second defect, was H5 at Ev + 0.53 eV. Its capture cross section varied with temperature as described by the relationship sigma = sigma(sub 0) exp(delta(E)/kT) where sigma(sub 0) = 1.3 x 10(exp -19)cm(sup 2) and delta(E) = .08 eV. This relationship yields a sigma of 5.9 x 10(exp -21)cm(sup 2) at room temperature. The surprisingly small capture cross section of H5 and its temperature dependence are discussed in terms of the multiphonon emission process for carrier capture at the defect. The advantages of the improved experimental techniques used are also discussed.

  17. Coronal Magnetic Structures Observing Campaign. 3: Coronal plasma and magnetic field diagnostics derived from multiwaveband active region observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmelz, J. T.; Holman, G. D.; Brosius, J. W.; Willson, R. F.

    1994-01-01

    Simultaneous soft X-ray, microwave, and photospheric magnetic field observations were taken during the Coronal Magnetic Structures Observing Campaign (CoMStOC '87). The plasma electron temperature and emission measures determined from the X-ray data are used to predict the free-free emission expected at 20 and 6 cm. Comparing these predictions with the microwave observations, it is found that the predicted 20 cm brightness temperatures are higher than the observed, requiring cool absorbing material between the hot X-ray plasma and the observer. The model that is most consistent with all the observations and minimizes the required coronal fields indicates that this 20 cm emission is either free-free or a combination of free-free and fourth harmonic cyclotron emanating from the X-ray plasma with an electron temperature of approximately 3.1 x 10(exp 6) K and an emission measure of approximately 1.3 x 10(exp 29)/cm(exp 5). The observed 20 cm polarization requires a field strength of greater than or equal to 150 G. In addition, the 6 cm emission is free-free, emanating from cooler plasma with an electron temperature of approximately 1.5 x 10(exp 6) K and an emission measure of approximately 3-6 x 10(exp 29)/cm(exp 5). This model is consistent with the rather unusual combination of high 20 cm and low 6 cm polarization as well as the low extrapolated coronal fields.

  18. Ammonia Observations of NGC 6334 I(N)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Peters, W. L., III; Foster, J. R.; Gardner, F. F.; Whiteoak, J. B.

    1995-01-01

    Coincident with the far-infrared source NGC 6334 I(N) and water maser source E is a massive dense cloud which has the most intense ammonia (1, 1) emission of any known interstellar cloud. We have mapped the (3, 3) emission and find the cloud is extended 0.8 pc in the direction parallel to the Galactic plane, and 0.5 pc perpendicular to it. It has a velocity gradient of 1 km/s.pc perpendicular to the Galactic plane. The gas kinetic temperature is about 30 K and the density is greater than 10(exp 6)/cc. The mass of the cloud is about 3000 solar mass, 3 times greater than previously estimated. The para-ammonia column density is 6 - 8 x 10(exp 15)/sq cm. An ammonia abundance of 0.5 - 1.5 x 10(exp -8) is inferred, where the larger number assumes an early time ortho/para ratio. This suggests either a cloud age of less than approximately 10(exp 6) yr, or substantial depletion of ammonia.

  19. Friction Factor for Flow in Rectangular Ducts with One Side Rib-Roughened

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youn, B.; Yuen, C.; Mills, A. F.

    1994-01-01

    Numerical simulations of incompressible turbulent flow through rectangular ducts with one side rib-roughened were performed to determine pressure drop. The "PHOENICS " software package was used for the computations, which required provision of a wall function for transverse rib-roughened surfaces. The present study was conducted in the range of 10(exp 5) less than or equal to Reynolds number less than or equal to 10(exp 7), 0.01 less than or equal to rib height to hydraulic diameter ratio less than or equal to 0.04, 10 less than or equal to pitch to rib height ratio less than or equal to 40. Using the numerical results, friction factor charts for various aspect ratios were generated. The numerical results agreed well with experimental data that was obtained for 10(exp 5) less than Reynolds less than 2 x 10(exp 5). In addition, a scheme for predicting friction factor using existing correlations for smooth and rough walls was developed.

  20. Observations of the Minor Species Al, Fe and Ca(+) in Mercury's Exosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bida, Thomas A.; Killen, Rosemary M.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first detections of Al and Fe, and strict upper limits for Ca(+) in the exosphere of Mercury, using the HIRES spectrometer at the Keck I telescope. We report observed 4-sigma tangent columns of 1.5x10(exp 7) Al atoms per square centimeter at an altitude of 1220 km (1.5 Mercury radii (R(sub M)) from planet center), and that for Fe of 1.6 x 10 per square centimeter at an altitude of 950 km (1.4 R(sub M)). The observed 3-sigma Ca(+) column was 3.9x10(exp 6) ions per square centimeter at an altitude of 1630 km (1.67 R(sub M). A simple model for zenith column abundances of the neutral species were 9.5 x 10(exp 7) Al per square centimeter, and 3.0 x 10(exp 8) Fe per square centimeter. The observations appear to be consistent with production of these species by impact vaporization with a large fraction of the ejecta in molecular form. The scale height of the Al gas is consistent with a kinetic temperature of 3000 - 9000 K while that of Fe is 10500 K. The apparent high temperature of the Fe gas would suggest that it may be produced by dissociation of molecules. A large traction of both Al and Fe appear to condense in a vapor cloud at low altitudes.

  1. Chemistry-Climate Interactions in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model. 2; New Insights into Modeling the Pre-Industrial Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grenfell, J. Lee; Shindell, D. T.; Koch, D.; Rind, D.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the chemical (hydroxyl and ozone) and dynamical response to changing from present day to pre-industrial conditions in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model (GISS GMC). We identify three main improvements not included by many other works. Firstly, our model includes interactive cloud calculations. Secondly we reduce sulfate aerosol which impacts NOx partitioning hence Ox distributions. Thirdly we reduce sea surface temperatures and increase ocean ice coverage which impact water vapor and ground albedo respectively. Changing the ocean data (hence water vapor and ozone) produces a potentially important feedback between the Hadley circulation and convective cloud cover. Our present day run (run 1, control run) global mean OH value was 9.8 x 10(exp 5) molecules/cc. For our best estimate of pre-industrial conditions run (run 2) which featured modified chemical emissions, sulfate aerosol and sea surface temperatures/ocean ice, this value changed to 10.2 x 10(exp 5) molecules/cc. Reducing only the chemical emissions to pre-industrial levels in run 1 (run 3) resulted in this value increasing to 10.6 x 10(exp 5) molecules/cc. Reducing the sulfate in run 3 to pre-industrial levels (run 4) resulted in a small increase in global mean OH (10.7 x 10(exp 5) molecules/cc). Changing the ocean data in run 4 to pre-industrial levels (run 5) led to a reduction in this value to 10.3 x 10(exp 5) molecules/cc. Mean tropospheric ozone burdens were 262, 181, 180, 180, and 182 Tg for runs 1-5 respectively.

  2. GHRS Observations of Cool, Low-Gravity Stars. 5; The Outer Atmosphere and Wind of the Nearby K Supergiant Lambda Velorum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Robinson, Richard D.; Harper, Graham M.; Bennett, Philip D.; Brown, Alexander; Mullan, Dermott J.

    1999-01-01

    -absorptions reflect a wind turbulence of approximately equal 9-21 km/s. We further characterize the wind by comparing the observations with synthetic profiles generated with the Lamers et al. Sobolev with Exact Integration (SEI) radiative transfer code, assuming simple models of the outer atmospheric structure. These comparisons indicate that the wind in 1994 can be described by a model with a wind acceleration parameter beta approximately 0.9, a terminal velocity of 29-33 km/s, and a mass-loss rate approximately 3 x 10(exp -9) solar M/yr. Modeling of the 3.6 cm radio flux observed in 1997 suggests a more slowly accelerating wind (higher beta) and/or a higher mass-loss rate than inferred from the UV line profiles. These differences may be due to temporal variations in the wind or from limitations in one or both of the models. The discrepancy is currently under investigation.

  3. 43 CFR 3141.5-5 - Dating of lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.5-5 Dating of lease. A combined hydrocarbon lease shall be effective as of...

  4. 43 CFR 3141.5-5 - Dating of lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.5-5 Dating of lease. A combined hydrocarbon lease shall be effective as of...

  5. 43 CFR 3141.5-5 - Dating of lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.5-5 Dating of lease. A combined hydrocarbon lease shall be effective as of...

  6. 43 CFR 3141.5-5 - Dating of lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.5-5 Dating of lease. A combined hydrocarbon lease shall be effective as of...

  7. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 5, 1935 CLOSE-UP OF ENTRANCE AND BALCONY, WEST FRONT - Jones-Coman-Westmoreland House, 517 South Clinton Street, Athens, Limestone County, AL

  8. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 5, 1935 STAIR RAILING ON SECOND FLOOR - Judge William Harrison Walker House, 309 East Clinton Street, Athens, Limestone County, AL

  9. 5. INTERIOR, TWO 5' X 6' HIGH PRESSURE EMERGENCY GATES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR, TWO 5' X 6' HIGH PRESSURE EMERGENCY GATES, FOR BUREAU OF RECLAIMATION, WITH HYDRAULIC HOISTS, INSIDE OF MACHINE SHOP (CA 1930S). - Hardie-Tynes Manufacturing Company, Workshop, 800 Twenty-eighth Street North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  10. 5. From Span 6 to portal on span 5 looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. From Span 6 to portal on span 5 looking down grade toward north end. - Monongahela Connecting Railroad Company, Hot Metal Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River at mile post 3.1, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  11. 9. (5 X 7 enlargement from 4 X 5 negative) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. (5 X 7 enlargement from 4 X 5 negative) FIRST FLOOR, WINDOW MOLDING ON SOUTH WALL LOOKING SOUTH - Sites Homestead, Monongahela National Forest (Tract 390) East of Route 28, Seneca Rocks, Pendleton County, WV

  12. Preliminary results of a balloon flight of the solar disk sextant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maier, E.; Twigg, L.; Sofia, S.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary results of a balloon flight on October 11, 1991, of the solar disk sextant (SDS) experiment are reported. The SDS is an instrument which measures the solar diameter at different orientations with respect to the solar polar axis. Fitting straight lines through two fixed-angle data sets with time as the independent variable yields slopes of (7.1 +/ - 1.5) x 10 exp -3 and (6.7 +/- 1.6) x 10 exp -3/mas s, consistent with the value of 6.47 x 10 exp -3/mas s expected from the earth's approach to the sun due to the orbital motion toward perihelion. Upon the instrument's rotation on its axis a sinusoidal component of the diameter measurement was observed in each rotation cycle, with a variable amplitude of about 150 mas. The present result is epsilon of (5.6 +/- 6.3) x 10 exp -6, about 30 deg offset from the polar-equator position. The absolute diameter obtained by means of the FFT definition is found to be 1919.269 +/- 0.240 arcsec or 1919.131 +/- 0.240 arcsec, depending on the orientation mode of the measurement.

  13. Search for Gravitational Waves Associated with the August 2006 Timing Glitch of the Vela Pulsar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Stroeer, A.

    2011-01-01

    The physical mechanisms responsible for pulsar timing glitches are thought to excite quasinormal mode oscillations in their parent neutron star that couple to gravitational-wave emission, In August 2006, a timing glitch was observed in the radio emission of PSR B0833-45, the Vela pulsar. At the time of the glitch, the two colocated Hanford gravitational-wave detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave observatory (LIGO) were operational and taking data as part of the fifth LIGO science run (S5). We present the first direct search for the gravitational-wave emission associated with oscillations of the fundamental quadrupole mode excited by a pulsar timing glitch. No gravitational-wave detection candidate was found. We place Bayesian 90% confidence upper limits of 6,3 x 10(exp -21) to 1.4 x 10(exp -20) on the peak: intrinsic strain amplitude of gravitational-wave ring-down signals, depending on which spherical harmonic mode is excited. The corresponding range of energy upper limits is 5.0 x 10(exp 44) to 1.3 x 10(exp 45) erg.

  14. Search for Antihelium with the BESS-Polar Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasaki, M.; Mitchell, J. W.; Hams, T.; Abe, K.; Fuke, H.; Haino, S.; Hasegawa, M.; Horikoshi, A.; Itazaki, A.; Kim, K. C.; Kumazawa, T.; Kusumoto, A.; Lee, M. H.; Makida, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Matsukawa, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Streitmatter, R. E.; Myers, Z.; Nishimura, J.; Nozaki, M.; Orito, R.; Ormes, J. F.; Sakai, K.; Seo, E. S.

    2012-01-01

    In two long-duration balloon flights over Antarctica, the BESS-Polar collaboration has searched for antihelium in the cosmic radiation with higher sensitivity than any reported investigation. BESSPolar I flew in 2004, observing for 8.5 days. BESS-Polar II flew in 2007-2008, observing for 24.5 days. No antihelium candidate was found in BESS-Polar I data among 8.4 x 10(exp 6) [Z] = 2 nuclei from 1.0 to 20 GV or in BESS-Polar II data among 4.0 x 10(exp 7) [Z] = 2 nuclei from 1.0 to 14 GV. Assuming antihelium to have the same spectral shape as helium, a 95% confidence upper limit of 6.9 x 10(exp -8) was determined by combining all the BESS data, including the two BESS-Polar flights. With no assumed antihelium spectrum and a weighted average of the lowest antihelium efficiencies from 1.6 to 14 GV, an upper limit of 1.0 x 10(exp -7) was determined for the combined BESS-Polar data. These are the most stringent limits obtained to date.

  15. Energy Release from Impacting Prominence Material Following the 2011 June 7 Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, H. R.; Inglis, A. R.; Mays, M. L.; Ofman, L.; Thompson, B. J.; Young, C. A.

    2013-01-01

    Solar filaments exhibit a range of eruptive-like dynamic activity, ranging from the full or partial eruption of the filament mass and surrounding magnetic structure as a coronal mass ejection to a fully confined or failed eruption. On 2011 June 7, a dramatic partial eruption of a filament was observed by multiple instruments on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory. One of the interesting aspects of this event is the response of the solar atmosphere as non-escaping material falls inward under the influence of gravity. The impact sites show clear evidence of brightening in the observed extreme ultraviolet wavelengths due to energy release. Two plausible physical mechanisms for explaining the brightening are considered: heating of the plasma due to the kinetic energy of impacting material compressing the plasma, or reconnection between the magnetic field of low-lying loops and the field carried by the impacting material. By analyzing the emission of the brightenings in several SDO/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly wavelengths, and comparing the kinetic energy of the impacting material (7.6 × 10(exp 26) - 5.8 × 10(exp 27) erg) to the radiative energy (approx. 1.9 × 10(exp 25) - 2.5 × 10(exp 26) erg), we find the dominant mechanism of energy release involved in the observed brightening is plasma compression.

  16. Preliminary results of a balloon flight of the solar disk sextant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, E.; Twigg, L.; Sofia, S.

    1992-04-01

    Preliminary results of a balloon flight on October 11, 1991, of the solar disk sextant (SDS) experiment are reported. The SDS is an instrument which measures the solar diameter at different orientations with respect to the solar polar axis. Fitting straight lines through two fixed-angle data sets with time as the independent variable yields slopes of (7.1 +/ - 1.5) x 10 exp -3 and (6.7 +/- 1.6) x 10 exp -3/mas s, consistent with the value of 6.47 x 10 exp -3/mas s expected from the earth's approach to the sun due to the orbital motion toward perihelion. Upon the instrument's rotation on its axis a sinusoidal component of the diameter measurement was observed in each rotation cycle, with a variable amplitude of about 150 mas. The present result is epsilon of (5.6 +/- 6.3) x 10 exp -6, about 30 deg offset from the polar-equator position. The absolute diameter obtained by means of the FFT definition is found to be 1919.269 +/- 0.240 arcsec or 1919.131 +/- 0.240 arcsec, depending on the orientation mode of the measurement.

  17. COMPTEL observations of Ti-44 gamma-ray line emission from Cas A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyudin, A. F.; Diehl, R.; Bloemen, H.; Hermsen, W.; Lichti, G. G.; Morris, D.; Ryan, J.; Schoenfelder, V.; Steinle, H.; Varendorff, M.

    1994-01-01

    The Compton Telescope (COMPTEL) telescope aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) is capable of imaging gamma-ray line sources in the MeV region with a sensitivity of the order 10(exp -5) photons/(sq cm s). During two observations periods in July 1992 and February 1993 the Galactic plane in the region of the young supernova remnant Cas A was observed, showing evidence for line emission at 1.16 MeV from the decay of Ti-44 at a significance level of approximately 4 sigma. This is the first time a supernova remnant has been detected in the gamma-ray line from Ti-44 decay. Adopting a distance of 2.8 kpc to the Cas A remnant, the measured line flux (7.0 +/- 1.7) x 10(exp -5) photons/(sq cm s), can be translated into a Ti-44 mass ejected during the Cas A supernova explosion, between (1.4 +/- 0.4) x 10(exp -4) solar mass and (3.2 +/- 0.8) x 10(exp -4) solar mass, depending on the precise value of the Ti-44 mean life time and on the precise date of the event. Implications of this result for supernova nucleosynthesis models are discussed.

  18. Long slit spectroscopy of NH2 in comets Halley, Wilson, and Nishikawa-Takamizawa-Tago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rettig, Terrence W.; Tegler, Stephen C.; Wyckoff, Susan; Heyd, Rodney; Stathkis, Raylee; Ramsay, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    Long-slit spectra of comets Halley, Wilson and Nishikawa-Takamizawa-Tago were obtained with the 3.9 meter Anglo-Australian Telescope. Spectra of comets Halley and Wilson were obtained with the IPCS at a spectral resolution of 0.5 A and a spatial resolution of 10(exp 3) km. Spectra of comets Wilson and Nishikawa-Takamizawa-Tago were obtained with a CCD at a spectral resolution of 1.5 A and a spatial resolution of approximately 3 x 10(exp 3) km. Surface brightness profiles for NH2 were extracted from the long-slit spectra of each comet. The observed surface brightness profiles extend along the slit to approximately 6 x 10(exp 4) km from the nucleus in both sunward and tailward directions. By comparing surface distribution calculated from an appropriate coma model with observed surface brightness distributions, the photodissociation timescale of the parent molecule of NH2 can be inferred. The observed NH2 surface brightness profiles in all three comets compares well with a surface brightness profile calculated using the vectorial model, an NH3 photodissociation timescale of 7 x 10(exp 3) seconds, and an NH2 photodissociation timescale of 34,000 seconds.

  19. Electric Propulsion Options for 10 kW Class Earth-Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, M. J.; Curran, Francis M.

    1989-01-01

    Five and 10 kW ion and arcjet propulsion system options for a near-term space demonstration experiment were evaluated. Analyses were conducted to determine first-order propulsion system performance and system component mass estimates. Overall mission performance of the electric propulsion systems was quantified in terms of the maximum thrusting time, total impulse, and velocity increment capability available when integrated onto a generic spacecraft under fixed mission model assumptions. Maximum available thrusting times for the ion-propelled spacecraft options, launched on a DELTA 2 6920 vehicle, range from approximately 8,600 hours for a 4-engine 10 kW system to more than 29,600 hours for a single-engine 5 kW system. Maximum total impulse values and maximum delta-v's range from 1.2x10 (exp 7) to 2.1x10 (exp 7) N-s, and 3550 to 6200 m/s, respectively. Maximum available thrusting times for the arcjet propelled spacecraft launched on the DELTA 2 6920 vehicle range from approximately 528 hours for the 6-engine 10 kW hydrazine system to 2328 hours for the single-engine 5 kW system. Maximum total impulse values and maximum delta-v's range from 2.2x10 (exp 6) to 3.6x10 (exp 6) N-s, and approximately 662 to 1072 m/s, respectively.

  20. Fourier transform infrared studies of the interaction of HCl with model polar stratospheric cloud films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehler, Birgit G.; Mcneill, Laurie S.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1993-01-01

    Heterogeneous reactions involving hydrochloric acid adsorbed on the surfaces of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are postulated to contribute to polar ozone loss. Using FTIR spectroscopy to probe the condensed phase, we have examined the interaction of HCl with ice and nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) films representative of types II and I PSCs, respectively. For HCl pressures in the range of 10 exp -7 to 10 exp -5 Torr, our FTIR studies show that a small amount of crystalline HCl-6H2O formed on or in ice at 155 K. However, for higher HCl pressures, we observed that the entire film of ice rapidly converted into an amorphous 4:1 H2O:HCl mixture. From HCl-uptake experiments with P(HCl) = 8 x 10 exp -7 Torr, we estimate roughly that the diffusion coefficient of HCl in ice is around 2 x 10 exp -12 sq cm/s at 158 K. For higher temperatures more closely approximating those found in the stratosphere, we were unable to detect bulk HCl uptake by ice. Indirect evidence suggests that HCl adsorption onto the surface of model PSC films inhibited the evaporation of both ice and NAT by 3-5 K.

  1. 5 CFR 9301.5 - Accessing records without request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accessing records without request. 9301.5 Section 9301.5 Administrative Personnel SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL FOR AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS AND INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act Procedures for Disclosure of Records...

  2. 5 CFR 9301.5 - Accessing records without request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accessing records without request. 9301.5 Section 9301.5 Administrative Personnel SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL FOR AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS AND INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act Procedures for Disclosure of Records...

  3. 5. GATE 5, INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING SOUTH; WATER FROM GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GATE 5, INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING SOUTH; WATER FROM GATE 5 ENTERED DITCH AND IRRIGATED HONDIUS' FIELDS. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  4. Generalized oscillator strengths for 5s, 5s{sup '}, and 5p excitations of krypton

    SciTech Connect

    Li Wenbin; Zhu Linfan; Yuan Zhensheng; Sun Jianmin; Cheng Huadong; Xu Kezun; Zhong Zhiping; Liu Xiaojing

    2003-06-01

    The absolute generalized oscillator strengths (GOSs) for 5s, 5s{sup '}, 5p [5/2]{sub 3,2}, 5p [3/2]{sub 1,2}, and 5p [1/2]{sub 0} transitions of krypton have been determined in a large K{sup 2} region at a high electron-impact energy of 2500 eV. The positions of the minima and maxima of these GOSs have been determined. The present results show that the angular resolution and pressure effect have great influence on the position and the amplitude of the minimum for the GOS of 5s+5s{sup '} transitions. When these effects are considered, the measured minimum position for the GOS of 5s+5s{sup '} transitions is in excellent agreement with the calculation of Chen and Msezane [J. Phys. B 33, 5397 (2000)].

  5. MEK5 suppresses osteoblastic differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneshiro, Shoichi; Otsuki, Dai; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Higuchi, Chikahisa

    2015-07-31

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family and is activated by its upstream kinase, MAPK kinase 5 (MEK5), which is a member of the MEK family. Although the role of MEK5 has been investigated in several fields, little is known about its role in osteoblastic differentiation. In this study, we have demonstrated the role of MEK5 in osteoblastic differentiation in mouse preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and bone marrow stromal ST2 cells. We found that treatment with BIX02189, an inhibitor of MEK5, increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the gene expression of ALP, osteocalcin (OCN) and osterix, as well as it enhanced the calcification of the extracellular matrix. Moreover, osteoblastic cell proliferation decreased at a concentration of greater than 0.5 μM. In addition, knockdown of MEK5 using siRNA induced an increase in ALP activity and in the gene expression of ALP, OCN, and osterix. In contrast, overexpression of wild-type MEK5 decreased ALP activity and attenuated osteoblastic differentiation markers including ALP, OCN and osterix, but promoted cell proliferation. In summary, our results indicated that MEK5 suppressed the osteoblastic differentiation, but promoted osteoblastic cell proliferation. These results implied that MEK5 may play a pivotal role in cell signaling to modulate the differentiation and proliferation of osteoblasts. Thus, inhibition of MEK5 signaling in osteoblasts may be of potential use in the treatment of osteoporosis. - Highlights: • MEK5 inhibitor BIX02189 suppresses proliferation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 knockdown and MEK5 inhibitor promote differentiation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 overexpression inhibits differentiation of osteoblasts.

  6. Processing and testing of high toughness silicon nitride ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tikare, Veena; Sanders, William A.; Choi, Sung R.

    1993-01-01

    High toughness silicon nitride ceramics were processed with the addition of small quantities of beta-Si3N4 whiskers in a commercially available alpha-Si3N4 powder. These whiskers grew preferentially during sintering resulting in large, elongated beta-grains, which acted to toughen the matrix by crack deflection and grain pullout. The fracture toughness of these samples seeded with beta-Si3N4 whiskers ranged from 8.7 to 9.5 MPa m(exp 0.5) depending on the sintering additives.

  7. 5SRNAdb: an information resource for 5S ribosomal RNAs.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, Maciej; Zielezinski, Andrzej; Barciszewski, Jan; Erdmann, Volker A; Karlowski, Wojciech M

    2016-01-01

    Ribosomal 5S RNA (5S rRNA) is the ubiquitous RNA component found in the large subunit of ribosomes in all known organisms. Due to its small size, abundance and evolutionary conservation 5S rRNA for many years now is used as a model molecule in studies on RNA structure, RNA-protein interactions and molecular phylogeny. 5SRNAdb (http://combio.pl/5srnadb/) is the first database that provides a high quality reference set of ribosomal 5S RNAs (5S rRNA) across three domains of life. Here, we give an overview of new developments in the database and associated web tools since 2002, including updates to database content, curation processes and user web interfaces. PMID:26490961

  8. 5SRNAdb: an information resource for 5S ribosomal RNAs.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, Maciej; Zielezinski, Andrzej; Barciszewski, Jan; Erdmann, Volker A; Karlowski, Wojciech M

    2016-01-01

    Ribosomal 5S RNA (5S rRNA) is the ubiquitous RNA component found in the large subunit of ribosomes in all known organisms. Due to its small size, abundance and evolutionary conservation 5S rRNA for many years now is used as a model molecule in studies on RNA structure, RNA-protein interactions and molecular phylogeny. 5SRNAdb (http://combio.pl/5srnadb/) is the first database that provides a high quality reference set of ribosomal 5S RNAs (5S rRNA) across three domains of life. Here, we give an overview of new developments in the database and associated web tools since 2002, including updates to database content, curation processes and user web interfaces.

  9. Synthesis of 5'-Aldehyde Oligonucleotide.

    PubMed

    Lartia, Rémy

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis of oligonucleotide ending with an aldehyde functional group at their 5'-end (5'-AON) is possible for both DNA (5'-AODN) and RNA (5'-AORN) series irrespectively of the nature of the last nucleobase. The 5'-alcohol of on-support ODN is mildly oxidized under Moffat conditions. Transient protection of the resulting aldehyde by N,N'-diphenylethylenediamine derivatives allows cleavage, deprotection, and RP-HPLC purification of the protected 5'-AON. Finally, 5'-AON is deprotected by usual acetic acid treatment. In the aggregates, 5'-AON can be now synthesized and purified as routinely as non-modified ODNs, following procedures similar to the well-known "DMT-On" strategy. PMID:26967469

  10. A comparison of low-gravity measurements on-board Columbia during STS-40

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Baugher, C. R.; Blanchard, R. C.; Delombard, R.; Durgin, W. W.; Matthiesen, D. H.; Neupert, W.; Roussel, P.

    1993-01-01

    The first NASA Spacelab Life Sciences mission (SLS-1) flew 5 Jun. to 14 Jun. 1991 on the orbiter Columbia (STS-40). The purpose of the mission was to investigate the human body's adaptation to the low-gravity conditions of space flight and the body's readjustment after the mission to the 1 g environment of earth. In addition to the life sciences experiments manifested for the Spacelab module, a variety of experiments in other scientific disciplines flew in the Spacelab and in Get Away Special (GAS) Canisters on the GAS Bridge Assembly. Several principal investigators designed and flew specialized accelerometer systems to better assess the results of their experiments by means of a low-gravity environment characterization. This was also the first flight of the NASA Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) sponsored Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) and the first flight of the NASA Orbiter Experiments Office (OEX) sponsored Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment accelerometer (OARE). A brief introduction to seven STS-40 accelerometer systems are presented and the resulting data are discussed and compared. During crew sleep periods, acceleration magnitudes in the 10(exp -6) to 10(exp -5) g range were recorded in the Spacelab module and on the GAS Bridge Assembly. Magnitudes increased to the 10(exp -4) g level during periods of nominal crew activity. Vernier thruster firings caused acceleration shifts on the order of 10(exp -4) g and primary thruster firings caused accelerations as great as 10(exp -2) g. Frequency domain analysis revealed typical excitation of Orbiter and Spacelab structural modes at 3.5, 4.7, 5.2, 6.2, 7, and 17 Hz.

  11. Limiting Superluminal Electron and Neutrino Velocities Using the 2010 Crab Nebula Flare and the IceCube PeV Neutrino Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2014-01-01

    The observation of two PetaelectronVolt (PeV)-scale neutrino events reported by Ice Cube allows one to place constraints on Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) in the neutrino sector. After first arguing that at least one of the PetaelectronVolt IceCube events was of extragalactic origin, I derive an upper limit for the difference between putative superluminal neutrino and electron velocities of less than or equal to approximately 5.6 x 10(exp -19) in units where c = 1, confirming that the observed PetaelectronVolt neutrinos could have reached Earth from extragalactic sources. I further derive a new constraint on the superluminal electron velocity, obtained from the observation of synchrotron radiation from the Crab Nebula flare of September, 2010. The inference that the greater than 1 GigaelectronVolt gamma-rays from synchrotron emission in the flare were produced by electrons of energy up to approx. 5.1 PetaelectronVolt indicates the nonoccurrence of vacuum Cerenkov radiation by these electrons. This implies a new, strong constraint on superluminal electron velocities delta(sub e) less than or equal to approximately 5 x 10(exp -21). It immediately follows that one then obtains an upper limit on the superluminal neutrino velocity alone of delta(sub v) less than or equal to approximately 5.6 x 10(exp -19), many orders of magnitude better than the time-of-flight constraint from the SN1987A neutrino burst. However, if the electrons are subluminal the constraint on the absolute value of delta(sub e) less than or equal to approximately 8 x 10(exp -17), obtained from the Crab Nebula gamma-ray spectrum, places a weaker constraint on superluminal neutrino velocity of delta(sub v) less than or equal to approximately 8 x 10(exp -17).

  12. Tissue-Specific Differences in DNA Modifications (5-Hydroxymethylcytosine, 5-Formylcytosine, 5-Carboxylcytosine and 5-Hydroxymethyluracil) and Their Interrelationships

    PubMed Central

    Starczak, Marta; Modrzejewska, Martyna; Olinski, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    Background Replication-independent active/enzymatic demethylation may be an important process in the functioning of somatic cells. The most plausible mechanisms of active 5-methylcytosine demethylation, leading to activation of previously silenced genes, involve ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins that participate in oxidation of 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine which can be further oxidized to 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxylcytosine. Recently, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine was demonstrated to be a relatively stable modification, and the previously observed substantial differences in the level of this modification in various murine tissues were shown to depend mostly on cell proliferation rate. Some experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that 5-hydroxymethyluracil may be also generated by TET enzymes and has epigenetic functions. Results Using an isotope-dilution automated online two-dimensional ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, we have analyzed, for the first time, all the products of active DNA demethylation pathway: 5-methyl-2′-deoxycytidine, 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxycytidine, 5-formyl-2′-deoxycytidine and 5-carboxyl-2′-deoxycytidine, as well as 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxyuridine, in DNA isolated from various rat and porcine tissues. A strong significant inverse linear correlation was found between the proliferation rate of cells and the global level of 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxycytidine in both porcine (R2 = 0.88) and rat tissues (R2 = 0.83); no such relationship was observed for 5-formyl-2′-deoxycytidine and 5-carboxyl-2′-deoxycytidine. Moreover, a substrate-product correlation was demonstrated for the two consecutive steps of iterative oxidation pathway: between 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxycytidine and its product 5-formyl-2′-deoxycytidine, as well as between 5-formyl-2′-deoxycytidine and 5-carboxyl-2′-deoxycytidine (R2 = 0.60 and R2 = 0.71, respectively). Conclusions Good correlations within

  13. Death receptor 5 and neuroproliferation.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yanli; Li, Yongqiang; Zang, Jianfeng; Huang, Hongen; Deng, Jiexin; Cui, Zhanjun; Yu, Dongming; Deng, Jinbo

    2012-03-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand or Apo2 ligand is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily of cytokines that induces apoptosis upon binding to its death domain-containing transmembrane receptors, death receptors 4 and 5 (DR4, DR5). However, DR5 is also expressed in the developing CNS where it appears to play a role unrelated to apoptosis, and instead may be involved in the regulation of neurogenesis. We report on the distribution of DR5 expression in mouse hippocampus, cerebellum, and rostral migratory stream (RMS) of olfactory bulb from embryonic (E) day 16 (E16) to postnatal (P) day (P180). At E16, DR5-positive cells were distributed widely in embryonic hippocampus with strong immunostaining in the developing dentate gyrus. In newborn hippocampus, DR5-positive cells were predominantly located in proliferative zones, such as dentate gyrus, subventricular zone, and RMS. After postnatal day 7 (P7), the number of DR5-positive cells decreased, and cells with intense fluorescence were primarily restricted to the subgranular layer (SGL), although the granular cell layer showed weak fluorescence. After P30, only few DR5-positive cells were found in SGL, and mature granule cells were negative for DR5 expression. To address whether DR5 expression is a restricted to progenitor cells and newborn neurons, we performed 5-bromo-deoxyuridine labeling. We report that proliferative cells in the SGL selectively express DR5, with lower levels of expression in cells positive for doublecortin, a marker of newborn neurons. In addition, the stem cells in intestine, cerebellum, and RMS were also demonstrated to be DR5-positive. In the meantime, in cerebellum, DR5-positive cells were also positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein, a marker of proliferative Bergmann cells. We conclude that DR5 is selectively expressed by neuroprogenitor cells and newborn neurons, suggesting that the DR5 death receptor is likely to play a key role in neuroproliferation

  14. 5,5'-Azoxytetrazolates--a new nitrogen-rich dianion and its comparison to 5,5'-azotetrazolate.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Niko; Hüll, Katharina; Klapötke, Thomas M; Stierstorfer, Jörg; Laus, Gerhard; Hummel, Michael; Froschauer, Carmen; Wurst, Klaus; Schottenberger, Herwig

    2012-08-28

    A modification of the synthesis of sodium 5,5'-azotetrazolate pentahydrate, described by Thiele in 1898, yields the unknown and unexpected corresponding 5N-oxido derivative sodium 5,5'-azoxybistetrazolate pentahydrate (Na(2)zTO·5H(2)O, 1). Purification was achieved by recrystallization based on the better solubility of Na(2)zTO·5H(2)O in water. Different nitrogen-rich salts, such as the diammonium (3), the dihydroxylammonium (4), the bis-diaminoguanidinium (5), the bis-triaminoguanidinium (6) and the diaminouronium salt (7), have been prepared using metathesis reactions starting from barium 5,5'-azoxybistetrazolate pentahydrate (2) and ammonium, hydroxylammonium, diaminoguanidinium or diaminouronium sulfate and triaminoguanidinium chloride, respectively. The nitrogen rich azoxy-derivatives 3-7 were characterized using NMR, IR and Raman spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. Additionally the solid state structures of 3, 4, 5 and 7 were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The heats of formation of 3 and 4 and their corresponding azo-tetrazolate derivatives were calculated by the atomization method based on CBS-4M enthalpies. With these values and the crystal densities, several detonation parameters such as the detonation velocity, detonation pressure and specific impulse were calculated (EXPLO5) and compared. The sensitivities towards shock (BAM drophammer), friction (BAM friction tester) and electrostatic discharge of the described compounds were determined. PMID:22875175

  15. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME... Sec. 5 Accounting. The General Agent shall record the amounts of compensation paid from the NSA... Accounting Office, at which time the Maritime Administration will take custody of the records....

  16. Accretion Disks Around Binary Black Holes of Unequal Mass: GRMHD Simulations Near Decoupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, Roman; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Etienne, Zachariah B.; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Pfeiffer, Harald, P.

    2013-01-01

    We report on simulations in general relativity of magnetized disks onto black hole binaries. We vary the binary mass ratio from 1:1 to 1:10 and evolve the systems when they orbit near the binary disk decoupling radius. We compare (surface) density profiles, accretion rates (relative to a single, non-spinning black hole), variability, effective alpha-stress levels and luminosities as functions of the mass ratio. We treat the disks in two limiting regimes: rapid radiative cooling and no radiative cooling. The magnetic field lines clearly reveal jets emerging from both black hole horizons and merging into one common jet at large distances. The magnetic fields give rise to much stronger shock heating than the pure hydrodynamic flows, completely alter the disk structure, and boost accretion rates and luminosities. Accretion streams near the horizons are among the densest structures; in fact, the 1:10 no-cooling evolution results in a refilling of the cavity. The typical effective temperature in the bulk of the disk is approx. 10(exp5) (M / 10(exp 8)M solar mass (exp -1/4(L/L(sub edd) (exp 1/4K) yielding characteristic thermal frequencies approx. 10 (exp 15) (M /10(exp 8)M solar mass) (exp -1/4(L/L (sub edd) (1+z) (exp -1)Hz. These systems are thus promising targets for many extragalactic optical surveys, such as LSST, WFIRST, and PanSTARRS.

  17. Uptake of Organic Vapors by Sulfate Aerosols: Physical and Chemical Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michelsen, R. R.; Ashbourn, S. F. M.; Iraci, L.T.; Staton, S. J. R.

    2003-01-01

    While it is known that upper tropospheric sulfate particles contain a significant amount of organic matter, both the source of the organic fraction and its form in solution are unknown. These studies explore how the chemical characteristics of the molecules and surfaces in question affect heterogeneous interactions. The solubilities of acetaldehyde [CH3CHO] and ethanol [CH3CH20H] in cold, aqueous sulfuric acid solutions have been measured by Knudsen cell studies. Henry's law solubility coefficients range from 10(exp 2) to 10(exp 5) M/atm for acetaldehyde, and from 10(exp 4) to 10(exp 9) M/atm for ethanol under upper tropospheric conditions (210-240 K, 40-80 wt. % H2S04). The multiple solvation pathways (protonation, enolization, etc.) available to these compounds in acidic aqueous environments will be discussed. Preliminary results from the interaction of acetaldehyde with solutions of formaldehyde in sulfuric acid will be presented as well. The physical and chemical processes that affect organic uptake by aqueous aerosols will be explored, with the aim of evaluating organic species not yet studied in low temperature aqueous sulfuric acid.

  18. Compatibility of a Diffractive Pupil and Coronagraphic Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bendek, Eduardo; Belikov, Rusian; Pluzhnyk, Yevgeniy; Guyon, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Detection and characterization of exo-earths require direct-imaging techniques that can deliver contrast ratios of 10(exp 10) at 100 milliarc-seconds or smaller angular separation. At the same time, astrometric data is required to measure planet masses and can help detect planets and constrain their orbital parameters. To minimize costs, a single space mission can be designed using a high efficiency coronograph to perform direct imaging and a diffractive pupil to calibrate wide-field distortions to enable high precision astrometric measurements. This paper reports the testing of a diffractive pupil on the high-contrast test bed at the NASA Ames Research Center to assess the compatibility of using a diffractive pupil with coronographic imaging systems. No diffractive contamination was found within our detectability limit of 2x10(exp -7) contrast outside a region of 12lambda/D and 2.5x10(exp -6) within a region spanning from 2 to 12lambda/D. Morphology of the image features suggests that no contamination exists even beyond the detectability limit specified or at smaller working angles. In the case that diffractive contamination is found beyond these stated levels, active wavefront control would be able to mitigate its intensity to 10(exp -7) or better contrast.

  19. X-33 Turbulent Aeroheating Measurements and Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements and predictions of the X-33 turbulent aeroheating environment have been performed for Mach 6, perfect-gas air conditions. The purpose of this investigation was to compare turbulent aeroheating predictions from two Navier-Stokes codes, LAURA and GASP, with each other and with experimental data in which turbulent flow was produced through either natural transition or forced transition using roughness elements. The wind tunnel testing was conducted at free stream Reynolds numbers of 0.72 x 10(exp 7)/m to 2.4 x 10(exp 7)/m (2.2 x 10(exp 6)/ft to 7.3 x 10(exp 6)/ft) on 0.254 m (10.0-in.) X-33 models at alpha = 40 deg with smooth surfaces, smooth surfaces with discrete trips, and surfaces with simulated bowed thermal protection system panels. Turbulent flow was produced by the discrete trips and bowed panels for all but the lowest Reynolds number, while turbulent flow on the smooth model was produced only at the highest Reynolds number. Turbulent aeroheating levels on each of the three model types were measured using global phosphor thermography and agreed to within the experimental accuracy (+/= 15%) of the test technique. Computations were performed at the wind tunnel free stream conditions using both codes. Turbulent aeroheating levels predicted using the LAURA code were generally 5%-10% lower than those from GASP, although both sets of predictions fell within the experimental accuracy of the wind tunnel data.

  20. Constraints on decaying neutrinos from the far-ultraviolet extragalactic background light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overduin, J. M.; Wesson, P. S.; Bowyer, S.

    1993-01-01

    We consider light neutrinos as dark matter candidates, concentrating on those proposed by Sciama, with rest energies near 30 eV and decay lifetimes of (2 +/- 1) x 10 exp 23 s. Using equations developed by Wesson et al. (1987) for the visible extragalactic background light, and assuming that the neutrinos are clustered in galactic halos similar to that around our own Galaxy, we show that their decay would be capable of significant contributions to the far-ultraviolet background. Observations in this region by Martin and Bowyer (1989) limit the possible mass of the neutrino halos to 2 x 10 exp 11 M(solar), which is less than the required galactic 'missing mass'. In order to form galactic halos of mass 5 x 10 exp 11 M(solar), such neutrinos would have to decay with lifetimes of at least 3 x 10 exp 23 s to be consistent with the observations. Sciama's proposal remains marginally viable, but more observational data will test it and similar neutrino models critically.

  1. Nitrogen sulfide in quiescent dark clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgonagle, Douglas; Irvine, William M.; Ohishi, Masatoshi

    1994-01-01

    We report the first detection of interstellar nitrogen sulfide (NS) in cold dark clouds. Several components of the (2)Pi(sub 1/2), J = 3/2 to 1/2 and J = 5/2 to 3/2 transitions were observed in TMC-1 and L134N. The inferred column density for TMC-1 is N(sub NS) approximately 8 x 10(exp 12)/sq cm toward the NH3 peak in that cloud, and in L134N is N(sub NS) approximately 3 x 10(exp 12)/sq cm toward the position of peak NH3 emission. These values correspond to fractional abundances relative to molecular hydrogen of f(sub NS) approximately 8 x 10(exp -10) for TMC-1, and f(sub NS) approximately 6 x 10(exp -10) for L134N. The NS emission is extended along the TMC-1 ridge and is also extended in L134N. The measured abundances are significantly higher than those predicted by some recent gas phase ion-molecule models.

  2. Test Status for Proposed Coupling of a Gravitational Force to Extreme Type II YBCO Ceramic Superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David; Li, Ning; Robertson, Tony; Koczor, Ron; Brantley, Whitt

    1999-01-01

    As a Bose condensate, superconductors provide novel conditions for revisiting previously proposed couplings between electromagnetism and gravity. Strong variations in Cooper pair electron density, large conductivity and low magnetic permeability define superconductive and degenerate condensates without the traditional density limits imposed by the Fermi energy (about 10-6 g/cu cm). Recent experiments have reported anomalous weight loss for a test mass suspended above a rotating Type II, YBCO superconductor, with the percentage change (0.05-2.1%) independent of the test mass' chemical composition and diamagnetic properties. A variation of 5 parts per 10(exp 4) was reported above a stationary (non-rotating) superconductor. In the present experiments reported using a sensitive gravimeter (resolution <10(exp -9) unit gravity or variation of 10(exp -6) cm/sq s in accelerations), bulk YBCO superconductors were stably levitated in a DC magnetic field (0.6 Tesla) subject to lateral AC fields (60 Gauss at 60 Hz) and rotation. With magnetic shielding, thermal control and buoyancy compensation, changes in acceleration were measured to be less than 2 parts in 10(exp 8) of the normal gravitational acceleration. This result puts new limits on the strength and range of the proposed coupling between high-Tc superconductors and gravity. Latest test results will be reported, along with status for future improvements and prospects.

  3. Observed temporal variations in the Earth's gravity field from 16-year Starlette orbit analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, M. K.; Eanes, R. L.; Shum, C. K.; Schutz, B. E.; Tapley, B. D.

    1992-01-01

    Satellite laser ranging data to Starlette, collected during the period from 1975 to 1990, are analyzed to determine yearly values of the second degree annual (Sa) and semiannual (Ssa) tides, simultaneously with average values of other low degree and order tide parameters. The yearly fluctuations in the values for Sa and Ssa are associated with changes in the Earth's second degree zonal harmonic caused by meteorological excitation. The Starlette-determined mean values for the amplitude of the annual and semiannual variations in J2 are 32.3 x 10 exp -11 and 19.5 x 10 exp -11, respectively; while the rms about the mean values are 4.1 x 10 exp -11 and 6.3 x 10 exp -11, respectively. The annual delta-J2 is in good agreement with the value obtained from the combined effects of air mass redistribution without the oceanic inverted-barometer effects (non-IB) and hydrological change. Approximately 90 percent of the observed annual variation from Starlette is attributed to the meteorological mass redistribution occurring on the Earth's surface.

  4. Mach 10 computational study of a three-dimensional scramjet inlet flow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Scott D.

    1995-01-01

    The present work documents the computational results for a combined computational and experimental parametric study of the internal aerodynamics of a generic three-dimensional sidewall-compression scramjet inlet configuration at Mach 10. The three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code SCRAMIN was chosen for the computational portion of the study because it uses a well-known and well-proven numerical scheme and has shown favorable comparison with experiment at Mach numbers between 2 and 6. One advantage of CFD was that it provided flow field data for a detailed examination of the internal flow characteristics in addition to the surface properties. The experimental test matrix at Mach 10 included three geometric contraction ratios (3, 5, and 9), three Reynolds numbers (0.55 x 10(exp 6) per foot, 1.14 x 10(exp 6) per foot, and 2.15 x 10(exp 6) per foot), and three cowl positions (at the throat and two forward positions). Computational data for two of these configurations (the contraction ratio of 3, Re = 2.15 x 10(exp 6) per foot, at two cowl positions) are presented along with a detailed analysis of the flow interactions in successive computational planes.

  5. Mach 10 computational study of a three-dimensional scramjet inlet flow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Scott D.

    1995-01-01

    The present work documents the computational results for a combined computational and experimental parametric study of the internal aerodynamics of a generic three-dimensional sidewall-compression scramjet inlet configuration at Mach 10. The three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code SCRAMIN was chosen for the computational portion of the study because it uses a well-known and well-proven numerical scheme and has shown favorable comparison with experiment at Mach numbers between 2 and 6. One advantage of CFD was that it provided flow field data for a detailed examination of the internal flow characteristics in addition to the surface properties. The experimental test matrix at mach 10 included three geometric contraction ratios (3, 5, and 9), three Reynolds numbers (0.55 x 10(exp 6) per foot, 1.14 x 10(exp 6) per foot, and 2.15 x 10(exp 6) per foot), and three cowl positions (at the throat and two forward positions). Computational data for two of these configurations (the contraction ratio of 3, Re = 2.15 x 10 (exp 6) per foot, at two cowl positions) are presented along with a detailed analysis of the flow interactions in successive computational planes.

  6. The New Millennium Program Space Technology 5 (ST-5) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Evan H.; Carlisle, Candace C.; Slavin, James A.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Technology 5 (ST-5) Project is part of NASA's New Millennium Program. ST-5 will consist of a constellation of three 25kg microsatellites. The mission goals are to demonstrate the research-quality science capability of the ST-5 spacecraft; to operate the three spacecraft as a constellation; and to design, develop and flight-validate three capable microsatellites with new technologies. ST-5 will be launched by a Pegasus XL into an elliptical polar (sun-synchronous) orbit. The three-month flight demonstration phase, beginning in March 2006, will validate the ability to perform science measurements, as well as the technologies and constellation operations. ST-5's technologies and concepts will enable future microsatellite science missions.

  7. Atomic Oxygen (ATOX) simulation of Teflon FEP and Kapton H surfaces using a high intensity, low energy, mass selected, ion beam facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vered, R.; Grossman, E.; Lempert, G. D.; Lifshitz, Y.

    1994-01-01

    A high intensity (greater than 10(exp 15) ions/sq cm) low energy (down to 5 eV) mass selected ion beam (MSIB) facility was used to study the effects of ATOX on two polymers commonly used for space applications (Kapton H and Teflon FEP). The polymers were exposed to O(+) and Ne(+) fluences on 10(exp 15) - 10(exp 19) ions/sq cm, using 30eV ions. A variety of analytical methods were used to analyze the eroded surfaces including: (1) atomic force microscopy (AFM) for morphology measurements; (2) total mass loss measurements using a microbalance; (3) surface chemical composition using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and (4) residual gas analysis (RGA) of the released gases during bombardment. The relative significance of the collisional and chemical degradation processes was evaluated by comparing the effects of Ne(+) and O(+) bombardment. For 30 eV ions it was found that the Kapton is eroded via chemical mechanisms while Teflon FEP is eroded via collisional mechanisms. AFM analysis was found very powerful in revealing the evolution of the damage from its initial atomic scale (roughness of approx. 1 nm) to its final microscopic scale (roughness greater than 1 micron). Both the surface morphology and the average roughness of the bombarded surfaces (averaged over 1 micron x 1 micron images by the system's computer) were determined for each sample. For 30 eV a non linear increase of the Kapton roughness with the O(+) fluence was discovered (a slow increase rate for fluences phi less than 5 x 10(exp 17) O(+)/sq cm, and a rapid increase rate for phi greater than 5 x 10(exp 17) O(+)/sq cm). Comparative studies on the same materials exposed to RF and DC oxygen plasmas indicate that the specific details of the erosion depend on the simulation facility emphasizing the advantages of the ion beam facility.

  8. A model of Triton's role in Neptune's magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, R. B.; Cheng, A. F.

    1994-01-01

    Escape of neutral hydrogen (H) and nitrogen (N) from Triton's maintains a large neutral cloud, called the Triton torus, in Neptune's magnetosphere. We have developed the first detailed Monte Carlo simulation model of the Triton torus that includes the collisionality, the complex geometry, the injection of two neutral species from Triton (H and N), and the combined effects of photoionization, electron impact ionization, and charge exchange. Ionization in Neptune's plasma sheet was modeled using Voyager plasma observations. Collisions cause both the H and N neutral clouds to become more radially extended, both toward Neptune and out beyond the magnetopause, as well as more extended in latitude, when compared with collisionless models. Moreover, collisions of H with the much more massive N greatly enhance the collisional ejection of H from the system and into Neptune's atmosphere. This effect decreases the probability of H ionization within the magnetosphere relative to that for N, and furthermore causes model results for two-species injection from Triton to differ significantly from those for H injection alone. For a hydrogen escape rate from Triton of 5 x 10(exp 25)/s, as given by photo-chemical models of Triton's upper atmosphere, a nitrogen escape rate of 5 x 10(exp 24)/s gives proton and N(+) sources of 5.6 x 10(exp 24)/s and 3.3 x 10(exp 24)/s, respectively, whose ratio is close to the observed ratio of protons to heavies. A nitrogen escape rate of 2 x 10(exp 25)/s, yields an N(+) source more than twice that of protons, inconsistent with the Voyager data.

  9. The origin and evolution of short-period Miras in the solar neighborhood: Constraints on the life cycle of old stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, M.

    1994-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the short-period (P less than 300 days) oxygen-rich Miras in the solar neighborhood can be fitted with an exponential scale height above the Galactic plane of about 600 pc. Using the Gliese catalog of local main-sequence stars, we estimate that the density of suitable G-type progenitor dwarfs within 20 pc of the Sun for these short-period Miras is 6 x 10(exp -4)/cu pc. The portion of the H-R diagram near the main-sequence turnoff of these velocity-selected Gliese stars is intermediate between that of the old open cluster NGC 188 and that of the metal-rich globular cluster, 47 Tuc. We infer that the main-sequence progenitors of the short-period Miras have masses near 1.0 solar mass, and we estimate that these Miras have ages approximately 9 x 10(exp 9). We also identify a few old disk red giants in the neighborhood of the Sun. On the basis of very limited information, we estimate that the total amount of mass lost from these stars during their first ascent up the red giant branch is less than or equal to 0.1 solar mass. We derive a duration of the short-period Mira phase of close to 5 x 10(exp 5) yr. This estimate for the duration of the short period Mira phase is longer than our estimate of 2 x 10(exp 5) yr for the duration of the Mira phase for stars with periods longer than 300 days. From their infrared colors, we estimate a typical mass-loss rate from the short-period Miras of approximately 1 x 10(exp -7) solar mass/yr.

  10. Atomic Oxygen (ATOX) simulation of Teflon FEP and Kapton H surfaces using a high intensity, low energy, mass selected, ion beam facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vered, R.; Grossman, E.; Lempert, G. D.; Lifshitz, Y.

    1994-11-01

    A high intensity (greater than 10(exp 15) ions/sq cm) low energy (down to 5 eV) mass selected ion beam (MSIB) facility was used to study the effects of ATOX on two polymers commonly used for space applications (Kapton H and Teflon FEP). The polymers were exposed to O(+) and Ne(+) fluences on 10(exp 15) - 10(exp 19) ions/sq cm, using 30eV ions. A variety of analytical methods were used to analyze the eroded surfaces including: (1) atomic force microscopy (AFM) for morphology measurements; (2) total mass loss measurements using a microbalance; (3) surface chemical composition using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and (4) residual gas analysis (RGA) of the released gases during bombardment. The relative significance of the collisional and chemical degradation processes was evaluated by comparing the effects of Ne(+) and O(+) bombardment. For 30 eV ions it was found that the Kapton is eroded via chemical mechanisms while Teflon FEP is eroded via collisional mechanisms. AFM analysis was found very powerful in revealing the evolution of the damage from its initial atomic scale (roughness of approx. 1 nm) to its final microscopic scale (roughness greater than 1 micron). Both the surface morphology and the average roughness of the bombarded surfaces (averaged over 1 micron x 1 micron images by the system's computer) were determined for each sample. For 30 eV a non linear increase of the Kapton roughness with the O(+) fluence was discovered (a slow increase rate for fluences phi less than 5 x 10(exp 17) O(+)/sq cm, and a rapid increase rate for phi greater than 5 x 10(exp 17) O(+)/sq cm). Comparative studies on the same materials exposed to RF and DC oxygen plasmas indicate that the specific details of the erosion depend on the simulation facility emphasizing the advantages of the ion beam facility.

  11. 5. Photograph of a line drawing. SHEET 5, EAST AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photograph of a line drawing. SHEET 5, EAST AND SOUTH ELEVATIONS AND EE AND BB CROSS SECTIONS; 9-16-1940. Assembly Building for Tank Plant for the Chrysler Corporation, Macomb County, Michigan. Delineator: W. A. G. - Detroit Arsenal, 6501 East Eleven Mile Road, Warren, Macomb County, MI

  12. Execs' compensation rises 5.5% in 1993.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, J G

    1994-06-20

    Propelled by soaring bonuses, compensation for healthcare executives rose 5.5% last year, according to MODERN HEALTHCARE'S annual compensation survey. The survey also showed a growing reliance on variable pay and incentive programs as demands on executives increase. PMID:10161074

  13. Science in Action Series: AGATE ( pt5/5 )

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This show was made for the Office of Education at NASA Langley. The objective is to make math and science appealing to a middle school audience. This clip (pt 5/5 ) answers more FAQ's: How will this be different from flying a normal aircraft? How will the cockpit be different? What will the next generation of computer controlled flight managemnt offer?

  14. Unique Pt5 metallacycle: [Pt(II)Cl(pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate)]5.

    PubMed

    Montagner, Diego; Sanz Miguel, Pablo J

    2011-11-01

    The neutral complex [PtCl(PyDT)](5) (PyDT = (CH(2))(4)NCS(2)(-)) represents the first example of a Pt(5) metallacycle. This unique architecture based on chiral S-bridged Pt(II) monomers was prepared by thermal degradation of the reaction product of PtCl(2) and a pyrrolidinedithioester. PMID:21901224

  15. Cosmogenic Production of Be-7 and Be-10 in Water Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Finkel, R. C.; Klein, J.; Kohl, C. P.

    1996-01-01

    We have measured Be-10(t(sub 1/2) = 1.5 x 10(exp 6) years) and Be-7 (t(sub 1/2) = 53.28 days) concentrations in water targets exposed for 1 to 2 years at Echo Lake, Colorado (elevation = 3246 m) and at La Jolla, California (140 m). Neutron monitor data were used to normalize the measured concentrations in order to calculate production rates equivalent to the cosmic ray flux averaged over four solar cycles (43 years). The Be-7 production rates thus obtained correspond to 6.03 +/- 0.07 x 10(exp -6) atom/g.O/s at Echo Lake and 5.06 +/- 0.20 x 10(exp -7) atom/g.O/ s at La Jolla. The Be-10 production rates correspond to 3.14 +/- 0.18 x 10(exp -6) atom/g.O/s at Echo Lake and 2.68 +/- 0.47 x 10(exp -7) atom/g.O/s at La Jolla. When compared with Be-10 production rates determined in Be-10-saturated rocks from the Antarctic and with theoretical calculations based on meteorite and lunar sample data, we find that the million-year average production rate is about 14 - 17% greater than the present production rate averaged over the last four solar cycles. Comparison with production rates determined by measuring glacially polished rocks from the Sierra Nevada in California indicates that average production (based on a revised 13,000-year deglaciation age and a geographic latitude correction) is a about 11% greater than the average over the last four solar cycles. The measured Be-10/Be-7 production ratio in oxygen is 0.52 +/- 0.03 at Echo Lake and 0.55 +/- 0.07 at La Jolla.

  16. FUSE Observations of Warm Gas in the Cooling Flow Clusters A1795 and A2597

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oegerle, W. R.; Cowie, L.; Davidsen, A.; Hu, E.; Hutchings, J.; Murphy, E.; Sembach, K.; Woodgate, B.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present far-ultraviolet spectroscopy of the cores of the massive cooling flow clusters Abell 1795 and 2597 obtained with FUSE. As the intracluster gas cools through 3 x 10(exp 5)K, it should emit strongly in the O VI lambda(lambda)1032,1038 resonance lines. We report the detection of O VI (lambda)1032 emission in A2597, with a line flux of 1.35 +/- 0.35 x 10(exp -15) erg/sq cm s, as well as detection of emission from C III (lambda)977. A marginal detection of C III (lambda)977 emission is also reported for A1795. These observations provide evidence for a direct link between the hot (10(exp 7) K) cooling flow gas and the cool (10(exp 4) K) gas in the optical emission line filaments. Assuming simple cooling flow models, the O VI line flux in A2597 corresponds to a mass deposition rate of approx. 40 solar mass /yr within the central 36 kpc. Emission from O VI (lambda)1032 was not detected in A1795, with an upper limit of 1.5 x 10(exp -15) erg/sq cm s, corresponding to a limit on the mass cooling flow rate of M(28 kpc) less than 28M solar mass/ yr. We have considered several explanations for the lack of detection of O VI emission in A1795 and the weaker than expected flux in A2597, including extinction by dust in the outer cluster, and quenching of thermal conduction by magnetic fields. We conclude that a turbulent mixing model, with some dust extinction, could explain our O VI results while also accounting for the puzzling lack of emission by Fe(sub XVII) in cluster cooling flows.

  17. South-North and radial traverses through the interplanetary dust cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruen, E.; Staubach, P.; Baguhl, M.; Hamilton, D. P.; Zook, H. A.; Dermott, S.; Fechtig, H.; Gustafson, B. A.; Hanner, M. S.; Horanyi, M.; Kissel, J.; Lindblad, B. A.; Linkert, D.; Linkert, G.; Mann, I.; McDonnell, J. A. M.; Morfill, G. E.; Polanskey, C.; Schwehm, G.; Srama, R.

    1998-01-01

    Identical in situ dust detectors are flown on board the Galileo and Ulysses spacecraft. They record impacts of micrometeoroids in the ecliptic plane at heliocentric distances from 0.7 to 5.4 AU and in a plane almost perpendicular to the ecliptic from -79 deg to +79 deg ecliptic latitude. The combination of both Ulysses and Galileo measurements yield information about the radial and latitudinal distributions of micron and sub-micron sized dust in the solar system. Two types of dust particles were found to dominate the dust flux in interplanetary space: (1) Interplanetary micrometeoroids covering a wide mass range from 10(exp -16) to 10(exp -6) gr are mostly recorded inside 3 AU, and at latitudes below 30 deg; and (2) Interstellar grains with masses between 10(exp -14) and 10(exp -12) gr have been positively identified outside 3 AU near the ecliptic plane and outside 1.8 AU at high ecliptic latitudes (> 50 deg). Interstellar grains move on hyperbolic trajectories through the planetary system and constitute the dominant dust flux (1.5 x 10(exp -4)/ sq m sec) in the outer solar system and at high ecliptic latitudes. In order to compare and analyze the Galileo and Ulysses data sets, a new model is developed based on Divine's (1993) "Five populations of interplanetary meteoroids" model. By using this model, which takes into account the measured velocities and the effect of radiation pressure on small particles, we define four populations of meteoroids on elliptical orbits plus one population on hyperbolic orbits that all can fit the micrometeoroid flux observed by Galileo and Ulysses.

  18. Time evolution of a miniflare as seen in H-alpha, UV lines, and X-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, J.; Schmieder, B.; Simnett, G. M.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.

    1994-01-01

    A miniflare that occurred in active region Hale 16896 on 1980 June 15 was observed in H-alpha, UV lines, and soft X-rays. These data allow us to analyze the flare emission and derive the energetics and dynamics of the chromospheric plasma involved. Our results indicate that the energy released by the miniflare was about 10(exp 28) ergs, about four orders of magnitude smaller than that of a large flare. However, hard X-rays (5.5-8.0 keV) were observed which indicated a plasma with temperature as high as 27 x 10(exp 6) K. The H-alpha wings, C IV, and X-rays all showed a short-lived and compact (3 sec x 3 sec) brightening in a location near the leading sunspot. At this location, small-scale changes in the magnetic field were observed from about 2 hr before to about 6 hr after the miniflare. Only very small velocities seem to have been associated with most of the event in H-alpha. The data are consistent with short and dense loops at temperatures above 10(exp 7) K which lost a large fraction of their energy via downward conduction through regions at the footpoints. Several secondary events appear to have been triggered by the miniflare along an arch filament which itself was not greatly affected. A number of much less energetic (10(exp 25)-10(exp 26) erg) events preceded and followed the mini-flare. One of these occurred 11 minutes after the mini-flare and displayed a highly Doppler-shifted signature from the foot-point of a C IV arch. This arch delineates the connection that existed between the location of the mini-flare and the location of secondary events triggered by the flare.

  19. Suzaku View of the Neutron Star in the Dipping Source 4U 1822-37

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasano, Makoto; Makishima, Kazuo; Sakurai, Soki; Zhang, Zhongli; Enoto, Teruaki

    2013-01-01

    The dipping X-ray source 4U 1822-37 was observed by Suzaku on 2006 Octrober 20 for a net exposure of 37 ks. The source was detected with the XIS at a 1-10 keV flux of 5.5 ×10(exp -10) erg per square centimeter per second, and with the HXD (HXD-PIN) at a 10-50 keV flux of 8.9 ×10(exp -10) erg per square centimeter per second. With HXD-PIN, the pulsation was detected at a barycentric period of 0.592437 seconds, and its change rate was reconfirmed as -2.43 × 10(exp -12) seconds per second. The 1-50 keV spectra of 4U 1822-37 were found to be very similar to those of Her X- 1 in the slopes, cutoff and iron lines. Three iron lines (Fe Kalpha, Fe XXV, and Fe XXVI) were detected, on top of a 1-50 keV continuum that is described by an NPEX model plus a soft blackbody. In addition, a cyclotron resonance scattering feature was detected significantly ( greater than 99% confidence), at an energy of 33+/-2 keV with a depth of 0.4(sup +0.6)/(sub -0.3). Therefore, the neutron star in this source is concluded to have a strong magnetic field of 2.8 × 10(exp 12) G. Further assuming that the source has a relatively high intrinsic luminosity of several times 10(exp 37) erg per second, its spectral and timing properties are consistently explained.

  20. Electron density power spectrum in the local interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. W.; Rickett, B. J.; Spangler, S. R.

    1995-01-01

    Interstellar scintillation (ISS), fluctuations in the amplitude and phase of radio waves caused by scattering in the interstellar medium, is important as a diagnostic of interstellar plasma turbulence. ISS is also of interest because it is noise for other radio astronomical observations. The unifying concern is the power spectrum of the interstellar electron density. Here we use ISS observations through the nearby (less than or approximately =1 kpc) (ISM) to estimate the spectrum. From measurements of angular broadening of pulsars and extragalactic sources, decorrelation bandwidth of pulsars, refractive steering of features in pulsar dynamic spectra, dispersion measured fluctuations of pulsars, and refractive scintillation index measurements, we construct a composite structure function that is approximately power law over 2 x 10(exp 6) m less than scale less than 10(exp 13) m. The data are consistent with the structure function having a logarithmic slope versus baseline less than 2; thus there is a meaningful connection between scales in the radiowave fluctuation field and the scales in the electron density field causing the scattering. The data give an upper limit to the inner scale, l(sub o) less than or approximately 10(exp 8) m and are consistent with much smaller values. We construct a composite electron density spectrum that is approximately power law over at least the approximately = 5 decade wavenumber range 10(exp -13)/m less than wavenumber less than 10(exp -8)/m and that may extend to higher wavenumbers. The average spectral index of electron density over this wavenumber range is approximately = 3.7, very close to the value expected for a Kolmogorov process. The outer scale size, L(sub o), must be greater than or approximately = 10(exp 13) m (determined from dispersion measure fluctuations). When the ISS data are combined with measurements of differential Faraday rotation angle, and gradients in the average electron density, constraints can be put on the

  1. Chaperoning 5S RNA assembly.

    PubMed

    Madru, Clément; Lebaron, Simon; Blaud, Magali; Delbos, Lila; Pipoli, Juliana; Pasmant, Eric; Réty, Stéphane; Leulliot, Nicolas

    2015-07-01

    In eukaryotes, three of the four ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs)—the 5.8S, 18S, and 25S/28S rRNAs—are processed from a single pre-rRNA transcript and assembled into ribosomes. The fourth rRNA, the 5S rRNA, is transcribed by RNA polymerase III and is assembled into the 5S ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP), containing ribosomal proteins Rpl5/uL18 and Rpl11/uL5, prior to its incorporation into preribosomes. In mammals, the 5S RNP is also a central regulator of the homeostasis of the tumor suppressor p53. The nucleolar localization of the 5S RNP and its assembly into preribosomes are performed by a specialized complex composed of Rpf2 and Rrs1 in yeast or Bxdc1 and hRrs1 in humans. Here we report the structural and functional characterization of the Rpf2-Rrs1 complex alone, in complex with the 5S RNA, and within pre-60S ribosomes. We show that the Rpf2-Rrs1 complex contains a specialized 5S RNA E-loop-binding module, contacts the Rpl5 protein, and also contacts the ribosome assembly factor Rsa4 and the 25S RNA. We propose that the Rpf2-Rrs1 complex establishes a network of interactions that guide the incorporation of the 5S RNP in preribosomes in the initial conformation prior to its rotation to form the central protuberance found in the mature large ribosomal subunit.

  2. Chaperoning 5S RNA assembly

    PubMed Central

    Madru, Clément; Lebaron, Simon; Blaud, Magali; Delbos, Lila; Pipoli, Juliana; Pasmant, Eric; Réty, Stéphane; Leulliot, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, three of the four ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs)—the 5.8S, 18S, and 25S/28S rRNAs—are processed from a single pre-rRNA transcript and assembled into ribosomes. The fourth rRNA, the 5S rRNA, is transcribed by RNA polymerase III and is assembled into the 5S ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP), containing ribosomal proteins Rpl5/uL18 and Rpl11/uL5, prior to its incorporation into preribosomes. In mammals, the 5S RNP is also a central regulator of the homeostasis of the tumor suppressor p53. The nucleolar localization of the 5S RNP and its assembly into preribosomes are performed by a specialized complex composed of Rpf2 and Rrs1 in yeast or Bxdc1 and hRrs1 in humans. Here we report the structural and functional characterization of the Rpf2–Rrs1 complex alone, in complex with the 5S RNA, and within pre-60S ribosomes. We show that the Rpf2–Rrs1 complex contains a specialized 5S RNA E-loop-binding module, contacts the Rpl5 protein, and also contacts the ribosome assembly factor Rsa4 and the 25S RNA. We propose that the Rpf2–Rrs1 complex establishes a network of interactions that guide the incorporation of the 5S RNP in preribosomes in the initial conformation prior to its rotation to form the central protuberance found in the mature large ribosomal subunit. PMID:26159998

  3. The 55' global geoid model GGM2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, WenBin; Han, Jiancheng

    2016-04-01

    We provide an updated 55' global geoid model GGM2016, which is determined based on the shallow layer method (Shen 2006). We choose an inner surface S below the EGM2008 geoid, and the layer bounded by the inner surface S and the Earth's geographical surface E is referred to as the shallow layer. The Earth's geographical surface E is determined by the digital topographic model DTM2006.0 combining with the DNSC2008 mean sea surface. We determine the 3D shallow layer model (SLM) using the refined crust density model CRUST1.0-5min, which is an improved 55' density model of the CRUST1.0 with taking into account the corrections of the areas covered by ice sheets and the land-ocean crossing regions. Based on the SLM and the gravity field EGM2008 defined outside the Earth's geographical surface E, we determine the gravity field EGM2008S defined in the region outside the inner surface S, extending the gravity field's definition domain from the domain outside E to the domain outside S. Based on the geodetic equation W(P)=W0, where W0 is the geopotential constant on the geoid, we determine a 55' global geoid model GGM2016, which provides both the 55' grid values and spherical harmonic coefficient expressions. Comparisons show that the GGM2016 fits the globally available GPS/leveling points better than the EGM2008 geoid. This study is supported by National 973 Project China (grant Nos. 2013CB733301 and 2013CB733305), NSFC (grant Nos. 41174011, 41210006, 41429401, 41128003, 41021061).

  4. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains an updated academic standards of Arizona public schools for grade 5. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 5; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades…

  5. Xilinx Virtex-5QV (V5QV) Independent SEU Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Melanie D.; Label, Kenneth A.; Pellish, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This is an independent study to determine the single event destructive and transient susceptibility of the Xilinx Virtex-5QV (SIRF) device. A framework for evaluating complex digital systems targeted for harsh radiation environments such as space is presented.

  6. Fatigue behavior of unirradiated V-5Cr-5Ti

    SciTech Connect

    Gieseke, B.G.; Stevens, C.O.; Grossbeck, M.L.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this research is to determine the low cycle fatigue behavior of V-5Cr-5Ti alloys for a range of temperatures and the extent of environmental effects at ambient temperatures. The results of in-vacuum low cycle fatigue tests are presented for unirradiated V-5Cr-5Ti tested at room temperature, 240, and 400{degree}C. A comparison of the fatigue data generated in rough and high vacuums shows that a pronounced environmental degradation of the fatiuge properties exists in this alloy at room temperature. Fatigue life was reduced by as much as 84%. Cyclic stress range data and SEM observations suggest that this reduction is due to a combination of increases in rates of crack initiation and subsequent growth. The relative contribution of each difference is dependent upon the strain range.

  7. Sensitivity of Spruce/Moss Boreal Forest Net Ecosystem Productivity to Seasonal Anomalies in Weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frolking, Steve

    1997-01-01

    Abstract. A process-oriented, daily time step model of a spruce/moss boreal ecosystem simulated 1994 and 1995 productivity for a Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study site near Thompson, Manitoba. Simulated black spruce net primary productivity (NPP) was 139 g C m(exp -2) in 1994 and 112 in 1995; feathermoss NPP was 13.0 g C m(exp -2) in 1994 and 9.7 in 1995; decomposition was 126 g C m(exp -2) in 1994 and 130 in 1995; net ecosystem productivity (NEP) was an uptake of 26.3 g C m(exp -2)in 1994 and 2.5 in 1995. A very dry period for the first half of the 1995 summer was the major cause of that year's lower productivity. Sensitivity simulations explored the impact of 2-month long warmer, cooler, wetter, and drier spells on ecosystem productivity. Warmer summers decreased spruce NPP, moss NPP, and NEP; cooler summers had the opposite effect. Earlier snowmelt (due to either warmer spring temperatures or reduced winter precipitation) increased moss and spruce NPP; later snowmelt had the opposite effect. The largest effect on decomposition was a 5% reduction due to a drier summer. One-month droughts (April through October) were also imposed on 1975 base year weather. Early summer droughts reduced moss annual NPP by -30-40%; summer droughts reduced spruce annual NPP by 10%; late summer droughts increased moss NPP by about 20% due to reduced respiration; May to September monthly droughts reduced heterotrophic respiration by about 10%. Variability in NEP was up to roughly +/- 35%. Finally, 1975 growing season precipitation was redistributed into frequent, small rainstorms and infrequent, large rainstorms. These changes had no effect on spruce NPP. Frequent rainstorms increased decomposition by a few percent, moss NPP by 50%, and NEP by 20%. Infrequent rainstorms decreased decomposition by 5%, moss NPP by 50% and NEP by 15%. The impact of anomalous weather patterns on productivity of this ecosystem depended on their timing during the year. Multiyear data sets are necessary to

  8. Thermophysical properties of Ti-5Al-5V-5Mo-3Cr-1Zr titanium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, V. A.; Kulikova, T. V.; Vedmid', L. B.; Fishman, A. Ya.; Shunyaev, K. Yu.; Tarenkova, N. Yu.

    2014-07-01

    The thermophysical properties of the Ti-5Al-5V-5Mo-3Cr-1Zr titanium alloy in a wide range of temperatures from room temperature to 1000°C have been studied by the methods of differential scanning calorimetry, the laser flash method, and dilatometry. The obtained data on heat capacity, thermal diffusivity, and thermal expansion have been used for calculating coefficient of thermal conductivity. The sequence and temperatures of structural transformations during heating of the alloy have been established. It has been shown that the studied alloy possesses a coefficient of thermal conductivity that is 3.5-4 times smaller than that of pure titanium.

  9. Black Holes in Bulgeless Galaxies: An XMM-Newton Investigation of NGC 3367 AND NGC 4536

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAlpine, W.; Satyapal, S.; Gliozzi, M.; Cheung, C. C.; Sambruna, R. M.; Eracleous, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of optically identified active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the local Universe reside in host galaxies with prominent bulges, supporting the hypothesis that black hole formation and growth is fundamentally connected to the build-up of galaxy bulges. However, recent mid-infrared spectroscopic studies with Spitzer of a sample of optically "normal" late-type galaxies reveal remarkably the presence of high-ionization [NeV] lines in several sources, providing strong evidence for AGNs in these galaxies. We present follow-up X-ray observations recently obtained with XMM-Newton of two such sources, the late-type optically normal galaxies NGC 3367 and NGC 4536. Both sources are detected in our observations. Detailed spectral analysis reveals that for both galaxies, the 2-10 keV emission is dominated by a power law with an X-ray luminosity in the L(sub 2- 10 keV) approximates 10(exp 39) - 10(exp 40) ergs/s range, consistent with low luminosity AGNs. While there is a possibility that X-ray binaries account for some fraction of the observed X-ray luminosity, we argue that this fraction is negligible. These observations therefore add to the growing evidence that the fraction of late-type galaxies hosting AGNs is significantly underestimated using optical observations alone. A comparison of the midinfrared [NeV] luminosity and the X-ray luminosities suggests the presence of an additional highly absorbed X-ray source in both galaxies, and that the black hole masses are in the range of 10(exp 5) - 10(exp 7) solar M for NGC 3367 and 10(exp 4) - (exp 10) solar M for NGC 4536

  10. Stability of chromite interconnections in dual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, T. R.; Stevenson, J. W.; Raney, P.; Pederson, L. R.

    1994-11-01

    One of the most critical technical concerns in high-temperature SOFC's is the physical, chemical, and electrical stability of the interconnect (typically a doped lanthanum chromite) in the dual (oxidizing and reducing atmosphere) SOFC environment. The reducing or fuel side may experience oxygen partial pressures (P(O2)) from 10(exp -18) to 10(exp -6) atmospheres, while the oxidizing side may have P(O2) from 10(exp -6) to greater than 1 atm. These conditions limit the possible candidate materials to lanthanum or yttrium chromites. In the past decade, much work has centered on development of air-sinterable chromites and understanding their physical properties; little work, however, has focused on the stability of these chromites in dual environments. Chromite powders were synthesized using the glycine-nitrate process. The powders were calcined at 1,000 C for 1 hour and then uniaxially pressed into bars (46mm x 16mm x 3mm) at 55 MPa and isostatically pressed at 138 MPa. Samples were sintered in air. The dependence of the physical properties of sintered lanthanum chromites upon ambient P(O2) and temperature (using dilatometry, thermogravimetric analysis, and oxygen permeation measurements) were studied. La(1-x)A(x)CrO3 and Y(1-x)Ca(x)CrO3, where A is Ca or Sr and x was varied from 0.1 to 0.4 were evaluated in this study. The P(O2) was varied using a buffered CO2/Ar-4%H2 gas system, enabling expansion measurements to be made over a partial pressure range from 10(exp -5) to 10(exp -18) atmosphere at 800, 900, and 1,000 C.

  11. Dissecting the EUV spectrum of Capella

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickhouse, Nancy S.

    1995-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet spectra of Capella, obtained at various orbital phases over the past two years by the EUVE satellite, show strong emission lines from a continuous distribution of temperatures (approximately 10(exp 5 -10(exp 7.3) K). In addition to the strong He II lambda 303.8, the spectra are dominated by emission lines of highly ionized iron. Strong lines of Fe IX, XV, XVI, and XVIII-XXIV are used to construct emission measure distributions for the individual pointings, which show several striking features, including a minimum near 10(exp 6) K and a local maximum at 10(exp 6.8) K. Furthermore, intensities of the highest temperature lines (Te is greater than 10(exp 7) K) show variations (factors of 2-3) at different orbital phases, while the lower temperature Fe lines show variations of about 30% or less. The low variability of most of the strong low temperature features motivates a detailed analysis of the summed spectrum. With approximately 280 ksec of total exposure time, we have measured over 200 emission features with S/N greater than or equal to 3.0 in the summed spectrum. We report here initial results from the analysis of this spectrum. We can now identify lines of Fe VIII and X-XIV, as well as a number of electron density and abundance diagnostic lines. We also report here the first direct measurement of the continuum flux around approximately 100 A in a cool star atmosphere with EUVE. The continuum flux can be predicted from the emission measure model based on Fe line emission, and demonstrates that the Fe/H abundance ratio is dose to the solar photospheric value.

  12. Global Evolution of Solid Matter in Turbulent Protoplanetry Disks. Part 1; Aerodynamics of Solid Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Valageas, P.

    1996-01-01

    The problem of planetary system formation and its subsequent character can only be addressed by studying the global evolution of solid material entrained in gaseous protoplanetary disks. We start to investigate this problem by considering the space-time development of aerodynamic forces that cause solid particles to decouple from the gas. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that only the smallest particles are attached to the gas, or that the radial distribution of the solid matter has no momentary relation to the radial distribution of the gas. We present the illustrative example wherein a gaseous disk of 0.245 solar mass and angular momentum of 5.6 x 10(exp 52) g/sq cm/s is allowed to evolve due to turbulent viscosity characterized by either alpha = 10(exp -2) or alpha = 10(exp -3). The motion of solid particles suspended in a viscously evolving gaseous disk is calculated numerically for particles of different sizes. In addition we calculate the global evolution of single-sized, noncoagulating particles. We find that particles smaller than 0.1 cm move with the gas; larger particles have significant radial velocities relative to the gas. Particles larger than 0.1 cm but smaller than 10(exp 3) cm have inward radial velocities much larger than the gas, whereas particles larger than 10(exp 4) cm have inward velocities much smaller than the gas. A significant difference in the form of the radial distribution of solids and the gas develops with time. It is the radial distribution of solids, rather than the gas, that determines the character of an emerging planetary system.

  13. Source Parameter Inversion for Recent Great Earthquakes from a Decade-long Observation of Global Gravity Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Shin-Chan; Riva, Ricccardo; Sauber, Jeanne; Okal, Emile

    2013-01-01

    We quantify gravity changes after great earthquakes present within the 10 year long time series of monthly Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity fields. Using spherical harmonic normal-mode formulation, the respective source parameters of moment tensor and double-couple were estimated. For the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, the gravity data indicate a composite moment of 1.2x10(exp 23)Nm with a dip of 10deg, in agreement with the estimate obtained at ultralong seismic periods. For the 2010 Maule earthquake, the GRACE solutions range from 2.0 to 2.7x10(exp 22)Nm for dips of 12deg-24deg and centroid depths within the lower crust. For the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, the estimated scalar moments range from 4.1 to 6.1x10(exp 22)Nm, with dips of 9deg-19deg and centroid depths within the lower crust. For the 2012 Indian Ocean strike-slip earthquakes, the gravity data delineate a composite moment of 1.9x10(exp 22)Nm regardless of the centroid depth, comparing favorably with the total moment of the main ruptures and aftershocks. The smallest event we successfully analyzed with GRACE was the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake with M(sub 0) approx. 5.0x10(exp 21)Nm. We found that the gravity data constrain the focal mechanism with the centroid only within the upper and lower crustal layers for thrust events. Deeper sources (i.e., in the upper mantle) could not reproduce the gravity observation as the larger rigidity and bulk modulus at mantle depths inhibit the interior from changing its volume, thus reducing the negative gravity component. Focal mechanisms and seismic moments obtained in this study represent the behavior of the sources on temporal and spatial scales exceeding the seismic and geodetic spectrum.

  14. Modeling of pickup ion distributions in the Halley cometosheath: Empirical limits on rates of ionization, diffusion, loss and creation of fast neutral atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huddleston, D. E.; Neugebauer, M.; Goldstein, B. E.

    1994-01-01

    The shape of the velocity distribution of water group ions observed by the Giotto ion mass spectrometer on its approach to comet Halley is modeled to derive empirical values for the rates of ionization, energy diffusion, and loss in the midcometosheath. The model includes the effect of rapid pitch angle scattering into a bispherical shell distribution as well as the effect of the magnetization of the plasma on the charge exchange loss rate. It is found that the average rate of ionization of cometary neutrals in this region of the cometosheath appears to be of the order of a factor 3 faster than the `standard' rates approx. 1 x 10(exp -6)/s that are generally assumed to model the observations in most regions of the comet environment. For the region of the coma studied in the present work (approx. 1 - 2 x 10(exp 5) km from the nucleus), the inferred energy diffusion coefficient is D(sub 0) approx. equals 0.0002 to 0.0005 sq km/cu s, which is generally lower than values used in other models. The empirically obtained loss rate appears to be about an order of magnitude greater than can be explained by charge exchange with the `standard' cross section of approx. 2 x 10(exp -15)sq cm. However such cross sections are not well known and for water group ion/water group neutral interactions, rates as high as 8 x 10(exp -15) sq cm have previously been suggested in the literature. Assuming the entire loss rate is due to charge exchange yields a rate of creation of fast neutral atoms of the order of approx. 10(exp -4)/s or higher, depending on the level of velocity diffusion. The fast neutrals may, in turn, be partly responsible for the higher-than-expected ionization rate.

  15. FUSE Observations of O VI Absorption in the Local Interstellar Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oegerle, W. R.; Jenkins, E. B.; Shelton, R. L.; Bowen, D. V.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We report the results of an initial Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) survey of O VI Lambda 1032 absorption along the lines of sight to eleven nearby white dwarfs, ten of which are within the Local Bubble (LB; d < or approximately equal 100 pc). A goal of this survey is to investigate the possible formation of O VI in the conductive interfaces between cool (about 10(exp 4) K) clouds immersed in the presumably hot (10(exp 6) K) gas within the LB. This mechanism is often invoked to explain the widespread presence of 0 VI throughout the Galactic disk. We find no 0 VI absorption toward two stars, and the column densities along three additional sight lines are quite low; N(O VI) about 5 x 10(exp 13)/sq cm. In several directions, we observe rather broad, shallow absorption with N(O VI) about 1 - 2 x 10(exp 13)/sq cm. Models of conductive interfaces predict narrow profiles with N(OVI) > or about equal to 10(exp 13)/sq cm per interface, in the absence of a significant transverse magnetic field. Hence, our observations of weak 0 VI absorption indicate that conduction is being quenched, possibly by non-radial magnetic fields. Alternatively, the gas within the LB may not be hot. Breitschwerdt & Schmutzler have proposed a model for the LB in which an explosive event within a dense cloud created rapid expansion and adiabatic cooling, resulting in a cavity containing gas with a kinetic temperature of T about 50,000 K, but with an ionization state characteristic of much hotter gas. This model has a number of attractive features, but appears to predict significantly more O VI than we observe.

  16. A Hot-electron Direct Detector for Radioastronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karasik, B. S.; McGrath, W. R.; LeDuc, H. G.

    2000-01-01

    A new approach is proposed to improve the sensitivity of direct-detection bolometers. The idea is to adjust a speed of the thermal relaxation of hot-electrons in a nanometer size normal metal or superconductive transition edge bolometer by controlling the elastic electron mean free path. If the bolometer contacts are made of a superconductor with high critical temperature then the thermal diffusion into the contacts is absent because of the Andreev's reflection and the electron-phonon relaxation is the only mechanism for heat removal. The relaxation rate should behave as 7(exp 4)l at subkelvin temperatures (l is the electron elastic mean free path) and can be reduced by factor of 10 - 100 by decreasing l. Then an antenna- or waveguide-coupled bolometer with a time constant approx. 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -5) S at T approx. = 0.1 - 0.3 K will exhibit photon-noise limited performance in millimeter and subn-millimeter range. The bolometer will have a figure-of-merit NEk square root of tau approx. = 10(exp -22) 10(exp -21) W/Hz at 100 mK which is 10(exp 3) times smaller than that of a state-of-the-art bolometer. This will allow for a tremendous increase in speed which will have a significant impact for observational mapping applications. Alternatively, the bolometer could operate at higher temperature with still superior sensitivity This research was performed by the Center for Space Microelectronics Technology, JPL, California Institute of Technology, under the contract for NASA.

  17. Decline of the 2-10 keV Emission from Eta Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liburd, Jamar; Corcoran, Michael F.; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Gull, Theodore R.; Madura, Thomas; Teodoro, Mairan; Moffat, Anthony; Richardson, Noel; Russell, Chris; Pollock, Andrew; Owocki, Stan

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of Eta Car's X-ray spectrum in the 2-10 keV band using processed data from the X-ray Telescope on Swift reveals a peak flux on July 16, 2014 of 0.046 photons s(exp -1) cm(exp -2) (3.37+/-0.15×10(exp -10) ergs s(exp -1) cm(exp -2). This flux is similar to the previous maximum flux seen by the XRT, 3.53+/-0.13×10(exp -10) ergs s(exp -1) cm(exp -2) (0.049 photons s(exp -1) cm(exp -2), ATEL #6298). Since this peak on July 16, the most recent Swift XRT quicklook data show a drop in flux. On July 20, 2014 the XRT flux as seen in the quicklook data was 0.011 photons s(exp -1) cm(exp -2) (8.3+/-0.5×10(exp -11) ergs s(exp -1) cm(exp -2)). This most likely indicates that the 2-10 keV flux is in its declining phase as Eta Car approaches its deep X-ray minimum stage (Hamaguchi et al., 2014, ApJ, 784, 125) associated with periastron passage of the 2024-day binary orbit. The column density derived from analysis of the July 20 XRT quicklook data is 7.2×10(exp 22) cm(exp -2). This is consistent with the column density seen near the same orbital phase in 2003 (7.7×10(exp 22) cm(exp -2), Hamaguchi et al., 2007, ApJ, 663, 522). Eta Car's deep X-ray minimum phase is expected to begin on July 30, 2014. Weekly Swift/XRT observations of Eta Car in the 2-10 keV band are planned throughout the X-ray minimum.

  18. On a Solar Origin for the Cosmogenic Nuclide Event of 775 A.D.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliver, E. W.; Tylka, A. J.; Dietrich, W. F.; Ling, A. G.

    2014-01-01

    We explore requirements for a solar particle event (SPE) and flare capable of producing the cosmogenic nuclide event of 775 A.D., and review solar circumstances at that time. A solar source for 775 would require a greater than 1 GV spectrum approximately 45 times stronger than that of the intense high-energy SPE of 1956 February 23. This implies a greater than 30 MeV proton fluence (F(sub 30)) of approximately 8 × 10(exp 10) proton cm(exp -2), approximately 10 times larger than that of the strongest 3 month interval of SPE activity in the modern era. This inferred F(sub 30) value for the 775 SPE is inconsistent with the occurrence probability distribution for greater than 30 MeV solar proton events. The best guess value for the soft X-ray classification (total energy) of an associated flare is approximately X230 (approximately 9 × 10(exp 33) erg). For comparison, the flares on 2003 November 4 and 1859 September 1 had observed/inferred values of approximately X35 (approximately 10(exp 33) erg) and approximately X45 (approximately 2 × 10(exp 33) erg), respectively. The estimated size of the source active region for a approximately 10(exp 34) erg flare is approximately 2.5 times that of the largest region yet recorded. The 775 event occurred during a period of relatively low solar activity, with a peak smoothed amplitude about half that of the second half of the 20th century. The approximately 1945-1995 interval, the most active of the last approximately 2000 yr, failed to witness a SPE comparable to that required for the proposed solar event in 775. These considerations challenge a recent suggestion that the 775 event is likely of solar origin.

  19. Transition probabilities for 5s-5p, 5p-5d, 4f-5d, and 5d-5f transitions in Ag-like ions with Z = 50-86

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanova, E.P.

    2011-01-15

    The wavelengths, electric dipole transition probabilities, and oscillator strengths are calculated for transitions between low-lying states (5s-5p, 5p-5d, 4f-5d, and 5d-5f) in the silver isoelectronic sequence (50 {<=} Z {<=} 86) using relativistic perturbation theory with a zero-approximation model potential. The results are compared with the corresponding data of the relativistic Hartree-Fock theory and the relativistic many-body perturbation theory. The results of these three theoretical approaches are compared with available experimental data for the level lifetimes. Possible reasons for some disagreements are discussed.

  20. European Ariane 5 launcher readied

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covault, Craig

    1994-04-01

    Key propulsion and system tests for the Ariane 5 are beginning. Its first launch is expected in late 1995 from Kourou, French Guiana. This $6.37-billion European Space Agency program involves 100 major contractors. With a storable propellant upper stage, the Ariane 5 will place up to 15,224 pounds (6,920 kg) into geosynchronous transfer orbit, or 39,600 pounds (18,000 kg) into low Earth orbit. Applicaions for the Ariane 5, along with its design and construction are discussed in this article. Programmatic issues are also addressed.

  1. Radiative Effects of Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valero, Francisco P. J.

    1996-01-01

    During the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) in June 1992, two descents in cloud-free regions allowed comparison of the change in aerosol optical depth as determined by an onboard total-direct-diffuse radiometer (TDDR) to the change calculated from measured size-resolved aerosol microphysics and chemistry. Both profiles included a pollution haze from Europe but the second also included the effect of a Saharan dust layer above the haze. The separate contributions of supermicrometer (coarse) and submicrometer (fine) aerosol were determined and thermal analysis of the pollution haze indicated that the fine aerosol was composed primarily of a sulfate/water mixture with a refractory soot-like core. The soot core increased the calculated extinction by about 10% in the most polluted drier layer relative to a pure sulfate aerosol but had significantly less effect at higher humidities. A 3 km descent through a boundary layer air mass dominated by pollutant aerosol with relative humidities (RH) 10-77% yielded a close agreement between the measured and calculated aerosol optical depths (550 nm) of 0.160 (+/- 0.07) and 0. 157 (+/- 0.034) respectively. During descent the aerosol mass scattering coefficient per unit sulfate mass varied from about 5 to 16 m(exp 2)/g and primarily dependent upon ambient RH. However, the total scattering coefficient per total fine mass was far less variable at about 4+/- 0.7 m(exp 2)/g. A subsequent descent through a Saharan dust layer located above the pollution aerosol layer revealed that both layers contributed similarly to aerosol optical depth. The scattering per unit mass of the coarse aged dust was estimated at 1.1 +/- 0.2 m(exp 2)/g. The large difference (50%) in measured and calculated optical depth for the dust layer exceeded measurements.

  2. Expression of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) in T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cook-Moreau, Jeanne M; El-Makhour Hojeij, Yola; Barrière, Guislaine; Rabinovitch-Chable, Hélène C; Faucher, Karine S; Sturtz, Franck G; Rigaud, Michel A

    2007-01-01

    5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) is the key enzyme responsible for the synthesis of the biologically active leukotrienes. Its presence has been reported in cells of the myeloid lineage and B lymphocytes but has not been formally defined in T lymphocytes. In this study, we provide evidence for 5-LOX expression on both transcriptional and translational levels in highly purified peripheral blood T cells as well as in human T lymphoblastoid cell lines (MOLT4 and Jurkat). Messenger RNA (mRNA) of 5-LOX was amplified by conventional reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR; MOLT4 and Jurkat cells) and by in situ RT-PCR (T lymphocytes). 5-LOX protein expression was confirmed by Western blot and immunofluorescence studies. 5-LOX was present primarily in the cytoplasm with some nuclear localization and was translocated to the nuclear periphery after culture in a mitosis-supporting medium. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis of different T-lymphocyte populations, including CD4, CD8, CD45RO, CD45RA, T helper type 2, and T-cell receptor-αβ and -γδ expressing cells, did not identify a differential distribution of the enzyme. Purified peripheral blood T lymphocytes were incapable of synthesizing leukotrienes in the absence of exogenous arachidonic acid. Jurkat cells produced leukotriene C4 and a small amount of leukotriene B4 in response to CD3–CD28 cross-linking. This synthesis was abolished by two inhibitors of leukotriene synthesis, MK-886 and AA-861. The presence of 5-LOX in T lymphocytes but the absence of endogenous lipoxygenase metabolite production compared to Jurkat cells may constitute a fundamental difference between resting peripheral lymphocytes and leukaemic cells. PMID:17484769

  3. 25 Years of Landsat 5

    NASA Video Gallery

    Twenty-two years beyond its primary mission lifetime, Landsat 5 is still going strong. It has charted urban growth in Las Vegas, monitored fire scars in Yellowstone National Park, and tracked the r...

  4. Inflation in supersymmetric SU(5)

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, S.; Rehman, M. U.; Shafi, Q.; Zaakouk, E. A.

    2011-03-15

    We analyze the adjoint field inflation in supersymmetric (SUSY) SU(5) model. In minimal SUSY SU(5) hybrid inflation monopoles are produced at the end of inflation. We therefore explore the nonminimal model of inflation based on SUSY SU(5), like shifted hybrid inflation, which provides a natural solution for the monopole problem. We find that the supergravity corrections with nonminimal Kaehler potential are crucial to realize the central value of the scalar spectral index n{sub s{approx_equal}}0.96 consistent with the 7 yr WMAP data. The tensor to scalar ratio r is quite small, taking on values r < or approx. 10{sup -5}. Because of R symmetry massless SU(3) octet and SU(2) triplet supermultiplets are present and could spoil gauge coupling unification. To keep gauge coupling unification intact, light vectorlike particles are added which are expected to be observed at LHC.

  5. Ariane 5 boosters challenge industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-04-01

    One of the largest aerospace heavy industrial efforts ever pursued by Europe is the development of the Ariane 5 solid rocket boosters. Of the total $6.37-billion Ariane 5 developments cost, $1.43-billion is for the solid motor. These solid boosters are comparable to the solid rockets used on the Titan 4. This article provides information on the key contractors, as well as booster design and performance.

  6. Ionospheric Convection in the Postnoon Auroral Oval: SuperDARN and Polar UVI Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlovsky, A.; Koustov, A.; Lyatsky, W.; Kangas, J.; Parks, G.; Chua, D.

    2002-01-01

    Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) observations, ultraviolet imaging from the Polar satellite (UVI), and particle precipitation data from DMSP satellites have been used to investigate the electrodynamics of the postnoon auroral oval in the Northern hemisphere. We show that: (1) For negative IMF By, the convection reversal (CR) was co-located with the maximum of auroral luminosity, but during positive IMF By the convection reversal was poleward of the auroral oval up to several degrees in latitude; (2) Postnoon auroral oval was associated with a large-scale upward field-aligned current (FAC) of the order of 6x10(exp -7). A m(exp -2) in magnitude (the FAC was inferred from the SuperDARN and UVI data). For negative IMF By, maximum of the auroral intensity coincides in latitude with the maximum of the upward field-aligned current. However, for positive IMF By. the maximum of the upward FAC was shifted to the poleward edge of the auroral oval; (3) In response to the IMF By turning from positive to negative, the maximum of the auroral luminosity did not change its position noticeably, but the position of the convection reversal changed considerably from 80-81 degs to about 76 degs MLAT, and the maximum of FAC moved from 77-78 degs to about 76 degs MLAT. Thus, after IMF By turns negative, both the FAC maximum and CR tend to coincide with the auroral maximum; (4) The IMF Bz positive deflection was followed by a decrease in both field-aligned current intensity and auroral luminosity. However, the decrease in the auroral luminosity lags behind the FAC decrease by about 12 min. Firstly, these observations allow us to suggest that the IMF By-related electric field can penetrate into the closed magnetosphere and produce convection and FAC changes in the region of the postnoon auroral oval. Secondly, we suggest that the interchange instability is a promising mechanism for the postnoon auroras.

  7. A season of heat, water vapor, total hydrocarbon, and ozone fluxes at a subarctic fen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Kathleen E.; Fitzjarrald, David R.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Daube, Bruce C.; Munger, J. William; Bakwin, Peter S.; Crill, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    High-latitude environments are thought to play several critical roles in the global balance of radiatively active trace gases. Adequate documentation of the source and sink strengths for trace gases requires long time series of detailed measurements, including heat and moisture budgets. A fen near Schefferville, Quebec, was instrumented during the summer of 1990 for the measurement of the surface energy, radiation, and moisture balances as well as for eddy correlation estimates of ozone and methane flux. Despite the limited fetch at this site, analysis of the tower flux 'footprint' indicates that at least 80% of the flux observed originates from sources within the fen. Sensible heat fluxes averaged 25% of the daytime net radiation at the site, while the latent heat flux, determined from the energy balance, was 63%; the Bowen ratio varied from 0.2 to 0.8 from day to day, without a seasonal trend to the variation. The competing effects of rooted macrophyte development (with concomitant effects on roughness and transpiration) and the normal shift in synoptic pattern around day 200 to warm, dry conditions results in a lack of net seasonal effect on the energy partitioning. Over the period from days 170 to 230, the evaporation (167 mm) was double the rainfall, while the decline in water level was 107 mm, leaving a net runoff of 0.44 mm/d. The total hydrocarbon flux was 75-120 mg m(exp -2)/d, following a diurnal pattern similar to heat or moisture flux, while the daytime ozone flux was about -1.11 x 10(exp 11) molecules cm(exp -2)/s. A period near the end of the experiment, during week 30, produced the strongest total hydrocarbon flux, associated with warmer deep (1 m) soil temperatures, lower fen water levels, and the late summer shift in wind direction at that time. An early summer 'flush' of total hydrocarbon was not observed.

  8. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 5. The Next Particle

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 5. The Next Particle The "sparticle" - a super symmetric partner to all the known particles could be the answer to uniting all the known particles and their interactions under one grand theoretical pattern of activity. But how do researchers know where to look for such phenomena and how do they know if they find them? Simon Singh reviews the next particle that physicists would like to find if the current particle theories are to ring true.

  9. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 5. The Next Particle

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-08

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 5. The Next Particle The "sparticle" - a super symmetric partner to all the known particles could be the answer to uniting all the known particles and their interactions under one grand theoretical pattern of activity. But how do researchers know where to look for such phenomena and how do they know if they find them? Simon Singh reviews the next particle that physicists would like to find if the current particle theories are to ring true.

  10. Four fatalities involving 5-IT.

    PubMed

    Seetohul, L Nitin; Pounder, Derrick J

    2013-09-01

    The new designer drug 5-(2-aminopropyl)indole (5-IT) is an indole derivative with stimulant properties. Its synthesis was first described by Albert Hofmann and Franz Troxler in 1962. We report four deaths associated with 5-IT and a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method for quantitation of the drug. In all four deaths, an autopsy was performed, and femoral venous blood, heart blood, urine and vitreous humor were submitted for toxicological analysis. The blood specimens were subjected to comprehensive testing that included alcohol analysis by headspace gas chromatography (GC-FID), acidic/neutral, basic drug and opiates screening by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS), and acidic/neutral, basic and acidic drugs screening by HPLC. In Case 1, a 25-year-old male, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; <0.08 mg/L) and 5-IT (preserved femoral blood 1.2 mg/L; unpreserved femoral blood 0.8 mg/L; cardiac blood 1.2 mg/L; vitreous 0.8 mg/L and urine >10 mg/L) were detected, and death was attributed to the toxic effects of 5-IT. In Case 2, a 25-year-old female, 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylcathinone (methylone, not quantitated), 6-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran (6-APB; femoral blood <0.08 mg/L) and 5-IT (preserved femoral blood 1.0 mg/L; unpreserved femoral blood 0.9 mg/L; cardiac blood 2.6 mg/L; vitreous 1.4 mg/L and urine >10 mg/L) were detected, and death was attributed to the toxic 'cocktail effects' of the drugs. In Case 3, a 22-year-old male with a history of epilepsy, 5-IT (0.5 mg/L femoral blood) and 6-APB (0.2 mg/L femoral blood) were detected, and death was attributed to the toxic effects of the drugs, with the role of epilepsy being indeterminate. In Case 4, a 25-year-old female, 5-IT (0.4 mg/L femoral blood), amphetamine (0.4 mg/L femoral blood), MDMA (1.5 mg/L femoral blood), 4-methyl-N-ethylcathione, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine HCl (MDA), benzylpiperazine and 6-APB were detected, and death was attributed to the 'cocktail effect' of the

  11. 10 CFR 960.5-2-5 - Environmental quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., technical, social, economic, and environmental factors; and (2) the requirements specified in § 960.5-1(a)(2... of reasonable measures, taking into account programmatic, technical, social, economic, and... of the repository or its support facilities on, a component of the National Park System, the...

  12. 10 CFR 960.5-2-5 - Environmental quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., technical, social, economic, and environmental factors; and (2) the requirements specified in § 960.5-1(a)(2... of reasonable measures, taking into account programmatic, technical, social, economic, and... of the repository or its support facilities on, a component of the National Park System, the...

  13. 5 CFR 2411.5 - Procedure for obtaining information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Panel, or the IG, as appropriate. A list of the office and e-mail addresses is in Appendix A to 5 CFR... e-mail addresses listed at http://www.flra.gov/foia/contacts.html) to that effect as follows: (1) If.../contacts.html....

  14. GEMPAK5 user's guide, version 5.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desjardins, Mary L.; Brill, Keith F.; Schotz, Steven S.

    1991-01-01

    GEMPAK is a general meteorological software package used to analyze and display conventional meteorological data as well as satellite derived parameters. The User's Guide describes the GEMPAK5 programs and input parameters and details the algorithms used for the meteorological computations.

  15. 5 CFR 1315.5 - Accelerated payment methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 1315.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES PROMPT PAYMENT... the payment due date. (b) Small business (as defined in FAR 19.001 (48 CFR 19.001)). Agencies may pay... of 1980, Pub. L. 96-510, 42 U.S.C. 9606); and payments made under a military contingency (as...

  16. 5 CFR 1315.5 - Accelerated payment methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 1315.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES PROMPT PAYMENT... the payment due date. (b) Small business (as defined in FAR 19.001 (48 CFR 19.001)). Agencies may pay... of 1980, Pub. L. 96-510, 42 U.S.C. 9606); and payments made under a military contingency (as...

  17. 5 CFR 1315.5 - Accelerated payment methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 1315.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES PROMPT PAYMENT... the payment due date. (b) Small business (as defined in FAR 19.001 (48 CFR 19.001)). Agencies may pay... of 1980, Pub. L. 96-510, 42 U.S.C. 9606); and payments made under a military contingency (as...

  18. 5 CFR 1315.5 - Accelerated payment methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 1315.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES PROMPT PAYMENT... the payment due date. (b) Small business (as defined in FAR 19.001 (48 CFR 19.001)). Agencies may pay... of 1980, Pub. L. 96-510, 42 U.S.C. 9606); and payments made under a military contingency (as...

  19. Five Kinds of Literary Knowing. Report Series 5.5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Probst, Robert E.

    The reading of a literary work can give rise to five different kinds of literary knowing: (1) knowing about self; (2) knowing about others; (3) knowing about texts; (4) knowing about contexts; and (5) knowing about processes of making meaning. A literary work can prompt a reader to reflect upon aspects of his or her own life. Concentrating upon…

  20. 5 CFR 1315.5 - Accelerated payment methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the payment due date. (b) Small business (as defined in FAR 19.001 (48 CFR 19.001)). Agencies may pay... § 1315.5 Accelerated payment methods. (a) A single invoice under $2,500. Payments may be made as soon as the contract, proper invoice , receipt and acceptance documents are matched except where...

  1. 5-ASA Dose-Response

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Seymour; Lichtenstein, Gary R; Safdi, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    Mesalamine (5-aminosalicylic acid; 5-ASA) represents the cornerstone of first-line therapy for mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis (UC). Current guidelines suggest that the combination of oral and rectal therapies provide optimal symptom resolution and effectively maintain remission in the majority of these patients. Although effective, most oral 5-ASA formulations have a high pill burden and rectal therapies are associated with low adherence. Recent research has examined patterns of compliance, as well as the efficacy of different dose levels of 5-ASA in terms of symptom resolution, the maintenance of remission, and improvements in quality of life. The ASCEND I, II, and III trials found that doses of 4.8 g/day are more effective than 2.4 g/day doses in patients with moderate disease, those with previous steroid use, and those with a history of multiple medications. The benefits of effective long-term 5-ASA therapy include the avoidance of more costly and potentially toxic drugs (such as corticosteroids and biologic therapies), as well as improvements in quality of life, reductions in the need for future colectomy, and a lower risk of developing colorectal cancer. PMID:20567558

  2. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4,5 - Trichlorophenol ; CASRN 95 - 95 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  3. 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,3,5 - Trinitrobenzene ; CASRN 99 - 35 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  4. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AGENTS IN PREPARATION OF INVOICES AND PAYMENT OF COMPENSATION PURSUANT TO PROVISIONS OF NSA ORDER NO. 47 Sec. 5 Accounting. The General Agent shall record the amounts of compensation paid from the NSA... compensation paid under sections 3(a), 3(b), 3(c), and 3(d) of NSA Order No. 47. Note: Invoices and...

  5. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... AGENTS IN PREPARATION OF INVOICES AND PAYMENT OF COMPENSATION PURSUANT TO PROVISIONS OF NSA ORDER NO. 47 Sec. 5 Accounting. The General Agent shall record the amounts of compensation paid from the NSA... compensation paid under sections 3(a), 3(b), 3(c), and 3(d) of NSA Order No. 47. Note: Invoices and...

  6. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... AGENTS IN PREPARATION OF INVOICES AND PAYMENT OF COMPENSATION PURSUANT TO PROVISIONS OF NSA ORDER NO. 47 Sec. 5 Accounting. The General Agent shall record the amounts of compensation paid from the NSA... compensation paid under sections 3(a), 3(b), 3(c), and 3(d) of NSA Order No. 47. Note: Invoices and...

  7. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AGENTS IN PREPARATION OF INVOICES AND PAYMENT OF COMPENSATION PURSUANT TO PROVISIONS OF NSA ORDER NO. 47 Sec. 5 Accounting. The General Agent shall record the amounts of compensation paid from the NSA... compensation paid under sections 3(a), 3(b), 3(c), and 3(d) of NSA Order No. 47. Note: Invoices and...

  8. Transportation Fuels Markets, PADD 5

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    This study examines supply, demand, and distribution of transportation fuels in Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) 5, a region that includes the western states of California, Arizona, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and Hawaii. For this study, transportation fuels include gasoline, diesel fuel, and jet fuel.

  9. PDE-5 inhibitors: clinical points.

    PubMed

    Doumas, Michael; Lazaridis, Antonios; Katsiki, Niki; Athyros, Vasilios

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction is usually of vascular origin and is frequently encountered in men with cardiovascular disease. The introduction of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors has revolutionized the management of patients with erectile dysfunction. Currently available phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors have distinct pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, thus permitting for tailoring sexual therapy according to patient characteristics and needs. Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors possess vasorelaxing properties and exert systemic hemodynamic effects, which need to be taken into account when other cardiovascular drugs are co-administered. Special caution is needed with alpha-blockers, while the co-administration with nitrates is contra-indicated due to the risk of life-threatening hypotension. This review presents the advent of sexual therapy, describes the mechanism of action and the specific characteristics of commercially available phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, summarizes the efficacy and safety of these drugs with special emphasis on the cardiovascular system, and discusses the clinical criteria used for the selection of each drug for the individual patient. PMID:25392015

  10. TREC Document Database: Disk 5

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST TREC Document Database: Disk 5 (PC database for purchase)   NIST TREC Document Databases (Special Database 23) are distributed for the development and testing of information retrieval (IR) systems and related natural language processing research. The document collections consist of the full text of various newspaper and newswire articles plus government proceedings.

  11. Fortran 5 cross-reference

    SciTech Connect

    Brenneman, D.J.; Singer, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    This manual describes FSTCOM and ROUTS, two cross-referencing programs. The programs have been prepared by EG and G Idaho, Inc. at the Idaho Nuclear Engineering Laboratory and are written in CDC FORTRAN 5, following the standard FORTRAN 77 conventions. FSTCOM and ROUTS facilitate the creation of documentation for programs. Additionally, the programs are of great help in the debugging process due to the nature of their output. To aid the user, the programs are carefully documented. In fact, most users can run FSTCOM or ROUTS by simply referring to the prologue at the beginning of each program. FSTCOM creates reports concerning the common blocks in a FORTRAN 5 program by using a FTN5 compiled listing as input. Common block information contained in the listing is collected in an interface file for future output. However, it is important to note that only the common variables actually used in the program will be stored in the interface file. ROUTS generates a report concerning the program units and the procedures they call. Like FSTCOM, ROUTS uses a FTN5 compiled listing as input. The program unit information is collected into an interface file that is sorted by the CYBER SORT/MERGE utility to produce a report. 2 figures, 4 tables.

  12. Soft x-ray properties of the binary millisecond pulsar J0437-4715

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P.; Martin, Christopher; Marshall, Herman L.

    1995-01-01

    We obtained a light curve for the 5.75 ms pulsar J0437-4715 in the 65-120 A range with 0.5 ms time resolution using the Deep Survey instrument on the EUVE satellite. The single-peaked profile has a pulsed fraction of 0. 27 +/- 0.05, similar to the ROSAT data in the overlapping energy band. A combined analysis of the EUVE and ROSAT data is consistent with a power-law spectrum of energy index alpha = 1.2-1.5, intervening column density NH = (5-8) x 10(exp 19)/sq cm, and luminosity 5.0 x 10(exp 30) ergs/s in the 0.1-2. 4 keV band. We also use a bright EUVE/ROSAT source only 4.3 deg from the pulsar, the Seyfert galaxy RX J0437.4-4711 (= EUVE J0437-471 = lES 0435-472), to obtain an independent upper limit on the intervening absorption to the pulsar, NH less than 1.2 x 10(exp 20)/sq cm. Although a blackbody spectrum fails to fit the ROSAT data, two-component spectral fits to the combined EUVE/ROSAT data are used to limit the temperatures and surface areas of thermal emission that might make partial contributions to the flux. A hot polar cap of radius 50-600 m and temperature (1.0-3.3) x 10(exp 6) K could be present. Alternatively, a larger region with T = (4-12) x 10(exp 5) K and area less than 200 sq km, might contribute most of the EUVE and soft X-ray flux, but only if a hotter component were present as well. Any of these temperatures would require some mechanism(s) of surface reheating to be operating in this old pulsar, the most plausible being the impact of accelerated electrons and positrons onto the polar caps. The kinematically corrected spin-down power of PSR J0437-4715 is only 4 x 10(exp 33) ergs/s, which is an order of magnitude less than that of the lowest-luminosity gamma-ray pulsars Geminga and PSR B1055-52. The absence of high-energy gamma-rays from PSR J0437-4715 might signify an inefficient or dead outer gap accelerator, which in turn accounts for the lack of a more luminous reheated surface such as those intermediate-age gamma-ray pulsars may have.

  13. CRUST 5.1: A global crustal model at 5° x 5°

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mooney, Walter D.; Laske, Gabi; Masters, T. Guy

    1998-01-01

    We present a new global model for the Earth's crust based on seismic refraction data published in the period 1948–1995 and a detailed compilation of ice and sediment thickness. An extensive compilation of seismic refraction measurements has been used to determine the crustal structure on continents and their margins. Oceanic crust is modeled with both a standard model for normal oceanic crust, and variants for nonstandard regions, such as oceanic plateaus. Our model (CRUST 5.1) consists of 2592 5° × 5° tiles in which the crust and uppermost mantle are described by eight layers: (1) ice, (2) water, (3) soft sediments, (4) hard sediments, (5) crystalline upper, (6) middle, (7) lower crust, and (8) uppermost mantle. Topography and bathymetry are adopted from a standard database (ETOPO-5). Compressional wave velocity in each layer is based on field measurements, and shear wave velocity and density are estimated using recently published empirical Vp- Vs and Vp-density relationships. The crustal model differs from previous models in that (1) the thickness and seismic/density structure of sedimentary basins is accounted for more completely, (2) the velocity structure of unmeasured regions is estimated using statistical averages that are based on a significantly larger database of crustal structure, (3) the compressional wave, shear wave, and density structure have been explicitly specified using newly available constraints from field and laboratory studies. Thus this global crustal model is based on substantially more data than previous models and differs from them in many important respects. A new map of the thickness of the Earth's crust is presented, and we illustrate the application of this model by using it to provide the crustal correction for surface wave phase velocity maps. Love waves at 40 s are dominantly sensitive to crustal structure, and there is a very close correspondence between observed phase velocities at this period and those predicted by CRUST 5

  14. Prognosis of Hurricanes CATEGORIE-5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Peraza, Jorge; Velasco Herrera, Victor Manuel; Zapotitla Roman, Julian; Juarez Zuñiga, Alan

    Category-5 Hurricanes are the most devastating from the standpoint of human and economic losses. Approximately 80 cyclones per year occurring worldwide, from which 8.8 per year occur on average in different regions of the Atlantic. However, category-5 Hurricanes do not follow a cyclic pattern but ar rather of quasi-stochastic nature. To assist in the alert processes o of hurricanes, we propose here a method to predict those kinds of hurricanes based on the Wavelet Analysis and applying techniques of Fuzzy Logic. For our study we consider North Atlantic category-5 hurricanes since 1920. Data was transformed into a series of Pulses with unitary value at the dates of hurricanes occurrence and 0 for dates of no occurrence. By means of the Wavelet transform we determine dominant oscillation periods. Under the hypothesis that the occurrence of hurricanes of this category can be described by the certain periodicities, we can define the dominant periods of oscillation and establish correspondence rules using fuzzy logic. The fuzzy logic searches for associations between the hurricanes occurrence and the behavior of the harmonics, and then delimits the occurrence of the next hurricane. The Wavelet Power Spectrum yields the following periodicities 2, 9, 14 and 24 years. According to the behavior of the harmonics we found that their combination restricts regions of possible Hurricane occurrence. Interpolation of this sinusoidal behavior allows for a good reconstruction of past Hurricanes dates as well as extrapolation to the future. In this way we conclude that there is a good probability that the next category-5 Hurricane in the north Atlantic occur of 2014-2015. Regarding categorie-5 typhoons in the pacific we delimitate the genesis regions of western of these kind of typhoons.

  15. The NuSTAR Extragalactic Survey: A First Sensitive Look at the High-Energy Cosmic X-Ray Background Population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, D. M.; Stern, D.; DelMoro, A.; Lansbury, G. B.; Assef, R. J.; Aird, J.; Ajello, M.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Christensen, F. E.; Civano, F.; Cosmastri, A.; Craig, W. W.; Elvis, M.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Hickox, R. C.; Luo, B.; Madsen, K. K.; Alexander, D. M.; Zhang, W. W.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the first 10 identifications of sources serendipitously detected by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) to provide the first sensitive census of the cosmic X-ray background source population at approximately greater than 10 keV. We find that these NuSTAR-detected sources are approximately 100 times fainter than those previously detected at approximately greater than 10 keV and have a broad range in redshift and luminosity (z = 0.020-2.923 and L(sub 10-40 keV) approximately equals 4 × 10(exp 41) - 5 × 10(exp 45) erg per second; the median redshift and luminosity are z approximately equal to 0.7 and L(sub 10-40 keV) approximately equal to 3 × 10(exp 44) erg per second, respectively. We characterize these sources on the basis of broad-band approximately equal to 0.5 - 32 keV spectroscopy, optical spectroscopy, and broad-band ultraviolet-to-mid-infrared spectral energy distribution analyses. We find that the dominant source population is quasars with L(sub 10-40 keV) greater than 10(exp 44) erg per second, of which approximately 50% are obscured with N(sub H) approximately greater than 10(exp 22) per square centimeters. However, none of the 10 NuSTAR sources are Compton thick (N(sub H) approximately greater than 10(exp 24) per square centimeters) and we place a 90% confidence upper limit on the fraction of Compton-thick quasars (L(sub 10-40 keV) greater than 10(exp 44) erg per second) selected at approximately greater than 10 keV of approximately less than 33% over the redshift range z = 0.5 - 1.1. We jointly fitted the rest-frame approximately equal to 10-40 keV data for all of the non-beamed sources with L(sub 10-40 keV) greater than 10(exp 43) erg per second to constrain the average strength of reflection; we find R less than 1.4 for gamma = 1.8, broadly consistent with that found for local active galactic nuclei (AGNs) observed at approximately greater than 10 keV. We also constrain the host-galaxy masses and find a median stellar

  16. Ariane 5 and Ariane 5 Evolution GN&C Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pignié, G.

    The objective of the paper is to give an overview of the Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) principles used for the Ariane 5 Launchers Family, developed for the European Space Agency. The development of the GN&C system, for the Ariane 5 Launcher, within EADS Launch Vehicle Company (formerly "Aérospatiale Space and Strategic Systems Division", and "Aérospatiale - Matra lanceurs"), and under supervision of CNES (French National Space Agency, acting as the prime contractor for Ariane Family) took a wide benefit from the existing, and flight validated methods used for the Ariane 4 Launcher, but a significant amount of new features were added, concerning the control loop, the guidance loop - where a fully adaptive guidance algorithm for exo- atmospheric flight was chosen - and the Failure Detection, Isolation, and Recovery (FIR) management for the sensors. In the paper, we shall describe first the Ariane 5 original version GN&C (for the so-called Ariane 5 Generic launcher), but the improvements designed for the upgraded Ariane 5 Evolution, with a cryogenic third stage, will be also addressed. The first part shall be dedicated to a review of the main constraints and requirements on the GN&C system. In the second part of the paper we shall present the main features of the architecture of the GN&C system, starting from the navigation and control sensors, through the on board computer and software, and going finally to the stages Thrust Vectoring Control (TVC) subsystems, used to control the launcher during the propelled phase, as well as to the attitude control subsystem (ACS), used to control the post boost manoeuvres, and payload injection and jettisoning conditions . The main principles of the subsystems and equipment's redundancy will be also briefly addressed. In the third part, an overall description of the different algorithms, implemented for Navigation, Guidance, Control, and sensors Failure Detection, Isolation, and Recovery (FIR), for atmospheric flight

  17. Separation in 5 Msun Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Nancy R.; Bond, H. E.; Schaefer, G.; Mason, B. D.; Karovska, M.; Tingle, E.

    2013-01-01

    Cepheids (5 Msun stars) provide an excellent sample for determining the binary properties of fairly massive stars. International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations of Cepheids brighter than 8th magnitude resulted in a list of ALL companions more massive than 2.0 Msun uniformly sensitive to all separations. Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) has resolved three of these binaries (Eta Aql, S Nor, and V659 Cen). Combining these separations with orbital data in the literature, we derive an unbiased distribution of binary separations for a sample of 18 Cepheids, and also a distribution of mass ratios. The distribution of orbital periods shows that the 5 Msun binaries prefer shorter periods than 1 Msun stars, reflecting differences in star formation processes.

  18. RELAP5 assessment: LOFT large break L2-5

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, S L; Kmetyk, L N

    1984-02-01

    RELAP5 is part of an effort to determine the ability of various systems codes to predict the detailed thermal/hydraulic response of LWRs during accident and off-normal conditions. The RELAP5 code is being assessed at SNLA against test data from various integral and separate effects test facilities. As part of this assessment matrix, a large break transient performed at the LOFT facility has been analyzed. The results show that RELAP5/MOD1 correctly calculates many of the major system variables (i.e., pressure, break flows, peak clad temperature) early in a large break LOCA. The major problems encountered in the analyses were incorrect pump coastdown and loop seal clearing early in the calculation, excessive pump speedup later in the transient (probably due to too much condensation-induced pressure drop at the ECC injection point), and excess ECC bypass calculated throughout the later portions of the test; only the latter problem significantly affected the overall results. This excess ECC bypass through the downcomer and vessel-side break resulted in too-large late-time break flows and high system pressure due to prolonged choked flow conditions. It also resulted in a second core heatup being calculated after the accumulator emptied, since water was not being retained in the vessel. Analogous calculations with a split-downcomer nodalization delivered some ECC water to the lower plenum, which was then swept up the core and upper plenum and out the other (pump-side) break; thus no significant differences in long-term overall behavior were evident between the calculations.

  19. Timekeeping for the Space Technology 5 (ST-5) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raphael, Dave; Luers, Phil; Sank, Victor; Jackson, George

    2002-01-01

    Space Technology 5, or better known as ST-5, is a space technology development mission in the New Millennium Program (NMP) and NASA s first experiment in the design of miniaturized satellite constellations. The mission will design, integrate and launch multiple spacecraft into an orbit high above the Earth s protective magnetic field known as the magnetosphere. Each spacecraft incorporates innovative technology and constellation concepts which will be instrumental in future space science missions. A total of three ST-5 spacecraft will be launched as secondary payloads into a highly elliptical geo-synchronous transfer orbit, and will operate as a 3-element constellation for a minimum duration of 90 days. In order to correlate the time of science measurements with orbit position relative to the Earth, orbit position in space (with respect to other objects in space) and/or with events measured on Earth or other spacecraft, accurate knowledge of spacecraft and ground time is needed. Ground time as used in the USA (known as Universal Time Coordinated or UTC) is maintained by the U.S. Naval Observatory. Spacecraft time is maintained onboard within the Command and Data Handling (C&DH) system. The science requirements for ST-5 are that spacecraft time and ground time be correlatable to each other, with some degree of accuracy. Accurate knowledge of UTC time on a spacecraft is required so that science measurements can be correlated with orbit position relative to the Earth, orbit position in space and with events measured on Earth or other spacecraft. The most crucial parameter is not the clock oscillator frequency, but more importantly, how the clock oscillator frequency varies with time or temperature (clock oscillator drift). Even with an incorrect clock oscillator frequency, if there were no drift, the frequency could be assessed by comparing the spacecraft clock to a ground clock during a few correlation events. Once the frequency is accurately known, it is easy enough

  20. FOC Cycle 5 PSF Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedrzejewski, Robert

    1995-07-01

    This proposal has two parts. The first part is a COSTAR DOB move to adjust the COSTAR focus position for the FOC to the value that will ensure that the FOC focus is within +/- 1.5-2 microns over the next four months. The second part consists of images of a spectrophotometric standard star in the f/96 relay to verify whether the DOB move executed was correct. Data will be taken 4 times during the cycle.

  1. MCNP(TM) Version 5.

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, L. J.; Barrett, R. F.; Booth, Thomas Edward; Briesmeister, Judith F.; Brown, F. B.; Bull, J. S.; Giesler, G. C.; Goorley, J. T.; Mosteller, R. D.; Forster, R. A.; Post, S. E.; Prael, R. E.; Selcow, Elizabeth Carol,; Sood, A.

    2002-01-01

    The Monte Carlo transport workhorse, MCNP, is undergoing a massive renovation at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in support of the Eolus Project of the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASCI) Program. MCNP Version 5 (V5) (expected to be released to RSICC in Spring, 2002) will consist of a major restructuring from FORTRAN-77 (with extensions) to ANSI-standard FORTRAN-90 with support for all of the features available in the present release (MCNP-4C2/4C3). To most users, the look-and-feel of MCNP will not change much except for the improvements (improved graphics, easier installation, better online documentation). For example, even with the major format change, full support for incremental patching will still be provided. In addition to the language and style updates, MCNP V5 will have various new user features. These include improved photon physics, neutral particle radiography, enhancements and additions to variance reduction methods, new source options, and improved parallelism support (PVM, MPI, OpenMP).

  2. HDF-EOS 5 Validator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullman, Richard; Bane, Bob; Yang, Jingli

    2008-01-01

    A computer program partly automates the task of determining whether an HDF-EOS 5 file is valid in that it conforms to specifications for such characteristics as attribute names, dimensionality of data products, and ranges of legal data values. ["HDF-EOS" and variants thereof are defined in "Converting EOS Data From HDF-EOS to netCDF" (GSC-15007-1), which is the first of several preceding articles in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs.] Previously, validity of a file was determined in a tedious and error-prone process in which a person examined human-readable dumps of data-file-format information. The present software helps a user to encode the specifications for an HDFEOS 5 file, and then inspects the file for conformity with the specifications: First, the user writes the specifications in Extensible Markup Language (XML) by use of a document type definition (DTD) that is part of the program. Next, the portion of the program (denoted the validator) that performs the inspection is executed, using, as inputs, the specifications in XML and the HDF-EOS 5 file to be validated. Finally, the user examines the output of the validator.

  3. Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase and ribulose-5-phosphate kinase show apparent specificity for a specific ribulose 5-phosphate species.

    PubMed

    Anderson, L E

    1987-02-01

    Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase and ribulose-5-phosphate kinase appear to show specificity for a particular ribulose 5-phosphate species. The effect of this specificity will be channeling of ribulose 5-phosphate from the isomerase to the kinase during photosynthesis.

  4. Changes in Arctic Melt Season and Implications for Sea Ice Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroeve, J. C.; Markus, T.; Boisvert, L.; Miller, J.; Barrett, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Arctic-wide melt season has lengthened at a rate of 5 days dec-1 from 1979 to 2013, dominated by later autumn freeze-up within the Kara, Laptev, East Siberian, Chukchi and Beaufort seas between 6 and 11 days dec(exp -1). While melt onset trends are generally smaller, the timing of melt onset has a large influence on the total amount of solar energy absorbed during summer. The additional heat stored in the upper ocean of approximately 752MJ m(exp -2) during the last decade, increases sea surface temperatures by 0.5 to 1.5 C and largely explains the observed delays in autumn freeze-up within the Arctic Ocean's adjacent seas. Cumulative anomalies in total absorbed solar radiation from May through September for the most recent pentad locally exceed 300-400 MJ m(exp -2) in the Beaufort, Chukchi and East Siberian seas. This extra solar energy is equivalent to melting 0.97 to 1.3 m of ice during the summer.

  5. Electronic properties of functionalized (5,5) beryllium oxide nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Chigo Anota, Ernesto; Cocoletzi, Gregorio Hernández

    2013-05-01

    Using the density functional theory (DFT) we study the structural and electronic properties of functionalized (5,5) chirality single wall beryllium oxide nanotubes (SW-BeONTs), i.e. armchair nanotubes. The nanotube surface and ends are functionalized by the hydroxyl (OH) functional group. Our calculations consider the Hamprecht-Cohen-Tozer-Handy functional in the generalized gradient approximation (HCTH-GGA) to deal with the exchange-correlation energies, and the base function with double polarization (DNP). The geometry optimization of both defects free and with point defects nanotubes is done applying the criterion of minimum energy. Six configurations are considered: The OH oriented toward the Be (on the surface and at the end), toward the O (on the surface and at the end) and placed at the nanotube ends. Simulation results show that the nanotube functionalization takes place at the nanotube ends with the BeO bond displaying hydrogen-like bridge bonds. Moreover the nanotube semiconductor behavior remains unchanged. The polarity is high (it shows a transition from covalent to ionic) favoring solvatation. On the other hand, the work function low value suggests this to be a good candidate for the device fabrication. When the nanotube contains surface point defects the work function is reduced which provides excellent possibilities for the use of this material in the electronic industry.

  6. Determining the Covering Factor of Compton-Thick Active Galactic Nuclei with NuSTAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brightman, M.; Balokovic, M.; Stern, D.; Arevalo, P.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Christensen, F. E.; Zhang, W. W.

    2015-01-01

    The covering factor of Compton-thick (CT) obscuring material associated with the torus in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is at present best understood through the fraction of sources exhibiting CT absorption along the line of sight (N(sub H) greater than 1.5 x 10(exp 24) cm(exp -2)) in the X-ray band, which reveals the average covering factor. Determining this CT fraction is difficult, however, due to the extreme obscuration. With its spectral coverage at hard X-rays (greater than 10 keV), Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is sensitive to the AGNs covering factor since Compton scattering of X-rays off optically thick material dominates at these energies. We present a spectral analysis of 10 AGNs observed with NuSTAR where the obscuring medium is optically thick to Compton scattering, so-called CT AGNs. We use the torus models of Brightman and Nandra that predict the X-ray spectrum from reprocessing in a torus and include the torus opening angle as a free parameter and aim to determine the covering factor of the CT gas in these sources individually. Across the sample we find mild to heavy CT columns, with N(sub H) measured from 10(exp 24) to 10(exp 26) cm(exp -2), and a wide range of covering factors, where individual measurements range from 0.2 to 0.9. We find that the covering factor, f(sub c), is a strongly decreasing function of the intrinsic 2-10 keV luminosity, L(sub X), where f(sub c) = (-0.41 +/- 0.13)log(sub 10)(L(sub X)/erg s(exp -1))+18.31 +/- 5.33, across more than two orders of magnitude in L(sub X) (10(exp 41.5) - 10(exp 44) erg s(exp -1)). The covering factors measured here agree well with the obscured fraction as a function of LX as determined by studies of local AGNs with L(sub X) greater than 10(exp 42.5) erg s(exp -1).

  7. Dynamical Model for the Zodiacal Cloud and Sporadic Meteors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesvorny, David; Janches, Diego; Vokrouhlicky, David; Pokorny, Petr; Bottke, William F.; Jenniskens, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The solar system is dusty, and would become dustier over time as asteroids collide and comets disintegrate, except that small debris particles in interplanetary space do not last long. They can be ejected from the solar system by Jupiter, thermally destroyed near the Sun, or physically disrupted by collisions. Also, some are swept by the Earth (and other planets), producing meteors. Here we develop a dynamical model for the solar system meteoroids and use it to explain meteor radar observations. We find that the Jupiter Family Comets (JFCs) are the main source of the prominent concentrations of meteors arriving to the Earth from the helion and antihelion directions. To match the radiant and orbit distributions, as measured by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR) and Advanced Meteor Orbit Radar (AMOR), our model implies that comets, and JFCs in particular, must frequently disintegrate when reaching orbits with low perihelion distance. Also, the collisional lifetimes of millimeter particles may be longer (approx. > 10(exp 5) yr at 1 AU) than postulated in the standard collisional models (approx 10(exp 4) yr at 1 AU), perhaps because these chondrule-sized meteoroids are stronger than thought before. Using observations of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) to calibrate the model, we find that the total cross section and mass of small meteoroids in the inner solar system are (1.7-3.5) 10(exp 11) sq km and approx. 4 10(exp 19) g, respectively, in a good agreement with previous studies. The mass input required to keep the Zodiacal Cloud (ZC) in a steady state is estimated to be approx. 10(exp 4)-10(exp 5) kg/s. The input is up to approx 10 times larger than found previously, mainly because particles released closer to the Sun have shorter collisional lifetimes, and need to be supplied at a faster rate. The total mass accreted by the Earth in particles between diameters D = 5 micron and 1 cm is found to be approx 15,000 tons/yr (factor of 2 uncertainty), which is

  8. The EGS5 Code System

    SciTech Connect

    Hirayama, Hideo; Namito, Yoshihito; Bielajew, Alex F.; Wilderman, Scott J.; U., Michigan; Nelson, Walter R.; /SLAC

    2005-12-20

    In the nineteen years since EGS4 was released, it has been used in a wide variety of applications, particularly in medical physics, radiation measurement studies, and industrial development. Every new user and every new application bring new challenges for Monte Carlo code designers, and code refinements and bug fixes eventually result in a code that becomes difficult to maintain. Several of the code modifications represented significant advances in electron and photon transport physics, and required a more substantial invocation than code patching. Moreover, the arcane MORTRAN3[48] computer language of EGS4, was highest on the complaint list of the users of EGS4. The size of the EGS4 user base is difficult to measure, as there never existed a formal user registration process. However, some idea of the numbers may be gleaned from the number of EGS4 manuals that were produced and distributed at SLAC: almost three thousand. Consequently, the EGS5 project was undertaken. It was decided to employ the FORTRAN 77 compiler, yet include as much as possible, the structural beauty and power of MORTRAN3. This report consists of four chapters and several appendices. Chapter 1 is an introduction to EGS5 and to this report in general. We suggest that you read it. Chapter 2 is a major update of similar chapters in the old EGS4 report[126] (SLAC-265) and the old EGS3 report[61] (SLAC-210), in which all the details of the old physics (i.e., models which were carried over from EGS4) and the new physics are gathered together. The descriptions of the new physics are extensive, and not for the faint of heart. Detailed knowledge of the contents of Chapter 2 is not essential in order to use EGS, but sophisticated users should be aware of its contents. In particular, details of the restrictions on the range of applicability of EGS are dispersed throughout the chapter. First-time users of EGS should skip Chapter 2 and come back to it later if necessary. With the release of the EGS4 version

  9. Asymptotic Giant Branch stars as a source of short-lived radioactive nuclei in the solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasserburg, G. J.; Busso, M.; Gallino, R.; Raiteri, C. M.

    1994-01-01

    We carried out a theoretical evaluation of the contribution of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars to some short-lived (10(exp 6) less than or equal to Tau-bar less than or equal to 2 x 10(exp 7) yr) isotopes in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) and in the early solar system using stellar model calculations for thermally pulsing evolutionary phases of low-mass stars. The yields of s-process nuclei in the convective He-shell for different neutron exposures tau(sub 0) were obtained, and AGB stars were shown to produce several radioactive nuclei (especially Pd-107, Pb-205, Fe-60, Zr-93, Tc-99, Cs-135, and Hf-182) in diferent amounts. Assuming either contamination of the solar nebula from a single AGB star or models for continuous injection and mixing from many stars into the ISM, we calculate the ratios of radioactive to stable nuclei at the epoch of the Sun's formation. The dilution factor between the AGB ejecta and the early solar system matter is obtained by matching the observed Pd-107/Pd-108 and depends on the value of tau(sub 0). It is found that small masses M(sub He) of He-shell material (10(exp -4)-10(exp -7) solar mass) enriched in s-process nuclei are sufficient to contaminate 1 solar mass of the ISM to produce the Pd-107 found in the early solar system. Predictions are made for all of the other radioactive isotopes. The optimal model to explain several observed radioactive species at different states of the proto-solar nebula involves a single AGB star with a low neutron exposure (tau(sub 0) = 0.03 mbarn(sup -1)) which contaminated the cloud with a dilution factor of M(sub He)/solar mass approximately 1.5 x 10(exp -4). This will also contribute newly synthesized stable s-process nuclei in the amount of approximately 10(exp -4) of their abundances already present in the proto-solar cloud. Variations in the degree of homogenization (approximately 30%) of the injected material may account for some of the small general isotopic anomalies found in meteorites. It is

  10. ALMA Band 5 Cartridge Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billade, Bhushan; Lapkin, I.; Nystrom, O.; Sundin, E.; Fredrixon, M.; Finger, R.; Rashid, H.; Desmaris, V.; Meledin, D.; Pavolotsky, A.; Belitsky, Victor

    2010-03-01

    Work presented here concerns the design and performance of the ALMA Band 5 cold cartridge, one of the 10 frequency channels of ALMA project, a radio interferometer under construction at Atacama Desert in Chile. The Band 5 cartridge is a dual polarization receiver with the polarization separation performed by orthomode transducer (OMT). For each polarization, Band 5 receiver employs sideband rejection (2SB) scheme based on quadrature layout, with SIS mixers covering 163-211 GHz with 4-8 GHz IF. The LO injection circuitry is integrated with mixer chip and is implemented on the same substrate, resulting in a compact 2SB assembly. Amongst the other ALMA bands, the ALMA Band 5 being the lowest frequency band that uses all cold optics, has the largest mirror. Consequently, ALMA Band 5 mirror along with its support structure leaves very little room for placing OMT, mixers and IF subsystems. The constraints put by the size of cold optics and limited cartridge space, required of us to revise the original 2SB design and adopt a design where all the components like OMT, mixer, IF hybrid, isolators and IF amplifier are directly connected to each other without using any co-ax cables in-between. The IF subsystem uses the space between 4 K and 15 K stage of the cartridge and is thermally connected to 4 K stage. Avoiding co-ax cabling required use of custom designed IF hybrid, furthermore, due to limited cooling capacity at 4 K stage, resistive bias circuitry for the mixers is moved to 15 K stage and the IF hybrid along with an integrated bias-T is implemented using superconducting micro-strip lines. The E-probes for both LO and RF waveguide-to-microstrip transitions are placed perpendicular to the wave direction (back-piece configuration). The RF choke at the end of the probes provides a virtual ground for the RF/LO signal, and the choke is DC grounded to the chassis. The on-chip LO injection is done using a microstrip line directional coupler with slot-line branches in the

  11. Hoarding, Housing, and DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Kenneth J; Khan, Aneela

    2015-12-01

    Hoarding of objects, trash, or animals has the potential to harm hoarders and others. Law enforcement and civil concerns arise, leading to situations ranging from health code violations to child abuse and potential eviction proceedings. DSM-5 included hoarding disorder among the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. This change has created an opportunity for individuals who engage in severe hoarding to request reasonable accommodation from landlords, because their condition represents a disability under the Fair Housing and Americans with Disabilities Acts. We review the legal implications of hoarding disorder, tracking recent case law and arguments made in such disputes.

  12. Reference Model 5 (RM5): Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Y. H.; Jenne, D. S.; Thresher, R.; Copping, A.; Geerlofs, S.; Hanna, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    This report is an addendum to SAND2013-9040: Methodology for Design and Economic Analysis of Marine Energy Conversion (MEC) Technologies. This report describes an Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter (OSWEC) reference model design in a complementary manner to Reference Models 1-4 contained in the above report. A conceptual design for a taut moored oscillating surge wave energy converter was developed. The design had an annual electrical power of 108 kilowatts (kW), rated power of 360 kW, and intended deployment at water depths between 50 m and 100 m. The study includes structural analysis, power output estimation, a hydraulic power conversion chain system, and mooring designs. The results were used to estimate device capital cost and annual operation and maintenance costs. The device performance and costs were used for the economic analysis, following the methodology presented in SAND2013-9040 that included costs for designing, manufacturing, deploying, and operating commercial-scale MEC arrays up to 100 devices. The levelized cost of energy estimated for the Reference Model 5 OSWEC, presented in this report, was for a single device and arrays of 10, 50, and 100 units, and it enabled the economic analysis to account for cost reductions associated with economies of scale. The baseline commercial levelized cost of energy estimate for the Reference Model 5 device in an array comprised of 10 units is $1.44/kilowatt-hour (kWh), and the value drops to approximately $0.69/kWh for an array of 100 units.

  13. First measurement of helium on Mars: Implications for the problem of radiogenic gases on the terrestrial planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasnopolsky, V. A.; Bowyer, S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Gladstone, G. R.; Mcdonald, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    108 +/- 11 photons of the martian He 584-A airglow detected by the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) satellite during a 2-day exposure (January 22-23, 1993) correspond to the effective disk average intensity of 43 +/- 10 Rayleigh (Ra). Radiative transfer calculations, using a model atmosphere appropriate to the conditions of the observation and having an exospheric temperature of 210 +/- 20 K, result in a He mixing ratio of 1.1 +/- 0.4 ppm in the lower atmosphere. Nonthermal escape of helium is due to electron impact ionization and pickup of He(+) by the solar wind, to collisions with hot oxygen atoms, and to charge exchange with molecular species with corresponding column loss rates of 1.4 x 10(exp 5), 3 x 10(exp 4), and 7 x 10(exp 3)/sq cm/s, respectively. The lifetime of helium on Mars is 5 x 10(exp 4) years. the He outgassing rate, coupled with the Ar-40 atmospheric abundance and with the K:U:Th ratio measured in the surface rocks, is used as input to a single two-reservoir degassing model which is applied to Mars and then to Venus. A similar model with known abundances if K, U, and Th is applied to Earth. The models for Earth and Mars presume loss of all argon accumulated in the atmospheres during the first billion years by large-scale meteorite and planetesimal impacts. The models show that the degassing coefficients for all three planets may be approximated by function delta = delta(sub 0) x (t(sub 0)/t)(exp 1/2) with delta(sub 0) = 0.1, 0.04, and 0.0125 Byr for Earth, Venus, and Mars, respectively. After a R(exp 2) correction this means that outgassing processes on Venus and Mars are weaker than on Earth by factors of 3 and 30, respectively. Mass ratios of U and Th are almost the same for all three planets, while potassiumis depleted by a factor of 2 in Venus and Mars. Mass ratio of helium and argon are close to 5 x 10(exp -9) and 2 x 10(exp -8) g/g in the interiors of all three planets. The implications of these results are discussed.

  14. ROSAT detection of diffuse hot gas in the edge-on galaxy NGC 4631

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Q. David; Walterbos, Rene A. M.; Steakley, Michael F.; Norman, Colin A.; Braun, Robert

    1994-01-01

    ROSAT observation is presented of the edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 4631, a nearby Sc/SBd galaxy best known for its extended radio halo. Because of the low foreground Galactic X-ray-absorbing gas column density, N(sub H) approximately 1.4 x 10(exp 20)cm(exp -2), this observation is sensitive to gas of temperature greater than or equal to a few times 10(exp 5) K. A soft (approximately 0.25 keV) X-ray radiation out to more than 8 kpc above the midplane of the galaxy was detected. The strongest X-ray emission in the halo is above the central disk, a region of about 3 kpc radius which shows high star formation activity. The X-ray emission in the halo is bordered by two extended filaments of radio continuum emission. Diffuse X-ray emission from hot gas in the galaxy's disk was found. The spectrum of the radiation can be characterized by a thermal plasma with a temperature of 3 x 10(exp 6) K and a radiative cooling rate of approximately 8 x 10(exp 39) ergs s(exp -1). This rate is only a few percent of the estimated supernova energy release in the interstellar medium of the galaxy. Analysis of the X-ray spectrum shows evidence for the presence of a cooler (several times 10(exp 5) K) halo gas component that could consume a much larger fraction of the supernova energy. Strong evidence was found for disk/halo interaction. Hot gas apparently blows out from supershells in the galaxy's disk at a rate of approximately 1 solar mass yr(exp -1). This outflow of hot gas drags magnetic field lines up in the halo and forms a magnetized gaseous halo. If the magnetic field lines are still anchored to the disk gas at large disk radii, the outflowing gas may be confined high above the disk by magnetic pressure. A strong X-ray source which coincides spatially with an H I supershell has been identified. However, the source is likely an extremely luminous X-ray binary with L(sub chi)(0.1 - 2 keV) approximately 5 x 10(exp 39) ergs s(exp -1), which makes it a stellar mass black hole candidate.

  15. Hypersonic flows as related to the National Aerospace Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kussoy, Marvin; Huang, George; Menter, Florian

    1995-01-01

    The object of Cooperative Agreement NCC2-452 was to identify, develop, and document reliable turbulence models for incorporation into CFD codes, which would then subsequently be incorporated into numerical design procedures for the NASP and any other hypersonic vehicles. In a two-pronged effort, consisting of an experimental and a theoretical approach, several key features of flows over complex vehicles were identified, and test bodies were designed which were composed of simple geometric shapes over which these flow features were measured. The experiments were conducted in the 3.5' Hypersonic Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center, at nominal Mach numbers from 7 to 8.3 and Re/m from 4.9 x 10(exp 6) to 5.8 x 10(exp 6). Boundary layers approaching the interaction region were 2.5 to 3.7 cm thick. Surface and flow field measurements were conducted, and the initial boundary conditions were experimentally documented.

  16. Circumstellar shells resolved in IRAS survey data. II - Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, K.; Phillips, T. G.; Knapp, G. R.

    1993-01-01

    IRAS survey data for 512 red giant stars and young planetary nebulae were processed using a computer program which fitted the data to an idealized model of a circumstellar shell. Seventy-six of these stars were found to have circumstellar shells resolved in the 60-micron survey data. Forty pct of the 76 stars are carbon stars. Thirteen are Mira variables. The evolution of these shells, involving the interaction of the expelled material with the ISM, is modeled, and the results suggest that the period during which Mira variables lose mass lasts for approximately 10 exp 5 yr. Carbon stars are found to shed mass for about 2 x 10 exp 5 yr. The expansion velocity of the outer shell for the largest shells will normally be lower by a factor of 3-5 than the expansion velocity obtained from CO observations.

  17. Detection of a new interstellar molecule, H2CN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohishi, Masatoshi; Mcgonagle, Douglas; Irvine, William M.; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Saito, Shuji

    1994-01-01

    We have detected a new interstellar molecule, H2CN (methylene amidogen), in the cold, dark molecular cloud TMC-1. The column density of H2CN is estimated to be approximately 1.5 x 10(exp 11) cm(exp -2) by assuming an excitation temperature of 5 K. This column density corresponds to a fractional abundance relative to H2 of approximately 1.5 x 10(exp -11). This value is more than three orders of magnitude less than the abundance of the related molecule HCN in TMC-1. We also report a tentative detection of H2CN in Sgr B2(N). The formation mechanism of H2CN is discussed. Our detection of the N2CN molecule may suggest the existence of a new series of carbon-chain molecules, CH2C(n)N (N = 0, 1, 2, ...).

  18. Chemical analyses of provided samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Christopher H.

    1993-01-01

    Two batches of samples were received and chemical analysis was performed of the surface and near surface regions of the samples by the surface analysis by laser ionization (SALI) method. The samples included four one-inch optics and several paint samples. The analyses emphasized surface contamination or modification. In these studies, pulsed sputtering by 7 keV Ar+ and primarily single-photon ionization (SPI) by coherent 118 nm radiation (at approximately 5 x 10(exp 5) W/cm(sup 2) were used. For two of the samples, also multiphoton ionization (MPI) at 266 nm (approximately 5 x 10(exp 11) W/cm(sup 2) was used. Most notable among the results was the silicone contamination on Mg2 mirror 28-92, and that the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) paint sample had been enriched in K and Na and depleted in Zn, Si, B, and organic compounds relative to the control paint.

  19. Design and Predictions for High-Altitude (Low Reynolds Number) Aerodynamic Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, Donald; Harmory, Phil; Krake, Keith; Drela, Mark

    2000-01-01

    A sailplane being developed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center will support a high-altitude flight experiment. The experiment will measure the performance parameters or an airfoil at high altitudes (70,000 - 100,000 ft), low Reynolds numbers (2 x 10(exp 5) - 7 x 10(exp 5)), and high subsonic Mach numbers (0.5 and 0.65). The airfoil section lift and drag are determined from pilot and static pressure measurements. The locations of the separation bubble, Tollmien-Schlichting boundary-layer instability frequencies, and vortex shedding are measured from a hot-film strip. The details of the planned flight experiment are presented as well as several predictions of the airfoil performance.

  20. Deep mantle viscous structure with prior estimate and satellite constraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivins, E. R.; Sammis, C. G.; Yoder, C. F.

    1993-01-01

    A radially stratified and incompressible earth model with secular variation of the second degree gravity field J-dot(2) is used here to test sensitivity of data to viscosity increases with depth and convective boundary layer structure. Prior estimates and observed nontidal J-dot(23)(-C-dot(20)) are consistent with a layered lower mantle viscosity. Details of this layering are examined by comparing predicted and observed J-dot(3), J-dot(4). Speculation that a high-velocity layer exists above D-double prime is considered. With a 650-km thick deep high-viscosity layer, the remaining lower mantle is in one of two ranges: 1.5 to 3.5 x 10 exp 20 or 3.5 to about 10 exp 22 Pa s.

  1. Extraterrestrial Helium Trapped in Fullerenes in the Sudbury Impact Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Luann; Poreda, Robert J.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    1996-01-01

    Fullerenes (C60 and C70) in the Sudbury impact structure contain trapped helium with a He-3/He-4 ratio of 5.5 x 10(exp -4) to 5.9 x 10(exp -4). The He-3/He-4 ratio exceeds the accepted solar wind value by 20 to 30 percent and is higher by an order of magnitude than the maximum reported mantle value. Terrestrial nuclear reactions or cosmic-ray bombardment are not sufficient to generate such a high ratio. The He-3/He-4 ratios in the Sudbury fullerenes are similar to those found in meteorites and in some interplanetary dust particles. The implication is that the helium within the C60 molecules at Sudbury is of extraterrestrial origin.

  2. An aircraft instrument design for in situ tropospheric OH measurements by laser induced fluorescence at low pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brune, William H.; Stevens, Philip S.; Mather, James H.

    1993-01-01

    The hydroxyl radical (OH) is important for many processes involved in tropospheric chemistry. For instance, it initiates the photochemical degradation of gases that cause global climate change, such as methane and the chlorofluorocarbon substitutes (HCFCs). Because of its reactivity, its abundances are less than 0.1 pptv. Thus, OH has been very difficult to measure accurately, despite its importance. Techniques have evolved, however, so that good measurements of tropospheric OH abundances are now possible. One of these techniques that is adaptable to aircraft measurements is the laser induced fluorescence detection of the OH radical in a detection chamber at low pressures. The current ground-based instrument, which can be readily adapted to aircraft, can detect OH abundances of 1.4 x 10 exp 5 OH molecules/cu cm with S/N = 2 in 30 sec, and 5 x 10 exp 4/cu cm in 5 min.

  3. MEK5/ERK5 signaling inhibition increases colon cancer cell sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil through a p53-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Diane M.; Simões, André E. S.; Gomes, Sofia E.; Castro, Rui E.; Carvalho, Tânia; Rodrigues, Cecília M. P.; Borralho, Pedro M.

    2016-01-01

    The MEK5/ERK5 signaling pathway is emerging as an important contributor to colon cancer onset, progression and metastasis; however, its relevance to chemotherapy resistance remains unknown. Here, we evaluated the impact of the MEK5/ERK5 cascade in colon cancer cell sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Increased ERK5 expression was correlated with poor overall survival in colon cancer patients. In colon cancer cells, 5-FU exposure impaired endogenous KRAS/MEK5/ERK5 expression and/or activation. In turn, MEK5 constitutive activation reduced 5-FU-induced cytotoxicity. Using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we showed that ERK5 inhibition increased caspase-3/7 activity and apoptosis following 5-FU exposure. Mechanistically, this was further associated with increased p53 transcriptional activation of p21 and PUMA. In addition, ERK5 inhibition increased the response of HCT116 p53+/+ cells to 5-FU, but failed to sensitize HCT116 p53−/− cells to the cytotoxic effects of this chemotherapeutic agent, suggesting a p53-dependent axis mediating 5-FU sensitization. Finally, ERK5 inhibition using XMD8-92 was shown to increase the antitumor effects of 5-FU in a murine subcutaneous xenograft model, enhancing apoptosis while markedly reducing tumor growth. Collectively, our results suggest that ERK5-targeted in hibition provides a promising therapeutic approach to overcome resistance to 5-FU-based chemotherapy and improve colon cancer treatment. PMID:27144434

  4. MEK5/ERK5 signaling inhibition increases colon cancer cell sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil through a p53-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Diane M; Simões, André E S; Gomes, Sofia E; Castro, Rui E; Carvalho, Tânia; Rodrigues, Cecília M P; Borralho, Pedro M

    2016-06-01

    The MEK5/ERK5 signaling pathway is emerging as an important contributor to colon cancer onset, progression and metastasis; however, its relevance to chemotherapy resistance remains unknown. Here, we evaluated the impact of the MEK5/ERK5 cascade in colon cancer cell sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Increased ERK5 expression was correlated with poor overall survival in colon cancer patients. In colon cancer cells, 5-FU exposure impaired endogenous KRAS/MEK5/ERK5 expression and/or activation. In turn, MEK5 constitutive activation reduced 5-FU-induced cytotoxicity. Using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we showed that ERK5 inhibition increased caspase-3/7 activity and apoptosis following 5-FU exposure. Mechanistically, this was further associated with increased p53 transcriptional activation of p21 and PUMA. In addition, ERK5 inhibition increased the response of HCT116 p53+/+ cells to 5-FU, but failed to sensitize HCT116 p53-/- cells to the cytotoxic effects of this chemotherapeutic agent, suggesting a p53-dependent axis mediating 5-FU sensitization. Finally, ERK5 inhibition using XMD8-92 was shown to increase the antitumor effects of 5-FU in a murine subcutaneous xenograft model, enhancing apoptosis while markedly reducing tumor growth. Collectively, our results suggest that ERK5-targeted inhibition provides a promising therapeutic approach to overcome resistance to 5-FU-based chemotherapy and improve colon cancer treatment. PMID:27144434

  5. Blue lobes in the Hydra A cluster central galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnamara, Brian R.

    1995-01-01

    We present new U- and I-band images of the centrally dominant galaxy in the Hydra A cluster, obtained with the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope at La Palma. The galaxy is centered in a poor, X-ray-luminous cluster whose gaseous intracluster medium is apparently cooling at a rate of m-dot(sub CF) approximately 3000 solar masses/yr. The galaxy's structure is that of a normal giant elliptical galaxy, apart from the central approximately 8 x 6 arcsec (approximately 12 x 9 kpc) region which contains an unusually blue, lobelike structure that is spatially coincident with a luminous emission-line nebula in rotation about the nucleus. Based on near spatial coincidence of the central continuum structure and the emission-line nebula, we suggest that the blue continuum is due to a warm stellar population in a central disk. In order to isolate and study the structure of the disk, we have subtracted a smooth galactic background model from the U-band image. The disk's surface brightness profiles along its major and minor axes decline roughly exponentially with radius. The disk's axial ratio is consistent with a nearly edge-on thick disk or a thin disk that is inclined with respect to the line of sight. The bluest regions, located a few arcsec on either side of the nucleus (giving the lobelike appearance), may be due to locally enhanced star formation or a seeing-blurred ring of young stars embedded in the disk observed nearly edge-on. If star-formation is occurring with the local initial mass function, the central color, surface brightness, and dynamical mass would be consistent with models for star formation at a rate of less than and approximately 1 solar masses/yr which has persisted for the past approximately 10(exp 9) yr, a short burst (10(exp 7) yr) of star formation at a rate of approximately 30 solar masses/yr which occurred less than and approximately 10(exp 8) yr ago, or an instantaneous burst of star formation which occurred approximately 5 x 10(exp 7) yr ago. While the

  6. Discovery of an Energetic Pulsar Associated with SNR G76.9+1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arzoumanian, Zaven; Gotthelf, E. V.; Ransom, S. M.; Safi-Harb, S.; Kothes, R.; Landecker, T. L.

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of PSR J2022-<-3842, a 24 ms radio and X-ray pulsar in the supernova remnant G76.9+i.0, in observations with the Chandra X-ray telescope, the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Radio Telescope, and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The pulsar's spin-down rate implies a rotation-powered luminosity E = 1.2 X 10(exp 38) erg/s, a surface dipole magnetic field strength B(sub S), = 1.0 X 10(exp 12) G, and a characteristic age of 8.9 kyr. PSR J2022+3842 is thus the second-most energetic Galactic pulsar known, after the Crab, as well as the most rapidly-rotating young, radio-bright pulsar known. The radio pulsations are highly dispersed and broadened by interstellar scattering, and we find that a large (delta f/f approximates 1.9 x 10(exp -6)) spin glitch must have occurred between our discovery and confirmation observations. The X-ray pulses are narrow (0.06 cycles FWHM) and visible up to 20 keV, consistent with magnetospheric emission from a rotation-powered pulsar. The Chandra X-ray image identifies the pulsar with a hard, unresolved source at the midpoint of the double-lobed radio morphology of G76.9+ 1.0 and embedded within faint, compact X-ray nebulosity. The spatial relationship of the X-ray and radio emissions is remarkably similar to extended structure seen around the Vela pulsar. The combined Chandra and RXTE pulsar spectrum is well-fitted by an absorbed power-law model with column density N(sub H) = (1.7 +/- 0.3) x 10(exp 22) / sq cm and photon index Gamma = 1.0 +/- 0.2; it implies that the Chandra point-source flux is virtually 100% pulsed. For a distance of 10 kpc, the X-ray luminosity of PSR J2022+3842 is L(sub x){2-1O keV) = 7.0 x 10(exp 33) erg/s. Despite being extraordinarily energetic, PSR J2022+3842 lacks a bright X-ray wind nebula and has an unusually low conversion efficiency of spin-down power to X-ray luminosity, Lx/E = 5.9 X 10(exp-5).

  7. TASK 2.5.5 NATURAL EXPOSURE TESTING IN CALIFORNIA

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William A; Cheng, Mengdawn; New, Joshua Ryan; Ronnen, Levinson; Akbari, Hashem; Berhahl, Paul

    2010-03-01

    Airborne particulate matter that settles on a roof can either reflect or absorb incoming solar radiation, dependent on the chemical content and size of the particles. These light scattering and absorption processes occur within a few microns of the surface, and can affect the solar reflectance of the roof. Wilkes et al. (2000) tested 24 different roof coatings on a low-slope test stand and observed about a 25% decrease in the solar reflectance of white-coated and aluminum-coated surfaces as the time of exposure increased; however, the decrease leveled off after 2 years. SPRI Inc. and its affiliates studied the effect of climatic exposure on the surface properties of white thermoplastic single-ply membranes and determined that membranes lose from 30 to 50% of their reflectance over 3 years (Miller et al. 2002). The CMRC and its affiliates AISI, NamZAC, MBMA, MCA and NCCA exposed unpainted and painted metal roofing on both steep- and low-slope test roofs and found that after 3 years, the painted polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) metal roofs lost less than 5% of their original reflectance (Miller et al. 2004). The results of the three different weathering studies are very interesting in terms of their solar reflectance after 3 years of exposure. The white thermoplastic membrane and white ceramic coating with white topcoat had original reflectance measures that were about 20 percentage points higher than the painted metal; however, after 3-years of field exposure the solar reflectance of the painted metal exceeds that of the thermoplastic membrane and equals that of the coating. The long-term loss of reflectance appears driven by the ability of the particulate matter to cling to the roof and resist being washed off by wind and or rain. Miller et al. (2002) discovered that aerosol deposition introduced biomass of complex microbial consortia onto the test roofs and the combination of contaminants and biomass accelerated the loss of solar reflectance for the thermoplastic

  8. Environmental Monitoring Plan, Revision 5

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, G M; Blake, R G; Bertoldo, N A; Campbell, C G; Coty, J; Folks, K; Grayson, A R; Jones, H E; Nelson, J C; Revelli, M A; Wegrecki, T; Williams, R A; Wilson, K

    2010-01-27

    The purpose of environmental monitoring is to promote the early identification of, and response to, potential adverse environmental impacts associated with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operations. Environmental monitoring supports the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 Environmental Management Systems standard, and U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program. Specifically, in conformance with DOE Order 450.1A, Attachment 1, paragraph 1(b)(5), environmental monitoring enables LLNL to detect, characterize, and respond to releases from LLNL activities; assess impacts; estimate dispersal patterns in the environment; characterize the pathways of exposure to members of the public; characterize the exposures and doses to individuals and to the population; and to evaluate the potential impacts to the biota in the vicinity of LLNL. Environmental monitoring also serves to demonstrate compliance with permits and other regulatory requirements. The Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) addresses the sample collection and analytical work supporting environmental monitoring to ensure the following: (1) A consistent system for collecting, assessing, and documenting environmental data of known and documented quality. (2) A validated and consistent approach for sampling and analysis of samples to ensure laboratory data meets program-specific needs and requirements within the framework of a performance-based approach for analytical laboratory work. (3) An integrated sampling approach to avoid duplicative data collection. Until its cancellation in January 2003, DOE Order 5400.1 required the preparation of an environmental monitoring plan. Neither DOE Order 450.1A nor the ISO 14001 standard are as prescriptive as DOE Order 5400.1, in that neither expressly requires an EMP. However, LLNL continues to prepare the EMP because it provides an organizational framework for

  9. Dissociative disorders in DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, David; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Lanius, Ruth; Vermetten, Eric; Simeon, Daphne; Friedman, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The rationale, research literature, and proposed changes to the dissociative disorders and conversion disorder in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) are presented. Dissociative identity disorder will include reference to possession as well as identity fragmentation, to make the disorder more applicable to culturally diverse situations. Dissociative amnesia will include dissociative fugue as a subtype, since fugue is a rare disorder that always involves amnesia but does not always include confused wandering or loss of personality identity. Depersonalization disorder will include derealization as well, since the two often co-occur. A dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), defined by the presence of depersonalization or derealization in addition to other PTSD symptoms, is being recommended, based upon new epidemiological and neuroimaging evidence linking it to an early life history of adversity and a combination of frontal activation and limbic inhibition. Conversion disorder (functional neurological symptom disorder) will likely remain with the somatic symptom disorders, despite considerable dissociative comorbidity. PMID:23394228

  10. Dissociative disorders in DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, David; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Lanius, Ruth; Vermetten, Eric; Simeon, Daphne; Friedman, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The rationale, research literature, and proposed changes to the dissociative disorders and conversion disorder in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) are presented. Dissociative identity disorder will include reference to possession as well as identity fragmentation, to make the disorder more applicable to culturally diverse situations. Dissociative amnesia will include dissociative fugue as a subtype, since fugue is a rare disorder that always involves amnesia but does not always include confused wandering or loss of personality identity. Depersonalization disorder will include derealization as well, since the two often co-occur. A dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), defined by the presence of depersonalization or derealization in addition to other PTSD symptoms, is being recommended, based upon new epidemiological and neuroimaging evidence linking it to an early life history of adversity and a combination of frontal activation and limbic inhibition. Conversion disorder (functional neurological symptom disorder) will likely remain with the somatic symptom disorders, despite considerable dissociative comorbidity.

  11. Patient advocacy and DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J; Phillips, Katharine A

    2013-05-17

    The revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) provides a useful opportunity to revisit debates about the nature of psychiatric classification. An important debate concerns the involvement of mental health consumers in revisions of the classification. One perspective argues that psychiatric classification is a scientific process undertaken by scientific experts and that including consumers in the revision process is merely pandering to political correctness. A contrasting perspective is that psychiatric classification is a process driven by a range of different values and that the involvement of patients and patient advocates would enhance this process. Here we draw on our experiences with input from the public during the deliberations of the Obsessive Compulsive-Spectrum Disorders subworkgroup of DSM-5, to help make the argument that psychiatric classification does require reasoned debate on a range of different facts and values, and that it is appropriate for scientist experts to review their nosological recommendations in the light of rigorous consideration of patient experience and feedback.

  12. Patient advocacy and DSM-5

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) provides a useful opportunity to revisit debates about the nature of psychiatric classification. An important debate concerns the involvement of mental health consumers in revisions of the classification. One perspective argues that psychiatric classification is a scientific process undertaken by scientific experts and that including consumers in the revision process is merely pandering to political correctness. A contrasting perspective is that psychiatric classification is a process driven by a range of different values and that the involvement of patients and patient advocates would enhance this process. Here we draw on our experiences with input from the public during the deliberations of the Obsessive Compulsive-Spectrum Disorders subworkgroup of DSM-5, to help make the argument that psychiatric classification does require reasoned debate on a range of different facts and values, and that it is appropriate for scientist experts to review their nosological recommendations in the light of rigorous consideration of patient experience and feedback. PMID:23683696

  13. RP-5 RENEWABLE ENERGY PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Neil Clifton; Eliza Jane Whitman; Jamal A. Zughbi

    2003-01-30

    This is the second quarterly technical report for the RP-5 Renewable Energy Project. The report summarizes the work progress, effort and activities that took place during the period of October 1, 2002 to December 31, 2002. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines. This technical report covers all meetings and discussions that were conducted in order to follow up on potential renewable energy technologies that were identified in the previous report; the technologies were analyzed for their feasibility, suitability and cost effectiveness for this project. This report covers the one-day conceptual design kickoff meeting that took place on November 4, 2002. The meeting was held to discuss the practicality and implementation of potential innovative technologies. Following the kickoff meeting, Inland Empire Utilities Agency (IEUA) and CH2M Hill, the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Consultant, held a meeting on December 2, 2002 to discuss the Conceptual Design Report outline and contents in order to clearly present each selected technology along with its evaluation, cost effectiveness and justification. A conference call also took place between the PIER Consultant and IEUA on December 13, 2002, to discuss the overall scope of work for this project. Major project activities in this period include expanded discussions on previous Energy Charrette decisions and recommendations, conceptual design kickoff meeting, conceptual design report, and deciding on the overall project scope of work.

  14. Ultra-stable Hg(+) trapped ion frequency standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prestage, J. D.; Tjoelker, R. L.; Dick, G. J.; Maleki, L.

    1992-01-01

    We report the development of a fieldable frequency standard based on Hg-199(+) ions confined in a hybrid r.f./dc linear ion trap. This trap permits storage of large numbers of ions with reduced susceptibility to the second-order Doppler effect caused by the r.f. confining fields. A 160 mHz wide atomic resonance line for the 40.5 GHz clock transition is used to steer the output of a 5 MHz crystal oscillator to obtain a stability of 2 x 10 exp -15 for 24,000 s averaging times. For longer averaging intervals, measurements are limited by instabilities in available hydrogen maser frequency standards. Measurements with 37 mHz linewidth for the Hg(+) clock transition demonstrate that the inherent stability for this frequency standard is at least as good as 1 x 10 exp -15.

  15. A predictive model for space-based X-ray CCD degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antunes, Alex; Burrows, David N.; Garmire, Gordon P.; Lumb, David H.; Nousek, John A.

    1993-01-01

    The first generation of X-ray telescopes to use Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) is being launched this decade. With a read noise of a few electrons, CCDs provide Fano-limited spectral resolution across the soft X-ray band (0.1 - 10 keV). However, degradation of resolution due to charge transfer losses becomes noticeable as Charge Transfer Inefficiency (CTI) increases to 10(exp -5). In this paper, we present a model which calculates the effects of radiation damage in low Earth orbit in order to predict CCD lifetimes over which good charge transfer is maintained. The model presented here considers damage mechanisms within the CCD, environmental conditions in which the CCD operates, and experiment shielding. We find that the predicted CTI approaches 10(exp -5) after a one to two year mission for the flight instruments considered here.

  16. Sliding wear of self-mated Al2O3-SiC whisker reinforced composites at 23-1200 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Serene C.; Book, Patricia O.; Dellacorte, Christopher

    1991-01-01

    Microstructural changes occurring during sliding wear of self-mated Al2O3-SiC whisker reinforced composites were studied using optical, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Pin-on-disk specimens were slid in air at 2.7 m/sec sliding velocity under a 26.5 N load for 1 hr. Wear tests were conducted at 23, 600, 800, and 1200 C. Mild wear with a wear factor of 2.4 times 10(exp -7) to 1.5 times 10(exp -6) cu mm/Nm was experienced at all test temperatures. The composite shows evidence of wear by fatigue mechanisms at 800 C and below. Tribochemical reaction (SiC oxidation and reaction of SiO2 and Al2O3) leads to intergranular failure at 1200 C. Distinct microstructural differences existing at each test temperature are reported.

  17. Mt. Pinatubo SO2 column measurements from Mauna Loa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Rinsland, C. P.; Blatherwick, R. D.; David, S. J.; Murcray, F. H.; Murcray, D. G.

    1992-01-01

    Absorption features of the nu sub 1 band of SO2 are identified in high-resolution IR solar-absorption spectra recorded from Mauna Loa, Hawaii, on July 9 and 12, 1991, shortly after the arrival of the first eruption plume from the Mt. Pinatubo volcano. A total SO2 vertical column amount of (5.1 +/- 0.5) x 10 exp 16 molecules/sq cm on July 9 is retrieved based on nonlinear least-squares spectral fittings of 9 selected SO2 absorption features with an updated set of SO2 spectral parameters. A SO2 total-column upper limit of 0.9 x 10 exp 16 molecules/sq cm deduced from measurements on September 20-24, 1991, is consistent with the dispersion of the SO2 cloud and the rapid conversion of the SO2 vapor into volcanic aerosol particles.

  18. Development of the high sensitivity GRADIO accelerometers - The Aristoteles gradiometer mission preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, A.; Touboul, P.

    ESA and NASA are preparing the cooperative geopotential mission ARISTOTELES that will combine, for the global and fine recovery of the earth's gravity field, gradiometric measurements on board a dedicated satellite at 200-km altitude and satellite-to-satellite tracking using GPS network. The gradiometer required accuracy is 0.01 Eotvos, leading for the GRADIO ultrasensitive accelerometers composing this instrument to a resolution of 5 x 10 exp -12 per sq ms in the bandwidth (5 x 10 exp -3 Hz, 0.125 Hz) in microgravity conditions. Two laboratory models and a specific test bench have been realized. In spite of the presence of gravity and of the seismic noise, differential tests at a level of better than one nanoG are achieved on ground.

  19. UV testing of solar cells: Effects of antireflective coating, prior irradiation, and UV source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meulenberg, A.

    1993-01-01

    Short-circuit current degradation of electron irradiated double-layer antireflective-coated cells after 3000 hours ultraviolet (UV) exposure exceeds 3 percent; extrapolation of the data to 10(exp 5) hours (11.4 yrs.) gives a degradation that exceeds 10 percent. Significant qualitative and quantitative differences in degradation were observed in cells with double- and single-layer antireflective coatings. The effects of UV-source age were observed and corrections were made to the data. An additional degradation mechanism was identified that occurs only in previously electron-irradiated solar cells since identical unirradiated cells degrade to only 6 +/- 3 percent when extrapolated 10(exp 5) hours of UV illumination.

  20. UV testing of solar cells: Effects of antireflective coating, prior irradiation, and UV source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulenberg, A.

    1993-05-01

    Short-circuit current degradation of electron irradiated double-layer antireflective-coated cells after 3000 hours ultraviolet (UV) exposure exceeds 3 percent; extrapolation of the data to 10(exp 5) hours (11.4 yrs.) gives a degradation that exceeds 10 percent. Significant qualitative and quantitative differences in degradation were observed in cells with double- and single-layer antireflective coatings. The effects of UV-source age were observed and corrections were made to the data. An additional degradation mechanism was identified that occurs only in previously electron-irradiated solar cells since identical unirradiated cells degrade to only 6 +/- 3 percent when extrapolated 10(exp 5) hours of UV illumination.

  1. Acoustics and Surface Pressure Measurements from Tandem Cylinder Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Lockard, David P.; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Stead, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic and unsteady surface pressure measurements from two cylinders in tandem configurations were acquired to study the effect of spacing, surface trip and freestream velocity on the radiated noise. The Reynolds number ranged from 1.15x10(exp 5) to 2.17x10(exp 5), and the cylinder spacing varied between 1.435 and 3.7 cylinder diameters. The acoustic and surface pressure spectral characteristics associated with the different flow regimes produced by the cylinders' wake interference were identified. The dependence of the Strouhal number, peak Sound Pressure Level and spanwise coherence on cylinder spacing and flow velocity was examined. Directivity measurements were performed to determine how well the dipole assumption for the radiation of vortex shedding noise holds for the largest and smallest cylinder spacing tested.

  2. In-plane texturing control of Y-Ba-Cu-O thin films on polycrystalline substrates by ion-beam-modified intermediate buffer layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iijima, Y.; Onabe, K.; Futaki, N.; Tanabe, N.; Sadakata, N.; Kohno, O.; Ikeno, Y.

    1993-03-01

    Biaxially aligned YBCO thin films were successfully formed on polycrystalline Ni-based alloy by using ion-beam-modified yttria-stabilized-zirconia (YSZ) intermediate layers. YSZ layers were deposited by ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) with concurrent off-axis ion beam bombardment. The YSZ 100-line axis was oriented normal to the substrate, and a YSZ 111-line axis was aligned to the bombarding ion beam axis. Explicit in-plane ordering was achieved on polycrystalline metallic substrates without epitaxial relationships. C-axis-oriented YBCO thin films were grown on those buffer layers, with controlled in-plane a- and b-axes, by pulsed laser deposition. At 77 K, 0 T and at 77 K, 0.6 T, 4.3 x 10 exp 5 A/sq cm and 1.1 x 10 exp 5 A/sq cm were achieved, respectively.

  3. Anisotropy in twinned terfenol-D crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lord, D. G.; Harvey, D.

    1994-11-01

    The highly magnetostrictive cubic compound Terfenol-D (Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe2) solidifies via a (211) dendritic growth front when growth by a free-standing zone technique. The resulting material is usually composed of dendritic plates often containing crystallographic twins, the predominant plate and twin plane being the (1-11) orthogonal to the (-2-11) growth plane. Results of room temperature magnetic torque analysis from (011) disk specimens, having differing twin densities, are presented which yield both the magnetic anisotropy constants, K(sub 1) = -1.6 x 10(exp 5) J/cu m and K(sub 2) = -0.16 x 10(exp 5) J/cu m, and the relative parent/twin volume. Magnetic susceptibility data both parallel and transverse to the applied field are presented which, in conjunction with the anisotropy results, emphasize the importance of twin density on magnetoelastic response for typical application geometries.

  4. Carbon in Comet Halley dust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fomenkova, M. N.; Chang, S.

    1994-01-01

    Comets are small bodies of the solar system containing primarily a mixture of frozen gases and carbonaceous and mineral grains. They are likely to preserve volatile mineral from cold regions of the protosolar nebula and remnants of interstellar dust and gas. More than 2500 mass spectra of cometary grains with masses in the range 5 x 10 exp -17 to 5 x 10 exp -12 g were measured in situ by PUMA1 and PUMA2 mass spectrometers on board the VEGA spacecraft during flyby missions to Comet Halley. In this paper, we discuss different organic and inorganic C-containing components discovered so far in Comet Halley dust particles, the nature and abundance of which provide information about possible astrophysical sources of C and constrain models of interstellar grains.

  5. A high-performance Hg(+) trapped ion frequency standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prestage, J. D.; Tjoelker, R. L.; Dick, G. J.; Maleki, L.

    1992-01-01

    A high-performance frequency standard based on (199)Hg(+) ions confined in a hybrid radio frequency (RF)/dc linear ion trap is demonstrated. This trap permits storage of large numbers of ions with reduced susceptibility to the second-order Doppler effect caused by the RF confining fields. A 160-mHz-wide atomic resonance line for the 40.5-GHz clock transition is used to steer the output of a 5-mHz crystal oscillator to obtain a stability of 2 x 10(exp -15) for 24,000-second averaging times. Measurements with a 37-mHz line width for the Hg(+) clock transition demonstrate that the inherent stability for this frequency standard is better than 1 x 10(exp -15) at 10,000-second averaging times.

  6. Planetary Camera observations of NGC 1275 - Discovery of a central population of compact massive blue star clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holtzman, Jon A.; Faber, S. M.; Shaya, Edward J.; Lauer, Tod R.; Groth, Edward J.; Hunter, Deidre A.; Baum, William A.; Ewald, S. P.; Hester, J. J.; Light, Robert M.

    1992-01-01

    The discovery of a population of bright blue pointlike sources within 5 kpc of the nucleus of NGC 1275 using HST Planetary Camera observations is reported. The typical object has MV of about -12 to -14. They are all blue, with V - R of less than about 0.3. The color distribution and lack of excess H-alpha emission are consistent with nearly all being continuum sources. Many sources are unresolved even with the HST and consequently have sizes of less than about 15 pc. It is suggested that these are young star clusters that will evolve to look like globular clusters. They are bluer than any clusters seen in the Milky Way or M87, and brighter than the blue clusters seen in the LMC. Ages of several hundred million years or less and corresponding masses of 10 exp 5 - 10 exp 8 solar masses are derived.

  7. The effect of oxygen fugacity on the partitioning of nickel and cobalt between olivine, silicate melt, and metal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, Karin; Grove, Timothy L.; Sisson, Thomas W.; Recca, Steven I.; Zervas, Deborah A.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of oxygen fugacity, f(O2), on the partitioning behavior of Ni and Co between olivine, silicate melt, and metal was investigated in the CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-FeO-Na2O system, an analogue of a chondrule composition from an ordinary chondrite. The conditions were 1350 C and 1 atm, with values of f(O2) varying between 10 exp -5.5 and 10 exp -12.6 atm (i.e., the f(O2) range relevant for crystal/liquid processes in terrestrial planets and meteorite parent bodies). Results of chemical analysis showed that the values of the Ni and Co partitioning coefficients begin to decrease at values of f(O2) that are about 3.9 log units below the nickel-nickel oxide and cobalt-cobalt oxide buffers, respectively, near the metal saturation for the chondrule analogue composition.

  8. Global Biomass Variation and its Geodynamic Effects, 1982-1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, M.; Chao, B. F.; Au, A. Y.; Kimball, J. S.; McDonald, K. C.

    2005-01-01

    Redistribution of mass near Earth's surface alters its rotation, gravity field, and geocenter location. Advanced techniques for measuring these geodetic variations now exist, but the ability to attribute the observed modes to individual Earth system processes has been hampered by a shortage of reliable global data on such processes, especially hydrospheric processes. To address one aspect of this deficiency, 17 yrs of monthly, global maps of vegetation biomass were produced by applying field-based relationships to satellite-derived vegetation type and leaf area index. The seasonal variability of biomass was estimated to be as large as 5 kg m(exp -2). Of this amount, approximately 4 kg m(exp -2) is due to vegetation water storage variations. The time series of maps was used to compute geodetic anomalies, which were then compared with existing geodetic observations as well as the estimated measurement sensitivity of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). For gravity, the seasonal amplitude of biomass variations may be just within GRACE'S limits of detectability, but it is still an order of magnitude smaller than current observation uncertainty using the satellite-laser-ranging technique. The contribution of total biomass variations to seasonal polar motion amplitude is detectable in today's measurement, but it is obscured by contributions from various other sources, some of which are two orders of magnitude larger. The influence on the length of day is below current limits of detectability. Although the nonseasonal geodynamic signals show clear interannual variability, they are too small to be detected.

  9. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Basset, R.; Bastien, R.; Bechtel, H.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Brenker F.; Bridges, J.

    2009-01-01

    In January 2006 the Stardust sample return capsule returned to Earth bearing the first solid samples from a primitive solar system body, C omet 81P/Wild2, and a collector dedicated to the capture and return o f contemporary interstellar dust. Both collectors were approximately 0.1m(exp 2) in area and were composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the co llecting area) and aluminum foils. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Col lector (SIDC) was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total exposure factor of 20 m(exp 2-) day during two periods before the co metary encounter. The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination ( ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the collection using no ndestructive techniques. The ISPE consists of six interdependent proj ects: (1) Candidate identification through automated digital microsco py and a massively distributed, calibrated search (2) Candidate extr action and photodocumentation (3) Characterization of candidates thro ugh synchrotronbased FourierTranform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), S canning XRay Fluoresence Microscopy (SXRF), and Scanning Transmission Xray Microscopy (STXM) (4) Search for and analysis of craters in f oils through FESEM scanning, Auger Spectroscopy and synchrotronbased Photoemission Electron Microscopy (PEEM) (5) Modeling of interstell ar dust transport in the solar system (6) Laboratory simulations of h ypervelocity dust impacts into the collecting media

  10. Oscillating lamp fixture for growing areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiatt, Harvey

    1994-01-01

    The Oscillating Parabolic Mirror of 'Beamflicker' was designed by Dr. Richard W. Tinus, Supervisory Plant Physiologist, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experimental Station, Flagstaff, Arizona. With his idea, an economic greenhouse lighting system was developed and patented, U.S. Patent #5095414. The Beamflicker uses a stationary 400 watt high pressure sodium arc bulb. The parabolic mirror rotates 180 degrees around the bulb to produce intermittent lighting every minute throughout the night. This one bulb can replace up to 88 incandescent bulbs in a 40 x 100 foot greenhouse over different sections of a growing area. The lighting intensity of the Beamflicker varies greatly depending on the distance from the bulb. The light intensity varies from 1.3 (mu)mol m(exp 2)/s feet from the bulb to 52.5 (mu)mol m(exp 2)/s directly beneath the bulb. A year long study involving light intensity and many species will be concluded in July 1994. These research results should be published within the next year.

  11. Radon 222 tracing of soil and forest canopy trace gas exchange in an open canopy boreal forest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ussler, William, III; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Kelley, Cheryl A.; Martens, Christopher S.

    1994-01-01

    A set of continuous, high-resolution atmospheric radon (Rn-222) concentration time series and radon soil flux measurements were acquired during the summer of 1990 at a micrometeorological tower site 13 km northwest of Schefferville, Quebec, Canada. The tower was located in a dry upland, open-canopy lichen-spruce woodland. For the period July 23 to August 1, 1990, the mean radon soil flux was 41.1 +/- 4.8 Bq m(exp -2)/h. Radon surface flux from the two end-member forest floor cover types (lichen mat and bare soil) were 38.8 +/- 5.1 and 61.8 +/- 15.6 Bq m(exp -2)/h, respectively. Average total forest canopy resistances computed using a simple 'flux box' model for radon exchange between the forest canopy and the overlying atmosphere range from 0.47 +/- 0.24 s cm(exp -1) to 2.65 +/- 1.61 cm(exp -1) for daytime hours (0900-1700 LT) and from 3.44 +/- 0.91 s cm(exp -1) to 10.55 +/- 7.16 s cm(exp -1) for nighttime hours (2000-0600) for the period July 23 to August 6, 1990. Continuous radon profiling of canopy atmospheres is a suitable approach for determining rates of biosphere/atmosphere trace gas exchange for remote field sites where daily equipment maintenance is not possible. where daily equipment maintenance is not possible.

  12. Oscillating lamp fixture for growing areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiatt, Harvey

    1994-03-01

    The Oscillating Parabolic Mirror of 'Beamflicker' was designed by Dr. Richard W. Tinus, Supervisory Plant Physiologist, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experimental Station, Flagstaff, Arizona. With his idea, an economic greenhouse lighting system was developed and patented, U.S. Patent #5095414. The Beamflicker uses a stationary 400 watt high pressure sodium arc bulb. The parabolic mirror rotates 180 degrees around the bulb to produce intermittent lighting every minute throughout the night. This one bulb can replace up to 88 incandescent bulbs in a 40 x 100 foot greenhouse over different sections of a growing area. The lighting intensity of the Beamflicker varies greatly depending on the distance from the bulb. The light intensity varies from 1.3 (mu)mol m(exp 2)/s feet from the bulb to 52.5 (mu)mol m(exp 2)/s directly beneath the bulb. A year long study involving light intensity and many species will be concluded in July 1994. These research results should be published within the next year.

  13. WFPC2 observations of the double cluster NGC 1850 in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmozzi, R.; Kinney, E. K.; Ewald, S. P.; Panagia, N.; Romaniello, M.

    1994-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope-Wide Field/Planetary Camera-2 (HST-WFPC2) optical and ultraviolet imaging observations of the young double cluster NGC 1850 in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) are presented. The main cluster, NGC 1850A, is a globular-like cluster and has an age of 50 +/- 10 Myr, while the subcluster, NGC 1850B, which is more loosely distributed, is very young at 4.3 +/- 0.9 Myr. Its young age is confirmed by the detection of a pre-main-sequence population of stars associated to it. The two clusters have considerably different IMF slopes, with the main cluster having a flat slope (f(m) proportional to m(exp -1.4 +/- 0.2)) and the young cluster a much steeper one (f(m) proportional to m(exp -2.6 +/- -0.1)). The LMC field star population displays a broad range of ages, from approximately 0.5 Gyr up to more than 4 Gyr.

  14. 22 CFR 5.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 5.1 Section 5.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 5.1 Introduction. The sections in this part 5 are issued pursuant to section 3 of the Administrative Procedure Act, 5 U.S.C. 552, effective July 4, 1967....

  15. 5 CFR 1690.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... beneficiary participant account pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 8433(e) and in accordance with 5 CFR 1651.19. Beneficiary participant account means an account maintained pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 8433(e) and in accordance with 5 CFR 1651... fully described in 5 CFR 1604.2. Share means a portion of a TSP Fund. Transactions are posted...

  16. 5 CFR 1690.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... beneficiary participant account pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 8433(e) and in accordance with 5 CFR 1651.19. Beneficiary participant account means an account maintained pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 8433(e) and in accordance with 5 CFR 1651... fully described in 5 CFR 1604.2. Share means a portion of a TSP Fund. Transactions are posted...

  17. 5 CFR 1201.3 - Appellate jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... unacceptable performance (5 CFR part 432; 5 U.S.C. 4303(e)); (2) Removal, reduction in grade or pay, suspension... the service. (5 CFR part 752, subparts C and D; 5 U.S.C. 7511-7514); (3) Removal, or suspension for more than 14 days, of a career appointee in the Senior Executive Service (5 CFR part 752, subparts...

  18. 5 CFR 2641.104 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., appointed in accordance with 5 CFR 2638.202(b), and any deputy ethics official described in 5 CFR 2638.204... (DAEO) means the official designated under 5 CFR 2638.201 to coordinate and manage an agency's ethics... in 5 CFR 534.504 and the periodic pay adjustment authorized in 5 CFR 534.503 result in a rate...

  19. MRH-5 Robot/Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox Valley Technical Coll., Appleton, WI.

    This student manual for the Miller MRH-5 welding robot contains nine modules on how to: safely operate the MRH-5 robot; recognize different types of data; weld a part programming the MRH-5; re-teach an already taught program; weld various joints with the MRH-5 robot; weld a desk plaque with the MRH-5 robot; perform editing functions; check/edit…

  20. 10 CFR 5.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Recruitment. 5.310 Section 5.310 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 5.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A recipient to which §§ 5.300 through 5.310 apply shall...

  1. 10 CFR 5.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recruitment. 5.310 Section 5.310 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 5.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A recipient to which §§ 5.300 through 5.310 apply shall...

  2. 45 CFR 5b.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 5b.3 Section 5b.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 5b.3 Policy. It is... public is entitled to have under the Freedom of Information Act, 5 U.S.C. 552, and part 5 of this title....

  3. Infrared focal plane performance in the South Atlantic anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junga, Frank A.

    1989-01-01

    Proton-induced pulse height distributions (PHD's) in Si:XX detectors were studied analytically and experimentally. In addition, a preliminary design for a flight experiment to characterize the response of Si:XX detectors to the trapped proton environment and verify PHD models was developed. PHD's were computed for two orbit altitudes for a variety of shielding configurations. Most of the proton-induced pulses have amplitudes less that about 3.5 x 10(exp 5) e-h pairs. Shielding has a small effect on the shape of the PHD's. The primary effect of shielding is to reduce the total number of pulses produced. Proton-induced PHD's in a Si:Sb focal plane array bombarded by a unidirectional 67-MeV beam were measured. The maximum pulse height recorded was 6 x 10(exp 5) pairs. The distribution had two peaks: the larger peak corresponded to 3.8 x 10(exp 5) pairs and the smaller peak to 1.2 x 10(exp 5) pairs. The maximum pulse height and the larger peak are within a factor of two of predicted values. The low-energy peak was not expected, but is believed to be an artifact of inefficient charge collection in the detector. The planned flight experiment will be conducted on a Space Shuttle flight. Lockheed's helium extended life dewar (HELD) will be used to provide the required cryogenic environment for the detector. Two bulk Si:Sb arrays and two Si:As impurity band conduction arrays will be tested. The tests will be conducted while the Space Shuttle passes through the South Atlantic Anomaly. PHD's will be recorded and responsivity changes tracked. This experiment will provide a new database on proton-induced PHD's, compare two infrared detector technologies in a space environment, and provide the data necessary to validate PHD modeling.

  4. Characterization of Volume F Trash from Four Recent STS Missions: Microbial Occurrence, Numbers, and Identifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strayer, Richard F.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; McCoy, LaShelle E.; Roberts, Michael S.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    The fate of space-generated solid wastes, including trash, for future missions is under consideration by NASA. Several potential treatment options are under active technology development. Potential fates for space-generated solid wastes: Storage without treatment; storage after treatment(s) including volume reduction, water recovery, sterilization, and recovery plus recycling of waste materials. For this study, a microbial characterization was made on trash returned from four recent STS missions. The material analyzed were 'Volume F' trash and other bags of accompanying trash. This is the second of two submitted papers on these wastes. This first one covered trash content, weight and water content. Upon receipt, usually within 2 days of landing, trash contents were catalogued and placed into categories: drink containers, food waste, personal hygiene items, and packaging materials, i.e., plastic film and duct tape. Microbial counts were obtained with cultivatable counts on agar media and direct counts using Acridine Orange fluorescent stain (AODC). Trash bag surfaces, 25 square cm , were also sampled. Direct counts were approximately 1 x 10(exp 6) microbes/square cm and cultivatable counts ranged from 1 x 10 to 1 X 10(exp 4) microbes/ square cm-2. Aerobic microbes, aerobic sporeformers, and yeasts plus molds were common for all four missions. Waste items from each category were placed into sterile ziplock bags and 1.5 L sterile DI water added. These were then dispersed by hand shaking for 2 min. prior to inoculation of count media or determining AODC. In general, cultivatable microbes were found in drinks, food wastes, and personal hygiene items. Direct counts were usually higher than cultivatable counts. Some pathogens were found: Staphylococcus auerus, Escherichia coli (fecal wastes). Count ranges: drink pouches - AODC 2 x 10(exp 6) to 1 X 10(exp 8) g(sub fw) (exp -1); cultivatable counts variable between missions; food wastes: Direct counts were close to aerobic

  5. Planetesimal Formation in the Protoplanetary Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Mrad, Susan (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    In this talk we will address two distinct phases of planetesimal formation, each of which is fundamentally dependent upon the coupled interactions of particles and turbulent nebula gas. It has been shown both numerically and experimentally that 3-D (three dimensional) turbulence concentrates aerodynamically size-selected particles by orders of magnitude. In a previous review chapter we illustrated the initial predictions of Turbulent Concentration (TC) as applied to the solar nebula. We predicted the particle size which will be most effectively concentrated by turbulence; it is the particle which has a gas drag stopping time equal to the overturn time of the smallest (Kolmogorov scale) eddy. The primary uncertainty is the level of nebula turbulence, or Reynolds number Re, which can be expressed in terms of the standard nebula eddy viscosity parameter alpha = Rev(sub m)/cH, where v(sub m) is molecular viscosity, c is sound speed, and H is vertical scale height. Several studies, and observed lifetimes of circumstellar disks, have suggested that the level of nebula turbulence can be described by alpha = 10(exp -2) - 10(exp -4). There is some recent concern about how energy is provided to maintain this turbulence, but the issue remains open. We adopt a canonical minimum mass nebula with a range of alpha is greater than 0. We originally showed that chondrule-sized particles are selected for concentration in the terrestrial planet region if alpha = 10(exp -3) - 10(exp -4). In addition, Paque and Cuzzi found that the size distribution of chondrules is an excellent match for theoretical predictions. One then asks by what concentration factor C these particles can be concentrated; our early numerical results indicated an increase of C with alpha, and were supported by simple scaling arguments, but the extrapolation range was quite large and the predictions (C is approximately equal to 10(exp 5) - 10(exp 6) not unlikely) uncertain. The work presented here, which makes use of

  6. Turbulence, Chondrules, and Planetesimals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey; Hogan, Robert C.; Dobrovolskis, Anthony R.; Paque, Julie M.

    1998-01-01

    It has been shown both numerically and experimentally that 3-D turbulence concentrates aerodynamically size-selected particles by orders of magnitude. In a previous review chapter, in "Chondrules and the protoplanetary disk" we illustrated the initial predictions of Turbulent Concentration (TC) as applied to the solar nebula. We predicted the particle size which will be most effectively concentrated by turbulence; it is the particle which has a gas drag stopping time equal to the overturn time of the smallest (Kolmogorov scale) eddy. The primary uncertainty is the level of nebula turbulence, or Reynolds number Re, which can be expressed in terms of the standard nebula eddy viscosity parameter alpha = Re(nu)(sub m)/cH, where nu(sub m) is molecular viscosity, c is sound speed, and H is vertical scale height. Several studies, and observed lifetimes of circumstellar disks, have suggested that the level of nebula turbulence can be described by alpha = 10(exp -2) - 10(exp -4). There is some recent concern about how energy is provided to maintain this turbulence, but the issue remains open. We adopt a canonical minimum mass nebula with a range of alpha > 0. We originally showed that chondrule-sized particles are selected for concentration in the terrestrial planet region if alpha = 10(exp -3) - 10(exp -4). In addition, Paque and Cuzzi found that the size distribution of chondrules is an excellent match for theoretical predictions. One then asks by what concentration factor C these particles can be concentrated; our early numerical results indicated an increase of C with alpha, and were supported by simple scaling arguments, but the extrapolation range was quite large and the predictions (C 10(exp 5) - 10(exp 6) not unlikely) uncertain. The work presented here, which makes use of our recent demonstration that the particle density field is a multifractal with flow-independent properties provides a far more secure ground for such predictions. We also indicate how fine

  7. The Far-Infrared Spectrum of Arp 220

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez-Alfonso, Eduardo; Smith, Howard A.; Fischer, Jacqueline; Cernicharo, Jose

    2005-01-01

    ISO/LWS grating observations of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy Arp 220 shows absorption in molecular lines of OH, H(sub 2)O, CH, NH, and NH(sub 3), as well as in the [O I] 63 micron line and emission in the [C II] 158 micron line. We have modeled the continuum and the emission/absorption of all observed features by means of a non-local radiative transfer code. The continuum from 25 to 1300 microns is modeled as a warm (106 K) nuclear region that is optically thick in the far-infrared, attenuated by an extended region (size 2") that is heated mainly through absorption of nuclear infrared radiation. The molecular absorption in the nuclear region is characterized by high excitation due to the high infrared radiation density. The OH column densities are high toward the nucleus (2 - 6 x 10(exp 17) cm(exp -2)) and the extended region (approximately 2 x 10(exp 17) cm(exp -2)). The H(sub 2)O column density is also high toward the nucleus (2 - 10 x 10(exp 17) cm(exp -2)) and lower in the extended region. The column densities in a halo that accounts for the absorption by the lowest lying levels are similar to what are found in the diffuse clouds toward the star forming regions in the Sgr B2 molecular cloud complex near the Galactic Center. Most notable are the high column densities found for NH and NH(sub 3) toward the nucleus, with values of approximately 1.5 x 10(exp 16) cm(exp -2) and approximately 3 x 10(exp 16) cm(exp -2), respectively, whereas the NH(sub 2) column density is lower than approximately 2 x 10(exp 15) cm(exp -2). A combination of PDRs in the extended region and hot cores with enhanced H(sub 2)O photodissociation and a possible shock contribution in the nuclei may explain the relative column densities of OH and H(sub 2)O, whereas the nitrogen chemistry may be strongly affected by cosmic ray ionization. The [C II] 158 micron line is well reproduced by our models and its deficit relative to the CII/FIR ratio in normal and starburst galaxies is suggested to

  8. Propagation of nuclear burning fronts on accreting neutron stars: X-ray bursts and sub-hertz noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bildsten, Lars

    1995-01-01

    We identify a new regime of time dependent helium burning for high accretion rate neutron stars and suggest that this burning is the origin of the low-level luminosity variations (on timescales of 10-10(exp 4) s, designated the 'very low-frequency noise'(VLFN) by van der Klis and collaborators) always detected in the brightest accreting X-ray sources. Only two nuclear burning regimes were previously recognized. At accretion rates in excess of the Eddington limit (dot-M approximately greater than (1-3) x 10(exp -8) solar mass/yr), the accreted matter fuses steadily. At very low dot-M, the star's entire surface is rapidly (approximately less than 10 s) burned by a fast propagating convective burning front at regular intervals, giving quasi-periodic Type I X-ray bursts. We show that for the observationally interesting range of 5 x 10(exp -10) solar mass/yr approximately less than dot-M approximately less than 10(exp -8) solar mass/yr, parts of the stellar surface burn slowly. At these accretion rates, a local thermonuclear instability starts a fire which propagates horizontally at v approximately 300 cm/s. The fire propagates around the flammable surface in roughly the same time it takes to accrete enough fuel for the next instability (approximately 10(exp 3)-10(exp 4), so that only a few fires are burning at once, giving rise to large luminosity flares. Nuclear burning is always time dependent for sub-Eddington local accretion rates: a local patch undergoes a recurrent cycle, accumulation fuel for hours until it becomes thermally unstable or is 'ignited' by a nearby burning region. The global pattern of burning and the resulting luminosity are thus very dependent on how fast nuclear fires spread around the star. The nuclear burning luminosity is not uniform over the stellar surface and so may provide a handle on measuring, or constraining, the spin periods of these neutron stars.

  9. Friction and Wear Properties of As-deposited and Carbon Ion-implanted Diamond Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1994-01-01

    Recent work on the friction and wear properties of as-deposited and carbon ion-implanted diamond films was reviewed. Diamond films were produced by the microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. Diamond films with various grain sizes and surface roughnesses were implanted with carbon ions at 60 ke V ion energy, resulting in a dose of 1.2310(exp 17) carbon ions/cm(exp 2). Various analytical techniques, including Raman spectroscopy, proton recoil analysis, Rutherford backscattering, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction, were utilized to characterize the diamond films. Sliding friction experiments were conducted with a polished natural diamond pin in contact with diamond films in the three environments: humid air (40 percent relative humidity), dry nitrogen (less than 1 percent relative humidity), and ultrahigh vacuum (10(exp -7) Pa). The CVD diamond films indeed have friction and were properties similar to those of natural diamond in the three environments. The as-deposited, fine-grain diamond films can be effectively used as self-lubricating, wear-resistant coatings that have low coefficients of friction (0.02 to 0.04) and low wear rates (10(exp -7) to 10(exp -8)mm(exp 3)/N-m) in both humid air and dry nitrogen. However, they have high coefficients of friction (1.5 to 1.7) and a high wear rate (10(exp -4)mm(exp 3/N-m) in ultrahigh vacuum. The carbon ion implanation produced a thin surficial layer (less than 0.1 micron thick) of amorphous, nondiamond carbon on the diamond films. In humid air and dry nitrogen, the ion-implanted, fine- and coarse-grain diamond films have a low coefficient of friction (around 0.1) and a low wear rate (10(exp -7)mm(exp 3/N-m). Even in ultrahigh vacuum, the presence of the nondiamond carbon layer reduced the coefficient of friction of fine-grain diamond films to 0.1 or lower and the wear rate to 10(exp -6)mm(exp 3)/N-m. Thus, the carbon ion-implanted, fine

  10. Our Sun IV: The Standard Model and Helioseismology: Consequences of Uncertainties in Input Physics and in Observed Solar Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boothroyd, Arnold I.; Sackmann, I.-Juliana

    2001-01-01

    Helioseismic frequency observations provide an extremely accurate window into the solar interior; frequencies from the Michaelson Doppler Imager (MDI) on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft, enable the adiabatic sound speed and adiabatic index to be inferred with an accuracy of a few parts in 10(exp 4) and the density with an accuracy of a few parts in 10(exp 3). This has become a Serious challenge to theoretical models of the Sun. Therefore, we have undertaken a self-consistent, systematic study of the sources of uncertainties in the standard solar models. We found that the largest effect on the interior structure arises from the observational uncertainties in the photospheric abundances of the elements, which affect the sound speed profile at the level of 3 parts in 10(exp 3). The estimated 4% uncertainty in the OPAL opacities could lead to effects of 1 part in 10(exp 3); the approximately 5%, uncertainty in the basic pp nuclear reaction rate would have a similar effect, as would uncertainties of approximately 15% in the diffusion constants for the gravitational settling of helium. The approximately 50% uncertainties in diffusion constants for the heavier elements would have nearly as large an effect. Different observational methods for determining the solar radius yield results differing by as much as 7 parts in 10(exp 4); we found that this leads to uncertainties of a few parts in 10(exp 3) in the sound speed int the solar convective envelope, but has negligible effect on the interior. Our reference standard solar model yielded a convective envelope position of 0.7135 solar radius, in excellent agreement with the observed value of 0.713 +/- 0.001 solar radius and was significantly affected only by Z/X, the pp rate, and the uncertainties in helium diffusion constants. Our reference model also yielded envelope helium abundance of 0.2424, in good agreement with the approximate range of 0.24 to 0.25 inferred from helioseismic observations; only

  11. Multiple outflows in the bipolar planetary nebula M1-16: A molecular line study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Wootten, Alwyn; Schwarz, Hugo E.; Wild, W.

    1994-01-01

    Extensive observations of the molecular gas in the young, compact planetary nebula M1-16 have been made, using the Swedish-ESO-Submillimeter Telescope. A map of the CO J = 2-1 emission shows that the molecular envelope contains both a slow and a fast outflow with expansion velocities of 19 km/s and greater than 34 km/s, respectively. The slow outflow is mildly elliptical, while the fast molecular outflow is bipolar. This fast outflow is roughly aligned with the very fast outflows recently found in the optical, while the long axis of the slow elliptical outflow is roughly orthogonal to the optical outflow axis. The kinematic timescales for the CO fast outflow and the optical very fast outflow agree closely, supporting the view that the former represents material in the slow outflow accelerated by the very fast outflow. The kinematic signature of a disk expanding with about 15.5 km/s can also be seen in the CO J = 2-1 data. The mass-loss rate (a) for the slow outflow is greater than or equal to 2.8 x 10(exp -5) solar mass/yr and possibly as large as 9 x 10(exp -5) solar mass/yr, (b) for the fast outflow is greater than or equal to 5 x 10(exp -6) solar mass/yr, and (c) for the very fast optically visible outflow is approximately equal 5 x 10(exp -7) solar mass/yr. The disk mass is approximately equal 6 x 10(exp -3) solar mass. Grain photoelectric heating results in temperatures of 20-70 K in molecular gas of the slow outflow. The (13)C/(12)C abundance ratio in M1-16 is found to be 0.33, quite possibly the highest found for any evolved object. Upper limits for the (18)O/(16)O and (17)O/(16)O ratios were found to be consistent with the values found in AGB stars. A search for other molecular species in M1-16 resulted in the detection of the high-excitation species HCN, CN, (13)CN, HCO(+), and H(13)CO(+) and possibly N2H(+). Both the HCO(+)/HCN and CN/HCN line-intensity ratios are enhanced, the former by a very large factor, over the values found in the envelopes of AGB

  12. RP-5 RENEWABLE ENERGY PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Neil Clifton, P.E.; Eliza Jane Whitman; Jamal A. Zughbi, P.E.

    2002-10-30

    This report is the first quarterly technical report for the RP-5 Renewable Energy Project. The report summarizes the work progress, effort and activities that took place during the period of July 12, 2002 (project inception) to September 30, 2002. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines. This technical report covers all meetings and discussions that were conducted to identify and analyze potential renewable energy technologies and verify its feasibility and suitability for the project. The report covers the two-day Energy Charrette that was held at the Inland Empire Utilities Agency (IEUA) Headquarters Building on May 8-9, 2002 to brainstorm, evaluate and present all available renewable energy options along with their implementations. Although the Energy Charrette was held prior to awarding of the DOE Grant, the outcome of the Charrette forms the basis of the activities that took place after July 12, 2002. Therefore, the Energy Charrette is frequently referenced and discussed in this report. The report also discusses the Energy Meeting that took place on September 24, 2002 between IEUA and CH2M Hill to follow up on the various presentations and recommendations resulting from the Energy Charrette. It should be noted that no final equipment data or capacities have been presented in the report, as the Conceptual Design has not started yet. This report covers continuing effort and work to complete the Request for Proposal (RFP) for this project. The Executive Summary Section covers more details on the scope of work, which consists of the conceptual, preliminary and final design, and what has been accomplished during the report period. Tools and methods utilized in this project to identify renewable energy technologies are included in the ''Experimental'' Section. Finally, Project achievements, implications and importance in improving this kind of technology are summarized in the ''Conclusion'' Section.

  13. 5-Fluorouracil catabolism to 5-fluoro-5,6-dihydrouracil is reduced by acute liver impairment in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Innocenti, Federico; Danesi, Romano; Bocci, Guido; Natale, Gianfranco . E-mail: gianfranco.natale@anist.med.unipi.it; Del Tacca, Mario

    2005-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of acute liver damage on the inactivation of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) to its main catabolite 5-fluoro-5,6-dihydrouracil (5-FUH{sub 2}) in mice. Plasma pharmacokinetics of 5-FU and 5-FUH{sub 2} in mice receiving 5-FU (10, 30, and 90 mg/kg) were compared to those in mice pretreated with carbon tetrachloride and receiving the same 5-FU doses. Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage was histopathologically examined under light microscopy and serum transaminases and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase activities were also measured. Liver histopathology and elevated aminotransferase activity levels confirmed the presence of liver damage. 5-FU C{sub max} and AUC both increased up to 71% in mice with liver damage. This was reflected by decreased 5-FUH{sub 2} production, since 5-FUH{sub 2} C{sub max} and AUC levels decreased up to 47% and 61%, respectively. Metabolic ratios between 5-FUH{sub 2} and 5-FU AUCs were considerably decreased as well, further suggesting that liver damage caused a reduction in 5-FU catabolism. DPD activity was not altered in damaged livers. The present results indicate that 5-FU disposition in mice could be profoundly altered in the presence of severe liver impairment, potentially leading to enhanced anabolic activation of 5-FU. This effect seems to be ascribed to a reduction of viable hepatocytes, rather than to an inactivation of DPD activity.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: 5-alpha reductase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called steroid 5-alpha reductase 2. This enzyme is involved ... external genitalia. Mutations in the SRD5A2 gene prevent steroid 5-alpha reductase 2 from effectively converting testosterone ...

  15. Overview of ICRP Committee 5.

    PubMed

    Larsson, C-M; Higley, K A; Real, A

    2015-06-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) established Committee 5 in 2005 in response to the need to provide direct demonstration of environmental protection from radiation in accordance with national law and international agreements. The development of the ICRP system for environmental protection was facilitated by research over the previous decades, as well as by ICRP's evaluation of the ethical and philosophical basis for environmental protection as laid out in ICRP Publication 91. The 2007 Recommendations (Publication 103) incorporated environmental protection as one of the integral elements of the radiation protection system. Over a relatively short time, the system has evolved to incorporate a set of 12 Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs), which is a small enough number to develop comprehensive databases for each RAP, but wide ranging enough to provide some insight into radiation impact and protection against such impact, as appropriate, in terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems. As necessary, the databases can be used to derive supplementary databases for Representative Organisms typical for a particular exposure situation of concern or under study. The system, to date, details biology of the RAPs (Publication 108); outlines transfer factors for estimation of internal concentrations of radionuclides of environmental significance under different situations (Publication 114); provides further information (Publication 108) on dosimetry, biological effects, and derived consideration reference levels (bands of environmental dose rates where potential detrimental effects may deserve attention); and provides information on application of the system in planned, emergency, and existing exposure situations (Publication 124). Currently, a review of experimental determinations of relative biological effectiveness, to guide derivation of specific weighting factors for use in environmental radiation protection if possible and necessary, is

  16. Exposure History of Lunar Meteorites Queen Alexandra Range 93069 and 94269

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M. W.; Jull, A. J. T.; Reedy, R. C.

    1996-01-01

    Cosmic-ray produced C-14 (t(sub 1/2) = 5730 years), 36Cl (3.01 x 10(exp 5 years), Al-26 (7.05 x 10(exp 5 years), and Be-10 (1.5 x 10(exp 6 years) in the recently discovered lunar meteorites Queen Alexandra Range 93069 (QUE 93069) and 94269 (QUE 94269) were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry. The abundance pattern of these four cosmogenic radionuclides and of noble gases indicates QUE 93069 and QUE 94269 were a paired fall and were exposed to cosmic rays near the surface of the Moon for at least several hundred million years before ejection. After the meteorite was launched from the Moon, where it had resided at a depth of 65-80 g/cm square, it experienced a short transition time, approximately 20-50 ka, before colliding with the Earth. The terrestrial age of the meteorite is 5-10 ka. Comparison ofthe cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in QUE 93069/94269 and MAC 88104/88105 clearly shows that these meteorites were not ejected by a common event from the Moon.

  17. Baryonic Content in the Warm-Hot IGM at Low Redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George; Shull, M.; Danforth, C.; Moos, W.

    2007-01-01

    Baryons are 4.5% of the universe's mass/energy density; only 10% of these are in stars, galaxies, and clusters. At low-redshift 90% of baryons are in the IGM, 30% in Ly-alpha forest, but most are in hot gas (10(exp 5-7) K) produced by shocks during structure formation. O VI 1032-38 A are the best tracers of this gas. The distribution of O VI absorbers observed by FUSE rises as N(sup -2+/-0.2, down to 10(exp 13)/sq cm. Integrated to logN=13, 7% of baryons reside in the O VI-bearing IGM at 10% solar metallicity, T approx. 10(exp 5.5) K. At redshift z<0.1 metals have been transported less than 800/h kpc from L* galaxies and 200/h kpc from 0.1 L* galaxies. The steepness of dN/dz means that low-N absorbers contribute an equal mass of hot IGM as higher N gas. The total mass of O VI-bearing gas in the IGM depends on determining the turnover in dN/dz at low N(O VI). Future observations by FUSE are needed to reach lower N and to reduce the uncertainty in the dN/dz power law.

  18. Co2(nu2)-o Quenching Rate Coefficient Derived from Coincidental SABER-TIMED and Fort Collins Lidar Observations of the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feofilov, A. G.; Kutepov, A. A.; She, C.-Y.; Smith, A. K.; Pesnell, W. D.; Goldberg, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    Among the processes governing the energy balance in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT), the quenching of CO2(nu2) vibrational levels by collisions with O atoms plays an important role. However, there is a factor of 3-4 discrepancy between the laboratory measurements of the CO2-O quenching rate coefficient, k(sub VT),and its value estimated from the atmospheric observations. In this study, we retrieve k(sub VT) in the altitude region85-105 km from the coincident SABER/TIMED and Fort Collins sodium lidar observations by minimizing the difference between measured and simulated broadband limb 15 micron radiation. The averaged k(sub VT) value obtained in this work is 6.5 +/- 1.5 X 10(exp -12) cubic cm/s that is close to other estimates of this coefficient from the atmospheric observations.However, the retrieved k(sub VT) also shows altitude dependence and varies from 5.5 1 +/-1 10(exp -12) cubic cm/s at 90 km to 7.9 +/- 1.2 10(exp -12) cubic cm/s at 105 km. Obtained results demonstrate the deficiency in current non-LTE modeling of the atmospheric 15 micron radiation, based on the application of the CO2-O quenching and excitation rates, which are linked by the detailed balance relation. We discuss the possible model improvements, among them accounting for the interaction of the non-thermal oxygen atoms with CO2 molecules.

  19. Experimental Performance of a Single-Mode Ytterbium-doped Fiber Ring Laser with Intracavity Modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Numata, Kenji; Camp, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a linearly polarized Ytterbium-doped fiber ring laser with a single longitudinal mode output at 1064 run. A fiber-coupled intracavity phase modulator ensured mode-hop free operation and allowed fast frequency tuning. The fiber laser was locked with high stability to an iodine-stabilized laser, showing a frequency noise suppression of a factor approx 10 (exp 5) at 1 mHz

  20. Measurement of the methyl cyanide E/A ratio in TMC-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minh, Y. C.; Irvine, W. M.; Ohishi, M.; Ishikawa, S.; Saito, S.; Kaifu, N.

    1993-01-01

    We have observed the methyl cyanide (CH3CN) J = 2-1 K = 0 and 1 transitions toward the cyanopolyyne peak of TMC-1 and have derived an E/A (ortho/para)abundance ratio N(E)/N(A) = 0.75 +/- 0.10. The total methyl cyanide column density is N(total) = 5 x 10 exp 12/sq cm toward TMC-1, in agreement with earlier results from the J = 1-0 lines.