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Sample records for 10exp 5 solar

  1. A direct gravitational lensing test for 10 exp 6 solar masses black holes in halos of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wambsganss, Joachim; Paczynski, Bohdan

    1992-01-01

    We propose a method that will be able to detect or exclude the existence of 10 exp 6 solar masses black holes in the halos of galaxies. VLBA radio maps of two milliarcsecond jets of a gravitationally lensed quasar will show the signature of these black holes - if they exist. If there are no compact objects in this mass range along the line of sight, the two jets should be linear mappings of each other. If they are not, there must be compact objects of about 10 exp 6 solar masses in the halo of the galaxy that deform the images by gravitational deflection. We present numerical simulations for the two jets A and B of the double quasar 0957 + 561, but the method is valid for any gravitationally lensed quasar with structure on milliarcsecond scales. As a by-product from high-quality VLBA maps of jets A and B, one will be able to tell which features in the maps are intrinsic in the original jet and which are only an optical illusion, i.e., gravitational distortions by black holes along the line of sight.

  2. Laboratory Demonstration of Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) Coronagraph with Better than 10(exp -9) Contrast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, Brian; Guyon, Olivier; Kuhnert, Andreas; Niessner, Albert; Martinache, Frantz; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham

    2013-01-01

    We present coronagraphic images from the Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph on NASA's High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT) at the Jet Propulsion Lab, showing contrasts of 5x10(exp -1) averaged from 2-4 lambda/D, in monochromatic light at 808 nm. In parallel with the coronagraph and its deformable mirror and coronagraphic wavefront control, we also demonstrate a low-order wavefront control system, giving 100 x rms suppression of introduced tip/tilt disturbances down to residual levels of 10(exp -3) lambda/D. Current limitations, as well as broadband (10% fractional bandpass) preliminary results are discussed.

  3. Heat-Transfer and Pressure Measurements from a Flight Test of the Third 1/18-Scale Model of the Titan Intercontinental Ballistic Missile up to a Mach Number of 3.86 and Reynolds Number per Foot of 23.5 x 10(exp 6) and a Comparison with Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, John B., Jr.

    1958-01-01

    Heat-transfer and pressure measurements were obtained from a flight test of a 1/18-scale model of the Titan intercontinental ballistic missile up to a Mach number of 3.86 and Reynolds number per foot of 23.5 x 10(exp 6) and are compared with the data of two previously tested 1/18-scale models. Boundary-layer transition was observed on the nose of the model. Van Driest's theory predicted heat-transfer coefficients reasonably well for the fully laminar flow but predictions made by Van Driest's theory for turbulent flow were considerably higher than the measurements when the skin was being heated. Comparison with the flight test of two similar models shows fair repeatability of the measurements for fully laminar or turbulent flow.

  4. A vacuum (10(exp -9) Torr) friction apparatus for determining friction and endurance life of MoSx films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Honecy, Frank S.; Abel, Phillip B.; Pepper, Stephen V.; Spalvins, Talivaldis; Wheeler, Donald R.

    1992-01-01

    The first part of this paper describes an ultrahigh vacuum friction apparatus (tribometer). The tribometer can be used in a ball-on-disk configuration and is specifically designed to measure the friction and endurance life of solid lubricating films such as MoS(x) in vacuum at a pressure of 10 exp -7 Pa. The sliding mode is typically unidirectional at a constant rotating speed. The second part of this paper presents some representative friction and endurance life data for magnetron sputtered MoS(x) films (110 nm thick) deposited on sputter-cleaned 440 C stainless-steel disk substrates, which were slid against a 6-mm-diameter 440 C stainless-steel bearing ball. All experiments were conducted with loads of 0.49 to 3.6 N (average Hertzian contact pressure, 0.33 to 0.69 GPa), at a constant rotating speed of 120 rpm (sliding velocity ranging from 31 to 107 mm/s due to the range of wear track radii involved in the experiments), in a vacuum of 7 x 10 exp -7 Pa and at room temperature. The results indicate that there are similarities in friction behavior of MoS(x) films overs their life cycles regardless of load applied. The coefficient of friction (mu) decreases as load W increases according to mu = kW exp -1/3. The endurance life E of MoS(x) films decreases as the load W increases according to E = KW exp -1.4 for the load range. The load- (or contract-pressure-) dependent endurance life allows us to reduce the time for wear experiments and to accelerate endurance life testing of MoS(x) films. For the magnetron-sputtered MoS(x) films deposited on 440 C stainless-steel disks: the specific wear rate normalized to the load and the number of revolutions was 3 x 10 exp -8 mm exp 3/N-revolution; the specific wear rate normalized to the load and the total sliding distance was 8 x 10 exp -7 mm exp 3/N-m; and the nondimensional wear coefficient of was approximately 5 x 10 exp -6. The values are almost independent of load in the range 0.49 to 3.6 N (average Hertzian contact

  5. The Prolate Solar Chromosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auchere, F.; Boulade, S.; Koutchmy, S.; Smartt, R. N.; Delaboudiniere, J. P.; Georgakilas, A.; Gurman, J. B.; Artzner, G. E.

    1998-01-01

    We present a comparative analysis of the chromospheric solar limb prolateness, using strictly simultaneous H-alpha, ground-based observations and HeII space-based observations. The typical prolateness is found to be DeltaD/D = 5.5 x 10(exp -3) in HeII and 1.2 x 10(exp -3) in H-alpha. The first measurements in the 30.4 nm HeII line over a period of two years. as well as coronal data, are discussed to explore further the origin of the prolateness and its possible consequences.

  6. An Instrument to Measure Elemental Energy Spectra of Cosmic Ray Nuclei Up to 10(exp 16) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Chilingarian, A.; Drury, L.; Egorov, N.; Golubkov,S.; Korotkova, N.; Panasyuk, M.; Podorozhnyi, D.; Procqureur, J.

    2000-01-01

    A longstanding goal of cosmic ray research is to measure the elemental energy spectra of cosmic rays up to and through the "knee" (approx. equal to 3 x 10 (exp 15) eV. It is not currently feasible to achieve this goal with an ionization calorimeter because the mass required to be deployed in Earth orbit is very large (at least 50 tonnes). An alternative method will be presented. This is based on measuring the primary particle energy by determining the angular distribution of secondaries produced in a target layer using silicon microstrip detector technology. The proposed technique can be used over a wide range of energies (10 (exp 11)- 10 (exp 16) eV) and gives an energy resolution of 60% or better. Based on this technique, a design for a new lightweight instrument with a large aperture (KLEM) will be described.

  7. InGaAs/InP solar cells for space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlina, L. B.; Kazantsev, A. B.; Kozlovskii, V. V.; Mokina, I. A.; Shvarts, M. Z.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of irradiation of In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As/InP (InGaAs/InP) solar cells illuminated through a transparent InP substrate with 1 MeV electrons were measured. These solar cells were developed for bottom cells in tandem solar photovoltaic cell structures. Some InGaAs/InP heterostructures with four layers were grown by liquid phase epitaxy. The structure of the solar cells allowed lightly doped materials in n and p photoactive layers to be used. The base dopant levels ranged from 1.10(exp 17) to 5.10(exp 17) cm(exp -3). The open circuit voltage and the short circuit current were moderately degraded after irradiation with 10(exp 16) cm(exp-2) 1 MeV electrons. This behavior is explained in terms of the device structure and the n and p layer thicknesses.

  8. The morphology of 20 x 10 exp 6 K plasma in large non-impulsive solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, Loren W.; Feldman, Uri; Bruner, Marilyn E.; Doschek, George A.; Hirayama, Tadashi; Hudson, Hugh S.; Lemen, James R.; Ogawara, Yoshiaki; Strong, Keith T.; Tsuneta, Saku

    1992-01-01

    We have examined images of 10 flares observed by the Soft X-ray Telescope on-board the Yohkoh spacecraft. These images show that the hottest portion of the soft X-ray flare is located in compact regions that appear to be situated at the tops of loops. These compact regions form at, or shortly after, flare onset, and persist well into the decay phase of the flares. In some cases, the compact regions are only a few thousand kilometers in size and are small compared to the lengths of flaring loops. This is inconsistent with the smoother intensity distribution along the loops expected from models of chromospheric evaporation.

  9. Solar wind research with the Large Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) experiment onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brueckner, G. E.

    1995-01-01

    The ESA-NASA satellite, to be launched in October 1995, carries three nested coronagraphs, which will image the solar corona from 1.1 R(solar mass) to 30 R(solar mass). Super polished mirrors have been developed for the design of a mirror Lyot coronagraph which has a straylight level comparable with the coronal intensity from 1.1 R, to 30 R(solar mass) Coronal details can be imaged with a spatial resolution of 6 arc seconds. A Fabry Perot interferometer with a spectral resolution of 0.7 A at the wavelength of the green coronal emission line will allow the simultaneous construction of spectra over the entire field of view of 10(exp 6) pixels. The middle coronagraph (1.5 R(solar mass) - 6 R(solar mass)) and the outer coronagraph (3 R(solar mass) - 30 R(solar mass)) are externally occulted lens Lyot coronagraphs. Their straylight level 10(exp -11) B(solar mass) and 10(exp -12) B(solar mass) respectively is an order of magnitude smaller than the intensity of the corona. The sensitivity of LASCO to distinguish between different solar wind acceleration mechanisms will be discussed as well as its ability to discern different CME models.

  10. On a Solar Origin for the Cosmogenic Nuclide Event of 775 A.D.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliver, E. W.; Tylka, A. J.; Dietrich, W. F.; Ling, A. G.

    2014-01-01

    We explore requirements for a solar particle event (SPE) and flare capable of producing the cosmogenic nuclide event of 775 A.D., and review solar circumstances at that time. A solar source for 775 would require a greater than 1 GV spectrum approximately 45 times stronger than that of the intense high-energy SPE of 1956 February 23. This implies a greater than 30 MeV proton fluence (F(sub 30)) of approximately 8 × 10(exp 10) proton cm(exp -2), approximately 10 times larger than that of the strongest 3 month interval of SPE activity in the modern era. This inferred F(sub 30) value for the 775 SPE is inconsistent with the occurrence probability distribution for greater than 30 MeV solar proton events. The best guess value for the soft X-ray classification (total energy) of an associated flare is approximately X230 (approximately 9 × 10(exp 33) erg). For comparison, the flares on 2003 November 4 and 1859 September 1 had observed/inferred values of approximately X35 (approximately 10(exp 33) erg) and approximately X45 (approximately 2 × 10(exp 33) erg), respectively. The estimated size of the source active region for a approximately 10(exp 34) erg flare is approximately 2.5 times that of the largest region yet recorded. The 775 event occurred during a period of relatively low solar activity, with a peak smoothed amplitude about half that of the second half of the 20th century. The approximately 1945-1995 interval, the most active of the last approximately 2000 yr, failed to witness a SPE comparable to that required for the proposed solar event in 775. These considerations challenge a recent suggestion that the 775 event is likely of solar origin.

  11. The effects of electron and proton radiation on GaSb infrared solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruenbaum, P. E.; Avery, J. E.; Fraas, L. M.

    1991-01-01

    Gallium antimonide (GaSb) infrared solar cells were exposed to 1 MeV electrons and protons up to fluences of 1 times 10(exp 15) cm (-2) and 1 times 10(exp 12) cm (-2) respectively. In between exposures, current voltage and spectral response curves were taken. The GaSb cells were found to degrade slightly less than typical GaAs cells under electron irradiation, and calculations from spectral response curves showed that the damage coefficient for the minority carrier diffusion length was 3.5 times 10(exp 8). The cells degraded faster than GaAs cells under proton irradiation. However, researchers expect the top cell and coverglass to protect the GaSb cell from most damaging protons. Some annealing of proton damage was observed at low temperatures (80 to 160 C).

  12. Preliminary results of a balloon flight of the solar disk sextant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maier, E.; Twigg, L.; Sofia, S.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary results of a balloon flight on October 11, 1991, of the solar disk sextant (SDS) experiment are reported. The SDS is an instrument which measures the solar diameter at different orientations with respect to the solar polar axis. Fitting straight lines through two fixed-angle data sets with time as the independent variable yields slopes of (7.1 +/ - 1.5) x 10 exp -3 and (6.7 +/- 1.6) x 10 exp -3/mas s, consistent with the value of 6.47 x 10 exp -3/mas s expected from the earth's approach to the sun due to the orbital motion toward perihelion. Upon the instrument's rotation on its axis a sinusoidal component of the diameter measurement was observed in each rotation cycle, with a variable amplitude of about 150 mas. The present result is epsilon of (5.6 +/- 6.3) x 10 exp -6, about 30 deg offset from the polar-equator position. The absolute diameter obtained by means of the FFT definition is found to be 1919.269 +/- 0.240 arcsec or 1919.131 +/- 0.240 arcsec, depending on the orientation mode of the measurement.

  13. Theoretical modeling of GHRS observations of the Of/WN-type star R136a5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koter, Alex DE; Hubeny, Ivan; Heap, Sara R.; Lanz, Thierry

    1994-01-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) spectrum of R136a5, an O3fWN star in the R136a cluster in 30 Doradus. Using non-LTE extended and expanding model atmospheres, we find a surprisingly high mass-loss rate dot-M = 1.8 +/- 0.5 x 10(exp -5) solar mass/yr and an effective temperature T(sub eff) = 42.5 +/- 2.5 kK. With the observed visual magnitude, this implies a radius R(sub *) = 17 +/- 2 solar radius and a solar luminosity L = 8.5 +/- 1 x 10(exp 5) solar luminosity. We discuss possible sources of the uncertainties in the derived stellar parameters and conclude that the effective temperature may be underestimated; however, if so, the value of the mass-loss rate would not be affected.

  14. Photochemical Modeling of CH3 Abundances in the Outer Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Anthony Y. T.; Yung, Yuk L.; Moses, Julianne

    2000-01-01

    Recent measurements of methyl radicals (CH3) in the upper atmospheres of Saturn and Neptune by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) provide new constraints to photochemical models of hydrocarbon chemistry in the outer solar system. The derived column abundances of CH3 on Saturn above 10 mbar and Neptune above the 0.2 mbar pressure level are (2.5 - 6.0) x 10(exp 13) / sq cm and (0.7 - 2.8) x 10(exp 13) / sq cm, respectively. We use the updated Caltech/Jet Propulsion Laboratory photochemical model, which incorporates hydrocarbon photochemistry, vertical molecular and bulk atmospheric eddy diffusion, and realistic radiative transfer modeling, to study the CH3 abundances in the upper atmosphere of the giant planets and Titan. We identify the key reactions that control the concentrations of CH3 in the model, such as the three-body recombination reaction, CH3 + CH3 + M yields C2H6 + M. We evaluate and extrapolate the three-body rate constant of this reaction to the low-temperature limit (1.8 x 10(exp -16) T(sup -3.75) e(sup -300/T), T < 300 K) and compare methyl radical abundances in five atmospheres: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Titan. The sensitivity of our models to the rate coefficients for the reactions H + CH3 + M yields CH4 + M, H + C2H3 yields C2H2 + H2, (sup 1)CH2 + H2 yields CH3 + H, and H + C2H5 yields 2CH3, the branching ratios of CH4 photolysis, vertical mixing in the five atmospheres, and Lyman alpha photon enhancement at the orbit of Neptune have all been tested. The results of our model CH3 abundances for both Saturn (5.1 x 10(exp 13) / sq cm) and Neptune (2.2 x 10(exp 13) / sq cm) show good agreement with ISO Short Wavelength Spectrometer measurements. Using the same chemical reaction set, our calculations also successfully generate vertical profiles of stable hydrocarbons consistent with Voyager and ground-based measurements in these outer solar system atmospheres. Predictions of CH3 column concentrations (for p <= 0.2 mbar) in the atmospheres

  15. Heat Transfer and Boundary-Layer Transition on a Highly Polished Hemisphere-Cone in Free Flight at Mach Numbers Up to 3.14 and Reynolds Numbers Up to 24 x 10(exp 6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buglia, James J.

    1961-01-01

    A highly polished hemisphere-cone having a ratio of nose radius to base radius of 0.74 and a half-angle of 14.5 was flight tested at Mach numbers up to 4.70. Temperature and pressure data were obtained at Mach numbers up to 3.14 and a free-stream Reynolds number of 24 x 10(exp 6) based on body diameter. The nose of the model had a surface roughness of 2 to 5 microinches as measured with an interferometer. The measured Stanton numbers were in good agreement with theory. Transition Reynolds numbers based on the laminar boundary-layer momentum thickness at transition ranged from 2,190 to 794. Comparison with results from previous tests of blunt shapes having a surface roughness of 20 to 40 microinches showed that the high degree of polish was instrumental in delaying the transition from laminar to turbulent flow.

  16. Our Sun IV: The Standard Model and Helioseismology: Consequences of Uncertainties in Input Physics and in Observed Solar Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boothroyd, Arnold I.; Sackmann, I.-Juliana

    2001-01-01

    Helioseismic frequency observations provide an extremely accurate window into the solar interior; frequencies from the Michaelson Doppler Imager (MDI) on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft, enable the adiabatic sound speed and adiabatic index to be inferred with an accuracy of a few parts in 10(exp 4) and the density with an accuracy of a few parts in 10(exp 3). This has become a Serious challenge to theoretical models of the Sun. Therefore, we have undertaken a self-consistent, systematic study of the sources of uncertainties in the standard solar models. We found that the largest effect on the interior structure arises from the observational uncertainties in the photospheric abundances of the elements, which affect the sound speed profile at the level of 3 parts in 10(exp 3). The estimated 4% uncertainty in the OPAL opacities could lead to effects of 1 part in 10(exp 3); the approximately 5%, uncertainty in the basic pp nuclear reaction rate would have a similar effect, as would uncertainties of approximately 15% in the diffusion constants for the gravitational settling of helium. The approximately 50% uncertainties in diffusion constants for the heavier elements would have nearly as large an effect. Different observational methods for determining the solar radius yield results differing by as much as 7 parts in 10(exp 4); we found that this leads to uncertainties of a few parts in 10(exp 3) in the sound speed int the solar convective envelope, but has negligible effect on the interior. Our reference standard solar model yielded a convective envelope position of 0.7135 solar radius, in excellent agreement with the observed value of 0.713 +/- 0.001 solar radius and was significantly affected only by Z/X, the pp rate, and the uncertainties in helium diffusion constants. Our reference model also yielded envelope helium abundance of 0.2424, in good agreement with the approximate range of 0.24 to 0.25 inferred from helioseismic observations; only

  17. Asymptotic Giant Branch stars as a source of short-lived radioactive nuclei in the solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasserburg, G. J.; Busso, M.; Gallino, R.; Raiteri, C. M.

    1994-01-01

    We carried out a theoretical evaluation of the contribution of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars to some short-lived (10(exp 6) less than or equal to Tau-bar less than or equal to 2 x 10(exp 7) yr) isotopes in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) and in the early solar system using stellar model calculations for thermally pulsing evolutionary phases of low-mass stars. The yields of s-process nuclei in the convective He-shell for different neutron exposures tau(sub 0) were obtained, and AGB stars were shown to produce several radioactive nuclei (especially Pd-107, Pb-205, Fe-60, Zr-93, Tc-99, Cs-135, and Hf-182) in diferent amounts. Assuming either contamination of the solar nebula from a single AGB star or models for continuous injection and mixing from many stars into the ISM, we calculate the ratios of radioactive to stable nuclei at the epoch of the Sun's formation. The dilution factor between the AGB ejecta and the early solar system matter is obtained by matching the observed Pd-107/Pd-108 and depends on the value of tau(sub 0). It is found that small masses M(sub He) of He-shell material (10(exp -4)-10(exp -7) solar mass) enriched in s-process nuclei are sufficient to contaminate 1 solar mass of the ISM to produce the Pd-107 found in the early solar system. Predictions are made for all of the other radioactive isotopes. The optimal model to explain several observed radioactive species at different states of the proto-solar nebula involves a single AGB star with a low neutron exposure (tau(sub 0) = 0.03 mbarn(sup -1)) which contaminated the cloud with a dilution factor of M(sub He)/solar mass approximately 1.5 x 10(exp -4). This will also contribute newly synthesized stable s-process nuclei in the amount of approximately 10(exp -4) of their abundances already present in the proto-solar cloud. Variations in the degree of homogenization (approximately 30%) of the injected material may account for some of the small general isotopic anomalies found in meteorites. It is

  18. Evolution of Intrinsic Scatter in the SFR-Stellar Mass Correlation at 0.5 less than z Less Than 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurczynski, Peter; Gawiser, Eric; Acquaviva, Viviana; Bell, Eric F.; Dekel, Avishai; De Mello, Duilia F.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Grogin, Norman A.

    2016-01-01

    We present estimates of intrinsic scatter in the star formation rate (SFR)--stellar mass (M*) correlation in the redshift range 0.5 less than z less than 3.0 and in the mass range 10(exp 7) less than M* less than 10(exp 11) solar mass. We utilize photometry in the Hubble Ultradeep Field (HUDF12) and Ultraviolet Ultra Deep Field (UVUDF) campaigns and CANDELS/GOODS-S and estimate SFR, M* from broadband spectral energy distributions and the best-available redshifts. The maximum depth of the UDF photometry (F160W 29.9 AB, 5 sigma depth) probes the SFR--M* correlation down to M* approximately 10(exp 7) solar mass, a factor of 10-100 x lower in M* than previous studies, and comparable to dwarf galaxies in the local universe. We find the slope of the SFR-M* relationship to be near unity at all redshifts and the normalization to decrease with cosmic time. We find a moderate increase in intrinsic scatter with cosmic time from 0.2 to 0.4 dex across the epoch of peak cosmic star formation. None of our redshift bins show a statistically significant increase in intrinsic scatter approximately 100 Myr. Our results are consistent with a picture of gradual and self-similar assembly of galaxies across more than three orders of magnitude in stellar mass from as low as 10(exp 7) solar mass.

  19. Observations of Environmental Quenching in Groups in the 11 GYR Since z = 2.5: Different Quenching For Central and Satellite Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tal, Tomer; Dekel, Avishai; Marchesini, Danilo; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica J.; Patel, Shannon G.; Quadri, Ryan F.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Wake, David A.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Oesch, Pascal; Muzzin, Adam; Brammer, Gabriel B.; vanDokkum, Peter G.; Franx, Marijn; Illingworth, Garth D.; Leja, Joel; Magee, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We present direct observational evidence for star formation quenching in galaxy groups in the redshift range 0 less than z less than 2.5. We utilize a large sample of nearly 6000 groups, selected by fixed cumulative number density from three photometric catalogs, to follow the evolving quiescent fractions of central and satellite galaxies over roughly 11 Gyr. At z approximately 0, central galaxies in our sample range in stellar mass from Milky Way/M31 analogs (M=6.5x10(exp 10) M/solar mass) to nearby massive ellipticals (M=1.5x10(exp 11) M/solar mass). Satellite galaxies in the same groups reach masses as low as twice that of the Large Magellanic Cloud (M=6.5x10(exp 9) M/solar mass). Using statistical background subtraction, we measure the average rest-frame colors of galaxies in our groups and calculate the evolving quiescent fractions of centrals and satellites over seven redshift bins. Our analysis shows clear evidence for star formation quenching in group halos, with a different quenching onset for centrals and their satellite galaxies. Using halo mass estimates for our central galaxies, we find that star formation shuts off in centrals when typical halo masses reach between 10(exp 12) and 10(exp 13) M/solar mass, consistent with predictions from the halo quenching model. In contrast, satellite galaxies in the same groups most likely undergo quenching by environmental processes, whose onset is delayed with respect to their central galaxy. Although star formation is suppressed in all galaxies over time, the processes that govern quenching are different for centrals and satellites. While mass plays an important role in determining the star formation activity of central galaxies, quenching in satellite galaxies is dominated by the environment in which they reside.

  20. Radiation hardness of Ga0.5In0.5 P/GaAs tandem solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, Sarah R.; Olson, J. M.; Bertness, K. A.; Friedman, D. J.; Kibbler, A.; Cavicchi, B. T.; Krut, D. D.

    1991-01-01

    The radiation hardness of a two-junction monolithic Ga sub 0.5 In sub 0.5 P/GaAs cell with tunnel junction interconnect was investigated. Related single junction cells were also studied to identify the origins of the radiation losses. The optimal design of the cell is discussed. The air mass efficiency of an optimized tandem cell after irradiation with 10(exp 15) cm (-2) 1 MeV electrons is estimated to be 20 percent using currently available technology.

  1. SDO's View of May 5, 2010 Solar Flare - With Timeline

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows a composite view of the solar flare on May 5, 2010, taken by the Solar Dynamics Observatory's (SDO) Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) cameras in multiple wavelengths (211, 193, 17...

  2. SOHO Captures CME From X5.4 Solar Flare

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Solar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) captured this movie of the sun's coronal mass ejection (CME) associated with an X5.4 solar flare on the evening of March 6, 2012. The extremely fast and en...

  3. Simultaneous observations of solar plage with the solar extreme ultraviolet rocket telescope and spectrograph (SERTS), the VLA, and the Kitt Peak magnetograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brosius, Jeffrey W.; Davila, Joseph M.; Thompson, William T.; Thomas, Roger J.; Holman, Gordon D.; Gopalswamy, N.; White, Stephen M.; Kundu, Mukul R.; Jones, Harrison P.

    1993-01-01

    We obtained simultaneous images of solar plage on 1991, May 7 with SERTS, the VLA,4 and the NASA/National Solar Observatory spectromagnetograph at the NSO/Kitt Peak Vacuum Telescope. Using intensity ratios of Fe XVI to Fe XV emission lines, we find that the coronal plasma temperature is (2.3-2.9) x 10 exp 6 K throughout the region. The column emission measure ranges from 2.5 x 10 exp 27 to l.3 x 10 exp 28 cm exp -5. The calculated structure and intensity of the 20 cm wavelength thermal bremsstrahlung emission from the hot plasma observed by SERTS is quite similar to the observed structure and intensity of the 20 cm microwave emission observed by the VLA. Using the Meyer (1991, 1992) revised coronal iron abundance, we find no evidence either for cool absorbing plasma or for contributions from thermal gyroemission. Using the observed microwave polarization and the SERTS plasma parameters, we calculate a map of the coronal longitudinal magnetic field. The resulting values, about 30-60 G, are comparable to extrapolated values of the potential field at heights of 5000 and 10,000 km.

  4. Low earth orbit durability evaluation of Haynes 188 solar receiver material

    SciTech Connect

    De groh, K.K.; Rutledge, S.K.; Burke, C.A.; Dever, T.M.; Olle, R.M.; Terlep, J.A. Cleveland State University, OH Ohio Aerospace Institute, Cleveland )

    1992-01-01

    The effects of elevated-temperature vacuum and elevated-temperature atomic oxygen exposure on the mass, surface chemistry, surface morphology, and optical properties of Haynes 188, a possible heat receiver material for space-based solar dynamic power systems, have been studied. Pristine and surface modified Haynes 188 were exposed to vacuum less than or equal to 10 exp -6 torr at 820 C for 5215.5 h, and to atomic oxygen in an air plasma asher at 34 and 827 C for fluences up to 5.6 x 10 exp 21 atoms/sq cm. Results obtained indicate that vacuum heat treatment caused surface morphology and chemistry changes with corresponding optical property changes. Atomic oxygen exposure caused optical property changes which diminished with time. Mass changes are considered to be negligible for both exposures. 11 refs.

  5. Low earth orbit durability evaluation of Haynes 188 solar receiver material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Groh, Kim K.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Burke, Christopher A.; Dever, Therese M.; Olle, Raymond M.; Terlep, Judith A.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of elevated-temperature vacuum and elevated-temperature atomic oxygen exposure on the mass, surface chemistry, surface morphology, and optical properties of Haynes 188, a possible heat receiver material for space-based solar dynamic power systems, have been studied. Pristine and surface modified Haynes 188 were exposed to vacuum less than or equal to 10 exp -6 torr at 820 C for 5215.5 h, and to atomic oxygen in an air plasma asher at 34 and 827 C for fluences up to 5.6 x 10 exp 21 atoms/sq cm. Results obtained indicate that vacuum heat treatment caused surface morphology and chemistry changes with corresponding optical property changes. Atomic oxygen exposure caused optical property changes which diminished with time. Mass changes are considered to be negligible for both exposures.

  6. UV testing of solar cells: Effects of antireflective coating, prior irradiation, and UV source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meulenberg, A.

    1993-01-01

    Short-circuit current degradation of electron irradiated double-layer antireflective-coated cells after 3000 hours ultraviolet (UV) exposure exceeds 3 percent; extrapolation of the data to 10(exp 5) hours (11.4 yrs.) gives a degradation that exceeds 10 percent. Significant qualitative and quantitative differences in degradation were observed in cells with double- and single-layer antireflective coatings. The effects of UV-source age were observed and corrections were made to the data. An additional degradation mechanism was identified that occurs only in previously electron-irradiated solar cells since identical unirradiated cells degrade to only 6 +/- 3 percent when extrapolated 10(exp 5) hours of UV illumination.

  7. On the deficit problem of mass and energy of solar coronal mass ejections connected with interplanetary shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanchuk, V. I.; Pishkalo, N. I.

    1995-01-01

    Mean values of a number of parameters of the most powerful coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and interplanetary shocks generated by these ejections are estimated using an analysis of data obtained by the cosmic coronagraphs and spacecrafts, and geomagnetic storm measurements. It was payed attention that the shock mass and mechanical energy, averaging 5 x 10(exp 16) grm and 2 x 10(exp 32) erg respectively, are nearly 10 times larger than corresponding parameters of the ejections. So, the CME energy deficit problem seems to exist really. To solve this problem one can make an assumption that the process of the mass and energy growth of CMEs during their propagation out of the Sun observed in the solar corona is continued in supercorona too up to distances of 10-30 solar radii. This assumption is confirmed by the data analysis of five events observed using zodiacal light photometers of the HELIOS- I and HELIOS-2 spacecrafts. The mass growth rate is estimated to be equal to (1-7) x 10(exp 11) grm/sec. It is concluded that the CME contribution to mass and energy flows in the solar winds probably, is larger enough than the value of 3-5% adopted usually.

  8. Solar Flare Abundances of Potassium, Argon, and Sulphur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor); Phillips, K. J. H.; Sylwester, J.; Sylwester, B.; Landi, E.

    2003-01-01

    The absolute coronal abundances of potassium has been determined for the first time from X-ray solar flare line and continuous spectra together with absolute and relative abundances of Ar and S. Potassium is of importance in the continuing debate concerning the nature of the coronal/photospheric element abundance ratios which are widely considered to depend on first ionization potential since it has the lowest FIP of any common element in the Sun. The measurements were obtained with the RESIK crystal spectrometer on the Coronas-F spacecraft. A differential emission measure DEM = const. x exp (-(beta)T(sub e) was found to be the most consistent with the data out of three models considered. We find that the coronal ratio [K/H] = 3.7 x 10(exp - 7), a factor 3 times photospheric, in agreement with other observations using line-to-line ratios. Our measured value for the coronal ratio [Ar/H] = 1.5 x 10(exp -6) is significantly less than photospheric, indicating that there is a slight depletion of this high-FIP element in the corona. For S (an intermediate-FIP element) we obtained [S/H] = 2.2 x 10(exp - 5), approximately the same as in previous work.

  9. Thermodynamics of the Solar Corona and Evolution of the Solar Magnetic Field as Inferred from the Total Solar Eclipse Observations of 11 July 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habbal, Shadia Rifai; Druckmueller, Miloslav; Morgan, Huw; Ding, Adalbert; Johnson, Judd; Druckmuellerova, Hana; Daw, Adrian; Arndt, Martina B.; Dietzel, Martin; Saken, Jon

    2011-01-01

    We report on multi-wavelength observations of the corona taken simultaneously in broadband white light, and in seven spectral lines, H-alpha 656.3 nm, Fe IX 435.9 nm, Fe X 637.4 nm, Fe XI 789.2 nm, Fe XIII 1074.7 nm, Fe XIV 530.3 nm and Ni XV 670.2 nm. The observations were made during the total solar eclipse of 11 July 2010 from the atoll of Tatakoto in French Polynesia. Simultaneous imaging with narrow bandpass filters in each of these spectral lines and in their corresponding underlying continua maximized the observing time during less than ideal observing conditions and yielded outstanding quality data. The application of two complementary image processing techniques revealed the finest details of coronal structures at 1" resolution in white light, and 6.5" in each of the spectral lines. This comprehensive wavelength coverage confirmed earlier eclipse findings that the solar corona has a clear two-temperature structure: The open field lines, expanding outwards from the solar surface, are characterized by electron temperatures near 1 X 10(exp 6) K, while the hottest plasma around 2X 10(exp 6) K resides in loop-like structures forming the bulges of streamers. The first images of the corona in the forbidden lines of Fe IX and Ni XV, showed that there was very little coronal plasma at temperatures below 5 X 10(exp 5) K and above 2.5X 10(exp 6) K. The data also enabled temperature differentiations as low as 0:2 X 10(exp 6) K in different density structures. These observations showed how the passage of CMEs through the corona, prior to totality, produced large scale ripples and very sharp streaks, which could be identified with distinct temperatures for the first time. The ripples were most prominent in emission from spectral lines associated with temperatures around 10(exp 6) K. The most prominent streak was associated with a conical-shaped void in the emission from the coolest line of Fe IX and from the hottest line of Ni XV. A prominence, which erupted prior to

  10. Anomalously Weak Solar Convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanasoge, Shravan M.; Duvall, Thomas L.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2012-01-01

    Convection in the solar interior is thought to comprise structures on a spectrum of scales. This conclusion emerges from phenomenological studies and numerical simulations, though neither covers the proper range of dynamical parameters of solar convection. Here, we analyze observations of the wavefield in the solar photosphere using techniques of time-distance helioseismology to image flows in the solar interior. We downsample and synthesize 900 billion wavefield observations to produce 3 billion cross-correlations, which we average and fit, measuring 5 million wave travel times. Using these travel times, we deduce the underlying flow systems and study their statistics to bound convective velocity magnitudes in the solar interior, as a function of depth and spherical- harmonic degree l..Within the wavenumber band l < 60, convective velocities are 20-100 times weaker than current theoretical estimates. This constraint suggests the prevalence of a different paradigm of turbulence from that predicted by existing models, prompting the question: what mechanism transports the heat flux of a solar luminosity outwards? Advection is dominated by Coriolis forces for wavenumbers l < 60, with Rossby numbers smaller than approximately 10(exp -2) at r/R-solar = 0.96, suggesting that the Sun may be a much faster rotator than previously thought, and that large-scale convection may be quasi-geostrophic. The fact that isorotation contours in the Sun are not coaligned with the axis of rotation suggests the presence of a latitudinal entropy gradient.

  11. Physical properties and evolutionary time scales of disks around solar-type and intermediate mass stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strom, Stephen E.; Edwards, Suzan

    1993-01-01

    Recent observations of circumstellar disks and their evolutionary timescales are reviewed. It is concluded that disks appear to be a natural outcome of the star-formation process. The disks surrounding young stars initially are massive, with optically thick structures comprised of gas and micron-sized grains. Disk masses are found to range from 0.01 to 0.2 solar masses for solar-type PMS stars, and from 0.01 to 6 solar masses for young, intermediate mass stars. Massive, optically thick accretion disks have accretion rates between 10 exp -8 and 10 exp -6 solar masses/yr for solar type PMS stars and between 10 exp -6 and 10 exp -4 solar masses/yr for intermediate stars. The results suggest that a significant fraction of the mass comprising the star may have passed through a circumstellar accretion disk.

  12. The impact of UVCS/SOHO observations on models of ion-cyclotron resonance heating of the solar corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cranmer, S. R.; Field, G. B.; Noci, G.; Kohl, J. L.

    1997-01-01

    The compatibility between theoretical models and observations of the temperatures and anisotropic distributions of hydrogen and minor ions in the solar corona is examined. The ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer (UVCS) instrument onboard SOHO measured hydrogen kinetic temperatures along lines of sight in coronal holes in excess of 3 x 10(exp 6) K and O(+5) ion kinetic temperatures of at least 2 x 10(exp 8) K. Various features of plasma heating by the dissipation of high-frequency ion-cyclotron resonance Alfven waves, which may be the most natural physical mechanism to produce certain plasma conditions, are examined. Preliminary quantitative models of the ion motion in polar coronal holes are presented, and it is shown that such models can be used to predict the spectrum of waves required to reproduce the observations. Indeed, the more ionic species that are observed spectroscopically, the greater the extent in frequency space the wave spectrum can be inferred.

  13. Hubble Extra Solar Planet Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a proposed third-generation Hubble instrument for extra-solar planet detection, the Hubble Extra-Solar Planet Interferometer (HESPI). This instrument would be able to achieve starlight cancellation at the 10 exp 6 to 10 exp 8 level, given a stellar wavefront with phase errors comparable to the present Hubble telescope wavefront. At 10 exp 6 starlight cancellation, HESPI would be able to detect a Jupiter-like planet next to a star at a distance of about 10 parsec, for which there are about 400 candidate stars. This paper describes a novel approach for starlight suppression, using a combination of active control and single-mode spatial filters, to achieve starlight suppression far below the classical limit set by scattering due to microsurface imperfections. In preliminary lab experiments, suppression by a factor of 40 below the classical scatter limit due to optical wavefront errors has been demonstrated.

  14. Preliminary Investigation of Molybdenum Disulfide-air-mist Lubrication for Roller Bearings Operating to DN Values of 1 x 10(exp 6) and Ball Bearings Operating to Temperatures of 1000 F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macks, E F; Nemeth, Z N; Anderson, W J

    1951-01-01

    The effectiveness of molybdenum disulfide MoS2 as a bearing lubricant was determined at high temperature and at high speeds. A 1-inch-bore ball bearing operated at temperatures to 1000 F, a speed of 1725 rpm, and a thrust load of 20 pounds when lubricated only with MoS2-air mist. A 75-millimeter-bore cageless roller bearing, provided with a MoS2-syrup coating before operation, operated at DN values to 1 x 10(exp 6) with a load of 368 pounds.

  15. Improvements in contact resistivity and thermal stability of Au-contacted InP solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fatemi, Navid S.; Weizer, Victor G.

    1991-01-01

    Specific contact resistivities for as-fabricated Au contacts on n-p InP solar cells are typically in the 10(exp -3) ohm/sq cm range, but contact resistivities in the 10(exp -6) ohm/sq cm range can be obtained if the cells are heat treated at 400 C for a few minutes. This heat treatment, however, results in a dramatic drop in the open circuit voltage of the cell due to excessive dissolution of the emitter into the metallization. It was found that low values of contact resistivity can be secured without the accompanying drop in the open circuit voltage by adding Ga and In in the Au metallization. It is shown that Au contacts containing as little as 1 percent atomic Ga can suppress the reaction that takes place at the metal-InP interface during heat treatment, while exhibiting contact resistivity values in the low 10(exp -5) ohm/sq cm. Detailed explanations for the observed superior thermal stability of these contacts are presented.

  16. Solar measurements from the Airglow-Solar Spectrometer Instrument (ASSI) on the San Marco 5 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Thomas N.

    1994-01-01

    The analysis of the solar spectral irradiance from the Airglow-Solar Spectrometer Instrument (ASSI) on the San Marco 5 satellite is the focus for this research grant. A pre-print copy of the paper describing the calibrations of and results from the San Marco ASSI is attached to this report. The calibration of the ASSI included (1) transfer of photometric calibration from a rocket experiment and the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME), (2) use of the on-board radioactive calibration sources, (3) validation of the ASSI sensitivity over its field of view, and (4) determining the degradation of the spectrometers. We have determined that the absolute values for the solar irradiance needs adjustment in the current proxy models of the solar UV irradiance, and the amount of solar variability from the proxy models are in reasonable agreement with the ASSI measurements. This research grant also has supported the development of a new solar EUV irradiance proxy model. We expected that the magnetic flux is responsible for most of the heating, via Alfen waves, in the chromosphere, transition region, and corona. From examining time series of solar irradiance data and magnetic fields at different levels, we did indeed find that the chromospheric emissions correlate best with the large magnetic field levels.

  17. The intrinsic magnetic field and solar-wind interaction of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luhmann, J. G.; Russell, C. T.; Brace, L. H.; Vaisberg, O. L.

    1992-01-01

    The Venus-like interaction between the solar wind and the atmosphere of Mars is examined. The bow shock and magnetosheath of Mars indicate the presence of an obstacle to the solar wind that is somewhat larger than the size of the planet and its observed ionosphere, and also relatively larger than the Venus obstacle under comparable conditions. The intrinsic magnetic field of Mars must be no greater than 1.5 x 10 exp 12 T/cu m, or about 0.0001 times as strong as that of the earth to produce an obstacle of such small size. At least for solar minimum conditions, like those prevailing at the time of the Viking Landers, the ionospheric plasma (thermal) pressure is insufficient to balance the incident solar-wind pressure by itself. The ion and electron temperatures in the Martian ionosphere indicate the presence of local horizontal magnetic fields and heat sources in excess of solar radiation alone.

  18. Block 5 documentation and solar modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Design and fabrication of Spire Corporation's Block 5 photovoltaic flat plate module is reviewed. These modules exhibited power of about 70 watts under standard test conditions. Results of performance and environmental testing are provided.

  19. Search for Gravitational Waves from Compact Binary Coalescence in LIGO and Virgo Data from S5 and VSR1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Ceron, E. Amador; Amin, R. S.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Antonucci, F.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M.; Aronsson, M.; Arun, K. G.; Aso, Y.; Aston, S.; Astone, P.; Atkinson, D. E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of the first search for gravitational waves from compact binary coalescence using data from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo detectors. Five months of data were collected during the concurrent S5 (UGO) and VSRI (Virgo) science runs. The search focused on signals from binary mergers with a total mass between 2 and 35 Solar Mass. No gravitational waves are identified. The cumulative 90%-confidence upper limits on the rate of compact binary coalescence are calculated for non-spinning binary neutron stars, black hole-neutron star systems, and binary black holes to be 8.7 x 10(exp -3) / yr-1/L(sub 10) 2.2 x 10-3 yr-1L101, and 4.4 x 10(exp -4)3) / yr-1/L(sub 10) respectively, where L (sub 10) is 10(exp 10) times the blue solar luminosity. These upper limits are compared with astrophysical expectations.

  20. Search for Cm-248 in the early solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavielle, B.; Marti, K.; Pellas, P.; Perron, C.

    1992-01-01

    Possible evidence for the presence of Cm-248 in the early solar system was reported from fission gas studies (Rao and Gopalan, 1973) and recently from studies of very high nuclear track densities (not less than 5 x 10 exp 8/sq cm) in the merrillite of the H4 chondrite Forest Vale (F.V.) (Pellas et al., 1987). We report here an analysis of the isotopic abundances of xenon in F.V. phosphates and results of track studies in phosphate/pyroxene contacts. The fission xenon isotopic signature clearly identifies Pu-244 as the extinct progenitor. We calculate an upper limit Cm-248/Pu-244 to be less than 0.0015 at the beginning of Xe retention in F.V. phosphates. This corresponds to an upper limit of the ratio Cm-248/U-235 of not greater than 5 x 10 exp -5 further constraining the evidence for any late addition of freshly synthesized actinide elements just prior to solar system formation. The fission track density observed after annealing the phosphates at 290C (1 hr, which essentially erases spallation recoil tracks) is also in agreement with the Pu-244 abundance inferred from fission Xe. The spallation recoil tracks produced during the 76 Ma cosmic-ray exposure account for the very high track density in merrillites.

  1. A very low resistance, non-sintered contact system for use on indium phosphide concentrator/shallow junction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, Victor G.; Fatemi, Navid S.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation is made into the possibility of providing low resistance contacts to shallow junction InP solar cells which do not require sintering and which do not cause device degradation even when subjected to extended annealing at elevated temperatures. We show that the addition of In to Au contacts in amounts that exceed the solid solubility limit lowers the as-fabricated (unsintered) contact resistivity (R sub c) to the 10(exp -5) ohm cm(exp 2) range. We next consider the contact system Au/Au2P3, which has been shown to exhibit as-fabricated R sub c values in the 10(exp -6) ohm cm(exp 2) range, but which fails quickly when heated. We show that the substitution of a refractory metal (W, Ta) for Au preserves the low R sub c values while preventing the destructive reactions that would normally take place in this system at high temperatures. We show, finally, that R sub c values in the 10(exp -7) ohm cm(exp 2) range can be achieved without sintering by combining the effects of In or Ga additions to Au contacts with the effects of introducing a thin Au2P3 layer at the metal-InP interface.

  2. A very low resistance, non-sintered contact system for use on indium phosphide concentrator/shallow junction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, Victor G.; Fatemi, Navid S.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation is made into the possibility of providing low resistance contacts to shallow junction InP solar cells which do not require sintering and which do not cause device degradation even when subjected to extended annealing at elevated temperatures. We show that the addition of In to Au contacts in amounts that exceed the solid solubility limit lowers the as-fabricated (unsintered) contact resistivity (R sub c) to the 10(exp -5) ohm cm(exp 2) range. We next consider the contact system Au/Au2P3 which has been shown to exhibit as-fabricated R sub c values in the 10(exp -6) ohm cm(exp 2) range, but which fails quickly when heated. We show that the substitution of a refractory metal (W, Ta) for Au preserves the low R sub c values while preventing the destructive reactions that would normally take place in this system at high temperatures. We show, finally, that R sub c values in the 10(exp -7) ohm cm(exp 2) range can be achieved without sintering by combining the effects of In or Ga additions to Au contacts with the effects of introducing a thin Au2P3 layer at the metal-InP interface.

  3. Solar Signals in CMIP-5 Simulations: The Stratospheric Pathway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, D.M.; Misios, S.; Gray, L. J.; Tourpali, K.; Matthes, K.; Hood, L.; Schmidt, H.; Chiodo, G.; Thieblemont, R.; Rozanov, E.; Shindell, D.; Krivolutsky, A.

    2015-01-01

    The 11 year solar-cycle component of climate variability is assessed in historical simulations of models taken from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, phase 5 (CMIP-5). Multiple linear regression is applied to estimate the zonal temperature, wind and annular mode responses to a typical solar cycle, with a focus on both the stratosphere and the stratospheric influence on the surface over the period approximately 1850-2005. The analysis is performed on all CMIP-5 models but focuses on the 13 CMIP-5 models that resolve the stratosphere (high-top models) and compares the simulated solar cycle signature with reanalysis data. The 11 year solar cycle component of climate variability is found to be weaker in terms of magnitude and latitudinal gradient around the stratopause in the models than in the reanalysis. The peak in temperature in the lower equatorial stratosphere (approximately 70 hPa) reported in some studies is found in the models to depend on the length of the analysis period, with the last 30 years yielding the strongest response. A modification of the Polar Jet Oscillation (PJO) in response to the 11 year solar cycle is not robust across all models, but is more apparent in models with high spectral resolution in the short-wave region. The PJO evolution is slower in these models, leading to a stronger response during February, whereas observations indicate it to be weaker. In early winter, the magnitude of the modeled response is more consistent with observations when only data from 1979-2005 are considered. The observed North Pacific high-pressure surface response during the solar maximum is only simulated in some models, for which there are no distinguishing model characteristics. The lagged North Atlantic surface response is reproduced in both high- and low-top models, but is more prevalent in the former. In both cases, the magnitude of the response is generally lower than in observations.

  4. On the Relationship Between High Speed Solar Wind Streams and Radiation Belt Electron Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Yihua

    2011-01-01

    Both past and recent research results indicate that solar wind speed has a close connection to radiation belt electron fluxes [e.g., Paulikas and Blake, 1979; Reeves et aI., 2011]: a higher solar wind speed is often associated with a higher level of radiation electron fluxes. But the relationship can be very complex [Reeves et aI., 2011]. The study presented here provides further corroboration of this viewpoint by emphasizing the importance of a global perspective and time history. We find that all the events during years 2010 and 2011 where the >0.8 MeV integral electron flux exceeds 10(exp 5) particles/sq cm/sr/s (pfu) at GEO orbit are associated with the high speed streams (HSS) following the onset of the Stream Interaction Region (SIR), with most of them belonging to the long-lasting Corotating Interaction Region (CIR). Our preliminary results indicate that during HSS events, a maximum speed of 700 km/s and above is a sufficient but not necessary condition for the > 0.8 MeV electron flux to reach 10(exp 5) pfu. But in the exception cases of HSS events where the electron flux level exceeds the 10(exp 5) pfu value but the maximum solar wind speed is less than 700 km/s, a prior impact can be noted either from a CME or a transient SIR within 3-4 days before the arrival of the HSS - stressing the importance of time history. Through superposed epoch analysis and studies providing comparisons with the CME events and the HSS events where the flux level fails to reach the 10(exp 5) pfu, we will present the quantitative assessment of behaviors and relationships of various quantities, such as the time it takes to reach the flux threshold value from the stream interface and its dependence on different physical parameters (e.g., duration of the HSS event, its maximum or average of the solar wind speed, IMF Bz, Kp). The ultimate goal is to apply what is derived to space weather forecasting.

  5. Measurements of Local Heat Transfer and Pressure on Six 2-Inch-Diameter Blunt Bodies at a Mach Number of 4.95 and at Reynolds Numbers Per Foot up to 81 x 10(exp 6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Morton; Mayo, Edward E.

    1959-01-01

    Measurements of the local heat transfer and pressure distribution have been made on six 2-inch-diameter, blunt, axially symmetric bodies in the Langley gas dynamics laboratory at a Mach number of 4.95 and at Reynolds numbers per foot up to 81 x 10(exp 6). During the investigation laminar flow was observed over a hemispherical-nosed body having a surface finish from 10 to 20 microinches at the highest test Reynolds number per foot (for this configuration) of 77.4 x 10(exp 6). Though it was repeatedly possible to measure completely laminar flow at this Reynolds number for the hemisphere, it was not possible to observe completely laminar flow on the flat-nosed body for similar conditions. The significance of this phenomenon is obscured by the observation that the effects of particle impacts on the surface in causing roughness were more pronounced on the flat-nosed body. For engineering purposes, a method developed by M. Richard Dennison while employed by Lockheed Aircraft Corporation appears to be a reasonable procedure for estimating turbulent heat transfer provided transition occurs at a forward location on the body. For rearward-transition locations, the method is much poorer for the hemispherical nose than for the flat nose. The pressures measured on the hemisphere agreed very well with those of the modified Newtonian theory, whereas the pressures on all other bodies, except on the flat-nosed body, were bracketed by modified Newtonian theory both with and without centrifugal forces. For the hemisphere, the stagnation-point velocity gradient agreed very well with Newtonian theory. The stagnation-point velocity gradient for the flat- nosed model was 0.31 of the value for the hemispherical-nosed model. If a Newtonian type of flow is assumed, the ratio 0.31 will be independent of Much number and real-gas effects.

  6. Effect of Solar Exposure on the Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Hubble Space Telescope Aluminized-Teflon Thermal Shields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Aobo; Ashmead, Claire C.; deGroh, Kim K.

    2012-01-01

    When exposed to low Earth orbital (LEO) environment, external spacecraft materials degrade due to radiation, thermal cycling, micrometeoroid and debris impacts, and atomic oxygen (AO) interaction. Collisions between AO and spacecraft can result in oxidation of external spacecraft surface materials, which can lead to erosion and severe structural and/or optical property deterioration. It is therefore essential to understand the AO erosion yield (Ey), the volume loss per incident oxygen atom (cu cm/atom), of polymers to assure durability of spacecraft materials. The objective of this study was to determine whether solar radiation exposure can increase the rate of AO erosion of polymers in LEO. The material studied was a section of aluminized-Teflon (DuPont) fluorinated ethylene propylene (Al-FEP) thermal shield exposed to space on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for 8.25 years. Retrieved samples were sectioned from the circular thermal shield and exposed to ground laboratory thermal energy AO. The results indicate that the average Ey of the solar facing HST Al-FEP was 1.9 10(exp -24)cu cm/atom, while the average Ey of the anti-solar HST Al-FEP was 1.5 10(exp -24)cu cm/atom. The Ey of the pristine samples was 1.6- 1.7 10(exp -24)cu cm/atom. These results indicate that solar exposure affects the post-flight erosion rate of FEP in a plasma asher. Therefore, it likely affects the erosion rate while in LEO.

  7. Future L5 Missions for Solar Physics and Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auchere, Frederic; Gopalswamy, Nat

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and corotating interaction regions (CIR) are the sources of intense space weather in the heliosphere. Most of the current knowledge on CMEs accumulated over the past few decades has been derived from observations made from the Sun-Earth line, which is not the ideal vantage point to observe Earth-affecting CMEs (Gopalswamy et al., 2011a,b). In this paper, the advantages of remote-sensing and in-situ observations from the Sun-Earth L5 point are discussed. Locating a mission at Sun-Earth L5 has several key benefits for solar physics and space weather: (1) off the Sun-Earth line view is critical in observing Earth-arriving parts of CMEs, (2) L5 coronagraphic observations can also provide near-Sun space speed of CMEs, which is an important input to models that forecast Earth-arrival time of CMEs, (3) backside and frontside CMEs can be readily distinguished even without inner coronal imagers, (4) preceding CMEs in the path of Earth-affecting CMEs can be identified for a better estimate of the travel time, (5) CIRs reach the L5 point a few days before they arrive at Earth, and hence provide significant lead time before CIR arrival, (6) L5 observations can provide advance knowledge of CME and CIR source regions (coronal holes) rotating to Earth view, and (7) magnetograms obtained from L5 can improve the surface magnetic field distribution used as input to MHD models that predict the background solar wind. The paper also discusses L5 mission concepts that can be achieved in the near future. References Gopalswamy, N., Davila, J. M., St. Cyr, O. C., Sittler, E. C., Auchère, F., Duvall, T. L., Hoeksema, J. T., Maksimovic, M., MacDowall, R. J., Szabo, A., Collier, M. R. (2011a), Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO): A potential International Living with a Star Mission from Sun-Earth L5 JASTP 73, 658-663, DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2011.01.013 Gopalswamy, N., Davila, J. M., Auchère, F., Schou, J., Korendyke, C. M. Shih, A., Johnston, J. C

  8. Design and Development of the Space Technology 5 (ST5) Solar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, John; Fatemi, Navid; Gamica, Robert; Sharma, Surya; Senft, Donna; Maybery, Clay

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Technology 5 (ST5) is designed to flight-test the concept of miniaturized 'small size" satellites and innovative technologies in Earth's magnetosphere. Three satellites will map the intensity and direction of the magnetic fields within the inner magnetosphere. Due to the small area available for the solar arrays, and to meet the mission power requirements, very high-efficiency multijunction solar cells were selected to power the spacecraft built by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This was done in partnership with the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) through the Dual-Use Science and Technology (DUS&T) program. Emcore's InGaP/lnGaAs/Ge Advanced triple-junction (ATJ) solar cells, exhibiting an average air mass zero (AMO) efficiency of 28.0% (one-sun, 28 C), were used to populate the arrays. Each spacecraft employs 8 identical solar panels (total area of about 0.3 square meters), with 15 large-area solar cells per panel. The requirement for power is to support on-orbit average load of 13.5 W at 8.4 V, with plus or minus 5% off pointing. The details of the solar array design, development and qualification considerations, as well as ground electrical performance & shadowing analysis results are presented.

  9. The Corona of the Young Solar Analog EK Draconis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gudel, M.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Benz, A. O.; Elias, N. M., II

    1995-01-01

    First coronal microwave and new soft X-ray observations of the very active, near-Zero-Age Main-Sequence (ZAMS) dGOe star EK Dra = HD 129333 show that this analog of the young Sun is more luminous in both emissions than most single M-dwarf flare stars. Variations in the 8.4 GHz flux include modulation with the optically determined rotation period of 2.7 days. This result points to a non-uniform filling of the corona with energetic electrons due to an incomplete coverage of the surface with active regions and a source volume that is not concentric with the star. The radio luminosity varying between log L(sub R) = 13.6 and 14.6 (L(sub R) in erg/s/Hz) shows evidence for unpolarized gyrosynchrotron flares, while strongly polarized flares were absent during the observations. This star is the first young, truly solar-like main sequence G star discovered in microwaves. Having just arrived on the main sequence, it conclusively proves that young, solar-like G stars can maintain very high levels of radio emission after their T Tau phase. The X-ray observations were obtained from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS). The average X-ray luminosity amounts to log L(sub x) = 29.9 (L(sub x) in erg/s). A Raymond-Smith type plasma model fit yields two plasma components at temperatures of 1.9 and 10 MK, with volume emission measures of 1.2 and 2.5 x 10 (exp 52)/cu cm, respectively. The X-ray light curve is significantly variable, with the photon count rate from the cooler plasma being strongly modulated by the rotation period; the emission from the hotter plasma is only weakly variable. Modeling of the source distribution in the stellar corona yields electron densities of the order of 4 x 10(exp 10)/cu cm or higher for the cool plasma component. It indicates that a considerable portion of EK Dra's high X-ray luminosity is due to high-density plasma rather than large emission volume. Parameters for an X-ray flare indicate an electron density of 1.75 x 10(exp 11)/cu cm and a source height of

  10. Qualification test results for blue-red reflecting solar covers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beauchamp, W. T.

    1994-01-01

    Recent market forces and design innovations have spurred the development of solar cell covers that significantly reduce the solar absorptance for a cell array. GaAs cells, using Ge as the substrate host material, can have a significantly higher output if the solar absorptance of the cell array is reduced. New optical coating design techniques have allowed the construction of covers that reflect the ultraviolet energy (below 350 nm) and the near infrared energy (above 900 nm) resulting in the beneficial reduction in absorptance. Recent modeling suggests three or more present output increase due to the lowered temperature with such a device. Within the last several months we have completed the testing of production samples of these new covers in a qualification series that included the usual environmental effects associated with the routine testing of solar cell covers and the combined effects of protons, electrons and solar UV as would be encountered in space. For the combined effects testing the samples were exposed to 300 sun days equivalent UV, 5 x 10(exp 14)/sq cm of 0.5 MeV protons and 10(exp 15)/sq cm of 1.0 MeV electrons. Measurements of the reflectance, transmission, emittance and other appropriate parameters were made before and after the testing. As measured by the averaged transmission over the cell operating band, the change in transmission for the samples was less than or about equal to 1 percent. The details of the testing and the results in terms of transmission, reflectance and emittance are discussed in the paper.

  11. Multiple-etalon systems for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, G. Allen; Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Sigwarth, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Multiple etalon systems are discussed that meet the science requirements for a narrow-passband imaging system for the 4-meter National Solar Observatory (NSO)/Advance Technology Solar Telescope (ATST). A multiple etalon system can provide an imaging interferometer that works in four distinct modes: as a spectro-polarimeter, a filter-vector magnetograph, an intermediate-band imager, and broadband high-resolution imager. Specific dual and triple etalon configurations are described that provide a spectrographic passband of 2.0-3.5 micron and reduce parasitic light levels to 10(exp -4) as required for precise polarization measurement, e.g., Zeeman measurements of magnetic sensitive lines. A TESOS-like (Telecentric Etalon SOlar Spectrometer) triple etalon system provides a spectral purity of 10(exp -5). The triple designs have the advantage of reducing the finesse requirement on each etalon; allow the use of more stable blocking filters, and have very high spectral purity. A dual-etalon double-pass (Cavallini-like) system can provide a competing configuration. Such a dual-etalon design can provide high contrast. The selection of the final focal plane instrument will depend on a trade-off between an ideal instrument and practical reality. The trade study will include the number of etalons, their aperture sizes, complexities of the optical train, number of blocking filters, configuration of the electronic control system, computer interfaces, temperature controllers, etalon controllers, and their associated feedback electronics. The heritage of single and multiple etalon systems comes from their use in several observatories, including the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Solar Observatory, Sacramento Peak Observatory (NSO), and Kiepenheuer-Institut fur Sonnenphysik (KIS, Germany), Mees Solar Observatory (University of Hawaii), and Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory (Italy). The design of the ATST multiple etalon system will benefit from the experience gained at these

  12. New Observations of Soft X-ray (0.5-5 keV) Solar Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspi, A.; Woods, T. N.; Mason, J. P.; Jones, A. R.; Warren, H. P.

    2013-12-01

    The solar corona is the brightest source of X-rays in the solar system, and the X-ray emission is highly variable on many time scales. However, the actual solar soft X-ray (SXR) (0.5-5 keV) spectrum is not well known, particularly during solar quiet periods, as, with few exceptions, this energy range has not been systematically studied in many years. Previous observations include high-resolution but very narrow-band spectra from crystal spectrometers (e.g., Yohkoh/BCS), or integrated broadband irradiances from photometers (e.g., GOES/XRS, TIMED/XPS, etc.) that lack detailed spectral information. In recent years, broadband measurements with moderate energy resolution (~0.5-0.7 keV FWHM) were made by SphinX on CORONAS-Photon and SAX on MESSENGER, although they did not extend to energies below ~1 keV. We present observations of solar SXR emission obtained using new instrumentation flown on recent SDO/EVE calibration rocket underflights. The photon-counting spectrometer, a commercial Amptek X123 with a silicon drift detector and an 8 μm Be window, measures the solar disk-integrated SXR emission from ~0.5 to >10 keV with ~0.15 keV FWHM resolution and 1 s cadence. A novel imager, a pinhole X-ray camera using a cooled frame-transfer CCD (15 μm pixel pitch), Ti/Al/C filter, and 5000 line/mm Au transmission grating, images the full Sun in multiple spectral orders from ~0.1 to ~5 nm with ~10 arcsec/pixel and ~0.01 nm/pixel spatial and spectral detector scales, respectively, and 10 s cadence. These instruments are prototypes for future CubeSat missions currently being developed. We present new results of solar observations on 04 October 2013 (NASA sounding rocket 36.290). We compare with previous results from 23 June 2012 (NASA sounding rocket 36.286), during which solar activity was low and no signal was observed above ~4 keV. We compare our spectral and imaging measurements with spectra and broadband irradiances from other instruments, including SDO/EVE, GOES/XRS, TIMED

  13. Video 5 of 7: Introduction to Solar Storms -- for Students

    NASA Video Gallery

    Visualization of solar activity. The nature of solar storms, how they can affect Earth and astronauts in space, and how NASA scientists monitor solar activity so they can protect astronauts are pre...

  14. Multi-wavelength Observations of Solar Active Region NOAA 7154

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruner, M. E.; Nitta, N. V.; Frank. Z. A.; Dame, L.; Suematsu, Y.

    2000-01-01

    We report on observations of a solar active region in May 1992 by the Solar Plasma Diagnostic Experiment (SPDE) in coordination with the Yohkoh satellite (producing soft X-ray images) and ground-based observatories (producing photospheric magnetograms and various filtergrams including those at the CN 3883 A line). The main focus is a study of the physical conditions of hot (T is approximately greater than 3 MK) coronal loops at their foot-points. The coronal part of the loops is fuzzy but what appear to be their footpoints in the transition region down to the photosphere are compact. Despite the morphological similarities, the footpoint emission at 10(exp 5) K is not quantitatively correlated with that at approximately 300 km above the tau (sub 5000) = 1 level, suggesting that the heat transport and therefore magnetic field topology in the intermediate layer is complicated. High resolution imaging observations with continuous temperature coverage are crucially needed.

  15. Catalysis by Dust Grains in the Solar Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kress, Monika E.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    1996-01-01

    In order to determine whether grain-catalyzed reactions played an important role in the chemistry of the solar nebula, we have applied our time-dependent model of methane formation via Fischer-Tropsch catalysis to pressures from 10(exp -5) to 1 bar and temperatures from 450 to 650 K. Under these physical conditions, the reaction 3H2 + CO yields CH4 + H2O is readily catalyzed by an iron or nickel surface, whereas the same reaction is kinetically inhibited in the gas phase. Our model results indicate that under certain nebular conditions, conversion of CO to methane could be extremely efficient in the presence of iron-nickel dust grains over timescales very short compared to the lifetime of the solar nebula.

  16. Variability of surface solar radiation in unforced CMIP5 simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folini, Doris; Wild, Martin

    2016-04-01

    We examine the natural variability of surface solar radiation (SSR) under pre-industrial conditions with time-invariant forcing in control runs in global climate simulations of the latest coupled model intercomparison project, CMIP5. We consider global and regional scales, as well as annual and seasonal data. Special emphasis is given to the likelihood of spurious SSR trends. To address this question, we determine for each model the range of linear SSR trends as function of the number of years over which the trend is taken. We discuss our findings with regard to potential aerosol induced dimming and its detectability in the second half of the 20th century.

  17. The solar thermal report. Volume 3, Number 5

    SciTech Connect

    1982-09-01

    This report is published by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the DOE Solar Thermal Technology Division to provide an account of work sponsored by the Division and to aid the community of people interested in solar thermal technology in gaining access to technical information. Contents include articles entitled the following: Solar system supplies thermal energy for producing chemicals at USS plant; Solar thermal power module designed for small community market; Roof-mounted trough system supplies process heat for Caterpillar plant; Solar thermal update -- 10 MW(e) pilot plant and 3-MW(t) total energy system; Solar steam processes crude oil; New York investigates solar ponds as a source of thermal energy; On-farm solar -- Finding new uses for the sun; and Topical index of solar thermal report articles.

  18. g-modes and the solar neutrino problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahcall, John N.; Kumar, Pawan

    1993-01-01

    We show that low-order g-modes with large enough amplitudes to affect significantly the solar neutrino fluxes would produce surface velocities that are 10 exp 4 times larger than the observed upper limits and hence are ruled out by existing data. We also demonstrate that any large-amplitude, short-period oscillations that grow on a Kelvin-Helmholtz time scale will require, to affect solar neutrino fluxes, a large amount of energy (for g-modes, 10 exp 9 times the energy in the observed p-mode oscillations) and a tiny amount of dissipation (for g modes, 10 exp -8 the fractional dissipation rate of the p-modes).

  19. Plasma Interactions with High Voltage Solar Arrays for a Direct Drive Hall Effect Thruster System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, T.; Horvater, M. A.; Vaughn, J.; Carruth, M. R.; Jongeward, G. A.; Mikellides, I. G.

    2003-01-01

    The Environmental Effects Group of NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is conducting research into the effects of plasma interaction with high voltage solar arrays. These high voltage solar arrays are being developed for a direct drive Hall Effect Thruster propulsion system. A direct drive system configuration will reduce power system mass by eliminating a conventional power-processing unit. The Environmental Effects Group has configured two large vacuum chambers to test different high-voltage array concepts in a plasma environment. Three types of solar arrays have so far been tested, an International Space Station (ISS) planar array, a Tecstar planar array, and a Tecstar solar concentrator array. The plasma environment was generated using a hollow cathode plasma source, which yielded densities between 10(exp 6) - 10(exp 7) per cubic centimeter and electron temperatures of 0.5-1 eV. Each array was positioned in this plasma and biased in the -500 to + 500 volt range. The current collection was monitored continuously. In addition, the characteristics of arcing, snap over, and other features, were recorded. Analysis of the array performance indicates a time dependence associated with the current collection as well as a tendency for "conditioning" over a large number of runs. Mitigation strategies, to reduce parasitic current collection, as well as arcing, include changing cover-glass geometry and layout as well as shielding the solar cell edges. High voltage performance data for each of the solar array types tested will be presented. In addition, data will be provided to indicate the effectiveness of the mitigation techniques.

  20. Ozone Correction for AM0 Calibrated Solar Cells for the Aircraft Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, David B.; Scheiman, David A.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Lyons, Valerie J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The aircraft solar cell calibration method has provided cells calibrated to space conditions for 37 years. However, it is susceptible to systematic errors due to ozone concentration in the stratosphere. The present correction procedure applies a 1% increase to the measured Isc values. High band-gap cells are more sensitive to ozone adsorbed wavelengths so it has become important to reassess the correction technique. This paper evaluates the ozone correction to be 1+{O3}sup Fo, where Fo is 29.5x10(exp-6)/d.u. for a Silicon solar cell and 42.2xl0(exp -6)/d.u. for a GaAs cell. Results will be presented for high band-gap cells. A comparison with flight data indicates that this method of correcting for the ozone density improves the uncertainty of AM0 Isc to 0.5%.

  1. Modeling of the initiation and evolution of a laser-ionized column in the lower atmosphere - 314.5 nm wavelength resonant multiphoton ionization of naturally occurring argon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetzer, G. J.; Stockley, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    A 3+1 resonant multiphoton ionization process in naturally occurring argon is studied at 314.5 nm as a candidate for providing a long ionized channel through the atmosphere. Results are presented which indicate peak electron densities up to 10 exp 8/cu cm can be created using laser intensities on the order of 10 exp 8 W/sq cm.

  2. Electron Densities in Solar Flare Loops, Chromospheric Evaporation Upflows, and Acceleration Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Benz, Arnold O.

    1996-01-01

    We compare electron densities measured at three different locations in solar flares: (1) in Soft X-Ray (SXR) loops, determined from SXR emission measures and loop diameters from Yohkoh Soft X-Ray Telescope maps (n(sub e, sup SXR) = (0.2-2.5) x 10(exp 11)/ cu cm); (2) in chromospheric evaporation upflows, inferred from plasma frequency cutoffs of decimetric radio bursts detected with the 0.1-3 GHz spectrometer Phoenix of ETH Zuerich (n(sub e, sup upflow) = (0.3-11) x 10(exp 10)/cu cm; and (3) in acceleration sites, inferred from the plasma frequency at the separatrix between upward-accelerated (type III bursts) and downward-accelerated (reverse-drift bursts) electron beams [n(sub e, sup acc) = (0.6-10) x 10(exp 9)/cu cm]. The comparison of these density measurements, obtained from 44 flare episodes (during 14 different flares), demonstrates the compatibility of flare plasma density diagnostics with SXR and radio methods. The density in the upflowing plasma is found to be somewhat lower than in the filled loops, having ratios in a range n(sub e, sup upflow)/n(sub e, sup SXR) = 0.02-1.3, and a factor of 3.6 higher behind the upflow front. The acceleration sites are found to have a much lower density than the SXR-bright flare loops, i.e., n(sub e, sup acc)/n(sub e, sup SXR) = 0.005- 0.13, and thus must be physically displaced from the SXR-bright flare loops. The scaling law between electron time-of-flight distances l' and loop half-lengths s, l'/s = 1.4 +/- 0.3, recently established by Aschwanden et al. suggests that the centroid of the acceleration region is located above the SXR-bright flare loop, as envisioned in cusp geometries (e.g., in magnetic reconnection models).

  3. Trends of surface solar radiation in unforced CMIP5 simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folini, D.; Dallafior, T. N.; Hakuba, M. Z.; Wild, M.

    2017-01-01

    We consider decadal scale trends of annual mean all-sky surface solar radiation (SSR) that occur solely because of internal variability of the climate system. We give statistical estimates of their magnitude and probability of occurrence. The estimates are based on 43 preindustrial control (piControl) experiments of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). Trends are found to depend strongly on geographical region and on whether they are quantified in absolute units or relative to the long-term mean SSR. We find it to be sufficient to provide one map for absolute and one for relative trends, as approximate analytical relations are shown to hold between trends of different length and likelihood and the standard deviation of the underlying SSR time series. We estimate that a positive trend over 30 years and with 25% chance of occurrence (75th percentile of all possible trends) has a magnitude between 0.15 and 1.7 W/m2/decade or 0.11 and 1.4% of long-term mean SSR per decade, depending on geographical location. Comparison with present-day observations and intermodel spread suggests an average uncertainty of these estimates of about 30%. Intermodel spread suggests that regional uncertainties can be up to about 3 times larger or smaller. We give examples of how these results may be used to obtain statistical estimates of how (un)likely it is that observed SSR trends or part thereof are due to internal variability alone.

  4. The Generation of Lighting in the Solar Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey; Desch, S. J.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The process that melted and formed the chondrules, mm-sized glassy beads within meteorites, has not been conclusively identified. Origin by lightning in the solar nebula is consistent with many features of chondrules, but no viable model of lightning has yet been advanced. We present a model demonstrating how lightning could be generated in the solar nebula which differs from previous models in three important aspects. First, we identify a new', powerful charging mechanism that is based on the differences in contact potentials between particles of different composition, a form of triboelectric charging. In the presence of fine silicate grains and fine iron metal grains, large silicate particles (the chondrules) can acquire charges of +10(exp 5) e. Second, we assume that the chondrule precursor particles are selectively concentrated in clumps 1 - 100 km in size by the turbulent concentration mechanism described by Cuzzi et al. (1996). The concentration of these highly charged particles into clumps, in a background of negatively charged metal grains, is what generates the strong electric fields. Third, we make refinements in the estimates of the breakdown electric field and the ionization rate. We calculate that electric fields large enough to trigger breakdown easily could have existed over regions large enough (approx. 100km) to generate very large discharges of electrical energy (approx. 10(exp 16)erg). The discharges would have been sufficiently energetic and frequent to have formed the chondrules. We place constraints on the generation of lightning and conclude that it could not be generated if the abundance of Al-26 in chondrules was as high as the level in the CAls. This conclusion is consistent with isotopic analyses of chondrules. This possibly implies that Al-26 was non-uniformly distributed in the solar nebula or that the chondrules formed several Myr after the CAIs.

  5. Ions with low charges in the solar wind as measured by SWICS on board Ulysses. [Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiss, J.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Von Steiger, R.; Mall, U.; Gloeckler, G.; Galvin, A. B.; Ipavich, F.; Wilken, B.; Gliem, F.

    1992-01-01

    We present new data on rare ions in the solar wind. Using the Ulysses-SWICS instrument with its very low background we have searched for low-charge ions during a 6-d period of low-speed solar wind and established sensitive upper limits for many species. In the solar wind, we found He(1+)/He(2+) of less than 5 x 10 exp -4. This result and the charge state distributions of heavier elements indicate that all components of the investigated ion population went through a regular coronal expansion and experienced the typical electron temperatures of 1 to 2 million Kelvin. We argue that the virtual absence of low-charge ions demonstrates a very low level of nonsolar contamination in the source region of the solar wind sample we studied. Since this sample showed the FlP effect typical for low-speed solar wind, i.e., an enhancement in the abundances of elements with low first ionization potential, we conclude that this enhancement was caused by an ion-atom separation mechanism operating near the solar surface and not by foreign material in the corona.

  6. Upper limits to the detection of ammonia from protoplanetary disks around HL Tauri and L1551-IRS 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Jose F.; Torrelles, Jose M.; Ho, Paul T. P.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Canto, Jorge

    1993-01-01

    We present NH3(1, 1) and (2, 2) observations of the young stellar sources HL Tau and L1551-IRS 5 using the VLA in its B-configuration, which provides an angular resolution of about 0.4 arcsec (about 50 AU at 140 pc) at 1.3 cm wavelength. Our goal was to detect and resolve circumstellar molecular disks with radius of the order of 100 AU around these two sources. No ammonia emission was detected toward either of them. The 3-sigma levels were 2.7 mJy/beam and 3.9 mJy/beam for HL Tau and L1551-IRS 5, respectively, with a velocity resolution of about 5 km/s. With this nondetection, we estimate upper limits to the mass of the proposed protoplanetary molecular disks (within a radius of 10 AU from the central stars) on the order of 0.02/(X(NH3)/10 exp -8) solar mass for HL Tau and 0.1/(X(NH3)/10 exp -8) solar mass for L1551-IRS 5.

  7. NEW OBSERVATIONS OF THE SOLAR 0.55 KEV SOFT X-RAY SPECTRUM

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, Amir; Woods, Thomas N.; Warren, Harry P.

    2015-03-20

    The solar corona is orders of magnitude hotter than the underlying photosphere, but how the corona attains such high temperatures is still not understood. Soft X-ray (SXR) emission provides important diagnostics for thermal processes in the high-temperature corona, and is also an important driver of ionospheric dynamics at Earth. There is a crucial observational gap between ∼0.2 and ∼4 keV, outside the ranges of existing spectrometers. We present observations from a new SXR spectrometer, the Amptek X123-SDD, which measured the spatially integrated solar spectral irradiance from ∼0.5 to ∼5 keV, with ∼0.15 keV FWHM resolution, during sounding rocket flights on 2012 June 23 and 2013 October 21. These measurements show that the highly variable SXR emission is orders of magnitude greater than that during the deep minimum of 2009, even with only weak activity. The observed spectra show significant high-temperature (5–10 MK) emission and are well fit by simple power-law temperature distributions with indices of ∼6, close to the predictions of nanoflare models of coronal heating. Observations during the more active 2013 flight indicate an enrichment of low first-ionization potential elements of only ∼1.6, below the usually observed value of ∼4, suggesting that abundance variations may be related to coronal heating processes. The XUV Photometer System Level 4 data product, a spectral irradiance model derived from integrated broadband measurements, significantly overestimates the spectra from both flights, suggesting a need for revision of its non-flare reference spectra, with important implications for studies of Earth ionospheric dynamics driven by solar SXRs.

  8. Joule heating and runaway electron acceleration in a solar flare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Gordon D.; Kundu, Mukul R.; Kane, Sharad R.

    1989-01-01

    The hard and soft x ray and microwave emissions from a solar flare (May 14, 1980) were analyzed and interpreted in terms of Joule heating and runaway electron acceleration in one or more current sheets. It is found that all three emissions can be generated with sub-Dreicer electric fields. The soft x ray emitting plasma can only be heated by a single current sheet if the resistivity in the sheet is well above the classical, collisional resistivity of 10(exp 7) K, 10(exp 11)/cu cm plasma. If the hard x ray emission is from thermal electrons, anomalous resistivity or densities exceeding 3 x 10(exp 12)/cu cm are required. If the hard x ray emission is from nonthermal electrons, the emissions can be produced with classical resistivity in the current sheets if the heating rate is approximately 4 times greater than that deduced from the soft x ray data (with a density of 10(exp 10)/cu cm in the soft x ray emitting region), if there are at least 10(exp 4) current sheets, and if the plasma properties in the sheets are characteristic of the superhot plasma observed in some flares by Lin et al., and with Hinotori. Most of the released energy goes directly into bulk heating, rather than accelerated particles.

  9. Filters for the International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) mission far ultraviolet imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zukic, Muamer; Torr, Douglas G.; Kim, Jongmin; Spann, James F.; Torr, Marsha R.

    1993-01-01

    The far ultraviolet (FUV) imager for the International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) mission is designed to image four features of the aurora: O I lines at 130.4 nm and 135.6 nm and the N2 Lyman-Birge-Hopfield (LBH) bands between 140 nm - 160 nm (LBH long) and 160 nm - 180 nm (LBH long). In this paper we report the design and fabrication of narrow-band and broadband filters for the ISTP FUV imager. Narrow-band filters designed and fabricated for the O I lines have a bandwidth of less than 5 nm and a peak transmittance of 23.9 percent and 38.3 percent at 130.4 nm and 135.6 nm, respectively. Broadband filters designed and fabricated for LBH bands have the transmittance close to 60 percent. Blocking of out-of-band wavelengths for all filters is better than 5x10(exp -3) percent with the transmittance at 121.6 nm of less than 10(exp -6) percent.

  10. Material Interactions with Solar Wind Ion Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; McWilliams, Brett

    2006-01-01

    Solar wind composition is dominated by hydrogen (approx.96%) and helium (approx.3 to 4%) with a minor fraction (less than or equal to 1%) of heavy ions. Hydrogen (helium) ions impact spacecraft surfaces with energies from 0.5 to 5 keV (1.8 to 21 keV) due to variations in solar wind velocity from 300 km/s to 1000 km/sec with extremes of a few 10 s keV during periods of extremely high solar wind velocity exceeding 1000 km/sec. Mean impact energies are typically on the order of approximately 1 keV and 4 keV for hydrogen ions and helium ions, respectively. These energies are typically of the peak of the energy dependent light ion sputter yields for hydrogen and helium on many metals. In addition, light ions with kilovolt energies have been shown to produce blister (or exfoliation) damage to metal surfaces due to formation of high pressure gas bubbles within the materials when exposed to ion fluences on the order of 10(exp 16 to (10(exp 17 ions/sq cm. A number of spacecraft designs for current and future missions include gossamer polymer structures with thin metallic reflection coatings to shield instruments from the Sun or solar sail propulsion systems for use in a variety of locations in the inner solar system from 0.5 to 1 AU. In addition, there is interest in designing spacecraft for solar physics missions requiring operations as close to the Sun as 0.16 to 0.2 AU. Integrity of the metallic coatings is critical in many of these applications since degradation will result in modification of material thermal properties or exposure of polymers to solar UV photons which can compromise mission requirements. This paper will evaluate the relative contributions of sputtering and blister formation to material degradation in solar wind environments over a range of radial distances from the Sun to demonstrate where solar wind environments become important for materials selection. We will first review the physics and results from laboratory measurements of light ion sputtering

  11. Testing solar models with global solar oscillations in the 5-minute band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulrich, R. K.; Rhodes, E. J., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Frequencies of solar oscillation for normal modes described by spherical harmonics with l-values between 0 and 4 are computed. The method of computation is discussed and some of the theoretical uncertainties are examined. It is shown that the standard solar model has eigenfrequencies which do not agree with the frequencies observed for the low l-modes to within the estimated accuracy of either the observed or theoretical frequencies. Four non-standard models are considered: (1) the interior Z abundance is lower than the surface abundance; (2) the interior Z abundance is higher than the surface abundance; (3) the interior Z abundance is altered by mixing; and (4) a large primordial magnetic field remains in the solar core. The effect of all these models on the solar neutrino flux is considered, with the result that the high-Z model is rejected. The conclusions of Bahcall and Ulrich (1971) that a primordial magnetic field increases the neutrino flux are disputed.

  12. Development of a Fast and Accurate PCRTM Radiative Transfer Model in the Solar Spectral Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Xu; Yang, Qiguang; Li, Hui; Jin, Zhonghai; Wu, Wan; Kizer, Susan; Zhou, Daniel K.; Yang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    A fast and accurate principal component-based radiative transfer model in the solar spectral region (PCRTMSOLAR) has been developed. The algorithm is capable of simulating reflected solar spectra in both clear sky and cloudy atmospheric conditions. Multiple scattering of the solar beam by the multilayer clouds and aerosols are calculated using a discrete ordinate radiative transfer scheme. The PCRTM-SOLAR model can be trained to simulate top-of-atmosphere radiance or reflectance spectra with spectral resolution ranging from 1 cm(exp -1) resolution to a few nanometers. Broadband radiances or reflectance can also be calculated if desired. The current version of the PCRTM-SOLAR covers a spectral range from 300 to 2500 nm. The model is valid for solar zenith angles ranging from 0 to 80 deg, the instrument view zenith angles ranging from 0 to 70 deg, and the relative azimuthal angles ranging from 0 to 360 deg. Depending on the number of spectral channels, the speed of the current version of PCRTM-SOLAR is a few hundred to over one thousand times faster than the medium speed correlated-k option MODTRAN5. The absolute RMS error in channel radiance is smaller than 10(exp -3) mW/cm)exp 2)/sr/cm(exp -1) and the relative error is typically less than 0.2%.

  13. The solar wind interaction with Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthmann, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    obstacle is a dipole magnetic field, but there are two important distinctions. In the wake of the Venus obstacle one finds an induced magnetic tail composed of varying interplanetary fields rather than the constant fields of intrinsic origin. This magnetotail is further seen to be populated by Heavy (0+) ions that are evidently escaping from the planet at significant (approximately 10(exp -25) s(exp -1)) rates. These heavy ions are also observed in the dayside magnetosheath. The interpretation is that ions are produced by both photoionization and solar wind electron impact ionization of the upper neutral atmosphere that extends into the magnetosheath.

  14. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 5: Process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, B.; Alexander, P.; Burger, D.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of the Process Development Area, as part of the Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project, was to develop and demonstrate solar cell fabrication and module assembly process technologies required to meet the cost, lifetime, production capacity, and performance goals of the FSA Project. R&D efforts expended by Government, Industry, and Universities in developing processes capable of meeting the projects goals during volume production conditions are summarized. The cost goals allocated for processing were demonstrated by small volume quantities that were extrapolated by cost analysis to large volume production. To provide proper focus and coverage of the process development effort, four separate technology sections are discussed: surface preparation, junction formation, metallization, and module assembly.

  15. Simultaneous Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and Very Large Array (VLA) observations of solar active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willson, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Very Large Array observations at 20 cm wavelength can detect the hot coronal plasma previously observed at soft x ray wavelengths. Thermal cyclotron line emission was detected at the apex of coronal loops where the magnetic field strength is relatively constant. Detailed comparison of simultaneous Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) Satellite and VLA data indicate that physical parameters such as electron temperature, electron density, and magnetic field strength can be obtained, but that some coronal loops remain invisible in either spectral domain. The unprecedent spatial resolution of the VLA at 20 cm wavelength showed that the precursor, impulsive, and post-flare components of solar bursts originate in nearby, but separate loops or systems of loops.. In some cases preburst heating and magnetic changes are observed from loops tens of minutes prior to the impulsive phase. Comparisons with soft x ray images and spectra and with hard x ray data specify the magnetic field strength and emission mechanism of flaring coronal loops. At the longer 91 cm wavelength, the VLA detected extensive emission interpreted as a hot 10(exp 5) K interface between cool, dense H alpha filaments and the surrounding hotter, rarefield corona. Observations at 91 cm also provide evidence for time-correlated bursts in active regions on opposite sides of the solar equator; they are attributed to flare triggering by relativistic particles that move along large-scale, otherwise-invisible, magnetic conduits that link active regions in opposite hemispheres of the Sun.

  16. Progress in p(+)n InP solar cells fabricated by thermal diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, D. J.; Brinker, D. J.; Weinberg, I.; Vargas, C.; Faur, Mircea; Faur, Maria; Goradia, C.; Goradia, M.; Fatemi, N. S.

    1993-01-01

    The performance results of our most recently thermally diffused InP solar cells using the p(+)n (Cd,S) structures are presented. We have succeeded in fabricating cells with measured AMO, 25 C V(sub oc) exceeding 880 mV (bare cells) which to the best of our knowledge is higher than previously reported V(sub oc) values for any InP homojunction solar cells. The cells were fabricated by thinning the emitter, after Au-Zn front contacting, from its initial thickness of about 4.5 microns to about 0.6 microns. After thinning, the exposed surface of the emitter was passivated by a thin (approximately 50A) P-rich oxide. Based on the measured EQY and J(sub sc)-V(sub oc) characteristics of our experimental high V(sub oc) p(+)n InP solar cells, we project that reducing the emitter thickness to 0.3 microns, using an optimized AR coating, maintaining the surface hole concentration of 3 x 10(exp 18)cm(sup -3), reducing the grid shadowing from actual 10.55 percent to 6 percent and reducing the contact resistance will increase the actual measured 12.57 percent AMO 25 C efficiency to about 20.1 percent. By using our state-of-the-art p(+)n structures which have a surface hole concentration of 4 x 10(exp 18)cm(sup -3) and slightly improving the front surface passivation, an even higher practically achievable AMO, 25 C efficiency of 21.3 percent is projected.

  17. Observations of solar wind ion charge exchange in the comet Halley coma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuselier, S. A.; Shelley, E. G.; Goldstein, B. E.; Goldstein, R.; Neugebauer, M.; Ip, W.-H.; Balsiger, H.; Reme, H.

    1991-01-01

    Giotto Ion Mass Spectrometer/High Energy Range Spectrometer (IMS/HERS) observations of solar wind ions show charge exchange effects and solar wind compositional changes in the coma of comet Halley. As the comet was approached, the He(++) to proton density ratio increased until about 1 hour before closest approach after which time it decreased. Abrupt increases in this ratio were also observed in the beginning and near the end of the so-called Mystery Region (8.6 - 5.5(10)(exp 5) km from the comet along the spacecraft trajectory). These abrupt increases in the density ratio were well correlated with enhanced fluxes of keV electrons as measured by the Giotto plasma electron spectrometer. The general increase and then decrease of the He(++) to proton density ratio is quantitatively consistent with a combination of the addition of protons of cometary origin to the plasma and loss of plasma through charge exchange of protons and He(++). In general agreement with the solar wind proton and He(++) observations, solar wind oxygen and carbon ions were observed to charge exchange from higher to lower charge states with decreasing distance to the comet. The more abrupt increases in the He(++) to proton and the He(++) to O(6+) density ratios in the mystery region require a change in the solar wind ion composition in this region while the correlation with energetic electrons indicates processes associated with the comet.

  18. Solar flare accelerated isotopes of hydrogen and helium. [observed by IMP-4 and IMP-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anglin, J. D.; Dietrich, W. F.; Simpson, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Measurements of solar flare hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, helium-3, and helium-4 in the energy range approximately 10 to 50 MeV per nucleon obtained with instrumentation on the IMP-4 and IMP-5 satellites are reported and studies based on these results which place several constraints on theories of solar flare particle acceleration are discussed. A brief review of previous work and the difficulties in studying the rare isotopes of hydrogen and helium is also included. Particular emphasis is placed on the fact that the information to be obtained from the solar flare products of high energy interactions is not available through either solar wind observations where both the acceleration mechanism and the coronal source of the nuclear species are different, or optical measurements of solar active regions.

  19. Solar Drivers of 11-yr and Long-Term Cosmic Ray Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliver, E. W.; Richardson, I. G.; Ling, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    In the current paradigm for the modulation of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), diffusion is taken to be the dominant process during solar maxima while drift dominates at minima. Observations during the recent solar minimum challenge the pre-eminence of drift: at such times. In 2009, the approx.2 GV GCR intensity measured by the Newark neutron monitor increased by approx.5% relative to its maximum value two cycles earlier even though the average tilt angle in 2009 was slightly larger than that in 1986 (approx.20deg vs. approx.14deg), while solar wind B was significantly lower (approx.3.9 nT vs. approx.5.4 nT). A decomposition of the solar wind into high-speed streams, slow solar wind, and coronal mass ejections (CMEs; including postshock flows) reveals that the Sun transmits its message of changing magnetic field (diffusion coefficient) to the heliosphere primarily through CMEs at solar maximum and high-speed streams at solar minimum. Long-term reconstructions of solar wind B are in general agreement for the approx. 1900-present interval and can be used to reliably estimate GCR intensity over this period. For earlier epochs, however, a recent Be-10-based reconstruction covering the past approx. 10(exp 4) years shows nine abrupt and relatively short-lived drops of B to < or approx.= 0 nT, with the first of these corresponding to the Sporer minimum. Such dips are at variance with the recent suggestion that B has a minimum or floor value of approx.2.8 nT. A floor in solar wind B implies a ceiling in the GCR intensity (a permanent modulation of the local interstellar spectrum) at a given energy/rigidity. The 30-40% increase in the intensity of 2.5 GV electrons observed by Ulysses during the recent solar minimum raises an interesting paradox that will need to be resolved.

  20. Results of the 1996 JPL Balloon Flight Solar Cell Calibration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Weiss, R. S.

    1996-01-01

    The 1996 solar cell calibration balloon flight campaign was completed with the first flight on June 30, 1996 and a second flight on August 8, 1996. All objectives of the flight program were met. Sixty-four modules were carried to an altitude of 120,000 ft (36.6 km). Full 1-5 curves were measured on 22 of these modules, and output at a fixed load was measured on 42 modules. This data was corrected to 28 C and to 1 AU (1.496 x 10(exp 8) km). The calibrated cells have been returned to the participants and can now be used as reference standards in simulator testing of cells and arrays.

  1. Results of the 2000 JPL Balloon Flight Solar Cell Calibration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Mueller, R. L.; Weiss, R. S.

    2001-01-01

    The 2000 solar cell calibration balloon flight campaign consisted of two flights, which occurred on June 27, 2000, and July 5, 2000. All objectives of the flight program were met. Sixty-two modules were carried to an altitude of approximately 120,000 ft (36.6 km). Full I-V curves were measured on sixteen of these modules, and output at a fixed load was measured on thirty-seven modules (forty-six cells), with some modules repeated on the second flight. Nine modules were flown for temperature measurement only. This data was corrected to 28 C and to 1 AU (1.496x10(exp 8) km). The calibrated cells have been returned to their owners and can now be used as reference standards in simulator testing of cells and arrays.

  2. Operational Solar Forecasting System for DNI and GHI for Horizons Covering 5 Minutes to 72 Hours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coimbra, C. F.

    2014-12-01

    I will describe the methodology used to develop and deploy operationally a comprehensive solar forecasting system for both concentrated and non-concentrated solar technologies. This operational forecasting system ingests data from local telemetry, remote sensing and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models, processes all the diferent types of data (time series, sky images, satellite images, gridded data, etc.) to produce concatenated solar forecasts from 5 minutes out to 72 hours into the future. Each forecast is optimized with stochastic learning techniques that include input selection, model topology optimization, model output statistics, metric fitness optimization and machine learning. These forecasts are used by solar generators (plant managers), utilities and independent system operators for operations, scheduling, dispatching and market participation.

  3. The possibility of forming an inhomogeneous Sun and the solar neutrino effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, E. H.; Ruzmaikina, T. V.

    1994-01-01

    Recent observations confirm that the flux of neutrinos from the interior of the Sun is significantly less than what is expected on the basis of solar models. It has long been known that a low neutrino flux could result from a temperature in the Sun's core lower than the approximately 1.5 x 10(exp 7) K central temperature given by standard solar models. A low central temperature could occur if the solar interior were depleted in the so-called metals -- atomic species heavier than helium -- resulting in lower internal opacity. In this case, chemical abundances measured in the solar convection zone would be unrepresentative of the deep-interior abundances. The possibility of a compositionally inhomogeneous Sun has usually been discarded on the basis of cosmogonical arguments against the formation of such nonhomogeneity. This paper suggests that compositional nonhomogeneity could have arisen through unremarkable physical processes during the formation of the Sun, and that a compositionally inhomogeneous Sun remains a viable possibility for investigation of the solar neutrino problem.

  4. Observation of additional low-degree 5-min modes of solar oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherrer, P. H.; Wilcox, J. M.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Gough, D.

    1982-01-01

    High-order solar oscillations with degrees l=3, 4, and 5 could be detected. The observations were made by measuring the difference between the shifts in the Fe 5,124 spectrum line from light integrated from a central circular portion of the solar disk and from an annular portion exterior to it. The frequencies of the octupole modes agree well with the values obtained from whole-disk measurements at the South Pole. A least-squares fit of the observed frequencies to values interpolated between and extrapolated from the predictions of a sequence of solar models with different chemical compositions selects two models. One, a helium-rich solution, agrees with that of similar analyses of whole-disk data. The extrapolated solution has a relatively deep convection zone, and is thus consistent with analyses of 5-min oscillations of high degree.

  5. Turbulence in the solar wind: spectra from Voyager 2 data at 5 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraternale, F.; Gallana, L.; Iovieno, M.; Opher, M.; Richardson, J. D.; Tordella, D.

    2016-02-01

    Fluctuations in the flow velocity and magnetic fields are ubiquitous in the Solar System. These fluctuations are turbulent, in the sense that they are disordered and span a broad range of scales in both space and time. The study of solar wind turbulence is motivated by a number of factors all keys to the understanding of the Solar Wind origin and thermodynamics. The solar wind spectral properties are far from uniformity and evolve with the increasing distance from the sun. Most of the available spectra of solar wind turbulence were computed at 1 astronomical unit, while accurate spectra on wide frequency ranges at larger distances are still few. In this paper we consider solar wind spectra derived from the data recorded by the Voyager 2 mission during 1979 at about 5 AU from the sun. Voyager 2 data are an incomplete time series with a voids/signal ratio that typically increases as the spacecraft moves away from the sun (45% missing data in 1979), making the analysis challenging. In order to estimate the uncertainty of the spectral slopes, different methods are tested on synthetic turbulence signals with the same gap distribution as V2 data. Spectra of all variables show a power law scaling with exponents between -2.1 and -1.1, depending on frequency subranges. Probability density functions (PDFs) and correlations indicate that the flow has a significant intermittency.

  6. Central solar eclipses of 1992. Annual solar eclipse of 4-5 January 1992, total solar eclipse of 30 June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Bangert, J.A.; Fiala, A.D.; Harris, W.T.

    1991-02-01

    By coincidence, the two central solar eclipses of 1992 share a similar characteristic: both central paths will pass almost entirely over water, except for a very small portion at one end which will pass over land and include a major city. The first of the eclipses, an annular eclipse of the Sun, will occur on Saturday, 4 January 1992 and Sunday, 5 January 1992. It will preceded by an associated partial lunar eclipse on 21 December 1991. The central path of this annular eclipse will include a number of small islands in the Pacific Ocean and end over the Los Angeles, California metropolitan area. At maximum over the central Pacific Ocean, approximately 84.4% of the Sun's disk will be obscured. The maximum duration of annularity will be about 11m 36s. Because the track will cross the Internation Date Line, by local times the eclips will occur on the morning of 5 January at the beginning of the path and occur on the evening of 4 January at the end of the path. This eclipse belongs to saros series number 141. The last preceding eclipse in this series was the annular solar eclipse of 24 December 1973; the next eclipse in series will be the annular solar eclips of 15 January 2010.

  7. Central solar eclipses of 1992. Annual solar eclipse of 4-5 January 1992, total solar eclipse of 30 June 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangert, John A.; Fiala, Alan D.; Harris, William T.

    1991-02-01

    By coincidence, the two central solar eclipses of 1992 share a similar characteristic: both central paths will pass almost entirely over water, except for a very small portion at one end which will pass over land and include a major city. The first of the eclipses, an annular eclipse of the Sun, will occur on Saturday, 4 January 1992 and Sunday, 5 January 1992. It will be preceded by an associated partial lunar eclipse on 21 December 1991. The central path of this annular eclipse will include a number of small islands in the Pacific Ocean and end over the Los Angeles, California metropolitan area. At maximum over the central Pacific Ocean, approximately 84.4 percent of the Sun's disk will be obscured. The maximum duration of annularity will be about 11m 36s. Because the track will cross the International Date Line, by local times the eclipse will occur on the morning of 5 January at the beginning of the path and occur on the evening of 4 January at the end of the path. This eclipse belongs to saros series number 141. The last preceding eclipse in this series was the annular solar eclipse of 24 December 1973; the next eclipse in series will be the annular solar eclipse of 15 January 2010.

  8. Observation and Interpretation of Energetic Neutral Hydrogen Atoms from the December 5, 2006 Solar Flare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barghouty, A. F.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Leske, R. A.; Shih, A. Y.; Stone, E. C.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Cummings, A. C.; Labrador, A. W.; vonRosenvinge, T. T.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss observations of energetic neutral hydrogen atoms (ENAs) from a solar flare/coronal mass ejection event reported by Mewaldt et al. (2009). The observations were made during the 5 December 2006 X9 solar flare, located at E79, by the Low Energy Telescopes (LETs) on STEREO A and B. Prior to the arrival of the main solar energetic particle (SEP) event at Earth, both LETs observed a sudden burst of 1.6 to 15 MeV particles arriving from the Sun. The derived solar emission profile, arrival directions, and energy spectrum all show that the <5 MeV particles were due to energetic neutral hydrogen atoms produced by either flare or shock-accelerated protons. RHESSI measurements of the 2.2-MeV gamma-ray line provide an estimate of the number of interacting flare-accelerated protons in this event, which leads to an improved estimate of ENA production by flare-accelerated protons. CME-driven shock acceleration is also considered. Taking into account ENA losses, we conclude that the observed ENAs must have been produced in the high corona at heliocentric distances .2 solar radii.

  9. STEREO Observations of Energetic Neutral Hydrogen Atoms during the 5 December 2006 Solar Flare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mewaldt, R. A.; Leske, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; Barghouty, A. F.; Labrador, A. W.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Cummings, A. C.; Davis, A. J.; vonRosenvinge, T. T.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery of energetic neutral hydrogen atoms emitted during the X9 solar event of December 5, 2006. Beginning 1 hour following the onset of this E79 flare, the Low Energy Telescopes (LETs) on both the STEREO A and B spacecraft observed a sudden burst of 1.6 to 15 MeV protons beginning hours before the onset of the main solar energetic particle (SEP) event at Earth. More than 70% of these particles arrived from a longitude within 10 of the Sun, consistent with the measurement resolution. The derived emission profile at the Sun had onset and peak times remarkably similar to the GOES soft X-ray profile and continued for more than an hour. The observed arrival directions and energy spectrum argue strongly that the particle events less than 5 MeV were due to energetic neutral hydrogen atoms (ENAs). To our knowledge, this is the first reported observation of ENA emission from a solar flare/coronal mass ejection. Possible origins for the production of ENAs in a large solar event are considered. We conclude that the observed ENAs were most likely produced in the high corona and that charge-transfer reactions between accelerated protons and partially-stripped coronal ions are an important source of ENAs in solar events.

  10. A Fractionated Space Weather Base at L5 using CubeSats and Solar Sails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liewer, Paulett C.; Klesh, A.; Lo, M.; Murphy, N.; Staehle, R. L.; Vourlidas, A.; Cutler, J. W.; Lightsey, G.

    2013-07-01

    The Sun-Earth L5 Lagrange point is an ideal location for an operational space weather mission to provide early warning of Earth-directed solar storms (CMEs, shocks and associated solar energetic particles) so the effects on power grids, spacecraft and communications systems can be mitigated. Such missions have been proposed using conventional spacecraft and chemical propulsion at costs of hundreds of millions of dollars. Here we describe a mission that can accomplish the goals at a much lower cost by dividing the payload among a cluster of interplanetary CubeSats that reach orbits around L5 using solar sails. The ascendancy of CubeSats has brought renewed interest in solar sail propulsion because sail area scales directly with spacecraft mass. The concept presented here draws heavily on a NIAC study (Staehle et al., AIAA, 2012) that developed a 6U CubeSat architecture for interplanetary missions. This study allocated 2U for a solar sail; the sail system was based on the Planetary Society’s LightSail-1TM architecture. At a recent workshop on small satellites, hosted by the Keck Institute for Space Studies, a concept was developed for a fractionated Space Weather Base (SWB) at L5. In this concept, a loose formation of CubeSats, each ~6U in size and each carrying a portion of the science payload, can accomplish, at a much reduced cost, many of the goals of a conventional single-spacecraft L5 mission, as described in the 2013 NRC Solar and Space Physics Decadal report. Each of the small ~6U interplanetary CubeSats reaches an orbit around L5 using its own solar sail of approximately 64 m2 which fits in ~2U. Key to the mission is that only one of the CubeSats carries a high-gain antenna and other hardware necessary for sending high-rate science data to Earth. The other CubeSats, in addition to carrying one or two science instruments, carry a much smaller communication system to send the science data to the communication hub and low-rate engineering data to Earth. The

  11. Treatment of solar keratoses with a 5-fluorouracil and salicylic acid varnish.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, J C

    1975-01-01

    In an attempt to avoid the side-effects of treating solar keratoses with 5% 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) ointment, a new pharmacological varnish containing 5% 5-FU and 5-10% salicylic acid to collodium was tried. Twenty patients with such lesions were treated. A drop of the varnish was applied on each lesion every 3 weeks. Only one to five applications on facial lesions were necessary to obtain apparent cure in all patients. Lesions reappeared in four patients, but were cured after a second and similar treatment. The keratoses of the hands were more resistant and needed seven applications in one patient and nine in the other.

  12. Embedding Analogical Reasoning into 5E Learning Model: A Study of the Solar System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devecioglu-Kaymakci, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how the 5E learning model affects learning about the Solar System when an analogical model is utilized in teaching. The data were gathered in an urban middle school 7th grade science course while teaching relevant astronomy topics. The analogical model developed by the researchers was administered to 20…

  13. Observation and Interpretation of Energetic Neutral Hydrogen Atoms from the December 5, 2006 Solar Event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mewaldt, R. A.; Leske, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; Barghouty, A. F.; Shih, A. Y.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Labrador, A. W.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Cummings, A. C.; Cummings, A. C.

    2009-01-01

    We report the first observations of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) from a solar flare/coronal mass ejection event. The observations were made during the December 5, 2006 X9 solar flare, located at E79, by the Low Energy Telescopes (LETs) on the STEREO A and B spacecraft. Within 1-2 hours of the flare onset, both LETs observed a sudden burst of 1.6 to 15 MeV protons arriving hours before the onset of the main solar energetic particle (SEP) event at Earth. More than 70% of these particles arrived from a longitude within +-10 degrees of the Sun. The derived emission profile at the Sun lasted for more than an hour and had a profile remarkably similar to the GOES soft X-ray profile. The observed arrival directions and energy spectrum argue strongly that the particle events <5 MeV were due to energetic neutral hydrogen atoms that were stripped of their electrons upon entering the LET sensor. To our knowledge, this is the first reported observation of ENA emission from a solar flare/coronal mass ejection. We discuss possible origins for the production of ENAs in solar events, including charge-transfer reactions involving both flare and shock-accelerated protons. Assuming isotropic emission, we find that 2 x 10E28 ENAs escaped from the Sun in the upper hemisphere. Based on the 2.2 MeV gamma-ray emission observed by RHESSI in this event, and using measured and theoretical cross sections, we estimate that 3 x 10E31 ENAs with 1.8 - 5 MeV could be produced by protons accelerated in the flare. CME-driven shock acceleration is also a possible ENA source, but unfortunately there were no CME observations available from this event. Taking into account ENA losses, we conclude that the observed ENAs were most likely produced in the high corona at heliocentric distances 1.6 solar radii.

  14. 22.5% efficient silicon heterojunction solar cell with molybdenum oxide hole collector

    SciTech Connect

    Geissbühler, Jonas Werner, Jérémie; Martin de Nicolas, Silvia; Hessler-Wyser, Aïcha; Tomasi, Andrea; Niesen, Bjoern; De Wolf, Stefaan; Barraud, Loris; Despeisse, Matthieu; Nicolay, Sylvain; Ballif, Christophe

    2015-08-24

    Substituting the doped amorphous silicon films at the front of silicon heterojunction solar cells with wide-bandgap transition metal oxides can mitigate parasitic light absorption losses. This was recently proven by replacing p-type amorphous silicon with molybdenum oxide films. In this article, we evidence that annealing above 130 °C—often needed for the curing of printed metal contacts—detrimentally impacts hole collection of such devices. We circumvent this issue by using electrodeposited copper front metallization and demonstrate a silicon heterojunction solar cell with molybdenum oxide hole collector, featuring a fill factor value higher than 80% and certified energy conversion efficiency of 22.5%.

  15. ATS-5 solar cell experiment after 699 days in synchronous orbit.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.

    1972-01-01

    The data from the ATS-5 solar cell experiment for the first 699 days in synchronous orbit is presented. Comparison of the performance of several different types of solar cell/coverslide configurations is made. This behavior is in turn compared with the calculated performance for such cell/coverslide configurations in synchronous orbit and with the results of accelerator irradiations designed to simulate the omnidirectional electron environment. It is generally found that the cells on the flight experiment perform like the cells irradiated with the accelerator, but they degraded more than predicted by the calculation. Solar cells mounted on a thin kapton panel are degrading about the same as are their counterparts mounted on a rigid panel.

  16. Analysis of type 3 solar radio bursts observed at kilometric wavelengths from the OGO-5 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, H.

    1971-01-01

    Research was conducted to analyze the data on solar radio bursts obtained by the OGO-5 satellite. Since the wavelengths corresponding to the three lowest frequencies of observations exceeded one kilometer, the bursts detected in those channels were designated as kilometer-waves. The data search covered approximately 9200 hours between March 1968 and February 1970, and included the maximum of solar cycle No. 20. The study concentrated on 64 Type 3 solar radio events reaching frequencies equal or lower than 0.35 MHz. This selection criteria led to the choice of the most intense radio events. Measurements included: times of start, times of decay, and amplitudes of the 64 events. The consistency of the results, within the accuracy of the measurements, lends support to some of the assumptions made for the analysis, notably, the validity of the local plasma hypothesis, the constancy of the exciter particles velocity, and spiral shape of their trajectory.

  17. V2O5 thin film deposition for application in organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbab, Elhadi A. A.; Mola, Genene Tessema

    2016-04-01

    Vanadium pentoxide V2O5 films were fabricated by way of electrochemical deposition technique for application as hole transport buffer layer in organic solar cell. A thin and uniform V2O5 films were successfully deposited on indium tin oxide-coated glass substrate. The characterization of surface morphology and optical properties of the deposition suggest that the films are suitable for photovoltaic application. Organic solar cell fabricated using V2O5 as hole transport buffer layer showed better devices performance and environmental stability than those devices fabricated with PEDOT:PSS. In an ambient device preparation condition, the power conversion efficiency increases by nearly 80 % compared with PEDOT:PSS-based devices. The devices lifetime using V2O5 buffer layer has improved by a factor of 10 over those devices with PEDOT:PSS.

  18. The climate response to the 11-yr solar cycle in the CMIP5 historical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misios, Stergios; Mitchell, Daniel; Tourpali, Kleareti; Gray, Lesley; Matthes, Katja

    2014-05-01

    The variation of the incoming solar irradiance over the course of the 11-yr solar cycle is a significant source of stratospheric variability. Dynamical mechanisms could amplify and transfer solar signals from the stratosphere to the troposphere and even the surface in a "top-down" pathway. In the opposite direction, "bottom-up" mechanisms could mediate solar signals from the surface to the troposphere via air-sea coupling. The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) provides an unprecedented opportunity to understand the climate response to the 11-yr solar cycle, as brought about from both "top-down" and "bottom-up" mechanisms, because for the first time different coupled models are driven by spectral solar irradiance and ozone changes. We here analyse archived "historical" simulations (1850-2005) with a lead/lag multiple linear regression model, focusing onto the troposphere and oceans. Our analysis identifies a delayed warming in the troposphere and surface, which is explained by the delayed response of the oceans. In fact, the delayed warming penetrates down to ~150 m from the ocean surface. A significant warming is identified over the western Pacific and Indian oceans whereas an anomalous cooling is simulated in the eastern Pacific. This meridional temperature dipole introduces changes in the Walker circulation, precipitation, convective activity with concomitant effects on the Northern Pacific. We further categorize models in "low- and high-top, depending on the inclusion or not of detailed stratospheric dynamics. This classification is found educative when the relative role of the "top-down" versus "bottom-up" forcing is investigated.

  19. Theoretical, observational, and isotopic estimates of the lifetime of the solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podosek, Frank A.; Cassen, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    There are a variety of isotopic data for meteorites which suggest that the protostellar nebula existed and was involved in making planetary materials for some 10(exp 7) yr or more. Many cosmochemists, however, advocate alternative interpretations of such data in order to comply with a perceived constraint, from theoretical considerations, that the nebula existed only for a much shorter time, usually stated as less than or = 10(exp 6) yr. In this paper, we review evidence relevant to solar nebula duration which is available through three different disciplines: theoretical modelling of star formation, isotopic data from meteorites, and astronomical observations of T Tauri stars. Theoretical models based on observations of present star-forming regions indicate that stars like the Sun form by dynamical gravitational collapse of dense cores of cold molecular clouds in the interstellar medium. The collapse to a star and disk occurs rapidly on a time scale of the order 10(exp 5) yr. Disks evolve by dissipating energy while redistributing angular momentum, but it is difficult to predict the rate of evolution, particularly for low mass (compared to the star) disks which nonetheless still contain enough material to account for the observed planetary system. There is no compelling evidence, from available theories of disk structure and evolution, that the solar nebula must have evolved rapidly and could not have persisted for more than 1 Ma. In considering chronologically relevant isotopic data for meteorites, we focus on three methodologies: absolute ages by U-Pb/Pb-Pb, and relative ages by short-lived radionuclides (especially Al-26) and by evolution of Sr-87/Sr-86. Two kinds of meteoritic materials-refractory inclusions such as CAIs and differentiated meteorites (eucrites and angrites) - appear to have experience potentially dateable nebular events. In both case, the most straightforward interpretations of the available data indicate nebular events spanning several Ma. We

  20. Voyager observations of O(+6) and other minor ions in the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villanueva, Louis; Mcnutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Lazarus, Alan J.; Steinberg, John T.

    1994-01-01

    The plasma science (PLS) experiments on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft began making measurements of the solar wind shortly after the two launches in the fall of 1977. In reviewing the data obtained prior to the Jupiter encounters in 1979, we have found that the large dynamic range of the PLS instrument generally allows a clean separation of signatures of minor ions (about 2.5% of the time) during a single instrument scan in energy per charge. The minor ions, most notably O(+6), are well separated from the protons and alpha particles during times when the solar wind Mach number (ratio of streaming speed to thermal speed) is greater than approximately 15. During the Earth to Jupiter cruise we find that the average ratio of alpha particle number density to that of oxygen is 66 +/- 7 (Voyager 1) and 71 +/- 17 (Voyager 2). These values are consistent with the value 75 +/- 20 inferred from the Ion Composition Instrument on ISEE 3 during the period spanning 1978 and 1982. We have inferred an average coronal temperature of (1.7 +/- 0.1) x 10(exp 6) K based on the ratio of O(+7) to O(+6) number densities. Our observations cover a period of increasing solar activity. During this time we have found that the alpha particle to proton number density ratio is increasing with the solar cycle, the oxygen to proton ratio increases, and the alpha particle to oxygen ratio remains relatively constant in time.

  1. Sloshing Gas in the Core of the Most Luminous Galaxy Cluster RXJ1347.5-1145

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Ryan E.; Zuhone, John; Jones, Christine; Forman, William R.; Markevitvh, Maxim

    2011-01-01

    We present new constraints on the merger history of the most X-ray luminous cluster of galaxies, RXJ1347.5-1145, based on its unique multiwavelength morphology. Our X-ray analysis confirms the core gas is undergoing "sloshing" resulting from a prior, large scale, gravitational perturbation. In combination with extensive multiwavelength observations, the sloshing gas points to the primary and secondary clusters having had at least two prior strong gravitational interactions. The evidence supports a model in which the secondary subcluster with mass M=4.8+/-2.4x10(exp 14) solar Mass has previously (> or approx.0.6 Gyr ago) passed by the primary cluster, and has now returned for a subsequent crossing where the subcluster's gas has been completely stripped from its dark matter halo. RXJ1347 is a prime example of how core gas sloshing may be used to constrain the merger histories of galaxy clusters through multiwavelength analyses.

  2. An Atomic Clock with 10 (exp -18) Instability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-13

    from the effects of strong initial density fluctuations in quench up experi ments and finite temperature (20). The space time dependence of the...experimental tools to address exciting topics in cosmology and gravitational physics such as Hawking radiation (13) or Unruh effect (27). References...3.2 x 10- 16/y’t (red solid lile). The blue dashed line represents the estimated combined instabiliy contributions from the Dick effect (1.4 x 10-16

  3. The formation of protostellar disks. I - 1 M(solar)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yorke, Harold W.; Bodenheimer, Peter; Laughlin, Gregory

    1993-01-01

    Hydrodynamical calculations of the collapse of an axisymmetric, rotating one solar mass protostellar cloud, including the effects of radiative transfer and radiative acceleration but without magnetic fields, are presented. The results include calculations of infrared protostellar spectra as a function of time and viewing angle. A numerical algorithm involving explicit nested grids is used to resolve the region of initial disk formation and at the same time to include the outer regions in the calculation. The central part of the protostar is modeled approximately. Initial conditions are systematically varied to investigate their influence on the evolution and final configuration of central star plus circumstellar disk. The initial state for the standard case is a centrally condensed molecular cloud core of one solar mass with a mean density of 8 x 10 exp -18 g/cu cm and a specific angular momentum at the outer edge of 7 x 10 exp 20 sq cm/s. The collapse is followed for 8 x 10 exp 4 yr, at which point 0.45 solar mass is contained in a rapidly rotating central object and most of the remainder in a surrounding equilibrium disk. The stability of this final structure is qualitatively analyzed.

  4. Program of solar wind data analysis utilizing data from Pioneer 6, Mariner 5 and explorer 35

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siscoe, G. L.

    1972-01-01

    A combined data analysis and theoretical program aimed at interpreting and utilizing solar wind data obtained from Pioneer 6, Mariner 5, and Explorer 35 has been completed. A theoretical model of the radial dependence of large scale solar wind inhomogeneities was developed and used to map solar wind variations measured by Explorer 35 to various heliocentric distances and to the orbits of Mercury, Venus, and Mars. The model was also used to determine power spectra velocity, density and temperature variations of 20 R sub s from spectra obtained from the Mariner 5 data at an average heliocentric distance of 180 R sub s. Five stream-stream interaction events in the Pioneer 6 data were analyzed which confirmed the picture of a spiral compression ridge interfacing the two streams and the associated east-west deflections of the solar wind flow. Magnetopause crossings observed in Explorer 35 plasma data were used to develop statics on boundary motions at lunar distance. A study of the geomagnetic disturbance field asymmetry was performed and a model of disturbance field from a partial ring current was developed.

  5. ATS-5 solar cell experiment results after one year in synchronous orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.

    1972-01-01

    The results of the ATS-5 solar cell experiment after one year in synchronous orbit are reported. A partial failure in the experimental electronics package has caused a loss of data from half the 80 experimental solar cells. Procedures for extracting data due to a partial spacecraft failure are described and discussed. Data from the remaining 40 solar cells, including 15 mounted on a thin flexible structure are analyzed. Data are corrected to a solar intensity of 140 mW/sq cm and a temperature of 25 C. It was found that after one year in synchronous orbit: (1) cells with 1.52-mm-thick coverslides did not show a clear-cut advantage over those with 0.15-mm coverslides, (2) cells with solderless grid lines are degrading at the same rate as are cells with solder-dipped grid lines, (3) cells not quite completely covered with coverslides suffered a large power loss in comparison to cells fully covered, (4) no clear-cut advantage of 10-cm cells over 2-cm cells has yet been observed, (5) cells mounted on the flexible panel with relatively little backshielding did not degrade any faster than those with substantial backshielding, and (6) the flight data in large part confirms the adequacy of the ground-based techniques used in our preflight radiation test program.

  6. Solar Wind Excitation of Pc5 Fluctuations in the Magnetosphere and on the Ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessel, Ramona L.

    2006-01-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is to show the strong link between solar wind compressional fluctuations in the 1-8 mHz frequency range and Pc5 fluctuations in the magnetosphere near the magnetopause, at geosynchronous orbit, over the poles, and on the ground. We focus on a time interval in March and April 2002 when there was a favorable alignment of satellites combined with ten high speed solar wind streams. We used the S3C Great Observatory: specifically, ACE and Wind in the solar wind, Geotail near the magnetopause, GOES 8 and 10 at geosynchronous orbit, Cluster over the poles, and CANOPUS/CARISMA ground stations near the footpoints of magnetic field lines connected to either the magnetopause or the GOES satellites. Using four examples and a statistical survey we show that magnetospheric Pc5 fluctuations exist regardless of IMF orientation and for a wide range of speeds and dynamic pressures; the amplitude and power of magnetospheric fluctuations depends primarily on the amplitude and power of solar wind dynamic pressure fluctuations. The driving and response frequency of these geoeffective fluctuations is in the range 0.5 - 4 mHz. The most striking magnetospheric response occurs when the solar wind speed, dynamic pressure, and dynamic pressure fluctuations all increase at approximately the same time, as frequently occurs near the leading edge of high speed streams. We show evidence of oscillating Poynting Flux at the magnetopause determined using Geotail data that both excites a FLR and propagates evanescently inward. These observations suggest that, at least for this time interval at spring equinox, the entry path is from the dayside equatorial magnetopause inward; multiple field line resonances may be excited from the magnetopause to geosynchronous orbit by propagating compressional waves, with the power decreasing inward away from the magnetopause.

  7. InP tunnel junction for InGaAs/InP tandem solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilela, M. F.; Freundlich, A.; Bensaoula, A.; Medelci, N.; Renaud, P.

    1995-01-01

    Chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) has been shown to allow the growth of high quality materials with reproducible complex compositional and doping profiles. The main advantage of CBE compared to metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), the most popular technique for InP-based photovoltaic device fabrication, is the ability to grow high purity epilayers at much lower temperatures (450-530 C). We have previously shown that CBE is perfectly suited toward the fabrication of complex photovoltaic devices such as InP/InGaAs monolithically integrated tandem solar cells, because its low process temperature preserves the electrical characteristics of the InGaAs tunnel junction commonly used as an ohmic interconnect. In this work using CBE for the fabrication of optically transparent (with respect to the bottom cell) InP tunnel diodes is demonstrated. Epitaxial growth were performed in a Riber CBE 32 system using PH3 and TMIn as III and V precursors. Solid Be (p-type) and Si (n-type) have been used as doping sources, allowing doping levels up to 2 x 10(exp -19)/cu cm and 1 x 10(exp -19)/cu cm for n and p type respectively. The InP tunnel junction characteristics and the influence of the growth's conditions (temperature, growth rate) over its performance have been carefully investigated. InP p(++)/n(++) tunnel junction with peak current densities up to 1600 A/sq cm and maximum specific resistivities (V(sub p)/I(sub p) - peak voltage to peak current ratio) in the range of 10(exp -4) Omega-sq cm were obtained. The obtained peak current densities exceed the highest results previously reported for their lattice matched counterparts, In(0.53)Ga( 0.47)As and should allow the realization of improved minimal absorption losses in the interconnect InP/InGaAs tandem devices for Space applications. Owing to the low process temperature required for the top cell, these devices exhibit almost no degradation of its characteristics after the growth of subsequent thick InP layer suggesting

  8. Simulations of Solar Wind Plasma Flow Around a Simple Solar Sail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Henry B.; Wang, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, a number of solar sail missions of various designs and sizes have been proposed (e.g., Geostorm). Of importance to these missions is the interaction between the ambient solar wind plasma environment and the sail. Assuming a typical 1 AU solar wind environment of 400 km/s velocity, 3.5 cu cm density, ion temperature of approx.10 eV, electron temperature of 40 eV, and an ambient magnetic field strength of 10(exp -4) G, a first order estimate of the plasma interaction with square solar sails on the order of the sizes being considered for a Geostorm mission (50 m x 50 m and 75 m x 75 m corresponding to approx.2 and approx.3 times the Debye length in the plasma) is carried out. First, a crude current balance for the sail surface immersed in the plasma environment and in sunlight was used to estimate the surface potential of the model sails. This gave surface potentials of approx.10 V positive relative to the solar wind plasma. A 3-D, Electrostatic Particle-in-Cell (PIC) code was then used to simulate the solar wind flowing around the solar sail. It is assumed in the code that the solar wind protons can be treated as particles while the electrons follow a Boltzmann distribution. Next, the electric field and particle trajectories are solved self-consistently to give the proton flow field, the electrostatic field around the sail, and the plasma density in 3-D. The model sail was found to be surrounded by a plasma sheath within which the potential is positive compared to the ambient plasma and followed by a separate plasma wake which is negative relative to the plasma. This structure departs dramatically from a negatively charged plate such as might be found in the Earth s ionosphere on the night side where both the plate and its negative wake are contiguous. The implications of these findings are discussed as they apply to the proposed Geostorm solar sail mission.

  9. New Observations of the Solar 0.5-5 keV Soft X-Ray Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspi, Amir; Woods, Thomas N.; Warren, Harry P.

    2015-03-01

    The solar corona is orders of magnitude hotter than the underlying photosphere, but how the corona attains such high temperatures is still not understood. Soft X-ray (SXR) emission provides important diagnostics for thermal processes in the high-temperature corona, and is also an important driver of ionospheric dynamics at Earth. There is a crucial observational gap between ˜0.2 and ˜4 keV, outside the ranges of existing spectrometers. We present observations from a new SXR spectrometer, the Amptek X123-SDD, which measured the spatially integrated solar spectral irradiance from ˜0.5 to ˜5 keV, with ˜0.15 keV FWHM resolution, during sounding rocket flights on 2012 June 23 and 2013 October 21. These measurements show that the highly variable SXR emission is orders of magnitude greater than that during the deep minimum of 2009, even with only weak activity. The observed spectra show significant high-temperature (5-10 MK) emission and are well fit by simple power-law temperature distributions with indices of ˜6, close to the predictions of nanoflare models of coronal heating. Observations during the more active 2013 flight indicate an enrichment of low first-ionization potential elements of only ˜1.6, below the usually observed value of ˜4, suggesting that abundance variations may be related to coronal heating processes. The XUV Photometer System Level 4 data product, a spectral irradiance model derived from integrated broadband measurements, significantly overestimates the spectra from both flights, suggesting a need for revision of its non-flare reference spectra, with important implications for studies of Earth ionospheric dynamics driven by solar SXRs.

  10. Lunar and Solar Torques on the Oceanic Tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Bills, Bruce G.; Chao, Benjamin F.

    1998-01-01

    Brosche and Seiler recently suggested that direct lunar and solar tidal torques on the oceanic tides play a significant role in the earth's short-period angular momentum balance ("short-period" here meaning daily and sub-daily). We reexamine that suggestion here, concentrating on axial torques and hence on variations in rotation rate. Only those spherical harmonic components of the ocean tide having the same degree and order as the tidal potential induce nonzero torques. Prograde components (those moving in the same direction as the tide-generating body) produce the familiar secular braking of the earth's rotation. Retrograde components, however, produce rapid variations in UTI at twice the tidal frequency. There also exist interaction torques between tidal constituents, e.g. solar torques on lunar tides. They generate UTI variations at frequencies equal to the sums and differences of the original tidal frequencies. We give estimates of the torques and angular momentum variations for each of the important regimes, secular to quarter-diurnal. For the M(sub 2) potential acting on the M(sub 2) ocean tide, we find an associated angular momentum variation of amplitude 3 x 10(exp 19) N m. This is 5 to 6 orders of magnitude smaller than the angular momentum variations associated with tidal currents. We conclude that these torques do not play a significant role in the short-period angular momentum balance.

  11. Ground-based Pc5 ULF wave power: Solar wind speed and MLT dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahud, D. M.; Rae, I. J.; Mann, I. R.; Murphy, K. R.; Amalraj, V.

    2009-07-01

    Using over 20 years of ground-based magnetometer data from the CANOPUS/CARISMA magnetometer array, we present a statistical characterisation of Pc5 ultra-low frequency (ULF) power in the 2-10 mHz band as a function of magnetic local time (MLT), L-shell, and solar wind speed. We examine the power across L-shells between 4.2 and 7.9, using data from the PINA, ISLL, GILL and FCHU stations, and demonstrate that there is a significant MLT dependence in both the H- and D-component median 2-10 mHz power during both fast (>500 km/s) and slow (<500 km/s) solar wind speeds. The H-component power consistently dominates over D-component power at all MLTs and during both fast and slow solar wind. At the higher-L stations (L>5.4), there are strong MLT power peaks in the morning and midnight local time sectors; the morning sector dominating midnight during fast solar wind events. At lower L-shells, there is no evidence of the midnight peak and the 2-10 mHz power is more symmetric with respect to MLT except during the fastest solar wind speeds. There is little evidence in the ground-based power of a localised MLT peak in ULF power at dusk, except at the lowest L-shell station, predominantly in the H-component. The median 2-10 mHz power increases with an approximate power law dependence on solar wind speed, at all local times across the L-shell domain studied in both components. The H-component power peaks at the latitude of the GILL station, with significantly lower power at both higher and lower L-shells. Conversely, the D-component power increases monotonically. We believe that this is evidence for 2-10 mHz power accumulating at auroral latitudes in field line resonances. Finally, we discuss how such ULF wave power characterisation might be used to derive empirical radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients based on, and driven by, the solar wind speed dependence of ULF wave power.

  12. Physical properties of a polar coronal hole from 2 to 5 solar radii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munro, R. H.; Jackson, B. V.

    1977-01-01

    Observations with a white-light coronagraph aboard Skylab are used to determine the boundaries of a coronal hole in the northern polar region and the three-dimensional density structure within the hole between heights of 2 and 5 solar radii. The boundary of the hole is found to be essentially axisymmetric about the polar axis, nearly radial from 3 to 6 solar radii, and located near 25 deg latitude at these heights. The radiances arising from the hole are interpreted as resulting from an axisymmetric density distribution whose logarithmic radial gradient is independent of position within the hole and whose magnitude increases with angular distance away from the hole's axis. The velocity distribution within the hole is obtained from the continuity equation by assuming that the particle flux flowing outward in the hole is similar to that measured for high-speed solar-wind streams at 1 AU, and it is shown that the transition from subsonic to supersonic flow occurs between 2.2 and 3 solar radii.

  13. Power Spectra, Power Law Exponents, and Anisotropy of Solar Wind Turbulence at Small Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podesta, J. J.; Roberts, D. A.; Goldstein, M. L.

    2006-01-01

    The Wind spacecraft provides simultaneous solar wind velocity and magnetic field measurements with 3- second time resolution, roughly an order of magnitude faster than previous measurements, enabling the small scale features of solar wind turbulence to be studied in unprecedented detail. Almost the entire inertial range can now be explored (the inertial range extends from approximately 1 to 10(exp 3) seconds in the spacecraft frame) although the dissipation range of the velocity fluctuations is still out of reach. Improved measurements of solar wind turbulence spectra at 1 AU in the ecliptic plane are presented including spectra of the energy and cross-helicity, the magnetic and kinetic energies, the Alfven ratio, the normalized cross-helicity, and the Elsasser ratio. Some recent observations and theoretical challenges are discussed including the observation that the velocity and magnetic field spectra often show different power law exponents with values close to 3/2 and 5/3, respectively; the energy (kinetic plus magnetic) and cross-helicity often have approximately equal power law exponents with values intermediate between 3/2 and 5/3; and the Alfven ratio, the ratio of the kinetic to magnetic energy spectra, is often a slowly increasing function of frequency increasing from around 0.4 to 1 for frequencies in the inertial range. Differences between high- and low-speed wind are also discussed. Comparisons with phenomenological turbulence theories show that important aspects of the physics are yet unexplained.

  14. Energetic-particle abundances in impulsive solar flare events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reames, D. V.; Meyer, J. P.; Von Rosenvinge, T. T.

    1994-01-01

    We report on the abundances of energetic particles from impulsive solar flares, including those from a survey of 228 He-3 rich events, with He-3/He-4 is greater than 0.1, observed by the International Sun Earth Explorer (ISEE) 3 spacecraft from 1978 August through 1991 April. The rate of occurrence of these events corresponds to approximately 1000 events/yr on the solar disk at solar maximum. Thus the resonant plasma processes that enhance He-3 and heavy elements are a common occurrence in impulsive solar flares. To supply the observed fluence of He-3 in large events, the acceleration must be highly efficient and the source region must be relatively deep in the atmosphere at a density of more than 10(exp 10) atoms/cu cm. He-3/He-4 may decrease in very large impulsive events because of depletion of He-3 in the source region. The event-to-event variations in He-3/He-4, H/He-4, e/p, and Fe/C are uncorrelated in our event sample. Abundances of the elements show a pattern in which, relative to coronal composition, He-4, C, N, and O have normal abundance ratios, while Ne, Mg, and Si are enhanced by a factor approximately 2.5 and Fe by a factor approximately 7. This pattern suggests that elements are accelerated from a region of the corona with an electron temperature of approximately 3-5 MK, where elements in the first group are fully ionized (Q/A = 0.5), those in the second group have two orbital electrons (Q/A approximately 0.43), and Fe has Q/A approximately 0.28. Ions with the same gyrofrequency absorb waves of that frequency and are similarly accelerated and enhanced. Further stripping may occur after acceleration as the ions begin to interact with the streaming electrons that generated the plasma waves.

  15. Fast and Accurate Hybrid Stream PCRTMSOLAR Radiative Transfer Model for Reflected Solar Spectrum Simulation in the Cloudy Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Qiguang; Liu, Xu; Wu, Wan; Kizer, Susan; Baize, Rosemary R.

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid stream PCRTM-SOLAR model has been proposed for fast and accurate radiative transfer simulation. It calculates the reflected solar (RS) radiances with a fast coarse way and then, with the help of a pre-saved matrix, transforms the results to obtain the desired high accurate RS spectrum. The methodology has been demonstrated with the hybrid stream discrete ordinate (HSDO) radiative transfer (RT) model. The HSDO method calculates the monochromatic radiances using a 4-stream discrete ordinate method, where only a small number of monochromatic radiances are simulated with both 4-stream and a larger N-stream (N = 16) discrete ordinate RT algorithm. The accuracy of the obtained channel radiance is comparable to the result from N-stream moderate resolution atmospheric transmission version 5 (MODTRAN5). The root-mean-square errors are usually less than 5x10(exp -4) mW/sq cm/sr/cm. The computational speed is three to four-orders of magnitude faster than the medium speed correlated-k option MODTRAN5. This method is very efficient to simulate thousands of RS spectra under multi-layer clouds/aerosols and solar radiation conditions for climate change study and numerical weather prediction applications.

  16. MuSICa image slicer prototype at 1.5-m GREGOR solar telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcines, A.; López, R. L.; Collados, M.; Vega Reyes, N.

    2014-07-01

    Integral Field Spectroscopy is an innovative technique that is being implemented in the state-of-the-art instruments of the largest night-time telescopes, however, it is still a novelty for solar instrumentation. A new concept of image slicer, called MuSICa (Multi-Slit Image slicer based on collimator-Camera), has been designed for the integral field spectrograph of the 4-m European Solar Telescope. This communication presents an image slicer prototype of MuSICa for GRIS, the spectrograph of the 1.5-m GREGOR solar telescope located at the Observatory of El Teide. MuSICa at GRIS reorganizes a 2-D field of view of 24.5 arcsec into a slit of 0.367 arcsec width by 66.76 arcsec length distributed horizontally. It will operate together with the TIP-II polarimeter to offer high resolution integral field spectropolarimetry. It will also have a bidimensional field of view scanning system to cover a field of view up to 1 by 1 arcmin.

  17. 15 CFR 950.5 - National Geophysical and Solar-Terrestrial Data Center (NGSDC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-A (Solid-Earth Geophysics, Solar Terrestrial Physics, and Glaciology). (a) Geophysical and solar... geological data, including data on heat flow, cores, samples, and sediments. (2) Solar-Terrestrial...

  18. 15 CFR 950.5 - National Geophysical and Solar-Terrestrial Data Center (NGSDC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-A (Solid-Earth Geophysics, Solar Terrestrial Physics, and Glaciology). (a) Geophysical and solar... geological data, including data on heat flow, cores, samples, and sediments. (2) Solar-Terrestrial...

  19. 15 CFR 950.5 - National Geophysical and Solar-Terrestrial Data Center (NGSDC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-A (Solid-Earth Geophysics, Solar Terrestrial Physics, and Glaciology). (a) Geophysical and solar... geological data, including data on heat flow, cores, samples, and sediments. (2) Solar-Terrestrial...

  20. 15 CFR 950.5 - National Geophysical and Solar-Terrestrial Data Center (NGSDC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-A (Solid-Earth Geophysics, Solar Terrestrial Physics, and Glaciology). (a) Geophysical and solar... geological data, including data on heat flow, cores, samples, and sediments. (2) Solar-Terrestrial...

  1. 15 CFR 950.5 - National Geophysical and Solar-Terrestrial Data Center (NGSDC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-A (Solid-Earth Geophysics, Solar Terrestrial Physics, and Glaciology). (a) Geophysical and solar... geological data, including data on heat flow, cores, samples, and sediments. (2) Solar-Terrestrial...

  2. Nb2O5 as a new electron transport layer for double junction polymer solar cells.

    PubMed

    Siddiki, Mahbube K; Venkatesan, Swaminathan; Qiao, Qiquan

    2012-04-14

    Nb(2)O(5) as a new electron transport layer (ETL) was used for double junction polymer solar cells. The Nb(2)O(5) ETL was prepared by spin coating a Nb(2)O(5) sol-gel solution onto the active layer of the optical front subcell. The double junction devices using Nb(2)O(5) ETL exhibit an open circuit voltage (V(oc)) of 1.30 V, which is close to the sum of the s of the individual subcells. The current density-voltage (J-V) simulation showed that the double junction device performance using Nb(2)O(5) as ETL could be significantly increased by reducing the series resistance (R(se)) and matching the current densities of the individual subcells.

  3. Gravity wave forcing in the middle atmosphere due to reduced ozone heating during a solar eclipse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritts, David C.; Luo, Zhangai

    1993-01-01

    We present an analysis of the gravity wave structure and the associated forcing of the middle atmosphere induced by the screening of the ozone layer from solar heating during a solar eclipse. Fourier integral techniques and numerical evaluation of the integral solutions were used to assess the wave field structure and to compute the gravity wave forcing of the atmosphere at greater heights. Our solutions reveal dominant periods of a few hours, characteristic horizontal and vertical scales of about 5000 to 10,000 km and 200 km, respectively, and an integrated momentum flux in the direction of eclipse motion of about 5.6 x 10 exp 8 N at each height above the forcing level. These results suggest that responses to solar eclipses may be difficult to detect above background gravity wave and tidal fluctuations until well into the thermosphere. Conversely, the induced body forces may penetrate to considerable heights because of the large wave scales and will have significant effects at levels where the wave field is dissipated.

  4. Conceptual design study of a 5 kilowatt solar dynamic Brayton power system using a dome Fresnel lens solar concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneill, Mark J.; Mcdanal, A. J.; Spears, Don H.

    1989-01-01

    The primary project objective was to generate a conceptual design for a nominal 5 kW solar dynamic space power system, which uses a unique, patented, transmittance-optimized, dome-shaped, point-focus Fresnel lens as the optical concentrator. Compared to reflective concentrators, the dome lens allows 200 times larger slope errors for the same image displacement. Additionally, the dome lens allows the energy receiver, the power conversion unit (PCU), and the heat rejection radiator to be independently optimized in configuration and orientation, since none of these elements causes any aperture blockage. Based on optical and thermal trade studies, a 6.6 m diameter lens with a focal length of 7.2 m was selected. This lens should provide 87 percent net optical efficienty at 800X geometric concentration ratio. The large lens is comprised of 24 gores, which compactly stow together during launch, and automatically deploy on orbit. The total mass of the microglass lens panels, the graphite/epoxy support structure, and miscellaneous hardware is about 1.2 kg per square meter of aperture. The key problem for the dome lens approach relates to the selection of a space-durable lens material. For the first time, all-glass Fresnel lens samples were successfully made by a sol-gel casting process.

  5. A large‐scale view of Space Technology 5 magnetometer response to solar wind drivers

    PubMed Central

    Kilcommons, L. M.; Gjerloev, J.; Redmon, R. J.; Slavin, J.; Le, G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this data report we discuss reprocessing of the Space Technology 5 (ST5) magnetometer database for inclusion in NASA's Coordinated Data Analysis Web (CDAWeb) virtual observatory. The mission consisted of three spacecraft flying in elliptical orbits, from 27 March to 27 June 2006. Reprocessing includes (1) transforming the data into the Modified Apex Coordinate System for projection to a common reference altitude of 110 km, (2) correcting gain jumps, and (3) validating the results. We display the averaged magnetic perturbations as a keogram, which allows direct comparison of the full‐mission data with the solar wind values and geomagnetic indices. With the data referenced to a common altitude, we find the following: (1) Magnetic perturbations that track the passage of corotating interaction regions and high‐speed solar wind; (2) unexpectedly strong dayside perturbations during a solstice magnetospheric sawtooth oscillation interval characterized by a radial interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) component that may have enhanced the accompanying modest southward IMF; and (3) intervals of reduced magnetic perturbations or “calms,” associated with periods of slow solar wind, interspersed among variable‐length episodic enhancements. These calms are most evident when the IMF is northward or projects with a northward component onto the geomagnetic dipole. The reprocessed ST5 data are in very good agreement with magnetic perturbations from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft, which we also map to 110 km. We briefly discuss the methods used to remap the ST5 data and the means of validating the results against DMSP. Our methods form the basis for future intermission comparisons of space‐based magnetometer data. PMID:27981071

  6. A large-scale view of Space Technology 5 magnetometer response to solar wind drivers.

    PubMed

    Knipp, D J; Kilcommons, L M; Gjerloev, J; Redmon, R J; Slavin, J; Le, G

    2015-04-01

    In this data report we discuss reprocessing of the Space Technology 5 (ST5) magnetometer database for inclusion in NASA's Coordinated Data Analysis Web (CDAWeb) virtual observatory. The mission consisted of three spacecraft flying in elliptical orbits, from 27 March to 27 June 2006. Reprocessing includes (1) transforming the data into the Modified Apex Coordinate System for projection to a common reference altitude of 110 km, (2) correcting gain jumps, and (3) validating the results. We display the averaged magnetic perturbations as a keogram, which allows direct comparison of the full-mission data with the solar wind values and geomagnetic indices. With the data referenced to a common altitude, we find the following: (1) Magnetic perturbations that track the passage of corotating interaction regions and high-speed solar wind; (2) unexpectedly strong dayside perturbations during a solstice magnetospheric sawtooth oscillation interval characterized by a radial interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) component that may have enhanced the accompanying modest southward IMF; and (3) intervals of reduced magnetic perturbations or "calms," associated with periods of slow solar wind, interspersed among variable-length episodic enhancements. These calms are most evident when the IMF is northward or projects with a northward component onto the geomagnetic dipole. The reprocessed ST5 data are in very good agreement with magnetic perturbations from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft, which we also map to 110 km. We briefly discuss the methods used to remap the ST5 data and the means of validating the results against DMSP. Our methods form the basis for future intermission comparisons of space-based magnetometer data.

  7. Observations and Interpretations of Energetic Neutral Hydrogen Atoms from the December 5, 2006 Solar Event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mewaldt, R. A.; Leske, R. A.; Shih, A. Y.; Stone, E. C.; Barghouty, A. f.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Cummings, A. c.; Labrador, A. W.; vonRosenvinge, T. T.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss recently reported observations of energetic neutral hydrogen atoms (ENAs) from an X9 solar flare/coronal mass ejection event on 5 December 2006, located at E79. The observations were made by the Low Energy Telescopes (LETs) on STEREO A and B. Prior to the arrival of the main solar energetic particle (SEP) event at Earth, both LETs observed a sudden burst of 1.6 to 15 MeV energetic neutral hydrogen atoms produced by either flare or shock-accelerated protons. RHESSI measurements of the 2.2-MeV gamma-ray line provide an estimate of the number of interacting flare-accelerated protons in this event, which leads to an improved estimate of ENA production by flare-accelerated protons. Taking into account ENA losses, we find that the observed ENAs must have been produced in the high corona at heliocentric distances > or equal to 2 solar radii. Although there are no CME images from this event, it is shown that CME-shock-accelerated protons can, in principle, produce a time-history consistent with the observations.

  8. Heteroepitaxial InP, and ultrathin, directly glassed, GaAs 3-5 solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardingham, C. M.; Cross, T. A.

    1993-01-01

    The commercial application of Indium Phosphide solar cells in practical space missions is crucially dependent upon achieving a major cost reduction which could be offered by heteroepitaxy on cheaper, more rugged substrates. Furthermore, significant mass reduction, compatibility with mechanically stacked multijunction cells, and elimination of the current loss through glue discoloration, is possible in III-V solar cells by the development of ultrathin, directly glassed cells. The progress of a UK collaborative program to develop high efficiency, homojunction InP solar cells, grown by MOCVD on Si substrates, is described. Results of homoepitaxial cells (is greater than 17 percent 1 Sun AM0) are presented, together with progress in achieving low dislocation density heteroepitaxy. Also, progress in a UK program to develop ultrathin directly-glassed GaAs cells is described. Ultrathin (5 micron) GaAs cells, with 1 Sun AM0 efficiencies up to 19.1 percent, are presented, together with progress in achieving a direct (adhesive-less) bond between the cell and coverglass. Consequential development to, for example, cell grids, are also discussed.

  9. Air mass 1.5 global and direct solar simulation and secondary reference cell calibration using a filtered large area pulsed solar simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert L.

    1985-01-01

    Spectral mismatch between a solar simulator and a desired spectrum can result in nearly 20 percent measurement error in the output of photovoltaic devices. This occurs when a crystalline silicon cell monitors the intensity of an unfiltered large area pulsed solar simulator (LAPSS) simulating the ASTM air mass 1.5 direct spectrum and the test device is amorphous silicon. The LAPSS spectral irradiance is modified with readily available glass UV filters to closely match either the ASTM air mass 1.5 direct or global spectrum. Measurement error is reduced to about 1 percent when using either filter if the reference cell and test device are the same general type.

  10. Evolution and characteristics of global Pc5 ULF waves during a high solar wind speed interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rae, I. J.; Donovan, E. F.; Mann, I. R.; Fenrich, F. R.; Watt, C. E. J.; Milling, D. K.; Lester, M.; Lavraud, B.; Wild, J. A.; Singer, H. J.; RèMe, H.; Balogh, A.

    2005-12-01

    We present an interval of extremely long-lasting narrow-band Pc5 pulsations during the recovery phase of a large geomagnetic storm. These pulsations occurred continuously for many hours and were observed throughout the magnetosphere and in the dusk-sector ionosphere. The subject of this paper is the favorable radial alignment of the Cluster, Polar, and geosynchronous satellites in the dusk sector during a 3-hour subset of this interval that allows extensive analysis of the global nature of the pulsations and the tracing of their energy transfer from the solar wind to the ground. Virtually monochromatic large-amplitude pulsations were observed by the CANOPUS magnetometer chain at dusk for several hours, during which the Cluster spacecraft constellation traversed the dusk magnetopause. The solar wind conditions were very steady, the solar wind speed was fast, and time series analysis of the solar wind dynamic pressure shows no significant power concentrated in the Pc5 band. The pulsations are observed in both geosynchronous electron and magnetic field data over a wide range of local times while Cluster is in the vicinity of the magnetopause providing clear evidence of boundary oscillations with the same periodicity as the ground and geosynchronous pulsations. Furthermore, the Polar spacecraft crossed the equatorial dusk magnetosphere outside of geosynchronous orbit (L ˜ 6-9) and observed significant electric and magnetic perturbations around the same quasi-stable central frequency (1.4-1.6 mHz). The Poynting vector observed by the Polar spacecraft associated with these pulsations has strong field-aligned oscillations, as expected for standing Alfvén waves, as well as a nonzero azimuthal component, indicating a downtail component to the energy propagation. In the ionosphere, ground-based magnetometers observed signatures characteristic of a field-line resonance, and HF radars observed flows as a direct consequence of the energy input. We conclude that the most

  11. QUIET-TIME SUPRATHERMAL (∼0.1–1.5 keV) ELECTRONS IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Jiawei; Wang, Linghua; Zong, Qiugang; He, Jiansen; Tu, Chuanyi; Li, Gang; Salem, Chadi S.; Bale, Stuart D.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.

    2016-03-20

    We present a statistical survey of the energy spectrum of solar wind suprathermal (∼0.1–1.5 keV) electrons measured by the WIND 3DP instrument at 1 AU during quiet times at the minimum and maximum of solar cycles 23 and 24. After separating (beaming) strahl electrons from (isotropic) halo electrons according to their different behaviors in the angular distribution, we fit the observed energy spectrum of both strahl and halo electrons at ∼0.1–1.5 keV to a Kappa distribution function with an index κ and effective temperature T{sub eff}. We also calculate the number density n and average energy E{sub avg} of strahl and halo electrons by integrating the electron measurements between ∼0.1 and 1.5 keV. We find a strong positive correlation between κ and T{sub eff} for both strahl and halo electrons, and a strong positive correlation between the strahl n and halo n, likely reflecting the nature of the generation of these suprathermal electrons. In both solar cycles, κ is larger at solar minimum than at solar maximum for both strahl and halo electrons. The halo κ is generally smaller than the strahl κ (except during the solar minimum of cycle 23). The strahl n is larger at solar maximum, but the halo n shows no difference between solar minimum and maximum. Both the strahl n and halo n have no clear association with the solar wind core population, but the density ratio between the strahl and halo roughly anti-correlates (correlates) with the solar wind density (velocity)

  12. The Solar Wind as a Laboratory for the Study of Magnetofluid Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Melvyn L.

    2011-01-01

    The solar wind is the Sun's exosphere. As the solar atmosphere expands into interplanetary space, it is accelerated and heated. Data from spacecraft located throughout the heliosphere have revealed that this exosphere has velocities of several hundred kilometers/sec, densities at Earth orbit of about 5 particles/cm(exp 3), and an entrained magnetic field that at Earth orbit that is about 5 X 10(exp 5) Gauss. A fascinating feature of this magnetized plasma, which is a gas containing both charged particles and magnetic field, is that the magnetic field fluctuates in a way that is highly reminiscent of "Alfven waves", first defined by Hannes Alfven in 1942. Such waves have the defining property that the fluctuating magnetic fields are aligned with fluctuations in the velocity of the plasma and that, when properly normalized, the fluctuations have equal magnitudes. The observed alignment is not perfect and the resulting mismatch leads to a variety of complex interactions. In many respects, the flow patterns appear to be an example of fully developed magnetofluid turbulence. Recently, the dissipation range of this turbulence has been revealed by Search Coil magnetometer data from the four Cluster spacecraft. This tutorial will describe some of the properties of the large-scale and small-scale turbulence.

  13. Calibration of NOAA-7 AVHRR, GOES-5 and GOES-6 VISSR/VAS solar channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frouin, R.; Gautier, C.

    1986-01-01

    The NOAA-7, GOES-5 and GOES-6 Visible Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer/Vertical Atmospheric Sounder (VISSR/VAS) solar channels were calibrated. The White Sands Monument area in New Mexico, whose reflectance properties are well known, and space are used as calibration targets. The shortwave reflected terrestrial irradiance that is measured at satellite altitude is computed using a fairly accurate radiative transfer model which accounts for multiple scattering and bidirectional effects. The ground target reflectance and relevant characteristics of the overlying atmosphere are estimated from climatological data and observation at the nearest meteorological sites. The approach is believed to produce accuracies of 8 to 13% depending on the channel considered.

  14. The Interaction of the Solar Wind with Solar Probe Plus - 3D Hybrid Simulation. Report 2: The Study for the Distance 9.5Rs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, Alexander S.; Sittler, Edward C.; Hartle, Richard E.; Cooper, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Our paper is a 2.5D and 3D numerical plasma models of the interaction of the solar wind (SW) with the Solar Probe Plus spacecraft (SPPSC). These results should be interpreted as a basic plasma model for which the derived SW interaction with spacecraft (SC) could have consequences for both plasma wave and electron plasma measurements on board SC in the inner heliosphere. We observe an excitation of the low frequency Alfven and whistler type wave directed by the magnetic field with an amplitude of the electromagnetic field oscillation about of (0.015-0.06) V/m. The compression waves and the jumps in an electric field with an amplitude of about 1.5 V/m and (12-18) V/m were also observed. The observed strong electromagnetic perturbations may be a crucial point in the electromagnetic measurements, which were planned in future Solar Probe Plus mission.

  15. Radio Detections During Two State Transitions of the Intermediate-Mass Black Hole HLX-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Natalie; Cseh, David; Lenc, Emil; Godet, Olivier; Barret, Didier; Corbel, Stephane; Farrell, Sean; Fender, Robert; Gehrels, Neil; Heywood, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Relativistic jets are streams of plasma moving at appreciable fractions of the speed of light. They have been observed from stellar-mass black holes (approx. 3 to 20 solar masses) as well as supermassive black holes (approx.. 10(exp 6) to 10(exp 9) Solar Mass) found in the centers of most galaxies. Jets should also be produced by intermediate-mass black holes (approx. 10(exp 2) to 10(exp 5) Solar Mass), although evidence for this third class of black hole has, until recently, been weak. We report the detection of transient radio emission at the location of the intermediate-mass black hole candidate ESO 243-49 HLX-1, which is consistent with a discrete jet ejection event. These observations also allow us to refine the mass estimate of the black hole to be between approx. 9 × 10(exp 3) Solar Mass and approx. 9 × 10(exp 4) Solar Mass.

  16. Microwave and hard X-ray imaging of a solar flare on 1980 November 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyng, P.; Marsh, K. A.; Zirin, H.; Dennis, B. R.

    1983-01-01

    VLA and SMM hard X ray data on the solar flares of November 5, 1980 are analyzed and compared with data from other sources. The VLA provided measurements at 15 GHz at 10 sec intervals, using left and right circular polarizations with a 0.6 arcsec resolution. The hard X ray imaging spectrometer on the SMM obtained data in six bands from 3.5-30 keV, with 8 x 8 arcsec resolution and 1.5 sec separation. The data were examined for a possible nonthermal source for the microwave component of the emissions detected, the origin of 16-30 keV excess fluxes, the relation between the X ray and microwave sources, the magnetic connection between observed loops, and the physical characteristics of the radiating loop. The data were consistent with a model that assumes fast electrons are accelerated to a single power-law energy distribution and freely stream along the magnetic field. The data also agreed with a thick-target model for solar flare X ray emission.

  17. Spectra and correlations in the solar wind from Voyager 2 around 5 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallana, Luca; Fraternale, Federico; Iovieno, Michele; Magli, Enrico; Fosson, Sophie; Opher, Merav; Richardson, John; Tordella, Daniela

    2014-11-01

    Solar wind spectra deduced from the data recorded by the Voyager 2 mission during 1979 at about 5 astronomical units from the sun are considered. The data are time series which contain voids that typically become larger and irregularly sparse as the craft moves away from the sun (45% missing data in 1979). By extracting complete subsets and filling gaps with different techniques (polynomial interpolation, Rybicki (AJ 1992) and compressed sensing (e.g. Candes et al. CPAM 2006) reconstruction methods, global DFT for irregularly spaced data) we obtain velocity and magnetic field fluctuations between 10-5 and 10-2 Hz in the MHD inertial range of solar wind. Spectra of all variables show a power law scaling with exponents in between -1.5 and -1.8. PDFs and correlations indicate that the flow has a significant intermittency. The reliability of the reconstruction methods used is analyzed by introducing the same sequence of gaps observed in the Voyager data into a reference dataset extracted from direct numerical simulations of incompressible Navier-Stokes turbulence as well as from synthetic turbulence, and then by comparing the statistics obtained with those of the complete reference dataset.

  18. A detailed study of the photo-injection annealing of thermally diffused InP solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, R. J.; Summers, G. P.; Bruening, J.

    1993-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the annealing of thermally diffused InP solar cells fabricated by the Nippon Mining Co. is presented. The cells were irradiated with 1 MeV electrons, and the induced degradation is measured using deep level transient spectroscopy and low temperature (86 K) IV measurements. Clear recovery of the photovoltaic parameters is observed during low temperature (T is less than 300 K) solar illuminations (1 sun, AMO) with further recovery at higher temperatures (300 less than T less than 500 K). For example, the output of a cell which was irradiated up to a fluence of 1 x 10(exp 16) cm(sup -2) was observed to recover to within 5 percent of the pre-irradiation output. An apparent correlation between the recovery of I(sub sc) and the annealing of the H4 defect and of the minority carrier trapping centers is observed. An apparent correlation between the recovery of VO, and the annealing of the H5 defect is also observed. These apparent correlations are used to develop a possible model for the mechanism of the recovery of the solar cells.

  19. Large Solar-Rejection Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, William; Sheikh, David; Patrick, Brian

    2007-01-01

    times solar, and sulfur is 20 times solar. From its previously observed optical emission lines, P831-57 (WD 0334 6400 or Ret 1 in A Catalog and Atlas of Cataclysmic Variables: Living Edition) has been suspected to contain an accretion disk associated with a companion star in orbit around a subdwarf star with a temperature T is greater than 21,000K. P831-57 has therefore been classified as a nova-like. However, our present observations show it to be a DA + dMe binary. The analysis of its Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectrum (continuum and lines) reveal an average mass white dwarf (Log(g) approximately equals 7.8 plus or minus 0.1)with a temperature T approximately equals 37,000 plus or minus 500K, an extremely low projected rotational velocity, and a distance of about 115 plus or minus 5pc. The photosphere contains C, N, Si, and S (at about 1% of solar abundances). The dMe star is seen as a flux excess in near-infrared photometry and appears to show occasional flaring of about one magnitude as seen in the Harvard plates. There is no evidence of periodic variability in the spectroscopic or photometric data. We find no evidence of a an accretion disk, instead we find evidence of wind accretion as the stellar carbon abundance (N(C)/N(H) = 2.5 x 10 (exp -6) is about ten times larger than predicted by radiative levitation for such a gravity and temperature. The power needs and solutions for the space exploration and lunar mobility program are discussed. Long term missions in space and on the lunar surface require high energy batteries. Rechargeable batteries for mobility systems and portable utility pallet are needed for successful exploration missions. Nanomaterial usage increases the energy density of the cells apart from increasing the power density. The symptoms and threats from acute mountain sickness (AMS) are discussed. The underlying assumptions concerning spacecraft atmosphere mean there is a potential risk to astronauts. The baseline worst case

  20. Ion Acceleration in Solar Flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James A.; Weir, Sue B.

    1996-01-01

    Solar flares are among the most energetic and interesting phenomena in the Solar system, releasing up to 1032 ergs of energy on timescales of several tens of seconds to several tens of minutes. Much of this energy is in the form of suprathermal electrons and ions, which remain trapped at the Sun and produce a wide variety of radiations, as well as escape into interplanetary space, where they can be directly observed. The radiation from trapped particles consists in general of (1) continuum emission; (2) narrow gamma-ray nuclear deexcitation lines; and (3) high-energy neutrons observed in space or by ground-based neutron monitors. The particles that escape into space consist of both electrons and ions, which often have compositions quite different than that of the ambient solar atmosphere. Flares thus present many diagnostics of the particle acceleration mechanism(s), the identification of which is the ultimate goal of flare research. Moreover, flares in fact offer the only opportunity in astrophysics to study the simultaneous energization of both electrons and ions. Hopefully, an understanding of flares with their wealth of diagnostic data will lead to a better understanding of particle acceleration at other sites in the Universe. It is now generally accepted that flares are roughly divided into two classes: impulsive and gradual. Gradual events are large, occur high in the corona, have long-duration soft and hard X-rays and gamma rays, are electron poor, are associated with Type II radio emission and coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and produce energetic ions with coronal abundance ratios. Impulsive events are more compact, occur lower in the corona, produce short-duration radiation, and exhibit dramatic abundance enhancements in the energetic ions. Their He-3/He-4 ratio is - 1, which is a huge increase over the coronal value of about 5 x 10(exp -4), and they also posses smaller but still significant enhancements of Ne, Mg, Si, and Fe relative to He-4, C, N, and O

  1. The Variation of Solar Fe 14 and Fe 10 Flux over 1.5 Solar Activity Cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altrock, Richard C.

    1990-01-01

    A new source of data on the solar output, namely limb flux from the one- and two-million degree corona is presented. This parameter is derived from data obtained at the National Solar Observatory at Sacramento Peak with the 40 cm coronagraph of the John W. Evans Solar Facility and the Emission Line Coronal Photometer. The limb flux is defined to be the latitude-averaged intensity in millionths of the brightness of disk center from an annulus of width 1.1 minutes centered at a height of 0.15 solar constant above the limb of emission from lines at 6374A (Fe X) or 5303A (Fe XIV). Fe XIV data have been obtained since 1973 and Fe X since 1984. Examination of the Fe XIV data shows that there is ambiguity in the definition of the last two solar activity minima, which can affect the determination of cycle rise times and lengths. There is an indication that a constant minimum or basal corona may exist at solar minimum. Cycle 22 has had a much faster onset than Cycle 21 and has now overtaken Cycle 21. The rise characteristics of the two cycles were very similar up until Jul. to Aug. 1989, at which time a long-term maximum occurred in Fe X and Fe XIV, which could possibly be the solar maximum. Another maximum is developing at the current time. Cycle 21 was characterized in Fe XIV by at least 4 major thrusts or bursts of activity, each lasting on the order of a year and all having similar maximum limb fluxes which indicates that coronal energy output is sustained over periods in which the sunspot number declines significantly. Dramatic increases in the limb fluxes occur from minimum to maximum, ranging from factors of 14 to 21 in the two lines. Two different techniques to predict the epoch of solar maximum have been applied to the Fe XIV data, resulting in estimates of April 1989 (plus or minus 1 mo) and May 1990 (plus or minus 2 mos).

  2. High-efficiency ({eta} = 39.6%, AM 1.5D) cascade of photoconverters in solar splitting systems

    SciTech Connect

    Khvostikov, V. P. Vlasov, A. S.; Sorokina, S. V.; Potapovich, N. S.; Timoshina, N. Kh.; Shvarts, M. Z.; Andreev, V. M.

    2011-06-15

    A concentrator photovoltaic module with spectral splitting of solar radiation is developed. The module is based on a Fresnel lens and two dichroic filters. Solar cells based on AlGaAs and GaAs are grown by low-temperature liquid-phase epitaxy. GaSb photoconverters are fabricated by zinc gas-phase diffusion into a base epitaxial layer or an n-type GaSb substrate. The total efficiency of three solar cells developed for the spectral splitting module reached 39.6% (AM 1.5D spectrum).

  3. Temporal variations of solar-spectral-line profiles induced by the 5-minute photospheric oscillation

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, M.T.; Marmolino, C.; Roberti, G.; Severino, G.

    1987-01-01

    The variations induced by the 5-min photospheric oscillation are simulated on the line profiles. A phase lag of the order of 150/degree/ between temperature and velocity wave perturbations can explain the observed differences between the oscillations of the line flanks at residual intensity levels I/I/sub c/ < 0.7. Such a phase relation in the 5-min oscillation differs from that of the adiabatic case in which the temperature and pressure fluctuations are 90/degrees/ out of phase with respect to the velocity. A simple model of radiative damping in the solar photosphere can produce the required phase lag between temperature and velocity. The granulation can affect differentially the oscillations of the line flanks. This effect, however, does not fit the observed behavior of the flank oscillations.

  4. Effect of the X5.4 Class Solar Flare Event of Solar Cycle 24 ON the GPS Signal Reception in Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, S.; Musa, T. A.; Aris, W. A. W.; Gopir, G.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we examine the effect of solar flare event on the Global Positioning System (GPS) signal reception in Peninsular Malaysia during the X5.4 class solar flare on 7th March 2012, 00:24 UT at active region AR1429. GPS data from six MyRTKnet stations that cover the northern, southern, western and eastern regions of Peninsular Malaysia were used, namely Langkawi (Kedah), Bandar Baharu (Pulau Pinang), Pekan (Pahang), Mersing (Johor), Tanjung Pengelih (Johor) and Malacca (Malacca). The total electron content (TEC) was estimated based on the single layer ionospheric model. Next, the ionospheric delay for each GPS frequency of L1 (1575.42 MHz), L2 (1227.60 MHz) and L5 (1176.45 MHz) was then calculated. The results show that solar flare event can influence the GPS signal reception in Peninsular Malaysia where the X5.4 class solar flare shows significant effect of the ionospheric delay within the range of 9 m - 20 m. These research findings will significantly contribute to space weather study and its effects on space-based positioning system such as the GPS.

  5. Plume and interplume regions and solar wind acceleration in polar coronal holes between 1.5 and 3.5 R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giordano, S.; Antonucci, E.; Benna, C.; Romoli, M.; Noci, G.; Kohl, J. L.; Fineschi, S.; Michels, J.; Naletto, G.

    1997-01-01

    The observations of the polar coronal hole regions, obtained with the ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer (UVCS) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), are reported on. The O VI 1032 line profiles were found to be narrower within plumes. The difference in the line width increased with the distance from the center of the sun. The analysis of the O VI 1032, H I Lyman alpha 1216 line profiles, and the O VI 1032, 1037 doublet intensity ratio is summarized. The analysis showed that the O VI line width is enhanced in interplume regions, and increases with altitude both in plume and interplume regions. The H I Lyman alpha profiles are wider in the interplume regions. From the doublet intensity ratio data, it is shown that during the minimum of the solar cycle, the acceleration of the solar wind in polar regions reaches approximately 300 km/s at 3.5 solar radii.

  6. Measurements of Aerodynamic Heat Transfer and Boundary-Layer Transition on a 15 deg. Cone in Free Flight at Supersonic Mach Numbers up to 5.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, Charles B.; Lee, Dorothy B.

    1961-01-01

    Measurements of aerodynamic heat transfer have been made at several stations on the 15 deg total-angle conical nose of a rocket-propelled model in free flight at Mach numbers up to 5.2. Data are presented for a range of local Mach number just outside the boundary layer from 1.40 to 4.65 and a range of local Reynolds number from 3.8 x 10(exp 6) to 46.5 x 10(exp 6), based on length from the nose tip to a measurement station. Laminar, transitional, and turbulent heat-transfer coefficients were measured. The laminar data were in agreement with laminar theory for cones, and the turbulent data agreed well with turbulent theory for cones using Reynolds number based on length from the nose tip. At a nearly constant ratio of wall to local static temperature of 1.2 the Reynolds number of transition increased from 14 x 10(exp 6) to 30 x 10(exp 6) as Mach number increased from 1.4 to 2.9 and then decreased to 17 x 10(exp 6) as Mach number increased to 3.7. At Mach numbers near 3.5, transition Reynolds numbers appeared to be independent of skin temperature at skin temperatures very cold with respect to adiabatic wall temperature. The transition Reynolds number was 17.7 x 10(exp 6) at a condition of Mach number and ratio of wall to local static temperature near that for which three-dimensional disturbance theory has been evaluated and has predicted laminar boundary-layer stability to very high Reynolds numbers (approximately 10(exp 12)).

  7. The Solar-Stellar Connection (NAG5-6124: SOHO Guest Investigator Program)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayres, Thomas R.

    1997-01-01

    that much of the chromospheric "action" must be occurring on fine spatial scales and short times; particularly in the cell interior transient brightenings, but also in the longer-lived network fragments. That regime of investigation is far removed from what one usually associates with "synoptic" measurements. Nevertheless, synoptic observations of chromospheric indices, filtergrams, and globally-averaged profile parameters not only can provide important insight concerning the crucial role of the cycle-variable part of the solar magnetic field; but they also can forge a key link with analogous measurements of the stars, where often the phenomena can be significantly exaggerated from the solar case, but high spatial resolution reconnaissance is not even a remote possibility. In addition to discussing the synoptic aspects of chromospheric structure and dynamics, I summarized new insights into the general problem of the solar chromosphere that have been obtained recently with the SUMER far-ultraviolet spectrometer on SOHO. (2) CO and the Temperature Structure of the Solar Atmosphere -- The surface layers of the Sun provide a crucial boundary condition for many of the processes that occur in the deep interior. The stratification of the outer solar atmosphere once was thought to be well understood. However, studies of thermally sensitive molecular absorptions in the infrared revealed puzzling anomalies. Strong lines of the CO fundamental vibration-rotation bands near 5 microns showed very cool temperatures at the extreme limb, and remarkable off-limb emissions extending well into the supposedly hot chromosphere. The conflicting pictures of the photosphere/chromosphere interface, from the widely separated wavelength regimes, has raised suspicions that those "layers" of the atmosphere are much more inhomogeneous than previously suspected. One proposal is that the low chromosphere is dominated by cool gas, the "COmosphere," which is threaded by a network of persistent small

  8. A new solar activity parameter and the strength of 5-cycle periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Z. L.

    2006-10-01

    A weak 5-cycle periodicity ( r = -0.64) is found in the maximum amplitudes of the modern era sunspot cycles (11-23), slightly stronger than the 8-cycle (Gleissberg) periodicity ( r = 0.60). We propose a new parameter called 'effective duration', defined as the total sunspot numbers in a cycle divided by the maximum amplitude. This parameter has two advantages: one is that it is almost independent of the exact definition of minimum timing; another is that the maximum amplitude is found to be highly correlated ( r = 0.86) with this parameter five cycles before, when applied to the smoothed monthly mean sunspot numbers in modern era. Implied is that this parameter carries some information of the amplitude five cycles later, and may become one of the parameters to study solar activity and the theory of solar dynamo. With the relationship above, the amplitude of cycle 24 is estimated to be 115.7 ± 19.7, where the error is the standard error.

  9. The Solar UV-x-Ray Spectrum from 1.5 to 2000 A

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    solar chromosphere, transition region and corona , and how spectroscopy can be used as a tool to understand the physical mechanisms governing the...is currently about 1400 km, or 2′′. 2.3. The corona Above about 8 × 105 K the plasma is considered to be part of the solar corona , the pearly white...the corona , to solar flares and CMEs. Solar flares are relatively small areas of the solar atmosphere (from a few square arcsec to a few square arcmin

  10. The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 5: Solar physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The findings of the Solar Physics working group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The areas to be investigated by the solar physics experiments are: (1) the production of mechanical energy in the subphotospheric layers and its transport and dissipation in the upper layers of the atmosphere, (2) the mass flux from the subphotospheric layers into the chromosphere and corona and beyond the solar wind, (3) solar activity and its relationship to magnetic fields, and (4) the production of solar flares. The approach to be followed in conducting the experiments and the equipment required are defined.

  11. Performance of the MIR Cooperative Solar Array After 2.5 Years in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hoffman, David J.

    1999-01-01

    The Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA) was developed jointly by the United States and Russia to produce 6 kW of power for the Russian space station Mir. Four, multi-orbit test sequences were executed between June 1996 and December 1998 to measure MCSA electrical performance. A dedicated Fortran computer code was developed to analyze the detailed thermal-electrical performance of the MCSA. The computational performance results compared very favorably with the measured flight data in most cases. Minor performance degradation was detected in one current generating section of the MCSA. Yet overall, the flight data indicated the MCSA was meeting and exceeding performance expectations. There was no precipitous performance loss due to contamination or other causes after 2.5 years of operation. In this paper, we review the MCSA flight electrical performance tests, data and computational modeling and discuss findings from data comparisons with the computational results.

  12. Shocks in the solar wind between 1 and 8.5 AU: Voyager 1 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazis, P. R.

    1984-01-01

    A survey was made of all interplanetary shocks detected by the plasma science experiment aboard the Voyager 1 spacecraft between 1.2 and 8.5 AU. Shock normals and shock velocities are determined. The variation of shock frequency and various shock parameters with heliocentric distance is discussed. The results indicate that beyond 1.2 AU, the vast majority of shocks were associated with interaction regions between high and low speed streams; of 95 events, only 1 was clearly associated with a transient event. Forward shocks were more numerous and seemed to form closer to the sun than reverse shocks. Forward shocks were stronger than reverse shocks. The energy balance of three shocks is examined. A close agreement is found between the measured and the predicted pressure ratios across these shocks. The contribution of shocks to the global energy balance is discussed. Shocks are found to have a significant effect in heating the solar wind.

  13. Hinode Observations of the Onset Stage of a Solar Filament Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Berger, Thomas E.; Bobra, Monica; Davis, John M.; Jibben, Patricia; Kano, Ryohei; Lundquist, Loraine L.; Myers, D.; Narukage, Noriyuki; Sakao, Taro; Shibasaki, Kiyoto; Shine, Richard A.; Tarbell, Theodore D.; Weber, Mark

    2007-01-01

    We used Hinode X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) filtergraph (FG) Stokes-V magnetogram observations, to study the early onset of a solar eruption that includes an erupting filament that we observe in TRACE EUV images. The filament undergoes a slow rise for at least 20min prior to its fast eruption and strong soft X-ray (SXR) flaring; such slow rises have been previously reported, and the new Hinode data elucidate the physical processes occurring during this period. XRT images show that during the slow-rise phase, an SXR sigmoid forms from apparent reconnection low in the sheared core field traced by the filament, and there is a low-level intensity peak in both EUV and SXRs during the slow rise. MDI and SOT FG Stokes-V magnetograms show that the pre-emption filament is along a neutral line between opposing-polarity enhanced network cells, and the SOT magnetograms show that these opposing fields are flowing together and canceling for at least six hours prior to eruption. From the MDI data we measured the canceling network fields to be approx. 40 G, and we estimated that approx. 10(exp 19)Mx of flux canceled during the five hours prior to eruption; this is only approx.5% of the total flux spanned by the eruption and flare, but apparently its tether-cutting cancellation was enough to destabilize the sigmoid field holding the filament and resulted in that field's eruption.

  14. Hinode Observations of the Onset Stage of a Solar Filament Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Berger, Thomas E.; Bobra, Monica; Davis, John M.; Jibben, Patricia; Kano, R.; Lundquist, Loraine; Myers, D.; Narukage, N.; Sakao, T.; Shibasaki, K.; Shine, R.; Tarbell, T.; Weber, Mark

    2007-01-01

    We use Hinode X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) filtergraph (FG) Stokes-V magnetogram observations, to study the early onset of a solar eruption that includes an erupting filament that we observe in TRACE EUV images. The filament undergoes a slow rise for at least 20 min prior to its fast eruption and strong soft X-ray flaring; such slow rises have been previously reported, and the new Hinode data elucidate the physical processes occurring during this period. XRT images show that during the slow-rise phase, a soft X-ray (SXR) sigmoid forms from apparent reconnection low in the sheared core field traced by the filament, and there is a low-level intensity peak in both EUV and SXRs during the slow rise. MDI and SOT FG/V magnetograms show that the pre-eruption filament is along a neutral line between opposing-polarity enhanced network cells, and the SOT magnetograms show that these opposing fields are flowing together and canceling for at least six hours prior to eruption. From the MDI data we measure the canceling network fields to be approx. 40 G, and we estimate that approx. 10(exp 19) Mx of flux canceled during the five hours prior to eruption; this is only approx. 5% of the total flux spanned by the eruption and flare, but apparently its tether-cutting cancellation was enough to destabilize the sigmoid field holding the filament and resulted in that field's eruption.

  15. Alfvén Wave Heating of the Solar Chromosphere: 1.5D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arber, T. D.; Brady, C. S.; Shelyag, S.

    2016-02-01

    Physical processes that may lead to solar chromospheric heating are analyzed using high-resolution 1.5D non-ideal MHD modeling. We demonstrate that it is possible to heat the chromospheric plasma by direct resistive dissipation of high-frequency Alfvén waves through Pedersen resistivity. However, this is unlikely to be sufficient to balance radiative and conductive losses unless unrealistic field strengths or photospheric velocities are used. The precise heating profile is determined by the input driving spectrum, since in 1.5D there is no possibility of Alfvén wave turbulence. The inclusion of the Hall term does not affect the heating rates. If plasma compressibility is taken into account, shocks are produced through the ponderomotive coupling of Alfvén waves to slow modes and shock heating dominates the resistive dissipation. In 1.5D shock coalescence amplifies the effects of shocks, and for compressible simulations with realistic driver spectra, the heating rate exceeds that required to match radiative and conductive losses. Thus, while the heating rates for these 1.5D simulations are an overestimate, they do show that ponderomotive coupling of Alfvén waves to sound waves is more important in chromospheric heating than Pedersen dissipation through ion-neutral collisions.

  16. ALFVÉN WAVE HEATING OF THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE: 1.5D MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Arber, T. D.; Brady, C. S.; Shelyag, S.

    2016-02-01

    Physical processes that may lead to solar chromospheric heating are analyzed using high-resolution 1.5D non-ideal MHD modeling. We demonstrate that it is possible to heat the chromospheric plasma by direct resistive dissipation of high-frequency Alfvén waves through Pedersen resistivity. However, this is unlikely to be sufficient to balance radiative and conductive losses unless unrealistic field strengths or photospheric velocities are used. The precise heating profile is determined by the input driving spectrum, since in 1.5D there is no possibility of Alfvén wave turbulence. The inclusion of the Hall term does not affect the heating rates. If plasma compressibility is taken into account, shocks are produced through the ponderomotive coupling of Alfvén waves to slow modes and shock heating dominates the resistive dissipation. In 1.5D shock coalescence amplifies the effects of shocks, and for compressible simulations with realistic driver spectra, the heating rate exceeds that required to match radiative and conductive losses. Thus, while the heating rates for these 1.5D simulations are an overestimate, they do show that ponderomotive coupling of Alfvén waves to sound waves is more important in chromospheric heating than Pedersen dissipation through ion–neutral collisions.

  17. Neutron and electromagnetic emissions during the 1990 May 24 solar flare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kocharov, L. G.; Lee, Jeongwoo W.; Zirin, H.; Kovaltsov, G. A.; Usoskin, I. G.; Pyle, K. R.; Shea, M. A.; Smart, D. F.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we are primarily concerened with the solar neutron emission during the 1990 May 24 flare, utilizing the counting rate of the Climax neutron monitor and the time profiles of hard X-rays and gamma-rays obtained with the GRANAT satellite (Pelaez et al., 1992; Talon et al., 1993; Terekhov et al., 1993). We compare the derived neutron injection function with macroscopic parameters of the flare region as obtained from the H-alpha and microwave observations made at the Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) respectively. Our results are summarized as folows: (1) to explain the neutron monitor counting rate and 57.5-110 MeV and 2.2 MeV gamma-ray time profiles, we consider a two-component neutron injection function, Q(E, t). (2) From the H-alpha observations, we find a relatively small loop of length approximattely equal to 2 x 10(exp 4) km, which may be regarded as the source for the fast-decaying component of gamma-rays (57.5-110 MeV) and for the first component of neutron emission. From microwave visibility and the microwave total power spectrum we postulate the presence of a rather big loop (approximately equal to 2 x 10(exp 5) km), which we regard as being responsible for the slow-decaying component of the high-energy emission. We show how the neutron and gamma-ray emission data can be explained in terms of the macroscopic parameters derived from the H-alpha and microwave observations. (3) The H-alpha observations also reveal the presence of a fast mode MHD shock (the Moreton wave) which precedes the microwave peak by 20-30 s and the peak of gamma-ray intensity by 40-50 s. From this relative timing and the single-pulsed time profiles of both radiations, we can attribute the whole event as due to a prompt acceleration of both electrons and protons by the shock and subsequent deceleration of the trapped particles while they propagate inside the magnetic loops.

  18. 5.5 W continuous-wave TEM00-mode Nd:YAG solar laser by a light-guide/2V-shaped pump cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, J.; Liang, D.; Vistas, C. R.; Bouadjemine, R.; Guillot, E.

    2015-12-01

    A significant progress in TEM00-mode solar laser power and efficiency with heliostat-parabolic mirror system is reported here. A double-stage light-guide/2V-shaped pump cavity is used to efficiently couple and redistribute the concentrated pump light from a 2-m-diameter parabolic mirror to a 4-mm-diameter, 30-mm-length, 1.1 at.% Nd:YAG single-crystal rod. The light guide with large rectangular cross section enables a stable uniform pumping profile along the laser rod, resulting also in an enhanced tracking error compensation capacity. 5.5 W cw TEM00-mode solar laser power was measured at the output of a thermally near unstable asymmetric resonator. 150 and 157 % improvement in TEM00-mode solar laser collection efficiency and slope efficiency were obtained, respectively.

  19. The efficiency of 'viscous interaction' between the solar wind and the magnetosphere during intense northward IMF events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Gonzalez, W. D.

    1995-01-01

    We examined 11 cases when the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was intensely northward (greater than 10 nT) for long durations of time (greater than 3 hours), to quantitatively determine an uppler limit on the efficiency of solar wind energy injection into the magnetosphere. We have specifically selected these large B(sub N) events to minimize the effects of magnetic reconnection. Many of these cases occurred during intervals of high-speed streams associated with coronal mass ejections when viscous interaction effects might be at a maximum. It is found that the typical efficiency of solar wind energy injection into the magnetosphere is 1.0 x 10(exp -3) to 4.0 x 10(exp -3), 100 to 30 times less efficient than during periods of intense southward IMFs. Other energy sinks not included in these numbers are discussed. Estimates of their magnitudes are provided.

  20. High and low energy proton radiation damage in p/n InP MOCVD solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybicki, George; Weinberg, Irving; Scheiman, Dave; Vargas-Aburto, Carlos

    1995-01-01

    InP p(+)nn(+) MOCVD solar cells were irradiated with 0.2 MeV and 10 MeV protons to a fluence of 10(exp 13)/sq cm. The degradation of power output, IV behavior, carrier concentration and defect concentration were observed at intermediate points throughout the irradiations. The 0.2 MeV proton irradiated solar cells suffered much greater and more rapid degradation in power output than those irradiated with 10 meV protons. The efficiency losses were accompanied by larger increases in the recombination currents in the 0.2 MeV proton irradiated solar cells. The low energy proton irradiations also had a larger impact on the series resistance of the solar cells. Despite the radiation induced damage, the carrier concentration in the base of the solar cells showed no reduction after 10 MeV or 0.2 MeV proton irradiations and even increased during irradiation with 0.2 MeV protons. In a DLTS study of the irradiated samples, the minority carrier defects H4 and H5 at E(v) + 0.33 and E(v) + 0.52 eV and the majority carrier defects E7 and E10 at E(c)- 0.39 and E(c)-0.74 eV, were observed. The defect introduction rates for the 0.2 MeV proton irradiations were about 20 times higher than for the 10 MeV proton irradiations. The defect E10, observed here after irradiation, has been shown to act as a donor in irradiated n-type InP and may be responsible for obscuring carrier removal. The results of this study are consistent with the much greater damage produced by low energy protons whose limited range causes them to stop in the active region of the solar cell.

  1. TOPICAL REVIEW The solar UV-x-ray spectrum from 1.5 to 2000 Å

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doschek, G. A.; Feldman, U.

    2010-12-01

    This review illustrates the potential of UV-x-ray spectroscopy for determining the physical conditions in the solar chromosphere, transition region and corona, and how spectroscopy can be used as a tool to understand the physical mechanisms governing the atmosphere. It also illustrates the potential for understanding transient events such as solar flares. This is a vast topic, and therefore the review is necessarily not complete, but we have tried to be as general as possible in showing in particular how solar spectra are currently being used to understand the solar upper atmosphere. The review is intended for non-solar physicists with an interest in spectroscopy as well as for solar physicists who are not specialists in spectroscopy.

  2. Theoretical, observational, and isotopic estimates of the lifetime of the solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podosek, Frank A.; Cassen, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    There are a variety of isotopic data for meteorites which suggest that the protostellar nebula existed and was involved in making planetary materials for some 10(exp 7) yr or more. Many cosmochemists, however, advocate alternative interpretations of such data in order to comply with a perceived constraint, from theoretical considerations, that the nebula existed only for a much shorter time, usually stated as less than or equal to 10(exp 6) yr. In this paper, we review evidence relevant to solar nebula duration which is available through three different disciplines: theoretical modeling of star formation, isotopic data from meteorites, and astronomical observations of T Tauri stars. Theoretical models based on observations of present star-forming regions indicate that stars like the Sun form by dynamical gravitational collapse of dense cores of cold molcular clouds in the interstellar clouds in the interstellar medium. The collapse to a star and disk occurs rapidly, on a time scale of the order 10(exp 5) yr. Disks evolve by dissipating energy while redistributing angular momentum, but it is difficult to predict the rate of evolution, particularly for low mass (compared to the star) disks which nonetheless still contain enough material to account for the observed planetary system. There is no compelling evidence, from available theories of disk structure and evolution, that the solar nebula must have evolved rapidly and could not have persisted for more than 1 Ma. In considering chronoloically relevant isotopic data for meteorites, we focus on three methodologies: absolute ages by U-Pb/Pb-Pb, and relative ages by short-lived radionuclides (especially Al-26) and by evolution of Sr-87/Sr-86. Two kinds of meteoritic materials-refractory inclusions such as CAIs and differential meteorites (eucrites and augrites) -- appear to have experienced potentially dateable nebular events. In both cases, the most straightforward interpretations of the available data indicate

  3. Ozone Correction for AM0 Calibrated Solar Cells for the Aircraft Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, David B.; Scheiman, David A.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Rieke, William J.; Blankenship, Kurt S.

    2002-01-01

    The aircraft solar cell calibration method has provided cells calibrated to space conditions for 37 years. However, it is susceptible to systematic errors due to ozone concentrations in the stratosphere. The present correction procedure applies a 1 percent increase to the measured I(sub SC) values. High band-gap cells are more sensitive to ozone absorbed wavelengths (0.4 to 0.8 microns) so it becomes important to reassess the correction technique. This paper evaluates the ozone correction to be 1+O3xFo, where O3 is the total ozone along the optical path, and Fo is 29.8 x 10(exp -6)/du for a Silicon solar cell, 42.6 x 10(exp -6)/du for a GaAs cell and 57.2 x 10(exp -6)/du for an InGaP cell. These correction factors work best to correct data points obtained during the flight rather than as a correction to the final result.

  4. Thermal Considerations of Space Solar Power Concepts with 3.5 GW RF Output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the thermal challenge of the Space Solar Power (SSP) design concepts with a 3.5 GW radio-frequency (RF) output. High efficiency klystrons are thermally more favored than solid state (butterstick) to convert direct current (DC) electricity to radio-frequency (RF) energy at the transmitters in these concepts. Using klystrons, the heat dissipation is 0.72 GW. Using solid state, the heat dissipation is 2.33 GW. The heat dissipation of the klystrons is 85% at 500C, 10% at 300C, and 5% at 125C. All the heat dissipation of the solid state is at 100C. Using klystrons, the radiator area is 74,500 square m Using solid state, the radiator area is 2,362,200 square m Space constructable heat pipe radiators are assumed in the thermal analysis. Also, to make the SSP concepts feasible, the mass of the heat transport system must be minimized. The heat transport distance from the transmitters to the radiators must be minimized. It can be accomplished by dividing the radiator into a cluster of small radiators, so that the heat transport distances between the klystrons and radiators can be minimized. The area of each small radiator is on the order of 1 square m. Two concepts for accommodating a cluster of small radiators are presented. If the distance between the transmitters and radiators is 1.5 m or less, constant conductance heat pipes (CCHPs) are acceptable for heat transport. If the distance exceeds 1.5 m, loop heat pipes (LHPs) are needed.

  5. The rate of planet formation and the solar system's small bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safronov, Viktor S.

    1991-01-01

    The evolution of random velocities and the mass distribution of preplanetary body at the early stage of accumulation are currently under review. Arguments were presented for and against the view of an extremely rapid, runaway growth of the largest bodies at this stage with parameter values of Theta approximately greater than 10(exp 3). Difficulties are encountered assuming such a large Theta: (1) bodies of the Jovian zone penetrate the asteroid zone too late and do not have time to hinder the formation of a normal-sized planet in the asteroidal zone and thereby remove a significant portion of the mass of solid matter and (2) Uranus and Neptune cannot eject bodies from the solar system into the cometary cloud. Therefore, the values Theta less than 10(exp 2) appear to be preferable.

  6. Transparent, Conductive Coatings Developed for Arc-Proof Solar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Transparent, conductive thin-film coatings have many potential applications where a surface must be able to dissipate electrical charges without sacrificing its optical properties. Such applications include automotive and aircraft windows, heat mirrors, optoelectronic devices, gas sensors, and solar cell array surfaces for space applications. Many spacecraft missions require that solar cell array surfaces dissipate charges in order to avoid damage such as electronic upsets, formation of pinholes in the protective coatings on solar array blankets, and contamination due to deposition of sputtered products. In tests at the NASA Lewis Research Center, mixed thin-films of sputter-deposited indium tin oxide (ITO) and magnesium fluoride (MgF2) that could be tailored to the desired sheet resistivity, showed transmittance values of greater than 90 percent. The samples evaluated were composed of mixed, thin-film ITO/MgF2 coatings, with a nominal thickness of 650 angstroms, deposited onto glass substrates. Preliminary results indicated that these coatings were durable to vacuum ultraviolet radiation and atomic oxygen. These coatings show promise for use on solar array surfaces in polar low-Earth-orbit environments, where a sheet resistivity of less than 10(exp 8)/square is required, and in geosynchronous orbit environments, where a resistivity of less than 10(exp 9)/square is required.

  7. Fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells using Nb2O5 blocking layer made by sol-gel method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Jongsung

    2011-08-01

    In this study, nanocrystalline Nb2O5 thin film has been prepared via sol-gel process using niobium ethoxide as a precursor. Sol-gel films using various ratios of H2O/Nb have been prepared on fluorinated tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate, and used as electron-blocking layer of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The Nb2O5 film as deposited was amorphous, but became crystalline with hexagonal phase after heat treatment at 600 degrees C. With higher H2O/Nb molar ratio, denser and more uniform Nb2O5 film surface was obtained. DSSCs with the structure of FTO/Nb2O5/TiO2/Dye/EL/Pt/FTO have been prepared, and their solar-cell performance was evaluated. By introduction of Nb2O5 sol-gel film between FTO and TiO2 layer in DSSCs, energy conversion efficiency could be improved.

  8. Erosion Results of the MISSE 7 Polymers Experiment and Zenith Polymers Experiment After 1.5 Years of Space Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Groh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Yi, Grace T.; Haloua, Athena; Imka, Emily C.; Mitchell, Gianna G.; Asmar, Olivia C.; Leneghan, Halle A.; Sechkar, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    Polymers and other oxidizable materials on the exterior of spacecraft in the low Earth orbit (LEO) space environment can be eroded due to reaction with atomic oxygen (AO). Therefore, in order to design durable spacecraft it is important to know the LEO AO erosion yield (E(sub y), volume loss per incident oxygen atom) of materials susceptible to AO reaction. Two spaceflight experiments, the Polymers Experiment and the Zenith Polymers Experiment, were developed to determine the AO E(sub y) of various polymers flown in ram, wake or zenith orientations in LEO. These experiments were flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 7 (MISSE 7) mission for 1.5 years on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). The experiments included Kapton H(TradeMark) witness samples for AO fluence determination in ram and zenith orientations. The Polymers Experiment also included samples to determine whether AO erosion of high and low ash containing polymers is dependent on fluence. This paper provides an overview of the MISSE 7 mission, a description of the flight experiments with details on the polymers flown, the characterization techniques used, the AO fluence for each exposure orientation, and the LEO E(sub y) results. The E(sub y) values ranged from 7.99x10(exp -28)cu cm/atom for TiO2/Al2O3 coated Teflon(TradeMark) fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) flown in the ram orientation to 1.22x10(exp -23cu cm/atom for polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) flown in the zenith orientation. The E(sub y) of similar samples flown in different orientations has been compared to help determine solar exposure and associated heating effects on AO erosion. The E(sub y) data from these ISS spaceflight experiments provides valuable information for LEO spacecraft design purposes.

  9. Lightweight, Flexible Solar Cells on Stainless Steel Foil and Polymer for Space and Stratospheric Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beernink, Kevin; Guha, Subhendu; Yang, Jeff; Banerjee, Arindam; Lord, Ken; DeMaggio, Greg; Liu, Frank; Pietka, Ginger; Johnson, Todd; Reinhout, Melanie; Younan, Kais; Wolf, David

    2007-01-01

    The availability of low-cost, lightweight and reliable photovoltaic (PV) modules is an important component in reducing the cost of satellites and spacecraft. In addition, future high-power spacecraft will require lightweight PV arrays with reduced stowage volume. In terms of the requirements for low mass, reduced stowage volume, and the harsh space environment, thin film amorphous silicon (a-Si) alloy cells have several advantages over other material technologies (1). The deposition process is relatively simple, inexpensive, and applicable to large area, lightweight, flexible substrates. The temperature coefficient has been found to be between -0.2 and -0.3 %/degC for high-efficiency triple-junction a-Si alloy cells, which is superior for high temperature operation compared to crystalline Si and triple-junction GaAs/InGaP/Ge devices at 0.53 %/degC and 0.45 %/degC, respectively (2). As a result, the reduction in efficiency at high temperature typical in space conditions is less for a-Si alloy cells than for their crystalline counterparts. Additionally, the a-Si alloy cells are relatively insensitive to electron and proton bombardment. We have shown that defects that are created by electrons with energies between 0.2 to 2 MeV with fluence up to 1x10(exp 15) e/sq cm and by protons with energy in the range 0.3 MeV to 5 MeV with fluence up to 1x10(exp 13) p/sq cm can be annealed out at 70 C in less than 50 hours (1). Further, modules incorporating United Solar s a-Si alloy cells have been tested on the MIR space station for 19 months with only minimal degradation (3). For stratospheric applications, such as the high altitude airship, the required PV arrays are typically of considerably higher power than current space arrays. Airships typically have a large area available for the PV, but weight is of critical importance. As a result, low cost and high specific power (W/kg) are key factors for airship PV arrays. Again, thin-film a-Si alloy solar cell technology is well

  10. Diffusion length variation in 0.5- and 3-MeV-proton-irradiated, heteroepitaxial indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.; Weinberg, Irving; Flood, Dennis J.

    1993-01-01

    Indium phosphide (InP) solar cells are more radiation resistant than gallium arsenide (GaAs) and silicon (Si) solar cells, and their growth by heteroepitaxy offers additional advantages leading to the development of light weight, mechanically strong, and cost-effective cells. Changes in heteroepitaxial InP cell efficiency under 0.5- and 3-MeV proton irradiations have been explained by the variation in the minority-carrier diffusion length. The base diffusion length versus proton fluence was calculated by simulating the cell performance. The diffusion length damage coefficient, K(sub L), was also plotted as a function of proton fluence.

  11. High band gap 2-6 and 3-5 tunneling junctions for silicon multijunction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daud, Taher (Inventor); Kachare, Akaram H. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A multijunction silicon solar cell of high efficiency is provided by providing a tunnel junction between the solar cell junctions to connect them in series. The tunnel junction is comprised of p+ and n+ layers of high band gap 3-5 or 2-6 semiconductor materials that match the lattice structure of silicon, such as GaP (band gap 2.24 eV) or ZnS (band gap 3.6 eV). Each of which has a perfect lattice match with silicon to avoid defects normally associated with lattice mismatch.

  12. Observation and Modeling of the Solar Transition Region. 1; A Quasi-Static Loops Model with Implications for Heating the Lower Transition Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oluseyi, Hakeem M.; Walker, A. B. C., II; Porter, Jason; Hoover, Richard B.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    We report on observations of the solar atmosphere in several extreme ultraviolet and far-ultraviolet bandpasses obtained by the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array, a rocket borne spectroheliograph, on flights in 1987, 1991, and 1994, spanning the last solar maximum. Quiet sun emission observed in the 171 A - 175 A bandpass, which includes lines of 0Ov, O vi, Fe ix, and Fe x, has been analyzed to test models of the temperatures and geometries of the structures responsible for this emission. Analyses of intensity variations above the solar limb reveal scale heights consistent with a quiet sun plasma temperature of 500 000 K less than or equal to T(sub e) less than or equal to 800 000 K. Intensity modulations in the quiet sun are observed to occur on a scale comparable to the supergranular scale. The structures responsible for the quiet sun EUV emission are modeled as small quasi-static loops. We find that the emission predicted by loop models with maximum temperatures between 700 000 K and 900 000 K are consistent with our observations. We also present a preliminary comparison of the predictions of our models with observations of diagnostic spectral line ratios obtained from previous observers. We discuss the implications a distribution of loops of the type we model here would have for heating the lower transition region. Finally, in fight of the models we calculate here, we briefly review the current state of knowledge concerning the contributions thermal conduction from coronal (T(sub e) greater than or equal to 10(exp 6) K) and upper transition region (10(exp 5) K less than T(sub e) less than 10(esp 6) K) structures make to lower transition region emission. We argue that the evidence which has lead many authors to conclude that the interface of hotter and cooler plasmas makes a negligible contribution to lower transition region emission is much less compelling in light of recent observations and analyses. We further argue that it is the interface of

  13. CAB-DWTM for 5 μm trace-width deposition of solar cell metallization top-contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Justin Hoey; Drew Thompson; Matt Robinson; Zakaria Mahmud; Orven F. Swenson; Iskander S. Akhatov; Douglas L. Schulz

    2009-06-08

    This paper reviews methods for creating solar cell grid contacts and explores how cell efficiency can be increased using CAB-DW{trademark}. Specifically, the efficiency of p-i-n structure solar cells built in-house with 90 {micro}m sputtered lines and 5 {micro}m CAB-DW lines were compared. Preliminary results of the comparison show a marked improvement in solar cell efficiency using CAB-DW. In addition to this, a theoretical and experimental analysis of the dynamics of particle impaction on a substrate (i.e. whether particle stick or bounce) will be discussed including how this analysis may lead to further improvement of CAB-DW.

  14. The Interaction of the Solar Wind with Solar Probe Plus - 3D Hybrid Simulation. Report 1; The Study for the Distance 4.5Rs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, Alexander S.; Sittler, Edward C.; Hartle, Richard E.; Cooper, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Our report devotes a 3D numerical hybrid model of the interaction of the solar wind with the Solar Probe spacecraft. The Solar Probe Plus (SPP) model includes 3 main parts, namely, a non-conducting heat shield, a support system, and cylindrical section or spacecraft bus that contains the particle analysis devices and antenna. One observes an excitation of the low frequency Alfven and whistler type wave directed by the magnetic field with an amplitude of about (0.06-0.6) V/m. The compression waves and the jumps in an electric field with an amplitude of about (0.15-0.7) V/m were also observed. The wave amplitudes are comparable to or greater than previously estimated max wave amplitudes that SPP is expected to measure. The results of our hybrid simulation will be useful for understanding the plasma environment near the SPP spacecraft at the distance 4.5 Rs. Future simulation will take into account the charging of the spacecraft, the charge separation effects, an outgassing from heat shield, a photoionization and an electron impact ionization effects near the spacecraft.

  15. A Comparison of Solar p-Mode Parameters from MDI and Gong: Mode Frequencies and Structure Inversions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basu, S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Howe, R.; Schou, J.; Thompson, M. J.; Hill, F.; Komm, R.

    2003-01-01

    Helioseismic analysis of solar global oscillations allows investigation of the internal structure of the Sun. One important test of the reliability of the inferences from helioseismology is that the results from independent sets of contemporaneous data are consistent with one another. Here we compare mode frequencies from the Global Oscillation Network Group and Michelson Doppler Imager on board SOHO and resulting inversion results on the Sun's internal structure. The average relative differences between the data sets are typically less than 1 x 10(exp -5) substantially smaller than the formal errors in the differences; however, in some cases the frequency differences show a systematic behavior that might nonetheless influence the inversion results. We find that the differences in frequencies are not a result of instrumental effects but are almost entirely related to the data pipeline software. Inversion of the frequencies shows that their differences do not result in any significant effects on the resulting inferences on solar structure. We have also experimented with fitting asymmetric profiles to the oscillation power spectra and find that, compared with the symmetric fits, this causes no significant change in the inversion results.

  16. Operation of Grid-tied 5 kWDC solar array to develop Laboratory Experiments for Solar PV Energy System courses

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos, Jaime

    2012-12-14

    To unlock the potential of micro grids we plan to build, commission and operate a 5 kWDC PV array and integrate it to the UTPA Engineering building low voltage network, as a micro grid; and promote community awareness. Assisted by a solar radiation tracker providing on-line information of its measurements and performing analysis for the use by the scientific and engineering community, we will write, perform and operate a set of Laboratory experiments and computer simulations supporting Electrical Engineering (graduate and undergraduate) courses on Renewable Energy, as well as Senior Design projects.

  17. Evidence for Langmuir Envelope Solitons in Solar Type III Burst Source Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thejappa, G.; Goldstein, M. L.; MacDowall, R. J.; Papadopoulos, K.; Stone, R. G.

    1998-01-01

    We present observational evidence for the generation of Langmuir envelope solitons in the source regions of solar type III radio bursts. The solitons appear to be formed by electron beams which excite either the modulational instability or oscillating two-stream instability (OTSI). Millisecond data from the Ulysses Unified Radio and Plasma Wave Experiment (URAP) show that Langmuir waves associated with type III bursts occur as broad intense peaks with time scales ranging from 15 to 90 milliseconds (6 - 27 km). These broad field structures have the properties expected of Langmuir envelope solitons, viz.: the normalized peak energy densities, W(sub L)/n(sub e)T(sub e) approximately 10(exp -5), are well above the modulational instability threshold; the spatial scales, L, which range from 1 - 5 Langmuir wavelengths, show a high degree of inverse correlation with (W(sub L)/n(sub e)T(sub e))(sup 1/2); and the observed widths of these broad peaks agree well with the predicted widths of envelope solitons. We show that the orientation of the Langmuir field structures is random with respect to the ambient magnetic field, indicating that they are probably isotropic structures that have evolved from initially pancake-like solitons. These observations suggest that strong turbulence processes, such as the modulational instability or the OTSI, stabilize the electron beams that produce type III bursts.

  18. Investigation of Solar about 5-Month Cycle in Human Circulating Melatonin: Signature of Weather in Extraterrestrial Space?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornélissen, G.; Tarquini, R.; Perfetto, F.; Otsuka, K.; Gigolashvili, M.; Halberg, F.

    2009-12-01

    Melatonin, produced mainly in the pineal and the gut, is often thought of as the "dark hormone" as its concentration in the circulation is high during darkness and low during light in diurnally- and nocturnally-active mammals in health. About-daily and about-yearly periodicities can thus be anticipated to characterize melatonin, matching the two major photic environmental cycles. Non-photic solar influences have also been observed, melatonin being depressed in association with magnetic storms. While less stable than the daily and yearly changes, non-photic solar dynamics also undergo various periodicities. Among them is an about 0.42-year (about 5-month or 154-day) cycle, reported by several physicists in relation to Zürich relative sunspot numbers and to solar flares. This putative signature of solar activity was found in the incidence pattern of sudden cardiac death in Minnesota, USA, among other geographic locations. A cycle with a period of about 0.42 year is here reported in data on circulating melatonin of 172 patients studied between Oct 1992 and Dec 1995 in Florence, Italy. Melatonin may mediate some of the Sun's effects upon the biosphere in certain frequency-windows such as a cis-half-year of about 5 months.

  19. Optimization of hybrid organic/inorganic poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl)/silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weingarten, Martin; Sanders, Simon; Stümmler, Dominik; Pfeiffer, Pascal; Vescan, Andrei; Kalisch, Holger

    2016-04-01

    In the last years, hybrid organic/silicon solar cells have attracted great interest in photovoltaic research due to their potential to become a low-cost alternative for the conventionally used silicon pn-junction solar cells. This work is focused on hybrid solar cells based on the polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl), which was deposited on n-doped crystalline silicon via spin-coating under ambient conditions. By employing an anisotropic etching step with potassium hydroxide (KOH), the reflection losses at the silicon surface were reduced. Hereby, the short-circuit current density of the hybrid devices was increased by 31%, leading to a maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 13.1% compared to a PCE of 10.7% for the devices without KOH etching. In addition, the contacts were improved by replacing gold with the more conductive silver as top grid material to reduce the contact resistance and by introducing a thin (˜0.5 nm) lithium fluoride layer between the silicon and the aluminum backside contact to improve electron collection and hole blocking. Hereby, the open-circuit voltage and the fill factor of the hybrid solar cells were further improved and devices with very high PCE up to 14.2% have been realized.

  20. Statistical study of low-energy heliosphere particle fluxes from 1.4 to 5 AU over a solar cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, C.; Reza, J. Z.; Nelson, A. J.; Patterson, J. D.; Armstrong, T. P.; Maclennan, C. G.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    2007-07-01

    Throughout the entire Ulysses mission, the Heliosphere Instrument for Spectra, Composition, and Anisotropy at Low Energies (HI-SCALE) has collected measurements of low-energy interplanetary ions and electrons. Time series of electron, proton, and ion fluxes have been obtained since 1990. We present statistical studies of high-resolution ion and electron energy spectra (~50 keV to ~5 MeV) as measured by the HI-SCALE instrument on the Ulysses spacecraft over a time interval longer than a solar cycle (1990 to 2004). Ulysses is the only spacecraft that continually measured the inner (~1.4 to ~5 AU) heliosphere particle population during these years. The data thus provide measures of the lower-energy population of particles that a spacecraft traveling outward from Earth would have encountered and that also could have impacted the atmosphere and surface of Mars and of its satellites during this interval. Comparisons of Ulysses particle fluxes with those from the Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (EPAM) instrument on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft (the HI-SCALE backup instrument) have shown that azimuthal and heliolatitude dependencies of particle fluxes in the inner heliosphere following solar events are not as extreme as might be expected. Thus the Ulysses measurements, while taken over a range of heliolatitudes, can provide important statistical information that can be used to estimate the low-energy radiation dosages and potential sputtering fluxes to planetary surfaces and to heliosphere spacecraft surfaces and solar arrays over a solar cycle.

  1. The Statistical Properties of Low Energy Heliosphere Particle Fluxes from 1.4 to 5 AU Over a Solar Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, C.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Wang, H.; Maclennan, C. G.; Armstrong, T. P.; Patterson, J. D.

    We present statistical studies of high resolution ion and electron energy spectra sim 50 keV to sim 5 MeV as measured by the HI-SCALE instrument on the Ulysses spacecraft over a time interval longer than a solar cycle from launch in 1990 to nearly the present Ulysses was the only spacecraft that continually measured the inner sim 1 4 to sim 5 AU heliosphere particle population during these years The data thus provide measures of the lower energy population of particles that a spacecraft traveling outward from Earth would have encountered and that also impacted the atmosphere and surface of Mars and the surfaces of the Martian satellites Phobos and Deimos during this interval Comparisons of Ulysses particle fluxes with those from the EPAM instrument on the ACE spacecraft the HI-SCALE back-up instrument have shown that it is common for the particle fluxes in the inner heliosphere following solar events to be distributed quite uniformly in heliolatitude Thus the Ulysses measurements while taken over a range of heliolatitudes can provide important statistical information that can be used to estimate the low energy radiation dosages and potential sputtering fluxes to planetary surfaces and to heliosphere spacecraft surfaces and solar arrays over a solar cycle

  2. The solar diameter and oblateness measured by the solar disk sextant on the 1992 September 30 balloon flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sofia, S.; Heaps, W.; Twigg, L. W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a balloon flight of the Solar Disk Sextant (SDS) on 1992 September 30. This was the first flight in which the SDS used a wedge assembly fabricated by molecular contact in order to eliminate the wedge angle variations observed in previous flights. The instrument performed as designed. The main results obtained are values of the solar diameter for a number of discrete heliocentric latitudes, and the solar oblateness. The accuracy of the diameter values is better than 0.2 sec whereas the precision is approximately 1-2 mas. The equatorial solar diameter, at 1 AU, was 1919.06 sec +/- 0.12 sec, and the oblateness epsilon = 8.63 +/- 0.88 x 10(exp -6).

  3. Mechanically stacked concentrator tandem solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreev, V. M.; Rumyantsev, V. D.; Karlina, L. B.; Kazantsev, A. B.; Khvostikov, V. P.; Shvarts, M. Z.; Sorokina, S. V.

    1995-01-01

    Four-terminal mechanically stacked solar cells were developed for advanced space arrays with line-focus reflective concentrators. The top cells are based on AlGaAs/GaAs multilayer heterostructures prepared by low temperature liquid phase epitaxy. The bottom cells are based on heteroepitaxial InP/InGaAs liquid phase epitaxy or on homo-junction GaSb, Zn-diffused structures. The sum of the highest reached efficiencies of the top and bottom cells is 29.4 percent. The best four-terminal tandems have an efficiency of 27 to 28 percent. Solar cells were irradiated with 1 MeV electrons and their performances were determined as a function of fluence up to 10(exp 16) cm(exp-2). It was shown that the radiation resistance of developed tandem cells is similar to the most radiative stable AlGaAs/GaAs cells with a thin p-GaAs photoactive layer.

  4. A 17 keV neutrino and large magnetic moment solution of the solar neutrino puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmedov, E. Kh.; Senjanovic, G.; Tao, Zhijian; Berezhiani, Z. G.

    1992-08-01

    Zee-type models with Majorons naturally incorporate the 17 keV neutrino but in their minimal version fail to simultaneously solve the solar neutrino puzzle. If there is a sterile neutrino state, a particularly simple solution is found to the solar neutrino problem, which besides nu(sub 17) predicts a light Zeldovich-Konopinski-Mahmoud neutrino nu(sub light) = nu(sub e) + nu(sub mu)(sup c) with a magnetic moment being easily as large as 10(exp -11)(mu)(sub B) through the Barr-Freire-Zee mechanism.

  5. Measurements of Aerodynamic Heat Transfer and Boundary-Layer Transition on a 10 deg Cone in Free Flight at Supersonic Mach Numbers up to 5.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, Charles B.; Lee, Dorothy B.

    1961-01-01

    Measurements of aerodynamic heat transfer have been made at six stations on the 40-inch-long 10 deg. total-angle conical nose of a rocket- propelled model which was flight tested at Mach numbers up to 5.9. are presented for a range of local Mach number just outside the bound- ary layer on the cone from 1.57 to 5.50, and a range of local Reynolds number from 6.6 x 10(exp 6) to 55.2 x 10(exp 6) based on length from the nose tip.

  6. Solar Energy and You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    This booklet provides an introduction to solar energy by discussing: (1) how a home is heated; (2) how solar energy can help in the heating process; (3) the characteristics of passive solar houses; (4) the characteristics of active solar houses; (5) how solar heat is stored; and (6) other uses of solar energy. Also provided are 10 questions to…

  7. Post-Flight Analysis of Selected Fluorocarbon and Other Thin Film Polymer Specimens Flown on MISSE-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeGroh, Kim; Finckenor, Miria; Minton, Tim; Brunsvold, Amy; Pippin, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Twenty thin film specimens were flown on M1SSE-5 as a cooperative effort between several organizations. This presentation will report results of initial inspections and post-flight measurements of the optical properties and recession of these materials due to the approx.13 month exposure period on the exterior of the International Space Station. These specimens were located on the "anti-solar" side of the MISSE-5 container and received a low number of Equivalent Sun Hours of solar UV exposure. Profilometry and/or ATF measurements will be conducted to determine thickness changes and atomic oxygen-induced recession rates Six of the specimens were covered with thin Kapton films, 0.1 and 0.3 mil in thickness. The 0.1 mil Kapton was almost completely eroded, suggesting that the atomic oxygen fluence is <8 x 10(exp 19) atoms/sq cm, similar to levels experienced during Space Shuttle materials experiments in the 1980's and 1990's. A comparison of results from MISSE-5 and Space Shuttle experiments will be included for those materials common to both the short and long-term exposures.

  8. HST Observations of Star Formation in Interacting Galaxies: NGC 4194, the "Medusa"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weistrop, D.; Eggers, D.; Nelson, C. H.; Kaiser, M. E.

    2001-01-01

    Ultraviolet and visible imaging of the blue compact galaxy NGC4194 was obtained to survey the star-forming knots in the center of this galaxy. Photometry and image analysis were performed on these regions. Comparison with evolutionary tracks indicates many of the knots are reddened with a typical E(B-V)approx.0.3. The knot ages range from 10(exp 6-10(exp 8)years. Some of the knots may have masses 3-5x10(exp 5) solar mass. The FUV fluxes correspond to the flux from 60-3.8x10(exp 3) O5V stars.

  9. Forward Technology Solar Cell Experiment (FTSCE) for MISSE-5 Verified and Readied for Flight on STS-114

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Phillip P.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Greer, Lawrence C.; Flatico, Joseph M.

    2005-01-01

    The Forward Technology Solar Cell Experiment (FTSCE) is a space solar cell experiment built as part of the Fifth Materials on the International Space Station Experiment (MISSE-5): Data Acquisition and Control Hardware and Software. It represents a collaborative effort between the NASA Glenn Research Center, the Naval Research Laboratory, and the U.S. Naval Academy. The purpose of this experiment is to place current and future solar cell technologies on orbit where they will be characterized and validated. This is in response to recent on-orbit and ground test results that raised concerns about the in-space survivability of new solar cell technologies and about current ground test methodology. The various components of the FTSCE are assembled into a passive experiment container--a 2- by 2- by 4-in. folding metal container that will be attached by an astronaut to the outer structure of the International Space Station. Data collected by the FTSCE will be relayed to the ground through a transmitter assembled by the U.S. Naval Academy. Data-acquisition electronics and software were designed to be tolerant of the thermal and radiation effects expected on orbit. The experiment has been verified and readied for flight on STS-114.

  10. On the derivation of empirical limits on the helium abundance in coronal holes below 1.5 solar radius

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habbal, Shadia Rifai; Esser, Ruth

    1994-01-01

    We present a simple technique describing how limits on the helium abundance, alpha, defined as the ratio of helium to proton number density, can be inferred from measurements of the electron density and temperature below 1.5 solar radius. As an illustration, we apply this technique to two different data sets: emission-line intensities in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and white-light observations, both measured in polar coronal holes. For the EUV data, the temperature gradient is derived from line intensity ratios, and the density gradient is replaced by the gradient of the line intensity. The lower limit on alpha derived from these data is 0.2-0.3 at 1 solar radius and drops very sharply to interplanetary values of a few percent below 1.06 solar radius. The white-light observations yield density gradients in the inner corona beyond 1.25 solar radius but do not have corresponding temperature gradients. In this case we consider an isothermal atmosphere, and derive an upper limit of 0.2 for alpha. These examples are used to illustrate how this technique could be applicable to the more extensive data to be obtained with the upcoming SOHO mission. Although only ranges on alpha can be derived, the application of the technique to data currently available merely points to the fact that alpha can be significantly large in the inner corona.

  11. Compound biomimetic structures for efficiency enhancement of Ga(0.5)In(0.5)P/GaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Hung, Mu-Min; Han, Hau-Vei; Hong, Chung-Yu; Hong, Kuo-Hsuan; Yang, Tung-Ting; Yu, Peichen; Wu, Yu-Rue; Yeh, Hong-Yih; Huang, Hong-Cheng

    2014-03-10

    Biomimetic nanostructures have shown to enhance the optical absorption of Ga(0.5)In(0.5)P/GaAs/Ge triple junction solar cells due to excellent antireflective (AR) properties that, however, are highly dependent on their geometric dimensions. In practice, it is challenging to control fabrication conditions which produce nanostructures in ideal periodic arrangements and with tapered side-wall profiles, leading to sacrificed AR properties and solar cell performance. In this work, we introduce compound biomimetic nanostructures created by depositing a layer of silicon dioxide (SiO(2)) on top of titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) nanostructures for triple junction solar cells. The device exhibits photogenerated current and power conversion efficiency that are enhanced by ~8.9% and ~6.4%, respectively, after deposition due to their improved antireflection characteristics. We further investigate and verify the optical properties of compound structures via a rigorous coupled wave analysis model. The additional SiO(2) layer not only improves the geometric profile, but also serves as a double-layer dielectric coating. It is concluded that the compound biomimetic nanostructures exhibit superior AR properties that are relatively insensitive to fabrication constraints. Therefore, the compound approach can be widely adopted for versatile optoelectronic devices and applications.

  12. Energy Transport in the Thermosphere During the Solar Storms of April 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Martin-Torres, F. J.; Crowley, Geoff; Funke, Bernd; Lu, Gang; Russell, III, James M.; Kozyra, Janet; Sharma, Ramesh; Gordley, Larry; Paxton, Larry

    2005-01-01

    The dramatic solar storm events of April 2002 deposited a large amount of energy into the Earth's upper atmosphere, substantially altering the thermal structure, the chemical composition, the dynamics, and the radiative environment. We examine the flow of energy within the thermosphere during this storm period from the perspective of infrared radiation transport and heat conduction. Observations from the SABER instrument on the TIMED satellite are coupled with computations based on the ASPEN thermospheric general circulation model to assess the energy flow. The dominant radiative response is associated with dramatically enhanced infrared emission from nitric oxide at 5.3 microns from which a total of approx. 7.7 x 10(exp 23) ergs of energy are radiated during the storm. Energy loss rates due to NO emission exceed 2200 Kelvin per day. In contrast, energy loss from carbon dioxide emission at 15 microns is only approx. 2.3% that of nitric oxide. Atomic oxygen emission at 63 microns is essentially constant during the storm. Energy loss from molecular heat conduction may be as large as 3.8% of the NO emission. These results confirm the "natural thermostat" effect of nitric oxide emission as the primary mechanism by which storm energy is lost from the thermosphere below 210 km.

  13. Solar power satellite system definition study. Volume 5, phase 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    An analysis of the solar power satellite system is presented. Performance, cost, and operational characteristics are assessed. The photovoltaic system is described and investigated. Alternative construction concepts are discussed. The structural bay configuration is presented along with the antenna structure options.

  14. The Evolution of the Spectrum of Solar Wind Velocity Fluctuations from 0.3 to 5 AU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, D. Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Recent work has shown that at 1 AU from the Sun the power spectrum of the solar wind magnetic field has the -5/3 spectral slope expected for Kolmogorov turbulence, but that the velocity has closer to a -3/2 spectrum. This paper traces the changes in solar wind velocity spectra from 0.3 to 5 AU using data from the Helios and Ulysses spacecraft to show that this is a transient stage in solar-wind evolution. The spectrum of the velocity is found to be flatter than that of the magnetic field for the higher frequencies examined for all cases until the slopes become equal (at -5/3) well past 1 AU when the wind is relatively nonAlfvenic. In some respects, in particular in the evolution of the frequency at which the spectrum changes from flatter at larger scales to a "turbulent" spectrum at smaller scales, the velocity field evolves more rapidly than the magnetic, and this is associated with the dominance of the magnetic energy over the kinetic at "inertial range" scales. The speed of the flow is argued to be largely unrelated to the spectral slopes, consistent with previous work, whereas high Alfvenicity appears to slow the spectral evolution, as expected from theory. This study shows that, for the solar wind, the idea of a simple "inertial range" with uniform spectral properties is not realistic, and new phenomenologies will be needed to capture the true situation. It is also noted that a flattening of the velocity spectrum often occurs at small scales.

  15. Specific Volumes of the Zr(41.2)Ti(13.8)Cu(12.5)Ni(10.0)Be(22.5) Alloy in the Liquid, Glass, and Crystalline States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohsaka, K.; Chung, S. K.; Rhim, W. K.; Johnson, W. L.; Peker, A.; Scruggs, D.

    1997-01-01

    The specific volumes of the Zr(41.2)Ti(3.8)Cu(2.5)Ni(10.0)Be(22.5) alloy as a function of temperature, T, are determined by employing an image digitizing technique and numerical calculation methods applied to the electrostatically levitated spherical alloy. The linear fitting of the volumes of the alloy in the liquid, V(sub l), glass, V(sub g) and crystalline V(sub c), states in the temperature ranges shown in parentheses are V(sub l)(T) = 0.1583 + 8.877 x 10(exp -6) T(cu cm/g) (700-1300 K);V(sub g)(T) = 0.1603 + 5.528 x 10(exp -6) T (400-550 K);V(sub c)(T) = 0.1583 + 6.21 x 10(exp -6)T(400-850 K). The average volume thermal expansion coefficients within the temperature ranges are determined to be 5.32, 3.39. and 3.83 x 10(exp -5) (1/K) for the liquid, glass, and crystalline states, respectively.

  16. The Interaction of the Solar Wind with Solar Probe Plus - 3D Hybrid Simulation. Report 1; The Study for the Distance 4.5Rs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, Alexander S.; Sittler, Edward C.; Hartle, Richard E.; Cooper, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Our report devotes a 3D numerical hybrid model of the interaction of the solar wind with the Solar Probe spacecraft. The SPP model includes 3 main parts, namely, a non-conducting heat shield, a support system, and cylindrical section or spacecraft bus that contains the particle analysis devices and antenna. One observes an excitation of the low frequency Alfven and whistler type wave directed by the magnetic field with an amplitude of about (0.06-0.6) V/m. The compression waves and the jumps in an electric field with an amplitude of about (0.15-0.7) V/m were also observed. The wave amplitudes are comparable to or greater than previously estimated max wave amplitudes that SPP is expected to measure. The results of our hybrid simulation will be useful for understanding the plasma environment near the SPP spacecraft at the distance 4.5 Rs. Future simulation will take into account the charging of the spacecraft, the charge separation effects, an outgassing from heat shield, a photoionization and an electron impact ionization effects near the spacecraft.

  17. Enhanced performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on P25/Ta2O5 composite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qingsong; Gao, Jian; Yi, Lin; Hu, Guang; Zhang, Jun

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, novel titanium dioxide/tantalum pentoxide (P25/Ta2O5) composite films have been successfully fabricated and applied to dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Ta2O5 nanoparticles are synthesized by a simple low-temperature solvothermal method. The influence of Ta2O5 nanoparticles on photovoltaic performance of DSSCs is systematically investigated. As a result, the DSSC based on 10 wt% Ta2O5 incorporated P25 film exhibits excellent photovoltaic performance with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) as high as 5.85 %. Compared to a reference DSSC based on the pure P25 film (4.93 %), the PCE of DSSCs has been remarkably enhanced by 19 %. Such enhancement can be mainly attributed to the higher electron collection efficiency in P25/Ta2O5 composite films, which result from the suppression of the electron recombination at the photoanode/electrolyte interface.

  18. Investigation of ZnSe-coated silicon substrates for GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Daniel A.; Olsen, Larry C.; Dunham, Glen; Addis, F. William

    1993-01-01

    Studies are being carried out to determine the feasibility of using ZnSe as a buffer layer for GaAs solar cells grown on silicon. This study was motivated by reports in the literature indicating ZnSe films had been grown by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) onto silicon with EPD values of 2 x 10(exp 5) cm(sup -2), even though the lattice mismatch between silicon and ZnSe is 4.16 percent. These results combined with the fact that ZnSe and GaAs are lattice matched to within 0.24 percent suggest that the prospects for growing high efficiency GaAs solar cells onto ZnSe-coated silicon are very good. Work to date has emphasized development of procedures for MOCVD growth of (100) ZnSe onto (100) silicon wafers, and subsequent growth of GaAs films on ZnSe/Si substrates. In order to grow high quality single crystal GaAs with a (100) orientation, which is desirable for solar cells, one must grow single crystal (100) ZnSe onto silicon substrates. A process for growth of (100) ZnSe was developed involving a two-step growth procedure at 450 C. Single crystal, (100) GaAs films were grown onto the (100) ZnSe/Si substrates at 610 C that are adherent and specular. Minority carrier diffusion lengths for the GaAs films grown on ZnSe/Si substrates were determined from photoresponse properties of Al/GaAs Schottky barriers. Diffusion lengths for n-type GaAs films are currently on the order of 0.3 microns compared to 2.0 microns for films grown simultaneously by homoepitaxy.

  19. Cobalt phosphate-modified barium-doped tantalum nitride nanorod photoanode with 1.5% solar energy conversion efficiency.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanbo; Zhang, Li; Torres-Pardo, Almudena; González-Calbet, Jose M; Ma, Yanhang; Oleynikov, Peter; Terasaki, Osamu; Asahina, Shunsuke; Shima, Masahide; Cha, Dongkyu; Zhao, Lan; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Kubota, Jun; Domen, Kazunari

    2013-01-01

    Spurred by the decreased availability of fossil fuels and global warming, the idea of converting solar energy into clean fuels has been widely recognized. Hydrogen produced by photoelectrochemical water splitting using sunlight could provide a carbon dioxide lean fuel as an alternative to fossil fuels. A major challenge in photoelectrochemical water splitting is to develop an efficient photoanode that can stably oxidize water into oxygen. Here we report an efficient and stable photoanode that couples an active barium-doped tantalum nitride nanostructure with a stable cobalt phosphate co-catalyst. The effect of barium doping on the photoelectrochemical activity of the photoanode is investigated. The photoanode yields a maximum solar energy conversion efficiency of 1.5%, which is more than three times higher than that of state-of-the-art single-photon photoanodes. Further, stoichiometric oxygen and hydrogen are stably produced on the photoanode and the counter electrode with Faraday efficiency of almost unity for 100 min.

  20. Isotopic ozone in the 5 μ region from high resolution balloon-borne and ground-based FTIR solar spectra.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, A.; Schoenfeld, W. G.; Stephen, T. M.; Murcray, F. J.; Rinsland, C. P.; Barbe, A.; Hamdouni, A.; Flaud, J.-M.; Camy-Peyret, C.

    1998-05-01

    High resolution (0.002-0.004 cm-1) i.r. solar absorption spectra of the stratosphere obtained during University of Denver balloon flights, and from the ground-based Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC) observatory at Mauna Loa, Hawaii, show numerous spectral features of several isotopic species of O3, in both the 10 μ and 5 μ regions. Many of the 5 μ lines reported here have not been previously observed in atmospheric spectra. The identification and quantification of the lines proceed by combined analyses of the atmospheric spectra, laboratory spectra of enriched samples, and updated line parameter calculations.

  1. Central Solar Eclipses of 1992. Annual Solar Eclipse of 4-5 January 1992, Total Solar Eclipse of 30 June 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    08.0 Rio Grande 11 00 06.5 98.7 0.984 5 59 -12 58.0 - 38 29.0 Salvador 10 58 34.8 55.6 0.636 25 56 -33 31.0 - 53 22.0 Santa Vitoria do Palmar 1 49.4 211...0.568 22 312 - 4 18.0 + 15 18.0 Kinshasa, Zaire 12 55 25.7 9.8 0.190 51 316 - 6 27.0 + 3 28.0 Lagos , Nigeria 12 19 44.1 1.8 0.060 72 337 - 8 50.0 + 13

  2. Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources. Part 5: Conclusions and recomendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Air pollution resulting from the use of fossil fuels is discussed. Phenomena relating to the emission of CO2 such as the greenhouse effect and multiplier effect are explored. Particulate release is also discussed. The following recommendations are made for the elimination of fossil fuel combustion products in the United States: development of nuclear breeder reactors, use of solar energy systems, exploration of energy alternatives such as geothermal and fusion, and the substitution of coal for gas and oil use.

  3. Solar power satellite system definition study. Volume 5: Space transportation analysis, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A small Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) for the Solar Power Satellites (SPS) System was analyzed. It is recommended that the small HLLV with a payload of 120 metric tons be adopted as the SPS launch vehicle. The reference HLLV, a shuttle-derived option with a payload of 400 metric tons, should serve as a backup and be examined further after initial flight experience. The electric orbit transfer vehicle should be retained as the reference orbit-to-orbit cargo system.

  4. Formation of solar cells based on Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} (BST) ferroelectric thick film

    SciTech Connect

    Irzaman, Syafutra, H. Arif, A. Alatas, H.; Hilaluddin, M. N.; Kurniawan, A.; Iskandar, J.; Dahrul, M.; Ismangil, A.; Yosman, D.; Aminullah; Prasetyo, L. B.; Yusuf, A.; Kadri, T. M.

    2014-02-24

    Growth of Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} (BST) 1 M thick films are conducted with variation of annealing hold time of 8 hours, 15 hours, 22 hours, and 29 hours at a constant temperature of 850 °C on p-type Si (100) substrate using sol-gel method then followed by spin coating process at 3000 rpm for 30 seconds. The BST thick film electrical conductivity is obtained to be 10{sup −5} to 10{sup −4} S/cm indicate that the BST thick film is classified as semiconductor material. The semiconductor energy band gap value of BST thick film based on annealing hold time of 8 hours, 15 hours, 22 hours, and 29 hours are 2.58 eV, 3.15 eV, 3.2 eV and 2.62 eV, respectively. The I-V photovoltaic characterization shows that the BST thick film is potentially solar cell device, and in accordance to annealing hold time of 8 hours, 15 hours, 22 hours and 29 hours have respective solar cell energy conversion efficiencies of 0.343%, 0.399%, 0.469% and 0.374%, respectively. Optical spectroscopy shows that BST thick film solar cells with annealing hold time of 8 hours, 15 hours, and 22 hours absorb effectively light energy at wavelength of ≥ 700 nm. BST film samples with annealing hold time of 29 hours absorb effectively light energy at wavelength of ≤ 700 nm. The BST thick film refraction index is between 1.1 to 1.8 at light wavelength between ±370 to 870 nm.

  5. Multiradionuclide evidence for the solar origin of the cosmic-ray events of ᴀᴅ 774/5 and 993/4.

    PubMed

    Mekhaldi, Florian; Muscheler, Raimund; Adolphi, Florian; Aldahan, Ala; Beer, Jürg; McConnell, Joseph R; Possnert, Göran; Sigl, Michael; Svensson, Anders; Synal, Hans-Arno; Welten, Kees C; Woodruff, Thomas E

    2015-10-26

    The origin of two large peaks in the atmospheric radiocarbon ((14)C) concentration at AD 774/5 and 993/4 is still debated. There is consensus, however, that these features can only be explained by an increase in the atmospheric (14)C production rate due to an extraterrestrial event. Here we provide evidence that these peaks were most likely produced by extreme solar events, based on several new annually resolved (10)Be measurements from both Arctic and Antarctic ice cores. Using ice core (36)Cl data in pair with (10)Be, we further show that these solar events were characterized by a very hard energy spectrum with high fluxes of solar protons with energy above 100 MeV. These results imply that the larger of the two events (AD 774/5) was at least five times stronger than any instrumentally recorded solar event. Our findings highlight the importance of studying the possibility of severe solar energetic particle events.

  6. Artificial layered perovskite oxides A(B{sub 0.5}B′{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} as potential solar energy conversion materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hungru; Umezawa, Naoto

    2015-02-07

    Perovskite oxides with a d{sup 0} electronic configuration are promising photocatalysts and exhibit high electron mobilities. However, their band gaps are too large for efficient solar energy conversion. On the other hand, transition metal cations with partially filled d{sup n} electronic configurations give rise to visible light absorption. In this study, by using hybrid density functional theory calculations, it is demonstrated that the virtues of the two categories of materials can be combined in perovskite oxide A(B{sub 0.5}B′{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} with a layered B-site ordering along the [001] direction. The electronic structures of the four selected perovskite oxide compounds, La(Ti{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 0.5})O{sub 3}, La(Ti{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5})O{sub 3}, Sr(Nb{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5})O{sub 3}, and Sr(Nb{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} are calculated and discussed.

  7. Delayed Alumina Scale Spallation on Rene'n5+y: Moisture Effects and Acoustic Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.; Morscher, Gregory N.

    2001-01-01

    The single crystal superalloy Rene'N5 (with or without Y-doping and hydrogen annealing) was cyclically oxidized at 1150 C for 1000 hours. After considerable scale growth (>= 500 hours), even the adherent alumina scales formed on Y-doped samples exhibited delayed interfacial spallation during subsequent water immersion tests, performed up to one year after oxidation. Spallation was characterized by weight loss, the amount of spalled area, and acoustic emission response. Hydrogen annealing (prior to oxidation) reduced spallation both before and after immersion, but without measurably reducing the bulk sulfur content of the Y-doped alloys. The duration and frequency of sequential, co-located acoustic emission events implied an interfacial crack growth rate at least 10(exp -3) m/s, but possibly higher than 10(exp 2) m/s. This is much greater than classic moisture-assisted slow crack growth rates in bulk alumina (10(exp -6) to 10(exp -3) m/s), which may still have occurred undetected by acoustic emission. An alternative failure sequence is proposed: an incubation process for preferential moisture ingress leads to a local decrease in interfacial toughness, thus allowing fast fracture driven by stored strain energy.

  8. High Throughput Discovery of Solar Fuels Photoanodes in the CuO-V 2 O 5 System

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Lan; Yan, Qimin; Shinde, Aniketa; ...

    2015-08-26

    Solar photoelectrochemical generation of fuel is a promising energy technology yet the lack of an efficient, robust photoanode remains a primary materials challenge in the development and deployment of solar fuels generators. Metal oxides comprise the most promising class of photoanode materials, but no known material meets the demanding requirements of low band gap energy, photoelectrocatalysis of the oxygen evolution reaction, and stability under highly oxidizing conditions. Here, we report the identification of new photoelectroactive materials through a strategic combination of combinatorial materials synthesis, high-throughput photoelectrochemistry, optical spectroscopy, and detailed electronic structure calculations. We identify 4 photoelectrocatalyst phases - α-Cu2V2O7,more » β-Cu2V2O7, γ-Cu3V2O8, and Cu11V6O26 - with band gap energy at or below 2 eV. The photoelectrochemical properties and 30-minute stability of these copper vanadate phases are demonstrated in 3 different aqueous electrolytes (pH 7, pH 9, and pH 13), with select combinations of phase and electrolyte exhibiting unprecedented photoelectrocatalytic stability for metal oxides with sub-2 eV band gap. Through integration of experimental and theoretical techniques, we determine new structure-property relationships and establish CuO-V2O5 as the most prominent composition system for OER photoelectrocatalysts, providing crucial information for materials genomes initiatives and paving the way for continued development of solar fuels photoanodes.« less

  9. Solar wind-driven Pc5 waves observed at a polar cap station and in the near cusp ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lauretis, M.; Regi, M.; Francia, P.; Marcucci, M. F.; Amata, E.; Pallocchia, G.

    2016-11-01

    We present the results of a comparative study conducted in Antarctica by using the ULF geomagnetic field measurements at Terra Nova Bay (Altitude Adjusted Corrected Geomagnetic Coordinates latitude 80°S) and simultaneous data from the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network radar at South Pole Station. Pc5 waves observed at Terra Nova Bay around local magnetic noon, when the station is close to the dayside cusp, can be interpreted as spatial integrated signals, produced by ionospheric currents associated to field line resonances at somewhat lower latitudes. The radar, providing the Doppler velocities of ionospheric plasma over a range of geomagnetic latitudes, allows to detect the occurrence of such field line resonances. In the reported case, our analysis shows evidence of resonant signals in the ionosphere at 75°S and 76°S that find correspondence in frequency and time with the geomagnetic signals observed at Terra Nova Bay around local noon. During the period of interest, oscillations of the solar wind dynamic pressure at the same frequency are detected by Geotail, just upstream of the morning flank of the bow shock. All the observations are consistent with the interpretation of the signals at Terra Nova Bay in terms of signatures of field line resonances occurring at lower latitudes, driven by solar wind oscillations transmitted into the magnetosphere. We discuss also the possibility of an additional contribution to the signals at Terra Nova Bay, due to the direct propagation of the solar wind waves along the local open field line.

  10. Simulations of the solar near-surface layers with the CO5BOLD, MURaM, and Stagger codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeck, B.; Collet, R.; Steffen, M.; Asplund, M.; Cameron, R. H.; Freytag, B.; Hayek, W.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Schüssler, M.

    2012-03-01

    Context. Radiative hydrodynamic simulations of solar and stellar surface convection have become an important tool for exploring the structure and gas dynamics in the envelopes and atmospheres of late-type stars and for improving our understanding of the formation of stellar spectra. Aims: We quantitatively compare results from three-dimensional, radiative hydrodynamic simulations of convection near the solar surface generated with three numerical codes (CO5BOLD, MURaM, and Stagger) and different simulation setups in order to investigate the level of similarity and to cross-validate the simulations. Methods: For all three simulations, we considered the average stratifications of various quantities (temperature, pressure, flow velocity, etc.) on surfaces of constant geometrical or optical depth, as well as their temporal and spatial fluctuations. We also compared observables, such as the spatially resolved patterns of the emerging intensity and of the vertical velocity at the solar optical surface as well as the center-to-limb variation of the continuum intensity at various wavelengths. Results: The depth profiles of the thermodynamical quantities and of the convective velocities as well as their spatial fluctuations agree quite well. Slight deviations can be understood in terms of differences in box size, spatial resolution and in the treatment of non-gray radiative transfer between the simulations. Conclusions: The results give confidence in the reliability of the results from comprehensive radiative hydrodynamic simulations.

  11. Overview of the Development of the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission 12.5-kW Hall Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Haag, Thomas; Yim, John; Chang, Li; Clayman, Lauren; Herman, Daniel; Shastry, Rohit; Thomas, Robert; Verhey, Timothy; Griffith, Christopher; Myers, James; Williams, George; Mikellides, Ioannis; Hofer, Richard; Polk, James; Goebel, Dan

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing mission concepts for a solar electric propulsion technology demonstration mission. A number of mission concepts are being evaluated including ambitious missions to near Earth objects. The demonstration of a high-power solar electric propulsion capability is one of the objectives of the candidate missions under consideration. In support of NASA's exploration goals, a number of projects are developing extensible technologies to support NASA's near and long term mission needs. Specifically, the Space Technology Mission Directorate Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission project is funding the development of a 12.5-kilowatt magnetically shielded Hall thruster system to support future NASA missions. This paper presents the design attributes of the thruster that was collaboratively developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The paper provides an overview of the magnetic, plasma, thermal, and structural modeling activities that were carried out in support of the thruster design. The paper also summarizes the results of the functional tests that have been carried out to date. The planned thruster performance, plasma diagnostics (internal and in the plume), thermal, wear, and mechanical tests are outlined.

  12. Overview of the Development of the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission 12.5-kW Hall Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Haag, Thomas; Yim, John; Chang, Li; Clayman, Lauren; Herman, Daniel; Shastry, Rohit; Thomas, Robert; Verhey, Timothy; Griffith, Christopher; Myers, James; Williams, George; Mikellides, Ioannis; Hofer, Richard; Polk, James; Goebel, Dan

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing mission concepts for a solar electric propulsion technology demonstration mission. A number of mission concepts are being evaluated including ambitious missions to near Earth objects. The demonstration of a high-power solar electric propulsion capability is one of the objectives of the candidate missions under consideration. In support of NASAs exploration goals, a number of projects are developing extensible technologies to support NASAs near and long term mission needs. Specifically, the Space Technology Mission Directorate Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission project is funding the development of a 12.5-kW magnetically shielded Hall thruster system to support future NASA missions. This paper presents the design attributes of the thruster that was collaboratively developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The paper provides an overview of the magnetic, plasma, thermal, and structural modeling activities that were carried out in support of the thruster design. The paper also summarizes the results of the functional tests that have been carried out to date. The planned thruster performance, plasma diagnostics (internal and in the plume), thermal, wear, and mechanical tests are outlined.

  13. Solar fine scale structures in the corona, transition region, and lower atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Dan; Cook, J. W.; Bartoe, J. -D. F.; Brueckner, G. E.; Dere, K. P.; Webb, D. F.; Davis, J. M.; Harvey, J. W.; Realy, F.; Martin, S. F.

    1994-01-01

    The American Science and Engineering Soft X-ray Imaging Payload and the Naval Research Laboratory High Resolution Telescope and Spectrograph (HRTS) were launched from White Sands on 1987 December 11 in coordinated sounding rocket flights. The goal was to investigate the correspondence of fine-scale structures from different temperature regimes in the solar atmosphere, and particularly the relationship between X-ray bright points (XBPs) and transition region explosive events. We present results of the analysis of co-aligned X-ray images, maps of sites of transition region explosive events observed in C IV 10(exp 5), HRTS 1600 A spectroheliograms of the T(sub min) region, and ground-based magnetogram and He I 10830 A images. We examined the relationship of He I 10830 A dark features and evolving magnetic features which correspond to XBPs. We note a frequent double ribbon pattern of the He I dark feature counterparts to XBPs. We discuss an analysis of the relationship of XBPs to evolving magnetic features by Webb et al., which shows that converging magnetic features of opposite polarity are the most significant magnetic field counterparts to XBPs. The magnetic bipolar features associated with XBPs appear as prominent network elements in chromospheric and transition region images. The features in C IV observations corresponding to XBP sites are in general bright, larger scale (approximately 10 arcsec) regions of complex velocity fields of order 40 km/s, which is typical of brighter C IV network elements. These C IV features do not reach the approximately 100 km/s velocities seen in the C IV explosive events. Also, there are many similar C IV bright network features without a corresponding XBP in the X-ray image. The transition region explosive events do not correspond directly to XBPs. The explosive events appear to be concentrated in the quiet Sun at the edges of strong network, or within weaker field strength network regions. We find a greater number of C IV events

  14. Fluence Uniformity Measurements in an Electron Accelerator Used for Irradiation of Extended Area Solar Cells and Electronic Circuits for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uribe, Roberto M.; Filppi, Ed; Zhang, Shubo

    2007-01-01

    It is common to have liquid crystal displays and electronic circuit boards with area sizes of the order of 20x20 sq cm on board of satellites and space vehicles. Usually irradiating them at different fluence values assesses the radiation damage in these types of devices. As a result, there is a need for a radiation source with large spatial fluence uniformity for the study of the damage by radiation from space in those devices. Kent State University s Program on Electron Beam Technology has access to an electron accelerator used for both research and industrial applications. The electron accelerator produces electrons with energies in the interval from 1 to 5 MeV and a maximum beam power of 150 kW. At such high power levels, the electron beam is continuously scanned back and forth in one dimension in order to provide uniform irradiation and to prevent damage to the sample. This allows for the uniform irradiation of samples with an area of up to 1.32 sq m. This accelerator has been used in the past for the study of radiation damage in solar cells (1). However in order to irradiate extended area solar cells there was a need to measure the uniformity of the irradiation zone in terms of fluence. In this paper the methodology to measure the fluence uniformity on a sample handling system (linear motion system), used for the irradiation of research samples, along the irradiation zone of the above-mentioned facility is described and the results presented. We also illustrate the use of the electron accelerator for the irradiation of large area solar cells (of the order of 156 sq cm) and include in this paper the electrical characterization of these types of solar cells irradiated with 5 MeV electrons to a total fluence of 2.6 x 10(exp 15) e/sq cm.

  15. Electrostatic bonding of thin (approximately 3 mil) 7070 cover glass to Ta2O5 AR-coated thin (approximately 2 mil) silicon wafers and solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egelkrout, D. W.; Horne, W. E.

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic bonding (ESB) of thin (3 mil) Corning 7070 cover glasses to Ta2O5 AR-coated thin (2 mil) silicon wafers and solar cells is investigated. An experimental program was conducted to establish the effects of variations in pressure, voltage, temperature, time, Ta2O5 thickness, and various prebond glass treatments. Flat wafers without contact grids were used to study the basic effects for bonding to semiconductor surfaces typical of solar cells. Solar cells with three different grid patterns were used to determine additional requirements caused by the raised metallic contacts.

  16. SPECTRO-POLARIMETRIC SIMULATIONS OF THE SOLAR LIMB: ABSORPTION-EMISSION Fe I 6301.5 Å AND 6302.5 Å LINE PROFILES AND TORSIONAL FLOWS IN THE INTERGRANULAR MAGNETIC FLUX CONCENTRATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Shelyag, S.

    2015-03-01

    Using radiative magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the magnetized solar photosphere and detailed spectro-polarimetric diagnostics with the Fe I 6301.5 Å and 6302.5 Å photospheric lines in the local thermodynamic equilibrium approximation, we model active solar granulation as if it was observed at the solar limb. We analyze general properties of the radiation across the solar limb, such as the continuum and the line core limb darkening and the granulation contrast. We demonstrate the presence of profiles with both emission and absorption features at the simulated solar limb, and pure emission profiles above the limb. These profiles are associated with the regions of strong linear polarization of the emergent radiation, indicating the influence of the intergranular magnetic fields on the line formation. We analyze physical origins of the emission wings in the Stokes profiles at the limb, and demonstrate that these features are produced by localized heating and torsional motions in the intergranular magnetic flux concentrations.

  17. The ATS-5 solar cell experiment after 6-1/2 years in synchronous orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B.

    1976-01-01

    Several types of solar cell/coverslide combinations were launched into synchronous orbit. The cells were 2 and 10 ohm-cm crucible-grown silicon with thicknesses of 0.2 and 0.3 mm. Coverslides were fused silica, ranging in thickness from 0.15 to 1.52 mm. The cells were mounted on two panels, one a rigid aluminum honeycomb structure, giving essentially infinite backshielding; the other was a thin Kapton-fiberglass substrate, offering minimal protection to the rear surface of the cells. The current-voltage curves of the cells were measured. Correction of cell electrical output to standard temperature and solar intensity was performed, using empirical radiation-dependent corrections. It is found that the cells on the flexible panel degrade much more rapidly than predicted, while the rigid panel cells follow the predictions fairly well. The anomalous behavior of the flexible panel cells is attributed to the deposition of a contaminant on the cell coverslides.

  18. Space-based solar power conversion and delivery systems study. Volume 5: Economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Space-based solar power conversion and delivery systems are studied along with a variety of economic and programmatic issues relevant to their development and deployment. The costs, uncertainties and risks associated with the current photovoltaic Satellite Solar Power System (SSPS) configuration, and issues affecting the development of an economically viable SSPS development program are addressed. In particular, the desirability of low earth orbit (LEO) and geosynchronous (GEO) test satellites is examined and critical technology areas are identified. The development of SSPS unit production (nth item), and operation and maintenance cost models suitable for incorporation into a risk assessment (Monte Carlo) model (RAM) are reported. The RAM was then used to evaluate the current SSPS configuration expected costs and cost-risk associated with this configuration. By examining differential costs and cost-risk as a function of postulated technology developments, the critical technologies, that is, those which drive costs and/or cost-risk, are identified. It is shown that the key technology area deals with productivity in space, that is, the ability to fabricate and assemble large structures in space, not, as might be expected, with some hardware component technology.

  19. Projections of long-term changes in solar radiation based on CMIP5 climate models and their influence on energy yields of photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Martin; Folini, Doris; Henschel, Florian; Müller, Björn

    2015-04-01

    Traditionally, for the planning and assessment of solar energy systems, the amount of solar radiation (sunlight) incident on the Earth's surface is assumed to be constant over the years. However, with changing climate and air pollution levels, solar resources may no longer be stable over time and undergo substantial decadal changes. Observational records covering the past decades confirm long-term changes in this quantity. Here we examine, how the latest generation of climate models used for the 5th IPCC report projects potential changes in surface solar radiation over the coming decades, and how this may affect, in combination with the expected greenhouse warming, solar power output from photovoltaic (PV) systems. For this purpose, projections up to the mid 21th century from 39 state of the art climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) are analysed globally and for selected key regions with major solar power production capacity. The large model ensemble allows to assess the degree of consistency of their projections. Models are largely consistent in the sign of the projected changes in solar radiation under cloud-free conditions as well as in surface temperatures over most of the globe, while still reasonably consistent over a considerable part of the globe in the sign of changes in cloudiness and associated changes in solar radiation. A first order estimate of the impact of solar radiation and temperature changes on energy yields of PV systems under the RPC8.5 scenario indicates statistically significant decreases in PV outputs in large parts of the world, but notable exceptions with positive trends in parts of Europe and the South-East of China. Projected changes between 2006 and 2049 under the RCP8.5 scenario overall are on the order of 1 % per decade for horizontal planes, but may be larger for tilted or tracked planes as well as on shorter (decadal) timescales. Related References: Wild, M., Folini, D., Henschel, F., and M

  20. A novel counter electrode material of La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yongfeng; Qin, Tianze; Yang, Bo; Zuo, Xueqin; Li, Guang; Wu, Mingzai; Ma, Yongqing; Jin, Shaowei; Zhu, Kerong

    2016-11-01

    In this work, La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 (LSCO) perovskite oxide with perfect crystallinity was successfully synthesized via a sol-gel method and then used as counter electrodes (CEs) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The DSSCs with LSCO CEs exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity for the triiodide reduction and yielded a power conversion efficiency of 7.17%, which is greater than that of the Pt electrode (7.06%). Compared with the hydrothermal method and solvothermal method, sol-gel method is more suitable for large scale preparation. This work should open up a new class of CE materials for low-cost and high-efficiency DSSCs.

  1. Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Data Release 5.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

    The Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data set contains over 200 parameters formulated for assessing and designing renewable energy systems.The SSE data set is formulated from NASA satellite- and reanalysis-derived insolation and meteorological data for the 10-year period July 1983 through June 1993. Results are provided for 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude grid cells over the globe. Average daily and monthly measurements for 1195 World Radiation Data Centre ground sites are also available. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1993-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree].

  2. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 5. Science Applications, Incorporated system requirements definition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report sets forth the system requirements for a Solar Controlled-Environment Agriculture System (SCEAS) Project. In the report a conceptual baseline system description for an engineering test facility is given. This baseline system employs a fluid roof/roof filter in combination with a large storage tank and a ground water heat exchanger in order to provide cooling and heating as needed. Desalination is accomplished by pretreatment followed by reverse osmosis. Energy is provided by means of photovoltaics and wind machines in conjunction with storage batteries. Site and climatic data needed in the design process are given. System performance specifications and integrated system design criteria are set forth. Detailed subsystem design criteria are presented and appropriate references documented.

  3. Adiabatic cooling of solar wind electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandbaek, Ornulf; Leer, Egil

    1992-01-01

    In thermally driven winds emanating from regions in the solar corona with base electron densities of n0 not less than 10 exp 8/cu cm, a substantial fraction of the heat conductive flux from the base is transfered into flow energy by the pressure gradient force. The adiabatic cooling of the electrons causes the electron temperature profile to fall off more rapidly than in heat conduction dominated flows. Alfven waves of solar origin, accelerating the basically thermally driven solar wind, lead to an increased mass flux and enhanced adiabatic cooling. The reduction in electron temperature may be significant also in the subsonic region of the flow and lead to a moderate increase of solar wind mass flux with increasing Alfven wave amplitude. In the solar wind model presented here the Alfven wave energy flux per unit mass is larger than that in models where the temperature in the subsonic flow is not reduced by the wave, and consequently the asymptotic flow speed is higher.

  4. HNO3, N2O5 and CIONO2 Enhancements after the October-November 2003 Solar Proton Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez-Puertas, M.; Funke, B.; Gil-Lopez, S.; Tsidu, G. Mengistu; Fischer, H.; Jackman, C. H.

    2005-01-01

    The large solar storm in October-November 2003 produced enormous amounts of high-energy protons which reached the Earth and penetrated into the middle atmosphere in the polar regions. At this time, the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on board the Environmental Satellite (ENVISAT) was observing the atmosphere in the 6-68 km altitude range. MIPAS observed significant enhancements of the NO(y) components HNO3, N2O5 and CIONO2 in the Northern polar stratosphere after the intense solar proton events. Two distinct HNO3 enhancements were observed. An instantaneous increase of 1-2 ppbv was observed immediately after the SPEs and is attributed to gas-phase chemistry: NO2 + OH + M yields HNO3 + M, accelerated by SPE-produced excess OH. A very large second increase of 1- 5 ppbv started around 10 November and lasted until the end of December. It is attributed to NO(x) (NO+NO2) produced in the mesosphere during the major SPEs in late October/early November and then transported downwards during November and December, partially converted to N2O5 in the upper stratosphere, which finally formed HNO3 via ion cluster reactions. N2O5 was observed to increase by 0.1-0.4 ppbv 1-3 days after the major SPEs and reached down to 30 km altitude. A second, more pronounced N2O5 enhancement of up to 1.2 ppbv at 40 km appeared about 12-13 days after the major SPEs. With a delay of 1-2 days after the major SPEs CIONO2 increased by up to 0.4 ppbv (40%) at 32 km altitude. NO(y) enhancements in the Southern hemisphere were generally less pronounced.

  5. Solar Sail Spaceflight Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisano, Michael; Evans, James; Ellis, Jordan; Schimmels, John; Roberts, Timothy; Rios-Reyes, Leonel; Scheeres, Daniel; Bladt, Jeff; Lawrence, Dale; Piggott, Scott

    2007-01-01

    The Solar Sail Spaceflight Simulation Software (S5) toolkit provides solar-sail designers with an integrated environment for designing optimal solar-sail trajectories, and then studying the attitude dynamics/control, navigation, and trajectory control/correction of sails during realistic mission simulations. Unique features include a high-fidelity solar radiation pressure model suitable for arbitrarily-shaped solar sails, a solar-sail trajectory optimizer, capability to develop solar-sail navigation filter simulations, solar-sail attitude control models, and solar-sail high-fidelity force models.

  6. Conceptual design study of a 5 kilowatt solar dynamic Brayton power system using a dome Fresnel lens solar concentrator. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Oneill, M.J.; McDanal, A.J.; Spears, D.H.

    1989-12-01

    The primary project objective was to generate a conceptual design for a nominal 5 kW solar dynamic space power system, which uses a unique, patented, transmittance-optimized, dome-shaped, point-focus Fresnel lens as the optical concentrator. Compared to reflective concentrators, the dome lens allows 200 times larger slope errors for the same image displacement. Additionally, the dome lens allows the energy receiver, the power conversion unit (PCU), and the heat rejection radiator to be independently optimized in configuration and orientation, since none of these elements causes any aperture blockage. Based on optical and thermal trade studies, a 6.6 m diameter lens with a focal length of 7.2 m was selected. This lens should provide 87 percent net optical efficienty at 800X geometric concentration ratio. The large lens is comprised of 24 gores, which compactly stow together during launch, and automatically deploy on orbit. The total mass of the microglass lens panels, the graphite/epoxy support structure, and miscellaneous hardware is about 1.2 kg per square meter of aperture. The key problem for the dome lens approach relates to the selection of a space-durable lens material. For the first time, all-glass Fresnel lens samples were successfully made by a sol-gel casting process.

  7. Hydrogen passivation of n+p and p+n heteroepitaxial InP solar cell structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterjee, B.; Ringel, S. A.; Hoffman, R., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    High-efficiency, heteroepitaxial (HE) InP solar cells, grown on GaAs, Si or Ge substrates, are desirable for their mechanically strong, light-weight and radiation-hard properties. However, dislocations, caused by lattice mismatch, currently limit the performance of the HE cells. This occurs through shunting paths across the active photovoltaic junction and by the formation of deep levels. In previous work we have demonstrated that plasma hydrogenation is an effective and stable means to passivate the electrical activity of dislocations in specially designed HE InP test structures. In this work, we present the first report of successful hydrogen passivation in actual InP cell structures grown on GaAs substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). We have found that a 2 hour exposure to a 13.56 MHz hydrogen plasma at 275 C reduces the deep level concentration in HE n+n InP cell structures from as-grown values of approximately 10(exp 15)/cm(exp -3), down to 1-2 x 10(exp 13)/cm(exp -3). The deep levels in the p-type base region of the cell structure match those of our earlier p-type test structures, which were attributed to dislocations or related point defect complexes. All dopants were successfully reactivated by a 400 C, 5 minute anneal with no detectable activation of deep levels. I-V analysis indicated a subsequent approximately 10 fold decrease in reverse leakage current at -1 volt reverse bias, and no change in the forward biased series resistance of the cell structure which indicates complete reactivation of the n+ emitter. Furthermore, electrochemical C-V profiling indicates greatly enhanced passivation depth, and hence hydrogen diffusion, for heteroepitaxial structures when compared with identically processed homoepitaxial n+p InP structures. An analysis of hydrogen diffusion in dislocated InP will be discussed, along with comparisons of passivation effectiveness for n+p versus p+n heteroepitaxial cell configurations. Preliminary hydrogen

  8. Results of the 1998 JPL Balloon Flight Solar Cell Calibration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Mueller, R. L.; Weiss, R. S.

    1998-01-01

    The 1998 solar cell calibration balloon flight campaign consisted of one flight, which occurred on August 15, 1998. All objectives of the flight program were met. Thirty-one modules were carried to an altitude of = 120,000 ft (36.6 km). Full I-V curves were measured on 4 of these modules, and output at a fixed load was measured on 27 modules. This data was corrected to 28 C and to 1 AU (1.496 x 10(exp 8) km). The calibrated cells have been returned to the participants and can now be used as reference standards in simulator testing of cells and arrays.

  9. Project 5S: A Safe Stepping Stone into the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John; Culick, Fred; Dimotakis, Paul; Friedman, Louis

    2012-01-01

    The human exploration program, at least in NASA, has been directed to move beyond the Moon and travel on a flexible path into the solar system. Reaching a Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) is a major human space flight goal but such missions have tight times and life-support requirements that require huge steps from current capabilities. An objective between the Moon and a NEA is needed. Example interim objectives are the Lagrangian points in either the Sun-Earth or Earth-Moon (EM) system. The nearest of these points beyond the Moon is E-M L2. The Lagrangian points are empty (as far as we know). As objectives for human flight,it has been argued that they suffer from a lack of public interest and of meaningful objectives for astronaut operations. To provide a physical target, a robotic spacecraft could retrieve a small NEA and bring it to a Lagrangian or other nearer-Earth point to be accessed and utilized for human-mission objectives. This paper reports on the results of a recently completed study of an asteroid retrieval mission sponsored by the Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS) at the California Institute of Technology. The study included an evaluation of potential targets, mission objectives, mission and system design, and potential capture mechanisms. The study concluded that, while challenging, there are no fundamental show stoppers and that such a mission would be possible with technology expected to be available in this decade. The final destination selected (for safety and mission operations) was high lunar orbit. Two options for target selection are considered: (i) retrieving a small (7 meter) NEA with a mass of order 500,000 kg, and (ii) taking a similar size boulder of a large known carbonaceous NEA. Several areas of technology and program requirements were identified, but the most important conclusion was that this approach enables meeting a goal of humans going to a NEA by the mid-2020s. The advantages and benefits for human exploration are considerable

  10. A 2000 Solar Mass Rotating Molecular Disk Around NGC 6334A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraemer, Kathleen E.; Jackson, James M.; Paglione, A. D.; Bolatto, Alberto D.

    1997-01-01

    We present millimeter and centimeter wave spectroscopic observations of the H II region NGC 6334A. We have mapped the source in several transitions of CO, CS, and NH3. The molecular emission shows a distinct flattened structure in the east-west direction. This structure is probably a thick molecular disk or torus (2.2 x 0.9 pc) responsible for the bipolarity of the near-infrared (NIR) and radio continuum emission which extends in two "lobes" to the north and south of the shell-like H II region. The molecular disk is rotating from west to east (omega approximately equals 2.4 km/s.pc) about an axis approximately parallel to the radio and NIR emission lobes. By assuming virial equilibrium, we find that the molecular disk contains approximately 2000 solar mass. Single-component gas excitation model calculations show that the molecular gas in the disk is warmer and denser (T(sub k) approximately equals 60 K, n approximately equals 3000/cc) than the gas to the north and south (T(sub k) approximately equals 50 K, n approximately equals 400/cc). High resolution (approximately 5 sec) NH3 (3, 3) images of NGC 6334A reveal several small (approximately 0.1 pc) clumps, one of which lies southwest of the radio continuum shell, and is spatially coincident with a near-infrared source, IRS 20. A second NH3 clump is coincident with an H2O maser and the center of a molecular outflow. The dense gas tracers, CS J = 5 approaches 4 and 7 approaches 6, peak near IRS 20 and the H2O maser, not at NGC 6334A. IRS 20 has a substantial far-infrared (FIR) luminosity L(sub FIR) approximately 10(exp 5) solar luminosity, which indicates the presence of an O 7.5 star but has no detected radio continuum (F(sub 6 cm) < 0.02 Jy). The combination of dense gas, a large FIR luminosity and a lack of radio continuum can best be explained if IRS 20 is a protostar. A third clump of NH3 emission lies to the west of IRS 20 but is not associated with any other molecular or continuum features. The star formation

  11. Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO): A Potential International Living with a Star Mission from Sun-Earth L5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Davila, J. M.; St Cyr, O. C.; Sittler, E. C.; Auchere, F.; Duvall, Jr. T. L.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Maksimovic, M.; MacDowall, R. J.; Szabo, A.; Collier, M. R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the scientific rationale for an L5 mission and a partial list of key scientific instruments the mission should carry. The L5 vantage point provides an unprecedented view of the solar disturbances and their solar sources that can greatly advance the science behind space weather. A coronagraph and a heliospheric imager at L5 will be able to view CMEs broadsided, so space speed of the Earth-directed CMEs can be measured accurately and their radial structure discerned. In addition, an inner coronal imager and a magnetograph from L5 can give advance information on active regions and coronal holes that will soon rotate on to the solar disk. Radio remote sensing at low frequencies can provide information on shock-driving CMEs, the most dangerous of all CMEs. Coordinated helioseismic measurements from the Sun Earth line and L5 provide information on the physical conditions at the base of the convection zone, where solar magnetism originates. Finally, in situ measurements at L5 can provide information on the large-scale solar wind structures (corotating interaction regions (CIRs)) heading towards Earth that potentially result in adverse space weather.

  12. Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO): A potential International Living with a Star Mission from Sun-Earth L5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Davila, J. M.; St. Cyr, O. C.; Sittler, E. C.; Auchère, F.; Duvall, T. L.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Maksimovic, M.; MacDowall, R. J.; Szabo, A.; Collier, M. R.

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes the scientific rationale for an L5 mission and a partial list of key scientific instruments the mission should carry. The L5 vantage point provides an unprecedented view of the solar disturbances and their solar sources that can greatly advance the science behind space weather. A coronagraph and a heliospheric imager at L5 will be able to view CMEs broadsided, so space speed of the Earth-directed CMEs can be measured accurately and their radial structure discerned. In addition, an inner coronal imager and a magnetograph from L5 can give advance information on active regions and coronal holes that will soon rotate on to the solar disk. Radio remote sensing at low frequencies can provide information on shock-driving CMEs, the most dangerous of all CMEs. Coordinated helioseismic measurements from the Sun-Earth line and L5 provide information on the physical conditions at the base of the convection zone, where solar magnetism originates. Finally, in situ measurements at L5 can provide information on the large-scale solar wind structures (corotating interaction regions (CIRs)) heading towards Earth that potentially result in adverse space weather.

  13. Influence of Solar and Thermal Radiation on Future Heat Stress Using CMIP5 Archive Driving the Community Land Model Version 4.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzan, J. R.; Huber, M.

    2015-12-01

    The summer of 2015 has experienced major heat waves on 4 continents, and heat stress left ~4000 people dead in India and Pakistan. Heat stress is caused by a combination of meteorological factors: temperature, humidity, and radiation. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) uses Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT)—an empirical metric this is calibrated with temperature, humidity, and radiation—for determining labor capacity during heat stress. Unfortunately, most literature studying global heat stress focuses on extreme temperature events, and a limited number of studies use the combination of temperature and humidity. Recent global assessments use WBGT, yet omit the radiation component without recalibrating the metric.Here we explicitly calculate future WBGT within a land surface model, including radiative fluxes as produced by a modeled globe thermometer. We use the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5), which is a component model of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), and is maintained by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). To drive our CLM4.5 simulations, we use greenhouse gasses Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (business as usual), and atmospheric output from the CMIP5 Archive. Humans work in a variety of environments, and we place the modeled globe thermometer in a variety of environments. We modify CLM4.5 code to calculate solar and thermal radiation fluxes below and above canopy vegetation, and in bare ground. To calculate wet bulb temperature, we implemented the HumanIndexMod into CLM4.5. The temperature, wet bulb temperature, and radiation fields are calculated at every model time step and are outputted 4x Daily. We use these fields to calculate WBGT and labor capacity for two time slices: 2026-2045 and 2081-2100.

  14. Vertically aligned Ta3N5 nanorod arrays for solar-driven photoelectrochemical water splitting.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanbo; Takata, Tsuyoshi; Cha, Dongkyu; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Minegishi, Tsutomu; Kubota, Jun; Domen, Kazunari

    2013-01-04

    A vertically aligned Ta(3)N(5) nanorod photoelectrode is fabricated by through-mask anodization and nitridation for water splitting. The Ta(3)N(5) nanorods, working as photoanodes of a photoelectrochemical cell, yield a high photocurrent density of 3.8 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode under AM 1.5G simulated sunlight and an incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 41.3% at 440 nm, one of the highest activities reported for photoanodes so far.

  15. A catalogue of solar cosmic ray events: IMPS 4 and 5, May 1967 - December 1972. [analysis of data acquired during operation of Explorer 34 and 41 satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanhollebeke, M. A.; Wang, J. R.; Mcdonald, F. B.

    1974-01-01

    This catalogue of solar cosmic ray events has been prepared for the use of solar physicists and other interested scientists. It contains some 185 solar particle events detected by the Goddard Space Flight Center Cosmic Ray Experiments on IMP's IV and V (Explorer 34 and 41) for the period May 1967 - December 1972. The data is presented in the form of hourly averages for three proton energy intervals - 0.9 - 1.6 MeV; 6 - 20 MeV and 20 - 80 MeV. In addition the time histories of .5 - 1.1 MeV electrons are shown on a separate scale. To assist in the identification of related solar events, the onset time of the electron event is indicated. The details of the instrumentation and detector techniques are described. Further descriptions of data reduction procedure and on the time-history plots are given.

  16. The 27-day versus 13.5-day variations in the solar Lyman-alpha radiation and the radio wave absorption in the lower ionosphere over Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delamorena, B. A.; Lastovicka, Jan; Rapoport, Z. TS.; Alberca, L.

    1989-01-01

    In order to clarify the question of solar periods in absorption, the pattern was studied of the solar Lyman-alpha radiation (the principal ionizing agent of the lower ionosphere) and of the radio wave absorption at five widely spaced places in Europe. When the solar Lyman-alpha flux variability is very well developed, then it dominates in the lower ionospheric variability. The most pronounced Lyman-alpha variation on time scale day-month is the solar rotation variation (about 27 days). When the Lyman-alpha variability is developed rather poorly, as it is typical for periods dominated by the 13.5 day variability, then the lower ionospheric variability appears to be dominated by variations of meteorological origin. The conclusions hold for all five widely spaced placed in Europe.

  17. Solar photocatalytic degradation of RB5 by ferrite bismuth nanoparticles synthesized via ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Soltani, T; Entezari, M H

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, the photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Black 5 (RB5) was investigated with ferrite bismuth synthesized via ultrasound under direct sunlight irradiation. The intensity of absorption peaks of RB5 gradually decreased by increasing the irradiation time and finally vanished in 50 min in acidic medium. The formation of new intermediate was observed in basic medium. The relative concentration of RB5 in solution and on the surface of ferrite bismuth (BiFeO3) nanoparticles was considered during the experiment in acidic and basic media. The effects of various parameters such as amount of catalyst, concentration of dye, and pH of the solution have been studied on the dye degradation. The adsorption isotherm and the kinetic of photocatalytic degradation of RB5 were investigated. The adsorption constants in the dark and in the presence of sunlight irradiation were compared. The photocatalytic degradation mechanism of RB5 has been evaluated through the addition of some scavengers to the solution. In addition, the stability and reusability of the catalyst were examined in this work.

  18. Stellar Laboratories: 3. New Ba 5, Ba 6, and Ba 7 Oscillator Strengths and the Barium Abundance in the Hot White Dwarfs G191-B2B and RE 0503-289

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Quinet, P.; Kruk, Jeffrey Walter

    2014-01-01

    Context. For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. Aims. Reliable Ba 5-7 oscillator strengths are used to identify Ba lines in the spectra of the DA-type white dwarf G191-B2B and the DO-type white dwarf RE 0503-289 and to determine their photospheric Ba abundances. Methods. We newly calculated Ba v-vii oscillator strengths to consider their radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of Ba lines exhibited in high-resolution and high-S/N UV observations of G191-B2B and RE 0503-289. Results. For the first time, we identified highly ionized Ba in the spectra of hot white dwarfs. We detected Ba vi and Ba vii lines in the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectrum of RE 0503-289. The Ba vi/Ba vii ionization equilibrium is well reproduced with the previously determined effective temperature of 70 000 K and surface gravity of log g=7.5. The Ba abundance is 3.5 +/- 0.5 × 10(exp-4) (mass fraction, about 23 000 times the solar value). In the FUSE spectrum of G191-B2B, we identified the strongest Ba vii line (at 993.41 Å) only, and determined a Ba abundance of 4.0 +/- 0.5 × 10(exp-6) (about 265 times solar). Conclusions. Reliable measurements and calculations of atomic data are a pre-requisite for stellar-atmosphere modeling. Observed Ba vi-vii line profiles in two white dwarfs' (G191-B2B and RE 0503-289) far-ultraviolet spectra were well reproduced with our newly calculated oscillator strengths. This allowed to determine the photospheric Ba abundance of these two stars precisely.

  19. In-Vacuum Photogrammetry of a Ten-Meter Square Solar Sail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappa, Richard S.; Jones, Thomas W.; Lunsford, Charles B.; Meyer, Christopher G.

    2006-01-01

    Solar sailing is a promising, future in-space propulsion method that uses the small force of reflecting sunlight to accelerate a large, reflective membrane without expendable propellants. One of two solar sail configurations under development by NASA is a striped net approach by L'Garde, Inc. This design uses four inflatably deployed, lightweight booms supporting a network of thin strings onto which four quadrants of ultrathin aluminized membranes are attached. The NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) provided both experimental and analytical support to L'Garde for validating the structural characteristics of this unique, ultralightweight spacecraft concept. One of LaRC's responsibilities was to develop and apply photogrammetric methods to measure sail shape. The deployed shape provides important information for validating the accuracy of finite-element modeling techniques. Photogrammetry is the science and art of calculating 3D coordinates of targets or other distinguishing features on structures using images. A minimum of two camera views of each target is required for 3D determination, but having four or more camera views is preferable for improved reliability and accuracy. Using retroreflective circular targets typically provides the highest measurement accuracy and automation. References 3 and 4 provide details of photogrammetry technology, and reference 5 discusses previous experiences with photogrammetry for measuring gossamer spacecraft structures such as solar sails. This paper discusses the experimental techniques used to measure a L Garde 10-m solar sail test in vacuum with photogrammetry. The test was conducted at the NASA-Glenn Space Power Facility (SPF) located at Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio. The SPF is the largest vacuum chamber in the United States, measuring 30 m in diameter by 37 m in height. High vacuum levels (10(exp -6) torr) can be maintained inside the chamber, and cold environments (-195 C) are possible using variable

  20. Thin-Layer Fe2TiO5 on Hematite for Efficient Solar Water Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jiujun; Lv, Xiaoxin; Liu, Jinyin; Zhang, Hui; Nie, Kaiqi; Hong, Caihao; Wang, Jiaou; Sun, Xuhui; Zhong, Jun; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2015-05-26

    A thin Fe2TiO5 layer was produced on hematite either by evaporating a TiCl4 solution on FeOOH or by a simple HF-assisted Ti treatment of FeOOH, both followed by annealing. The prepared Fe2TiO5-hematite heterostructure showed a significant enhancement in photocurrent density compared to that of the pristine hematite. For example, the sample after HF-assisted Ti treatment exhibited a significantly enhanced photocurrent of 2.0 mA/cm(2) at 1.23 V vs RHE. Moreover, the performance of the Fe2TiO5-hematite heterostructure can be further improved by coupling with Co-Pi catalysts, achieving a higher photocurrent of 2.6 mA/cm(2) at 1.23 V vs RHE. Synchrotron-based soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy analyses clearly revealed the existence of an Fe2TiO5 structure on hematite forming a heterojunction, which reduced the photogenerated hole accumulation and then improved the performance.

  1. Solar Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    2000-01-01

    The areas of emphasis are: (1) develop theoretical models of the transient release of magnetic energy in the solar atmosphere, e.g., in solar flares, eruptive prominences, coronal mass ejections, etc.; (2) investigate the role of the Sun's magnetic field in the structuring of solar corona by the development of three-dimensional numerical models that describe the field configuration at various heights in the solar atmosphere by extrapolating the field at the photospheric level; (3) develop numerical models to investigate the physical parameters obtained by the ULYSSES mission; (4) develop numerical and theoretical models to investigate solar activity effects on the solar wind characteristics for the establishment of the solar-interplanetary transmission line; and (5) develop new instruments to measure solar magnetic fields and other features in the photosphere, chromosphere transition region and corona. We focused our investigation on the fundamental physical processes in solar atmosphere which directly effect our Planet Earth. The overall goal is to establish the physical process for the Sun-Earth connections.

  2. High Excitation Rydberg Levels of Fe I from the ATMOS Solar Spectrum at 2.5 and 7 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenfeld, W. G.; Chang, E. S.; Geller, M.; Johansson, S.; Nave, G.; Sauval, A. J.; Grevesse, N.

    1995-01-01

    The quadrupole-polarization theory has been applied to the 3d(sup 6)4S(D-6)4f and 5g subconfigurations of Fe I by a parametric fit, and the fitted parameters are used to predict levels in the 6g and 6h subconfigurations. Using the predicted values, we have computed the 4f-6g and 5g-6h transition arrays and made identifications in the ATMOS infrared solar spectrum. The newly identified 6g and 6h levels, based on ATMOS wavenumbers, are combined with the 5g levels and found to agree with the theoretical values with a root mean-squared-deviation of 0.042/ cm. Our approach yields a polarizability of 28.07 a(sub o, sup 2) and a quadrupole moment of 0.4360 +/- 0.0010 ea(sup 2, sub o) for Fe II, as well as an improved ionization potential of 63737.700 +/- 0.010/ cm for Fe I.

  3. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume II, Book 2. Conceptual design, Sections 5 and 6

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long-term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System program is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumption, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume contains the detailed conceptual design and cost/performance estimates and an assessment of the commercial scale solar central receiver hybrid power system. (WHK)

  4. High and Low Energy Proton Radiation Damage in p/n InP MOCVD Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybicki, George; Weinberg, Irv; Scheiman, Dave; Vargas-Aburto, Carlos; Uribe, Roberto

    1995-01-01

    InP p(+)/n/n(+) solar cells, fabricated by metal organic chemical vapor deposition, (MOCVD) were irradiated with 0.2 MeV and 10 MeV protons to a fluence of 10(exp 13)/sq cm. The power output degradation, IV behavior, carrier concentration and defect concentration were observed at intermediate points throughout the irradiations. The 0.2 MeV proton-irradiated solar cells suffered much greater and more rapid degradation in power output than those irradiated with 10 MeV protons. The efficiency losses were accompanied by larger increases in the recombination currents in the 0.2 MeV proton-irradiated solar cells. The low energy proton irradiations also had a larger impact on the series resistance of the solar cells. Despite the radiation induced damage, the carrier concentration in the base of the solar cells showed no reduction after 10 MeV or 0.2 MeV proton irradiations and even increased during irradiation with 0.2 MeV protons. In a deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) study of the irradiated samples, the minority carrier defects H4 and H5 at E(sub v) + 0.33 and E(sub v) + 0.52 eV and the majority carrier defects E7 and El0 at E(sub c) - 0.39 and E(sub c) - 0.74 eV, were observed. The defect introduction rates for the 0.2 MeV proton irradiations were about 20 times higher than for the 10 MeV proton irradiations. The defect El0, observed here after irradiation, has been shown to act as a donor in irradiated n-type InP and may be responsible for obscuring carrier removal. The results of this study are consistent with the much greater damage produced by low energy protons whose limited range causes them to stop in the active region of the solar cell.

  5. Aggregation and morphology control enables polymer solar cells with efficiencies near 11.5% (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, He

    2015-10-01

    Current high-efficiency (>9.0%) PSCs are restricted to materials combinations that are based on limited donor polymers and only one specific fullerene acceptor, PC71BM. Furthermore, best-efficiency PSCs are mostly based on relatively thin (100 nm) active layers. Here we first report multiple cases of high-performance thick-film (300 nm) PSCs (efficiencies up to 10.8%, fill factors up to 77%) based on conventional PCBM and many non-PCBM fullerenes. Our simple aggregation control and materials design rules allowed us to develop, within a short time, three new donor polymer, six fullerenes (including C60-based fullerenes), and over ten polymer:fullerene combinations, all of which yielded higher efficiency than previous state of art devices (~9.5%). The common structural feature of the three new donor polymers, the 2-octyldodecyl (2OD) alkyl chains sitting on quaterthiophene, causes a temperature-dependent aggregation behavior that allows for the processing of the polymer solutions at moderately elevated temperature, and more importantly, controlled aggregation and strong crystallization of the polymer during the film cooling and drying process. This results in a well-controlled and near-ideal polymer:fullerene morphology (containing highly crystalline, preferentially orientated, yet small polymer domains) that is controlled by polymer aggregation during warm casting and thus insensitive to the choice of fullerenes. The 2OD structural motif is then further applied to several other polymer backbones and produces three additional polymers with efficiencies between 10-11.5%. Our best efficiency (11.5%) is achieved via the combination of new structural designs, interface and optical engineering and optimizations on the solvents and additives of the polymer:fullerene solution.

  6. Quantification of HCl from High Resolution Infrared Solar Spectra Obtained at the South Pole in December 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Murcray, F. H.; Murcray, D. G.

    1987-01-01

    Ground-based infrared solar spectra at 0.02/ cm resolution obtained at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole station in December 1986 have been analysed for the atmospheric content of HCl. Nonlinear least-squares spectral fitting applied to the spectra yields a total HCl column amount of (6.4 +/- 0.8) x 10(exp 15) molec/sq cm, most being stratospheric. This amount is larger than that extrapolated from earlier results on the latitudinal distribution of atmospheric HCl.

  7. Multiradionuclide evidence for the solar origin of the cosmic-ray events of ᴀᴅ 774/5 and 993/4

    PubMed Central

    Mekhaldi, Florian; Muscheler, Raimund; Adolphi, Florian; Aldahan, Ala; Beer, Jürg; McConnell, Joseph R.; Possnert, Göran; Sigl, Michael; Svensson, Anders; Synal, Hans-Arno; Welten, Kees C.; Woodruff, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    The origin of two large peaks in the atmospheric radiocarbon (14C) concentration at AD 774/5 and 993/4 is still debated. There is consensus, however, that these features can only be explained by an increase in the atmospheric 14C production rate due to an extraterrestrial event. Here we provide evidence that these peaks were most likely produced by extreme solar events, based on several new annually resolved 10Be measurements from both Arctic and Antarctic ice cores. Using ice core 36Cl data in pair with 10Be, we further show that these solar events were characterized by a very hard energy spectrum with high fluxes of solar protons with energy above 100 MeV. These results imply that the larger of the two events (AD 774/5) was at least five times stronger than any instrumentally recorded solar event. Our findings highlight the importance of studying the possibility of severe solar energetic particle events. PMID:26497389

  8. Single Junction InGaP/GaAs Solar Cells Grown on Si Substrates using SiGe Buffer Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringel, S. A.; Carlin, J. A.; Andre, C. L.; Hudait, M. K.; Gonzalez, M.; Wilt, D. M.; Clark, E. B.; Jenkins, P.; Scheiman, D.; Allerman, A.

    2002-01-01

    Single junction InGaP/GaAs solar cells displaying high efficiency and record high open circuit voltage values have been grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on Ge/graded SiGe/Si substrates. Open circuit voltages as high as 980 mV under AM0 conditions have been verified to result from a single GaAs junction, with no evidence of Ge-related sub-cell photoresponse. Current AM0 efficiencies of close to 16% have been measured for a large number of small area cells, whose performance is limited by non-fundamental current losses due to significant surface reflection resulting from greater than 10% front surface metal coverage and wafer handling during the growth sequence for these prototype cells. It is shown that at the material quality currently achieved for GaAs grown on Ge/SiGe/Si substrates, namely a 10 nanosecond minority carrier lifetime that results from complete elimination of anti-phase domains and maintaining a threading dislocation density of approximately 8 x 10(exp 5) per square centimeter, 19-20% AM0 single junction GaAs cells are imminent. Experiments show that the high performance is not degraded for larger area cells, with identical open circuit voltages and higher short circuit current (due to reduced front metal coverage) values being demonstrated, indicating that large area scaling is possible in the near term. Comparison to a simple model indicates that the voltage output of these GaAs on Si cells follows ideal behavior expected for lattice mismatched devices, demonstrating that unaccounted for defects and issues that have plagued other methods to epitaxially integrate III-V cells with Si are resolved using SiGe buffers and proper GaAs nucleation methods. These early results already show the enormous and realistic potential of the virtual SiGe substrate approach for generating high efficiency, lightweight and strong III-V solar cells.

  9. Effect of emitter parameter variation on the performance of heteroepitaxial indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1990-01-01

    Metallorganic chemical-vapor-deposited heteroepitaxial indium phosphide (InP) solar cell experimental results were simulated by using a PC-1D computer model. The effect of emitter parameter variation on the performance of n(+)/p/p(+) heteroepitaxial InP/GaAs solar cell was presented. The thinner and lighter doped emitters were observed to offer higher cell efficiencies. The influence of emitter thickness and minority carrier diffusion length on the cell efficiency with respect to dislocation density was studied. Heteroepitaxial cells with efficiencies similar to present day homojunction InP efficiencies (greater than 16 percent AMO) were shown to be attainable if a dislocation density lower than 10(exp 6)/sq cm could be achieved. A realistic optimized design study yielded InP solar cells of over 22 percent AMO efficiency at 25 C.

  10. Effect of emitter parameter variation on the performance of heteroepitaxial indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, R. K.; Flood, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    Metalorganic chemical-vapor-deposited heteroepitaxial indium phosphide (InP) solar cell experimental results were simulated by using a PC-1D computer model. The effect of emitter parameter variation on the performance of n(+)/p/p(+) heteroepitaxial InP/GaAs solar cell was presented. The thinner and lighter doped emitters were observed to offer higher cell efficiencies. The influence of emitter thickness and minority carrier diffusion length on the cell efficiency with respect to dislocation density was studied. Heteroepitaxial cells with efficiencies similar to present day homojunction InP efficiencies (greaater than 16 percent AM0) were shown to be attainable if a dislocation density lower than 10(exp 6)/sq cm could be achieved. A realistic optimized design study yielded InP solar cells of over 22 percent AM0 efficiency at 25 C.

  11. Evidence for Live Cl-36 in Ca-Al-rich Inclusions from the Ningqiang Carbonaceous Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Y.; Guan, Y.; Leshin, L. A.; Ouyang, Z.; Wang, D.

    2004-01-01

    The short-lived radionuclide Cl-36 decays to either Ar-36 (98.1%, beta(sup -)) or S-36 (1.9%, epsilon and beta(sup +)), with a half life of 3.01 x 10(exp 5) yr. Both the nucleosynthetic and spallation models suggest high initial Cl-36/Cl-35 ratios ((Cl-36/Cl-35)o up to approximately 10(exp -4)) in the early solar system. Previous observed excess Ar-36 in Efremovka matrix has been interpreted to represent a much lower (Cl-36/Cl-35)o ratio of approximately 1 x 10(exp -6). From the observed S-36 excesses in sodalite in calcium aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), we report in this study the first direct evidence of the presence of Cl-36 in primitive meteorites. The inferred (Cl-36/Cl-35)o ratios range from approximately 5 x 10(exp -6) to approximately 1 x 10(exp -5).

  12. The Molecular Clouds Fueling A 1/5 Solar Metallicity Starburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepley, Amanda A.; Leroy, Adam K.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Sandstrom, Karin; Chen, C.-H. Rosie

    2016-09-01

    Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, we have made the first high spatial and spectral resolution observations of the molecular gas and dust in the prototypical blue compact dwarf galaxy II Zw 40. The {}12{CO}(2-1) and {}12{CO}(3-2) emission is clumpy and distributed throughout the central star-forming region. Only one of eight molecular clouds has associated star formation. The continuum spectral energy distribution is dominated by free-free and synchrotron; at 870 μm, only 50% of the emission is from dust. We derive a CO-to-H2 conversion factor using several methods, including a new method that uses simple photodissocation models and resolved CO line intensity measurements to derive a relationship that uniquely predicts {α }{co} for a given metallicity. We find that the CO-to-H2 conversion factor is 4-35 times that of the Milky Way (18.1-150.5 {M}⊙ {({{K}}{km}{{{s}}}-1{{pc}}2)}-1). The star formation efficiency of the molecular gas is at least 10 times higher than that found in normal spiral galaxies, which is likely due to the burst-dominated star formation history of II Zw 40 rather than an intrinsically higher efficiency. The molecular clouds within II Zw 40 resemble those in other strongly interacting systems like the Antennae: overall they have high size-linewidth coefficients and molecular gas surface densities. These properties appear to be due to the high molecular gas surface densities produced in this merging system rather than to increased external pressure. Overall, these results paint a picture of II Zw 40 as a complex, rapidly evolving system whose molecular gas properties are dominated by the large-scale gas shocks from its ongoing merger.

  13. On the equivalent widths determination of some lines arising from thea5D term of neutral iron in the solar spectrum.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasanalizade, A. G.

    Using the absolute oscillator strengths for Fe I lines by the Oxford scale and the absolute curve of growth of iron for two atmospheric models the author determines the equivalent widths of 21 solar lines of Fe I arising from the term a5D.

  14. Tether-Cutting Energetics of a Solar Quiet Region Prominence Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2003-01-01

    We study the morphology and energetics of a slowly-evolving quiet region solar prominence eruption occurring on 1999 February 8-9 in the solar north polar crown region, using soft X-ray data from the soft X-ray telescope (SXT) on Yohkoh and Fe xv EUV 284 A data from the EUV Imaging Telescope (EIT) on SOHO. After rising at approx. 1 km/s for about six hours, the prominence accelerates to a velocity of approx. 10 km/s, leaving behind EUV and soft X-ray loop arcades of a weak flare in its source region. Intensity dimmings occur in the eruption region cospatially in EUV and soft X-rays, indicating that the dimmings result from a depletion of material. Over the first two hours of the prominence s rapid rise, flare-like brightenings occur beneath the rising prominence which may correspond to "tether cutting" magnetic reconnection. These brightenings have heating requirements of up to approx. 10(exp 28)-10(exp 29) ergs, and this is comparable to the mechanical energy required for the rising prominence over the same time period. If the ratio of mechanical energy to heating energy remains constant through the early phase of the eruption, then we infer that coronal signatures for the tether cutting may not be apparent at or shortly after the start of the fast phase in this or similar low-energy eruptions, since the plasma-heating energy levels would not exceed that of the background corona.

  15. Solar coronal temperature diagnostics using emission line from multiple stages of ionization of iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brosius, Jeffrey W.; Davila, Joseph M.; Thomas, Roger J.; Thompson, William T.

    1994-01-01

    We obtained spatially resolved extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) spectra of AR 6615 on 1991 May 7 with NASA/ Goddard Space Flight Center's Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS). Included are emission lines from four different stages of ionization of iron: Fe(+15) lambda 335 A, Fe(+14) lambda 327 A, Fe(+13) lambda 334 A, and Fe(+12) lambda 348 A. Using intensity ratios from among these lines, we have calculated the active region coronal temperature along the Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS) slit. Temperatures derived from line ratios which incorporate adjacent stages of ionization are most sensitive to measurement uncertainties and yield the largest scatter. Temperatures derived from line ratios which incorporate nonadjacent stages of ionization are less sensitive to measurement uncertainties and yield little scatter. The active region temperature derived from these latter ratios has an average value of 2.54 x 10(exp 6) K, with a standard deviation approximately 0.12 x 10(exp 6) K, and shows no significant variation with position along the slit.

  16. A small mission concept to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L5 point for innovative solar, heliospheric and space weather science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavraud, B.; Liu, Y.; Segura, K.; He, J.; Qin, G.; Temmer, M.; Vial, J.-C.; Xiong, M.; Davies, J. A.; Rouillard, A. P.; Pinto, R.; Auchère, F.; Harrison, R. A.; Eyles, C.; Gan, W.; Lamy, P.; Xia, L.; Eastwood, J. P.; Kong, L.; Wang, J.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Zhang, S.; Zong, Q.; Soucek, J.; An, J.; Prech, L.; Zhang, A.; Rochus, P.; Bothmer, V.; Janvier, M.; Maksimovic, M.; Escoubet, C. P.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Tappin, J.; Vainio, R.; Poedts, S.; Dunlop, M. W.; Savani, N.; Gopalswamy, N.; Bale, S. D.; Li, G.; Howard, T.; DeForest, C.; Webb, D.; Lugaz, N.; Fuselier, S. A.; Dalmasse, K.; Tallineau, J.; Vranken, D.; Fernández, J. G.

    2016-08-01

    We present a concept for a small mission to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L5 point for innovative solar, heliospheric and space weather science. The proposed INvestigation of Solar-Terrestrial Activity aNd Transients (INSTANT) mission is designed to identify how solar coronal magnetic fields drive eruptions, mass transport and particle acceleration that impact the Earth and the heliosphere. INSTANT is the first mission designed to (1) obtain measurements of coronal magnetic fields from space and (2) determine coronal mass ejection (CME) kinematics with unparalleled accuracy. Thanks to innovative instrumentation at a vantage point that provides the most suitable perspective view of the Sun-Earth system, INSTANT would uniquely track the whole chain of fundamental processes driving space weather at Earth. We present the science requirements, payload and mission profile that fulfill ambitious science objectives within small mission programmatic boundary conditions.

  17. INSTANT: a Small Mission Concept to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L5 Point for Innovative Solar, Heliospheric and Space Weather Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavraud, B.; Liu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    We present a small mission concept to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L5 point for innovative solar, heliospheric and space weather sciences. The proposed INvestigation of Solar-Terrestrial Activity aNd Transients (INSTANT) mission concept is designed to identify how solar coronal magnetic fields drive eruptions, mass transport and particle acceleration that impact the Earth and the heliosphere. The INSTANT concept would be the first to (1) obtain measurements of coronal magnetic fields from space, and (2) determine coronal mass ejection (CME) kinematics with unparalleled accuracy. Thanks to innovative instrumentation at a vantage point that provides the most suitable perspective view of the Sun-Earth system, INSTANT would, in addition, uniquely track the whole chain of fundamental processes driving space weather. We present the science requirements, payload and mission profile which fulfill ambitious science objectives within small mission programmatic boundary conditions.

  18. Efficient room temperature aqueous Sb2S3 synthesis for inorganic-organic sensitized solar cells with 5.1% efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Gödel, Karl C; Choi, Yong Chan; Roose, Bart; Sadhanala, Aditya; Snaith, Henry J; Seok, Sang Il; Steiner, Ullrich; Pathak, Sandeep K

    2015-05-21

    Sb2S3 sensitized solar cells are a promising alternative to devices employing organic dyes. The manufacture of Sb2S3 absorber layers is however slow and cumbersome. Here, we report the modified aqueous chemical bath synthesis of Sb2S3 absorber layers for sensitized solar cells. Our method is based on the hydrolysis of SbCl3 to complex antimony ions decelerating the reaction at ambient conditions, in contrast to the usual low temperature deposition protocol. This simplified deposition route allows the manufacture of sensitized mesoporous-TiO2 solar cells with power conversion efficiencies up to η = 5.1%. Photothermal deflection spectroscopy shows that the sub-bandgap trap-state density is lower in Sb2S3 films deposited with this method, compared to standard deposition protocols.

  19. Surface solar radiation and hydrological cycle in 20th century China: sensitivity studies with ECHAM5-HAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folini, D.; Wild, M.

    2012-04-01

    The world, and China in particular, has seen a tremendous population growth and industrialization in the 20th century. These changes were accompanied, among others, by a substantial increase in aerosol emission. To learn more about associated consequences for the climate system we have carried out a comparatively large set of transient sensitivity studies with the global atmosphere only climate model ECHAM5-HAM, using aerosol emission data from NIES (National Institute of Environmental Studies, Japan) and prescribed, observation based sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from the Hadley Center. The sensitivity studies cover the period from 1870 to 2005 and comprise ensembles of simulations (up to 13 members per ensemble), which allow to address the role of different aerosol species, greenhouse gases, and prescribed sea surface temperatures. Here we analyze these simulation data with particular focus on surface solar radiation, temperature, and the hydrological cycle in China. Physical mechanisms able to explain the results will be discussed. We generally find the strongest effects in the east of the country, where urbanization and industrialization is strongest and emissions increased most. The decrease of surface solar radiation (SSR) under clear sky conditions reaches up to around -8 W / m2 per decade from 1950 to 1990. Comparable values are found for all sky conditions. Dimming ceases in the second half of the 1990s, when we even see a renewed increase in SSR in some regions. Overall, these findings are in line with observation based estimates. Modeled surface temperatures reflect the decrease in SSR but carry also a substantial SST signature. After remaining roughly constant from 1870 to 1900, we find modeled surface temperatures to increase by about 1 degree Celsius till 1950, then decrease again by -0.2 to -1.2 degree Celsius till 1990, before a renewed increase sets in. Precipitation decreases in our model results from 1950 to 2000 by up to 10% or 150 mm per year

  20. Solar collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, S. I.

    1984-08-01

    Solar dishes, photovoltaics, passive solar building and solar hot water systems, Trombe walls, hot air panels, hybrid solar heating systems, solar grain dryers, solar greenhouses, solar hot water worhshops, and solar workshops are discussed. These solar technologies are applied to residential situations.

  1. SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING DESIGN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Building Research Inst., Inc., Washington, DC.

    A REPORT OF A PROGRAM HELD AS PART OF THE BUILDING RESEARCH INSTITUTE 1962 SPRING CONFERENCE ON THE SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING DESIGN. TOPICS DISCUSSED ARE--(1) SOLAR ENERGY DATA APPLICABLE TO BUILDING DESIGN, (2) THERMAL EFFECTS OF SOLAR RADIATION ON MAN, (3) SOLAR EFFECTS ON ARCHITECTURE, (4) SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING COSTS, (5) SELECTION OF…

  2. Functional Conceptual Design Criteria - 5-MW/sub e/ salt-gradient solar pond power plant at Great Salt Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.M.; Barnhart, J.S.; Cavola, R.G.; Drost, M.K.; Hauser, S.G.; Johnson, B.M.

    1983-08-01

    The purpose of this solar pond plant facility would be to provide valid data on the cost, operation, and reliability of salt-gradient solar ponds as a means of producing power. A general facility description is given which includes design code requirements, site selection, site characteristics, and site-specific design requirements. Functional requirements discussed include: civil-structural; mechanical; electrical; and control, instrumentation and alarms. Occupational and environmental safety, security, and quality assurance are also discussed.

  3. Low-Altitude Reconnection Inflow-Outflow Observations During a 2010 November 3 Solar Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Sabrina L.a; Holman, Gordon; Reeves, Katharine K.; Seaton, Daniel B.; McKenzie, David E.; Su, Yang

    2012-01-01

    For a solar flare occurring on 2010 November 3, we present observations us- ing several SDO/AIA extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) passbands of an erupting flux rope followed by inflows sweeping into a current sheet region. The inflows are soon followed by outflows appearing to originate from near the termination point of the inflowing motion an observation in line with standard magnetic reconnection models. We measure average inflow plane-of-sky speeds to range from approximately 150 - 690 km s-1 with the initial, high-temperature inflows being the fastest. Using the inflow speeds and a range of Alfven speeds, we estimate the Alfvenic Mach number which appears to decrease with time. We also provide inflow and outflow times with respect to RHESSI count rates and find that the fast, high- temperature inflows occur simultaneously with a peak in the RHESSI thermal light curve. Five candidate inflow-outflow pairs are identified with no more than a minute delay between detections. The inflow speeds of these pairs are measured to be approximately 10(exp 2) km s-1 with outflow speeds ranging from approximately 10(exp 2) - 10(exp 33 km s-1 indicating acceleration during the reconnection process. The fastest of these outflows are in the form of apparently traveling density enhancements along the legs of the loops rather than the loop apexes themselves. These flows could possibly either be accelerated plasma, shocks, or waves prompted by reconnection. The measurements presented here show an order of magnitude difference between the retraction speeds of the loops and the speed of the density enhancements within the loops presumably exiting the reconnection site.

  4. The wall of reconnection-driven magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in a large solar flare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. L.; Larosa, T. N.; Orwig, L. E.

    1995-01-01

    LaRosa and Moore (1993) recently proposed that the bulk dissipation of magnetic field that is required for the electron energization in the explosive phase of solar flares occurs in a 'fat current sheet', a wall of cascading magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence sustained by highly disordered driven reconnection of opposing magnetic fields impacting at a turbulent boundary layer. Here, we use the well-observed great two-ribbon eruptive flare of 1984 April 24/25 to assess the feasibility of both (1) the standard model for the overall three-dimensional form and action of the magnetic field and (2) the turbulent reconnection wall within it. We find (1) that the morphology of this flare closely matched that of the standard model; (2) the preflare sheared core field had enough nonpotential magnetic energy to power the flare; (3) the model turbulent wall required to achieve the flare's peak dissipative power easily fit within the overall span of the flaring magnetic field; (4) this wall was thick enough to have turbulent eddies large enough (diameters approximately 10(exp 8 cm) to produce the approximately ergs energy release fragments typically observed in the explosive phase of flares; (5) the aspect ratio (thickness/vertical extent) of the turbulent reconnection wall was in the 0.1-1 range expected by (Parker 1973). We therefore conclude that the viability of our version of the standard model (i.e., having the magnetic field dissipation occur in our turbulent reconnection wall) is well confirmed by this typical great two-ribbon eruptive flare.

  5. Toward 10(exp 9) GPS geodesy: Vector baselines, Earth rotation and reference frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutz, Bob E.

    1993-01-01

    The University of Texas Center for Space Research research efforts under NASA Grant No. NAG-1936 from 1 Jan. 1992 - 31 Dec. 1992 were in the following areas: GPS orbit accuracy assessments and efforts to improve the accuracy; analysis of global GPS data collected during the first three months of the IGS campaign, and analysis of regional data. A brief summary of each of the above activities is presented in the following.

  6. Towards 10(exp 9) GPS geodesy: Vector baselines, Earth rotation and reference frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutz, Bob E.

    1994-01-01

    Effort during the period form January 1, 1993 to December 31, 1993 were in the following areas: GPS orbit accuracy assessments and efforts to improve the accuracy; analysis and effects of GPS receiver antenna phase center variation; analysis of global GPS data being collected for the IGS campaign; and analysis of regional (south west Pacific) campaign data. A brief summary of each of the above activities is presented.

  7. Friction, Wear, and Evaporation Rates of Various Materials in Vacuum to 10(exp -7) mm Hg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, Donald H.; Swikert, Max; Johnson, Robert L.

    1961-01-01

    The requirements for bearings and seals to operate in the environment of space dictate a new area for lubrication research. The low ambient pressures encountered in space can be expected to influence the behavior of oil, grease, and solid-film lubricants. The property of these materials most significantly affected by low ambient pressures is the evaporation rate. Various investigators have therefore measured the evaporation rates of oils and greases in vacuum as one method of establishing their relative merit for space applications (1-3). The results of this work have given some indication as to the oils and greases with the greatest stability at reduced ambient pressures. Only limited experimental work, however, has been reported in the literature for inorganic solids and soft metals which have potential use as solid lubricant films or coatings for hard alloy substrates [e.g. Reference ( 4 )]. In general, the evaporation rates of these materials would be lower than those of oils and greases. These films might therefore be very attractive as lubricants for high vacuum service.

  8. A Solar System Survey of Forced Librations in Longitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornstock, Robert L.; Bills, Bruce G.

    2003-01-01

    Forced librations are periodic rotational rate variations due to gravitational interactions with an orbital partner. We have developed an analytic theory capable of calculating expected amplitudes of forced librations for nonresonant rotators as well as for bodies existing in a spin-orbit resonance. The theory has been applied to 34 solar system bodies, including terrestrial planets, planetary satellites, and the asteroid Eros. Parameters governing libration amplitude are the body s orbital eccentricity, moment difference, and the ratio of its spin rate to its orbital rate. In each case the largest libration amplitude is associated with the forcing frequency 2 (p - 1) n, where n is the orbital mean motion and p is the spin/orbit rate ratio. This dominant frequency is simply semidiurnal as seen from the position of the torquing body. The maximum libration angular amplitude is 1.3 x 10(exp -2) radians for Thebe, and the maximum mean equatorial displacement is 1.4 km for Mimas.

  9. Space Environmental Testing of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Jerry D.; Anglin, Emily J.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Scheiman, David A.; Castro, Stephenie L.; Lyons, Valerie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances in nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells has lead NASA to investigate the potential of these devices for space power generation, Reported here is the first space environment characterization of these type of photovoltaic devices. Cells containing liquid electrolytes were exposed to simulated low-earth orbit conditions and their performance evaluated. All cells were characterized under simulated air mass zero (AMO) illumination. Complete cells were exposed to pressures less than 1 x 10(exp -7) torr for over a month, with no sign of sealant failure or electrolyte leakage. Cells from Solaronix SA were rapid thermal cycled under simulated low-earth orbit conditions. The cells were cycled 100 times from -80 C to 80 C, which is equivalent to 6 days in orbit. The best cell had a 4.6% loss in efficiency as a result of the thermal cycling,

  10. Solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Jayadev, T.S.; Edesess, M.

    1980-04-01

    This report first describes the different types of solar ponds including the nonconvecting salt gradient pond and various saltless pond designs. It then discusses the availability and cost of salts for salt gradient ponds, and compares the economics of salty and saltless ponds as a function of salt cost. A simple computational model is developed to approximate solar pond performance. This model is later used to size solar ponds for district heating and industrial process heat applications. For district heating, ponds are sized to provide space conditioning for a group of homes, in different regions of the United States. Size requirements is on the order of one acre for a group of 25 to 50 homes. An economic analysis is performed of solar ponds used in two industrial process heat applications. The analysis finds that solar ponds are competitive when conventional heat sources are priced at $5 per million Btu and expected to rise in price at a rate of 10% per year. The application of solar ponds to the generation of electricity is also discussed. Total solar pond potential for displacing conventional energy sources is estimated in the range of from one to six quadrillion Btu per year in the near and intermediate future.

  11. Directional Limits on Persistent Gravitational Waves Using LIGO S5 Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G. S.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amin, R. S.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Antonucci, F.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M. C.; Aronsson, M.; Arun, K. G.; Aso, Y.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Cannizzo, J.; Stroeer, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    The gravitational-wave (GW) sky may include nearby pointlike sources as well as astrophysical and cosmological stochastic backgrounds. Since the relative strength and angular distribution of the many possible sources of GWs are not well constrained, searches for GW signals must be performed in a model-independent way. To that end we perform two directional searches for persistent GWs using data from the LIGO S5 science run: one optimized for pointlike sources and one for arbitrary extended sources. The latter result is the first of its kind. Finding no evidence to support the detection of GWs, we present 90% confidence level (CL) upper-limit maps of GW strain power with typical values between 2 - 20 X 10 (exp -50) strain2Hz(exp -1) and 5 - 35 X 10 (exp -49) strain2Hz(exp -1)/sr for pointlike and extended sources respectively. The limits on pointlike sources constitute a factor of 30 improvement over the previous best limits. We also set 90% CL limits on the narrow-band root-mean-square GW strain from interesting targets including Sco X-1, SN1987A and the Galactic Center as low as approximately equal 7 X 10(exp -25) in the most sensitive frequency range near 160Hz. These limits are the most constraining to date and constitute a factor of 5 improvement over the previous best limits.

  12. Solar flares and avalanches in driven dissipative systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Edward T.; Hamilton, Russell J.; Mctiernan, J. M.; Bromund, Kenneth R.

    1993-01-01

    The contention of Lu and Hamilton (1991) that the energy release process in solar flares can be understood as avalanches of many small reconnection events is further developed. The dynamics of the complex magnetized plasma of solar active regions is modeled with a simple driven dissipative system, consisting of a vector field with local instabilities that cause rapid diffusion of the field. It is argued that the avalanches in this model are analogous to solar flares. The distributions of avalanches in this model are compared with the solar flare frequency distributions obtained from ISEE 3/ICE satellite observations. Quantitative agreement is found with the energy, peak luminosity, and duration distributions over four orders of magnitude in flare energy, from the largest flares down to the completeness limit of the observations. It is predicted that the power-law solar flare frequency distributions will be found to continue downward with the same logarithmic slopes to an energy of about 3 x 10 exp 25 ergs and duration of about 0.3 s, with deviations from power-law behavior below these values.

  13. Coupling of the coronal helium abundance to the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansteen, Viggo H.; Leer, Egil; Holzer, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    Models of the transition region-corona-solar wind system are investigated in order to find the coronal helium abundance and to study the role played by coronal helium in controlling the solar wind proton flux. The thermal force on alpha-particles in the transition region sets the flow of helium into the corona. The frictional coupling between alpha-particles and protons and/or the electric polarization field determines the proton flux in the solar wind as well as the fate of the coronal helium content. The models are constructed by solving the time-dependent population and momentum equations for all species of hydrogen and helium in an atmosphere with a given temperature profile. Several temperature profiles are considered in order to very the roles of frictional coupling and electric polarization field in the solar wind, and the thermal force in the transition region. Steady-state solutions are found for coronae with a hydrogen flux at 1 AU of 1.0 x 10(exp 9)/cm(exp 2)/sec or larger. For coronae with lower hydrogen fluxes, the helium flux into the corona is larger than the flux 'pulled out' by the solar wind protons, and solutions with increasing coronal helium content are found. The timescale for forming a helium-filled corona, that may allow for a steady outflow, is long compared to the mixing time for the corona.

  14. Observations of 13.5 micron rotation-vibration lines of SiS in IRC +10216

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R. J.; Keady, J. J.; Jennings, D. E.; Hirsch, K. L.; Wiedemann, G. R.

    1994-01-01

    We report the first observations of the 13.5 micron fundamental band of SiS in the spectrum of the heavily obscured carbon star IRC +10216. The lines are formed in the inner region of the circumstellar envelope where the gas is accerlerating and where the temperature ranges from 800-500 K. We have carried out a detailed model of the observed line profiles. Our observations are best fit by a gradient in the abundance of SiS. We derive an abundance relative to molecular hydrogen of x(SiS) = 4.3 x 10(exp -6) at a distance of twelve stellar radii from the central star rising to x(SiS) = 4.3 x 10(exp -5) at a few stellar radii from the surface of the star.

  15. Solar-blind ultraviolet photodetector based on (LaAlO3)0.3-(SrAl0.5Ta0.5O3)0.7 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jian-yu; Ge, Chen; Xing, Jie; Li, Jian-kun; Jin, Kui-juan; Yang, Jing-ting; Guo, Hai-zhong; He, Meng; Wang, Can; Lu, Hui-bin; Yang, Guo-zhen

    2017-03-01

    A solar-blind ultraviolet photodetector based on perovskite (LaAlO3)0.3-(SrAl0.5Ta0.5O3)0.7 (LSAT) single crystal has been fabricated. The Deep Ultra Violet (DUV)/Ultra Violet (UV) (200 versus 290 nm) ratio is more than three orders of magnitude under the applied bias voltage 200 V. Under illumination at 200 nm, the responsivity of this ultraviolet photodetector reaches 4 mA/W at 200 V bias. The corresponding quantum efficiency and detectivity are 2.76% and 1×1011 cmṡHz0.5/W, respectively. The ultrafast response with a rise time of 563 ps and full width half maximum (FWHM) of 1.085 ns is obtained. The high sensitivity, ultrafast response speed, and good signal-to-noise ratio demonstrate that the LSAT photodetector could be a promising candidate as the solar-blind ultraviolet photodetector.

  16. Observation of lithium pick-up ions in the 5- to 20-keV energy range following the AMPTE solar wind releases

    SciTech Connect

    Moebius, E.; Hovestadt, D.; Klecker, B.; Scholer, M.; Gloeckler, G.; Ipavich, F.M.; Luehr, H.

    1986-02-01

    Newly created 5- to 20-keV lithium ions were observed for limited time periods following the first Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers (AMPTE) lithium release in the solar wind on September 11, 1984. The detection of these so-called ''pick-up'' ions by the time-of-flight spectrometer SULEICA (suprathermal energy ionic charge analyzer) on the AMPTE/IRM satellite depends critically on the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field with respect to the directions of the solar wind and the spin axis of the IRM spacecraft, which was favorable only during the short time when these ions were seen. Our observations are compatible with a shell-like expansion of the Li cloud with velocities of about 2.5 km/s. The signatures by which the artificial pick-up ions are identified can also be used to detect and investigate natural pick-up ions.

  17. Flexible ITO-free organic solar cells applying aqueous solution-processed V2O5 hole transport layer: An outdoor stability study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, F. Anderson S.; Beliatis, Michail J.; Roth, Bérenger; Andersen, Thomas R.; Bortoti, Andressa; Reyna, Yegraf; Castro, Eryza; Vasconcelos, Igor F.; Gevorgyan, Suren A.; Krebs, Frederik C.; Lira-Cantu, Mónica

    2016-02-01

    Solution processable semiconductor oxides have opened a new paradigm for the enhancement of the lifetime of thin film solar cells. Their fabrication by low-cost and environmentally friendly solution-processable methods makes them ideal barrier (hole and electron) transport layers. In this work, we fabricate flexible ITO-free organic solar cells (OPV) by printing methods applying an aqueous solution-processed V2O5 as the hole transport layer (HTL) and compared them to devices applying PEDOT:PSS. The transparent conducting electrode was PET/Ag/PEDOT/ZnO, and the OPV configuration was PET/Ag/PEDOT/ZnO/P3HT:PC60BM/HTL/Ag. Outdoor stability analyses carried out for more than 900 h revealed higher stability for devices fabricated with the aqueous solution-processed V2O5.

  18. The solar wind interaction with Mars: Mariner 4, Mars 2, Mars 3, Mars 5, and Phobos 2 observations of bow shock position and shape

    SciTech Connect

    Slavin, J.A. ); Schwingenschuh, K.; Riedler, W. ); Yeroshenko, Ye. )

    1991-07-01

    Observations taken by Mariner 4, Mars 2, Mars 3, Mars 5, and Phobos 2 are used to model the shape, position, and variability of the Martian bow shock for the purpose of better understanding the interaction of this planet with the solar wind. Emphasis is placed upon comparisons with the results of similar analyses at Venus, the only planet known to have no significant intrinsic magnetic field. Excellent agreement is found between Mars bow shock models derived from the earlier Mariner-Mars data set (24 crossings in 1964-1974) and the far more extensive observations recently returned by Phobos 2 (94 crossings in 1989). The best fit model to the aggregate data set locates the subsolar bow shock at a planetocentric distance of 1.56 {plus minus} 0.04 R{sub M}. Mapped into the terminator plane, the average distance to the Martian bow shock is 2.66 {plus minus} 0.05 R{sub M}. Compared with Venus, the bow wave at Mars is significantly more distant in the terminator plane, 2.7 R{sub M} versus 2.4 R{sub V}, and over twice as variable in location with a standard deviation of 0.49 R{sub M} versus 0.21 R{sub V} at Venus. The Mars 2, 3, and 5 and Phobos 2 data also contain a small number of very distant dayside shock crossings with inferred subsolar obstacle radii derived from gasdynamic modeling of 2,000 to 4,000 km. Such distant bow shock occurrences do not appear to take place at Venus and may be associated with the expansion of a small Martian magnetosphere under the influence of unusually low wind pressure. Finally, the altitude of the Venus bow shock has a strong solar cycle dependence believed to be due to the effect of solar EUV on the neutral atmosphere and mass loading. Comparison of the Phobos 2 shock observations near solar maximum (R{sub z} = 141) with the Mariner-Mars measurements taken much farther from solar maximum (R{sub z} = 59) indicates that the Martian bow shock location is independent of solar cycle phase and, hence, solar EUV flux.

  19. Poly[3-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2,5-thienylene] grafted reduced graphene oxide: an efficient alternate material of TiO2 in dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Shreyam; Patra, Astam K; Bhaumik, Asim; Nandi, Arun K

    2013-05-21

    Replacement of the TiO2 layer in a traditional dye sensitized solar cell (DSC) by poly[3-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2,5-thienylene] grafted reduced graphene oxide (PHET-g-rGO) yields an overall power conversion efficiency of 3.06% with the N-719 dye, where the rGO part increases the charge mobility by reducing the backward recombination reaction in the DSC.

  20. New Sub-nanometer Spectral Estimates of the 0-5 nm Solar Soft X-Ray Irradiance at Mars Using the Extreme UltraViolet Monitor (EUVM) Onboard MAVEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemann, E.; Eparvier, F. G.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Woods, T. N.; Peterson, W. K.; Mitchell, D. L.; Xu, S.; Liemohn, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    The Extreme UltraViolet Monitor (EUVM) onboard the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) probe at Mars characterizes the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray (SXR) input into the Martian atmosphere. EUVM measures solar irradiance at 0-7 nm, 17-22 nm and 121.6 nm at a nominal 1 second cadence. These bands were selected to capture variability originating at different heights in the solar atmosphere; and are used to drive the Flare Irradiance Solar Model at Mars (FISM-M) that is a model of the solar spectrum from 0.1-190 nm with 1 nm resolution and produced routinely as the EUVM Level 3 data product. The 0-5 nm range of the solar spectrum is of particular aeronomic interest because the primary species of the Mars upper atmosphere have Auger transitions in this range. When an Auger transition is excited by incident SXR radiation, secondary electrons are emitted with sufficient energy to further ionize the atmosphere. Because these transitions are highly structured, sub-nm resolution of the solar spectrum is needed in the 0-5 nm range to fully constrain the solar input and more accurately characterize the energetics of the upper atmosphere. At Earth, .1 nm resolution estimates of the solar 0-5 nm range are produced by the X-ray Photometer System (XPS) onboard the SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) satellite by combining broad-band SXR measurements with solar flare temperature measurements to drive an atomic physics based forward model of solar coronal emissions. This spectrum has been validated with other models as well as with photo-electron and day glow measurements at Earth. Similar to XPS, the EUVM 0-7 nm and 17-22 nm bands can be used to produce an XPS-like model at Mars, but with reduced precision due to differences in the available bands. We present first results of this technique applied to a set of solar flares observed by MAVEN EUVM and Earth assets. In addition to comparing EUVM and Earth-asset derived 0-5 nm solar spectra to

  1. Evidence for the equality of the solar photospheric and coronal abundance of iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, K. J. H.; Pike, C. D.; Lang, J.; Zarro, D. M.; Fludra, A.; Watanabe, T.; Takahashi, M.

    1995-01-01

    The Fe K-alpha and K-beta X-ray lines (wavelengths 1.94 and 1.76 A) in the solar X-ray spectrum are formed by fluoroescence of photospheric iron atoms, and the ratio of the intensity of either to the He-like iron (Fe XXV) resonance line at 1.85 A is a function of the photospheric-to-coronal abundance of iron. The temperature dependence of this ratio is weak as long as the flare temperature T(sub e) greater than or approximately equal to 15 x 10(exp 6)K. Comparison of the theoretical value of this intensity ratio with observations from crystal spectrometers on Yohkoh, Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and P78-1 are consistent with the photospheric abundance of Fe being equal to the coronal.

  2. Short Wavelength Electromagnetic Perturbations Excited Near the Solar Probe Plus Spacecraft in the Inner Heliosphere: 2.5D Hybrid Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, Alexander S.; Sittler, Edward C.; Hartle, Richard E.; Cooper, John F.

    2011-01-01

    A 2.5D numerical plasma model of the interaction of the solar wind (SW) with the Solar Probe Plus spacecraft (SPPSC) is presented. These results should be interpreted as a basic plasma model derived from the SW-interaction with the spacecraft (SC), which could have consequences for both plasma wave and electron plasma measurements on board the SC in the inner heliosphere. Compression waves and electric field jumps with amplitudes of about 1.5 V/m and (12-18) V/m were also observed. A strong polarization electric field was also observed in the wing of the plasma wake. However, 2.5D hybrid modeling did not show excitation of whistler/Alfven waves in the upstream connected with the bidirectional current closure that was observed in short-time 3D modeling SPPSC and near a tether in the ionosphere. The observed strong electromagnetic perturbations may be a crucial point in the electromagnetic measurements planned for the future Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission. The results of modeling electromagnetic field perturbations in the SW due to shot noise in absence of SPPSC are also discussed.

  3. Indium Phosphide Window Layers for Indium Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.

    2005-01-01

    Window layers help in reducing the surface recombination at the emitter surface of the solar cells resulting in significant improvement in energy conversion efficiency. Indium gallium arsenide (In(x)Ga(1-x)As) and related materials based solar cells are quite promising for photovoltaic and thermophotovoltaic applications. The flexibility of the change in the bandgap energy and the growth of InGaAs on different substrates make this material very attractive for multi-bandgap energy, multi-junction solar cell approaches. The high efficiency and better radiation performance of the solar cell structures based on InGaAs make them suitable for space power applications. This work investigates the suitability of indium phosphide (InP) window layers for lattice-matched In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As (bandgap energy 0.74 eV) solar cells. We present the first data on the effects of the p-type InP window layer on p-on-n lattice-matched InGaAs solar cells. The modeled quantum efficiency results show a significant improvement in the blue region with the InP window. The bare InGaAs solar cell performance suffers due to high surface recombination velocity (10(exp 7) cm/s). The large band discontinuity at the InP/InGaAs heterojunction offers a great potential barrier to minority carriers. The calculated results demonstrate that the InP window layer effectively passivates the solar cell front surface, hence resulting in reduced surface recombination and therefore, significantly improving the performance of the InGaAs solar cell.

  4. Solar astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, Robert; Noyes, Robert; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Canfield, Richard C.; Chupp, Edward L.; Deming, Drake; Doschek, George A.; Dulk, George A.; Foukal, Peter V.; Gilliland, Ronald L.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is given of modern solar physics. Topics covered include the solar interior, the solar surface, the solar atmosphere, the Large Earth-based Solar Telescope (LEST), the Orbiting Solar Laboratory, the High Energy Solar Physics mission, the Space Exploration Initiative, solar-terrestrial physics, and adaptive optics. Policy and related programmatic recommendations are given for university research and education, facilitating solar research, and integrated support for solar research.

  5. Solar Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on Solar Thermal Propulsion (STP). Some of the topics include: 1) Ways to use Solar Energy for Propulsion; 2) Solar (fusion) Energy; 3) Operation in Orbit; 4) Propulsion Concepts; 5) Critical Equations; 6) Power Efficiency; 7) Major STP Projects; 8) Types of STP Engines; 9) Solar Thermal Propulsion Direct Gain Assembly; 10) Specific Impulse; 11) Thrust; 12) Temperature Distribution; 13) Pressure Loss; 14) Transient Startup; 15) Axial Heat Input; 16) Direct Gain Engine Design; 17) Direct Gain Engine Fabrication; 18) Solar Thermal Propulsion Direct Gain Components; 19) Solar Thermal Test Facility; and 20) Checkout Results.

  6. Solarization of heliostat glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitko, J., Jr.; Shelby, J. E.

    1980-09-01

    A solar-induced decrease in Fe(2+) absorption was observed in heliostat glasses from the solar furnace at Odeillo, France. This decrease occurs throughout the sample and is of sufficient magnitude to result in an increase of 2.5% in solar transmittance in a period of nine years. Optical and ESR studies did not detect a corresponding increase in Fe(3+) concentration. The effect of these results on a microscopic model for the observed solarization is discussed. Solar simulation studies produced changes of magnitude and sign similar to those observed in the field exposed samples, and offer attractive means for screening samples for solarization tendencies.

  7. SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series. Volume 5; The SeaWiFS Solar Radiation-Based Calibration and the Transfer-to-Orbit Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Barnes, Robert A.; Eplee, Robert E., Jr.; Biggar, Stuart F.; Thome, Kurtis J.; Zalewski, Edward F.; Slater, Philip N.; Holmes, Alan W.

    1999-01-01

    The solar radiation-based calibration (SRBC) of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) was performed on 1 November 1993. Measurements were made outdoors in the courtyard of the instrument manufacturer. SeaWiFS viewed the solar irradiance reflected from the sensor's diffuser in the same manner as viewed on orbit. The calibration included measurements using a solar radiometer designed to determine the transmittances of principal atmospheric constituents. The primary uncertainties in the outdoor measurements are the transmission of the atmosphere and the reflectance of the diffuser. Their combined uncertainty is about 5 or 6%. The SRBC also requires knowledge of the extraterrestrial solar spectrum. Four solar models are used. When averaged over the responses of the SeaWiFS bands, the irradiance models agree at the 3.6% level, with the greatest difference for SeaWiFS band 8. The calibration coefficients from the SRBC are lower than those from the laboratory calibration of the instrument in 1997. For a representative solar model, the ratios of the SRBC coefficients to laboratory values average 0.962 with a standard deviation of 0.012. The greatest relative difference is 0.946 for band 8. These values are within the estimated uncertainties of the calibration measurements. For the transfer-to-orbit experiment, the measurements in the manufacturer's courtyard are used to predict the digital counts from the instrument on its first day on orbit (August 1, 1997). This experiment requires an estimate of the relative change in the diffuser response for the period between the launch of the instrument and its first solar measurements on orbit (September 9, 1997). In relative terms, the counts from the instrument on its first day on orbit averaged 1.3% higher than predicted, with a standard deviation of 1.2% and a greatest difference of 2.4% or band 7. The estimated uncertainty for the transfer-to-orbit experiment is about 3 or 4%.

  8. Electron-irradiated two-terminal, monolithic InP/Ga0.47In0.53As tandem solar cells and annealing of radiation damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotal, H. L.; Walters, Robert J.; Summers, Geoffrey P.; Messenger, Scott R.

    1994-01-01

    Radiation damage results from two-terminal monolithic InP/Ga(0.47)In(0.53)As tandem solar cells subject to 1 MeV electron irradiation are presented. Efficiencies greater than 22 percent have been measured by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory from 2x2 sq cm cells at 1 sun, AMO (25 C). The short circuit current density, open circuit voltage and fill factor are found to tolerate the same amount of radiation at low fluences. At high fluence levels, slight differences are observed. Decreasing the base amount of radiation at the Ga(0.47)In(0.53)As bottomcell improved the radiation resistance of J(sub sc) dramatically. This is turn, extended the series current flow through the subcell substantially up to a fluence of 3x10(exp 15) cm(exp -2) compared to 3x10(exp 14) cm(exp -2), as observed previously. The degradation of the maximum power output form tandem device is comparable to that from shallow homojunction (SHJ) InP solar cells, and the mechanism responsible for such degradation is explained in terms of the radiation response of the component cells. Annealing studies revealed that the recovery of the tandem cell response is dictated by the annealing characteristics exhibited by SHJ InP solar cells.

  9. The role of radiation hard solar cells in minimizing the costs of global satellite communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Geoffrey P.; Walters, Robert J.; Messenger, Scott R.; Burke, Edward A.

    1996-01-01

    An analysis embodied in a PC computer program is presented, which quantitatively demonstrates how the availability of radiation hard solar cells can help minimize the cost of a global satellite communications system. An important distinction between the currently proposed systems, such as Iridium, Odyssey and Ellipsat, is the number of satellites employed and their operating altitudes. Analysis of the major costs associated with implementing these systems shows that operation at orbital altitudes within the earth's radiation belts (10(exp 3) to 10(exp 4)km) can reduce the total cost of a system by several hundred percent, so long as radiation hard components including solar cells can be used. A detailed evaluation of the predicted performance of photovoltaic arrays using several different planar solar cell technologies is given, including commercially available Si and GaAs/Ge, and InP/Si which is currently under development. Several examples of applying the program are given, which show that the end of life (EOL) power density of different technologies can vary by a factor of ten for certain missions. Therefore, although a relatively radiation-soft technology can usually provide the required EOL power by simply increasing the size of the array, the impact upon the total system budget could be unacceptable, due to increased launch and hardware costs. In aggregate, these factors can account for more than a 10% increase in the total system cost. Since the estimated total costs of proposed global-coverage systems range from $1B to $9B, the availability of radiation-hard solar cells could make a decisive difference in the selection of a particular constellation architecture.

  10. A Coronal Hole Jet Observed with Hinode and the Solar Dynamics Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Peter H.; Muglach, Karin

    2014-01-01

    A small blowout jet was observed at the boundary of the south coronal hole on 2011 February 8 at around 21:00 UT. Images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) revealed an expanding loop rising from one footpoint of a compact, bipolar bright point. Magnetograms from the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board SDO showed that the jet was triggered by the cancelation of a parasitic positive polarity feature near the negative pole of the bright point. The jet emission was present for 25 mins and it extended 30 Mm from the bright point. Spectra from the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on board Hinode yielded a temperature and density of 1.6 MK and 0.9-1.7 × 10( exp 8) cu cm for the ejected plasma. Line-of-sight velocities reached up to 250 km/s. The density of the bright point was 7.6 × 10(exp 8) cu cm, and the peak of the bright point's emission measure occurred at 1.3 MK, with no plasma above 3 MK.

  11. Lanthanide and actinide chemistry at high C/O ratios in the solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lodders, Katharina; Fegley, Bruce, Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical equilibrium calculations were performed to study the condensation chemistry of the REE and actinides under the highly reducing conditions which are necessary for the formation of the enstatite chondrites. Our calculations confirm that the REE and actinides condensed into oldhamite (CaS), the major REE and actinide host phase in enstatite chondrites, at a carbon-oxygen (C/O) ratio not less than 1 in an otherwise solar gas. Five basic types of REE abundance patterns, several of which are analogous to REE abundance patterns observed in the Ca, Al-rich inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites, are predicted to occur in meteoritic oldhamites. All of the reported REE patterns in oldhamites in enstatite chondrites can be interpreted in terms of our condensation calculations. The observed patterns fall into three of the five predicted categories. The reported Th and U enrichments and ratios in meteoritic oldhamites are also consistent with predictions of the condensation calculations. Pure REE sulfides are predicted to condense in the 10 exp -6 to 10 exp -9 bar range and may be found in enstatite chondrites if they formed in this pressure range.

  12. GaAs and 3-5 compound solar cells status and prospects for use in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, D. J.; Brinker, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    Gallium arsenide solar cells equal or supass the best silicon solar cells in efficiency, radiation resistance, annealability, and in the capability to produce usable power output at elevated temperatures. NASA has been involved in a long range research and development program to capitalize on these manifold advantages, and to explore alternative III-V compounds for additional potential improvements. The current status and future prospects for research and development in this area are reviewed and the progress being made toward development of GaAs cells suitable for variety of space missions is discussed. Cell types under various stages of development include n(+)/p shallow homojunction thin film GaAs cells, x100 concentration ratio p/n and n/p GaAs small area concentrator cells, mechanically-stacked, two-junction tandem cells, and three-junction monolithic cascade cells, among various other cell types.

  13. Solar maximum: Solar array degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, T.

    1985-01-01

    The 5-year in-orbit power degradation of the silicon solar array aboard the Solar Maximum Satellite was evaluated. This was the first spacecraft to use Teflon R FEP as a coverglass adhesive, thus avoiding the necessity of an ultraviolet filter. The peak power tracking mode of the power regulator unit was employed to ensure consistent maximum power comparisons. Telemetry was normalized to account for the effects of illumination intensity, charged particle irradiation dosage, and solar array temperature. Reference conditions of 1.0 solar constant at air mass zero and 301 K (28 C) were used as a basis for normalization. Beginning-of-life array power was 2230 watts. Currently, the array output is 1830 watts. This corresponds to a 16 percent loss in array performance over 5 years. Comparison of Solar Maximum Telemetry and predicted power levels indicate that array output is 2 percent less than predictions based on an annual 1.0 MeV equivalent election fluence of 2.34 x ten to the 13th power square centimeters space environment.

  14. Data catalog series for space science and applications flight missions. Volume 5A: Descriptions of astronomy, astrophysics, and solar physics spacecraft and investigations. Volume 5B: Descriptions of data sets from astronomy, astrophysics, and solar physics spacecraft and investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Sang J. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The main purpose of the data catalog series is to provide descriptive references to data generated by space science flight missions. The data sets described include all of the actual holdings of the Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), all data sets for which direct contact information is available, and some data collections held and serviced by foreign investigators, NASA and other U.S. government agencies. This volume contains narrative descriptions of data sets of astronomy, astrophysics, solar physics spacecraft and investigations. The following spacecraft series are included: Mariner, Pioneer, Pioneer Venus, Venera, Viking, Voyager, and Helios. Separate indexes to the planetary and interplanetary missions are also provided.

  15. Solar '80s: A Teacher's Handbook for Solar Energy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaHart, David E.

    This guide is intended to assist the teacher in exploring energy issues and the technology of solar energy conversion and associated technologies. Sections of the guide include: (1) Rationale; (2) Technology Overview; (3) Sun Day Suggestions for School; (4) Backyard Solar Water Heater; (5) Solar Tea; (6) Biogas; (7) Solar Cells; (8) Economics; (9)…

  16. Lead antimony sulfide (Pb5Sb8S17) solid-state quantum dot-sensitized solar cells with an efficiency of over 4%

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yi-Cheng; Suriyawong, Nipapon; Aragaw, Belete Asefa; Shi, Jen-Bin; Chen, Peter; Lee, Ming-Way

    2016-04-01

    Lead antimony sulfides are rare in nature and relatively unexplored ternary semiconductors. This work investigates the photovoltaic performance of Pb-Sb-S quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Pb5Sb8S17 nanoparticles are grown on mesoporous TiO2 electrodes using the successive ionic layer adsorption reaction process. The synthesized Pb5Sb8S17 nanoparticles exhibit two attractive features for a good solar absorber material: a high optical absorption coefficient and a near optimal energy gap. Solid-state QDSCs are fabricated from the synthesized Pb5Sb8S17 nanoparticles using Spiro-OMeTAD as the hole-transporting material. The best cell yields a short-circuit current density Jsc of 11.92 mA cm-2, an open-circuit voltage Voc of 0.48 V, a fill factor FF of 30.7% and a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.76% under 1sun. The external quantum efficiency (EQE) spectrum covers a spectral range of 350-800 nm with a maximal EQE = 65% at λ = 450 nm. At the reduced light intensity of 10% sun, the PCE increases to 4.14% with Jsc = 2.0 mA cm-2 (which could be normalized to 20 mA cm-2 under 1 sun). This PCE is 65% higher than the best previous result. The respectable PCE and Jsc indicate that Pb5Sb8S17 could be a potential candidate for a solar absorber material.

  17. Solution-processed inverted organic solar cell using V2O5 hole transport layer and vacuum free EGaIn anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ongul, Fatih

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the sol-gel V2O5 derived by a hydrothermal method to replace the PEDOT:PSS which is a hole transport layer between organic active layer and two different anodes in inverted organic solar cells with TiO2 as an electron transport layer was investigated. The power conversion efficiencies of inverted organic photovoltaic cells increased approximately twofold with using V2O5 instead of PEDOT:PSS on top of the photoactive layer. It was demonstrated that the power conversion efficiencies of inverted organic solar cells prepared with V2O5 solution which was diluted with isopropanol in certain proportions by volume were decreased by increasing ratio of isopropanol in total volume. It was reported for the first time that the inverted organic photovoltaic cells prepared using V2O5 interlayer and Eutectic Gallium-Indium alloy which was prepared using vacuum free simple brush-painted method and can be used as anode electrode as Ag electrode.

  18. Solar photocatalytic degradation of textile effluent with TiO2, ZnO, and Nb2O5 catalysts: assessment of photocatalytic activity and mineralization.

    PubMed

    Souza, Renata P; Ambrosio, Elizangela; Souza, Maisa T F; Freitas, Thábata K F S; Ferrari-Lima, Ana M; Garcia, Juliana C

    2017-01-16

    The photocatalytic degradation of textile effluent was investigated using TiO2, ZnO, and Nb2O5 catalysts under solar irradiation. The procedures were carried out at ambient conditions in April 2014, with pH 3.0 and catalyst concentration of 0.250 g L(-1). The photocatalytic activity of the oxides was evaluated by means of kinetic efficiency (rate constant and half-life time), chemical oxygen demand reduction, and absorbance reduction at 228, 254, 284, 310, 350, 500, and 660 nm (λmáx). Mineralization in terms of the formation of inorganic ions and toxicity reduction using bioassays with Artemia salina were performed. TiO2 reduced the absorbance at 660 nm (λmax) after 300 min of solar irradiation around 94 and 93%; and 68 and 60% of COD, respectively. ZnO showed lower photocatalytic activity giving 64 and 42% of absorbance and COD reduction, respectively. The photocatalytic activity of Nb2O5 was very close to TiO2-P25. In this sense, Nb2O5 becomes a promising alternative to replace the commercial TiO2-P25. Bioassays confirmed the efficacy of treatment, increasing the lethal concentration of 27.59 (in natura) to 131.95% in the presence of Nb2O5.

  19. Vanadium oxides (V2O5) prepared with different methods for application as counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kezhong; Sun, Xiaolong; Duan, Chongyuan; Gao, Jing; Wu, Mingxing

    2016-09-01

    V2O5 was synthesized by four different procedures employing thermal decomposition, sol-gel, and hydrothermal methods which were subsequently introduced into dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) as counter electrode (CE) catalysts for the regeneration of traditional iodide/triiodide (I-/I3 -) redox couple. The catalytic activities of as-prepared V2O5 were significantly affected by the synthetic routes as evidenced by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and Tafel polarization curve. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the DSCs employing V2O5 CE, fabricated by thermal decomposition method, was observed to be 3.80 % by using citric acid as an additive, while the PCE of the DSCs using V2O5 CE prepared by hydrothermal and thermal decomposition methods without additive, as well as by a sol-gel procedure, was determined to be 2.13, 2.08, and 2.04 %, respectively.

  20. A broadband-sensitive upconverter La(Ga{sub 0.5}Sc{sub 0.5})O{sub 3}:Er,Ni,Nb for crystalline silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Yasuhiko Mizuno, Shintaro; Luitel, Hom Nath; Tani, Toshihiko

    2016-01-25

    We have developed an upconverter that significantly broadens the sensitive range, to overcome the shortcoming that conventional Er{sup 3+}-doped upconverters used for crystalline silicon solar cells can utilize only a small portion of the solar spectrum at around 1.55 μm. We have designed the combination of the sensitizers and host material to utilize photons not absorbed by silicon or Er{sup 3+} ions. Ni{sup 2+} ions have been selected as the sensitizers that absorb photons in the wavelength range between the silicon absorption edge (1.1 μm) and the Er{sup 3+} absorption band and transfer the energies to the Er{sup 3+} emitters, with La(Ga,Sc)O{sub 3} as the host material. The Ga to Sc ratio has been optimized to tune the location of the Ni{sup 2+} absorption band for sufficient energy transfer. Co-doping with Nb{sup 5+} ions is needed for charge balance to introduce divalent Ni{sup 2+} ions into the trivalent Ga{sup 3+} and Sc{sup 3+} sites. In addition to 1.45–1.58 μm photons directly absorbed by the Er{sup 3+} ions, we have demonstrated upconversion of 1.1–1.35 μm photons in the Ni{sup 2+} absorption band to 0.98 μm photons, using 10% Er, 0.5% Ni, and 0.5% Nb-doped La(Ga{sub 0.5}Sc{sub 0.5})O{sub 3}. The broadband-sensitive upconverter developed here can improve conversion efficiency of crystalline silicon solar cells more notably than conventional ones.

  1. Optimization and preconceptual design of a 5 MWe salt-gradient solar pond power plant at Great Salt Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Drost, M.K.; Brown, L.M.; Barnhart, J.S.; Cavola, R.G.; Hauser, S.G.; Johnson, B.M.

    1983-05-01

    The techniques used to optimize and design a solar salt-gradient pond (SSP) power plant for installation at the Great Salt Lake are described. The method and results of the site selection study are described as well as the characteristics of the selected site. The figure of merit used as well as the characteristics of the selected site. The figure of merit used in the optimization study, the general optimization approach, and the specific optimization method used for each subsystem are described. Results are then discussed of the optimization of the pond configuration, total system, and piping. Pond design and ground rule sensitivity studies are reported. (LEW)

  2. RT-2 DETECTION OF QUASI-PERIODIC PULSATIONS IN THE 2009 JULY 5 SOLAR HARD X-RAY FLARE

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, A. R.; Malkar, J. P.; Hingar, M. K.; Agrawal, V. K.; Chakrabarti, S. K.; Nandi, A.; Debnath, D.; Kotoch, T. B.; Chidambaram, T. R.; Vinod, P.; Sreekumar, S.; Kotov, Y. D.; Buslov, A. S.; Yurov, V. N.; Tyshkevich, V. G.; Arkhangelskij, A. I.; Zyatkov, R. A.; Begum, S. Shaheda; Manoharan, P. K.

    2010-05-10

    We present the results of an analysis of hard X-ray observations of the C2.7 solar flare detected by the RT-2 experiment on board the Coronas-Photon satellite. We detect hard X-ray pulsations at periods of {approx}12 s and {approx}15 s. We find a marginal evidence for a decrease in period with time. We have augmented these results using the publicly available data from the RHESSI satellite. We present a spectral analysis and measure the spectral parameters.

  3. Solar Power System Design for the Solar Probe+ Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Schmitz, Paul C.; Kinnison, James; Fraeman, Martin; Roufberg, Lew; Vernon, Steve; Wirzburger, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Solar Probe+ is an ambitious mission proposed to the solar corona, designed to make a perihelion approach of 9 solar radii from the surface of the sun. The high temperature, high solar flux environment makes this mission a significant challenge for power system design. This paper summarizes the power system conceptual design for the solar probe mission. Power supplies considered included nuclear, solar thermoelectric generation, solar dynamic generation using Stirling engines, and solar photovoltaic generation. The solar probe mission ranges from a starting distance from the sun of 1 AU, to a minimum distance of about 9.5 solar radii, or 0.044 AU, from the center of the sun. During the mission, the solar intensity ranges from one to about 510 times AM0. This requires power systems that can operate over nearly three orders of magnitude of incident intensity.

  4. Tether-Cutting Energetics of a Solar Quiet Region Prominence Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2003-01-01

    We study the morphology and energetics of a slowly evolving quiet-region solar prominence eruption occurring on 1999 February 8-9 in the solar north polar crown region, using soft X-ray data from the soft X-ray telescope (SXT) on Yohkoh and Fexv EUV 284 Angstrom data from the EUV Imaging Telescope (EIT) on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). After rising at approximately equal to l kilometer per second for about six hours, the prominence accelerates to a velocity of approximately equal to 10 kilometers per second, leaving behind EUV and soft X-ray loop arcades of a weak flare in its source region. Intensity dimmings occur in the eruption region cospatially in EUV and soft X-rays, indicating that the dimmings result from a depletion of material. Over the first two hours of the prominences rapid rise, flare-like brightenings occur beneath the rising prominence that might correspond to tether-cutting magnetic reconnection. These brightenings have heating requirements of up to approximately 10(exp 28)-10(exp 29) ergs, and this is comparable to the mechanical energy required for the rising prominence over the same time period. If the ratio of mechanical energy to heating energy remains constant through the early phase of the eruption, then we infer that coronal signatures for the tether cutting may not be apparent at or shortly after the start of the fast phase in this or similar low-energy eruptions, since the plasma-heating energy levels would not exceed that of the background corona.

  5. 6.5% Efficiency of polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and indene-C(60) bisadduct by device optimization.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guangjin; He, Youjun; Li, Yongfang

    2010-10-15

    A power conversion efficiency of 6.48% was achieved for polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as donor and indene-C₆₀ bisadduct (ICBA) as acceptor with an open-circuit voltage of 0.84 V, a short-circuit current of 10.61 mA/cm², and a fill factor of 72.7% under irradiation at AM1.5G, 100 mW/cm² at the optimized conditions of P3HT:ICBA = 1:1 (w/w), solvent annealing and pre-thermal annealing at 150 °C for 10 minutes.

  6. Development of a Wide Bandgap Cell for Thin Film Tandem Solar Cells: Final Technical Report, 6 November 2003 - 5 January 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Shafarman, W.; McCandless, B.

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this research program was to develop approaches for a transparent wide-bandgap cell to be used in a thin-film tandem polycrystalline solar cell that can ultimately attain 25% efficiency. Specific goals included the research and development of Cu(InGa)(SeS)2 and Cd1-xZnxTe alloys with a bandgap from 1.5 to 1.8 eV, demonstrating the potential of a 15% cell efficiency with a transparent contact, and supporting the High Performance PV Program. This Final Report presents results that emphasize the 3rd phase of the program.

  7. Solar dynamic heat pipe development and endurance test. Monthly technical progress report number 5, 30 September--28 October, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, M.B.

    1987-10-28

    The Space Station requires a high level of reliable electric power. The baseline approach is to utilize a hybrid system in which power is provided by photovoltaic arrays and by solar dynamic power conversion modules. The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) engine is one approach to solar dynamic conversion. The ORC provides the attributes of high efficiency at low temperature and compact simple designs utilizing conventional techniques and materials. The heat receiver is one area which must be addressed in applying the proven ORC to long life applications such as the Space Station. Heat pipes with integral thermal energy storage (TES) canisters and a toluene heater tube are the prime components of the heat receiver from the Phase B preliminary design. This contract is a task order type addressing the design, fabrication and testing of a full scale heat pipe. The contract was initiated on April 16, 1987. Sundstrand has specific responsibilities in each task. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in turn has the prime contract responsibility to NASA-LeRC.

  8. The energy-down-shift effect of Cd(0.5)Zn(0.5)S-ZnS core-shell quantum dots on power-conversion-efficiency enhancement in silicon solar cells.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seung-Wook; Shim, Jae-Hyoung; Park, Jea-Gun

    2014-09-14

    We found that Cd0.5Zn0.5S-ZnS core (4.2 nm in diameter)-shell (1.2 nm in thickness) quantum dots (QDs) demonstrated a typical energy-down-shift (2.76-4.96 → 2.81 eV), which absorb ultra-violet (UV) light (250-450 nm in wavelength) and emit blue visible light (∼442 nm in wavelength). They showed the quantum yield of ∼80% and their coating on the SiNX film textured p-type silicon solar-cells enhanced the external-quantum-efficiency (EQE) of ∼30% at 300-450 nm in wavelength, thereby enhancing the short-circuit-current-density (JSC) of ∼2.23 mA cm(-2) and the power-conversion-efficiency (PCE) of ∼1.08% (relatively ∼6.04% increase compared with the reference without QDs for p-type silicon solar-cells). In particular, the PCE peaked at a specific coating thickness of the Cd0.5Zn0.5S-ZnS core-shell QD layer; i.e., the 1.08% PCE enhancement at the 8.8 nm thick QD layer.

  9. UV testing of INTELSAT-7, 7A, and 8 solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meulenberg, A.

    1994-01-01

    A 4000 hour experiment, conducted in late 1992 through mid 1993, confirmed earlier results on the ultraviolet damage effects in covered solar cells of various types being used, or proposed for use, in INTELSAT programs. Two different UV test systems were used to identify systematic errors and to study the effects of UV source-bulb age on degradation rate. After correction for contamination and UV source-bulb aging, the extrapolated degradation rates for irradiated and unirradiated INTELSAT-5, -6 single AR(SAR) coated cells and INTELSAT-7, -7A, -8 double layer AR(DAR) coated cells in both the 1993 tests confirm the following hypotheses resulting from the 1992 experiment. (a) Irradiated cells display significantly more UV degradation than do the unirradiated cells for tests exceeding 2000 hours. The new data indicates that degradation effects from electron irradiation are proportional to t(exp 2) (the square of the UV hours), at least for times less than or equal to 3000 hours. (b) This difference does not depend upon entire reflective coating, cell resistivity, or manufacturer within the sensitivity and reproducibility of the experiment. (c) There is a clear difference in degradation rate between single AR coated cells (TiO(x)) and double layer AR coated cells (SiO(x) and Al2O3?). At 100,000 hours (11.4 years) the DAR coated cells display more degradation than do the SAR coated cells, even though at 1,000 hours the DAR cells display less degradation. (d) UV degradation rates, to modern covered silicon solar cells, at the beginning of bulb life drop from approximately 2 times the average rate to near zero after 2000 hours (average end-of-life for the xenon short-arc lamps used in the tests). The effects of 1 MeV electron irradiation (10(exp 15) e(-)/sq cm) prior to UV exposure are clearly indicated in the plot of percent change in cell open circuit voltage (Voc) versus percent change in short circuit current (Isc) during the UV test and post-test cleanup of the cells

  10. A burst from a thermonuclear runaway on an ONeMg white dwarf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starrfield, S.; Politano, M.; Truran, J. W.; Sparks, W. M.

    1992-01-01

    Studies which examine the consequences of accretion, at rates of 10(exp -9) solar mass/yr and 10(exp -10) solar mass/yr, onto an ONeMg white dwarf with a mass of 1.35 solar masses are performed. In these studies, a Lagrangian, hydrodynamic, one-dimensional computer code was used. The code now includes a network with 89 nuclei up to Ca-40, elemental diffusion, new opacities, and new equation of state. The initial abundance distribution corresponded to a mixture that was enriched to either 25, 50, or 75 percent in products of carbon burning. The remaining material in each case is assumed to have a solar composition. The evolution of the thermonuclear runaway in the 1.35 solar mass white dwarf, with M = 10(exp -9) solar mass, produced peak temperatures in the shell source exceeding 300 million degrees. The sequence produced significant amounts of Na-22 from proton captures onto Ne-20 and significant amounts of Al-26 from proton captures on Mg-24. This sequence ejected 5.2 x 10(exp -6) solar mass moving with speeds from approximately 100 km/s to 2300 km/s. When the mass accretion rate was decreased to 10(exp -10) solar mass, the resulting thermonuclear runaway produced a shock that moved through the outer envelope of the white dwarf and raised the surface luminosity to L greater than 10(exp 7) solar luminosity and the effective temperature to values exceeding 10(exp 7) K. The interaction of the material expanding from off of the white dwarf with the accretion disk should produce a burst of gamma-rays.

  11. The solar UV related changes in total ozone from a solar rotation to a solar cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, S.

    1991-05-01

    The Nimbus-7 TOMS version 6 data, corrected for the instrument degradation, are analyzed to delineate the solar UV related changes in total ozone (TOZ) against background signals of dynamical origin. It is shown that the solar UV related change in TOZ over a solar cycle is about 1.5 percent that may be attributed to about 6 percent change in the solar UV flux near 200 nm. This estimate is also consistent with the solar UV related changes in TOZ over a time scale of a solar rotation. In the solar rotation case, ozone lags the solar UV by 3-4 days and its sensitivity to solar UV change is a factor of 203 less than for the solar cycle case. Both these effects are attributed to chemical time constants in the lower stratosphere that are comparable to the period of a solar rotation.

  12. The solar UV related changes in total ozone from a solar rotation to a solar cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, S.

    1991-01-01

    The Nimbus-7 TOMS version 6 data, corrected for the instrument degradation, are analyzed to delineate the solar UV related changes in total ozone (TOZ) against background signals of dynamical origin. It is shown that the solar UV related change in TOZ over a solar cycle is about 1.5 percent that may be attributed to about 6 percent change in the solar UV flux near 200 nm. This estimate is also consistent with the solar UV related changes in TOZ over a time scale of a solar rotation. In the solar rotation case, ozone lags the solar UV by 3-4 days and its sensitivity to solar UV change is a factor of 2-3 less than for the solar cycle case. Both these effects are attributed to chemical time constants in the lower stratosphere that are comparable to the period of a solar rotation.

  13. Process development for automated solar cell and module production. Task 4: automated array assembly. Quarterly report No. 5

    SciTech Connect

    Hagerty, J.J.

    1980-01-31

    Construction of an automated solar cell layup and interconnect system is now complete. This system incorporates a Unimate 2000 B industrial robot with an end effector consisting of a vacuum pick up and induction heating coil. The robot interfaces with a smart cell preparation station which correctly orients the cell, applies solder paste and forms and positions the correct lengths of interconnect lead. The system is controlled and monitored by a TRS-80 micro computer. The first operational tests of the fully integrated station have been run. These tests proved the soundness of the basic design concept but also pointed to areas in which modifications are necessary. These modifications are nearly complete and the improved parts are being integrated. Development of the controlling computer program is progressing to both reflect these changes and reduce operating time.

  14. Highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells achieved through using Pt-free Nb2O5/C composite counter electrode and iodide-free redox couples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Lu, Qi; Li, Wenyan; Li, Xiaowei; Hagfeldt, Anders; Zhang, Wenming; Wu, Mingxing

    2016-03-01

    To improve the catalytic activity of Nb2O5, a composite Nb2O5/C (Nb2O5 imbedded in carbon support) is synthesized with a simple in situ method and then introduced the composite into dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) as a counter electrode (CE) catalyst. Based on the analysis of the cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and Tafel-polarization curve measurements, the catalytic activity of the Nb2O5/C composite for the regeneration of iodide-free redox couples of polysulfide (T2/T-) and cobalt complex (Co3+/2+) is indeed enhanced significantly as compared with pure Nb2O5, because the composite electrode eliminates the particle aggregation and forms a mesoporous network structure with large pore size. The T2/T- electrolyte based DSCs with Nb2O5/C CE yields a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.11%, generating a great improvement of 63.8% as compared to the Pt CE based DSCs. In addition, the Nb2O5/C exhibits higher catalytic activity than Pt for regenerating the Co3+/2+ redox couple and the DSCs using Nb2O5/C CE shows a high PCE of 9.86%.

  15. Hybrid solar thermal-photovoltaic systems demonstration, Phase I and II. Final technical progress report, July 5, 1979-December 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Loferski, J.J.

    1983-12-01

    The purpose of the project is to investigate a system based on combined photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) panels to supply the energy needs of a small single family residence. The system finally selected and constructed uses PV/T panels which utilize air as the heat transfer medium. Optimization of thermal performance was accomplished by attaching metal fins to the back surface of each cell which significantly increased the heat transfer coefficient from the solar cells to the air stream. The other major components of the selected system are an air-to-air heat pump, a rock bin thermal energy storage bin, a synchronous dc-to-ac converter, a microprocessor to control the system, a heat exchanger for the domestic hot water system and of course the building itself which is a one story, well insulated structure having a floor area of 1200 ft/sup 2/. A prototype collector was constructed and tested. Based on this experience, twenty collectors, containing 2860 four inch diameter solar cells, were constructed and installed on the building. Performance of the system was simulated using a TRNSYS-derived program, modified to accommodate PV/T panels and to include the particular components included in the selected system. Simulation of the performance showed that about 65 percent of the total annual energy needs of the building would be provided by the PV/T system. Of this total, about one half is produced at a time when it can be used in the building and one half must be sold back to the utility.

  16. Solar Pumped Solid State Lasers for Space Solar Power: Experimental Path

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fork, Richard L.; Carrington, Connie K.; Walker, Wesley W.; Cole, Spencer T.; Green, Jason J. A.; Laycock, Rustin L.

    2003-01-01

    We outline an experimentally based strategy designed to lead to solar pumped solid state laser oscillators useful for space solar power. Our method involves solar pumping a novel solid state gain element specifically designed to provide efficient conversion of sunlight in space to coherent laser light. Kilowatt and higher average power is sought from each gain element. Multiple such modular gain elements can be used to accumulate total average power of interest for power beaming in space, e.g., 100 kilowatts and more. Where desirable the high average power can also be produced as a train of pulses having high peak power (e.g., greater than 10(exp 10 watts). The modular nature of the basic gain element supports an experimental strategy in which the core technology can be validated by experiments on a single gain element. We propose to do this experimental validation both in terrestrial locations and also on a smaller scale in space. We describe a terrestrial experiment that includes diagnostics and the option of locating the laser beam path in vacuum environment. We describe a space based experiment designed to be compatible with the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) on the International Space Station (ISS). We anticipate the gain elements will be based on low temperature (approx. 100 degrees Kelvin) operation of high thermal conductivity (k approx. 100 W/cm-K) diamond and sapphire (k approx. 4 W/cm-K). The basic gain element will be formed by sequences of thin alternating layers of diamond and Ti:sapphire with special attention given to the material interfaces. We anticipate this strategy will lead to a particularly simple, robust, and easily maintained low mass modelocked multi-element laser oscillator useful for space solar power.

  17. DETERMINATION OF LOW-ENERGY CUTOFFS AND TOTAL ENERGY OF NONTHERMAL ELECTRONS IN A SOLAR FLARE ON 2002 APRIL 15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sui, Linhui; Holman, Gordon D.; Dennis, Brian R.

    2005-01-01

    The determination of the low-energy cutoff to the spectrum of accelerated electrons is decisive for the estimation of the total nonthermal energy in solar flares. Because thermal bremsstrahlung dominates the low-energy part of flare X-ray spectra, this cutoff energy is difficult to determine with spectral fitting alone. We have used anew method that combines spatial, spectral, and temporal analysis to determine the cutoff energy for the M1.2 flare observed with RHESSI on 2002 April 15. A low-energy cutoff of 24 +/- 2 keV is required to ensure that the assumed thermal emissions always dominate over nonthermal emissions at low energies (<20 keV) and that the spectral fitting results are consistent with the RHESSI light curves and images. With this cutoff energy, we obtain a total nonthermal energy in electrons of (1.6 +/- 1) x 10(exp 30) ergs that is comparable to the peak energy in the thermal plasma, estimated from RHESSI observations to be (6 +/- 0.6) x 10(exp 29) ergs assuming a filling factor of 1.

  18. Micron-Sized Dust Particles Detected in the Outer Solar System by the Voyager 1 and 2 Plasma Wave Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Ansher, J. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Granroth, L. J.

    1997-01-01

    During the Voyager 1 and 2 flybys of the outer planets it has been demonstrated that the plasma wave instrument can detect small dust particles striking the spacecraft. In this paper, we examine the Voyager plasma wave data for dust impacts in the interplanetary medium at heliocentric radial distances ranging from 6 to 60 astronomical units (AU). The results show that a small but persistent level of dust impacts exists out to at least 30 to 50 AU. The average number density of these particles is about 2 x 10(exp -8)/cu m, and the average mass of the impacting particles is believed to be a few times 10(exp -11) g, which corresponds to particle diameters in the micron range. Possible sources of these particles are planets, moons, asteroids, comets, and the interstellar medium. Of these, comets appear to be the most likely source. The number densities are only weakly dependent on ecliptic latitude, which indicates that the particles probably do not originate from planets, moons, or asteroids. Comparisons with interstellar dust fluxes measured in the inner regions of the solar system by the Ulysses spacecraft indicate that the particles are not of interstellar origin.

  19. Miocrowave spectral imaging, H-alpha and hard X-ray observations of a solar limb flare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, H.; Gary, D. E.; Lim, J.; Schwartz, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    value only at the footpoint. At the loop top, the emission may be thermal gyrosynchrotron with a temperature of 3.5 x 10(exp 7) K, which is likely to correspond to the superhot component seen in the hard X-ray emission.

  20. Analysis of the 3d(sup 6)4s((sup 6)D)4f-5g supermultiplet of Fe I in laboratory and solar infrared spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johansson, S.; Nave, G.; Geller, M.; Sauval, A. J.; Grevesse, N.; Schoenfeld, W. G.; Change, E. S.; Farmer, C. B.

    1994-01-01

    The combined laboratory and solar analysis of the highly excited subconfigurations 3d(sup 6)4s((sup 6)D)4f and 3d(sup 6)4s((sup 6)D)5g of Fe I has allowed us to classify 87 lines of the 4f-5g supermultiplet in the spectral region 2545-2585 per cm. The level structure of these JK-coupled configurations is predicted by semiempirical calculations and the quardrupolic approximation. Semiempirical gf-values have been calculated and are compared to gf-values derived from the solar spectrum. The solar analysis has shown that these lines, which should be much less sensitive than lower excitation lines to departures from Local Thermal Equilibrium (LTE) and to temperature uncertanties, lead to a solar abundance of iron which is consistent with the meteoritic value (A(sub Fe) = 7.51).

  1. Solar disinfection of drinking water in the prevention of dysentery in South African children aged under 5 years: the role of participant motivation.

    PubMed

    Du Preez, Martella; Mcguigan, Kevin G; Conroy, Ronan M

    2010-11-15

    Solar disinfection (SODIS) effectively improves the microbial quality of drinking water for preventing diarrhea; however, the effect of participant motivation has not been studied. This 1-year randomized controlled trial investigated the effect of SODIS of drinking water and motivation on the incidence of dysentery and nondysentery diarrhea among children of age 6 months to 5 years living in periurban communities in South Africa.We compared 383 children in 297 households using SODIS with 335 children in 267 households with no intervention. At baseline 62.4% of the study households had stored water which met World Health Organization guidelines for zero thermotolerant coliforms per 100 mL. Dysentery was recorded using a pictorial diary. Incidence of dysentery was significantly associated with higher motivation, defined as 75% or better completion of diarrhea data. Incidence rates were lower in those drinking solar disinfected water (incidence rate ratio 0.64, 95% CI 0.39 - 1.0, P = 0.071) but not statistically significant. Compared with the control, participants with higher motivation achieved a significant reduction in dysentery (incidence rate ratio 0.36, 95% CI 0.16 - 0.81, P = 0.014). However, there was no significant reduction in risk at lower levels of motivation. Solar disinfection was not significantly associated with nondysentery diarrhea risk overall (P = 0.419). A statistically significant reduction in dysentery was achieved only in households with higher motivation, showing that motivation is a significant determinant for measurable health gains. Failure of three-quarters of participants to achieve a significant reduction in dysentery suggests that research into effective implementation is required.

  2. High Throughput Discovery of Solar Fuels Photoanodes in the CuO-V 2 O 5 System

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Lan; Yan, Qimin; Shinde, Aniketa; Guevarra, Dan; Newhouse, Paul F.; Becerra-Stasiewicz, Natalie; Chatman, Shawn M.; Haber, Joel A.; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Gregoire, John M.

    2015-08-26

    Solar photoelectrochemical generation of fuel is a promising energy technology yet the lack of an efficient, robust photoanode remains a primary materials challenge in the development and deployment of solar fuels generators. Metal oxides comprise the most promising class of photoanode materials, but no known material meets the demanding requirements of low band gap energy, photoelectrocatalysis of the oxygen evolution reaction, and stability under highly oxidizing conditions. Here, we report the identification of new photoelectroactive materials through a strategic combination of combinatorial materials synthesis, high-throughput photoelectrochemistry, optical spectroscopy, and detailed electronic structure calculations. We identify 4 photoelectrocatalyst phases - α-Cu2V2O7, β-Cu2V2O7, γ-Cu3V2O8, and Cu11V6O26 - with band gap energy at or below 2 eV. The photoelectrochemical properties and 30-minute stability of these copper vanadate phases are demonstrated in 3 different aqueous electrolytes (pH 7, pH 9, and pH 13), with select combinations of phase and electrolyte exhibiting unprecedented photoelectrocatalytic stability for metal oxides with sub-2 eV band gap. Through integration of experimental and theoretical techniques, we determine new structure-property relationships and establish CuO-V2O5 as the most prominent composition system for OER photoelectrocatalysts, providing crucial information for materials genomes initiatives and paving the way for continued development of solar fuels photoanodes.

  3. Ly(alpha) Photolysis in the Primitive Solar Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladstone, G. Randall

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report for the third year of work on this project. Our proposal was to quantitatively investigate the importance of photochemistry in the solar nebula. In the generally accepted theory for the chemical evolution of the primitive solar nebula, Prinn and Fegley argued that photochemistry is unimportant, and that thermochemistry controls the relative abundances of molecular species throughout the planet-forming region. They provided useful estimates of the chemical energy available to the solar nebula from a variety of sources, and established that even the small photolysis rate due to starlight is more important than the photolysis rate from direct sunlight (although small, the UV flux from starlight could have processed a non-negligible fraction of the solar nebula. The reason for this is that the opacity of the disk was so large that direct sunlight could only penetrate to 0.1 AU or so, despite the expectation that the protosun, if comparable to a T-Tauri star, would be emitting up to 10(exp 4) more H I Ly(alpha) photons than the current sun. We developed a Monte Carlo resonance fine radiative transfer code, capable of accurately calculating the radiation field of H I Ly(alpha), He I 584 A, and He II 304 A emissions throughout the nebula and the nearby interstellar medium in which it is embedded. We applied the code to two appropriate models of the primitive solar nebula. Our model provided the photolysis rates of various species over the entire surface layer of the nebula, and from this we evaluated the importance of UV photochemistry due to backscattered solar UV resonance line emissions on different parts of the nebula. The results discussed below were presented.

  4. Discovery of a Similar to 5 Day Characteristic Timescale in the Kepler Power Spectrum of Zw 229-15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, R.; Vaughan, S.; Malkan, M.; Kelly, B. C.; Smith, K. L.; Boyd, P. T.; Mushotzky, R.

    2014-01-01

    We present time series analyses of the full Kepler dataset of Zw 229- 15. This Kepler light curve- with a baseline greater than three years, composed of virtually continuous, evenly sampled 30-minute measurements - is unprecedented in its quality and precision. We utilize two methods of power spectral analysis to investigate the optical variability and search for evidence of a bend frequency associated with a characteristic optical variability timescale. Each method yields similar results. The first interpolates across data gaps to use the standard Fourier periodogram. The second, using the CARMA-based time-domain modeling technique of Kelly et al., does not need evenly-sampled data. Both methods find excess power at high frequencies that may be due to Kepler instrumental effects. More importantly both also show strong bends (delta alpha is approx. 2) at timescales of approx. 5 days, a feature similar to those seen in the X-ray PSDs of AGN but never before in the optical. This observed approx. 5 day timescale may be associated with one of several physical processes potentially responsible for the variability. A plausible association could be made with light -crossing, dynamical or thermal timescales, depending on the assumed value of the accretion disk size and on unobserved disk parameters such as alpha and H¬R. This timescale is not consistent with the viscous timescale, which would be years in a approx. 10(exp7) solar mass AGN such as Zw 229- 15. However there must be a second bend on long (& 1 year) timescales, and that feature could be associated with the viscous timescale.

  5. Simple Experiments on the Use of Solar Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vella, G. J.; Goldsmid, H. J.

    1976-01-01

    Describes 5 solar energy experiments that can be used in secondary school: flat-plate collector, solar thermoelectric generator, simple concentrators, solar cell, and natural storage of solar energy. (MLH)

  6. Oxidative degradation of dinitro butyl phenol (DNBP) utilizing hydrogen peroxide and solar light over a Al2O3-supported Fe(III)-5-sulfosalicylic acid (ssal) catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Jiang, Wen-Feng; Wang, Hui-Long; Chen, Mao-Du

    2010-04-15

    A novel and efficient photo-Fenton catalyst of Fe(III)-5-sulfosalicylic acid (ssal) supported on Al(2)O(3) was prepared and characterized by FT-IR and TEM-EDX technique. A detailed investigation of photocatalytic degradation of 2-sec-butyl-4,6-dinitrophenol (DNBP) using this catalyst and H(2)O(2) under solar light irradiation was carried out. The effects of reaction parameters on photodegradation performance were investigated by examining H(2)O(2) dosage, catalyst loading, solution pH, initial DNBP concentration and temperature. The optimal conditions were an initial DNBP concentration of 40 mg L(-1) at pH 2.5 and temperature 30 degrees C with catalyst loading of 1.0 g L(-1) and H(2)O(2) concentration of 5 mmol L(-1) under solar light irradiation for 100 min. Almost complete degradation of DNBP was observed with [Fe(III)-ssal]-Al(2)O(3)/H(2)O(2) process under the optimal conditions. The degradation of DNBP by photo-Fenton-type process can be divided into the initiation phase and the fast phase. The kinetics of Fenton oxidation is complex and the degradation of DNBP in the two phases both can be described by a pseudo-first-order kinetic model. No obvious decline in efficiency of the [Fe(III)-ssal]-Al(2)O(3) catalyst was observed after 5 repeated cycles indicating this catalyst is stable and reusable. A possible reaction mechanism was proposed on the basis of all the information obtained under various experimental conditions.

  7. Light-Soaking-Free Inverted Polymer Solar Cells with an Efficiency of 10.5% by Compositional and Surface Modifications to a Low-Temperature-Processed TiO2 Electron-Transport Layer.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yu; Cai, Feilong; Yang, Liyan; Li, Jinghai; Zhang, Yiwei; Qin, Fei; Xiong, Chuanxi; Zhou, Yinhua; Lidzey, David G; Wang, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Compositional modification and surface treatments of a TiO2 film prepared by a low-temperature route are carried out by a new promising method. Inverted polymer solar cells incorporating the post-treated TiO2 :TOPD electron-transport layer achieve the highest efficiency of 10.5%, and more importantly, eliminate the light-soaking problem that is commonly observed in metal-oxide-based inverted polymer solar cells.

  8. Results of the 1999 JPL Balloon Flight Solar Cell Calibration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Mueller, R. L.; Weiss, R. S.

    2000-01-01

    The 1999 solar cell calibration balloon flight campaign consisted of two flights, which occurred on June 14, 1999, and July 6, 1999. All objectives of the flight program were met. Fifty-seven modules were carried to an altitude of approximately equal to 120,000 ft (36.6 km). Full I-V curves were measured on five of these modules, and output at a fixed load was measured on forty-three modules (forty-five cells), with some modules repeated on the second flight. This data was corrected to 28 C and to 1 AU (1.496 x 10 (exp 8) km). The calibrated cells have been returned to their owners and can now be used as reference standards in simulator testing of cells and arrays.

  9. Results of the 1997 JPL Balloon Flight Solar Cell Calibration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Weiss, R. S.

    1997-01-01

    The 1997 solar cell calibration balloon flight campaign consisted of three flights, the first flight on June 11, 1997, the second flight on August 2, 1997, and the third flight on August 24, 1997. One flight, flown on August 14, 1997, was terminated early because of a telemetry transmitter failure, and its payload was reflown on the August 24 flight. All objectives of the flight program were met. Ninety-eight modules were carried to an altitude of approximately 120,000 ft (36.6 km). Full I-V curves were measured on 32 of these modules, and output at a fixed load was measured on 66 modules. This data was corrected to 28 C and to 1 AU (1.496 x 10(exp 8) km). The calibrated cells have been returned to the participants and can now be used as reference standards in simulator testing of cells and arrays.

  10. 10Be in late deglacial climate simulated by ECHAM5-HAM - Part 2: Isolating the solar signal from 10Be deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikkilä, U.; Shi, X.; Phipps, S. J.; Smith, A. M.

    2014-04-01

    This study investigates the effect of deglacial climate on the deposition of the solar proxy 10Be globally, and at two specific locations, the GRIP site at Summit, Central Greenland, and the Law Dome site in coastal Antarctica. The deglacial climate is represented by three 30 year time slice simulations of 10 000 BP (years before present = 1950 CE), 11 000 and 12 000 BP, compared with a preindustrial control simulation. The model used is the ECHAM5-HAM atmospheric aerosol-climate model, driven with sea-surface temperatures and sea ice cover simulated using the CSIRO Mk3L coupled climate system model. The focus is on isolating the 10Be production signal, driven by solar variability, from the weather- or climate-driven noise in the 10Be deposition flux during different stages of climate. The production signal varies at lower frequencies, dominated by the 11 year solar cycle within the 30 year timescale of these experiments. The climatic noise is of higher frequencies than 11 years during the 30 year period studied. We first apply empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis to global 10Be deposition on the annual scale and find that the first principal component, consisting of the spatial pattern of mean 10Be deposition and the temporally varying solar signal, explains 64% of the variability. The following principal components are closely related to those of precipitation. Then, we apply ensemble empirical decomposition (EEMD) analysis to the time series of 10Be deposition at GRIP and at Law Dome, which is an effective method for adaptively decomposing the time series into different frequency components. The low-frequency components and the long-term trend represent production and have reduced noise compared to the entire frequency spectrum of the deposition. The high-frequency components represent climate-driven noise related to the seasonal cycle of e.g. precipitation and are closely connected to high frequencies of precipitation. These results firstly show that

  11. 10Be in late deglacial climate simulated by ECHAM5-HAM - Part 2: Isolating the solar signal from 10Be deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikkilä, U.; Shi, X.; Phipps, S. J.; Smith, A. M.

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the effect of deglacial climate on the deposition of the solar proxy 10Be globally, and at two specific locations, the GRIP site at Summit, Central Greenland, and the Law Dome site in coastal Antarctica. The deglacial climate is represented by three 30 yr time slice simulations of 10 000 BP (years before present = 1950 CE), 11 000 BP and 12 000 BP, compared with a preindustrial control simulation. The model used is the ECHAM5-HAM atmospheric aerosol-climate model, driven with sea surface temperatures and sea ice cover simulated using the CSIRO Mk3L coupled climate system model. The focus is on isolating the 10Be production signal, driven by solar variability, from the weather or climate driven noise in the 10Be deposition flux during different stages of climate. The production signal varies on lower frequencies, dominated by the 11yr solar cycle within the 30 yr time scale of these experiments. The climatic noise is of higher frequencies. We first apply empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) analysis to global 10Be deposition on the annual scale and find that the first principal component, consisting of the spatial pattern of mean 10Be deposition and the temporally varying solar signal, explains 64% of the variability. The following principal components are closely related to those of precipitation. Then, we apply ensemble empirical decomposition (EEMD) analysis on the time series of 10Be deposition at GRIP and at Law Dome, which is an effective method for adaptively decomposing the time series into different frequency components. The low frequency components and the long term trend represent production and have reduced noise compared to the entire frequency spectrum of the deposition. The high frequency components represent climate driven noise related to the seasonal cycle of e.g. precipitation and are closely connected to high frequencies of precipitation. These results firstly show that the 10Be atmospheric production signal is preserved

  12. Stratospheric HNO3 measurements from 0.002/cm resolution solar occultation spectra and improved spectroscopic line parameters in the 5.8-micron region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Blatherwick, R. D.; Kosters, J. J.; Murcray, D. G.; Rinsland, C. P.; Flaud, J.-M.; Camy-Peyret, C.

    1992-02-01

    Very-high-resolution FWHM solar-occultation spectra are investigated with a balloon-borne interferometer using revised spectroscopic line parameters for HNO3, O3, and H2O. The O3 and H2O data are evaluated to determine their capacity for interference in the HNO3 line which is studied in the nu sub 2 band at 5.8 microns. The line parameters developed with the stratospheric data are compared to data based on a HITRAN compilation as well as laboratory spectra with a 0.002/cm resolution. The line list is calculated and shown to include J and Ka transitions which improve the line parameters for HNO3 by accounting for the weaker absorption features in the stratospheric spectra. The stratospheric HNO3 profile developed analytically is compared to those based on reported measurements, and the one developed with the stratospheric solar spectra is found to be consistent with the measurements and confirm inherent measurement biases.

  13. Stratospheric HNO3 measurements from 0.002/cm resolution solar occultation spectra and improved spectroscopic line parameters in the 5.8-micron region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Blatherwick, R. D.; Kosters, J. J.; Murcray, D. G.; Rinsland, C. P.; Flaud, J.-M.; Camy-Peyret, C.

    1992-01-01

    Very-high-resolution FWHM solar-occultation spectra are investigated with a balloon-borne interferometer using revised spectroscopic line parameters for HNO3, O3, and H2O. The O3 and H2O data are evaluated to determine their capacity for interference in the HNO3 line which is studied in the nu sub 2 band at 5.8 microns. The line parameters developed with the stratospheric data are compared to data based on a HITRAN compilation as well as laboratory spectra with a 0.002/cm resolution. The line list is calculated and shown to include J and Ka transitions which improve the line parameters for HNO3 by accounting for the weaker absorption features in the stratospheric spectra. The stratospheric HNO3 profile developed analytically is compared to those based on reported measurements, and the one developed with the stratospheric solar spectra is found to be consistent with the measurements and confirm inherent measurement biases.

  14. Degradation of DBPs' precursors in river water before and after slow sand filtration by photo-Fenton process at pH 5 in a solar CPC reactor.

    PubMed

    Moncayo-Lasso, Alejandro; Pulgarin, César; Benítez, Norberto

    2008-09-01

    The generation of disinfection by-products during water treatment can be controlled by reducing the levels of precursor species prior to the chlorination step. The Natural Organic Matter (NOM) is the principal organic precursor and conventional removal of pollutants such as coagulation, flocculation and filtration do not guarantee the total NOM removal. In this study the degradation of NOM model compounds (dihydroxy-benzene) as well as the removal of NOM from river water via photo-Fenton process in a CPC solar photo-reactor is presented. The effect of solar activated photo-Fenton reagent at pH 5.0 before and after a slow sand filtration (SSF) in waters containing natural iron species is investigated and the details reported. The results showed that the total transformation of dihydroxy-benzene compounds along a mineralization higher than 80% was obtained. The mineralization of the organic compounds dissolved in natural water was higher than in Milli-Q water, suggesting that the aqueous organic and inorganic components (metals, humic acids and photoactive species) positively affect the photocatalytic process. When 1.0mg/L of Fe(3+) is added to the system, the photo-Fenton degradation was improved. Therefore the photo-Fenton reagent could be an interesting complement to other processes for NOM removal. Comparing the response of two rivers as media for the organic compounds degradation it was observed that the NOM photo-degradation rate depends of the water composition.

  15. Optical approaches to improve the photocurrent generation in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells with absorber thicknesses down to 0.5 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahan, N.; Jehl, Z.; Hildebrandt, T.; Greffet, J.-J.; Guillemoles, J.-F.; Lincot, D.; Naghavi, N.

    2012-11-01

    Improving the optical management is a key issue for ultrathin based solar cells performance. It can be accomplished either by trapping the light in the active layer or by decreasing the parasitic absorptions in the cell. We calculate the absorption of the different layers of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) based solar cell and propose to increase the absorption in the CIGSe layer by optimizing three parameters. First, by increasing the transmitted light to the cell using a textured surface of ZnO:Al front contact which functions as a broadband antireflection layer. Second, by replacing the CdS/i-ZnO buffer layers with ZnS/ZnMgO buffer layers which have higher energy bandgaps. Third, by replacing the Mo back contact with a higher reflective metal, such as silver or gold. Calculations show that modifying these layers improves the total absorption by 32% in a 0.5 μm thick CIGSe absorber. These predicted improvements of the short circuit current are confirmed experimentally.

  16. Correlation of Upper-Atmospheric Be-7 With Solar Energetic Particle Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, G. W.; Share, G. H.; August, R. A.; Tylka, A. J.; Adams, J. H., Jr.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Nymmik, R. A.; Kuzhevskjj, B. M.; Kulikauskas, V. S.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor); Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Surprisingly large concentrations of radioactive Be-7 have been found in the upper atmosphere at levels of one to three orders of magnitude greater than observed in the stratosphere. This phenomenon was originally observed on the LDEF satellite which was recovered in January 1990 following a period of extremely high solar activity in the fall of 1989. We report on follow-up measurements on the Russian COSMOS and RESURS F1 spacecraft during the period of 1996 to 1999 which was a period of minimal to moderate solar activity. The Be-7 concentrations observed on these flights were down substantially from the LDEF observations but were still one to two orders of magnitude higher than stratospheric levels. A significant correlation is observed between the Be-7 activity and the combined fluence of solar energetic protons (SEP) and galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) protons. The Be-7 activity is not correlated with overall solar activity as represented by the solar x-ray flux. We discuss possible mechanisms for the solar proton correlation. However, it is likely that the Be-7 is ionized and it is unknown how this will affect the calculations. There were several large solar flares in the fall of 1989 that produced extraordinarily intense solar particle events at the Earth and record geophysical disturbances. These may have acted to increase production of Be-7 from spallation in the stratosphere and also to enhance transport to higher altitudes from the effects of heating and expansion of the upper atmosphere. Be-7 in the upper atmosphere may also have been produced directly at the Sun. Be-7 and Li-7 are produced in solar flares when accelerated alpha-particles fuse with He-4 in the solar atmosphere. Under optimistic assumptions for Sun to Earth transport and subsequent insertion into low Earth orbit, a Be-7 density of about 10(exp -7) atom/cubic cm at 310 km is estimated.

  17. Reflection of Alfven waves in the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krogulec, M.; Musielak, Z. E.; Suess, S. T.; Nerney, S. F.; Moore, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    We have revisited the problem of propagation of toroidal and linear Alfven waves formulated by Heinemann and Olbert (1980) to compare Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) and non-WKB waves and their effects on the solar wind. They considered two solar wind models and showed that reflection is important for Alfven waves with periods of the order of one day and longer and that non-WKB Alfven waves are no more effective in accelerating the solar wind than in WKB waves. There are several recently published papers that seem to indicate that Alfven waves with periods of the order of several minutes should be treated as non-WKB waves and that these non-WKB waves exert a stronger acceleration force than WKB waves. The purposse of this paper is to study the origin of these discrepancies by performing parametric studies of the behavior of the waves under a variety of different conditions. In addition, we want to investigate two problems that have not been addressed by Heinimann and Olbert, namely, calculate the efficieny of Alfven wave reflection by using the reflection coefficient and identfy the region of strongest wave reflection in different wind models. To achieve these goals, we investigate the influence of temperature, electron desity distribution, wind velocity, and magnetic field strength on te waves. The obtained results clearly demonstrate that Alfven wave reflection is strongly model dependent and that the strongest reflection can be expected in models with the base temperatures higher than 10(exp 6) K and with the base densities lower than 7 x 10(exp 7)/cu cm. In these models as well as in the models with lower temperatures and higher densities Alfven waves with periods as short as several minutes have negligible reflection so that they can be treated as WKB waves; however, for Alfven waves with periods of the order of one hour or longer reflection is significant, requiring a non-WKB treatment. We also show that non-WKB, linear Alfven waves are always less effective

  18. On reflection of Alfven waves in the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krogulec, M.; Musielak, Z. E.; Suess, S. T.; Moore, R. L.; Nerney, S. F.

    1993-01-01

    We have revisited the problem of propagation of toroidal and linear Alfven waves formulated by Heinemann and Olbert (1980) to compare WKB and non-WKB waves and their effects on the solar wind. They considered two solar wind models and showed that reflection is important for Alfven waves with periods of the order of one day and longer, and that non-WKB Alfven waves are no more effective in accelerating the solar wind than WKB waves. There are several recently published papers which seem to indicate that Alfven waves with periods of the order of several minutes should be treated as non-WKB waves and that these non-WKB waves exert a stronger acceleration force than WKB waves. The purpose of this paper is to study the origin of these discrepancies by performing parametric studies of the behavior of the waves under a variety of different conditions. In addition, we want to investigate two problems that have not been addressed by Heinemann and Olbert, namely, calculate the efficiency of Alfven wave reflection by using the reflection coefficient and identify the region of strongest wave reflection in different wind models. To achieve these goals, we investigated the influence of temperature, electron density distribution, wind velocity and magnetic field strength on the waves. The obtained results clearly demonstrate that Alfven wave reflection is strongly model dependent and that the strongest reflection can be expected in models with the base temperatures higher than 10(exp 6) K and with the base densities lower than 7 x 10(exp 7) cm(exp -3). In these models as well as in the models with lower temperatures and higher densities, Alfven waves with periods as short as several minutes have negligible reflection so that they can be treated as WKB waves; however, for Alfven waves with periods of the order of one hour or longer reflection is significant, requiring a non-WKB treatment. We also show that non-WKB, linear Alfven waves are always less effective in accelerating the

  19. Observations of X-ray jets with the Yohkoh Soft X-ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibata, Kazunari; Ishido, Yoshinori; Acton, Loren W.; Strong, Keith T.; Hirayama, Tadashi; Uchida, Yutaka; Mcallister, Alan H.; Matsumoto, Ryoji; Tsuneta, Saku; Shimizu, Toshifumi

    1992-01-01

    The features of the multiple X-ray jets in the solar corona, revealed by the time series of the Yohkoh Soft X-ray Telescope images are described. The typical size of a jet was from 5 x 10 exp 3 to 4 x 10 exp 5 km, the translational velocity was 30-300 km/s, and the corresponding kinetic energy was estimated to be from 10 exp 25 to 10 exp 28 erg. Many of the jets were found to be associated with flares in X-ray bright points, emerging flux regions, or active regions, and they sometimes occurred several times from the same X-ray feature. One of the jets associated with a flaring bright point was identified as being an H-alpha surge.

  20. The effects of exposure to LN2 temperatures and 2.5 suns solar radiation on 30-cm ion thruster performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental test program was developed to demonstrate all 30 cm Hg-ion bombardment thruster functions over the thermal environment of several proposed missions. A 30 cm thruster with grids dished 1.25 cm and instrumented with 31 thermocouples, was placed in a vacuum tank equipped with minus 196 C walls. Cold storage of a thruster was simulated and temperatures as low as minus 100 C were attained on the thruster. The thruster started successfully from these cold conditions. The thruster operating at both half and full beam power was exposed to 2.5 suns on axis solar simulation. Various thruster thermal configurations, used to simulate multiple thruster operation, were tested at the above conditions. The results of these tests are reported herein.

  1. The effects of exposure to LN2 temperatures and 2.5 suns solar radiation on 30-cm ion thruster performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental test program was developed to demonstrate all 30 cm Hg-ion bombardment thruster functions over the thermal environment of several proposed missions. A 30 cm thruster with grids dished 1.25 cm and instrumented with 31 thermocouples, was placed in a vacuum tank equipped with -196 C walls. Cold storage of a thruster was simulated and temperatures as low as -100 C were attained on the thruster. The thruster started successfully from these cold conditions. The thruster operating at both half and full beam power was exposed to 2.5 suns on axis solar simulation. Various thruster thermal configurations, used to simulate multiple thruster operation, were tested at the above conditions. The results of these tests are reported herein.

  2. Bi5FeTi3O15 nanofibers/graphene nanocomposites as an effective counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, H. W.; Liang, X.; Yu, Y. H.; Wang, K.; Zhang, X. A.; Men, B. Q.; Diao, C. L.; Peng, C. X.; Yue, G. T.

    2017-01-01

    The present study reports Bi5FeTi3O15 (BFTO) nanofibers/graphene (Gr) nanocomposites (BGr) as counter electrodes (CEs) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). BFTO nanofibers with diameters of 40-100 nm were fabricated by sol-gel based electrospinning technique. The microstructure and surface morphology of the BFTO nanofibers and the BGr nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The electrochemical performances of BGr CEs were comprehensively characterized and investigated. Compared to pristine BFTO, the nanocomposites have a marked improvement in electrocatalytic performance for the reduction of triiodide because of larger surface area and lower transfer resistance on the electrolyte-electrode interface. The maximum power conversion efficiency has reached 9.56%, which is much larger than that of pure BFTO CEs (0.22%).

  3. Side-chain Engineering of Benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b’]dithiophene Core-structured Small Molecules for High-Performance Organic Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xinxing; An, Qiaoshi; Yu, Jiangsheng; Guo, Fengning; Geng, Yongliang; Bian, Linyi; Xu, Zhongsheng; Zhou, Baojing; Xie, Linghai; Zhang, Fujun; Tang, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    Three novel small molecules have been developed by side-chain engineering on benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b’]dithiophene (BDT) core. The typical acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-D-A) structure is adopted with 4,8-functionalized BDT moieties as core, dioctylterthiophene as π bridge and 3-ethylrhodanine as electron-withdrawing end group. Side-chain engineering on BDT core exhibits small but measurable effect on the optoelectronic properties of small molecules. Theoretical simulation and X-ray diffraction study reveal the subtle tuning of interchain distance between conjugated backbones has large effect on the charge transport and thus the photovoltaic performance of these molecules. Bulk-heterojunction solar cells fabricated with a configuration of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/SM:PC71BM/PFN/Al exhibit a highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.99% after solvent vapor annealing. PMID:27140224

  4. Side-chain Engineering of Benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene Core-structured Small Molecules for High-Performance Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xinxing; An, Qiaoshi; Yu, Jiangsheng; Guo, Fengning; Geng, Yongliang; Bian, Linyi; Xu, Zhongsheng; Zhou, Baojing; Xie, Linghai; Zhang, Fujun; Tang, Weihua

    2016-05-03

    Three novel small molecules have been developed by side-chain engineering on benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT) core. The typical acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-D-A) structure is adopted with 4,8-functionalized BDT moieties as core, dioctylterthiophene as π bridge and 3-ethylrhodanine as electron-withdrawing end group. Side-chain engineering on BDT core exhibits small but measurable effect on the optoelectronic properties of small molecules. Theoretical simulation and X-ray diffraction study reveal the subtle tuning of interchain distance between conjugated backbones has large effect on the charge transport and thus the photovoltaic performance of these molecules. Bulk-heterojunction solar cells fabricated with a configuration of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/SM:PC71BM/PFN/Al exhibit a highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.99% after solvent vapor annealing.

  5. Side-chain Engineering of Benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b’]dithiophene Core-structured Small Molecules for High-Performance Organic Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xinxing; An, Qiaoshi; Yu, Jiangsheng; Guo, Fengning; Geng, Yongliang; Bian, Linyi; Xu, Zhongsheng; Zhou, Baojing; Xie, Linghai; Zhang, Fujun; Tang, Weihua

    2016-05-01

    Three novel small molecules have been developed by side-chain engineering on benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b’]dithiophene (BDT) core. The typical acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-D-A) structure is adopted with 4,8-functionalized BDT moieties as core, dioctylterthiophene as π bridge and 3-ethylrhodanine as electron-withdrawing end group. Side-chain engineering on BDT core exhibits small but measurable effect on the optoelectronic properties of small molecules. Theoretical simulation and X-ray diffraction study reveal the subtle tuning of interchain distance between conjugated backbones has large effect on the charge transport and thus the photovoltaic performance of these molecules. Bulk-heterojunction solar cells fabricated with a configuration of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/SM:PC71BM/PFN/Al exhibit a highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.99% after solvent vapor annealing.

  6. Draft genome sequence of Halorubrum tropicale strain V5, a novel halophilic archaeon isolated from the solar salterns of Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Nieves, Rubén; Facciotti, Marc T; Saavedra-Collado, Sofía; Dávila-Santiago, Lizbeth; Rodríguez-Carrero, Roy; Montalvo-Rodríguez, Rafael

    2016-03-01

    The genus Halorubrum is a member of the family Halobacteriaceae which currently has the highest number of described species (31) of all the haloarchaea. Here we report the draft genome sequence of strain V5, a new species within this genus that was isolated from the solar salterns of Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico. Assembly was performed and rendered the genome into 17 contigs (N50 = 515,834 bp), the largest of which contains 1,031,026 bp. The genome consists of 3.57 MB in length with G + C content of 67.6%. In general, the genome includes 4 rRNAs, 52 tRNAs, and 3246 protein-coding sequences. The NCBI accession number for this genome is LIST00000000 and the strain deposit number is CECT9000.

  7. Draft genome sequence of Halorubrum tropicale strain V5, a novel halophilic archaeon isolated from the solar salterns of Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Nieves, Rubén; Facciotti, Marc T.; Saavedra-Collado, Sofía; Dávila-Santiago, Lizbeth; Rodríguez-Carrero, Roy; Montalvo-Rodríguez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The genus Halorubrum is a member of the family Halobacteriaceae which currently has the highest number of described species (31) of all the haloarchaea. Here we report the draft genome sequence of strain V5, a new species within this genus that was isolated from the solar salterns of Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico. Assembly was performed and rendered the genome into 17 contigs (N50 = 515,834 bp), the largest of which contains 1,031,026 bp. The genome consists of 3.57 MB in length with G + C content of 67.6%. In general, the genome includes 4 rRNAs, 52 tRNAs, and 3246 protein-coding sequences. The NCBI accession number for this genome is LIST00000000 and the strain deposit number is CECT9000. PMID:26981427

  8. New benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-based small molecules containing alkoxyphenyl side chains for high efficiency solution-processed organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhengkun; Chen, Weichao; Wen, Shuguang; Qiao, Shanlin; Liu, Qian; Ouyang, Dan; Wang, Ning; Bao, Xichang; Yang, Renqiang

    2014-12-01

    A new acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-D-A) small molecule, namely, BDT-PO-DPP, based on the alkoxyphenyl (PO)-substituted benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT) derivative and the diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) unit was synthesized as an electron donor for solution-processed small-molecule organic solar cells (SMOSCs). BDT-PO-DPP exhibited good thermal stability, with a 5 % weight-lost temperature at 401 °C under a nitrogen atmosphere. BDT-PO-DPP exhibited a lower HOMO energy level of -5.25 eV and a weaker aggregation ability than alkoxy-substituted BDT-O-DPP. A bulk heterojunction SMOSC device based on BDT-PO-DPP and [6,6]-phenyl-C61 -butyric acid methyl ester was prepared, and it showed a power conversion efficiency up to 5.63% with a high open-circuit voltage of 0.83 V, a short circuit current density of 11.23 mA cm(-2) , and a fill factor of 60.37% by using 1,2-dichlorobenzene as the co-solvent after thermal annealing at 110 °C. The results indicate that the alkoxyphenyl-substituted BDT derivative is a promising electron-donor building block for constructing highly efficient solution-processed SMOSCs.

  9. Extinction coefficient (1 micrometer) properties of high-altitude clouds from solar occultation measurements (1985-1990): Evidence of volcanic aerosol effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Pi-Huan; Minnis, Patrick; Yue, Glenn K.

    1995-01-01

    The properties of the 1-micrometer volume extinction coefficient of two geographically different high-altitude cloud systems have been examined for the posteruption period (1985-1990) of the April 1982 El Chichon volcanic event with emphasis on the effect of volcanic aerosols on clouds. These two high-altitude cloud systems are the tropical clouds in the tropopause region observed by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) 2 and the polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) sighted by the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) 2. The results indicate that volcanic aerosols alter the frequency distributions of these high-altitude clouds in such a manner that the occurrence of clouds having high extinction coefficients (6 x 10(exp -3) - 2 x 10(exp -2)/km) is suppressed, while that of clouds having low extinction coefficients (2 x 10(exp -3) - 6 x 10(exp -2)/km) is enhanced. This influence of the volcanic aerosols appears to be opposite to the increase in the extinction coefficient of optically thick clouds observed by the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) during the initial posteruption period of the June 1991 Pinatubo eruption. A plausible explanation of this difference, based on the Mie theory, is presented. As a consequence of the Mie theory, the effective radius of most, if not all, of the high-altitude clouds, measured by the SAGE series of satellite instruments must be less than about 0.8 micrometers. This mean cloud particle size implied by the satellite extinction-coefficient data at a single wavelength (1 micrometer) is further substantiated by the particle size analysis based on cloud extinction coefficient at two wavelengths (0.525 and 1.02 micrometers) obtained by the SAGE 2 observations. Most of the radiation measured by ERBE is reflected by cloud systems comprised of particles having effective radii much greater than 1 micrometer. A reduction in the effective radius of these clouds due to volcanic aerosols is expected to increase their

  10. Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, C.J.

    1992-12-01

    A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor. 5 figs.

  11. Evaluation of multidecadal variability in CMIP5 surface solar radiation and inferred underestimation of aerosol direct effects over Europe, China, Japan, and India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. J.; Norris, J. R.; Wild, M.

    2013-06-01

    Observations from the Global Energy Balance Archive indicate regional decreases in all sky surface solar radiation from ˜1950s to 1980s, followed by an increase during the 1990s. These periods are popularly called dimming and brightening, respectively. Removal of the radiative effects of cloud cover variability from all sky surface solar radiation results in a quantity called "clear sky proxy" radiation, in which multidecadal trends can be seen more distinctly, suggesting aerosol radiative forcing as a likely cause. Prior work has shown climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 3 (CMIP3) generally underestimate the magnitude of these trends, particularly over China and India. Here we perform a similar analysis with 173 simulations from 42 climate models participating in the new CMIP5. Results show negligible improvement over CMIP3, as CMIP5 dimming trends over four regions—Europe, China, India, and Japan—are all underestimated. This bias is largest for both India and China, where the multimodel mean yields a decrease in clear sky proxy radiation of -1.3±0.3 and -1.2±0.2 W m-2decade-1, respectively, compared to observed decreases of -6.5±0.9 and -8.2±1.3 W m-2decade-1. Similar underestimation of the observed dimming over Japan exists, with the CMIP5 mean dimming ˜20% as large as observed. Moreover, not a single simulation reproduces the magnitude of the observed dimming trend for these three regions. Relative to dimming, CMIP5 models better simulate the observed brightening, but significant underestimation exists for both China and Japan. Overall, no individual model performs particularly well for all four regions. Model biases do not appear to be related to the use of prescribed versus prognostic aerosols or to aerosol indirect effects. However, models exhibit significant correlations between clear sky proxy radiation and several aerosol-related fields, most notably aerosol optical depth (AOD) and absorption AOD. This suggests model

  12. Solar cell arcing: The role of outgassing and contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marinelli, W. J.; Green, B. D.; Upschulte, B. L.; Weyl, G.; Hastings, D.; Aifer, E.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of outgassing, venting, and thruster firing events on spacecraft system performance has been a long standing issue. Recent laboratory measurements on negatively biased high voltage solar cells at Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) suggest that some currently designed and certainly future space power systems must address/re-evaluate this issue. Our observations show that exposing these cells to moderate levels (10 exp -3 torr-min) of H2O vapor enhances the arcing frequency, while heating to 85 C to remove water vapor significantly reduces the arc frequency. The interaction of the adhesive used to attach the cover glass to the solar cell with ambient water vapor is the key factor in determining arcing rates. Elimination of adhesive exposed to the environmental plasma reduces the arc frequency more than two orders of magnitude, and eliminates any sensitivity to H2O exposure. The adhesive may also become a source of spacecraft contamination. Macroscopic amounts were observed to blow off some arc events, and (we assume) electrostatically precipitate at other negatively biased locations. Data, analysis, and potential impact for future space platforms are discussed.

  13. Study of a Solar X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Leon

    1997-01-01

    The highly structured nature of the outer solar atmosphere seems to be intimately linked to the presence, at the solar surface, of magnetic fields that have been generated inside the Sun and have emerged to the surface. The corona is brightest (and also hottest) at just those locations where the magnetic field has emerged from inside the Sun. Dynamo theory predicts that strong magnetic fields will be generated deep in the solar interior and that bundles or 'ropes' of magnetic flux will float to the surface. When this happens, a magnetically bipolar region will become visible, extending above the surface in a three-dimensional structure. The field lines penetrate through the surface, showing two magnetic poles, and also exhibit a three-dimensional structure above the surface. The structure created by the field emergence is rooted in the (relatively) cool photosphere and extends through the chromosphere and transition region to the corona. Thus, the magnetic field creates a region, called an active region, which contains portions at temperatures from less than 10(exp 4) K to greater than 10(exp 6) K, and is therefore visible at wavelengths from the infrared through x-rays. The locations where the magnetic field leaves and reenters the visible surface are called the 'footpoints' of the coronal structures associated with the magnetic field. The magnetic fields themselves are not directly visible. However, the hot coronal plasma is, for the most part, constrained to follow the direction of the magnetic field lines in the atmosphere. Now, 100 years after the discovery of x-rays by Wilhelm Roentgen in 1896, we can routinely make observations of the solar corona from outside the Earth's atmosphere in this region of the electromagnetic spectrum. As shown by comparing x-ray images with magnetograms, the bright corona over these bipolar magnetic regions consists of closed structures that seem to follow the orientation of the magnetic field. Although we can see down to the

  14. Report from solar physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, A. B. C.; Acton, L.; Brueckner, G.; Chupp, E. L.; Hudson, H. S.; Roberts, W.

    1989-01-01

    A discussion of the nature of solar physics is followed by a brief review of recent advances in the field. These advances include: the first direct experimental confirmation of the central role played by thermonuclear processes in stars; the discovery that the 5-minute oscillations of the Sun are a global seismic phenomenon that can be used as a probe of the structure and dynamical behavior of the solar interior; the discovery that the solar magnetic field is subdivided into individual flux tubes with field strength exceeding 1000 gauss. Also covered was a science strategy for pure solar physics. Brief discussions are given of solar-terrestrial physics, solar/stellar relationships, and suggested space missions.

  15. Solar System Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Carl D.; Dermott, Stanley F.

    2000-02-01

    Preface; 1. Structure of the solar system; 2. The two-body problem; 3. The restricted three-body problem; 4. Tides, rotation and shape; 5. Spin-orbit coupling; 6. The disturbing function; 7. Secular perturbations; 8. Resonant perturbations; 9. Chaos and long-term evolution; 10. Planetary rings; Appendix A. Solar system data; Appendix B. Expansion of the disturbing function; Index.

  16. Reliable solar cookers

    SciTech Connect

    Magney, G.K.

    1992-12-31

    The author describes the activities of SERVE, a Christian relief and development agency, to introduce solar ovens to the Afghan refugees in Pakistan. It has provided 5,000 solar cookers since 1984. The experience has demonstrated the potential of the technology and the need for a durable and reliable product. Common complaints about the cookers are discussed and the ideal cooker is described.

  17. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of fully flexible dye-sensitized solar cells based on the Nb2O5 coated hierarchical TiO2 nanowire-nanosheet arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenwu; Hong, Chengxun; Wang, Hui-gang; Zhang, Mei; Guo, Min

    2016-02-01

    Nb2O5 coated hierarchical TiO2 nanowire-sheet arrays photoanode was synthesized on flexible Ti-mesh substrate by using a hydrothermal approach. The effect of TiO2 morphology and Nb2O5 coating layer on the photovoltaic performance of the flexible dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on Ti-mesh supported nanostructures were systematically investigated. Compared to the TiO2 nanowire arrays (NWAs), hierarchical TiO2 nanowire arrays (HNWAs) with enlarged internal surface area and strong light scattering properties exhibited higher overall conversion efficiency. The introduction of thin Nb2O5 coating layers on the surface of the TiO2 HNWAs played a key role in improving the photovoltaic performance of the flexible DSSC. By separating the TiO2 and electrolyte (I-/I3-), the Nb2O5 energy barrier decreased the electron recombination rate and increased electron collection efficiency and injection efficiency, resulting in improved Jsc and Voc. Furthermore, the influence of Nb2O5 coating amounts on the power conversion efficiency were discussed in detail. The fully flexible DSSC based on Nb2O5 coated TiO2 HNWAs films with a thickness of 14 μm displayed a well photovoltaic property of 4.55% (Jsc = 10.50 mA cm-2, Voc = 0.75 V, FF = 0.58). The performance enhancement of the flexible DSSC is largely attributed to the reduced electron recombination, enlarged internal surface area and superior light scattering ability of the formed hierarchical nanostructures.

  18. 4-Alkyl-3,5-difluorophenyl-Substituted Benzodithiophene-Based Wide Band Gap Polymers for High-Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangwu; Gong, Xue; Zhang, Jicheng; Liu, Yahui; Feng, Shiyu; Li, Cuihong; Bo, Zhishan

    2016-02-17

    Two novel polymers PTFBDT-BZS and PTFBDT-BZO with 4-alkyl-3,5-difluorophenyl substituted benzodithiophene as the donor unit, benzothiadiazole or benzooxadiazole as the acceptor unit, and thiophene as the spacer have been synthesized and used as donor materials for polymer solar cells (PSCs). These two polymers exhibited wide optical band gaps of about 1.8 eV. PSCs with the blend of PTFBDT-BZS:PC71BM (1:2, by weight) as the active layer fabricated without using any processing additive and any postannealing treatment showed power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.24% with an open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.89 V, a short circuit current (Jsc) of 12.67 mA/cm(2), and a fill factor (FF) of 0.73 under AM 1.5G illumination, indicating that PTFBDT-BZS is a very promising donor polymer for PSCs. The blend of PTFBDT-BZO:PC71BM showed a lower PCE of 5.67% with a Voc of 0.96 V, a Jsc of 9.24 mA/cm(2), and an FF of 0.64. One reason for the lower PCE is probably due to that PTFBDT-BZO has a smaller LUMO offset with PC71BM, which cannot provide enough driving force for charge separation. And another reason is probably due to that PTFBDT-BZO has a lower hole mobility in comparison with PTFBDT-BZS.

  19. Detection of ℓ = 4 and ℓ = 5 modes in 12 years of solar VIRGO-SPM data—tests on Kepler observations of 16 Cyg A and B

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, Mikkel Nørup; Kjeldsen, Hans; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Handberg, Rasmus; Aguirre, Victor Silva

    2014-02-10

    We present the detection of ℓ = 4 and ℓ = 5 modes in power spectra of the Sun, constructed from 12 yr full-disk VIRGO-SPM data sets. A method for enhancing the detectability of these modes in asteroseismic targets is presented and applied to Kepler data of the two solar analogues 16 Cyg A and B. For these targets, we see indications of a signal from ℓ = 4 modes, while nothing is yet seen for ℓ = 5 modes. We further simulate the power spectra of these stars and from this we estimate that it should indeed be possible to see such indications of ℓ = 4 modes at the present length of the data sets. In the simulation process, we briefly look into the apparent misfit between observed and calculated mode visibilities. We predict that firm detections of at least ℓ = 4 should be possible in any case at the end of the Kepler mission. For ℓ = 5, we do not predict any firm detections from Kepler data.

  20. Stratospheric OClO and NO2 measured by groundbased UV/Vis-spectroscopy in Greenland in January and February 1990 and 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, A.; Perner, D.

    1994-01-01

    Groundbased UV/Vis-spectroscopy of zenith scattered sunlight was performed at Sondre Stromfjord (Greenland) during Jan/Feb 1990 and Jan/Feb 1991. Considerable amounts of OClO were observed during both campaigns. Maximum OClO vertical column densities at 92 deg solar zenith angle (SZA) were 7.4 x 10(exp 13) molec/sq cm in 1990 and 5.7 x 10(exp 13) molec/sq cm in 1991 (chemical enhancement is included in the calculation of the air mass factor (AMF)). A threshold seems to exist for OClO detection: OClO was detected on every day when the potential vorticity at the 475 K level of potential temperature was higher than 35 x 10(exp -6)Km(exp 2)kg(exp -1)s(exp -1). NO2 vertical columns lower than 1 x 10(exp 15) molec/sq cm were frequently observed in both winters.

  1. Rosat Observations of Nine Globular Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rappaport, S.; Dewey, D.; Levine, A.; Macri, L.

    1994-01-01

    The ROSAT HRI was used to image fields around nine Galactic globular clusters that have central densities in the range of 10(exp 4) - 10(exp 5) solar mass pc(exp -3) and that had not previously been observed with the Einstein Observatory. We detected X-ray sources associated with Pal 2 and NGC 6304 with luminosities of 1.1 x 10(exp 34) ergs/s and 1.2 x 10(exp 33) ergs/s, respectively. No X-ray emission was detected from the source in Ter 6, thus confirming its transient nature. In all, there were 23 serendipitous sources found in the nine fields; none was apparently associated with any of the other seven clusters. The results are discussed in the context of low-luminosity cluster X-ray sources, in general.

  2. Solar coronal non-thermal processes (Solar Maximum Mission)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, H. S.

    1983-01-01

    The Solar Maximum Mission was used to study solar coronal phenomena in hard X-radiation, since its instrument complement included the first solar hard X-ray telescope. Phenomena related to those discovered from OSO-5 and OSO-7 observations were emphasized.

  3. The Rate Constant for the Reaction H + C2H5 at T = 295 - 150K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pimentel, Andre S.; Payne, Walter A.; Nesbitt, Fred L.; Cody, Regina J.; Stief, Louis J.

    2004-01-01

    The reaction between the hydrogen atom and the ethyl (C2H3) radical is predicted by photochemical modeling to be the most important loss process for C2H5 radicals in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn. This reaction is also one of the major sources for the methyl radicals in these atmospheres. These two simplest hydrocarbon radicals are the initial species for the synthesis of larger hydrocarbons. Previous measurements of the rate constant for the H + C2H5 reaction varied by a factor of five at room temperature, and some studies showed a dependence upon temperature while others showed no such dependence. In addition, the previous studies were at higher temperatures and generally higher pressures than that needed for use in planetary atmospheric models. The rate constant for the reaction H + C2H5 has been measured directly at T = 150, 202 and 295 K and at P = 1.0 Torr He for all temperatures and additionally at P = 0.5 and 2.0 Torr He at T = 202 K. The measurements were performed in a discharge - fast flow system. The decay of the C2H5 radical in the presence of excess hydrogen was monitored by low-energy electron impact mass spectrometry under pseudo-first order conditions. H atoms and C2H5 radicals were generated rapidly and simultaneously by the reaction of fluorine atoms with H2 and C2H6, respectively. The total rate constant was found to be temperature and pressure independent. The measured total rate constant at each temperature are: k(sub 1)(295K) = (1.02+/-0.24)x10(exp -10), k(sub 1)(202K) = (1.02+/-0.22)x10(exp -10) and k(sub 1)(150K) = (0.93+/-0.21)x10(exp -10), all in units of cu cm/molecule/s. The total rate constant derived from all the combined measurements is k(sub 1) = (l.03+/-0.17)x10(exp -10) cu cm/molecule/s. At room temperature our results are about a factor of two higher than the recommended rate constant and a factor of three lower than the most recently published study.

  4. Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

  5. High-power, ultralow-mass solar arrays: FY-77 solar arrays technology readiness assessment report, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costogue, E. N.; Young, L. E.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Development efforts are reported in detail for: (1) a lightweight solar array system for solar electric propulsion; (2) a high efficiency thin silicon solar cell; (3) conceptual design of 200 W/kg solar arrays; (4) fluorocarbon encapsulation for silicon solar cell array; and (5) technology assessment of concentrator solar arrays.

  6. Basics of the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Vernet, Nicole

    2012-09-01

    Preface; 1. The wind from the sun: an introduction; 2. Toolkit for space plasma physics; 3. Anatomy of the sun; 4. The outer solar atmosphere; 5. How does the solar wind blow?; 6. Structure and perturbations; 7. Bodies in the wind: dust, asteroids, planets and comets; 8. The solar wind in the universe; Index.

  7. Solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, D.

    1981-01-01

    The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

  8. Solar Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The solar collectors shown are elements of domestic solar hot water systems produced by Solar One Ltd., Virginia Beach, Virginia. Design of these systems benefited from technical expertise provided Solar One by NASA's Langley Research Center. The company obtained a NASA technical support package describing the d e sign and operation of solar heating equipment in NASA's Tech House, a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined in an energy- efficient home. Solar One received further assistance through personal contact with Langley solar experts. The company reports that the technical information provided by NASA influenced Solar One's panel design, its selection of a long-life panel coating which increases solar collection efficiency, and the method adopted for protecting solar collectors from freezing conditions.

  9. Solar Proton Events in Six Solar Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitaly, Ishkov

    Based on materials the catalogs of solar proton events (SPE) in 1955 ‒ 2010 and list SPE for the current 24 solar cycle (SC) are examined confirmed SPE with E> 10 MeV proton flux in excess of 1 proton cm-2 s ster-1 (pfu) from Švestka and Simon’s (1955 - 1969) and 5 volumes Logachev’s (1970 - 2006) Catalogs of SPE. Historically thus it was formed, that the measurements of the proton fluxes began in the epoch “increased” solar activity (SC 18 ‒ 22), and includes transition period of the solar magnetic fields reconstruction from epoch “increased” to the epoch “lowered” solar activity (22 ‒ 23 SC). In current 24 SC ‒ first SC of the incipient epoch of “lowered” SA ‒ SPE realize under the new conditions, to that of previously not observed. As showed a study of five solar cycles with the reliable measurements of E> 10 MeV proton flux in excess of 1 pfu (1964 - 2013): ‒ a quantity of SPEs remained approximately identical in SC 20, 21, somewhat decreased in the initial solar cycle of the solar magnetic fields reconstruction period (22), but it returned to the same quantity in, the base for the period of reconstruction, SC 23. ‒ Into the first 5 years of the each solar cycle development the rate of the proton generation events noticeably increased in 22 cycles of solar activity and returned to the average in cycles 23 and 24. ‒ Extreme solar flare events are achieved, as a rule, in the solar magnetic fields reconstruction period (August - September 1859; June 1991; October ‒ November 2003.), it is confirmed also for SPE: the extreme fluxes of solar protons (S4) except one (August 1972) were occurred in period of perestroika (SC 22 and 23). This can speak, that inside the epochs SA, when the generation of magnetic field in the convective zone works in the steady-state regime, extreme SPE are improbable. ‒ The largest in the fluxes of protons (S3, S4) occur in the complexes of the active regions flare events, where magnetic field more

  10. Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) 5 Developed to Test Advanced Solar Cell Technology Aboard the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, David M.

    2004-01-01

    The testing of new technologies aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is facilitated through the use of a passive experiment container, or PEC, developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. The PEC is an aluminum suitcase approximately 2 ft square and 5 in. thick. Inside the PEC are mounted Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) plates that contain the test articles. The PEC is carried to the ISS aboard the space shuttle or a Russian resupply vehicle, where astronauts attach it to a handrail on the outer surface of the ISS and deploy the PEC, which is to say the suitcase is opened 180 deg. Typically, the PEC is left in this position for approximately 1 year, at which point astronauts close the PEC and it is returned to Earth. In the past, the PECs have contained passive experiments, principally designed to characterize the durability of materials subjected to the ultraviolet radiation and atomic oxygen present at the ISS orbit. The MISSE5 experiment is intended to characterize state-of-art (SOA) and beyond photovoltaic technologies.

  11. Highly ionized gas absorption in the disk and halo toward HD 167756 at 3.5 kilometers per second resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Blair D.; Sembach, Kenneth R.; Cardelli, Jason A.

    1994-01-01

    High-resolution spectra of interstellar Si IV, C IV, and N V absorption lines along the 4 kpc path to the inner Galaxy star HD 167756 at z = -0.85 kpc are presented. The spectra were obtained with the echelle mode of Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and have signal-to-noise ratios ranging from 23 to 38. The high resolution of the measurements full width at half maximum (FWHM = 3.5 km/s) results in fully resolved line profiles for the highly ionized gas absorption. The measurements provide information on the column density per unit velocity, N(v), as a function of velocity for Si IV, C IV, and N V. The C IV and N V profiles extend from -70 to +70 km/s, while the Si IV profiles extend from -40 to +70 km/s. The integrated logarithmic column densities are long N(Si IV) = 13.09 +/- 0.02, log N(C IV) = 13.83 +/- 0.02, and log N(N V) = 13.56 +/- 0.03. The N V profile is broad, asymmetric, and featureless, while the Si IV profile contains narrow absorption components near V(sub LSR) = -19, 0, +20, and +52 km/s with Doppler spread parameters, b about = 10-12 km/s. The C IV profile contains both broad and narrow structure. The high ion feature near +52 km/s is also detected in the low-ionization lines of Ca II, O I, Si II, and Fe II. The other narrow Si IV and C IV components occur within several km/s of components seen in low-ionization species. The sight line contains at least two types of highly ionized gas. One type gives rise to a broad N V profile, and the other results in the more structured Si IV profile. The C IV profile contains contributions from both types of highly ionized gas. The broad but asymmetric N V profile is well represented by a large Galactic scale height gas which is participating in Galactic rotation and has a combination of thermal and turbulent broadening with b(sub tot) about = 42 km/s. The C IV to N V abundance ratio of 1.0 +/- 0.3 for the gas implies T about 1.6 x 10(exp 5) K or about 8 x 10

  12. EPIC Study of Two Enigmatic Sources: The Mouse and SNR 359.1-0.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlov, George

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the original proposal was to observe the Mouse pulsar wind nebula (associated with PSR J1744-2958) and the nearby supernova remnant G359.1-0.5, where the pulsar was probably born, with the XMM-Newton observatory to study the properties of these objects. SNR G359.1-0.5 was accepted as a Category C target and has not been observed. The Mouse was observed on April 27,2003 for 52 ks. The image analysis has shown that the Mouse is extended in the East-West direction, possibly along the direction of the pulsar's proper motion. The spectrum of this pulsar wind nebula can be described as an absorbed power law with the photon index GAMMA = 1.9 plus or minus 0.1, effective hydrogen column density n(sub H) = (2.6 plus or minus 0.1) x 10(exp 22) per square centimeter, and flux F = 1.8 x 10(exp -11) erg per square centimeter per second in the 1-10 keV energy range. Based on the n(sub H) value, the distance to the source is about 5 kpc, which results in the luminosity 3.7 x 10(exp 34) erg per second. We conclude that PSR J1744-2958 and the Mouse are not physically associated with G359.1-0.5, which lies at a larger distance. In addition to the Mouse, we also detected two Low-Mass X-ray Binaries, SLX 1744-299 and 1744-300, in the EPIC MOS and PN fields of view. The latter of these objects showed a Type I X-ray burst during our observation, with a rise time of 5 s and decay time of 60 s. A very strong pileup during the burst made the analysis of the burst properties unreliable. The spectral analysis of the persistent radiation from SLX 1744-299 and 1744-300 yields the hydrogen column densities of 3.2 plus or minus 0.1 and (3.6 plus or minus 0.2) x 10(exp 22) per square centimeter, respectively, which suggests that the sources are close to the Galactic center (d = 8-9 kpc). The spectra can be reasonably well fitted with a blackbody plus thin disk model, with the blackbody temperatures of 1.7 plus or minus 0.2 and 1.8 plus or minus 0.2 keV, respectively.

  13. Solar cells for lunar applications by vacuum evaporation of lunar regolith materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignatiev, Alex

    1991-01-01

    The National Space Exploration Initiative, specifically the Lunar component, has major requirements for technology development of critical systems, one of which is electrical power. The availability of significant electrical power on the surface of the Moon is a principal driver defining the complexity of the lunar base. Proposals to generate power on the Moon include both nuclear and solar (photovoltaic) systems. A more efficient approach is to attempt utilization of the existing lunar resources to generate the power systems. Synergism may occur from the fact that there have already been lunar materials processing techniques proposed for the extraction of oxygen that would have, as by-products, materials that could be specifically used to generate solar cells. The lunar environment is a vacuum with pressures generally in the 1 x 10(exp -10) torr range. Such conditions provide an ideal environment for direct vacuum deposition of thin film solar cells using the waste silicon, iron, and TiO2 available from the lunar regolith processing meant to extract oxygen. It is proposed, therefore, to grow by vacuum deposition, thin film silicon solar cells from the improved regolith processing by-products.

  14. Evidence for mass outflow in the low solar corona over a large sunspot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neupert, Werner M.; Brosius, Jeffrey W.; Thomas, Roger J.; Thompson, William T.

    1992-01-01

    Spatially resolved EUV coronal emission-line profiles have been obtained in a solar active region, including a large sunspot, using an EUV imaging spectrograph. Relative Doppler velocities were measured in the lines of Mg IX, Fe XV, and Fe XVI with a sensitivity of 2-3 km/s at 350 A. The only significant Doppler shift occurred over the umbra of the large sunspot, in the emission line of Mg IX (at Te of about 1.1 x 10 exp 6 K). The maximum shift corresponded to a peak velocity toward the observer of 14 +/- 3 km/s relative to the mean of measurements in this emission line made elsewhere over the active region. The magnetic field in the low corona was aligned to within 10 deg of the line of sight at the location of maximum Doppler shift. Depending on the closure of the field, such a mass flow could either contribute to the solar wind or reappear as a downflow of material in distant regions on the solar surface. The site of the source, near a major photospheric field boundary, was consistent with origins of low-speed solar wind typically inferred from interplanetary plasma observations.

  15. Heating of the solar middle chromosphere by large-scale electric currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, M. L.

    1995-01-01

    A global resistive, two-dimensional, time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model is used to introduce and support the hypothesis that the quiet solar middle chromosphere is heated by resistive dissipation of large-scale electric currents which fill most of its volume. The scale height and maximum magnitude of the current density are 400 km and 31.3 m/sq m, respectively. The associated magnetic field is almost horizontal, has the same scale height as the current density, and has a maximum magnitude of 153 G. The current is carried by electrons flowing across magnetic field lines at 1 m/s. The resistivity is the electron contribution to the Pedersen resitivity for a weakly ionized, strongly magnetized, hydrogen gas. The model does not include a driving mechanism. Most of the physical quantities in the model decrease exponentially with time on a resistive timescale of 41.3 minutes. However, the initial values and spatial; dependence of these quantities are expected to be essentially the same as they would be if the correct driving mechanism were included in a more general model. The heating rate per unit mass is found to be 4.5 x 10(exp 9) ergs/g/s, independent of height and latitude. The electron density scale height is found to be 800 km. The model predicts that 90% of the thermal energy required to heat the middle chromosphere is deposited in the height range 300-760 km above the temperature minimum. It is shown to be consistent to assume that the radiation rate per unit volume is proportional to the magnetic energy density, and then it follows that the heating rate per unit volume is also proportional to the energy from the photosphere into the overlying chromosphere are briefly discussed as possible driving mechanisms for establishing and maintaining the current system. The case in which part of or all of the current is carried by protons and metal ions, and the contribution of electron-proton scattering to the current are also considered, with the conclusion

  16. Improved Energy Conversion Efficiency of TiO2 Thin Films Modified with Ta2O5 in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Ming-Cheng; Chen, Hone-Zern; Young, San-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Tantalum-doped TiO2 thin films [(TiO2)1-x(Ta2O5)x, x=0-0.8%] were prepared on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated substrates by sol-gel technology for uses in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The effects of Ta content on the growth and properties of the TiO2 thin films were investigated. The crystallization and microstructures of the thin films were examined by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analyses. The performance of DSSCs based on Ta-doped TiO2 thin films was also studied. From the obtained results, the increases in Jsc and Voc may be due to the increased electron concentration of TiO2 thin film and the flat-band potential of the TiO2 shifted by tantalum doping, respectively. The optimum properties of DSSCs of Voc=0.68 V, Jsc=7.84 mA/cm2, FF=45.1%, and η=2.4% were obtained using the Ta-doped TiO2 thin film with x=0.5%.

  17. Infrared Solar Spectroscopic Measurements of Free Tropospheric CO, C2H6, and HCN above Mauna Loa, Hawaii: Seasonal Variations and Evidence for Enhanced Emissions from the Southeast Asian Tropical Fires of 1997-1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Stephen, T. M.; Pougatchev, N. S.; Fishman, J.; David, S. J.; Blatherwick, R. D.; Novelli, P. C.; Jones, N. B.

    1999-01-01

    High spectral resolution (0.003 per cm) infrared solar absorption measurements of CO, C2H6, and HCN have been recorded at the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change station on Mauna Loa, Hawaii, (19.5N, 155.6W, altitude 3.4 km). The observations were obtained on over 250 days between August 1995 and February 1998. Column measurements are reported for the 3.4-16 km altitude region, which corresponds approximately to the free troposphere above the station. Average CO mixing ratios computed for this layer have been compared with flask sampling CO measurements obtained in situ at the station during the same time period. Both show asymmetrical seasonal cycles superimposed on significant variability. The first 2 years of observations exhibit a broad January-April maximum and a sharper CO minimum during late summer. The C2H6 and CO 3.4-16 km columns were highly correlated throughout the observing period with the C2H6/CO slope intermediate between higher and lower values derived from similar infrared spectroscopic measurements at 32'N and 45'S latitude, respectively. Variable enhancements in CO, C2H6, and particularly HCN were observed beginning in about September 1997. The maximum HCN free tropospheric monthly mean column observed in November 1997 corresponds to an average 3.4-16 km mixing ratio of 0.7 ppbv (1 ppbv = 10(exp -9) per unit volume), more than a factor of 3 above the background level. The HCN enhancements continued through the end of the observational series. Back-trajectory calculations suggest that the emissions originated at low northern latitudes in southeast Asia. Surface CO mixing ratios and the C2H6 tropospheric columns measured during the same time also showed anomalous autumn 1997 maxima. The intense and widespread tropical wild fires that burned during the strong El Nino warm phase of 1997- 1998 are the likely source of the elevated emission products.

  18. Dichotomy of Solar Coronal Jets: Standard Jets and Blowout Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. L.; Cirtain, J. W.; Sterling, A. C.; Falconer, D. A.

    2010-01-01

    By examining many X-ray jets in Hinode/XRT coronal X-ray movies of the polar coronal holes, we found that there is a dichotomy of polar X-ray jets. About two thirds fit the standard reconnection picture for coronal jets, and about one third are another type. We present observations indicating that the non-standard jets are counterparts of erupting-loop H alpha macrospicules, jets in which the jet-base magnetic arch undergoes a miniature version of the blowout eruptions that produce major CMEs. From the coronal X-ray movies we present in detail two typical standard X-ray jets and two typical blowout X-ray jets that were also caught in He II 304 Angstrom snapshots from STEREO/EUVI. The distinguishing features of blowout X-ray jets are (1) X-ray brightening inside the base arch in addition to the outside bright point that standard jets have, (2) blowout eruption of the base arch's core field, often carrying a filament of cool (T 10(exp 4) - 10(exp 5) K) plasma, and (3) an extra jet-spire strand rooted close to the bright point. We present cartoons showing how reconnection during blowout eruption of the base arch could produce the observed features of blowout X-ray jets. We infer that (1) the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of coronal jets results from the dichotomy of base arches that do not have and base arches that do have enough shear and twist to erupt open, and (2) there is a large class of spicules that are standard jets and a comparably large class of spicules that are blowout jets.

  19. Summary of Data from the Sixth AIAA CFD Drag Prediction Workshop: CRM Cases 2 to 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinoco, Edward N.; Brodersen, Olaf P.; Keye, Stefan; Laflin, Kelly R.; Feltrop, Edward; Vassberg, John C.; Mani, Mori; Rider, Ben; Wahls, Richard A.; Morrison, Joseph H.; Hue, David; Gariepy, Martin; Roy, Christopher J.; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Murayama, Mitsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Results from the Sixth AIAA CFD Drag Prediction Workshop Common Research Model Cases 2 to 5 are presented. As with past workshops, numerical calculations are performed using industry-relevant geometry, methodology, and test cases. Cases 2 to 5 focused on force/moment and pressure predictions for the NASA Common Research Model wing-body and wing-body-nacelle-pylon configurations, including Case 2 - a grid refinement study and nacelle-pylon drag increment prediction study; Case 3 - an angle-of-attack buffet study; Case 4 - an optional wing-body grid adaption study; and Case 5 - an optional wing-body coupled aero-structural simulation. The Common Research Model geometry differed from previous workshops in that it was deformed to the appropriate static aeroelastic twist and deflection at each specified angle-of-attack. The grid refinement study used a common set of overset and unstructured grids, as well as user created Multiblock structured, unstructured, and Cartesian based grids. For the supplied common grids, six levels of refinement were created resulting in grids ranging from 7x10(exp 6) to 208x10(exp 6) cells. This study (Case 2) showed further reduced scatter from previous workshops, and very good prediction of the nacelle-pylon drag increment. Case 3 studied buffet onset at M=0.85 using the Medium grid (20 to 40x10(exp 6) nodes) from the above described sequence. The prescribed alpha sweep used finely spaced intervals through the zone where wing separation was expected to begin. Although the use of the prescribed aeroelastic twist and deflection at each angle-of-attack greatly improved the wing pressure distribution agreement with test data, many solutions still exhibited premature flow separation. The remaining solutions exhibited a significant spread of lift and pitching moment at each angle-of-attack, much of which can be attributed to excessive aft pressure loading and shock location variation. Four Case 4 grid adaption solutions were submitted. Starting

  20. Solar Cycle Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesnell, William Dean

    2012-01-01

    Solar cycle predictions are needed to plan long-term space missions; just like weather predictions are needed to plan the launch. Fleets of satellites circle the Earth collecting many types of science data, protecting astronauts, and relaying information. All of these satellites are sensitive at some level to solar cycle effects. Predictions of drag on LEO spacecraft are one of the most important. Launching a satellite with less propellant can mean a higher orbit, but unanticipated solar activity and increased drag can make that a Pyrrhic victory as you consume the reduced propellant load more rapidly. Energetic events at the Sun can produce crippling radiation storms that endanger all assets in space. Solar cycle predictions also anticipate the shortwave emissions that cause degradation of solar panels. Testing solar dynamo theories by quantitative predictions of what will happen in 5-20 years is the next arena for solar cycle predictions. A summary and analysis of 75 predictions of the amplitude of the upcoming Solar Cycle 24 is presented. The current state of solar cycle predictions and some anticipations how those predictions could be made more accurate in the future will be discussed.

  1. Effects Investigated of Ambient High-Temperature Exposure on Alumina-Titania High-Emittance Surfaces for Solar Dynamic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Smith, Daniela C.

    1999-01-01

    Solar-dynamic space power systems require durable, high-emittance surfaces on a number of critical components, such as heat receiver interior surfaces and parasitic load radiator (PLR) elements. An alumina-titania coating, which has been evaluated for solar-dynamic heat receiver canister applications, has been chosen for a PLR application (an electrical sink for excess power from the turboalternator/compressor) because of its demonstrated high emittance and high-temperature durability in vacuum. Under high vacuum conditions (+/- 10(exp -6) torr), the alumina-titania coating was found to be durable at temperatures of 1520 F (827 C) for approx. 2700 hours with no degradation in optical properties. This coating has been successfully applied to the 2-kW solar-dynamic ground test demonstrator at the NASA Lewis Research Center, to the 500 thermal-energy-storage containment canisters inside the heat receiver and to the PLR radiator. The solar-dynamic demonstrator has successfully operated for over 800 hours in Lewis large thermal/vacuum space environment facility, demonstrating the feasibility of solar-dynamic power generation for space applications.

  2. Is HL Tauri and FU Orionis system in quiescence?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, D. N. C.; Hayashi, M.; Bell, K. R.; Ohashi, N.

    1994-01-01

    A recent Nobeyama map of HL Tau reveals that gas is infalling in a flattened region approximately 1400 AU around the central star. The apparent motion of the gas provides the necessary condition for the formation of a Keplerian disk with a radius comparable to the size of the primordial solar nebula. The inferred mass infall rate onto the disk is approximately equal to 5 x 10(exp -6) solar mass/yr, which greatly exceeds the maximum estimate of the accretion rate onto the central star (approximately 7 x 10(exp -7) solar mass/yr). Consequently, mass must currently be accumulating in the disk. The estimated age and disk mass of HL Tau suggest that the accumulated matter has been flushed repeatedly on a timescale less than 10(exp 4) yr. Based on the similarites between their evolution patterns, we propose that HL Tau is an FU Orionis system in quiescence. In addition to HL Tau, 14 out of 86 pre-main-sequence stars in the Taurus-Auriga dark clouds have infrared luminosities much greater than their otherwise normal extinction-corrected stellar luminosities. These sources also tend to have flat spectra which may be due to the reprocessing of radiation by dusty, flattened, collapsing envelopes with infall rates a few 10(exp -6) solar mass/yr. Such rates are much larger than estimated central accretion rates for these systems, which suggests that mass must also be accumulating in these disks. If these sources are FU Orionis stars in quiescence, similar to HL Tau, their age and relative abundance imply that the FU Orionis phase occurs over a timescale of approixmately 10(exp 5) yr, and the quiescent phase between each outburst lasts approximately 10(exp 3) =10(exp 4) yr. These inferred properties are compatible with the scenario that FU Orionis outbursts are regulated by a thermal instability in the inner region of the disk.

  3. Solar Collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Solar Energy's solar panels are collectors for a solar energy system which provides heating for a drive-in bank in Akron, OH. Collectors were designed and manufactured by Solar Energy Products, a firm established by three former NASA employees. Company President, Frank Rom, an example of a personnel-type technology transfer, was a Research Director at Lewis Research Center, which conducts extensive solar heating and cooling research, including development and testing of high-efficiency flat-plate collectors. Rom acquired solar energy expertise which helped the company develop two types of collectors, one for use in domestic/commercial heating systems and the other for drying grain.

  4. CdSe/beta-Pb0.33V2O5 heterostructures: Nanoscale semiconductor interfaces with tunable energetic configurations for solar energy conversion and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milleville, Christopher C.

    This dissertation focuses on the formation and characterization of semiconductor heterostructures, consisting of light-harvesting cadmium selenide quantum dots (CdSe QDs) and single crystalline lead vanadium oxide nanowires (β-Pb0.33V2O5 NWs), for the purpose of excited-state charge transfer and photocatalytic production of solar fuels. We reported two distinct routes for assembling CdSe/β-Pb0.33V2O5 heterostructures: linker-assisted assembly (LAA) mediated by a bifunctional ligand and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). In the former case, the thiol end of a molecular linker, cysteine (Cys) is found to bind to the QD surface, whereas a protonated amine moiety interacts electrostatically with the negatively charged NW surface. In the alternative SILAR route, the surface coverage of CdSe on the β-Pb0.33V2O5 NWs is tuned by varying the number of successive precipitation cycles. Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) measurements revealed that the mid-gap states of β-Pb0.33V2O5 NWs are closely overlapped in energy with the valence band edges of CdSe QDs, suggesting that hole transfer from the valence band of CdSe into the mid-gap states is possible. Preliminary evidence of hole transfer was obtained through photoluminescence quenching experiments. Steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements on Cys-CdSe dispersions, mixed dispersions of Cys-CdSe QDs and β-Pb0.33V¬2O5 NWs, and mixed dispersions of Cys-CdS QDs and V2O5 revealed a greater extent of quenching of the emission of Cys-CdSe QDs by β Pb0.33V¬2O5 relative to V2O5. V2O5, devoid of mid-gap states, is unable to accept holes from CdSe and therefore should not quench emission to the same extent as β-Pb0.33V¬2O5. The additional quenching was dynamic, consistent with a mechanism involving the transfer of photogenerated holes from CdSe QDs to the mid-gap states of β Pb0.33V2O5. Transient absorption spectroscopy (TA) was used to probe the dynamics of interfacial

  5. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A selectively coated, flat-plate copper collector with one transparent cover and a tube-to-tube spacing of 5 5/8 inches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This preliminary data report gives basic test results of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and coolant flow rates. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  6. Randomized intervention study of solar disinfection of drinking water in the prevention of dysentery in Kenyan children aged under 5 years.

    PubMed

    du Preez, Martella; Conroy, Ronan M; Ligondo, Sophie; Hennessy, James; Elmore-Meegan, Michael; Soita, Allan; McGuigan, Kevin G

    2011-11-01

    We report the results of a randomized controlled intervention study (September 2007 to March 2009) investigating the effect of solar disinfection (SODIS) of drinking water on the incidence of dysentery, nondysentery diarrhea, and anthropometric measurements of height and weight among children of age 6 months to 5 years living in peri-urban and rural communities in Nakuru, Kenya. We compared 555 children in 404 households using SODIS with 534 children in 361 households with no intervention. Dysentery was recorded using a pictorial diary. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) for both number of days and episodes of dysentery and nondysentery diarrhea were significantly (P < 0.001) reduced by use of solar disinfection: dysentery days IRR = 0.56 (95% CI 0.40 to 0.79); dysentery episodes IRR = 0.55 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.73); nondysentery days IRR = 0.70 (95% CI 0.59 to 0.84); nondysentery episodes IRR = 0.73 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.84). Anthropometry measurements of weight and height showed median height-for-age was significantly increased in those on SODIS, corresponding to an average of 0.8 cm over a 1-year period over the group as a whole (95% CI 0.7 to 1.6 cm, P = 0.031). Median weight-for-age was higher in those on SODIS, corresponding to a 0.23 kg difference in weight over the same period; however, the confidence interval spanned zero and the effect fell short of statistical significance (95% CI -0.02 to 0.47 kg, P = 0.068). SODIS and control households did not differ in the microbial quality of their untreated household water over the follow-up period (P = 0.119), but E. coli concentrations in SODIS bottles were significantly lower than those in storage containers over all follow-up visits (P < 0.001). This is the first trial to show evidence of the effect of SODIS on childhood anthropometry, compared with children in the control group and should alleviate concerns expressed by some commentators that the lower rates of dysentery associated with SODIS are the product of biased

  7. Projected changes in surface solar radiation in CMIP5 global climate models and in EURO-CORDEX regional climate models for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartók, Blanka; Wild, Martin; Folini, Doris; Lüthi, Daniel; Kotlarski, Sven; Schär, Christoph; Vautard, Robert; Jerez, Sonia; Imecs, Zoltán

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the present work is to compare the projections of surface solar radiation (SSR) simulated by four regional climate models (CCLM, RCA4, WRF, ALADIN) with the respective fields of their ten driving CMIP5 global climate models. First the annual and seasonal SSR changes are examined in the regional and in the global climate models based on the RCP8.5 emission scenarios. The results show significant discrepancies between the projected SSR, the multi-model mean of RCMs indicates a decrease in SSR of -0.60 W/m2 per decade over Europe, while the multi-model mean of the associated GCMs used to drive the RCMs gives an increase in SSR of +0.39 W/m2 per decade for the period of 2006-2100 over Europe. At seasonal scale the largest differences appear in spring and summer. The different signs of SSR projected changes can be interpreted as the consequence of the different behavior of cloud cover in global and regional climate models. Cloudiness shows a significant decline in GCMs with -0.24% per decade which explains the extra income in SSR, while in case of the regional models no significant changes in cloudiness can be detected. The reduction of SSR in RCMs can be attributed to increasing atmospheric absorption in line with the increase of water vapor content. Both global and regional models overestimate SSR in absolute terms as compared to surface observations, in line with an underestimation of cloud cover. Regional models further have difficulties to adequately reproduce the observed trends in SSR over the past decades.

  8. Solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Cassidy, V.M.

    1981-11-01

    Practical applications of solar energy in commercial, industrial and institutional buildings are considered. Two main types of solar collectors are described: flat plate collectors and concentrating collectors. Efficiency of air and hydronic collectors among the flat plate types are compared. Also several concentrators are described, including their sun tracking mechanisms. Descriptions of some recent solar installations are presented and a list representing the cross section of solar collector manufacturers is furnished.

  9. ROSAT X-ray observations of late-type evolved stars: On the relationship between coronal temperatures and luminosities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maggio, A.; Sciortino, S.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    We present ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counters (PSPC) X-ray observations of three near-solar-mass stars, in different evolutionary phases beyond the main sequence: eta Sco (F3 III-IV), iota Vir (F6 III), and HD 74772 (G5 III). All three of these nearby, presumably single stars have been detected, and we have collected enough counts to perform a detailed analysis of their soft X-ray spectra. While the X-ray spectra of eta Sco and HD 74772 can be fitted with Raymond-Smith thermal models with temperatures around 2 x 10(exp 6) K, the high signal-to-noise spectrum of iota Vir provides unambiguous evidence of a multitemperature plasma, with a two-temperature best-fit model with components at approximately 2 x 10(exp 6) K and 8 x 10(exp 6) K. Evidence of some hot plasma (T approximately 10(exp 7) K) has been also found for HD 74772. The present data, compared with spectral fitting results for other late-type stars observed with the Einstein Observatory, indicate that the low X-ray luminosity giants (L(sub x) is less than 5 x 10(exp 28) ergs/s) do not share with the higher X-ray luminosity stars of the same class the property of having substantial amount of 10(exp 7) K plasma. Moreover, our results confirm the trend of increasing X-ray luminosities with increasing coronal temperatures.

  10. Solar Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A medical refrigeration and a water pump both powered by solar cells that convert sunlight directly into electricity are among the line of solar powered equipment manufactured by IUS (Independent Utility Systems) for use in areas where conventional power is not available. IUS benefited from NASA technology incorporated in the solar panel design and from assistance provided by Kerr Industrial Applications Center.

  11. Solar reflector

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, D. C.

    1981-02-17

    A solar reflector having a flexible triangular reflective sheet or membrane for receiving and reflecting solar energy therefrom. The reflector is characterized by the triangular reflective sheet which is placed under tension thereby defining a smooth planar surface eliminating surface deflection which heretofore has reduced the efficiency of reflectors or heliostats used in combination for receiving and transmitting solar energy to an absorber tower.

  12. Buying Solar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Joe

    Presented are guidelines for buying solar systems for the individual consumer. This is intended to help the consumer reduce many of the risks associated with the purchase of solar systems, particularly the risks of fraud and deception. Engineering terms associated with solar technology are presented and described to enable the consumer to discuss…

  13. Toward 10(exp 10) Contrast for Terrestrial Exoplanet Detection: Demonstration of Wavefront Correction in a Shaped Pupil Coronagraph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belikov, Ruslan; Give'on, Amir; Trauger, John T.; Carr, Michael; Kasdin, Jeremy N.; Vanderbei, Robert J.; Shi, Fang; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Kuhnert, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Experimental demonstration of wavefront control with shaped pupils. Contrast level is maintained across different wavelengths and 10% broadband light. Further improvements in contrast believed to have been possible with more time and parameter optimizations.

  14. Acceleration of electrons and ions by strong lower-hybrid turbulence in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spicer, D. S.; Bingham, R.; Su, J. J.; Shapiro, V. D.; Shevchenko, V.; Ma, S.; Dawson, J. M.; Mcclements, K. G.

    1994-01-01

    One of the outstanding problems in solar flare theory is how to explain the 10-20 keV and greater hard x-ray emissions by a thick target bremsstrahlung model. The model requires the acceleration mechanism to accelerate approximately 10(exp 35) electrons sec(exp -l) with comparable energies, without producing a large return current which persists for long time scales after the beam ceases to exist due to Lenz's law, thereby, producing a self-magnetic field of order a few mega-Gauss. In this paper, we investigate particle acceleration resulting from the relaxation of unstable ion ring distributions, producing strong wave activity at the lower hybrid frequency. It is shown that strong lower hybrid wave turbulence collapses in configuration space producing density cavities containing intense electrostatic lower hybrid wave activity. The collapse of these intense nonlinear wave packets saturate by particle acceleration producing energetic electron and ion tails. There are several mechanisms whereby unstable ion distributions could be formed in the solar atmosphere, including reflection at perpendicular shocks, tearing modes, and loss cone depletion. Numerical simulations of ion ring relaxation processes, obtained using a 2 1/2-D fully electromagnetic, relativistic particle in cell code are discussed. We apply the results to the problem of explaining energetic particle production in solar flares. The results show the simultaneous acceleration of both electrons and ions to very high energies: electrons are accelerated to energies in the range 10-500 keV, while ions are accelerated to energies of the order of MeVs, giving rise to x-ray emission and gamma-ray emission respectively. Our simulations also show wave generation at the electron cyclotron frequency. We suggest that these waves are the solar millisecond radio spikes. The strong turbulence collapse process leads to a highly filamented plasma producing many localized regions for particle acceleration and resulting in

  15. The Dependence of Donor:Acceptor Ratio on the Photovoltaic Performances of Blended poly (3-octylthiophene-2,5-diyl) and (6,6)-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fauzia, Vivi; Umar, Akrajas Ali; Salleh, Muhamad Mat; Yahya, Muhammad

    2010-10-24

    Bulk heterojunction organic solar cells using blended poly (3-octylthiophene-2,5-diyl)(P3OT) and (6,6)-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester (PC{sub 71}BM) have been fabricated. P3OT and PC{sub 71}BM were used as the electron donor (D) and acceptor (A), respectively. Both materials were mixed and dissolved in dichlorobenzene with three different D:A ratios i.e. 1:3, 1:1 and 3:1 (weight) while maintained at the concentration of 2 wt%(26 mg/ml). The blended thin films were sandwiched between the indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass and the aluminum film. This paper reports the influence of donor:acceptor ratio on the performance of solar cell devices measured by current-voltage measurement both in the dark and under 1.5 AM solar illumination. It was found that all devices showed the photovoltaic effect with poor diode behavior and the donor:acceptor ratio significantly influenced on the performance of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells.

  16. Measurements of anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation at 0.5 deg angular scales near the star gamma ursae minoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devlin, M. J.; Clapp, A. C.; Gundersen, J. O.; Hagmann, C. A.; Hristov, V. V.; Lange, A. E.; Lim, M. A.; Lubin, P. M.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Meinhold, P. R.

    1994-01-01

    We present results from a four-frequency observation of a 6 deg x 0.6 deg strip of the sky centered near the star Gamma Ursae Minoris (GUM) during the fourth flight of the Millimeter-wave Anistropy experiment(MAX). The observation was made with a 1.4 deg peak-to-peak sinusoidal chop in all bands. The FWHM beam sizes were 0.55 deg +/- 0.05 deg at 3.5 per cm and 0.75 deg +/- 0.05 deg at 6, 9, and 14 per cm. During this observation significant correlated structure was observed at 3.5, 6 and 9 per cm with amplitudes similar to those observed in the GUM region during the second and third fligts of MAX. The frequency spectrum is consistent with cosmic microwave background (CMB) and inconsistent with thermal emission from interstellar dust. The extrapolated amplitudes of synchrotron and free-free emission are too small to account for the amplitude of the observed structure, If all of the structure is attributed to CMB anisotropy with a Gaussian autocorrelation function and a coherence angle of 25 min, then the most probable values of delta T/T(sub CMB) in the 3.5, 6 and 9 per cm bads are (4.3 +2.7/-1.6) x 10(exp -5), 2.8 (+4.3/-1/1) x 10(exp -5), and 3.5 (+3.0/-1.6) x 10(exp -5) (95% confidence upper and lower limits), respectively.

  17. Solar flair.

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, John S

    2003-01-01

    Design innovations and government-sponsored financial incentives are making solar energy increasingly attractive to homeowners and institutional customers such as school districts. In particular, the passive solar design concept of daylighting is gaining favor among educators due to evidence of improved performance by students working in daylit classrooms. Electricity-generating photovoltaic systems are also becoming more popular, especially in states such as California that have high electric rates and frequent power shortages. To help spread the word about solar power, the U.S. Department of Energy staged its first-ever Solar Decathlon in October 2002. This event featured solar-savvy homes designed by 14 college teams. PMID:12573926

  18. Solar Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The instrument pictured is an inexpensive solar meter which is finding wide acceptance among architects, engineers and others engaged in construction of solar energy facilities. It detects the amount of solar energy available at a building site, information necessary to design the most efficient type of solar system for a particular location. Incorporating technology developed by NASA's Lewis Research Center, the device is based upon the solar cell, which provides power for spacecraft by converting the sun's energy to electricity. The meter is produced by Dodge Products, Inc., Houston, Texas, a company formed to bring the technology to the commercial marketplace.

  19. Solar flair.

    PubMed

    Manuel, John S

    2003-02-01

    Design innovations and government-sponsored financial incentives are making solar energy increasingly attractive to homeowners and institutional customers such as school districts. In particular, the passive solar design concept of daylighting is gaining favor among educators due to evidence of improved performance by students working in daylit classrooms. Electricity-generating photovoltaic systems are also becoming more popular, especially in states such as California that have high electric rates and frequent power shortages. To help spread the word about solar power, the U.S. Department of Energy staged its first-ever Solar Decathlon in October 2002. This event featured solar-savvy homes designed by 14 college teams.

  20. Your affordable solar home

    SciTech Connect

    Hibshman, D.

    1983-01-01

    The economy of solar principles can put home ownership within the reach of many more people. Featuring six designs that can be built for $20,000 or less, this illustrated guide outlines a variety of options. It includes a solar primer to explain the process and practice of solar heating and cooling systems; floor plans and cutaway drawings; prefabricated and kit houses; log and timber, domes, and post-and beam houses; the pros and cons of mobile homes; and the story of a small community that dealt creatively with the housing shortage. 26 references, 56 figures, 5 tables.

  1. Solar Energy: Solar System Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar system economics is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies.…

  2. Solar Sailing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les

    2009-01-01

    Solar sailing is a topic of growing technical and popular interest. Solar sail propulsion will make space exploration more affordable and offer access to destinations within (and beyond) the solar system that are currently beyond our technical reach. The lecture will describe solar sails, how they work, and what they will be used for in the exploration of space. It will include a discussion of current plans for solar sails and how advanced technology, such as nanotechnology, might enhance their performance. Much has been accomplished recently to make solar sail technology very close to becoming an engineering reality and it will soon be used by the world s space agencies in the exploration of the solar system and beyond. The first part of the lecture will summarize state-of-the-art space propulsion systems and technologies. Though these other technologies are the key to any deep space exploration by humans, robots, or both, solar-sail propulsion will make space exploration more affordable and offer access to distant and difficult destinations. The second part of the lecture will describe the fundamentals of space solar sail propulsion and will describe the near-, mid- and far-term missions that might use solar sails as a propulsion system. The third part of the lecture will describe solar sail technology and the construction of current and future sailcraft, including the work of both government and private space organizations.

  3. Project Ahupua'a: solar meteorological field measurements on the Island of Hawaii, Summer 1978. 5. Southern flank of Mauna Loa

    SciTech Connect

    Ekern, P.C.; Becker, R.J.

    1982-10-01

    Between 12-21 June 1978, four instrumented vans were deployed in a nearly linear transect above Na'alehu, along the steep southeastern slope of Mauna Loa. The transect, traversing a pronounced rainfall and insolation gradient, was designed to monitor sunlight and other meteorological variables related to solar energy. Surprisingly, many locations here receive more insolation during winter than during summer. Stronger than normal trade wind conditions prevailed during the period. A minor distrubance moved eastward to the north of the Island of Hawaii on 20 June, weakened the trade winds for nearly 24 h, and offered the opportunity to examine the development of island-generated circulations unhindered by the large scale flow. The amount of insolation recieved at the transect stations was less than the long-term mean. Persistent cloudiness attenuated insolation. Orographic cloud limited morning insolation while a sea breeze-anabatic cloud depleted afternoon insolation. Peak sunlight values were recorded during the mid-morning transition. This pattern occurred on all nine trade wind days. On 20 June, no orographic cloud formed and maximum values of insolation were received at three of the four transect sites. Strong gusty surface winds recorded along the transect may have been associated with a low level jet stream with Mauna Loa acting as a western boundary to the trade wind current. All transect stations experienced nocturnal wind pulses. Wind speed fluctuations, occasionally exceeding 5 m s/sup -1/, occurred with pronounced changes in wind direction. Increasing winds veered toward the prevailing trade wind direction, decreasing winds backed. Low level jet stream instabilities were a likely cause of these fluctuations.

  4. Solar particle event detected by ALTEA on board the International Space Station. The March 7th, 2012 X5.4 flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Fino, Luca; Zaconte, Veronica; Stangalini, Marco; Sparvoli, Roberta; Picozza, Piergiorgio; Piazzesi, Roberto; Narici, Livio; Larosa, Marianna; Del Moro, Dario; Casolino, Marco; Berrilli, Francesco; Scardigli, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Context. Solar activity poses substantial risk for astronauts of the International Space Station (ISS) both on board and during extravehicular activity. An accurate assessment of the charged radiation flux in space habitats is necessary to determine the risk and the specific type of radiation exposure of ISS crew members, and to develop ways to protect future crews for planetary missions, even in case of high solar activity. Aims: To reduce the present-day uncertainties about the nature and magnitude of the particle fluxes in space habitats during a solar event, it is fundamental to measure those fluxes in situ. Methods: The ALTEA (Anomalous Long Term Effects on Astronauts) experiment on board the ISS is an active detector composed of six silicon telescopes and is able to follow the dynamics of the radiation flux. During its operation in 2012 a number of flux peaks were detected in correspondence with solar events. Results: We present in this work an analysis of the ALTEA data measured during the March 7th, 2012 solar event, produced by NOAA AR11429. Conclusions: During this event, the flux was enhanced tenfold with respect to ``quiet Sun'' conditions, producing strong dose increases at high geomagnetic latitudes.

  5. Effect of Nb2O5 and V2O5 addition on the superconducting properties of YBa2Cu3O(y) thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivas, S.; Bhatnagar, A.K.; Pinto, R.; Pai, S.P.; Apte, P.R.; Purandare, S.C.; Souza, C.P.D.

    1995-04-01

    The effect of Nb2O5 and V2O5 addition on the superconducting properties and microstructure of YBa2Cu3O(y) has been studied in thin films. Polycrystalline targets for laser ablation were prepared by mixing high purity V2O5 or Nb2O5 powders with a well characterized YBa2Cu3O(y) powder in the range 0 to 4 wt percent by solid state reaction method. Thin films (approximately 1500 A thickness) of the above targets were grown on (100) SrTiO3 (STO) and (100) LaAlO3 (LAO) substrates at 700 C temperature by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. In the case of Nb2O5 addition the authors have noticed an increase in J(sub c) up to 0.5 wt percent and higher additive concentration (greater than 0.5 wt percent) have degraded the superconducting properties. However, in the case of V2O3 addition, there is an improvement in current density and microstructural properties up to 1 wt percent and the superconducting properties degrade for concentrations greater than 1 wt percent. The best J{sub c} for 0.5 wt percent of Nb2O5 added to YBCO thin film is 1.6 x 10(exp 6) A/sq cm and for that of V2O5 added sample is 3.4 x 10(exp 6) A/sq cm at 77 K as compared to the pure YBa2Cu3O(y) (YBCO) film J{sub c} (1.2 x 10(exp 6) A/sq cm) observed on STO substrates. The reason for improvement in J{sub c} and microstructural properties in the case of V2O5 addition could be due to the low melting of V2O5 (690 C) which can act as a very good surfactant during deposition. Over all, the authors have realized that Nb2O5 addition or V2O5 addition to YBCO have shown significant improvement over the undoped YBa2Cu3O(7-x) films grown under identical conditions.

  6. Effect of Nb2O5 and V2O5 addition on the superconducting properties of YBa2Cu3O(y) thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivas, S.; Bhatnagar, A. K.; Pinto, R.; Pai, S. P.; Apte, P. R.; Purandare, S. C.; Souza, C. P. D.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of Nb2O5 and V2O5 addition on the superconducting properties and microstructure of YBa2Cu3O(y) has been studied in thin films. Polycrystalline targets for laser ablation were prepared by mixing high purity V2O5 or Nb2O5 powders with a well characterized YBa2Cu3O(y) powder in the range 0 to 4 wt percent by solid state reaction method. Thin films (approximately 1500 A thickness) of the above targets were grown on (100) SrTiO3 (STO) and (100) LaAlO3 (LAO) substrates at 700 C temperature by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. In the case of Nb2O5 addition we have noticed an increase in J(sub c) up to 0.5 wt percent and higher additive concentration (greater than 0.5 wt percent) have degraded the superconducting properties. However, in the case of V2O3 addition, there is an improvement in current density and microstructural properties up to 1 wt percent and the superconducting properties degrade for concentrations greater than 1 wt percent. The best J(sub c) for 0.5 wt percent of Nb2O5 added YBCO thin film is 1.6 x 10(exp 6) A/sq cm and for that of V2O5 added sample is 3.4 x 10(exp 6) A/sq cm at 77 K as compared to the pure YBa2Cu3O(y) (YBCO) film J(sub c) (1.2 x 10(exp 6) A/sq cm) observed on STO substrates. The reason for improvement in J(sub c) and microstructural properties in the case of V2O5 addition could be due to the low melting of V2O5 (690 C) which can act as a very good surfactant during deposition. Over all, we have realized that Nb2O5 addition or V2O5 addition to YBCO have shown significant improvement over the undoped YBa2Cu3O(7-x) films grown under identical conditions.

  7. High‐Performance Polymer Solar Cells Based on a Wide‐Bandgap Polymer Containing Pyrrolo[3,4‐f]benzotriazole‐5,7‐dione with a Power Conversion Efficiency of 8.63%

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Liuyuan; Chen, Zhiming; Hu, Qin; Zhu, Rui; Cao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    A novel donor–acceptor type conjugated polymer based on a building block of 4,8‐di(thien‐2‐yl)‐6‐octyl‐2‐octyl‐5H‐pyrrolo[3,4‐f]benzotriazole‐5,7(6H)‐dione (TZBI) as the acceptor unit and 4,8‐bis(5‐(2‐ethylhexyl)thiophen‐2‐yl)­benzo­[1,2‐b:4,5‐b′]dithiophene as the donor unit, named as PTZBIBDT, is developed and used as an electron‐donating material in bulk‐heterojunction polymer solar cells. The resulting copolymer exhibits a wide bandgap of 1.81 eV along with relatively deep highest occupied molecular orbital energy level of −5.34 eV. Based on the optimized processing conditions, including thermal annealing, and the use of a water/alcohol cathode interlayer, the single‐junction polymer solar cell based on PTZBIBDT:PC71BM ([6,6]‐phenyl‐C71‐butyric acid methyl ester) blend film affords a power conversion efficiency of 8.63% with an open‐circuit voltage of 0.87 V, a short circuit current of 13.50 mA cm−2, and a fill factor of 73.95%, which is among the highest values reported for wide‐bandgap polymers‐based single‐junction organic solar cells. The morphology studies on the PTZBIBDT:PC71BM blend film indicate that a fibrillar network can be formed and the extent of phase separation can be mani­pulated by thermal annealing. These results indicate that the TZBI unit is a very promising building block for the synthesis of wide‐bandgap polymers for high‐performance single‐junction and tandem (or multijunction) organic solar cells. PMID:27711267

  8. High-Performance Polymer Solar Cells Based on a Wide-Bandgap Polymer Containing Pyrrolo[3,4-f]benzotriazole-5,7-dione with a Power Conversion Efficiency of 8.63.

    PubMed

    Lan, Liuyuan; Chen, Zhiming; Hu, Qin; Ying, Lei; Zhu, Rui; Liu, Feng; Russell, Thomas P; Huang, Fei; Cao, Yong

    2016-09-01

    A novel donor-acceptor type conjugated polymer based on a building block of 4,8-di(thien-2-yl)-6-octyl-2-octyl-5H-pyrrolo[3,4-f]benzotriazole-5,7(6H)-dione (TZBI) as the acceptor unit and 4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)-benzo-[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene as the donor unit, named as PTZBIBDT, is developed and used as an electron-donating material in bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells. The resulting copolymer exhibits a wide bandgap of 1.81 eV along with relatively deep highest occupied molecular orbital energy level of -5.34 eV. Based on the optimized processing conditions, including thermal annealing, and the use of a water/alcohol cathode interlayer, the single-junction polymer solar cell based on PTZBIBDT:PC71BM ([6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester) blend film affords a power conversion efficiency of 8.63% with an open-circuit voltage of 0.87 V, a short circuit current of 13.50 mA cm(-2), and a fill factor of 73.95%, which is among the highest values reported for wide-bandgap polymers-based single-junction organic solar cells. The morphology studies on the PTZBIBDT:PC71BM blend film indicate that a fibrillar network can be formed and the extent of phase separation can be mani-pulated by thermal annealing. These results indicate that the TZBI unit is a very promising building block for the synthesis of wide-bandgap polymers for high-performance single-junction and tandem (or multijunction) organic solar cells.

  9. Dust in the Solar System - Properties and Origins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, Scott; Keller, Lindsay; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    Interplanetary dust pervades the inner Solar System, giving rise to a prominent glow above the horizon at sunrise and sunset known as the zodiacal light. This dust derives from the disintegration of comets as they approach the Sun and from collisions among main-belt asteroids. The Earth accretes roughly 4x10(exp 6) kg/year of 1 - 1,000 micron dust particles as they spiral into the Sun under the influence of Poynting-Robertson drag and solar wind drag. Samples of these grains have been collected from deep sea sediments, Antarctic ice and by high-altitude aircraft and balloon flights. Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the stratosphere have been classified by their IR spectra into olivine, pyroxene, and hydrated silicate-dominated classes. Most IDPs have bulk major and minor element abundances that are similar to carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. Hydrated silicate-rich IDPs are thought to derive from asteroids based on their mineralogy and low atmospheric entry velocities estimated from peak temperatures reached during atmospheric entry. Anhydrous IDPs are typically aggregates of 0.1 - approx. 1 micron Mg-rich olivine and pyroxene, amorphous silicates (GEMS), Fe, Nisulfides and rare spinel and oxides bound together by carbonaceous material. These IDPs are often argued to derive from comets based on compositional similarities and high atmospheric entry velocities that imply high eccentricity orbits. Infrared spectra obtained from anhydrous IDPs closely match remote IR spectra obtained from comets. The most primitive (anhydrous) IDPs appear to have escaped the parent-body thermal and aqueous alteration that has affected meteorites. These samples thus consist entirely of grains that formed in the ancient solar nebula and pre-solar interstellar and circumstellar environments. Isotopic studies of IDPs have identified silicate stardust grains that formed in the outflows of red giant and asymptotic giant branch stars and supernovae]. These stardust grains

  10. EDITORIAL Solar harvest Solar harvest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-12-01

    into the charge transport mechanism and trap distribution in these composites [3]. An advantage of investigating solar cell technology based on organic materials rather than silicon is that silicon photovoltaics requires high-purity silicon, whereas the material demands of organic technology are not nearly so strict. Work by researchers in Denmark and Germany highlights the simplicity and tolerance to ambient conditions of organic photovoltaic fabrication in the demonstration of a nanostructured polymer solar cell made from a thermocleavable polymer material and zinc oxide nanoparticles. All the manipulations during device preparation could be carried out in air at around 20 °C and 35% humidity [4]. A possible route to enhancing cell performance is through the improvment of the transport efficiency. Researchers in Taiwan demonstrate how effectively this can be implemented in a hybrid device comprising TiO2 nanorods and poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) [5]. In addition, inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals that have tunable optical bandgaps can be combined with organic semiconductors for the fabrication of hybrid photovoltaic devices with broad spectral sensitivity. A collaboration of researchers in the UK and the US has now developed a near-infrared sensitive hybrid photovoltaic system with PbS nanocrystals and C60. The reported improvement in device performance is attributed to increased carrier mobility of the PbS nanocrystal film [6]. In this issue, Patrick G Nicholson and Fernando A Castro from the National Physical Laboratory in the UK present a topical review on the principles and techniques for the characterization of organic photovoltaics [7]. The review presents a comprehensive picture of the current state-of-the-art understanding of the working mechanisms behind organic solar cells, and also describes electronic morphological considerations relevant to optimizing the devices, as well as different nanoscale techniques for

  11. Mars solar conjunction prediction modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Vineet K.; Kumar, Jai; Kulshrestha, Shivali; Kushvah, Badam Singh

    2016-01-01

    During the Mars solar conjunction, telecommunication and tracking between the spacecraft and the Earth degrades significantly. The radio signal degradation depends on the angular separation between the Sun, Earth and probe (SEP), the signal frequency band and the solar activity. All radiometric tracking data types display increased noise and signatures for smaller SEP angles. Due to scintillation, telemetry frame errors increase significantly when solar elongation becomes small enough. This degradation in telemetry data return starts at solar elongation angles of around 5° at S-band, around 2° at X-band and about 1° at Ka-band. This paper presents a mathematical model for predicting Mars superior solar conjunction for any Mars orbiting spacecraft. The described model is simulated for the Mars Orbiter Mission which experienced Mars solar conjunction during May-July 2015. Such a model may be useful to flight projects and design engineers in the planning of Mars solar conjunction operational scenarios.

  12. Organic Synthesis and Potential Microbiology in the Solar Nebula: Are Early Solar Systems Nurseries for Microorganisms?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mautner, M. N.; Ibrahim, Y.; El-Shall, M. S.

    2004-11-01

    We observed a new synthetic mechanism that can contribute organics toward the origins of life in the solar nebula. We also observed that microorganisms can grow on carbonaceous asteroid/meteorite materials, suggesting that micoorganisms can multiply in aqueous asteroids in the early Solar System. The new synthetic mechanism is provided by ionized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cold nebular and interstellar cloud environments, through associative charge transfer (ACT) and associative proton transfer (APT) reactions. For example, ionized benzene (C6H6+) reacts with two CH3CH=CH2 molecules to form C6H12+ that initiates ionic polymerization. Other unsaturated molecules (HCCH, H2CO, HCN, CH3CN) can yield complex organics by this mechanism. The C6H6+ ion also reacts with water molecules to form (H2O)nH+ nucleation centers for ices, in which UV-induced organic synthesis can occur. The organics in the nebula can contribute to the origins of life and support microorganisms. For example, we observed that microorganisms such as Nocardia asteroides, algae, fungi, and even plant cultures (Asparagus officinalis) grow in planetary microcosms based on carbonaceous chondrite, as well as Martian, meteorites. We found high microbial populations (10exp7 CFU/ml) and complex microbial communities in these planetary microcosms. Thermophilic archaebacteria also grew on these materials. The results suggest that early aqueous asteroids can support microorganisms, distribute them through the solar nebula by collisions, deliver them to planets, and possibly eject them to interstellar space. Such natural panspermia processes, or directed panspermia payloads, may seed other young solar systems where microbial life can multiply by similar mechanisms. We thank NASA Grant NNG04GH45G for funding support. References: 1. M. N. Mautner, Planetary Bioresources and Astroecology...., Icarus 2002, 158, 72-86; see www.astroecology.com. 2. M. Mautner and G. L. Matloff, Directed Panspermia...., Bull

  13. Skylab experiments. Volume 5: Astronomy and space physics. [Skylab observations of galactic radiation, solar energy, and interplanetary composition for high school level education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The astronomy and space physics investigations conducted in the Skylab program include over 20 experiments in four categories to explore space phenomena that cannot be observed from earth. The categories of space research are as follows: (1) phenomena within the solar system, such as the effect of solar energy on Earth's atmosphere, the composition of interplanetary space, the possibility of an inner planet, and the X-ray radiation from Jupiter, (2) analysis of energetic particles such as cosmic rays and neutrons in the near-earth space, (3) stellar and galactic astronomy, and (4) self-induced environment surrounding the Skylab spacecraft.

  14. Reflectance spectrophotometry (about 0.5-1.0 micron) of oute-belt asteroids - Implications for primitive, organic solar system material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilas, F.; Smith, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    The surface compositions of outer-belt asteroids were used to obtain information about the origin of these asteroids. High-resolution CCD reflectance spectra of 21 asteroids, primarily P class, were examined for compositional information. Distinct slope changes are observed that suggest that these asteroids are the remnants of a compositional gradation of planetesimals in the outer solar system, which were retained selectively in location when other material was ejected from the solar system. Other data suggest that this gradation could extend through the orbits of Uranus and Neptune.

  15. Solar Cycle dependence of 5-55 keV Cassini/INCA energetic neutral atom (ENA) images of the Heliosheath and in situ Voyager/LECP ion measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krimigis, S. M.; Dialynas, K.; Mitchell, D. G.; Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C.

    2015-12-01

    The heliosheath has been identified as the most probable source of ENAs that INCA detects but its variability due to solar activity throughout the solar cycle (SC) has not been resolved to date. We show all-sky, 5-55 keV ENA H maps from the year 2003 to 2014 and compare the solar cycle variation of the ENAs in both the heliospheric nose (upstream) and anti-nose (downstream) directions with the > 30 keV ions measured within the heliosheath by the Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) detector on Voyagers 1, 2 (V1, V2) where we measure protons in overlapping energy bands ~30-55 keV. We find that a) Toward the anti-nose direction the ENA-H intensities decline during SC23, i.e. after 2003 ENA intensities decreased by ~ x2 at all energies by the end of year 2011, ~1 year after the observed minimum in solar activity; b) This ENA decrease (5.2-55 keV) during 2009-2011 is consistent with the concurrent intensity decrease of the > 30 keV ions (by a factor of 2-3) observed in situ by V1 and V2 in the heliosheath; c) Toward the nose direction, minimum intensities in both INCA ENAs and the V2 ions at E > 28 keV occur during the year 2013, with a subsequent recovery from 2014 to date (by a factor of ~2 in the > 35 keV ENA data). These quantitative correlations between the decreases of INCA ENAs (in both the heliospheric nose and anti-nose directions) and the in situ V1 and V2 ion measurements (separated by > 130 AU) during the declining phase of SC23, along with their concurrent jointly shared recoveries at the onset of SC24, imply that: 1) the 5-55 keV ENAs are produced in the heliosheath (because their transit times over 100 AU are less than a few months at energies > 40 keV), thus proving that our ENA observations can provide the ground truth for constructing comprehensive global heliosphere models; 2) the global heliosheath responds promptly (within ~1-1.5 yrs) to outward-propagating solar wind changes throughout the solar cycle.

  16. Radiation resistance of Ge, Ge0.93Si0.07, GaAs and Al0.08Ga0.92 as solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmons, M. L.; Venkatasubramanian, R.; Iles, P. A.; Chu, C. L.

    1991-01-01

    Solar cells made of Ge, Ge(0.93)Si(0.07) alloys, GaAs and Al(0.08)Ga(0.92)As were irradiated in two experiments with 1-meV electrons at fluences as great as 1 x 10(exp 16) cm(exp-2). Several general trends have emerged. Low-band-gap Ge and Ge(0.93)Si(0.07) cells show substantial resistance to radiation-induced damage. The two experiments showed that degradation is less for Al(0.08)Ga(0.92)As cells than for similarly irradiated GaAs cells. Compared to homojunctions, cells with graded-band-gap emitters did not show the additional resistance to damage in the second experiment that had been seen in the first. The thickness of the emitter is a key parameter to limit the degradation in GaAs devices.

  17. Infrared Measurements of Atmospheric Ethane (C2H6) From Aircraft and Ground-Based Solar Absorption Spectra in the 3000/ cm Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, M. T.; Mankin, W. G.; Goldman, A.; Rinsland, C. P.; Harvey, G. A.; Devi, V. Malathy; Stokes, G. M.

    1985-01-01

    A number or prominent Q-branches or the upsilon(sub 7) band or C2H6 have been identified near 3000/ cm in aircraft and ground-based infrared solar absorption spectra. The aircraft spectra provide the column amount above 12 km at various altitudes. The column amount is strongly correlated with tropopause height and can be described by a constant mixing ratio of 0.46 ppbv in the upper troposphere and a mixing ratio scale height of 3.9 km above the tropopause. The, ground-based spectra yield a column of 9.0 x 10(exp 15) molecules/sq cm above 2.1 km; combining these results implies a tropospheric mixing ratio of approximately 0.63 ppbv.

  18. Identification of the HNO3 3 nu(sub 9) - nu(sub 9) band Q branch in stratospheric solar occultation spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrin, A.; Flaud, J.-M.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Goldman, A.; Rinsland, C. P.; Gunson, M. R.

    1994-01-01

    The spectroscopic identification for the HNO3 3 nu(sub 9) - nu(sub 9) band Q branch at 830.4/cm is reported based on 0.01/cm resolution solar occultation spectra of the lower stratosphere recorded by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Fourier transform spectrometer and a recent analysis of this band. Least-squares fits to 0.0025/cm resolution laboratory spectra in the Q branch region indicate an integrated intensity of 0.529 x 10(exp -18)/cm/mol/sq cm at 296 K for this weak band. Stratospheric HNO3 retrievals derived from the ATMOS data are consistent with this value within its estimated uncertainty of about +/- 30%. A set of spectroscopic line parameters suitable for atmospheric studies has been generated.

  19. Tabulated Pressure Coefficient Data from a Tail Loads Investigation on a 1/15-Scale Model of the Goodyear XZP5K Airship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Michael D.

    1956-01-01

    This paper contains tail and hull loads data obtained in an investigation of a l/15-scale model of the Goodyear XZP5K airship. Data are presented in the form of tabulated pressure coefficients over a pitch and yaw range of +/-20 deg and 0 deg to 30 deg respectively, with various rudder and elevator deflections. Two tail configurations of different plan forms were tested on the model. The investigation was conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel at a Reynolds number of approximately 16.5 x 10(exp 6) based on hull length, which corresponds to a Mach number of about 0.12.

  20. Measurements of the anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation at 0.5 deg scale near the star Mu Pegasi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meinhold, P.; Clapp, A.; Devlin, M.; Fischer, M.; Gundersen, J.; Holmes, W.; Lange, A.; Lubin, P.; Richards, P.; Smoot, G.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented from the third flight of the MAX experiment, an attitude-controlled balloon-borne millimeter-wave telescope with a 0.5 deg beam, a 1 deg chop, and a three-channel bolometric photometer. Several hours of high-quality data were obtained during a flight on 1991 June 5, including long integrations to search for CBR anisotropy, two separate measurements of dust in the Galactic plane, a brief scan of the Coma Cluster to search for the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect, and a number of important systematic tests. Data from one of the long CBR integrations, carried out in a region of sky near the star Mu Pegasi, are presented. The primary structure in the data is shown to be emission from Galactic dust via its spectrum and correlation with the IRAS 100/micron map. Several approaches are used to fit this dust component and remove it from the data. An upper limit to CBR anisotropy of deltaT/T less than 2.5 x 10 exp -5 is obtained for a Gaussian autocorrelation function with coherence angle omega(c) = 25'. This limit is significantly higher than the measurement sensitivity of deltaT/T about 1 x 10 exp -5 due to the presence of residual structure in the data after removal of the dust component.

  1. Solar Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Oriel Corporation's simulators have a high pressure xenon lamp whose reflected light is processed by an optical system to produce a uniform solar beam. Because of many different types of applications, the simulators must be adjustable to replicate many different areas of the solar radiation spectrum. Simulators are laboratory tools for such purposes as testing and calibrating solar cells, or other solar energy systems, testing dyes, paints and pigments, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic preparations, plant and animal studies, food and agriculture studies and oceanographic research.

  2. The Solar Dynamo Zoo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egeland, Ricky; Soon, Willie H.; Baliunas, Sallie L.; Hall, Jeffrey C.; Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Henry, Gregory W.

    2016-05-01

    We present composite time series of Ca II H & K line core emission indices of up to 50 years in length for a set of 27 solar-analog stars (spectral types G0-G5; within ~10% of the solar mass) and the Sun. These unique data are available thanks to the long-term dedicated efforts of the Mount Wilson Observatory HK project, the Lowell Observatory Solar-Stellar Spectrograph, and the National Solar Observatory/Air Force Research Laboratory/Sacremento Peak K-line monitoring program. The Ca II H & K emission originates in the lower chromosphere and is strongly correlated with the presence of magnetic plage regions in the Sun. These synoptic observations allow us to trace the patterns long-term magnetic variability and explore dynamo behavior over a wide range of rotation regimes and stellar evolution timescales.

  3. Solar Probe Plus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Solar Probe Plus mission is planned to be launched in 2018 to study the upper solar corona with both.in-situ and remote sensing instrumentation. The mission will utilize 6 Venus gravity assist maneuver to gradually lower its perihelion to 9.5 Rs below the expected Alfven pOint to study the sub-alfvenic solar wind that is still at least partially co-rotates with the Sun. The detailed science objectives of this mission will be discussed. SPP will have a strong synergy with The ESA/NASA Solar orbiter mission to be launched a year ahead. Both missions will focus on the inner heliosphere and will have complimentary instrumentations. Strategies to exploit this synergy will be also presented.

  4. Comparative Studies for the Sodium and Potassium Atmospheres of the Moon and Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, William H.

    1999-01-01

    A summary discussion of recent sodium and potassium observations for the atmospheres of the Moon and Mercury is presented with primary emphasis on new full-disk images that have become available for sodium. For the sodium atmosphere, image observations for both the Moon and Mercury are fitted with model calculations (1) that have the same source speed distribution, one recently measured for electron-stimulated desorption and thought to apply equally well to photon-stimulated desorption, (2) that have similar average surface sodium fluxes, about 2.8 x 10(exp 5) to 8.9 x 10(exp 5) atoms cm(exp -2)s(exp -1) for the Moon and approximately 3.5 x 10(exp 5) to 1.4 x 10(exp 6) atoms cm(exp -2)s(exp -1) for Mercury, but (3) that have very different distributions for the source surface area. For the Moon, a sunlit hemispherical surface source of between approximately 5.3 x 10(exp 22) to 1.2 x 10(exp 23) atoms/s is required with a spatial dependence at least as sharp as the square of the cosine of the solar zenith angle. For Mercury, a time dependent source that varies from 1.5 x 10(exp 22) to 5.8 x l0(exp 22) atoms/s is required which is confined to a small surface area located at, but asymmetrically distributed about, the subsolar point. The nature of the Mercury source suggest that the planetary magnetopause near the subsolar point acts as a time varying and partially protective shield through which charged particles may pass to interact with and liberate gas from the planetary surface. Suggested directions for future research activities are discussed.

  5. 1,3,5-Tris(phenyl-2-benzimidazole)-benzene cathode buffer layer thickness dependence in solution-processable organic solar cell based on 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octahexylphthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Roméo Banoukepa, Gilles; Fujii, Akihiko; Shimizu, Yo; Ozaki, Masanori

    2015-04-01

    Studies on the insertion effects of a cathode buffer layer on bulk heterojunction organic solar cell based on 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octahexylphthalocyanine (C6PcH2) and 1-(3-methoxy-carbonyl)-propyl-1-1-phenyl-(6,6)C61 (PCBM) by using 1,3,5-tris(phenyl-2-benzimidazole)-benzene (TPBi) as a cathode buffer layer material have been carried out. The external quantum efficiency and the short-circuit current markedly increased, resulting in the enhancement of the power conversion efficiency. The solar cell performance has been discussed from the atomic force microscopy, photoelectron yield spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements.

  6. Solar Eclipse

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... a solar eclipse where an observer on Earth can watch the Moon's shadow obscure more than 90% the Sun's disk, the Multiangle Imaging ... total solar eclipse of November 23, 2003. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow began in the Indian Ocean in the far Southern Hemisphere, ...

  7. Solar Eclipse

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ...   View Larger Image On June 10, 2002 the Moon obscured the central portion of the solar disk in a phenomenon known as an ... in which 99.6 percent of the solar disk was shadowed by the Moon, was situated in the central Pacific Ocean. Since there are no populated ...

  8. Solar Sprint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabor, Richard; Anderson, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    In the "Solar Sprint" activity, students design, test, and race a solar-powered car built with Legos. The use of ratios is incorporated to simulate the actual work of scientists and engineers. This method encourages fourth-grade students to think about multiple variables and stimulates their curiosity when an activity doesn't come out as…

  9. Solar Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hippel, Frank; Williams, Robert H.

    1975-01-01

    As fossil fuels decrease in availability and environmental concerns increase, soalr energy is becoming a potential major energy source. Already solar energy is used for space heating in homes. Proposals for solar-electric generating systems include land-based or ocean-based collectors and harnessing wind and wave power. Photosynthesis can also…

  10. The Solar-Stellar Connection: Magneto-Acoustic Pulsations in 1.5 M ⊙ 2 M ⊙ Peculiar A Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, D. W.

    2008-09-01

    Stellar astronomers look on in envy at the wealth of data, the incredible spatial resolution, and the maturity of the theoretical understanding of the Sun. Yet the Sun is but one star, so stellar astronomy is of great interest to solar astronomers for its range of different conditions under which to test theoretical understanding gained from the study of the Sun. The rapidly oscillating peculiar A stars are of particular interest to solar astronomers. They have strong, global, dipolar magnetic fields with strengths in the range 1 25 kG, and they pulsate in high-overtone p modes similar to those in the Sun; thus they offer a unique opportunity to study the interaction of pulsation, convection, and strong magnetic fields, as is now done in the local helioseismology of sunspots. Some of them even pulsate in modes with frequencies above the acoustic cutoff frequency, in analogy with the highest frequency solar modes, but with mode lifetimes up to decades in the roAp stars, very unlike the short mode lifetimes of the Sun. They offer the most extreme cases of atomic diffusion, a small, but important ingredient of the standard solar model with wide application in stellar astrophysics. They are compositionally stratified and are observed and modelled as a function of atmospheric depth and thus can inform plans to expand helioseismic observations to have atmospheric depth resolution. Study of this unique class of pulsating stars follows the advanced state of studies of the Sun and offers more extreme conditions for the understanding of physics shared with the Sun.

  11. Estimation of minority carrier diffusion lengths in InP/GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, R. K.; Flood, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    Minority carrier diffusion length is one of the most important parameters affecting the solar cell performance. An attempt is made to estimate the minority carrier diffusion lengths is the emitter and base of InP/GaAs heteroepitaxial solar cells. The PC-1D computer model was used to simulate the experimental cell results measured at NASA Lewis under AMO (air mass zero) spectrum at 25 C. A 16 nm hole diffusion length in the emitter and a 0.42 micron electron diffusion length in the base gave very good agreement with the I-V curve. The effect of varying minority carrier diffusion lengths on cell short current, open circuit voltage, and efficiency was studied. It is also observed that the front surface recombination velocity has very little influence on the cell performance. The poor output of heteroepitaxial cells is caused primarily by the large number of dislocations generated at the interfaces that propagate through the bulk indium phosphide layers. Cell efficiency as a function of dislocation density was calculated and the effect of improved emitter bulk properties on cell efficiency is presented. It is found that cells with over 16 percent efficiencies should be possible, provided the dislocation density is below 10(exp 6)/sq cm.

  12. High quality InP-on-Si for solar cell applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shellenbarger, Zane A.; Goodwin, Thomas A.; Collins, Sandra R.; Dinetta, Louis C.

    1994-01-01

    InP on Si solar cells combine the low-cost and high-strength of Si with the high efficiency and radiation tolerance of InP. The main obstacle in the growth of single crystal InP-on-Si is the high residual strain and high dislocation density of the heteroepitaxial InP films. The dislocations result from the large differences in lattice constant and thermal expansion mismatch of InP and Si. Adjusting the size and geometry of the growth area is one possible method of addressing this problem. In this work, we conducted a material quality study of liquid phase epitaxy overgrowth layers on selective area InP grown by a proprietary vapor phase epitaxy technique on Si. The relationship between growth area and dislocation density was quantified using etch pit density measurements. Material quality of the InP on Si improved both with reduced growth area and increased aspect ratio (length/width) of the selective area. Areas with etch pit density as low as 1.6 x 10(exp 4) sq cm were obtained. Assuming dislocation density is an order of magnitude greater than etch pit density, solar cells made with this material could achieve the maximum theoretical efficiency of 23% at AMO. Etch pit density dependence on the orientation of the selective areas on the substrate was also studied.

  13. Three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics of the emerging magnetic flux in the solar atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsumoto, R.; Tajima, T.; Shibata, K.; Kaisig, M.

    1993-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of an emerging magnetic flux tube or sheet in the solar atmosphere is studied through 3D MHD simulations. In the initial state, a horizontal magnetic flux sheet or tube is assumed to be embedded at the bottom of MHD two isothermal gas layers, which approximate the solar photosphere/chromosphere and the corona. The magnetic flux sheet or tube is unstable against the undular mode of the magnetic buoyancy instability. The magnetic loop rises due to the linear and then later nonlinear instabilities caused by the buoyancy enhanced by precipitating the gas along magnetic field lines. We find by 3D simulation that during the ascendance of loops the bundle of flux tubes or even the flux sheet develops into dense gas filaments pinched between magnetic loops. The interchange modes help produce a fine fiber flux structure perpendicular to the magnetic field direction in the linear stage, while the undular modes determine the overall buoyant loop structure. The expansion of such a bundle of magnetic loops follows the self-similar behavior observed in 2D cases studied earlier. Our study finds the threshold flux for arch filament system (AFS) formation to be about 0.3 x 10 exp 20 Mx.

  14. Anomalously weak solar convection.

    PubMed

    Hanasoge, Shravan M; Duvall, Thomas L; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R

    2012-07-24

    Convection in the solar interior is thought to comprise structures on a spectrum of scales. This conclusion emerges from phenomenological studies and numerical simulations, though neither covers the proper range of dynamical parameters of solar convection. Here, we analyze observations of the wavefield in the solar photosphere using techniques of time-distance helioseismology to image flows in the solar interior. We downsample and synthesize 900 billion wavefield observations to produce 3 billion cross-correlations, which we average and fit, measuring 5 million wave travel times. Using these travel times, we deduce the underlying flow systems and study their statistics to bound convective velocity magnitudes in the solar interior, as a function of depth and spherical-harmonic degree ℓ. Within the wavenumber band ℓ < 60, convective velocities are 20-100 times weaker than current theoretical estimates. This constraint suggests the prevalence of a different paradigm of turbulence from that predicted by existing models, prompting the question: what mechanism transports the heat flux of a solar luminosity outwards? Advection is dominated by Coriolis forces for wavenumbers ℓ < 60, with Rossby numbers smaller than approximately 10(-2) at r/R([symbol: see text]) = 0.96, suggesting that the Sun may be a much faster rotator than previously thought, and that large-scale convection may be quasi-geostrophic. The fact that isorotation contours in the Sun are not coaligned with the axis of rotation suggests the presence of a latitudinal entropy gradient.

  15. RXTE and BeppoSAX Observations of MCG-5-23-16: Reflection From Distant Cold Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattson, B. J.; Weaver, K. A.

    2003-01-01

    We examine the spectral variability of the Seyfert 1.9 galaxy MCG-5-23-16 using RXTE and BeppoSAX observations spanning 2 years from April 1996 to April 1998. During the first year the X-ray source brightens by a factor of approximately 25% on timescales of days to months. During this time, the reprocessed continuum emission seen with RXTE does not respond measurably to the continuum increase. However, by the end of the second year during the BeppoSAX epoch the X-ray source has faded again. This time, the reprocessed emission has also faded, indicating that the reprocessed flux has responded to the continuum. If these effects are caused by time delays due to the distance between the X-ray source and the reprocessing region, we derive a light crossing time of between approximately 1 light day and approximately 1.5 light years. This corresponds to a distance of 0.001 pc to 0.55 pc, which implies that the reprocessed emission originates between 3 x 10(exp 15) cm and 1.6 x 10(exp l8) cm from the X-ray source. In other words, the reprocessing in MCG-5-23-16 is not dominated by the inner regions of a standard accretion disk.

  16. The influence of Yb, B, and Ga-doped Er3+:Y3Al5O12 on solar light photocatalytic activity of TiO2 in degradation of organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Li, Y.; Wang, J.; Zhang, L.; Gao, J. Q.; Wang, B. X.; Yang, Q.; Fan, P.

    2014-01-01

    Five up-conversion luminescence agents (Er3+:Y3Al5O12, Er3+:Yb n Y3 - n Al5O12, Er3+:Y3B a Al5 - a O12, Er3+:Y3Ga b Al5 - b O12, and Er3+:Yb n Y3 - n B a Ga b Al5 - a - b O12) were synthesized using sol-gel method and then the corresponding coated composites (Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2, Er3+:Yb n Y3- n Al5O12/TiO2, Er3+:Y3B a Al5 - a O12/TiO2, Er3+:Y3Ga b Al5 - b O12/TiO2, and Er3+:Yb n Y3 - n B a Ga b Al5 - a - b O12/TiO2) as photocatalysts were prepared by sol-gel coating process. The XRD and SEM were used to confirm the crystalline phase and surface morphology. The UV-vis absorption and fluorescence-emission spectra were used to research the effect of doping category and amount on the up-conversion emission ability. The photocatalytic activities were detected through the degradation of Acid Red B dye in aqueous solution. Some key parameters of catalyst amount and initial concentration of organic dye on solar light photocatalytic degradation were also examined. The extensive feasibility of prepared photocatalysts in solar light degradation was detected by other organic dyes. The results suggest that the photocatalysts can be widely used in sewage treatment.

  17. Solar Terrestrial Physics: Present and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, D. M. (Editor); Papadopoulos, K. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The following topics relating to solar-terrestrial interactions are considered: (1) reconnection of magnetic fields; (2) particle acceleration; (3) solar magnetic flux; (4) magnetohydrodynamic waves and turbulence in the Sun and interplanetary medium; (5) coupling of the solar wind to the magnetosphere; (6) coronal transients; (7) the connection between the magnetosphere and ionosphere; (8) substorms in the magnetosphere; (9) solar flares and the solar terrestrial environment; (10) shock waves in the solar terrestrial environment; (11) plasma transport and convection at high latitudes; and (12) high latitude ionospheric structure.

  18. Solar sail

    SciTech Connect

    Drexler, K.E.

    1986-09-30

    This patent describes a solar sail propulsion system comprising: solar sail means for intercepting light pressure to produce thrust, the solar sail means being a thin metal film; tension truss means having two ends attached at one end to the solar sail means for transferring the thrust from the solar sail and for preventing gross deformation of the solar sail under light pressure, the solar sail means being a plurality of separate generally two-dimensional pieces joined by springs to the tension truss means; a payload attached to the other end of the tension truss means, the tension truss means comprising a plurality of attachment means for attaching shroud lines to the top of the tension truss means and a plurality of the shroud lines attached to the attachment means at one of their ends and the payload at the other; a plurality of reel means attached to the shroud lines for controllably varying the length of the lines; and a plurality of reflective panel means attached to the sail means for controlling the orientation of the system.

  19. Efficient bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells through disorder by design† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ta10091g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Muñoz, José M.; Carretero-Palacios, Sol; Jiménez-Solano, Alberto; Li, Yuelong; Lozano, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Herein we realize an optical design that optimizes the performance of bifacial solar cells without modifying any of the usually employed components. In order to do so, dielectric scatterers of controlled size and shape have been successfully integrated in the working electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), resulting in bifacial devices of outstanding performance. Power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) as high as 6.7% and 5.4% have been attained under front and rear illumination, respectively, which represent a 25% and a 33% PCE enhancement with respect to an 8 μm-thick standard solar cell electrode using platinum as the catalytic material. The remarkable bifacial character of our approach is demonstrated by the high rear/front efficiency ratio attained, around 80%, which is among the largest reported for this sort of device. The proposed optimized design is based on a Monte Carlo approach in which the multiple scattering of light within the cell is fully accounted for. We identified that the spherical shape of the scatterers is the key parameter controlling the angular distribution of the scattering, the most efficient devices being those in which the inclusions provide a narrow forward-oriented angular distribution of the scattered light. PMID:27019714

  20. SR90, strontium shaped-charge critical ionization velocity experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, Eugene M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, Hans; Swift, Daniel W.; Valenzuela, Arnoldo; Rees, David

    1990-01-01

    In May 1986 an experiment was performed to test Alfven's critical ionization velocity (CIV) effect in free space, using the first high explosive shaped charge with a conical liner of strontium metal. The release, made at 540 km altitude at dawn twilight, was aimed at 48 deg to B. The background electron density was 1.5 x 10(exp 4) cu cm. A faint field-aligned Sr(+) ion streak with tip velocity of 2.6 km/s was observed from two optical sites. Using two calibration methods, it was calculated that between 4.5 x 10(exp 20) and 2 x 10(exp 21) ions were visible. An ionization time constant of 1920 s was calculated for Sr from the solar UV spectrum and ionization cross section which combined with a computer simulation of the injection predicts 1.7 x 10(exp 21) solar UV ions in the low-velocity part of the ion streak. Thus all the observed ions are from solar UV ionization of the slow (less than critical) velocity portion of the neutral jet. The observed neutral Sr velocity distribution and computer simulations indicate that 2 x 10(exp 21) solar UV ions would have been created from the fast (greater than critical) part of the jet. They would have been more diffuse, and were not observed. Using this fact it was estimated that any CIV ions created were less than 10(exp 21). It was concluded that future Sr CIV free space experiments should be conducted below the UV shadow height and in much larger background plasma density.

  1. Solar pruritus.

    PubMed

    Bech-Thomsen, N; Thomsen, K

    1995-11-01

    A case of solar pruritus is reported. Severe pruritus of the back, shoulders and upper lateral aspects of the arms, without any eruption, developed in a 28-year-old outdoor worker during 4 to 6 weeks of intensive solar exposure. The pruritus was intense and described as a burning sensation deep in the skin. Only a few excoriations and slight xerosis were found. Solar pruritus or brachioradial pruritus is a condition primarily seen in Caucasian people living in the tropics or subtropics. Previously the disease has only been reported once outside these areas.

  2. Solar Two

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1998-04-01

    Solar Two is a concentrating solar power plant that can supply electric power on demand to the local utility, Southern California Edison Company. It can do so because it operates not only during sunny parts of the day, but it can store enough thermal energy from the sun to operate during cloudy periods and after dark, for up to three hours, at its rated output of 10 megawatts (MW). For the first time ever, a utility scale solar power plant can supply electricity when the utility needs it most, to satisfy the energy requirements of its customers.

  3. Solar Energy in the Home. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeder, Allen A.; Woodland, James A.

    Recommended for grades 10-12 physical, earth, or general science classes, this 5-7 day unit is designed to give students a general understanding of solar energy and its use as a viable alternative to present energy sources. Along with this technology, students examine several factors of solar energy which influence the choice of solar home site…

  4. The Solar Energy Timetable. Worldwatch Paper 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Denis

    This publication proposes a timetable for converting the world economy to solar energy. The contents include: (1) A solar-powered world by 2025; (2) Heating and cooling; (3) Renewable fuels; (4) Electricity; (5) Getting there from here; and (6) Notes. Numerous facts are presented within these sections. International solar research programs are…

  5. X-ray-emitting gas surrounding the spiral galaxy NGC 891

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, Joel N.; Pidis, Rachel A.

    1994-01-01

    We observed the edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 891 with the Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) on Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT) to search for how extraplanar gas expected in the galactic fountain model. Diffuse X-ray emission surrounds the disk with a Half Width at Half Maximum (HWHM) for the surface brightness perpendicular to the disk of 50 sec (2.4 kpc) and a radial extent of approximately 6.5 kpc, both of which are similar in extent to the extended H(alpha) and radio halo component; the implied density scale height for the hot gas is 7 kpc. The spectrum is best fitted with a hard stellar component and a soft diffuse gas component of temperature 3.6 x 10(exp 6) K. The density of this gas is 2 x 10(exp -3)/cu cm, the luminosity is 4.4 x 10(exp 39) ergs/s, the mass is 1 x 10(exp 8) solar mass, and the pressure (P/k) is 1.4 10(exp 4) K/cu cm. These data are consistent with this gas participating in a galactic fountain, where the material approaches hydrostatic equilibrium before cooling at a rate of 0.12 solar mass/yr. The cooled material may be responsible for some of the H(alpha) emission.

  6. Nanostructured Solar Irradiation Control Materials for Solar Energy Conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Jinho; Marshall, I. A.; Torrico, M. N.; Taylor, C. R.; Ely, Jeffry; Henderson, Angel Z.; Kim, J.-W.; Sauti, G.; Gibbons, L. J.; Park, C.; Lowther, S. E.; Lillehei, P. T.; Bryant, R. G.

    2012-01-01

    Tailoring the solar absorptivity (alpha(sub s)) and thermal emissivity (epsilon(sub T)) of materials constitutes an innovative approach to solar energy control and energy conversion. Numerous ceramic and metallic materials are currently available for solar absorbance/thermal emittance control. However, conventional metal oxides and dielectric/metal/dielectric multi-coatings have limited utility due to residual shear stresses resulting from the different coefficient of thermal expansion of the layered materials. This research presents an alternate approach based on nanoparticle-filled polymers to afford mechanically durable solar-absorptive and thermally-emissive polymer nanocomposites. The alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) were measured with various nano inclusions, such as carbon nanophase particles (CNPs), at different concentrations. Research has shown that adding only 5 wt% CNPs increased the alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) by a factor of about 47 and 2, respectively, compared to the pristine polymer. The effect of solar irradiation control of the nanocomposite on solar energy conversion was studied. The solar irradiation control coatings increased the power generation of solar thermoelectric cells by more than 380% compared to that of a control power cell without solar irradiation control coatings.

  7. The 5 Hour Pulse Period and Broadband Spectrum of the Symbiotic X-Ray Binary 3A 1954+319

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcu, Diana M.; Fuerst, Felix; Pottschmidt, Katja; Grinberg, Victoria; Miller, Sebstian; Wilms, Joern; Postnov, Konstantin A.; Corbet, Robin H. D.; Markwardt, Craig B.; Cadolle Bel, Marion

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the highly variable accreting X-ray pulsar 3A 1954+319 using 2005-2009 monitoring data obtained with INTEGRAL and Swift. This considerably extends the pulse period history and covers flaring episodes in 2005 and 2008. In 2006 the source was identified as one of only a few known symbiotic X-ray binaries, Le" systems composed of a neutron star accreting from the inhomogeneous medium around an M-giant star. The extremely long pulse period of approximately 5.3 h is directly visible in the 2008 INTEGRAL-ISGRI outburst light curve. The pulse profile is double peaked and not significantly energy dependent. During the outburst a strong spin-up of -1.8 x 10(exp -4) h h(exp -1) occurred. Between 2005 and 2008 a long term spin-down trend of 2.1 x 10(exp -5) h h(exp -1) was observed for the first time for this source. The 3-80 keV pulse peak spectrum of 3A 1954+319 during the 2008 flare could be well described by a thermal Comptonization model. We interpret the results within the framework of a recently developed quasi-spherical accretion model for symbiotic X-ray binaries.

  8. Organic Solar Cells Based on a 2D Benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']difuran-Conjugated Polymer with High-Power Conversion Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Huo, Lijun; Liu, Tao; Fan, Bingbing; Zhao, Zhiyuan; Sun, Xiaobo; Wei, Donghui; Yu, Mingming; Liu, Yunqi; Sun, Yanming

    2015-11-18

    A novel 2D benzodifuran (BDF)-based copolymer (PBDF-T1) is synthesized. Polymer solar cells fabricated with PBDF-T1 show high power conversion efficiency of 9.43% and fill factor of 77.4%, which is higher than the performance of its benzothiophene (BDT) counterpart (PBDT-T1). These results provide important progress for BDF-based copolymers and demonstrate that BDF-based copolymers can be competitive with the well-studied BDT counterparts via molecular structure design and device optimization.

  9. Solar fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viitanen, M.

    1990-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to give a review concerning the storage of solar energy by converting it to chemical energy. This is based on several articles published during the last fifteen years. The methods to convert solar energy to chemical energy, e.g., to produce hydrogen, can be divided into three different methods. The most common one is probably the usage of solar cells; thus the solar energy is first converted into electrical energy and further the water is split electrochemically to produce hydrogen. It could be also done in a photoelectrochemical cell, or simply photochemically. A photobiological system can also be considered as a photochemical system, although it is discussed separately from the photochemical systems. These three last mentioned methods will be discussed in this paper.

  10. Solar Nexus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Jim

    1980-01-01

    The design team for the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) has pushed the state of the energy art to its current limits for the initial phase, with provisions for foreseeable and even speculative future applications. (Author/MLF)

  11. Solar chulha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadhao, P. H.; Patrikar, S. R.

    2016-05-01

    The main goal of the proposed system is to transfer energy from sun to the cooking load that is located in the kitchen. The energy is first collected by the solar collector lens system and two curve bars of same radius of curvature are mounted parallel and adjacent to each other at different height the solar collector is clamed on this two bars such that solar collector is exactly perpendicular to sunlight. The topology includes an additional feature which is window in the wall through which the beam is collimated is directed in the of kitchen. The solar energy that is collected is directed by the mirror system into the kitchen, where it is redirected to cooking platform located in the kitchen. The special feature in this system full Indian meal can be made since cooking platform is indoors.

  12. Experimental aerodynamic characteristics of a generic hypersonic accelerator configuration at Mach numbers 1.5 and 2.0. [conducted in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Ira J.; Covell, Peter F.; Forrest, Dana K.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the static longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics of a generic hypersonic research vehicle was conducted in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT). A parametric study was performed to determine the interference effects of various model components. Configuration variables included delta and trapezoidal canards; large and small centerline-mounted vertical tails, along with a set of wing-mounted vertical tails; and a set of model noses with different degrees of bluntness. Wing position was varied by changing the longitudinal location and the incidence angle. The test Mach numbers were 1.5 and 2.0 at Reynolds numbers of 1 x 10(exp 6) per foot, 2 x 10(exp 6) per foot, and 4 x 10(exp 6) per foot. Angle of attack was varied from -4 degrees to 27 degrees, and sideslip angle was varied from -8 degrees to 8 degrees. Generally, the effect of Reynolds number did not deviate from conventional trends. The longitudinal stability and lift-curve slope decreased with increasing Mach number. As the wing was shifted rearward, the lift-curve slope decreased and the longitudinal stability increased. Also, the wing-mounted vertical tails resulted in a more longitudinally stable configuration. In general, the lift-drag ratio was not significantly affected by vertical-tail arrangement. The best lateral-directional stability was achieved with the large centerline-mounted tail, although the wing-mounted vertical tails exhibited the most favorable characteristics at the higher angles of attack.

  13. Solar Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pique, Charles

    1987-01-01

    Proposed pump moves liquid by action of bubbles formed by heat of sun. Tube of liquid having boiling point of 100 to 200 degrees F placed at focal axis of cylindrical reflector. Concentrated sunlight boils liquid at focus, and bubbles of vapor rise in tube, carrying liquid along with them. Pressure difference in hot tube sufficient to produce flow in large loop. Used with conventional flat solar heating panel in completely solar-powered heat-storage system.

  14. Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The Heat Exchanger Method (HEM) produces high efficiency crystal ingots in an automated well-insulated furnace offering low equipment, labor and energy costs. The "grown" silicon crystals are used to make solar cells, or photovoltaic cells which convert sunlight directly into electricity. The HEM method is used by Crystal Systems, Inc. and was developed under a NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory contract. The square wafers which are the result of the process are sold to companies manufacturing solar panels.

  15. Solar Radio Burst and Solar Wind Associations With Inferred Near-Relativistic Electron Injections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-10

    in the solar corona and their injection into space has been a or CME times to inferred electron injection times were not con- subject of recent...CONTRACT NUMBER Solar Radio Burst and Solar Wind Associations with Inferred Near-Relativistic Electron Injections 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Astrophysical Journal, Vol 656, pp 567-576, Feb 10, 2007. 14. ABSTRACT The solar injections of near-relativistic (NR) electron events observed at I AU appear

  16. Characterization of three types of silicon solar cells for SEPS Deep Space Mission. Volume 3: Current-voltage characteristics of spectrolab sculptured BSR/P+ (K7), BSR/P+ (K6.5) and BSR (K4.5) cells as a function of temperature and intensity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F.; Little, S. A.; Wooden, V. A.; Carter, D. E.; Cothren, B. E.; Torstenson, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    Three types of high performance silicon solar cells, sculptured BSR/P+(K7), BSR/P+(K6.5) and BSR(K4.5) manufactured by Spectrolab were evaluated for their low temperature and low intensity performance. Sixteen cells of each type were subjected to 11 temperatures and 9 intensities. The sculptured BSR/P+(K7) cells provided the greatest maximum power output both at 1 AU and at LTLI conditions. The average efficiencies of this cell were 14.4 percent at 1 SC/+25 deg C and 18.5 percent at 0.086 SC/-100 deg C.

  17. Solar Schematic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The home shown at right is specially designed to accommodate solar heating units; it has roof planes in four directions, allowing placement of solar collectors for best exposure to the sun. Plans (bottom) and complete working blueprints for the solar-heated house are being marketed by Home Building Plan Service, Portland, Oregon. The company also offers an inexpensive schematic (center) showing how a homeowner only moderately skilled in the use of tools can build his own solar energy system, applicable to new or existing structures. The schematic is based upon the design of a low-cost solar home heating system built and tested by NASA's Langley Research Center; used to supplement a warm-air heating system, it can save the homeowner about 40 percent of his annual heating bill for a modest investment in materials and components. Home Building Plan Service saved considerable research time by obtaining a NASA technical report which details the Langley work. The resulting schematic includes construction plans and simplified explanations of solar heat collection, collectors and other components, passive heat factors, domestic hot water supply and how to work with local heating engineers.

  18. Solar Cycle Predictions (Invited Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesnell, W. Dean

    2012-11-01

    Solar cycle predictions are needed to plan long-term space missions, just as weather predictions are needed to plan the launch. Fleets of satellites circle the Earth collecting many types of science data, protecting astronauts, and relaying information. All of these satellites are sensitive at some level to solar cycle effects. Predictions of drag on low-Earth orbit spacecraft are one of the most important. Launching a satellite with less propellant can mean a higher orbit, but unanticipated solar activity and increased drag can make that a Pyrrhic victory as the reduced propellant load is consumed more rapidly. Energetic events at the Sun can produce crippling radiation storms that endanger all assets in space. Solar cycle predictions also anticipate the shortwave emissions that cause degradation of solar panels. Testing solar dynamo theories by quantitative predictions of what will happen in 5 - 20 years is the next arena for solar cycle predictions. A summary and analysis of 75 predictions of the amplitude of the upcoming Solar Cycle 24 is presented. The current state of solar cycle predictions and some anticipations of how those predictions could be made more accurate in the future are discussed.

  19. Interplanetary Fast Shocks and Associated Drivers Observed through the Twenty-Third Solar Minimum by WIND Over its First 2.5 Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mariani, F.; Berdichevsky, D.; Szabo, A.; Lepping, R. P.; Vinas, A. F.

    1999-01-01

    A list of the interplanetary (IP) shocks observed by WIND from its launch (in November 1994) to May 1997 is presented. Forty two shocks were identified. The magnetohydrodynamic nature of the shocks is investigated, and the associated shock parameters and their uncertainties are accurately computed using a practical scheme which combines two techniques. These techniques are a combination of the "pre-averaged" magnetic-coplanarity, velocity-coplanarity, and the Abraham-Schrauner-mixed methods, on the one hand, and the Vinas and Scudder [1986] technique for solving the non-linear least-squares Rankine-Hugoniot shock equations, on the other. Within acceptable limits these two techniques generally gave the same results, with some exceptions. The reasons for the exceptions are discussed. It is found that the mean strength and rate of occurrence of the shocks appears to correlated with the solar cycle. Both showed a decrease in 1996 coincident with the time of the lowest ultraviolet solar radiance, indicative of solar minimum and start of solar cycle 23, which began around June 1996. Eighteen shocks appeared to be associated with corotating interaction regions (CIRs). The distribution of their shock normals showed a mean direction peaking in the ecliptic plane and with a longitude (phi(sub n)) in that plane between perpendicular to the Parker spiral and radial from the Sun. When grouped according to the sense of the direction of propagation of the shocks the mean azimuthal (longitude) angle in GSE coordinates was approximately 194 deg for the fast-forward and approximately 20 deg for the fast-reverse shocks. Another 16 shocks were determined to be driven by solar transients, including magnetic clouds. These shocks had a broader distribution of normal directions than those of the CIR cases with a mean direction close to the Sun-Earth line. Eight shocks of unknown origin had normal orientation well off the ecliptic plane. No shock propagated with longitude phi(sub n) >= 220

  20. Solar Neutrinos. II. Experimental

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Davis, Raymond Jr.

    1964-01-01

    A method is described for observing solar neutrinos from the reaction Cl{sup 37}(nu,e{sup -})Ar{sup 37} in C{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}. Two 5 00-gal tanks of C{sub 2}Cl{sub 4} were placed in a limestone mine (1800 m.w.e.) and the resulting Ar{sup 37} activity induced by cosmic mesons( mu ) was measured to determine the necessary conditions for solar neutrino observations. (R.E.U.)

  1. Physics of solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturrock, Peter A.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the research activity was to increase our understanding of solar activity through data analysis, theoretical analysis, and computer modeling. Because the research subjects were diverse and many researchers were supported by this grant, a select few key areas of research are described in detail. Areas of research include: (1) energy storage and force-free magnetic field; (2) energy release and particle acceleration; (3) radiation by nonthermal electrons; (4) coronal loops; (5) flare classification; (6) longitude distributions of flares; (7) periodicities detected in the solar activity; (8) coronal heating and related problems; and (9) plasma processes.

  2. Solar terrestrial observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Eight basic solar-terrestrial scientific objectives that benefit from the Shuttle/Platform approach and a program of measurements for each are discussed. The objectives are to understand: (1) solar variability, (2) wave-particle processes, (3) magnetosphere-ionosphere mass transport, (4) the global electric circuit, (5) upper atmospheric dynamics, (6) middle atmospheric chemistry and energetics, (7) lower atmospheric turbidity, and (8) planetary atmospheric waves. A two stage approach to a multidisciplinary payload is developed: an initial STO, that uses a single platform in a low-Earth orbit, and an advanced STO that uses two platforms in differing orbits.

  3. Photochemistry of Triton's Atmosphere and Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.; Cruikshank, Dale P.

    1995-01-01

    The photochemistry of 32 neutral and 21 ion species in Triton's atmosphere is considered. Parent species N2, CH4, and CO (with a mixing ratio of 3 x 10(exp -4) in our basic model) sublime from the ice with rates of 40, 208, and 0.3 g/sq cm/b.y., respectively. Chemistry below 50 km is driven mostly by photolysis of methane by the solar and interstellar medium Lyman-alpha photons, producing hydrocarbons C2H4, C2H6, and C2H2 which form haze particles with precipitation rates of 135, 28, and 1.3 g/sq cm/b.y., respectively. Some processes are discussed which increase the production of HCN (by an order of magnitude to a value of 29 g/sq cm/b.y.) and involve indirect photolysis of N2 by neutrals. Reanalysis of the measured methane profiles gives an eddy diffusion coefficient K = 4 x 10(exp 3) sq cm/s above the tropopause and a more accurate methane number density near the surface, (3.1 +/- 0.8) x 10(exp 11)/cc cm. Chemistry above 200 km is driven by the solar EUV radiation (lambda less than 1000 A)) and by precipitation of magnetospheric electrons with a total energy input of 10(exp 8) W (based on thermal balance calculations). The most abundant photochemical species are N, H2, H, O, and C. They escape with the total rates of 7.7 x 10(exp 24)/ s, 4.5 x 10(exp 25)/ s, 2.4 x 10(exp 25)/ s, 4.4 x 10(exp 22)/ s, and 1.1 x 10(exp 24)/ s, respectively. Atomic species are transported to a region of 50-200 km and drive the chemistry there. Iono- spheric chemistry explains the formation of an E region at 150-240 km with HCO(+) as a major ion, and of an F region above 240 km with a peak at 320 km and C(+) as a major ion. The ionosphere above 500 km consists of almost equal densities of C(+) and N(+) ions. The model profiles agree with the measured atomic nitrogen and electron density profiles. A number of other models with varying rate coefficients of some reactions, differing properties of the haze particles (chemically passive or active), etc., were developed. These models show

  4. The Solar Neighborhood. 22. Parallax Results from the CTIOPI 0.9 m Program: Trigonometric Parallaxes of 64 Nearby Systems With 0.5

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    had no previous trigonometric parallaxes. In addi- tion to parallaxes for the systems, we present proper motions, Johnson– Kron -Cousins VRI photometry...Of 64 Nearby Systems With 0 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f...WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Naval Observatory, Astrometry Department,Washington,DC,20392 8. PERFORMING

  5. Silicon solar cells as a high-solar-intensity radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spisz, E. W.; Robson, R. R.

    1971-01-01

    The characteristics of a conventional, 1- by 2-cm, N/P, gridded silicon solar cell when used as a radiometer have been determined for solar intensity levels to 2800 mW/sq cm (20 solar constants). The short-circuit current was proportional to the radiant intensity for levels only to 700 mW/sq cm (5 solar constants). For intensity levels greater than 700 mW/sq cm, it was necessary to operate the cell in a photoconductive mode in order to obtain a linear relation between the measured current and the radiant intensity. When the solar cell was biased with a reverse voltage of -1 V, the measured current and radiant intensity were linearly related over the complete intensity range from 100 to 2800 mW/sq cm.

  6. Reply to "Comment on the Paper ''On the Determination of Electron Polytrope Indices Within Coronal Mass Ejections in the Solar Wind'"'. Appendix 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosling, J. T.; Riley, P.; Skoug, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    We strongly disagree with the essence of the Osherovich (hereafter Osherovich) comment on one of our papers. The following paragraphs provide the basis of our disagreement and elaborate on why we believe that none of the concluding statements in his Comment are true. Our most important point is that one can apply the model developed by Osherovich and colleagues to real data obtained at a single point in space to determine the polytropic index within magnetic clouds if and only if the highly idealized assumptions of that model conform to physical reality. There is good reason to believe that those assumptions do not provide an accurate physical description of real magnetic clouds in the spherically expanding solar wind.

  7. International ultraviolet explorer solar array power degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, J. H., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The characteristic electrical performance of each International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) solar array panel is evaluated as a function of several prevailing variables (namely, solar illumination, array temperature and solar cell radiation damage). Based on degradation in the current-voltage characteristics of the array due to solar cell damage accumulated over time by space charged particle radiations, the available IUE solar array power is determined for life goals up to 10 years. Best and worst case calculations are normalized to actual IUE flight data (available solar array power versus observatory position) to accurately predict the future IUE solar array output. It is shown that the IUE solar array can continue to produce more power than is required at most observatory positions for at least 5 more years.

  8. 3D-Stereoscopic Analysis of Solar Active Region Loops: I: SoHo/EIT Observations at Temperatures of 1.0-1.5 MK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Newmark, Jeff; Delaboudiniere, Jean-Pierre; Neupert, Werner M.; Portier-Fozzani, Fabrice; Gary, G. Allen; Zucker, Arik

    1998-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) structure of solar active region NOAA 7986 observed on 1996 August 30 with the Extrem-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SoHO) is analyzed. We develop a new method of Dynamic Stereoscopy to reconstruct the 3D geometry of dynamically changing loops, which allows us to determine the orientation of the loop plane with respect to the line-of-sight, a prerequisite to correct properly for projection effects in 3D loop models. With this method and the filter-ratio technique applied to EIT 171 A and 195 A images we determine the 3D coordinates (x(s), y(s), z(s)), the loop width) w(s), the electron density n(sub e)(s), and the electron temperature T(sub e)(s) as function of the loop length s for 30 loop segments. Fitting the loop densities with an exponential density model n(sub e)(h) we find that the so inferred scale height temperatures, T(sub e)(sup lambda) = 1.22 +/- 0.23 MK, match closely the EIT filter-ratio temperatures, T(sub e)(sup FIT) = 1.21 +/- 0.06 MK. We conclude that these rather large-scale loops (with heights of h approx. equals 50 - 200 Mm) that dominate EIT 171 A images are close to thermal equilibrium. Most of the loops show no significant thickness variation w(s), but many exhibit a trend of increasing temperature (dT/ds greater than 0) above the footpoint.

  9. Solar ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabor, H.

    1981-01-01

    The history and current status of salt-gradient non-convecting solar ponds are presented. These ponds are large-area collectors, capable of providing low-cost thermal, mechanical, or electrical energy using low-temperature turbo-generators. The basic theory of salt-gradient solar ponds is sketched; the effects of wind, leakage, and fouling and their constraints on location selection for solar ponds are discussed. The methods of building and filling the ponds, as well as extracting heat from them are explained in detail. Practical operating temperatures of 90 C can be obtained with collection efficiencies between 15% and 25%, demonstrating the practical use of the ponds for heating and cooling purposes, power production, and desalination. A condensed account of solar pond experience in several countries is given. This includes the 150 kW solar pond power station (SPPS) operating in Israel since December, 1979 and a 5000 kW unit currently under development. A study of the economics involved in using the ponds is presented: despite a low conversion efficiency, the SPPS is shown to have applications in many countries.

  10. New Solar Composition: The Problem with Solar Models Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serenelli, Aldo M.; Basu, Sarbani; Ferguson, Jason W.; Asplund, Martin

    2009-11-01

    We construct updated solar models with different sets of solar abundances, including the most recent determinations by Asplund et al. The latter work predicts a larger (~10%) solar metallicity compared to previous measurements by the same authors but significantly lower (~25%) than the recommended value from a decade ago by Grevesse & Sauval. We compare the results of our models with determinations of the solar structure inferred through helioseismology measurements. The model that uses the most recent solar abundance determinations predicts the base of the solar convective envelope to be located at R CZ = 0.724 R sun and a surface helium mass fraction of Y surf = 0.231. These results are in conflict with helioseismology data (R CZ = 0.713 ± 0.001 R sun and Y surf = 0.2485 ± 0.0035) at 5σ and 11σ levels, respectively. Using the new solar abundances, we calculate the magnitude by which radiative opacities should be modified in order to restore agreement with helioseismology. We find that a maximum change of ~15% at the base of the convective zone is required with a smooth decrease toward the core, where the change needed is ~5%. The required change at the base of the convective envelope is about half the value estimated previously. We also present the solar neutrino fluxes predicted by the new models. The most important changes brought about by the new solar abundances are the increase by ~10% in the predicted 13N and 15O fluxes that arise mostly due to the increase in the C and N abundances in the newly determined solar composition.

  11. NEW SOLAR COMPOSITION: THE PROBLEM WITH SOLAR MODELS REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Serenelli, Aldo M.; Asplund, Martin; Basu, Sarbani; Ferguson, Jason W.

    2009-11-10

    We construct updated solar models with different sets of solar abundances, including the most recent determinations by Asplund et al. The latter work predicts a larger (approx10%) solar metallicity compared to previous measurements by the same authors but significantly lower (approx25%) than the recommended value from a decade ago by Grevesse and Sauval. We compare the results of our models with determinations of the solar structure inferred through helioseismology measurements. The model that uses the most recent solar abundance determinations predicts the base of the solar convective envelope to be located at R {sub CZ} = 0.724 R{sub sun} and a surface helium mass fraction of Y{sub surf} = 0.231. These results are in conflict with helioseismology data (R{sub CZ} = 0.713 +- 0.001 R{sub sun} and Y{sub surf} = 0.2485 +- 0.0035) at 5sigma and 11sigma levels, respectively. Using the new solar abundances, we calculate the magnitude by which radiative opacities should be modified in order to restore agreement with helioseismology. We find that a maximum change of approx15% at the base of the convective zone is required with a smooth decrease toward the core, where the change needed is approx5%. The required change at the base of the convective envelope is about half the value estimated previously. We also present the solar neutrino fluxes predicted by the new models. The most important changes brought about by the new solar abundances are the increase by approx10% in the predicted {sup 13}N and {sup 15}O fluxes that arise mostly due to the increase in the C and N abundances in the newly determined solar composition.

  12. Artificial photosynthesis for solar fuels.

    PubMed

    Styring, Stenbjörn

    2012-01-01

    This contribution was presented as the closing lecture at the Faraday Discussion 155 on artificial photosynthesis, held in Edinburgh Scotland, September 5-7 2011. The world needs new, environmentally friendly and renewable fuels to exchange for fossil fuels. The fuel must be made from cheap and "endless" resources that are available everywhere. The new research area of solar fuels aims to meet this demand. This paper discusses why we need a solar fuel and why electricity is not enough; it proposes solar energy as the major renewable energy source to feed from. The scientific field concerning artificial photosynthesis expands rapidly and most of the different scientific visions for solar fuels are briefly overviewed. Research strategies and the development of artificial photosynthesis research to produce solar fuels are overviewed. Some conceptual aspects of research for artificial photosynthesis are discussed in closer detail.

  13. Solar ADEPT: Efficient Solar Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Solar ADEPT Project: The 7 projects that make up ARPA-E's Solar ADEPT program, short for 'Solar Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology,' aim to improve the performance of photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems, which convert the sun's rays into electricity. Solar ADEPT projects are integrating advanced electrical components into PV systems to make the process of converting solar energy to electricity more efficient.

  14. Energy Release from Impacting Prominence Material Following the 2011 June 7 Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, H. R.; Inglis, A. R.; Mays, M. L.; Ofman, L.; Thompson, B. J.; Young, C. A.

    2013-01-01

    Solar filaments exhibit a range of eruptive-like dynamic activity, ranging from the full or partial eruption of the filament mass and surrounding magnetic structure as a coronal mass ejection to a fully confined or failed eruption. On 2011 June 7, a dramatic partial eruption of a filament was observed by multiple instruments on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory. One of the interesting aspects of this event is the response of the solar atmosphere as non-escaping material falls inward under the influence of gravity. The impact sites show clear evidence of brightening in the observed extreme ultraviolet wavelengths due to energy release. Two plausible physical mechanisms for explaining the brightening are considered: heating of the plasma due to the kinetic energy of impacting material compressing the plasma, or reconnection between the magnetic field of low-lying loops and the field carried by the impacting material. By analyzing the emission of the brightenings in several SDO/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly wavelengths, and comparing the kinetic energy of the impacting material (7.6 × 10(exp 26) - 5.8 × 10(exp 27) erg) to the radiative energy (approx. 1.9 × 10(exp 25) - 2.5 × 10(exp 26) erg), we find the dominant mechanism of energy release involved in the observed brightening is plasma compression.

  15. Solar Minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopresto, James C.; Mathews, John; Manross, Kevin

    1995-12-01

    Calcium K plage, H alpha plage and sunspot area have been monitored daily on the INTERNET since November of 1992. The plage and sunspot area have been measured by image processing. The purpose of the project is to investigate the degree of correlation between plage area and solar irradiance. The plage variation shows the expected variation produced by solar rotation and the longer secular changes produced by the solar cycle. The H alpha and sunspot plage area reached a minimum in about late 1994 or early 1995. This is in agreement with the K2 spectral index obtained daily from Sacramento Peak Observatory. The Calcium K plage area minimum seems delayed with respect to the others mentioned above. The minimum of the K line plage area is projected to come within the last few months of 1995.

  16. Solar Neutrinos

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Davis, R. Jr.; Harmer, D. S.

    1964-12-01

    The prospect of studying the solar energy generation process directly by observing the solar neutrino radiation has been discussed for many years. The main difficulty with this approach is that the sun emits predominantly low energy neutrinos, and detectors for observing low fluxes of low energy neutrinos have not been developed. However, experimental techniques have been developed for observing neutrinos, and one can foresee that in the near future these techniques will be improved sufficiently in sensitivity to observe solar neutrinos. At the present several experiments are being designed and hopefully will be operating in the next year or so. We will discuss an experiment based upon a neutrino capture reaction that is the inverse of the electron-capture radioactive decay of argon-37. The method depends upon exposing a large volume of a chlorine compound, removing the radioactive argon-37 and observing the characteristic decay in a small low-level counter.

  17. Solar flare particle radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanzerotti, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics of the solar particles accelerated by solar flares and subsequently observed near the orbit of the earth are studied. Considered are solar particle intensity-time profiles, the composition and spectra of solar flare events, and the propagation of solar particles in interplanetary space. The effects of solar particles at the earth, riometer observations of polar cap cosmic noise absorption events, and the production of solar cell damage at synchronous altitudes by solar protons are also discussed.

  18. Hydrogen Passivation of N(+)P and P(+)N Heteroepitaxial InP Solar Cell Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterjee, B.; Davis, W. C.; Ringel, S. A.; Hoffman, R., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Dislocations and related point defect complexes caused by lattice mismatch currently limit the performance of heteroepitaxial InP cells by introducing shunting paths across the active junction and by the formation of deep traps within the base region. We have previously demonstrated that plasma hydrogenation is an effective and stable means to passivate the electrical activity of such defects in specially designed heteroepitaxial InP test structures to probe hydrogen passivation at typical base depths within a cell structure. In this work, we present our results on the hydrogen passivation of actual heteroepitaxial n(+)p and p(+)n InP cell structures grown on GaAs substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). We have found that a 2 hour exposure to a 13.56 MHz hydrogen plasma at 275 C reduces the deep level concentration in the base regions of both n(+)p and p(+)n heteroepitaxial InP cell structures from as-grown values of 5 - 7 x 10(exp 14)/cc, down to 3 - 5 x 10(exp 12)/cc. All dopants were successfully reactivated by a 400 C, 5 minute anneal With no detectable activation of deep levels. I-V analysis indicated a subsequent approx. 100 fold decrease In reverse leakage current at -1 volt reverse bias, and an improved built in voltage for the p(+)n structures. ln addition to being passivated,dislocations are also shown to participate in secondary interactions during hydrogenation. We find that the presence of dislocations enhances hydrogen diffusion into the cell structure, and lowers the apparent dissociation energy of Zn-H complexes from 1.19 eV for homoepitaxial Zn-doped InP to 1.12 eV for heteroepitaxial Zn-doped InP. This is explained by additional hydrogen trapping at dislocations subsequent to the reactivation of Zn dopants after hydrogenation.

  19. Hydrogen passivation of N(+)-P and P(+)-N heteroepitaxial InP solar cell structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterjee, Basab; Davis, William C.; Ringel, Steve A.; Hoffman, Richard, Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Dislocations and related point defect complexes caused by lattice mismatch currently limit the performance of heteroepitaxial InP cells by introducing shunting paths across the active junction and by the formation of deep traps within the base region. We have previously demonstrated that plasma hydrogenation is an effective and stable means to passivate the electrical activity of such defects in specially designed heteroepitaxial InP test structures to probe hydrogen passivation at typical base depths within a cell structure. In this work, we present our results on the hydrogen passivation of actual heteroepitaxial n-p and p-n InP cell structures grown on GaAs substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). We have found that a 2 hour exposure to a 13.56 MHz hydrogen plasma at 275 C reduces the deep level concentration in the base regions of both n(+)-p and p(+)-n heteroepitaxial InP cell structures from as-grown values of 5-7 x 10(exp 14) cm(exp -3), down to 3-5 x 10(exp 12) cm(exp -3). All dopants were successfully reactivated by a 400 C, 5 minute anneal with no detectable activation of deep levels. One to five analysis indicated a subsequent approximately 100 fold decrease in reverse leakage current at -1 volt reverse bias, and an improved built in voltage for the p(+)-n structures. In addition to being passivated, dislocations are also shown to participate in secondary interactions during hydrogenation. We find that the presence of dislocations enhances hydrogen diffusion into the cell structure, and lowers the apparent dissociation energy of Zn-H complexes from 1.19 eV for homoepitaxial Zn-doped InP to 1.12 eV for heteroepitaxial Zn-doped InP. This is explained by additional hydrogen trapping at dislocations subsequent to the reactivation of Zn dopants after hydrogenation.

  20. Scenario of solar cyclicity on reliably Wolf numbers series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitaly, Ishkov

    The modern period of solar activity (SA) decrease raises the issue of studying the characteristics of the solar cyclicity, using only reliable series of relative sunspot numbers (time-line in 164 - 14 solar cycles). These statistics leads to the scenario of the regular changes of generation of magnetic field in the solar convection zone in the transition from the era of the "higher" solar activity (9 - 11 and 18 - 22) to the era of the "lower" solar activity and vice versa-from the era of the "lower" to "higher" solar activity. The first era of the "lower" solar activity has been observed in 12 - 16 solar cycles. The second era begins with the current solar cycle 24 and probably will last four solar cycles. Before each era changes in the mode of magnetic fields generation in the solar convection zone occur. Such changes occur within 1 ± 0.5 solar cycles. The reconstruction of the sunspot-forming regime, apparently, could be observed in the solar cycles of 10 - 11, when the magnetic field of the solar convection zone having been converted to the "lower" solar activity. In cycles 17-18 was a similar restructuring of magnetic fields to the era of the "higher" solar activity. The second period of the reconstruction of solar magnetic fields to the era of the "lower" solar activity we are seeing from the maximum phase of the solar cycle 22 to the end of the solar cycle 23. Solar research space methods allow examining the details of this transitional period of the magnetic field reconstruction to the era of the «lower» solar activity and getting highlights of the first solar cycle of this era.

  1. Solar panel

    SciTech Connect

    Bayles, B.R.

    1981-09-29

    A solar panel includes a base within which are mounted transversely extending conduits. A heat collector plate in the base is in heat conductive relationship with the conduits for the heating of a fluid medium. The base additionally supports a transparent cover outwardly spaced from the heat collector plate to provide a protective insulative air space over the plate. A manifold communicates one series of panels with those of an adjacent series. A modified base dispenses with a collector plate and is formed so as to define integral lengthwise extending passageways for the solar heated medium. Inserted nipples interconnect the passageways of adjacent panels.

  2. Solar trap

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, H.S.

    1988-02-09

    A solar trap for collecting solar energy at a concentrated level is described comprising: (a) a compound light funnel including a pair of light reflecting substantially planar members arranged into a trough having a substantially V-shaped cross section; (b) a two dimensional Fresnel lens cover covering the opening of the compound light funnel, the opening being the open diverging end of the substantially V-shaped cross section of the compound light funnel; (c) at least one conduit for carrying a heat transfer fluid disposed substantially adjacent and substantially parallel to the apex line of the compound light funnel.

  3. Interim Solar Radiation Data Manual: 30-Year Statistics from the National Solar Radiation Data Base

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    The 30-year (1961-1990) statistics contained in this document have been derived from the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). They outline solar radiation sources, as well as 30-year monthly and annual means of 5 solar radiation elements (three surface and two extraterrestrial) and 12 meteorological elements for 239 locations.

  4. Variation of solar acoustic emission and its relation to phase of the solar cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ruizhu; Zhao, Junwei

    2016-05-01

    Solar acoustic emission is closely related to solar convection and photospheric magnetic field. Variation of acoustic emission and its relation to the phase of solar cycles are important to understand dynamics of solar cycles and excitation of acoustic waves. In this work we use 6 years of SDO/HMI Dopplergram data to study acoustic emissions of the whole sun and of the quiet-sun regions, respectively, in multiple acoustic frequency bands. We show the variation of acoustic emission from May 2010 to April 2016, covering half of the solar cycle 24, and analyze its correlation with the solar activity level indexed by daily sunspot number and total magnetic flux. Results show that the correlation between the whole-Sun acoustic emission and the solar activity level is strongly negative for low frequencies between 2.5 and 4.5 mHz, but strongly positive for high frequencies between 4.5 and 6.0 mHz. For high frequencies, the acoustic emission excess in sunspot halos overwhelms the emission deficiency in sunspot umbrae and penumbrae. The correlation between the acoustic emission in quiet regions and the solar activity level is negative for 2.5-4.0 mHz and positive for 4.0-5.5 mHz. This shows that the solar background acoustic power, with active regions excluded, also varies during a solar cycle, implying the excitation frequencies or depths are highly related to the solar magnetic field.

  5. Lattice-mismatched In(0.40)Al(0.60)As window layers for indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Wilt, David M.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1993-01-01

    The efficiency of indium phosphide (InP) solar cells is limited by its high surface recombination velocity (approximately 10(exp 7) cm/s). This might be reduced by a wide-bandgap window layer. The performance of InP solar cells with wide-bandgap (1.8 eV) lattice-mismatched In(0.40)Al(0.60)As as a window layer was calculated. Because the required window layer thickness is less than the critical layer thickness, growth of strained (pseudomorphic) layers without interfacial misfit dislocations should be possible. Calculations using the PC-lD numerical code showed that the efficiencies of baseline and optimized p(+)n (p-on-n) cells are increased to more than 22 and 24 percent, (air mass zero (AMO), 25 C), respectively for a lattice-mismatched In(0.40)Al(0.60)As window layer of 10-nm thickness. Currently, most cell development work has been focused on n(+)p (n-on-p) structures although comparatively little improvement has been found for n(+)p cells.

  6. Solar-Assisted Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Agar, John W. M.; Perkins, Anthony; Tjipto, Alwie

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Hemodialysis resource use—especially water and power, smarter processing and reuse of postdialysis waste, and improved ecosensitive building design, insulation, and space use—all need much closer attention. Regarding power, as supply diminishes and costs rise, alternative power augmentation for dialysis services becomes attractive. The first 12 months of a solar-assisted dialysis program in southeastern Australia is reported. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A 24-m2, 3-kWh rated solar array and inverter—total cost of A$16,219—has solar-assisted the dialysis-related power needs of a four-chair home hemodialysis training service. All array-created, grid-donated power and all grid-drawn power to the four hemodialysis machines and minireverse osmosis plant pairings are separately metered. After the grid-drawn and array-generated kilowatt hours have been billed and reimbursed at their respective commercial rates, financial viability, including capital repayment, can be assessed. Results From July of 2010 to July of 2011, the four combined equipment pairings used 4166.5 kWh, 9% more than the array-generated 3811.0 kWh. Power consumption at 26.7 c/kWh cost A$1145.79. Array-generated power reimbursements at 23.5 c/kWh were A$895.59. Power costs were, thus, reduced by 76.5%. As new reimbursement rates (60 c/kWh) take effect, system reimbursements will more than double, allowing both free power and potential capital pay down over 7.7 years. With expected array life of ∼30 years, free power and an income stream should accrue in the second and third operative decades. Conclusions Solar-assisted power is feasible and cost-effective. Dialysis services should assess their local solar conditions and determine whether this ecosensitive power option might suit their circumstance. PMID:22223614

  7. Design Rules for Efficient Organic Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Z.; Mühlbacher, D.; Morana, M.; Koppe, M.; Scharber, M. C.; Waller, D.; Dennler, G.; Brabec, C. J.

    There has been an intensive search for cost-effective photovoltaics since the development of the first solar cells in the 1950s [1-3]. Among all the alternative technologies to silicon-based pn-junction solar cells, organic solar cells are the approach that could lead to the most significant cost reduction [4]. The field of organic photovoltaics (OPV) is composed of organic/inorganic nanostructures, like the dyesensitized solar cell, multilayers of small organic molecules and mixtures of organic materials (bulk-heterojunction solar cell). A review of several so-called organic photovoltaic (OPV) technologies was recently presented [5].

  8. Anomalously weak solar convection

    PubMed Central

    Hanasoge, Shravan M.; Duvall, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    Convection in the solar interior is thought to comprise structures on a spectrum of scales. This conclusion emerges from phenomenological studies and numerical simulations, though neither covers the proper range of dynamical parameters of solar convection. Here, we analyze observations of the wavefield in the solar photosphere using techniques of time-distance helioseismology to image flows in the solar interior. We downsample and synthesize 900 billion wavefield observations to produce 3 billion cross-correlations, which we average and fit, measuring 5 million wave travel times. Using these travel times, we deduce the underlying flow systems and study their statistics to bound convective velocity magnitudes in the solar interior, as a function of depth and spherical-harmonic degree ℓ. Within the wavenumber band ℓ < 60, convective velocities are 20–100 times weaker than current theoretical estimates. This constraint suggests the prevalence of a different paradigm of turbulence from that predicted by existing models, prompting the question: what mechanism transports the heat flux of a solar luminosity outwards? Advection is dominated by Coriolis forces for wavenumbers ℓ < 60, with Rossby numbers smaller than approximately 10-2 at r/R⊙ = 0.96, suggesting that the Sun may be a much faster rotator than previously thought, and that large-scale convection may be quasi-geostrophic. The fact that isorotation contours in the Sun are not coaligned with the axis of rotation suggests the presence of a latitudinal entropy gradient. PMID:22665774

  9. Solar cycle 24 from the standpoint of solar paleoastrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogurtsov, M. G.

    2016-03-01

    The predictions of the maximum yearly mean sunspot number in the current cycle 24 made by means of the astrophysical approach (by analyzing the instrumental data on solar activity and using various dynamo models) and the paleoastrophysical approach (by analyzing the paleoreconstructions of solar activity spanning the interval from 8555 BC to 1605 AD) are compared. The paleoastrophysical predictions are shown to be considerably more accurate. The amplitude of the next cycle 25 is predicted. It is shown that from the standpoint of solar paleoastrophysics, cycle 25 will most likely be of medium power, R max(25) = 85.0 ± 30.5.

  10. Thermal annealing of GaAs concentrator solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, H. B.; Brinker, David J.

    1991-01-01

    Isochronal and isothermal annealing tests were performed on GaAs concentrator cells which were irradiated with electrons of various energies to fluences up to 1 x 10(exp 16) e/sq cm. The results include: (1) For cells irradiated with electrons from 0.7 to 2.3 MeV, recovery decreases with increasing electron energy. (2) As determined by the un-annealed fractions, isothermal and isochronal annealing produce the same recovery. Also, cells irradiated to 3 x 10(exp 15) or 1 x 10(exp 16) e/sq cm recover to similar un-annealed fractions. (3) Some significant annealing is being seen at 150 C although very long times are required.

  11. Solar Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Norman C.; Kane, Joseph W.

    1971-01-01

    Proposes a method of collecting solar energy by using available plastics for Fresnel lenses to focus heat onto a converter where thermal dissociation of water would produce hydrogen. The hydrogen would be used as an efficient non-polluting fuel. Cost estimates are included. (AL)

  12. Solar Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesko, Carolyn, Ed.

    This directory is designed to help the researcher and developer, the manufacturer and distributor, and the general public communicate together on a mutually beneficial basis. Its content covers the wide scope of solar energy activity in the United States primarily, but also in other countries, at the academic, governmental, and industrial levels.…

  13. Solar cooker

    SciTech Connect

    Long, J. B.; Ware, R. R.

    1985-12-31

    A solar cooking device made of a flat array of concentric mirrors tilted to focus at a small area, the array being movable mounted on a stand to be movable around a ball joint and with a carrier for a cooking vessel held by a double crank to be at the focal area of the mirrors.

  14. A search for gamma-ray lines from the decay of Fe-59 in Supernova 1987A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, M. J.; Leising, M. D.

    1994-01-01

    We have searched spectra of Supernova (SN) 1987A, accumulated during several 35-day intervals after the explosion by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS), for gamma-ray lines at 1.099 and 1.292 MeV from the decay of Fe-59 which may have been produced in the progenitor's helium shell. We find no evidence for these lines, down to 3-sigma upper limits approximately = 7 x 10(exp -4) gamma/sq cm/s for the 1.099 MeV line, or approximately = 4.5 x 10(exp -4) gamma/sq cm/s for the 1.292 MeV line, in any 35-day interval. We derive a conservative 3-sigma upper limit on the mass fraction of Fe-59 in the helium shell of 2.9 x 10(exp -3).

  15. A Preliminary Model for Spacecraft Propulsion Performance Analysis Based on Nuclear Gain and Subsystem Mass-Power Balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, S.; Schmidt, G. R.; Thio, Y. C.; Hurst, C. M.

    1999-01-01

    Rapid transportation of human crews to destinations throughout the solar system will require propulsion systems having not only very high exhaust velocities (i.e., I(sub sp) >= 10(exp 4) to 10(exp 5) sec) but also extremely low mass-power ratios (i.e., alpha <= 10(exp -2) kg/kW). These criteria are difficult to meet with electric propulsion and other power-limited systems, but may be achievable with propulsion concepts that use onboard power to produce a net gain in energy via fusion or some other nuclear process. This paper compares the fundamental performance of these gain-limited systems with that of power-limited systems, and determines from a generic power balance the gains required for ambitious planetary missions ranging up to 100 AU. Results show that energy gain reduces the required effective mass-power ratio of the system, thus enabling shorter trip times than those of power-limited concepts.

  16. Electrostatic bonding of thin (cycle sine 3 mil) 7070 cover glass to Ta2O5 AR-coated thin (cycle sine 2 mil) silicon wafers and solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egelkrout, D. W.

    1981-01-01

    Electrostatic bonding of thin cover glass to thin solar cells was researched. Silicon solar cells, wafers, and Corning 7070 glass of from about 0.002" to about 0.003" in thickness were used in the investigation to establish optimum parameters for producing mechanically acceptable bonds while minimizing thermal stresses and resultant solar cell electrical parameter degradation.

  17. A theoretical analysis of the current-voltage characteristics of solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, R. C. Y.; Hauser, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: (1) dark current-voltage characteristics of solar cells; (2) high efficiency silicon solar cells; (3) short circuit current density as a function of temperature and the radiation intensity; (4) Keldysh-Franz effects and silicon solar cells; (5) thin silicon solar cells; (6) optimum solar cell designs for concentrated sunlight; (7) nonuniform illumination effects of a solar cell; and (8) high-low junction emitter solar cells.

  18. Influence of Photoactive Layer Structure on Device Performance of Poly(2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)- 1,4-phenylene vinylene)-CuInS2/ZnO Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Yue, Wenjin; Sun, Wenshan; Wang, Songming; Zhang, Guoqiang; Lan, Mingyang; Nie, Guangjun

    2015-06-01

    This paper reported ternary MEH-PPV-CuInS2/ZnO solar cells, which were fabricated with the mixture of poly(2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene) (MEH-PPV) and CuInS2 quantum dots (QDs) as photovoltaic layer and ZnO nanorod arrays (ZnO-NAs) as electron acceptor. The effects of photoactive layer structure (e.g., the change of spinning rate, thermal annealing temperature, annealing order and annealing method) on device performance are observed, and devices are measured by steady current-voltage (J-V) curve under the monochromic illumination at 470 nm. Results showed that the spinning rate of photoactive layer at 2000 rpm obtained the optimum thickness, moreover, solvent annealing firstly then the deposition of the positive electrode, finally thermal annealing at 140 degrees C contributing to the better reorganization for polymer and CuInS2 QDs to form the more stable phase-segregated state in the photovoltaic layer in the MEH-PPV-CuInS2/ZnO-NAs solar cells, obtaining the maximum power conversion efficiency of 2.54% under the monochromic illumination at 470 nm.

  19. Solar electric systems

    SciTech Connect

    Warfield, G.

    1984-01-01

    Electricity from solar sources is the subject. The state-of-the-art of photovoltaics, wind energy and solar thermal electric systems is presented and also a broad range of solar energy activities throughout the Arab world is covered. Contents, abridged: Solar radiation fundamentals. Basic theory solar cells. Solar thermal power plants. Solar energy activities at the scientific research council in Iraq. Solar energy program at Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research. Prospects of solar energy for Egypt. Non-conventional energy in Syria. Wind and solar energies in Sudan. Index.

  20. The Observed Galactic Annihilation Line: Possible Signature of Accreting Small Mass Black Holes in the Galactic Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Chardonnet, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    Various balloon and satellite observatories have revealed what appears to be an extended source of 0.511 MeV annihilation radiation with flux of approx. 10(exp -3) photons/sq cm/s centered on the Galactic Center. Positrons from radioactive products of stellar explosions can account for a significant fraction of the emission. We discuss an additional source for this emission: namely e(+)e(-) pairs produced when X-rays generated from the approx. 2.6 x 10(exp 6) solar mass Galactic Center Black Hole interact with approx. 10 MeV temperature blackbody emission from 10(exp 17) g black holes within 10(exp 14-l5) cm of the center. The number of such Small Mass Black Holes (SMMBHs) can account for the production of the 10(exp 42) e(+)/s that produces the observed annihilation in the inner Galaxy when transport effects are taken into account. We consider the possibility for confirming the presence of these SMMBHs in the Galactic Center region with future generations of gamma-ray instruments if a blackbody like emission of approx. 10 MeV temperature would be detected by them. Small Mass Black Hole can be a potential candidate for dark (invisible) matter hal